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Full text of "The Times documentary history of the war"

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 
OF THE WAR 

VOL. III. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 
OF THE WAR 



VOLUME III. 



NAVAL PART 1 




LONDON 

PRINTING HOUSE SQUARE 
1917 




5" 



INTRODUCTION 

THE TIMES" DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF THE 
WAR is a collection of documents concerning the 
War in all its aspects, so arranged as to record the events 
of the great struggle in which the Nations are now 
involved, and the circumstances which led up to them. 

It consists of documents issued officially or recognised 
by the various belligerents, such as diplomatic correspondence, 
proclamations, ultimatums, military orders, reports, des- 
patches, messages from monarchs to their peoples, etc., 
together with public statements by responsible Ministers 
and Correspondence in the Press of an authoritative 
character; the whole collated, classified, indexed, and 
where necessary cross-referenced and annotated. 

The documents are left to speak for themselves, except 
where brief unbiased notes are needed to elucidate them. 
These are placed within square brackets to distinguish them 
from the notes in the originals. 

The Times, with its network of Correspondents in all parts 
of the world, is in a particularly favourable position to obtain 
information, and, having at its service an experienced staff, 
is able to reach sources not generally accessible to others. 

As the large mass of documents involved in the collection 
has been systematically classified and arranged from the 
commencement of the War, it has been found possible to 
issue to the public simultaneously a representative series 
of volumes. 

NAVAL 1 V 



INTRODUCTION 

A survey of the constantly accumulating material would 
appear to indicate that The Times DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 
OF THE WAR will be grouped into at least five main 
divisions : 

I. DIPLOMATIC. 
II. NAVAL. 
III. MILITARY. 

IV. OVERSEAS, comprising documents dealing with 
events in the Dominions and Possessions Over- 
seas and in enemy territories not included in 
the first three divisions. 

V. INTERNATIONAL LAW, including documents relating 
to the Laws of War, the Proceedings of Prize 
Courts, etc. 

Each division will appear in its own distinct set of 
volumes. 



PREFACE 

THIS volume begins the Naval division of The Times 
DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF THE WAR. The docu- 
ments contained in it are of a distinctly naval character. 
They deal either with specific naval events or with questions 
of policy and acts of State having a direct bearing on the 
conduct of the War on the seas. But, though the distinction 
between naval war and naval policy and other acts or ques- 
tions of war and policy seems obvious enough, it has not 
been found so easy as might at first sight appear to draw it 
in practice. 

One difficulty always arises in respect of overseas 
operations. In one sense all these are of a naval character, 
since they must begin and be maintained by naval agencies. 
But if that wide definition were adopted every operation of 
the War would have to be included in this or succeeding 
Naval Volumes, and the distinction between the Naval and 
Military Volumes of this series would be obliterated. On the 
other hand, some of the overseas operations undertaken and 
prosecuted to a successful issue in the course of the War have 
been so largely of a naval character that their exclusion from 
the Naval series would have been improper. 

The method adopted has been to treat as naval all 
such overseas operations as have had a large naval element 
throughout, and to exclude as essentially military those 
which were naval only in their early and incipient stages. 
This distinction, so far as practicable, though with no very 
strict logical exactitude, has been adhered to in the present 

vii 



PREFACE 

volume, with the result that certain operations in the South 
Seas have been recorded in full, while those in Africa, East, 
West, and South, have, for the most part, been excluded as 
military, only such naval events as marked their inception 
being noted in their proper place in chronological order. 

Another such difficulty arises over Prize Court Proceed- 
ings. These are, in one sense, essentially naval in character, 
and yet, in another, they stand apart as raising legal and 
judicial rather than purely naval issues. This difficulty has 
been met by reserving all Prize Court Proceedings for separate 
treatment in the division relating to International Law. 
The Order in Council of August 5, 1914, promulgating 
regulations for the conduct of Prize Court Proceedings, has 
been given on p. 60, because this forms part of the general 
naval policy of this country. But the Regulations them- 
selves have not been included, and no Proceedings under 
them have been given in the present volume. 

In the Appendix are printed certain State papers of an 
international character which are necessary to the full under- 
standing of the naval situation as it existed during the earlier 
stages of the War. These documents could not well be 
given in the body of the text, inasmuch as they were all 
formulated and promulgated several years before the War 
began. 

The arrangement of the volume is, in the main, chrono- 
logical, each event being recorded either under the date 
on which it occurred, or under that on which it was first 
mentioned in any public document, official or unofficial. The 
source of each document is, as a rule, given in the margin, as 
also its date, unless the latter is found in the document itself. 
The month to which the several documents refer is indicated 
at the inner top corner of each left-hand page, and the year 
at the corresponding inner corner of the page on the right. 
But the day of the month is not given, because under the 
method of arrangement adopted this would often have been 
misleading. For instance, on pp. 52-54 a document is cited 

viii 



PREFACE 

which bears date February 14, 1916 ; but the events to 
which it refers properly belong to August, 1914, and for that 
reason the document appears under that date. 

To the general order of arrangement by date certain 
exceptions have been made, the reasons for which must here 
be explained : 

i. In some cases the event recorded is not an isolated 
occurrence, but is rather the first of a connected sequence 
of occurrences following each other in close succession, and 
coincident in date at some point with other occurrences having 
no connexion with the sequence in question beyond the 
purely accidental coincidence in date. In such cases there 
was no escape from the following dilemma : either the se- 
quence in question must be given intact irrespective of the 
interruption of the general chronological order ; or it must 
be interrupted at this point or that in order to interpolate in 
strict chronological order the record of other events which 
were simultaneous in point of time, but otherwise quite inde- 
pendent of the sequence. On due consideration the former 
alternative has been adopted. Sequences of this kind are 
indicated by placing a " rule," thus - , between 

each of the associated documents cited, and the close of each 
sequence is indicated by a double " rule," the upper line thick 
and the lower thin, thus . Within the se- 

quence the documents cited follow their own chronological 
order, and not that of the general scheme of arrangement. An 
illustration of this method will be found on pp. 51-54, where 
the operations of the Goeben and the Breslau are recorded. 
In veiy short sequences the concluding double rule has 
seemed to be superfluous and has, therefore, been omitted. 
The same method has been employed in the treatment of 
any -connected sequence of Diplomatic Correspondence, as 
on pp. 29-51, and of any official publication of despatches 
relating to a connected series of naval events, as on pp. 
135-160. 



PREFACE 

2. " Promotions, Appointments, Honours and Rewards " 
affecting the higher ranks of the Navy have not been given 
in the chronological order of their first announcement, but 
have been collected together and printed under that heading 
at the end of each month. 

3. A list of enemy merchant vessels detained in British 
and Allied ports, or captured at sea by His Majesty's armed 
forces and those of the Allies, is published periodically 
in the London Gazette. These lists are given in extenso at 
the end of each month, no data being available for determining 
the exact date of the capture or detention of any particular 
ship. No similar lists of British merchant vessels detained, 
captured, sunk, or otherwise destroyed by the enemy have 
been officially issued. But, as is stated in a note on p. 174, 
" a complete list of all such vessels up to date July 26th, 1915, 
has been compiled at Lloyd's, and this list will be printed 
under that date in a subsequent volume." 

4. At the beginning of each month the Admiralty issue, 
under the title of " Admiralty Monthly Orders," a collection 
of all the Orders issued to the Fleet from time to time during 
the preceding month. These Orders, being issued solely for 
the use of the Fleet, are not commonly made public, some 
of them being of a confidential character, others of purely 
technical and professional interest. By the courtesy of the 
Admiralty the Editors have had access to them, and, subject 
to the approval of the Admiralty in each particular case, 
have been allowed to print such of them as seemed to be 
invested with general or historical interest. Under the heading 
" Admiralty Monthly Orders," a selection of these Orders will 
be found at the end of the record of each month represented 
in this volume. The number prefixed to each Order is that 
which indicates its place in the complete monthly series as 
issued by the Admiralty. The missing numbers represent 
either Orders which are devoid of public interest, or, in a 



PREFACE 

few cases, those which have, for reasons of State, been with- 
held by the Admiralty from publication. 

An explanatory list of the abbreviations used in the 
margin to indicate sources of information is here appended : 

(1) B. THE BRITISH BLUE-BOOK, the despatches in 

which are referred to by their numbers. (See The 
Times DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF THE WAR, Vol. I., 
where they are given in full.) 

(2) C.O. = COMMUNIQUES OFFICIELS. These are ex- 

tracted and translated by permission from a French 
publication entitled " Nos Marins et la Guerre," 
belonging to the well-known series of " Pages 
d'Histoire" (Paris and Nancy, Librairie Militaire 
Berger-Levrault), and containing, amongst other 
matter of a less official character, the official 
communications of the French Ministry of Marine. 

(3) D.N.S.B. = DUTCH NORTH SEA BOOK, an official 

publication of the Netherlands Government entitled 
" Diplomatieke Bescheiden betreffende de Vaart 
in de Noordzee en het Kanaal in Verband met den 
Oorlogstoestand" ('s Gravenhage Algemeene Lands- 
drukkerij 1915). The correspondence extracted 
from this publication and cited in the present 
volume is given, in the original, in English as 
regards the English despatches, and in French as 
regards the Dutch. The latter have been translated. 

(4) K.D. = KRIEGS-DEPESCHEN, a German serial pub- 

lication entitled " Kriegs-Depeschen, nach den 
amtlichen Berichten des W.T.B. (i.e., the Wolff 
Telegraphic Bureau) zusammengestellt " (Boll u. 
Pickardt, Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin). This serial 
is largely, but not entirely, identical with that next 
to be described, and most of the extracts common 
to both have been taken from the latter. In all 
cases they have been translated. 

xi 



PREFACE 

(5) K.V. = KRIEGSVERLAUF, another German serial, 

entitled " Der Kriegsverlauf, Sammlung der amt- 
lichen Nachrichten von den Kriegsschauplatzen, 
Depeschen des Deutschen Grossen Hauptquartiers, 
des Osterreichischen Generalstabes, des Tiirkischen 
Hauptquartiers, Meldungen von W.T.B., Urkunden 
und Berichte " (Carl Heymanns Verlag in Berlin 
W.8. Mauerstrasse, 43, 44). It is more copious 
than " K.D." and has, therefore, commonly been 
used in preference. 

(6) L.G. = THE " LONDON GAZETTE." 

(7) P.B. = THE PRESS BUREAU, which it is unnecessary 

to describe. 

(8) U.S.D.C. = UNITED STATES DIPLOMATIC CORRE- 

SPONDENCE, a series of publications issued by the 
American Department of State and containing 
" Diplomatic Correspondence with Belligerent Gov- 
ernments relating to Neutral Rights and Commerce." 

(9) Y. = THE FRENCH YELLOW -BOOK (official transla- 

tion), the despatches in which are referred to by their 
numbers. (See The Times DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 
OF THE WAR, Vol. I., where they are given in full.) 



CONTENTS 



PACE 



MESSAGE FROM H.M. KING GEORGE I 

JULY AND AUGUST, 1914 . . . . .3 

SEPTEMBER, 1914 ....... 177 

OCTOBER, 1914 ....... 3" 

APPENDIX 399 

INDEX . . . ... 485 



ziii 



INTRODUCTION. 

MESSAGE FROM KING GEORGE TO ADMIRAL SIR 

JOHN JELLICOE. 

August 4. 

THE following message was addressed by His Majesty 
the King to Admiral Sir John Jellicoe : 

At this grave moment in our national 
history I send to you, and through you 
to the officers and men of the Fleets of 
which you have assumed command, the 
assurance of my confidence that under 
your direction they will revive and renew 
the old glories of the Royal Navy, and 
prove once again the sure shield of 
Britain and of her Empire in the hour 

of trial. 

GEORGE R.I. 

(The above message was communicated to the senior 
naval officers on all stations outside of home waters.) 



[For Sir John Jellicoe's reply to the King, see p. 59.] 

Naval I. A 



JULY AND AUGUST. 

THE GERMAN FLEET RECALLED FROM NORWEGIAN 

WATERS. 

M. Chevalley, French Minister at Christiania, to M. Bienvenu- 
Martin, Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

Christiania, July 26, 1914. 

THE whole German fleet in Norway has received orders y. 58. 
to put to sea. The German authorities at Bergen declare 
that it is to make straight for Germany. German ships 
scattered in the Fjords to the north of Bergen were to join 
those which are in the neighbourhood of Stavanger. 

CHEVALLEY. 

ALLEGED POSTPONEMENT OF DEMOBILISATION 
OF BRITISH FLEET ON JULY 24x11. 

M. de Fleuriau, French Charge a" Affaires at London, to 
M. Bienvenu-Martin, Acting Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

London, July 27, 1914. 

SIR EDWARD GREY told the German Ambassador Y. 66. 
this morning that if Austria were to invade Serbia after the 
Serbian reply, she would make it clear that she was not 
merely aiming at the settlement of the questions mentioned 
in her note of July 23, but that she wished to crush a small 
State. ' Then," he added, " a European question would 
arise, and war would follow in which other Powers would be 
led to take a part." 

The attitude of Great Britain is confirmed by the post- 
ponement of the demobilisation of the fleet. The First Lord 
of the Admiralty took this measure quietly on Friday 01 on his (l) [July 
own initiative ; to-night, Sir Edward Grey and his colleagues 2 4-I 
decided to make it public. This result is due to the con- 
ciliatory attitude of Serbia and Russia. 

DE FLEURIAU. 

[There is a manifest discrepancy between this document and that which 
follows it immediately below. The latter shows that Sir Edward Grey 
announced the decision in question to the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador 

3 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

on July 27th, the date of M. de Fleuriau's despatch. The date on which 
" Sir Edward Grey and his colleagues decided to make it public" cannot 
have been later than July 26th, since the Admiralty Order quoted below was 
officially published in The Times of July 27th. The circumstances in which 
this Order was given were stated by Prince Louis of Battenberg in the 
following letter addressed to Mr. Winston Churchill on August iQth, 1915, 
and published in The Times and other newspapers on August 2ist, 1915 : 

Kent House, East Cowes, 

Isle of Wight, August 19, 1915. 

DEAR MR. CHURCHILL, I notice from the newspapers that the un- 
authorised publication of a private note of mine concerning certain action 
which I took when in charge of the Admiralty on July 26th, 1914, has been 
made the basis of various strictures on you. I greatly regret this, since 
you as First Lord, and I as First Sea Lord, acted during this critical time in 
perfect harmony and with absolute mutual trust, as is shown by the 
following statement of what occurred at the Admiralty on that date. 

The news from abroad on the morning of July 26th was certainly, in my 
opinion, very disquieting, and when you called me up on the telephone from 
Cromer about lunch-time I was not at all surprised to hear you express the 
same view. You then asked me to take any steps which, in view of the 
foreign situation, might appear desirable. You reminded me, however, 
that I was in charge of the Admiralty and should act without waiting to 
consult you. You also informed me you would return that night instead of 
next morning. 

After making myself acquainted with all the telegrams which had 
reached the Foreign Office, and considering the different steps towards 
demobilisation, which, in the ordinary course of events, would have com- 
menced early next morning, I directed the Secretary, as a first step, to send 
an Admiralty Order by telegraph to the Commander-in-Chief of the Home 
Fleets at Portland to the effect that no ship was to leave that anchorage 
until further orders. For the time this was sufficient. 

You fully approved of this when you returned, and we then, in perfect 
accord, decided upon the further orders as they became necessary, day by day. 

Pray make any use you like of this letter, and believe me to be, 

Yours very sincerely, 

LOUIS BATTENBERG.] 

SIR EDWARD GREY ANNOUNCES SUSPENSION OF 
DEMOBILISATION TO AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN 
AMBASSADOR. 

Sir E. Grey to Sir M. de Bunsen, British Ambassador at Vienna. 

Foreign Office, July 27, 1914. 

.... I said that it seemed to me as if the Austrian 
Government believed that, even after the Serbian reply, 
they could make war upon Serbia anyhow, without risk of 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

bringing Russia into the dispute. If they could make war 
on Serbia and at the same time satisfy Russia, well and good ; 
but, if not, the consequences would be incalculable. I pointed 
out to him that I quoted this phrase from an expression of 
the views of the German Government. I feared that it 
would be expected in St. Petersburg that the Serbian reply 
would diminish the tension, and now, when Russia found 
that there was increased tension, the situation would become 
increasingly serious. Already the effect on Europe was one 
of anxiety. I pointed out that our fleet was to have dis- 
persed to-day, but we had felt unable to let it disperse. We 
should not think of calling up reserves at this moment, and 
there was no menace in what we had done about our fleet ; 
but, owing to the possibility of a European conflagration, it 
was impossible for us to disperse our forces at this moment. 
I gave this as an illustration of the anxiety that was felt. It 
seemed to me that the Serbian reply already involved the 
greatest humiliation to Serbia that I had ever seen a country 
undergo, and it was very disappointing to me that the reply 
was treated by the Austrian Government as if it were as 
unsatisfactory as a blank negative. 

I am, &c., 

E. GREY. 



FLEET ORDERED NOT TO DISPERSE. 

Admiralty, July 26, midnight. 

ORDERS have been given to the First Fleet, which is Times, 
concentrated at Portland, not to disperse for manoeuvre July 27, 
leave for the present. 

All vessels of the Second Fleet are remaining at their 
Home ports in proximity to their balance crews. 

NEW BOARD OF ADMIRALTY. 

Crown Office, House of Lords, 

July 30, 1914. 

THE KING has been pleased, by Letters Patent under the 
Great Seal, bearing date the 3Oth day of July inst., to appoint : 

5 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Ai 

The Right Hon. Winston L. Spencer-Churchill, M.P., 
Admiral H.S.H. Prince Louis of Battenberg, G.C.B., 
K.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., A.D.C., 

Vice-Admiral Sir Frederick T. Hamilton, K.C.B., 
C.V.O., 

Rear-Admiral Archibald G. H. W. Moore, C.V.O., 
C.B., 

Captain Cecil F. Lambert, R.N., 

The Right Hon. George Lambert, M.P., 

The Right Hon. Sir Francis J. S. Hopwood, G.C.M.G., 
K.C.B., 

to be Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High 
Admiral of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
&a 

[This issue of a new Patent was caused by the appointment of Vice- 
Admiral Sir Frederick T. Hamilton to the post of Second Sea Lord in suc- 
cession to Vice-Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, subsequently appointed to the 
command of the Home Fleets, see p. 17.] 

DETENTION OF BRITISH MERCHANT SHIPS 
BY GERMANY. 

Sir E. Grey to Sir E. Goschen, British Ambassador at Berlin. 

Foreign Office, August i, 1914. 

B. 130. WE are informed that authorities at Hamburg have 

forcibly detained steamers belonging to the Great Central 
Company and other British merchant ships. 

I cannot ascertain on what ground the detention of British 
ships has been ordered. 

You should request German Government to send immediate 
orders that they should be allowed to proceed without delay. 
The effect on public opinion here will be deplorable unless this 
is done. His Majesty's Government, on their side, are most 
anxious to avoid any incident of an aggressive nature, and 
the German Government will, I hope, be equally careful not 
to take any step which would make the situation between us 
impossible. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Sir E. Goschen, British Ambassador at Berlin, to Sir Edward 

Grey. 

Berlin, August I, 1914. 

DETENTION of British merchant ships at Hamburg. B. 143. 
Your telegram of ist August acted on. 
Secretary of State, who expressed the greatest surprise 
and annoyance, has promised to send orders at once to allow 
steamers to proceed without delay. 

Sir E. Goschen, British Ambassador at Berlin, to Sir Edward 

Grey. 

Berlin, August 2, 1914. 

MY telegram of ist August. B. 145. 

Secretary of State informs me that orders were sent last 
night to allow British ships in Hamburg to proceed on their 
way. He says that this must be regarded as a special favour 
to His Majesty's Government, as no other foreign ships have 
been allowed to leave. Reason of detention was that mines 
were being laid and other precautions being taken. 



Sir E. Grey to Sir E. Goschen, British Ambassador at Berlin. 

Foreign Office, August 2, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of ist August. B. 149. 

I regret to learn that 100 tons of sugar was compulsorily 
unloaded from the British steamship Sappho at Hamburg, 
and detained. Similar action appears to have been taken 
with regard to other British vessels loaded with sugar. 

You should inform Secretary of State that, for reasons 
stated in my telegram of ist August, I most earnestly trust 
that the orders already sent to Hamburg to allow the clearance 
of British ships covers also the release of their cargoes, the 
detention of which cannot be justified. 



Sir E. Goschen, British Ambassador at Berlin, to Sir Edward 

Grey. 

Berlin, August 3, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of 2nd August : Detention of British B. 150. 
ships at Hamburg. 

No information available. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [At 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir E. Goschen, British Ambassador at Berlin. 

Foreign Office, August 4, 1914. 

B. 156 I CONTINUE to receive numerous complaints from 

British firms as to the detention of their ships at Hamburg, 
Cuxhaven, and other German ports. This action on the part 
of the German authorities is totally unjustifiable. It is in 
direct contravention of international law and of the assurances 
given to your Excellency by the Imperial Chancellor. You 
should demand the immediate release of all British ships if 
such release has not yet been given. 



Times, WITH regard to the reported seizure by Germany of two 

Au S- 4. British vessels the German Embassy yesterday issued the 
following explanation : 

The Wilson liner Castro was in the Kiel Canal, and was 
ordered by the German authorities to proceed to Hamburg 
for military reasons, as it was not desirable that any com- 
mercial vessel should be in the Canal at present. As regards 
the second case the Government had purchased coal shipped 
for Germany to a private firm, and the order was given for the 
ship to proceed to Hamburg with her cargo. It was solely a 
matter of changing its destination. In both cases there was 
no intention whatever of interfering with the property of the 
vessels. It was simply a police measure. 



MOBILISATION ORDERS. 

Admiralty, August 2, 1914. 

Times, NOTICE is hereby given by Their Lordships that all 

Aug. 3, Naval and Marine Pensioners under the age of fifty-five, and 

I 9 I 4- all men of the Naval Fleet Reserve and Royal Naval Reserve 

are to proceed forthwith to the ship or establishment already 

notified them, or, failing any previous orders, they are to 

report themselves immediately as shown below, viz. : 

Naval and Marine pensioners, including men of Class A 
Royal Fleet Reserve, to their pensioner centre officer. 

Royal Fleet Reserve, Class B to their registrar at their 
port of enrolment. 



4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Royal Fleet Reserve Immediate Class, in accordance with 
instructions already issued. 

Royal Naval Reserve, all classes, to the nearest Registrar 
of Naval Reserve (Superintendent of a Mercantile Marine 
Office). 

Men of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve are all to 
report themselves immediately to their officer instructor or 
Volunteer Mobilising Officer, irrespective of whether they 
have been previously appropriated or not. All men should 
if possible appear in uniform and bring with them their 
regulation kit, certificate book or Service certificate, and in 
the case of pensioners, their pension identity certificate. 
Men who, through absence at sea or for other unavoidable 
cause, are unable to join immediately, are to report them- 
selves as soon as possible. Reasonable travelling expenses 
will be allowed. 

By Command of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 



AERIAL NAVIGATION. 

ORDER MADE BY THE SECRETARY OF STATE, DATED AUGUST 2, 
1914, UNDER THE AERIAL NAVIGATION ACTS, IQII 
(i & 2 GEO. V., c. 4) AND 1913 (2 & 3 GEO. V., c. 22). 

IN pursuance of the powers conferred on me by the Aerial 
Navigation Acts, 1911 and 1913, I hereby make, for the 
purposes of the safety and defence of the realm, the following 
Order : 

I prohibit the navigation of aircraft of every class and 
description over the whole area of the United Kingdom, and 
over the whole of the coast-line thereof and territorial waters 
adjacent thereto. 

This Order shall not apply to naval or military aircraft or 
to aircraft flying under naval or military orders : nor shall it 
apply to any aircraft flying within three miles of a recognised 
aerodrome. 

R. McKENNA, 

One of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State. 
Home Office, Whitehall, 
August 2nd, 1914. 

9 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Ai| 

GERMAN BOMBARDMENT OF LIBAU. 

Berlin, August 2. 

K.V. THE small cruiser Augsburg reports as follows by wireless 

telegraphy about 9 p.m. " Am bombarding the naval port 
of Libau, and am in action with an enemy cruiser. Have 
laid mines. The naval port of Libau is on fire." 

TAKING OVER OF WARSHIPS ORDERED BY 
FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS. 

Admiralty, August 3, 1914. 

Times. HIS MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT have taken over the 

Au - 3. two battleships, one completed and the other shortly due for 

I 9 I 4- completion, which had been ordered in this country by the 

Turkish Government, and the two destroyer-leaders ordered 

by the Government of Chile. The two battleships will receive 

the names Agincourt and Erin, and the destroyer-leaders will 

be called Faulknor and Broke, after two famous naval officers. 

RESTRICTIONS ON WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY IN 
TERRITORIAL WATERS. 

General Post Office. 

L.G. IN pursuance of Regulation 5 of the Wireless Telegraphy 

(Foreign Ships) Regulations 1908, I, the Right Hon. Charles 
Edward Henry Hobhouse, His Majesty's Postmaster-General, 
do hereby give notice that in the opinion of the Right Hon. 
Reginald McKenna, one of His Majesty's Principal Secre- 
taries of State, an emergency has arisen in which it is expedient 
for the public service that His Majesty's Government should 
have control over the transmission of messages by wireless 
telegraphy, and that the use of wireless telegraphy on board 
foreign ships whilst in the territorial waters of the British 
Isles will be subject to such rules as may be made by the 
Admiralty. 

Dated this First day of August, 1914. 

Admiralty, S.W., August 3, 1914. 

WITH reference to the notification published by the Post- 
master-General on the 2nd instant, the following regulations 
have been made by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 

10 



,14] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

prohibiting the use of wireless telegraphy by merchant vessels 
in the territorial waters of the United Kingdom and Channel 
Islands : 

1. The use of wireless telegraphy is prohibited in the 
harbours and territorial waters of the United Kingdom and 
Channel Islands. 

2. On entering any port or harbour or on directions being 
given to that effect by any naval, military, examination 
service, Customs or police officer, the aerial wire or antenna 
is to be at once lowered, -disconnected from its halliards, and 
from the operating-room, and is not to be rehoisted while the 
ship remains in British territorial waters. 

3. Any breach of these regulations renders the masters 
of offending ships liable to penalties and to the confiscation 
of the wireless apparatus of their ships. 

NOTE. These regulations do not apply to ships owned 
(not chartered) by the Admiralty, whether they fly the Blue 
or the Red Ensign. 

By Command of Their Lordships, 

W. GRAHAM GREENE. 

CALLING OUT OF NAVAL RESERVES AND OTHER 

MEASURES. 

Monday, August 3, 1914. 



At the Court at Buckingham Palace, 
The 3rd day of August, 1914. 

PRESENT, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

HIS MAJESTY was this day pleased to make the following L.G. 
Declaration. 

MY LORDS, 

I declare that owing to the state of Public Affairs and the 
demands upon Our Naval Forces for the protection of the 
Empire an occasion has arisen for ordering and directing as 
in the circumstances by Statute provided. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Au 

BY THE KING. 



FOR CALLING OUT MEN OF THE ROYAL NAVAL RESERVE AND 
ROYAL FLEET RESERVE, AND OFFICERS AND MEN OF 
THE ROYAL NAVAL VOLUNTEER RESERVE. 

GEORGE R.I. 

L.G. WHEREAS by the fourth section of the Royal Naval Reserve 

(Volunteer) Act, 1859, it is enacted that it shall be lawful for 
Us on such occasions as We shall deem fit (the occasion being 
first communicated to Parliament if Parliament be sitting or 
declared in Council and notified by Proclamation if Parlia- 
ment be not sitting or in being) to order and direct that the 
Volunteers under that Act, or so many or such part of them 
as We may deem necessary, shall be called into actual service : 

And whereas by the Royal Naval Reserve Volunteer Act, 
1896, as amended by the Royal Naval Reserve Act, 1902, it 
is enacted that the power under the said Act of 1859 to raise 
and pay Volunteers may be exercised outside the British 
Islands in respect of British subjects : 

And whereas by the Naval Reserve Act, 1900, the 
Admiralty are authorised to raise and keep up a new division, 
commonly known as" the Royal Fleet Reserve, of the force 
raised under the said first recited Act in addition to the men 
raised under that Act, and such new division is liable to be 
called out as part of the Royal Naval Reserve under the 
said fourth section of the said Act of 1859 : 

And whereas by the Naval Forces Act, 1903, it is provided 
that the Admiralty may raise and maintain a force to be 
called the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, and that certain 
provisions of the said Act of 1859 (including the fourth section 
of that Act) as amended by any subsequent enactment shall 
apply to the force so raised : 

And whereas by the first section of the Naval Reserve 
(Mobilisation) Act, 1900, amending the said Act of 1859, it 
is enacted that it shall be lawful for Us where We order and 
direct that Volunteers under that Act shall be called into 
actual service to authorise the Admiralty to give, and when 
given to revoke or vary, such directions as may seem neces- 
sary or proper for calling out all or any of the said Volunteers 
as the occasion may require : 

12 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

And whereas Parliament is not sitting : 
And whereas We have declared in Council and hereby 
notify that owing to the state of Public Affairs and the 
demands upon Our Naval Forces for the protection of the 
Empire an occasion has arisen for ordering and directing as 
in the said Act provided : 

We do by this Our Proclamation order and direct that 
Volunteers under the said Acts shall be called into actual 
service : 

And We do hereby authorise the said Lords Commissioners 

of the Admiralty to give, and when given to revoke or vary, 

such directions as may seem necessary or proper for calling 

out all or any of the said Volunteers as the occasion may require. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Third 

day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand 

nine hundred and fourteen, and in the Fifth year of 

Our Reign. 

BY THE KING. 
A PROCLAMATION 

FOR CALLING OUT OFFICERS OF THE ROYAL NAVAL RESERVE. 
GEORGE R.I. 

WHEREAS by Order in Council, dated the fourth day of L.G. 
March, 1911, made pursuant to the powers contained in the 
Officers of Royal Naval Reserve Act, 1863, certain Regula- 
tions were put in force respecting Officers of the Royal Naval 
Reserve : 

And whereas by Article 77 of such Regulations it is pro- 
vided that Officers of the Royal Naval Reserve should be 
called out for actual service by Royal Proclamation, and 
that they should be liable to serve during the continuance of 
any national emergency or until they should be regularly 
discharged by the direction of the Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty : 

And whereas a case of national emergency has arisen : 
We do hereby order and direct that the said Officers of the 
Royal Naval Reserve be called out for actual service. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Third 
day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen, and in the Fifth year of 

Our Reign. 

13 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Au< 

BY THE KING. II 

A PROCLAMATION 

FOR EXTENDING THE SERVICES OF TIME-EXPIRED MEN IN 

THE ROYAL NAVY. 
GEORGE R.I. 

L.G. WHEREAS by the ninth section of an Act passed in the 

Session of Parliament holden in the i6th and I7th years of the 
Reign of Queen Victoria, intituled " An Act to make better 
provision concerning the entry and service of Seamen and 
otherwise to amend the laws concerning Her Majesty's 
Navy," it is enacted that in case We shall by Proclamation 
call upon the seamen or any class or classes serving in Our 
Navy, or such of them as may be required so to do, to extend 
the term of their services, any seaman to whom such Pro- 
clamation shall extend, and whose term of service shall have 
expired at the date of such Proclamation, or may expire while 
such Proclamation shall continue in force, shall be required 
to serve for a period of five years from the expiration of such 
term, if his services be so long required, and shall be liable to 
serve accordingly, and shall for such extension of service be 
entitled to such bounty as may be given by such Proclama- 
tion : 

And whereas We, by and with the advice of Our Privy 
Council, deem it expedient to extend the service of all classes 
of men now serving in Our Navy whose term of service may 
have expired or may expire while this Proclamation shall 
continue in force : 

We, by and with the advice aforesaid, do hereby order and 
direct that all classes of men now serving in Our Navy whose 
term of service may have expired or may expire while this 
Proclamation shall continue in force shall be required to serve 
for a period of five years from the expiration of their respective 
terms of service, if their services be so long required. 

Each man whose service is extended is to receive a gratuity 
of three pounds ten shillings for clothing and bedding. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Third 
day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen, and in the Fifth year of 
Our Reign. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
BY THE KING. 

A PROCLAMATION 

FOR AUTHORISING THE LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF THE 
ADMIRALTY TO REQUISITION ANY BRITISH SHIP OR 
BRITISH VESSEL WITHIN THE BRITISH ISLES OR THE 
WATERS ADJACENT THERETO. 

GEORGE R.I. 

WHEREAS a national emergency exists rendering it neces- L.G. 
sary to take steps for preserving and defending national 
interests : 

And whereas the measures approved to be taken require 
the immediate employment of a large number of vessels for 
use as Transports and as Auxiliaries for the convenience of the 
Fleet and for other similar services, but owing to the urgency 
of the need it is impossible to delay the employment of such 
vessels until the terms of engagement have been mutually 
agreed upon : 

Now, THEREFORE, We authorise and empower the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty by Warrant under the hand 
of their Secretary or under the hand of any Flag Officer of 
Our Royal Navy holding any appointment under the Admiralty 
to requisition and take up for Our service any British ship 
or British vessel as denned in the Merchant Shipping Act, 
1894, within the British Isles, or the waters adjacent thereto, 
for such period of time as may be necessary on condition that 
the Owners of all ships and vessels so requisitioned shall 
receive payment for their use, and for services rendered during 
their employment in the Government service, and com- 
pensation for loss or damage thereby occasioned, according 
to terms to be arranged as soon as possible after the said ship 
has been taken up, either by mutual agreement between the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty and the Owners or 
failing such agreement by the award of a Board of Arbitration 
to be constituted and appointed by Us for this purpose. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Third 
day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen, and in the Fifth year of 
Our Reign. 

'5 



L.G. 



Times, 
Aug. 4, 
1914. 



Hansard. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [At 

CALLING UP OF NAVAL OFFICERS ON THE 
RESERVED AND RETIRED LISTS. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, 
The 3rd day of August, 1914. 

PRESENT, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a 
Memorial from the Right Honourable the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Admiralty, in the words following, viz. : 

' Whereas we are of opinion that the present state of 
Public Affairs justifies Officers of the Reserved and Retired 
Lists being called into Active Service temporarily ; we would 
humbly submit that Your Majesty will be pleased to authorise 
us to call on such Officers to hold themselves in readiness for 
Active Service, and to sanction our employing any of such 
Officers as we may think fit. We would also submit that 
compulsory retirement from the Active List on account of 
age be suspended in such cases as we think fit." 

His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His 
Privy Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And 
the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admir- 
alty are to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 



MOBILISATION COMPLETED. 

Admiralty, August 3, 1914. 

THE mobilisation of the British Navy was completed in 
all respects at four o'clock this morning. This is due to the 
measures taken and to the voluntary response of the Reserve 
men in advance of the Royal Proclamation which has now 
been issued. The entire Navy is now on a war footing. 

BRITISH FISHERMEN AND THE WAR. 

House of Commons, August 3. 

THE PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE AD- 
MIRALTY (DR. MACNAMARA), in reply to Mr. Robert 
Harcourt. said : "No special measures have been taken for 

16 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

protection of fishing fleets outside territorial waters, other than 
advising them, so far as practicable, of dangerous areas. 
The fishing fleets have therefore been advised to withdraw 
from the North Sea for the present. The Admiralty is in 
close touch with the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries on 
the subject/' 

THE NAVAL COMMAND. 
ADMIRAL SIR J. R. JELLICOE APPOINTED. 

IT is officially announced that, with the approval of His Times, 
Majesty the King, Admiral Sir John R. Jellicoe, K.C.B., Au e- 5. 
K.C.V.O., has assumed supreme command of the Home Fleets, r 
with the acting rank of Admiral, and 1 Rear- Admiral Charles E. 
Madden has been appointed to be his Chief of the Staff. 

Both appointments date from August 4th, 1914. 

NAVAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DOMINIONS. 

CANADA. 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State. 

GOVERNMENT of Canada have by Order in Council, 
August 4th, placed His Majesty's C.S. Niobe, Rainbow, 
together with officers and men serving in them, at the disposal 
of His Majesty for general service in Royal Navy. 

ARTHUR. 



AUSTRALIA. 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State. 
(Received August 3, 1914.) 

IN the event of war Commonwealth of Australia prepared 
to place vessels of Australian Navy under control of British 
Admiralty when desired. Further prepared to despatch 
expeditionary force 20,000 men of any suggested composition 
to any destination desired by Home Government. Force 
to be at complete disposal Home Government. Cost of des- 
patch and maintenance would be borne by this Government. 
Australian Press notified accordingly. 

_ FERGUSON. 

Naval 1 B '7 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The Governor-General to the Secretary of State. 
(Received August n, 1914.) 

ORDER issued August loth transferring all vessels of 
Commonwealth naval forces and all officers and seamen to 
King's naval forces. Such transfer to continue in force until 
Proclamation is issued declaring that war no longer exists. 

FERGUSON. 



NEW ZEALAND. 

The Governor to 'the Secretary of State. 
(Received July 31, 1914.) 

PLEASE inform me at the earliest possible moment when 
we should bring into operation Section 19 New Zealand Naval 
Defence Act. 

LIVERPOOL. 



The Secretary of State to the Governor. 
(Sent August 2, 1914.) 

WITH reference to your telegram of July 3ist, as to New 
Zealand Naval Defence Act, the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty will be glad if you will arrange with Ministers -for 
issue at once of Proclamation under Section 19 (2). Please 
say in issuing Proclamation that you do so because " in your 
opinion it is in the interests of Great Britain." 

HARCOURT. 



The Governor to the Secretary of State. 
(Received August 3, 1914.) 

WITH reference to your telegram of August 2nd, New 
Zealand Naval Defence Act. Proclamation has been issued. 

LIVERPOOL. 

18 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

NEWFOUNDLAND. 

The Governor to the Secretary of State. 
(Received August 8, 1914.) 

AUTHORITY is desired by my Ministers to enlist special 
men service abroad by land and by sea. 

Ministers undertake to raise force of naval reserve by 
October 3ist to thousand efficient available naval service 
abroad for one year, and are willing to meet all local expenses. 

Several hundred efficient local brigade training officers 
for enlistment for land service abroad. 

Five hundred could, I believe, be enlisted within one 
month. 

Propose to induce serviceable men between eighteen and 
thirty-six years enlist ; training home defence wherever corps 
instruction available. Material for further draft would be 
formed by these. 

DAVIDSON. 



The Secretary of State to the Governor. 
(Sent August 14, 1914.) 

LORDS COMMISSIONERS OF ADMIRALTY accept with 
gratitude offer of your Government to raise force of naval 
reserve to 1,000. It has been already arranged to utilise part 
of reserve to complete H.M.S. Niobe, and additional numbers 
will be valuable for later requirements. 

HARCOURT. 

[The foregoing despatches are taken from Parliamentary Paper Cd. 7607 
published in September, 1914.] 



NOTIFICATION OF WAR WITH GERMANY AND 
ORDERS INCIDENTAL THERETO. 

Wednesday, August 5, 1914. 

HIS MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT informed the German L.G. 
Government on August 4th, 1914, that, unless a satisfactory 
reply to the request of His Majesty's Government for an 
assurance that Germany would respect the neutrality of 

19 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Belgium was received by midnight of that day, His Majesty's 
Government would feel bound to take all steps in their power 
to uphold that neutrality and the observance of a treaty 
to which Germany was as much a party as Great Britain. 

The result of this communication having been that His 
Majesty's Ambassador at Berlin had to ask for his passports, 
His Majesty's Government have accordingly formally notified 
the German Government that a state of war exists between 
the two countries as from n p.m. to-day. 

Foreign Office, 

August 4th, 1914. 



At the Court at Buckingham Palace. 
The 4th day of August, 1914. 

PRESENT, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

HIS MAJESTY being mindful, now that a state of war 
exists between this Country and Germany, of the recognition 
accorded to the practice of granting " days of grace " to 
enemy merchant ships by the Convention relative to the 
Status of Enemy Merchant Ships at the Outbreak of Hostili- 
ties, signed at The Hague on the i8th October, 1907, and 
being desirous of lessening, so far as may be practicable, the 
injury caused by war to peaceful and unsuspecting commerce, 
is pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy Council, to 
order, and it is hereby ordered, as follows : 

1. From and after the publication of this Order no enemy 
merchant ship shall be allowed to depart, except in accord- 
ance with the provisions of this Order, from any British 
port or from any ports in any Native State in India, or in 
any of His Majesty's Protectorates, or in any State under 
His Majesty's protection or in Cyprus. 

2. In the event of one of His Majesty's Principal Secre- 
taries of State being satisfied by information reaching him 
not later than midnight on Friday, the seventh day of August, 
that the treatment accorded to British merchant ships and 
their cargoes which at the date of the outbreak of hostilities 

20 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

were in the ports of the enemy or which subsequently entered 
them is not less favourable than the treatment accorded to 
enemy merchant ships by Articles 3 to 7 of this Order, he 
shall notify the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's 
Treasury and the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
accordingly, and public notice thereof shall forthwith be 
given in the London Gazette, and Articles 3 to 8 of this Order 
shall thereupon come into full force and effect. 

3. Subject to the provisions of this Order, enemy merchant 
ships which 

(i.) At the date of the outbreak of hostilities were in 

any port in which this Order applies ; or 
(ii.) Cleared from their last port before the declaration 
of war, and, after the outbreak of hostilities, 
enter a port to which this Order applies, with 
no knowledge of the war : 

shall be allowed up till midnight (Greenwich mean time), on 
Friday, the fourteenth day of August, for loading or unloading 
their cargoes, and for departing from such port : 

Provided that such vessels shall not be allowed to ship 
any contraband of war, and any contraband of war already 
shipped on such vessels must be discharged. 

4. Enemy merchant ships which cleared from their last 
port before the declaration of war, and which with no know- 
ledge of the war arrive at a port to which this Order applies 
after the expiry of the time allowed by Article 3 for loading 
or unloading cargo and for departing, and are permitted to 
enter, may be required to depart either immediately, or 
within such time as may be considered necessary by the 
Customs Officer of the port for the unloading of such cargo 
as they may be required or specially permitted to discharge. 

Provided that such vessels may, as a condition of being 
allowed to discharge cargo, be required to proceed to any 
other specified British port, and shall there be allowed such 
time for discharge as the Customs Officer of that port may 
consider to be necessary. 

Provided also that, if any cargo on board such vessel is 
contraband of war or is requisitioned under Article 5 of 
this Order, she may be required before departure to discharge 
such cargo within such time as the Customs Officer of the 
port may consider to be necessary ; or she may be required 



21 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [2 

to proceed, if necessary under escort, to any other of the 
ports specified in Article i of this Order, and shall there 
discharge the contraband under the like conditions. 

5. His Majesty reserves the right recognised by the said 
Convention to requisition at any time subject to payment 
of compensation enemy cargo on board any vessel to which 
Articles 3 and 4 of this Order apply. 

6. The privileges accorded by Articles 3 and 4 are not to 
extend to cable ships, or to sea-going ships designed to carry 
oil fuel, or to ships whose tonnage exceeds 5,000 tons gross, 
or whose speed is 14 knots or over, regarding which the entries 
in Lloyd's Register shall be conclusive for the purposes of 
this Article. Such vessels will remain liable on adjudication 
by the Prize Court to detention during the period of the 
war, or to requisition, in accordance, in either case, with the 
Convention aforesaid. The said privileges will also not 
extend to merchant ships which show by their build that they 
are intended for conversion into warships, as such vessels are 
outside the scope of the said Convention, and are liable on 
adjudication by the Prize Court to condemnation as prize. 

7. Enemy merchant ships allowed to depart under Articles 
3 and 4 will be provided with a pass indicating the port to 
which they are to proceed, and the route they are to follow. 

8. A merchant ship which, after receipt of such a pass, 
does not follow the course indicated therein will be liable 
to capture. 

9. If no information reaches one of His Majesty's Principal 
Secretaries of State by the day and hour aforementioned to 
the effect that the treatment accorded to British merchant 
ships and their cargoes which were in the ports of the enemy 
at the date of the outbreak of hostilities, or which subse- 
quently entered them, is, in his opinion, not less favourable 
than that accorded to enemy merchant ships by Articles 3 
to 8 of this Order, every enemy merchant ship which, on the 
outbreak of hostilities, was in any port to which this Order 
applies, and also every enemy merchant ship which cleared 
from its last port before the declaration of war, but which, 
with no knowledge of the war, enters a port to which this 
Order applies, shall, together with the cargo on board thereof, 
be liable to capture, and shall be brought before the Prize 
Court forthwith for adjudication. 

22 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

10. In the event of information reaching one of His 
Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State that British merchant 
ships which cleared from their last port before the declaration 
of war, but are met with by the enemy at sea after the out- 
break of hostilities, are allowed to continue their voyage 
without interference with either the ship or the cargo, or 
after capture are released with or without proceedings for 
adjudication in the Prize Court, or are to be detained during 
the war or requisitioned in lieu of condemnation as prize, 
he shall notify the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
accordingly, and shall publish a notification thereof in the 
London Gazette, and in that event, but not otherwise, enemy 
merchant ships which cleared from their last port before the 
declaration of war, and are captured after the outbreak of 
hostilities and brought before the Prize Courts for adjudica- 
tion, shall be released or detained or requisitioned in such 
cases and upon such terms as may be directed in the said 
notification in the London Gazette. 

11. Neutral cargo, other than contraband of war, on board 
an enemy merchant ship which is not allowed to depart from 
a port to which this Order applies, shall be released. 

12. In accordance with the provisions of Chapter III. of 
the Convention relative to certain Restrictions on the Exercise 
of the Right of Capture in Maritime War, signed at The 
Hague on the i8th October, 1907, an undertaking must, 
whether the merchant ship is allowed to depart or not, be 
given in writing by each of the officers and members of the 
crew of such vessel, who is of enemy nationality, that he 
will not, after the conclusion of the voyage for which the 
pass is issued, engage while hostilities last in any service 
connected with the operation of the war. If any such officer 
is of neutral nationality, an undertaking must be given in 
writing that he will not serve, after the conclusion of the 
voyage for which the pass is issued, on any enemy ship while 
hostilities last. No undertaking is to be required from 
members of the crew who are of neutral nationality. 

Officers or members of the crew declining to give the 
undertakings required by this Article will be detained as 
prisoners of war. 

And the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, and each of His 

23 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Au< 

Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, and all Governors, 
Officers, and Authorities whom it may concern are to give 
the necessary directions herein as to them may respectively 
appertain. 

[For the Conventions referred to in the first and twelfth paragraphs 
of this Order, see Appendix.] 



BY THE KING. 

A PROCLAMATION 

SPECIFYING THE ARTICLES TO BE TREATED AS CONTRABAND 

OF WAR. 

GEORGE R.I. 

WHEREAS a state of War exists between Us on the one 
hand and the German Empire on the other : 

AND WHEREAS it is necessary to specify the articles which 
it is Our intention to treat as Contraband of War : 

Now, THEREFORE, We do hereby Declare, by and with 
the advice of Our Privy Council, that during the continuance 
of the War or until We do give further public notice the 
articles enumerated in Schedule I. hereto will be treated as 
absolute contraband, and the articles enumerated in Schedule 
II. hereto will be treated as conditional contraband : 

SCHEDULE I. 

The following articles will be treated as absolute contra- 
band : 

1. Arms of all kinds, including arms for sporting purposes, 
and their distinctive component parts. 

2. Projectiles, charges, and cartridges of all kinds, and 
their distinctive component parts. 

3. Powder and explosives specially prepared for use in 
war. 

4. Gun mountings, limber boxes, limbers, military waggons, 
field forges, and their distinctive component parts. 

5. Clothing and equipment of a distinctively military 
character. 

24 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

6. All kinds of harness of a distinctively military char- 
acter. 

7. Saddle, draught, and pack animals suitable for use in 
war. 

8. Articles of camp equipment, and their distinctive com- 
ponent parts. 

9. Armour plates. 

10. Warships, including boats, and their distinctive com- 
ponent parts of such a nature that they can only be used on 
a vessel of war. 

11. Aeroplanes, airships, balloons, and aircraft of aU 
kinds, and their component parts, together with accessories 
and articles recognisable as intended for use in connection 
with balloons and aircraft. 

12. Implements and apparatus designed exclusively for 
the manufacture of munitions of war, for the manufacture or 
repair of arms, or war material for use on land and sea. 



SCHEDULE II. 

The following articles will be treated as conditional con- 
traband : 

1. Food-stuffs. 

2. Forage and gram, suitable for feeding animals. 

3. Clothing, fabrics for clothing, and boots and shoes, 
suitable for use in war. 

4. Gold and silver in coin or bullion : paper money. 

5. Vehicles of all kinds available for use in war, and their 
component parts. 

o. Vessels, craft and boats of all kinds ; floating docks, 
parts of docks, and their component parts. 

7. Railway material, both fixed and rolling stock, and 
materials for telegraphs, wireless telegraphs, and telephones. 

8. Fuel : lubricants. 

9. Powder and explosives not specially prepared for use 
in~war. 

* 10. Barbed wire, and implements for fixing and cutting 
the same. 

11. Horse-shoes and shoeing materials. 

12. Harness and saddlery. 

25 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

13. Field-glasses, telescopes, chronometers, and all kinds 
of nautical instruments. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Fourth 
day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen, and in the Fifth year of 
Our Reign. 

BY THE KING. 
A PROCLAMATION 

PROHIBITING BRITISH VESSELS FROM CARRYING CONTRABAND 
FROM ONE FOREIGN PORT TO ANY OTHER FOREIGN PORT. 

GEORGE R.I. 

L.G. WHEREAS a state of War exists between Us on the one 

hand and the German Empire on the other : 

And whereas We have by Proclamation warned all 
persons resident, carrying on business, or being, in Our 
Dominions, that it is contrary to law for them to have any 
commercial intercourse with any person resident, carrying 
on business, or being in the said Empire, or to trade in or 
carry any goods, wares, or merchandise destined for or coming 
from the said Empire, or for or from any person resident, 
carrying on business, or being therein : 

Now We do hereby further warn all Our subjects 
that conformably with that prohibition it is forbidden to 
carry in British Vessels from any Foreign Port to any 
other Foreign Port any article comprised in the list of con- 
traband of war issued by Us unless the shipowner shall have 
first satisfied himself that the articles are not intended ulti- 
mately for use in the enemy country. Any British Vessel 
acting in contravention of this Proclamation will be liable 
to capture by Our Naval Forces and to be taken before 
Our Prize Courts for adjudication, and any of Our subjects 
acting in contravention of this Proclamation will be liable 
to such penalties as the law prescribes. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Fifth 
day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen, and in the Fifth year of 

Our Reign. 

26 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
BY THE KING. 

A PROCLAMATION 

RELATING TO TRADING WITH THE ENEMY. 

GEORGE R.I. 

WHEREAS a state of War exists between Us and thel.G. 
German Emperor : 

And whereas it is contrary to law for any person resident, 
carrying on business, or being in Our Dominions, to trade 
or have any commercial intercourse with any person resident, 
carrying on business, or being in the German Empire without 
Our permission : 

And whereas it is therefore expedient and necessary to 
warn all persons resident, carrying on business, or being 
in Our Dominions, of their duties and obligations towards 
Us, Our Crown, and Government : 

Now, THEREFORE, We have thought fit, by and with the 
advice of Our Privy Council, to issue this Our Royal Proclama- 
tion, and We do hereby warn all persons resident, carrying 
on business, or being in Our Dominions : 

Not to supply to or obtain from the said Empire any goods, 
wares, or merchandise, or to supply to or obtain the same 
from any person resident, carrying on business, or being 
therein, nor to supply to or obtain from any person any goods, 
wares, or merchandise for or by way of transmission to 
or from the said Empire, or to or from any person resident, 
carrying on business, or being therein, nor to trade in 
or carry any goods, wares, or merchandise destined for or 
coming from the said Empire, or for or from any person 
resident, carrying on business, or being therein : 

Nor to permit any British ship to leave for, enter, or 
communicate with any port or place of the said Empire : 

Nor to make or enter into any new marine, life, fire, or 
other policy or contract of insurance with or for the benefit 
of any person resident, carrying on business, or being in 
the said Empire, nor under any existing policy or contract 
of insurance to make any payment to or for the benefit of 
any such person in respect of any loss due to the belligerent 
action of His Majesty's forces or of those of any ally of His 
Majesty : 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Nor to enter into any new commercial, financial, or other 
contract or obligation with or for the benefit of any person 
resident, carrying on business, or being in the said Empire : 

And We do hereby further warn all persons that whoever 
in contravention of the law shall commit, aid, or abet any of 
the aforesaid acts will be liable to such penalties as the law 
provides : 

And We hereby declare that any transactions to, with, 
or for the benefit of any person resident, carrying on business, 
or being in the said Empire which are not treasonable and 
are not for the time being expressly prohibited by Us either 
by virtue of this Proclamation or otherwise, and which but 
for the existence of the state of War aforesaid would be lawful, 
are hereby permitted : 

And We hereby declare that the expression " person " 
in this Proclamation shall include any body of persons cor- 
porate or unincorporate, and that where any person has, or 
has an interest in, houses or branches of business in some 
other country as well as in Our Dominions, or in the said 
Empire (as the case may be), this Proclamation shall not apply 
to the trading or commercial intercourse carried on by such 
person solely from or by such houses or branches of business 
in such other country. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Fifth 
day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen, and in the Fifth year of 
Our Reign. 



BY THE KING. 
A PROCLAMATION 
FOR 




GEORGE R.I. 

L.G. WHEREAS by virtue of Our Proclamation dated the 

fourth day of December nineteen hundred and thirteen the 
importation of Military Arms and Ammunition into Ireland 
28 



,I 4 ] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

was prohibited ; and by virtue of Our Proclamation of the 
same date the carriage coastwise of Military Arms and 
Ammunition was also prohibited : 

And whereas it is expedient that the said Proclamations 
should be revoked : 

Now, therefore, We, with the advice of Our Privy 
Council, do hereby proclaim, direct and ordain that the said 
Proclamations of the fourth day of December nineteen hundred 
and thirteen shall be revoked, without prejudice to anything 
done thereunder. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Fifth 
day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen, and in the Fifth year of 
Our Reign. 



DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE OF THE UNITED 
STATES GOVERNMENT RELATING TO DE- 
FENSIVE ARMAMENT AND THE RIGHT 
OF DEPARTURE FROM NEUTRAL PORTS OF 
BELLIGERENT MERCHANT SHIPS TO ARM 
AT SEA. 

The British Charge to the Secretary of State. 

. British Embassy, 
Washington, August 4, 1914. 
SIR, 

IN view of the state of war now existing between Great U.S.D.C. 
Britain and Germany, I have the honour, under instructions 
from His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs, to make the following communication to you in respect 
to the arming of any merchant vessels in neutral waters. 

As you are aware it is recognised that a neutral Govern- 
ment is bound to use due diligence to prohibit its subjects or 
citizens from the building and fitting out to order of belliger- 
ents vessels intended for warlike purposes and also to prevent 
the departure of any such vessel from its jurisdiction. The 
starting point for the universal recognition of this principle 
was the three rules formulated in Article VI of the Treaty 
between Great Britain and the United States of America for 

29 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the amicable settlement of all causes of difference between 
the two countries, signed at Washington on May 8th, 1871. 
These rules, which His Majesty's Government and the United 
States Government agreed to observe as between themselves 
in future, are as follows : 

" A neutral Government is bound : 

" First. To use due diligence to prevent the fitting out, 
arming, or equipping, within its jurisdiction, of any vessel 
which it has reasonable ground to believe is intended to cruise 
or to carry on war against a Power with which it is at peace ; 
and also to use like diligence to prevent the departure from 
its jurisdiction of any vessel intended to cruise or carry on 
war as above, such vessel having been specially adapted, in 
whole or in part, within such jurisdiction to warlike use. 

" Secondly. Not to permit or suffer either belligerent 
to make use of its ports or waters as the base of naval opera- 
tions against the other, or for the purpose of the renewal 
or augmentation of military supplies or arms, or the recruit- 
ment of men. 

' Thirdly. To exercise due diligence in its own ports 
and waters, and, as to all persons within its jurisdiction, 
to prevent any violation of the foregoing obligations and 
duties." 

The above rules may be said to have acquired the force 
of generally recognised rules of international law, and the 
first of them is reproduced almost textually in Article VIII 
of The Hague Convention Number 13 of 1907 concerning 
the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in case of Maritime 
Warfare, the principles of which have been agreed to by 
practically every maritime State. 

It is known, however, that Germany, with whom Great 
Britain is at war, favours the policy of converting her mer- 
chant vessels into armed ships on the High Seas, and it is 
probable, therefore, that attempts will be made to equip 
and despatch merchantmen for such conversion from the 
ports of the United States. 

It is probable that, even if the final completion of the 
measures to fit out merchantmen to act as cruisers may have 
to be effected on the High Seas, most of the preliminary 
arrangements will have been made before the vessels leave 
port, so that the warlike purpose to which they are to be 
30 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

put after leaving neutral waters must be more or less manifest 
before their departure. 

In calling your attention to the above-mentioned " Rules 
of the Treaty of Washington " and The Hague Convention, 
I have the honour to state that His Majesty's Government 
will accordingly hold the United States Government respon- 
sible for any damages to British trade or shipping, or injury 
to British interests generally, which may be caused by such 
vessels having been equipped at, or departing from, United 
States ports. 

I have, &c., 

COLVILLE BARCLAY. 



The British Charge d' Affaires to the Secretary of State. 

British Embassy, 
Washington, August 9, 1914. 
SIR, 

WITH reference to my note of the 4th instant, I have u.S.D.C. 
the honour to inform you that I have now received 
instructions from Sir Edward Grey to make a further com- 
munication to you in explanation of the position taken by 
His Majesty's Government in regard to the question of armed 
merchantmen. 

As you are no doubt aware, a certain number of British 
merchant vessels are armed, but this is a precautionary 
measure adopted solely for the purpose of defence, which, 
under existing rules of international law, is the right of all 
merchant vessels when attacked. 

According to the British rule, British merchant vessels 
can not be converted into men-of-war in any foreign port, 
for the reason that Great Britain does not admit the right 
of any Power to do this on the High Seas. The duty of a 
neutral to intern or order the immediate departure of belliger- 
ent vessels is limited to actual and potential men-of-war, 
and, in the opinion of His Majesty's Government, there can 
therefore be no right on the part of neutral Governments to 
intern British armed merchant vessels, which can not be 
converted into men-of-war on the High Seas, nor to require 
them to land their guns before proceeding to sea. 

3' 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

On the other hand, the German Government have con- 
sistently claimed the right of conversion on the High Seas, 
and His Majesty's Government therefore maintain their 
claim that vessels which are adapted for conversion and 
under German rules may be converted into men-of-war on 
the High Seas should be interned in the absence "of binding 
assurances, the responsibility for which must be assumed by 
the neutral Government concerned, that they shall not be so 
converted. 

I have, &c., 

COLVILLE BARCLAY. 



The British Charge to the Secretary of State. 

British Embassy, 
Washington, August 12, 1914. 
SIR, 

U.S.D.C. WITH reference to my notes of August 4th and 
August Qth, respectively, stating and explaining the position 
taken up by His Majesty's Government in regard to 
the question of armed merchantmen, I have the honour to 
state that I have now been informed by Sir Edward Grey 
that exactly similar instructions were at the same time 
issued by him to His Majesty's representatives in practically all 
neutral countries to address the same communications to 
the respective Governments to which they were accredited. 
I have, &c., 

COLVILLE BARCLAY. 



The Secretary of State to the British Charge d' Affaires. 

Department of State, 
Washington, August 19, 1914. 
SIR, 

U.S.D.C. I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of 
your communication of the 4th instant, which was made 
to this Government in pursuance of instructions from His 
Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 
with respect to the arming of merchant vessels in neutral 
waters. 
32 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The communication states the principles of neutrality, 
as contained in the treaty signed at Washington on May 8th, 
1871, by representatives of the United States and 'Great 
Britain, and reproduced, as you say, almost textually in 
Article VIII of The Hague Convention, signed October i8th, 
1907, concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers 
in case of Maritime Warfare, the principles of which have been, 
as you state, agreed to by practically every maritime Power. 

The communication next considers the question of con- 
version of enemy merchantmen on the high seas, a policy 
which your Government opposes. It is then stated that 
Germany favours the policy of conversion ; that it will 
probably attempt to use the ports of the United States to 
equip and despatch merchantmen for conversion from such 
ports ; and that most of the preliminary arrangements leading 
to conversion will have to be made within neutral ports 
before the vessels proceed to the high seas to complete their 
transformation into vessels of war. 

The purpose of the communication is apparently to lay 
down the principles of law which your Government believe 
should be applied by the United States in fulfilling its neutral 
obligations, especially in the matter of conversion of merchant 
vessels into war vessels, and, assuming these principles to 
be correct, to tax this Government with damages to British 
trade or shipping, or injury to British interests generally, 
if these principles, the correctness of which you assume, are 
not applied to German merchant vessels " equipped at, or 
departing from, United States ports." 

In acknowledging this communication, it does not seem 
appropriate to enter into any discussion as to what may or 
what may not be the policy of Germany in the matter of 
converting its merchant ships, which may be within the 
jurisdiction of the United States, into ships of war after 
they have left American ports and have reached the high 
seas. The assertion of the right so to convert merchant ships 
upon the high seas, made by Germany at The Second Hague 
Conference and maintained at the London Naval Conference, 
does not of itself indicate an intention on the part of the 
German Government to exercise this right, and this Depart- 
ment does not feel justified in its correspondence with foreign 
Governments, to assume, in the absence of specific information, 

Naval 1-C 33 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

an intention on the part of Germany so to do. The Depart- 
ment will, however, carefully examine the facts and circum- 
stances of any particular case when it is called to its attention. 

The question of the place where the belligerent right of 
conversion may be exercised, difficult in itself, is complicated 
by the fact that there has been a difference of opinion among 
the maritime States parties to the present war, and that at 
the conferences, to which reference has been made, the British 
delegation stated that there was no rule of international law 
on the question. Germany and Austria-Hungary insisted 
at the conferences upon the right to convert merchant vessels 
upon the high seas. France and Russia, allies of Great 
Britain in the present war, likewise insisted upon the right 
so to convert. Great Britain and Belgium, intimately associ- 
ated with France and Russia in the prosecution of hostilities 
against Germany and Austria-Hungary, opposed the right 
of conversion on the high seas at The Second Hague Conference, 
where both these nations were represented ; and at the 
London Naval Conference, to which Belgium was not invited 
and in which it did not participate, Great Britain maintained 
its previous attitude. It is thus seen that the right to convert 
merchant vessels upon the high seas was asserted in inter- 
national conferences by four of the maritime countries now 
at war and that two of the maritime nations now at war 
opposed this contention. It is further seen that the maritime 
nations at war with Germany and Austria-Hungary are 
evenly divided on this question. 

At The Second Hague Conference, the British delegation, 
opposing conversion on the high seas, stated that there was 
no rule of international law on the question ; that in its 
carefully prepared memorandum presented to the Powers 
invited to the London Naval Conference, the British Govern- 
ment held that " no general practice of nations has prevailed 
in the past on this point from which any principles can be 
deduced and formulated as the established rules of inter- 
national law. So far as can be ascertained there are no 
precedents on the subject." 

In the official report of the conference, drafted by Mr. 
Renault, it is stated that agreement on conversion upon the 
high seas was impossible ; and, in the report of the British 
delegates to their Government, it is said : 

34 



:4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

' We were met with a refusal to make any concessions 
or to abate one jot from the claim to the absolutely unfettered 
exercise of the right, which its advocates vindicate as a rule 
forming part of the existing law of nations. In these circum- 
stances we felt that we had no option but to decline to admit 
the right, and the result is that the question remains an open 
one." 

It is obvious that the subject of conversion must be 
carefully examined and considered, and, in view of these 
circumstances, it is deemed by the Department of State 
inexpedient to declare a policy as to what measures it will 
take in a contingency which has not yet arisen, and that it 
may well content itself, in so far as this matter is concerned, 
with an acknowledgment of your note. 

In the course of your communication it is stated as 
recognised " that a neutral Government is bound to use due 
diligence to prohibit its subjects or citizens from the building 
or fitting out to the order of belligerents vessels intended 
for warlike purposes and also to prevent the departure of 
such vessels from its jurisdiction." It is asserted in this 
connection that " the starting point for the universal recogni- 
tion of this principle was the three rules formulated in Article 
VI of the Treaty between Great Britain and the United States 
of America for the amicable settlement of all causes of 
difference between the two countries, signed at Washington 
on May 8th, 1871." After quoting the Three Rules of 
Washington, the note thus continues : 

' The above rules may be said to have acquired the force 
of generally recognised rules of international law, and the 
first of them is reproduced almost textually in Article VIII 
of The Hague Convention Number 13 of 1907 concerning the 
Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in case of Maritime 
Warfare, the principles of which have been agreed to by 
practically every maritime State." 

As the communication apparently lays great stress on the 
expression "due diligence," contained in the Treaty of 
Washington, it is believed material to the present occasion 
to quote the following definition of it, contained in the Geneva 
Award of 1872 : 

" The ' due diligence ' referred to in the first and third 
of the said rules ought to be exercised by neutral Governments 

35 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

in exact proportion to the risks to which either of the belli- 
gerents may be exposed, from a failure to fulfil the obligations 
of neutrality on their part." 

The expression " due diligence " was contained in the 
draft submitted by the British delegation to The Second 
Hague Conference, upon which Article VIII was based. 
Article VIII as finally adopted is as follows : 

ARTICLE VIII. 

"A neutral Government is bound to employ the means 
at its disposal to prevent the fitting out or arming of any 
vessel within its jurisdiction which it has reason to believe is 
intended to cruise, or engage in hostile operations, against 
a Power with which that Government is at peace. It is 
also bound to display the same vigilance to prevent the 
departure from its jurisdiction of any vessel intended to 
cruise, or engage in hostile operations, which had been 
adapted entirely or partly within the said jurisdiction for 
use in war." 

As the expression " due diligence " was considered obscure, 
it was rejected, as the learned reporter of the convention, 
Mr. Louis Renault, says in the elaborate report which accom- 
panies the convention, and which is, in accordance with the 
practice of international conferences, to be considered as the 
official and authoritative interpretation of the convention 
which it explains, justifies, and interprets. ' The expression 
of due diligence," he says, " which has become celebrated 
by its obscurity since its solemn interpretation, was rejected. 
The convention merely requires in the first instance (On se 
contente de dire d'abord) that the neutral is bound to employ 
the means at its disposal * * * then, to display the same 
vigilance." 

It is to be presumed that Article VIII which " reproduced 
almost textually " the first rule of the Treaty of Washington, 
is to be interpreted in the sense in which Mr. Renault's report 
shows it to have been adopted, especially as Great Britain 
and the United States have ratified the convention without 
any objection or reservation as to Article VIII thereof. 

It seems obvious therefore that by neither the terms nor 
the interpretation of the provisions of the treaties on this 
point is the United States bound to assume the attitude of 

36 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

an insurer. Consequently the United States disclaims as 
a correct statement of its responsibility the assertion in your 
note that " His Majesty's Government will accordingly hold 
the United States Government responsible for any damages 
to British trade or shipping, or injury to British interests 
generally, which may be caused by such vessels having been 
equipped at, or departing from, United States ports." 

The United States has always looked upon the Three 
Rules of Washington as declaratory of international law, and 
as the necessary and natural consequences of the doctrine of 
neutrality, proclaimed and enforced by the United States 
since the wars of the French Revolution, to which Great 
Britain was a party. The Three Rules can, in the opinion of 
this Government, only be considered as the starting point of 
the doctrine of that degree of diligence which a neutral should 
observe in the sense that its recognition by Great Britain 
in an important international controversy called marked 
attention to an existing doctrine, and furnished an incentive 
to its incorporation and definition in The Hague Convention 
concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in case 
of Maritime Warfare. 

The United States, since the earliest days of its existence, 
has been as solicitous of its neutral duties as of its neutral 
rights, and, without further consideration of your com- 
munication at this time, I request you to state to your Govern- 
ment that there is no reason to anticipate that the United 
States will be less mindful of its duties or of its rights as a 
neutral in the present case than it has been in the past. 

I have, &c., 

W. J. BRYAN. 



The Secretary of State to the British Charge. 

Department of State, 
Washington, August 20, 1914. 
SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of U.S.D.C. 
your communication of the gth instant, made to the 
Department of State under instructions from Sir Edward 
Grey, in regard to the question of armed merchantmen, 

37 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

informing this Government that a certain number of the 
British merchant vessels are armed as a precautionary measure 
for the purpose of defence, and maintaining that such merchant 
vessels can not be considered as vessels of war or subjected 
to the treatment properly accorded to vessels of the latter 
category in neutral ports. 

In the last paragraph of this communication, you call 
attention to the right claimed by the German Government, 
hi accordance with its rules, to convert its merchant vessels 
upon the high seas into vessels of war, and the communication 
states the contention of the British Government that the 
neutral Government concerned is taxed with responsibility 
if it does not intern such vessels, in the absence of binding 
assurances that they will not be converted into men-of-war 
on the high seas. 

The Department of State acknowledges without comment 
the statement of British policy in such matters and also the 
British understanding of Germany's intentions and policy, 
but as to the responsibility of the United States in the 
premises, you are referred to Department's note of the 
instant replying to your note of the 4th instant. 

I have, &c., 

For the Secretary of State, 

ROBERT LANSING. 



The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. 

British Embassy, 
Washington, August 25, 1914. 
SIR, 

U.S.D.C. WITH reference to Mr. Barclay's notes of August 4th 
and gth, respectively, fully explaining the position taken 
up by His Majesty's Government in regard to the question 
of armed merchantmen, I have the honour, in view of 
the fact that a number of British armed merchantmen will 
now be visiting United States ports, to reiterate that the 
arming of British merchantmen is solely a precautionary 
measure adopted for the purpose of defence against attack 
from hostile craft. 
38 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

I have at the same time been instructed by His Majesty's 
Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to give the 
United States Government the fullest assurances that British 
merchant vessels will never be used for purposes of attack, 
that they are merely peaceful traders armed only for defence, 
that they will never fire unless first fired upon, and that they 
will never under any circumstances attack any vessel. 

I have, &c., 

CECIL SPRING-RICE. 



The Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. 

Department of State, 
Washington, August 29, 1914. 
EXCELLENCY, 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your U.S.D.C. 
note of the 25th instant in which, referring to previous 
correspondence, you state that, in view of the fact that a 
number of British armed merchantmen will now be visiting 
United States ports, you desire to reiterate that the arming 
of British merchantmen is solely a precautionary measure 
adopted for the purpose of defence against attack from hostile 
craft. You add that you have been instructed by His 
Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 
to give the Government of the United States the fullest 
assurances that British merchant vessels will never be used 
for purposes of attack, that they are merely peaceful traders 
armed only for defence, that they will never fire unless first 
fired upon, and that they will never under any circumstances 
attack any vessel. 

I have, &c., 

W. J. BRYAN. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [ 

The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. 

British Embassy, 
Washington, September 4, 1914. 
SIR, 

U.S.D.C. I HAVE the honour to inform you that at the request of 

your Department I drew the attention of my Government 
to the fact that two British merchant vessels the Adriatic 
and the Merrion were at present in United States ports, 
and that they were carrying guns the former four and the 
latter six. I added that the fact of these vessels carrying 
guns was likely to lead to the raising of difficult questions as 
to the enforcement by the United States Government of the 
neutrality of American ports, although an assurance had been 
given that these guns would only be used for defensive pur- 
poses and in case the merchant vessels in question were 
attacked by an enemy ship when on a commercial voyage. 

I have now received a reply from Sir Edward Grey, in 
which he informs me that His Majesty's Government hold 
the view that it is not in accordance with neutrality and 
international law to detain in neutral ports merchant vessels 
armed with purely defensive armaments. But in view of 
the fact that the United States Government is detaining armed 
merchant vessels prepared for offensive warfare, and in order 
to avoid the difficult questions of the character and degree 
of armament which would justify detention, His Majesty's 
Government have made arrangements for landing the guns 
of the Merrion, the Adriatic having already sailed before the 
orders reached her. In the case of the latter ship, the pas- 
senger list and cargo had proved that she was proceeding to 
sea on ordinary commercial business. These and other papers 
relative to the case will be duly communicated to your 
Department. 

This action has been taken without prejudice to the 
general principle which His Majesty's Government have 
enunciated and to which they adhere. 

It is presumed that no objection will be raised by your 
Government to the guns being shipped subsequently to 
England as cargo in some vessel without mountings or 
ammunition. 

I have, &c., 

CECIL SPRING-RICE. 

40 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Memorandum from the British Embassy. 

British Embassy, 
Washington, September 7, 1914. 

THE British Ambassador presents his compliments to UJS.D.C. 
the Secretary of State of the United States and, with refer- 
ence to his note of September 4th, has the honour to state 
that he is informed by the British Consul General that the 
steamship Adriatic, which sailed from New York on September 
3rd with four guns mounted and 200 rounds of ammunition, 
took 28 first-class passengers, 43 second, and 89 third. She 
also took 637 bags of mail and a general cargo of provisions 
and manufactured goods. She had no war material on board 
and no army reservists. 

These data bear out the assurances that the Adriatic is 
bound on a peaceful commercial voyage and that her arma- 
ment is destined solely for defensive purposes. 



Memorandum from the British Embassy. 

British Embassy, 
Washington, September 9, 1914. 

THE German Government have openly entered upon the U.S.D.C. 
policy of arming merchant ships as commerce destroyers 
and even claim the right to carry out the process of arming 
and equipping such merchant ships in neutral harbours or 
on the high seas. It is in consequence of this that the British 
Admiralty have been compelled, in accordance with the 
practice followed in the great wars of history, to arm a certain 
number of British merchant ships for self-defence only. 

The practice of arming ships in self-defence is very old 
and has been ordered by Royal proclamation in England from 
early in the seventeenth century. During the Napoleonic 
wars the right to arm in self-defence was recognised by 
British and United States Prize Courts in the cases of 
the Catherine Elizabeth (British) and the Nereide (United 
States). The right of a merchant ship of a belligerent to 
carry arms and resist capture is clearly and definitely laid 
down in modern times. The right of resistance of merchant 
vessels is recognised by the United States Naval War Code, 

41 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Auc 

by the Italian Code for Mercantile Marine, and by the Russian 
Prize Regulations. Writers of authority in many European 
countries also recognise the right. To mention a German 
authority, it may be stated that the late Dr. Perels, at one 
time legal adviser to the German Admiralty, quotes with 
approval Article 10 of the United States Naval War Code, 
which states " the prisoners of merchant vessels of an enemy 
who in self-defence and in protection of the vessel placed in 
their charge resist an attack, are entitled to the status of 
prisoners of war." The Institute of International Law at 
its meeting in 1913 prepared and adopted a manual of the 
laws of naval warfare, Article 10 of which expressly declared 
that private ships are allowed to employ force to defend 
themselves against the attack of an enemy's ship. * 

A merchant vessel armed purely for self-defence is there- 
fore entitled under international law to enjoy the status of a 
peaceful trading ship in neutral ports and His Majesty's 
Government do not ask for better treatment for British 
merchant ships in this respect than might be accorded to 
those of other Powers. They consider that only those 
merchant ships which are intended for use as cruisers should 
be treated as ships of war and that the question whether a 
particular ship carrying an armament is intended for offensive 
or defensive action must be decided by the simple criterion 
whether she is engaged in ordinary commerce and embarking 
cargo and passengers in the ordinary way. If so, there is 
no rule in international law that would justify such vessel 
even if armed being treated otherwise than as a peaceful 
trader. 

Memorandum from the British Embassy. 

British Embassy, 
Washington, September 9, 1914. 

U.S.D.C. IN a memorandum of to-day's date the British Ambassador 

has set forth the grounds upon which His Majesty's Govern- 
ment hold that British merchant vessels which are armed for 
defensive purposes only are entitled to be treated as peaceful 
trading vessels. 

In urging this view upon the consideration of the United 
States Government the British Ambassador is instructed to 
42 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

state that it is believed that German merchant vessels with 
offensive armament have escaped from American ports, 
especially from ports in South America to prey upon British 
commerce in spite of all the precautions taken. German 
cruisers in the Atlantic continue by one means or another 
to obtain ample supplies of coal shipped to them from neutral 
ports, and if the United States Government take the view 
that British merchant vessels which are bo na fide engaged in 
commerce and carry guns at the stern only are not permitted 
purely defensive armament, unavoidable injury may ensue 
to British interests and indirectly also to United States trade 
which will be deplorable. 



The Acting Secretary of State to the German Ambassador' 

Department of State, 
Washington, September 19, 1914. 

DEAR MR. AMBASSADOR, 

I AM enclosing for your information two memoranda, U.S.D.C* 
which the Department has issued to-day and which define 
the general rules which this Government will follow in dealing 
with cases involving the status of armed merchant vessels 
visiting American ports, and with cases of merchant vessels 
suspected of carrying supplies to belligerent warships from 
American ports. 

I am, &c., 

ROBERT LANSING. 

1 Same to the British, French, and Japanese Ambassadors in Washington, 
and the Belgian Minister. 



[ENCLOSURE I.] 

THE STATUS OF ARMED MERCHANT VESSELS. 

A. A merchant vessel of belligerent nationality may 
carry an armament and ammunition for the sole purpose of 
defence without acquiring the character of a ship of war. 

43 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

B. The presence of an armament and ammunition on 
board a merchant vessel creates a presumption that the 
armament is for offensive purposes, but the owners or agents 
may overcome this presumption by evidence showing that the 
vessel carries armament solely for defence. 

C. Evidence necessary to establish the fact that the 
armament is solely for defence and will not be used offensively, 
whether the armament be mounted or stowed below, must 
be presented in each case independently at an official inves- 
tigation. The result of the investigation must show con- 
clusively that the armament is not intended for, and will not 
be used in, offensive operations. 

Indications that the armament will not be used offensively 
are : 

1. That the calibre of the guns carried does not 
exceed six inches. 

2. That the guns and small arms carried are few in 
number. 

3. That no guns are mounted on the forward part 
of the vessel. 

4. That the quantity of ammunition carried is small. 

5. That the vessel is manned by its usual crew, and 
the officers are the same as those on board before war 
was declared. 

6. That the vessel intends to and actually does clear 
for a port lying in its usual trade route, or a port indicat- 
ing its purpose to continue in the same trade in which it 
was engaged before war was declared. 

7. That the vessel takes on board fuel and supplies 
sufficient only to carry it to its port of destination, or the 
same quantity substantially which it has been accustomed 
to take for a voyage before war was declared. 

8. That the cargo of the vessel consists of articles of 
Commerce unsuited for the use of a ship of war in opera- 
tions against an enemy. 

9. That the vessel carries passengers who are as a 
whole unfitted to enter the military or naval service of 
the belligerent whose flag the vessel flies, or of any of its 
allies, and particularly if the passenger list includes 
women and children. 

10. That the speed of the ship is slow. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

D. Port authorities, on the arrival in a port of the 
United States of an armed vessel of belligerent nationality, 
claiming to be a merchant vessel, should immediately investi- 
gate and report to Washington on the foregoing indications 
as to the intended use of the armament, in order that it may 
be determined whether the evidence is sufficient to remove 
the presumption that the vessel is, and should be treated as, 
a ship of war. Clearance will not be granted until authorised 
from Washington, and the master will be so informed upon 
arrival. 

E. The conversion of a merchant vessel into a ship of 
war is a question of fact which is to be established by direct 
or circumstantial evidence of intention to use the vessel as 
a ship of war. 

Department of State, 
September 19, 1914. 



[ENCLOSURE 2.] 

MERCHANT VESSELS SUSPECTED OF CARRYING 
SUPPLIES TO BELLIGERENT VESSELS. 

1. A base of operations for belligerent warships is presumed 
when fuel or other supplies are furnished at an American port 
to such warships more than once within three months since 
the war began, or during the period of the war, either directly 
or by means of naval tenders of the belligerent or by means 
of merchant vessels of belligerent or neutral nationality 
acting as tenders. 

2. A common rumour or suspicion that a merchant vessel 
laden with fuel or other naval supplies intends to deliver 
its cargo to a belligerent warship on the high seas, when 
unsupported by direct or circumstantial evidence, imposes 
no duty on a neutral Government to detain such merchant 
vessel even for the purpose of investigating the rumour or 
suspicion, unless it is known that the vessel has been previously 
engaged in furnishing supplies to a belligerent warship. 

3. Circumstantial evidence, supporting a rumour or sus- 
picion that a merchant vessel intends to furnish a belligerent 
warship with fuel or other supplies on the high seas, is 

45 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

sufficient to warrant detention of the vessel until its intention 
can be investigated in the following cases : 

(a) When a belligerent warship is known to be off 
the port at which the merchant vessel is taking on cargo 
suited for naval supplies, or when there is a strong 
presumption that the warship is off the port. 

(b) When the merchant vessel is of the nationality 
of the belligerent whose warship is known to be off the 
coast. 

(c) When a merchant vessel which has on a previous 
voyage between ports of the United States and ports 
of other neutral States failed to have on board at the port 
of arrival a cargo consisting of naval supplies shipped at 
the port of departure seeks to take on board a similar 
cargo. 

(d) When coal or other supplies are purchased by 
an agent of a belligerent Government and shipped on 
board a merchant vessel which does not clear for a port 
of the belligerent but for a neighbouring neutral port. 

(e) When an agent of a belligerent is taken on board 
a merchant vessel having a cargo of fuel or other supplies 
and clearing for a neighbouring neutral port. 

4. The fact that a merchant vessel, which is laden with 
fuel or other naval supplies, seeks clearance under strong 
suspicion that it is the intention to furnish such fuel or supplies 
to a belligerent warship, is not sufficient ground to warrant 
its detention, if the case is isolated and neither the vessel 
nor the warship for which the supplies are presumably in- 
tended has previously taken on board similar supplies since 
the war began or within three months during the period of 
the war. 

5. The essential idea of neutral territory becoming the 
base for naval operations by a belligerent is repeated depar- 
ture from such territory by a naval tender of the belligerent 
or by a merchant vessel in belligerent service which is laden 
with fuel or other naval supplies. 

6. A merchant vessel, laden with naval supplies, clearing 
from a port of the United States for the port of another 
neutral nation, which arrives at its destination and there 
discharges its cargo, should not be detained if, on a second 
voyage, it takes on board another cargo of similar nature. 

4 6 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

In such a case the port of the other neutral nation may 
be a base for the naval operations of a belligerent. If so, 
and even if the fact is notorious, this Government is under no 
obligation to prevent the shipment of naval supplies to that 
port. Commerce in munitions of war between neutral nations 
can not as a rule be a basis for a claim of unneutral conduct, 
even though there is a strong presumption or actual know- 
ledge that the neutral State, in whose port the supplies are 
discharged, is permitting its territory to be used as a base of 
supply for belligerent warships. The duty of preventing an 
unneutral act rests entirely upon the neutral State whose 
territory is being used as such a base. 

In fact this principle goes further in that, if the supplies 
were shipped directly to an established naval base in the 
territory or under the control of a belligerent, this Govern- 
ment would not be obligated by its neutral duty to limit 
such shipments or detain or otherwise interfere with the 
merchant vessels engaged in that trade. A neutral can only 
be charged with unneutral conduct when the supplies, furnished 
to a belligerent warship, are furnished directly to it in a 
port of the neutral or through naval tenders or merchant 
vessels acting as tenders departing from such port. 

7. The foregoing propositions do not apply to furnishing 
munitions of war included in absolute contraband, since in 
no event can a belligerent warship take on board such muni- 
tions in neutral waters, nor should it be permitted to do so 
indirectly by means of naval tenders or merchant vessels 
acting as such tenders. 

Department of State, 
September 19, 1914. 



The Acting Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. 

Department of State, 
Washington, September 26, 1914. 
EXCELLENCY, 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your U.S.D.C. 
note of the 4th instant, in which, with reference to the presence 
in American ports of the British armed merchant vessels 
Adriatic and Merrion, you advise the Department of the receipt 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of a despatch from Sir Edward Grey in which he states that 
His Majesty's Government holds the view that it is not in 
accordance with neutrality and international law to detain 
in neutral ports merchant vessels armed with purely defensive 
armaments. 

In reply I have the honour to state that this Government 
has had the matter of the status of armed merchant vessels 
under consideration, and that it has already made a public 
announcement thereon. 

In this relation I have also the honour to acknowledge the 
receipt of your Embassy's memorandum of the 7th instant, 
announcing the departure of the Adriatic from New York, 
and pointing out that, as she had no war material on board 
and carried no army reservists, these data bear out the 
assurances that the Adriatic was bound on a peaceful com- 
mercial voyage and that her armament was destined solely 
for defensive purposes. 

I have, &c., 

ROBERT LANSING. 



The Secretary of State to Ambassador Gerard. 

Department of State, 
Washington, September 29, 1914. 
SIR, 

U.S.D.C. I TRANSMIT herewith, for the information of the German 
Government, copies of two memoranda issued by this Depart- 
ment which define the general rules which the Government 
of the United States will follow in dealing with cases involving 
the status of armed merchant vessels visiting American ports, 
and with cases of merchant vessels suspected of carrying 
supplies to belligerent warships from American ports. 

Copies of these memoranda were also sent to the German 
Ambassador here, and it is at his request that the copies 
herewith are sent for communication to his Government. 

I am, &c., 

For the Secretary of State, 

ROBERT LANSING. 

48 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Ambassador Gerard to the Secretary of State. 

American Embassy, 
Berlin, October 15, 1914. 7 p.m. 

MR. GERARD transmits the following memorandum U.S.D.C. 
which he says he has received from the German Foreign 
Office : 

" An official notice appearing in the Westminster Gazette 
of September 2ist, 1914, states that the Department of State 
at Washington has ruled that ships of belligerent nations 
when equipped with ammunition and armament shall be 
treated nevertheless, while in American ports, as merchant 
ships, provided the armament serves for defensive purposes 
only. This ruling wholly fails to comply with the principles 
of neutrality. The equipment of British merchant vessels 
with artillery is for the purpose of making armed resistance 
against German cruisers. Resistance of this sort is contrary 
to international law, because in a military sense a merchant 
vessel is not permitted to defend itself against a war vessel, 
an act of resistance giving the warship * * * ' with crew 
and passengers. It is a question whether or not ships thus 
armed should be admitted into ports of a neutral country at 
all. Such ships, in any event, should not receive any better 
treatment in neutral ports than a regular warship, and should 
be subject at least to the rules issued by neutral nations 
restricting the stay of a warship. If the Government of the 
United States considers that it fulfils its duty as a neutral 
nation by confining the admission of armed merchant ships 
to such ships as are equipped for defensive purposes only, 
it is pointed out that so far as determining the warlike character 
of a ship is concerned, the distinction between the defensive 
and offensive is irrelevant. The destination of a ship for 
use of any kind in war is conclusive, and restrictions as to 
the extent of armament affords no guarantee that ships 
armed for defensive purposes only will not be used for offen- 
sive purposes under certain circumstances." 
1 Omission. 



Naval I D 49 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The Acting Secretary of State to Ambassador Gerard. 

Department of State, 
Washington, November 7, 1914. 

U.S.D.C. YOUR 515, October I5th. The Government of the 
United States is obliged to dissent from the views of the 
German Government as expressed in your telegram in regard 
to the treatment to be accorded armed merchant vessels of 
belligerent nationality in neutral ports. The practice of a 
majority of nations and the consensus of opinion by the 
leading authorities on international law, including many 
German writers, support the proposition that merchant 
vessels may arm for defence without losing their private 
character and that they may employ such armament against 
hostile attack without contravening the principles of inter- 
national law. 

The purpose of an armament on a merchant vessel is 
to be determined by various circumstances, among which are 
the number and position of the guns on the vessel, the quan- 
tity of ammunition and fuel, the number and sex of the 
passengers, the nature of the cargo, &c. Tested by evidence 
of this character the question as to whether an armament on 
a merchant vessel is intended solely for defensive purposes 
may be readily answered and the neutral Government should 
regulate its treatment of the vessel in accordance with the 
intended use of the armament. 

This Government considers that in permitting a private 
vessel having a general cargo, a customary amount of fuel, 
an average crew, and passengers of both sexes on board, and 
carrying a small armament and a small amount of ammuni- 
tion, to enjoy the hospitality of an American port as a mer- 
chant vessel, it is in no way violating its duty as a neutral. 
Nevertheless it is not unmindful of the fact that the circum- 
stances of a particular case may be such as to cause 
embarrassment and possible controversy as to the character 
of an armed private vessel visiting its ports. Recognising, 
therefore, the desirability of avoiding a ground of complaint 
this Government, as soon as a case arose, while frankly 
admitting the right of a merchant vessel to carry a defensive 
armament, expressed its disapprobation of a practice which 
compelled it to pass [an opinion] upon a vessel's intended use, 

so 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

which opinion if proven subsequently to be erroneous might 
constitute a ground for a charge of unneutral conduct. 

As a result of these representations no merchant vessels 
with armaments have visited the ports of the United States 
since September loth. In fact from the beginning of the 
European wars but two armed private vessels have entered 
or cleared from ports of this country and as to these ves- 
sels their character as merchant vessels was conclusively 
established. 

Please bring the foregoing to the attention of the German 
Government and in doing so express the hope that they will 
also prevent their merchant vessels from entering the ports 
of the United States carrying armaments even for defensive 
purposes though they may possess the right to do so by the 
rules of international law. 

LANSING. 



OPERATIONS OF " GOEBEN " AND " BRESLAU." 

Paris, August 4. 

ON Tuesday, August 4th, at daybreak the German C.O. 
cruisers Goeben and Breslau appeared before Bona and 
Philippe ville. Sixty projectiles were fired on the first named 
of these ports ; six shells made hits. Casualties, one killed 
and six wounded. The Goeben and the Breslau subsequently 
made off. 



Berlin, August 5. 

The German warships in the Mediterranean appeared K.V. 
yesterday on the coast of Algiers and have destroyed certain 
fortified places which are being used as ports of embarkation 
for French troops. Their fire was returned. 



IT is understood in official circles that the German battle Times. 
cruiser Goeben and her consort the Breslau have been driven Aug. 7, 
into Messina by two British cruisers after an exciting chase. I 9 I 4- 



S' 



K.V. 



Times, 
Aug. 12, 
1914. 



C.O. 



Times, 
Aug. 17, 
1914. 



Times, 
Feb. 14, 
1916. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Berlin, August 12. 

The armoured cruiser Goeben and the small cruiser Breslau 
entered the neutral Italian harbour of Messina on August 
5th after their operations on the Italian coast, and have 
there replenished their bunkers from German steamers. 
The harbour was watched by English war vessels which had 
kept touch with our cruisers. In spite of this, on the evening 
of August 6th they broke out of Messina and gamed the open 
sea. 

Admiralty, August n. 

THERE are strong reasons for believing that the Goeben 
and the Breslau have taken refuge in the Dardanelles, where 
they will be dealt with according to international law. 

With the dismantling and internment of these ships the 
safety of trade will have been almost entirely secured. 



Paris, August 16. 

The Goeben and Breslau after having coaled at Syra 
have passed the Dardanelles and moored off Constantinople. 
Severe representations have been made to the Porte which 
has expressed its excuses for this " deplorable incident." 
The two German vessels will, it is said, be sold to Turkey. 
In any case they are out of action and the Mediterranean 
is free. 

August 15. 

THE Press Bureau states that there is no reason to doubt 
that the Turkish Government is about to replace the German 
officers and crews of the Goeben and the Breslau by Turkish 
officers and crews. 

A semi-official history of the adventures of the Goeben 
and Breslau has been published in Germany. Its author, 
Emil Ludwig, says he acquired the facts at first hand during 
a visit to Constantinople. He has apparently had access 
to the log-book of the Goeben, and has received information 
regarding the flight of these vessels from the Commander- 
in-Chief, Vice-Admiral Souchon, whose photograph forms 
the frontispiece. 

5* 



jj DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The author says that on August 6th, 1914, at midday 
the Admiral issued the following order to the three ships 
under his command at Messina : 

' News about the enemy is uncertain. I presume his 
strength lies in the Adriatic and that he is watching both 
exits in the Messina Straits. Object : to break through to 
the East and reach the Dardanelles. Order of going : Goeben 
leaves at five o'clock ; at 17 miles an hour : Breslau follows 
at a distance of 5 miles and closes it up at darkness. I 
want to create the impression that we are wanting to go 
to the Adriatic and in case I so succeed in creating that 
impression that we are wanting to go to the Adriatic, we 
shall veer round in the night and make for Cape Matapan, 
if possible, throwing off the enemy. The steamer General 
to leave at seven o'clock in the evening to keep along the 
Sicilian coast and to try and reach Santorin. Should she 
be captured to try and let me know by wireless. If she 
receives no further orders from me to ask for them at Loreley 
(Constantinople station ship)." 

As the ships flags flying and music playing were 
reaching the open sea the following wireless message from 
the Kaiser reached the admiral : " His Majesty expects the 
Goeben and the Breslau to succeed in breaking through." 

Shortly after leaving the harbour an English cruiser 
of the Weymouth class, alleged to be the Gloucester, appeared 
on the horizon. The English cruiser was emitting signals 
in three groups. The word " Mumfu " frequently occurred, 
and it was clear that it referred to the Goeben. The wireless 
receivers finally deciphered the signal of the British cruiser 
as follows : " Goeben making for the Adriatic." 

The German wireless officer argued thus : 'I can jam 
him. If I break my waves against his I can confuse, hold 
up, destroy his messages. Shall I jam his wireless ? " he 
asked the admiral. 

" Shall we fire ? " asked the commander. 

" No," was the answer to both questions. No one apart 
from the staff understood the admiral. This is how he 
argued, however. " This boat is evidently a patrol intending 
to wireless our movements to the main British Fleet. He 
shall save us, not ruin us. He shall do his work. We shall 
neither fire at nor jam him. Let him wireless that the 

53 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Germans are making for the Adriatic, whereas the Dardanelles 
is our object." 

It was dark. The Breslau closed in. It was ten o'clock 
in the evening. Then came the order from the bridge : 
" Right about ; starboard ; make for Cape Matapan." 

The watching British cruiser saw the manoeuvre, but 
before it could wireless the news that the Germans were 
making for the East the following order flashed out from 
the admiral : " Jam the wireless ; jam it like the devil." 

For hours the Germans were travelling eastwards without 
obstacle, while the patrol boat tried to make itself understood 
in vain. Where did the error of our enemy lie ? In England 
the excuse was advanced that the Germans had acquired 
knowledge of the British secret wireless code and so deceived 
the latter into waiting. Is it worth while contradicting 
such stuff ? The English should have waited before the 
Straits of Messina and nowhere else. But so confident were 
they that the Goeben and Breslau must try and break through 
to the Adriatic in order to reach an Austrian port that they 
thought it safe to wait in the Straits of Otranto, which are 
40 sea miles wide. So positive were they on this point that 
the thought of our making for the Dardanelles never seemed 
to have occurred to them. 

The writer admits that the wireless messages of the 
cruiser which he calls the Gloucester evidently reached the 
British Fleet, but they reached it too late the German 
ships were en route for Constantinople. 



SINKING OF THE " KONIGIN LUISE." 

Admiralty, August 5. 

THE Commodore of the Torpedo Flotilla reports that 
H.M.S. Amphion and the Third Destroyer Flotilla have sunk 
the German mine-layer Konigin Luise at noon to-day. The 
Konigin Luise is a passenger vessel of the Hamburg-Amerika 
Line, o* 2,163 tons gross tonnage and a speed of 20 knots, 
specially adapted for mine-laying. 

The laying of mines in shallow and commercial waters 
is a method which Great Britain has consistently set its 
face against, but Germany at The Hague Conference opposed 
restrictions in that direction. 

54 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
THE ROYAL INDIAN MARINE. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, 
The 5th day of August, 1914. 

PRESENT, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board al.G. 
Memorial from the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty, in the words following, viz. : 

Whereas it is provided in Section 6 of the Indian Marine 
Service Act, 1884, that in case a state of War exists between 
Your Majesty and any foreign Power, it shall be lawful for 
Your Majesty by Proclamation or Order in Council to direct 
that any vessel belonging to Your Majesty's Indian Marine 
Service and the Men and Officers from time to time serving 
thereon shall be under the command of the Senior Naval 
Officer of the Station where for the time being such ships 
may be : 

And whereas it is provided that while any such vessel 
shall be deemed to all intents a vessel of war of the Royal 
Navy, and the Men and Officers from time to time serving 
in such vessels shall be under such Naval Discipline Act or 
Acts as may be in force for the time being, and subject to 
such Regulations as may be issued by Us with the concurrence 
of the Secretary of State for India in Council : 

And whereas a state of War exists between Your Majesty 
and the German Emperor : 

And whereas the Government of Your Majesty in India 
has agreed to place unreservedly at the disposal of the Naval 
Commander-in-Chief on the East Indies Station, Your 
Majesty's Indian Marine Service Vessels Hardinge and 
Dufferin : 

Now therefore We beg leave to recommend that Your 
Majesty may be graciously pleased by Your Order in Council 
to direct that Your Majesty's Indian Marine Service Vessels 
Hardinge and Dufferin and the Men and Officers from time 
to time serving thereon shall be under the command of the 
Senior Naval Officer of the Station where for the time being 
such ships may be : 

55 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The Secretary of State for India in Council has signified 
his concurrence in these proposals. 

His Majesty having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy 
Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And the 
Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
are to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 

[A similar order was issued on August nth with respect to the North- 
brook and Minto, on August 2Oth with respect to the Dalhouste, and on 
November 6th with respect to the Lawrence.] 

LOSS OF THE " AMPHION." 

Admiralty, August 6. 

IN the course of reconnoitring after the mine-layer Konigin 
Luise was sunk this morning, the Amphion struck a mine 
and foundered. The fore part of the ship was shattered by 
the explosion and practically all the loss to the crew ensued 
from this cause. 

All not killed by the explosion were taken off by the 
destroyer's boats before she sank. Paymaster Gedge and 
over 100 men were killed. The captain, 16 officers, and 
135 men were saved. 

Twenty German prisoners of war who were confined in 
the fore part of the ship were killed in addition. 



THE LOSS OF THE " AMPHION "PRESS BUREAU 

ESTABLISHED. 

House of Commons, August 7. 

Hansard. THE FIRST LORD OF THE ADMIRALTY (Mr. 

CHURCHILL) : The House will have read with sorrow of the loss 
of His Majesty's Ship Amphion yesterday. The day before 
yesterday the flotilla of destroyers patrolling in the approaches 
of the Channel, found the German mine-laying ship Konigin 
Luise and sunk her. About fifty members of the crew 
which I am informed was probably one hundred and twenty or 
one hundred and thirty in all were humanely saved by the 
flotilla. The Amphion continued to scout with the flotilla, 
and on her return journey was blown up by a mine. The 
greater part of the officers and men were rescued by boats, 
but as I have already informed the Press, through a 
56 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

communication issued from the Admiralty, nearly one hundred 
and thirty persons were killed outright by the explosion, and in 
addition to that twenty of the prisoners confined in the fore 
part of the ship. There are no other losses of any kind. 
There has been no other fighting so far as we are aware. 

The indiscriminate use of mines, not in connection with 
military harbours or strategic positions the indiscriminate 
scattering of contact mines about the seas, which may, of 
course, destroy not merely enemy vessels or warships, but 
peaceful merchantmen passing under neutral flags and 
possibly carrying supplies to neutral countries this use of 
mines is new in warfare, and it deserves, at any rate, to be 
considered attentively, not only by us, who are, of course, 
engaged in the war, and who may naturally be prone to hasty 
judgment in such matters, but deserving also to be attentively 
considered by the nations of a civilised world. The Admiralty 
are not at all alarmed or disconcerted by such an incident. 
We have expected a certain number, and we continue to 
expect a certain number of such incidents, and our arrange- 
ments provide for reducing such occurrences to the minimum 
possible. But I should like to say there are a great many 
very disconcerting rumours spread about. These rumours 
arise from the fact that the censorship of the Press at present 
is of a very strict kind from the point of view of saying aye or 
no to any particular piece of military information, and I 
think one consequence of that is that newspapers, in default 
of facts, are rather inclined to fill up their columns with 
gossip which reaches them from irresponsible quarters along 
the coast, where no doubt a great deal of apprehension may, 
in the minds of nervous individuals, prevail. 

We are establishing to-day a Press bureau, and I am 
very glad to say that the right hon. and learned Member for 
the Walton Division of Liverpool (Mr. F. E. Smith) will 
preside over it. From that bureau a steady stream of trust- 
worthy information supplied both by the War Office and the 
Admiralty can be given to the Press, which, without endanger- 
ing military or naval interests, will serve to keep the country 
properly and truthfully informed from day to day of what 
can be told, and what is fair and reasonable ; and thus, by 
providing as much truth as possible, exclude the growth of 
irresponsible rumours. 

57 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL | 

With the indulgence of the House, perhaps I may be 
allowed to say that we owe a very great debt to the Press of 
this country. During the precautionary period when we 
had no legal means of controlling them the proprietors and 
editors of the great newspapers, irrespective of class, or the 
party to which they belong, all combined together to take no 
notice of questions which the Admiralty and the War Office' 
did not want referred to, and it was through that that our 
preparations were expeditiously and discreetly completed, 
without undue alarm being caused in this country at a time 
when no explanation could have been given. We wish to 
deal with the newspaper Press in such a way as to enable 
the people of this country to follow what is taking place 
reasonably and intelligibly. It is on information of that kind 
that panic and unnecessary alarm can best be avoided. 



August 19. 

AT 9 a.m. on August 5th, His Majesty's Ship Amphion, 
with the Third Flotilla, proceeded to carry out a prearranged 
plan of search, and about an hour later a trawler informed 
them that she had seen a suspicious ship throwing things 
overboard in an indicated position. Shortly afterwards the 
mine-layer Konigin Luise was sighted, steering east. Four 
destroyers gave chase, and in about an hour's time she was 
rounded up and sunk. 

After picking up the survivors the prearranged plan of 
search was carried out without incident until 3.30 a.m., when, 
as the Amphion was on her return course, nearing the scene 
of the Konigin Luise's operations, the course was altered so 
as to avoid the danger zone. This was successfully done 
until 6.30 a.m., when the Amphion struck a mine. 

A sheet of flame instantly enveloped the bridge, which . 
rendered the captain insensible, and he fell on to the fore 
and aft bridge. As soon as he recovered consciousness he 
ran to the engine-room and stopped the engines, which were 
going at revolutions for twenty knots. As all the fore part 
was on fire it proved impossible to reach the bridge or to 
flood the fore magazine. The ship's back appeared to be 
broken, and she was already settling down by the bows. All 
efforts were therefore directed towards getting the wounded 

58 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

into a place of safety in case of explosion, and towards getting 
her in tow by the stern. 

By the time the destroyers closed it was clearly time to 
abandon the ship. The men fell in for this purpose with the 
same composure that had marked their behaviour throughout. 
All was done without flurry or confusion, and twenty minutes 
after the mine was struck the men, officers, and captain left 
the ship. Three minutes after the captain left his ship 
another explosion occurred, which enveloped and blew up 
the whole fore part of the vessel. The effects show she must 
have struck a second mine, which exploded the fore magazine. 

Debris falling from a great height struck the rescue boats 
and destroyers, and one of the Amphion's shells burst on the 
deck of one of the latter, killing two of the men and a German 
prisoner rescued from the cruiser. The after part now began 
to settle quickly, till the foremost part was on the bottom, 
and the whole after part tilted up at an angle of forty-five 
degrees. In another quarter of an hour this, too, had 
disappeared. 

Captain Fox speaks in high terms of the behaviour of the 
officers and men throughout. Every order was promptly 
obeyed without confusion or perturbation. 



SIR JOHN JELLICOE'S REPLY TO THE KING. 

WE are officially informed that Admiral Sir John Jellicoe Times, 
has sent the following reply to His Majesty the King : Aug. 6 

On behalf of the officers and men of Home Fleet beg to I 
tender our loyal and dutiful thanks to Your Majesty for the 
gracious message, 111 which will inspire all with determination <" 
to uphold the glorious traditions of the past. 

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF, HOME FLEET. 

,CHINA SQUADRON'S MESSAGE TO THE KING. 

THE following telegram has been received at the Admiralty ibid. 
from the Commander-in-Chief, China Squadron : 

Officers and men of China Squadron send their loyal and 
dutiful thanks to His Majesty the King, and will earnestly 
endeavour to prove themselves worthy of his confidence. 



59 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

PRIZE COURT REGULATIONS. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 5th day of August, 
1914. 

PRESENT, 

The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

L.G. WHEREAS a state of war exists between this Country 

and the German Empire, so that His Majesty's fleets and ships 
may lawfully seize all ships, vessels, and goods belonging to 
the German Empire, or the citizens and subjects thereof, 
or other persons inhabiting within any of the countries, 
territories, or dominions of the said German Empire, and 
bring the same to judgment in such Courts of Admiralty 
within His Majesty's Dominions, Possessions, or Colonies 
as shall be duly commissionated to take cognisance thereof. 
His Majesty is therefore pleased, by and with the advice 
of His Privy Council, to order, and it is hereby ordered, that 
a Commission in the form of the draft annexed hereto shall 
issue under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom authorising 
the Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High 
Admiral to will and require His Majesty's High Court of Justice 
and the Judges thereof to take cognisance of and judicially 
proceed upon all and all manner of captures, seizures, prizes, 
and reprisals of all ships, vessels, and goods that are or shall 
be taken, and to hear and determine the same ; and, according 
to the course of Admiralty and the Law of Nations, and the 
Statutes, Rules, and Regulations for the time being in force 
in that behalf, to adjudge and condemn all such ships, vessels, 
and goods as shall belong to the German Empire, or the 
citizens or subjects thereof, or to any other persons inhabiting 
within any of the countries, territories, or dominions of the 
said German Empire. 

[A similar Order was issued on August 20th with respect to Austria- 
Hungary.] 



Privy Council Office, August 7, 1914. 

ibid. NOTICE is hereby given that, after the expiration of 

forty days from the date hereof, it is proposed to submit 

to His Majesty in Council the draft of an Order in Council 

approving new Rules of Court for regulating Prize Proceedings. 

60 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

By Order in Council of August 6th, 1914, the said 
Rules were approved as provisional Rules under section 3 
of the Rules Publication Act, 1893. 

Notice is hereby further given that, in accordance with 
the provisions of the last-named Act, copies of the proposed 
Rules can be obtained by any public body, within forty 
days of the date of this notice, at the Privy Council Office, 
Whitehall. 

[The Rules above referred to are not here given in extenso. They are 
very voluminous, and for the most part of a highly technical character.] 



PROCLAMATION BY THE KING WITH RESPECT TO 
THE SEIZURE, ETC., OF GERMAN SHIPS AT SEA. 

GEORGE THE FIFTH, by the grace of God of the United King- ibid. 
dom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the British 
Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the 
Faith, Emperor of India, to Our right trusty and well- 
beloved Right Honourable Winston Leonard Spencer- 
Churchill, M.P., Admiral H.S.H. Prince Louis Alex- 
ander of Battenberg, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., 
A.D.C., Vice- Admiral Sir Frederick Tower Hamilton, 
K.C.B., C.V.O., Rear-Admiral Archibald Gordon Henry 
Wilson Moore, C.V.O., C.B., Captain Cecil Foley Lam- 
bert, R.N., The Right Honourable George Lambert, 
M.P., and the Right Honourable Sir Francis John 
Stephens Hopwood, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Our Com- 
missioners for executing the Office of Lord High Admiral 
of Our United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
and the Dominions thereunto belonging, and to Our 
Commissioners for executing that Office for the time 
being, Greeting : 

WHEREAS a state of war exists between this Country 
and the German Empire, so that Our fleets and ships may 
lawfully seize all ships, vessels and goods belonging to the 
German Empire or the citizens and subjects thereof or other 
persons inhabiting within any of the countries, territories, 
or dominions of the said German Empire and bring the 
same to judgment in such Courts of Admiralty within Our 
Dominions, Possessions, or Colonies as shall be duly com- 
missionated to take cognisance thereof. 

6l 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

These are therefore to authorise, and We do hereby 
authorise and enjoin you, Our said Commissioners, now and 
for the time being, or any two or more of you, to will and 
require Our High Court of Justice and the Judges thereof, 
and the said High Court and the Judges thereof are hereby 
authorised and required to take cognisance of and judicially 
to proceed upon all and all manner of captures, seizures, 
prizes, and reprisals of all ships, vessels, and goods already 
seized and taken, and which hereafter shall be seized and 
taken, and to hear and determine the same, and according 
to the course of Admiralty and the Law of Nations, and the 
Statutes, Rules, and Regulations for the time being in force 
in that behalf, to adjudge and condemn all such ships, vessels, 
and goods as shall belong to the German Empire, or to the 
citizens or subjects thereof or to any other persons inhabit- 
ing within any of the countries, territories, or dominions of 
the said German Empire. 

In witness whereof We have caused the Great Seal of 
the United Kingdom to be put and affixed to these presents. 

August 7, 1914. 

[A similar Proclamation was issued on August 20th with respect to 
Austria-Hungary.] 

SUPPLEMENTARY NAVY ESTIMATES, 1914-15. 

NAVY. 

House of Commons, August 7. 

Hansard. RESOLVED on Report "that an additional number not 

exceeding 67,000 officers, seamen and boys be employed 
for the year ending March 3ist, 1915." 

CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO THE INTERN- 
MENT OF BRITISH VESSELS IN GERMAN PORTS. 

NOTICE. 

L.G., ON the night of August 4th, 1914, the Secretary of State 

Aug. 8, received the following notice from the German Ambassador : 
1914. < jjjg ^penal Government will keep merchant vessels 

flying the British flag interned in German harbours, but 
will liberate them if the Imperial Government receive a 
counter undertaking from the British Government within 
forty-eight hours." 
62 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

On August 5th a copy of the Order in Council'" issued on (U Swp. 20. 
August 4th as to the treatment of enemy merchant vessels 
in British ports at the date of the outbreak of hostilities 
was communicated to the Ambassador of the United States 
in London, who was then in charge of German interests in 
this country, with a request that he would be so good as to 
cause enquiry to be made of the German Government as 
to whether the terms of Articles 3 to 8 of the Order 
in Council constituted an undertaking of the nature the 
German Government required, and under which they would 
liberate merchant vessels flying the British flag interned in 
German harbours. 

On August 7th a communication was received from the 
United States Embassy that the United States Minister at 
Stockholm had sent the following telegram signed by the 
United States Ambassador at Berlin : 

" Please state if England has issued Proclamation that 
she gives permission to enemy ships to leave British ports 
until midnight, August I4th. If this is so, Germany will 
issue corresponding orders. Reply through German Legation, 
Stockholm." 

The United States Embassy added that they did not 
believe that this telegram was a reply to the message which 
had been transmitted to Berlin. 

On enquiry at the United States Embassy shortly before 
midnight it was ascertained that no further communication 
had been received from Berlin. 

The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has therefore 
no information as to the treatment accorded to British 
merchant ships and their cargoes in German ports, and has 
accordingly addressed the undermentioned notification to the 
Lords Commissioners of the Treasury and to the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

Foreign Office, S.W., 

Midnight, August 7, 1914. 
MY LORDS, 

I have the honour to state that no information has reached 
me that the treatment accorded to British merchant ships 
and their cargoes which were in German ports at the date 
of the outbreak of hostilities or which subsequently entered 

63 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

them is not less favourable than that accorded to enemy 
merchant ships by Articles 3 to 8 of the Order in 
Council issued on the 4th day of August, 1914, with reference 
to enemy ships being in British ports at the outbreak of 
hostilities or subsequently entering them. Articles 3 to 
8 of the said Order in Council will therefore not come 
into operation. 

I have the honour to be, 

My Lords, 

Your Lordships' most obedient humble servant, 

E. GREY. 

[Similar correspondence relating to Austria-Hungary was issued on 
August I5th.] 

SICK AND WOUNDED NAVAL MEN. 
INFORMATION BUREAUX TO BE OPENED. 

Times, LADY DRURY, hon. secretary of the Royal Naval 

Aug. 7, Friendly Union of Sailors' Wives, writes : 

I9I4> " I am authorised by the Royal Naval Medical Depart- 

ment of the Admiralty to send you the following statement 
concerning a scheme for affording reliable news to relatives 
of sick or wounded officers or men of the Royal Navy and 
Royal Marines in the Naval Hospitals during war time, and 
I shall be very much obliged by your publishing it in your 
influential paper." 

Notice to relations of officers and men of the Royal Navy 
and Royal Marines (who are on active service). 

The enormous pressure of surgical and medical work, 
due to the outbreak of war, makes it impossible for the 
Royal Naval Medical Department to undertake to supply 
adequate information to relations as regards the sick and 
wounded men, without some special organisation for the 
purpose. A scheme has, therefore, been prepared by per- 
mission of the Royal Naval Medical Department, by which 
relations of Naval and Marine Officers and Men can be 
informed of the condition of their sick and wounded who, hi 
the event of an action, might be lying in the Royal Naval 
Hospitals, through special Information Bureaux, which will 
6 4 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

be opened in Portsmouth, Gosport, Chatham, and Devon- 
port. Official information of the progress of the sick and 
wounded will be supplied daily direct from the Hospitals 
to these Bureaux, and all those desirous of obtaining news 
should apply, personally or by letter, to the Secretary, 
Royal Naval Medical Information Bureau, and NOT to the 
Naval Medical Officers or at the Hospitals. Inquirers who 
apply by letter MUST give the Christian and Surname, 
rating and ship, and, when possible, also the official number 
of the man for whom they inquire. Those who wish for 
personal interviews must come to the Information Bureaux 
at the ports between the hours of 3 p.m. and 8 p.m. 

Lists, as far as possible complete, of sick and wounded 
men admitted to the Royal Naval Hospitals, will be posted 
up daily outside the Information Bureaux, as well as at the 
Town Halls, on the Hospital gates, etc. 

Addresses of the Information Bureaux : 

Portsmouth. Town Hall, Portsmouth. 

Gosport. Thorngate Hall, Gosport. 

Chatham. Town Hall, Chatham. 

Devonport. R.N.F.U.S.W. Information Bureau. 

APPEAL. 

The work involved in carrying out the above-mentioned 
scheme for communicating news of the sick and wounded to 
their relations will be undertaken mainly by the Royal Naval 
Friendly Union of Sailors' Wives, and, although all the 
workers will be voluntary, certain expenses will be inevitable, 
such as for the hire of offices, printing, clerical equipment, etc., 
and towards these expenses donations, however small, are 
earnestly requested, and will be gratefully received by the 
R.N.F.U.S.W. Treasurer, 32, Rutland-gate, London. 



NEW SHIP FOR CAPTAIN FOX. 

Admiralty, August 7. 

CAPTAIN C. H. FOX, to the Faulknor, in command, on Tunes. 
commissioning, for command of the Third Flotilla, undated. Aug. 8, 

[Captain Fox was captain of the Amphion which struck a mine and 9 
foundered on August 6th (see p. 56).] 

Naval I E 65 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

BRITISH TROOPS DISEMBARK IN FRANCE. 

Paris, August 8. 

THE disembarkation of the English troops has begun. 
The units disembarked were saluted by the acclamations of 
the inhabitants. The disembarkation was quickly effected 
under the direction of delegations of French officers speaking 
English fluently. The men rapidly occupied their canton- 
ments. Their talk shows that the exasperation of the English 
people against Germany is at its height. The English soldiers 
are delighted at coming to fight on the Continent by the side 
of their French and Belgian comrades. The accord between 
the two staffs has ensured perfect execution of the programme 
of disembarkation. 

SHIPS AND MEN. 

pp. OFFERS OF COLONIAL AID ACCEPTED. (1) 

J 7-i9- August 8. 

Times, THE Government of the Dominion of Canada have 

Aug. 9, placed at the service of the Admiralty the cruisers Niobe and 
I 9 I 4 Rainbow for purposes of commerce protection. Arrangements 
have been made to raise an Expeditionary Force of over 
20,000 men to be sent to the United Kingdom, and the 
Government have offered such further numbers of men as 
may be required. The offer of a force has been gratefully 
accepted by His Majesty's Government. 

The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia 
have placed the Royal Australian Navy under the control of 
the Admiralty and have offered to send an Expeditionary 
Force of 20,000 men. This offer has been gratefully accepted 
by His Majesty's Government, and the precise composition of 
the force will be shortly arranged. 

The Government of New Zealand have placed the New 
Zealand Naval Force under the control of the Admiralty and 
are preparing to dispatch to this country a force of all arms 
of over 8,000 officers and men, and to send, from time to time, 
drafts to secure the maintenance of the force at strength. 
The decision of the New Zealand Government, which has 
been approved by the Dominion Parliament, has been warmly 
welcomed by His Majesty's Government. 

The cost of the equipment, maintenance, and pay of the 
force will be defrayed by the Governments concerned. 

66 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
OFFER OF HOSPITAL SHIP. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty also announces that the ibid. 
following telegrams have passed between H.R.H. the Duchess 
of Connaught and the First Lord of the Admiralty : 

' Women of Canada anxious to offer Hospital Ship to 
British Navy. Before starting fund, anxious to know whether 
such offer would be acceptable. 

" LOUISE MARGARET DUCHESS OF CONNAUGHT." 

" Board of Admiralty respectfully thank Your Royal 
Highness for gracious message and beg that their deep appre- 
ciation of the offer made by the women of Canada, which they 
gratefully accept, may be made known. 

"WINSTON CHURCHILL." 



DEFENCE OF THE REALM ACTS. 

I. 

August 8, 1914. 

BE it enacted by the King's most Excellent Majesty, 
by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual 
and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament 
assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows : 

i. His Majesty in Council has power during the continu- 
ance of the present war to issue regulations as to the powers 
and duties of the Admiralty and Army Council, and of the 
members of His Majesty's forces, and other persons acting 
in His behalf, for securing the public safety and the defence 
of the realm ; and may, by such regulations, authorise the 
trial by courts martial and punishment of persons contraven- 
ing any of the provisions of such regulations designed- 
fa) To prevent persons communicating with the 
enemy or obtaining information for that purpose or any 
purpose calculated to jeopardise the success of the 
operations of any of His Majesty's forces or to assist the 
enemy ; or 

67 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(b) To secure the safety of any means of communica- 
tion, or of railways, docks or harbours ; in like manner 
as if such persons were subject to military law and had 
on active service committed an offence under section 
5 of the Army Act. 

2. This Act may be cited as the Defence of the Realm 
Act, 1914. 



II. 

August 28, 1914. 

BE it enacted by the King's most Excellent Majesty, 
by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual 
and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament 
assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows : 

1. The Defence of the Realm Act, 1914, shall have effect 
as if 

(a) At the end of paragraph (a) of section i thereof 
the following words were inserted, "or to prevent the 
spread of reports likely to cause disaffection or alarm " ; 

(b) At the end of paragraph (b) of section i thereof 
there were added the following words, "or of any area 
which may be proclaimed by the Admiralty or Army 
Council to be an area which it is necessary to safeguard 
in the interests of the training or concentration of any 
of His Majesty's forces " ; 

(c) At the end of section i there were inserted the 
following words, " and may by such regulations also 
provide for the suspension of any restrictions on the 
acquisition or user of land, or the exercise of the power 
of making by-laws, or any other power under the Defence 
Acts, 1842 to 1875, or the Military Lands Acts, 1891 to 
1903." 

2. This Act may be cited as the Defence of the Realm 
(No.' 2) Act, 1914. 

[The successive Regulations framed under this and the foregoing Act 
will, so far as they relate to the Naval Service, be found in the Admiralty 
Monthly Orders as cited in this volume.] 



68 



hi4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

GERMAN AND ENGLISH MINES IN THE NORTH 
SEA CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE DUTCH 
GOVERNMENT. 

Telegram to the Dutch Government from the Dutch 
Ministry in Berlin. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

Berlin, August 8, 1914. 

IMPERIAL Government informs me that during the D.N.S.B. 
war it will probably be necessary to place mines before the 
bases of enemy fleets and enemy ports used for the em- 
barkation and debarkation of transport. Please inform 
mariners. 

GEVERS. 



The British Minister at The Hague to the Dutch Minister 
of Foreign Affairs. 

September 28, 1914. 
MONSIEUR LE MINISTRE, 

ACCORDING to instructions received from Sir Edward D.tf.S.B. 
Grey, I have the honour to inform Your Excellency that the 
German Naval Authorities, since the outbreak of the present 
war, have been pursuing the practice of sowing mines in- 
discriminately on the high seas, off the North Sea coast of 
Great Britain, not in the execution of any definite naval 
operation, but with the view, it would appear, of inter- 
rupting trade with British and neutral ports. There is 
reason to suppose that fishing trawlers, possibly disguised 
as neutral vessels, lay mines whilst ostensibly following 
their ordinary avocation of fishing. These methods con- 
stitute a gross infraction of the provisions and spirit of Inter- 
national Law, and are the subject of a protest which has just 
been communicated to the Powers by His Majesty's Govern- 
ment. 

In view, however, of the great dangers to which merchant 
shipping is exposed and of loss of life and property both 
British and neutral which has already occurred, His Majesty's 
Government have arrived at the conclusion that exceptional 

69 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

measures must be taken at once in order to meet the situation. 
His Majesty's Government have therefore decided to close 
to neutral fishing vessels on and after October ist all ports 
of the East coast of Great Britain. They have also decided 
that on and after the same date it will be necessary to exer- 
cise special measures of control over the waters of the North 
Sea contiguous to the English coast, in order that some 
measure of safety may be preserved for innocent, peaceful 
shipping on its way to and from British and neutral ports. 
This is only possible by curtailing the use of these waters 
by fishing boats, and they have therefore reluctantly come 
to the conclusion that any neutral fishing vessel found fishing 
off the East coast of Great Britain west of longitude I degree 
east when north of latitude 54 degrees 30 minutes north, 
or west of longitude 2 degrees 30 minutes east when south 
of latitude 54 degrees 30 minutes north, cannot be regarded 
as engaged in legitimate fishing operations and must be 
treated as under suspicion of being engaged in mine-laying. 
The utmost vigilance will be used in stopping and searching 
vessels encountered in these waters. Any trawlers not in 
the exclusive employment of the German Government but 
illicitly laying mines in the intervals of their fishing will 
be sunk if caught in the act of mine-laying or, in the event 
of their resisting capture or search, or attempting to escape, 
the crews, being unauthorised combatants, will be liable to 
be treated as war criminals and shot after trial by court 
martial. 

His Majesty's Government hope that the Netherland 
Government will use their utmost endeavours to restrain 
their fishing vessels from resorting to the waters situated 
within the area defined. They trust that the measures 
decided upon will be received in a spirit of benevolent ac- 
quiescence by neutral Powers whose interests may be affected, 
and they feel confident that those Powers will recognise 
that they have been devised as much with a view to pro- 
tecting the lives and property of neutral persons as those of 
British subjects. 

I avail myself, &c., 

ALAN JOHNSTONE. 



7 o 



[914] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The Dutch Minister of Foreign Affairs to the British 
Minister at The Hague. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

The Hague, October 7, 1914. 
MONSIEUR LE MINISTRE, 

IN your communication of September 28th Your Ex- D.N.S.B. 
cellency was so good as to inform me that the British Gov- 
ernment, with a view to providing effectually against the 
laying of mines by the enemy on the English coasts, finds 
itself compelled to close to neutral fishing vessels on and 
after October ist all ports of the East coast of the United 
Kingdom, and to treat as suspect any neutral fishing vessel 
found fishing off the East coast of Great Britain west of 
longitude i degree east when north of latitude 54 degrees 
30 minutes north, or west of longitude 2 degrees 30 minutes 
east when south of latitude 54 degrees 30 minutes north. 

Your Excellency was so good as to indicate at the same 
time in what manner neutral fishing vessels and their crews 
would be treated if they were found in the portions of the 
North Sea above defined. 

Your Excellency concluded by expressing the hope that 
the Queen's Government would take the necessary measures 
for preventing Netherland fishing vessels from entering the 
zone of danger. You added that your Government feel 
assured that the measures taken would not give rise to ob- 
jections on the part of neutral Powers whose interests might 
be affected, seeing that these measures tend at the same time 
to assure the safety of neutral fishermen frequenting the 
waters in question and of their property. 

The measures taken by the British Government impose 
restrictions on the peaceful exercise of their craft by Nether- 
land fishermen frequenting waters which are open to them. 
But, in the full confidence that the British Government has 
only resolved to adopt these measures because it is con- 
vinced of their absolute necessity, the Queen's Government 
has lost no time in warning Netherland fishermen of the 
dangers to which their presence in the region indicated 
would expose them. Nevertheless, inasmuch as Your Ex- 
cellency's communication did not reach me until September 
2Qth, it is obvious that the warning could not reach them 

71 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

by October ist, the day on which the foregoing regulations 
were to come into force. 

Moreover, the Queen's Government regards as extremely 
dangerous alike from the point of view of humanity and 
from that of International Law, the procedure which the 
British Government proposes to follow in regard to neutral 
fishing vessels which, for any reason, may be found in the 
forbidden zone. It seems to follow from Your Excellency's 
communication that such vessels, and even sailing fishing 
vessels, would be regarded, without further proof, as engaged 
in laying mines, and that if they attempted by flight to 
evade the right of search the British Navy would sink them 
and would treat as " war criminals " such of their crew as 
it was able to seize. 

The Queen's Government cannot believe that it is any 
part of the intention of the British Government to rely 
solely upon a chain of simple presumptions for the purpose 
of establishing the guilt of persons who might be absolutely 
innocent. On the contrary, it is convinced that the British 
Government has taken all possible measures for avoiding 
deplorable misunderstandings, such as might even entail 
the death of Netherland subjects who were entirely innocent. 

In any case, however, since Your Excellency's communi- 
cation contains no assurance on this point it is of the first 
importance to direct to it the special attention of the British 
Government. 

I take the liberty of appealing in this sense to Your Ex- 
cellency's great kindness, and I feel sure that with the least 
possible delay I shall receive a reply which will remove all 
doubts on this subject, &c. 

J. LOUDON. 

The British Minister at The Hague to the Dutch Minister 
of Foreign Affairs. 

The Hague, November 4, 1914. 
MONSIEUR LE MINISTRE, 

D.N.S.B. I FORWARDED on October 8th to my Government 
the Note which Your Excellency did me the honour of ad- 
dressing to me on October 7th, acknowledging the receipt 
of my Note of September 28th respecting the imposition 
of certain restrictions on fishing operations in the North Sea. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

His Majesty's Government observe that Your Excellency 
appears to have concluded that it is the intention of His 
Majesty's Navy to consider, without further proof, any 
fishing vessels discovered in the prohibited area as being 
engaged in the occupation of laying mines, and to treat their 
crew as war criminals in the event of their endeavouring 
to evade the exercise of the right of visit and search. 

I have accordingly the honour, by instruction of my 
Government, to point out to Your Excellency that my Note 
of September 28th indicated the intention of His Majesty's 
Government to regard any neutral fishing vessel found fishing 
within the area in question as " under suspicion of being 
engaged in mine-laying." It is not and it never has been 
the intention of His Majesty's Government to treat the 
suspicion as confirmed in the absence of additional proof. 
Further, His Majesty's Government did not declare their 
intention of treating the crews of such vessels as war criminals 
in the event of their attempting to evade the exercise of 
the right of visit and search, but only in the case of pre- 
sumption against them being held to be proved at a trial 
by court martial. 

I am at the same time to assure Your Excellency that 
His Majesty's Navy will show every consideration towards 
Netherland fishermen and their vessels, which is compatible 
with the duty devolving upon His Majesty's officers and 
men of putting a stop to the illicit methods of mine-laying 
pursued by the enemy to the great danger of peaceful shipping, 
both British and neutral. 

I avail myself, &c., 

ALAN JOHNSTONE. 

The British Minister at The Hague to the Dutch Minister 
of Foreign Affairs. 

The Hague, October 3, 1914. 
MONSIEUR LE MINISTRE, 

I HAVE the honour to inform Your Excellency of the 
following, by instruction of His Majesty's Principal Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs : 

The German policy of mine-laying, combined with their 
submarine activities, makes it necessary on military grounds 
for the Admiralty to adopt counter-measures. His Majesty's 

73 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Government have therefore authorised a mine-laying policy 
in certain areas and a system of mine-fields has been es- 
tablished and is being developed upon a considerable scale. 
In order to reduce risks to non-combatants the Admiralty 
announce that it is dangerous henceforward for ships to 
cross between latitude 51 degrees 15 minutes north and 
51 degrees 40 minutes north and longitude i degree 35 minutes 
east and 3 degrees east. In this connection it must be 
remembered that the southern limit of the German mine- 
field is latitude 52 degrees north. Although these limits 
are assigned to the danger area it must not be supposed that 
navigation is safe in any part of the southern waters of the 
North Sea. Instructions have been issued to His Majesty's 
ships to warn east-going vessels of the presence of this new 
mine-field. 

I avail myself, &c., 
ALAN JOHNSTONE. 

The British Minister at The Hague to the Dutch Minister 
of Foreign Affairs. 

The Hague, November 3, 1914. 
MONSIEUR LE MINISTRE, 

D.N.S.B. I HAVE the honour to inform Your Excellency, by 
direction of Sir Edward Grey, that the Admiralty are issuing 
the following announcement : 

" During the last week the Germans have scattered mines 
indiscriminately in the open sea on the main trade route 
from America to Liverpool via the North of Ireland. Peaceful 
merchant ships have already been blown up with loss of 
life by this agency. The White Star Liner Olympic escaped 
disaster by pure good luck. But for warnings given by 
British cruisers other British and neutral merchant and 
passenger vessels would have been destroyed. These mines 
cannot have been laid by any German ship of war. They 
have been laid by some merchant vessel flying a neutral 
flag which has come along the trade route as if for purposes 
of peaceful commerce and, while profiting to the full by the 
immunity enjoyed by neutral merchant ships, has wantonly 
and recklessly endangered the lives of all who travel on the 
sea, regardless of whether they are friend or foe, civilian or 
military in character. 

74 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

" Mine-laying under a neutral flag and reconnaissance 
conducted by trawlers, hospital ships and neutral vessels are 
the ordinary features of German naval warfare. In these 
circumstances, having regard to the great interests entrusted 
to the British Navy, to the safety of peaceful commerce on 
the high seas and to the maintenance between limits of inter- 
national trade between neutral countries, the Admiralty 
feel it necessary to adopt exceptional measures appropriate 
to the novel conditions under which this war is being waged. 
They therefore give notice : that the whole of the North 
Sea must be considered a military area. Within this area 
merchant shipping of all kinds, traders of all countries, 
fishing craft and all other vessels will be exposed to the 
gravest dangers from the mines which it has been necessary 
to lay, and from the warships searching diligently by night 
and day for suspicious craft. All merchant and fishing 
vessels of every description are hereby warned of the dangers 
they encounter by entering this area except in strict accord- 
ance with Admiralty directions. Every effort will be made 
to convey this warning to neutral countries and to vessels 
on the sea, but from November 5th onwards the Admiralty 
announce that all ships passing a line drawn from the Northern 
point of the Hebrides through Faroe Islands to Iceland 
do so at their own peril. Ships of all countries wishing to 
trade to and from Norway, the Baltic, Denmark and Holland 
are advised to come, if inward bound, by the English Channel 
and the Straits of Dover. There they will receive sailing 
directions which will pass them safely so far as Great Britain 
is concerned up the East coast of England to Fame Island, 
whence a safe route will, if possible, be given to the Lindesnaes 
Lighthouse. From this point they should turn north or 
south according to their destination, keeping as near the 
coast as possible. The converse applies to vessels outward 
bound. By strict adherence to these routes the commerce 
of all countries will be able to reach its destination in safety, 
so far as Great Britain is concerned, but any straying, even 
for a few miles, from the course thus indicated may be followed 
by fatal consequences." 

I avail myself, &c., 

ALAN JOHNSTONE. 

75 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The Dutch Minister of Foreign Affairs to the British 
Minister at The Hague. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

The Hague, November 16, 1914. 
MONSIEUR LE MINISTRE, 

D.N.S.B. BY your letter of the 3rd instant Your Excellency has 
been so good as to communicate to me a public notice issued 
by the British Admiralty on the subject of navigation in the 
North Sea. 

According to this notice the whole of the North Sea 
is to be regarded as constituting a military zone in which 
navigation will be exposed to the gravest dangers, not merely 
on account of the mines which have been laid there, but also 
because British warships will there be engaged in searching 
for suspicious craft. Merchant vessels and fishing boats 
are, in consequence, warned of the dangers which they run 
in entering the North Sea except in strict accordance with 
the directions given by the Admiralty. 

I have the honour to bring to the notice of Your Ex- 
cellency the observations which this communication from 
the Admiralty has called forth on the part of the Queen's 
Government. 

According to the Law of Nations the immediate sphere 
of belligerent military operations alone constitutes the " mili- 
tary zone " within which the right of police belonging to a 
belligerent can be exercised. 

f$9 A sea of the size of the North Sea cannot, in its whole 
extent, be regarded as the immediate sphere of belligerent 
operations. 

By investing the whole of this region with the character 
of a military zone a grave blow is struck at the principle 
of the Freedom of the Seas, a principle which is recognised 
by all the nations of the globe. 

\f jf Article 3 of the Seventh Hague Convention a convention 
signed and ratified by Great Britain obliges the belligerent 
who lays anchored automatic contact mines to take all 
possible precautions for the security of peaceful navigation. 
Accordingly the Queen's Government has not claimed the 

7 6 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

right to protest against the decision taken some five weeks 
ago by the British Government, in regard to the laying of 
mines in the region indicated by Your Excellency in your 
Note of October 3rd. It is otherwise with the present ex- 
tension of that zone to the whole of the North Sea, an exten- 
sion which is seriously prejudicial to the navigation of the 
Netherlands inasmuch as it bars its passage. 

The notice of the Admiralty prescribes that vessels coming 
from the Atlantic and destined for Norway, the Baltic, 
Denmark and the Netherlands must leave the Channel by 
the Straits of Dover and make the Fame Islands by passing 
along the East coast of England, and then shape a course 
for Lindesnaes. From this point they will have to proceed 
northward or southward as the case may be, and to keep as 
near the coast as possible. Vessels coming from the Baltic 
or the other countries mentioned will have to proceed in a 
converse direction. 

The explanations which I had the honour to ask of Your 
Excellency ten days ago, for the purpose of ascertaining if 
the direct route which the Netherland navigation has followed 
since October 3rd would still remain open have not, so far, 
reached me. 

It is evident that the course indicated by the British 
Government presents grave inconveniences to navigation 
between the Atlantic and the ports of the South-east coast 
of Great Britain on the one hand, and the Netherland ports 
on the other. In the first place, the deviation is excessive. 
The distance from Dover to a Netherland port is about 
150 nautical miles, whereas the course indicated by the 
Admiralty would bring this distance up to more than 1,000 
miles. In the second place, the course to be pursued between 
Lindesnaes and the Netherland ports is too vaguely indi- 
cated to afford sufficient guarantees for the security of navi- 
gation. 

As for the lines of communication between the Nether- 
land ports and the North-east coast of England they will 
cease to exist. 

Finally, the question must be asked how the Netherland 
fishermen are to conduct themselves in order to avoid en- 
countering insurmountable obstacles and exposing themselves 
to grave perils in the exercise of their craft. 

77 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

I shall be obliged if Your Excellency will be so good as 
to furnish me with as little delay as possible with such ex- 
planations as will remove the uncertainties above indicated, 
and I take this opportunity, &c., 

J. LOUDON. 



The British Minister at The Hague to the Dutch Minister 
of Foreign Affairs. 

The Hague, January 15, 1915. 

MONSIEUR LE MINISTRE, 

D.N.S.B. I DID not fail to transmit to my Government copy of 
Your Excellency's Note of November i6th last dealing with 
the announcement by His Majesty's Government of their 
intention to regard the North Sea as a military area. 

In that Note Your Excellency repeated an enquiry which 
you had already addressed to me as to whether the route 
followed since October 3rd by vessels navigating between 
Great Britain and the Netherlands would still remain open, 
and Your Excellency further asked what conduct Netherland 
fishermen in the North Sea would require to observe in order 
to avoid interference and risk in the exercise of their calling. 

I have now the honour to inform Your Excellency that 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, to whom these 
enquiries were referred, state that, in view of the large number 
of drifting German mines which are constantly being met, 
it is impossible to indicate any safe route to Dutch ports, 
but that vessels passing between latitude 51 degrees 40 minutes 
north, and 51 degrees 54 minutes north, i.e., the channel 
already indicated, may do so at their own risk. With regard 
to Dutch fishing vessels in the North Sea, fishing to the 
eastward of the line already laid down, it is impossible for 
His Majesty's Government to guarantee that no mines will 
be encountered in this area. 

In bringing the above to Your Excellency's knowledge 
as a reply to the enquiries Your Excellency did me the honour 
to address to me, I avail myself, &c., 

ALAN JOHNSTONE. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
ANTIVARI BOMBARDED BY AUSTRIAN FLEET. 

Bari, August 10. 

THE steamer Brindisi coming from Antivari brings theKJ). 
information that Antivari has been fired at by Austro- 
Hungarian warships. The firing began yesterday at 8.30. 
At 8 two Austro-Hungarian cruisers appeared and informed 
the wireless telegraphy station that in twenty minutes 
they would open fire. At the end of this time the bombard- 
ment began, and was directed against the buildings of a 
trading company and the wireless telegraphy station. The 
day before yesterday the Austro-Hungarian cruiser Szigetvar 
appeared before Antivari and completely destroyed the 
Montenegrin wireless station at that place. 



NAVAL PENSIONS, GRANTS, AND OTHER 
ALLOWANCES. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, 
The loth day of August, 1914. 

PRESENT, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a 
Memorial from the Right Honourable the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Admiralty, dated the 6th day of August, 1914, 
in the words following, viz. : 

' Whereas by Section I. of the Injuries in War (Com- 
pensation) Act, 1914, it is enacted that it shall be lawful 
for Your Majesty by Your Order in Council to frame a Scheme 
as to the pensions, grants and other allowances in the nature 
thereof, to be paid to persons, not being Officers or Seamen 
of the Royal Navy or Officers or Soldiers of any of Your 
Majesty's land or marine forces,*in respect of injuries suffered 
by them whilst employed afloat by or under the Admiralty 
or Army Council in connection with warlike operations in 
which Your Majesty is engaged, and in the case of their 
death to their widows and other dependants : 

79 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

" And whereas it is further enacted in the said section of 
the said Act that Your Order in Council shall specify the 
persons to whom it applies and the conditions under which 
it becomes applicable, and that Your Order may include 
persons not in the direct employment of the Admiralty or 
Army Council, and persons employed in commissioned ships, 
notwithstanding that by reason of such employment they are 
subject to the Naval Discipline Act : 

" And whereas we are of opinion that the Scheme of 
pensions, grants, and allowances in the nature thereof, should 
apply as from the 3rd day of August, 1914, to all Officers and 
Men of Fleet Auxiliaries (other than ranks and ratings in 
receipt of Naval pay), to all civilians in Admiralty Service, 
and to Officers and Men of the War Department Examina- 
tion Service, who may be injured on duty during employment 
afloat, and to the dependent relatives of such persons who 
may be killed on duty during employment afloat, or die 
within two years thereof, as the result of injuries received 
on such duty, provided, however, that the Scheme shall not 
apply to Officers and Men of the Royal Naval Reserve, Royal 
Fleet Reserve, Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, or to Naval 
Pensioners serving in the Fleet and in receipt of Naval rates 
of pay during such service : 

' We beg leave humbly to recommend that Your Majesty 
may be graciously pleased by Your Order in Council to 
sanction payment of pensions, grants, and other allowances, 
on the scales and subject to the conditions specified in the 
annexed Schedule. 

' The Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Treasury 
have signified their concurrence in these proposals." 



" SCHEDULE. 

" SCALE OF PENSIONS, GRANTS, AND OTHER ALLOWANCES. 


" Injury Pensions. 

" If the injury result in total destruction of earning 
capacity, a pension equal to two-thirds pay during the period 
of such total incapacity. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

' If the injury result in partial impairment of earning 
capacity, a pension during the period of such partial impair- 
ment of earning capacity equal to : 

" One-sixth pay in respect of slight impairment of 
earning capacity ; 

" One- third pay in respect of impairment of earning 
capacity ; 

" Half pay in respect of material impairment of 
earning capacity. 

" Such pensions to be awarded to all Officers and Men of 
Fleet Auxiliaries (other than ranks and ratings in receipt of 
Naval pay), and to civilians in Admiralty Service and to 
Officers and Men of the War Department Examination Ser- 
vice, provided that the injury be sustained on duty afloat, 
and all awards to be subject to periodical review and depend- 
ent upon the degree of the impairment of earning capacity 
for the time being as described above. 

' Widows' Pensions and Allowances to dependent Relatives. 

' If any of the above-mentioned persons be killed, or die 
within two years, as the result of injuries sustained on duty 
afloat, there shall be awarded 

(a) to the widow a pension equal to one-third pay ; 
and 

(b) in respect of each child up to 4 in number until 
the age of 16, an allowance equal to one twenty-fourth of 
pay; 

so that the maximum possible payment per annum, inclusive 
of the widow's pension, shall not in any case exceed one-half 
pay. 

' If there be no widow, pensions may be granted to other 
dependent relatives, at the discretion of the Admiralty or 
Army Council, not exceeding in the aggregate the sum which 
might have been awarded in each case as a widow's pension. 
' In the event of a widow's re-marriage her pension shall 
cease, and the Admiralty or Army Council shall have the 
option of awarding, as may be more beneficial to her, either 
(a) a lump sum equal to the difference by which three 
years' pay (provided it be not more than 300 or less 
than 150) exceeds the total sum already paid in com- 
pensation ; or 

Naval I F 8 1 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(b) continued payment of the children's pensions 
until age of 16. 

" In the event of the adoption of alternative (a) the 
Admiralty or Army Council shall have power to take any 
precautions against the squandering of the lump sum e.g., 
by entrusting it to trustees to be administered in specified 
payments or to be applied wholly or partly for the children's 
education or otherwise. 

" Definition of the term ' Pay.' 

" For the purpose of this scheme pay shall be computed 
as follows : 

(1) In the case of Officers and men serving in Ships 
chartered by the Admiralty, whether with, or without, 
demise to the Crown, pay shall be deemed to be the pay 
(including a victualling allowance at the rate of 35. a day 
for Officers and is. 6d. a day for men, when pay does not 
include victualling) of the present rank ruling in the 
Ship, or in Ships of corresponding size and character, at 
a date six months prior to the outbreak of hostilities. 

(2) In the case of casual labourers engaged for Fleet 
coaling afloat pay shall be deemed to be the normal 
wages of an ordinary unskilled labourer at the place of 
engagement at a date six months prior to the outbreak 
of hostilities. 

(3) In all other cases pay shall be computed in such 
manner as is best calculated to give the rate at which 
the person was being remunerated during the year pre- 
ceding 3rd August, 1914, provided that when it is im- 
practicable to compute pay in such manner, pay shall 
be taken to be such amount as the Admiralty or Army 
Council may determine, having regard to the amount of 
the earnings of persons in similar employment during the 
same year. 

" Limitation of Benefits in the case of Persons entitled to Com- 
pensation under the Workmen's Compensation Acts, or 
to the Benefits of the Civil Superannuation and Greenwich 
Hospital Acts. 

" No person who is eligible t9 benefit under this Scheme 
shall lose by virtue thereof any gratuity or other superannua- 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

tion allowance for which he may be eligible by service under 
the Superannuation Acts, 1834 to 1909, but persons entitled 
to any compensation under the Workmen's Compensation 
Act, 1906, or to any compensation or damages at Common 
Law or under the Employer's Liability Act, 1880, or under 
the Greenwich Hospital Acts, 1865 to 1898, or any other 
statute, or eligible for any gratuity or allowance in respect 
of injury under Section i of the Superannuation Act, 1887, 
shall be entitled to benefit under this scheme only to the 
extent of the difference, if any, between the value of the 
benefits it confers and the value of such other benefits as they 
may be entitled to under the said Acts, provided, however, 
that no person shall receive as the result of this scheme a 
total sum in excess of his pay at the date of the injury. 

" Interpretation of the Scheme. 

" In the event of any question arising on the interpreta- 
tion or administration of this scheme, the decision of the 
Admiralty or Army Council thereon shall be final." 

His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy 
Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And the 
Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
are to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 

NEW BOARD OF ADMIRALTY. 

Crown Office, House of Lords, 

August 10, 1914. 

THE KING has been pleased, by Letters Patent under 
the Great Seal, bearing date the loth day of August inst., 
to appoint 

The Right Hon. Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, 
His Serene Highness Prince Louis Alexander of 
Battenberg, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., 

Vice- Admiral Sir Frederick Tower Hamilton, K.C.B., 
C.V.O., 

Rear- Admiral Frederick Charles Tudor Tudor, C.B., 
Captain Cecil Foley Lambert, 
The Right Hon. George Lambert, and 
. The Right Hon. Sir Francis John Stephens Hopwood, 
G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 



Times 
Aug. ii, 
1914. 



K.V. 



Times, 
Aug. IG, 
1914. 



K.V. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to be Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High 
Admiral of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
&c. 

[This issue of a new Patent (for previous Patent, see p. 5) was caused 
by the appointment of Rear-Admiral Tudor to the post of Third Sea Lord 
in succession to Rear-Admiral Archibald Gordon Moore appointed to a 
command afloat (see p. 162).] 

SINKING OF " U 15." 

Admiralty, August 10. 

ONE of the Cruiser Squadrons of the Main Fleet was 
attacked yesterday by German submarines. None of H.M. 
ships was damaged, and one of the enemy's submarines, 
U 15, was sunk. 

The following message from Mr. Churchill addressed to 
the Lord Mayor was received in Birmingham : 

" Birmingham will learn with pride that the first German 
submarine destroyed in the war was sunk by H.M.S. Birming- 
ham." First Lord Admiralty. 



Berlin, August 18. 

The submarine U 15 has not returned from a cruise^to 
the English coasts in company with other submarines. 
According to information given by English newspapers 
U 15 has been sunk in action with English warships. 



BRITISH CRUISER AT DAR-ES-SALAAM. 

A TELEGRAM from Nairobi (British East Africa) 
states : 

It is officially announced that a British cruiser has des- 
troyed the German wireless station at Dar-es-Salaam. 

GERMAN SUBMARINES IN THE NORTH SEA. 

Berlin, August 12. 

GERMAN submarines have in the course of the last few 
days cruised along the East Coast of England and Scotland 
as far as the Shetland Islands. 

84 



4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

AUSTRIAN BLOCKADE OF MONTENEGRIN COAST. 

Vienna, August 12. 

IT is officially announced that an effective blockade of the 
Montenegrin coast began yesterday afternoon. Ships belong- 
ing to friendly and neutral nations were granted twenty-four 
hours for their departure. The blockade has been notified 
to the diplomatic representatives here. Renter. 

GUARDING THE TRADE ROUTES. 

(Press Bureau Statement.) 

August 12. 

AT the request of the Foreign Office the Admiralty have Times, 
considered attentively the position of Brazil, Uruguay, the Au S- J 3. 
Argentine, and Chile, with the intention of so concerting their 
naval measures as to protect and sustain Anglo-Brazilian, 
Anglo-Uruguayan, Anglo-Argentine, and Anglo-Chilean trade. 
They have full confidence in their ability to do this. Although 
the German Government are trying, and will try, to harass 
the trade routes and to arrest the flow of commerce, their 
power to inflict injury diminishes with every day that passes. 

The Admiralty have already despatched a large number 
of mobilised cruisers to their stations commanding the trade 
routes. These nearly treble the enemy cruiser forces already 
there. For example, in the Atlantic, twenty-four British 
cruisers, besides French, are searching for the five German 
cruisers known to be in that ocean. The enemy's vessels 
will be hunted continuously, and although some time may 
elapse before they are run down they will be kept too busy 
to do mischief. 

A number of fast merchant vessels fitted out and armed 
at British Naval arsenals are being commissioned by the 
Admiralty for the purpose of patrolling the routes and keeping 
them clear of German commerce raiders. 

Every effort is being made with success to facilitate trade 
in all directions. Although the principal difficulty was at 
the beginning, yet all British ships are arriving with the 
greatest regularity. With every day that passes the British 
Admiralty control of the trade routes, including especially 
the Atlantic trade routes, becomes stronger. Traders with 
Great Britain of all nations can therefore continue confidently 

85 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [A 

and boldly to send their cargoes to sea in British or neutral 
ships, and British ships are themselves now plying on the 
Atlantic routes with almost the same certainty as in times of 
peace. 

In the North Sea alone, where the Germans have scattered 
mines indiscriminately, and where the most formidable 
operations of naval war are proceeding, the Admiralty can 
give no assurance. 



Berlin, August 13. 

In contradiction to English statements of a different pur- 
port we are authorised from an influential source to explain 
that it is in no sense true that German contact mines have been 
laid in the North Sea in such a manner as to endanger neutral 
trade. Such mines have only been laid in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the English coast. 



NOTIFICATION OF WAR WITH AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 
AND PROCLAMATION RELATING THERETO. 

L.G., DIPLOMATIC relations between France and Austria being 

Aug. 14, broken off, the French Government have requested His 

I 9 I 4- Majesty's Government to communicate to the Austro- 

Hungarian Ambassador in London the following Declaration : 

' Apres avoir declare la guerre a la Serbie et pris ainsi la 
premiere initiative" des hostilites en Europe, le Gouverne- 
ment austro-hongrois s'est mis, sans aucune provocation du 
Gouvernement de la Republique Frangaise, en etat de guerre 
avec la France : 

i. Apres que 1'Allemagne avait successivement declare la 
guerre a la Russie et a la France, il est intervenu dans ce 
conflit en declarant la guerre a la Russie qui combattait deja 
aux cotes de la France. 

2. D'apres de nombreuses informations dignes de foi, 
1'Autriche a envoye des troupes sur la frontiere allemande, 
dans des conditions qui constituent une menace directe a 
1'egard de la France. 

En presence de cet ensemble de faits, le Gouvernement 
frangais se voit oblige de declarer au Gouvernement austro- 

86 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

hongrois qu'il va prendre toutes les mesures qui lui permettront 
de rSpondre a ces actes et a ces menaces." 

In communicating this Declaration accordingly to the 
Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, His Majesty's Government 
have declared to His Excellency that the rupture with France 
having been brought about in this way, they feel themselves 
obliged to announce that a state of war exists between Great 
Britain and Austria-Hungary as from midnight. 

Foreign Office, 
August 12, 1914. 



BY THE KING. 

A PROCLAMATION 

EXTENDING THE SCOPE OF CERTAIN EXISTING PROCLAMATIONS 
AND A CERTAIN ORDER IN COUNCIL CONNECTED WITH 

THE WAR. 

GEORGE R.I. 

WHEREAS on the fourth day of August, one thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen a State of War came into existence 
between Us on the one hand and the German Empire on 
the other : 

And whereas We did on the same date and on the fifth 
day of August, one thousand nine hundred and fourteen, 
issue certain Proclamations and Orders in Council connected 
with such State of War : 

And whereas a State of War now exists between Us on 
the one hand and the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary 
on the other : 

And whereas it is therefore desirable to extend the scope 
of certain of the Proclamations and Orders in Council afore- 
said : 

Now, therefore, We have thought fit, by and with the 
advice of Our Privy Council, to issue this Our Royal Procla- 
mation declaring and it is hereby declared as follows : 

i. The Proclamation warning all Our Subjects and all 
persons resident or being in Our Dominions from contributing 
to, or participating in or assisting in the floating of, any loan 

87 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

raised on behalf of the German Government, or from ad- 
vancing money to or entering into any contract or dealings 
whatsoever with the said Government, or otherwise aiding, 
abetting, or assisting the said Government, shall be deemed 
as from this date to apply to all loans raised- on behalf of, 
or contracts or dealings entered into with, or to aiding, 
abetting, or assisting the Austro-Hungarian Government. 

2. The Proclamation on Trading with the Enemy shall be 
deemed as from this date to prohibit with the Dual Monarchy 
of Austria-Hungary all commercial intercourse, which under 
the said Proclamation is prohibited with the German Empire, 
and for this purpose such Proclamation shall be read as if 
throughout the operative portion thereof, the words " either 
the German Empire or the Dual Monarchy of Austria- 
Hungary " were substituted for the words ' the German 
Empire." 

3. (i) In the Order in Council issued with reference to 
the departure from Our Ports of enemy vessels, which at the 
outbreak of hostilities were in any such Port or which sub- 
sequently entered the same, the word " enemy," as applied 
to either ships or cargo, shall be deemed as from this date 
to include Austro-Hungarian ships or cargo. 

(2) In the application of this Article to Austro-Hun- 
garian ships the date Saturday, the Fifteenth day of August, 
shall be substituted for the date mentioned in Article 2 of 
the said Order in Council, and the date Saturday, the Twenty- 
second day of August, shall be substituted for the date men- 
tioned in Article 3 of the said Order in Council. 

4. The Proclamation specifying the articles which it is 
Our intention to treat as Contraband of War during the war 
with Germany shall be deemed to specify the articles which 
it is Our intention to treat as Contraband of War during the 
war with Austria-Hungary. 

5. In the Proclamation forbidding the carriage in British 
vessels from any Foreign Port to any other Foreign Port of 
any article comprised in the list of Contraband of War issued 
by Us, unless the shipowner shall have first satisfied himself 
that the articles are not intended ultimately for use in the 
enemy country, the words " enemy country " shall be deemed 

88 



4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

as from this date to include the Dual Monarchy of Austria- 
Hungary. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Twelfth 
day of August, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen, and in the Fifth year of 
Our Reign. 

THE " NEW ZEALAND." 
Office of the High Commissioner for New Zealand, 

August 14, 1914. 

THE High Commissioner for New Zealand (the Hon. 
Thomas Mackenzie) states that Captain Halsey, of H.M.S. 
New Zealand, has sent the following cablegram to the Premier 
of the Dominion : 

" All on board New Zealand will endeavour to uphold the 
honour of the Dominion." 

To this message the Premier has replied : 

" People of New Zealand warmly appreciate your message. 
Feel assured honour of Dominion worthily upheld in your 
hands. Kia Ora. 

" MASSEY, 

" Prime Minister." 

[The words " Kia Ora" are a Maori greeting signifying " Good Health," 
" Good Luck," " Wishing you the very best of everything."] 

FOREIGN OFFICE STATEMENT WITH RESPECT TO 
BRITISH VESSELS IN AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN 
PORTS. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has received L.G. 
information of a nature to satisfy him that the treatment 
accorded to British merchant ships and their cargoes in 
Austro-Hungarian ports is not less favourable than that 
accorded to Austro-Hungarian merchant ships and their 
cargoes in British ports, and he has accordingly addressed 
the undermentioned notification to the Lords Commissioners 
of the Treasury and to the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Foreign Office, S.W., August 15, 1914. 
MY LORDS, 

I HAVE the honour to state that information has reached 
me of a nature to satisfy me that the treatment accorded to 
British merchant ships and their cargoes which were in Austro- 
Hungarian ports at the date of the outbreak of hostilities, or 
which subsequently entered them, is not less favourable than 
that accorded by Articles 3 to 8 of the Order in Council issued 
on the 4th day of August, 1914, with reference to enemy 
ships being in British ports at the outbreak of hostilities, or 
subsequently entering them, which was extended so as to 
apply to Austro-Hungarian merchant ships by His Majesty's 
Proclamation issued on the I2th day of August, 1914. 

Articles 3 to 8 of the said Order in Council, as extended by 
the Proclamation dated the i2th August, 1914, will there- 
fore come into full force and effect with regard to Austro- 
Hungarian merchant ships. 

I have the honour to be, 

My Lords, 

Your Lordships' most obedient, humble Servant, 

E. GREY. 

[See p. 64.] 

FRENCH FLEET IN THE ADRIATIC. 

Paris, August 16. 

CO. Admiral de Lapeyrere on August i6th in the forenoon 

surprised an Austrian cruiser of the Aspern type before 
Antivari and sank her amid the enthusiasm of the Monte- 
negrins who witnessed the action. 

(It appears that the cruiser was the Zenta.) 



Aiigust 17. 

P.B. The French fleet in the Mediterranean have made a sweep 

up the Adriatic as far as Cattaro, and a small Austrian cruiser 
of the Aspern type was fired on and sunk. 

The Aspern and her class are vessels of 2,400 tons, with 
a speed of about 18 knots. They carry eight 47-in. guns, 
and are protected with a 2-in. armoured steel deck amidships. 
They were built about fourteen years ago. 
90 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

ADMIRALTY ANNOUNCEMENT WITH RESPECT TO 

PILOTAGE IN WAR-TIME. 

Admiralty, S.W., August 19, 1914. 

WHEREAS it is provided by sub-section (2) of section 24 
of the Pilotage Act, 1913, that " if any master or mate who 
is not a British subject shows to the satisfaction of the Board 
of Trade that he is the master or mate of a ship which is of 
substantially the same class, and is trading regularly between 
the same ports as a foreign ship which, on the first day of 
June, nineteen hundred and six, was except from the obliga- 
tion to carry a licensed pilot, or had habitually been piloted 
by a master or mate of the ship who held a pilotage certificate, 
the Board of Trade may authorise the master or mate to 
apply to the Pilotage Authority for a pilotage certificate under 
this Act, and the provisions of this Act as to the granting of 
a pilotage certificate shall, notwithstanding anything in this 
Act, extend to a master or mate so applying for a certificate, 
although he is not a British subject, as they extend to a 
master or mate who is a British subject : 

" Provided that if the Admiralty at any time consider 
that, on the grounds of public safety, the provisions of this 
sub-section should not be applicable with respect to any 
pilotage district, or part of a pilotage district, they may 
make an order excluding that district, or part of a district, 
from the operation of those provisions ; and while any such 
order is in force with respect to any such district, or part of 
a district, a certificate granted under those provisions shall 
not be of any effect within that district or part of a district." 

And whereas the Commissioners for Executing the Office 
of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom consider that 
on the grounds of public safety the provisions of the said 
sub-section should not be applicable with respect to the 
pilotage districts, or parts of pilotage districts, hereinafter 
mentioned. 

Now, therefore, the said Commissioners hereby order 
that the provisions of sub-section (2) of section 24 of the 
Pilotage Act, 1913, shall not be applicable with respect to 
the following pilotage districts, that is to say, the Isle of 
Wight pilotage district, the Plymouth pilotage district, the 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Au 

Milford pilotage district, the Bristol pilotage district, and the 
Liverpool pilotage district. 

F. T. HAMILTON. 

CECIL LAMBERT. 

LIVELINESS IN THE NORTH SEA. 

August 19. 

P-B> SOME desultory fighting has taken place during the day 

between the British patrolling squadrons and flotillas and 
German reconnoitring cruisers. 

No losses are reported or claimed. 

A certain liveliness is apparent in the southern area of 
the North Sea. 

Berlin, August 20. 

K.V. THE two small cruisers Strassburg and Stralsund 

pushed forward in the last few days into the southern part 
of the North Sea. 

The Strassburg sighted off the English coast two enemy 
submarines, and sank one of them after a few shots at long 
range. The Stralsund had an engagement with several 
torpedo boat destroyers at long range. Two destroyers were 
damaged. From this and from a reconnaissance by an 
airship as far as Skager Rack the fact was confirmed that the 
German coasts and waters were free of the enemy, and that 
neutral shipping could pass unmolested. 

DECLARATION OF LONDON ADOPTED WITH 
ADDITIONS AND MODIFICATIONS. 

ORDER IN COUNCIL ADOPTING, DURING THE PRESENT HOSTILI- 
TIES, THE PROVISIONS OF THE CONVENTION KNOWN AS 
THE " DECLARATION OF LONDON " WITH ADDITIONS 
AND MODIFICATIONS. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, 
The 20th day of August, 1914. 

PRESENT, 

The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

L.G. WHEREAS during the present hostilities the Naval 

Forces of His Majesty will co-operate with the French and 
Russian Naval Forces : 
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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

And whereas it is desirable that the naval operations of 
the allied forces so far as they affect neutral ships and com- 
merce should be conducted on similar principles : 

And whereas the Governments of France and Russia have 
informed His Majesty's Government that during the present 
hostilities it is their intention to act in accordance with the 
provisions of the Convention known as the Declaration of 
London, signed on the 26th day of February, 1909, so far as 
may be practicable ; 

Now, therefore, His Majesty, by and with the advice of 
His Privy Council, is pleased to order, and it is hereby ordered, 
that during the present hostilities the Convention known as 
the Declaration of London shall, subject to the following 
additions and modifications, be adopted and put in force by 
His Majesty's Government as if the same had been ratified 
by His Majesty. 

The additions and modifications are as follows : 

(1) The lists of absolute and conditional contraband con- 
tamed in the Proclamation dated August 4th, 1914, shall be 
substituted for the lists contained in Articles 22 and 24 of the 
said Declaration. 

(2) A neutral vessel which succeeded in carrying contra- 
band to the enemy with false papers may be detained for 
having carried such contraband if she is encountered before 
she has completed her return voyage. 

(3) The destination referred to in Article 33 may be inferred 
from any sufficient evidence, and (in addition to the pre- 
sumption laid down in Article 34) shall be presumed to exist 
if the goods are consigned to or for an agent of the Enemy 
State or to or for a merchant or other person under the con- 
trol of the authorities of the Enemy State. 

(4) The existence of a blockade shall be presumed to be 
known : 

(a) To all ships which sailed from or touched at an 
Enemy port a sufficient time after the notification of 
the blockade to the local authorities to have enabled the 
Enemy Government to make known the existence of the 
blockade. 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(b) To all ships which sailed from or touched at a 
British or allied port after the publication of the declara- 
tion of blockade. 

(5) Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 35 of the 
said Declaration, conditional contraband, if shown to have 
the destination referred to in Article 33, is liable to capture 
to whatever port the vessel is bound and at whatever port 
the cargo is to be discharged. 

(6) The General Report of the Drafting Committee on the 
said Declaration presented to the Naval Conference and 
adopted by the Conference at the eleventh plenary meeting 
on February 25th, 1909, shall be considered by all Prize 
Courts as an authoritative statement of the meaning and 
intention of the said Declaration, and such Courts shall con- 
strue and interpret the provisions of the said Declaration by 
the light of the commentary given therein. 

And the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, and each of His 
Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, the President of the 
Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division of the High Court 
of Justice, all other Judges of His Majesty's Prize Courts, and 
all Governors, Officers and Authorities whom it may concern, 
are to give the necessary directions herein as to them may 
respectively appertain. 

[For the English text of the Declaration of London together with 
the General Report of the Drafting Committee referred to above, see 
Appendix.] 



Foreign Office, September I, 1914. 

L.G. THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has received 

from His Majesty's Ambassador at Paris the text of a Decree 
signed by the President of the French Republic on the 25th 
ultimo, giving effect to the provisions of the Declaration of 
London, with certain modifications, during the course of the 
hostilities now in progress. 

The tenor of this Decree is substantially the same as 
that of His Majesty's Order in Council of the 2Oth ultimo, 
which was published in the supplementary London Gazette 
of the 22nd idem. 

94 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Foreign Office, September 26, 1914. 

HIS Majesty's Ambassador at Petrograd has reported to 
the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs that under an 
Imperial Ukase, dated the I4th instant, the provisions of the 
Declaration of London will be observed by the Russian Govern- 
ment during the course of the present hostilities, subject to 
the modifications adopted by the British and French Govern- 
ments as declared in His Majesty's Order in Council of the 
20th ultimo and in the French Decree of the 25th ultimo. 

DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE OF THE UNITED 
STATES GOVERNMENT RELATING TO THE 
DECLARATION OF LONDON. 



i 



The Secretary of State to Ambassador W. H. Page. 
(TELEGRAM PARAPH RASE . ) 

Department of State, 
Washington, August 6, 1914, I p.m. 

MR. BRYAN instructs Mr. Page to enquire whether the U.S.D.C. 
British Government is willing to agree that the laws of naval 
warfare as laid down by the Declaration of London of 1909 
shall be applicable to naval warfare during the present 
conflict in Europe provided that the Governments with 
whom Great Britain is or may be at war also agree to such 
application. Mr. Bryan further instructs Mr. Page to state 
that the Government of the United States believes that an 
acceptance of these laws by the belligerents would prevent 
grave misunderstandings which may arise as to the relations 
between neutral Powers and the belligerents. Mr. Bryan 
adds that it is earnestly hoped that this enquiry may receive 
favourable consideration. 

} Same mutatis mutandis to : The American Embassies at St. Peters- 
burg, Paris, Berlin, and Vienna, and the American Legation at Brussels. 



95 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [j 

Ambassador Penfield to the Secretary of State. 
(TELEGRAM.) 

American Embassy, 
Vienna, August 13, 1914, 8 p.m. 

U.S.D.C. YOUR August 6th. Austro-Hungarian Government have 
instructed their forces to observe stipulations of Declaration 
of London as applied to naval as well as land warfare during 
present conflict conditional on like observance on part of the 
enemy. 

PENFIELD. 



Charge Wilson to the Secretary of State. 
(TELEGRAM PARAPHRASE.) 

American Embassy, 
St. Petersburg, August 20, 1914, 2 p.m. 

U.S.&.C. MR. WILSON refers to Department's August ipth, 4 p.m., 
and reports that the Russian Government is still awaiting 
the decision of the British Government, as Russia will take 
similar action. Mr. Wilson adds that the Foreign Office 
does not expect that Great Britain will decide to observe the 
Declaration of London. 



Ambassador Gerard to the Secretary of State. 
(TELEGRAM PARAPHRASE.) 

American Embassy, 
Berlin, August 22, 1914, 12 midnight. 
U.S.D.C. MR. GERARD refers to Department's August 

4 p.m., and says his August 20th, i a.m., by way of Copen- 
hagen, states that the German Government will apply the 
Declaration of London, provided its provisions are not 
disregarded by other belligerents. 



Ambassador W. H. Page to the Secretary of State. 

American Embassy, 
London, August 27, 1914. 
SIR, 

U.S.D.C. I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith enclosed a copy 
of the note from the Foreign Office I telegraphed you on the 
96 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

26th instant defining the attitude of the British Government 
with regard to the so-called Declaration of London, 1909, 
together with a copy of a memorandum which accompanied 
the note, and a copy of the King's Order in Council of the aoth 
instant relating to this matter. 

There will also be found attached a copy of a circular note 
I have just received from the Foreign Office relating to the 
same Order in Council and to the rules governing the pro- 
ceedings in the British prize courts. Another copy of the 
King's Order in Council of the 20th instant, which accompanied 
the circular note, is enclosed herewith, and there will be 
found as well, in the pouch which accompanies this despatch, 
six copies of the Prize Court Rules. 
I have, &c., 

WALTER HINES PAGE. 



(ENCLOSURE i.) 

The Minister for Foreign Affairs to Ambassador W. H. Page. 

Foreign Office, 
London, August 22, 1914. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

ON the 7th instant you were so good as to address to me 
a note enquiring, pursuant to instructions from the Secretary 
of State at Washington, whether His Majesty's Government 
were willing to agree that the laws of naval warfare, as laid 
down by the Declaration of London, 1909, should be applicable 
to naval warfare during the present European conflict, pro- 
vided that the Governments with whom Great Britain is at 
war, or with whom her relations are not normal, also agree 
to such application. 

Your Excellency added that it was the belief of your 
Government that the acceptance of these laws by the belliger- 
ents would prevent the possibility of grave misunderstandings 
as to the relations between belligerents and neutrals. 

I have the honour to inform Your Excellency that His 
Majesty's Government, who attach great importance to the 
views expressed in Your Excellency's note and are animated 
by a keen desire to consult so far as possible the interests of 
neutral countries, have given this matter their most careful 
consideration and have pleasure in stating that they have 

1 G 97 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

decided to adopt generally the rules of the Declaration in 
question, subject to certain modifications and additions which 
they judge indispensable to the efficient conduct of their naval 
operations. A detailed explanation of these additions and 
modifications is contained in the enclosed memorandum. 

The necessary steps to carry the above decision into effect 
have now been taken by the issue of an Order in Council, of 
which I have the honour to enclose copies herein for Your 
Excellency's information and for transmission to your 
Government. 

I may add that His Majesty's Government, in deciding to 
adhere to the rules of the Declaration of London, subject 
only to the aforesaid modifications and additions, have not 
waited to learn the intentions of the enemy Governments, 
but have been actuated by a desire to terminate at the earliest 
moment the condition of uncertainty which has been pre- 
judicing the interests of neutral trade. 

I have, &c., 

E. A. CROWE. 



(ENCLOSURE 2.) 
MEMORANDUM. 

1. The lists of contraband already published by His 
Majesty are substituted for those contained in Articles 22 
and 24 of the Declaration of London. Lists similar to those 
published by His Majesty have been issued by the French 
Government. 

2. His Majesty's Government do not feel able to accept 
in its entirety the rule laid down in Article 38 of the Declara- 
tion. It has been the practice of the British Navy to treat 
as liable to capture a vessel which carried contraband of war 
with false papers if she was encountered on the return 
voyage, and to this exception His Majesty's Government 
feel it necessary to adhere. 

3. The peculiar conditions in the present war due to the 
fact that neutral ports such as Rotterdam are the chief 
means of access to a large part of Germany and that excep- 
tional measures have been taken in the enemy country for 



[4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the control by the Government of the entire supply of food- 
stuffs have convinced His Majesty's Government that modifi- 
cations are required in the applications of Articles 34 and 35 
of the Declaration. These modifications are contained in 
paragraphs 3 and 5 of the accompanying Order in Council. 

4. Article 15 of the Declaration contains a provision as to 
presumptive knowledge of the blockade in certain cases if 
the vessel has sailed from a neutral port. No mention is 
made of British or allied enemy ports. These omissions are 
supplied by Article 4 of the Order in Council. 

5. The Order in Council also provides for the acceptance 
of the very valuable commentary on the Declaration which 
was embodied in the General Report prepared by Monsieur 
Renault. 

(ENCLOSURE 3.) 
ORDER IN COUNCIL. 

(See p. 92.) 



Charge Wilson to the Secretary of State. 
(TELEGRAM.) 

American Embassy, 
St. Petersburg, August 27, 1914. 

RUSSIAN Government accepts Declaration of London u.S.D.C. 
with exact modifications adopted by England and France. 

WILSON. 

Ambassador Herrick to the Secretary of State. 

(TELEGRAM.) 

American Embassy, 
Paris, September 3, 1914. 

THE French Government will observe the provisions of U.S.D.C. 
the Declaration of London with following reservation : 
Article I. The Declaration signed in London on February 26th, 
1900,, concerning the legislation of naval war shall be applied 
during the war subject to the following additions and 
modifications : 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

" One. The lists of absolute and conditional contraband 
notified by publication in the Journal Officiel of August nth, 
1914, are substituted for those contained in Articles 22 and 
24 of the Declaration. Notices published in the Journal 
Officiel shall eventually make known any new additions or 
modifications to said lists. 

' Two. Any neutral ship which may have succeeded in 
carrying contraband to the enemy by means of false papers 
may be seized under this accusation if met with before com- 
pleting its return journey. 

' Three. The purpose within the meaning of Article 33 
of the Declaration may be inferred from any sufficient proof, 
and (besides the assumption contained in Article 34) shall be 
considered as existing if the merchandise is consigned to or 
in the name of an agent of the enemy or to or in the name of 
any dealer or of any other person acting under the control 
of the authorities of the enemy. 

" Four. The existence of a blockade shall be deemed 
known (a) for all ships starting from or touching at an enemy's 
port within a sufficient delay after notification of blockade 
to the local authorities to have allowed the enemy's Govern- 
ment to make known the existence of the blockade ; (6) for 
all ships which may have left or touched at a French or ally's 
port after publication of declaration of blockade. 

" Five. Notwithstanding the provisions of article 35 of 
the Declaration the conditional contraband, if it is proved that 
its destination comes within the meaning of Article 33, is 
liable to capture, whatever may be the port of destination of 
the ship and the port where the cargo is to be unloaded." 

Only change made in Journal Officiel of August nth, 1914, 
is transfer of balloons, flying machines, &c., from conditional 
contraband list to absolute contraband list. Article 22 still, 
then, contains 12 sub-divisions, 12 referring to balloons and 
flying machines, and Article 24, 13 sub-divisions, sub-division 8 
being eliminated and becoming sub-division 12 of absolute 
contraband. 

HERRICK. 



100 



)I 4 ] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The Acting Secretary of State to Ambassador W. H. Page. 

(TELEGRAM.) 

Department of State, 
Washington, October 22, 1914, 4 p.m. 

YOUR No. 864, October igth, Declaration of London. U.S.D.C. 
Inasmuch as the British Government consider that the 
conditions of the present European conflict make it impossible 
for them to accept without modification the Declaration of 
London, you are requested to inform His Majesty's Govern- 
ment that in the circumstances the Government of the 
United States feels obliged to withdraw its suggestion that 
the Declaration of London be adopted as a temporary code 
of naval warfare to be observed by belligerents and neutrals 
during the present war ; that therefore this Government 
will insist that the rights and duties of the United States and 
its citizens in the present war be defined by the existing 
rules of International Law and the treaties of the United States 
irrespective of the provisions of the Declaration of London ; 
and that this Government reserves to itself the right to enter 
a protest or demand in each case in which those rights and 
duties so defined are violated or their free exercise interfered 
with by the authorities of His Britannic Majesty's Government. 

LANSING. 



: 



The Acting Secretary of State to Ambassador Gerard. 
(TELEGRAM PARAPHRASE.) 

Department of State, 
Washington, October 24, 1914, 5 p-w 

REFERRING to Department's August 6th, i p.m., U.S.D.C. 
and Embassy's October 22nd, relative to the Declaration 
of London, Mr. Lansing instructs Mr. Gerard to inform the 
German Government that the suggestion of the Department 
to belligerents as to the adoption of Declaration for sake of 
uniformity as to a temporary code of naval warfare during 

01 Same to the Embassies at St. Petersburg, Vienna and Paris, and the 
Legation at Brussels. 



101 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the present conflict has been withdrawn because some of the 
belligerents are unwilling to accept the Declaration without 
modifications and that this Government will therefore insist 
that the rights and duties of the Government and citizens 
of the United States in the present war be defined by existing 
rules of International Law and the treaties of the United States 
without regard to the provisions of the declaration and that 
the Government of the United States reserves to itself the 
right to enter a protest or demand in every case in which the 
rights and duties so defined are violated or their free exercise 
interfered with by the authorities of the belligerent Govern- 
ments. 



GERMANY DECLARES THE BALTIC FREE. 

Berlin, August 20. 

K.V. FREQUENT reconnaissances of our warships in the Baltic 

as far as the Gulf of Finland have afforded proof that no 
enemy vessels are to be seen. There is therefore no danger to 
neutral vessels navigating the Baltic to the southward of the 
Gulf of Finland. 

PRIZE COURTS ESTABLISHED AS AGAINST AUSTRIA- 
HUNGARY. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, 
The 20th day of August, 1914. 

PRESENT, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

I- G WHEREAS on the fourth day of August, one thousand 

nine hundred and fourteen, a state of war came into existence 
between this country and the German Empire. 



IO2 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

And whereas by His Majesty's Order in Council of the 
fifth day of August, one thousand nine hundred and fourteen, 
the issue of a Commission was ordered authorising the Com- 
missioners for executing the Office of Lord High Admiral to 
require His Majesty's High Court of Justice to take cognisance 
of prize matters arising out of the said war. 

And whereas a state of war now also exists between this 
country and the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, so that 
His Majesty's fleets and ships may lawfully seize all ships, 
vessels, and goods belonging to the said Dual Monarchy, or 
the citizens and subjects thereof, or other persons inhabiting 
within any of the countries, territories, or dominions of the 
said Dual Monarchy, and bring the same to judgment in such 
Courts of Admiralty within His Majesty's Dominions, Posses- 
sions, or Colonies as shall be duly commissionated to take 
cognisance thereof. 

His Majesty is therefore pleased, by and with the advice 
of His Privy Council, to order, and it is hereby ordered, that a 
Commission in the form of the draft annexed hereto shall 
issue under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom authorising 
the said Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High 
Admiral to will and require His Majesty's High Court of 
Justice and the Judges thereof to take cognisance of and 
judicially proceed upon all and all manner of captures, seizures, 
prizes, and reprisals of all ships, vessels, and goods that are 
or shall be taken, and to hear and determine the same ; and 
according to the course of Admiralty and the Law of Nations, 
and the Statutes, Rules, and Regulations for the time being 
in force in that behalf, to adjudge and condemn all such ships, 
vessels, and goods as shall belong to the Dual Monarchy of 
Austria-Hungary, or the citizens or subjects thereof, or to 
any other persons inhabiting within any of the countries, 
territories, or dominions of the said Dual Monarchy as well 
as the ships, vessels, and goods belonging to the German 
Empire or to the citizens or subjects thereof or to any other 
persons inhabiting within any of the countries, territories, 
or dominions of the said German Empire. 
GEORGE THE FIFTH, by the grace of God of the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British 
Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the 
Faith, Emperor of India, to Our right trusty and well- 

103 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

beloved Right Honourable Winston Leonard Spencer- 
Churchill, M.P., Admiral H.S.H. Prince Louis Alex- 
ander of Battenberg, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., 
A.D.C., Vice-Admiral Sir Frederick Tower Hamilton, 
K.C.B., C.V.O., Rear- Admiral Archibald Gordon Henry 
Wilson Moore, C.V.O., C.B., Captain Cecil Foley Lam- 
bert, R.N., the Right Honourable George Lambert, 
M.P., and the Right Honourable Sir Francis John 
Stephens Hopwood, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Our Commis- 
sioners for executing the Office of Lord High Admiral 
of Our United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
and the Dominions thereunto belonging, and to Our 
Commissioners for executing that Office for the time 
being, Greeting : 

Whereas on the fourth day of August, one thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen, a state of war came into existence 
between this country and the German Empire. 

And whereas by Our Commission under the Great Seal of 
the United Kingdom, dated the sixth day of August, one 
thousand nine hundred and fourteen, We did authorise and 
enjoin you, Our said Commissioners, to require Our High 
Court of Justice to take cognisance of prize matters arising 
out of the said war. 

And whereas a state of war now also exists between this 
country and the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, so that 
Our fleets and ships may lawfully seize all ships, vessels, and 
goods belonging to the said Dual Monarchy or the citizens and 
subjects thereof, or other persons inhabiting within any of 
the countries, territories, or dominions of the said Dual 
Monarchy and bring the same to judgment in such Courts of 
Admiralty within Our Dominions, Possessions, or Colonies 
as shall be duly commissionated to take cognisance thereof. 

These are therefore to authorise, and We do hereby 
authorise and enjoin you, Our said Commissioners, now and 
for the time being, or any two or more of you, in addition to 
and in extension of the Warrant already given by you under 
Our said Commission of the sixth day of August, one thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen, to will and require Our High 
Court of Justice and the Judges thereof, and the said High 
Court and the Judges thereof are hereby authorised and 
required to take cognisance of and judicially to proceed upon 
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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

all and all manner of captures, seizures, prizes, and reprisals 
of all ships, vessels, and goods already seized and taken, and 
which hereafter shall be seized and taken, and to hear and 
determine the same, and according to the course of Admiralty 
and the Law of Nations, and the Statutes, Rules and Regula- 
tions for the time being in force in that behalf, to adjudge and 
condemn all such ships, vessels, and goods as shall belong to 
the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary or to the citizens or 
subjects thereof or to any other persons inhabiting within 
any of the countries, territories or dominions of the said Dual 
Monarchy, as well as the ships, vessels, and goods belonging 
to the German Empire or to the citizens or subjects thereof 
or to any other persons inhabiting within any of the countries, 
territories, or dominions of the said German Empire. 

In witness whereof, We have caused the Great Seal of the 
United Kingdom to be put and affixed to these presents. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Twen- 
tieth day of August, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand nine hundred and fourteen, and in the 
Fifth year of Our Reign. 

WARNING TO NEUTRALS. 

Admiralty, August 22. 

THE Admiralty wishes to draw attention to their previous 
warnings to neutrals of the dangers of traversing the North 
Sea. 

The Germans are continuing their practice of scattering 
mines indiscriminately upon the ordinary trade routes. These 
mines do not conform to the conditions of The Hague Con- 
vention. They do not become harmless after a certain 
number of hours, they are not laid in connection with any 
definite military scheme, such as the closing of a military 
port, or as a distinct operation against an invading fleet, 
but appear to be scattered on the chance of touching individual 
British war or merchant vessels. In consequence of this 
policy neutral ships, no matter what their destination, are 
exposed to the greatest danger. 

Two Danish vessels the steamship Maryland and the 
steamship Broberg have within the last twenty-four hours 
been destroyed by these deadly engines in the North Sea 

105 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

while travelling on the ordinary trade route at a considerable 
distance from the British coast. 

In addition to this it is reported that two Dutch steamers 
clearing from Swedish ports were yesterday blown up by 
German mines in the Gulf of Finland. 

In these circumstances the Admiralty desire to impress 
not only on British but on neutral shipping the vital import- 
ance of touching at British ports before entering the North 
Sea, in order to ascertain, according to the latest information, 
the routes and channels which the Admiralty are keeping 
swept and along which these dangers to neutrals and merchant- 
men are reduced as far as possible. 

The Admiralty, while reserving to themselves the utmost 
liberty of retaliatory action against this new form of warfare, 
announce that they have not so far laid any mines during 
the present war and that they are endeavouring to keep the 
sea routes open for peaceful commerce. 

ROYAL NAVY (REMITTANCES HOME). 

House of Commons, August 25. 

Hansard. LORD CHARLES BERESFORD : I beg to ask the First 

Lord of the Admiralty a question, of which I have given 
him private notice, namely: Whether he is aware that 
owing to the fact that the men in the Fleet were ordered off 
hurriedly they had no time to sign their remittance papers, 
a large number of those dependent upon them are at present 
without money ; and whether he is aware that a large number 
of remittances have been sent from the men in the Fleet 
and are now lying at the Admiralty and Post Office, and 
owing to the fact that men have unintentionally disclosed 
what ships they belong to and where those ships are situated, 
it is impossible to send out the remittances until such letters 
are censored ; and whether he can in the first case make some 
temporary allowances to those relatives who have no remittance 
papers, and, in the second case, add to the Censor's staff, so 
as to expedite the receipt of money sent home by the men 
by remittance ? 

THE PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE BOARD 
OF ADMIRALTY (DR. MACNAMARA) : No doubt in the rapid 
mobilisation of large numbers of men there is bound to be 

106 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

some dislocation in the routine ordinarily followed in peace 
time. So far as the men on the active service list before 
mobilisation are concerned, the money relations between 
themselves and their wives continue very much the same 
as before the outbreak of hostilities ; very large numbers had 
already declared allotments, and these will be continued 
without intermission. Many who before the outbreak of 
hostilities were sending remittances no doubt find that 
method of assisting their wives and families more difficult, 
especially where they followed the practice of sending the 
remittance in a personal letter as against the system of 
making a remittance through official channels. Every 
endeavour has been made to meet the immediate case, par- 
ticularly of the wife of the Reservist, and I will send the 
Noble Lord a statement of the steps taken. As the Noble 
Lord is aware, every Reservist on mobilisation is entitled to 
a month's pay. On August 6th we decided that in cases 
in which men on mobilisation had not received that advance, 
the first payment of any allotment declared should be made 
at once, and the second at the end of the present month. 
The number of these immediate payments up to yesterday 
was 5,600. Further, on August loth we authorised the 
registrars of the Royal Naval Reserve of whom there are 
160 in various parts of the country to advance to wives 
of men of the Royal Naval Reserve in urgent cases a sum 
not exceeding los. a week for three weeks from the date of 
the men being called up. On August 2ist we issued general 
orders to Commanders-in-Chief directing that the system of 
regular allotments should be encouraged in preference to 
the system of remittances. And throughout we have kept 
in the closest touch with the Soldiers' and Sailors' Families 
Association. 

CASUALTIES IN H.M.S. " RENNET " OFF 
KIAO-CHAU. 

The Commander-in-Chief, China, reports (undated) that Times, 
on Saturday afternoon the destroyer Kennet, whilst chasing Aug. 25, 
a German destroyer, S 90, approached too close to the battery 
at Tsing-tau and sustained casualties. The Kennet was not 
materially damaged. 

107 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ARMY AND NAVY RESERVISTS (SEPARATION 
ALLOWANCES). 

House of Commons, August 26. 

Hansard. MR. FALLE : I beg to ask the Parliamentary Secretary 
to the Admiralty if he is aware that in the case of the wives 
and families of Army Reservists a separation allowance is 
given, and if he can state if a separation allowance is or will 
be granted in the case of the wives and families of Naval 
Reservists, and if it be possible to grant similar allowances 
to the wives and families of all naval ratings ? 

THE PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE 
ADMIRALTY (DR. MACNAMARA) : I fully appreciate and 
sympathise with the spirit which has inspired this question. 
But I must point out that the conditions of service in the 
Army and the Navy are dissimilar, and a comparison of the 
benefits received cannot properly be made in respect of one 
item alone. In the Navy there is considerable opportunity 
for earning non-substantive pay in point of fact, roughly 
one out of every two of the seamen is in receipt of such daily 
extra pay, varying from 2d. to is. 7d. a day. I must point 
out, further, that in the Navy the proportion of higher ratings 
to the number of men engaged is considerably larger than 
in the Army. 

Whilst there is no provision for legal deductions from the 
pay of the sailor for the maintenance of his wife and family, 
it is the fact that the very great majority of the men make 
regular monthly allotments. Before war was declared the 
number of allotments paid monthly to wives or other depen- 
dent relatives was 73,000. Since mobilisation, about 40,000 
new allotments have been declared, largely by Reservists, 
and at the close of the month we shall send out something 
approaching 120,000 allotments. Further, a great many of 
the sailors favour the policy of forwarding remittances during 
the month, and remittances are now being sent out from 
the Admiralty apart from those sent direct by the men by 
postal orders at the rate of something like 500 a day, as 
compared with the usual rate of 200 a day. The information 
available up to the present shows that, in the very great 
majority of the cases, the wives of the seamen either are or 
will immediately be receiving assistance from their husbands. 

108 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
MERCANTILE MARINE (RISKS OF OFFICERS). 

House of Commons, August 27. 

MR. PETO asked the President of the Board of Trade Hansard. 
whether, in view of the steps which the Government have 
taken to indemnify shipowners against loss owing to war 
risks and enable them to keep their ships at sea during the 
war, he can and will take steps to secure to the masters, 
officers, and engineers of the merchant service some increased 
remuneration commensurate with the personal risk involved 
in war time, and some provision for the wives and families 
of those officers who may lose their lives owing to casualties 
due to the state of war ? 

MR. RUNCIMAN : The Government scheme with regard 
to war risks is one of insurance not indemnity. A scheme 
is being prepared to secure the payment of a prescribed 
allowance to the dependants of officers and crews of captured 
British vessels. Particulars of this scheme will, I hope, be 
made known very shortly. 

NAVAL SEPARATION ALLOWANCES AND 
REMITTANCES. 

House of Commons, August 27. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the Hansard. 
Admiralty (i) whether he is aware that in several cases 
where Naval Reserve men have been called up but have 
not yet gone afloat their wives are not receiving any separa- 
tion allowances ; and will he cause enquiry to be made into 
the matter ; and (2) whether he is aware that many wives of 
men serving in His Majesty's Navy have been in the habit 
of receiving remittances by post from their husbands when 
at sea ; that in several cases of men now serving on ships 
engaged on active service their wives have not received 
the usual remittances ; and will he take steps to inform all 
naval men on active service how money can be remitted 
and when the money will be paid ? 

DR. MACNAMARA (PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE 
ADMIRALTY) : Every Reservist on mobilisation is entitled to 
a month's pay in advance. Those who have not yet gone 
afloat should have experienced no difficulty in transmitting 

109 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

remittances to their wives, for which every facility is 
offered. In point of fact, as I stated yesterday, re- 
mittances are being sent out from the Admiralty apart 
from those sent direct by the men to their wives by postal 
orders at the rate of something like 500 a day, as com- 
pared with the usual rate of 200 a day. As regards allot- 
ments, I have already stated that since mobilisation about 
40,000 new allotments have been declared, largely by 
Reservists ; and on Saturday next we shall send out from 
our office something like 120,000 monthly allotments. I recog- 
nise that under war conditions those men who favour the 
remittance plan may, when afloat, not invariably find the 
plan so easy to follow as under peace conditions, but we 
issued on August 2ist general orders to Commanders-in- 
Chief, &c., directing that the system of regular allotments 
should be encouraged in preference to the system of 
remittances. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE : Have those orders been 
issued to the men of the Fleet ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : They were issued on the 2ist instant 
to the Commanders-in-Chief, who were asked to call the 
attention of the men to the desirability of allotments as 
against the remittance system. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the 
Admiralty what arrangements have been made concerning 
payments to the wives and dependants of men recently 
employed in the Royal dockyards but since called up for 
service ; whether those payments will be on the scale of 
the men's former wages ; and, if not, and it is intended to pay 
the equivalent, will he say how and when the money will be 
paid ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : As I said in reply to the hon. Gentle- 
man yesterday, all regular dockyard employes will receive, 
when called up, the difference between their civil pay and 
their naval pay, if Naval Reservists, or the difference between 
their civil pay and their military pay, plus separation allow- 
ances, where payable, if Army Reservists. Departments are 
empowered to pay this civil pay, so reduced, to any person 
designated by the Reservist to receive the amount on his 
behalf. Further, so far as we are concerned, steps have 
been taken to enable the cashiers during the first month to 

1 10 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

make the payment in necessitous cases direct to the wife or 
other dependent relative of a Reservist who has failed to 
designate his nominee before leaving, subject to the production 
of the necessary evidence. 

NAVAL RESERVISTS' ADVANCES. 

House of Commons, August 27. 

MAJOR M'CALMONT asked the First Lord of the Hansard. 
Admiralty whether he will publish a list of those registrars 
who are in a position to issue advances to the wives of those 
Naval Reservists whose remittances are not received ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The arrangement indicated was a 
purely temporary one for meeting really urgent cases, and 
was only intended to assist the wives to tide over the period 
between the date of mobilisation and the end of the present 
month, when the first instalment of allotments declared 
becomes payable. It is hoped that it will be found that the 
number of cases in which men of the Royal Naval Reserve 
have not made provision for their wives, either by means of 
a regular allotment of a part of their pay or by direct remit- 
tance, are very few. 

ROYAL NAVY (SEPARATION ALLOWANCES). 

House of Commons, August 27. 

MR. FALLE : I beg to ask the Parliamentary Secretary Hansard. 
to the Admiralty if, if he cannot grant separation allowance 
to the wives and families of all Royal Navy ratings and 
Reservists, he can grant that allowance to the wives and 
famihes of all Royal Navy and Reservist A.B.'s and stokers ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : As I said yesterday, I fully appre- 
ciate and sympathise with the spirit which has inspired the 
hon. Gentleman's questions upon this point, but I am afraid 
I cannot add anything to the general answer I gave the hon. 
Gentleman yesterday as to the payment of separation allow- 
ances to the seamen's wives, except to say that his present 
suggestion to grant the payments to the wives of certain 
ratings only is one in which I cannot concur. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [A 

MARINES LANDED AT OSTEND AND GERMAN 
AUXILIARY CRUISER SUNK BY H.M.S. " HIGH- 
FLYER." 

House of Commons, August 27. 

Hansard. THE FIRST LORD OF THE ADMIRALTY (MR. 
CHURCHILL) : I ought to tell the House that for reasons which 
seem sufficient to the Government and to the military authori- 
ties a strong force of British Marines has been sent to Ostend, 
and has occupied the town and surrounding district without 
delay. Here is another matter : The Admiralty have just 
received intelligence that the German armoured merchant 
cruiser Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, of 14,000 tons and armed, 
according to our information, with ten guns of approximately 
4-in. calibre, has been sunk by His Majesty's Ship Highflyer 
off the Ouro River on the West African coast. This is the 
vessel which has been endeavouring to arrest traffic between 
this country and the Cape, and is one of the very few German 
armed auxiliary cruisers which have succeeded in getting to 
sea. The survivors were landed before the vessel sunk. The 
Highflyer's casualties were : One man killed and five slightly 
wounded, and the names have been given to the Press Bureau. 



August 27. 

P.B. The following message has been sent to the cruiser High- 

flyer : 

Admiralty to Highflyer : 

' Bravo ! You have rendered a service not only to 
Britain but to the peaceful commerce of the world. The 
German officers and crew appear to have carried out their 
duties with humanity and restraint, and are therefore worthy 
of all seamanlike consideration." 

The casualties sustained on board the British cruiser 
Highflyer when the Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse was sunk, as 
announced in the House of Commons yesterday afternoon by 
the First Lord of the Admiralty, were : Killed : Richard 
Lobb, Leading Carpenter's crew. Wounded : Five men, 
slightly. 

112 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Berlin, August 31. 

From a communication from Las Palmas it appears thattf.K. 
the auxiliary cruiser Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse of the N.D.L. 
has been sunk by the English cruiser Highflyer as she lay at 
anchor in the neutral waters of the Spanish colony of Rio 
del Oro. A protest must be made against this repeated 
violation of the neutrality provisions of International Law. 
Great Britain shows by her breach of the well-known in- 
violability of neutral waters recognised theoretically and prac- 
tically by all nations that she does not hesitate to brush 
aside the sovereign rights of neutral States. 



From a telegraphic despatch of the officer commanding tf. v. t 
the auxiliary cruiser Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse which was Sept. 2. 
sunk after an action off the Rio del Oro it would appear that 
the whole of the complement was rescued. 



GERMAN CRUISER BLOWN UP. 

The small cruiser Magdeburg ran ashore in a fog off the/C.K.. 
island of Odensholm in the Gulf of Finland. Aug. 27. 

Owing to the thick weather the other German warships 
in the vicinity were unable to render assistance, and all 
efforts to refloat the vessel having failed, she was blown up, 
as a superior Russian naval force was preparing to attack. 
Thus she found an honourable end. Under fire of the enemy, 
the majority of the cruiser's crew was saved by torpedo-boat 
V 26. The list of casualties is not complete ; but so far as 
is known seventeen men were killed and twenty-one wounded. 
Eighty-five are missing, including the captain. The sur- 
vivors reached a German harbour to-day. 

PRIZE COURTS AND PRIZES. 

House of Commons, August 27. 

DR. MACNAMARA (PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO Hansard. 
THE ADMIRALTY) : It is proposed to issue from time to 
time a list of vessels brought in as prizes to the ports of the 

Naval I H 113 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [A 

British Empire. The officers and crew, if of enemy nationality, 
become prisoners of war unless, in the case of those not 
belonging to or intended for the enemy's naval or military 
service, they sign an undertaking that, while hostilities last, 
they will not engage in any service connected with the opera- 
tions of war. If they are of neutral nationality the officers 
are detained under the same conditions as those of enemy 
nationality ; the men are released. It is not proposed to 
exchange merchant vessels detained as prizes. 



NEW REGULATIONS AS TO PRIZE MONEY. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, 

August 28, 1914. 

PRESENT, 

The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a 
Memorial from the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty, dated the 26th day of August, 1914, in the 
words following, viz. : 

" Whereas Her late Majesty Queen Victoria was graciously 
pleased by Her Royal Proclamation of the i7th day of Septem- 
ber, 1900, to regulate, according to the Scheme set forth 
therein or recognised thereby, the distribution of the net 
proceeds of Prizes captured from the enemy, of captures and 
seizures under the several Acts of Parliament passed relating 
to the Revenues of Customs, and to Trade and Navigation, 
for the abolition of the Slave Trade, for the capture and de- 
struction of Pirates and Piratical Vessels, and of the rewards 
conferred for the same, as also, of the awards for all salvage 
granted to the crews of Your Majesty's Ships and Vessels of 
War, when not otherwise specially apportioned by the terms 
of the respective awards and allowances. 

" And Whereas we are of opinion that the conditions 
governing the distribution of the proceeds of Prizes captured 
from the enemy when such proceeds are granted by Your 

114 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Majesty to the Officers and Men of Your Majesty's Fleet, 
require modification to bring them into accord with modern 
conditions. 

" And Whereas it is intended that in lieu of the system 
of distribution of Prize Money described in the above-men- 
tioned Proclamation there should be substituted, under 
regulations and conditions to be hereafter announced, a 
system of Prize Bounties or Gratuities for more general dis- 
tribution to the Officers and Men of Your Majesty's Naval 
Forces. 

" We humbly beg leave to recommend that Your Majesty 
will be graciously pleased, by Your Order in Council, to cancel 
so much of the above-mentioned Proclamation as relates to 
the distribution of the net proceeds of Prizes captured from 
the enemy." 

His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy 
Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And the 
Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
are to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 



Parliament was informed earlier in the year that His P.B., 
Majesty's Government had decided that prize money in Aug. 29. 
respect of captures should not be granted. An Order in 
Council has been passed cancelling the previous Proclamation 
of September i7th, 1900, in respect of captures from the 
enemy. In lieu of prize money a system of bounties will be 
established. The exact form that the bounties will take 
and the manner in which they will be distributed are under 
consideration, but the intention is that prizes captured during 
the war should cease to be the perquisite of a limited number 
of fortunate crews, and that the proceeds of the sales of 
vessels and cargoes should form a fund out of which the 
distribution will be made on a basis to be subsequently 
determined and announced by Proclamation. No alteration 
will be made in regard to the grant of prize bounties for the 
capture or destruction of enemy warships as provided for in 
the Naval Prize Act, 1864, provision for which will be made 
by Proclamation. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
FIRST MENTION OF GRAND FLEET. 

ADMIRAL SIR JOHN JELLICOE TO FIELD-MARSHAL SIR JOHN 

FRENCH. 

(Telegraphic.) Press Bureau. 

Times, Officers and men of the Grand Fleet wish to express 

Aug. 28, to their comrades of the Army admiration of magnificent 
I9 X 4- stand made against great odds, and wish them the brilliant 

success which the Fleet feels awaits their further efforts. 

BLOCKADE OF KIAO-CHAU. 

Foreign Office, August 29, 1914. 

L.G. The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has received 

from His Excellency the Japanese Ambassador the text of a 
Declaration issued on the 27th instant by the Imperial Japanese 
Naval Authorities, announcing the establishment on that 
date of a blockade of the whole of the littoral of the leased 
territory of Kiao-chau. 

The coastline affected extends from a point 120 10' East, 
and 35 54' North, to a point 120 36' East and 36 / North. 

A period of twenty-four hours was allowed within which 
vessels of allied or neutral States might leave the blockaded 
area. 

[The following is the text, courteously supplied by the Japanese Embassy, 
of the Declaration above referred to : 

The undersigned hereby declares that on this twenty-seventh day of 
August of the third year of Taisho (1914), the blockade of the whole coast- 
line between the point of one hundred and twentieth degree and tenth 
minute (120 10') east longitude and thirty-fifth degree and fifty-fourth 
minute (35 54') north latitude, and the point of one hundred and twen- 
tieth degree and thirty-sixth minute (120 36') east longitude and thirty- 
sixth degree and seventh minute (36 7') north latitude, i.e., the whole 
coastline of the leased territory of Kiao-chau, is established, and will be 
maintained with the naval force under his command, and that a grace of 
twenty-four hours will be given to all vessels of the allied and neutral States 
to leave the blockaded area. Those vessels which attempt to break the 
blockade will be dealt with in accordance with International Law and the 
treaties between Japan and neutral States. 

August 27th of the Third Year of Taisho (1914), On board H.IJ.M. 
Ship SMO. 

VICE-ADMIRAL SADAKICHI KATO, 
Commander-in-Chief of the Second Squadron.] 
1 16 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
ACTION IN HELIGOLAND BIGHT. 

Early this morning a concerted action of some consequence P.B., 
was attempted against the Germans in the Heligoland Bight. Aug. 28. 

Strong forces of destroyers, supported by light cruisers 
and battle cruisers, and working in conjunction with sub- 
marines, intercepted and attacked the German destroyers 
and cruisers guarding the approaches to the German coast. 

According to the information that has reached the Admir- 
alty so far, the operation has been fortunate and fruitful. 

The British destroyers have been heavily engaged with the 
enemy's destroyers. All British destroyers are reported afloat 
and returning in good order. Two German destroyers were 
sunk and many damaged. The enemy's cruisers were 
engaged by our cruisers and battle cruisers. 

The First Light Cruiser Squadron sank the Mainz, re- 
ceiving only slight damage. 

The First Battle Cruiser Squadron sank one cruiser, Koln 
class, and another cruiser disappeared in the mist, heavily on 
fire and in a sinking condition. All the German cruisers 
engaged were thus disposed of. 

The Battle Cruiser Squadron, though attacked by sub- 
marines and floating mines, successfully evaded them and is 
undamaged. The Light Cruiser Squadron suffered no casual- 
ties. The flotilla cruiser Amethyst and destroyer Laertes are 
damaged ; no other vessels seriously injured. 

British loss of life reported not heavy. The Commanding 
Officers concerned in this skilfully-handled operation were 
Rear- Admirals Beatty, Moore and Christian, and Commodores 
Keyes, Tyrwhitt, and Goodenough. 

H.M.S. Liverpool reports that she is returning with nine 
German officers and eighty-one men prisoners, many of them 
wounded. There is reason to hope this is not a complete 
list of German survivors from the sunken ships, but that 
other lives have been saved. 



Berlin, August 29. 

In the course of the forenoon yesterday several English K.V. 
small modern cruisers and two English destroyer flotillas 
(about forty destroyers) entered the Bight of Heligoland in 
weather of variable clearness. Obstinate single engagements 

"7 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

took place between them and our light vessels. The German 
small cruisers pressed eagerly towards the West, and in conse- 
quence of restriction of the field of view came in contact with 
several strong armoured cruisers. S.M.S. Ariadne sank after 
a glorious fight. She was bombarded at close range by the 
heavy artillery of two battle cruisers of the Lion class. The 
greater part of the crew (about 250 in number) were saved ; 
also torpedo boat V 187 sank, firing to the last, under the 
heavy fire of a small cruiser and ten destroyers. The Chief 
of the flotilla and the Commander fell. A considerable por- 
tion of the crew were saved. The small cruisers Koln and 
Mainz were missing. From to-day's Reuter despatch from 
London it appears that they also were sunk in an action with 
superior forces. A portion of their crew (nine officers and 
eighty-one men ?) appear to have been saved by the English 
ships. From a similar English source we learn that the 
English ships also suffered heavy damages. 



August 30. 

P.B. In the action of the 28th instant off Heligoland the light- 

armoured cruiser Arethusa, and not the Amethyst, as previously 
stated, played the principal part. This vessel, which is the 
first of the twenty built under the present Board of Admiralty, 
carried the broad pennant of Commodore Tyrwhitt, com- 
manding the Flotillas of the First Fleet. The principle of 
the operation was a scooping movement by a strong force 
of destroyers, headed by the Arethusa, to cut the German 
light craft from home and engage them at leisure in the open 
sea. The Arethusa, leading the line of destroyers, was first 
attacked by two German cruisers, and was sharply engaged 
for thirty-five minutes at a range of about 3,000 yards, with 
the result that she sustained some damage and casualties, 
but drove off the two German cruisers, one of which she 
seriously injured with her 6-in. guns. 

Later in the morning she engaged at intervals two other 
German vessels, who were encountered in the confused fighting 
which followed, and in company with the Fearless and the 
Light Cruiser Squadron contributed to the sinking of the 
cruiser Mainz. In these encounters the Arethusa' s speed was 
reduced to 10 knots and many of her guns were disabled, 
and at one o'clock she was about to be attacked by two other 

lit 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

cruisers of the German Town Class when the Battle Cruiser 
Squadron most opportunely arrived and pursued and sank 
these new antagonists. 

The armoured protection, speed, and fighting qualities 
of the Arethusa class have now been vindicated, and this is 
satisfactory in view of the fact that a large number of these 
valuable and unique vessels will join the Fleet in the next 
few months. It must be remembered that the Arethusa 
had only been commissioned a few days before as an emer- 
gency ship, and that the officers and crew were new to each 
other and to her. In these circumstances the series of actions 
which they fought during the morning is extremely creditable, 
and adds another page to the annals of a famous ship. 

Although only two of the enemy's destroyers were actually 
observed to sink, most of the eighteen or twenty boats rounded 
up and attacked were well punished, and only saved themselves 
by scattered flight. The superior gun power and strength 
of the British destroyers ship for ship was conclusively de- 
monstrated. The destroyers themselves did not hesitate 
to engage the enemy's cruisers, both with guns and torpedoes, 
with hardihood, and two of them, the Laurel and Liberty, 
got knocked about in the process. 

Intercepted German signals and other information from 
German sources confirms the report of Rear-Admiral Beatty 
as to the sinking of the third German cruiser, which now 
appears to have been the Ariadne. 

The British destroyers exposed themselves to considerable 
risk in endeavouring to save as many as possible of the drown- 
ing German sailors. The British officers present vouch for 
the fact that German officers were observed firing at their 
own men in the water with pistols, and that several were shot 
before their eyes under these peculiar circumstances. The 
destroyer Defender was actually picking up wounded with 
her boats when she was driven off by the approach of another 
German cruiser, and had to leave two of her boats, containing 
one officer and nine men, behind. It was feared that these 
had been made prisoners, but happily Submarine E 4 arrived 
and brought the British party home. As it was not possible 
to accommodate the thirty Germans in the submarine they were 
allowed to return to Germany in the boat under the charge 
of an ober-leutenant who was unwounded. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The complements of the five German vessels known to 
have been sunk aggregated about 1,200 officers and men, 
all of whom, with the exception of these thirty and about 
300 wounded and unwounded prisoners, perished. Besides 
this there is the loss, which must have been severe, on board 
the German torpedo boats and other cruisers which did not 
sink during the action. The total British casualties amounted 
to sixty-nine killed and wounded, among whom must, however, 
be included killed two officers of exceptional merit Lieutenant- 
Commander Nigel K. W. Barttelot and Lieutenant Eric W. P. 
Westmacott. All the British ships will be fit for service in a 
week or ten days. 

The success of this operation was due, in the first instance, 
to the information brought to the Admiralty by the sub- 
marine officers, who have during the past three weeks showed 
extraordinary daring and enterprise in penetrating the 
enemy's waters. 

The First Lord has telegraphed to the American Ambas- 
sador at Berlin desiring him to inform Grand Admiral von 
Tirpitz that his son has been saved and is unwounded. 



Berlin, August 31. 

Times, The following is an official account of the sinking of 

Sept. i. the torpedo boat V 187 : During a fog the vessel was un- 
expectedly attacked on all sides by British torpedo destroyers 
and submarines. She defended herself with all her might, 
but the sharp firing at close range reduced her moving 
capacity. There was no possibility of escaping from the 
enemy's fire, and the vessel turned on her enemies, either to 
fight a passage through or to engage them in battle to the 
end. When she was no longer able to move she was blown 
up to prevent her from falling into the hands of the enemy 
and sank quickly. The Chief of the flotilla and Corvette 
Captain Wallis and Captain Lieutenant Lechler died like 
heroes. It must be admitted that the British, without 
stopping to consider their own danger, sent out lifeboats in 
order to save our men. 

Summoned by the thunder of the guns the small cruiser 
Ariadne rushed to the assistance of the outpost fighting 
forces, and the guns were in the meanwhile silenced. Retreat 



120 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

was not in accordance with the fighting spirit of the German 
Navy, and the Ariadne began to pursue the enemy, whose 
vessels were, however, hidden by the fog. Suddenly new 
gun-firing was heard, and two English armoured cruisers of 
the Lion class were bombarding a German vessel to whose 
assistance the Ariadne was sailing. A shell struck the boiler- 
room and put half of the boilers out of action and reduced her 
speed to sixteen miles. The unequal battle raged for another 
half-hour, the stern of the ship being at the time ablaze, 
but the other guns continued to fire. The enemy in the 
meantime turned towards the west. The brave Ariadne was 
doomed to destruction, and with three " hurrahs " for the 
Kaiser and the singing of the " song of the colours " and 
" Deutschland iiber alles " the ship was abandoned in perfect 
order and sank shortly afterwards. The chief officer, Captain 
Franck, the ship's doctor, Ritter Boxberger, the officer of 
the watch, Helbing, and about seventy members of the crew 
have fallen, and many have been injured. 



NAVAL DESPATCHES REPORTING THE ENGAGEMENT OFF HELI- 
GOLAND, ON FRIDAY, AUGUST 28TH, 1914. 

Admiralty, October 21, 1914. 

The following despatches have been received from Vice- L.G. 
Admiral (Acting) Sir David Beatty, K.C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O., 
H.M.S. Lion, Rear- Admiral Arthur H. Christian, M.V.O., 
H.M.S. Euryalus, Commodore Reginald Y. Tyrwhitt, 
Commodore (T), H.M.S. Arethusa, and Commodore Roger 
J. B. Keyes, C.B., M.V.O., Commodore (S), reporting the 
engagement off Heligoland on Friday, August 28th. 

A memorandum by the Director of the Air Department, 
Admiralty, is annexed. 

H.M.S. " Lion," September I, 1914. 

SIR, I have the honour to report that on Thursday, 
August 27th, at 5 a.m., I proceeded with the First Battle 
Cruiser Squadron and First Light Cruiser Squadron in 
company, to rendezvous with the Rear-Admiral Invincible. 

At 4 a.m., August 28th, the movements of the Flotillas 
commenced as previously arranged, the Battle Cruiser 



121 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Squadron and Light Cruiser Squadron supporting. The 
Rear-Admiral Invincible, with New Zealand and four 
Destroyers having joined my flag, the Squadron passed 
through the pre-arranged rendezvous. 

At 8.10 a.m. I received a signal from the Commodore 
(T), informing me that the Flotilla was in action with the 
enemy. This was presumably in the vicinity of their pre- 
arranged rendezvous. From this time until n a.m. I re- 
mained about the vicinity ready to support as necessary, 
intercepting various signals, which contained no information 
on which I could act. 

At ii a.m. the Squadron was attacked by three Sub- 
marines. The attack was frustrated by rapid manoeuvring 
and the four Destroyers were ordered to attack them. Shortly 
after n a.m., various signals having been received indicating 
that the Commodore (T) and Commodore (S) were both in 
need of assistance, I ordered the Light Cruiser Squadron to 
support the Torpedo Flotillas. 

Later I received a signal from the Commodore (T), stating 
that he was being attacked by a large Cruiser, and a further 
signal informing me that he was being hard pressed and 
asking for assistance. The Captain (D), First Flotilla, also 
signalled that he was in need of help. 

From the foregoing the situation appeared to me critical. 
The Flotillas had advanced only ten miles since 8 a.m., and 
were only about twenty-five miles from two enemy bases 
on their flank and rear respectively. Commodore Good- 
enough had detached two of his Light Cruisers to assist some 
Destroyers earlier in the day, and these had not yet rejoined. 
(They rejoined at 2.30 p.m.) As the reports indicated the 
presence of many enemy ships one a large Cruiser I con- 
sidered that his force might not be strong enough to deal 
with the situation sufficiently rapidly, so at 11.30 a.m. the 
Battle Cruisers turned to E.S.E., and worked up to full 
speed. It was evident that to be of any value the support must 
be overwhelming and carried out at the highest speed possible. 

I had not lost sight of the risk of Submarines, and possible 
sortie in force from the enemy's base, especially in view of 
the mist to the South-East . 

Our high speed, however, made submarine attack difficult, 
'and the smoothness of the sea made their detection 



122 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

comparatively easy. I considered that we were powerful 
enough to deal with any sortie except by a Battle Squadron, 
which was unlikely to come out in time, provided our stroke 
was sufficiently rapid. 

At 12.15 p.m. Fearless and First Flotilla were sighted 
retiring West. At the same time the Light Cruiser Squadron 
was observed to be engaging an enemy ship ahead. They 
appeared to have her beat. 

I then steered N.E. to sounds of firing ahead, and at 
12.30 p.m. sighted Arethusa and Third Flotilla retiring to the 
Westward engaging a Cruiser of the Kolberg class on our 
Port Bow. I steered to cut her off from Heligoland, and 
at 12.37 P- m - opened fire. At 12.42 the enemy turned to 
N.E., and we chased at 27 knots. 

At 12.56 p.m. sighted and engaged a two-funnelled Cruiser 
ahead. Lion fired two salvoes at her, which took effect, 
and she disappeared into the mist, burning furiously and in a 
sinking condition. In view of the mist and that she was 
steering at high speed at right angle to Lion, who was herself 
steaming at 28 knots, the Lion's firing was very creditable. 

Our Destroyers had reported the presence of floating 
mines to the Eastward and I considered it inadvisable to 
pursue her. It was also essential that the Squadrons should 
remain concentrated, and I accordingly ordered a with- 
drawal. The Battle Cruisers turned North and circled to 
port to complete the destruction of the vessel first engaged. 
She was sighted again at 1.25 p.m. steaming S.E. with colours 
still flying. Lion opened fire with two turrets, and at 1.35 p.m., 
after receiving two salvoes, she sank. 

The four attached Destroyers were sent to pick up sur- 
vivors, but I deeply regret that they subsequently reported 
that they searched the area but found none. 

At 1.40 p.m. the Battle Cruisers turned to the North- 
ward, and Queen Mary was again attacked by a Submarine. 
The attack was avoided by the use of the helm. Lowestoft 
was also unsuccessfully attacked. The Battle Cruisers covered 
the retirement until nightfall. By 6 p.m., the retirement 
having been well executed and all Destroyers accounted for, 
I altered course, spread the Light Cruisers, and swept North- 
wards in accordance with the Commander-in-Chief's orders. 
At 745 P-ni. I detached Liverpool to Rosyth with German 

"3 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Au< 

prisoners, 7 officers and 79 men, survivors from Mainz. No 
further incident occurred. I have the honour to be, Sif, 
your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) DAVID BEATTY, 

Vice-Admiral. 
The Secretary of the Admiralty. 



" Euryalus," September 28, 1914. 

SIR, I have the honour to report that in accordance 
with your orders a reconnaissance in force was carried out 
in the Heligoland Bight on August 28th, with the object of 
attacking the enemy's Light Cruisers and Destroyers. 

The forces under my orders (viz., the Cruiser Force, under 
Rear-Admiral H. H. Campbell, C.V.O., Euryalus, Amethyst, 
First and Third Destroyer Flotillas and the Submarines) 
took up the positions assigned to them on the evening of 
August 27th, and, in accordance with directions given, pro- 
ceeded during the night to approach the Heligoland Bight. 

The Cruiser Force under Rear-Admiral Campbell, with 
Euryalus (my Flagship) and Amethyst, was stationed to inter- 
cept any enemy vessels chased to the westward. At 4.30 p.m. 
on August 28th these Cruisers, having proceeded to the East- 
ward, fell in with Lurcher and three other Destroyers, and 
the wounded and prisoners in these vessels were transferred 
in boats to Bacchante and Cressy, which left for the Nore. 
Amethyst took Laurel in tow, and at 9.30 p.m. Hogue was 
detached to take Arethusa in tow. This latter is referred 
to in Commodore R. Y. Tyrwhitt's report, and I quite concur 
in his remarks as to the skill and rapidity with which this 
was done in the dark with no lights permissible. 

Commodore Reginald Y. Tyrwhitt was in command of 
the Destroyer Flotillas, and his report is enclosed herewith. 
His attack was delivered with great skill and gallantry, and 
he was most ably seconded by Captain William F. Blunt, 
in Fearless, and the Officers in command of the Destroyers, 
who handled their vessels in a manner worthy of the best 
traditions of the British Navy. 

Commodore Roger J. B. Keyes, in Lurcher, had, on 
August 27th, escorted some Submarines into positions allotted 

124 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to them in the immediate vicinity of the enemy's coast. 
On the morning of August 28th, in company with Firedrake, 
he searched the area to the southward of the Battle Cruisers 
for the enemy's Submarines, and subsequently, having been 
detached, was present at the sinking of the German Cruiser 
Mainz, when he gallantly proceeded alongside her and rescued 
220 of her crew, many of whom were wounded. Subsequently 
he escorted Laurel and Liberty out of action, and kept them 
company till Rear-Admiral Campbell's Cruisers were sighted. 
As regards the Submarine Officers, I would specially 
mention the names of : 

(a) Lieutenant-Commander Ernest W. Leir. His coolness 
and resource in rescuing the crews of the Goshawk's and 
Defender's boats at a critical time of the action were admirable. 

(b) Lieutenant-Commander Cecil P. Talbot. In my 
opinion, the bravery and resource of the Officers in command 
of Submarines since the war commenced are worthy of the 
highest commendation. 

I have the honour to be, 

Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 

A. H. CHRISTIAN, 

Rear-Admiral. 
The Secretary, Admiralty. 



H.M.S. " Lowestoft," September 26, 1914. 

SIR, I have the honour to report that at 5 a.m. on Thurs- 
day, August 27th, in accordance with orders received from 
Their Lordships, I sailed in Arethusa, in company with the 
First and Third Flotillas, except Hornet, Tigress, Hydra, 
and Loyal, to carry out the prearranged operations. H.M.S. 
Fearless joined the Flotillas at sea that afternoon. 

At 6.53 a.m. on Friday, August 28th, an enemy's Destroyer 
was sighted, and was chased by the 4th Division of the Third 
Flotilla. 

From 7.20 to 7.57 a.m. Arethusa and the Third Flotilla 
were engaged with numerous Destroyers and Torpedo Boats 
which were making for Heligoland ; course was altered to 
port to cut them off. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [At 

Two Cruisers, with 4 and 2 funnels respectively, were 
sighted on the port bow at 7.57 a.m., the nearest of which 
was engaged. Arethusa received a heavy fire from both 
Cruisers and several Destroyers until 8.15 a.m., when the 
four-funnelled Cruiser transferred her fire to Fearless. 

Close action was continued with the two-funnelled Cruiser 
on converging courses until 8.25 a.m., when a 6-in. pro- 
jectile from Arethusa wrecked the fore bridge of the enemy, 
who at once turned away in the direction of Heligoland, 
which was sighted slightly on the starboard bow at about 
the same time. 

All ships were at once ordered to turn to the westward, 
and shortly afterwards speed was reduced to 20 knots. 

During this action Arethusa had been hit many times, 
and was considerably damaged ; only one 6-in. gun 
remained in action, all other guns and torpedo tubes having 
been temporarily disabled. 

Lieutenant Eric W. P. Westmacott (Signal Officer) was 
killed at my side during this action. I cannot refrain from 
adding that he carried out his duties calmly and collectedly, 
and was of the greatest assistance to me. 

A fire occurred opposite No. 2 gun port side caused by a 
shell exploding some ammunition, resulting in a terrific blaze 
for a short period and leaving the deck burning. This was 
very promptly dealt with and extinguished by Chief Petty 
Officer Frederick W. Wrench, O.N. 158630. 

The Flotillas were re-formed in Divisions and proceeded 
at 20 knots. It was now noticed that Arethusa' s speed had 
been reduced. 

Fearless reported that the 3rd and 5th Divisions of the 
First Flotilla had sunk the German Commodore's Destroyer 
and that two boats' crews belonging to Defender had been 
left behind, as our Destroyers had been fired upon by a 
German Cruiser during their act of mercy in saving the 
survivors of the German Destroyer. 

At 10 a.m., hearing that Commodore (S) in Lurcher and 
Firedrake were being chased by Light Cruisers, I proceeded 
to his assistance with Fearless and the First Flotilla until 
10.37 a.m., when, having received no news and being in the 
vicinity of Heligoland, I ordered the ships in company to turn 
to the westward. 

126 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

All guns except two 4-in. were again in working order, 
and the upper deck supply of ammunition was replenished. 

At 10.55 a - m - a four-funnelled German Cruiser was sighted, 
and opened a very heavy fire at about n o'clock. 

Our position being somewhat critical, I ordered Fearless 
to attack, and the First Flotilla to attack with torpedoes, 
which they proceeded to do with great spirit. The Cruiser 
at once turned away, disappeared in the haze and evaded 
the attack. 

About 10 minutes later the same Cruiser appeared on our 
starboard quarter. Opened fire on her with both 6-in. 
guns ; Fearless also engaged her, and one Division of 
Destroyers attacked her with torpedoes without success. 

The state of affairs and our position was then reported 
to the Admiral Commanding Battle Cruiser Squadron. 

We received a very severe and almost accurate fire from 
this Cruiser; salvo after salvo was falling between 10 and 
30 yards short, but not a single shell struck ; two torpedoes 
were also fired at us, being well directed, but short. 

The Cruiser was badly damaged by Arethusa's 6-in. 
guns and a splendidly directed fire from Fearless, and she 
shortly afterwards turned away in the direction of Heligoland. 

Proceeded, and four minutes later sighted the three- 
funnelled Cruiser Mainz. She endured a heavy fire from 
Arethusa and Fearless and many Destroyers. After an action 
of approximately 25 minutes she was seen to be sinking by 
the head, her engines stopped, besides being on fire. 

At this moment the Light Cruiser Squadron appeared, 
and they very speedily reduced the Mainz to a condition 
which must have been indescribable. 

I then recalled Fearless and the Destroyers, and ordered 
cease fire. 

We then exchanged broadsides with a large, four-funnelled 
Cruiser on the starboard quarter at long range, without 
visible effect. 

The Battle Cruiser Squadron now arrived, and I pointed 
out this Cruiser to the Admiral Commanding, and was shortly 
afterwards informed by him that the Cruiser in question 
had been sunk and another set on fire. 

The weather during the day was fine, sea calm, but 
visibility poor, not more than 3 miles at any time when the 

127 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

various actions were taking place, and was such that ranging 
and spotting were rendered difficult. 

I then proceeded with 14 Destroyers of the Third Flotilla 
and 9 of the First Flotilla. 

Arethusa's speed was about 6 knots until 7 p.m., when 
it was impossible to proceed any further, and fires were drawn 
in all boilers except two, and assistance called for. 

At 9.30 p.m. Captain Wilmot S. Nicholson, of the Hogue, 
took my ship in tow in a most seamanlike manner, and, 
observing that the night was pitch dark and the only lights 
showing were two small hand lanterns, I consider his action 
was one which deserves special notice from Their Lordships. 

I would also specially recommend Lieutenant-Commander 
Arthur P. N. Thorowgood, of Arethusa, for the able manner 
he prepared the ship for being towed in the dark. 

H.M. Ship under my command was then towed to the 
Nore, arriving at 5 p.m. on August 29th. Steam was then 
available for slow speed, and the ship was able to proceed to 
Chatham under her own steam. 

I beg again to call attention to the services rendered by 
Captain W. F. Blunt, of H.M.S. Fearless, and the Com- 
manding Officers of the Destroyers of the First and Third 
Flotillas, whose gallant attacks on the German Cruisers at 
critical moments undoubtedly saved Arethusa from more 
severe punishment and possible capture. 

I cannot adequately express my satisfaction and pride 
at the spirit and ardour of my Officers and Ship's Company, 
who carried out their orders with the greatest alacrity under 
the most trying conditions, especially in view of the fact that 
the ship, newly built, had not been forty-eight hours out of 
the Dockyard before she was in action. 

It is difficult to specially pick out individuals, but the 
following came under my special observation : 

H.M.S. " Arethusa:' 

Lieutenant-Commander Arthur P. N. Thorowgood, First 
Lieutenant, and in charge of the After Control. 

Lieutenant-Commander Ernest K. Arbuthnot (G.), in 
charge of the Fore Control. 

Sub-Lieutenant Clive A. Robinson, who worked the range- 
finder throughout the entire action with extraordinary coolness. 

128 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Assistant Paymaster Kenneth E. Badcock, my Secretary, 
who attended me on the bridge throughout the entire action! 

Mr. James D. Godfrey, Gunner (T.), who was in charge 
of the torpedo tubes. 

The following men were specially noted : 

Armourer Arthur F. Hayes, O.N. 342026 (Ch.). 

Second Sick Berth Steward George Trolley, O.N. M 206 
(Ch.). 

Chief Yeoman of Signals Albert Fox, O.N. 194656 (Po.), 
on fore bridge during entire action. 

Chief Petty Officer Frederick W. Wrench, O.N. 158630 
(Ch.) (for ready resource in extinguishing fire caused by 
explosion of cordite). 

Private Thomas Millington, R.M.L.I., No. Ch. 17417. 

Private William J. Beirne, R.M.L.I., No. Ch. 13540. 

First Writer Albert W. Stone, O.N. 346080 (Po.). 

I also beg to record the services rendered by the following 
Officers and Men of H.M. Ships under my orders : 

H.M.S. " Fearless." 

Mr. Robert M. Taylor, Gunner, for coolness in action 
under heavy fire. 

The following Officers also displayed great resource and 
energy in effecting repairs to Fearless after her return to 
harbour, and they were ably seconded by the whole of their 
staffs: 

Engineer Lieutenant-Commander Charles de F. Messervy. 

Mr. William Morrissey, Carpenter. 

H.M.S. " Goshawk." 

Commander The Hon. Herbert Meade, who took his 
Division into action with great coolness and nerve, and 
was instrumental in sinking the German Destroyer " V 187," 
and, with the boats of his Division, saved the survivors in a 
most chivalrous manner. 

H.M.S. " Ferret." 

Commander Geoffrey Mackworth, who, with his Division, 
most gallantly seconded Commander Meade, of Goshawk. 

Naval I I * a 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

H.M.S. " Laertes." 

Lieutenant-Commander Malcolm L. Goldsmith, whose 
ship was seriously damaged, taken in tow, and towed out of 
action by Fearless. 

Engineer Lieutenant-Commander Alexander Hill, for re- 
pairing steering gear and engines under fire. 

Sub-Lieutenant George H. Faulkner, who continued to 
fight his gun after being wounded. 

Mr. Charles Powell, Acting Boatswain, O.N. 209388, who 
was gunlayer of the centre gun, which made many hits. He 
behaved very coolly, and set a good example when getting hi 
tow and clearing away the wreckage after the action. 

Edward Naylor, Petty Officer, Torpedo Gunner's Mate, 
O.N. 189136, who fired a torpedo which the Commanding 
Officer of Laertes reports undoubtedly hit the Mainz, and so 
helped materially to put her out of action. 

Stephen Pritchard, Stoker Petty Officer, O.N. 285152, 
who very gallantly dived into the cabin flat immediately 
after a shell had exploded there, and worked a fire hose. 

Frederick Pierce, Stoker Petty Officer, O.N. 307943, who was 
on watch in the engine room and behaved with conspicuous 
coolness and resource when a shell exploded in No. 2 boiler. 

H.M.S. " Laurel." 

Commander Frank F. Rose, who most ably commanded 
his vessel throughout the early part of the action, and after 
having been wounded in both legs, remained on the bridge 
until 6 p.m., displaying great devotion to duty. 

Lieutenant Charles R. Peploe, First Lieutenant, who took 
command after Commander Rose was wounded, and con- 
tinued the action till its close, bringing his Destroyer out in 
an able and gallant manner under most trying conditions. 

Engineer Lieutenant-Commander Edward H. T. Meeson, 
who behaved with great coolness during the action, and 
steamed the ship out of action, although she had been very 
severely damaged by explosion of her own lyddite, by which 
the after funnel was nearly demolished. He subsequently 
assisted to carry out repairs to the vessel. 

Sam Palmer, Leading Seaman (G.L. 2), O.N. 179529, 
who continued to fight his gun until the end of the action, 
although severely wounded in the leg. 

130 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Albert Edmund Sellens, Able Seaman (L.T.O.), O.N. 
217245, who was stationed at the fore torpedo tubes ; he 
remained at his post throughout the entire action, although 
wounded in the arm, and then rendered first aid in a very able 
manner before being attended to himself. 

George H. Sturdy, Chief Stoker, O.N. 285547, an d 

Alfred Britton, Stoker Petty Officer, O.N. 289893, who 
both showed great coolness in putting out a fire near the 
centre gun after an explosion had occurred there ; several 
lyddite shells were lying in the immediate vicinity. 

William R. Boiston, Engine Room Artificer, 3rd class, 
O.N. M. 1369, who showed great ability and coolness in 
taking charge of the after boiler room during the action, 
when an explosion blew in the after funnel and a shell carried 
away pipes and seriously damaged the main steam pipe. 

William H. Gorst, Stoker Petty Officer, O.N. 305616. 

Edward Crane, Stoker Petty Officer, O.N. 307275. 

Harry Wilfred Hawkes, Stoker 1st class, O.N. K.I2O86. 

John W. Bateman, Stoker 1st class, O.N. K. 12100. 

These men were stationed in the after boiler room and 
conducted themselves with great coolness during the action, 
when an explosion blew in the after funnel, and shell carried 
away pipes and seriously damaged the main steam pipe. 

H.MS. " Liberty.' 3 

The late Lieutenant-Commander Nigel K. W. Barttelot 
commanded the Liberty with great skill and gallantry through- 
out the action. He was a most promising and able Officer, 
and I consider his death is a great loss to the Navy. 

Engineer Lieutenant-Commander Frank A. Butler, who 
showed much resource in effecting repairs during the action. 

Lieutenant Henry E. Horan, First Lieutenant, who took 
command after the death of Lieutenant-Commander Barttelot, 
and brought his ship out of action in an extremely able and 
gallant manner under most trying conditions. 

Mr. Harry Morgan, Gunner (T), who carried out his duties 
with exceptional coolness under fire. 

Chief Petty Officer James Samuel Beadle, O.N. I7I735. 
who remained at his post at the wheel for over an hour after 
being wounded in the kidneys. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

John Galvin, Stoker Petty Officer, O.N. 279946, who 
took entire charge, under the Engineer Officer, of the party 
who stopped leaks, and accomplished his task although 
working up to his chest in water. 

H.M.S. " Laforey." 

Mr. Ernest Roper, Chief Gunner, who carried out his 
duties with exceptional coolness under fire. 

I have the honour to be, 

Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 

R. Y. TYRWHITT, 

Commodore (T). 



Times, The Secretary of the Admiralty issues the following reply 

Sept. 25, to a statement made publicly by the German Minister at 

1914. Copenhagen to the effect that German officers did not, as had 

been reported from England, fire on swimming German sailors 

after the Heligoland fight, but that the English themselves 

fired on the German swimmers, and that an English shell was 

thrown into a lifeboat containing German survivors from 

torpedo boat V 187, though, happily, it did not explode : 

' When the German destroyer V 187 was sinking the 
Goshawk ordered the British destroyers to cease fire, and 
those in the vicinity to lower their boats to pick up the sur- 
vivors, many of whom had jumped overboard some time 
previously. An officer in the aft part of V 187 thereupon 
trained the after gun on the Goshawk, and fired at her, at a 
range of about 200 yards, hitting her in the ward-room, under 
the impression probably that the boats' crews intended to 
board and capture his vessel, whose colours were still flying. 
" It was necessary to destroy V 187*5 after gun, which was 
done with a few well-placed shots, after which every effort 
was made to save life, until a German cruiser of the ' Stettin ' 
class appeared on the scene out of the mist and opened a 
heavy fire on the British destroyers and their boats. The 

13* 

\ 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

destroyers were forced to retire in order to avoid destruction, 
and the Goshawk removed her men from her boat, leaving 
it to the German prisoners, nearly all of whom were wounded. 
It is to be regretted that a bluejacket on the forecastle of the 
Goshawk, exasperated at the inhumane conduct of the cruiser, 
threw a projectile, which could not possibly under the cir- 
cumstances have exploded, into the boat as it drifted past 
the ship. This is no doubt the incident referred to by the 
German Minister at Copenhagen. It cannot be defended, 
but the act was done under considerable provocation, and 
was surely a venial offence compared to that of the German 
cruiser which fired many shells at the British destroyers and 
boats while they were engaged in a humane and chivalrous 
action. 

" The Defender, which had drifted some distance from her 
boats, came under a very heavy fire, and her Commanding 
Officer, to save his ship, and in accordance with the orders 
he received to retire, abandoned his two boats, containing 
an officer and nine men and many prisoners. 

" This scene was witnessed through his periscope by the 
Commanding Officer of submarine E 4, who proceeded to 
attack the cruiser, but the latter altered course to the north- 
ward before the submarine could be brought within range. 
After covering the retreat of the destroyer for some little 
time E 4 returned to the boats and removed the British 
officers and men and a German officer, a chief petty officer, 
and one man. E 4 might well have taken the other German 
officer and six unwounded men prisoners, but as the boats 
contained eighteen very badly wounded Germans he humanely 
left the officer and men to care for them and navigate the 
boats. Before leaving he saw that the boats were provided 
with water, biscuits, and a compass, and he gave the officer 
the position and course to Heligoland. The officer and men 
of the Defender, while waiting for relief, stripped themselves 
of everything but their trousers, tearing up their clothes to 
serve as bandages for the wounded Germans. 

" It might well be said that in carrying out this chivalrous 
action the British destroyers ran unjustifiable risks, and the 
survivors of V 187 must indeed be ungrateful if they do not 

133 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [A 

fully appreciate the treatment they received at the hands of 
DUF officers and men. 

' These facts must be well known to the German naval 
authorities, and if the statement of the German Minister is 
made in good faith, and if any of the survivors had bullet 
wounds, it can only be suggested that the German officer, 
who was generously let free to take charge of his wounded 
men, misrepresented the facts. 

' There is no evidence of the officers of V 187 having fired 
at their men, but there are many British naval officers and 
men who actually saw officers of the Mainz and Konigin Luise 
fire at their men in the water, presumably because they were 
of opinion that they were prematurely deserting their posts. 
There are many men in our hospitals whose wounds testify 
to the accuracy of the German officers' fire. 

" About 350 officers and men were saved from the Mainz, 
about 150 of whom were swimming in the water, some at 
least half a mile from the ship ; many of the latter were 
wounded by revolver bullets. 

' The remaining 200 men of the Mainz would not be 
induced to jump overboard, and were taken off by a destroyer, 
which was laid alongside her just before she sank ; these 
latter included over sixty badly wounded." 



Admiralty, September 15. 

The Admiralty have ordered the following verses to 
be engraved upon a brass plate and fixed in a conspicuous 
place in H.M.S. Arethusa : 

Come, all ye jolly sailors bold, 

Whose hearts are cast in honour's mould, 

While English glory I unfold, 

Huzza for the Arethusa ! 

Her men are staunch. 

To their fav'rite launch, 
And when the foe shall meet our fire. 
Sooner than strike we'll all expire 

On board of the Arethusa. 

J4 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

And, now we've driven the foe ashore 
Never to fight with Britons more, 

Let each fill his glass 

To his fav'rite lass ; 

A health to our captain and officers true, 
And all that belong to the jovial crew 

On board of the Areihusa. 

All the ships which took part in the action off Heligoland 
are to have the words, " Heligoland, August 28th, 1914," 
painted in gold lettering in some convenient place. 



SURRENDER OF APIA. 

Press Bureau, August 30. 

THE Secretary of State for the Colonies has received a Times, 
telegram from the Governor of New Zealand stating that Au - 3 1 - 
Apia, in German Samoa, surrendered at 10 a.m. on August 
29th to an expeditionary force sent by the Government 
of New Zealand. 

CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO THE OCCUPATION 
OF GERMAN SAMOA BY AN EXPEDITIONARY 
FORCE FROM NEW ZEALAND. 

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His 

Majesty. 

September, 1915. 
[Cd. 7972.] 



No. i. 

The Secretary of State to the Governor of New Zealand. 

August 6, 1914. 

IF your Ministers desire and feel themselves able to seize 
German wireless station at Samoa we should feel that this 
was a great and urgent Imperial service. You will realise, 

us 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Auo. 

however, that any territory now occupied must at the con- 
clusion of the war be at the disposal of Imperial Government 
for purposes of an ultimate settlement. Other Dominions 
are acting on the same understanding in a similar way, and, 
in particular, Commonwealth is being consulted as to wireless 
stations at New Guinea, Yap, Marshall Islands, and Nauru 
or Pleasant Island. 

HARCOURT. 



No. 2. 

The Governor of New Zealand to the Secretary of State. 

August 7, 1914. 

YOUR telegram August 6th. My Government agree 
to seizure of Samoa. In view of possibility of presence of 
German cruiser please telegraph at once what escort can be 
provided and when. 

LIVERPOOL. 



No. 3. 

The Governor of New Zealand to the Secretary of State. 

August 8, 1914. 

I AM desired by my Government to inform you that 
provided that escort can be furnished, arrangements have 
now been made to despatch to Samoa an expeditionary force 
on Tuesday, August nth. I have to ask for an immediate 
reply. 

LIVERPOOL. 



No. 4. 

The Secretary of State to the Governor of New Zealand. 

August 8, 1914. 

YOUR telegram August 8th. Admiralty see no objection 
to departure expedition to Samoa about nth instant when 
ready, provided latest local information at disposal Senior 
Naval Officer, New Zealand, does not render departure 
inexpedient and provided he has been consulted and concurs 
in naval arrangements. They consider that, if guns available 

136 



[ 4 ] DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

and time permits, transports may with advantage be lightly 
armed. Escort of one cruiser at least will be detailed. In- 
structions will be sent to Senior Naval Officer accordingly. 
Please inform me of composition and strength force and sea 
transport. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 5. 
The Governor of New Zealand to the Secretary of State. 

August 9, 1914. 

AUGUST 9TH. Your telegram of August 8th ; one 
battalion of infantry, one company engineers, two fifteen- 
pounders, two six-pounders, with signal, medical, and army 
service corps details, two transports. Total force, 1,383. 

LIVERPOOL. 

No. 6. 

The Secretary of State to the Governor of New Zealand. 

August 18, 1914. 

IN connexion with expedition against Samoa, British 
flag should be hoisted in all territories successfully occupied 
by His Majesty's forces and suitable arrangements made for 
temporary administration : but no proclamation formally 
annexing any such territory should be made without previous 
communication with His Majesty's Government. 

HARCOURT. 



No. 7. 

Admiralty to Colonial Office. 

Admiralty, August 30, 1914. 
SIR, 

I AM commanded by My Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty to transmit herewith, for your information, copy 
of telegram of this date received from the Rear-Admiral 
Commanding Australian Squadron, respecting the occupation 
of Apia, &c. 

I am, &c., 

W. GRAHAM GREENE. 

137 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
ENCLOSURE IN No. 7. 

Telegram from Rear-Admiral Commanding Australian Squadron, 

Suva, to Admiralty. 

TOOK possession of Apia (Samoa Islands) to-day, August 
30th (Eastern time). 

In reply to my summons to surrender, Acting Governor, 
in absence of Governor, stated that he submitted to the 
occupation of the island. 

I carried out extensive sweeping operations before enter- 
ing harbour, but found no mines. No resistance was offered. 
There have been no enemy ships in harbour for some time. 
Landing of troops was commenced during this afternoon. 
British flag hoisted. Officer commanding troops took over 
control from Lieutenant-Governor at 2 p.m. to-day. 

Will leave with Australia, Melbourne; and Montcalm for 
Suva as soon as disembarkation is complete, probably to- 
morrow. 



No. 8. 

The Governor of New Zealand to the Secretary of State. 

August 30, 1914. 

AUGUST 30TH. I have received the following telegram 
from Admiral, Australia : 

" Apia surrendered at 10.0 a.m. August 3Oth, Eastern 
time. Military expedition landed in afternoon without 
opposition/' 

LIVERPOOL. 



No. 9. 

The Secretary of State to the Governor of New Zealand. 

August 31, 1914. 

YOUR telegram August 3oth. Please convey to your 
Ministers heartiest congratulations of His Majesty's Govern- 
ment on successful occupation of Samoa by expeditionary 
force. 

HARCOURT. 

_ ^ ___ ( _ . __ _ 

138 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 10. 

The Governor of New Zealand to the Secretary of State. 
(Extract.) 

September 2, 1914. 

OFFICER Commanding the Troops, Samoa, has sent me 
the following message : 

" Expedition under my command, with the assistance 
of the allied fleet, occupied town of Apia August 3ist 
(Eastern time). Governor of Samoa, who surrendered 
to me, is being sent with the prisoners to Fiji. I am 
glad to report that there was no opposition, that the 
health of the troops is excellent, and that there havfr 
been no serious casualties since the expedition started. 
LOGAN." 

LIVERPOOL. 

No. ii. 

The Governor of Fiji to the Secretary of State. 

(Extract.) 

Government House, Suva, August 30, 1914. 

THE expeditionary force from New Zealand, conveyed in 
two transports and escorted by H.M. Ships Australia, Mel- 
bourne, Psyche, Philomel, and Pyramus, and the French ship 
Montcalm, arrived at Suva on the 26th instant and left at 
8.30 the following morning. 

Rear-Admiral Sir George E. Patey, H.M.S. Australia, 
accompanied by Captain Marshall, Senior Naval Officer^ 
New Zealand, Colonel Logan, Officer in Charge of the Ex- 
peditionary Force, and Captain Radcliffe, H.M.S. Australia, 
had an interview with me at Government House on the a6th 
instant, when I communicated to Sir George E. Patey, Captain 
Marshall, and Colonel Logan telegrams relating to the expedi- 
tion which I had received from the Governor of New Zealand, 
and placed before them all the information which I thought 
might be useful. Sir G. E. Patey and Colonel Logan were 
good enough to allow a contingent of ten men from Fiji to 
accompany the expedition, and, from their knowledge of 
natives, if for no other reason, the members of the contingent 
should be able to render useful service. I arranged also that 
a certain number of Samoans of some standing in Fiji, and oi 

39 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

'influence in their native country, should be placed at Colonel 
Logan's disposal. These men will be able to act as inter- 
preters and guides, and will be valuable in making known 
to the natives of Samoa the advantages that they will enjoy 
,by becoming subjects of His Majesty the King. 



No. 12. 

The Governor of New Zealand to the Secretary of State. 

(Extract.) 
Government House, Dominion of New Zealand, Wellington, 

September 16, 1914. 
-SiR, 

I HAVE the honour to transmit to you copies of two 
despatches and enclosures from Colonel Logan, Acting 
Administrator of Samoa, for your personal inspection. 

2. My Government are dealing with all the matters 
referred to in the despatches. 

3. Since these two despatches were written I have received 
telegrams from Colonel Logan informing me that he desired 
to replace all the German officials. 

4. The New Zealand Government propose filling all offices 
with capable civil servants, and will pay them from here, 
pending arrangement at the time of settlement with the 
Imperial Government. 

5. My Government have duly taken note of the fact that, 
in Colonel Logan's opinion, the administration can be effici- 
ently undertaken with a smaller staff than was the case under 
^German occupation. 

I have, &c., 

LIVERPOOL, 
Governor. 

ENCLOSURE i IN No. 12. 

(Despatch No. i.) 

Government House, Apia, Samoa, September 2, 1914. 
TOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I HAVE the honour to report that the forces under my 
.command, having embarked on H.M. Transports No. i 
(Moeraki) and No. 2 (Monowai) on August I4th, 1914, at 

140 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Wellington, sailed from that port at daybreak on the following 
morning. 

We were met at the previously arranged rendezvous by 
H.M. Ships Psyche, Philomel, and Pyramus at 4 p.m. on August 
i6th. On this and the following nights no lights were shown. 

Throughout the voyage musketry and other exercises 
were carried out by the troops. 

On August 20th the convoy arrived at Noumea, New 
Caledonia, at n a.m., and there met the French cruiser 
Montcalm. During the day I, with my Staff Officer, attended 
a joint naval and military conference on board H.M.S. Philomel. 

On August 2ist H.M.A. Ships Australia and Melbourne, 
with Rear-Admiral Sir George E. Patey in command, arrived 
in port and, under instructions from the Rear- Admiral, I 
attended on board the flagship and received operation orders 
(provisional) for the attack upon Samoa. In the afternoon 
I paid an official visit to His Excellency the Governor of New 
Caledonia. The troops were, with the permission of His 
Excellency, exercised on shore, and everywhere met with a 
most cordial reception. 

On the morning of August 22nd, while the transports 
were moving out into the stream, Transport No. 2 drifted 
on to a sandbank, from which she was only refloated at 
8.30 p.m., after her cargo had been lightered and the troops 
temporarily disembarked. 

On August 23rd the allied fleets and transports sailed for 
Suva, Fiji, arriving at that port during the morning of August 
26th, on which date I accompanied the Rear- Admiral on an 
official visit to His Excellency the Governor of Fiji, later 
attending a conference on board H.M.A.S. Australia. 

At the request of His Excellency the Governor of Fiji, 
I enrolled one officer of the Fiji Constabulary as German 
Interpreter, and also four members of the Fiji Rifle Association 
and six members of the Legion of Frontiersmen as privates 
in the 3rd Auckland Regiment. There were also embarked 
one officer and nineteen men from H.M.S. Sealark, one naval 
signaller Royal Naval Reserve, one nursing sister, and fourteen 
natives of Samoa these latter to be dispersed throughout 
the island in order to explain our intentions. I am much 
indebted to the Rev. Father Fox, of Suva, for bringing me 
into touch with the Samoans above referred to. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

On August 2/th, the allied fleets and transports sailed 
from Suva, Fiji, in the afternoon, and arrived at Apia at day- 
break on the 3Oth (Eastern time). In response to an ulti- 
matum conveyed under a flag of truce from H.M.S. Psyche, 
the Deputy-Governor replied that although, in the temporary 
absence of His Excellency the Governor of Samoa, he would 
not accept the responsibility of surrendering, no opposition 
would be offered to the landing of the armed forces. 

The troops were thereupon disembarked under cover of 
the guns of the allied fleets in manner previously detailed in 
orders ; the disembarkation was carried out without casualty. 
All Government buildings were immediately seized and Govern- 
ment officials and police placed under arrest. 

I established my headquarters at the Government buildings 
at 4 p.m., received His Excellency the Governor of Samoa, 
and informed him that I regretted that I must place him under 
arrest. On this date I received from the European residents 
in Samoa the attached memorial (Sub-enclosure i). 

On the following day, August 3ist (Eastern time), at 
8 a.m., the British flag was formally hoisted on the Govern- 
ment buildings in the presence of the officers of the New 
Zealand Division, Royal Navy, the troops, and the leading 
native chiefs. At this ceremony I read a Proclamation, 
copies of which, in English, German, and Samoan, I enclose 
herewith for Your Excellency's perusal (Sub-enclosure 2). 

I conferred with the native chiefs, whose attitude towards 
us is extremely friendly, and I am informed from reliable 
sources that the vast majority of the natives are in sympathy 
with the British occupation of Samoa. 

I also conferred with -the German heads of department 
and their subordinates, and, as they have given their parole 
to do nothing inimical to British interests and to carry out 
their duties loyally, I have retained them, with two exceptions, 
in their respective offices at the same salaries as they were 
previously receiving. 

I am of opinion that the various departments are largely 
overstaffed and should be reduced as opportunity occurs to 
do so with the minimum of friction. 

His Excellency the Governor of Samoa. After having, as 
already stated, informed His Excellency the Governor of 
Samoa that I placed him under arrest, I permitted him to 

142 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

return to his residence under escort of an officer of my staff, 
in order to obtain such wearing apparel and effects as he 
might require, and then caused him to be placed on board 
Transport No. I until the following morning, when he was 
again permitted to land under escort and attend further 
to his affairs, subsequently proceeding to Transport No. 2, 
in which ship he is now being conveyed to Suva, under escort 
of an officer of the 5th Regiment. I ordered that both on 
Transport No. I and Transport No. 2 His Excellency should 
be treated as an honoured guest and accorded every con- 
sideration. 

Wireless. I am informed by the Senior Naval Officer, 
New Zealand Division, that the wireless station at Apia 
could be heard tuning up after H.M.S. Psyche had sent in a 
flag of truce about 9.30 a.m., and only desisted on being 
ordered by the Rear-Admiral to do so. On my troops 
reaching the wireless station it was found that some essential 
parts of the engine which drives the dynamo had been re- 
moved and that some of the aerials had been tampered with. 
The aerials were immediately repaired, and we have been 
capable of receiving messages since August 30th, but we 
have been unable to repair the engine, or, up to the present, 
discover the missing parts. The engine which was brought 
by the Expeditionary Force has, however, to-day been in- 
stalled, and I hope to-night to be able to obtain communica- 
tion with Your Excellency either through Suva or Pago Pago. 
I enclose for Your Excellency's perusal a Proclamation 
(No. 2) (Sub-enclosure 3) which deals with the above subject, 
and which I deemed it necessary to issue. I should add 
that investigation disclosed the fact that preparations had 
been made for the destruction of the wireless station by 
dynamite. 

Section D Battery. As explained later in this despatch, 
it became necessary to send Transport No. 2 to Suva with 
the least possible delay, and in the hurry of so doing a mis- 
understanding resulted in Transport No. 2 putting to sea 
while still having on board a section of D Battery, which had 
been brought to Apia in her. The two guns of this section 
had, however, been brought ashore, and part of the section 
of D Battery, which arrived in Transport No. I, will be quite 
able to serve these two guns. I keenly regret the temporary 

143 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

loss of the services of the section which arrived in Transport 
No. 2. I only became aware of the fact that these men were 
still on board after Transport No. 2 had proceeded some 
twenty miles to sea, and the necessities of the situation did 
not permit me at that stage to take steps to have Transport 
No. 2 recalled. 

Food requirements. Immediately upon landing I was 
approached by the Honourable Mason Mitchell, United States 
Consul in Apia, who informed me that food was in short 
supply. I at once investigated the matter, and found that 
the Chinese indentured coolies, numbering about 3,000, had 
been on short rations since the outbreak of war, and the 
European residents feared that they might rise unless the food 
in hand, which was barely sufficient to last ten days, was 
augmented. 

The European population was also suffering from shortage 
of supplies as stocks held on the island are small, the merchants 
depending on the regular monthly service of the Union 
Steamship Company, which service has been suspended. 

The problem was, therefore, as to how to obtain a supply 
of food to reach Apia by about September 5th. 

I was able to procure 9,000 Ibs. of flour from H.M. Ships 
Psyche and Philomel, and I had already purchased in Noumea 
and Suva three tons rice, four tons sugar, and 4,000 Ibs. 
biscuits to augment my own stores, so that this quantity of 
food was available, without infringing on what I had brought 
from New Zealand, to tide over the situation until outside 
supplies could be obtained. 

I ascertained from responsible citizens that the following 
are the monthly requirements of the islands : 

Rice, 80 tons. 

Sugar, 10 tons. 

Biscuits, 400 to 500 2O-lb. tins. 

Coolie tea, 20 40-lb. cases. 

Dripping, 100 kerosene tins. 

Flour, 50 tons. 

Hops, 400 Ibs. 

Chaff, 100 sacks. 

Oats, 75 sacks. 

Bran, 200 sacks. 

Fowl wheat, 20 bags. 
144 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Butter (in tins), i ton of 5-lb. and 2-lb. tins. 
Benzine, 150 cases. 
Corned beef, 50 cases i-lb. tins. 
30 cases 2-lb. tins. 

10 cases 3-lb. tins. 

10 cases 4-lb. tins. 

10 cases 5-lb. tins. 

10 cases 6-lb. tins. 

Rex soap, 50 cases. 
Nestle's milk, 15 cases. 
Salt, 10 sacks. 
Potatoes, 60 cases or sacks. 
Onions, 10 cases. 
Bacon, 10 sides (rolled). 
Brown wrapping paper (butcher's) , half ton. 
Of the above necessaries, rice, potatoes, and onions cannot 
be held in stock for more than two months, as they deteriorate 
rapidly in this climate. 

The following provisions had, prior to my arrival, been 
ordered from Sydney to come by the s.s. Sonoma (an American 
ship), due at Pago Pago on Friday next, the 4th instant : 
Rice, 80 tons. 
Flour, 10 to 20 tons. 
Sugar, 5 tons. 

I have made arrangements for these supplies to be brought 
over from Pago Pago in an American schooner, and if they 
are on board the Sonoma they should arrive here on the 6th 
instant. 

Considerable supplies are also expected by the Ventura 
(American) from San Francisco, arriving at Pago Pago about 
the I4th instant. 

Before ascertaining that these supplies were on the way, 
I had arranged with the Senior Naval Officer, New Zealand 
Division, to send here by Transport No. 2 one month's sup- 
plies from Fiji, if possible, and, in the event of supplies being 
unobtainable in Fiji, then that Transport No. 2 should be 
sent to Auckland to obtain them there, and to return at once. 
The flour obtained from the warships has been distributed 
amongst the local bakers, for the European population, at 
cost price, and a restriction has been placed on the price charged 
for bread. 

Naral I K 145 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Auo. 

Prices have, since the war began, appreciated about 100 
per cent., and I propose, with the provisions for which I am 
asking, to reduce this appreciation to 20 per cent., and I 
also propose to fix a scale of prices to be charged by retail 
stores which will give them a fair rate of profit on their turn- 
over. This will continue until Government stores or supplies 
are discontinued and trade has returned to normal. 

I have also given orders that the planters must give a full 
ration to their Chinese labourers, and that if I am unable 
to supply the rice to enable them to do so they must supply the 
equivalent in native cereals or fruits. The Chinese, however, 
do not appreciate this alternative diet. 

Chinese. The short ration has already caused trouble 
with the Chinese, and two days after my arrival I was com- 
pelled to send a platoon of infantry and a hastily raised half 
troop of mounted rifles to assist the native police in the sup- 
pression of a somewhat ugly rising of about 120 Chinese on a 
plantation some seven miles from here a German planter 
having been surprised and surrounded in his house. 

I have found it necessary to allow the German planters 
to retain their arms for self-protection, considering it better 
that we should run some risk in this direction rather than that a 
European family should be placed at the mercy of the Chinese. 

I am convinced that on the food question depends the 
behaviour of the Chinese, who, in my opinion, are a menace 
to the European population unless very carefully handled. 

The Samoan native chiefs have already approached me 
in reference to the danger of intermixture of Samoan and 
Chinese blood, and have asked whether some steps cannot 
be taken towards the repatriation of the Chinese. While I 
feel that the danger apprehended by the chiefs is a very real 
one, I have replied that the matter must stand over for 
consideration at a later date. 

Troops of the Garrison. With reference to the section of 
D Battery now on board Transport No. 2, if that vessel 
proceed to New Zealand I have to ask that this section be 
ordered to rejoin its headquarters in Apia. With regard to 
the escort on board Transport No. 2, I have to ask that these 
be discharged in New Zealand, with the exception of Lieu- 
tenant D. A. Kenny, the Officer Commanding, who would 
rejoin his regiment here. 

146 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

I propose to return to New Zealand, as opportunity offers, 
all men who may prove medically unsuitable. I also propose 
to discharge, when opportunity to return them to Fiji offers, 
those men of the 3rd Auckland Regiment who were attested 
in Samoa as already mentioned. 

I hope to be permitted to retain the remainder of the 
force so long as German cruisers remain in the Pacific, but 
when these have been disposed of I see no reason why the 
garrison should remain at its present strength, as I anticipate 
no trouble whatever from the Samoan natives. 

On the whole, the discipline of the troops has been good 
and has improved considerably since the expedition started. 

Finance. When making arrangements in Suva to take 
with us the Samoans already referred to I had to make 
arrangements for the support of their families during their 
absence. 

I arranged with the Suva branch of the Bank of New 
Zealand to pay i per week to the relatives of each of these 
men the relatives being identified to the Manager's satis- 
faction by Father Fox. 

To establish the necessary credit I drew on the Quarter- 
master-General, Wellington, for the sum of 100, which 
amount has been placed to my credit at the Bank of New 
Zealand, Suva, to cover the payments referred to. 

When I no longer require the services of these Samoans I 
will advise the Manager, and the account will be closed by 
paying any balance in the hands of the Bank of New Zealand 
into the public account at Wellington. 

I have not yet had time to inquire into the financial posi- 
tion of Samoa, but, judging from the large number of State 
officials and the number of natives said to be receiving Govern- 
ment pay, and taking into consideration the small exporting 
capacity of the island, I am of opinion that the government 
of Samoa must entail financial loss. 

At the earliest possible moment I will go thoroughly into 
the question of revenue and expenditure, and I have to ask 
that a highly qualified official of the Audit Department be 
instructed to proceed to Samoa to go into the question. 

In the meantime, I have given orders that a balance sheet 
to the date of our occupation be taken out by each department, 
and a fresh set of books opened from that point. 

147 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Savaii. I have appointed Mr. Williams to be Deputy- 
Administrator of the island of Savaii, and he left yesterday 
to take over his duties. Attached hereto is a copy of the 
letter of authority which I have handed to Mr. Williams 
(Sub-enclosure 4). 

Mr. Williams has been in the islands for over forty years, 
and from the inception of German rule in Samoa until the 
declaration of war acted in the capacity of Deputy Administra- 
tor of Savaii, under the German Government. 

On the declaration of war he was given the option of resign- 
ing his British citizenship or being relieved of his office, and 
he chose the latter alternative, although this entailed the loss 
of his pension. 

I shall take the earliest possible opportunity of personally 
visiting Savaii, and formally hoisting the British flag there. 
***** 

I enclose herewith, for Your Excellency's perusal, a letter 
which I have received from the American Consul at Apia, 
which letter I have formally acknowledged. 
I have, &c., 

ROBERT LOGAN, Colonel, 

Administrator of Samoa. 
To His Excellency 

The Right Honourable 

The Earl of Liverpool, G.C.M.G., M.V.O., 
Governor of New Zealand. 



SUB-ENCLOSURE i TO DESPATCH No. i. 

Apia, Samoa, August 29, 1914. 

WE, the undersigned residents of Samoa, subjects of. 
Great Britain, France, and Belgium, now at war with Germany 
and Austria, fully appreciate the kindness shown to us by 
Dr. Schultz and the German officials and residents in Samoa 
since the war was announced on the 4th instant, and hope 
that in the event of a change of flags His Excellency Dr. 
Schultz and the German residents will meet with the same 
consideration that we received. 

(Signed by THOMAS TROOD and 92 others.) 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
SUB-ENCLOSURE 2 TO DESPATCH No. i. 
PROCLAMATION. 

1. THE New Zealand Government of His Britannic 
Majesty King George V. now occupy for His Majesty all the 
German territories situated in the islands of the Samoan 
group. 

2. All inhabitants of the occupied territories are com- 
manded to submit to all such directions as may be given by 
any officer of the occupying force. 

3. Every inhabitant of the occupied territories is forbidden 
to assist or to communicate directly or indirectly with the 
German Government or the German forces, or to resist directly 
or indirectly the occupying forces or any member thereof. 

4. All public property of the German Government must 
be delivered forthwith by those responsible for its safety to 
the possession of the occupying force. 

5. Private property of individuals will only be taken if 
required for the purposes of the occupying force, and if so 
taken will be paid for at a reasonable price at the termination 
of the war. 

6. No person shall, except with the written permission of 
an authorised officer of the occupying force, be out of doors 
on any night between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m., nor 
change his or her present place of residence nor use any boat 
or canoe. 

7. All public meetings are prohibited. 

8. No circular or newspaper or printed matter of any 
description shall be circulated, printed, or issued, without the 
written permission of an authorised officer of the occupying 
force. 

9. No spirituous or intoxicating liquor shall be manufac- 
tured or sold without the written permission of an authorised 
officer of the occupying force, nor shall liquor be supplied to 
any Samoan native. 

10. All officials of the German Government who desire 
to continue to carry out their functions under the present 
Military Government must report themselves forthwith to 
the Commander of the Occupying Force, and such as may be 
retained in their employment will receive the same rate of 
remuneration as was received by them prior to the occupation. 

149 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

11. All inhabitants having in their possession any motor- 
cars, horses, carts, or other means of transport must forthwith 
report the description of the same to the Provost-Marshal of 
the Occupying Force. 

12. All arms of every description, whether the property 
of the German Government or of private persons, must 
forthwith be delivered at the office of the Provost-Marshal of 
the Occupying Force. 

13. All persons who quietly submit to the administration 
of affairs by the occupying force will be protected in their 
occupations except in the case of such occupations as may 
be contrary to the best interests of the occupying force. 

14. All persons who in any manner resist the occupying 
force or attempt by violence or otherwise to interfere with or 
overthrow the Military Government now established for His 
Majesty King George Fifth, or who fail to obey the above- 
written or any subsequent commands of any officer of the 
occupying force, will be punished according to the laws of war. 

Given at Apia this twenty-ninth day of August in the year 
of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and fourteen. 

ROBERT LOGAN, Colonel, 
Commanding the Occupying Force. 
God Save the King. 

SUB-ENCLOSURE 3 TO DESPATCH No. i. 
PROCLAMATION No. 2. 

1. EVERY person having possession of any machinery 
or material formerly used in or in connexion with the wireless 
installation at Apia, or the railway leading thereto, is required 
to deliver the same immediately to the Provost-Marshal. 

2. If the above requisition is not complied with before 
midnight on September 2nd, 1914, all houses and grounds 
in Apia will be searched, and any person found to be harbour- 
ing any of the above-mentioned machinery or materials will 
be dealt with according to the laws of war, and will receive 
the extreme penalty. 

Given at Apia this first day of September, 1914. 

ROBERT LOGAN, Colonel, 

Administrator of Samoa. 
God Save the King. 

150 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
SUB-ENCLOSURE 4 TO DESPATCH No. i. 

British Military Headquarters, Apia, 

Samoa, September I, 1914. 
SIR, 

I, AS the Officer Commanding the British Force now in 
occupation of the German territories in the islands of the 
Samoan Group, hereby appoint you under myself to act as 
Deputy Administrator of the island of Savaii. 

You are authorised to proceed to Savaii and to take 
delivery on my behalf of all the documents, funds, and other 
property of the German Government in that island, and to 
administer that island on behalf of the British Military 
Government now established. 

I annex hereto a copy of the Proclamation, bearing date 
August 29th, 1914, issued by me, which will serve to show 
you the policy of the military administration which I have 
established to this policy I desire you to conform as closely 
as the circumstances will permit. 

You will note that, subject to the special provisions of 
the above-mentioned Proclamation, and subject also to such 
further orders as I may give, the Military Government will 
carry on the administration on the same lines, as nearly as 
possible, as it was carried on under the German Government, 
employing where convenient the same officials and the same 
police as were employed by the German Government. 

Herr Pfeil, however, who has been administering the island 
of Savaii on behalf of the German Government, is to deliver 
to you all such documents, funds, and other property of the 
German Government as are in his possession, and is then to 
return to Apia forthwith. 

A letter from the Chief Justice of Samoa to Herr Pfeil 
on this subject is enclosed herewith, and should be handed by 
you to Herr Pfeil. 

ROBERT LOGAN, Colonel, 

Administrator of Samoa. 
To Richard Williams, Esq,, 
Apia. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

SUB-ENCLOSURE 5 TO DESPATCH No. i. 

American Consulate, Apia, 

Samoa, August 31, 1914. 
SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to inform you, in reply to your 
instructions of the 30th instant, that, representing His British 
Majesty's Government, you have established a British pro- 
visional Government in the islands of Opolu and Savaii in the 
Samoan Group ; in consequence thereof I respectfully resign 
the representation of British interests assumed by me on 
August 8th, 1914, in accordance with instructions received 
from the Department of State of the United States of America. 
I have, &c., 

MASON MITCHELL, 

American Consul. 
Administrator, 

Colonel Logan, 

Apia, Samoa. 

ENCLOSURE 2 IN No. 12. 

(Despatch No. 2.) 

Government House, Apia, 

Samoa, September 5, 1914. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I AM pleased to be able to inform Your Excellency that, 
since the date of despatch No. i, matters in connexion with 
the occupation of Samoa have progressed as smoothly as 
could be expected. The troops under my command have 
now moved into two camps on sound ground conveniently 
situated for the defence of Apia, and measures have been 
taken for the safeguarding of the port. 

Wireless. I accidentally omitted to state in despatch 
No. i that a light petrol railway, leading from the harbour 
to the wireless -station, was found to be unworkable, owing 
to parts of the engine having been removed. I am glad to 
be able to state, however, that the engine has now been 
repaired, and in a very few days the engine should be again 
running right out to the wireless station, and already the 
railway has been of considerable service. 



152 



I 4 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The wireless installation is now working satisfactorily, 
and, as Your Excellency is aware, we are now able to send 
messages. Our power to do so, however, is necessarily limited, 
owing to our inability to use the engines properly belonging to 
the installation. 

Food Supplies. H.M. Transport Monowai arrived from 
Suva this morning, and is now discharging some 30 tons of 
rice obtained at that port. This will, for the time at any 
rate, supply the want mentioned in my last despatch. 

Government House. I have now, with my staff, taken up 
my residence at " Vailima," the late residence of Dr. Schultz. 



Administration. I find that most of the taxes had fallen 
due just prior to our arrival here, but, owing to the present 
low price obtaining for copra, the German authorities did not 
press for taxes, and little, if any, had been collected. I think 
it advisable that we should also allow some latitude before 
pressing for the payment of taxes. 

In my last despatch I reported to Your Excellency that 
all the late officials, except two, had been retained in their 
positions. I subsequently found, however, that most of 
these officials did not properly understand their position, since 
they believed themselves to be carrying on the administration 
of Samoa on behalf of Germany, and were continuing to use 
the German seal on documents used by them. I had dealt 
with this point at my first meeting with these officials, and I 
thought that I had made myself clear. I have, however, 
since conferred with the leading officials and have insisted on 
the attitude which, for greater clearness, I have to-day 
embodied in a memorandum handed by me to the officials, 
a copy of which memorandum I attach hereto for Your 
Excellency's perusal (Sub-enclosure i). 

The officials are to consider the matter and will then let 
me know as to whether they are prepared to continue in 
their offices. I think it possible that most of the officials 
will decide to remain in office, but it appears to be not unlikely 
that the judicial officers will decline to continue to carry out 
their functions. 

A careful inquiry is being made into the administration 
of the various departments and into the functions of the 

153 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

various officials, but this is now delayed pending the reply 
of the officials to the memorandum above referred to. 

Expeditions. Since my last despatch a troop of mounted 
rifles was despatched to Falealeli, being away from Apia 
for three days and returning with Herr Osbahr, the local 
Administrator of South Upolu. I have conferred with Herr 
Osbahr, and have decided to retain him in office, and he has 
to-day returned to his district. I have made Herr Osbahr 
fully understand the point, already referred to, which was 
raised by the other officials. 

A patrol has visited Safatu. 

Troops. H.M. Transport Monowai, which is due to leave 
Apia to-morrow morning, will carry with her about seventy- 
five of all ranks. Embarkation states for these officers and 
men will be forwarded to headquarters. This number 
includes all the men (with one exception) who were enlisted 
at Fiji in the 3rd (Auckland) Regiment. These should be 
returned to Fiji and discharged there. 

In H.M. Transport Monowai there returned to Apia the 
fifty officers and men of D Battery, and also Lieutenant Kenny, 
of the 5th (Wellington) Regiment. These details have now 
been disembarked. 

I have, &c., 

ROBERT LOGAN, Colonel, 

Administrator of Samoa. 
To His Excellency 
The Right Hon. 

The Earl of Liverpool, G.C.M.G., M.V.O., 
Governor of New Zealand. 



SUB-ENCLOSURE i IN DESPATCH No. 2. 
BRITISH MILITARY OCCUPATION OF SAMOA. 

Memorandum re the attitude adopted towards officials formerly 
employed by the German Government in Samoa. 

ARTICLE 43 of The Hague Regulations requires that the 
occupying force shall secure public order and safety in the 
occupied territory, and it is obvious that from this requirement 

154 



:4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the necessity arises of appointing officials to carry on the 
administration of the territory and to preside in the Courts. 

It is, of course, quite open to the occupying force to appoint 
a completely new set of officials for this purpose. Article 43 
of The Hague Regulations was, however, framed with a view 
to preventing the occupied territory from falling into a con- 
dition of chaos, and in order to carry out the intention of 
Article 43 it has been the custom in past wars for the occupy- 
ing force to invite most of the existing officials in the occupied 
territory to remain in office under the new regime. 

If the officials agree to remain in office they become, of 
course, servants of the occupying force. 

This would at first sight seem to involve a certain amount 
of disloyalty on the part of the officials in that they serve 
the enemy of their own State, but, since Article 43 was 
framed, aot for the benefit of the occupying force, but for 
the benefit of the occupied territory, it has been long con- 
' sidered to be not only no wrong, but even a duty on the part 
of the officials to assist the occupying force in carrying out 
the intentions of Article 43. 

The fact that the officials may be employed for this purpose 
does not, however, imply that the Government of the occupied 
territory is being carried on in the name of, or on behalf of, 
the State against which it is occupied. The occupying force 
is the Government of the occupied territory during the period 
of the occupation, and it is inconceivable that any occupying 
force would depart from the principle laid down by the 
Prussians in 1870 namely, that in occupied territory no 
official documents are to be issued which purport to be under 
the authority of the State against which the territory is 
occupied. 

The British Military Government now established in 
Samoa desires to carry out the intentions of Article 43 of The 
Hague Regulations and with that end in view desires to 
retain the services of the officials, since to change the officials 
at this stage must necessarily result in considerable loss and 
inconvenience to the inhabitants of Samoa. 

The officials are, therefore, invited to retain their positions 
at their former salaries, it being understood that these positions 
are held under the British Military Government and not under 
Germany. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

All official documents are to be issued " in the name of the 
law." 

The British Military Government does not insist that 
official documents shall be issued in the name of King George V., 
but it cannot permit that such documents should be issued 
in the name of the Kaiser or of the German Government. 

It is hoped that the officials will, on this understanding, 
assist the British Military Government to carry out its 
obligations under The Hague Regulations, but if the officials 
cannot see their way to do so, then the British Military 
Government must endeavour to carry out its obligations by 
appointing its own officials, although this course, as already 
pointed out, must necessarily entail a considerable amount 
of hardship and inconvenience to the inhabitants of Samoa. 

ROBERT LOGAN, Colonel, 

Administrator of Samoa. 
Government House, 
Apia, Samoa. 

No. 13. 

EXTRACT FROM A REPORT TO THE ADMIRALTY 
BY THE VICE-ADMIRAL COMMANDING HIS 
MAJESTY'S AUSTRALIAN FLEET. 

October 23, 1914. 

AT Suva Colonel Logan embarked 15 prominent Samoans. 
These were representatives of each important village on both 
islands belonging to the Germans. They were landed at 
Apia on the disembarkation of the expedition, and dispersed 
immediately to distribute the intelligence to the Samoans as 
to our intentions. 

By my direction the detailed orders for the disembarka- 
tion were drawn up by Captain H. J. T. Marshall, of H.M.S. 
Psyche. I reviewed and approved of these orders on August 
26th, and a meeting of officers to discuss the procedure was 
held on board Australia during the same day. 

The expedition sailed from Suva at 9 a.m. on August 27th. 
On August 28th, owing to strong east wind and head sea, I 
had to reduce speed from eleven to nine knots. The Psyche, 

156 



4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Philomel, and Pyramus were experiencing difficulty in steam- 
ing against the head sea, and the transport Monowai had been 
gradually dropping astern. At the reduced speed, however, 
she was able to resume her proper station. 

The weather improved towards the evening and maintained 
its improvement the next day, and I was able gradually to 
increase speed again to eleven-and-a-half knots by i p.m. 
on August 29th. I had hoped to have arrived at daylight on 
August 30th (Eastern time), but owing to the weather I did 
not arrive off Apia until 7.45 a.m. on that day. 

The Psyche approached the harbour flying a flag of truce, 
and sent in her boat with my letter to the Governor demanding 
his surrender to me of the town of Apia and the dependencies 
under his control. 

The estimates of German residents and armed police 
varied from 400 to 1,000, and it had been represented to me, 
both at Noumea and Suva, that it was probable that the 
harbour was mined. With the force under my command 
there was no need to take any unnecessary risks, and the 
picket boats of Australia fitted for sweeping were sent to 
Psyche, and on the flag of truce being hauled down the channel 
was swept under the supervision of Lieutenant-Commander 
John M. Jackson, of H.M.S. Sealark. This officer had 
volunteered to accompany the expedition for this purpose. 
He is experienced at this work and his services were accepted. 

The Governor was reported to be absent from Apia. The 
same thing was noticed when I tried to get into communica- 
tion with the Governor of Herbertshohe on August I2th. 
It may be only a coincidence. 

My letter was delivered to the Acting Governor, and the 
substance of his reply is given in Enclosure 2. 

The disembarkation was arranged to take place almost 
opposite the British Consulate ; it would have been easy 
for a body of determined men to make the operation very 
unpleasant ; I therefore had every reason to inform him of 
what the consequences would be in the event of such opposi- 
tion. It will be observed that my instructions to the ships 
inshore were not to fire more than absolutely necessary to 
overcome such opposition. 

With regard to the wireless station it was observed at 
Herbertshohe that, as soon as the ships were sighted, urgent 

157 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

calls were sent out. Exactly the same procedure was followed 
at Apia, and I therefore sent a wireless signal in English 
" Cease signalling instantly," which had the desired effect, 
and the only signal made was " S.G.," repeated four times 
very rapidly. Such high-power stations cannot be ignored, 
but must be regarded as primarily intended for hostile pur- 
poses, and therefore come under Convention IX., chapter I., 
(1) See article II., of Second Hague Conference. (1) 
Appendix, About IO.I5 a.m. the Acting Governor gave an assurance 
p. 402. that resistance would not be offered, and stated verbally that 
no mines had been laid in the harbour. The assurance was 
passed by signal from Psyche, but the channel into the harbour 
was already being swept by Australia's picket boats. No 
mines were found, but it was observed that one of the leading 
marks of the channel had been removed. 

Psyche and transports entered the harbour about 11.30 
a.m., and the disembarkation began. The Union Jack was 
hoisted on shore at i.o p.m., and the flag over the Governor's 
residence hauled down at 1.30 p.m. All the troops were 
landed without mishap by 2.35 p.m. Suitable lighters were 
obtained from the shore, the stores and guns were landed 
expeditiously, the transports being finally cleared by noon 
on August 3ist (Eastern time). 

The organisation for the disembarkation, and the manner 
in which the operation was carried out, reflected great credit 
on Captain H. J. T. Marshall, of H.M.S. Psyche, and those 
under his orders. 

During the afternoon of August 3Oth, the American Consul, 
representing British and French interests, called on Psyche. 
He also came at the request of the late Lieutenant-Governor 
of Samoa. At 2.0 p.m. Colonel Logan landed with the 
American Consul to visit the late Lieutenant-Governor and 
take over control. 

During the night of August 30th 3ist the Australia, 
Montcalm, and Melbourne stood out to sea, returning in the 
morning of the latter day. 

At 8.0 a.m. on August 3ist (Eastern time) the Union Jack 
was hoisted over the Court House, and Psyche fired a salute of 
twenty-one guns. 

No enemy ships were at Apia, nor had there been any 
there recently. The last one was believed to be the Cormoran, 

158 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

in May, 1913. It is certain that none have been there during 
1914. 

There were 1,500 tons of Westpprt coal at Apia, the pro- 
perty of Samsen & Company. This coal arrived by a Nor- 
wegian barque about three weeks previously. 

The expedition having been established, and all stores, 
&c., landed, I left Apia at noon on August 3ist. 



ENCLOSURE i IN No. 13. 

Letter to His Excellency the Governor, the Imperial 
Station, Apia. 

H.B.M. Australian Ship " Australia," 

off Apia, August 30, 1914. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I HAVE the honour to inform you that I am off the port 
of Apia with an overwhelming force, and, in order to avoid 
unnecessary bloodshed, I will not open fire if you surrender 
immediately. 

2. I therefore summon you to surrender to me forthwith 
the town of Apia, and the Imperial possessions under your 
control. 

3. An answer must be delivered within half an hour to the 
bearer. 

4. Wireless communications are to cease instantly or fire 
will be opened on the station. 

5. If no answer is received to this letter, or if the answer 
is in the negative, the cruisers have orders to cover the landing 
parties with their guns. 

I have, &c., 

GEORGE E. PATEY, 

Rear- Admiral Commanding Ships and 

Vessels of the Allied Fleets. 
His Excellency 
The Governor, 

The Imperial Station, Apia. 



159 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ENCLOSURE 2 IN No. 13. 

Translation of Letter from Acting Governor of Samoa, 

August 30, 1914. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I HAVE the honour to reply as follows, on behalf of the 
Imperial Governor : 

According to the principles of the rights of nations, 
especially the agreements of the Second Hague Peace Con- 
ference, the bombardment of our (said ?) harbours and 
Protectorates is forbidden, also the threat to do so. 

I therefore respectfully protest against Your Excellency's 
proposal. For the rest, to avoid the military measures which 
you propose, I have given orders for the wireless telegraph 
station to be packed up, and that no resistance is to be offered. 
I leave it to Your Excellency to take possession of the 
Protectorate of Samoa, and respectfully remark that the 
responsibility for the life and property of the European 
population must rest with you. 

I have, &c., 

S. N. RIMBURG, 

His Excellency Acting Governor. 

The Commander-in-Chief 

of the Allied Fleets. 



ADMIRALTY APPROVE OF SIR BERKELEY MILNE'S 

ACTION. 

Times, THE following message was issued by the Press Bureau 

Aug. 30, at 11.45 a - m - to-day : 

I 9 I 4- The Admiralissimo of the French Fleet, Vice-Admiral 

Boue de Lapeyrere, has assumed command of the combined 

Anglo-French Fleet in the Mediterranean. 

As a consequence, Admiral Sir Berkeley Milne, Bart., who 

is senior to this officer, has given over the command of the 

Mediterranean Fleet and returned home. 

The conduct and dispositions of Admiral Sir Berkeley 

Milne in regard to the German vessels Goeben and Breslau 

have been subject to careful examination of the Board of 

Admiralty, with the result that their Lordships have approved 

of the measures taken in all respects. 

160 



4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

GOODS IN GERMAN STEAMERS. 

House of Commons, August 31. 

MR. TOUCHE asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Hansard, 
Affairs (i) whether German and Belgian goods bought and Au S- 3 1 . 
paid for by a British firm in England and consigned on a 
German steamer to a British firm established in a British 
Possession are liable to confiscation ; and (2) whether Belgian- 
made goods paid for in London by a British firm, and con- 
signed to Hong Kong by a German steamer, would be con- 
fiscated if captured by a British ship ? 

MR. ACLAND (UNDERSECRETARY OF STATE FOR 
FOREIGN AFFAIRS) : Goods the property of a British subject, 
or the subject of an allied or neutral State, shipped on board 
a German vessel, are not liable to confiscation, apart from 
any question of contraband. The question whether particular 
goods are in fact the property of a British subject, or of a 
subject of an allied or neutral State, is one to be decided 
according to the rules of law applicable in such case. The 
following notice, which appears daily in The Times newspaper, 
has doubtless not escaped the hon. Member's attention : 

" All persons having any interest in cargoes other than 
enemy cargoes laden on enemy ships captured as prizes and 
requiring a release of such cargoes or portion of cargoes should 
make inquiries in London at the offices of His Majesty's 
Procurator-General, Treasury Chambers, Whitehall, and at 
the outports of the United Kingdom, at the offices of the 
Agents for His Majesty's Procurator-General, whose addresses 
can be obtained from the collectors of Customs at such 
outports. . 

" His Majesty's Procurator-General will require proof of 
ownership and particulars as to freight, whether paid or 
unpaid." 

NOTICE RELATING TO MINES IN NORTH SEA. 

Admiralty, August 31, 12.30 a.m. 

HAVING regard to the great and growing injuries which 
are being inflicted upon neutral vessels by mines in the 
North Sea, it should be clearly understood that while the 
Admiralty reserves to itself the right of adopting, and will 

Naral I L l6l 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

not hesitate to adopt any retaliatory measures which the 
methods of the German Navy may render necessary, it has 
not up to the present laid a single mine, and is therefore not 
chargeable with any of the injury up to the present caused by 
mine laying. 

3.30 a.m. 

His Majesty's Government have learnt that on or about 
August 26th an Iceland trawler is reported to have struck a 
mine 25 miles off the Tyne and sunk, and at least one foreign 
newspaper has stated that the mine was English. Although 
the German action in laying mines has forced the Admiralty 
to reserve to themselves the right to do likewise, the state- 
ment already made by His Majesty's Government that no 
British mines have been laid remains absolutely true at this 
moment. 

The mines off the Tyne were laid 30 miles to seaward, 
not as part of any definite military operations nor by German 
ships of war, but by German trawlers, of which a considerable 
number appear to have been engaged in this work. The 
number of one such trawler actually seen to be doing this 
was " A E 24, Emden." 



PROMOTIONS, APPOINTMENTS, HONOURS AND 

REWARDS. 

Times, THE Admiralty announce that with the approval of His 

Aug. 7, Majesty the King, Rear-Admiral Archibald G. H. W. Moore, 

1914- C.V.O., C.B., Third Sea Lord on the Board of Admiralty, 

will hoist his flag in His Majesty's Ship Invincible on 

August I5th, and will be succeeded as Third Sea Lord by 

Rear-Admiral Frederick C. T. Tudor, C.B., at present Director 

of Naval Ordnance. 

It is further announced that Rear-Admiral Sir David 
Beatty, K.C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O., commanding the First 
Battle Cruiser Squadron, has received the acting rank of 
Vice-Admiral. 

The following Flag Officers have hoisted their flags in 
ships of the Second and Third Fleets, the appointments 
dating from August ist : 
162 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

Vice-Admiral the Hon. Sir A. E. Bethell, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., 
in H.M.S. Prince George, as Vice-Admiral Commanding 
Battleships of Third Fleet. 

Rear-Admiral William L. Grant, C.B., in H.M.S. Drake. 

Rear-Admiral H. L. Tottenham, C.B., in H.M.S. Albion. 

Rear-Admiral D. R. S. De Chair, C.B., M.V.O., in H.M.S. 
Crescent. 

Rear-Admiral H. H. Campbell, C.V.O., in H.M.S. Bacchante. 

Rear-Admiral R. S. Phipps Hornby, C.M.G., in H.M.S. 
Doris. 

Rear-Admiral R. E. Wemyss, C.M.G., M.V.O., in H.M.S. 
Charybdis. 

Rear-Admiral Cecil F. Thursby, C.M.G., in H.M.S. Queen. 

Rear- Admiral J. M. de Robeck, in H.M.S. Amphitrite. 

Captain Morgan Singer, Aide-de-Camp, R.N., has been 
selected to succeed Rear-Admiral Tudor as Director of Naval 
Ordnance and Torpedoes, to date August I5th. 



The Admiralty issued the following official notice last Times, 
night : Aug. n. 

His Majesty the King has been pleased to appoint Admiral I 9 I 4 
Sir George Callaghan, G.C.V.O., K.C.B., to be First and 
Principal Naval Aide-de-Camp, in succession to Admiral Sir 
E. Poe, G.C.V.O., K.C.B., to date September nth, 1914. 

Admiral Sir George Callaghan, G.C.V.O., K.C.B., has been 
appointed to the Admiralty for special service on the War 
Staff. 



Admiralty, August 18, 1914. 

Deputy Surgeon-General Donald Templeton Hoskyn, M.B., 
has been promoted to the rank of Surgeon-General in His 
Majesty's Fleet. Dated August 7th, 1914. 

Fleet Surgeon Daniel Joseph Patrick McNabb has been 
promoted to the rank of Deputy Surgeon-General in His 
Majesty's Fleet. Dated August 7th, 1914. 



163 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [AUG. 

Admiralty, August 21, 1914. 

A Temporary Commission in the Royal Naval Volunteer 
Reserve has been issued as follows : 

Commander. 

The Right Honourable James Cleland Burns, Baron Inver- 
clyde. 

Lord Chamberlain's Office, August 22, 1914. 

THE King has been graciously pleased to give orders for 
the following promotion in the Most Honourable Order of the 
Bath: 

To be an Ordinary Member of the Military Division of 
the Second Class, or Knights Commanders, of the said Most 
Honourable Order : 

Rear-Admiral Archibald Gordon Henry Wilson Moore, 
C.V.O., C.B. 

Admiralty, August 27, 1914. 

In accordance with the provisions of His late Majesty's 
Order in Council of December 8th, 1903 : 

Vice-Admiral William Blake Fisher, C.B., has this day 
been placed on the Retired List. 

Consequent thereon the following promotions have been 
made from the same date : 

Rear-Admiral Sackville Hamilton Garden to be Vice- 
Admiral. 

Captain George Alexander Ballard, C.B., Aide-de-Camp, 
Commodore, ist Class, to be Rear-Admiral. 

DETENTIONS OR CAPTURES OF ENEMY SHIPS OR 

CARGOES. 

Vessels Detained in British Ports or Captured at Sea by His 
Majesty's Armed Forces. 

L.G., IN order to furnish information to British and other 

Sept. 2, traders who may be interested in cargoes carried on merchant 

1914. vessels which have been either detained in British ports 

on the outbreak of war or have been captured by His Majesty's 

armed forces, it has been decided to publish lists of these 

164 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

vessels. A list is accordingly appended containing such 
information as is at present available. This list cannot 
be taken as necessarily complete, and is subject to correction. 
Supplementary lists will be published from time to tune as 
further particulars are received. 

These lists will also be communicated to Chambers of 
Commerce in the United Kingdom, to the undermentioned 
Shipping Associations, &c., 

Baltic Mercantile and Shipping Exchange, Ltd., 24, 
St. Mary Axe, E.C. 

Central News, 5, New Bridge Street, E.C. 

Chamber of Shipping of the United Kingdom, 5, 
Whittington Avenue, Leadenhall Street, E.C. 

" Fairplay," Billiter House, Billiter Street, E.C. 

" Journal of Commerce," Liverpool. 

Liverpool Steamship Owners' Association, 10, Water 
Street, Liverpool. 

Liverpool Underwriters' Association, Liverpool. 

Lloyd's, Royal Exchange, E.C. 

Lloyd's List, 37, Royal Exchange, E.C. 

North of England Protecting and Indemnity Associa- 
tion, 24, St. Mary Axe, E.C. 

Press Association, Ltd., 14, New Bridge Street, E.C. 

Shipping Federation, Ltd., Exchange Chambers, 24, 
St. Mary Axe, E.C. 

" Shipping Gazette," 5, New Street Square, E.C. 

" Shipping World," Effingham House, Arundel Street, 
W.C. 

" Syren and Shipping," 93, Leadenhall Street, E.C. 
and to any other similar bodies who may intimate to the 
Foreign Office that they wish to receive them. 

All persons having any claims in respect of cargoes which 
are the subject of proceedings in the British Prize Courts 
should take steps to have their interests represented in 
accordance with the Prize Court Rules, copies of which may 
be procured, either directly or through any Bookseller, from 
Messrs. Wyman and Sons, Ltd., 29, Breams Buildings, Fetter 
Lane, London, E.C. With respect to vessels which may 
be in the custody of the Prize Courts established in the 
United Kingdom, attention is called to the following notice 
issued by the Prize Court : 

165 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
" PRIZE COURTS. 

" Admiralty Marshal's Office, 
" Royal Courts of Justice, 

" London, W.C. 

" (Registry of the Prize Court in Great Britain and Ireland), 

" August 14, 1914. 

" All persons having any interest in cargoes other than 
enemy cargoes laden on enemy ships captured as prizes, 
and requiring a release of such cargoes or portion of cargoes, 
should make enquiries in London at the offices of His Majesty's 
Procurator-General, Treasury Chambers, Whitehall, and hi 
the case of the outports of the United Kingdom, at the 
offices of the agents for His Majesty's Procurator-General, 
whose addresses can be obtained from the Collectors of 
Customs at such outports. 

" His Majesty's Procurator-General will require proof 
of ownership and particulars as to freight, whether paid or 
unpaid." 

In cases where the title of British subjects or of persons 
domiciled in allied or neutral States, or of friendly aliens 
domiciled in this country, who are interested in such cargoes, 
is clear and established without doubt to the satisfaction 
of the Procurator-General, such cargoes or portions of cargoes 
will be released with as little delay as possible, provided that 
no question of contraband arises, and subject to the adjust- 
ment of any matters relating to freight or other charges 
falling on the cargo. In more doubtful cases recourse to the 
ordinary Prize Court procedure will be necessary. It will 
in most cases be convenient that the parties should com- 
municate with the agent of the Procurator-General at the 
port where the ship is, rather than with the Procurator- 
General himself. 

Due notice will be given of the institution of proceedings 
in cases in which vessels are in the custody of the Prize Courts 
in the United Kingdom. Vessels which have been detained in 
or brought into British ports outside the United Kingdom 
will be brought before the Prize Courts established in His 
Majesty's dominions overseas, and interested parties should 
take steps to have their interests represented before those 
Courts. 

166 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

It is hoped that arrangements may shortly be made for the 
publication of similar notice in respect of proceedings in those 
Prize Courts. 

His Majesty's Government are endeavouring to obtain 
from the Governments of France, Russia, and Japan lists 
of merchant vessels which may be similarly detained or 
captured by the armed forces of those States. All such 
information as soon as received will be published in the 
same way. 

A separate notification is being published* as regards 
German vessels detained in Belgian ports on the outbreak 
of hostilities. 

All the information in the possession of His Majesty's 
Government will in this way be made public, and it is hoped 
that the necessity of applying to Government Departments 
for information in particular cases will be eliminated. 

Foreign Office, 

August 29, 1914. 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Adolf (943) . . 




German 






Gibraltar. 


Adolph (146) . . ' 




German 






Leith. 


Albert Clement (1,165) 




German 






South Shields. 


Albertine (Steam Trawler) 




German 






t 


Alesia (5,144) 






German 







Rangoon. 


Alfred (130) . . 






German 






Granton. 


Alfrieda (1,860) 






German 






Bristol. 


Altair (3,220) 






German 






t 


Altje (68) . . 






German 






Hull. 


AUona (4,312) 






German 






Melbourne. 


Angela (122) 






German 






Grangemouth. 


Apapa (Seagoing Tu 


) 




German 






Nigeria. 


Apolda (4,939) 






German 






Cape Town. 


Arafels 






German 






Port Adelaide. 


Athene (2,470) 






German 






Sydney, N.S.W. 


Attila (3,240) 






Austrian 






Kirkwall. 


Australia (7,485) 






German 






Colombo. 



* See below [p. 172]. 

t Reported Captured at Sea. 

| Reported Captured and taken into Port Sudan. 



167 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



[AUG. 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Behrend (141) 


German 


Arbroath. 


Behrens 


German 


Glasgow. 


Belgia (8,132) 


German 


Newport, Mon. 


Bellas (931) 


German 


Rimousld. 


Berlin (Fishing Lugger) 


German 


Wick. 


Berlin (4,196) 


German 


Sydney, N.S.W. 


Birkenfels (5,639) 


German 


Cape Town. 


Bismarck 


German 


South Africa. 


Blonde (613) 


German 


London. 


Bolivar (267) 


German 


Plymouth. 


Bradenburgh (A.E. 87) 


German 


Invergordon, Inver- 






ness. 


Brema (1,537) 


German 


Swansea. 


Buda (3,858) 


Austrian 


Tyne. 


Canstatt (5,930) 


German 


Brisbane. 


Carl (1,993) 


German 


Cardiff. 


Chile (2,182) 


German 


Cardiff. 


Chow-Tai 


German 


Straits Settlements. 


Christian X. (4,956) 


German 


Captured in Persian 






Gulf. 


Comet (1,471) 


German 


Seaham, Sunderland. 


Conrad (164) 


German 


Inverness. 


Daksa (4,140) 


Austrian . . . ; 


Gibraltar. 


Dalecrest (4,277) 


British 


Castleton, Berehaven. 


Denebola (1,481) 


German 


West Hartlepool. 


Diana (1,208) 


German 


Nigeria. 


Drei 


German 


Blyth-Amble. 


Dryade (1,831) 


German 


Warrington. 


Dr. Robitzsch (202) 


German 


Aberdeen. 


Eduard (476) 


German 


Liverpool. 


Elfrieda (1,860) 


German 


Bristol. 


Else (223) 


German 


Falmouth. 


Else Kunkel (218) 


German 


Aberdeen. 


Emanuel (141) 


German 


Blyth-Amble. 


Emir (5,514) 


German 


Gibraltar. 


Emma Minlos (1,286) 


German 


Middlesbro' 


Erica (141) 


German 


Rochester. 


Erna Boldt (1,731) . . 


German 


London. 


Erymanthos (2,934) 


German 


Malta. 


Perm 


Norwegian 


Newcastle, N.S.W. 


Fiducia (123) 


German 


Yarmouth. 


Frankenfels (5,854) 


German 


Calcutta. 


Franz Fischer (970) . . 


German 


Sharpness,Gloucester. 


1 63 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Franz Horn (1,314) 


German 


London. 


Freienfels (5,633) 


German 


Calcutta. 


Frida (99) 


German 


Leith. 


Frieda (Galliot) (63) 


German 


Hull. 


Furth (4,229) 


German 


Colombo. 


Gebruder (73) 


German 


Alloa. 


Gemma (1,385) 


German 


Blyth. 


Georg (945) 


German 


Gibraltar. 


George Harper (1,612) 


German 


Grimsby. 


Gerhard (schooner) 


German 


Boston, Line. 


Germania (Yachf) (164) 


German 


Southampton. 


Germania (1,096) 


German 


Sydney. 


Geschurster (56) 


German 


Blyth-Amble. 


Greenbank (3,881) . . 


British 


Cardiff. 


Greifswald (5,486) 


German 


Fremantle. 


Gria 


German 


Sydney, N.S.W. 


Hamm (4,598) 


German 


Cape Town. 


Hammel Werders (87) 


German 


Aberdeen. 


Hanna Larsen (1,310) 


German 


Southampton. 


Hans Hemsoth (2,487) 


German 


Blyth. 


Hans Jost (954) 


German 


Grangemouth. 


Hans Leonhardt (1,273) 


German 


London. 


Hans Otto 


German 


Blyth. 


Hartside (2,740) 


British 


Portland. 


Heinrich (75) 


German 


London. 


Helmuth (Tug) 


German 


Zanzibar. 


Henry Furst (1,498) 


German 


Newcastle. 


Herbert Fischer (938) 


German 


Poole. 


Hercules (1,095) 


German 


Liverpool. 


Hermann (2,030) 


German 


Dysart. 


Hobart (5,923) 


German 


Melbourne. 


Hochfeld (3,689) 


German 


* 


Hornsund (3,643) 


German . . ' . . 


Manchester. 


Horst Martini (946) 


German 


Newport, Mon. 


Ida (4,730) 


Austrian 


Quebec. 


lolo (3,903) 


British 


Cardiff. 


Izrada (3,539) 


Austrian 


Falmouth.f 


Johanna (223) 


German 


Falmouth. 


Joszef Agost Fohereczeg 


Austrian 


Ceylon. 


Karpat (5,056) 


Austrian 


South Shields. 


Katharina (95) 


German 


Dysart. 



* Reported Captured near St. Vincent (Cape Verde), 
t Since arrived at London. 



169 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



[Auc 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Katharina (137) 


German 


London. 


Koslrena (2,531) 


Austrian 


Weymouth. 


Kronprinzessin Cecilie (8,684) 


German 


London. 


Kumeric (6,232) 


British 


Liverpool. 


Kurmark (5,137) 


German 


Calcutta. 


Leda (6,766) 


German 


Bermuda. 


Levensau (2,153) 


German 


Hull. 


Lina (62) 


German 


Burntisland. 


Linden f els (5,476) 


German 


Aden. 


Llanberis (4,064) 


British 


Cardiff. 


Llanishen (3,837) 


British 


Cardiff. 


Lock-well (3,536) 


British 


Cardiff. 


Lothringen (5,002) 


German 


Melbourne. 


Lucida (1,476) 


German 


Hull. 


Marie Glaeser (1,317) 


German 


Glasgow. 


Marie Leonhardt (1,468) 


German 


London. 


Melbourne (5,926) 


German 


Sydney, N.S.W. 


Mientze (93) 


German 


Borrowstoness. 


Mietzing (514) 


German 


Borrowstoness. 


Moltkefels (4,921) 


German 


Colombo. 


Mowe (59) 


German 


Leith. 


Nauta (1,137) 


German 


Leith. 


Nautor (708) 


German 


Leith. 


Nephrite (673) 


British 


Middlesbrough. 


Neptun (197) 


German 


Chatham. 


Neumunster (4,224) 


German 


Fremantle. 


Nyland (1,533) 


German 


Hull. 


Oberhausen (4,322) 


German 


Hobart. 


Occident (813) 


German 


London. 


Oceano (4,657) 


British 


Cardiff. 


Odessa (3,046) 


German 


Cork (Castletown, 






Berehaven). 


Olinda 


German 


Newcastle, N.S.W. 


Oriental (Yacht) 


Austrian 


Southampton. 


Orteric (6,535) 


British 


Queenstown. 


Osnabruck (4,240) 


German 


Sydney, N.S.W. 


Ostpreussen (1,755) 


German 


Blyth. 


Otto (152) 


German 


Leith. 


Ottokar (957) 


German 


Plymouth. 


Pagenturm (5,000) 


German 


Calcutta. 


Perkeo (3,765) 


German 


London. 


Perla (5,355) 


Austrian 


Calcutta. 


P/afc 


German 


Melbourne. 



170 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Porto (1,812) 


German 


Guernsey Roads.* 


Prinz Sigismund 


German 


Brisbane. 


Prinz Adalbert (6,030) 


German 


London. 


Professor Woermann (6,061) 


German 


Sierra Leone. 


Prosper (759) 


German 


London. 


Providentia (2,970) 


German 


Manchester. 


Quarto. 


German 


Straits Settlements. 


Rajaburi 


German 


Hongkong. 


Ranee 


German 


Straits Settlements. 


Rappen/els (5,883) . . 


German 


Colombo. 


R. C. Rickmers (5,548) 


German 


Cardiff. 


Retina 


Austrian 


Sunderland. 


Reichcnfels (4,679) . . 


German 


Colombo. 


Rheinfels (5,512) 


German 


Bombay. 


Rhenania (874) 


German 


Blyth-Amble. 


Riga (2,156) 


German 


Gibraltar. 


Roland (1,377) 


German 


Plymouth. 


Rotenfels (5,589) 


German 


Calcutta. 


Rothersand (140) 


German 


Kirkcaldy. 


Rufidji (5,442) 


German 


Simon's Bay. 


Rutgert Vinnen 


German 


Sydney, N.S.W. 


Sabbia (2,752) 


Austrian 


Tyne. 


Sandakan 


German 


Straits Settlements* 


Santa Catharina (4,247) 


German 


t 


Scharzfels (5,513) 


German 


Adelaide. 


Schlesein (5,536) 


German 


Plymouth. 


Schneefels (5,826) . . 


German 


Gibraltar. 


Schwarzenbek (1,970) 


German 


Cardiff. 


Seeadler 


German 


South Africa. 


Senator Dantziger (164) 


German 


Tralee. 


Senegambia (3,780) 


German 


t 


Serak (4,680) 


German 


Cardiff. 


Signal (i,449) 


German 


Brisbane. 


Soldier Prince (3,118) 


British 


London. 


Soulhfield (3,506) 


British 





Steinturm (5,266) 


German 


Colombo. 


Stella Marts (Yacht) (29) . . 


German 


Southampton. 


Stolzenfels (5,553) 


German 


Sydney, N.S.W. 



* Captured and brought in by French Warship, 
t Captured at sea and taken into Rio de Janeiro. 
J Captured near Tsingtau. 
Particulars not yet available. 



171 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



[Auc 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Sturmvogel 




German 






South Africa. 


Sumatra (7,484) 




German 






Sydney, N.S.W. 


Susan Vinnen 




German 






Newcastle, N.S.W. 


Syra (3,597) 




German 






Gibraltar. 


Tergestea (4,272) 




Austrian 






Sunderland. 


Terpsichore (2,025) 




German 






Limerick. 


Theodor (207) 




German 






Lynn. 


Theodore (205) 




German 






Granton. 


Tiberius (4,149) 




German 






Sydney. 


Tilly (109) 




German 






Grangemouth. 


Tommi (138) " 




German 






London. 


Tredegar Hall (3,764) 




British 






Portland. 


Trifels (5,750) 




German 






Colombo. 


Trostburg (6,342) 




German 






Calcutta. 


Turul (3,530) 




Austrian 






Sydney, N.S.W. 


Utta Boog (1,698) . . 




German 






Barry. 


Ursus (2,190) 




German 






Hull. 


Varzin (4,455) 




German 






Perim. 


Vianna (400) 




German 






Granton. 


Wartenfels (4,511) . . 




German 






Aden. 


Warturm (4,965) 




German 






Bombay. 


Wega (%$<)} .. 




German 






Alloa. 


Welle (117) . . 




German 






Aberdeen. 


Weser (181) 




German 






Poole. 


Wildenfels (5,512) . . 




German 






Melbourne. 


Wilhelm (1,259) 




German 






Glasgow. 


Wilhelm (274) 




German 






Fowey. 


Wilhelm Behrens (1,259) 




German 






Glasgow. 


Wotan 




German 






Newcastle, N.S.W. 


Zichy (1,877) 




Austrian 






Malta. 



German Merchant Vessels Detained at Antwerp on the Outbreak 

of Hostilities. 

His Majesty's Government have received information that 
certain German merchant vessels, the names of which are 
shown in the list hereunder, have been detained by the 
Belgian authorities at Antwerp on the outbreak of hostilities, 
and that a Commission has been constituted, by Decree of 

172 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

August nth, 1914, to prepare inventories of the cargoes of 
these vessels, discriminating between enemy goods and those 
owned by the subjects of allied or neutral States. 
By a further Decree of August I7th, 1914, it is provided 
that claims arising in consequence of the capture of enemy 
and neutral vessels and their cargoes shall be submitted to 
the Tribunal of First Instance at Antwerp, to whom the 
above Commission is to report. 

It is therefore desirable that British subjects interested 
in such cargoes should take steps in order to protect their 
interests before the Tribunal by furnishing to their agents at 
Antwerp documentary evidence in support of their claims, 
employing for the purpose such legal assistance as may be 
necessary. 

In the meantime His Majesty's Consul-General at Antwerp 
is taking steps to safeguard the interests of British cargo 
owners, under Article 3 of the Decree of August nth, 1914, 
which provides for the intervention before the Commission 
of the Consular officer of the country concerned. 

LIST OF VESSELS. 

s.s. Almeria. s.s. Huberfels. 

s.s. Andree Rickmers. s.s. Jade. 

s.s. Atto. s.s. Kalliope. 

s.s. Bellona. s.s. Kandelfels. 

s.s. Christine Sell. s.s. Lesbos. 

s.s. Croatia. s.s. Lipsos. 

s.s. Delia. s.s. Portimao. 

s.s. Delos. s.s. Santa Fe. 

s.s. Elbing. s.s. Schildturm. 

s.s. Elisabeth Rickmers. s.s. Sines. 

s.s. Erika. s.s. Sirius. 

s.s. Feronia. s.s. Tasmania. 

s.s. Ganelon. s.s. Totmes. 

s.s. Gneisnau. s.s. Ursula. 

s.s. Hanau. s.s. Wartburg. 

s.s. Hermes. Schooner Columbus. 

s.s. Hispania. Barque Perim. 

Foreign Office, 

August 29, 1914. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

German Vessels Reported to be in Ports of the Suez Canal. 

Annaberg (4,463) . . . . . . . . . . . . Suez. 

Anne Rickmers (4,083) . . . . . . . . . . Port Said. 

Barenfels (5,398) Port Said. 

Derfflinger (9,144) Port Said. 

Goslar (4,331) Suez. 

Gutenfels (5,528) Port Said. 

Helgoland (5,666) Port Said. 

Istria (4,221) . . . . . . . . . . . . Suez. 

Lauterfels (5,811) Port Said. 

Lutzow (8,826) . . . . . . . . . . . . Suez. 

Pindos (2,934) Port Said. 

Rabenfels (4,629) Port Said. 

Rostock (2,456) Port Said. 

Sudmark (5,113) . . . . . . . . . . . . Suez. 

Weidenfels (4,514) Port Said. 

[No lists, similar to the above, of British merchant vessels detained, 
captured, sunk or otherwise destroyed appear to have been published in the 
London Gazette. But a complete list of all such vessels up to date July 26th, 
1915, has been compiled at Lloyd's, and this list will be printed under that 
date in a subsequent volume.] 



ADMIRALTY MONTHLY ORDERS. 

September i, 1914. 

85. Appointments as A.D.C. and Good Service Pensions for 
Naval and Marine Officers. 

IT has been decided to abolish the emoluments attaching 
to the appointments of Naval and Marine A.D.C. to the 
King, and in future officers appointed as A.D.C. will simply be 
allowed the expenses incurred by them as at present when 
ordered for duty with His Majesty. This decision will not 
apply to any A.D.C., paid or unpaid, now on the list. 

The number of Good Service pensions of 150 a year will 
be increased to eighteen for Captains and to four in the case 
of Colonels and Lieutenant-Colonels of the Royal Marines. 
An officer will be eligible to receive a Good Service pension 
although holding an appointment as A.D.C., and vice versa. 

Colonels and Lieutenant-Colonels of Royal Marines ap- 
pointed to a Good Service pension after this date will in every 
case vacate the pension on retirement, and no addition will 
be made to their retired pay on account of such pension held 
by them. 

174 



4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

Three Good Service pensions for retired officers of the 
Accountant Branch have been instituted, and these pensions 
will be awarded as funds become available under the foregoing 
revised arrangement. 

87. R.N.R. and R.N.V.R. Rank of Lieutenant-Commander. 

THE rank of Lieutenant-Commander has been established 
as a substantive rank in the Royal Naval Reserve and the 
Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve respectively, to replace the 
rank of Lieutenant of eight years' seniority in those forces. 

99. R.F.R. and R.N.R. Payment of War Retainer. 

WITH reference to Article 101, Royal Fleet Reserve 
Regulations, the following instructions are to be observed : 

The War Retainer is to date from the 2nd instant, inclu- 
sive, and to be credited on the Ship's Ledger and paid (when 
paid in cash) in conjunction with pay. In the case of men 
who desire payment to their wives or dependent relatives of 
a portion of such Retainer and pay, allotments should be 
declared (on Form S. 63) for payment monthly and based on 
the combined amounts. 

100. Immediate Class R.F.R. Pay. 

IMMEDIATE Class R.F.R. embarked are to be paid as if 
embarked for training for the full twenty-eight days from 
joining ship, i.e., to August gth inclusive. From August 
loth, 1914, they are to receive the Continuous Service pay 
of the rating (substantive and non-substantive) in which they 
are enrolled and pay for any good conduct badges worn by 
them when last serving. Men of the Immediate Class are 
embarked in the following ships : 

Euryalus. King Alfred. Bacchante. 

Cressy. Jupiter. Majestic. 

Aboukir. Albion. Casar. 

Leviathan. Charybdis. Prince George. 

Good Hope. Hannibal. Illustrious. 

Drake. Victorious. Sapphire. 

175 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Au 

101. National Insurance Acts. Insurance of Naval Reservists 

Mobilised for War. 

IT is notified that : 

(i.) All Naval Reservists, including Pensioners, who are 
mobilised are to be regarded from the date of mobilisation as 
Active Service ratings for the purposes of National Insurance, 
i.e., those who were insured in civil life are to be charged on 
the Ship's Ledger ijd. per week in respect of the insurance 
contribution, and afterwards the men's contributions will be 
accounted for to their Societies by the Admiralty. 

(ii.) The names of the men's Approved Societies, together 
with their membership numbers therein, are to be inserted 
against their names on the Ships' Ledgers. It is important 
that this information should not be omitted in any case. 

(iii.) Contributions in respect of Unemployment Insurance 
are not to be made whilst men, who were so insured in civil 
life, are mobilised for war. 



176 



:4i DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



SEPTEMBER. 



MESSAGE OF ADMIRAL GERVAIS TO THE FRENCH 

FLEET. 

To THE SEAMEN OF FRANCE. 

September 2, 1914. 
DEAR SAILORS, MY COMRADES, 

AN old officer, once your commander-in-chief, who, 
passionately devoted to the Navy and to France, has served 
among you for over fifty years, asks for the high honour of 
addressing a few words to you in the Bulletin des Armees, 
that noble and touching publication in which the soul of our 
country communes with that of its children, the brave men 
who are fighting for its existence. 

Stricken with grief at being forced to remain in useless 
retirement and at having experienced the final disillusion of 
the dream to which he had devoted his life, he at least desires, 
at this tragic moment, to tell you of the sentiments which 
inspire him. 

The thoughts of all Frenchmen go forth to their Army 
which is defending their sacred soil, at a moment of tense 
expectation at once full of anguish and of hope. 

But you too, my comrades, are entitled to expect that we 
should think of you with love and with faith. Your part 
is a great one, your task is a lofty one, and already your 
action has been marked by distinguished services. Yet the 
work that lies before you is only just beginning to disclose 
itself, you will go forth to it with a fearless impulse and 
resolve to surround with a halo of glory the flag which flies 
on the poops of our ships. 

Naval I M 177 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT., 

I know the men you are, I know your steadfast courage, 
your ardour without a rival, your endurance which cannot 
tire, I know that the words Honneur et Patrie are engraven 
in your hearts, as they are on the bulkheads of your upper 
decks. I know also your splendid training under chiefs who, 
being worthy of you, enjoy your entire confidence. I know, 
in fine, that whatever happens, they can ask everything of 
you even to the supreme sacrifice. 

It is not words of encouragement that will issue from my 
lips. No, no ! I only want to tell you that multitudes of 
hearts beat in unison with yours while they await the story 
of your exploits against the accursed enemy, that good wishes 
ardent and abundant follow you in your efforts, not merely 
from Frenchmen attached by ties of blood to the great family 
of the sea, but from thousands and thousands of others who 
since the terrible year of our humiliation have learnt to know 
and appreciate at their true worth the things and the people 
of the sea. 

So act, my comrades, that the people at large may join 
with such as these in applauding you without restraint, and 
may winged victory soar over you as over your brethren of 
the Army. 

To-day is the crusade of civilisation against barbarism. 
Forward ! Forward ! and let the ancient motto of our 
fathers ever rise to your view in the day of battle Honneur 
au mieux faisant. 

Because I have been one of yourselves, I greet you from 
afar from the very depths of my soul. 

GERVAIS, 

Vice-Admiral. 

[This Address was published in the French Bulletin des Armees in 
September, 1914.] 

FRENCH BOMBARDMENT OF CATTARO. 

(Official.} 

Vienna, September 3. 

K. V. On the morning of September ist the French Mediter- 

ranean Fleet, consisting of sixteen battleships and armoured 
cruisers, with numerous torpedo boats, appeared at the 
entrance of the Bay of Cattaro, at long range. They fired 
178 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

forty shots from heavy calibre guns on to the ancient fort of 
Punta d'Ostro without inflicting any damage on it. Three 
menfof the garrison were wounded. The fleet then steamed 
for a~short distance in a North- Westerly direction, then turned 
on a Southerly course as if to leave the Adriatic. This is 
clearly a useless demonstration by the French Fleet on our 
South coast. 



GERMAN MERCHANT VESSELS DETAINED AT 

ANTWERP. 

Foreign Office, September 3, 1914. 

His Majesty's Consul-General at Antwerp reports that, L.G 
as the outcome of consultation with the Commission 
appointed to investigate such claims, it has been decided that 
the most satisfactory method of dealing with the matter 
would be for a British firm of high standing at Antwerp to 
undertake to represent the interested parties. Liberty would 
at the same time be reserved for those who wish to appoint 
their own agents. 

Messrs. Gellatly Hankey and Company, of Antwerp, have 
in the meantime been good enough to offer their services for 
the purpose, and this offer has been accepted in the general 
interests of the British firms concerned. 

British owners of cargo on those vessels, who may desire 
that their interests should be so represented, are accordingly 
advised to communicate in the matter with Messrs. Gellatly 
Hankey and Company at Antwerp, and to forward to that 
firm such documentary evidence as may be necessary to 
substantiate their claims. 



H.M.S. " SPEEDY " SUNK. 

September 4. 

A report from the Commanding Officer of His Majesty's P3. 
Ship Speedy states that the steamdrifter Linsdell struck a mine 
yesterday morning thirty miles off the East Coast and sank. A 
quarter of an hour later His Majesty's Ship Speedy also struck 
a mine and sank. The casualties reported are as follows : 

179 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT. 

"Speedy." 

Missing : E. A. Claxton, officer's steward, second class, 
pensioner, official number 157,283. 

Seriously injured : Mr. Alfred S. Bright, gunner ; Frederick 
William Lee, petty officer, official number 200,081. 

"Linsdell." 

Missing : Skipper, Mr. Woodgate, R.N.R., and four 
members of the crew. 

The remainder of the crew had been picked up by the 
Speedy before she struck the second mine. 

The Speedy was an old torpedo-gunboat of 810 tons and 
moderate speed, and was built in 1893. Her armament 
consisted of two 47-in. guns and four 3-pounders. Prior 
to the declaration of war she was engaged on fishery pro- 
tection duties in the North Sea. 

LOSS OF THE " PATHFINDER." 

The Secretary to the Admiralty communicated the 
following announcement for publication late last night : 

" H.M.S. Pathfinder, Captain Francis Martin Leake, struck 
a mine to-day, at 4.30 p.m., about twenty miles off the East 
Coast and foundered very rapidly. 

" The loss of life has probably been heavy. 

" The Pathfinder was a light cruiser of 2,940 tons and 
25 knots speed, armed with nine 4-in. guns. She was built 
in 1904." 

Admiralty, September 6. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty regrets to announce that 
the following casualties among officers have been reported as 
the result of the loss of H.M.S. Pathfinder : 

Dead : Paymaster Sydney W. Finch. 

Missing : Lieutenant-Commander E. T. Favell, Lieutenant 
Gerald Leather, Lieutenant E. J. Carter, Engineer-Lieutenant- 
Commander T. A. Venning, Gunner H. E. Morrison, Gunner 
E. F. Bright, Signal Boatswain P. H. Ford, Artificer-Engineer 
James McKay. 

Seriously Wounded : Staff Surgeon T. A. Smyth. 

Wounded : Captain F. M. Leake. 

180 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Berlin, September 23. 

From official sources it is announced that the loss of K.V. 
the British cruiser Pathfinder on September 5th in the Firth 
of Forth can be traced to a German submarine, which was 
U 21, commanded by Lieutenant-Commander Hersing. 



WILSON LINER SUNK. 

The Press Bureau issued the following at 1.30 yesterday 
afternoon : Sept. 7 

' The Admiralty announces that the Wilson liner Runo I91 * 
was sunk by a mine at 4.35 p.m. yesterday, about twenty 
miles off the East Coast. All the crew and passengers were 
saved except about twenty Russian emigrants." 

REMOVAL OF AIDS TO NAVIGATION. 

The Secretary to the Admiralty makes the following ibid. 
announcement : 

" All aids to navigation on the East Coast of England and 
Scotland, both by day and night, may be removed at any 
time and without any further warning than is contained in 
this announcement." 

BRITISH FISHING FLEET SUNK. 

The Press Bureau have also issued the following : ibid. 

' The Admiralty announces that a German squadron, 
consisting of two cruisers and four destroyers, has succeeded 
in sinking fifteen British fishing boats in the North Sea. 

" A quantity of fish was captured and the crew of fisher- 
men taken to Wilhelmshaven as prisoners of war." 

THE ROYAL NAVAL DIVISION. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty communicates the follow- P.B., 
ing through the Press Bureau : Sept. 6. 

l After providing for all present and foreseeable future 
needs of the Fleets at sea, there remained available a large 
number of men belonging to the Royal Marines, Royal Naval 
Volunteer Reserve, Royal Fleet Reserve, and Royal Naval 

181 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT, 

Reserve. A portion of these have been organised into one 
marine and two naval brigades, the whole comprising the 
infantry of one division, to be called the Royal Naval Division. 
The marine brigade, for the organisation of which all 
preparations had been made before the war, has been for 
some time in being at a strength of 3,000, and has already 
been employed on active service at Ostend. The two naval 
brigades have been organised in the first instance at a strength 
f 3>75 each, and have been in camp since August igth. 
The cadres of their eight battalions have been formed from 
the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, the Royal Fleet Reserve 
men and Royal Naval Reserve men forming on these as they 
were despatched from the ports. The three brigades were 
fully constituted by August 24th, and entered at once upon 
a period of field training to fit them for service abroad if 
required in the New Year. Meanwhile they will be organised 
and trained under the Admiralty, and will remain available 
for service afloat should any unexpected needs arise. The 
eight battalions of the two naval brigades will each be named 
after an admiral, as follows : 

FIRST ROYAL NAVAL BRIGADE. 
Drake (ist), Benbow (2nd), Hawke (3rd), Collingwood (4th). 

SECOND ROYAL NAVAL BRIGADE. 
Nelson (5th), Howe (6th), Hood (7th), Anson (8th). 

ROYAL MARINE BRIGADE. 
gth, loth, nth, I2th Battalions. 

The King has been pleased to approve the appointment 
of the following officers as Honorary Colonels of the several 
brigades : 

Admiral of the Fleet Lord Fisher of Kilverstone, G.C.B., 
O.M., G.C.V.O., First Royal Naval Brigade. 

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Arthur K. Wilson, G.C.B., O.M., 
G.C.V.O., Second Royal Naval Brigade. 

Admiral Lord Charles Beresford, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., M.P., 
Royal Marine Brigade. 

182 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The uniform of the two naval brigades will be naval 
uniform executed in khaki. The Royal Naval Division will 
be completely equipped in all respects by the Admiralty 
with field hospitals, transport, ammunition column, signal 
companies, cyclists, motor-cars, and machine guns. An 
aeroplane squadron from the Naval Wing, complete with 
transport, &c., will be available when required. If at any 
time the naval situation becomes sufficiently favourable to 
enable this force to be definitely released by the Admiralty 
for military duty, it will be handed over intact to the Army 
for general service. The training, discipline, experience, 
and quality which the personnel already possess should, after 
five or six months' special instruction in field duties, enable 
units of high quality to be produced. The prospects of the 
Royal Naval Division having opportunities of winning dis- 
tinction on the Continent are therefore good. 

Three-fourths of the commissioned officers are already 
available. Vacancies exist, however, for from 25 to 30 
subalterns of the Royal Marines and from 50 to 60 lieutenants, 
sub-lieutenants, and midshipmen of the Royal Naval Volunteer 
Reserve. These vacancies will be filled by the direct recruit- 
ment of young men of high character and education. Previous 
knowledge of the profession of arms is not indispensable, 
provided other qualities are exceptional. Candidates should 
apply through the Secretary of the Admiralty, when they 
will be examined by a committee who will submit recommend- 
ations to the First Lord. They may join the Royal Marines 
or the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve either permanently 
in the ordinary way or on a special engagement to serve for 
the duration of the war. 

The present strength of the division under arms is 10,000, 
and in view of the great influx of volunteers for Lord Kitchen- 
er's Army, it has been decided, at the request of the War 
Office, to raise the establishment of the division immediately 
to approximately 15,000 men. Vacancies therefore exist 
for 5,000 men for immediate incorporation in the two naval 
brigades, and volunteers of good quality and character will 
be accepted. The pay, allowances, pensions, and gratuities, 
and other conditions of service will be the same as for the 
Regular Army, subject to the fact that no naval rating or 
Royal Marine is a loser by the change. 



Times, 
Sept. 8, 
1914. 



P.B., 
Sept. 7. 



Hansard. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Special arrangements will be made to enable groups and 
parties of volunteers who are friends or neighbours to serve 
together in the same company. 

WINSTON S. CHURCHILL. 



[SEPT, 



The Press Bureau early this morning issued the following 
communique* from the Secretary of the Admiralty with refer- 
ence to the Royal Naval Division : 

COMMISSIONS. A committee is being constituted to select 
candidates for commissions of the Royal Naval Division, and 
its address will be published in due course, to which appli- 
cations may be made. Pending the publication of this 
address no application should be made either to the Admiralty 
or to 41, Charing Cross. 

ENLISTMENT. With reference to the statements which 
have appeared in the Press, no applications for enlistment 
should be made either personally or by letter to 41, Charing 
Cross. In due course a public announcement will be made 
with regard to the recruiting centres at which men desirous 
of enlisting should apply. 

A TRAWLER MINED. 

The Admiralty have received a report that the Hull 
steam trawler Imperialist, H 250, was blown up by a mine 
off the Tyne at midnight on Sunday, September 6th. 

Ten survivors of the crew were picked up in their own 
boat by the trawler Rhodesian, of Scarborough, and landed 
at North Shields this morning. The skipper and spare hand 
are missing. 



House of Commons, September 9. 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF TRADE (MR. 
RUNCIMAN), in reply to Mr. Henry Terrell, said : The question 
whether any relief or assistance, apart from the Government 
insurance scheme, can be given to the owners of ships and 
cargoes which are detained in enemy ports, will be considered ; 
but, as at present advised, I am somewhat doubtful whether 
anything can be done in the way suggested by the hon. 
Gentleman. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
LOSS OF THE " OCEANIC." 

Admiralty, September 9. 

The armed merchant cruiser Oceanic, of the White Star 
Line, was wrecked yesterday near the North Coast of Scotland, 
and has become a total loss. 

All the officers and crew were saved. 

BRITISH SWEEP OF THE NORTH SEA. 

Admiralty, September 10. 

Yesterday and to-day strong and numerous squadrons 
and flotillas have made a complete sweep of the North Sea 
up to and into the Heligoland Bight. The German Fleet 
made no attempt to interfere with our movements and no 
German ship of any kind was seen at sea. 

CABLE CUT AT FANNING ISLAND. 

Telegrams received from Fanning Island state that the Times, 
Nurnberg approached that station flying the French flag, Se pt- 10, 
and was thus able to land a force unopposed and cut the cable. I 9 I 4- 
Renter. 

FOREIGN PILOTS WITH BRITISH CERTIFICATES. 

House of Commons, September 10. 

MR. PETO asked the President of the Board of Trade Hansard. 
whether the navigating officer of the Konigin Luise had 
been captain of a ship running between Bremen and London 
and held a pilot's certificate for the Thames ; and if so, 
whether, in view of the extended use of mines against com- 
mercial shipping as well as naval shipping in the present 
war, he will take steps to introduce legislation at an early date 
to prohibit the granting of pilot's certificates for any port in 
the British Isles, whether commercial or naval, to any person 
not of British birth and parentage ? 

MR. RUNCIMAN : I am making inquiry as regards the 
first part of the question. As regards the latter part the 
Admiralty already possesses power under Section 24 of the 
Pilotage Act, 1913, to make an Order prohibiting the grant 

185 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of pilotage certificates to alien masters and mates in districts 
where they think it desirable, and they have made such 
Orders for the London and several other districts. I do 
not think that further legislation on the point is necessary. 



[SEF 



NAVAL PENSIONERS (POSITION IN RANKS). 

House of Commons, September 10. 

Hansard. MR. FALLE asked the Financial Secretary to the Admiralty 
if he is aware that Naval Pensioners (not Reservists) are, 
when asked to volunteer, placed in positions inferior to that 
which they occupied on leaving the Service, inferior as regards 
position and pay, and further that the embarkation allowance 
of 8 Jd. per day promised for the test mobilisation has not been 
paid ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : It is not clear, having regard to 
the expression " when asked to volunteer," whether reference 
is made to the recent test mobilisation or to the actual 
mobilisation ordered on August 2nd. At the test mobilisation 
all pensioners were allowed the ratings which they held in the 
active Service. On mobilisation, the instructions for mobilisa- 
tion (Article 85) provide that pensioners shall be given the 
pay of the ratings in which they serve and actually do duty, 
but as far as the exigencies of the Service admit they are 
given ratings not inferior to those they held on being pensioned. 
It is therefore possible that certain men may have been given 
ratings inferior to those they held in the active Service. The 
embarkation allowance of 8Jd. a day is paid for voluntary 
service in the Fleet during manoeuvres, &c. (which would 
include the recent test mobilisation), but is not payable 
for compulsory service when called out by Proclamation. 



MINE LAYING ON HIGH SEAS. 

House of Commons, September 10. 

Hansard. MR. FELL asked the First Lord of the Admiralty how 
he proposes to treat the question of the placing of mines on 
the high seas in the routes followed by merchant shipping ; 
and what steps will be taken against any persons captured 
whilst engaged in laying such mines ? 

1 86 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

DR. MACNAMARA (PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE 
ADMIRALTY) : I can assure the hon. Member that this im- 
portant question is engaging the earnest attention of the 
Admiralty. More than that it would not be in the public 
interest to say, except this that all persons caught laying 
mines under a neutral flag will be tried by court martial. 

MR. COWAN : Has the First Lord of the Admiralty 
considered the desirability of manning the vessels engaged 
in mine-sweeping with German prisoners ? 

MR. FELL : May I ask if those men will be specially 
treated, or if they will be treated as ordinary prisoners of war 
engaged in legal warfare ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I would say generally in this, as 
in all other matters, we will proceed with a strict and scrupu- 
lous regard for established law. 

CAPTURE OF A GERMAN AUXILIARY CRUISER. 

Kingston (Jamaica), September 10. 

A British warship brought the German steamer Bethania Times, 
in here this afternoon as a prize of war, with 400 prisoners Se Pt- 12 > 
on board. Iqi 4' 

September n. 

The Bethania, which was captured on Monday, had on 
board 600 tons of coal and six months' provisions for the 
German cruisers Dresden and Karlsruhe. The liner threw 
overboard her armament as an auxiliary cruiser before she 
was taken. Her crew have been placed in a detention camp. 
Renter. 

The Admiralty state that most of the men who have been 
taken prisoners on board the Bethania are the crew of the 
Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, who escaped in a collier when she 
was captured and sunk by H.M.S. Highflyer off the Oro River 
on the West Coast of Africa, at the end of last month. 

LORD FISHER TO HIS BRIGADE. 

LORD FISHER TO COMMODORE WILFRED HENDERSON, COM- 
MANDING IST BRIGADE ROYAL NAVAL DIVISION. 

Tell the ist Royal Naval Brigade how very deeply I Times, 
appreciate the privilege of being their Honorary Colonel. Se P t - 
I am coming to see them immediately. 

187 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEP 

Tell them to look forward to splendid duty both by sea 
and land. 

Our island history is full of glorious deeds of Sailors' 
Brigades in every war. 
Let us beat the record ! 
A fight to a finish ! 

FISHER, 

Admiral of the Fleet. 
September 9, 1914. 

MR. CHURCHILL AT THE LONDON OPERA HOUSE. 

September n. 

Times, MR. WINSTON CHURCHILL said : These are serious 

Sept. 12, times, and though we meet here in an abode of diversion 
I 9 I 4- and of pleasure in times of peace, and although we wish and 
mean to rouse and encourage each other in every way, 
yet we are not here for purposes of merriment or jollifica- 
tion. I am quite sure I associate my two friends who 
are here to-night and who are to speak after me, and 
my noble friend, your chairman, with me when I say that 
we regard the cheers with which you have received us 
as being offered to us only because they are meant for our 
soldiers in the field and our sailors upon the sea, and it is in 
that sense that we accept them and thank you for them. 

We meet here together in serious times, but I come to 
you to-night in good heart and with good confidence 
for the future and for the task upon which we are engaged. 
It is too soon to speculate upon the results of the great battle 
which is waging in France. Everything that we have heard 
during four long days of anxiety seems to point to a marked 
and substantial turning of the tide. 

We have seen the forces of the French and British Armies 
strong enough not only to contain and check the devastating 
avalanche which had swept across the French frontier, but 
now at last, not for an hour or for a day, but for four long 
days in succession, it has been rolled steadily back. With 
battles taking place over a front of 100 or 150 miles one must 
be very careful not to build high hopes on results which are 
achieved even in a great area of the field of war. We are not 
children looking for light and vain encouragement, but men 
engaged upon a task which has got to be put through. Still, 

188 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

when every allowance has been made for the uncertainty 
with which these great operations are always enshrouded, 
I think it only fair and right to say that the situation to-night 
is better, far better, than a cold calculation of the forces 
available on both sides before the war should have led us to 
expect at this early stage. 

It is quite clear that what is happening now is not what 
the Germans planned and they have yet to show that 
they can adapt themselves to the force of circumstances 
created by the military power of their enemies with the same 
efficiency that they have undoubtedly shown in regard to 
plans long prepared, methodically worked out, and executed 
with the precision of deliberation. 

The battle, I say, gives us every reason to meet together 
to-night in good heart. But let me tell you frankly that if 
this battle had been as disastrous as, thank God, it appears 
to be triumphant, I should come before you with unabated 
confidence and with the certainty that we have only to 
continue in our efforts to bring this war to the conclusion 
which we wish and intend. 

We did not enter upon this war with the hope of easy 
victory ; we did not enter upon it in any desire to extend 
our territory, or to advance and increase our position in the 
world ; or in any romantic desire to shed our blood and spend 
our money in Continental quarrels. We entered upon this 
war reluctantly after we had made every effort compatible 
with honour to avoid being drawn in, and we entered upon it 
with a full realisation of the sufferings, losses, disappoint- 
ments, vexations, and anxieties, and of the appalling and 
sustained exertions which would be entailed upon us by our 
action. The war will be long and sombre. It will have 
many reverses of fortune and many hopes falsified by subse- 
quent events, and we must derive from our cause and from 
the strength that is in us, and from the traditions and history 
of our race, and from the support and aid of our Empire all 
over the world the means to make this country overcome 
obstacles of all kinds and continue to the end of the furrow, 
whatever the toil and suffering may be. 

But though we entered this war with no illusions as to 
the incidents which will mark its progress, as to the ebb and 
flow of fortune in this and that part of the gigantic field over 

189 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

which it is waged, we entered it, and entered it rightly, with 
the sure and strong hope and expectation of bringing it 
to a victorious conclusion. I am quite certain that if 
we, the people of the British Empire, choose, whatever 
may happen in the interval, we can in the end make this 
war finish in accordance with our interests and the interests 
of civilisation. Let us build on a sure foundation. Let us 
not be the sport of fortune, looking for victories here and 
happy chances there ; let us take measures, which are well 
within our power, which are practical measures, measures 
which we can begin upon at once and carry through from 
day to day with surety and effect. Let us enter upon measures 
which in the long run, whatever the accidents and incidents 
of the intervening period may be, will secure us that victory 
upon which our life and existence as a nation, not less than 
the fortune of our Allies and of Europe, absolutely depends. 

I think we are building on a sure foundation. Let us 
look first at the Navy. The war has now been in progress 
between five and six weeks. In that time we have swept 
German commerce from the seas. We have either blocked 
in neutral harbours or blockaded in their own harbours 
or hunted down the commerce destroyers of which we 
used to hear so much and from which we anticipated such 
serious loss and damage. All our ships, with inconsiderable 
exceptions, are arriving safely and punctually at their destina- 
tions, carrying on the commerce upon which the wealth and 
industry and the power of making war for this country de- 
pends. We are transporting easily, not without an element 
of danger, but hitherto safely and successfully, great numbers 
of soldiers across the seas from all quarters of the world to be 
directed upon the decisive theatre of the land struggle. And 
we have searched the so-called German Ocean without dis- 
covering the German flag. Our enemies, in their carefully 
worked out calculations, which they have been toiling over 
during a great many years, when the people of this country, 
as a whole, credited them with quite different motives, have 
always counted upon a process of attrition and the waste of 
shipping by mines and torpedoes and other methods of war- 
fare of the weaker Power, by which the numbers and the 
strength of our Fleet would be reduced to such a point that 
they would be able to steel their hearts and come out and 

190 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY JS AVAL 

fight. We have been at war for five or six weeks, and so 
far though I would certainly not underrate the risks and 
hazards attending upon warlike operations and the vanity of 
all over-confidence but so far the attrition has been on their 
side and not on ours, while the losses which they have suffered 
greatly exceed any that we have at present sustained. 

I have made careful inquiries as to the condition of our 
sailors in the Fleet under the strain put upon them, and this 
continued watching and constant attention to their duty 
under war conditions, and I am glad to say that it is reported 
to me that the health of the Fleet has been much better since 
the declaration of war than it was in time of peace, both as 
to the percentage of sickness and the character of the sickness, 
and that there is no reason why we should not keep up the 
same process of naval control and have the same exercises 
of sea power, on which we have lived and are living, for what 
is almost an indefinite period. 

By one of those dispensations of Providence which appeal 
so strongly to the German Emperor the nose of the bulldog 
has been slanted backwards so that he can breathe with 
comfort without letting go. We have been successful in 
maintaining naval control thus far in the struggle, and there 
are also sound reasons for believing that as it progresses 
the chances in our favour will not diminish but increase. 
In the next twelve months the number of great ships that 
will be completed for this country is more than double the 
number which will be completed for Germany, and the number 
of cruisers three or four times as great. Therefore I think I 
am on solid ground when I come here to-night and say that 
you may count upon the naval supremacy of this country 
being effectively maintained as against the German Power 
for as long as you wish. 

Now we must look at the Army. The Navy has been 
under every Government, and during all periods of modern 
history, the darling of the British nation. On it have been 
lavished whatever public funds were necessary, and to its 
efficiency has been devoted the unceasing care and thought 
of successive Administrations. The result is that when the 
need came the Navy was absolutely ready, and, as far as we 
can see from what has happened, thoroughly adequate to 
the tasks which were required from it. But we have not 

191 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEI 

been in times of peace a military nation. The Army has 
not had the facilities of obtaining the lavish supplies of men 
and money for its needs which have in times of peace and 
in the past to our good fortune at the moment been so freely 
given to the Navy. And what you have to do now is to make 
a great Army. You have to make an Army under the cover 
and shield of the Navy strong enough to enable our country 
to play its full part in the decision of this terrible struggle. 

The sure way the only sure way to bring this war to 
an end is for the British Empire to put on the Continent 
and keep on the Continent an army of at least 1,000,000 men. 
I take that figure because it is one well within the compass 
of the arrangements which are now on foot, and because it 
is one which is well within the scope of the measures which 

Lord Kitchener (the rest of the sentence was drowned 

in an outburst of cheering). 

I was reading in the newspapers the other day that the 
German Emperor made a speech to some of his regiments 
in which he urged them to concentrate their attention upon 
what he was pleased to call " French's contemptible little 
Army." Well, they are concentrating their attention upon 
it, and that Army, which has been fighting with such extra- 
ordinary prowess, which has revived in a fortnight of adverse 
actions the ancient fame and glory of our arms upon the 
Continent, and which to-night, after a long, protracted, 
harassed, unbroken, and undaunted rearguard action 
the hardest trial to which troops can be exposed is ad- 
vancing in spite of the loss of one-fifth of its numbers, and 
driving its enemies before it that Army must be reinforced 
and backed and supported and increased and enlarged in 
numbers and in power by every means and every method 
that every one of us can employ. 

There is no reason why, if you set yourselves to it I 
have not come here to make a speech of words, but to point 
out to you necessary and obvious things which you can do 
there is no doubt that, if you set yourselves to it, the Army 
which is now fighting so valiantly on your behalf and our 
Allies can be raised from its present position to 250,000 of 
the finest professional soldiers in the world, and that in the 
new year something like 500,000 men, and from that again 
when the early summer begins in 1915 to the full figure of 

192 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

25 Army Corps fighting in line together. The vast population 
of these islands and all the Empire is pressing forward to 
serve, its wealth is placed at your disposal, the Navy opens 
the way for the passage of men and everything necessary 
for the equipment of our forces. Why should we hesitate 
when here is the sure and certain path to ending this war in 
the way we mean it to end ? 

There is little doubt that an Army so formed will in quality 
and character, in native energy, in the comprehension which 
each individual has of the cause for which he is fighting, 
exceed in merit any Army in the world. We have only to 
have a chance of even numbers or anything approaching 
even numbers to demonstrate the superiority of free-thinking 
active citizens over the docile sheep who serve the ferocious 
ambitions of drastic kings. Our enemies are now at the 
point which we have reached fully extended. On every 
front of the enormous field of conflict the pressure upon them 
is such that all their resources are deployed. With every 
addition to the growing weight of the Russian Army, with 
every addition to the forces at the disposal of Sir John French, 
the balance must sag down increasingly against them. 

You have only to create steadily week by week and month 
by month the great military instrument of which I have been 
speaking to throw into the scales a weight which must be 
decisive. There will be no corresponding reserve of manhood 
upon which Germany can draw. There will be no corres- 
ponding force of soldiers and of equipment and of war material 
which can be brought into the line to face the forces which 
we in this island and in this Empire can undoubtedly create. 
That will turn the scale. That will certainly decide the issue. 
Of course, if victory comes sooner, so much the better. But 
let us not count on fortune and good luck. Let us assume 
at every point that things will go much less well than we 
hope and wish. Let us make arrangements which will over- 
ride that. We have it in our power to make such arrange- 
ments, and it is only common prudence, aye, and common 
humanity, to take steps which at any rate will fix some certain 
term to this devastating struggle throughout the whole of 
the European Continent. 

Let me also say this. Let us concentrate all our warlike 
feeling upon fighting the enemy in the field and creating a 

Naval I N 193 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT 

great military weapon to carry out the purposes of the war. 
There is a certain class of person who likes to work his warlike 
feelings off upon the unfortunate alien enemy within our gates. 
Of course all necessary measures must be taken for the 
security of the country and for the proper carrying out of 
military needs ; but let us always have this feeling in our 
heart, that after the war is over people shall not only admire 
our victory, but they shall say they fought like gentlemen. 
The Romans had a motto : 

Parcere subjectis et debeUare superbos. 

Let that be the spirit in which we conduct this war. Let 
all those who feel under the horrible provocations of the 
struggle their hearts suffused with anger and with wrath 
let them turn it into a practical channel going to the front 
or if circumstances prevenrt them, helping others to go, 
keeping them maintained in the highest state of efficiency, 
giving them the supplies and weapons which they require, 
and looking after those they have left behind. 

I have not spoken to you much about the justice of our 
cause, because it has been most eloquently set out by the 
Prime Minister and Sir Edward Grey, and by Mr. Bonar Law 
and other leaders of the Opposition ; and much more elo- 
quently than by any speakers in this or any other country 
the justice of our cause has been set out by the brutal facts 
which have occurred and which have marched upon us 
from day to day. Some thought there would be a German 
war, some did not ; but no one supposed that a great military 
nation would exhibit all the vices of military organisation 
without those redeeming virtues which, God knows, are 
needed to redeem warlike operations from the taint of shame. 
We have been confronted with an exhibition of ruthlessness 
and outrage enforced upon the weak, enforced upon women 
and children. We have been confronted with repeated 
breaches of the law of enlightened warfare, practices analogous 
to those which in private life are regarded as cheating, and 
which deprive persons or country adopting them, or condoning 
them, of the credit and respect due to honourable soldiers. 

We have been confronted with all this. Let us not 
imitate it. Let us not try to make small retaliations and 
reprisals here and there. Let us concentrate upon the simple, 

194 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

obvious task of creating a military force so powerful that the 
war, even in default of any good fortune, can certainly be 
ended and brought to a satisfactory conclusion. However 
the war began, now that it is started it is a war of self-preser- 
vation for us. Our civilisation, our way of doing things, our 
political and Parliamentary life, with its voting and its 
thinking, our party system, our party warfare, the free and 
easy tolerance of British life, our method of doing things and 
of keeping ourselves alive and self-respecting in the world 
all these are brought into contrast, into collision, with the 
organised force of bureaucratic Prussian militarism. 

That is the struggle which is opened now and which must 
go forward without pause or abatement until it is settled 
decisively and finally one way or the other. On that there 
can be no compromise or truce. It is our life or it is theirs. 
We are bound, having gone so far, to go forward without 
flinching to the very end. 

This is the same great European war that would have 
been fought in the year 1909 if Russia had not humbled her- 
self and given way to German threats. It is the same war 
that Sir Edward Grey stopped last year. Now it has come 
upon us. If you look back across the long periods of European 
history to the original cause, you will, I am sure, find it in 
the cruel terms enforced upon France in the year 1870, and 
in the repeated bullyings and attempts to terrorise France 
which have been the characteristic of German policy ever 
since. The more you study this question the more you will 
see that the use the Germans made of their three aggressive 
and victorious wars against Denmark, against Austria, and 
against France has been such as to make them the terror 
and the bully of Europe, the enemy and the menace of every 
small State upon their borders, and a perpetual source of 
unrest and disquietude to their powerful neighbours. 

Now the war has come, and when it is over let us be careful 
not to make the same mistake or the same sort of mistake as 
Germany made when she had France prostrate at her feet 
in 1870. Let us, whatever we do, fight for and work towards 
great and sound principles for the European system. And 
the first of those principles which we should keep before us 
is the principle of nationality that is to say, not the conquest 
or subjugation of any great community or of any strong race 

195 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT. 

of men, but the setting free of those races which have been 
subjugated and conquered ; and if doubt arises about dis- 
puted areas of country we should try to settle their ultimate 
destination in the reconstruction of Europe which must 
follow from this war with a fair regard to the wishes and 
feelings of the people who live in them. 

That is the aim which, if it is achieved, will justify the 
exertions of the war and will make some amends to the world 
for the loss and suffering, the agony of suffering, which it has 
wrought and entailed, and which will give to those who come 
after us not only the pride which we hope they will feel in 
remembering the martial achievements of the present age of 
Britain, but which will give them also a better and fairer 
world to live in and a Europe free from the causes of hatred 
and unrest which have poisoned the comity of nations and 
ruptured the peace of Christendom. 

I use these words because this is a war in which we are 
all together all classes, all races, all States, Principalities, 
Dominions, and Powers throughout the British Empire we 
are all together. Years ago the elder Pitt urged upon his 
countrymen the compulsive invocation, " Be one people." 
It has taken us till now to obey his appeal, but now we are 
together, and while we remain one people there are no forces 
in the world strong enough to beat us down or break us up. 

I hope, even in this dark hour of strife and struggle, that 
the unity which has been established in our country under 
the pressure of war will not cease when the great military 
effort upon which we are engaged and the great moral causes 
which we are pursuing have been achieved. I hope, and I 
do not think my hope is a vain one, that the forces which 
have come together in our islands and throughout our Empire 
may continue to work together, not only in a military struggle, 
but to try to make our country more quickly a more happy 
and more prosperous land, where social justice and free 
institutions are more firmly established than they have been 
in the past. If that is so we shall not have fought in vain 
at home as well as abroad. 

With these hopes and in this belief I would urge you, 
laying aside all Hindrance, thrusting away all private aims, 
to devote yourselves unswervingly and unflinchingly to the 
vigorous and successful prosecution of the war. 

itf 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
THE " HELA " SUNK BY A BRITISH SUBMARINE. 

Berlin, September 14. 

On the morning of September I3th S.M. small cruiser K.V. 
Hela was sunk by the torpedo of a hostile submarine. Nearly 
all the crew were saved. 

BEHNCKE, 
Acting Chief of the Admiral Staff. 



The Secretary of the Admiralty authorises the publica- Times. 
tion of the following statement : Se P t - X 7 

Submarine E 9, Lieutenant-Commander Max Kennedy X 9 14 ' 
Horton, has returned safely after having torpedoed a German 
cruiser, believed to be the Hela, six miles south of Heligoland. 

GERMAN MINES IN NEUTRAL WATERS. 

House of Commons, September 14. 

MR. HUNT asked the Prime Minister whether His Majesty's Hansard. 
Government has received information that automatic contact 
mines have been laid down by German agents in the Eastern 
Mediterranean in the track of neutral shipping ; and, if so, 
whether he will propose to neutral Powers that they should, 
in the interest of common humanity, assist in ridding that 
sea from these engines of destruction laid in neutral waters ? 

DR. MACNAMARA (PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE 
ADMIRALTY) : A report to the effect stated was received 
shortly after the outbreak of the war, and immediate steps 
were then taken to counteract the supposed danger to shipping, 
but, so far as I am aware, no mines have actually been found. 
Drifting mines have been reported as being set adrift from 
the Dardanelles. 

GOVERNMENT TUGS (CREWS). 

House of Commons, September 16. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the Hansard. 
Admiralty if he is aware of the hours worked by the crews 
of Government tugs, and that these hours in some cases 

197 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT. 

exceed 100 a week ; and whether, in view of the risk these 
men run in going out into the Channel, even at night, in 
pursuance of the extra duties cast upon them by the war, 
he can see his way to make better arrangements as to leave 
and afford them some extra remuneration ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : It is the case that at the time of 
mobilisation, and no doubt on occasion since, the men 
employed on the yard craft generally have been called upon 
to work long hours, and I take this opportunity of acknow- 
ledging the loyal and zealous way with which they like all 
classes of dockyard employes have responded to the demand 
made upon them. The Regulations contemplate the grant 
of extra pay where unusually long hours are worked, and 
I have no doubt that these Regulations have been and will 
be kept carefully in mind by those locally responsible for 
their administration. 



GREENOCK TORPEDO FACTORY. 

Hansard. MR. BARNES asked the First Lord of the Admiralty 
whether he is aware that at the Greenock Torpedo Factory 
electrical repair work is almost entirely done by naval 
pensioners at wages considerably below the standard rate 
for electrical workers, which is lofd. an hour ; and whether, 
in the event of any vacancies occurring, electrical workers 
will be employed at the proper rate ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I will inquire at once into the 
matter. 

THE ATTACK ON KIAO-CHAU. 

Tokyo, September 16. 

It is officially announced that Japanese scouts captured 
the railway station at Kiao-chau on the I3th inst. 

A Japanese aeroplane dropped bombs on the barracks at 
Tsingtau, returning to safety. 

A Japanese destroyer flotilla operating in Laoshan Bay 
has driven in the enemy's patrols. Renter. 

198 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Tokyo, September 24. 

It is officially announced that a British force, under 
Brigadier-General Barnardiston, commanding the British 
forces in North China (including Wei-hai-wei), landed yester- 
day in the neighbourhood of Laoshan Bay, so as to participate 
in the movements against the Germans at Tsingtau. Reuter. 



(Press Bureau Statement communicated by Japanese Military 

Attache.) 

September 28. 

ON the afternoon of the 26th our troops attacked the 
enemy, who were in occupation of advanced positions on the 
high ground between the Rivers Pai-sha and Li-tsun ; after 
a slight engagement the enemy were put to flight. 

On the 27th our troops occupied the line along the right 
banks of the Li-tsun and Chang-tsun Rivers, about seven 
miles north-east of Tsingtau. 



THE AUSTRALIAN FLEET. 

Melbourne, September 15. 

MR. MILLEN, Minister of Defence, states that immediately 
on the outbreak of war the Australian Fleet, co-operating 
with the China Squadron, searched for the enemy's cruisers 
and dismantled the enemy's wireless stations in the Pacific. 
All the necessary measures were also taken to safeguard trade 
routes. 

From August ist to September I2th the cruiser Melbourne 
covered 11,170 miles, mostly in the Tropics, and the other 
ships of the fleet also travelled great distances. The manner 
in which these extensive operations were carried out was 

199 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

due to the fine leading of Rear-Admiral Sir George Patey and 
the enthusiasm of all under him. The accomplishment of so 
much at such small sacrifice of life was matter for congratula- 
tion. Renter. 



[SEPT. 



THE ROYAL NAVAL DIVISION. 

Times, The Secretary of the Admiralty announces that the 

Sept. 18, number of applications for commissions in the Royal Naval 
I 9 I 4- Division from eligible candidates is already so far in excess 

of possible requirements that no further applications can 

be considered. 



Times, 
Sept. 18, 
1914. 



TWENTY-ONE MEN DROWNED BY FOUNDERING OF 

THE "EREBUS.* 

The Press Bureau issued the following at 12.20 this 
morning : 

' The Secretary of the Admiralty announces that H.M.S. 
Fisgard II. (late Erebus), which was being towed in the 
Channel, foundered during the gale, 21 of her crew being 
drowned." 



Times, 
Sept. 19, 
1914. 



ROYAL NAVAL FLYING CORPS. FOUR UHLANS 

KILLED. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty communicates the follow- 
ing statement for publication : 

" On the i6th inst. Commander Samson, with a small 
armoured motor-car force attached to the Naval Flying 
Corps, encountered a patrol of five Uhlans near Doullens, 
killing four and wounding and capturing the fifth. The 
British force suffered no casualties." 



300 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
COMMAND OF THE SEA. 

Bordeaux, September 19. 

AT the beginning of the war the Navy was called upon C.O. 
to cover the return to France of the troops from Africa. 
This was done in the most satisfactory conditions, as was 
also the passage from France to Algeria and Morocco of 
territorial regiments required for the garrisoning of our 
North African possessions in substitution for the active troops 
which are now fighting on the frontier. In the North the 
Second Light Squadron has in like manner co-operated in 
protecting the passage and disembarkation of the English 
Army of General French. These operations could not have 
been successfully conducted except by virtue of an absolute 
command of the sea. With the help of the British Fleet in 
the Channel and the North Sea this command was obtained 
from the first day war broke out. The French and British 
squadrons also assured the security of the Mediterranean after 
the flight of the Goeben and the Breslau. 

Neither in the north nor in the south has the enemy put 
in an appearance. The so-called German ' High Seas " 
Fleet does not leave its bases. Nevertheless the British Fleet 
was able to fight a naval battle at Heligoland, from which it 
emerged victorious. It is impossible to know whether the 
enemy's fleets will end by accepting the challenge, but in 
the meanwhile the Allied squadrons are mistresses of the seas 
and are blockading the German and Austrian coasts. The 
countries of the enemies are surrounded, and no merchant 
vessel can enter or quit their ports. Germany and Austria 
are forced to live almost exclusively on themselves and to 
reckon only on their own resources. This is a certain assur- 
ance of ultimate success for us if the war should continue for 
any length of time. Our commerce, on the other hand, 
retains its full liberty of movement. . . . 

ADMIRAL TROUBRIDGE AND THE ESCAPE OF 
THE " GOEBEN " AND " BRESLAU." 

September 20. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty announces that Rear- P-B. 
Admiral E. C. Troubridge, C.B., C.M.G., M.V.O., has been 

201 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEF 

recalled to England from the Mediterranean Fleet in order 
that an inquiry may be held into the circumstances leading 
to the escape of the Goeben and the Breslau from Messina 
Straits. The Court of Inquiry will consist of Admiral Sir 
Hedworth Meux, G.C.B., and Admiral Sir George Callaghan 
K.C.B. 

LOSS OF SUBMARINE A E i. 

Admiralty, September 20. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty announces that a tele- 
gram has been received from the Government of the Common- 
wealth of Australia reporting the loss of submarine A E i. 

No details are yet to hand. 



Admiralty, September 21. 

It has now been ascertained that the loss of submarine 
A E i, was due to an accident, the cause of which will 
probably never be known. There was no sea at the time 
when she was lost, and no enemy was in the neighbourhood. 

MR. CHURCHILL AT LIVERPOOL. 



MR. WINSTON CHURCHILL said : Whatever else you 
can or cannot do in Liverpool, you can certainly get up a 
good meeting when there is something serious to meet about. 
This great gathering represents at this moment the force 
and spirit of the British Empire. Party cleavages deeper 
here, perhaps, than anywhere else have vanished like the 
mists of the morning. Christian men remember only all that 
they have in common ; classes, professions, interests, all are 
flowing together into one great channel which moves forward 
to the realisation of the whole strength of the whole British 
people. And it is well it should be so. The times in which 
we live are terrible. The course of events has passed outside 
the boundaries of the most daring imagination. The actual 
facts are so stunning, the scale of all the phenomena 



202 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

presented to our view so vast, that we can only feel each one 
of us we must just lay hold of the obvious and simple step 
which duty indicates. The end we cannot see, but the 
immediate step before us we can see quite plainly. I have 
not come here to-night, honoured though I am by your 
welcome, to ask you for your cheers. I have come here to 
ask you for a million men. I don't mean a million men with 
the colours and under arms. We have got that already in 
the British Empire. I mean a million men on the Continent 
of Europe in line with the gallant army of Sir John French 
a million men, the flower of our manhood, nothing but the 
best, every man a volunteer a million men maintained in 
the field, equipped with everything that science can invent 
or money can buy, maintained and supported by resources 
which, while we maintain the command of the seas, we can 
draw from every quarter of the globe, and kept up steadily 
whatever the losses and slaughter to their full strength 
until this war is settled in the only way. I come here to 
ask you for this with great confidence first, because I know 
we are asking for nothing which cannot quite easily be done 
as long as we continue all of the same mind ; secondly, I 
come to you with confidence because I know Lancashire, 
and know it well. You may say that I know it from both 
sides. But we all know it from both sides now. Both 
sides are good and true, and marching on the path of duty. 
I am glad to come here also with my friend Mr. F. E. Smith. 
Ours is a friendship which has been bred under the con- 
ditions of party and political warfare, and it is one of the 
most cherished possessions of my life. I do not know how 
I leave it to others to reconcile the difficulties which 
every man in his own mind knows of political differences 
and national needs. But in essentials, in the things which 
make for the strength and greatness of this country, for its 
road to safety and honour, we are and we have always been 
agreed. I am glad to come here to-night to Liverpool- 
fierce, party-torn Liverpool, united now. I am glad to come 
here to-night and be on the platform with him who in a few 
days will be off to the war. I shall join with you in wishing 
that he may come back when matters have been satisfactorily 
adjusted. Now, gentlemen, I have only one song to sing. 
These are days of action rather than speech, and I feel myself 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

that the kindly welcome you give to politicians is only because 
they are the proxies of our gallant soldiers in the field and 
our sailors on the sea. But I think you have no need to be 
anxious about the result of the war. God has blessed our 
arms with unexpected good fortune. For myself, having 
studied the matter with some attention, I could not have 
hoped that at this stage in the war circumstances would be 
so favourable to the Allied cause. I had certainly expected 
that the great battle in France would have been fought 
much farther south, and that a greater measure of privation 
and of oppression, and of outrage would have been inflicted 
upon the gallant people of France. But, gentlemen, we must 
not build on the incidents of this week or of that. We must 
not build the foundations of our house upon the fleeting and 
changing chances of the field of war, of a battle, of a siege, 
of an attack, of a retreat, of a march, or counter move. We 
must look to the solid foundations ; we must look to the real 
sources and springs of energy and force ; we must measure, 
not the actual, immediate position of armies, but the vital 
energies of the nations engaged in the struggle. If we are 
ready to hurl these vital energies and are sure that we shall 
have the time and I think the Navy can give us the time- 
to realise our full force, then, I say, even if this battle were 
to be as disastrous as it appears to be triumphant, and if 
other battles were to come, evil in their fortune, sinister in 
their consequences, still, I say, the English people, the British 
Empire, the great nation of which we are a part, and a repre- 
sentative part, can, if its resolution does not fail, finally 
determine this matter as it chooses. So far as the Navy is 
concerned, we cannot fight while the enemy remains in port. 
It takes two to make a quarrel. But we are enjoying at the 
present moment, without having fought a battle, all those 
advantages of the command of the sea which would follow 
if we had a battle and the German Navy were destroyed. 
Our food and trade are arriving freely the enemy's commerce 
has been swept from the seas. We are drawing men by the 
twenty, thirty, and hundred thousand from all parts of the 
British Empire. Although we hope that a decision at sea 
will be a feature of this war, and though our men's tireless 
though wearying vigil continues week after week, and month 
after month ; although we hope they will have a chance of 
204 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

settling the question with the German Fleet, yet, if they 
don't come out and fight in time of war, they will be dug 
out like rats in a hole. 

Under the shield of the Navy you can raise an army in 
this country which will settle the war. All the great Powers 
who are engaged in this struggle have lived and suffered 
under the severe competition of military armaments in 
Europe, and all have been able to realise the greater part of 
their forces with great rapidity. Our ally Russia has immense 
reserves upon which she can draw, but upon the side of our 
enemies everything that they have got has already been 
extended. They are all out. In six or seven months we 
can without difficulty, without boasting, without indulging 
in vain speculations, we can undoubteclly put in the field 
twenty-five army corps comprising a million men, who for 
their personal qualities, understanding of the quarrel, spon- 
taneous and voluntary energy and initiative, will not find 
their match or counterpart in the armies of Europe. And 
there is no reserve of manhood, there is no reserve of vital 
energy on the side of our enemies which can prevent that 
million men from turning the scale in our favour. The end 
may come sooner. Victory may come to us more easily. 
Then let us rejoice ; but let us not count on easy solutions 
of these terrible conclusions and struggles. Let us make our 
resolutions calmly and soberly on the basis that in a reason- 
able time we shall compel our antagonists to come to our 
conclusion of this event. In my opinion it is only a question 
of time and of Britain holding firm. It is only a question of 
how much blood is to be shed, and the more men we can 
send the less the slaughter will be. So many eloquent speakers 
have dealt with the causes of the war that I think I should 
be only talking to those who are of the same opinion if I 
dealt with them with any length. But if you are to look 
to the reasons of this extraordinary explosion in Europe 
you must look back a long way. You must look to the 
foundation of the German Empire between 1860 and 1870. 
In that period Germany was raised to the first position hi 
Europe by three calculated wars time considered, plans 
prepared, deliberately organised by Bismarck a war which 
stripped the little State of Denmark of its provinces, a war 
which deprived Austria of the hegemony of the Germanic 

*>s 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEP: 

States, and last, the cruel war, malevolently organised and 
timed, which struck down France and robbed her of her 
faithful inalienable provinces. Those were the three care- 
fully planned acts of violence upon which the greatness and 
power of the German Empire all these years have been 
founded. Some people use rough methods in getting to 
power and afterwards improve ; but that has not been the 
case with the German Empire. What have they done with 
their wonderful victory and triumph all these years ? Why, 
they have not even been contented with it ; they have 
always been going round saying : ' Why don't you admire 
us more ? Look how splendid we are. See what military 
force we dispose of. See how efficient we are. See how ready 
we are to strike down anyone who stands in our path." 
They have not even enjoyed their long and wonderful reign 
at the summit of the European position. In the forty-four 
years that have passed since the great victory of Germany 
over France at every stage Germany has sought to humiliate, 
to terrorise the French people, and they are a nasty crowd 
to do that with. Five or six separate times France has been 
threatened with war by Germany. She has been forced to 
live in a continual state of anxiety and trepidation. Since 
we have been in office there have been at least three occa- 
sions in which Europe has been brought to the verge of war 
and in which war has been averted by the patience and 
self-restraint of France. For forty-four years Germany has 
dealt with France on the basis of what has been called in 
Europe " rattling the sabre." What has been her treatment 
of the provinces she has conquered ? Has she assimilated 
any of them ? Has she induced any of them to look with 
feelings of admiration upon her rule ? We know that, 
although the most ruthless methods have been employed, 
wherever Germany has conquered land the people who do 
not belong to her have only waited for the hand of their 
deliverer. What has been her attitude towards Russia ? 
Russia was brought low in the great struggle with Japan. 
Now these enemies of ten years ago are in the same line 
together. But while Russia was weak and crushed in her 
military force not in her natural force but in her military 
force after the struggle with Japan, Germany used brutal 
power in 1909, in the days when the German Emperor made 

ao6 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

his boastful speech on shining armour Germany used brutal 
power to humiliate and affront the great Russian people, 
and that is one of the causes of the struggle in which we are 
engaged. What has been the attitude of Germany towards 
the question of international law and the abatement of 
armaments and of the rights of nationalities ? Can anyone 
point to a single word spoken by any responsible leader of 
German thought or any ruler of German policy during the 
whole of her great sunlit reign over European Powers in 
favour of the rights of small peoples, in favour of her own 
sanctions of international law, in favour of some abatement of 
the wasteful struggle and competition of armaments which has 
led us to where we are ? During all that time she has preached 
the creed and gospel of force crude force, not the force 
that comes from the virtue of consenting minds or the force 
which comes from moral energy. She has preached the 
crude, brutal force of adding regiment to regiment, bureaucrat 
to bureaucrat, and ramming it all down the throats of every 
one to the tune of " Germany over all." Well, force, in its 
highest expression, is a manifestation not of material but of 
spiritual things. That is what Germany has yet to learn. 
Blood and iron is her motto. Let soul and fire be ours. 
What has been her attitude during her long noonday reign 
of splendour towards this country ? We had no wish to be 
drawn into a position of antagonism with Germany. Far 
from it. We had helped her in her great struggles in the 
past of Frederick the Great and in the time of Napoleon. 
We had never been pitted against her in any struggle in all 
the centuries, and we had no reason to nourish any evil 
feelings against her. Every effort has been made in this 
country, by both great parties, by men of every class, to 
avoid saying things in the time that has gone by which 
would lead to or gird up antagonism between these countries. 
There are scores and hundreds of men in this meeting who 
have sedulously repressed any expression of opinion which, 
taking a truculent form or hostile form against the German 
nation, might lead to strife. 

What has been our treatment by the Germans ? We 
tried hard to work with them. Lord Salisbury, during the 
whole of his administration, always endeavoured to work in 
Europe in amity with Germany. But the great statesman 

207 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

was brought to the conclusion, before he resigned office at 
the end of his life and retired, that it was impossible to main- 
tain a foreign policy based upon association with Germany, 
because, as was said and has often been said by those who 
knew the course of foreign affairs, they expected to be bought 
over again every year. During the whole time that we were 
endeavouring I am talking of affairs now of twenty years 
ago endeavouring to work with them in a close arrangement 
of policy, they were always endeavouring by intrigues to get 
us into trouble with Russia and with France, and then to 
come to us and say : ' What are you going to do in order 
to keep our friendship ? " until at last the British Foreign 
Office, which only changes its policy once in a quarter of a 
century yes, and quite right, too until the British Foreign 
Office was absolutely worn out and disgusted with the im- 
possible attempts to keep a peaceful Europe on the basis of 
a close Anglo-German co-operation. Then, with the consent 
of all the parties in the State, we turned to France and 
adjusted our difficulties with France direct, and His Majesty 
King Edward VII. went to Paris and made that friendship 
no bargain or treaty. Great nations don't require bargains 
or treaties. They fulfil bargains and respect treaties. But 
they can do the right thing with either." King Edward made 
that friendship between England and France which now is 
being tried in the fire of war, and will ultimately shine forth 
in the glory of victory. And then Germany began, while we 
were still on terms of special amity with her, the construc- 
tion of a great navy, which had no other object I am so 
glad to be able to tell you what I think about it now which 
had no other object and could have had no other object 
but our Navy. Every detail of the construction of the 
German Fleet a long-conceived plan unfolding year by year, 
programme by programme every detail of that great scheme 
on which such extraordinary efforts were directed, and to 
which so much foresight and skill was devoted every detail 
of it showed and proved that it was meant for us, for our 
exclusive benefit. I came into office at the Admiralty after 
the Agadir crisis. I think this war would have taken place 
then if the Chancellor of the Exchequer had not gone to the 
Mansion House and made a speech, and they just thought 
they would wait a little longer. After that I became respon- 
208 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

sible for this great department, and I have had to see every 
day the evidences of the espionage system which Germany 
has maintained in this country. I have had the evidence 
put under my eye month by month of the agents which they 
have maintained here year after year in great and consider- 
able numbers to report to them all the details of our naval 
organisation which they can get by bribery or subornation, 
and not only that, because you might say that was a pro- 
tective measure, because we had a stronger Fleet, but every 
dirty little German lieutenant coming on his leave to England 
has thought he would curry favour with his superiors by 
writing home the details of where water can be got, where 
there is a blacksmith's forge, or how much provisions there 
are for a battalion or brigade in this little village or town- 
ship of our peaceful island. We have been made the subject 
for the last eight or nine years, just in the same way as France 
was before 1870, and Austria before 1866, and Denmark 
before 1864 we have been made the subject of a careful, 
deliberate, scientific military reconnaissance. Well, they 
know all about us. If they like to come, they know the way. 
W T e are not asking any favours. But if you leave these deep 
causes the fact that Germany having struck down France 
did not rest content with the glory of her victory, but looked 
upon it only as the starting-point for fresh usurpations and 
dominations over European Powers, of the fact that she 
made every little country tremble in its shoes ; the fact that 
she preached the gospel of force, and backed it up by the 
greatest development of military organisation and efficiency 
which has yet been seen if you look beyond all this and 
behind all these causes, and the immediate fountain spring 
of this war, I say without hesitation, so far as I am concerned, 
I went into it to help and to prevent France from being 
crushed. France is a most peaceful, democratic country, 
probably the most democratic country in the world, the most 
advanced country in every line of politics, with absolute 
mastery of all the Jingo element in its midst ; a nation which 
had decided not to forget the past thank God, they did 
not do that but a nation which had decided that they 
would not take any step to plunge her into war on account 
of their lost provinces. I see that country return election 
after election men more deeply pledged to peace than any 

Naval I O 2O9 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT 

Power in Europe. We knew that they had decided a bitter 
war beforehand. It was not for them an event of the imagina- 
tion. I saw that this country, taken by itself, was weaker 
than the German power which rose up, towered up, against 
it. I saw that it earnestly desired to be allowed to live in 
peace. It had fortified its frontiers. On every side its 
frontiers were guarded by the sea or by great lines of fortifi- 
cations, except in the north, and there France lay safe under 
the shelter of a treaty to which England and Prussia were 
parties. I always thought that if Germany attacked France 
and tried to smash her irretrievably we should be bound in 
honour, in sincerity, and for our own self-preservation to 
throw in our lot with her. I don't say we should have 
followed France on a war of revenge or of ambition ; but if 
it could be proved, as it has been proved, that France, seek- 
ing continuously and faithfully to preserve the peace of 
Europe, and not to be drawn into war, was nevertheless to 
be struck down, I have always felt we ought to be there too. 
I gave some attention to the consideration of the military 
aspects of the problem three years ago. I was quite sure 
that Germany would violate the neutrality of Belgium. All 
her plans were made in cold blood to do that. She built 
hundreds of miles of railway sidings ; she had made all her 
arrangements of camps, in order to pour into France through 
Belgium, where there were no fortifications, where there was 
only her word of honour to stand between her and her prey. 
And so it fell out. She broke the treaty. Into the gap 
she poured this tremendous avalanche of fire and steel with 
which we are contending now. I said the gap was unguarded 
but by a treaty. No, gentlemen, it was not unguarded. 
The unexpected happened. The marvellous presented itself. 
Always in the commission of a crime something is forgotten 
by the criminal. It has all been worked out in every detail. 
Not a mistake in any fact or figure but one. Some quite 
unforeseen and wonderful occurrence takes place which 
ruptures all the calculations to fraud and violence. Un- 
guarded, did I say ? No ; a small, valiant people, whose 
reputation had thundered through the ages, has been smirched 
by calumny, and sprang suddenly into a heroic life that will 
live down the centuries of the future ; a small people who 
were not at all concerned about power or cared nothing 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

for the great combinations of European diplomacy, who had 
not an axe to grind, but only wanted to live their own life, 
were suddenly found called upon to play a sublime part in 
the history of the world. All through horrible sufferings, 
which are recurring day by day, and which continue, and 
will aggregate as the weeks and months go past, suffering 
which has not been confined to the soldiers of Belgium, or to 
the volunteers, or to the male population, but have fallen 
in unstinted measure upon the weak, and the poor, and the 
old, and the young, and the women, and the children their 
sufferings cannot be left unredressed. The might of England 
will be exerted, patiently, until full reparation has been 
obtained. We cannot undo the harm that has been done ; 
we cannot restore the lives ; we cannot renew the ties which 
have been sundered ; we cannot repair the ruin which has 
been caused wholly ; but, at any rate, we can with our strong 
arm make Belgium a prosperous, thriving, happy, glorious 
country, and that is a worthy task upon which a sober- 
minded may I say liberal-minded ? Englishman, Scotsman, 
or Irishman may well be willing to risk or, if need be, lay 
down his life. Is it not an exhilarating thing to feel we are 
all together ? I rejoice to come here to you in Liverpool, 
and feel that in this crisis of our fortunes we have the whole 
Irish people with us. Of course, party politics are put aside, 
but when we go to the cupboard after the war is over and 
take them out again things will never be quite the same. 
The Orangemen of Belfast have given their rifles to the 
Belgians. Is there anyone, British Liberal or Irish Nation- 
alist, who would allow them to be any worse off for that ? 
Our Nationalist fellow-countrymen are on the march, and 
the words of the poem come back to us across the centuries, 
and are singularly apposite to the situation to-night : 

From Dunkirk to Belgrade 

Lies the bones of the Irish Brigade. 

And we have only to hold together, casting away all the 
impediments, laying aside every hindrance, marching stoutly 
and steadfastly forward, and all will be well, and you will 
have a century as glorious as that which followed the Battle 
of Waterloo. We don't seek the subjugation of Germany 
or Austria, or of their people. Nothing is farther from our 
intention. However complete our victory may be, however 

311 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Sa 

shattering their defeat may be, they need never fear from 
us that the measures which they have meted out to others, 
which they have meted out to Alsace, or to Denmark, or to 
Italy, or to Transylvania, or to Poland, will be meted out to 
them. Their independence, their customs, their language, 
all that they care about in their own government, their 
rights as citizens and as freemen will never be invaded or 
assailed by us ; we shall hold those rights inviolate and 
inviolable, even if the last Prussian soldier has been forced . 
to capitulate and the last German ship has been sunk. They 
stand not on the basis of the struggles of nations, but on the 
necessary and vital foundations of human society. We are 
fighting for the elementary rights of civilised men and States ; 
we are not going to give those up, no matter how bitter our 
defeats may be, and we are going to respect and maintain 
them, however complete our victory. 

The worst that can happen to Germany ; the worst that 
can happen to the peoples of Germany and Austria in the 
days that will follow from this war is that they shall be set 
free to live and let live fairly and justly. There is no question 
of subjugating them. The ultimate exaction which the 
victory of the Allies will achieve will be the liberation of the 
imprisoned nationalities within their grip. We have heard 
from the German Ambassador in the United States some 
vague talk of peace. It is as insincere as the information 
of which he is the server. This should not come from the 
lips of those who are invading the territories of their neigh- 
bours, who are carrying fire and sword through the peaceful 
villages of France and Belgium. And while that spectacle 
continues, and while the smoke of their abominable cruelties 
goes up to heaven, there is no time for the talk of peace 
on the lips of the German Ambassador to the United States. 
Peace ? Feugh ! Why, we are only just beginning. Peace 
with the German people may be arranged 'in good time, but 
peace with Prussian militarism no peace short of the grave, 
with that vile tyranny. To those who think that having 
struck this vile blow with all its frightful consequences, they 
can undo the past get out of it all on a drawn battle they 
reck not of the justice of God or man. Peace, gentlemen, 
will be found, in the words of His Majesty the King, " When 
the worthy cause for which we are fighting has been fully 



[ 4 ] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

achieved." " It's a long, long way to Tipperary." But we 
will get there. And when we get there the result will not be 
unworthy even of the prodigious sacrifices required. Across 
the smoke and storm of European battlefields one can see 
great, dim structures, vast structures, of a new and better 
Europe, and a new and better Christendom than we have 
ever known before. We see emerging from the conflict 
first, the great principle of the rights of nationalities ; second, 
the great principle of the integrity of states and nations, their 
old unity and integrity restored ; and we see the sanctions 
of international law so established that the most audacious 
Power will not be anxious to challenge them. Millions of 
men are going to suffer and shed their blood in Europe in 
the next few weeks. No one can compute the suffering ; 
no one can measure the tragedy of what is taking place. 
Let us make sure that that does not take place without a 
result which shall repay the suffering, which shall make our 
children look back and say : " For all they suffered, they 
were right." I suppose there are many here to-night who 
feel in their hearts a biting pang of pain or a gnawing anxiety 
for some dear friend in the death grips at the front. We 
know the flower of our manhood, the brightest, finest, bravest, 
and best, has been swept away, and what can we do ? One 
thing only can we do. We can make sure that on a monu- 
ment which records their glory and their death the words 
" Not in vain " may be graven. " Not in vain," and we 
may see the spectacle of a Poland after all these generations 
united, and in loyal harmonious relations to the Crown of 
Russia. We may live to see a confederation of the Christian 
States of the Balkans restored to their proper racial limits. 
We may see an Italy whose territory corresponds to her 
Italian population. We may see France restored to her 
proper station in Europe and her rightful place, and we may 
see that old England had something to do with it all. If 
that is so, if these results should be achieved, the million men 
which we are met here to ask for, maintained continuously 
upon the Continent of Europe until a victorious peace is 
concluded, will not have been demanded or supplied in vain. 
[We are indebted to the courtesy of the Editor of the " Liver- 
pool Post " for a verbatim report of ike foregoing speech, and 
for permission to use it in this volume.] 

313 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Sra 

ADDITIONAL CONTRABAND. 

BY THE KING. 

A PROCLAMATION 

SPECIFYING CERTAIN ADDITIONAL ARTICLES WHICH ARE TO 
BE TREATED AS CONTRABAND OF WAR. 

GEORGE R.I. 

L.G. WHEREAS on the fourth day of August last We did 

issue Our Royal Proclamation specifying the articles which 
it was Our intention to treat as Contraband of War during 
the War between Us and the German Emperor : 

AND WHEREAS on the twelfth day of August last We 
did by Our Royal Proclamation of that date extend Our 
Proclamation aforementioned to the War between Us and 
the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary : 

AND WHEREAS by an Order in Council of the twentieth 
day of August, 1914, it was ordered that during the present 
hostilities the Convention known as the Declaration of London 
should, subject to certain additions and modifications therein 
specified, be adopted and put in force as if the same had 
been ratified by Us : 

AND WHEREAS it is desirable to add to the list of articles 
to be treated as Contraband of War during the present War : 

AND WHEREAS it is expedient to introduce certain further 
modifications in the Declaration of London as adopted and 
put in force : 

Now, THEREFORE, We do hereby declare, by and with 
the advice of Our Privy Council, that during the continuance 
of the War, or until We do give further public notice, the 
articles enumerated in the Schedule hereto will, notwith- 
standing anything contained in Article 28 of the Declaration 
of London, be treated as conditional Contraband. 

SCHEDULE. 

Copper, unwrought. 
Lead, pig, sheet, or pipe. 
Glycerine. 
Ferrochrome. 



314 



\ 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Haematite Iron Ore. 
Magnetic Iron Ore. 
Rubber. 

Hides and Skins, raw or rough tanned (but not including 
dressed leather). 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Twenty- 
first day of September, in the Year of our Lord one 
thousand nine hundred and fourteen, and in the 
Fifth Year of Our Reign. 

LOSS OF H.M.S. "PEGASUS/' AND OTHER NAVAL 

EVENTS. 

(1) SINCE the outbreak of war H.M.S. Pegasus, Com- P.B.. 
mander John A. Inglis, Royal Navy, has been working from Sep*- 20 - 
Zanzibar and has rendered very useful services, including 

the destruction of Dar-es-Salaam and the sinking of the German 
gunboat Mdwe and floating dock. Early this morning, how- 
ever, she was attacked by the Konigsberg while at anchor in 
Zanzibar harbour cleaning her boilers and repairing machinery. 
The Pegasus was thus taken at a disadvantage and, being 
somewhat outranged by the newer 4-in. guns of the Konigs- 
berg, was completely disabled after suffering a loss unofficially 
reported as twenty-five killed and eighty wounded. This is a 
high proportion out of a crew of 234. The damage done 
to the Konigsberg is not known ; she was last seen steaming 
away to the southward. 

(2) On September loth the German cruiser Emden, from 
the China Station, after being completely lost for six weeks, 
appeared suddenly in the Bay of Bengal, and during the 
period September loth to I4th captured six British ships as 
follows : Indus, Lovat, Killin, Diplomat, Trabbock, and 
Kabanga, of which five were sunk and the sixth sent into 
Calcutta with the crews. The Emden is now reported at 
Rangoon, and it is possible that she has made some other 
captures. 

(3) The British auxiliary cruiser Carmania, Captain Noel 
Grant, Royal Navy, went into action on September I4th 
off the east coast of South America with a German armed 
merchant cruiser supposed to be the Cap Trafalgar or Berlin* 

215 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEP: 

mounting eight 4-in. guns and pom-poms. The action lasted 
one hour and forty-five minutes, when the German ship 
capsized and sank, her survivors being rescued by an empty 
collier. Of the crew of the Carmania nine men were killed, 
five men seriously injured, and twenty-one men slightly 
wounded. None of the officers was injured. The First Lord 
has sent the following telegram to Captain Noel Grant, Royal 
Navy, of the Carmania : 

" Well done. You have fought a fine action to a successful 
finish." 

(4) H.M.S. Cumberland, Captain Cyril T. M. Fuller, Royal 
Navy, reports from the Cameroon River that a German 
steamboat, on the night of September I4th, attempted to 
sink H.M. gunboat Dwarf, Commander Frederick E. K. Strong, 
Royal Navy, with an infernal machine in the bows. The 
attempt failed, and the steamboat, with one prisoner, was 
captured. On the night of September i6th the Dwarf was 
purposely rammed by the Nachtigall, a German merchant 
ship. The Dwarf was slightly damaged, but sustained no 
casualties. The Nachtigall was wrecked. The enemy lost 
four white men and ten coloured men and eight white men 
and fourteen coloured men missing. 

A further report received from H.M.S. Cumberland to-day 
states that two German launches, one carrying explosive 
machines, were destroyed, the enemy's losses being one 
white man killed and three white men and two natives taken 
prisoners. 

Capetown, September 22. 

Times, The following further official particulars have been 

Sept. 23, received here of the action between His Majesty's light cruiser 
Pegasus and the German cruiser Kdnigsberg at Zanzibar. 
The Kdnigsberg approached at full speed at 5 a.m. on Sunday 
and disabled a British patrol boat with three shots. She 
then opened fire on the Pegasus. Her shooting, which was 
very accurate, began at a range of nine thousand yards, 
closing to seven thousand. All the broadside of the Pegasus 
was engaged, but her guns were disabled in fifteen minutes, 
when her fire ceased. After a lull of five minutes the Konigs- 
berg again opened fire for another quarter of an hour, the 
216 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Ptgasus being unable to reply. Nearly all the British casual- 
ties occurred round the guns and on the upper deck. 

The ship was badly holed on the waterline and listed 
heavily. The British flag was shot away twice, but was held 
up by hand by Marines. Apparently little or no damage was 
done to the Konigsberg. 

The figures of the British casualties as given after final 
revision are 39 killed and 59 wounded. 



SINKING OF THE "CAP TRAFALGAR" BY H.M.S. 

" CARMANIA." 

Admiralty, October II. 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty communicates the 
following narrative of the action in the South Atlantic on 
September I4th between H.M.S. Carmania and the German 
armed merchant ship Cap Trafalgar: 

Shortly after n a.m. we made out a vessel, and on nearer 
approach we saw there were three steamers one a large 
liner, the others colliers : the latter had derricks topped and 
were probably working when we hove in sight. Before we 
had raised their hulls they had separated and were making 
off in different directions. The large vessel was apparently 
about our own size, with two funnels painted to resemble a 
Castle liner. 

After running away for a little while the large steamer 
turned to starboard and headed towards us ; he was then 
steering about south and we were steering about south-west. 
The weather was fine and sunny, with a moderate breeze 
from north-east. Our speed was 16 knots and his apparently 
about 18. 

At 8,500 yards we fired a shot across his bows, and he 
immediately opened fire from his starboard after gun. We 
opened with all port guns, and the firing became general. 

We were now well within range and most of his shots 
going over, consequently our rigging, masts, funnels, derricks, 
and ventilators all suffered ; he was then well open on our 
port side, all our port guns and his starboard guns engaged 
and firing rapidly. Owing to decreasing range his machine 
guns were becoming particularly dangerous, so ship was 

217 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT 

turned away from him and range opened ; ship continued to 
turn until starboard battery was engaged. Two of our hits 
were seen to take his deck steam pipes, he was well on fire 
forward, and had a slight list to starboard. 

One of his shells had passed through the cabin under our 
fore-bridge, and although it did not burst it started a fire 
which became rapidly worse, no water being available owing 
to the fire-main having been shot through and the chemical 
fire extinguishers proving of very little use. The fire got 
such a firm hold that the fore-bridge had to be abandoned 
and the ship conned from aft, using the lower steering position. 

At this time the enemy was on our starboard with a heavy 
list to starboard, and at 1.50 p.m., or one hour and forty 
minutes from firing of the first shot, she capsized to starboard 
and went down bows first with colours flying. 

It was some time before we got the fire under, which 
necessitated keeping the ship before the wind, and conse- 
quently we could not go to the assistance of the survivors, 
some of whom got away in boats and were picked up by one 
of the colliers. 

The enemy before sinking was in wireless communication 
with some German vessel, and as smoke was seen in the 
northern horizon and the signalman thought he could make 
out a cruiser's funnels we went off full speed to the southward. 

When we were in touch with Cornwall we asked him to 
meet us, as ship was unseaworthy and practically all com- 
munications and navigational instruments were destroyed, 
rendering the conning and navigation of the ship difficult 
and uncertain. On the I5th at 4.30 p.m. the Bristol picked 
us up and escorted us until relieved by the Cornwall, who 
took us on to an anchorage to effect temporary repairs. 

Seventy-nine projectiles hit the ship, making 304 holes. 



LAST ENEMY WIRELESS IN THE PACIFIC 
DESTROYED. 

Sydney, September 22. 

REPORTS have been received here that the German 
wireless station on the Island of Nauru has been destroyed, 
and that now the British flag floats over the island, although 



218 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the German Governor and his staff have been allowed to- 
remain. It is stated that the enemy have now no wireless 
stations in the Pacific. 

Scattered fighting took place at Rabaul, the German 
seat of government in New Britain (Neu Pommern) up to 
nightfall of the I4th. The natives under German leadership 
proved very troublesome. They fired on our men, cleverly 
taking cover behind trees, but were easily repulsed with no 
loss to the Australian force. After this, Rabaul practically 
surrendered. Dr. Pockley, of the Australian Red Cross 
Detachment, was shot by a German officer after he had 
removed his coat with the Red Cross band to cover a wounded 
man. Renter. 

CORRESPONDENCE RESPECTING MILITARY OPER- 
ATIONS AGAINST GERMAN POSSESSIONS IN 
THE WESTERN PACIFIC. 

Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command 
of His Majesty. 

November, 1915. 
[Cd. 7975-] 

No. i. 
The Secretary of State to the Governor-General of 

Australia. 
(Extract.) 

August 6, 1914. 

IF your Ministers desire and feel themselves able to 
seize German wireless stations at New Guinea, Yap in Marshall 
Islands, and Nauru on Pleasant Island, we should feel that 
this was a great and urgent Imperial service. You will 
realise, however, that any territory now occupied must at 
conclusion of war be at the disposal of Imperial Government 
for purposes of an ultimate settlement. Other Dominions 
are acting on the same understanding in similar way, and, 
in particular, suggestion to New Zealand is being made 
with regard to Samoa. 

HARCOURT. 

219 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT., 

No. 2. 

The Governor-General of Australia to the Secretary of 

State. 

August 10, 1914. 

EXPEDITIONARY force of 1,500 men being organised 
by Government for action suggested in your telegram August 
6th. Despatching on merchant cruiser carrying four 47 
guns. Departure subject to reports from Patey. Will com- 
municate date of despatch later. 

FERGUSON. 

No. 3. 

The Secretary of State to the Governor-General of 
Australia. 

August 18, 1914. 

IN connexion with expedition against German possessions 
in Pacific, British flag should be hoisted in all territories 
successfully occupied by His Majesty's forces and suitable 
arrangements made for temporary administration : but 
no proclamation formally annexing any such territory should 
be made without previous communication with His Majesty's 
Government. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 4. . 

The Commonwealth Naval Board of Administration to 

Admiralty. 

September 9, 1914. 

REAR-ADMIRAL Commanding Australian Squadron re- 
ports having put out of action the wireless station, Nauru, 
this morning. 

No. 5. 

The Governor-General of Australia to the Secretary of 

State. 

September 12, 1914. 

FOLLOWING telegram has been received from Rear 
Admiral, dated September I2th, Thursday Island : 

220 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

" At 7.30 a.m., on September nth, Herbertshohe^ was 
occupied and British flag hoisted without opposition. 

" Simpsonhafen swept and ready to be entered September 
I2th. 

" Naval force landed under Commander J. A. H. Beres- 
ford, Australian Navy, to destroy wireless telegraph in- 
stallation met vigorous opposition. Advance party estab- 
lished landing at dawn before enemy aware of intention. 
From within few hundred yards landing bush fight for almost 
four miles. Road(s) and front (s) also mined in places and 
station entrenched. Officer commanding German forces in 
trench 500 yards seaward side of station has surrendered 
unconditionally. Our forces now have reconnoitred enemy's 
strength holding station. Twelve-pounder i8-cwt. guns have 
been landed and I intend shelling station to-morrow if it 
does not surrender. 

' Regret to report following casualties : 

" Killed. Lieutenant-Commander Charles B. Elwell, 
R.N. ; Captain B. A. Pockley, Army Medical Corps ; 
two seamen, Australian Naval Reserve. 

' Wounded. Lieutenant Rowland G. Bowen, R.A.N. ; 
two seamen, Royal Australian Naval Reserve. 
' Total German casualties not yet known, but up to 
present I have following prisoners on board : two German 
officers ; five German non-commissioned officers, including 
one wounded ; and thirty native police. There are more to 
come." 

FERGUSON. 

No. 6. 

The Governor-General of Australia to the Secretary of 

State. 

September 13, 1914. 

FOLLOWING telegram has been received from Rear- 
Admiral Patey this day : 

" Australian Naval Reserve captured wireless station 
Herbertshohe i a.m., September i2th, after eighteen hours' 
bush fighting over about six miles. Herbertshohe and Rabaul 
garrisoned and base established Simpsonhafen. Our total 
casualties : two officers killed, one officer wounded, names 



221 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT., 

already reported. Reserve seamen : four killed, three 
wounded. Have prisoners : German officers two, including 
commandant ; German non-commissioned officers fifteen ; 
and native police fifty-six. German casualties, about twenty 
to thirty killed/' 

FERGUSON. 

No. 7. 

The Secretary of State to the Governor-General of 
Australia. 

September 14, 1914. 

YOUR telegrams of September i2th and September 13 th. 
Please convey to your Ministers and to officers and men of 
His Majesty's Australian Navy cordial congratulations of 
His Majesty's Government on the successful occupation 
of Herbertshohe, Rabaul, and Simpsonhafen. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 8. 

The High Commissioner for the Western Pacific to the 
Secretary of State. 

OCTOBER I4TH. I have received following telegram 
from Governor-General of Australia : 

" Phosphate Company's steamship Messina, which is 
leaving this week for Ocean Island, suggest that instructions 
to Commissioner to occupy Nauru should be issued. Messina 
will pick up military guard at Rabaul to enforce occupation, 
if necessary, and guard will be returned to Rabaul with 
German discharged employes of the Phosphate Company, 
which will be held responsible for victualling Nauru." 

At my request, Vice- Admiral Patey, His Majesty's Ship 
Australia, has reported as follows : 

"I see no objection to proposal provided that Phosphate 
Company undertakes to provision the island and the Ad- 
ministration of Rabaul can spare guard. 

" German Government representative, Nauru, formally 
and unconditionally surrendered on September Qth to His 
Majesty's Ship Melbourne, and is at Nauru at present on 

222 



,I 4 ] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

parole. This island is included in capitulation of German 
Pacific possessions, dated September I7th, 1914. 

" It is to be understood that no convoy is available. 

" The population consists of thirty Germans, 1,700 natives, 
and 500 Chinese. There are eighteen A armed native police. 
No organised defences." 

Please telegraph instructions. 

ESCOTT. 



No. 9. 

The Secretary of State to the Governor-General of 
Australia. 

October 15, 1914. 

I AM informing High Commissioner for Western Pacific 
that Messina should convey an officer from Gilbert and 
Ellice Islands Protectorate to take charge at Nauru. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 10. 

The Secretary of State to the High Commissioner for 
the Western Pacific. 

(Extract.) 

October 15, 1914. 

YOUR telegram October I4th. I have no objection to 
Governor-General's proposals, and suggest that Messina 
should convey Workman to take charge at Nauru. 

HARCOURT. 

No. ii. 

Commonwealth Naval Board of Administration, Melbourne, 

to Admiralty. 

OCTOBER 17111, 1914. Administrator, Simpsonhafen, re- 
ports by telegram as follows : 

' With reference to German wireless telegraphic messages 
intercepted by Thursday Island and in continuation of my 
message of October 9th I have to report that in the absence 

223 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of the fleet I deputed Lieutenant-Commander Jackson, R.N., 
on 8th instant, to take command of H.M.A.S. Nusa, and to 
proceed to search for German warship Komet, reported to be 
on north coast New Britain, accompanied by a detachment 
of infantry under Lieutenant-Colonel Paton. Komet was 
captured, together with the captain, four German officers, 
fifty-two natives, complete wireless outfit, and one quick- 
firing gun. Have commissioned Komet with Jackson in 
command. Komet is proceeding to Sydney with late Governor 
and prisoners. Urgently desirable for reasons affecting 
administration that she be armed effectually and returned 
as soon as possible under command of Jackson. Local know- 
ledge of this officer essential. 

" Details forwarded with Jackson. 

" Telegram repeated to Vice-Admiral Commanding." 



No. 12. 

The Secretary of State to the Governor-General of 
Australia. 

October 20, 1914. 

HIS MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT have learnt with much 
satisfaction of capture of German ship Komet with complete 
wireless equipment. Skill with which expedition was devised 
and carried out reflects great credit on all concerned. 

HARCOURT. 



No. 13. 

The Secretary of State to the Governor-General of 
Australia. 

November 14, 1914. 

WORKMAN sails from Brisbane by Southport about 
November I5th, for Nauru. I propose he should act for 
the present under instructions from High Commissioner 
for the Western Pacific. Do your Ministers agree ? 

HARCOURT. 

224 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 
No. 14. 

The Governor-General of Australia to the Secretary of 

State. 

November 19, 1914. 

ADMINISTRATOR of Rabaul reports Australian troops 
took possession of Nauru November 6th ; British flag hoisted, 
occupation proclaimed, garrison posted ; German Commis- 
sioner, twenty-five others, taken prisoners and sent to Sydney 
by Messina, which left Nauru November I5th ; thirty-seven 
British employes Pacific Phosphate Company repatriated, 
seven British employes Pacific Phosphate Company deported 
two months ago by Britishers to Ocean Island ; wireless 
station not damaged. 

May Nauru be now considered open to trade ? 

Concur that Workman act under instructions of High 
Commissioner for Western Pacific. High Commissioner for 
Western Pacific informed. 

FERGUSON. 



No. 15. 

The Secretary of State to the Governor-General of 
Australia. 

November 21, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of November igth. Nauru will be open 
to trade when Workman arrives. 

HARCOURT. 



No. 16. 

The Governor-General of Australia to the Secretary of 

State. 

Governor-General's Office, Melbourne, 

October 29, 1914. 
SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith, for the in- 
formation of His Majesty's Government, copies of despatches 
received from Colonel W. Holmes, D.S.O., V.D., Commanding 
Naval and Military Expedition. 

Naval I P 22 <; 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT 

The Commonwealth Attorney-General has been asked 
to advise with regard to the actual terms of surrender agreed 
upon, and on receipt of his reply I shall have the honour to 
further communicate with you in the matter. 

I have, &c., 

R. M. FERGUSON, 

Governor-General. 

ENCLOSURE i IN No. 16. 

H.M.A.S. " Berrima," Rabaul, New Britain, 

September 13, 1914. 
SIR, 

THE expedition under my command reached Blanche 
Bay on the nth instant. At daylight on that day an 
advance party of thirty-five Naval Reserves, under the 
command of Lieutenant Bowen, and accompanied by Captain 
Pockley, Army Medical Corps, was sent ashore. Half of 
the party was landed at Kabakaul and the other at Herberts- 
hohe, with instructions to push on rapidly and seize the wire- 
less stations believed to exist in this vicinity. It was soon 
discovered that these places were defended and the enemy 
did not intend to give them up without a fight. Finding 
that these parties were met with opposition, I reinforced 
them with two more companies of the Naval Reserves, two 
machine gun sections, and a detachment of the Army Medical 
Corps, under Commander Elwell, at Kabakaul. Commander 
Beresford also accompanied this party. About 11.15 a - m - 
a request was received from the shore for a medical officer 
to be sent from this ship to attend to a wounded German, 
and soon afterwards I received information that Captain 
Pockley and Able Seaman Williams had been seriously 
wounded and were being sent back to the ship. I then 
determined to put on shore at Herbertshohe four companies 
of infantry, under Lieutenant-Colonel Watson, to co-operate 
in the attack. It was necessary to land this latter force in 
boats, which naturally occupied some time. In the mean- 
while the naval force had pushed on hi the direction of the 
wireless station. 

The force which they had to meet consisted of German 

226 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

reservists and the native armed constabulary, all led by 
German officers. The arms carried by the natives were 
all up-to-date German weapons. 

The line of attack was, owing to the very heavy timber 
on either side, practically confined to the road, across which 
at several points trenches had been placed, and a good deal 
of trouble was caused the attacking force by natives posted 
high up in coco-nut trees, armed with rifles. 

As it did not appear that the operation would be suc- 
cessful before dark, instructions were given to Commander 
Beresford and Lieutenant-Colonel Watson to retire to the 
beach before dark, and I arranged with the Admiral that, 
on the following morning, if the resistance still continued, 
the fleet would shell with shrapnel the high ridge between 
Kabakaul and Herbertshohe at daylight, and that im- 
mediately thereafter the attack should be resumed with 
vigour and the places carried. However, at nightfall the 
wireless station was surrendered to the force attacking from 
Kabakaul. I may state that this force was also accom- 
panied by Captain Travers, my Intelligence Officer, who was 
present at the surrender. It was found that the wireless 
station was complete and well equipped, and working almost 
up to the last moment ; but prior to surrender the iron 
supports of the towers had been cut through and the station 
thereby rendered inoperative. A party under Lieutenant 
Bond, and accompanied by Captain Travers, remained in 
the possession of the wireless station during the night. As 
the wireless station had been rendered useless and there 
was little hope of repairs being effected for some time, I 
directed that it be abandoned the instruments being first 
removed and that the party there should retire to the 
coast. Commander Beresford was instructed to move his 
force to Herbertshohe and remain there for the present 
as garrison. 

Commander Beresford was directed yesterday to furnish 
full report on the day's operations, together with list of 
casualties, but this has not yet been received, but as far as 
I am aware they are as follows : 

Killed. Captain Pockley, Army Medical Corps ; Com- 
mander Elwell, Royal Australian Navy ; Able Seamen 
Williams, Courtney, Moffat, Street. 

3*7 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT., 

Wounded. Lieutenant Bowen, Royal Australian 
Navy ; Able Seamen T. Sullivan, J. Tonks, A. P. W. 
Skillen. 

From information received by me up to the present, in 
the absence of Commander Beresford's report, the three 
officers referred to, also Lieutenant Bond, who accepted the 
surrender of the wireless station, and Captain Travers (In- 
telligence Officer), who accompanied him, acted in a very 
gallant way.* Captain Pockley removed the Red Cross 
badge from his arm and handed it over to one of his men 
who was without one, and paid the penalty with his life. 

I have no information as to the total casualties on the 
enemy's side, but know there were quite a number. Amongst 
the prisoners taken by my force were three German officers, 
Captain Wuchert (Commanding the Native Armed Con- 
stabulary), Lieutenant Mayer, and Lieutenant Kemf, about 
sixteen white non-commissioned officers and men, and some 
fifty-six natives. The officers will probably be forwarded 
to Sydney by the fleet, when leaving here in a few days. 

Yesterday afternoon the Berrima proceeded from Herberts- " 
hohe to Rabaul and made fast to the pier at about six o'clock. 
Immediately afterwards the garrison for this place, con- 
sisting of four companies infantry, one section machine guns, 
and one company Naval Reserves, were put ashore, and 
occupied the town without opposition. All Government 
offices, including Post Office, were seized and German flags 
flying removed. 

At the present time my dispositions are as follows : 

Garrison at Herbertshohe under Commander Beresford : 
four naval companies, two companies infantry, one 12- 
pounder field gun from His Majesty's Australian Ship Sydney, 
one machine gun section, detachment Army Medical Corps. 

Garrison at Rabaul under Lieutenant-Colonel Paton : 
one company Naval Reserves, four companies infantry, one 
machine gun section, detachment Army Medical Corps. 

The balance of my troops will be held in reserve on board 
this ship in Simpsonhafen. 

The flag will be hoisted at Rabaul this afternoon at three 
o'clock and my Proclamation read with as much ceremony 
as possible. The whole of the troops available will parade, 

* I wish to specially mention these five officers. W. H. 

228 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

march past, and salute the flag, while the warships in 
Simpsonhafen will co-operate by firing a royal salute. I 
have appointed an officer to organise native police and have 
made necessary arrangements for proper administration of 
the territory. 

I propose for the present to make my headquarters at 
Herbertshohe, and probably later on at Rabaul. 

Yesterday I forwarded by motor cycle orderly to the 
Acting Governor of German New Guinea a formal demand 
for surrender. He 'is not either at Herbertshohe or Rabaul, 
but has retired inland about ten miles, to a place called 
Toma. About 8 p.m. my messenger returned with a letter 
from a Government official stating that the Acting Governor 
would reply to my communication at 4.30 p.m. to-day. In 
the event of his reply not being satisfactory, or his not calling 
upon me in response to my request, it is my intention to 
despatch a force to effect his arrest. 

I understand from the Admiral that he intends leaving, 
with the warships Australia, Melbourne, and Sydney, for 
Sydney, for the purpose of escorting the Australian Expedi- 
tionary Force to Europe, leaving at Simpsonhafen the des- 
troyers and submarines for our protection. It seems likely, 
therefore, that my force will be in this locality for some 
considerable time. I therefore ask, seeing that I am supplied 
with provisions for only sixty days, that the necessary steps 
be taken in sufficient time to replenish. I will have an 
estimate of requirements prepared and forward to you. 

The health of the troops is excellent, there not being a 
single case of sickness in the hospital. 

WILLIAM HOLMES, Colonel, 

Brigadier Commanding. 

To the Chief of the General Staff, 
Melbourne. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT. 

ENCLOSURE 2 IN No. 16. 

Government House, Rabaul, New Britain, 

September 14, 1914. 
SIR, 

AS the warships are not leaving here for Sydney until 
to-morrow, I take the opportunity of forwarding you some 
further information as to our doings yesterday. 

The flag was duly hoisted yesterday (Sunday afternoon) 
at three o'clock, the warships in the harbour co-operating 
by firing a salute. 

The ceremony was held on a small park in the town 
close to the wharf, where I erected a temporary flagstaff. 
I paraded all available troops, and also men whom I have 
engaged for the native police force, on three sides of a square 
facing the flag. The Admiral and all officers of the fleet 
were present at the ceremony, which I studied to make as 
impressive as possible, both for the benefit of the European 
residents and the natives. Immediately upon the flag being 
broken the troops gave a royal salute, after which the National 
Anthem was sung by all present. Three cheers were then 
given for His Majesty the King. After this the Proclama- 
tion of which I forward you herewith a copy was read by 
the Brigade Major, and the whole of the troops Navy and 
Army native police, and a large number of friendly natives, 
marched past the flag in column of route and saluted it. 
Flagship's band attended. 

A great number of copies of Proclamation in English and 
in German have been posted in conspicuous places through- 
out the town, and copies have also been forwarded to 
Herbertshohe. 

Immediately after the dismissal of the parade I received 
a message from the Protector, lying off Herbertshohe, that 
the German troops were again advancing to attack that 
place, which was garrisoned by four companies Naval Reserves 
and two companies infantry under Commander Beresford. 
I immediately gave orders for two companies infantry^to 
stand by, and soon afterwards sent them on board the 
Encounter to reinforce Herbertshohe garrison, Colonel Watson 
being sent in command. From reports received, however, 
I find that the attack was not of a very serious character. 

230 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

About five o'clock my cyclist orderly returned with a 
letter from the Acting Governor of German New Guinea 
Haber by name reiterating his previous statement that no 
resistance would be offered to the occupation, but that he 
had no power to surrender New Britain or any other part 
of the German Possessions. He stated he had no objection 
to meeting me and discussing the situation. From his letter 
I find that he has retired still further into the mountain 
country to a place called Baining. I regarded his reply as 
unsatisfactory, and concluded that he was merely temporising 
in order to facilitate his escape. I therefore determined, 
after consulting with the Admiral, to instruct Colonel 
Watson to march at five a.m. on the I4th (to-day) with 
four companies infantry and two machine gun sections 
towards Toma about ten miles from Herbertshohe and 
endeavour to clear up the situation and effect the arrest of 
the Governor. 

At six o'clock this morning I received a wireless message 
from Watson, through the Encounter, which was standing 
by at Herbertshohe, that he had arranged with the Com- 
mander of that ship to shell a position which he had received 
information was occupied in some strength between Herberts- 
hohe and Toma, and that immediately upon the cessation 
of the shelling he would proceed to carry out my orders to 
march on Toma. 

The shelling by the ship was distinctly heard here and 
continued for about one hour, which should certainly have 
a great moral effect upon the enemy's troops. I have, of 
course, received no further information from Colonel Watson. 

About ii a.m. an English Methodist Missionary stationed 
on the north coast at Kabakada, near Talili Bay, reported 
that a new road had lately been completed from Toma 
westerly, a distance of about ninety miles, to the port of 
Pondo, and that he had reliable information that the Gov- 
ernor and the troops with him, who had been stationed at 
Toma for a month past, were marching to the coast with a 
view of embarking on board the German ship Komet for 
conveyance to Friedrich Wilhelmshafen, in German New 
Guinea. This information I conveyed to the Admiral, and 
steps are being taken to at once search this locality by means 
of destroyers. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

This morning I arrested twenty officials of the late 
German Government ; men who have no other interests 
here, and whom I consider an element of danger, as I have 
strong suspicion that they are in communication with the 
Governor and the German troops still in the field. These, 
together with seventeen other Germans now on board the 
Berrima and about thirteen sent up from Herbertshohe 
yesterday, will be sent to the fleet to-day and taken to 
Sydney. Many of these prisoners aver that they are non- 
combatants, but merely planters ; but they are German 
reservists, and, I have every reason to believe, were engaged 
fighting against us, and to allow them to remain would only 
hamper my administration. All the native prisoners who 
have been taken I am making use of for working purposes. 

The Admiral has just called to see me and states that 
he intends leaving for Sydney early to-morrow morning 
with the Australia, Melbourne, and Sydney, and will leave 
here at my disposal the Encounter, the destroyers, and two 
submarines, also the Protector, and that probably the French 
warship Montcalm will arrive from Noumea and co-operate. 

After consultation with the Admiral it has been decided 
not to move my force from this place until matters are more 
settled, and that an expedition will then be undertaken for 
the capture and occupation of Friedrich Wilhelmshafen, in 
German New Guinea, but this move will not be made until 
after consultation with Captain Lewin, of the Encounter, 
and the French Admiral. 

Colonel Paton is doing good work as Officer Commanding 
Garrison at Rabaul. Captain Twynam is organising the 
native police satisfactorily, Lieutenant Ravenscroft is acting 
as Provost Marshal, and Lieutenant Manning (a Sydney 
barrister) is carrying out the duties of Assistant Judge 
Advocate. 

The water supply at Rabaul is fairly satisfactory, but 
precaution is taken to boil the water before use. 

I have just received information from Colonel Paton 
that, before the seat of government was removed from here 
to Toma, a large amount of cash was deposited by Treasury 
officials for safe keeping at the offices of some German com- 
panies. This is being investigated, and Paton states that 
he believes he is now in fair way to recover about 3,000. 

23-5 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

I have not yet received report as to supplies required 
for the population here, but, as soon as I ascertain what is 
necessary, I propose to get the fleet to wire for same to be 
forwarded to merchants or storekeepers here under my 
guarantee for payment. 

The health of the troops still continues satisfactory, 
and I do not anticipate any difficulty in carrying on efficiently 
the administration of this territory. I will take every oppor- 
tunity of keeping you informed from time to time of the 
progress of events. 

A German Imperial flag, which I removed from the 
Government Administrative Buildings here, is being des- 
patched to the Lord Mayor of Sydney, with a suggestion 
that he might make use of it in any way he thinks best for 
the purpose of stimulating recruiting for the additional 
forces which I have no doubt Australia will be despatching. 

WILLIAM HOLMES, Colonel, 
Commanding Australian Naval and Military 
Expedition. 

To the Chief of the General Staff, 
Melbourne. 

PROCLAMATION. 

PROCLAMATION ON BEHALF OF His MAJESTY GEORGE THE 
FIFTH, BY THE GRACE OF GOD, OF THE UNITED KING- 
DOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, AND OF THE 
DOMINIONS OVERSEAS, KING, DEFENDER OF THE FAITH, 
EMPEROR OF INDIA. 

BY COLONEL WILLIAM HOLMES, D.S.O., V.D., BRIGADIER 
COMMANDING His MAJESTY'S AUSTRALIAN NAVAL AND 
MILITARY EXPEDITIONARY FORCE. 

WHEREAS the forces under my command have occupied 
the Island of New Britain : 

And whereas upon such occupation the authority of the 
German Government has ceased to exist therein : 

And whereas it has become essential to provide for 

proper government of the said Colony, and for the protection 

of the lives and property of the peaceful inhabitants thereof: 

Now I, WILLIAM HOLMES, Companion of the Distinguished 

Service Order, Colonel in His Majesty's Forces, Brigadier 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEP 

Commanding the aforesaid Expeditionary Force, do hereby 
declare and proclaim as follows : 

(1) From and after the date of these presents the Island 
of New Britain and its dependencies are held by me in 
military occupation in the name of His Majesty the King. 

(2) War will be waged only against the armed forces of 
the German Empire and its allies in the present war. 

(3) The lives and private property of peaceful inhabi- 
tants will be protected, and the laws and customs of the 
Colony will remain in force so far as is consistent with the 
military situation. 

(4) If the needs of the troops demand it, private property 
may be requisitioned. Such property will be paid for at its 
fair value. 

(5) Certain officials of the late Government may be 
retained, if they so desire, at their usual salaries. 

(6) In return for such protection it is the duty of all 
inhabitants to behave in an absolutely peaceful manner, to 
carry on their ordinary pursuits so far as is possible, to take 
no part directly or indirectly in any hostilities, to abstain 
from communication with His Majesty's enemies, and to 
render obedience to such orders as may be promulgated. 

(7) All male inhabitants of European origin are required 
to take the oath of neutrality prescribed, at the garrison 
headquarters ; and all firearms, ammunition, and war 
material in the possession or control of inhabitants are to 
be surrendered forthwith, as is also all public property of 
the late Government. 

(8) Non-compliance with the terms of this Proclamation, 
and disobedience of such orders as from time to time may be 
promulgated, will be dealt with according to military law. 

(9) It is hereby notified that this Proclamation takes 
effect in the whole Island of New Britain and its dependencies 
from this date. 

Given at Government House, Rabaul ; 

This twelfth day of September, 1914. 

WILLIAM HOLMES, 

Witness, Brigadier Commanding. 

FRANCIS HERITAGE, Major, 
Brigade major. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
ENCLOSURE 3 IN No. 16. 

Government House, Rabaul, New Britain, 

September 19, 1914. 
SIR, 

IN my letter to you, dated September I4th, I mentioned 
that I had instructed Colonel Watson to march with four 
companies of infantry and two machine gun sections to- 
wards Toma, with instructions to effect the arrest of the 
Governor. Watson's advance from Herbertshohe was pre- 
ceded by the shelling of the ridge with the guns of the 
Encounter. This shelling evidently had a very good effect, 
as before Watson reached Toma he was met by a flag of 
truce from the Governor, who offered to come in and confer 
with me, and requested in the meantime an armistice for 
four hours. This concession was at first refused by Watson, 
but afterwards arrangements were made by him for the 
Governor to meet me at Herbertshohe on the following 
morning at n o'clock. 

At 9.30 a.m. on the I5th instant I proceeded to Herberts- 
hohe from here, being accompanied by Major Heritage, 
Commander Stevenson, Royal Navy, and the other members 
of my staff. The interview with the Governor, whose name 
is Dr. Haber, continued until 3 p.m., when certain conditions 
of surrender were tentatively agreed to, the Governor stating 
that he preferred to consult his military officers before 
actually executing any agreement. I therefore gave him a 
typewritten copy of the conditions we had verbally agreed 
to and arranged to meet him again at the same place at 
12 noon on Thursday, I7th instant. 

It is interesting to note that, while Lwas parleying with 
the Governor as to terms of surrender, the French warship 
Montcalm, with the French Admiral on board, passed in full 
view from our meeting place at Herbertshohe, and I had 
great pleasure in drawing the Governor's attention to her 
presence, at which he seemed rather disturbed. I may state 
that the Governor was received at Herbertshohe by a guard 
of honour of 100, which remained in attendance throughout 
the interview and saluted him on his departure. 

In accordance with the arrangements above referred to, 
I again met the Governor at Herbertshohe on the I7th 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEP 

instant, when terms of capitulation were discussed and, in 
a few minor points, amended. They were then signed by 
the Governor and myself, the former's signature being wit- 
nessed by the German Military Commandant (Von Klewitz) 
and mine by Commander Stevenson, Royal Navy. 

Upon my return to Simpsonhafen at about 7 p.m., I 
arranged with Captain Lewin, of the Encounter, to despatch 
to you, through the flagship Australia, the following wireless 
message : 

" Have met Governor, who states has no power formally 

surrender any portion German territory ; has agreed hi 

writing cease further resistance and transfer administration 

of whole German New Guinea to me on following terms : 

' Armed forces now in field surrender at once with 

military honours ; Governor leaves here on parole, no 

obstacle return Germany ; officers of regular Army 

remain prisoners of war ; all others on taking oath of 

neutrality allowed return their plantations ; black troops 

join native constabulary now being organised ; all 

moneys and property late Administration transferred to 

me ; civil officials not required by me, or who will not 

take oath neutrality, deported to Australia, but no 

obstacle returning Germany ; any British subjects now 

prisoners to be released forthwith.' 

" Governor's undertaking does not cover any offensive 
action by German cruisers, with which communication 
destroyed ; am now administering from Rabaul ; will visit 
Wilhelmshafen and other parts first opportunity ; every- 
thing satisfactory, health of troops excellent ; supplies for 
population ordered through Admiral urgently required ; 
additional rations, boots and lightest clothing for troops, 
also 5,000 for pay, necessary ; civil officials deported to be 
paid three months' salary from October 1st, also travelling 
expenses to Europe for selves and families, to be refunded 
from German Colonial subsidy by Governor." 

Attached hereto I am forwarding you a copy of the com- 
plete agreement arrived at. I intend to retain possession of 
the original until after I take possession of Friedrich Wilhelms- 
hafen and other places which I may find it necessary to visit. 
I have taken possession of Government House at this 
place, and propose to carry out the administration of the 
236 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Possessions from this point, and, in order to enable me to 
devote all my attention to this duty, 1 propose to leave the 
command of the troops to Watson. 

I mentioned that I was sending a large number of pris- 
oners to Sydney by the fleet, but last night I received a 
message from the Admiral, who was on his way from here 
to Australia, that he was returning to this place and would 
arrive this day about 4 p.m., so that I shall now have the 
prisoners who were sent away back again on my hands. 
In view of the agreement arrived at I shall probably be 
able to release some of these to-morrow if they are prepared 
to take the oath of neutrality. The Governor himself will 
probably arrive in Rabaul on Monday next, and I have 
arranged to afford him accommodation in the Deputy 
Governor's quarters until a ship is available for sending 
him to Australia. 

I understand that the sudden change of plans on the 
part of the fleet in returning here was due to information 
that a couple of days ago the German cruisers Scharnhorst 
and Gneisenau had passed Apia and were steaming in a 
north-westerly direction. No doubt it is the intention of the 
fleet to follow up these ships, but this will not be confirmed 
until I see the Admiral. 

I do not know yet what amount of money will be trans- 
ferred to me by the Governor when the surrender of troops 
takes place, but so far I have managed to get possession 
in the town of 45,000 marks, all of which is believed to be 
German Government money. This, and a great deal more, 
will be required for carrying on the Government of the place. 

You will remember the only money I took with me for 
pay of the men was 5,000, and as there are good stores here 
the men are applying for advances on their pay, principally 
in order to purchase thinner shirts and other clothing, as 
that issued them by the Government is absolutely unfitted 
for wear within the tropics, so that the money I now have 
with me will soon be exhausted ; I shall be glad, therefore, 
if you will see that my request for further funds is attended 
to without delay. 

Another most important matter is the question of supplies, 
particularly for the population. The Admiral will, no doubt, 
long ere this have despatched to you the wire I suggested 

237 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPI 

being sent ordering these goods, and I trust that they may 
now be on the water, as there are so many natives, consisting 
principally of Kanakas, Chinamen, and Japanese, whose 
staple food is rice, of which this town is almost cleared out ; 
and unless food supplies are replenished at once there is 
certain trouble in store for me at the hands of the native 
population. 

To fill the vacancy caused by the death of Captain 
B. C. A. Pockley, killed in action, I applied for and obtained 
the consent of the Admiral for him to transfer the services 
of Dr. G. C. Byrne, who has been engaged on the Encounter 
at intelligence duties. I have appointed Dr. Byrne a Captain 
in the force at the usual rate of pay. 

I have- made a complete inspection of the whole of the 
garrison, including the barracks, hospitals (European and 
native), headquarters native constabulary, administrative 
buildings, post office, Customs house, legal departments, and 
all other places, and am gradually getting everything reduced 
to order. I propose to appoint Lieutenant Fry, whom I 
attached as Adjutant to the " Kanowna " contingent, and 
who will return here, I hope, in a day or two, Treasurer 
under the Administration, and it will be his duty to receive 
money, property, and documents to be surrendered by the 
Governor on Monday next. 



September 21, 1914. 

I have just received information from the Admiral that 
an opportunity for despatching a mail by the Murex will 
occur this afternoon, so I shall complete your letter. 

Yesterday I received from the Admiral your inquiry as 
to supplies required for the troops here, and immediately 
afterwards requested the Admiral to despatch the following 
reply to you on my behalf : 

" Recommend in addition to supplies already ordered 
through Admiral for population, that supplies for troops 
similar in quantities to those originally placed on Berrima 
be forwarded, but preserved meats substituted for frozen. 
Also four hundredweight malt, and fifty-six pounds hops, 
kerosene instead of candles. More clothing of lightest pos- 
sible kind required, previous supply unbearable in tropics ; 

238 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

one pair of boots per man needed. Merchants here propose 
ordering goods through Justus Scharff, York Street, Sydney, 
who should be encouraged to supply, and thus restore normal 
conditions. Return freights copra assured if market not 
seriously dislocated. Require also five thousand pounds for 
pay for troops." 

I have suggested preserved meats because there are very 
poor facilities on shore here for storing frozen meat. At 
present we are depending almost entirely on the ship's re- 
frigerating chamber, but as the Berrima may be ordered 
back at any time, and we will have to depend entirely on 
our shore provisions, then preserved meats will be the best. 

The malt and hops are required for making yeast for 
baking bread. I have already erected on shore bread-baking 
plant, in order to afford the garrisons a change of food from 
the hard biscuits. Candles are of no use whatever on account of 
the high temperature. Kerosene is best for lighting purposes. 

I wish again to impress upon you the fact that the thick 
clothing in use in Australia, which was issued to the troops 
for this expedition, is absolutely unbearable in this climate, 
and most of the men have, therefore, been compelled to buy 
lighter clothing from the stores here, out of their private 
purses, so please arrange that only the very lightest possible 
clothing be sent. One thousand five hundred pairs boots, 
of sizes similar to those previously issued, should also be 
despatched. 

I am endeavouring to restore, as soon as possible, normal 
conditions of affairs as regards supplies for the population, 
and I have induced the principal merchants to despatch 
orders for goods to Messrs. Justus Scharff & Company, York 
Street, Sydney,* assuring them that there was very little 
risk, as the trade routes to these parts were quite open. I 
have also written myself to Justus Scharff, urging them to 
comply with these orders, and I would be glad if you also 
would communicate with that firm and encourage them to 
do all they can to open up trade with these islands. The 
merchants inform me that there is a large quantity of copra 
to be shipped away to market, and opportunity of so doing 
could be taken when the ship by which my provisions are 
conveyed is returning. 

* I believe these people are British. This might be ascertained. W. H. 

239 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEF 

Five thousand pounds (5,000) additional will, I esti- 
mate, be required for pay of the troops at the different 
garrisons. I shall continue to pay them in British coin, 
and shall reserve the moneys which I am to take over from 
the late German Administration for carrying on the govern- 
ment of this place. 

Yesterday I received through the Admiral a notification 
from the Naval Board that the Government had appointed 
me Administrator. This fact has been publicly announced 
here, and I have entered upon the duties. 

As far as I am aware at present, there are only about 
50 worth of postage stamps of the late German Adminis- 
tration available. These I am having marked " G. R. I.," 
by means of printing press which I have discovered here, 
but I would suggest that steps be at once taken to furnish 
me with Australian postage stamps, say, 300 worth, at the 
earliest opportunity. 

Yesterday I dealt with about fifty-five prisoners in terms 
of the agreement of capitulation. Many of them have taken 
the oath of neutrality and returned to their farms. Others, 
particularly officials of the late German Administration, are 
prisoners on parole, whom I shall despatch to Sydney at the 
earliest opportunity, as keeping them here, where they can get 
into touch with natives, is not conducive to good administration. 

The formal surrender of the German troops is taking 
place to-day at Herbertshohe, and I am expecting the 
Governor and a large number of prisoners to arrive here 
this evening. I have arranged for quarters for the Governor 
until he can be shipped away, and the prisoners will be dealt 
with in terms of the agreement. Until this evening I shall 
not know what amount of money will be handed over by 
the Governor, and this mail closes at 4 p.m. to-day. The 
information must be deferred until my next letter to you, 
or possibly I may advise you by wireless. 

Early to-morrow morning I am leaving here for Friedrich 
Wilhelmshafen, escorted by the Australia, Encounter, French 
flagship Montcalm, and possibly a destroyer. I am taking 
with me four companies of infantry, under Colonel Watson, 
and will probably detach two companies as garrison at that 
place, and return here in about a week to resume my adminis- 
trative duties. 



240 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

After conference with the Admiral, it has been decided, 
on arrival at Friedrich Wilhelmshafen, to send Captain 
Travers (my Intelligence Officer), accompanied by Lieutenant 
Mayer (a German regular officer, who was taken prisoner), 
ashore with a copy of the terms of surrender in English 
and another in German, for presentation to the head official 
there, with an intimation that I have come to take possession 
and occupy the place in terms of the agreement, and also 
secure an assurance from him that there will be no resist- 
ance to such occupation, and that the harbour is not mined 
or defended. In this matter I do not anticipate that there 
will be any difficulties, as the Governor's surrender included 
the whole of the German possessions lately under his ad- 
ministration, including the mainland of New Guinea. 

The health of the troops, and also the population, con- 
tinues good. The European hospital at the top of the hill, 
near Government House, has only just been opened, and is 
most complete in all its fittings and appointments. At the 
present time it is occupied by seven German sailors from 
the Planet, who are, of course, prisoners, and another German 
prisoner, whose right hand was shot off in the engagement 
at Herbertshohe on the nth instant. There are no men of 
our own inmates of that institution. In the native hospital 
there are 131 cases, and I understand this is about the usual 
number. This place is controlled by two German doctors, 
who are, I understand, very clever at treating native diseases, 
and, indeed, tropical diseases of all kinds, and I propose, if 
they will remain, to retain them in their positions. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Paton is still commanding the garrison 
at Rabaul, and Commander Beresford, R.A.N., is in charge at 
Herbertshohe, and I shall probably leave Major Martin, of the 
infantry battalion, in command at Friedrich Wilhelmshafen. 

As my duties as Administrator increase, I may possibly 
find it necessary to place Lieutenant-Colonel Watson in 
military command, so as to afford me full opportunity of 
attending to the other work, but I will keep you fully advised 
from time to time, as opportunity offers, of any such changes. 

WILLIAM HOLMES, Colonel, 

Administrator. 

To the Chief of the General Staff, 
Melbourne. 

Naral 1 Q *4' 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT. 

TERMS OF CAPITULATION. 

MADE this I7th day of September, 1914, between Colonel 
William Holmes, D.S.O., V.D., Brigadier Commanding the 
Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force, on 
behalf of His Most Gracious Majesty George the Fifth, of 
the first part, and Herr E. Haber, Acting Governor of the 
German Possessions known as Deutsch Neu Guinea, on 
behalf of the Imperial German Government, of the second 
part. 

WHEREAS the principal centres of Deutsch Neu Guinea 
have been occupied by an overwhelming force under the 
command of the said Colonel Holmes : 

AND WHEREAS the said Acting Governor has no authority 
to surrender any portion of the German Possessions under 
his administration, but, in view of the said occupation by 
the said overwhelming force, the said Acting Governor is 
prepared to give an assurance that all military resistance 
to such occupation in Deutsch Neu Guinea shall cease forth- 
with : 

Now, the following terms and conditions are solemnly 
agreed upon between the said contracting parties : 

(1) The name Deutsch Neu Guinea (German New Guinea) 
includes the whole of the German Possessions in the Pacific 
Ocean lately administered from Rabaul by the said Acting 
Governor, on behalf of the German Imperial Government, 
and the said Possessions are hereafter referred to as " The 
Colony/' 

(2) All military resistance to the said military occupation 
of the Colony shall cease forthwith. 

(3) The armed German and native forces now in the . 
field are to be surrendered at Herbertshohe on the 2ist day 
of September at ten o'clock in the forenoon. 

Military honours will be granted. 

(4) Upon the said Acting Governor giving his parole to 
take no further part directly or indirectly in the present 
war, no obstacle will be placed in the way of his returning 
to Germany. Such parole shall not prevent the said Acting 
Governor tibrn tendering to the Imperial Government at 
Berlin such advice as he may deem proper with regard to 
terms of peace. 

242 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(5) Such of the officers of the said forces in the field as 
are officers of the German regular forces will be treated as 
prisoners of war in the usual manner. Such of the officers 
of the said forces as are not officers of the German regular 
forces, but whose usual occupation is civil, on taking an 
oath of neutrality for the duration of the present war, will 
be released and permitted to return to their homes and 
ordinary avocations, except where such avocations are 
official, in which case the paragraphs 10 and n hereof will 
apply. 

(6) As the said Acting Governor gives his assurance that 
none of the white non-commissioned officers and men now 
in the field belong to the regular forces of the German Empire, 
such white non-commissioned officers and men, upon taking 
the said oath of neutrality, will be released and permitted 
to resume their ordinary avocations, except where such 
avocations are official, in which case the terms of paragraphs 
10 and ii hereof will apply. 

(7) As it is understood that the safety of the white popu- 
lation depends to an extent on the existence of a native 
constabulary, that portion of the armed native constabulary 
which now forms part of the German forces in the field, 
if found satisfactory, will be transferred to the Military 
Administration. 

(8) As the administration of the Colony during the military 
occupation will be conducted by the British military com- 
mander, all moneys and properties of the late Administration 
are to be handed over to the said Colonel Holmes, Brigadier 
Commanding. 

(9) During the said military occupation the local laws 
and customs will remain in force so far as is consistent with 
the military situation. 

(10) As it is intended that administration shall be carried 
on under the control of British officers, subject to the suc- 
ceeding paragraph, such only of the civil officials of the late 
German Administration as it may be considered necessary 
to retain in an advisory capacity will be continued in their 
offices. Officials so retained will be required to take the oath 
of neutrality and their former salaries will be continued. 
Officials not so retained, and those who refuse to take the 
said oath, will be deported to Australia, but will have no 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT. 

obstacle placed in the way of their returning thence to 
Germany as soon as is possible. 

(n) For the protection of the white population against 
the natives, the German officials now in charge of outlying 
portions of the Colony will continue in their official capacities 
until relieved by the Military Administration. 

(12) Any British subjects at present imprisoned or held 
in duress in the said Colony are to be released and returned 
to their homes and former positions forthwith. This does 
not apply to such persons (if any) who may be serving a 
sentence imposed by a criminal court of competent juris- 
diction. 

IN WITNESS thereof the said contracting parties of this 
first and second parts have hereunto set their hands this 
I7th day of September, 1914. 

Witness to signature of E. Haber, E. HABER. 

VON KLEWITZ. 
Witnesses to signature of W. Holmes, WILLIAM HOLMES. 

J. B. STEVENSON. 

FRANCIS HERITAGE, 
Brigade Major. 

Addendum. 

The contracting parties further agree that all civil officials, 
whether they take the oath of neutrality or not, be entitled 
to receive at least their three months' pay from October ist, 
1914, out of the funds of the Colony, and also an advance 
on travelling expenses for returning home according to the 
regulations in force under German rule. It is further agreed 
that they shall have proper facilities for arranging their 
personal affairs in the Colony. 

The Governor promises that the amounts expended under 
this head will be refunded by the German Imperial Govern- 
ment, out of the yearly Colonial subsidy. 

The Brigadier promises that proper care be taken in 
order to conduct women and children of deported officials 
to the place where their men are. 

All claims due against the German Administration are 
to be paid for out of the funds of the Colony. 

344 



iqi4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

It is expressly understood that the papers relating to 
the personal status of the officials of the Colony shall be 
handed over to a German official designated by the Governor. 

E. HABER. 

WILLIAM HOLMES. 



No. 17. 

The High Commissioner for the Western Pacific to the 
Secretary of State. 

Office of the High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, 

Suva, Fiji, October 27, 1914. 

WITH reference to previous telegraphic correspondence 
on the subject of the temporary appointment of Mr. Charles 
Workman to be Administrator of the island of Nauru, I 
have the honour to transmit to you, for your information, 
a copy of Secretary's confidential letter to Mr. C. Workman, 
of October 27th, appointing him to act temporarily as Ad- 
ministrator of Nauru. 



ENCLOSURE IN No. 17. 
(Extract.) 
Office of the High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, 

Suva, Fiji, October 27, 1914. 
SIR, 

I AM directed by the High Commissioner for the Western 
Pacific to inform you that, in accordance with instructions 
received from the Right Honourable the Secretary of State 
for the Colonies, His Excellency has been pleased to direct 
that you should proceed to Sydney by the s.s. Tofua, which 
is due to sail on the 28th instant, and from Sydney to Nauru, 
or Pleasant Island, by way of Ocean Island, so that you 
may take charge, temporarily, of the administration of the 
government in Nauru. 

2. I am to enclose a Proclamation, under the hand and 
seal of the High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, 
appointing you to be, until further order, Administrator of 
the island of Nauru, and to exercise all the powers conferred 
by the Capitulation of September I7th last, of which a copy 

>4J 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT., 

See p. is attached, n) which made provision for the administration 
2 42- by British officials of certain islands in the Pacific Ocean 
at that time in the possession of the Imperial German Gov- 
ernment, including the island of Nauru. 

C. H. HART-DAVIS, 

Secretary. 
Charles Workman, Esq., 

Deputy Commissioner for the Western Pacific. 



PROCLAMATION. 

BICKHAM ESCOTT, 

High Commissioner. 
(L.S.) 

zjth October, 1914. 

IN THE NAME OF HlS MAJESTY, GEORGE V., OF THE UNITED 
KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND AND OF 
THE BRITISH DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS KING, 
DEFENDER OF THE FAITH, EMPEROR OF INDIA. 

BY His EXCELLENCY SIR ERNEST BICKHAM SWEET 
ESCOTT, KNIGHT COMMANDER OF THE MOST DIS- 
TINGUISHED ORDER OF SAINT MICHAEL AND SAINT 
GEORGE, HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR THE WESTERN 
PACIFIC. 

WHEREAS by the terms of the Capitulation of the I7th 
day of September, 1914, provision was made for the ad- 
ministration by British officials of certain islands in the 
Pacific Ocean at that time in the possession of the Imperial 
German Government : 

And whereas the island of Nauru is included in the said 
Capitulation : 

And whereas it is expedient that an Administrator should 
be appointed for the island of Nauru : 

Now, therefore, I, Ernest Bickham Sweet Escott, Knight 
Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael 
and Saint George, High Commissioner for the W T estern Pacific, 
in pursuance of the powers vested in me, do hereby proclaim 
and appoint Charles Workman, Esquire, a Deputy Com- 

246 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

missioner for the Western Pacific, until further order, to 
be Administrator of the said island of Nauru, and for that 
purpose to exercise all and sundry the powers conferred by 
virtue of the said terms of Capitulation of the I7th day of 
September, 1914. 

Whereof let all men take notice and govern themselves 
accordingly. 

God Save the King. 



No. 18. 

The Governor-General of Australia to the Secretary 

of State. 

Governor-Generals Office, Melbourne, November 10, 1914. 

SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith, for your in- 
formation, copy of a communication received from Colonel 
W. Holmes, D.S.O., V.D., Administrator, New Guinea, dated 
Rabaul, New Britain, October I4th, 1914. 

I have, &c., 

R. M. FERGUSON, 

Governor-General. 

ENCLOSURE IN No. 18. 

BRITISH ADMINISTRATION GERMAN 

NEW GUINEA. 

Rabaul, New Britain, October 14, 1914. 
SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to report, for your information, 
the following circumstances regarding the capture of the 
German warship Komet (977 tons gross), armed with one 
Hotchkiss quick-firing gun. 

The vessel was the property of the Administration of 
German New Guinea, and was bought and paid for out of 
the funds of -the Colony, and is included in the books as an 
asset. She is a most complete and well-found vessel, fitted 
with wireless installation, built in 1911, and used since as 
the Governor's yacht. 

247 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT., 

On the transfer of the Administration to me, I demanded 
the vessel from the Governor, in terms of the agreement, as 
part of the property of the Colony, and was informed by 
him that he was unaware of her whereabouts, as, in response 
to a direction from Germany, he had transferred her to the 
German Navy at the beginning of September last. 

This information I conveyed verbally to Vice-Admiral 
Patey immediately after the Governor's surrender, and I 
understand that the ships of the Australian Fleet had made 
constant search for her thereafter. 

On Saturday, October 3rd, the Australia and Montcalm 
left Rabaul at 11.30 p.m. for Suva, followed on the next 
day by the remainder of the Australian Fleet, some for Suva 
and others for Sydney, instructions being left here with the 
King's Harbour Master (Lieutenant-Commander Jackson) 
that the Madang was to be kept in commission for my use 
for communication between Rabaul and Herbertshohe, and 
the crews of the Nusa and the Sumatra were to be paid off, 
and the ships laid up after portion of their machinery was 
removed. 

I might mention that these three small vessels had been 
captured by the Fleet on arrival here, and were afterwards 
armed and made use of for scouting purposes up to the time 
of departure of Fleet. 

At about 2.30 p.m. on October 4th I received information, 
which I considered reliable, that the Komet was in hiding 
on the north coast of New Britain. 

I therefore sent for Lieutenant-Commander J. M. Jack- 
son, R.N., King's Harbour Master, and directed him to 
disregard the instructions he had received as to paying off 
the crew of the Nusa. I also conferred with him as to the 
possibility of effecting the capture of the Komet, and, as a 
result, I issued to him the following commission : 

"British Administration of German New Guinea. 

" Rabaul, New Britain, October 8, 1914. 
' To LIEUTENANT-COMMANDER JOHN METCALF JACKSON, R.N. 

" I hereby order you to take command of the armed yacht 
Nusa. She is to be known as H.M.A.S. Nusa, and will, 
until further instructions, act under my orders only. 

248 



1914] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

' You will have under your command such officers and 
men as may be required, from the Naval Brigade attached 
to the Expeditionary Force under my command. 

" WILLIAM HOLMES, Colonel, 
" Administrator." 

Up to this time the Nusa was armed with two 3-pounder 
guns ; I directed that one of these be taken out and replaced 
by a i2-pounder, which had been handed over to me by 
the Navy on a field carriage for land defence. The 3-pounder 
'which was removed I arranged to have placed in position on 
a motor lorry for quick transport anywhere. 

Lieutenant-Commander Jackson was then directed to 
proceed to sea and search the north coast of New Britain, 
and effect the capture of the Komet. He was provided with 
a maxim machine gun and a small force of infantry under 
the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Paton. 

The Nusa left Simpsonhafen at midnight, October 8th- 
9th. At 8.10 p.m. on October gth I received the following 
message from Navy Board, Melbourne : 

" German signals en clair heard October 7th, 4.45 a.m., 
at Thursday Island reporting large men-of-war of Australian 
fleet had left Rabaul eastward. Did you intercept this 
signal ? Can you suggest who made it ? ' 

I replied at 9.30 p.m. same day : 

" Signal not heard here. Reports indicate presence of 
possible station at Tawanakus Bay. Have despatched an 
expedition." 

At 8.45 a.m. yesterday, I3th instant, I received a wireless 
message from Lieutenant-Commander Jackson that he had 
captured the Komet, and expected to arrive with her at Rabaul 
during the forenoon. 

The Nusa, with her capture, arrived at 12 noon. 

Attached hereto I forward copies of reports by Lieutenant- 
Commander Jackson and Lieutenant-Colonel Paton, detailing 
the operations of the expedition. 

The following wireless message was despatched to you 
to-day : 
' From Administrator to Minister for Defence. 

' With reference to German wireless telegraphic messages 
intercepted by Thursday Island and in continuation of my 

49 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT 

message of October gth, I have to report that in the absence 
of the fleet I deputed Lieutenant-Commander Jackson, R.N., 
on 8th instant, to take command of H.M.A.S. Nttsa, accom- 
panied by a detachment of infantry under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Paton, to proceed to search for German warship Komet, 
reported to be on north coast New Britain. Komet was 
captured, together with the captain, four German officers, 
fifty-two natives, complete wireless outfit, and one quick- 
firing gun. Have commissioned Komet with Jackson in 
command. Komet is proceeding to Sydney with late Governor 
and prisoners. Urgently desirable for reasons affecting 
administration that she be armed effectively and returned 
as soon as possible under command of Jackson. Local 
knowledge of this officer essential." 

My reasons for recommending that the Komet be armed 
are that it is necessary to send supplies from here to the 
principal places in other islands of the colony where food 
is short, and natives in some cases almost starving, which 
may at any time give rise to serious trouble. The outbreak 
of war has interrupted the regular service. Although it is 
believed the larger German war vessels have gone south- 
east, there are still some smaller vessels possibly the Geier 
and Planet in these waters ; until they are accounted for, 
and in the absence of the Australian fleet, merchants will 
not risk the loss of shipments. When the Komet is effectively 
armed she will be able to act with confidence hi the protection 
of trade. Moreover, it will be necessary for me to visit 
Friedrich Wilhelmshafen, Kaweing in New Ireland, Kieta 
in Bougainville, which I am unable to do at present for want 
of a suitable vessel. I ask, therefore, that no time be lost 
in dealing with the Komet and returning her to me. 

I cannot speak too highly of the services rendered by 
Lieutenant-Commander Jackson, who has been most in- 
defatigable and displayed qualities of seamanship of a high 
order in navigating dangerous waters without being in pos- 
session of accurate or reliable charts. It is on account of 
these capabilities that I ask that he be returned here in 
command of the Komet, and that consideration be given to 
the question of granting him the rank of Acting Commander 
as a reward for his services. 

I am taking the opportunity of sending to Australia, 

250 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

by the Komet, Herr E. Haber, the late Governor of the 
Colony, and several other officials whom it is undesirable 
to keep here ; also, as prisoners of war, Captain Moeller 
and four officers of the Komet. 

With regard to Heir Haber, I must say that, ever since 
he surrendered, he has acted in a most honourable and straight- 
forward way, and has afforded me every possible assistance. 
He only arrived in the Colony in April last, and has been 
most of his time away from headquarters here inspecting 
the Possessions. 

In reply to a letter I addressed him on the ist instant, 
advising him that it would be impossible from the funds at 
my disposal to make the proposed advances on loan to the 
deported civil officials, he wrote me on the 6th idem, as 
follows : 

" Referring to Your Excellency's note of ist instant, 
I have the honour to observe that, with regard to the stipu- 
lation in question, acceded to by Your Excellency, my in- 
tention was to prevent the officials sent out of their offices 
by Your Excellency's military action from becoming desti- 
tute. Those officials have from their official relations no 
claim against the Empire, but only against the single Colony. 
According to your verbal statement they are not prisoners 
of war. The Power having them under its control is con- 
sequently not obliged to accord to them the privileges granted 
to the prisoners of war by international rules. I have, how- 
ever, understood from your verbal explanations yesterday 
that, while it is impossible to take care of them by payment 
of a three months' salary and an advance on travelling ex- 
penses out of the funds of the Colony, some other way will 
be found to provide for their board, lodging, and repatriation, 
together with their family members. In case this is granted, 
I will be ready to recognise that the stipulation in question, 
forming part of our agreement of September I7th, can be 
considered fulfilled in the meaning of Article 35, paragraph 2, 
of the International Treaty relating to the Laws and Customs 
of War on Land, of October i8th, 1902. 

' The list presented to Your Excellency by Cashier 
Binder comprises all the officials of the Colony, including 
the numerous officials at the outlying stations, where corre- 
spondingly large amounts of money are in stock, and also, 

251 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT 

as far as I could see, some non-official persons. Further- 
more, the advances on travelling expenses are set down higher 
than it was intended by me during the negotiations preceding 
the agreement, and, besides, I have anticipated that Your 
Excellency would keep a larger number of officials residing 
in Rabaul and surroundings in their offices, and deport a 
smaller number. 

" In compliance with the agreement of September i7th 
I will endeavour to cause that any amounts expended in 
the forementioned interests of the officials of the Colony be 
repaid by the Imperial Government out of the yearly subsidy 
as soon as I am in a position to take the steps necessary for 
the purpose. 

" In order that all officials be treated on the same footing, 
I have the honour to suggest that all amounts paid out, as 
per list attached to your note of October ist, be called back. 
In case that is not possible, I will take the steps necessary 
for their repayment by the Imperial Government as soon as 
I can do so. For this purpose, I beg leave to ask that the 
receipts, or verified copies of the receipts, be handed to me 
as justification, for the purpose of accounting." 

On October 5th the Governor had the interview with 
me which he alludes to above. I then explained to him that 
the deported officials were not prisoners of war, but were 
sent away as " undesirables " from an administrative point 
of view here ; they were, therefore, in a different position 
to the officers of the German Regular Army, who would 
remain prisoners until the end of the war, unless exchanged, 
and would receive the pay of their respective ranks subject 
to the usual adjustment of accounts between the nations 
at the conclusion of war. 

I explained to the Governor that payment of the claims 
rendered was quite impossible, but that I would arrange for 
him being sent to Australia at the very first opportunity, 
and he would then himself be on the spot to negotiate for 
financing the deported officials who might be in need. He 
informed me that the Imperial German Colonial subsidy for 
1914-15 voted for New Guinea by the Imperial Parliament 
was M. 1,700,000, but up to the present he had only received 
M. 100,000. I pointed out that when in Sydney he would 
be in a better position to arrange, either direct or through 

252 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the German Consul-General, for obtaining further funds 
than here. I also said I felt sure, pending his arrival in 
Australia, the officials who had already been deported and 
who were without means would be looked after. 

In regard to repatriation, the Governor quite realises 
that there may be great difficulties in accomplishing this 
before the conclusion of the war. 

Re " Komet."An investigation of the books made this 
morning shows that the Komet arrived here in August, 1911. 

She was built to replace the Seesturn, which was lost on 
a voyage from Australia to New Britain, and cost the sum 
of M. 645,000. Of this sum the insurance companies paid 
M. 422,000, and the balance M. 222,600 was provided from 
the Treasury here. 

The annual cost of upkeep was M. 300,000. Of this sum 
M. 120,000 was paid annually to the Norddeutscher Lloyd 
Company as a subsidy, for which they provided officers and 
crew and all expenses, with the exception of repairs and 
coal, which was paid for by the Government of the Colony 
out of the balance of the vote. 

I understand that, in order to keep the expenditure 
within the annual appropriation, it was customary to lay 
the vessel up during the portion of each year. 



s.s. " Komet," at Sea, October 13, 1914. 
SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to report that, pursuant to your 
instructions, I proceeded in the Nusa, with Lieutenant- 
Commander Jackson and a party of naval and military 
members of the Expeditionary Force, at 4 a.m. on the 9th 
instant, for the purpose of : (i) clearing up the situation 
in regard to the wireless station working on the island, and 
(2) effecting the capture of the Komet. 

The Komet has been captured undamaged, and the wire- 
less plant is aboard and in working order. 

The vessel was located at Talassia, a small plantation 
on the north coast of the island, about 160 miles south-west 
of Rabaul. The Nusa anchored at dusk on Saturday, Octo- 
ber loth, close up to a small island near Talassia, and received 

253 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT 

there definite information of the Komet's hiding place. At 
a conference between Commander Jackson and myself that 
evening, the plan of attack for the next morning was decided 
upon. Meanwhile, a strict watch was kept that no com- 
munication could reach the Komet from the island or the 
steamer leave her position without being noticed and coming 
under the fire of our guns. As we steamed along at half 
speed in the haze, at dawn on the nth, the masts of the 
Komet were observed through the trees at a range of 1,500 
yards. The Nusa went full speed ahead and rounded the 
point behind which the Komet was sheltering (until then 
unobserved) and stopped broadside on at a distance of 
400 yards. I proceeded in a boat with Mr. Whiteman, as 
interpreter, under a white flag. The captain was dressing 
when I reached the Komet, and surrendered the ship in 
response to my demand. The necessary steps were at once 
taken for the protection of wireless room, engine room, and 
all on board disarmed. Commander Jackson then came on 
board and made all arrangements for the two vessels to leave 
for Rabaul, and this was accomplished at dawn next day 
Monday, I2th. 

I desire to specially bring under your notice the zeal, 
initiative, and indomitable energy of Commander Jackson, 
who is mainly responsible for bringing to a successful issue 
this expedition. His keenness is infectious and has been 
reflected in the whole of the small party. I need hardly 
add that the negotiation of the innumerable small reefs 
on the uncharted coast required all the care and skill of an 
experienced navigator. He has been ably assisted in this 
respect by Mr. Komini (Japanese), who volunteered his 
services en route. 

The preliminary information which enabled us to locate 
the approximate position of the captured steamer was sup- 
plied by Mr. Whiteman, who accompanied the expedition 
as Intelligence Officer, and has been very useful in many 
ways. 

I would also like to mention Lieutenant Marsden, who 
fixed the machine gun in position on the Ntisa, worked the 
range finder, overhauled the Hotchkiss gun on the Komet, 
and acted as Executive Officer (military) when the prize 
crew was placed aboard the Komet. 

254 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

I am sending under separate cover : 

(1) List of prisoners (German), 5. 

(2) List of crew, 52. 

(3) List of engagement of crew, showing wages paid and 
owing. 

J. PATON, 

Lieutenant-Colonel . 
The Administrator, Rabaul. 



H.M.A.S. " Komet," at Sea, Monday, October 12, 1914. 
SIR, 

I BEG to submit to you this my report on capture of 
Komet, undamaged, and with wireless intact. 

Acting under your orders, and on information received, 
I proceeded in Nusa to Talassia, a district on north coast 
of Neu Pommern, 170 miles south-west b.w. from Rabaul, 
and anchored on the evening of Saturday, loth instant, 
under the lee of a small island off Talassia. This island 
has a native village on it, and some of the natives on board 
Nusa had relations in the village, which at once put matters 
on a good footing. 

Nusa approached this island with great caution, keeping 
close in to Neu Pommern coast and feeling her way among 
the off-lying reefs, thus making use of a line of approach 
which would never be guarded against by the Komet should 
she be where we expected. 

Owing to a dense haze our approach was entirely un- 
observed by Komet (as will be seen later), and, from very 
perfect native information obtained on the island, we were 
able to lie all night with guns trained on spot where Komet 
must emerge should she leave her anchorage before morning. 

It was impossible to attack on Saturday evening, owing 
to failing light and tortuous channel among reefs. 

At 5.45 a.m. on Sunday, October nth, Nusa weighed 
and proceeded towards Komet, approaching in perfect silence, 
engines at half speed, and with white flag at fore. The 
native chief from the small island was on the fore bridge 
with me and was of great assistance, as the reefs were barely 
visible at that early hour ; also from his information we 
were able to keep Nusa's guns trained on Komet through 
trees, she herself being as yet screened from view. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT, 

As Komet's masts appeared over the trees we obtained 
the exact range thanks to Lieutenant Marsden's (machine 
gun section) rangefinder, and we at once increased to " full 
speed," and came right on to her, completely surprising her 
crew (captain of Komet not dressed, and shaving himself). 
Lieutenant-Colonel Paton then proceeded on board Komet 
in skiff, with a white flag Mr. Whiteman with him as inter- 
preter and the Komet surrendered. 

Komet carries one machine gun (firing I Ib. shells), which 
can fire at rate of 35-40 shells a minute, a large number of 
rifles for native crew, and small arms for the officers, but 
thanks to the haze of Saturday evening and Nusa's inshore 
approach, Komet was absolutely unprepared and had no 
other course but to surrender. Nusa's plan of attack was 
carefully considered by Colonel Paton and myself on Saturday 
evening, and was decided on for following reasons : 

(1) Should Nusa have kept off at 4,000 yards and shelled 
Komet it would have caused damage unnecessarily and loss 
of life ; also Nusa's shell supply is limited. 

(2) Should Komet observe Nusa carrying out active 
operations against her, her captain would either have sunk 
Komet with dynamite or other means, and also would have 
destroyed wireless. 

(3) A German station was directly in line of fire behind 
Komet. 

(4) It would probably be necessary to shell trenches and 
gun-pits ashore after shelling Komet, which would have 
wasted large quantities of shrapnel. 

(5) The German Governor having already surrendered, 
presumably his yacht should be included in surrender, and 
should, therefore, not be shelled. 

I would point out the following additional points for 
your consideration : 

(i) Mr. Komini (Japanese), of Rabaul, was on board 
Nusa, and, thanks to his help and knowledge of natives, 
Komet was exactly located. Mr. Komini showed great 
enterprise and an absolute indifference to the probability 
of Nusa receiving Komet's fire ; he also showed his great 
anxiety to help us by abandoning his occupation of salving 
a wreck off the Talele Islands in order to accompany the 
expedition. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(2) Mr. Whiteman, of Rabaul, accompanied the expedition, 
and it was due to information previously obtained by him 
that Talassia was made our objective. 

(3) The military officer in charge of native labour supplied 
us with natives from the exact locality where we hoped to 
find Komet, and the success of the expedition is very largely 
due to his discrimination. 

Supplement to paragraph 3. Since capture of Komet 
Mr. Whiteman has acted as Paymaster of Komet, and also 
as Naval Intelligence Officer. Important information re 
enemy's merchant cruisers is in Komet's log, and Colonel 
Pat on, with the assistance of Mr. Whiteman, has collected 
such information. 

Mr. Whiteman has also made a complete list of stores 
on board Komet, and his business knowledge has saved me 
an immense amount of trouble, my time being fully occupied 
in navigating the two vessels under my command. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Paton has taken charge of prisoners ; 
two of Komet's officers were not on board Komet, but Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Paton has taken steps to secure them. 

I have, &c., 

J. M. JACKSON, 

Lieutenant-Commander, R.N., 
Commanding H.M.A.S. Komet 
and H.M.A.S. Nusa. 



No. 19. 

The Governor-General of Australia to the Secretary 

of State. 

Governor-General's Office, Melbourne, November n, 1914. 
SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to forward herewith, for your in- 
formation, copies of a despatch, dated Rabaul, September 
26th, 1914, received from Colonel W. Holmes, D.S.O., V.D., 
Commanding Naval and Military Expedition. 

I have, &c., 

R. M. FERGUSON, 
Governor-General. 

Naval I R 257 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT. 

ENCLOSURE IN No. 19. 
Government House, Rabaul, New Britain, 

September 26, 1914. 
SIR, 

I HAVE just returned from Kaiser Wilhelmsland, and 
beg to confirm the wireless message despatched by me to 
you from Friedrich Wilhelmshafen, on 24th instant, which 
ran as follows : 

' Troops under my command occupied Kaiser Wilhelms- 
land to-day without opposition. Flag hoisted, Proclamation 
issued ; principal official absent. Four officials and thirteen 
other Germans surrendered. All subscribed oath neutrality. 
The officials will be temporarily engaged assist Adminis- 
tration, others are planters, missionaries, business men. 
Forty fighting men left Wilhelmshafen fortnight ago reinforce 
German troops, New Britain, but arrived after capitulation 
now prisoners at Rabaul. Found private stores well stocked. 
Health troops excellent. Returning Rabaul. HOLMES." 

At Wilhelmshafen I left as garrison one and a half com- 
pany infantry and half company naval reserves, with 500 
rounds ammunition per rifle and two months' supplies. I 
secured the commodious stores of the New Guinea Company 
as barracks for the troops, and also suitable premises for a 
hospital. Everything was -quiet, and I do not anticipate 
that any trouble will arise there, but the Officer Com- 
manding the garrison (Major Martin) has been instructed to 
construct defences against boat landings and take all possible 
precautions. 

The whole of the European residents, who were Germans, 
surrendered immediately, and, as stated in my telegraphic 
message, the oath of neutrality was administered to each. 
The principal official was not available ; I was informed 
that he had two days previously proceeded into the country 
on a punitive expedition against some natives who had been 
giving trouble, but of this I am in doubt. However, Major 
Martin has instructions to send for him or secure him as 
soon as he comes in. Amongst the German residents was 
a medical man who has charge of both European and native 
hospitals, and I have instructed Captain Byrne the Medical 
Officer whom I left there with the garrison to use his own 

258 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

judgment as to whether it will be necessary to continue the 
services temporarily of the German officer or to dispense with 
them. 

The ships did not arrive at Wilhelmshafen until 11.15 a.m., 
and the whole of the business of hoisting flag, issuing Pro- 
clamation, landing and posting garrison and landing stores, 
was completed in six hours, and the Berrima left this place 
at 5.15 p.m., reaching Rabaul about 2 p.m. to-day. 

For your information, I recapitulate hereunder my dis- 
positions of the troops under command : 

Garrison at Rabaul. 

Officer Commanding, Lieutenant-Colonel Paton. 
Four companies infantry. 
One machine gun section. 
Detachment Army Medical Corps (Captain Maguire). 

Garrison at Herbertshohe. 

Officer Commanding, Commander Beresford, R.A.N. 
Four companies naval reserves. 
One machine gun section. 
Detachment Army Medical Corps (Captain Donaldson). 

Garrison at Friedrich Wilhelmshafen. 
Officer Commanding, Major Martin. 
Half company naval reserves. 
One and a half company infantry. 
Detachment Army Medical Corps (Captain G. C. 
Byrne). 

Reserve on Board " Berrima." 

Officer Commanding, Lieutenant-Colonel W. W. Rus- 
sell Watson. 

Infantry regimental staff. 
One and a half company naval reserves. 
Two and a half companies infantry. 
Detachment Army Medical Corps. 

I find on my return to-day that, during my absence, the 
oil ship Mitrex had left for Sydney, having on board two 
German officials and thirty prisoners, under a guard con- 
sisting of one officer (Lieutenant Partridge), one sergeant, 
one corporal, eighteen privates, and one private of the Army 
Medical Corps. The Officer Commanding the garrison here 
(Lieutenant-Colonel Paton) furnished Lieutenant Partridge 

259 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT., 

with a letter, to the District Commandant at Sydney, con- 
taining a complete list of the prisoners in question. 

The amount of money handed over by the German 
Governor up to the present is, I find to-day, about 400,000 
marks 20,000. I have appointed an officer Treasurer, 
and he is engaged making up the books, which, as far as 
I can ascertain, have not been balanced for about two years. 

The officers I have placed in charge of the legal work, 
Customs, police, and postal services are hard at work restoring 
order out of chaos, and I will keep you supplied from time 
to time with progress reports of the whole administration. 

The ex-Governor, whom I have permitted to remain at 
Herbertshohe, is to confer with me on the 28th instant, when 
I hope to gain from him a clear insight into the whole of the 
business transactions of his Administration. 

The health of the whole of the troops under my command 
continues extraordinarily good, not a single case being in 
hospital at the present time. 

Although the weather is hot here there is generally a strong 
south-east trade wind blowing, which tends to reduce the 
temperature and make the conditions bearable. 

The work of the troops is being done principally in the 
early morning and again late in the afternoon, while during 
the hotter part of the day, from n a.m. until 4 p.m., they 
are resting. 

After the occupation of this place I was fortunate in secur- 
ing possession of two modern Krupp field guns on carriages, 
one carriage being in good order, the other broken. I propose 
sending these to Sydney on the first opportunity, and it has 
occurred to me that it might stimulate recruiting for future 
Australian contingent if one gun was exhibited at the Town 
Hall, Melbourne, and the other at the Town Hall, Sydney. 

A wireless station has been erected at the top of the hill 
overlooking Rabaul alongside Government House, and should 
prove of inestimable advantage in keeping up communication 
with the fleet. 

I have &c. 

'WILLIAM HOLMES, Colonel, 

Administrator. 

The Hon. the Minister for Defence, 
Melbourne. 

,60 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
No. 20. 

The Governor-General of Australia to the Secretary of State. 

January 26, 1915. 

FOLLOWING is extract from communication received 
by Military Commandant, Sydney, from Dr. Haber, late 
Governor, German New Guinea, dated January nth : 

' I may add the expression of the hearty gratitude which 
all of our party owe to you for the courtesy and attention 
bestowed on every one of us. I will, of course, be glad to 
report to my Government all about the fair and courteous 
treatment received by us under your command, and I hope 
that my statements will help to ensure full reciprocity in 
case an opportunity for it should be offered with regard to 
British subjects. I take the liberty of wishing you every 
further success in your important command." 

FERGUSON. 

No. 21. 
The Secretary of State to the Governor -General of Australia. 

Downing Street, March 2, 1915. 
SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to request your Excellency to inform 
your Ministers that I have received from the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty a precis of the reports and letters 
furnished by the Vice- Admiral commanding His Majesty's 
Australian Fleet to the Commonwealth Naval Board, cover- 
ing the operations in the Pacific for the period from the end 
of July to the end of September, 1914. 

2. In forwarding this precis the Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty observe that they have read it with great 
interest, and that they are of opinion that the arrangements 
planned and carried out so satisfactorily reflect great credit, 
not only on Sir George Patey, but also on the Commonwealth 
Naval Board and on the Commonwealth Government. 

3. I have already had occasion to convey to your Govern- 
ment the congratulations of His Majesty's Government on 
more than one further successful operation of vessels of His 
Majesty's Australian Fleet, at dates subsequent to those 

261 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT.. 

covered by Admiral Patey's report. I desire to take this 
opportunity of expressing once again the high appreciation 
of His Majesty's Government of the services which the Royal 
Australian Navy has rendered to the Empire during the first 
six months of the war. 

I have, &c., 

L. HARCOURT. 



NO. 22. 

The Governor-General of Australia to the Secretary of State. 

Governor-General's Office, 

Melbourne, February 9, 1915. 
SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith, for your infor- 
mation, two copies of each of the undermentioned despatches* 
received from the Administrator, Rabaul. 

I have, &c., 

R. M. FERGUSON, 

Governor-General. 



ENCLOSURE i IN No. 22. 

THE ADMINISTRATOR TO THE MINISTER OF 

DEFENCE, MELBOURNE. 

(Extract.) 

Rabaul, New Britain, October 21, 1914. 

ON the i6th instant I despatched the steamer Nus* 
from this port with a small force, under the command of 
Major Heritage, to Kaweing, with the threefold object : 
(i) to release Mr. Jolly (British Consul), who was reported 
to have been interned there during the war ; (2) to hoist the 
British flag, read my Proclamation, administer oath of 
neutrality, or take any other steps necessary to establish 
British rule ; and (3) to ascertain the whereabouts of the 
Siar, capture her, and bring her to this port. This expedition 
has not yet returned, and I am without news as to the result 
of their mission. 

* Extracts only printed. 
262 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
ENCLOSURE 2 IN No. 22. 

THE ADMINISTRATOR TO THE MINISTER OF 
DEFENCE, MELBOURNE. 

(Extract.) 

Rabaul, New Britain, October 27, 1914. 

I HAVE now to inform you that the expedition under 
Major Heritage was successful in every respect, as he returned 
to this port early on the morning of the 23rd instant with 
the s.s. Siar (450 tons gross) and two auxiliary schooners, 
Matupi and Sente. The Siar and the Sente are the property 
of the New Guinea Company, and the Matupi of Hernsheim 
& Company. Enclosed herewith is forwarded, for your 
information, Major Heritage's report on his expedition. 

On Saturday, 24th instant, I received information that a 
large three-masted auxiliary schooner (no horse-power), 
named the Somoa, was in hiding on the west coast of New 
Britain. I therefore despatched the steamer Madang, under 
the command of Lieutenant-Commander Lambtor, R.A.N.R., 
to secure her. Lieutenant-Commander Lambton returned 
to Rabaul on the following day with the Somoa in his posses- 
sion. She is a well-found boat, and one of the finest of her 
kind trading in these waters. 

Official application has been made to me 'by representa- 
tives of the owners of the steamships Sumatra, Madang, 
Meklong, which were captured by the Australian Fleet, and 
also the Siar, Matupi and Sente, for such vessels to be returned, 
but in each case I have replied that the vessels were taken 
on the high seas and were therefore prizes, and must be held 
as such, at any rate until a decision to the contrary is given 
by any Prize Court which may adjudicate on the same. 

Government House, 
Rabaul, October 25, 1914. 
SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to report that I took command of the 
armed ship Nusa on Friday, i6th instant, and a detail of 
fifteen soldiers, with one machine gun. Captain Strasburg, 
master mariner, had been appointed navigating officer. 

In accordance with your instructions I proceeded to 
Kaweing with the object of hoisting the Union flag and 

263 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT., 

proclaiming British military occupation over New Ireland, to 
release the British Consul, Mr. Jolly, who had been detained 
there as a prisoner, and to deport the German Commissioner. 
In addition, my instructions were to search for and capture 
the steamer Siar, which had been engaged in smuggling 
cargo into New Britain, &c. 

The expedition reached Kaweing on the afternoon of 
Saturday, I7th instant ; the flag was hoisted and saluted, 
the Proclamation published, and steps taken to release Mr. 
Jolly and get the German Commissioner in. 

I could obtain but little information regarding the Siar, 
but had the impression confirmed that she was in hiding at 
Garden Island, some 70 miles south-east of Kaweing. 
Accordingly I put to sea at 9 o'clock the same night, leaving 
Lieutenant Basil Holmes with ten men for a garrison at 
Kaweing, and steamed for Garden Island. This place was 
reached in a thick haze about n o'clock Sunday morning, 
i8th instant. From a knowledge of island custom I antici- 
pated that, if in harbour, the officers of the vessel would be 
breakfasting at the trading station. This surmise proved 
to be correct, as, on coming abreast of the station, white 
men were noticed hurrying from the verandah. Proceeding 
at full speed the Nusa was headed for the little harbour of 
Tekeriki, where the steamer Siar, the large motor schooner 
Matupi, and smaller motor schooner Sente were found 
anchored. Before the officers could reach their ships I had 
prize crews placed on board, and all the arms seized, and 
ships' papers taken into custody. Petty officer Clark was put 
in charge of the Siar, together with able seaman Courtney as 
engineer ; the engines of this vessel were found to have been 
temporarily dismantled. At daylight on Monday, igth 
instant, the Nusa towing the Siar, and motor schooners under 
their own power, weighed anchor for Kaweing, reaching 
that place the following morning at 8 o'clock, where the 
Siar's engines were placed in working order and fuel taken 
on board. Mr. Jolly had, in the meantime, been released, 
and the German Commissioner came in at noon and surrendered 
himself, at the same time formally handing over New Ireland 
to the British Government. 

I arranged for Lieutenant Basil Holmes to remain at 
Kaweing in temporary charge of the Administration with a 

264 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

detail of six soldiers, it being understood that a permanent 
garrison would be despatched within a week from Rabaul. 

On Wednesday, 2ist instant, the flotilla put to sea, Siar 
being under her own steam ; the German Commissioner, also 
the German Treasurer and one reservist, as prisoners of war 
on board, and Mr. Jolly as a passenger. It was found 
necessary for the Nusa to tow the motor schooner Matupi ; 
Sente under her own power. 

The expedition came to anchorage at Rabaul early Friday 
morning, 23rd instant. 

The services rendered by Captain Strasburg were very 
valuable, and it was his local knowledge which enabled the 
captured ships to be found so quickly. I would further 
desire to bring under Your Excellency's notice the good work 
done by petty officer Clark, placed in charge of the Siar, 
and able seaman Courtney, in charge of the engine-room of 
that ship. 

It is submitted that the captured ships are legal prizes, 
the Siar having been engaged in bringing contraband goods 
from abroad, and, with the assistance of the Matupi and 
Sente, smuggling such goods ashore at various points in the 
archipelago. The Siar was flying the German flag when 
captured. The master of this vessel informed me that his 
instructions were to take all steps to avoid capture by a 
British ship. 

I have, &c., 

FRANCIS HERITAGE. 

Major. 

The Administrator. 


No. 23. 

The Governor-General of Australia to the Secretary of State. 

Governor-General's Office, 

Melbourne, February 16, 1915. 
SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith copy of a report 
from the Administrator, Rabaul, New Britain. 
I have, &c., 

R. M. FERGUSON, 

Governor-General. 

a6 S 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
ENCLOSURE IN No. 23. 

THE ADMINISTRATOR TO THE MINISTER OF 

DEFENCE, MELBOURNE. 

(Extract.) 

Rabaul, New Britain, December n, 1914. 

IN my despatch of November 28th I mentioned the 
fact that I had sent an expedition to the Admiralty Islands. 
This force left Rabaul on November I9th, under the command 
of Major Heritage, on board the s.s. Siar, and visited the 
Admiralty and Hermit Islands. The flag was hoisted at 
both places, Proclamation read, and garrisons posted ; the 
Siar returned to Rabaul on the 28th idem. Opportunity was 
taken at the same time to despatch a general cargo to these 
islands on behalf of the merchants here, and bring back return 
shipments of copra. The commercial earnings of the vessel 
on this expedition amounted to 356 125. 6d., and, as the 
debits totalled 200, the expedition, in addition to achieving 
its object of military occupation, resulted in a sound profit 
as a commercial venture. 

The same course is being followed in connexion with the 
trip of the Meklong to Bougainville, the net results of which 
I will advise you in next despatch. 

The places which have now been satisfactorily occupied 
and flag hoisted by the forces under my command are : 

NEW BRITAIN 

I Kaweing. 
NEW IRELAND Namatanai. 

[ Muliama. 
KAISER WILHELMSLAND Frederick Wilhelmshafen. 

NEW HANOVER. 
BOUGAINVILLE T^ka 

f Komuli St. Andrew's Group. 
ADMIRALTY'S GROUP | Lorengau. 

I Nares Hafen. 
HERMIT'S GROUP Maron. 

DUKE OF YORK GROUP Mioko. 

NAURU. 

266 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The whole of the late German possessions south of the 
Equator may now therefore, I think, be considered to have 
been satisfactorily dealt with by my force. Other stations 
will be visited as opportunity offers, such as Eitape and 
Morobe in Kaiser Wilhelmsland, but there is no immediate 
hurry, as there is a strong garrison posted at Frederick 
Wiltielmshafen. 

I have, &c., 

WILLIAM HOLMES, Colonel, 
Administrator. 



THE " SCHARNHORST " AND " GNEISENAU " IN THE 

PACIFIC. 

(Communique by French Ministry of Marine.) 

Bordeaux, October 2. 

ON September 22nd the German cruisers Scharnhorst and Times. 
Gneisenau, off Papeete in the island of Tahiti, sank the small ct - 4 
French gunboat Zelee, which had been disarmed since Sep- 
tember I4th and was consequently without guns or crew. 
The German cruisers then bombarded Papeete, which is an 
open town, after which they stood out to sea. 

As all the ports in the ocean are occupied by Anglo-French 
forces, the revictualling of the German cruisers will speedily 
become impossible. They will then have to try their strength 
with the cruisers of the Allies, which are pursuing them across 
the Pacific. 



NEW SCALE OF SEPARATION ALLOWANCES. 

A MEMORANDUM by the Parliamentary and Financial Times, 
Secretary to the Admiralty (Dr. Macnamara), relating to Se P t2 .>* 
separation allowances to the wives and children of seamen, I( 
marines, and reservists on the books of His Majesty's ships 
was issued yesterday. The scale on which the new separation 
allowances will be paid, for the period of the war, is as 
follows : 

267 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Times, 
Sept. 24, 
1914. 



Sailor. 


Marine on Ship's 
Books. 


Wife. 


Children. 


Mother- 
less 
Children. 






Per 




Per 






week. 


Per week. 


week. 


Class I. : 










Ordinary Seaman 


Private 


6s. 


ist child, 2s. 


35. each. 


Able Seaman . . 


Corporal 




2nd child, 2s. 




Leading Seaman 


Sergeant and equiva- 




Subsequent 




2nd Class Petty 


lent ranks. 




children, is. 




Officer and 






each. 




equivalent rat- 










ings. 










Class II. : 










Petty Officer . . 


Colour-Sergeant and 


ys. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Petty Officer, ist 


equivalent ranks. 








Class, and 










equivalent rat- 










ings. 










Class III. : 










Chief Petty Offi- 


Quartermaster - Ser- 


8s. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


cer and equiva- 


geant and Staff 








lent ratings. 


Sergeant. 








Class IV 


Warrant Officer 


95. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 



The payment in respect of children will be made to boys under 14 and 
girls under 16 years of age. 

Families now residing within the London Postal area will receive an 
additional allowance of 35. 6d. per week. 

The necessary authority for payment of the new separation 
allowances will be issued as soon as possible, and allowances 
will be paid week by week as from October ist to all persons 
who are then entitled to receive them. 

Admiralty, September 23. 

In connection with the grant of separation allowances to 
wives and children of Navy ratings, Marines, and Reservists, 
the Admiralty wish to make it known that arrangements are 
being made for communicating with all persons entitled to 
the allowance without any application on their behalf. 

The large number of letters on the subject which have 
already been received at the Admiralty and Royal Marine 

268 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Divisions cannot all be answered individually without delaying 
the work of preparing for payment, and it is hoped that this 
announcement will be accepted as a reply to any letters which 
may remain otherwise unanswered. 

There is, in fact, no need for applications to be made for 
the allowances, as the Admiralty will issue the necessary forms 
at the earliest possible date to all persons entitled to the 
same. 

LOSS OF THE " ABOUKIR," " HOGUE " AND 
" CRESSY." 

Admiralty, September 23. 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty communicates the 
following statement for publication : 

H.M. Ships Aboukir (Captain John E. Drummond), 
Hogue (Captain Wilmot S. Nicholson), and Cressy (Captain 
Robert W. Johnson) have been sunk by submarines in the 
North Sea. 

The Aboukir was torpedoed, and whilst the Hogue and 
the Cressy had closed and were standing by to save the crew, 
they were also torpedoed. 

A considerable number were saved by H.M.S. Lowestoft 
(Captain Theobald W. B. Kennedy), and by a division of 
destroyers, trawlers, and boats. 



Admiralty, September 25. 

The sinking of the Aboukir was of course an ordinary 
hazard of patrolling duty. The Hogue and Cressy, however, 
were sunk because they proceeded to the assistance of their 
consort and remained with engines stopped endeavouring to 
save life, thus presenting an easy and certain target to further 
submarine attacks. The natural promptings of humanity 
have in this case led to heavy losses which would have been 
avoided by a strict adherence to military considerations. 
Modern naval war is presenting us with so many new and 
strange situations that an error of judgment of this character 
is pardonable. But it has been necessary to point out for the 
future guidance of His Majesty's ships, that the conditions 
which prevail when one vessel of a squadron is injured in a 

260 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT, 

minefield or is exposed to submarine attack, are analogous 
to those which occur in an action, and that the rule of leaving 
disabled ships to their own resources is applicable, so far at 
any rate as large vessels are concerned. No act of humanity, 
whether to friend or foe, should lead to a neglect of the proper 
precautions and dispositions of war, and no measures can 
be taken to save life which prejudice the military situation. 
Small craft of all kinds should, however, be directed by 
wireless to close on the damaged ship with all speed. 

The loss of nearly 60 officers and 1,400 men would not 
have been grudged if it had been brought about by gunfire 
in an open action, but it is peculiarly distressing under the 
conditions which prevailed. The absence of any of the 
ardour and excitement of an engagement did not, however, 
prevent the display of discipline, cheerful courage, and ready 
self-sacrifice among all ranks and ratings exposed to the 
ordeal. 

The duty on which these vessels were engaged was an 
essential part of the arrangements by which the control of 
the seas and the safety of the country are maintained, and 
the lives lost are as usefully, as necessarily, and as gloriously 
devoted to the requirements of His Majesty's service as if 
the loss had been incurred in a general action. In view of 
the certainty of a proportion of misfortunes of this character 
occurring from time to time, it is important that this point 
of view should be thoroughly appreciated. 

The loss of these three cruisers, apart from the loss of 
life, is of small naval significance. Although they were 
large and powerful ships, they belonged to a class of cruisers 
whose speeds have been surpassed by many of the enemy's 
battleships. Before the war it had been decided that no 
more money should be spent in repairing any of this class, 
and that they should make their way to the sale list as soon 
as serious defects became manifest. 



Berlin, September 23. 

K.V. No confirmation is yet to hand from German sources 

regarding the sinking of the British armoured cruisers Aboukir, 

Hogue and Cressy in the North Sea, as the submarines have 

not yet been able to report owing to their distance. From 

270 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

other sources it is learned that the engagement took place 
on September 22nd between 6 and 8 a.m. at a distance of 
twenty nautical miles north-west of the Hook of Holland, 
and that the Aboukir was the first boat to be struck by 
torpedo. The Dutch steamer Flora brought 287 survivors 
to Ymuiden. 

Report by Commander Bertram W. L. Nicholson, R.N., Late 
of H.MS. " Cressy." 

September 23, 1914. 
SIR, 

I have the honour to submit the following report in Times, 
connection with the sinking of H.M.S. Cressy in company ^ e P-- 2 
with H.M.S. Aboukir and Hogue on the morning of 
September 22nd. 

Whilst on patrol duty Aboukir was struck at about 6.25 a.m. 
on starboard beam. Hogue and Cressy closed and took up 
position, Hogue ahead of Aboukir and Cressy about 400 yards 
on port beam. 

As soon as it was seen that Aboukir was in danger of 
sinking all boats were sent away from Cressy and picket boat 
was hoisted out without steam up ; when cutters full of 
Aboukir' s men were returning to Cressy, Hogue was struck, 
apparently under aft 9*2-in. magazine, as a very heavy 
explosion took place immediately after the first explosion. 
Almost directly after Hogue was hit we observed a periscope 
on our port bow about 300 yards off. Fire was immediately 
opened and engines put full speed ahead with intention of 
running her down. Our gunner, Mr. Dogherty, positively 
asserts that he hit the periscope and that the submarine 
then showed her conning tower, which he struck, and the 
submarine sank. An officer standing alongside the gunner 
thinks that the shell struck only floating timber, of which 
there was much about, but it was evidently the impression 
of the men on deck, who cheered and clapped heartily, that 
the submarine had been hit. This submarine did not fire 
a torpedo at Cressy. 

Captain Johnson then manoeuvred the ship so as to 
render assistance to crews of Hogue and Aboukir. About 
five minutes later another periscope was seen on our 

271 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT 

starboard quarter. Fire was opened, the track of the torpedo 
she fired at range of 500 to 600 yards was plainly visible, and it 
struck us, starboard side, just before the after bridge ; the 
ship listed about 10 deg. to starboard and remained steady- 
time 7.15 a.m. All watertight doors, dead-lights, and scuttles 
had been securely closed before the torpedo struck ship. 
All mess stools and tables, shores, and all available timber 
below and on deck had been previously got up and thrown 
over the side for saving of life. A second torpedo fired by the 
same submarine missed and passed about twenty feet astern. 
About a quarter of an hour after the first torpedo had hit a 
third torpedo, fired from a submarine just before starboard 
beam, hit us in No. 5 boiler-room time 7.30 a.m. The ship 
then began to heel rapidly and finally turned keel up, remain- 
ing so for about twenty minutes before she finally sank at 7.55 
a.m.; a large number of men were saved by the casting adrift 
of a pattern 3 target ; the steam pinnace floated out of her 
crutches, but filled and sank. 

The second torpedo which struck Cressy passed over 
sinking hull of Aboukir, narrowly missing it. It is possible 
that the same submarine fired all three torpedoes at Cressy. 

The conduct of the crew was excellent throughout. I 
have already reported the splendid service rendered by 
Captain Phillips, master of the trawler L. T. Coriander and 
his crew, who picked up 156 officers and men. 

I have the honour, &c., &c., 
BERTRAM W. L. NICHOLSON, 

Commander, Late H.M.S. Cressy. 



Report by Commander Reginald A. Norton, R.N., Late of 

H.M.S. " Hague." 

September 23, 1914. 
SIR, 

Times, I have the honour to report as follows concerning the 

Sept. 26. sinking of H.M. Ships Hogue, Aboukir, and Cressy: 

Between 6.15 and 6.30 a.m. H.M.S. Aboukir was struck 
by a torpedo. The Hogue closed the Aboukir, and I received 
orders to hoist out the launch, turn out, and prepare all boats, 
272 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

and unlash all timber on the upper deck. The two lifeboats 
were sent to the Aboukir, but before the launch could get 
away the Hogue was struck on the starboard side amidships 
by two torpedoes at intervals of ten to twenty seconds. The ship 
at once began to heel to starboard. After ordering the men 
to provide themselves with wood, hammocks, &c., and to 
get into the boats on the booms and take off their clothes, I 
went, by Captain Nicholson's directions, to ascertain the 
damage in the engine rooms. An artificer engineer informed 
me that the water was over the engine-room gratings. While 
endeavouring to return to the bridge the water burst open 
the starboard entry port doors, and the ship heeled rapidly. 
I told the men in the port battery to jump overboard, as the 
launch was close alongside, and soon afterwards the ship 
lurched heavily to starboard. I clung to a ringbolt for some 
time, but eventually dropped on to the deck, and a huge 
wave washed me away. I climbed up the ship's side, and 
was again washed off. 

Eventually, after swimming about from various over- 
laden pieces of wreckage, I was picked up by a cutter from 
the Hogue, Coxwain L. S. Marks, which pulled about for 
some hours picking up men and discharging them to our 
picket boat and steam pinnace, and to the Dutch steamers 
Flora and Titan, and rescued in this way Commander Sells, 
Engineer-Commander Stokes, with legs broken, Fleet Pay- 
master Eldred, and about 120 others. Finally, about n a.m., 
when we could find no more men in the water, we were picked 
up by H.M.S. Lucifer, which proceeded to the Titan and 
took off from her all our men except about twenty who were 
too ill to be moved. 

A Lowestoft trawler and the two Dutch ships Flora and 
Titan were extraordinarily kind, clothing and feeding our 
men. My boat's crew, consisting mainly of R.N.R. men, 
pulled and behaved remarkably well. I particularly wish 
to mention Petty Officer, ist Class, Halton, who by encouraging 
the men in the water near me undoubtedly saved many lives. 

Lieutenant-Commander Phillipps-WoUey, after hoisting 
out the launch, asked me if he should try to hoist out another 
boat, and endeavoured to do so ; the last I saw of him was 
on the after bridge doing well. Lieutenant Tillard was picked 
up by the launch, got up a cutter's crew, and saved many 

Naval I S 273 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT 

lives, as did Midshipman Cazalet in the Cressy's gig. Lieu- 
tenant Chichester turned out the whaler very quickly. 

A Dutch sailing trawler sailed close by, but went off 
without rendering any assistance, though we signalled to 
her from the Hogue to close after we were struck. 

The A boukir appeared to me to take about thirty-five minutes 
to sink, floating bottom up for about five minutes. The Hogue 
turned turtle very quickly in about five minutes and floated 
bottom up for some minutes. A dense black smoke was seen 
in the starboard battery, whether from coal or torpedo cordite 
I could not say. The upper deck was not blown up, and 
only one other small explosion occurred as we heeled over. 

The Cressy I watched heel over from the cutter ; she 
heeled over to starboard very slowly, a dense black smoke 
issuing from her when she attained an angle of about 90 deg., 
and she took a long time from this angle till she floated 
bottom up with the starboard screw slightly out of the water. 
I consider it was thirty-five to forty-five minutes from the time 
she was struck till she was bottom up. 

All the men in the Hogue behaved extraordinarily well, 
obeying orders even when in the water swimming for their 
lives, and I witnessed many cases of great self-sacrifice and 
gallantry. 

Farmstone, able seaman, R.F.R., H.M.S. Hogue, jumped 
overboard from the launch to make room for others, and 
would not avail himself of assistance until all men near by 
were picked up ; he was in the water about half an hour. 

There was no panic of any sort, the men taking off their 
clothes as ordered and falling in with hammock or wood. 

Captain Nicholson, in our other cutter, as usual, was 
perfectly cool and rescued a large number of men. I last 
saw him alongside the Flora. 

Engineer-Commander Stokes, I believe, was in the engine- 
room to the last, and Engineer-Lieutenant-Commander Fen- 
dick got steam on the boat-hoist and worked it in five minutes. 

I have the honour to submit that I may be appointed to 
another ship as soon as I can get a kit. 

I have the honour, &c., 
REGINALD A. NORTON, 

Commander, Late H.M.S. Hogue. 
274 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Berlin, September 28. 

The following information can now be given as to the/.D. 
destruction of the three British cruisers of the Cressy class 
by the German submarine U 9. On the early morning of 
September 22nd U 9 was steaming on a south-westerly course 
twenty miles north-west of the Hook of Holland. The sea was 
smooth and the weather clear but partially misty. Towards 
6 a.m. U 9 sighted three large hostile cruisers who were 
approaching in the opposite direction in open order line 
abreast. U 9 determined to attack the centre ship of the 
three cruisers, carried out this project, and gave the cruiser, 
the Aboukir, a deadly blow with a torpedo. The cruiser 
sank in a few minutes. As both the other cruisers approached 
the spot where the Aboukir sank U 9 made a successful tor- 
pedo attack on the Hogue. This cruiser also disappeared 
under the waves after a short time. U 9 now turned towards 
the Cressy. Almost immediately after the torpedo struck 
her the Cressy heeled over, remained afloat for a time keel 
uppermost and then sank. The whole fight, from the first 
torpedo discharge to the last, lasted about an hour. 

Not a single shot was fired by any of the English cruisers. 

The statements of the British Press that " Submarine 
assistance " ships under the Dutch flag were present at the 
battle are false, also the tales by surviving Englishmen that 
the cruisers were attacked by several submarines, some of 
whom they stated to have been destroyed by fire from the 
cruisers. As a matter of fact only the U 9 was present. 

After the sinking of the Cressy many British cruisers, 
torpedo boats, &c., arrived on the spot, and certain torpedo- 
boat destroyers pursued the submarine. U 9 was chased 
until the evening of September 22nd to not far from the 
Terschelling Bank. At dusk the submarine was able to run 
out of sight of the torpedo boats and the next day reached 
a home harbour undisturbed with her triumphant crew. 

AERIAL ATTACK ON DUSSELDORF. 

Admiralty, September 23. 

YESTERDAY (September 22nd) the British aeroplanes 
of the Naval Wing delivered an attack on the Zeppelin sheds 
at Diisseldorf. Conditions were rendered very difficult by 

175 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEF 

the misty weather, but Flight-Lieutenant C. H. Collet dropped 
three bombs on the Zeppelin shed, approaching within 400 ft. 
The extent of the damage done is not known. Flight-Lieu- 
tenant Collet's machine was struck by one projectile, but 
all the machines returned safely to their point of departure. 
The importance of this incident lies in the fact that it 
shows that in the event of further bombs being dropped into 
Antwerp or other Belgian towns measures of reprisal can 
certainly be adopted, if desired, to almost any extent. 

THE FRENCH FLEET IN THE ADRIATIC. 

Vienna, September 24. 

K.V. IT is officially announced that the French fleet which, 

since its useless bombardment of Punta d'Ostro on September 
ist, had remained outside the Adriatic, has performed new 
deeds of valour in the last few days. It appeared on Sep- 
tember i gth at 6 a.m. off the Bay of Cattaro, and for an hour 
again bombarded the forts at the entrance of the bay with 
their heaviest guns, making some hits and wounding one 
gunner. The fleet, about 40 units strong, then steamed 
for Lissa, and at 10 a.m. bombarded the semaphore station 
and the lighthouse. Two men were wounded, but no other 
damage was done. The whole fleet operated until about 
5 o'clock in the waters of Lissa, and then left the scene of 
its exploits, steering a south-west course. Part of the 
fleet then appeared off Pelagosa and bombarded the light- 
house there. After the destruction of the signal station 
and after disgusting pollution of the drinking water by landing 
parties, and after seizing the meagre provisions of the poor 
lighthouse keepers, and taking away their washing, the 
squadron left the Adriatic. 



Vienna, October 17. 
K.V. The Press Bureau announces officially : 

" Details are to hand concerning the bombardment of the 
works in the Bay of Cattaro on September igth. The bom- 
bardment was undertaken by two French battleships and 
three cruisers, which were accompanied by four transports. 
At 5.30 a.m. several ships were sighted nearing the harbour 
276 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

entrance in two groups. As soon as the ships came within 
range the coast batteries at Lustica and the mortar batteries 
at Ostro opened fire, whereupon the ships altered course to 
the west and opened fire. The minimum range was 5,000 
to 6,000 metres from the Ostro point. The ships soon got 
out of range and the fire from the works therefore ceased. 
Immediately afterwards the French vessels opened a lively 
fire on the open sea, presumably against imaginary submarines. 
At 6.50 a.m. the enemy turned to the south-west and soon 
disappeared in the smoke and fog. The batteries at Lustica 
and Ostro made one successful hit. The French fired 200 
shots of heavy and medium calibre. The stone fort of Ostro 
was hit on one side without sustaining particular damage. 
Nine or ten shots fell on the cliffs of Punt a d' Ostro where 
they left visible traces by the splintering of the rocks. The 
fort of Mamola was hit three times with slight results. One 
shot went through the observation platform of the guard- 
house. Two shots fell in the neighbourhood of the wireless 
station of Klinei. Two men were severely wounded." 

THE " EMDEN " IN INDIAN WATERS. 

(Official Statement.) 

Simla, September 23. 

A HOSTILE cruiser appeared off Madras harbour at half- Times, 
past nine last night and started firing on the oil tanks, setting Se Pt- 2 5. 
two alight. On our guns replying the cruiser ceased firing, 
put out her lights, and steamed away, the whole affair lasting 
only fifteen minutes. 

The casualties were two Indians and one boy in the 
harbour killed. There was no panic or excitement in Madras, 
and the attitude of the Press and the public was admirable. 
Renter. 

From Lloyd's Agent at Madras. 

September 22. 

Madras bombarded last night, presumably by Emden. 
Two B.C.O. oil tanks fired, now burnt out. Loss one million 
and a half gallons ; one empty tank riddled, one tank liquid 
fuel damaged by shell, sheds damaged. Chubra hit, damage 
slight, other shipping practically undamaged. General damage 
infinitesimal. Several lives lost. 

277 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEP 

Berlin, September 23. 

The crews of the British ships sunk by the German cruiser 
Emden in the Bay of Bengal have arrived in Calcutta and 
expressed their gratitude for the courtesy shown towards 
them by German officers. The raiding expedition of the 
Emden commenced on September loth, when she sank the 
steamer Indus after taking off its crew. The Emden was 
able to ascertain the position of all the ships in the Bay, 
and she sank the steamers Loo, Kabinga, Killin, and Diplomat. 
The Italian steamer Laroumno was captured but later released. 
The latter shr~ rned several other steamers, which thus 
escaped capture. The Tratbock was later sunk, and the 
crews of all the ships were put on board a steamer, which 
was ordered to sail for Calcutta. Two German ships accom- 
panied this vessel to within seventy-five miles of the mouth 
of the Hooghly River. 



DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE OF THE UNITED 
STATES GOVERNMENT RELATING TO VIOLA- 
TIONS OF NEUTRALITY BY BELLIGERENT 
WARSHIPS. 

The British Ambassador to the Counsellor. 

British Embassy, 
Washington, September 24, 1914. 

DEAR MR. COUNSELLOR, 

U.S.D.C. YOU were good enough to call my attention to a report 
which had reached your attention to the effect that a British 
warship had communicated by wireless with the shore a 
request for some supplies. I at once informed my Govern- 
ment, who have telegraphed to me that His Majesty's ships 
have been instructed on no account to telegraph to New 
York for supplies or newspapers. 

Yours sincerely, 

CECIL SPRING-RICE. 



278 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

Imperial German Embassy, 
Washington, D. C., October 21, 1914. 

MR. SECRETARY OF STATE, 

I AM told that the tug F. B. Dalzell at n p.m. in the night U.S.D.C. 
of September 3oth-October ist, put to sea from Pier 6 East 
River, New York, to carry provisions to the British cruiser 
Essex. The Essex was lying about 5 nautical miles off 
Gedney Channel, two nautical miles south-east of Scotland 
Lightship. As she came out of Gedney Channel the tug is 
said to have come under the searchlight of the American 
warship Florida that was lying in front of the channel. The 
provisions, about 40 tons of fresh meats wrapped in cloth, 
were taken from the tug in boats that had been sent from the 
war vessel. The tug then returned to New York where it 
arrived at daybreak. 

The tug G. H. Dalzell, which belongs to the same line, 
went on a similar errand in the night of October ist-2nd. 
That tug also left from Pier 6 East River. 

I have the honour to bring the foregoing to Your Excel- 
lency's knowledge with a request that you will kindly set on 
foot an investigation of the case and ascertain whether it 
constitutes a violation of the neutrality laws. 

Accept, &c., 

J. BERNSTORFF. 



The British Ambassador to the Secretary of State. 

British Embassy, 

Washington, October 31, 1914. 
SIR, 

WITH reference to my verbal communication which I U.S.D.C. 
made on the i6th with regard to the Italian steamship 
Amista, I have the honour, under instructions from my 
Government, to make the following communication : 

279 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT., 

This ship was chartered by the Berwind- White Coal 
Mining Company of New York and loaded coal and stores at 
Newport News. Representations were made in writing to 
the collector of customs by the British Vice-Consul on the 
ground that the Berwind- White Coal Mining Company of 
New York was under strong suspicion of chartering neutral 
ships in order to supply German cruisers, that the firm named 
in Punta Arenas as receivers of the cargo, were only nominal 
consignees, and that the neutral clause in the vessel's charter 
party was incorrect. 

The collector replied that he had inquired into the matter 
and had satisfied himself that the master and agents of the 
vessel were acting in good faith and that he could not see 
his way to withhold clearances. 

The vessel cleared at the custom house on October I7th 
and the collector invited the Consul to inspect the clearance 
papers which were in order, the vessel clearing for Montevideo 
via Barbados. 

I have now received information from my Government 
to the effect that the Amista never arrived at Barbados. At 
the slowest speed she should have arrived October 24th. 
Under these circumstances I have the honour to invite the 
earnest attention of your Government to this confirmation 
of the suspect character of the vessel's voyage. 

I have to add that the systematic way in which neutral 
ships have left American ports in order to supply German 
cruisers, and have been allowed to operate freely in the ports 
of the United States, in spite of the warnings which have been 
given, is a matter which causes grave anxiety to His Majesty's 
Government. I am therefore instructed to request that in 
view of the usages of international law and the terms of 
the instructions of the United States Government to local 
authorities for the preservation of the neutrality of the 
United States, such measures as are possible may be taken 
to prevent the use of ports of the United States for this 
unneutral purpose. 

I have, &c., 

CECIL SPRING-RICE. 



280 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
The Acting Secretary of State to the British Ambassador. 

Department of State, 
Washington, November 2, 1914. 
EXCELLENCY, 

WITH reference to your note of the 3ist ultimo regarding U.S.D.C. 
the Italian steamship A mista, which is reported to have cleared 
from Newport News on the I7th ultimo for Montevideo via 
the Barbados, where you state she appears not to have 
arrived, I have the honour to advise you that steps have been 
taken to make a further investigation of this case with a 
view to determining any other facts in regard to the bona fides 
of the destination of this vessel. The Department will also 
undertake to ascertain, if possible, whether the consignee of 
the cargo of the Amista expected such shipments to arrive. 

You further state that the systematic way in which neutral 
vessels have left American ports in order to supply German 
cruisers and have been allowed to operate freely in the ports 
of the United States in spite of the warnings which have 
been given is a matter which causes grave anxiety to His 
Britannic Majesty's Government, and you request under 
instructions from your Government that such measures as 
are possible may be taken to prevent the use of the ports of 
the United States for this unneutral purpose. 

In reply I have the honour to state that so far as I am 
advised every suspicious case of vessels leaving American 
ports to supply German cruisers which has been brought to 
the attention of the Government of the United States, with 
any basis of fact to support such suspicion, has been thoroughly 
investigated by the authorities of the United States with a 
view to determining in every possible way whether the trans- 
action was bona fide or such as might be interfered with by 
this Government for the preservation of the neutrality of 
the United States. Further than this the Government of 
the United States does not understand that its duty in these 
matters requires it to go, for otherwise the war would impose 
upon the United States the burden of enforcing restrictions 
which are not, in the opinion of this Government, prescribed 
by the rules of international law. The Government of the 
United States, therefore, feels obliged to decline to accept 

281 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

any suggestion intimating that its vigilance in the maintenance 
of its neutral duties under international law has been relaxed 
so as to allow vessels engaged in violations of such duties to 
" operate freely in the ports of the United States/' 

I have, &c., 

ROBERT LANSING. 



The Acting Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. 

Department of State, 

Washington, November 23, 1914. 
EXCELLENCY, 

U.S.D.C. REFERRING to your note of the 2ist ultimo, stating 
that your Embassy was in receipt of information to the effect 
that, on the night of September 3Oth last, the tug F. B. Dalzell 
put to sea from Pier 6, East River, New York, to carry pro- 
visions to the British cruiser Essex, which was lying off 
Gedney Channel ; that as she came out of Gedney Channel the 
tug came under the searchlights of the U.S.S. Florida ; that 
the provisions were taken from the tug in boats sent from 
the Essex ; and that the tug G. H. Dalzell went on a similar 
errand on the night of October ist, I have the honour to 
inform you that the Government of the United States has had 
the matter thoroughly investigated and has not been able 
to find as yet sufficient evidence showing that the tug 
F. B. Dalzell has furnished supplies to British warships. If 
Your Excellency can supply any evidence bearing on the 
matter, the Department will be glad to have a further investi- 
gation made on the basis of the new information. 

Accept, &c., 

ROBERT LANSING. 

[A further instalment of this correspondence will be given in Vol. II.]- 



282 



1914] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

MR. CHURCHILL'S INTERVIEW IN THE " GIORNALE 

D'lTALIA." 

Press Bureau, September 25. 

QUESTION. What impression was made in England Times, 
and upon the British Government by the Italian declaration Sept. 2 
of neutrality ? X 9 X 4- 

Mr. CHURCHILL. We always thought it was impossible 
for Italy to fight with Austria or to fight against England, 
and in all the Admiralty arrangements for the Mediterranean 
since I have been here we have always acted on the certainty 
that Italy would be neutral, and measured our naval force 
only against Austria. 

QUESTION. There has been a great deal of talk hi Italy 
of the possibility of active intervention by Italy in the war 
in case of a change in the Adriatic situation. Is there any 
probability of a change in the Adriatic situation in consequence 
of the Franco-British naval operations ? 

Mr. CHURCHILL. You see, the naval situation in the 
Adriatic is rather like that in the North Sea. The Austrian 
Fleet is hiding. It lies hidden in its hole, and until it is 
convenient to dig them out it is difficult to get a decision. 
I do not see how any change in the Adriatic situation would 
result from the naval operations, but the great changes that 
will come will result from the collapse of Austria on land. 
The greatest feature yet apparent in the course of the war 
is the collapse of Austria as a military factor. That collapse 
appears to be irreparable, and that is a tremendous event 
in the history of the world. 

QUESTION. Do you think it probable that there will be 
the possibility of such an arrangement as will give a guarantee 
to the position of Italy and leave her free from any fears of 
hostile predominance ? 

Mr. CHURCHILL. I think the great events of this war 
that will affect Italy are taking place on the land rather 
than on the sea. Italy would have nothing to apprehend 
navally from the victory of England and France. She would 
always be strong enough to deal with Austria on the sea, 
unless, of course, a victorious Germany came to the aid of 
Austria. If Germany succeeded in the war and the English 
power was broken, Germany could, of course, send as many 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT., 

ships as she liked to join the Austrian Fleet and could send 
them much quicker than Italy could build them. But still, 
I repeat that for Italy this is primarily an affair of the land 
rather than the sea. 

QUESTION. There appears to be at this moment a danger 
of an Islamic movement in the North of Africa, promoted by 
Germany, that would eventually menace the British, Italian, 
and French interests equally on the northern shore of the 
Mediterranean. Do you think it possible that on this basis 
there would be room for an agreement between the three 
chief Mediterranean Powers ? 

Mr. CHURCHILL. The great issues of the hour are in 
Europe, not in Africa, and if they can be satisfactorily regu- 
lated so far as Europe is concerned, Africa is an easy matter. 

QUESTION. The argument is put forward by a few that 
there has hitherto been no decisive engagement between the 
German and British Fleets and consequently they regard 
this as a success. Do you think there is any foundation for 
this belief, and whether the fact that the German Fleet still 
remains in being is in any way likely to affect the outcome 
of the war ? 

Mr. CHURCHILL. The great battle on sea has not yet 
been fought, but although it has not yet been fought, we 
enjoy as great a command of the sea and as free a use of sea 
power as we should have after a decisive engagement. What 
is there, for instance, that we could do then that we are not 
doing now ? German trade has ceased ; German supplies 
have been largely strangled. British trade in all essentials 
is going on uninterruptedly. The materials of industry, the 
food of the people, are entering the country daily in vast 
quantities at commercial prices. We are moving scores of 
thousands of men across all the oceans of the world. Our 
submarines are blockading the very throat of the Elbe. We 
started with a substantial naval preponderance much more 
like two to one than sixteen to ten. In the next twelve months 
we shall have twice as many battleships completing and three 
or four times as many cruisers as Germany. If losses were 
even equal, our position this time next year would be far 
stronger than it is to-day. You must remember that none 
of the ships built in my tenure of office, except the small 
cruiser Arethusa, have been commissioned yet. These are 

284 



1914] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the most powerful and most expensive ships that have ever 
been built. They are the fruits of the greatest naval effort 
England has ever made. They are all coming along the road. 
We always regarded the first month of the war as our most 
difficult and critical month from a naval point of view, and 
we have nothing to complain of in the way that month has 
gone. 

QUESTION. One argument constantly employed, especially 
by German diplomats dealing with Italy, is that if Italy 
remains alone in the Mediterranean she will be exposed to 
Anglo-French dictation. I should be glad if you could give 
me any reassurance on that point. 

Mr. CHURCHILL. I cannot think of any danger that 
a friendly Italy would run from English and French naval 
strength. We are both great Mediterranean Powers. We 
do not seek expansion. We have got all the territory in the 
Mediterranean that we want. We only want to live a quiet 
life, enjoy our possessions, and respect those of others. There- 
fore, however strong we are, I cannot see how there could be 
any danger to Italy. On the contrary, if Italy had been our 
ally in the war our naval interests would be hers, and our 
views about her island possessions and naval bases would be 
free from the slightest jealousy or suspicion. 

QUESTION. In case Italy should decide that her national 
interests require active intervention, how would it be received 
by this country and by the Allies ? 

Mr. CHURCHILL. We are very confident in England about 
whining the war. We have made up our minds to win it 
if it costs the last sovereign and the last man hi the British 
Empire. Time is on our side. Personally I never expected 
to see the campaign go so well in the first two or three months. 
I have always been looking to the seventh, eighth, and ninth 
months of the war to produce the great decision. But the 
extraordinary gallantry of the French Army and the immense 
power which Russia has so quickly exerted, the pluck and 
energy of Serbia, combined with the great Austrian smash 
up, have created at the end of the second month a situation 
which we might have been well content with at the end of 
the seventh or eighth. Of course, it is much too soon to 
speculate. We are not building upon the accidents of battle- 
fields. We are measuring the vital forces of the nations 

285 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT., 

engaged in the war. We are satisfied that Germany has done 
her worst and is fully extended. Russia has only just begun. 
In less than six months' time we shall have one million soldiers 
in the line ; all volunteers, not one taken by compulsion. 
And these men will be equipped with everything that science 
can invent or money can buy, drawn by naval power from 
the whole world. We want this war to settle the map of 
Europe on national lines and according to the true wishes 
of the peoples who dwell in the disputed areas. After all 
the blood that is being shed, we want a natural and harmonious 
settlement which liberates races, restores the integrity of 
nations, subjugates no one, and permits a genuine and lasting 
relief from the waste and tension of armaments under which 
we have suffered so long. Some day the natural and true 
frontiers of Italy must be restored. There will never be real 
peace and comfort till then. As long as Austria has the power 
to squander thousands of Italian lives in quarrels of her 
ambition ; as long as she holds in her grip and bondage fair 
provinces and numerous populations which are Italian, heart 
and soul and bone and nature, there will always be armament 
and counter-armament, fear, tension, and intrigue, and always 
the danger of this horrible catastrophe recurring. Let us 
make an end of it now. Let us have a fair and natural 
adjustment of European boundaries. Let us war against the 
principle of one set of Europeans holding down by force and 
conquest against their wills another section. Let us reach 
a final and a simple solution, and let us fortify and confirm 
the settlement by a law of nations which even the most 
audacious will have been taught to respect. 



CAPTURE OF DUALA IN THE CAMEROONS. 

ON September 26th Duala, the principal port of the German 
Colony of the Cameroons, surrendered unconditionally to a 
Franco-English expedition commanded by Major -General 
Dobell. The expeditionary forces were under the protection 
of the British cruiser Cumberland and the French cruiser 
Bruix. With this operation is connected a diversion made 
by the Surprise at Cocobeach at the mouth of the Rio Muni 
in the enclave ceded by us under the Treaty of 1911. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
OPERATIONS IN GERMAN NEW GUINEA. 

THE town and harbour of Friedrich Wilhelm, seat of 
government of Kaiser Wilhelm Land, in German New Guinea, 
have been occupied without opposition by British forces 
which have left a garrison there. The enemy's army appears 
to have concentrated at Herbertshohe where it has been 
crushed. 

DAY AND NIGHT ATTACK AT TSINGTAU. 

September 29. 

IT is officially announced that at dawn, on the 28th inst., P.B. 
the Allied Forces operating against Tsingtau began an attack 
on the advanced positions distant about 4 kilometres (2 J miles) 
from the enemy's main line of defence. In spite of a fierce 
fire from the enemy from both sea and land, the Allies, by 
noon on the 28th inst., had driven the enemy from his posi- 
tions, and had occupied all the high ground overlooking 
the enemy's main line of defence. 



Tokio, September 29. 

It is officially announced that the Japanese, in a day and 
night attack last Sunday, drove the Germans towards Tsing- 
tau. The Japanese casualties were 150. The German losses 
are not known, but 50 Germans and four machine guns were 
captured. 

The action developed more speedily than was anticipated, 
and in view of its success the general attack is likely to be 
delivered at an earlier date than was at first thought possible. 

The German gunboat Iltis, which was rendering effective 
assistance to the German land forces, was attacked by the 
Japanese Fleet. 

The Japanese Fleet bombarded two Tsingtau forts yester- 
day. A British warship took part in the bombardment. 
One fort replied, but its fire was ineffective. The results of 
the bombardment are not known, but buildings were 
demolished, and it is believed that the barracks and defence 
works were damaged. 

287 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The work of mine-sweeping continues with success, 
despite the fire of the defenders ashore. One boat engaged 
in the work was hit, and two men were wounded. Renter. 



Tokio, September 30. 

It is officially announced that a portion of the Japanese 
Fleet has landed a force which has occupied Laoshe Harbour, 
in the vicinity of Tsingtau. 

The Japanese captured four field guns which had been 
abandoned by the Germans, and afterwards held the place 
with a small force. 

The pilots of two Japanese biplanes and of one monoplane 
report that they have dropped bombs on German vessels 
from a height of 700 metres. 

Although the wings of the machines were riddled with 
bullets and the stem of one was broken, all returned safely. 
Renter. 



MORE CAPTURES BY THE " EMDEN." 

September 29, 1914. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty announces that the 
German cruiser Emden during the past few days has 
captured and sunk in the Indian Ocean the British steam- 
ships Tymeric, King Lud, Ribera, and Foyle, and captured 
the collier Buresk. The crews of the above vessels were 
transferred to the steamer Gryfedale, which was also cap- 
tured, but was released in order to take the crews to Colombo, 
where they arrived yesterday morning. 

PROMOTIONS, APPOINTMENTS, HONOURS AND 

REWARDS. 

Royal Marine Artillery. 

Admiralty, September 2, 1914. 

Colonel Second Commandant Sir George Grey Aston, 
K.C.B., A.D.C., is granted the temporary rank of Brigadier- 
General whilst in command of the Royal Marine Brigade 
of the Royal Naval Division. Dated August 25th, 1914. ^ 

288 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Admiralty, September n, 1914. 

In pursuance of His Majesty's pleasure, Admiral Sir George 
Astley Callaghan, G.C.V.O., K.C.B., has this day been ap- 
pointed First and Principal Naval Aide-de-Camp to His 
Majesty the King, in succession to Admiral Sir Edmund 
Samuel Poe, G.C.V.O., K.C.B. 

In accordance with the provisions of Order in Council of 
February 22nd, 1870 : 

Admiral Sir Edmund Samuel Poe, G.C.V.O., K.C.B. , First 
and Principal Naval Aide-de-Camp to His Majesty the King, 
has this day been placed on the Retired List. 

The following promotions have been made : 

Rear-Admiral Richard Bowles Farquhar to be Vice-AdmiraL 

Captain Owen Francis Gillett to be Rear-Admiral. 

To date September nth, 1914. 

Royal Naval Reserve. 

Admiralty, September 18, 1914. 

In accordance with the provisions of His Majesty's Order 
in Council of December i6th, 1912, temporary Commissions 
in the Royal Naval Reserve have been issued as follows : 

Commanders : Sir Alfred Wyndham Paget, K.C.B., 
K.C.M.G. (an Admiral on the Retired List of His Majesty's 
Fleet). 

Henry George Kendall. 

Lieutenant-Commander : James Startin, C.B. (a Vice- 
Admiral on the Retired List of His Majesty's Fleet). 

Admiralty, September ig, 1914. 

Captain Lionel Halsey, C.M.G., has this day been ap- 
pointed a Naval Aide-de-Camp to His Majesty the King, 
in place of Captain Morgan Singer, promoted to Flag rank. 

Admiralty, September 21, 1914. 
The following promotions have been made : 
Rear- Admiral Sir George Edwin Patey, K.C.V.O., borne 

supernumerary to the Establishment whilst in command 

of H.M. Australian Fleet, to be Vice- Admiral supernumerary 

to the Establishment. 

Rear-Admiral Arthur Henry Limpus, C.B., to be Vice- 

Admiral, and absorbed in the Establishment. 

Naval I T 189 



L.G. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Rear-Admiral Julian Charles Allix Wilkinson to be Vice- 
Admiral on the Retired List. 
D.ated September itfh, 1914. 

Royal Naval Reserve. 

Admiralty, September 24, 1914. 

In accordance with the provisions of His Majesty's Order 
in Council of December i6th, 1912, temporary Commissions 
in the Royal Naval Reserve have been issued as follows : 

Commanders : His Grace the Duke of Sutherland. 
James Startin, C.B. (Vice- Admiral retired). 

DETENTIONS AND CAPTURES OF ENEMY SHIPS OR 

CARGOES. 

Vessels Detained or Captured by the French Naval Authorities. 

Foreign Office, September n, 1914. 

HIS Majesty's Government have received from the French 
Government the following list of vessels which have been 
detained or captured by the French Naval Authorities. 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



[SEPT. 



Name. 


Nationality. 


Where detained. 


Acturus 






German 






Bordeaux. 


Adrana 






German 






Rouen. 


Christiania . . 






German 






Havre. 


Consul Horn 






German 






Bordeaux. 


Dinorath 






Austrian 






Havre. 


Elli .. 






German 






Cannes. 


Elsa Koppen 






German 






Nice. 


Frida Mahn . . 






German 






Boulogne. 


Gradac 






Austrian 






Brest. 


Kalymnos 






German 






Bizerta. 


Kawak 






German 






Bizerta. 


Neptune 






German 






Rouen. 


Porto 






German 






Cherbourg. 


Tibor .. 






Austrian 






Bordeaux. 


Tolna.. 






Austrian 






Nice. 


Tsar Nicolas II. 






German 






Bizerta. 



390 



1914] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Vessels Detained or Captured by the Japanese Naval Authorities. 

(Nil.) 

August 28. 

By Imperial Ordinance, dated the 28th ultimo, a Prize L.G. 
Court has been established at Sasebo. 

According to information received by His Majesty's 
Ambassador at Tokio from the Japanese Government, inno- 
cent cargoes owned by British subjects on vessels which 
may henceforth be captured will be released as soon as 
possible in cases where the Prize Court considers there is no 
objection to this course. 



Vessels Detained or Captured by the Russian Naval Authorities. 

According to information received by His Majesty's L.G. 
Ambassador at Petrograd from the Russian Government, 
British owners of cargoes on such vessels should make appli- 
cation to the General Staff, Ministry of Marine, Petrograd. 
Restitution of British owned cargoes in vessel seized in port 
will be made administratively without previous judicial 
decision. The intervention of His Majesty's Consular 
Officers in these cases is permitted, and His Majesty's 
Consular Officers have been so advised by His Majesty's 
Ambassador at Petrograd. 



Vessels Detained or Captured by the French Naval Authorities. 

Foreign Office, September 21, 1914. 

With reference to the notification which appeared in the L.G. 
Supplementary London Gazette of the I2th instant, His 
Majesty's Ambassador at Bordeaux is informed that a Prize 
Court has been established at Bordeaux. 

Foreign Office, September 28, 1914. 

His Majesty's Government have now received from the L.G. 
French Ambassador a copy of a notification which was pub- 
lished in the Journal Officiel of the loth inst., and of which 
the following is a translation : 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

" All persons having any interest in cargoes other than 
enemy cargoes laden on enemy ships captured and brought 
into French ports, and requiring a release of such cargoes 
or portion of cargoes, should make inquiries of the ' Prefet 
Maritime ' of the district in which the ship is detained. 

" The ' Prefet Maritime ' will, through the intermediary 
of the ' Commissaire Chef du Service de la Solde ' or his repre- 
sentative, require proof of ownership and particulars as to 
freight, whether paid or unpaid." 

In cases where the title of the subjects or citizens of the 
allied or neutral States is clear and established without doubt 
to the satisfaction of the " Prefet Maritime," such cargoes 
or portions of cargoes will be released with as little delay as 
possible, provided that no question of contraband arises, 
and subject to the adjustment of any matters relating to 
freight or other charges falling on the cargo. In doubtful 
cases recourse to the ordinary Prize Court procedure will be 
necessary. 

With regard to cases which come before the French Prize 
Court established at Bordeaux (21 Rue Vauban), the French 
Ambassador states that the interested parties should present 
their claims to the Court through the intermediary of an 
Advocate of the Council of State. 



[SEPT., 



Vessels Detained or Captured by the Russian Naval Authorities. 

' Foreign Office, September 21, 1914. 
A list of such vessels which has been furnished by the 
Russian Government to H.M. Ambassador at Petrograd is 
appended hereto. 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name. 


Nationality. 


Where detained. 


Ajax 
Albatross . 
Alpha 
Andromeda 
Anna 
Annie 








German 
German 
German 
German 
German 
German 






Riga. 
Libau. 
Petrograd. 
Riga. 
Petrograd. 
Petrograd. 



292 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

LIST OF VESSELS continued. 



Name. 


Nationality. 


Where detained. 


Antarus 




German 






Riga. 


Aristea 




Austrian 






Petrograd. 


Asgard 




German 






Odessa. 


Athos 




German 






Novorossisk. 


Baron Edmond Wei 




Austrian 






Taganrog. 


Baron Fejeruary 




Austrian 






Odessa. 


Cygnus 




German 






Archangel. 


Diana 




German 






Riga. 


Dortmund 




German 






Nicolaiewsk-on-Amur. 


Dusseldorf 




German 






Libau. 


Edouard Muzin 




Austrian 






Taganrog. 


Eger 




German 






Petrograd. 


Elberfeld 




German 






Petrograd. 


Erica Fischer 




German 






Onega. 


Erna 




Austrian 






Taganrog. 


Eta Richters 




German 






Odessa. 


Falck 




German 






Riga. 


Florida 




Austrian 






Taganrog. 


Gregor 




German 






Odessa. 


Greif 




German 






Port Loksa. 


Hans 




German 






Petrograd. 


Hartz 




German 






Petrograd. 


Heidleberg 




German 






Petrograd. 


Herania 




Austrian 






Taganrog. 


Herman 




German 






Petrograd. 


Hetwig 




German 






Archangel. 


Ida Zelm 




German 






Petrograd. 


Iris 




Austrian 






Taganrog. 


Irma 




German 






Riga. 


I stock 




Austrian 






Taganrog. 


Jocanda 




Austrian 






Kertch. 


Johanna Ettzncr 




German 






Petrograd. 


Juno 




German 






Narva. 


Kaethe Martha 




German 






Riga. 


Kapella 




German 






Reval. 


Karl Friedrich Larsen 




German 






Onega. 


Kathe 




German 






Riga. 


Kathe Betty .. 




German 






Riga. 


Koln 




German 






Petrograd. 


Krimheld 




German 






Riga. 


Kurland 




German 






Petrograd. 


Larboe 




German 






Archangel. 


Minerva 




German 






Riga. 


Nordstern 




German 






Petrograd. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

LIST OF VESSELS continued. 



[SEPT., 



Name. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Olivia 


German 


Petrograd. 


Olga 


German 


Odessa. 


Orissa 


German 


Petrograd. 


Pauline Hausbus 


German 


Petrograd. 


Paul Blumberg 


German 


Archangel. 


Pericia 


German 


Petrograd. 


Petersburg 


German 


Petrograd. 


Phedra 


German 


Riga. 


Priamus 


German 


Riga. 


Prima 


German 


Libau. 


Prince Christian 


Austrian 


Taganrog. 


Prinz Eitel Friedrich 


German 


Reval. 


Princessin Sophia Charlotte 


German 


Petrograd. 


Regina 


German 


Riga. 


Rostock 


German 


Archangel. 


Russland 


German 


Petrograd. 


Sabine Rickmers 


German 


De Castri. 


Saxonia 


German 


Libau. 


Spezzia 


German 


Vladivostok. 


Spika 


German 


Reval. 


Stallhof 


German 


Petrograd. 


Stella 


Austrian 


Novorossisk. 


Stella 


German 


Riga. 


Taurus .'. 


German 


Kem. 


Temriuk 


Austrian 


Kertch. 


Tsar . . 


German 


Reval. 


Utgart 


German 


Kovda. 


Varna 


German 


Kertch. 


Velzung 


German 


Petrograd. 


Vergilia 


German 


Petrograd. 


Volga 


German 


Petrograd. 


Vulkan 


German 


Riga. 


Westphalien 


German 


Petrograd. 


Wilhelm Hemsott 


German 


Libau. j 


Zara 


German 


Onega. 


Zedina 


German 


Riga. 



294 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
ADMIRALTY MONTHLY ORDERS. 

Admiralty, S.W., October I, 1914. 
112. Blue Ensign Use by Private Vessels. 

IT has been decided that, so long as hostilities last, the use 
of the Blue Ensign of H.M. Fleet by Merchant and other 
Private Vessels is to be discontinued. 

Opportunity should be taken to bring this decision to the 
notice of Merchant Vessels generally. 

116. Defence of the Realm Act, 1914. Regulations. 

The following Regulations made by His Majesty's Orders 
in Council dated the I2th day of August and the ist and I7th 
days of September, 1914, are promulgated for the information 
and guidance of Commanders-in-Chief and Senior Naval 
Officers in Home Waters. 

2. Although it is provided in these Regulations that the 
powers conferred therein shall be exerciseable by the " com- 
petent naval or military authority . . . appointed by the 
Admiralty or Army Council, as the case may be, to perform 
in any place the duties of such an authority," it is the inten- 
tion that the exercise of those powers shall primarily devolve 
upon the Military, who in any case in which naval interests 
are affected will act on the application of, or after con- 
sultation with, the local naval authorities, and that therefore 
no " competent naval authority " will be appointed by the 
Admiralty to exercise the powers in those places in which a 
" competent military authority " is appointed by the Army 
Council. 

3. A copy of Army Order of the I5th August, 1914, relative 
to proceedings to be taken under the Defence of the Realm 
Act, 1914, is also appended. 

4. The attention of the Fleet generally is directed to 
paragraphs 4, 5, 7 and 8 of the Army Order. 

REGULATIONS FOR SECURING THE PUBLIC SAFETY AND 
DEFENCE OF THE REALM. 

Made by His Majesty's Orders in Council, dated the I2th 
day of August, 1914, and amended by His Majesty's Order in 
Council, dated the ist day of September, 1914. 

295 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT. 

PART I. 
General Regulations. 

1. The ordinary avocations of life and the enjoyment of 
property will be interfered with as little as may be permitted 
by the exigencies of the measures required to be taken for 
securing the public safety and the defence of the Realm, and 
ordinary civil offences will be dealt with by the civil tribunals 
in the ordinary course of law. 

The Admiralty and Army Council, and members of the 
Naval and Military Forces, and other persons executing the 
following Regulations shall, in carrying those Regulations into 
effect, observe these general principles. 

2. It shall be lawful for the competent naval or military 
authority and any person duly authorised by him, where for 
the purpose of securing the public safety or the defence of the 
Realm it is necessary so to do 

(a) to take possession of any land and to construct military 

works, including roads, thereon, and to remove any 
trees, hedges, and fences therefrom ; 

(b) to take possession of any buildings or other property, 

including works for the supply of gas, electricity, or 
water, and of any sources of water supply ; 

(c) to take such steps as may be necessary for placing any 

buildings or structures in a state of defence ; 

(d) to cause any buildings or structures to be destroyed, or 

any property to be moved from one place to another, 
or to be destroyed ; 

(e) to do any other act involving interference with private 

rights of property which is necessary for the purpose 
aforesaid. 

3. The competent naval or military authority and any 
person duly authorised by him shall have right of access to 
any land or buildings, or other property whatsoever. 

*3A. The competent naval or military authority may by 
order authorise the use of land within such limits as may be 
specified in the order for the training of any part of His 
Majesty's naval or military forces ; and may by such order 
confer such rights of user of the land, and provide for such 

* Additional Regulation made by Orders in Council of September 1st 
.and/or i7th, 1914. 
296 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

temporary suspension of rights of way over roads and foot- 
paths, as are conferred and exerciseable with respect to 
authorised land roads and footpaths under the Military 
Manoeuvres Acts, 1897 and 1911, and the competent naval 
or military authority shall have all the powers exerciseable 
by the Military Manoeuvres Commission under those Acts. 

*3B. The restriction on the power to make byelaws under 
the Military Lands Acts, 1892 to 1903, imposed by the following 
provisions of the Military Lands Act, 1892, that is to say, the 
proviso to subsection (i) of section 14, section 16 and sub- 
section (i) of section 17 of that Act, and by the following 
provisions of the Military Lands Act, 1900, that is to say, the 
provisoes to sub-section (2) of section 2 and sub-section (3) of 
section 2 of that Act, are hereby suspended, and the powers of 
the Admiralty and the Secretary of State to make byelaws 
under the said Acts shall extend to the making of byelaws 
with respect to land of which possession has been taken under 
these Regulations. 

*3C. The competent naval or military authority may if he 
considers it necessary so to do for the purposes of any work of 
defence or other defended military work, or of any work for 
which it is deemed necessary in the interests of public safety 
or the defence of the Realm to afford military protection, stop 
up or divert any road or pathway over or adjoining the land 
on which such work is situate : 

Provided that where any such road or pathway is so 
stopped up or diverted the competent naval or military 
authority shall publish notice thereof in such manner as he 
may consider best adapted for informing the public, and 
where any road or pathway is stopped up by means of any 
physical obstruction he shall cause lights sufficient for the 
warning of passengers to be set up every night whilst the 
road or pathway is so stopped up. 

4. The competent naval or military authority may by 
order require all vehicles, boats, and vessels, and all forms of 
equipment and warlike stores, within any area specified 
in the order to be removed from that area within such time 
as may be so specified, or in the case of military stores incapable 
of removal, to be destroyed, and if the owners thereof fail to 
* Additional Regulations made by Orders in Council of September ist 
and/or lyth, 1914. 

397 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT. 

comply with the requisition, the competent naval or military 
authority may himself cause them to be removed or in the 
case of military stores, destroyed. 

5. Where the competent naval or military authority so 
orders, all persons residing or owning or occupying land, 
houses, or other premises within such area as may be specified 
in the order, shall furnish within such time as may be so 
specified, a list of all or any animals, vehicles, boats, vessels, 
and warlike stores which may be in their possession or custody 
within the specified area, stating their nature and quantity, 
and the place in which they are severally situated, and giving 
any other details that may reasonably be required. 

*6. The competent naval or military authority may by 
order require the inhabitants to leave any area (specified in 
the order) within or in the neighbourhood of a defended 
harbour or proclaimed area if the removal of persons from 
that area is necessary for naval or military reasons. 

*7. The competent naval or military authority may by 
order require all premises licensed for the sale of intoxicating 
liquor within or in the neighbourhood of any defended harbour 
or proclaimed area to be closed except during such hours as 
may be specified in the order. 

t7A. The Secretary of State may by order direct that all 
or any lights, or lights of any class or description, shall be 
extinguished, or obscured in such manner and between such 
hours as the order directs, within any area specified in the 
order and during such period as may be so specified, and if 
the person having control of the light fails to comply with 
the order, the Secretary of State may cause the light to be 
extinguished or obscured as the case may be, and for that 
purpose any person authorised by the Secretary of State in 
that behalf or any police constable may enter the premises 
in which the light is displayed, and do any other act which 
may be necessary for the purpose. 

8. No person shall obstruct or otherwise interfere with or 

impede, or withhold any information in his possession, which 

he may reasonably be required to furnish, from any officer or 

other person who is carrying out the orders of the competent 

* Amended by Orders in Council of September ist and/or lyth, 1914. 

t Additional Regulation made by Orders in Council of September ist 
and/or i7th, 1914. 
298 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

naval or military authority, or who is otherwise acting in 
accordance with his duty under these Regulations. 

9. No person shall trespass on any raUway, or loiter under 
or near any bridge, viaduct, or culvert, over which a railway 
passes. 

10. If any person knows that any other person has without 
lawful authority in his possession or custody, or under his 
control, any firearms or ammunition (other than shot guns 
and ammunition for them), dynamite, or other explosives, it 
shall be his duty to inform the competent naval or military 
authority of the fact. 

11. The competent naval or military authority shall 
publish notice of any order made by him in pursuance of these 
Regulations in such manner as he may consider best adapted 
for informing persons affected by the order, and no person 
shall without lawful authority deface or otherwise tamper 
with any notice posted up in pursuance of these Regulations. 

12. If the competent naval or military authority has 
reason to suspect that any house, building, land, ship, 
vessel, or other premises are being used for any purpose or 
in any way prejudicial to the public safety or the defence of 
the Realm, the authority, or any person duly authorised by 
him, may enter, if need be by force, the house, building, 
land, ship, vessel, or premises at any time of the day or night, 
and examine, search, and inspect the same or any part thereof, 
and may seize anything found therein which he has reason to 
suspect is being used or intended to be used for any such 
purpose as aforesaid. 

*I2A. Any police officer or any person authorised for the 
purpose by the competent naval or military authority may 
stop any vehicle travelling along any public highway, and, 
if he has reason to suspect that the vehicle is being used for 
any purpose or in any way prejudicial to the public safety or 
the defence of the Realm, may search the vehicle and seize 
anything found therein which he has reason to suspect is 
being used or intended to be used for any such purpose as 
aforesaid. 

*I2B. No person shall bring into the United Kingdom any 
military arms or ammunition without the permit of the 

* Additional Regulations made by Orders in Council of September ist 
and/or i7th, 1914. 

H 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT 

competent naval or military authority, and any person 
authorised for the purpose by the competent naval or military 
authority, and any police constable or officer of customs, may 
examine, search and investigate any ship for the purpose of the 
enforcement of this provision, and may seize any military arms 
or ammunition which are being or have been brought into the 
United Kingdom without such permit as aforesaid. 

*I3. Any person authorised for the purpose by the com- 
petent naval or military authority, and any police constable or 
officer of customs, may arrest without warrant any person 
whose behaviour is of such a nature as to give reasonable 
grounds for suspecting that he has acted or is acting or is 
about to act in a manner prejudicial to the public safety or 
the safety of the Realm, or upon whom may be found any 
article, book, letter, or other document, the possession of 
which gives grounds for such a suspicion, or who is suspected 
of having committed an offence against these Regulations. 

Any person so arrested shall, if he is to be tried by court- 
martial, be handed over to or kept in military custody, and in 
other cases shall be detained until he can be dealt with in the 
ordinary course of law, and whilst so detained shall be deemed 
to be in legal custody. 

No person shall assist or connive at the escape of any 
person who may be in custody under this Regulation, or 
knowingly harbour or assist any person who has so escaped. 

PART II. 

Regulations specially designed to prevent persons communicating 
with the enemy and obtaining information for disloyal 
purposes, and to secure the safety of means of communica- 
tion and of railways, docks, and harbours. 

14. No person shall without lawful authority publish or 
communicate any information with respect to the movement 
or disposition of any of the forces, ships, or war materials of 
His Majesty or any of His Majesty's allies, or with respect to 
the plans of any naval or military operations by any such 
forces or ships, or with respect to any works or measures 
undertaken for or connected with the fortification or defence 
* Amended by Orders in Council of September ist and/or lyth, 1914. 

300 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of any place, if the information is such as is calculated to be, 
or might directly or indirectly be, useful to the enemy. 

15. No person shall without the permission of the com- 
petent naval or military authority make any photograph, 
sketch, plan, model, or other representation of any naval or 
military work, or of any dock or harbour work in or in con- 
nection with a defended harbour, and no person in the vicinity 
of any such work shall without lawful authority have in his 
possession any photographic or other apparatus or other 
material or thing suitable for use in making any such 
representation. 

For the purpose of this Regulation the expression " har- 
bour work " includes lights, buoys, beacons, marks, and other 
things for the purpose of facilitating navigation in or into a 
harbour. 

*i6. No person without lawful authority shall injure, or 
tamper or interfere with, any wire or other apparatus for 
transmitting telegraphic or telephonic messages, or any 
apparatus or contrivance intended for or capable of being 
used for a signalling apparatus, either visual or otherwise, 
or prevent or obstruct or in any manner whatsoever interfere 
with the sending, conveyance or delivery of any com- 
munication by means of telegraph, telephone, or otherwise, 
or shall be in possession of any apparatus capable of being 
used for tapping messages sent by wireless telegraphy or 
otherwise. 

And no person shall in any area which may be prescribed 
by order of a Secretary of State keep or have in his possession 
any carrier or homing pigeons, unless he has obtained from the 
chief officer of police of the district a permit for the purpose 
(which permit may at any time be revoked), and the chief 
officer of police may, if he considers it necessary or expedient 
to do so, cause any pigeons kept in contravention of this 
regulation to be liberated. 

No person shall without such permission as aforesaid bring 
any carrier or homing pigeon into the United Kingdom, and 
any police constable or officer of customs may cause any such 
pigeon brought into the United Kingdom in contravention of 
this Regulation to be immediately returned in the ship ia 
which it came, or to be liberated. 

* Amended by Orders in Council of September ist and/or I7th, 1914. 

301 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

*i7 No person shall with the intent of eliciting informa- 
tion for the purpose of communicating it to the enemy or for 
any purpose calculated to assist the enemy, give or sell to a 
member of any of His Majesty's forces any intoxicating 
liquor ; and no person shall give or sell to a member of any 
of His Majesty's forces employed in the defence of any railway, 
dock, or harbour, or proclaimed area, any intoxicating liquor 
when not on duty, with intent to make him drunk, or when on 
sentry or other duty, either with or without any such intent. 

1 8. No person shall do any injury to any railway, or be 
upon any railway, or under or near any bridge, viaduct, or 
culvert over which a railway passes with intent to do injury 
thereto. 

19. No person shall by the discharge of firearms or other- 
wise endanger the safety of any member of any of His Majesty's 
forces travelling on or guarding any railway. 

*2O. No person, without the permission of the competent 
naval or military authority, shall in the vicinity of any railway 
or of any dock or harbour or proclaimed area be in possession 
of dynamite or any other explosive substance, but nothing in 
this Regulation shall be construed as affecting the possession 
of ammunition for sporting purposes. 

*2i. No person shall by word of mouth or in writing 
spread reports likely to cause disaffection or alarm among 
any of His Majesty's forces or among the civilian population. 

*22. No person shall, if an order to that effect has been 
made by the competent naval or military authority, light any 
fire or show any light on any hill within such radius from any 
defended harbour or proclaimed area as may be specified in 
the order. 

*23. The competent naval or military authority at any 
defended harbour or proclaimed area may by order direct 
that all lights, other than lights not visible from the outside 
of any house, shall be kept extinguished between such hours 
and within such area as may be specified in the order ; and 
all persons resident within that area shall comply with the 
order. 

*24. The competent naval or military authority at any 
defended harbour or proclaimed area may by order require 
every person within any area specified in the order to remain 
* Amended by Orders in Council of September ist and/or iTth, 1914. 

302 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

within doors between such hours as may be specified in the 
order, and in such case no person shall be or remain out 
between such hours unless provided with a permit in writing 
from the competent naval or military authority or some 
person duly authorised by him. *; 

*24A. Where the behaviour of any person is such as to 
give reasonable grounds for suspecting that he has acted, or 
is acting, or is about to act in a manner prejudicial to the 
public safety or the safety of the Realm, the competent naval 
or military authority may, by order, direct him to cease to 
reside in any area (specified in the order) within or in the 
neighbourhood of a defended harbour or proclaimed area, and 
any person to whom the order relates shall, within such time 
as may be specified in the order, leave the area specified in the 
order, having first reported his proposed residence to the 
competent naval or military authority, and shall not again 
reside in that area without a permit for the purpose from that 
authority. 

25. If any person with the object of obtaining any informa- 
tion for the purpose of communicating it to the enemy or of 
assisting the enemy, or with intent to do any injury to any 
means of communication or to any railway, dock or harbour, 
forges, alters or tampers with any pass, permit, or other docu- 
ment, or uses or has in his possession any such forged, altered 
or irregular pass, permit, or document with the like object or 
intent, or with the like object or intent, personates any person 
to whom a pass, 'permit or other document has been duly 
issued, he shall be guilty of a contravention of these Regula- 
tions and may be tried and punished accordingly ; and where 
in any proceedings against a person for contravention of this 
Regulation it is proved that he has forged, altered, or tampered 
with the pass, permit, or other document in question, or has 
used or had in his possession the forged, altered, or irregular 
pass, permit, or document in question, or has personated the 
person to whom the pass, permit, or document was duly issued, 
he shall be presumed to have forged, altered, or tampered with 
it, or to have used or had it in his possession, or to have 
personated such person as aforesaid, with such object or intent 
as aforesaid unless he proves the contrary. 

* Additional Regulation inserted by Order in Council of September ist 
and/or I7th, 1914. 

303 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

26. Any person who attempts to commit, or procures, aids, 
or abets the commission of any act prohibited by the fore- 
going special Regulations, or harbours any person whom he 
knows, or has reasonable grounds for supposing, to have acted 
in contravention of such Regulations, shall be deemed to have 
acted in contravention of the Regulations in like manner as 
if he had himself committed the act. 

*27. Any person contravening any of the provisions of the 
foregoing special Regulations shall be liable to be tried by 
court-martial, and to be sentenced to penal servitude for life 
or any less punishment : 

Provided that no sentence exceeding three months' 
imprisonment with hard labour shall be imposed in respect 
of any contravention of Regulations 22, 23, or 24 unless it 
is proved that the contravention was for the purpose of 
assisting the enemy, or in respect of any contravention of 
Regulation 21 if the offender proves that he acted without 
any intention to cause disaffection or alarm. 

A court-martial having jurisdiction to try offences under 
these Regulations shall be a general or district court-martial 
convened by an officer authorised to convene such description 
of court-martial within the limits of whose command the 
offender may for the time being be ; but nothing in this 
Regulation shall be construed as authorising a district court- 
martial to impose a sentence of penal servitude. 

Any person tried by court-martial under these Regulations 
shall, for the purposes of the provisions * of the Army Act 
relating to offences, be treated as if he belonged to the unit in 
whose charge he may be ; but no such person shall be liable to 
summary punishment by a commanding officer. 



PART III. 

Supplemental. 

28. The powers conferred by these Regulations are in 
addition to and not in derogation of any powers exerciseable 
by members of His Majesty's naval and military forces and 
other persons to take such steps as may be necessary for 

* Amended by Orders in Council of September ist and/or 17th, 1914. 

304 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

securing the public safety and the defence of the Realm, and 
the liability of any person to trial and punishment for any 
offence or war crime otherwise than in accordance with these 
Regulations. 

*2Q. For the purposes of these Regulations the expression 
" competent naval or military authority " means any com- 
missioned officer of His Majesty's naval or military forces, 
not below the rank of commander in the Navy or lieutenant- 
colonel in the Army, appointed by the Admiralty or Army 
Council, as the case may be, to perform in any place the duties 
of such an authority. 

Any harbour declared by order of the Admiralty or Army 
Council to be a defended harbour shall for the purposes of 
these Regulations be treated as such. 

The Admiralty or Army Council may authorise the com- 
petent naval or military authority to delegate, either uncondi- 
tionally or subject to such conditions as he thinks fit, all or 
any of his powers under these regulations to any officer 
qualified to be appointed a competent naval or military 
authority. 

30. The Interpretation Act, 1889, applies for the purpose 
of the interpretation of these Regulations in like manner as it 
applies for the purpose of the interpretation of an Act of 
Parliament. 



ARMY ORDER. 

War Office, August 15, 1914. 

PROCEEDINGS TO BE TAKEN UNDER THE DEFENCE OF THE 

REALM ACT, 1914. 

i. Copies of the Defence of the Realm Regulations, 1914, 
made by Order in Council under the Defence of the Realm 
Act, 1914, have been issued to all concerned. 

A copy of these Regulations is to be kept at the head- 
quarters of all units, and in addition one should be laid before 
every court-martial assembled for the trial of a person for a 
contravention of the Regulations. 

* Amended by Orders in Council of September ist and/or I7th, 1914. 

Kara! I-U 3<>5 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT. 

2. Where any person is arrested under paragraph 13 of 
the Regulations by a military officer or soldier duly authorised 
for the purpose, or, having been arrested by a police or 
customs officer, is brought by him to the military authorities, 
the military authorities will decide whether he should be 
tried by court-martial for any offence under Part II. of the 
Regulations or for any other offence triable by military 
law. 

If it is decided after due investigation that he is not to 
be tried by court-martial, he must be released unless it 
appears that he has committed some offence against the 
ordinary law (e.g., an offence under the Official Secrets Act 
or against the Aliens Restriction Order in Council), in which 
case he should be handed over to the civil authorities, or 
unless being an alien enemy he is detained as a prisoner of 
war. 

3. If it is decided that the offender should be tried by 
court-martial for an offence under Part II. of the Regula- 
tions, the following procedure will be adopted : 

(a) The preliminary investigation of the charge, or 
charges, preferred against any person so received or 
taken over will be carried out and all necessary steps 
taken for bringing the offender to trial by court-martial, 
in the same way as though such person belonged to the 
unit in whose charge he may be. 

(b) Unless the nature of the charge, or charges, pre- 
ferred against any such person is of such a serious nature 
as to make it desirable that a sentence in excess of 
two years' imprisonment, with or without hard labour, 
should be awarded, all such persons will be tried by 
a district court-martial. 

(c) A charge preferred before a court-martial against 
a person who has contravened any Regulation in Part II. 
of the Defence of the Realm Regulations, 1914, will be 
prepared in a form similar to that given below : 

Charge Sheet. 

The accused (name) is charged with 

the following contravention of the Defence of the 
Realm Regulations, 1914 ; that is to say without 
306 



/ 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

lawful authority injuring a wire used for the trans- 
mission of telegraphic messages, 

in that he, 

at on the (date) 

cut the telegraph wire between (place) 

and (place). 

(Signature) 

Commanding (the unit with which 
the offender is in custody). 

Place 

Data 

To be tried by a District Court-Martial . 

*Signature 

Place. 

Date 

(d) The Rules of Procedure under the Army Act will 
be followed by the officer investigating the charge, the 
convening officer, the Court, and the confirming authority. 

(e) Proceedings of all such Courts-Martial will be 
transmitted to the Judge-Advocate-General. 

4. The Army Council under the powers conferred on 
them by Regulation 29 appoint the following to be a com- 
petent military authority for the purposes of the Regula- 
tions : 

In a defended port the fortress commander. 

In places outside a defended port the G.O.C.-in-C. of a 
command or army, the G.O.C. of a district, and a commander 
of lines of communication defence. 

5. The following persons should be authorised by the 
competent military authority to make arrests under the con- 
ditions laid down in Regulation 13, viz., all officers, warrant 
officers, and non-commissioned officers, also such soldiers as 
are on actual military duty at the time the occasion for such 
arrest arises. 

6. The provisions of section 45 (4) of the Army Act are 
to be strictly complied with by persons making arrests under 
the Regulations. 

*[Of an officer empowered under the Army Act to convene a court- 
martial of the description ordered.] 

307 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

7. In any case arising out of the Regulations in which 
naval interests are affected, military officers administering 
the Regulations will consult with the local naval authorities. 

8. Under the powers given by Regulation 29, the Army 
Council declare the following places to be " Defended 
Harbours " for the purposes of the Regulations : 

1. Cromarty. 15. Falmouth. 

2. Aberdeen. 16. Milford Haven. 

3. Tay. 17. Swansea. 

4. Forth. 18. Cardiff and Barry. 

5. Tyne. 19. Mersey. 

6. Tees and Hartlepool. 20. Barrow. 

7. Humber. 21. Clyde. 

8. Thames and Medway. 22. Lough Swilly. 

9. Harwich. 23. Belfast. 

10. Dover. 24. Queenstown. 

11. Newhaven. 25. Berehaven. 

12. Portsmouth. 26. Dublin. 

13. Portland. 27. The Orkneys. 

14. Plymouth. 28. The Shetlands. 

9. An alien enemy found committing a war crime in the 
United Kingdom may be tried by court-martial independently 
of the Defence of the Realm Regulations, but proceedings of 
this nature will not be taken without reference to the Army 
Council. 

By Command of the Army Council, 

R. H. BRADE. 

119. Officers Visiting the Admiralty. 

It has been decided that Naval and Marine Officers on full 
pay who have to visit the Admiralty are to appear in Uniform 
(Undress), without sword. 

122. Midshipmen and Acting Sub-Lieutenants 
Examinations. 

The examinations of Acting Sub-Lieutenants afloat in 
Gunnery, Torpedo and Engineering are to be deferred till 
further orders. 

The examination of Midshipmen in Seamanship and Navi- 
gation (preliminary) is to be held as convenient and the 

308 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Officers rated Acting Sub-Lieutenants from the date due for 
advancement. 

The preliminary Navigation examination may be oral 
throughout where it is not convenient for the Officers to be 
examined in the papers ; the examination in the written part 
being provisional if the papers are not taken. 

123. Acting Sub-Lieutenant Examinations for Rank of. 

Midshipmen who are considered proficient by their Cap- 
tains may be rated Acting Sub-Lieutenants, when due, 
without examination. 

The names of officers so rated are to be reported. 

124. Midshipmen A ccelerated Promotion. 

It has been decided that, as the capacity of Midshipmen is 
now being tested under war conditions, the opportunity of 
securing accelerated promotion on attaining two years' 
seniority shall not be restricted only to those recommended 
as likely to secure 2nd class certificates, or to a percentage of 
the Midshipmen of the term. 

The numbers to be advanced in this manner will be left to 
the discretion of Commanding Officers, but in using their 
discretion, they must not lose sight of the fact that, if advance- 
ments are made indiscriminately, the more able young officers 
will not obtain any advantage as regards promotion in relation 
to others of the same term. 

Midshipmen of seniority I5th September, 1912, who had 
not secured accelerated advancement under the previous 
orders, may be considered for accelerated advancement under 
this order from the I5th September, 1914. 

1 25 . Midshipmen Training. 

Some doubt having arisen as to the Engineering training 
of Midshipmen during the war, it is desired that Commanding 
Officers should understand that the matter must be left very 
largely to their own discretion. They should bear in mind 
that the first consideration is the warlike efficiency of the 
vessels under their command, but, after that, they should give 
consideration to the necessities of the future and to the 
desirability of not unduly neglecting the engineering training 
of these young officers. 

309 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [SEPT, 

129. Ordinary Seamen Advancement to A.B. 

The advancement of Ordinary Seamen in the manner laid 
down in the Regulations being at present impossible, owing to 
the fact that systematic training for these ratings cannot be 
regularly carried out in the Fleet, Ordinary Seamen recom- 
mended for advancement may for the time being be advanced 
to the rating of Able Seamen without further qualification 
than a recommendation for such advancement. 

134. Provision Allowance to Men of the R.N.R. 
(Trawler Section.) 

With reference to Articles 40 and 135 of the Regulations 
for the R.N.R. (Trawler Section), it has been decided that, as 
from August 2nd, the rate of provision allowance to members 
of this Force is to be is. $d. a day, instead of lod. a day as 
stated therein. 

135. Clothing Upkeep Gratuity to R.N.R. Men. 

W.O. 1110/1914, respecting the payment of the clothing 
upkeep gratuity to R.N.R. men, is to be regarded as cancelled 
during the period of hostilities. These men on embarkation 
are to be credited with the full gratuity allowed by Article 83 
of the R.N.R. Regulations (Men), articles of clothing deficient 
being issued and charged for in the usual manner. 

[The following is the order above referred to as W.O. 1110/1914, copy 
of which has been supplied by the courtesy of the Secretary of the Admir- 
alty : 

It has been decided that the following arrangement as regards men 
joining with an incomplete kit is to be brought into force as from ist July, 
1914 : 

If the value of the articles required to complete the Regulation Kit 

(a) Does not exceed 2s. 6d. full allowance to be paid. 

(b) Does not exceed i in the case of E.R.A.'s and los. in the case 
of Seamen and Stoker ratings two-thirds allowance to be paid. 

(c) Exceeds i in the case of E.R.A.'s and los. in the case of Seamen 
and Stoker ratings one-third allowance to be paid. 

For the purpose of assessing the proportion of gratuity to be credited, 
only the value of the articles issued to the men to complete their regulation 
Kit is to be taken into account. 

Any extra Clothing with which the men may wish to provide themselves 
beyond their Regulation Kit is to be taken up by them on board their Ships 
and not at the Depots.] 
310 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



OCTOBER. 

BRITISH MINE-LAYING. 

Admiralty, October 2. 

The German policy of mine-laying, combined with their 
submarine activities, makes it necessary on military grounds 
for the Admiralty to adopt counter-measures. His Majesty's 
Government have therefore authorised a mine-laying policy 
in certain areas, and a system of mine-fields has been 
established and is being developed upon a considerable 
scale. 

In order to reduce risks to non-combatants, the Admiralty 
announce that it is dangerous henceforward for ships to cross 
the area between latitude 51 15' N. and 51 40' N. and 
longitude i 35' E. and 3 E. In this connection it must be 
remembered that the southern limit of the German mine-field 
is latitude 52 N. Although these limits are assigned to the 
danger area, it must not be supposed that navigation is safe 
in any part of the southern waters of the North Sea. 

Instructions have been issued to His Majesty's ships to 
warn East-going vessels of the presence of this new mine-field. 

ROYAL NAVAL AIR SERVICE. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty communicates the follow- Times, 
ing for publication : 

During the course of the war the Royal Naval Air Service x< 
(Naval Wing of Royal Flying Corps) has not been idle, air- 
ships, aeroplanes, and seaplanes having proved their value in 
many undertakings. 

While the Expeditionary Force was being moved abroad 
a strong patrol to the eastward of the Straits of Dover was 
undertaken by both seaplanes and airships of the Naval 

3" 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Air Service. The airships remained steadily patrolling 
between the French and English coasts, sometimes for twelve 
hours on end ; while further to the east, with the assistance 
of the Belgian authorities, a temporary seaplane base was 
established at Ostend, and a patrol kept up with seaplanes 
between this place and the English coast opposite. By this 
means it was impossible for the enemy's ships to approach the 
Straits without being seen for very many miles. 

On one occasion during one of the airship patrols it became 
necessary to change a propeller blade of one of the engines. 
The captain feared it would be necessary to descend for this 
purpose, but two of the crew immediately volunteered to 
carry out this difficult task in the air, and, climbing out on 
to the bracket carrying the propeller shafting, they com- 
pleted the hazardous work of changing the propeller blade, 
2,000 feet above the sea. 

On August 27th, when Ostend was occupied by a force 
of marines, a strong squadron of aeroplanes, under Wing- 
Commander Samson, complete with all transport and equip- 
ment, was also sent over, the aeroplane flying thither via 
Dover and Calais. Later this aeroplane camp was moved, 
and much good work is being carried out by aeroplanes, 
supported by armed motors. 

Advanced bases have been established some distance 
inland, and on several occasions skirmishes have taken place 
between armed motor-car support and bands of Uhlans. 
All these affairs have been successful, with loss to the enemy 
in killed and prisoners. 

The naval armed cars and aeroplanes have also assisted 
French forces of artillery and infantry on several occasions. 
During the course of these actions the following officers and 
men of the Royal Naval Air Service, Royal Marines, and Royal 
Naval Volunteer Reserve are reported as having been 
wounded : 

Captain Cuthbert Williams, R.M.A., slightly wounded. 

Sub-Lieut. Alexander Nalder, R.N.V.R., wounded. 

Private Charles Farrant, R.M.L.I. (O.N. Portsmouth 8883), 
slightly wounded. 

Private Harper, armourer, seriously wounded. 

Leonard William Walsh, A.B., seriously wounded. 

All the wounded are doing well. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Commander Samson has performed distinguished services 
in this work. Captain Williams, R.M.A., is also mentioned 
as having shown much coolness and capability in a difficult 
situation. 

Air reconnaissance by the naval airmen has extended for 
considerable distances into the enemy's country. 

Squadron Commander Gerrard is in command of a detached 
squadron of aeroplanes, and his machines have crossed the 
Rhine and made the attack on Diisseldorf , previously reported. 

Good work has been done in dropping bombs on positions 
of military importance and railway communications. 



ESCAPE OF THE S.S. " ORTEGA " FROM A GERMAN 

CRUISER. 

British Consulate-General, Rio de Janeiro, 

October 3, 1914. 
SIR, 

The Pacific Steam Navigation Company's steamship Times, 
Ortega arrived at Rio de Janeiro upon October 1st. The Nov. 20, 
Master, Douglas Reid Kinneir, in reply to my inquiry as to I 9 I 4- 
whether he had anything in particular to report with respect 
to his voyage from Valparaiso, modestly gave me the following 
facts : 

The Ortega sailed from Valparaiso with some 300 French 
reservists on board. When she had arrived close to the 
western entrance of the Straits of Magellan a German cruiser 
of the " Dresden " class suddenly appeared and gave chase. 
Be it remarked that the normal speed of the Ortega is only 
some 14 knots per hour, whereas the speed of the German 
cruiser was at least 21 knots per hour. 

Under those circumstances the Master of the Ortega took 
a heroic resolve. He called for volunteers to assist in stoking 
his vessel. That appeal met with hearty response : firemen, 
engineers, and volunteers, stripped to the waist, set to work 
with a will, and the Master assured me that they actually 
succeeded in whacking the old ship (she was built in 1906) 
up to a good 1 8 knots. The Master headed his ship straight 
for the entrance of a passage known as Nelson's Strait, and 

313 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

he made for the Strait at full speed, hotly pursued by the 
German cruiser, which kept firing at him with two heavy 
bow guns. Luckily none of the shots took effect, and the 
Ortega succeeded in entering Nelson's Strait, where the German 
cruiser did not dare to follow her. 

In order to realise the hardihood of this action upon the 
part of the Master of the Ortega it must be remembered that 
Nelson's Strait is entirely uncharted, and that the narrow, 
tortuous passage in question constitutes a veritable night- 
mare for navigators, bristling as it does with reefs and pinnacle- 
rocks, swept by fierce currents and tide-rips, and with the 
cliffs on either side sheer-to, without any anchorage. I 
can speak from personal experience as to the terrifying nature 
of the navigation of Nelson's Strait, having once passed 
through it many years ago in a small sealing schooner. 

However, the Master of the Ortega managed to get his vessel 
safely through this dangerous passage, employing the device 
of sending boats ahead to sound every yard of the passage. 
Eventually, by a miracle of luck and good seamanship, he 
worked his way into Smyth's Channel without having sus- 
tained even a scratch to his plates, and finally brought his 
vessel to this port. 

When it is remembered that, as already stated, Nelson's 
Strait is absolutely uncharted, and that never before had a 
vessel of any size attempted that most perilous passage, it 
will, I think, be admitted that the captain's action in taking 
an 8,000 ton steamer safely through that passage constitutes 
a most notable feat of pluck and skilful seamanship ; and it 
is reassuring to know that the old spirit of daring and of 
resource is still alive in our mercantile marine. 

I have no doubt that Captain Douglas Reid Kinneir's 
services will be fully appreciated, not only by the directors 
of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company for having thus 
saved the Ortega from capture by the enemy, but also by the 
French Government for having saved from capture the 300 
French reservists who happened to be on board his vessel. 

O'SULLIVAN BEARE, 
His Britannic Majesty's Consul. 



3M 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Admiralty, November 7, 1914. 
To the Secretary, 

Pacific Steam Navigation Company (Limited), 

31, St. James-street, Liverpool. 
SIR, 

I AM commanded by my Lords Commissioners of the Times, 
Admiralty to request that you will represent to the directors Nov - 2< 
of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company that they have I( 
received through the Foreign Office a copy of a despatch 
from His Majesty's Consul-General at Rio de Janeiro regard- 
ing the escape of the R.M.S. Ortega during a recent voyage 
from Valparaiso to Rio de Janeiro from pursuit by a German 
cruiser. 

My Lords desire to place on record their appreciation of 
the courageous conduct of the Master, Captain Douglas R. 
Kinneir, in throwing off his pursuer by successfully navigating 
the uncharted and dangerous passage of Nelson's Strait. 
I am, &c., 

W. G. GREENE. 



THE ASSAULT ON TSINGTAU. 

Tokyo, October 3. 

AN official report says : 

A German aeroplane at Tsingtau twice attempted to Times, 
attack the Japanese vessels, but without result. A Japanese Oct - -\ 
aeroplane pursuing it attacked with bombs a captive balloon I9I4< 
just being hauled back to Tsingtau. It is not known what 
damage was inflicted. 

The German forts and ships are constantly shelling the 
Japanese Army, which is slowly preparing for a big assault on 
Tsingtau. 

Tokyo, October 5. 

An official communique says : 

German forces to the number of 350 at Tsingtau delivered Timts, 
a night attack, but were defeated with a loss of 47 men killed. Oct. 
The Japanese casualties amounted to five killed and eight * 
injured. 

The Japanese heavy guns hit the gunboat Iltis, which 
retired after an exchange of shots. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Berlin, October 6. 

K..V. It is reported from Rotterdam that in their first assault 

on the lines held by our troops at Tsingtau the Japanese 
and English allies were repulsed with a loss of 2,500 men. 
The effect of the German mines, artillery, and machine guns 
was annihilating. The right wing of the allies was heavily 
bombarded by the Austro-Hungarian cruiser Kaiserin 
Elisabeth and the German gunboat Jaguar. The German 
losses are reported to be slight. The Japanese are awaiting 
reinforcements from Japan. 



Tokyo, October 8. 

Times, An official message states that the German fire at Tsingtau 

ct - 9- is slackening. 

I 9 I 4- During the fighting the rope which held a German captive 

balloon was severed, and the balloon floated away. Renter. 



P.B., The Japanese Commander of the besieging troops and 

Oct. 14. the Japanese Commander of the blockading squadron con- 
jointly communicated to the Governor of Tsingtau at I p.m. 
on October I2th, by means of wireless telegraphy, an Imperial 
Message desiring to succour non-combatants and individuals 
of neutral Powers in Tsingtau. 

The Governor expressed his wish to agree with this, and 
at 10 a.m. on October I3th parlementaires from each side met 
to discuss details ; as a result of this conference it has been 
settled to escort to Tientsin on the I5th instant the American 
Consul and a certain number of Chinese subjects, and German 
women and children. 



EXPLOIT OF E 9. 

Admiralty, October 7. 

SUBMARINE E 9 (Lieutenant-Commander Max K. 
Horton) has returned safely after having torpedoed and sunk 
a German torpedo boat destroyer off the Ems River. 

316 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Berlin, October 8. 

From newspaper reports torpedo boat S 116 was sunk K V. 
on the afternoon of October 6th by a torpedo from an English 
submarine whilst on outpost duty in the North Sea. Nearly 
the entire crew was saved. Torpedo boat S 116 was an old 
boat of the year 1902 of 420 tons displacement. Its crew 
consisted of about sixty men. 

THE MARSHALL ISLANDS OCCUPIED BY JAPAN. 

Berlin, October 8. 

IT is officially announced from Tokyo that a naval detach- K.V. 
ment has occupied Jaluit, the seat of Government of the 
Marshall Islands, without encountering resistance, and has 
taken possession of the fortifications, arms and munitions. 
Free import of goods is permitted to English merchants. 
The Japanese Admiralty explains that the landing was a 
purely military undertaking, no permanent occupation being 
contemplated. 

JAPAN OCCUPIES THE ISLAND OF YAP. 

Berlin, October 8. 

REUTER's agency in London reports from Peking that K.V. 
the Japanese have occupied the Island of Yap. 

[Yap is one of the Caroline Islands where the Germans had established 
a wireless station.] 

AIRCRAFT RAID ON DUSSELDORF. 

Admiralty, October 9. 

SQUADRON-COMMANDER SPENSER GREY, R.N., Times, 
reports that as authorised he carried out with Lieutenant Oct. 10, 
R. L. Marix and Lieutenant S. V. Sippe a successful attack I 9 I 4- 
on the Diisseldorf airship shed. 

Lieutenant Marix's bombs, dropped from 500 feet, hit 
the shed, went through the roof, and destroyed a Zeppelin. 
Flames were observed 500 feet high, the result of igniting the 
gas of an airship. 

All three officers are safe, but their aeroplanes have been 
lost. 

317 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The feat would appear to be in every respect remarkable 
having regard to the distance over 100 miles penetrated 
into country held by the enemy, and to the fact that a previous 
attack had put the enemy on their guard and enabled them 
to mount anti-aircraft guns. 



DOINGS OF ROYAL NAVAL AIR SERVICE. 

Memorandum by Captain Murray F. Sueter, C.B., R.N., 
Director of the Air Department, Admiralty. 

October n, 1914. 

L.G. COMMANDER CHARLES R. SAMSON, R.N., was in 

command of the Aeroplane and Armoured Motor Support 
of the Royal Naval Air Service (Naval Wing) at Dunkerque, 
between the dates September ist to October 5th. 

During this period several notable air reconnaisances were 
made, and skirmishes took place. Of these particular men- 
tion may be made of the aeroplane attack on September 4th 
on four enemy cars and forty men, on which occasion several 
bombs were dropped ; and of the successful skirmishes at 
Cassel on September 4th, Savy on September I2th, Aniche 
on September 22nd, Orchies on September 23rd. 

On September 22nd, Flight Lieutenant C. H. Collet, 
of the Royal Naval Air Service (Naval Wing of the Royal 
Flying Corps), flying a Sopwith tractor biplane, made a long 
flight and a successful attack on the German Zeppelin Airship 
Shed at Diisseldorf. 

Lieutenant Collet's feat is notable gliding down from 
6,000 feet, the last 1,500 feet in mist, he finally came in sight 
of the airship shed at a height of 400 feet, only a quarter of 
a mile away from it. 

Flight Lieutenant Marix, acting under the orders of 
Squadron-Commander Spenser Grey, carried out a successful 
attack on the Diisseldorf airship shed during the afternoon 
of October 8th. From a height of 600 feet he dropped two 
bombs on the shed, and flames 500 feet high were seen within 
thirty seconds. The roof of the shed was also observed to 
collapse. 

318 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Lieutenant Marix's machine was under heavy fire from 
rifles and mitrailleuse and was five times hit whilst making 
the attack. 

Squadron-Commander Spenser Grey, whilst in charge of 
a flight of naval aeroplanes at Antwerp, penetrated during 
a three and three-quarters hours' flight into the enemy's 
country as far as Cologne on October 8th. He circled the city 
under fire at 600 feet and discharged his bombs on the military 
railway station. Considerable damage was done. 

THE FRENCH FLEET IN THE ADRIATIC. 

IN the course of last week Admiral de Lapeyrere, with C.O., 
the whole of his forces, visited the Adriatic islands between ct - 
Cattaro and Lissa. On the arrival of our fleet before Ragusa I 9 I 4- 
the authorities fled in two trains which steamed away at full 
speed. Our squadrons could have reduced this port and that 
of Gravosa to ashes as the Germans are doing to open towns 
every day. But Admiral de Lapeyr&re was unwilling to 
attack a population whose French sympathies are well known ; 
he confined himself to destroying, in the course of his cruise, 
the lighthouses, semaphores and wireless installations capable 
of military use. At the Pittini lighthouse the destroyer 
Sabretache made some prisoners. The Austrian squadron 
declined an engagement as usual. 

TWO FRENCH TORPEDO BOATS SUNK. 

DURING the night of October 8th-o,th the torpedo boats ibid. 
347 and 348 collided while on patrol off the coasts of Provence. 
Other torpedo boats took them in tow but they sank shortly 
after the collision. The crews were saved all except an 
engine-room artificer who disappeared. 

RUSSIAN CRUISER SUNK IN BALTIC. 

Berlin, October 13. 

A RUSSIAN armoured cruiser of the Bajan class 
sunk on October nth off the Finland coast by a torpedo. 

BEHNCKE, 
Acting Chief of the Admiral Staff. 

319 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Petrograd, October 12. 

Times, The first serious loss in the Russian Navy is reported in 

Oct. 13, an official announcement issued by the Admiralty recording 
the loss of the cruiser Pallada with all hands after an attack 
by a German submarine. 

According to the details available, the cruiser Admiral 
Makaroff, while on guard duty in the Baltic on Saturday, 
was attacked by several of the enemy's submarines and suc- 
cessfully beat them off. 

The next day the Bayan and the Pallada, while scouting, 
noticed a suspicious-looking vessel ostensibly under the 
Dutch flag, and on approaching they were each attacked by 
submarines. The Bayan was not hit. 

The Pallada was struck by a torpedo which, apparently, 
exploded the magazines, for she sunk instantaneously, carry- 
ing down all hands. 

GERMAN SUBMARINES DESTROYED IN BALTIC. 

Petrograd, October 13. 

Times, IT is officially announced that the commander of the 

Oct. 14, Russian naval forces in the Baltic Sea reports that, during 
I 9 I 4- the attack on the Russian cruisers on the loth and nth of 

this month, two German submarines were destroyed. 

Exchange Telegraph Company. 



Berlin, October 14. 

K.V. The official telegraph Bureau at Petrograd circulates the 

information communicated by the Russian Admiral Staff 
that when the Pallada was destroyed two German submarines 
were sunk. This information is, as we learn from official 
sources, in all respects incorrect. 

THE NAVAL BRIGADE AT ANTWERP. 

Announcement by the Secretary of the Admiralty on 
October n, 1914. 

Times, IN response to an appeal by the Belgian Government, 

ct> I2 a Marine Brigade and two Naval Brigades, together with 
some heavy naval guns, manned by a detachment of the 
320 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Royal Navy, the whole under the command of General 
Paris, R.M.A., were sent by His Majesty's Government to 
participate in the defence of Antwerp during the last week 
of the attack. 

Up till the night of Monday last, October 5th, the Belgian 
Army and the Marine Brigade successfully defended the line 
of the Nethe River. But early on Tuesday morning the 
Belgian forces on the right of the Marines were forced by a 
heavy German attack, covered by very powerful artillery, 
to retire, and in consequence the whole of the defence was 
withdrawn to the inner line of forts, the intervals between 
which had been strongly fortified. The ground which had 
been lost enabled the enemy to plant his batteries to bombard 
the city. The inner line of defences was maintained during 
Wednesday and Thursday while the city endured a ruthless 
bombardment. The behaviour of the Royal Marines and 
Naval Brigades in the trenches and in the field was praise- 
worthy in a high degree and remarkable in units so newly 
formed, and, owing to the protection of the entrenchments, 
the losses, in spite of the severity of the fire, are probably 
less than 300 out of a total force of 8,000. The defence could 
have been maintained for a longer period, but not long enough 
to allow of adequate forces being sent for their relief without 
prejudice to the mam strategic situation. 

The enemy also began on Thursday to press strongly 
on the line of communications near Lokeren. The Belgian 
forces defending this point fought with great determination 
but were gradually pressed back by numbers. In these cir- 
cumstances the Belgian and British military authorities 
in Antwerp decided to evacuate the city. The British 
offered to cover the retreat, but General de Guise desired 
that they should leave before the last Division of the Belgian 
Army. 

After a long night march to St. Gilles the three Naval 
Brigades entrained. Two out of the three have arrived 
safely at Ostend, but owing to circumstances which are not 
yet fully known the greater part of the ist Naval Brigade 
was cut off by the German attack north of Lokeren, and 
2,000 officers and men entered Dutch territory in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hulst and laid down their arms, in accordance 

Naval I X 3*1 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

with the laws of neutrality. The retreat of the Belgian Army 
has been successfully accomplished. The naval armoured 
trains and heavy guns were all brought away. 

The naval aviation park having completed the attack on 
Diisseldorf and Cologne already reported, has returned safely 
to the base protected by its armoured cars. The retreat 
from Ghent onwards of the Naval Division and of the Belgian 
Army was covered by strong British reinforcements. 

Vast numbers of the non-combatant population of Antwerp, 
men, women, and children, are streaming in flight in scores 
of thousands westwards from the ruined and burning city. 



Address Issued by the First Lord of the Admiralty to the Naval 
Brigade after the fall of Antwerp, October 17. 

Times, The First Lord welcomes the Royal Naval Division home 

Oct. 18, on it s re turn from active service. Officers and men of all 
ranks and ratings have acquitted themselves admirably, and 
have thoroughly justified the confidence reposed in them. 
The loss of a portion of the First Brigade through a mistake 
in no way reflects upon the quality or character of the Division. 
The Brigade of Royal Marines throughout the operations 
sustained fully by their firmness, discipline, and courage 
the traditions of the corps. It is not necessary to say more 
than this. The Naval Brigades bore themselves admirably 
under the artillery fire of the enemy ; and it is to be regretted 
that no opportunities of closer contact with his infantry 
were afforded them. 

The despatch of the Naval Brigades to Antwerp has inter- 
rupted for a time the progress of their instruction and training. 
They were chosen because the need for them was urgent 
and bitter ; because mobile troops could not be spared for 
fortress duties ; because they were the nearest and could be 
embarked the quickest ; and because their training, although 
incomplete, was as far advanced as that of a large portion, 
not only of the forces defending Antwerp, but of the enemy 
forces attacking. 

The Naval Division was sent to Antwerp not as an isolated 
incident, but as part of a large operation for the relief of the 

322 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

city. Other and more powerful considerations prevented 
this from being carried through. The defence of the inner 
lines of Antwerp could have been maintained for some days ; 
and the Naval Division only withdrew when ordered to do so 
in obedience to the general strategic situation, and not on 
account of any attack or pressure by the enemy. The pro- 
longation of the defence due to the arrival of the Division 
enabled the ships in the harbour to be rendered useless and 
many steps of importance to be taken. 

It is too early now to judge what effect the delaying, even 
for five or six days, of at least 60,000 Germans before Antwerp 
may have had upon the fortunes of the general battle to the 
southward. It was certainly powerful and helpful. Apart 
from the military experiences, which have been invaluable, 
the Division have been the witnesses of the ruthlessness of the 
German foe towards a small and innocent State. These facts 
should inspire all ranks to fit themselves in the shortest 
possible time for further service in the field, not merely as 
fortress, but as mobile units. 

The Belgian people will never forget that the men of 
the Royal Navy and Royal Marines were with them in their 
darkest hour of misery, as, please God, they may also be with 
them when Belgium is restored to her own by the armies of 
the Allies. 



Admiralty, December 5, 1914. 

The following despatch has been received from Field- L.G., 
Marshal Sir J. D. P. French, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., Dec. 5, 
covering a despatch from Major-General A. Paris, C.B., 
R.M.A., relating to the operations round Antwerp from 
October 3rd to the 



From Sir J. D. P. French, Field-Marshal, Commanding-in- 
Chief, to the Secretary of the Admiralty. 

In forwarding this report to the Army Council at the 
request of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, I 
have to state that, from a comprehensive review of all the 

323 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

circumstances, the force of Marines and Naval Brigades 
which assisted in the defence of Antwerp was handled by 
General Paris with great skill and boldness. 

Although the results did not include the actual saving of 
the fortress, the action of the force under General Paris 
certainly delayed the enemy for a considerable time, and 
assisted the Belgian Army to be withdrawn in a condition 
to enable it to reorganise and refit, and regain its value as 
a. fighting force. The destruction of war material and 
ammunition which, but for the intervention of this force, 
would have proved of great value to the enemy was thus 
able to be carried out. 

The assistance which the Belgian Army has rendered 
throughout the subsequent course of the operations on the 
canal and the Yser River has been a valuable asset to the 
Allied cause, and such help must be regarded as an outcome 
of the intervention of General Paris's force. I am further 
of opinion that the moral effect produced on the minds of 
the Belgian Army by this necessarily desperate attempt to 
bring them succour, before it was too late, has been of great 
value to their use and efficiency as a fighting force. 

J. D. P. FRENCH, 

Field-Marshal, Commanding-in-Chief. 



From the Secretary of the Admiralty to Field-Marshal Sir. 
J. D. P. French, Commanding-in-Chief. 

(Enclosure in No. i.) 

Admiralty, November 2, 1914. 

SIR, -I am commanded by My Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty to transmit herewith a despatch from Major- 
General Paris, reporting the proceedings of the Division round 
Antwerp from October 3rd to gth, with a view to its being 
considered by you and forwarded to the Army Council with 
your survey of the operations as a whole. 

I am, &c., 

W. GRAHAM GREENE. 

324 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

From\Major-General A. Paris, C.B., Commanding Royal 
Naval Division, to the Secretary of the Admiralty. 

(Sub-Enclosure in No. i.) 

October 31, 1914. 

Regarding the operations round Antwerp from October 
3rd to Qth, I have the honour to report as follows : 

The Brigade (2,200 all ranks) reached Antwerp during 
the night October 3rd and 4th, and early on the 4th occupied, 
with the 7th Belgian Regiment, the trenches facing Lierre, 
with advanced post on the River Nethe, relieving some 
exhausted Belgian troops. 

The outer forts on this front had already fallen and 
bombardment of the trenches was in progress. This increased 
in violence during the night and early morning of October 5th, 
when the advanced posts were driven in and the enemy 
effected a crossing of the river, which was not under fire from 
the trenches. 

About midday the 7th Belgian Regiment was forced to 
retire, thus exposing my right flank. A vigorous counter-attack, 
gallantly led by Colonel Tierchon, 2nd Chasseurs, assisted by 
our aeroplanes, restored the position late in the afternoon. 

Unfortunately, an attempt made by the Belgian troops 
during the night (October 5th and 6th) to drive the enemy 
across the river failed, and resulted in the evacuation of 
practically the whole of the Belgian trenches. 

The few troops now capable of another counter-attack 
were unable to make any impression, and the position of 
the Marine Brigade became untenable. 

The bombardment, too, was very violent, but the retire- 
ment of the Brigade was well carried out, and soon after 
midday (October 6th) an intermediate position, which had 
been hastily prepared, was occupied. 

The two Naval Brigades reached Antwerp during the night 
(October 5th and 6th). The ist Brigade moved out in the 
afternoon of 5th to assist the withdrawal to the main 2nd Line 
of Defence. 

The retirement was carried out during the night (October 
6th and 7th), without opposition, and the Naval Division 
occupied the intervals between the forts on the*2nd Line of 
Defence. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The bombardment of the town, forts, and trenches began 
at midnight (October 7th and 8th), and continued with 
increasing intensity until the evacuation of the fortress. 

As the water supply had been cut, no attempt could be 
made to subdue the flames, and soon 100 houses were burning. 
Fortunately, there was no wind, or the whole town and bridges 
must have been destroyed. 

During the day (October 8th), it appeared evident that 
the Belgian Army could not hold the forts any longer. About 
5.30 p.m. I considered that if the Naval Division was to avoid 
disaster an immediate retirement under cover of darkness 
was necessary. General de Guise, the Belgian Commander, 
was in complete agreement. He was most chivalrous and 
gallant, insisting on giving orders that the roads and bridges 
were to be cleared for the passage of the British troops. 

The retirement began about 7.30 p.m., and was carried 
out under very difficult conditions. 

The enemy were reported in force (a Division plus a Reserve 
Brigade) on our immediate line of retreat, rendering necessary 
a detour of fifteen miles to the north. 

All the roads were crowded with Belgian troops, refugees, 
herds of cattle, and all kinds of vehicles, making inter-com- 
munication a practical impossibility. Partly for these 
reasons, partly on account of fatigue, and partly from at 
present unexplained causes large numbers of the ist Naval 
Brigade became detached, and I regret to say are either 
prisoners or interned in Holland. 

Marching all night (October 8th and o,th), one battalion of 
ist Brigade, the 2nd Brigade and RoyalMarine Brigade, less 
one battalion, entrained at St. Gillies Waes and effected their 
retreat without further incident. 

The Battalion (Royal Marine Brigade) Rear Guard of the 
whole force, also entrained late in the afternoon, together 
with many hundreds of refugees, but at Morbeke the line 
was cut, the engine derailed, and the enemy opened fire. 

There was considerable confusion. It was dark and the 
agitation of the refugees made it difficult to pass any orders. 
However, the battalion behaved admirably, and succeeded 
in fighting its way through, but with a loss in missing of more 
than half its number. They then marched another ten miles 
to Selzaate and entrained there. 

326 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Colonel Seely and Colonel Bridges were not part of my 
command, but they rendered most skilful and helpful services 
during the evacuation. 

The casualties are approximately : ist Naval Brigade 
and 2nd Naval Brigade, 5 killed, 64 wounded, 2,040 missing. 
Royal Marine Brigade, 23 killed, 103 wounded, 388 missing. 

In conclusion, I would call your attention to the good 
services rendered by the following officers and men during 
the operations : 

Officers. 
Staff: 

Lieutenant-Colonel A. H. Ollivant, R.A. 
Major Richardson, N.Z., Staff Corps. 
Fleet Surgeon E. J. Finch, R.N. 

ist Brigade : 

Lieutenant G. G. Grant, R.N.V.R. 
Sub-Lieutenant C. O. F. Modin, R.N.V.R. 

2nd Brigade : 

Commodore O. Backhouse, R.N., Commanding Brigade. 
Captain W. L. Maxwell, Brigade Major. 
Sub-Lieutenant H. C. Hedderwick, R.N.V.R. 

Royal Marine Brigade : 

Lieutenant-Colonel C. McN. Parsons, R. M.L.I., in com- 
mand most of the time. 

Major A. H. French, R.M.L.L, loth Battalion. 
Lieutenant D. J. Gowney, R.M.L.L, loth Battalion. 

Men. 
Naval Brigade : 

Chief Petty Officer B. H. Ellis, No. 748, B. Co., R.N.V.R., 

London. 

Chief Petty Officer Payne, D. Co. 

Petty Officer (Acting) W. Wallace, O.N., Dev., 211130. 
Stoker Petty Officer W. S. Cole, O.N., Ch. 100113. 
Leading Seaman (Acting) H. D. Lowe, R.N.R., Dev.,. 

No. B. 2542. 
Ordinary Seaman G. Ripley, new Army recruit, C. Co. 

(now R.N.V.R.). 

Ordinary Seaman T. Machen, new Army recruit, C. Co 
(now R.N.V.R.). 

327 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Royal Marine Brigade : 

Sergeant-Major (Acting) Galliford. 
Quartermaster-Sergeant Kenny, R.F.R., Ch. A. 426. 
Sergeant G. H. Bruce, R.F.R., Ch. A. 631. 
Lance-Corporal T. C. Frank, Ch. 17817. 
Lance-Corporal W. J. Cook, Ply. 7685. 
Private G. H. Hall, R.F.R., Ch. B. 194. 
Private C. J. Fleet, R.F.R., Ch. B. 1585. 
Private S. Lang, Ch. 18446. 

Sergeant E.Walch (R. Naval Auxiliary Sick Berth Reserve), 
S. B. 508. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

A. PARIS, Major-General, 
General Officer Commanding-in-Chief. 



CIRCULAR OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE OF 
THE UNITED STATES WITH REFERENCE TO 
NEUTRALITY AND TRADE IN CONTRABAND. 

Issued October 15, 1914. 

THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE has received numerous 
inquiries from American merchants and other persons as to 
whether they could sell to Governments or nations at war 
contraband articles without violating the neutrality of the 
United States, and the Department has also received com- 
plaints that sales of contraband were being made on the 
apparent supposition that they were unneutral acts which 
this Government should prevent. 

In view of the number of communications of this sort 
which have been received it is evident that there is a wide- 
spread misapprehension among the people of this country 
as to the obligations of the United States as a neutral nation 
in relation to trade in contraband and as to the powers of 

328 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the executive branch of the Government over persons who 
engage in it. For this reason it seems advisable to make an 
explanatory statement on the subject for the information 
of the public. 

In the first place it should be understood that, generally 
speaking, a citizen of the United States can sell to a belliger- 
ent Government or its agent any article of commerce which 
he pleases. He is not prohibited from doing this by 
any rule of international law, by any treaty provisions, 
or by any statute of the United States. It makes no 
difference whether the articles sold are exclusively for war 
purposes, such as firearms, explosives, &c., or are foodstuffs, 
clothing, horses, &c., for the use of the army or navy of 
the belligerent. 

Furthermore, a neutral Government is not compelled by 
international law, by treaty, or by statute to prevent these 
sales to a belligerent. Such sales, therefore, by American 
citizens do not in the least affect the neutrality of the United 
States. 

It is true that such articles as those mentioned are con- 
sidered contraband and are, outside the territorial juris- 
diction of a neutral nation, subject to seizure by an enemy 
of the purchasing Government, but it is the enemy's duty 
to prevent the articles reaching their destination, not the 
duty of the nation whose citizens have sold them. If the 
enemy of the purchasing nation happens for the time to be 
unable to do this that is for him one of the misfortunes of 
war ; the inability, however, imposes on the neutral Govern- 
ment no obligation to prevent the sale. 

Neither the President nor any executive department of 
the Government possesses the legal authority to interfere in 
any way with trade between the people of this country and 
the territory of a belligerent. There is no Act of Congress 
conferring such authority or prohibiting traffic of this sort 
with European nations, although in the case of neighbouring 
American Republics Congress has given the President power 
to proclaim an embargo on arms and ammunition when in 
his judgment it would tend to prevent civil strife. 

For the Government of the United States itself to sell 
to a belligerent nation would be an unneutral act, but for a 

|2 9 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

private individual to sell to a belligerent any product of the 
United States is neither unlawful nor unneutral, nor within 
the power of the Executive to prevent or control. 

The foregoing remarks, however, do not apply to the 
outfitting or furnishing of vessels in American ports or of 
military expeditions on American soil in aid of a belligerent. 
These acts are prohibited by the neutrality laws of the United 
States. 

[This document is quoted from a Supplement to the American Journal 
of International Law published January, 1915.] 



Times, 
Oct. 16, 
1914. 



HAMBURG-AMERIKA LINER SUNK. 

Press Bureau, October 15. 

THE Secretary to the Admiralty announces that His 
Majesty's Ship Yarmouth, Captain Henry L. Cochrane, has 
sunk the German Hamburg-Amerika Line steamer Marko- 
mannia in the vicinity of Sumatra, and has captured and is 
taking into harbour the Greek steamer Pontoporos. 

Both these vessels have been previously reported as 
accompanying the German cruiser Emden. 

His Majesty's Ship Yarmouth has sixty German prisoners 
of war on board. 



P.B. 



p. 247.] 

Times, 
Oct. 18, 
1914. 



GERMAN SAILING SHIP SEIZED. 

October 15. 

THE Secretary to the Admiralty announces that a com- 
munication has been received by the Governor of the Common- 
wealth of Australia from the Administrator at Rabaul 
reporting the capture of the small German sailing vessel 
Comet, which was found to have a complete wireless telegraph 
station on board. (1) 



The Secretary of the Admiralty has issued the following 
further statement on the capture of the German auxiliary 
sailing vessel, Comet. 



330 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The Nusa was commissioned on October gth, under the 
command of Lieutenant-Commander John M. Jackson, R.N., 
accompanied by Lieutenant-Colonel John M. Paton and a 
detachment of infantry to search for the Comet on the North- 
east coast of New Guinea. The expedition was entirely 
successful and the Comet was captured with a complete 
wireless installation. 

There were no casualties, and the captain, four officers, 
and fifty- two natives were taken prisoners. 

The Comet has now been commissioned as a vessel of 
H.M. Australian Navy. 



CLOSING ON TSINGTAU. 

Tokyo, October 16. 

AN official statement says that in the forenoon of the Times, 
I4th inst. a section of the naval squadron outside Tsingtau ct - * 
destroyed portions of the Iltis and Kaiser forts, while simulta- I 9 I 4- 
neously aeroplanes dropped bombs. During the attack one 
British bluejacket was killed and two were wounded. The 
Japanese suffered no loss. Renter. 



LOSS OF THE " HAWKE." 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty made the following Times, 
announcement yesterday afternoon : Oct. T 

IQI4. 

H.M.S. Theseus (Captain Hugh Edwards, R.N.) was 
attacked by submarine in the northern waters of the North 
Sea yesterday afternoon, but was missed. H.M.S. Hawke 
(Captain Hugh P. E. Williams, R.N.) was attacked at about 
the same time, and was sunk. 

The following officers, together with forty-nine men of the 
crew, have been landed at Aberdeen from a trawler : Mr. 
Sidney Austin, boatswain ; Mr. James Dennis, gunner ; Mr. 
Harry C. T. Evitt, acting gunner. The remaining officers 
and men are missing. 

Further particulars will be published as soon as they are 
available. 

331 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Ocr 

H.M.S. Hawke was a cruiser built in 1889. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty made the following later 
announcement : 

Further survivors of His Majesty's Ship Hawke : 

Lieutenant-Commander Robert R. Rosoman and twenty 
men have been saved from a raft. 



Times, Mrs. Pratt-Barlow, wife of Commander Bernhard Pratt- 

Oct. 19, Barlow, of His Majesty's Ship Hawke, has received the 
I 9 I 4- following telegram : 

Sandringham, October 17. 

The King and Queen deeply regret the loss you and the 
Navy have sustained by the death of your husband in the 
.service of his country. Their Majesties truly sympathise 
with you in your sorrow. 

PRIVATE SECRETARY. 



Berlin, October 24. 

K ' V * As already unofficially announced, the successful destruc- 

tion of the English cruiser Hawke on October I3th by a German 
submarine is officially confirmed to-day. 

The submarine has returned in good condition. 
On October 20th the English steamer Glitra was sunk 
off the Norwegian coast by a German submarine through the 
opening of the sea-valves, after the crew had been invited 
to leave the vessel in the snip's boats. 

BEHNCKE. 

Admiralty, October 20. 
Times, THE British steamer Glitra, bound from Grangemouth for 

Oct. 21, Stavanger, has been sunk by the Germans in the North Sea. 
1914. 



JAPANESE CRUISER SUNK. 

Tokyo, October 19. 

Times, IT is officially announced that the Japanese cruiser 

Oct. 20, Takachiho was sunk by a mine in Kiao-chau Bay on Saturday 
I 9 I 4- night. One officer and nine of the crew are known to have 
been saved. The Takachiho had 264 men on board at the 
time. 
332 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

REPORT OF COMMODORE KEYES ON SUBMARINE 

OPERATIONS. 

H.M.S. " Maidstone," October 17, 1914. 
SIR, 

IN compliance with Their Lordship's directions, I have 
the honour to report as follows upon the services performed 
by Submarines since the commencement of hostilities : 

Three hours after the outbreak of war, Submarines " E 6 " 
(Lieutenant-Commander Cecil P. Talbot), and " E 8 " (Lieu- 
tenant-Commander Francis H. H. Goodhart), proceeded 
unaccompanied to carry out a reconnaissance in the Heligoland 
Bight. These two vessels returned with useful information, 
and had the privilege of being the pioneers on a service which 
is attended by some risk. 

During the transportation of the Expeditionary Force the 
Lurcher and Firedrake and all the Submarines of the Eighth 
Submarine Flotilla occupied positions from which they could 
have attacked the High Sea Fleet had it emerged to dispute 
the passage of our transports. This patrol was maintained 
day and night without relief, until the personnel of our Army 
had been transported and all chance of effective interference 
had disappeared. 

These Submarines have since been incessantly employed on 
the enemy's coast in the Heligoland Bight and elsewhere, 
and have obtained much valuable information regarding the 
composition and movement of his patrols. They have 
occupied his waters and reconnoitred his anchorages, and, 
while so engaged, have been subjected to skilful and well- 
executed anti-submarine tactics ; hunted for hours at a 
time by Torpedo Craft and attacked by gunfire and torpedoes. 

At midnight on August 26th, I embarked in the 
Lurcher, and, in company with Firedrake and Submarines 
'D2," "D8," "4," "5," "E6," "7," ' E 8," 
and "Eg" of the Eighth Submarine Flotilla, proceeded to 
take part hi the operations in the Heligoland Bight arranged 
for August 28th. The Destroyers scouted for the Sub- 
marines until nightfall on the 27th, when the latter proceeded 
independently to take up various positions from which they 
could co-operate with the Destroyer Flotillas on the following 
morning. 

33J 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL | 

At daylight on August 28th the Lurcher and Fire- 
drake searched the area, through which the Battle Cruisers 
were to advance, for hostile Submarines, and then proceeded 
towards Heligoland in the wake of Submarines " E 6," 
' E 7," and " E 8," which were exposing themselves with 
the object of inducing the enemy to chase them to the 
westward. 

On approaching Heligoland, the visibility, which had been 
very good to seaward, reduced to 5,000 to 6,000 yards, and 
this added considerably to the anxieties and responsibilities 
of the Commanding Officers of Submarines, who handled their 
vessels with coolness and judgment in an area which was 
necessarily occupied by friends as well as foes. 

Low visibility and calm sea are the most unfavourable 
conditions under which Submarines can operate, and no 
opportunity occurred of closing with the enemy's cruisers 
to within torpedo range. 

Lieutenant-Commander Ernest W. Leir, Commanding 
Submarine " E 4," witnessed the sinking of the German 
Torpedo Boat Destroyer " V 187 " through his periscope, 
and, observing a Cruiser of the Stettin class close, and open 
fire on the British Destroyers which had lowered their boats 
to pick up the survivors, he proceeded to attack the Cruiser, 
but she altered course before he could get within range. 
After covering the retirement of our Destroyers, which had 
had to abandon their boats, he returned to the latter, and 
embarked a Lieutenant and nine men of Defender, who had 
been left behind. The boats also contained two Officers and 
eight men of " V 187," who were unwounded, and eighteen 
men who were badly wounded. As he could not embark the 
latter, Lieutenant-Commander Leir left one of the Officers 
and six unwounded men to navigate the British boats to 
Heligoland. Before leaving he saw that they were provided 
with water, biscuit, and a compass. One German Officer 
and two men were made prisoners of war. 

Lieutenant-Commander Leir's action in remaining on the 
surface in the vicinity of the enemy and in a visibility which 
would have placed his vessel within easy gun range of an 
enemy appearing out of the mist, was altogether admirable. 

This enterprising and gallant Officer took part in the 
reconnaissance which supplied the information on which these 

334 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

operations were based, and I beg to submit his name, and 
that of Lieutenant-Commander Talbot, the Commanding 
Officer of " E 6," who exercised patience, judgment and skill 
in a dangerous position, for the favourable consideration of 
Their Lordships. 

On September I3th, ' E 9 " (Lieutenant-Commander 
Max K. Horton) torpedoed and sank the German Light 
Cruiser Held six miles South of Heligoland. 

A number of Destroyers were evidently called to the scene 
after " E 9 " had delivered her attack, and these hunted her 
for several hours. 

On September I4th, in accordance with his orders, 
Lieutenant-Commander Horton examined the outer anchorage 
of Heligoland, a service attended by considerable risk. 

On September 25th, Submarine ' E 6 " (Lieutenant- 
Commander C. P. Talbot), while diving, fouled the moorings 
of a mine laid by the enemy. On rising to the surface she 
weighed the mine and sinker ; the former was securely fixed 
between the hydroplane and its guard ; fortunately, however, 
the horns of the mine were pointed outboard. The weight of 
the sinker made it a difficult and dangerous matter to lift the 
mine clear without exploding it. After half an hour's patient 
work this was effected by Lieutenant Frederick A. P. Williams- 
Freeman and Able Seaman Ernest Randall Cremer, Official 
Number 214235, and the released mine descended to its original 
depth. 

On October 6th, ' E 9 " (Lieutenant-Commander Max 
K. Horton), when patrolling off the Ems, torpedoed and sank 
the enemy's destroyer, " S 126." 

The enemy's Torpedo Craft pursue tactics which, in con- 
nection with their shallow draft, make them exceedingly 
difficult to attack with torpedo, and Lieutenant-Commander 
Horton's success was the result of much patient and skilful 
zeal. He is a most enterprising submarine officer, and I 
beg to submit his name for favourable consideration. 

Lieutenant Charles M. S. Chapman, the Second in 
Command of " E 9," is also deserving of credit. 

Against an enemy whose capital vessels have never, and 
Light Cruisers have seldom, emerged from their fortified 
harbours, opportunities of delivering Submarine attacks have 
necessarily been few, and on one occasion only, prior to 

335 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

September I3th, has one of our Submarines been within 
torpedo range of a Cruiser during daylight hours. 

During the exceptionally heavy westerly gales which 
prevailed between September I4th and 2ist, the position 
of the Submarines on a lee shore, within a few miles of the 
enemy's coast, was an unpleasant one. 

The short steep seas which accompany westerly gales in 
the Heligoland Bight made it difficult to keep the conning 
tower hatches open. There was no rest to be obtained, 
and even when cruising at a depth of 60 feet, the Submarines 
were rolling considerably, and pumping i.e., vertically 
moving about twenty feet. 

I submit that it was creditable to the Commanding Officers 
that they should have maintained their stations under such 
conditions. 

Service in the Heligoland Bight is keenly sought after by 
the Commanding Officers of the Eighth Submarine Flotilla, 
and they have all shown daring and enterprise in the execution 
of their duties. These Officers have unanimously expressed 
to me their admiration of the cool and gallant behaviour of 
the Officers and men under their command. They are, 
however, of the opinion that it is impossible to single out 
individuals when all have performed their duties so admirably, 
and in this I concur. 

The following Submarines have been in contact with the 
enemy during these operations : 

D i " (Lieutenant-Commander Archibald D. Cochrane). 
D 2 " (Lieutenant-Commander Arthur G. Jameson). 
D 3 " (Lieutenant-Commander Edward C. Boyle). 
' D 5 " (Lieutenant-Commander Godfrey Herbert). 
' E 4 " (Lieutenant-Commander Ernest W. Leir). 
E 5 " (Lieutenant-Commander Charles S. Benning). 
E 6 " (Lieutenant-Commander Cecil P. Talbot). 
' E 7 " (Lieutenant-Commander Ferdinand E. B. Feil- 
mann) . 

"Eg" (Lieutenant-Commander Max K. Horton). 
I have the honour to be, 

Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) ROGER KEYES, 

Commodore (S). 
336 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
DANGERS IN BALTIC NAVIGATION. 

Petrograd, October 17. 

THE Imperial Government announces that in view of 
the presence of German submarines at the entrance to the 
Gulf of Finland, and the placing by the enemy of booms and 
torpedoes near the Russian coast, the Russian naval authori- 
ties are compelled in their turn to have recourse largely to 
similar steps. Consequently, navigation in the Northern 
zone bounded by the Russian coast by parallel 58 50' north 
latitude and by the meridian 21 east longitude, is to be 
regarded as dangerous, as is the entrance to the Gulf of Riga 
and the coast waters of the Aland Archipelago. In order 
that persons not taking part in the hostilities may not run 
the risks of war, the entrances and exits of the Gulf of 
Finland and Riga are to be regarded as closed from the 
moment of the announcement. 

NAVAL SKIRMISH OFF CATTARO. 

Vienna, October 18. 

IT is officially announced that on the morning of the I7th K.V. 
a skirmish took place off Punta d'Ostro between some of our 
torpedo craft and submarines, together with an aeroplane, 
and the French cruiser Waldeck-Rousseau. In spite of the 
heavy fire of the cruiser our vessels returned without injury. 
The lighthouse at Punta d'Ostro was also fired at by the 
enemy, but only slightly injured. The bulk of the French 
fleet was observed in the offing, but withdrew in great haste 
on sighting our submarines. Early in the morning of the 
i8th our own torpedo craft carried out a raid on the harbour 
at Antivari and destroyed some storehouses and loaded 
wagons in its immediate neighbourhood. 

FOUR GERMAN DESTROYERS SUNK. 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty made the following Times, 
announcement yesterday : Oct. 18, 

The new light cruiser Undaunted (Captain Cecil H. Fox), I 9 I 4- 
accompanied by the destroyers Lance (Commander W. de M. 
Egerton), Lennox (Lieutenant-Commander C. R. Dane) 

Naval I Y 337 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

Legion (Lieutenant-Commander C. F. Allsup), and Loyal 
(Lieutenant-Commander F. Burges Watson), engaged four 
German destroyers off the Dutch coast this afternoon. All the 
enemy's destroyers were sunk. 

The British loss in the destroyer action was one officer 
and four men wounded. The damage to the British destroyers 
was slight. There are thirty-one German survivors, prisoners 
of war. 



Amsterdam, October 18. 

Times, The following official announcement was issued in Berlin 

Oct. 19, to-day : 

1914. Yesterday afternoon the German torpedo-boat destroyers 

S 115, S 117, S 118, and S 119 met the British cruiser 
Undaunted and four torpedo-boat destroyers close by the 
Dutch coast. According to official British news the German 
torpedo-boats were sunk. Thirty-one men belonging to the 
crews were saved and landed in England. 

P. BEHNCKE, 

Captain and Departmental Chief 
of Naval Head-Quarters Staff. 



SINKING OF SUBMARINE E 3. 

Berlin, October 19. 

K.V. THE English submarine E 3 was destroyed on the after- 

noon of October i8th, in the German Bight of the North Sea. 



Times, The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 

Oct. 23, announcement : 

I 9 I 4- Submarine E 3, Lieutenant-Commander George F. 

Cholmley, R.N., is now considerably overdue, and it is feared 
that she has been sunk in the North Sea. A German Press 
radiogram stated that she had been sunk on the i8th inst. 
338 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
JAPANESE OPERATIONS. 

Tokyo, October 20. 

THE Navy Department has announced the occupation Times, 
for military purposes of the Marianne and Marshall Islands Oct. 21, 
and the East and West Caroline Archipelagos. 

GERMAN TORPEDO-BOAT DESTROYED. 

Rome, October 21. 

The Japanese Embassy communicates the following : 
We have found two auxiliary cruisers of the enemy. One 
sank herself, the other we captured. Renter. 

IT is officially announced that the German torpedo-boat 
S 90, which escaped from Tsingtau in the dark, has been found 
aground, destroyed, sixty miles south of Kiao-chau. 
Renter. 

EXCHANGE OF COURTESIES WITH JAPAN. 

Admiralty, October 21. 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty communicates the 
following telegrams which have passed between the First 
Lord of the Admiralty, and Vice-Admiral Yashiro, Minister 
of Marine, Tokyo : 

From the First Lord of the Admiralty to Vice-Admiral Yashiro, 
Minister of Marine, Tokyo. 

I desire on behalf of the British Admiralty and the Royal 
Navy to express at this crucial stage of the war our deep sense 
of the efforts and energy with which the Japanese Navy is 
sustaining the cause of their ally. Apart from the great 
object, of the extermination of the main German base in 
the Pacific, Japanese ships and squadrons are everywhere 
giving us help of invaluable character in the protection of 
trade, the search for enemy's ships, and the convoy of troops 
to the decisive theatre of the conflict. 

339 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Ocx. 

From Vice- Admiral Yashiro, Minister of Marine, Tokyo, to 
the First Lord of the Admiralty. 

On behalf of the Imperial Japanese Navy, I tender my 
warmest thanks for your sincere and cordial message, and 
assure you that it is a matter of the utmost satisfaction to us 
both that perfect harmony and understanding exists every- 
where between the two Allied Navies, which strikes the true 
note of the main object of the compact and which will certainly 
tend to hasten the attainment of the ultimate goal. I 
earnestly hope that it will not be long before this end is 
successfully achieved. 



Times, The War Office makes the following announcement : 

" His Imperial Highness the Crown Prince of Japan has, 

through an aide-de-camp, delivered a most gracious message 

to the British troops operating with the Japanese forces before 

Tsingtau, and has presented them with a gift of refined sake 

(rice- wine)." 



MONITORS ON THE BELGIAN COAST. 

Times, THE Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 

Oct. 22, announcement : 

The monitors Severn, Commander Eric J. A. Fullerton ; 
Humber, Commander Arthur L. Snagge ; and Mersey, Lieu- 
tenant-Commander Robert A. Wilson, have recently been 
engaged in operations on the Belgian coast, firing on the 
right flank of the German Army. 

Owing to their light draught they have been able to con- 
tribute materially to the success of the operations in this 
district, and they have already abundantly justified their 
acquisition on the outbreak of war. 

In addition, detachments with machine guns have been 
landed from these vessels to assist in the defence of Nieuport, 
where they performed meritorious service. 

340 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
DEPREDATIONS OF THE " EMDEN." 

Colombo, October 21. 

ADMIRALTY report that the British steamers Chilkana, Times, 
Troilus, Benmohr, and Clan Grant, also dredger, bound Oct - 22 
Tasmania, probably Ponrabbel, have been sunk, and the I914 * 
Exjord, British steamer, captured by the German cruiser 
Emden, 150 miles south-west of Cochin. 

ENEMY SHIPS IN THE SUEZ CANAL. 

HIS MAJESTY'S Government have issued a notification L.G., 
in the following terms to the representatives of foreign mari- Oct. 27, 
time Powers in London, and have asked them to communicate I 9 I 4- 
it to their Governments : 

Since the outbreak of war certain ships of enemy countries 
have remained in the Suez Canal. 

Some of these vessels were detained by the Egyptian 
Government on account of hostile acts committed in the 
Canal ; some because there was reason to apprehend that they 
contemplated hostile acts ; others, though perfectly free, 
have refused to leave the Canal in spite of the offer of a free 
pass, thus disclosing their intention to use the ports of the 
Canal merely as ports of refuge, a measure which is not 
contemplated by the Suez Canal Convention. 

His Majesty's Government do not admit that the Con- 
ventional right of free access and use of the Canal enjoyed by 
merchant vessels implies any right to make use of the Canal 
and its ports of access for an indefinite time to escape capture, 
since the obvious result of permitting any such course must be 
greatly to incommode and even to block the use of the ports 
and Canal by other ships, and they are consequently of 
opinion that the Egyptian Government are fully justified in 
the steps which they are taking to remove from the Canal all 
enemy ships which have been long enough in the Canal ports 
to show clearly that they have no intention of departing in 
the ordinary way, and that they are putting the Canal and its 
ports to a use which is inconsistent with the use of the Canal 
in the ordinary way by other shipping. 

Foreign Office, October 23, 1914. 

341 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

STATEMENT ISSUED BY THE PRESS BUREAU ON 

THE PROTECTION OF MARITIME COMMERCE. 

Times, EIGHT or nine German cruisers are believed to be at 

Oct. 24, large in the Atlantic, the Pacific, and the Indian Oceans. 
Searching for these vessels and working in concert under the 
various Commanders-in-Chief are upwards of seventy British 
(including Australian), Japanese, French, and Russian 
cruisers, not including auxiliary cruisers. Among these are 
a number of the fastest British cruisers. The vast expanses 
of sea and ocean and the many thousand islands of the 
archipelagos offer an almost infinite choice of movement to 
the enemy's ships. In spite of every effort to cut off their 
coal supply it has hitherto been maintained by one means or 
another in the face of increasing difficulties. The discovery 
and destruction of these few enemy cruisers is therefore 
largely a matter of time, patience, and good luck. 

The public should have confidence that the Commanders- 
in-Chief and the experienced captains serving under them are 
doing all that is possible and taking the best steps to bring the 
enemy to action. They have so far been also occupied in 
very serious and important convoy duty, but this work has 
somewhat lessened, and the number of searching cruisers is 
continually augmented. 

Meanwhile, merchant ships must observe Admiralty in- 
structions, which it is obviously impossible to specify, and use 
all the precautions which have been suggested. On routes 
where these instructions have been followed they have so far 
proved very effective. On the other hand, where they have 
been disregarded captures have been made. The same 
vastness of sea which has so far enabled the German cruisers 
to avoid capture will protect the trade. 

The only alternative to the methods now adopted would 
be the marshalling of merchantmen in regular convoys at 
stated intervals. So far it has not been thought necessary 
to hamper trade by enforcing such a system. The percentage 
of loss is much less than was reckoned on before the war. 
Out of 4,000 British ships engaged in foreign trade only 
thirty-nine have been sunk by the enemy, or just under one 
per cent, in all. The rate of insurance for cargoes, which on 
the outbreak of war was fixed at five guineas per cent., has now 

342 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

been reduced to two guineas per cent., without injury to the 
solvency of the fund. For hulls, as apart from cargoes, the 
insurance has also been considerably reduced. 

Between 8,000 and 9,000 foreign voyages have been 
undertaken to and from United Kingdom ports, less than 
five per thousand of which have been interfered with, and of 
these losses a large number have been caused by merchant 
vessels taking everything for granted and proceeding without 
precautions as if there were no war. On the other hand, the 
German oversea trade has practically ceased to exist. Nearly 
all their fast ships which could have been used as auxiliary 
cruisers were promptly penned into neutral harbours or have 
taken refuge in their own. Among the comparatively few 
German ships which have put to sea 133 have been captured, 
or nearly four times the number of those lost by the very 
large British Mercantile Marine. 

In these circumstances there is no occasion for anxiety 
and no excuse for complaint. On the contrary, the more 
fully the facts concerning our oversea trade and its protection 
by the Royal Navy can be disclosed, and the more attentively 
they are studied, the greater will be the confidence and 
satisfaction with which the situation can be viewed. 



GERMAN SUBMARINE SUNK. 

Admiralty, October 24. 

A GERMAN submarine has been rammed and sunk by 
the destroyer Badger, Commander Charles Fremantle, R.N., 
off the Dutch coast. The Badger's bows were somewhat 
damaged. 

The following telegram has been sent to H.M.S. Badger: 
" Admiralty are very well pleased with your good services/' 

ENEMY SUBMARINE REPULSED OFF BELGIAN 

COAST. 

Admiralty, October 24. 

ALL yesterday the monitors and other vessels of the 
British bombarding flotilla fired on the German right, which 
they searched thoroughly and effectively in concert with the 
operations of the Belgian Army. 

343 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

All German attacks on Nieuport were repulsed. Much 
damage was done to the enemy by naval fire which enfiladed 
the German lines, and enemy prisoners taken yesterday and 
the day before testify to the heavy losses they have suffered 
from this cause. Fire was also opened in the afternoon on 
the German batteries near Ostend. 

Admiral Hood now has a fine flotilla of vessels very 
suitable for this work, but at the same time not of great naval 
value. During the day our ships were persistently attacked 
by an enemy submarine, and torpedoes were fired without 
success at Wildfire and Myrmidon. Other British vessels 
again attacked the submarine. The naval aeroplanes and 
balloons aided in the direction of the fire. The weather 
continued fine and favourable. No losses were sustained 
by the flotillas yesterday. 



GERMAN CAPTURES IN THE ATLANTIC. 

Times, LLOYD'S agents at Teneriffe telegraph that the steamers 

Oct. 25, Indrani, Farn, and Condor were not sunk but taken pos- 
session of by the Germans. All prisoners landed from Crefeld 
and taken charge of by the British Consul. 



DECORATION FOR LIEUTENANT WEDDIGEN. 

W.B., CAPTAIN LIEUTENANT WEDDIGEN, the Commander 

Oct. 25, o f the well-known submarine U 9, which was responsible for 
I 9 I 4J the sinking of the British cruisers Aboukir, Rogue, Cressy, 
and Hawke, has been awarded the Order Pour le Merite. 



LOSS OF THE " AMIRAL GANTEAUME." 

Times, THE French steamer Amiral Ganteaume, carrying about 

Oct. 27, 2,500 French refugees from Calais to Havre, struck a floating 

mine this afternoon [October 26th] about twelve miles off Cape 

. Gris Nez. It is believed that the passengers were saved with 

the exception of between thirty and forty. Fifteen were 

drowned, and about the same number were crushed. 

344 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Admiralty, November 25. 

On October 26th, 1914, the French passenger steamer Times, 
Amiral Ganteaume was on passage from Calais to Havre, with Nov. 26, 
upwards of 2,000 unarmed refugees, including a very large I 9 I 4- 
proportion of women and children on board, when a violent 
explosion occurred. 

By pure chance and the greatest good fortune the British 
steamship Queen was within a short distance of the Amiral 
Ganteaume, and succeeded in rescuing most of the passengers, 
only about forty being killed. 

Subsequent examination of one of the damaged lifeboats 
of the vessel has led to the discovery of a fragment of a German 
torpedo. 

The presence of this fragment proves that the vessel was 
torpedoed by a German submarine. 

This action of destroying with aim and deliberation in 
broad daylight a defenceless passenger ship full of refugees is 
on the whole the best specimen of German methods yet 
recorded. 



TSAR'S MESSAGE TO THE BALTIC FLEET. 

Petrograd, October 25. 

THE following is the text of a telegram despatched by Times, 
the Minister of Marine to the Commandant of the Russian Oct - 2 7> 
Baltic Fleet : 

' The Emperor has charged me to express to you and 
your Fleet his gratitude for your activity in this autumnal 
season in keeping the sea among dangers from mines and 
submarines. Thanks to its skill and endurance the Baltic 
Fleet has fulfilled successfully its task of guarding the littoral 
of the capital and in supporting the armies on land. In spite 
of his numerical superiority and his temerity the enemy has 
obtained no definite successes. The Emperor believes that 
God will bless, by their ultimate triumph, the Russian sailors 
who are struggling for the glory of their dear country." 
Renter. 

345 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

NAVY. 

PENSION. 

Order in Council granting to all Seamen and Mariners re-entering 
during the War, the Privilege of counting Former Service 
towards Pension, irrespective of period during which 
they have been out of the Service. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, 
The 26th day of October, 1914. 

PRESENT, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

L.G. WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a 

Memorial from the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty, dated the i6th day of October, 1914, in the 
words following, viz. : 

' Whereas by Section 3 of the Naval and Marine Pay and 
Pensions Act, 1865, it is enacted, inter alia, that all pay, 
pensions, or other allowances in the nature thereof, payable 
in respect of services in Your Majesty's Naval or Marine 
Force to a person being or having been an Officer, Seaman, 
or Marine therein, shall be paid in such manner, and subject 
to such restrictions, conditions, and provisions, as are from 
time to time directed by Order in Council : 

" And whereas by the Regulations for the government of 
Your Majesty's Naval Service, Men who have been discharged 
from the Royal Navy or Royal Marines for reasons other than 
that of medical disability may, in the event of re-entry therein, 
count all former service with character not inferior to ' Fair ' 
towards pension, only ' provided that a break of five years 
did not take place between the two services ' : 

"And whereas we consider that it is desirable that this 
condition should be modified in the case of suitable men whom 
it is deemed expedient especially to allow to re-enter during 
the period of the War : 

' We beg leave humbly to recommend that Your Majesty 
may be graciously pleased, by Your Order in Council, to 
authorise us' to grant to all Seamen and Marines who are 
346 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

allowed to re-enter during the period of the War the privilege 
of counting their former service towards pension irrespective 
of the period they have been out of the Service. 

' The Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Treasury 
have signified their concurrence in this proposal." 

His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy 
Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And the 
Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
are to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 

REVISED RATES OF PAY FOR ROYAL MARINE 

OFFICERS. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, 
The 26th day of October, 1914. 

PRESENT, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a 
Memorial from the Right Honourable the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Admiralty, dated the 2ist day of October, 1914, 
in the words following, viz. : 

' Whereas by Section 3 of the Naval and Marine Pay and 
Pensions Act, 1865, it is enacted, inter alia, that all pay, 
pensions, or other allowances in the nature thereof, payable 
in respect of services in Your Majesty's Naval or Marine 
Force to a person being or having been an Officer, Seaman, 
or Marine therein, shall be paid in such manner, and subject 
to such restrictions, conditions, and provisions, as are from 
time to time directed by Order in Council : 

" And whereas by Orders in Council bearing dates the 
28th day of March, 1903, the ist day of August, 1908, and the 
I3th day of June, 1913, rates of pay were sanctioned for 
Officers of Your Majesty's Royal Marine Force : 

" And whereas Your Majesty, by Your Warrant bearing 
date the 2ist day of December, 1913, was pleased to approve 
of certain additions to the pay of Officers of Your Majesty's 
Army : 

347 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

" And whereas we are of opinion that corresponding addi- 
tions should be made to the pay of Officers of certain ranks 
in the Royal Marines who entered prior to the ist January, 
1912 : 

' We beg leave humbly to recommend that Your Majesty 
may be graciously pleased, by Your Order in Council, to 
sanction the grant of increases of pay to the Officers in question, 
as indicated in the annexed Schedule, with effect as from the 
ist day of January, 1914. 

' The Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Treasury 
have signified their concurrence in this proposal." 



SCHEDULE. 





Present Rates per Day. 


Revised Rates per Day. 




Ashore. 


Afloat. 


Ashore. 


Afloat. 


Ranks. 






R.M.A. 






R.M.A. 




R.M.A. 


R.M.L.I. 


and 


R.M.A. 


R.M.L.I. 


and 








R.M.L.I. 






R.M.L.I. 


Lieutenant-Colonel : 


5. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


After 4 years' seniority 


22 6 


22 6 





26 o 


26 o 





>, 2 


21 9 


21 9 





24 o 


24 o 





Under 2 


21 


21 O 





22 O 


22 





Majors : 














After 6 years' seniority 


18 6 


18 6 


20 o 


18 6 


18 6 


20 o 


4 


18 o 


18 o 


19 o 


18 o 


18 o 


19 o 


2 


17 6 


17 6 


18 o 


17 6 


17 6 


18 o 


Under 2 


16 i 


15 7 


17 o 


16 I 


16 i 


17 o 


Captain : 














After 14 years' seniority 


15 7 


15 i 


16 o 


15 7 


15 7 


16 o 


ii 


15 i 


H 7 


15 6 


15 i 


15 I 


15 6 


8 


14 7 


14 i 


15 o 











5 


13 i 


12 7 


13 6 


14 7 


H 7 


15 


3 











13 7 


13 7 


14 o 


2 








13 o 











Under 2 








12 6 











After i year's 


12 7 


12 I 





12 7 


12 I 


13 o 


Under i 


12 I 


ii 7 





12 I 


ii 7 


12 6 


Lieutenant : 














After 6 years' seniority 








IO 


9 o 


9 o 


IO O 


3 .. 


7 5 


7 o 





7 5 


7 o 





Under 3 


6 4 


5 ii 


*" 


6 4 


5 II 


~ 



His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into 
consideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His 
348 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Privy Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And 
the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admir- 
alty are to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 

ADMIRALTY NOTICE TO MARINERS RELATING TO 
THAMES NAVIGATION. 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following Times. 
communication : 

Until further notice all traffic into and out of the Thames I( 
must pass through the Edinburgh channels or through the 
Black Deep south of the Knock John and Knob buoys, and 
through Oaze Deep. 

All other channels are closed. 

No vessels may remain under way inside Sunk Head buoy, 
or inside of the line joining S. Long Sand and East Shingles 
buoys, at night between the hours of 7 p.m. and 6 a.m. 

Vessels at anchor within the above-mentioned limits 
must not show any lights at night between the hours of 7 p.m. 
and 6 a.m. 

GERMAN MINES OFF NORTH OF IRELAND. 

From the Senior Naval Officer at Liverpool. 
I HAVE been instructed by the Admiralty to warn Times, 
shipping passing round the North of Ireland of the fact that Oct - 28 
German mines have been laid in these waters. Shipping I( 
should therefore not pass within sixty miles of Tory Island. 

REVISED LIST OF CONTRABAND. 

BY THE KING. 

A PROCLAMATION REVISING THE LIST OF CONTRABAND OF 

WAR. 
GEORGE R.I. 

WHEREAS on the fourth day of August, 1914, We did L.G. 
issue Our Royal Proclamation specifying the articles which 
it was Our intention to treat as contraband of war during 
the war between Us and the German Emperor ; and 

349 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Whereas on the twelfth day of August, 1914, We did 
by Our Royal Proclamation of that date extend Our Procla- 
mation aforementioned to the war between Us and the 
Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary ; and 

Whereas on the twenty-first day of September, 1914, 
We did by Our Royal Proclamation of that date make certain 
additions to the list of articles to be treated as contraband 
of war ; and 

Whereas it is expedient to consolidate the said lists 
and to make certain additions thereto : 

Now, therefore, We do hereby declare, by and with 
the advice of Our Privy Council, that the lists of contraband 
contained in the schedules to Our Royal Proclamations of 
the fourth day of August and the twenty-first day of September 
aforementioned are hereby withdrawn, and that in lieu thereof 
during the continuance of the war or until We do give further 
public notice the articles enumerated in Schedule I hereto 
will be treated as absolute contraband, and the articles 
enumerated in Schedule II hereto will be treated as conditional 
contraband. 

SCHEDULE I. 

1. Arms of all kinds, including arms for sporting purposes, 
and their distinctive component parts. 

2. Projectiles, charges, and cartridges of all kinds, and 
their distinctive component parts. 

3. Powder and explosives specially prepared for use in war. 

4. Sulphuric acid. 

5. Gun mountings, limber boxes, limbers, military wagons, 
field forges and their distinctive component parts. 

6. Range-finders and their distinctive component parts. 

7. Clothing and equipment of a distinctively military 
character. 

8. Saddle, draught, and pack animals suitable for use 
in war. 

9. All kinds of harness of a distinctively military character. 

10. Articles of camp equipment and their distinctive 
component parts. 

11. Armour plates. 

12. Haematite iron ore and haematite pig iron. 

13. Iron Pyrites. 

14. Nickel ore and nickel. 
350 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

15. Ferrochrome and chrome ore. 

16. Copper, un wrought. 

17. Lead, pig, sheet, or pipe. 

18. Aluminium. 

19. Ferro-silica. 

20. Barbed wire, and implements for fixing and cutting 
the same. 

21. Warships, including boats and their distinctive com- 
ponent parts of such a nature that they can only be used on 
a vessel of war. 

22. Aeroplanes, airships, balloons, and aircraft of all 
kinds, and their component parts, together with accessories 
and articles recognisable as intended for use in connection 
with balloons and aircraft. 

23. Motor vehicles of all kinds and their component parts. 

24. Motor tyres ; rubber. 

25. Mineral oils and motor spirit, except lubricating oils. 

26. Implements and apparatus designed exclusively for 
the manufacture of munitions of war, for the manufacture 
or repair of arms, or war material for use on land and sea. 

SCHEDULE II. 

1. Foodstuffs. 

2. Forage and feeding stuffs for animals. 

3. Clothing, fabrics for clothing, and boots and shoes 
suitable for use in war. 

4. Gold and silver in coin or bullion ; paper money. 

5. Vehicles of all kinds, other than motor vehicles, avail- 
able for use in war, and their component parts. 

6. Vessels, craft, and boats of all kinds ; floating docks, 
parts of docks, and their component parts. 

7. Railway materials, both fixed and rolling stock, and 
materials for telegraphs, wireless telegraphs, and telephones. 

8. Fuel, other than mineral oils. Lubricants. 

9. Powder and explosives not specially prepared for use 
in war. 

10. Sulphur. 

11. Glycerine. 

12. Horseshoes and shoeing materials. 

13. Harness and saddlery. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

14. Hides of all kinds, dry or wet ; pigskins, raw or 
dressed ; leather, undressed or dressed, suitable for saddlery, 
harness, or military boots. 

15. Field glasses, telescopes, chronometers, and all kinds 
of nautical instruments. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Twenty- 
ninth day of October, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand nine hundred and fourteen, and in the 
Fifth year of Our Reign. 

MODIFICATION OF THE DECLARATION OF LONDON 
AND OF THE ORDER IN COUNCIL OF AUGUST 2oth, 

1914. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, 
The 29th day of October, 1914. 

PRESENT, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

L.G. WHEREAS by an Order in Council dated the 20th day of 

August, 1914, His Majesty was pleased to declare that, during 
the present hostilities, the Convention known as the Declara- 
tion of London should, subject to certain additions and modi- 
fications therein specified, be adopted and put in force by His 
Majesty's Government ; and 

Whereas the said additions and modifications were 
rendered necessary by the special conditions of the present 
war ; and 

Whereas it is desirable and possible now to re-enact the 
said Order in Council with amendments in order to minimise, 
so far as possible, the interference with innocent neutral 
trade occasioned by the war : 

Now, therefore, His Majesty, by and with the advice of 
His Privy Council, is pleased to order, and it is hereby ordered, 
as follows : 

i. During the present hostilities the provisions of the 
Convention known as the Declaration of London shall, subject 
to the exclusion of the lists of contraband and non-contraband, 
and to the modifications hereinafter set out, be adopted and 
put in force by His Majesty's Government. 

352 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The modifications are as follows : 

(i.) A neutral vessel, with papers indicating a neutral 
destination, which, notwithstanding the destination 
shown on the papers, proceeds to an enemy port, shall 
be liable to capture and condemnation if she is encoun- 
tered before the end of her next voyage. 

(ii.) The destination referred to in Article 33 of the 
said Declaration shall (in addition to the presumptions 
laid down in Article 34) be presumed to exist if the goods 
are consigned to or for an agent of the enemy State. 

(iii.) Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 35 of 
the said Declaration, conditional contraband shall be 
liable to capture on board a vessel bound for a neutral 
port if the goods are consigned " to order," or if the 
ship's papers do not show who is the consignee of the 
goods or if they show a consignee of the goods in territory 
belonging to or occupied by the enemy. 

(iv.) In the cases covered by the preceding para- 
graph (iii.) it shall lie upon the owners of the goods to 
prove that their destination was innocent. 

2. Where it is shown to the satisfaction of one of His 
Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State that the enemy 
Government is drawing supplies for its armed forces from or 
through a neutral country, he may direct that in respect of 
ships bound for a port in that country, Article 35 of the said 
Declaration shall not apply. Such direction shall be notified 
in the London Gazette, and shall operate until the same is 
withdrawn. So long as such direction is in force, a vessel 
which is carrying conditional contraband to a port in that 
country shall not be immune from capture. 

3. The Order in Council of the 20th August, 1914, directing 
the adoption and enforcement during the present hostilities 
of the Convention known as the Declaration of London, 
subject to the additions and modifications therein specified, 
is hereby repealed. 

4. This Order may be cited as "The Declaration of London 
Order in Council, No. 2, 1914." 

And the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, and each of His 
Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, the President of the 
Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Division of the High Court 

Naval I Z 353 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of Justice, all other Judges of His Majesty's Prize Courts, 
and all Governors, Officers, and Authorities whom it may 
concern, are to give the necessary directions herein as to them 
may respectively appertain. 



Foreign Office, November 20, 1914. 

L.G., The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has been informed 

Nov. 24, by jjis Majesty's Ambassador in France that the President 
of the French Republic has issued a Decree of identical effect 
with His Majesty's Order in Council and Proclamation, both 
of the 29th ultimo, setting forth the modifications subject to 
which the Declaration of London will be adhered to and put 
in force by His Majesty's Government during the present 
hostilities and revising the list of contraband of war. 

NAVY SEPARATION ALLOWANCES. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, 
The 29th day of October, 1914. 

PRESENT, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

L.G. WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a 

Memorial from the Right Honourable the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Admiralty, dated the 20th day of October, 1914, 
in the words following, viz. : 

' Whereas by Section 3 of the Naval and Marine Pay and 
Pensions Act, 1865, it is enacted, inter alia, that all pay, 
pensions, or other allowances in the nature thereof, payable 
in respect of services in Your Majesty's Naval or Marine Force 
to a person being or having been an Officer, Seaman, or Marine 
therein, shall be paid in such manner, and subject to such 
restrictions, conditions, and provisions, as are from time to 
time directed by Order in Council : 

" And whereas we consider it desirable that Separation 
Allowances should be paid during the period of the present 
War to the wives and in respect of the children of Seamen, 
Marines, and Reservists borne on the books of Your Majesty's 

3 54 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Ships, and to other persons who are in fact dependent upon 
them : 

" We beg leave humbly to recommend that Your Majesty 
may be graciously pleased, by Your Order in Council, to 
sanction payment of such allowances at rates not exceeding 
those set forth in the following Schedule, to take effect from 
the ist day of October, 1914. 

' The Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Treasury 
have signified their concurrence in this proposal. 

" SCHEDULE. 
" SCALE OF NAVY SEPARATION ALLOWANCES. 



Sailor. 


Marine on Ship's 
Books. 


Wife. 
Per 

week 


Children. 
Per week. 


Mother- 
less 
Children. 
Per week. 


Class I. : 
Ordinary Seaman 
Able Seaman . . 
Leading Seaman 
2nd Class Petty 
Officer and 


Private 
Corporal 
Sergeant and equiva- 
lent ranks. 


6s. 


ist child, 2S. 
2nd child, 2s. 
Subsequent 
children, is. 
each. 


35. each. 


equivalent rat- 










ings. 










Class II. : 
Petty Officer . . 
Petty Officer, ist 
Class and 


Colour-Sergeant and 
equivalent ranks. 


75. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


equivalent rat- 










ings. 










Class III. : 
Chief Petty Offi- 
cer and equiva- 
lent ratings. 


Quartermaster Ser- 
geant and Staff 
Sergeant. 


8s. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Class IV 


Warrant Officer . . 


95. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 



" Payment in respect of children to be made for boys 
under 14 and girls under 16 years of age. 



355 



Times, 
Oct. 30, 
1914. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

" Families now residing within the London Postal area 
to receive an additional allowance of 35. 6d. a week." 

His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy 
Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And the 
Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
are to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 

OPERATIONS ON THE BELGIAN COAST. 

Admiralty, October 29. 

YESTERDAY and the day before the enemy brought 
up heavy guns, and replied vigorously to the fire of Admiral 
Hood's ships. The vessels only received trifling structural 
damage. 

To-day the opposition from the shore has practically 
ceased, and the preponderance of the naval gunnery seems 
to be established. 

The casualties have been very slight throughout, but 
one shell exploding on the destroyer Falcon killed one officer 
and eight men, and wounded one officer and fifteen men. 
One killed and several wounded are also reported from the 
Brilliant, and eight wounded in Rinaldo. A full list will be 
published as soon as possible. 

The enemy's submarines have also been reported seeking 
opportunity to attack the bombarding ships, which are 
covered by British destroyers. 



ADMIRAL HOOD'S REPORT. 

Admiralty, April 13. 

Times, THE following despatch has been received from Rear- 

April 13, Admiral the Hon. Horace L. A. Hood, C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O., 
I 9 I 5- reporting the proceedings of the flotilla off the coast of Bel- 
gium between October i7th and November gth, 1914 : 

Office of Rear Admiral, Dover Patrol, 

November n, 1914. 

SIR, I have the honour to report the proceedings of the 
flotilla acting off the coast of Belgium, between October I7th 
and November 9th. 

356 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The flotilla was organised to prevent the movement of 
large bodies of German troops along the coast roads from 
OstendtoNieuport, to support the left flank of the Belgian Army, 
and to prevent any movement by sea of the enemy's troops. 

Operations commenced during the night of October I7th, 
when the Attentive, flying my flag, accompanied by the 
monitors Severn, Humber, and Mersey, the light cruiser 
Foresight, and several torpedo-boat destroyers, arrived and 
anchored off Nieuport Pier. 

Early on the morning of October i8th information was 
received that German infantry were advancing on Westende 
village, and that a battery was in action at Westende Bains. 
The flotilla at once proceeded up past Westende and Middle- 
kirke to draw the fire and endeavour to silence the guns. 

A brisk shrapnel fire was opened from the shore, which 
was immediately replied to, and this commenced the naval 
operations on the coast which continued for more than three 
weeks without intermission. 

During the first week the enemy's troops were endeavour- 
ing to push forward along the coast roads, and a large accumu- 
lation of transport existed within reach of the naval guns. 

On October i8th machine-guns from the Severn were 
landed at Nieuport to assist in the defence, and Lieutenant 
E. S. Wise fell, gallantly leading his men. 

The Amazon, flying my flag, was badly holed on the 
waterline and was sent to England for repairs, and during 
these early days most of the vessels suffered casualties, chiefly 
from shrapnel shell from the field guns of the enemy. 

The presence of the ships on the coast soon caused alter- 
ations in the enemy's plans, less and less of their troops were 
seen, while more and more heavy guns were gradually mounted 
among the sand dunes that fringe the coast. 

It soon became evident that more and heavier guns were 
required in the flotilla. The Scouts therefore returned to 
England, while H.M.S. Venerable and several older cruisers, 
sloops and gunboats arrived to carry on the operations. 

Five French torpedo-boat destroyers were placed under 
my orders by Admiral Favereau, and on October 30 th I had 
the honour of hoisting my flag in the Intrepide, and leading 
the French flotilla into action off Lombartzyde. The greatest 
harmony and enthusiasm existed between the Allied flotillas. 

357 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

As the heavier guns of the enemy came into play it was 
inevitable that the casualties of the flotilla increased, the 
most important being the disablement of the 6-in. turret 
and several shots on the waterline of the Mersey, the death 
of the Commanding Officer and eight men, and the disable- 
ment of sixteen others in the Falcon, which vessel came 
under a heavy fire when guarding the Venerable against sub- 
marine attack ; the Wildfire and Vestal were badly holed, 
and a number of casualties caused in the Brilliant and 
Rinaldo. 

Enemy submarines were seen and torpedoes were fired, 
and during the latter part of the operations the work of the 
torpedo craft was chiefly confined to the protection of the 
larger ships. 

It gradually became apparent that the rush of the enemy 
along the coast had been checked, that the operations were 
developing into a trench warfare, and that the work of the 
flotilla had, for the moment, ceased. 

The arrival of Allied reinforcements and the inundation 
of the country surrounding Nieuport rendered the further 
presence of the ships unnecessary. 

The work of the squadron was much facilitated by the 
efforts of Colonel Bridges, attached to the Belgian Head- 
quarters, and to him I am greatly indebted for his constant 
and unfailing support. 

I would like especially to bring to your notice : 

Capitaine de Fregate Richard, of the Dunois, Senior 
Officer of the French flotilla, whose courtesy and gallantry 
assisted to make the operations a success. 

Captain C. D. Johnson, M.V.O., in charge of 6th 
Destroyer Flotilla. 

Commander Eric J. A. Fullerton, in command of the 
monitors, whose ships were constantly engaged in the inshore 
fighting. 

Commander A. D. M. Cherry, of the Vestal, who com- 
manded the sloops, which were constantly engaged for the 
whole period. He remained in command of the flotilla after 
my departure on November 7th, and continued the bombard- 
ment on November 8th, returning to England the next day. 

Commander H. C. Halahan, of the Bustard, whose gunboat 
was constantly in action close to the shore. 

358 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Commander A. L. Snagge, of the Humber. 

Commander H. G. L. Oliphant, of the Amazon. 

Lieutenant-Commander R. A. Wilson, of the Mersey. 

Lieutenant-Commander G. L. D. Gibbs, of the Crusader, 
in which ship my flag was hoisted during most of the opera- 
tions. 

Lieutenant-Commander J. B. Adams, R.N.R., on my staff. 

Lieutenant H. O. Wauton, of the Falcon, who maintained 
his position in a heavy fire on the look-out for submarines, 
and was unfortunately killed. 

Lieutenant H. O. Joyce, of the Vestal, who was badly 
wounded by a shell, but rallied his men to attend to the 
wounded, and then got his gun again into action. 

Sub-Lieutenant C. J. H. DuBoulay, of the Falcon, who 
took command of his ship after the Captain and twenty-four 
men were killed and wounded. 

Petty Officer Robert Chappell, O.N. 207788, of the Falcon, 
who, though both legs were shattered and he was dying, 
continued to try and assist in the tending of the wounded. 
He shortly afterwards died of his wounds. 

Petty Officer Fredk. William Motteram, of the Falcon, 
O.N. 183216, for immediate attention to the wounded under 
fire on October 28th. 

Able Seaman Ernest Dimmock, of the Falcon, O.N. 204549, 
who directly the casualties occurred in Falcon, finding himself 
the only person un wounded on deck, went immediately to 
the helm and conned the ship. 

Herbert Edward Sturman, of the Mersey, Boy, ist class 
O.N.J. 24687, who, when wounded by shrapnel, continued to 
serve the guns. 

Leading Seaman John Thos. Knott, O.N.J. 1186, of the 
Brilliant, who, when all men at his gun being killed or 
wounded, and himself severely wounded, endeavoured to 
fight his gun. 

COOLNESS UNDER FIRE. 

The following are specially recommended by their Com- 
manding Officers for their good behaviour and coolness under 
fire : 

Chief Engine Room Artificer William Ernest Brading, of 
the Falcon, O.N. 268579. 

359 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL fOci 

Private R.M.L.I. Alfred J. Foster, of the Brilliant, O.N. 
Ch. 10605. 

Petty Officer Sydney Edric Murphy, of the Mersey, O.N. 
190841. 

Petty Officer Henry Sayce, of the Mersey, O.N. 132956. 

Herbert Edward Sturman (Boy), of the Mersey, O.N.J. 
24887. 

Leading Signalman Cyril Henry Swan, of the Sirius, 
R.F.R., O.N. 230592. 

Petty Officer James Weatherhead, of the Rinaldo, O.N. 
127747. 

Leading Seaman John Keane, of the Rinaldo, O.N. 204128. 

Private R.M.L.I. Joseph Martin, of the Humber (who 
landed with Marine detachment), O.N. Ch. 15582. 

Stoker, ist, Samuel Johnston, of the Humber, O.N. 
Ch. 282822 (R.F.R. Ch.B. 4090). 

Petty Officer Robt. Frederick Jennings, of the Vestal, 
O.N. 157343 (R.F.R. Po. B. 1481). 

Petty Officer Charles Henry Sutton, of the Vestal, O.N. 
158086. 

Leading Seaman Frederick Stanley Woodruff, of the 
Vestal, O.N. 237062. 

Able Seaman William Chapman, of the Vestal, O.N. 183312 
(R.F.R. Po. B. 1666). 

Officer's Steward James Whiteman, of the Vestal, O.N. 
L. 1275. 

I beg to append a list of the vessels engaged. 
I have the honour to be, Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

HORACE HOOD, 

Rear-Admiral, Dover Patrol. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty. 

Enclosure to Rear-Admiral Hood's despatch of November n : 

LIST OF SHIPS WHICH TOOK PART IN OPERATIONS OFF BELGIAN 

COAST. 

Venerable (Captain V. H. G. Bernard). 
Attentive (Captain C. D. Johnson, M.V.O.). 
Foresight (Captain H. N. Garnett). 
360 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Brilliant (Captain (ret.) H. Christian). 
Sirius (Commander (ret.) W. H. Boys). 
Severn (Commander E. J. A. Fullerton). 
Humber (Commander A. L. Snagge). 
Mersey (Lieut. -Commander R. A. Wilson). 
Vestal (Commander A. D. M. Cherry). 
Rinaldo (Commander H. J. Kennard). 
Wildfire (Commander E. Altham). 
Bustard (Commander H. C. Halahan). 
Excellent (Lieut.-Commander (ret.) E. A. Digby). 
Crane (Commander R. H. Coppinger). 
Falcon (Lieutenant H. O. Wauton (killed)). 
Flirt (Lieutenant H. S. BraddyU). 
Mermaid (Lieutenant P. R. P. Percival). 

Myrmidon (Lieut.-Commander (ret.) R. H. B. Hammond- 
Chambers). 

Racehorse (Lieutenant E. P. U. Pender). 

Syren (Commander T. C. H. Williams). 

Amazon (Commander H. G. L. Oliphant). 

Cossack (Lieut.-Commander G. C. Harrison). 

Crusader (Lieut.-Commander G. L. D. Gibbs). 

Maori (Lieut.-Commander B. W. Barrow). 

Mohawk (Commander E. R. G. R. Evans, C.B.). 

Hazard (Commander N. E. Archdale). 

Nubian (Commander C. E. Cundall). 

Viking (Lieutenant J. P. Gibbs). 

Submarine C 32 (Lieut.-Commander V. V. Layard). 

Submarine C 34 (Lieut.-Commander J. F. Hutchings). 

Dunois (Capitaine de fregate Richard). 

Capitaine Mehl (Lieutenant de vaisseau Rossignal). 

Francis-Gamier (Lieutenant de vaisseau de Pianelh'). 

Intrepide (Lieutenant de vaisseau Vaudier). 

Aventurier (Lieutenant de vaisseau Semichon). 

361 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Oc: 

RESIGNATION OF PRINCE LOUIS OF BATTENBERG. 

Times, THE following statement has been issued by the Secretary 

Oct. 30, to the Admiralty : 

I 9 I 4- H.S.H. Admiral Prince Louis of Battenberg was received 

by His Majesty on resigning the appointment of First Sea 
Lord. 

His Majesty has directed that Prince Louis be sworn of 
the Privy Council. 

The following correspondence has passed between H.S.H. 
Admiral Prince Louis of Battenberg and the First Lord of 
the Admiralty : 

October 28, 1914. 

DEAR MR. CHURCHILL, I have lately been driven to the 
painful conclusion that at this juncture my birth and parent- 
age have the effect of impairing in some respects my usefulness 
on the Board of Admiralty. In these circumstances I feel 
it to be my duty, as a loyal subject of His Majesty, to resign 
the office of First Sea Lord, hoping thereby to facilitate the 
task of the administration of the great Service, to which I 
have devoted my life, and to ease the burden laid on H.M. 
Ministers. I am, yours very truly, 

LOUIS BATTENBERG, 
Admiral. 

October 29, 1914. 

MY DEAR PRINCE Louis, This is no ordinary war, but 
a struggle between nations for life or death. It raises passions 
between races of the most terrible kind. It effaces the old 
landmarks and frontiers of our civilisation. 

I cannot further oppose the wish you have during the last 
few weeks expressed to me to be released from the burden of 
responsibility which you have borne thus far with so much 
honour and success. The anxieties and toils which rest upon 
the naval administration of our country are in themselves 
enough to try a man's spirit ; and when to them are added 
the ineradicable difficulties of which you speak, I could not 
at this juncture in fairness ask you to support them. 

The Navy of to-day, and still more the Navy of to-morrow, 
bears the imprint of your work. The enormous impending 
influx of capital ships, the score of 3O-knot cruisers, the 

362 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

destroyers and submarines unequalled in modern construction 
which are coming now to hand, are the results of labours 
which we have had in common, and in which the Board of 
Admiralty owe so much to your aid. 

The first step which secured the timely concentration of 
the Fleet was taken by you. (1) 

I must express publicly my deep indebtedness to you, and 
the pain I feel at the severance of our three years' official 
association. In all the circumstances you are right in your 
decision. The spirit in which you have acted is the same 
in which Prince Maurice of Battenberg has given his life 
to our cause, and in which your gallant son is now serving in 
the Fleet. 

I beg you to accept my profound respect and that of our 
colleagues on the Board. 
I remain, 

Yours very sincerely, 

WINSTON S. CHURCHILL. 



MESSAGE FROM THE FLEET TO PRINCE LOUIS OF 

BATTENBERG. 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty announces that the Times, 
Commander-in-Chief , Home Fleets, has addressed the follow- Nov. 3, 
ing telegram to Admiral His Serene Highness Prince Louis of I 9 I 4- 
Battenberg : 

Have received with the most profound sorrow the 
information contained in your telegram. The whole Fleet 
will learn the news when published with the deepest possible 
regret. We look to you with the greatest loyalty, respect, 
and gratitude, for the work you have accomplished for the 
Navy. 

THE NEW FIRST SEA LORD. 

October 31. 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following Times, 
announcement : Nov - * 

The King has approved the appointment of Admiral I 9 I 4- 
of the Fleet Lord Fisher of Kilverstone, G.C.B., O.M., 
G.C.V.O., LL.D., to be First Sea Lord of the Admiralty in 
succession to Admiral H.S.H. Prince Louis of Battenberg. 

363 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

NEW BOARD OF ADMIRALTY WITH LORD 
FISHER AS FIRST SEA LORD. 

Crown Office, October 30, 1914. 

L.G., THE King has been pleased by Letters Patent under the 

Oct. 30, Great Seal, bearing date the 3Oth inst., to appoint 

The Right Honourable Winston Leonard Spencer- 
Churchill, 

Admiral of the Fleet John Arbuthnot Lord Fisher of 
Kilverstone, G.C.B., O.M., G.C.V.O., 

Vice-Admiral Sir Frederick Tower Hamilton, K.C.B., 
C.V.O., 

Rear- Admiral Frederick Charles Tudor Tudor, C.B., 
Captain Cecil Foley Lambert, 
The Right Honourable George Lambert, and 
The Right Honourable Sir Francis John Stephens 
Hopwood, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 

to be Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High 
Admiral of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
&c. 

[The issue of this new Patent was due to the resignation of Prince Louis 
of Battenberg and the appointment of Lord Fisher of Kilverstone to succeed 
him as First Sea Lord. There was no other change in the composition of 
the Board.] 

TURKISH OPERATIONS IN THE BLACK SEA. 

K.V., THE Petrograd Telegraph Agency reports that between 

Oct. 30, 0^30 an( j 10.30 yesterday morning a three-funnelled Turkish 
19141 war vessel bombarded the railway station and town of 
Theodosia, damaging the Cathedral, the Greek Church, and 
the granary near the harbour, and the mole. One soldier was 
wounded. The branch of the Russian Bank for Foreign Trade 
was set on fire. The war vessel then sailed away in a south- 
westerly direction. The Turkish cruiser Hamidieh arrived at 
Novorossisk and demanded the surrender of the town under 
penalty of bombardment. The Turkish Consul and his staff 
were arrested and the cruiser disappeared. 



Times, Amsterdam, October 30. 

Oct. 31, An official communique issued in Constantinople and 

I9 X 4- published by the Berlin Mittags Zeitung states that Russian 
364 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

torpedo boats attempted to prevent the Turkish Fleet from 
leaving the Bosporus for the Black Sea. The Turkish ships 
opened fire and sank two of the Russian vessels. More than 
thirty Russian sailors were saved by the Turkish ships and 
were made prisoners. The Turkish Fleet suffered no loss. 
Renter. 

Constantinople, October 31. 

The armoured cruiser Sultan Selim [formerly Goeben] K.V. 
has sunk a Russian ship laden with 300 mines and has 
heavily damaged a collier as well as a Russian gunboat. 
It has also successfully bombarded Sebastopol. The cruiser 
Midilli [formerly Breslau] has destroyed the petroleum 
and grain depots at Naruski, and sunk fourteen trans- 
port steamers. The torpedo boat destroyer Berc-i- 
Satwet has destroyed the wireless telegraph station in 
Novorossisk. The J adig-hiar-i-millet has sunk a Russian 
gunboat. The Muavenet-i-Millije damaged another ship 
of the same class. In Odessa the petroleum tanks and five 
Russian ships have been damaged. 

The cruiser Hamidije has bombarded Theodosia and has 
sunk a transport vessel at Kertsch. 

Constantinople, October 31. 

A small part of the Turkish Fleet in the Black Sea on Times, 
Thursday sunk the Russian mine-layer Prut (5,000 tons), Nov. 2. 
which had on board seven hundred mines, damaged a Russian I 9 I 4- 
torpedo boat, and seized a collier. A torpedo fired from a 
Turkish torpedo boat sunk the Russian destroyer Kubanetz. 
The Muavenet-i-Millije torpedoed another Russian coastguard 
ship, which was severely damaged. Three Russian officers 
and seventy-two sailors were saved by us and imprisoned. 
The Turkish Fleet suffered no loss, and the battle is being 
successfully continued. 

Press Bureau, November 3. 

A telegram has been received from His Majesty's Times 
Ambassador at Petrograd stating that the British Vice- Nov. 4. 
Consul at Novorossisk has reported that on October 3Oth, I 9 I 4 
two Turkish cruisers bombarded that port and that the 
British steamer Friederika was burnt and scuttled. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Petrograd, November 2. 

Times, The following telegram, received from the Grand Vizier, 
Nov. 3, was rea( j to M. Sazonof, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
I9I4> yesterday by the Ottoman Charge d' Affaires : 

" Convey to M. Sazonof, Minister for Foreign Affairs, our 
deep regret at the rupture of good relations between the two 
Powers, which has been caused by the hostile act of the 
Russian Fleet. You can assure the Imperial Russian Govern- 
ment that the Sublime Porte will not fail to give an opportune 
solution to this question, and will take all measures to prevent 
any repetition of such incidents. You can declare to the 
Minister for Foreign Affairs that the Ottoman Government has 
decided to forbid the Turkish Fleet to enter the Black Sea, 
and we hope in our turn that the Russian Fleet will not 
cruise near our littoral. 

" In the interests of the two countries I firmly hope that 
the Imperial Russian Government will show in this affair the 
same spirit of conciliation." 

C.O., On October 2gth, without motive, and without anything 

Nov. 7, to show that such action was pending, three Turkish torpedo 
I 9 I 4- craft appeared suddenly before Odessa. In that port they 
sank the Russian gunboat Donetz and fired on the French 
packet Portugal, killing two persons on board. The same 
day the cruisers Breslau and Hamidieh bombarded several 
commercial ports in the Black Sea including Novorossisk 
and Theodosia. In the forenoon of October 30th the Goeben 
bombarded Sebastopol without causing any serious damage. 
By way of reprisals the Franco-British squadron in the 
Eastern Mediterranean carried out a demonstration against 
the forts at the entrance to the Dardanelles at daybreak on 
November 3rd. The forts Holas [Helles] and Kum-Kalesi 
were fired at successfully. They replied, but their fire was 
badly directed and none of the Allied vessels were struck. 

THE " EMDEN " SINKS THE " JEMCHUG." 

Petrograd, October 30. 

THE Russian Admiralty has received the following details 
regarding the sinking of the cruiser Jemchug at Penang : 

The Emden approached the patrol vessels on October 28th 
at five o'clock in the morning, carrying a fourth sham funnel. 

366 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The patrol boats took her for a vessel belonging to the Allied 
Fleet. The Emden then approached the Jemchug at full 
speed, and opened fire with a torpedo, which exploded near the 
Jemchug' s bow. The latter returned the fire, but the Emden 
fired a second torpedo, which sank the cruiser. Eighty-five 
of the crew perished. Of two hundred and fifty men saved, 
one hundred and twelve are wounded. Renter. 



WORK OF THE FRENCH NAVY. 

October 30. 

BESIDES co-operating with the Allied Fleets in maintain- 
ing a blockade of the German Fleet, guarding trade routes, 
&c., the French Navy is contributing usefully to the success 
of the Allied arms on land by supplying men and material. 

The naval units now at the front include Marine Fusiliers, 
a maxim section, a regiment of marine gunners, machine-gun 
sections and searchlights mounted on motor cars, and a 
river flotilla. The Marine Fusiliers and the maxim section 
have just distinguished themselves at Dixmude, on the right 
wing of the Belgian Army. The naval gunners with their 
guns are successfully co-operating in the defence of the 
eastern fortresses, while the machine-gun motors which are 
distributed throughout the army have exhibited great activity 
and efficiency. 

Numbers of sailors have been sent to reinforce the regi- 
mental depots and they will be joined by all naval reservists 
not required on merchant ships. A part of the personnel 
of the Naval Flying Corps and a number of engineers and 
workmen have also been placed at the disposition of the 
Ministry of War. Renter. 



LOSS OF THE " HERMES." 

Admiralty, October 31, 1914. 

old cruiser Hermes, Captain C. R. Lambe, which had 
been recently used as a seaplane-carrying ship, was sunk 
to-day by a torpedo fired by a German submarine in the 
Straits of Dover as she was returning from Dunkirk. 

367 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Nearly all the officers and crew were saved, but the exact 
loss cannot be ascertained until the men are mustered. The 
loss of the vessel is of small military significance. 

The Venerable, Captain V. H. G. Bernard, has been in 
action again all day in support of the Belgian left, aided by 
the gunboats and flotillas. This is now the fourteenth day of 
the naval bombardment. 



Berlin, November 2. 

K.V. The unofficial report concerning the destruction of the 

English cruiser Hermes by a German submarine can now be 
officially confirmed. The submarine has returned in good 
condition. 

BEHNCKE, 
The Acting Chief of the Admiral Staff. 



STATEMENT BY THE FOREIGN OFFICE WITH 
RESPECT TO THE DETENTION OF AUSTRO- 
HUNGARIAN MERCHANT SHIPPING. 

Foreign Office, October 31, 1914. 

NOTICE. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has received 
information to satisfy him that British merchant ships, which 
cleared from their last port of departure before the outbreak 
of hostilities with Austria-Hungary, but have been, or may 
be, met with at sea by Austro-Hungarian ships of war after 
the outbreak of such hostilities, are to be detained during the 
war, or requisitioned in lieu of condemnation as prize, and he 
has accordingly addressed the undermentioned notification to 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

Sir Edward Grey to the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty. 

Foreign Office, October 31, 1914. 
MY LORDS, 

I HAVE the honour to state that information has reached 
me of a nature to satisfy me that British merchant ships, which 

368 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

cleared from their last port before the outbreak of hostilities 
with Austria-Hungary, but have been, or may be, met with 
at sea by Austro-Hungarian ships of war after the outbreak 
of such hostilities, are to be detained during the war, or 
requisitioned in lieu of condemnation as prize. 

Austro-Hungarian merchant vessels therefore, which 
cleared from their last port before the declaration of war, and 
are captured after the outbreak of hostilities with Austria- 
Hungary and brought before British Prize Courts for adjudica- 
tion, will be detained during the war, or requisitioned subject 
to indemnity. 

I have, &c., 

E. GREY. 



BOMBARDMENT OF TSINGTAU. 

November i. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has received P.B. 
the following cablegram from the British Ambassador in 
Japan : 

The Japanese War Department announces that the 
general bombardment of Tsingtau began at dawn to-day 
[October 31]. 



PROMOTIONS, APPOINTMENTS, HONOURS, AND 

REWARDS. 

Admiralty, October n. 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty announces that the 
following appointments have been approved by the King : 

Rear- Admiral Alexander Ludovic Duff, C.B., to be 
Rear- Admiral in the Fourth Battle Squadron. 

Rear-Admiral the Hon. Horace Lambert Alexander Hood, 
C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O., to be Admiral in Command of the Dover 
Patrol. 

Rear-Admiral Henry Francis Oliver, C.B., M.V.O., to 
be Naval Secretary to the First Lord of the Admiralty, in 
succession to Rear-Admiral Hood. 

Naval I a A 369 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ROYAL NAVAL RESERVE. 

Admiralty, October 12, 1914. 

In accordance with the provisions of His Majesty's Order 
in Council of December i6th, 1912, temporary Commissions 
in the Royal Naval Reserve have been issued as follows : 

Commander : John L. Marx, M.V.O. (Admiral, retired). 

Lieutenant-Commander : Ion Hamilton Benn, M.P. 

DEPUTY JUDGE ADVOCATE OF THE FLEET. 

Paymaster-in-Chief Frederick James Krabbe, C.B., R.N., 
has been re-appointed Deputy Judge Advocate of the Fleet 
during pleasure, as from the 2ist day of December, 1913, 
under the terms of His Majesty's Order in Council, dated the 
2ist day of September, 1914. 

ROYAL MARINE ARTILLERY. 

Admiralty, October 13, 1914. 

Lieutenant-General William Inglefield Eastman to be 
General, vice Bor. 

Major-General Leonard Thales Pease to be Lieutenant- 
General, vice Eastman, promoted. 

Colonel Commandant (temporary Brigadier-General) 
Harry Lynch Talbot to be Major-General, vice Pease, 
promoted. 

Colonel Second Commandant (temporary Brigadier- 
General) Sir George Grey Aston, K.C.B., A.D.C., to be Colonel 
Commandant, with the temporary rank of Brigadier-General 
in command of the R.M.A. Division, vice Talbot, promoted. 

Lieutenant-Colonel and Brevet Colonel (temporary Bri- 
gadier-General) Archibald Paris, C.B. (from Supplementary 
Half -pay List), to be Colonel Second Commandant, Super- 
numerary, whilst holding the appointment of Inspector of 
Recruiting, vice Aston, promoted. 

Lieutenant-Colonel and Brevet-Colonel Gunning More- 
head Campbell to be Colonel Second Commandant, vice Paris, 
Supernumerary. 

Major and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Sydney Gaitskell 
to be Lieutenant-Colonel, vice Campbell, promoted. 



370 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

His Majesty the King has been pleased, on the recom- Times, 
mendation of the President of the Board of Trade, to award Oct. 15, 
the Silver Medal for Gallantry in Saving Life at Sea to Mr. I 9 I 4- 
Thomas Neason Phillips, skipper of the trawler Coriander, 
of Lowest oft ; Mr. George Edward Jacobs, skipper of the 
trawler J.G.C., of Lowestoft ; Mr. Roelof Pieter Voorman, 
master of the steamship Flora, of Amsterdam ; and Mr. Johan 
Adam Berkhout, master of the steamship Titan, of Amsterdam, 
in recognition of their services in rescuing survivors of His 
Majesty's Ships Aboukir, Cressy, and Rogue, which were sunk 
by torpedoes in the North Sea on September 22nd. 

The Mayor of Lowestoft yesterday presented monetary 
awards to Skipper Phillips, of the Coriander, and Skipper 
George Jacobs, of the J.G.C., and the men of the respective 
crews. The Admiralty granted 200, and there were individual 
subscriptions amounting to 25. The total sum was appor- 
tioned in shares according to the rank of the crew, each 
skipper receiving over 34, and the men smaller amounts. 

CENTRAL CHANCERY OF THE ORDERS OF 
KNIGHTHOOD. 

Lord Chancellor's Office, St. James's Palace, 

October 21, 1914. 

THE KING has been graciously pleased to give orders for 
the following appointment to the Most Honourable Order of 
the Bath, in recognition of the services of the undermentioned 
Officer mentioned in the foregoing despatches : 

To be an Ordinary Member of the Military Division of the 
Third Class or Companion. 

Captain Reginald Yorke Tyrwhitt (Commodore, Second 
Class), Royal Navy. 

Admiralty, October 21, 1914. 

THE KING has been graciously pleased to give orders 
for the following appointments to the Distinguished Service 
Order, and for the award of the Distinguished Service Cross 
(late Conspicuous Service Cross), in respect of the under- 
mentioned Officers in recognition of their services mentioned 
in the foregoing despatches : 

371 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Oci 

To be Companions of the Distinguished Service Order. 

Captain William Frederick Blunt. 
Commander the Hon. Herbert Meade. 
Commander Frank Forester Rose. 
Commander Charles Rumney Samson. 
Lieutenant-Commander Max Kennedy Horton. 
Lieutenant Frederick Arthur Peere Williams-Freeman. 
Squadron-Commander Spenser Douglas Adair Grey. 
Flight-Lieutenant Reginald Lennox George Marix. 
Lieutenant Charles Herbert Collet, Royal Marine Artillery. 

To receive the Distinguished Service Cross (late Conspicuous 

Service Cross). 

Lieutenant Henry Edward Horan. 

Lieutenant Charles Manners Sutton Chapman. 

Lieutenant , Charles Reid Peploe. 

Chief Gunner Ernest Roper. 

Gunner Robert Mitchell Taylor. 

Gunner James Douglas Godfrey. 

Gunner Harry Morgan. 

(Acting) Boatswain Charles Powell. 

The following promotions in His Majesty's Fleet have been 
made in recognition of the services mentioned : 

To be promoted to Commander. 

Lieutenant-Commander Malcolm Lennon Goldsmith. 
Lieutenant-Commander Ernest William Leir. 
Lieutenant-Commander Cecil Ponsonby Talbot. 

To be promoted to Lieutenant. 

Sub-Lieutenant Clive Askew Robinson. 
Sub-Lieutenant George Haines Faulkner. 

The following Officer has beerFaoted for early promotion : 

Lieutenant-Commander Max Kennedy Horton. 
372 



H4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The following awards have also been made : 

To receive the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal. 
Ernest Randall Cremer, Able Seaman, O.N. 214235. 

To receive the Distinguished Service Medal. 

Ernest Edward Stevens, Chief Engine Room Artificer 
(ist Class), O.N. 269451. 

Arthur Cecil Smith, Acting Chief Engine Room Artificer 
(2nd Class), O.N. 270627. 

Albert Fox, Chief Yeoman of Signals, O.N. 194656. 

Frederick William Walter Wrench, Chief Petty Officer, 
O.N. 158630. 

George Henry Sturdy, Chief Stoker, O.N. 285547. 

Edward Charles Taylor, Chief Stoker, O.N. 283225. 

James William Armstrong, Engine Room Artificer (ist 
Class), O.N. 270451. 

William Rochester Boiston, Engine Room Artificer (3rd 
Class), O.N. M. 1369. 

James Samuel Beadle, Acting Chief Petty Officer, O.N. 

I7I733. 

Edward Naylor, Petty Officer, O.N. 189136. 

Arthur Hiscock, Petty Officer, O.N. 191423. 

Alfred George Antram, Petty Officer, O.N. 223207. 

Harry Weate, Petty Officer, O.N. 174893. 

Stephen Pritchard, Stoker Petty Officer, O.N. 285152. 

Frederick Pierce, Stoker Petty Officer, O.N. 307943. 

Alfred Britton, Stoker Petty Officer, O.N. 289893. 

John Galvin, Stoker Petty Officer, O.N. 279946. 

Arthur Fred Hayes, Armourer, O.N. 342026. 

Frederick Charles Langridge, Stoker (ist Class), O.N. K. 
6765. 

Sam Palmer, Leading Seaman, O.N. 179529. 

William Arthur McGill, Leading Seaman, O.N. 217484. 

Albert Edmund Sellens, Able Seaman, O.N. 217245. 

Henry Hurlock, Able Seaman, O.N. 238126. 

Admiralty, 

October 2ist, 1914. 

373 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

DETENTIONS AND CAPTURES OF ENEMY SHIPS 

OR CARGOES. 

Saturday, October 3, 1914. 

VESSELS DETAINED IN BRITISH PORTS OR CAPTURED AT SEA 
BY His MAJESTY'S ARMED FORCES. 

Foreign Office, October 2, 1914. 
REVISED LIST OF VESSELS. 



[Oci 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Adolf (943) 




German 






Gibraltar. 


Adolf (120) 




German 






Leith. 


Albert Clement (1,165) 




German 






South Shields. 


Alesia (5,144) 




German 






Rangoon. 


Alfa (3,365) 




Austrian 






London. 


Alfred (130) 




German 






Granton. 


Aline Woermann (3,133) 




German 






* 


Altair (3,220) 




German 






t 


Altje (68) .. 




German 






Hull. 


Altona (4,312) 




German 






Melbourne. 


Angela (122) 




German 






Grangemouth. 


Apapa 




German 






Nigeria. 


Apolda (4,939) 




German 






Cape Town. 


Arnfield 




German 






* 


Arzfels 




German 






Port Adelaide. 


Athene (2,470) 




German 






Sydney. 


Attila (3,240) 




Austrian 






Kirkwall. 


Australia (7,485) 




German 






Colombo. 


Behrend (141) 




German 






Arbroath. 


Belgia (8,132) 




German 






Newport, Mon. 


Bellas (931) 




German 






Quebec. 


Berlin (79) 




German 






Wick. 


Berlin (4,196) 




German 






Sydney. 


Bethania (7,548) 




German 






Kingston, Jamaica. 


Birktnfels (5,639) . . 




German 






Cape Town. 


Bismarck 




German 






South Africa. 


Blonde (613) 




German 






London. 


Bolivar (267) 




German 






Plymouth. 



* Captured off the Cameroon River. 

f Captured and taken into Port Soudan. 



374 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

REVISED LIST OF VESSELS continued. 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Braunfels (5,554) 


German 


Karachi. 


Brema (i,537) 


German 


Swansea. 


Cannstatt (5,930) 


German 


Brisbane. 


Caracas (503) 


German 


Falmouth. 


Carl (1,993) 


German 


Cardiff. 


Carl Rudgert Vinnen (2,903) 


German 


Newcastle, N.S.W. 


C. Ferd Laeisz (4,931) 


German 


Hong Kong. 


Chile (2,182) 


German 


Cardiff. 


Chow-Tat (1,777) 


German 


Singapore. 


Comet (1,471) 


German 


Seaham Harbour. 


Conrad (164) 


German 


Invergordon. 


Daksa (4,140) 


Austrian 


Gibraltar. 


Denebola (1,481) 


German 


West Hartlepool. 


Diana (1,208) 


German 


Nigeria. 


Drei Geschwister (68) 


German 


Amble. 


Dryade (1,831) 


German 


Warrington. 


Dr. Robitzsch (202) 


German 


Aberdeen. 


Eduard (476) 


German 


Liverpool. 


Elfrieda (1,860) 


German 


Bristol. 


E/sfo/A (1,651) 


German 


Hong Kong. 


Else (223) 


German 


Falmouth. 


7sc Kunkel (218) .. 


German 


Aberdeen. 


Emanuel (141) 


German 


Amble. 


m*7 . . 


German 


* 


Emir (5,514) 


German 


Gibraltar. 


Emma Minlos (1,286) 


German 


Middlesbrough. 


Ertca (141) 


German 


Fowey. 


Erna Boldt (1,731) 


German 


London. 


Erna Woermann (5,528) . . 


German 


t 


Erymanthos (2,934) 


German 


Malta. 


Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand 






(6,105) 


Austrian 


Aden. 


Excelsior (1,407) 


German 


Castletown (Bere- 






haven). 


Fiducia (123) 


German 


Yarmouth. 


Franken/els (5,854) 


German 


Calcutta. 


Franz Fischer (970) 


German 


Sharpness.Gloucester. 


Franz Horn (1,314) 


German 


London. 


Freienfels (5,633) .. 


German 


Calcutta. 


Frido (92) 


German 


Leith. 



* At Alexandria. 

f Captured off the Cameroon River. 



375 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

REVISED LIST OF VESSELS continued. 



[Oci 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Frieda (63) 


German 


Hull. 


Frisia (4,997) 


German 


Hong Kong. 


Fritz (2,191) 


German 


Falmouth. 


Furth (4,229) 


German 


Colombo. 


Gebruder (91) 


German 


Alloa. 


Gemma (1,385) 


German 


Blyth. 


Georges) 


German 


Gibralter. 


George Harper (1,612) 


German 


Grimsby. 


Gerhard (167) 


German 


Boston, Lines. 


Germania (191) 


German 


Southampton. 


Germania (1,096) 


German 


Sydney. 


Goldbek (2,630) 


German 


Falmouth. 


Greifswald (5,486) 


German 


Fremantle. 


Gria 


German 


Sydney. 


Hamm (4,598) 


German 


Cape Town. 


Hammelwarden (87) 


German 


Aberdeen. 


Hanametal (2,256) 


German 


Hong Kong. 


Hanna Larsen (1,310) 


German 


Southampton. 


Hans Hemsoth (2,487) 


German 


Blyth. 


Hans Jost (954) 


German 


Grangemouth. 


Hans Leonhardt (1,273) 


German 


London. 


Hans Woermann (4 059) . . 


German 


* 


Heinrich (75) 


German 


London. 


Heinz (2,224) 


German 


Simons Town. 


Helgoland (247) 


German 


Falmouth. 


Helmuth 


German 


Zanzibar. 


Henriette Woermann (2,426) 


German 


* 


Henry Furst (1,498) 


German 


Newcastle-on-Tyne. 


Herbert Fischer (938) 


German 


Poole. 


Hercules (1,095) 


German 


Liverpool. 


Hermann (65) 


German 


Dysart. 


Hessen (5,099) 


German 


Melbourne. 


Hobart (5,923) 


German 


Melbourne. 


Hornsund (3,643) 


German 


Manchester. 


Horst Martini (946) 


German 


Newport, Mon. 


Ida (4,730) .. .. 


Austrian 


Quebec. 


Istria (4,221) 


German 


t 


Izrada (3,539) 


Austrian 


London. 


Jeannette Woermann (2,229) 


German 


* 


Johanna (223) 


German 


Falmouth. 



* Captured off the Cameroon River. 
f Captured and taken to Alexandria. 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

REVISED LIST OF VESSELS continued. 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Karpat (5,056) .. 


Austrian 


South Shields. 


Katharina (126) 


German 


Dysart. 


Katharina (137) 


German 


London. 


Kawak (3,457) 


German 


Malta. 


Kostrena (2,531) 


Austrian 


Weymouth. 


Kronprinzessin Cecilie (8,684) 


German 


London. 


Kurmack (5,137) .. 


German 


Calcutta. 


Lasca II. (357) 


German 


Southampton. 


Leda (6,766).. 


German 


Bermuda. 


Levensau (2,153) 


German 


Hull. 


Lina (74) ., 


German 


Burntisland. 


Ltndenfels (5,476) .. 


German 


Aden. 


Lorenzo 


United States 


St. Lucia. 


Lothringen (5,002) . . 


German 


Melbourne. 


Lucida (1,476) 


German 


Hull. 


Marie Glaeser (1,317) 


German 


Glasgow. 


Marie Leonhardt (1,468) . . 


German 


London. 


Max Brock (4,579) 


German 


* 


Melbourne (5,926) . . 


German 


Sydney. 


Mientje (120) 


German 


Borrowstoness. 


Moltkefels (4,921) . . 


German 


Colombo. 


M owe (88) 


German 


Leith. 


Nauta (1,137) 


German 


Leith. 


Neptun (116) 


German 


London. 


Neumunster (4,224) 


German 


Fremantle. 


Nyland (1,533) 


German 


Hull. , 


Oberhausen (4,322) 


German 


Hobart. 


Occident (813) 


German 


London. 


Odessa (3,046) 


German 


Castletown ( B e r e ~ 






haven). 


Olinda (1,915) 


German 


Newcastle, N.S.W. 


Olono (1,943) 


German 


Plymouth. 


Oriental (Yacht) .. 


Austrian 


Southampton. 


Orlanda (2,185) 


German 


Falmouth. 


Osnabruck (4,240) . . 


German 


Sydney. 


Ossa (1,941) 


German 


Falmouth. 


Ostpreussen (1,775) 


German 


Blyth. 


Otto (139) 


German 


Leith. 


0tfo*ar (957) 


German 


Plymouth. 


Pagenturm (5,000) .. 


German 


Calcutta. 


Pa&a* (1,657) 


German 


Hong Kong. 



* Captured off the Cameroon River. 



377 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

REVISED LIST OF VESSELS continued. 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Paula III. (51) 


German 


Portsmouth. 


Paul Woermann (2,238) . . 


German 


* 


Perkeo (3,7 6 5) 


German 


London. 


Pert* (5,355) 


Austrian 


Calcutta. 


Pfalz (6,570) 


German 


Melbourne. 


Polnay (3,682) 


Austrian 


London. 


Ponape (2,318) 


German 


Falmouth. 


Prinz Adalbert (6,030) 


German 


London. 


Prinz Sigismund (3,302) . . 


German 


Brisbane. 


Professor Woermann (6,061) 


German 


Sierra Leone. 


Prosper (759) 


German 


London. 


Providentia (2,970) 


German 


Manchester. 


Quarta (1,824) 


German 


Singapore. 


Rajaburi (1,904) 


German 


Hong Kong. 


Ranee (808) 


German 


Singapore. 


Rappenfels. (5,883) .. 


German 


Colombo. 


R. C. Rickmers (5,548) .. 


German 


Cardiff. 


Retina] 


Austrian 


Sunderland. 


Reichenfels (4,679) 


German 


Colombo. 


Renata Amsinck (3,824) . . 


German 


* 


Rheinfels (5,512) 


German 


Bombay. 


Rheinland (333) 


German 


Sierra Leone. 


Rhenania (826) 


German 


Amble. 


Roland (1,377) 


German 


Plymouth. 


Rotenfels (5,589) 


German 


Calcutta. 


Rothersand (140) 


German 


Kirkcaldy. 


Rufidji (5,442) 


German 


Simon's Bay. 


Sabbia (2,752) 


Austrian 


Newcastle-on-Tyne. 


Sandakan (1,793) 


German 


Singapore. 


Santa Catharina (4,247) . . 


German 


+ 


Scharzfels (5,5 I 3) 


German 


Adelaide. 


Schlesien (5,536) 


German 


Plymouth. 


Schneefels (5,826) . . 


German 


Gibraltar. 


Schwarzenbek (1,970) 


German 


Cardiff. 


Seeadler (159) 


German 


South Africa. 


Senator Dantziger (164) 


German 


Tralee. 


Senegambia (3,780) 


German 


Hong Kong. 


Serak (4,680) 


German 


Swansea. 


Signal (i,449) 


German 


Brisbane. 



* Captured off the Cameroon River. 
f Vessel completing at Sunderland. 
J Captured at sea. 

378 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

REVISED LIST OF VESSELS continued. 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Slawentzitz (3,391) . . 


German 


Gibraltar. 


Spreewald (3,899) . . 


German 


St. Lucia. 


Steinturm (5,266) 


German 


Colombo. 


Stella Maris (19) . . 


German 


Southampton. 


Stolzenfels (5,553) 


German 


Sydney. 


Sturmvogel (159) 


German 


South Africa. 


Sudmark (5,113) 


German 


* 


Sumatra (7,484) 


German 


Sydney. 


Susanne Vinnen (2,739) . . 


German 


Newcastle, N.S.W. 


Syr a (2,017) 


German 


Gibraltar. 


Tannen/els (5,341) . . 


German 


t 


Tergestea (4,272) 


Austrian 


London. 


Terpsichore (2,025) 


German 


Limerick. 


Theodor (207) 


German 


Lynn. 


Theodor (230) 


German 


Granton. 


Thor 


Norwegian 


St. Lucia. 


Thuringen (4,994) 


German 


Fremantle. 


Tiberius (4,149) 


German 


Sydney. 


Tilly (109) 


German 


Grangemouth. 


Tommi (138) 


German 


London. 


Tri/els (5,750) 


German 


Colombo. 


Trostburg (6,342) . . 


German 


Calcutta. 


Turul (3,530) 


Austrian 


Sydney. 


Vila Boog (1,698) 


German 


Barry. 


Urania (3,265) 


German 


Plymouth. 


Ursus (2,190) 


German 


Hull. 


Varzin (4,455) 


German 


Perim. 


Vianna (400) 


German 


Granton. 


Wartenfels (4,511) . . 


German 


Aden. 


Warturm (4,965) 


German 


Bombay. 


Wega (839) 


German 


Alloa. 


Welle (117) 


German 


Aberdeen. 


Werner Vinnen (3,145) 


German 


Sierra Leone. 


Weser (208) 


German 


Poole. 


Wildenfels (5,512) 


German 


Melbourne. 


Wilhelm (187) 


German 


Fowey. 


Wilhelm Behrens (1,259) 


German 


Glasgow. 


Wotan (3,834) .. ' .. 


German 


Newcastle, N.S.W. 


Zichy (1,877) 


Austrian 


Malta. 



* Captured and taken to Alexandria. 
t Reported captured in Basilan Strait. 



379 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

SHIPS WHOSE CARGOES, OR PART OF THEM, HAVE BEEN 

DETAINED. 



[C 



Name of Vessel. 


Nationality. 


Cargo Detained at 


ibonema 
iccrington 


British .. 
British 


Liverpool. 
Manchester. 


ildworth 


British 


Cardiff. 


indalusian . . 
intince 


British 
British 


Liverpool. 
London. 


ipollo 


British 


Cardiff. 


itahualpa . . 
iustralind . . 


British 
British 


Liverpool. 
London. 


ivon . . 
laltzer 


British 
Russian 


Liverpool. 
Dover. 


lintang 


British 


London. 


borderland 
Cardiganshire 


British 
British 


Liverpool. 
Hull. 


Celtic King . . 
Aty of Bradford . . 
^ity of Cologne 
lity of Karachi . . 
",lan Grant . . 
"Ian Mackintosh 


British 
British 
British 
British 
British 
British 


London. 
Manchester. 
Dublin. 
London. 
Liverpool. 
London. 


"luny Castle 


British 


London. 


Darlington . . 


British 


Hull. 


Jegatna 
Denbighshire 


British 
British 


Liverpool. 
London. 


Derbyshire . . 


British 


London. 


)ewsbury 


British 


Manchester. 


Icclesia 


British 


Manchester. 


^eliciana 


British 


London. 


^luent 
'-isella Groedel 


British 
British 


Liverpool. 
London. 


'lenstrae 
othland 


British 
British 


Glasgow. 
Manchester. 


rantully Castle 


British 


London. 


unwell 
r arrogate 


British 
British 


Liverpool. 
Hull. 


T enzada 


British 


London. 


r uanchaco . . 
T ypatia 
ran . . 

rrawaddy . . 


British 
British 
British 
British 


Liverpool. 
Liverpool. 
Liverpool. 
London. 


zrada 


Austrian 


London. 



380 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Name of Vessel. 


Nationality. 


Cargo Detained at 


Jabiru 


British 


Liverpool. 


Juno 


British 


Swansea. 


Kalomo 


British 


London. 


Karina 


British 


Liverpool. 


Kenawhan . . 


British 


London. 


Kildonan Castle 


British 


London. 


Kitano Maru 


Japanese 


London. 


Kostrena 


Austrian 


Weymouth. 


Linmere 


British 


Manchester. 


Maasland 





London. 


Malda 


British 


London. 


Manningtry 


British 


London. 


Marathon 


British 


London. 


Marie Rose 


British 


Bristol. 


Marmora 


British 


London. 


Medina 


British 


London. 


Mediterraneo 


Austrian 


Plymouth. 


Memnon 


British 


Liverpool. 


Mimingham . . 


British 


Manchester. 


Mirimichi 


British 


Manchester. 


Mitiana 


British 


London. 


Mongolia 


British 


London. 


Mount Temple 


British 


London. 


Ncuralia 


British 


London. 


Newmarket 


British 


Harwich. 


Nigeria 


British 


Liverpool. 


North Pacific 


British 


Weymouth. 


Novara 


British 


London. 


Novarra 


British 


Falmouth. 


Novo . . .'. 


British 


Hull. 


Oakmere 


British 


Swansea. 


Orita 


British 


Liverpool. 


Otranto 


British 


London. 


Palma 


British 


Liverpool. 


Palm Branch 


British 


Liverpool. 


Pettworm 


British 


Manchester. 


Polnay 


Austrian 


London. 


Port Macquarie 


British 


London. 


Prah . . 


British 


Liverpool. 


Prahsu 


British 


Liverpool. 


Reliance 


British 


Cardiff. 


Ridley 


British 


London. 


Romanby 


British . . t . . 


Liverpool. 



381 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



[0. 



Name of Vessel. 


Nationality. 


Cargo Detained at 


St. Andrews 






British 






Liverpool. 


Scotian 








British 






London. 


Sobo . . 








British 






Liverpool. 


Sokoto 








British 






Liverpool. 


Spenser 








British 






Liverpool. 


Stock-port 








British 






Manchester. 


Staff a . . 








British 






Leith. 


Tamele 








British 






Liverpool. 


Tregurno 








British 






Falmouth. 


Vedra 








British 






London. 


Vera . . 








British 






London. 


Waiwera 








British 






London. 


Walmer Castle 






British 






London. 


Warwickshire , 






British 






London. 


W. M. L. .. 






British 






Plymouth. 


Wrexham 






British 






Manchester. 



VESSELS DETAINED OR CAPTURED BY THE 
JAPANESE NAVAL AUTHORITIES. 

Foreign Office, October 6, 1914. 

His Majesty's Ambassador at Tokio, having been informed 
that in accordance with the procedure followed in the British 
Prize Courts, innocent cargoes on vessels detained or captured 
will be released on production of proof of ownership, and 
particulars as to freight, whether paid or unpaid, now tele- 
graphs that the Japanese Authorities are making arrange- 
ments with the view of affording similar facilities as regards 
goods belonging to British subjects on vessels detained or 
captured by them. 

Sir C. Greene also reports that it is announced in the 
Japanese Official Gazette of October 3rd that the German 
s.s. Suimow has been captured, and that a Prize Court inquiry 
will be held. Interested parties may present their petitions 
in writing to the Prize Court at Sasebo within thirty days. 



383 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

VESSELS DETAINED OR CAPTURED BY THE 
RUSSIAN NAVAL AUTHORITIES. 

Foreign Office, October 12, 1914. 

His Majesty's Ambassador at Petrograd reports that 
Prize Courts of first instance have been established at Cron- 
stadt, Sebastopol and Vladivostok, and that the Russian 
Admiralty Council, assisted by members appointed by the 
Minister of Justice and the Minister for Foreign Affairs, will 
act as a Court of Appeal in accordance with the Regulations 
in regard to Naval Prizes issued in 1895. 



ADMIRALTY MONTHLY ORDERS. 

Admiralty, S.W., November 2, 1914. 

160. Naval Billeting. 

THE Naval Billeting, &c., Act, 1914, empowers the 
Admiralty to adapt to the requirements of His Majesty's 
Naval Forces the provisions of the Army Act in regard to 
billeting and impressment of carriages, &c., and, in case of 
war or emergency, to authorise any Commander-in-Chief or 
Flag Officer whose flag is flying at any Naval Port or Station 
in the United Kingdom to issue a billeting requisition or a 
requisition of emergency. 

161. Lights, Buoys, and Beacons Alterations in. 

Senior Naval Officers of other than Dockyard Ports are 
informed that no Notice of any alteration of, or additional, 
lights, buoys, beacons, or other navigational aids whatsoever, 
is to be issued in any form without the direct sanction of Their 
Lordships. 

163. Engineer Lieutenant - Commander Advancement of 
Officers promoted from Chief Artificer Engineer. 

It has been decided that Engineer Lieutenants promoted 
from Chief Artificer Engineer may qualify for advancement 
to the rank of Engineer Lieutenant-Commander, and that 

383 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Oi 

the requirement of three years' service as Watchkeeper prior 
to examination for that rank shall be waived in their case. 
Pay on promotion will be on the present scale. 

171. Re-engagement of Naval Ratings. 

By the Proclamation extending the services of time- 
expired men, ratings are bound to serve for five years, if 
required, after completing their engagements in time of war. 
Men whose services are still required on completing their 
first engagement during the war may either re-engage at 
once to complete time for Pension or defer their decision as 
to whether they wish to re-engage or not until the end of the 
war, when any re-engagement will be dated back as necessary 
to the date of completion of the first engagement. 

184. R.N.R. Men Kit and Clothing Gratuities, &c. 

Men of the R.N.R. who have reported themselves abroad or 
who have been taken out of merchant ships at sea, and are 
consequently without their kits, are to be supplied gratuitously 
with the Regulation Kit specified in Appendix A. of the 
R.N.R. Regulations, and are further to be credited with the 
Clothing Gratuities laid down in Article 125 of the R.N.R. 
Regulations (Addenda 1912), a notation being inserted in their 
Certificate Books (Form R.V. 2) to the effect that they have 
been supplied with new kits. 

In view of this free issue such men are not to be credited 
with Kit Upkeep Allowance. 

187. Duty in Higher Ratings Pay of Reservists and 

Pensioners for. 

When it is necessary to employ Pensioner R.N.R. or R.F.R. 
ratings in vacancies for ratings, substantive or non-sub- 
stantive, for which they have not the qualifications required 
by the Regulations, they may be paid the difference between 
the pay of their own and the higher rating in which they are 
doing duty under the conditions laid down in Article 1432 
of the King's Regulations. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

188. Men re-entered after more than Five Years' Absence 

from the Service. 

In all cases of men allowed to re-enter the Royal Navy 
and Royal Marines for the period of hostilities only, their 
prior service in the Royal Navy will count towards increase 
of pay and badges, notwithstanding that they may have been 
absent from the service for more than five years. 

189. Coast Guard Men and Pensioners from the Coast Guard 

" called out "for Active Service Pay, &c. 
The following instructions are issued for the information 
and guidance of the Officers concerned : 

1. Substantive Pay. (a) Coast Guard men other than 
ex-Stoker ratings are to be embarked in the Fleet in the ratings 
which they last held afloat or in their Coast Guard ratings, 
whichever may be the higher, and are to be paid accordingly. 
In all cases where this has not already been done the necessary 
adjustments are to be made in the men's accounts. The rates 
of pay for men retaining Coast Guard ratings are to be as laid 
down in Appendix I. of the Coast Guard Instructions. 

(b) Ex-Stoker ratings are to be paid at the rates laid down 
in Article 301 of the Coast Guard Instructions (Addenda). 

(c) Pensioners late of the Coast Guard who are enrolled in 
the Royal Fleet Reserve are entitled to the pay of the ratings 
in which they are enrolled in the Reserve. 

(d) Other Pensioners late of the Coast Guard are to be paid 
as at (a). This will not, however, apply to those who are 
drafted to Coast Guard Stations who will be employed and 
paid in the last Coast Guard rating held. 

2. Non-Substantive Pay. Men paid at active service rates 
who have been absent from the Service afloat for less than a 
year may resume their non-substantive ratings on embarkation. 

(a) Other men paid at active service rates should not be 
paid for ratings higher than S.G. or S.T. except in vacancies, 
and then only- if considered qualified by the Commanding 
Officer. Pay for S.G. or S.T. may be allowed if the men are 
considered qualified to carry out the duties and if they 
previously held either rating or a superior one in the active 
service. In the case of men holding old system substantive 
ratings the rate for S.G. or S.T. is 4^. a day, and the following 

Naval 12 B 385 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

obsolete ratings may be paid for to competent men who held 
them in the active service : S.G.T. (6d. a day) ; S.G., ist 
class (4^. a day) ; S.G., 2nd class (2d. a day) ; Q.G. (2d. a day 
provided they re-engaged before April 24th, 1908) ; T.M. 
(id. a day). Ex-Signal ratings who formerly held the ratings 
of H.S., ist class (6d. a day), or H.S., 2nd class (3^. a day), 
may also be paid for them. 

(b) Men paid at Coast Guard rates may continue in receipt 
of Gunnery Pay (id. a day), and Station Signalman (2d. a 
day), if they are employed on signal duties. 

3. Re-engaged Pay (2d. a day) may be paid to Coast Guard 
men who have completed not less than 12 years' continuous 
service in man's ratings and in receipt of pay provided they 
have re-engaged. Pensioners formerly in receipt of R.P. may 
resume it. 

4. Coast Guard men who have completed time for pension 
and who at once execute a further engagement for 5 years 
may, if they hold one of the ratings specified in Article 1435 
of the King's Regulations or one equivalent thereto, be paid 
Extension Pay (6d. a day) for the period of the engagement. 
Those who complete time for pension or whose engagements 
expire during hostilities but do not re-engage may be paid 
Detained Pay (zd. a day) whilst retained afloat. These allow- 
ances are not applicable to Pensioners called out. 

5. A Clothing Allowance of 2l. los. is payable to all Coast 
Guard men detained beyond the expiration of their engage- 
ments. The Bedding Gratuity is not to be credited. 

6. Coast Guard men (not pensioners) are entitled when 
embarked to a victualling allowance of 4^. a day which should 
be credited on the ledger. 

7. The foregoing instructions (except i (c) and (d) and 5) 
are not applicable to Coast Guard ratings who are not em- 
barked but continue to serve at Coast Guard Stations (includ- 
ing War Signal and Wireless Stations, &c.). These will 
continue to receive the pay of their Coast Guard ratings and 
be governed by the Coast Guard Instructions for pay and 
allowances. In addition, they will receive D.P. if they 
satisfy the conditions specified in 4. They may also receive 
the Clothing Gratuity under 5. 

NOTE These arrangements are to be regarded as coming into force 
from Jufy 3oth last. 
386 



914] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

192. Casualties during Hostilities Reporting. 

Care is to be taken that all casualties (including dead, 
wounded and missing) are reported by telegraph to the 
Admiralty at the earliest possible moment. In the case of 
trie Destroyer Flotillas, Captains (D) are to make arrangements 
as necessary, but, so far as practicable, the lists should be 
telegraphed to the Admiralty from the Depot Ship of the 
Flotilla after verification of ratings, official numbers, &c. 

The Admiralty will communicate with the relatives in all 
cases, and the usual notification to relatives by the Captain 
of the ship is not to be made, but in all other respects the 
procedure laid down in Article 575 of the King's Regulations 
(Volume II., 1914) is to be followed. (In Naval Hospitals and 
Sick Quarters the ordinary procedure is to be followed in its 
entirety.) 



199. Funerals of Seamen and Marines Attendance of 

Relatives. 

Home Fleets and Establishments only. 

In the case of Seamen and Marines who have been killed 
in action or who have died from injuries sustained during 
the present war a third-class railway warrant at the public 
expense may, on application, be granted to the nearest 
relative and to one other person to enable them to attend 
the funeral. 



201. Identity Discs. 

It has been decided that every person serving in H.M. 
Naval Service shall wear an Identity Disc. Each disc is to be 
stamped with the individual's name, rank or rating, official 
number, and religion. 

Supplies of the discs, together with wires for attaching 
them, are being obtained, and they will shortly be distributed 
to H.M. Ships and Establishments. After the necessary 

387 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL [Oc 

stamping they are to be issued and worn, being attached in 
the following manner : One end of the wire is to be fastened 
to the eye of the disc, and the other fixed to form a loop round 
the wearer's neck. 

Letters are to be stamped on the discs with metal stamps 
J inch in size, a set of which will be issued to each Ship and 
Establishment. Numbers are to be stamped with 3 % inch 
stamps, a set of which is already included in the Gunner's 
Establishment. 



204. Separation Allowance to Wives and Children. 

i. It has been decided that for the period of the present 
war Separation Allowance is to be paid to the wives and 
families of all Naval ratings, Marines and Reservists borne 
on the books of H.M. Ships who allot at least 2os. a month to 
their families. 

[The details given in the full text of the foregoing Order are now out 
of date, as are those in several Orders subsequently issued. In lieu thereof 
we are enabled by the courtesy of the Secretary of the Admiralty to quote 
the following general statement.] 



NAVY SEPARATION ALLOWANCES. 
(Extracts from Admiralty Orders.) 

A. Separation Allowances. Wives and Children. 

1. For the period of the present war Separation Allowance 
is being paid to the wives and families of all Naval ratings, 
Marines and Reservists borne on the books of H.M. Ships, 
provided that in each instance the man declares an allotment 
of at least 55. a week in favour of his wife. The allowance 
is in no circumstances issuable in respect of men paid at a 
Mercantile rate of pay. 

2. The weekly rates of allowance for children were increased 
as from March ist last as indicated in the following com- 
parative table : 

388 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 









Motherless 






Children, per Week. 


Children, 




Wife. 




per Week. 


Sailor. 


per 








Week. 














New Scale. 


Old Scale. 


New 
Scale. 


Old 
Scale. 


Class I. : 








Each. 


Each. 


Ordinary Seaman 


*6s. 


ist child, 45. 


ist chHd, 2s. 


55. 


3. 


Able Seaman 




2nd ,, 35. 


2nd ,, 2S: 






Leading Seaman 




3rd 2s. 


3rd and subse- 






2nd Class Petty Offi- 




4th and subse- 


quent children, 






cer, and equiva- 




quent children, 


is. each. 






lent ratings. 




is. each. 








Class II. : 












Petty Officer 


* 7 5. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Petty Officer, ist 












Class, and equiva- 












lent ratings. 












Class III. : 












Chief Petty Officer 


85. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


and equivalent 












ratings. 












MARINE ON SHIP'S 












BOOKS. 












Class I. : 








Each. 


Each. 


Private 


6s. 


ist child, 45. 


ist child, 25. 


55. 


3. 


Corporal 




2nd ,, 35. 


2nd ,, 2s. 






Sergeant and equiva- 




3rd 2s. 


3rd and subse- 






lent ranks. 




4th and subse- 


quent children, 










quent children, 


is. each. 










is. each. 








Class II. : 












Colour- Sergeant and 


* 7 s. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


equivalent ranks. 












Class III. : 












Quartermaster - Ser- 


*85. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


geant and Stalf- 












Sergeant. 












Class IV. : 












Warrant Officer, 


*9. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Ditto. 


Royal Marines 












(except Royal 












Marine Gunners). 













* An additional allowance of 35. 6d. a week is also payable to a wife whose normal 
place of residence is in the London Postal area, so long as she continues to reside there. 

389 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

3. The payment in respect of children is made ordinarily 
for those under 16 years of age, but may be continued above 
that age on the recommendation of the Local Education 
Authority in the cases (i) of apprentices receiving not more 
than nominal wages, or (2) of children being educated at 
secondary schools, technical schools or universities. It may 
also be continued to the age of 21 in the case of children 
unable to support themselves owing to mental or physical 
infirmity, if a medical certificate to this effect is forwarded 
with the form of application. 

5. Allowance is made for children adopted prior to the 
war, subject to the production (i) of the deed of adoption, 
or (2) of a statutory declaration or clergyman's certificate 
to the effect that the child was and is permanently maintained 
as a member of the man's family. 

6. Procedure. As soon as information is received that 
a man has declared an allotment of at least 55. a week in 
favour of his wife, a form of application to enable her to 
apply for a Navy Separation Allowance is issued to her 
direct from the Admiralty (or in the case of a Marine from 
the Marine Division to which he is attached). Until she 
receives this form it is consequently unnecessary for her to 
take any action in the matter beyond desiring her husband 
to declare the requisite allotment. 

7. Separation Allowance is issuable from the Thursday 
following the date of entry if the qualifying allotment is 
declared within a month of entry ; otherwise from the Thurs- 
day on which the qualifying allotment becomes operative, 
the allowance and the allotment being made payable in one. 
combined sum at whatever Post Office is named by the 
payee. In the case of a wife resident outside the United 
Kingdom payment is effected by Foreign Money Order or 
other suitable means. 

8. It is most important that all new entries should be 
questioned immediately on entry as to whether they desire 
to allot, and that every facility should be given to them 
for declaring allotments. 

9. Separation Allowance is not issuable for persons main- 
tained in Asylums, Workhouses or kindred institutions, 
except that in the case of a Reservist who, prior to his mo- 
bilisation, was contributing for such a person's maintenance 

390 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

a sum larger than his Naval Pay will now admit of his paying, 
the question of the issue of some allowance could be con- 
sidered. 

B. Motherless Children. 

10. The condition as to an allotment of at least 55. a week 
will not be insisted upon in the case of motherless children, 
but men are expected to allot to the guardians of their children. 
If the children are not all in the care of one guardian, two 
or more allotments may be declared in favour of the two or 
more guardians. 

11. Application for an allowance for a motherless child 
should be made by forwarding a statement giving the child's 
name, sex, date of birth, and address, and also its guardian's 
full name. The man should arrange with the child's guardian 
to produce its birth or baptismal certificate when called 
upon to do so. 

12. Children by a former wife cannot be regarded 
as motherless while their stepmother is alive and in receipt 
of an allowance. 



C. Dependants, other than Wives and Children. 

13. Subject to proof of actual dependence prior to the 
war or prior to the man's entry, if later, Separation Allowance 
is also issuable to dependants provided the man himself 
makes an allotment to his dependant. As from February ist, 
1915, the term "dependant" has been extended to include 
any person who is found as a fact to have been dependent 
on the man before the war (or his entry, if later). The neces- 
sary investigations are made by the Local Old Age Pension 
Authorities of the district in which the dependant resides, 
and the rate of allowance in each case is assessed after con- 
sideration of the reports of those Authorities. 

14. Scale of Allowance. Separation Allowance to a de- 
pendant naturally cannot exceed the scale for a wife, i.e., 
the allowance for a wife, including London allowance where 
it would be applicable (see paragraphs 2 and 26c), is a maxi- 
mum which cannot in any circumstances be exceeded for one 
dependant. (For cases in which there are more than one 

391 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

dependant, see footnote*). Within this maximum the allow- 
ance to be awarded is governed by the extent to which de- 
pendence existed prior to the war or prior to the man's entry 
into His Majesty's Service, if later, and cannot exceed half 
the amount of such dependence. When the sum paid by the 
man to his dependant included his own keep, a suitable 
deduction is made on this account in arriving at the amount 
of the benefit derived from his payment. 

15. Within the maximum of the rate payable to a wife, 
the allowance to the dependant of an active service rating 
will equal half the amount of the dependence as defined above, 
provided he continues to allot a sum equal to the amount of 
such dependence. If he allots a smaller sum, the allowance 
will be proportionately reduced, but if he is able to allot 
more, the allowance will remain unaltered. 

16. In the case of a Reservist, if he allots half the amount 
of the dependence, i.e., half the amount which he was in the 
habit of paying in civil life (less the cost of his keep where 
that was included), the Admiralty will pay the other half as 
Separation Allowance. In his case also if he allots a smaller 
sum, the allowance will be proportionately reduced, but if 
he is able to allot more, the allowance will remain unaltered. 

17. Men who have entered " for hostilities " are regarded 
as Reservists, that being to the advantage of their dependants. 

18. Although the claim of an unmarried wife to an allow- 
ance for herself (and her children, if any) has to be investigated 
by the Local Old Age Pension Authorities, the allowance is 
awarded upon the scale for a wife and under the Regulations 
governing allowances for wives and children (the minimum 
qualifying allotment of 55. a week is applicable). 

* If there are several persons dependent on one seaman, the maximum 
is increased to the scale for a wife and a number of children corresponding 
to the number of additional dependants, provided the total amount of 
dependence and the rate of the current allotment admit of such increase. 
If, however, there are two seamen and three dependants for instance, two 
of the dependants are earmarked to the two men and only the third is re- 
garded for allowance purposes as a child. In the case of one person being 
dependent on two or more men holding different ratings, the maximum 
allowance to be awarded, provided the degree of dependence before the 
war and the rate of the current allotment admit, is that payable for the 
wife of the man holding the rating carrying the highest allowance. (See 
examples (para. 26). 
392 



4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

D. Regulations affecting Specific Cases. 

19. Where an allowance is being paid for a wife and 
children, an allowance to a dependant cannot also be granted 
in respect of the same seaman or marine. Similarly, if an 
allowance is payable for a motherless child or children, this 
precludes the issue of an allowance for a dependant. 

20. Allowances for children all of whom are not living in 
the care of the man's wife. When some of the children are 
in the care of the wife and others in that of some other person, 
the total allowance payable in respect of them is the same 
as if they all lived together, the allowance being divided 
between the wife and the guardian according to the ages of 
the children, i.e., the highest rate is paid for the eldest 
child. 

21. Changes which have taken place in a dependant's cir- 
cumstances since the outbreak of war, or since the man's entry, 
if later, cannot be taken into account. Similarly, in the 
case of an apprentice who was near the end of his appren- 
ticeship at the time when he joined and who, when his ap- 
prenticeship had expired, would have been in a position to 
contribute more than he did before his entry into His Majesty's 
Service, the allowance to be awarded is assessed by reference 
to the man's actual contributions. My Lords understand, 
however, that when the Special Committee alluded to in 
paragraph 32 below is created, it will be prepared to take 
into consideration any isolated cases of this type in which it 
is found that hardship is entailed. 

23. Boys who have less than three months' service and who 
under the Training Service Regulations consequently cannot 
allot to their dependants. Subject to the usual proof of de- 
pendence, Separation Allowance is issued in these cases in 
anticipation of the boy declaring an allotment in his de- 
pendant's favour as soon as the Regulations will admit of 
his so doing. 

24. Only in exceptional circumstances will an allowance 
be paid to a dependant resident outside the United 
Kingdom. 

25. Periods of Detention and Desertion. Separation Al- 
lowance is naturally not payable for any period during which 

393 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Oc 

a man is in a state of desertion. It is, however, continuable 
for periods of detention irrespective of allotment. 

26. EXAMPLES of the method of assessment of allowances 
for dependants : 

Active Service Ratings : 

(a) A stoker, ist class, allowed his mother 75. a week 
before the war. The maximum allowance issuable 
to her is half the degree of the pre-war dependence, 
namely, 35. 6d. a week, and an allowance of that 
amount would be awarded if his current allotment 
were one of 75. a week ; if he decided to raise his 
allotment the amount of the Separation Allowance 
would not be affected, but if he lowered the allot- 
ment, say, to 45., Separation Allowance of 2s. a week 
only would be payable. (Wife's scale maximum, 
6s.) 

(b) A Petty Officer Telegraphist (N.S.) used to con- 
tribute 215. a week to the support of his two sisters. 
The maximum Separation Allowance issuable to 
them is los. 6d. a week and an allowance of that 
amount would be granted provided the man's current 
allotment were not less than 2is. a week (wife's scale 
maximum us. being as for a wife (75.) and one 
child (45.)). 

(c) A Chief Petty Officer used to allow his mother 
and sister 275. a week. The maximum Separation 
Allowance issuable to them would be half the degree 
of the pre-war dependence, supposing the scale for 
a Chief Petty Officer's wife and one child would 
admit of it ; that scale, however, limits the allowance 
to i2s. a week (8s. + 45.), except in a case in which 
if the allowance had been for a wife, London Allow- 
ance would have been payable. In that event an 
allowance of 135. 6d. would be issued provided the 
man allotted not less than 275. a week to his 
dependants. 

It is to be observed from this example that London 
Allowance is not added in its entirety to the amount 
of dependant's Separation Allowance, but serves to 
raise what would otherwise have been the limiting 

394 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

maximum given by the wife's scale, i.e., in the case 
of a dependant the London Allowance of 35. 6d. a 
week is not paid in addition to the ordinary Separation 
Allowance, but enables a higher allowance to be 
awarded in cases in which the degree of the pre-war 
dependence and the rate of the current allotment 
would justify such higher allowance. 

Reservists : 

(d) A Reservist of Chief Petty Officer rating used to 
allow his widowed sister for herself and her two 
children 245. a week before the war. The maximum 
Separation Allowance issuable is half the pre-war 
dependence, namely, 125. a week, and an allowance 
of that amount would be granted if the Reservist's 
current allotment were not less than 125. a week. 
It will be observed that this allowance of I2s. a week 
happens to correspond with the allowance for a Chief 
Petty Officer's wife and one child only, but seeing 
that the contribution made before the war is the 
measure of the dependence, this is the full allowance 
that can be paid even though there is a second child 
(see footnote to paragraph 14). 

(e) A Reservist of Petty Officer rating allowed his 
mother us. a week before the war. She would be 
entitled to a Separation Allowance of 55. 6d. a week, 
namely, half the pre-war dependence, provided that 
her son allotted her at least 5$. 6d. a week (wife's scale 
maximum 75.). 

27. Procedure. A man wishing a person who was in fact 
dependent upon him prior to the war or to his entry into 
His Majesty's Service, if later, to receive a Separation Allow- 
ance should make a declaration on A.G. Form No. n in 
addition to declaring an allotment in favour of the dependant. 

Provided a new entry declares an allotment and completes 
A.G. Form No. n within one month after entry the allowance 
will be payable from the Thursday following his entry, other- 
wise it will only be payable from the Thursday following the 
date on which he completes the necessary action. Every 
facility is therefore to be given for men to declare an 

395 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

allotment and to complete A.G. Form No. u. These forms 
are to be in the custody of the Accountant Officer, and in 
every case in which a new entry declares an allotment in 
favour of a dependant other than a wife, he should be asked 
whether he wishes to apply for Separation Allowance on 
behalf of his dependant, and supplied with a copy of the 
form if he wishes to apply for the allowance. As the de- 
clarations made on these forms must be regarded as strictly 
private, the Accountant Officer is only required to see that 
the man's name, rating, and official number are correctly 
inserted on the form before issue, and the date of his entry, 
if recent, it being clearly shown in each case whether he is 
an active service rating or a reservist. He may, however, 
give such assistance as he can in the completion of the form 
when asked to do so, and it will be convenient where a number 
of forms are applied for at the same time, if he can collect 
them as far as possible when completed so that they may be 
sent to the Admiralty in bulk. In order that the delay in the 
issue of allowances may be avoided Accountant Officers are 
relied upon to give any help in their power, but where a 
man prefers to fill up the form and despatch it himself he is 
to be allowed to do so. In the case of Marines and Marine 
Reservists the declarations should be forwarded to the Marine 
Division to which the men belong. 

28. On receipt of the man's declaration the Accountant 
General's Department or the Marine Division will forward 
to the person named a form on which he or she may make a 
corresponding declaration. The two declarations will then 
be forwarded to the Old Age Pension Authorities for investi- 
gation, and on the receipt of their report the rate of allowance 
will be determined. 

29. If the dependant is dissatisfied with the Pension 
Authorities' assessment of his or her dependence, it is open 
to him or her to lodge an appeal by completing an A.G. 
Form No. 15, which is obtainable at any Post Office. 

30. All ratings must clearly understand that these allow- 
ances are intended not as a means of relieving them of any 
part of their obligations to their wives and children or other 
dependants, but as an additional provision which should 
free men from anxiety on their relatives' behalf during the 
period of the war. 

396 



.] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

E. Widows, Children, and other Dependants of Deceased 

Seamen and Marines. 

31. Separation Allowance and Allotment are paid for the 
period of 26 weeks following the death of the seaman or 
marine in question. 

Any pension or other allowance due is then awarded. 

32. As the limitations imposed by the foregoing Regu- 
lations may entail hardship in isolated cases a special Statutory 
Committee is in course of formation one of whose functions 
will be to consider the question of making awards in any 
such exceptional instances. This Committee, in regard 
to which further details will be promulgated in due course, 
will also be charged with the award of pensions or allowances 
to the dependants, other than wives and children, of Seamen 
and Marines who lose their lives during the present war. 



SEPARATION ALLOWANCES FOR WARRANT OFFICERS. 

(Extracts from Admiralty Order of June 11, 1915.) 

As from April I5th last a Separation Allowance is being 
granted for the period of the present war in respect of War- 
rant Officers (but not Commissioned Warrant Officers) of 
the Royal Navy and Reserve Forces, and Royal Marine 
Gunners. 

Generally the issue of the allowance will be governed by 
the Regulations relative to Navy Separation Allowance, the 
principal exception being that the minimum allotment re- 
quired in the case of a wife will be one of 205. a week. The 
scale of allowance will be 8s. a week for the wife (or us. 6d. 
in cases in which London Allowance is issuable), 45. for the 
first child, 35. for the second, 2s. for the third, and is. for 
each other child. The allowance for motherless children 
will be 55. a week each. 

In the case of a wife an application form is issued im- 
mediately an allotment of not less than 2os. a week is declared. 

397 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [( 

Allowances for dependants (other than wives and children) 
will^be granted by reference to : 

(1) the degree of the pre-war dependence ; 

(2) the amount of the current allotment ; and 

(3) the scale of allowance for a wife (and children, if 
there are more than one dependant). 

An allowance for a dependant should be applied for by 
the Officer concerned on an A.G. Form No. u, which can be 
obtained from his Paymaster. 

As from July 8th, 1915, separation allowance and allot- 
ment in respect of Warrant Officers will be paid by Postal 
Draft in one combined weekly sum. 



APPENDIX. 

FOR the full understanding and elucidation of certain of the 
Documents, Orders in Council, &c., cited in the text of this volume it has 
been deemed expedient to give in this Appendix certain other Public 
Documents, which could not be given in the body of the text inasmuch 
as they were all formulated and promulgated several years before the 
war began. These documents are as follow : 

I. The Declaration of Paris, signed in Paris, April i6th, 1856 (pp. 
400-1). 

II. Certain Conventions relating to Naval Warfare, drawn up and 
signed at the Second Peace Conference held at The Hague in 1907, to wit, 

(1) Convention No. 3 relative to the Opening of Hostilities 
(pp. 402-5). 

(2) Convention No. 6 relative to the Status of Enemy Merchant- 
ships at the Outbreak of Hostilities (pp. 405-6). 

(3) Convention No. 7 relative to the Conversion of Merchant- 
ships into Warships (pp. 406-8). 

(4) Convention No. 8 relative to the Laying of Automatic 
Submarine Contact Mines (pp. 408-11). 

(5) Convention No. 9 respecting Bombardments by Naval 
Forces in Time of War (pp. 412-14). 

(6) Convention No. 10 for the Adaptation of the Principles 
of the Geneva Convention to Maritime Warfare (pp. 414-21). 

(7) Convention No. n relative to certain Restrictions on the 
Exercise of the Rigjht of Capture in Maritime War (pp. 421-3). 

(8) Convention No. 13 respecting the Rights and Duties of 
Neutral Powers in Naval War (pp. 424-9). 

III. The Declaration of London concerning the Law of Naval 
War signed in London, February 26th, 1909 (pp. 429-84). 

The Declaration of London was never ratified by any of the Powers 
which originally signed it. It has therefore no international validity. 
But by Order in Council issued August 20th, 1914, and subsequently 
modified by a later Order in Council, it was brought into partial opera- 
tion as part of the municipal law of the United Kingdom for the time 
being. By the Order in Council of August 20th, 1914, above mentioned, 
it was provided that " The General Report of the Drafting Committee on 
the said Declaration presented to the Naval Conference and adopted by 
the Conference at the eleventh plenary meeting on February 25th, 1909, 
shall be considered by all Prize Courts as an authoritative statement of 
the meaning and intention of the said Declaration, and such Courts shall 
construe and interpret the provisions of the said Declaration by the 
light of the commentary given therein." The full text of the General 

399 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. 

Report of the Drafting Committee, here referred to, is therefore given 
in this Appendix, and inasmuch as this Report incorporates paragraph 
by paragraph the whole text of the Declaration, it has not been deemed 
necessary here to reproduce the text of the Declaration separately. 

As the question of the validity or invalidity of the documents 
here reproduced has more than once been raised in many quarters it 
would seem expedient to quote in regard to it the following extract 
from the Official Report of the Debates in the House of Commons : 

In the House of Commons on December 8th, 1915, 

Hansard. LORD CHARLES BERESFORD asked the Secretary for Foreign Affairs 

whether he is aware that it has been stated by His Majesty's Govern- 
ment that the Order in Council of March nth, 1915, does not affect 
the validity of the Declaration of Paris, 1856, the Declaration of London, 
1908, fourteen Conventions determined upon at the Second Peace 
Conference held at The Hague in 1907, and all juridical niceties relative 
to contraband and the right of capture at sea ; whether he is aware 
that, subsequent to this statement, His Majesty's Government declared 
that the Declaration of London had no international validity ; and 
whether he will explain to the House which of the Declarations, &c., 
mentioned are valid and which are invalid ? 

SIR E. GREY : The validity or invalidity of the instruments referred 
to depends upon the provisions of the instruments themselves, to which 
I must refer the Noble Lord for the information which he requires. 
Their validity is what it has always been. The Declaration of London 
never had any validity as a Convention, because Article 67 provided 
for ratification, and the Declaration was never ratified. 



I. 
THE DECLARATION OF PARIS. 

Declaration respecting Maritime Law, signed by the plenipotentiaries of 
Great Britain, Austria, France, Prussia, Russia, Sardinia, and 
Turkey, assembled in Congress at Paris, April 16, 1856. 

THE Plenipotentiaries who signed the Treaty of Paris of the 
thirtieth of March, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-six, assembled 
in conference : 
Considering : 

That maritime law, in time of war, has long been the subject 
of deplorable disputes ; 

That the uncertainty of the law and of the duties in such a 
matter gives rise to differences of opinion between neutrals and 
belligerents which may occasion serious difficulties, and even 
conflicts ; 
400 



APPENDIX 

That it is consequently advantageous to establish a uniform 
doctrine on so important a point ; 

That the Plenipotentiaries assembled in Congress at Paris 
cannot better respond to the intentions by which their Govern- 
ments are animated, than by seeking to introduce into international 
relations fixed principles in this respect ; 

The above-mentioned Plenipotentiaries, being duly authorised, 
resolved to concert among themselves as to the means of attaining this 
object ; and, having come to an agreement, have adopted the following 
solemn Declaration ; 

1. Privateering is, and remains, abolished ; 

2. The neutral flag covers enemy's goods, with the exception 
of contraband of war ; 

3. Neutral goods, with the exception of contraband of war, 
are not liable to capture under enemy's flag ; 

4. Blockades, in order to be binding, must be effective, that is 
to say, maintained by a force sufficient really to prevent access 
to the coast of the enemy. 

The Governments of the undersigned Plenipotentiaries engage to 
bring the present Declaration to the knowledge of the States which 
have not taken part in the Congress of Paris, and to invite them to 
accede to it. 

Convinced that the maxims which they now proclaim cannot but 
be received with gratitude by the whole world, the undersigned 
Plenipotentiaries doubt not that the efforts of their Governments to 
obtain the general adoption thereof will be crowned with full success. 

The present Declaration is not and shall not be binding, except 
between those Powers who have acceded, or shall accede, to it. 

Done at Paris, the sixteenth of April, one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-six. 

(Signed). BUOL-SCHAUENSTEIN. 
HUBNER. 
WALEWSKI. 
BOURQUENEY. 
CLARENDON. 
COWLEY. 
MANTEUFFEL. 
HATZFELDT. 
ORLOFF. 
BRUNNOW. 
CAVOUR. 

DE VILLAMARINA. 
AALI. 
MEHEMMED DJEMIL. 

Nan) J 2 C 401 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [HAG 

II. 

CONVENTIONS OF THE SECOND HAGUE CONFERENCE 
WHICH RELATE TO MARITIME WARFARE. 

I. CONVENTION No. 3. 

Convention relative to the Opening of Hostilities. 

HIS Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia ; the President 
of the United States of America ; the President of the Argentine 
Republic ; His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, &c., 
and Apostolic King of Hungary ; His Majesty the King of the Belgians ; 
the President of the Republic of Bolivia ; the President of the Republic 
of the United States of Brazil ; His Royal Highness the Prince of 
Bulgaria ; the President of the Republic of Chile ; His Majesty the 
Emperor of China ; the President of the Republic of Colombia ; the 
Provisional Governor of the Republic of Cuba ; His Majesty the King 
of Denmark ; the President of the Dominican Republic ; the President 
of the Republic of Ecuador ; His Majesty the King of Spain ; the 
President of the French Republic ; His Majesty the King of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions be- 
yond the Seas, Emperor of India ; His Majesty the King of the Hellenes ; 
the President of the Republic of Guatemala ; the President of the 
Republic of Haiti ; His Majesty the King of Italy ; His Majesty the 
Emperor of Japan ; His Royal Highness the Grand Duke of Luxem- 
burg, Duke of Nassau ; the President of the United States of Mexico ; 
His Royal Highness the Prince of Montenegro ; the President of the 
Republic of Nicaragua ; His Majesty the King of Norway ; the President 
of the Republic of Panama ; the President of the Republic of Paraguay ; 
Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands ; the President of the Re- 
public of Peru ; His Imperial Majesty the Shah of Persia ; His Majesty 
the King of Portugal and of the Algarves, &c. ; His Majesty the King 
of Roumania ; His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias ; the 
President of the Republic of Salvador ; His Majesty the King of 
Serbia ; His Majesty the King of Siam ; His Majesty the King of 
Sweden ; the Swiss Federal Council ; His Majesty the Emperor of the 
Ottomans ; the President of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ; the 
President of the United States of Venezuela : 

Considering that it is important, in order to ensure the maintenance 
of pacific relations, that hostilities should not commence without 
previous warning. 

That it is equally important that the existence of a state of war 
should be notified without delay to neutral Powers ; and 

402 



3] APPENDIX 

Being desirous of concluding a Convention to this effect, have 
appointed the following as their Plenipotentiaries : 

[Names of Plenipotentiaries] 

Who, after having deposited their full powers, found to be in good 
and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions : 

ARTICLE i. 

The Contracting Powers recognise that hostilities between them 
must not commence without a previous and explicit warning, in the 
form of either a declaration of war, giving reasons, or an ultimatum 
with a conditional declaration of war. 

ARTICLE 2. 

The existence of a state of war must be notified to the neutral 
Powers without delay, and shall not be held to affect them until after 
the receipt of a notification, which may, however, be given by telegraph. 
Nevertheless, neutral Powers may not rely on the absence of notifica- 
tion if it be established beyond doubt that they were in fact aware 
of the existence of a state of war. 

ARTICLE 3. 

Article i of the present Convention shall take effect in case of war 
between two or more of the Contracting Powers. 

Article 2 applies as between a belligerent Power which is a party 
to the Convention and neutral Powers which are also parties to the 
Convention. 

ARTICLE 4. 

The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible. 

The ratifications shall be deposited at The Hague. 

The first deposit of ratifications shall be recorded in a Protocol 
signed by the Representatives of the Powers which take part therein 
and by the Netherland Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

The subsequent deposits of ratifications shall be made by means 
of a written notification, addressed to the Netherland Government 
and accompanied by the instrument of ratification. 

A duly certified copy of the Protocol relating to the first deposit 
of ratifications, of the notifications mentioned in the preceding para- 
graph, and of the instruments of ratification, shall be immediately sent 
by the Netherland Government through the diplomatic channel to the 
Powers invited to the Second Peace Conference, a.s well as to the 

403 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [HAG 

other Powers which have acceded to the Convention. The said 
Government shall, in the cases contemplated in the preceding para- 
graph, inform them at the same time of the date on which it received 
the notification. 

ARTICLE 5. 

Non-Signatory Powers may accede to the present Convention. 

A Power which desires to accede notifies its intention in writing to 
the Netherland Government, forwarding to it the act of accession, which 
shall be deposited in the archives of the said Government. 

The said Government shall immediately forward to all the other 
Powers a duly certified copy of the notification as well as of the act of 
accession, mentioning the date on which it received the notification. 

ARTICLE 6. 

The present Convention shall take effect, in the case of the Powers 
which were parties to the first deposit of ratifications, sixty days after 
the date of the Protocol recording such deposit, and, in the case of 
the Powers which shall ratify subsequently or which shall accede, 
sixty days after the notification of their ratification or of their accession 
has been received by the Netherland Government. 

ARTICLE 7. 

In the event of one of the High Contracting Parties wishing to 
denounce the present Convention, the denunciation shall be notified 
in writing to the Netherland Government which shall immediately com- 
municate a duly certified copy of the notification to all the other 
Powers, informing them of the date on which it was received. 

The denunciation shall only operate in respect of the denouncing 
Power, and only on the expiry of one year after the notification has 
reached the Netherland Government. 

ARTICLE 8. 

A register kept by the Netherland Ministry for Foreign Affairs 
shall record the date of the deposit of ratifications effected in virtue 
of Article 4, paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the date on which the 
notifications of accession (Article 5, paragraph 2) or of denunciation 
(Article 7, paragraph i) have been received. 

Each Contracting Power is entitled to have access to this register 
and to be supplied with duly certified extracts from it. 

In faith whereof the * Plenipotentiaries have appended their 
signatures to the present Convention. 

404 



3 and 6] APPENDIX 

Done at The Hague, October i8th, 1907, in a single original, which 
shall remain deposited in the archives of the Netherland Government, 
and of which duly certified copies shall be sent, through the diplomatic 
channel, to the Powers invited to the Second Peace Conference. 

[This Convention was signed and ratified by Germany, Austria-Hungary, 
Belgium, France, Great Britain, Japan, Portugal and Russia. It was also signed 
but not ratified by Bulgaria, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia, and Turkey.] 

II. CONVENTION No. 6. 

Convention relative to the Status of Enemy Merchant-ships at the Outbreak 

of Hostilities. 

[THE Contracting Powers at the Conference as enumerated in 
Convention No. 3 next preceding] anxious to ensure the security of 
international commerce against the surprises of war, and wishing, in 
accordance with modern practice, to protect as far as possible opera- 
tions undertaken in good faith and in process of being carried out 
before the outbreak of hostilities, have resolved to conclude a Conven- 
tion to this effect, and have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, that 
is to say : 

[Names of Plenipotentiaries] 

Who, after having deposited their full powers, found to be in good 
and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions : 

ARTICLE i. 

When a merchant-ship belonging to one of the belligerent Powers 
is at the commencement of hostilities in an enemy port, it is desirable 
that it should be allowed to depart freely, either immediately, or after 
a reasonable number of days of grace, and to proceed, after being fur- 
nished with a pass, direct to its port of destination or any other port 
indicated to it. 

The same principle applies in the case of a ship which has left its 
last port of departure before the commencement of the war and has 
entered a port belonging to the enemy while still ignorant that hostilities 
have broken out. 

ARTICLE 2. 

A merchant-ship which, owing to circumstances beyond its control, 
may have been unable to leave the enemy port within the period 
contemplated in the preceding Article, or which was not allowed to 
leave, may not be confiscated. 

The belligerent may merely detain it, on condition of restoring it 
after the war, without payment of compensation, or he may requisition 
it on condition of paying compensation. 

405 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [HA 

ARTICLE 3. 

Enemy merchant-ships which left their last port of departure 
before the commencement of the war, and are encountered on the high 
seas while still ignorant of the outbreak of hostilities may not be con- 
fiscated. They are merely liable to be detained on condition that they 
are restored after the war without payment of compensation ; or to 
be requisitioned, or even destroyed, on payment of compensation, but 
in such case provision must be made for the safety of the persons on 
board as well as ,the preservation of the ship's papers. 

After touching at a port in their own country or at a neutral port, 
such ships are subject to the laws and customs of naval war. 

ARTICLE 4. 

Enemy cargo on board the vessels referred to in Articles i and 2 
is likewise liable to be detained and restored after the war without 
payment of compensation, or to be requisitioned on payment of com- 
pensation, with or without the ship. 

The same principle applies in the case of cargo on board the vessels 
referred to in Article 3. 

ARTICLE 5. 

The present Convention does not refer to merchant-ships which 
show by their build that they are intended for conversion into war-ships. 

ARTICLE 6. 

The provisions of the present Convention do not apply except 
between Contracting Powers, and then only if all the belligerents are 
parties to the Convention. 

[Articles 7 to ri of this Convention are identical with Articles 4 to 8 of 
Convention No. 3 next preceding. 

This Convention was signed and ratified by Austria-Hungary, Belgium, 
France, Great Britain, Japan and Portugal. It was signed and ratified with 
reservations relating to article 3 and article 4, paragraph 2 by Germany and 
Russia. It was signed by Bulgaria, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia, and Turkey.] 



III. CONVENTION No. 7. 

Convention relative to the Conversion of Merchant-ships into War-ships. 

WHEREAS it is desirable, in view of the incorporation in time of 
war of merchant-ships in the fighting fleet, to define the conditions 
subject to which this operation may be effected ; 

Whereas, however, the Contracting Powers have been unable to 
come to an agreement on the question whether the conversion of a 

406 



6 and 7] APPENDIX 

merchant-ship into a war-ship may take place upon the high seas, it 
is understood that the question of the place where such conversion is 
effected remains outside the scope of this Agreement and is in no way 
affected by the following rules ; and 

Whereas they are desirous of concluding a Convention to this effect, 
have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say : 

[Names of Plenipotentiaries] 

Who, after having deposited their full powers, found to be in good 
and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions : 

ARTICLE i. 

A merchant-ship converted into a war-ship cannot have the rights 
and duties appertaining to vessels having that status unless it is placed 
under the direct authority, immediate control, and responsibility of 
the Power, the flag of which it flies. 

ARTICLE 2. 



Merchant-ships converted into war-ships must bear the external 
marks which distinguish the war-ships of their nationality. 

ARTICLE 3. 

The commander must be in the service of the State and duly 
commissioned by the proper authorities. His name must figure on 
the list of the officers of the fighting fleet. 

ARTICLE 4. 
The crew must be subject to military discipline. 

ARTICLE 5. 

Every merchant-ship converted into a war-ship is bound to observe 
in its operations the laws and customs of war. 

ARTICLE 6. 

A belligerent who converts a merchant-ship into a war-ship must, 
as soon as possible, announce such conversion in the list of its war-ships, 

407 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [HAGt 

ARTICLE 7. 

The provisions of the present Convention do not apply except 
between Contracting Powers, and then only if all the belligerents are 
parties to the Convention. 

[Articles 8 to 12 of this Convention are identical with articles 4 to 8 of Con- 
vention No. 3. 

This Convention was signed and ratified by Germany, Austria-Hungary, 
Belgium, France, Great Britain, Japan, Portugal and Russia. It was signed by 
Bulgaria, Italy, Montenegro, and Serbia, and by Turkey subject to reservations 
recorded in the Protocols of the Conference.] 



IV. CONVENTION No. 8. 

Convention relative to the Laying of Automatic Submarine Contact Mines. 

[THE Contracting Powers] inspired by the principle of the freedom 
of the seas as the common highway of all nations ; 

Seeing that, while the existing position of affairs makes it impossible 
to forbid the employment of automatic submarine contact mines, it 
is nevertheless expedient to restrict and regulate their employment 
in order to mitigate the' severity of war and to ensure, as far as possible, 
to peaceful navigation the security to which it is entitled, despite the 
existence of war ; 

Until such time as it may be found possible to formulate rules on 
the subject which shall ensure to the interests involved all the guarantees 
desirable ; 

Have resolved to conclude a Convention to this effect, and have 
appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say ; 

[Names of Plenipotentiaries] 

Who after having deposited their full powers, found to be in good 
and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions : 

ARTICLE i. 
It is forbidden : 

(1) To lay unanchored automatic contact mines, unless they 
be so constructed as to become harmless one hour at most after 
the person who laid them has ceased to control them ; 

(2) To lay anchored automatic contact mines which do not 
become harmless as soon as they have broken loose from their 
moorings ; 

(3) To use torpedoes which do not become harmless when they 
have missed their mark. 

408 



7 and 8] APPENDIX 

ARTICLE 2. 

The laying of automatic contact mines off the coast and ports of 
the enemy with the sole object of intercepting commercial shipping is 
forbidden. 

ARTICLE 3. 

When anchored automatic contact mines are employed, every 
possible precaution must be taken for the security of peaceful shipping. 

The belligerents undertake to do their utmost to render these 
mines harmless after a limited time has elapsed, and, should the mines 
cease to be under observation, to notify the danger zones as soon 
as military exigencies permit by a notice to mariners, which must also 
be communicated to the Governments through the diplomatic channel. 

ARTICLE 4. 

Neutral Powers which lay automatic contact mines off their coast 
must observe the same rules and take the same precautions as are 
imposed on belligerents. 

The neutral Power must give notice to mariners in advance of the 
places where automatic contact mines have been laid. This notice 
must be communicated at once to the Governments through the 
diplomatic channel. 

ARTICLE 5. 

At the close of the war, the Contracting Powers undertake to do 
their utmost to remove the mines which they have laid, each Power 
removing its own mines. 

As regards anchored automatic contact mines laid by one of the 
belligerents off the coast of the other, their position must be notified 
to the other party by the Power which laid them, and each Power 
must proceed with the least possible delay to remove the mines in its 
own waters. 

ARTICLE 6. 

The Contracting Powers which do not at present own perfected 
mines of the description contemplated in the present Convention, and 
which, consequently, could not at present carry out the rules laid 
down in Articles i and 3, undertake to convert the materiel of their 
mines as soon as possible, so as to bring it into conformity with the 
foregoing requirements. 

ARTICLE 7. 

The provisions of the present Convention do not apply except 
between Contracting Powers, and then only if all the belligerents are 
parties to the Convention. 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [HAG 

ARTICLE 8. 

The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible. 

The ratifications shall be deposited at The Hague. 

The first deposit of ratifications shall be recorded in a Protocol 
signed by the Representatives of the Powers which take part therein 
and by the Netherland Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

The subsequent deposits of ratifications shall be made by means 
of a written notification addressed to the Netherland Government and 
accompanied by the instrument of ratification. 

A duly certified copy of the Protocol relating to the first deposit 
of ratifications, of the notifications mentioned in the preceding para- 
graph, and of the instruments of ratification, shall be immediately 
sent, by the Netherland Government, through the diplomatic channel, 
to the Powers invited to the Second Peace Conference, as well as to the 
other Powers which have acceded to the Convention. The said Govern- 
ment shall, in the cases contemplated in the preceding paragraph, 
inform them at the same time of the date on which it received the 
notification. 

ARTICLE 9. 

Non-Signatory Powers may accede to the present Convention. 

A Power which desires to accede notifies its intention in writing 
to the Netherland Government, forwarding to it the act of accession, 
which shall be deposited in the archives of the said Government. 

The said Government shall immediately forward to all the other 
Powers a duly certified copy of the notification, as well as of the act 
of accession, mentioning the date on which it received the notification, 

ARTICLE 10. 

The present Convention shall take effect, in the case of the Powers 
which were parties to the first deposit of ratifications, sixty days after 
the date of the Protocol recording such deposit, and, in the case of 
the Powers which shall ratify subsequently or which shall accede, 
sixty days after the notification of their ratification or of their accession 
has been received by the Netherland Government. 

ARTICLE n. 

The present Convention shall remain in force for seven years, dating 
from the sixtieth day after the date of the first deposit of ratifications. 

Unless denounced, it shall continue in force after the expiry of this 
period. 

410 



8] APPENDIX 

The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Netherland 
Government, which shall immediately communicate a duly certified 
copy of the notification to all the Powers, informing them of the date on 
which it was received. 

The denunciation shall only operate in respect of the denouncing 
Power, and only on the expiry of six months after the notification has 
reached the Netherland Government. 

ARTICLE 12. 

The Contracting Powers agree to reopen the question of the employ- 
ment of automatic contact mines six months before the expiry of the 
period contemplated in the first paragraph of the preceding Article, 
in the event of the question not having been already taken up and 
settled by the Third Peace Conference. 

If the Contracting Powers conclude a fresh Convention relative 
to the employment of mines, the present Convention shall cease to 
be applicable from the moment when it comes into force. 

ARTICLE 13. 

A register kept by the Netherland Ministry for Foreign -Affairs 
shall record the date of the deposit of ratifications effected in virtue of 
Article 8, paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the date on which the notifica- 
tions of accession (Article 9, paragraph 2) or of denunciation (Article n, 
paragraph 3) have been received. 

Each Contracting Power is entitled to have access to this register 
and to be supplied with duly certified extracts from it. 

In faith whereof the Plenipotentiaries have appended their signatures 
to the present Convention. 

Done at The Hague, October i8th, 1907, in a single original, which 
shall remain deposited in the archives of the Netherland Govern- 
ment, and of which duly certified copies shall be sent, through the diplo- 
matic channel, to the Powers invited to the Second Peace Conference. 

[This Convention was signed by Bulgaria, Italy, and Serbia, and signed 
and ratified by Austria - Hungary, Belgium and Japan. By Germany 
and France it was signed and ratified with reservation of Article 2. By Turkey 
it was signed subject to a reservation recorded in the Protocols. By Great 
Britain it was signed and ratified subject to the reservation involved in the 
following declaration : 

In affixing their signatures to the above Convention the British Plenipoten- 
tiaries declare that the mere fact that the said Convention does not prohibit a 
particular act or proceeding must not be held to debar His Britannic 
Majesty's Government from contesting its legitimacy.] 

411 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [HAC 

V. CONVENTION No. 9. 

Convention respecting Bombardments by Naval Forces in Time of War. 

[THE Contracting Powers] animated by the desire to realise the 
wish expressed by the First Peace Conference respecting the bombard- 
ment by naval forces of undefended ports, towns, and villages ; 

Whereas it is expedient that bombardments by naval forces should 
be subject to rules of general application to safeguard the rights of 
the inhabitants and to assure the preservation of the more important 
buildings, by applying as far as possible to this operation of war the 
principles of the Regulations of 1899 respecting the Laws and Customs 
of Land War ; and 

Actuated, accordingly, by the desire to serve the interests of 
humanity and to diminish the severity and disasters of war ; 

Have resolved to conclude a Convention to this effect, and have, 
for this purpose, appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say : 

[Names of Plenipotentiaries] 

Who, after having deposited their full powers, found to be in good 
and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions ; 

CHAPTER I. 

BOMBARDMENT OF UNDEFENDED PORTS, TOWNS, VILLAGES, 
DWELLINGS, OR BUILDINGS. 

ARTICLE i. 

The bombardment by naval forces of undefended ports, towns, 
villages, dwellings, or buildings is forbidden. 

A place may not be bombarded solely on the ground that automatic 
submarine contact mines are anchored off the harbour. 

ARTICLE 2. 

Military works, military or naval establishments, depots of arms 
or war material, workshops or plant which could be utilised for the 
needs of the hostile fleet or army, and ships of war in the harbour, are 
not, however, included in this prohibition. The commander of a naval 
force may destroy them with artillery, after a summons followed by 
a reasonable interval of time, if all other means are impossible, and 
when the local authorities have not themselves destroyed them within 
the time fixed. 

412 



9] APPENDIX 

The commander incurs no responsibility for any unavoidable 
damage which may be caused by a bombardment under such circum- 
stances. 

If for military reasons immediate action is necessary, and no 
delay can be allowed to the enemy, it is nevertheless understood that 
the prohibition to bombard the undefended town holds good, as in the 
case given in the first paragraph, and that the commander shall take 
all due measures in order that the town may suffer as little harm as 
possible. 

ARTICLE 3. 

After due notice has been given, the bombardment of undefended 
ports, towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings may be commenced, if 
the local authorities, on a formal summons being made to them, 
decline to comply with requisitions for provisions or supplies necessary 
for the immediate use of the naval force before the place in question. 

Such requisitions shall be proportional to the resources of the place. 
They shall only be demanded in the name of the commander of the 
said naval force, and they shall, as far as possible, be paid for in ready 
money ; if not, receipts shall be given. 

ARTICLE 4. 

The bombardment of undefended ports, towns, villages, dwellings, 
or buildings, on account of failure to pay money contributions, is 
forbidden. 



CHAPTER II. 

GENERAL PROVISIONS. 

ARTICLE 5. 

In bombardments by naval forces all necessary steps must be 
taken by the commander to spare as far as possible buildings dedicated 
to public worship, art, science, or charitable purposes, historic monu- 
ments, hospitals, and places where the sick or wounded are collected, 
provided that they are not used at the time for military purposes. 

It is the duty of the inhabitants to indicate such monuments, edifices, 
or places by visible signs, which shall consist of large stiff rectangular 
panels divided diagonally into two painted triangular portions, the 
upper portion black, the lower portion white. 

413 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [HAGC 

ARTICLE 6. 

Unless military exigencies render it impossible, the officer in com- 
mand of an attacking naval force must, before commencing the bom- 
bardment, do all in his power to warn the authorities. 

ARTICLE 7. 

The giving over to pillage of a town or place, even when taken by 
assault, is forbidden. 

CHAPTER III. 

FINAL PROVISIONS. 

ARTICLE 8. 

The provisions of the present Convention do not apply except 
between Contracting Powers, and then only if all the belligerents are 
parties to the Convention. 

[Articles 9 to 13 of this Convention are identical with Articles 4 to 8 of 
Convention No. 3. 

This Convention was signed by Bulgaria, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia and 
Turkey. It was signed and ratified by Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Portugal and 
Russia. By Germany, France, Great Britain and Japan it was signed and 
ratified subject to a reservation of the second paragraph of Article i.] 



VI. CONVENTION No. 10. 

Convention for the Adaptation of the Principles of the Geneva 
Convention to Maritime War. 

[THE Contracting Powers] animated alike by the desire to diminish 
as far as depends on them, the inevitable evils of war ; and 

Wishing with this object to adapt to maritime war the principles of 
the Geneva Convention of July 6th, 1906 ; 

Have resolved to conclude a Convention for the purpose of revising 
the Convention of July 29th, 1899, relative to this question, and have 
appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say ; 

[Names of Plenipotentiaries] 

Who, after having deposited their full powers, found to be in good 
and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions : 

ARTICLE i. 

Military hospital-ships, that is to say, ships constructed or adapted 
by States for the particular and sole purpose of aiding the sick, wounded, 



414 



9 and 10] APPENDIX 

and shipwrecked, the names of which have been communicated to the 
belligerent Powers at the commencement or during the course of 
hostilities, and in any case before they are employed, shall be respected, 
and may not be captured while hostilities last. 

Such ships, moreover, are not on the same footing as war-ships, as 
regards their stay in a neutral port. 

ARTICLE 2. 

Hospital-ships, equipped wholly or in part at the expense of private 
individuals or officially recognised relief societies, shall likewise be 
respected and exempt from capture, if the belligerent Power to which 
they belong has given them an official commission and has notified 
their names to the hostile Power at the commencement of or during 
hostilities, and in any case before they are employed. 

Such ships shall be provided with a certificate from the proper 
authorities declaring that the vessels have been under their control 
while fitting out and on final departure. 

ARTICLE 3. 

Hospital-ships, equipped wholly or in part at the expense of private 
individuals or officially recognised societies of neutral countries, shall 
be respected and exempt from capture, on condition that they are 
placed under the orders of one of the belligerents, with the previous 
consent of their own Government and with the authorisation of the 
belligerent himself, and on condition also that the latter has notified 
their name to his adversary at the commencement of or during hostili- 
ties, and in any case before they are employed. 

ARTICLE 4. 

The ships mentioned in Articles i, 2, and 3 shall afford relief and 
assistance to the wounded, sick, and shipwrecked of the belligerents 
without distinction of nationality. 

The Governments undertake not to use these ships for any military 
purpose. 

Such vessels must in nowise hamper the movements of the com- 
batants. 

During and after an engagement they will act at their own risk 
and peril. 

The belligerents shall have the right to control and search them ; 
they may refuse to help them, order them off, make them take a certain 
course, and put a Commissioner on board ; they may even detain them, 
if the situation is such as to require it. 

The belligerents shall, as far as possible, enter in the log of the 
hospital-ships the orders which they give them. 

415 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [HAG 

ARTICLE 5. 

Military hospital-ships shall be distinguished by being painted 
white outside with a horizontal band of green about a metre and a half 
in breadth. 

The ships mentioned in Articles 2 and 3 shall be distinguished by 
being painted white outside with a horizontal band of red about a 
metre and a half in breadth. 

The boats of the said ships, as also small craft which may be used 
for hospital work, shall be distinguished by similar painting. 

All hospital-ships shall make themselves known by hoisting, with 
their national flag, the white flag with a red cross provided by the 
Geneva Convention, and further, if they belong to a neutral State, 
by flying at the mainmast the national flag of the belligerent under 
whose orders they are placed. 

Hospital-ships which are detained under Article 4 by the enemy 
must haul down the national flag of the belligerent to whom they 
belong. 

The ships and boats above mentioned which wish to ensure by night 
the freedom from interference to which they are entitled, must, subject 
to the assent of the belligerent they are accompanying, take the neces- 
sary measures to render their special painting sufficiently plain. 

ARTICLE 6. 

The distinguishing signs referred to in Article 5 shall only be used, 
whether in peace or war, for protecting or indicating the ships therein 
mentioned. 

ARTICLE 7. 

In the case of a fight on board a war-ship, the sick-bays shall be 
respected and spared as far as possible. 

The said sick-bays and the materiel belonging to them remain 
subject to the laws of war ; they cannot, however, be used for any 
purpose other than that for which they were originally intended, so 
long as they are required for the sick and wounded. 

The commander into whose power they have fallen may, however, 
if the military situation requires it, apply them to other purposes, after 
seeing that the sick and wounded on board are properly provided for. 

ARTICLE 8. 

Hospital-ships and sick-bays of vessels are no longer entitled to 
protection if they are employed for the purpose of injuring the enemy. 
The fact of the staff of the said ships and sick-bays being armed 
416 



io] APPENDIX 

for maintaining order and for defending the sick and wounded, and 
the presence of wireless telegraphy apparatus on board, are not 
sufficient reasons for withdrawing protection. 

ARTICLE 9. 

Belligerents may appeal to the charity of the commanders of neutral 
merchant-ships, yachts, or boats to take the sick and wounded on 
board and tend them. 

Vessels responding to this appeal, and also vessels which may have 
of their own accord rescued sick, wounded, or shipwrecked men, shall 
enjoy special protection and certain immunities. In no case may they 
be captured for the sole reason of having such persons on board ; but, 
subject to any undertaking that may have been given to them, they 
remain liable to capture for any violations of neutrality they may have 
committed. 

ARTICLE io. 

The religious, medical, and hospital staff of any captured ship is 
inviolable, and its members may not be made prisoners of war. On 
leaving the ship they are entitled to remove their own private belong- 
ings and surgical instruments. 

They shall continue to discharge their duties so far as necessary, 
and can afterwards leave, when the Commander-in-Chief considers 
it permissible. 

Belligerents must guarantee to the said staff, while in their hands, 
the same allowances and pay as are given to the staff of corresponding 
rank in their own navy. 

ARTICLE n. 

Sick or wounded sailors, soldiers on board, or other persons officially 
attached to fleets, or armies whatever their nationality, shall be 
respected and tended by the captors. 

ARTICLE 12. 

Any war-ship belonging to a belligerent may demand the surrender 
of sick, wounded, or shipwrecked men on board military hospital- 
ships, hospital-ships belonging to relief societies, or to private indi- 
viduals, merchant-ships, yachts, or boats, whatever the nationality 
of such vessels. 

ARTICLE 13. 

If sick, wounded, or shipwrecked persons are taken on board a 
neutral war-ship, precaution must be taken, so far as possible, that 
they do not again take part in the operations of the war. 

Naval I 2 D 4*7 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [HAG 

ARTICLE 14. 

The sick, wounded, or shipwrecked of one of the belligerents who 
fall into the power of the other belligerents are prisoners of war. The 
captor must decide, according to circumstances, whether to keep them, 
send them to a port of his own country, to a neutral port, or even to an 
enemy port. In this last case, prisoners thus repatriated may not 
serve again while the war lasts. 

ARTICLE 15. 

The sick, wounded, or shipwrecked, who are landed at a neutral 
port with the consent of the local authorities, must, in default of 
arrangement to the contrary between the neutral State and the bel- 
ligerent States, be guarded by the neutral States so as to prevent them 
from again taking part in the operations of the war. 

The expenses of tending them in hospital and interning them shall 
be borne by the State to which the shipwrecked, sick, or wounded 
persons belong. 

ARTICLE 16. 

After every engagement, the two belligerents shall, so far as military 
interests permit, take steps to look for the sick, wounded, and ship- 
wrecked, and to protect them, as well as the dead, against pillage and 
improper treatment. 

They shall see that the burial, whether by land or sea, or cremation 
of the dead shall be preceded by a careful examination of the corpse. 

ARTICLE 17. 

Each belligerent shall send, as early as possible, the military marks 
or documents of identity found on the dead and a list of the names of 
the sick and wounded picked up by him to the authorities of their 
country, navy, or army. 

The belligerents shall keep each other informed as to internments 
and transfers as well as to the admissions into hospital and deaths 
which have occurred among the sick and wounded in their hands. 
They shall collect all the objects of personal use, valuables, letters, 
&c., which may be found in the captured ships, or which may have 
been left by the sick or wounded who died in hospital, in order to have 
them forwarded to the persons concerned by the authorities of their 
own country. 

ARTICLE 18. 

The provisions of the present Convention do not apply except 
between Contracting Powers, and then only if all the belligerents are 
parties to the Convention. 

418 



v. io] APPENDIX 

ARTICLE 19. 

The Commander-in-Chief of the belligerent fleets shall give detailed 
directions for carrying out the preceding Articles and for meeting cases 
not therein provided for, in accordance with the instructions of their 
respective Governments and in conformity with the general principles 
of the present Convention. 

ARTICLE 20. 

The Signatory Powers shall take the necessary steps in order to 
bring the provisions of the present Convention to the knowledge of their 
naval forces, and especially of the members entitled thereunder to 
immunity, and to make them known to the public. 

ARTICLE 21. 

The Signatory Powers likewise undertake to enact or to propose 
to their Legislatures, if their criminal laws are inadequate, the 
measures necessary for checking in time of war individual acts of pillage 
and ill-treatment in respect of the sick and wounded in the fleet, as well 
as for punishing, as an unjustifiable adoption of naval or military 
marks, the unauthorised use of the distinctive marks mentioned in 
Article 5 by vessels not protected by the present Convention. 

They shall communicate to each other, through the Netherland 
Government, the enactments for preventing such acts at the latest 
within five years of the ratification of the present Convention. 

ARTICLE 22. 

In the case of operations of war between the land and sea forces of 
belligerents, the provisions of the present Convention are only applic- 
able to the forces on board ship. 

ARTICLE 23. 

The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible. 

The ratifications shall be deposited at The Hague. 

The first deposit of ratifications shall be recorded in a Protocol 
signed by the Representatives of the Powers which take part therein 
and by the Netherland Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

The subsequent deposits of ratifications shall be made by means 
of a written notification, addressed to the Netherland Government and 
accompanied by the instrument of ratification. 

A duly certified copy of the Protocol relating to the first deposit 
of ratifications, of the notifications mentioned in the preceding para- 
graph, and of the instruments of ratification, shall be immediately 

419 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [HA 

sent by the Netherland Government through the diplomatic channel 
to the Powers invited to the Second Peace Conference, as well as to the 
other Powers which have acceded to the Convention. The said Gov- 
ernment shall, in the cases contemplated in the preceding paragraph, 
inform them at the same time of the date on which it received the 
notification. 

ARTICLE 24. 

Non-Signatory Powers which have accepted the Geneva Conven- 
tion of July 6th, 1906, may accede to the present Convention. 

A Power which desires to accede notifies its intention in writing to 
the Netherland Government, forwarding to it the act of accession, which 
shall be deposited in the archives of the said Government. 

The said Government shall immediately forward to all the other 
Powers a duly certified copy of the notification, as well as of the act of 
accession, mentioning the date on which it received the notification. 

ARTICLE 25. 

The present Convention, duly ratified, shall replace as between 
Contracting Powers, the Convention of July 2gth, 1899, for the adapta- 
tion to naval warfare of the principles of the Geneva Convention. 

The Convention of 1899 remains in force as between the Powers 
which signed it but which do not also ratify the present Convention. 

ARTICLE 26. 

The present Convention shall take effect, in the case of the Powers 
which were parties to the first deposit of ratifications, sixty days after 
the date of the Protocol recording such deposit, and, in the case of the 
Powers which shall ratify subsequently or which shall accede, sixty 
days after the notification of their ratification or of their accession has 
been received by the Netherland Government. 

ARTICLE 27. 

In the event of one of the Contracting Powers wishing to denounce 
the present Convention, the denunciation shall be notified in writing 
to the Netherland Government, which shall immediately communicate 
a duly certified copy of the notification to all the other Powers, inform- 
ing them of the date on which it was received. 

The denunciation shall only operate in respect of the denouncing 
Power, and only on the expiry of one year after the notification has 
reached the Netherland Government. 

420 



iv. io and n] APPENDIX 

ARTICLE 28. 

A register kept by the Netherland Ministry for Foreign Affairs 
shall record the date of the deposit of ratifications effected in virtue 
of Article 23, paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the date on which the 
notifications of accession (Article 24, paragraph 2) or of denunciation 
(Article 27, paragraph i) have been received. 

Each Contracting Power is entitled to have access to this register 
and to be supplied with duly certified extracts from it. 

In faith whereof the Plenipotentiaries have appended their sig- 
natures to the present Convention. 

Done at The Hague, October i8th, 1907, in a single original, which 
shall remain deposited in the archives of the Netherland Government, 
and of which duly certified copies shall be sent, through the diplomatic 
channel, to the Powers invited to the Second Peace Conference. 

[This Convention was signed by Bulgaria, Italy, Montenegro, and Serbia. 
It was signed and ratified by Germany, Austria- Hungary, Belgium, France, 
Japan, Portugal and Russia. It was signed by Turkey under reservation of 
the right admitted by the Peace Conference to employ the Red Crescent. It 
was signed by Great Britain under reservation of Articles 6 and 21, and of 
the following Declaration : 

In affixing their signatures to this Convention, the British Plenipotentiaries 
declare that His Majesty's Government understand Article 12 to apply only 
to the case of combatants rescued during or after a naval engagement in which 
they have taken part.] 



VII.-CONVENTION No. u. 

Convention relative to certain Restrictions on the Exercise of the Right 
of Capture in Maritime War. 

[The Contracting Powers] recognising the necessity of ensuring 
more effectively than hitherto the equitable application of law to the 
international relations of maritime Power in time of war ; 

Considering that, for this purpose, it is expedient, in giving up or, 
if necessary, in harmonising for the common interest certain conflicting 
practices of long standing, to undertake to codify in regulations of 
general application the guarantees due to peaceful commerce and 
legitimate business, as well as the conduct of hostilities by sea ; that 
it is expedient to lay down in written mutual engagements the principles 
which have hitherto remained in the uncertain domain of controversy 
or have been left to the discretion of Governments ; 

That a certain number of rules may be made forthwith, without 
thereby affecting the law now in force with regard to the matters which 
these rules do not touch ; 

421 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [HA 

Have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say : 
[Names of Plenipotentiaries] 

Who, after having deposited their full powers, found to be in good 
and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions : 

CHAPTER I. 

POSTAL CORRESPONDENCE. 
ARTICLE I. 

The postal correspondence of neutrals or belligerents, whatever its 
official or private character, found on board a neutral or enemy ship 
on the high seas is inviolable. If the ship is detained, the correspond- 
ence is forwarded by the captor with the least possible delay. 

The provisions of the preceding paragraph do not, in case of viola- 
tion of blockade, apply to correspondence proceeding to or from a 
blockaded port. 

ARTICLE 2. 

The inviolability of postal correspondence does not exempt a neutral 
mail-ship from the laws and customs of naval war respecting neutral 
merchant-ships in general. The ship, however, may not be searched 
except when absolutely necessary, and then only with as much con- 
sideration and expedition as possible. 

CHAPTER II. 

EXEMPTION FROM CAPTURE OF CERTAIN VESSELS. 
ARTICLE 3. 

Vessels employed exclusively in coast fisheries, or small boats 
employed in local trade, together with their appliances, rigging, tackle, 
and cargo, are exempt from capture. 

This exemption no longer applies from the moment that they take 
any part whatever in hostilities. 

The Contracting Powers bind themselves not to take advantage of 
the harmless character of the said vessels in order to use them for 
military purposes while preserving their peaceful appearance. 



ARTICLE 4. 

Vessels employed on religious, scientific, or philanthropic missions 
likewise exempt from capture. 



422 

c 



>NV. u] APPENDIX 

CHAPTER III. 

REGULATIONS REGARDING THE CREWS OF ENEMY MERCHANT-SHIPS 
CAPTURED BY A BELLIGERENT. 

ARTICLE 5. 

When an enemy merchant-ship is captured by a belligerent, such 
of its crew as are subjects or citizens of a neutral State are not made 
prisoners of war. 

The same principle applies in the case of the captain and officers, 
likewise subjects or citizens of a neutral State, if they give a formal 
undertaking in writing not to serve on an enemy ship while the war 
lasts. 

ARTICLE 6. 

The captain, officers, and members of the crew, if subjects or citizens 
of the enemy State, are not made prisoners of war, provided that they 
undertake, on the faith of a written promise, not to engage, while 
hostilities last, in any service connected with the operations of the war. 

ARTICLE 7. 

The names of the persons retaining their liberty under the conditions 
laid down in Article 5, in the second paragraph, and in Article 6, are 
notified by the belligerent captor to the other belligerent. The latter 
is forbidden knowingly to employ the said persons. 

ARTICLE 8. 

The provisions of the three preceding Articles do not apply to ships 
taking part in hostilities. 

CHAPTER IV. 
FINAL PROVISIONS. 

ARTICLE 9 

The provisions of the present Convention do not apply except 
between Contracting Powers, and then only if all the belligerents are 
parties to the Convention. 

[Articles 10 to 14 of this Convention are identical with Articles 4 to 8 of 
Convention No. 3. 

This Convention was signed and ratified by Germany, Austria-Hungary, 
Belgium, France, Great Britain, Japan and Portugal. It was also signed by 
Bulgaria, Italy, Serbia and Turkey.] 

_______________^ 

423 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [HAGI 

VIII. CONVENTION No. 13. 

Convention respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in 

Maritime War. 

[THE Contracting Powers] with a view to harmonising the diver- 
gent views which still exist as to the relations between neutral Powers 
and belligerent Powers, in the case of naval war, and with a view to 
providing for the difficulties to which such divergence of views might 
give rise ; 

Whereas, even if at present measures cannot be framed applicable 
to all circumstances which may arise in practice, there is nevertheless 
an undeniable advantage in framing, as far as may be possible, rules 
of general application to meet the case of war having unfortunately 
broken out ; 

Whereas, in cases not covered by the present Convention, account 
must be taken of the general principles of the law of nations ; 

Whereas, it is desirable that the Powers should issue detailed 
enactments specifying the consequences of the status of neutrality 
whenever adopted by them ; 

Whereas, there is a recognised obligation on neutral Powers to apply 
to the several belligerents impartially the rules they have adopted ; 
and 

Whereas, it is in conformity with these ideas that these rules should 
not, in principle, be altered, in the course of the war, by a neutral 
Power, except in a case where experience has shown that such change is 
necessary for the protection of the rights of that Power ; 

Have agreed to observe the following rules of general application, 
which are not meant, however, to modify provisions of existing general 
Treaties, and have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say : 

[Names of _ Plenipotentiaries] 

Who, after having deposited their full powers, found to be in good 
and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions : 

ARTICLE i. 

Belligerents are bound to respect the sovereign rights of neutral 
Powers and to abstain, in neutral territory or neutral waters, from 
any act which would, if knowingly permitted by any Power, constitute 
a violation of neutrality. 

ARTICLE 2. 

Any act of hostility, including therein capture and the exercise 
of the right of search, committed by belligerent war-ships in the 
424 



NV. 13] APPENDIX 

territorial waters of a neutral Power, constitutes a violation of neutrality 
and is strictly forbidden. 

ARTICLE 3. 

When a ship has been captured in the territorial waters of a neutral 
Power, such Power must, if the prize is still within its jurisdiction, 
employ the means at its disposal to release the prize with its officers 
and crew, and to intern the prize crew. 

If the prize is not within the jurisdiction of the neutral Power, the 
captor Government, on the demand of the neutral Power, must liberate 
the prize with its officers and crew. 

ARTICLE 4. 

A Prize Court cannot be established by a belligerent on neutral 
territory or on a vessel in neutral waters. 

ARTICLE 5. 

Belligerents are forbidden to use neutral ports and waters as a base 
of naval operations against their adversaries ; in particular they may 
not erect wireless telegraphy stations or any apparatus for the purpose 
of communicating with the belligerent forces on land or sea. 

ARTICLE 6. 

The supply, in any manner, directly or indirectly, of war-ships, 
supplies, or war material of any kind whatever, by a neutral Power to 
a belligerent Power, is forbidden. 

ARTICLE 7. 

A neutral Power is not bound to prevent the export or transit, for 
either belligerent, of arms, munitions of war, or, in general, of anything 
which could be of use to an army or fleet. 

ARTICLE 8. 

A neutral Government is bound to employ the means at its disposal 
to prevent the fitting out or arming of any vessel within its jurisdiction 
which it has reason to believe is intended to cruise, or engage in hostile 
operations, against a Power with which that Government is at peace. 
It is also bound to display the same vigilance to prevent the departure 
from its jurisdiction of any vessel intended to cruise or engage in 
hostile operations, which has been adapted entirely or partly within 
the said jurisdiction for use in war. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ARTICLE g. 

A neutral Power must apply to the two belligerents impartially 
the conditions, restrictions, or prohibitions issued by it in regard to 
the admission into its ports, roadsteads, or territorial waters, of bel- 
ligerent war-ships, of of their prizes. 

Nevertheless, a neutral Power may forbid any particular belligerent 
vessel which has failed to conform to the orders and regulations made 
by it, or which has violated neutrality, to enter its ports or roadsteads. 

ARTICLE 10. 

The neutrality of a Power is not affected (n'est pas compromise) 
by the mere passage through its territorial waters of war-ships or 
prizes belonging to belligerents. 

ARTICLE u. 

A neutral Power may allow belligerent war-ships to employ its 
licensed pilots. 

ARTICLE 12. 

In default of special provisions to the contrary in the legislation of 
a neutral Power, belligerent war-ships are not permitted to remain in 
the ports, roadsteads, or territorial waters of the said Power for more 
than twenty-four hours, except in the cases covered by the present 
Convention. 

ARTICLE 13. 

If a Power which has received notice of the outbreak of hostilities 
learns that a belligerent war-ship is in one of its ports or roadsteads, 
or in its territorial waters, it must notify the said ship to depart within 
twenty-four hours, or within the time prescribed by the local law. 

ARTICLE 14. 

A belligerent war-ship may not prolong its stay in a neutral port 
beyond the time permitted except on account of damage or stress of 
weather. It must depart as soon as the cause of the delay is at an end. 

The regulations as to the length of time which such vessels may 
remain in neutral ports, roadsteads, or waters, do not apply to war-ships 
devoted exclusively to religious, scientific, or philanthropic purposes. 

ARTICLE 15. 

In default of special provisions to the contrary in the legislation of 
a neutral Power, the maximum number of war-ships belonging to a 
belligerent which may be in one of the ports or roadsteads of that 
Power simultaneously shall be three. 

426 






ONV. 13] APPENDIX 

ARTICLE 16. 

When war-ships belonging to both belligerents are present simul- 
taneously in a neutral port or roadstead, a period of not less than 
twenty-four hours must elapse between the departure of the ship 
belonging to one belligerent and the departure of the ship belonging to 
the other. 

The order of departure is determined by the order of arrival, unless 
the ship which arrived first is so circumstanced that an extension of 
its stay is permissible. 

A belligerent war-ship may not leave a neutral port or roadstead 
until twenty-four hours after the departure of a merchant-ship flying 
the flag of its adversary. 

ARTICLE 17. 

In neutral ports and roadsteads belligerent war-ships may only 
carry out such repairs as are absolutely necessary to render them 
seaworthy, and may not add in any manner whatever to their fighting 
force. The local authorities of the neutral Power shall decide what 
repairs are necessary, and these must be carried out with the least 
possible delay. 

ARTICLE 18. 

Belligerent war-ships may not make use of neutral ports, roadsteads, 
or territorial waters for replenishing or increasing their supplies of war 
material or their armament, or for completing their crews. 

ARTICLE 19. 

Belligerent war-ships may only revictual in neutral ports or road- 
steads to bring up their supplies to the peace standard. 

Similarly these vessels may only ship sufficient fuel to enable them 
to reach the nearest port in their own country. They may, on the other 
hand, fill up their bunkers built to carry fuel, when in neutral countries 
which have adopted this method of determining the amount of fuel 
to be supplied. 

If, in accordance with the law of the neutral Power, the ships are 
not supplied with coal within twenty-four hours of their arrival, the 
duration of their permitted stay is extended by twenty-four hours. 

ARTICLE 20. 

Belligerent war-ships which have shipped fuel in a port belonging 
to a neutral Power may not within the succeeding three months 
replenish their supply in a port of the same Power. 

427 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ARTICLE 21. 

A prize may only be brought into a neutral port on account of 
unseaworthiness, stress of weather, or want of fuel or provisions. 

It must leave as soon as the circumstances which justified its entry 
are at an end. If it does not, the neutral Power must order it to leave 
at once ; should it fail to obey, the neutral Power must employ the 
means at its disposal to release it with its officers and crew and to 
intern the prize crew. 

ARTICLE 22. 

A neutral Power must, similarly, release a prize brought into one 
of its ports under circumstances other i han those referred to in Article 
21. 

ARTICLE 23. 

A neutral Power may allow prizes to enter its ports and roadsteads, 
whether under convoy or not, when they are brought there to be 
sequestrated pending the decision of a Prize Court. It may have the 
prize taken to another of its ports. 

If the prize is convoyed by a war-ship, the prize crew may go on 
board the convoying ship. 

If the prize is not under convoy, the prize crew are left at liberty. 

ARTICLE 24. 

If, notwithstanding the notification of the neutral Power, a 
belligerent ship of war does not leave a port where it is not entitled to 
remain, the neutral Power is entitled to take such measures as it 
considers necessary to render the ship incapable of putting to sea so 
long as the war lasts, and the commanding officer of the ship must 
facilitate the execution of such measures. 

When a belligerent ship is detained by a neutral Power, the officers 
and crew are likewise detained. 

The officers and crew so detained may be left in the ship or kept 
either on another vessel or on land, and may be subjected to such 
restrictions as it may appear necessary to impose upon them. A 
sufficient number of men must, however, be always left on board for 
looking after the vessel. 

The officers may be left at liberty on giving their word not to quit 
the neutral territory without permission. 

ARTICLE 25. 

A neutral Power is bound to exercise such vigilance as the means 
at its disposal permit to prevent any violation of the provisions of the 
above Articles occurring in its ports or roadsteads or in its waters. 

428 



3NV. 13] APPENDIX 

ARTICLE 26. 

The exercise by a neutral Power of the rights laid down in the 
present Convention can under no circumstances be considered as an 
unfriendly act by one or other belligerent who has accepted the Articles 
relating thereto. 

ARTICLE 27. 

The Contracting Powers shall communicate to each other in due 
course all statutes, orders, and other enactments defining in their 
respective countries the situation of belligerent war-ships in their 
ports and waters, by means of a communication addressed to the 
Government of the Netherlands, and forwarded immediately by that 
Government to the other Contracting Powers. 

ARTICLE 28. 

The provisions of the present Convention do not apply except to 
the Contracting Powers, and then only if all the belligerents are parties 
to the Convention. 

[Articles 29 to 33 of this Convention axe identical with Articles 4 to 8 of 
Convention No. 3. 

This Convention was signed and ratified by Austria-Hungary, Belgium, 
France, Portugal and Russia. It was signed by Bulgaria, Italy, Montenegro 
and Serbia. It was signed by Great Britain under reservation of Articles 19 
and 23, and by Turkey under a reservation recorded in the Protocols. It was 
signed and ratified by Germany under reservation of Articles n, 12, 13, and 
20 and by Japan under reservation of Articles 19 and 23.] 



III. 

THE DECLARATION OF LONDON. 

General Report presented to the Naval Conference on Behalf of its Drafting 
Committee, and adopted by the Conference on February 2$th, 1909. 

ON February 27th, 1908, the British Government addressed a 
circular to various Powers inviting them to meet at a Conference with 
the object of reaching an agreement as to the definition of the generally 
recognised principles of international law in the sense of Article 7, 
paragraph 2, of the Convention signed at The Hague on October i8th, 
1907, for the establishment of an International Prize Court. This 
agreement appeared necessary to the British Government on account 
of certain divergencies of view which had become apparent at the 
second Peace Conference in connection with the settlement of various 

429 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. o 

important questions of international maritime law in time of war. 
The existence of these divergent views might, it seemed, render difficult 
the acceptance of the International Prize Court, as the power of this 
Court would be the more extended in proportion as the rules to be 
applied by it were more uncertain. 

The British Government suggested that the following questions 
might form the programme of the proposed Conference, and invited 
the Powers to express their views regarding them in preparatory 
Memoranda : 

(a) Contraband, including the circumstances under which particular 
articles can be considered as contraband ; the penalties for their carriage ; 
the immunity of a ship from search when under convoy ; and the rules 
with regard to compensation where vessels have been seized but have been 
found in fact only to be carrying innocent cargo ; 

(b) Blockade, including the questions as to the locality where seizure 
can be effected, and the notice that is necessary before a ship can be seized ; 

(c) The doctrine of continuous voyage in respect both of contraband 
and of blockade ; 

(d) The legality of the destruction of neutral vessels prior to their 
condemnation by a prize court ; 

(e) The rules as to neutral ships or persons rendering " unneutral 
service " (" assistance hostile ") ; 

(/) The legality of the conversion of a merchant-vessel into a war-ship 
on the high seas ; 

(g) The rules as to the transfer of merchant-vessels from a belligerent 
to a neutral flag during or in contemplation of hostilities ; 

(h) The question whether the nationality or the domicile of the owner 
should be adopted as the dominant factor in deciding whether property 
is enemy property. 

The invitations were accepted, and the Conference met on the 
4th December last. The British Government had been so good as 
to assist its deliberations by presenting a collection of papers which 
quickly became known among us by the name of The Red Book, and 
which, after a short introduction, contains a " Statement of the views 
expressed by the Powers in their Memoranda, and observations intended 
to serve as a basis for the deliberations of the Conference." These 
are the " bases of discussion " which served as a starting-point for the 
examination of the chief questions of existing international maritime 
law. The Conference could not but express its gratitude for this 
valuable preparatory work, which was of great assistance to it. It 
made it possible to observe, in the first place, that the divergencies in 
the practices and doctrines of the different countries were perhaps less 
wide than was generally believed, that the essential ideas were often 
the same in all countries, and that the methods of application alone 

430 



)NDON] APPENDIX 

varied with traditions or prejudices, with permanent or accidental 
interests. It was, therefore, possible to extract a common element 
which it could be agreed to recommend for uniform application. This 
is the end to which the efforts of the different Delegations tended, and 
they vied with one another in their zeal in the search for the grounds 
of a common understanding. Their efforts were strenuous, as is shown 
by the prolonged discussions of the Conference, the Grand Committee, 
and the Examining Committees, and by the numerous proposals which 
were presented. Sailors, diplomatists, and jurists cordially co-operated 
in a work the description of which, rather than a final estimate of its 
essential value, is the object of this Report, as our impartiality might 
naturally be suspected. 

The body of rules contained in the Declaration, which is the result 
of the deliberations of the Naval Conference, and which is to be entitled 
Declaration concerning the laws of naval war, answers well to the desire 
expressed by the British Government in its invitation of February, 
1908. The questions in the programme are all settled except two, 
with regard to which explanations will be given later. The solutions 
have been extracted from the various views or practices which prevail, 
and represent what may be called the media sententia. They are not 
always in absolute agreement with the views peculiar to each country, 
but they shock the essential ideas of none. They must not be examined 
separately, but as a whole, otherwise there is a risk of the most serious 
misunderstandings. In fact, if one or more isolated rules are examined 
either from the belligerent or the neutral point of view, the reader 
may find that the interests with which he is especially concerned are 
jeopardised by the adoption of these rules. But they have another 
side. The work is one of compromise and mutual concessions. Is it, 
as a whole, a good one ? 

We confidently hope that those who study it seriously will answer 
that it is. The Declaration puts uniformity and certainty in the 
place of the diversity and obscurity from which international relations 
have too long suffered. The Conference has tried to reconcile in an 
equitable and practical way the rights of belligerents with those of 
neutral commerce ; it consists of Powers whose conditions, from the 
political, economic, and geographical points of view, vary considerably. 
There is therefore reason to suppose that the rules on which these 
Powers have agreed take sufficient account of the different interests 
involved, and hence may be accepted without objection by all the 
others. 

The Preamble of the Declaration summarises the general ideas 
just set forth. 

Having regard to the terms in which the British Government invited 
various Powers to meet in conference in order to arrive at an agreement 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. 

as to what are the generally recognised rules of international law within 
the meaning of Article 7 of the Convention of the i8th October, 1907, rela- 
tive to the establishment of an International Prize Court ; 

Recognising all the advantages which an agreement as to the said rules 
would present in the unfortunate event of a naval war, both as regards 
Peaceful commerce and as regards the belligerents and their diplomatic 
relations with neutral Governments ; 

Having regard to the divergence often found in the methods by which 
it is sought to apply in practice the general principles of international 
law ; 

Animated by the desire to insure henceforward a greater measure of 
uniformity in this respect ; 

Hoping that a work so important to the common welfare will meet with 
general approval. 

What is the scope of application of the rules thus laid down ? 
They must be observed in the relations between the signatory parties, 
since those parties acknowledge them as principles of recognised inter- 
national law and, besides, expressly bind themselves to secure the 
benefit of them for one another. The Signatory Powers who are or 
will be parties to the Convention establishing the International Prize 
Court will have, besides, an opportunity of having these rules applied 
to disputes in which they are concerned, whether the Court regards 
them as generally recognised rules, or takes account of the pledge given 
to observe them. It is, moreover, to be hoped that these rules will 
before long be accepted by the majority of States, who will recognise 
the advantage of substituting exact provisions for more or less indefinite 
usages which tend to give rise to controversy. 

It has been said above that two points in the programme of the 
Conference were not decided. 

i. The programme mentions under head (/) : the legality of the 
conversion of a merchant-vessel into a war-ship on the high seas. The 
conflicting views on this subject which became apparent at the Con- 
ference of The Hague in 1907, have recurred at the present Conference. 
It may be concluded, both from the statements in the Memoranda 
and from the discussion, that there is no generally accepted rule on 
this point, nor do there appear to be any precedents which can be 
adduced. Though the two opposite opinions were defended with 
great warmth, a lively desire for an understanding was expressed on 
all sides ; everybody was at least agreed that it would be a great advan- 
tage to put an end to uncertainty. Serious efforts were made to do 
justice to the interests espoused by both sides, but these unfortunately 
failed. A subsidiary question dependent on the previous one, on 
which, at one moment, it appeared possible to come to an agreement, 
is that of reconversion. According to one proposal, it was to be laid 

432 



.ONDON] APPENDIX 

down that " merchant vessels converted into war-ships cannot be 
reconverted into merchant vessels during the whole course of the 
war." The rule was absolute, and made no distinction as regards the 
place where reconversion could be effected ; it was dictated by the 
idea that such conversion would always have disadvantages, would be 
productive of surprises, and lead to actual frauds. As unanimity in 
favour of this proposal was not forthcoming, a subsidiary one was 
brought forward, viz., " the conversion of a war-ship into a merchant 
vessel on the high seas is forbidden during the war." The case had in 
view was that of a war-ship (generally a recently converted merchant 
vessel) doffing its character so as to be able freely to revictual or refit 
in a neutral port without being bound by the restrictions imposed on 
war-ships. Will not the position of the neutral State between two 
belligerents be delicate, and will not such State expose itself to reproach 
whether it treats the newly converted ship as a merchant vessel or as a 
war-ship ? Agreement might perhaps have been reached on this pro- 
posal, but it seemed very difficult to deal with this secondary aspect 
of a question which there was no hope of settling as a whole. This 
was the decisive reason for the rejection of all proposals. 

The question of conversion on the high seas and that of reconversion 
therefore remains open. 

2. Under head (h), the British Programme mentions : the question 
whether the nationality or the domicile of the owner should be adopted 
as the dominant factor in deciding whether property is enemy property. 
This question was subjected to a searching examination by a special 
Committee, which had to acknowledge the uncertainty of actual 
practice ; it was proposed to put an end to this by the following pro- 
visions : 

" The neutral or enemy character of goods found on board an 
enemy vessel is determined by the neutral or enemy nationality 
of their owner, or, if he is of no nationality or of double nationality 
(i.e., both neutral and enemy), by his domicile in a neutral or 
enemy country ; 

" Provided that goods belonging to a limited liability or joint 

stock company are considered as neutral or enemy according as 

the company has its headquarters in a neutral or enemy country." 

Unanimity not being forthcoming, these provisions remained 

without effect. 

We now reach the explanation of the Declaration itself, on which 
we shall try, by summarising the Reports already approved by the 
Conference, to give an exact and uncontroversial commentary ; this, 
when it has become an official commentary by receiving the approval 
of the Conference, may serve as a guide to the different authorities 
administrative, military, and judicial who may be called on to apply it. 

Naval 12 E 433 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Dnci 

PRELIMINARY PROVISION. 

The Signatory Powers are agreed that the rules contained in the following 
Chapters correspond in substance with the generally recognised principles 
of international law. 

This provision dominates all the rules which follow. Its spirit has 
been indicated in the general remarks to be found at the beginning of 
this Report. The purpose of the Conference has, above all, been to 
note, to define, and, where needful, to complete what might be necessary 
as customary law. 

CHAPTER i. 
BLOCKADE IN TIME OF WAR. 

Blockade is here regarded solely as an operation of war, and there 
is no intention of touching in any way on what is called pacific blockade. 

ARTICLE i. 

A blockade must not extend beyond the ports and coasts belonging to 
or occupied by the enemy. 

Blockade, as an operation of war, can be directed by a belligerent 
only against his adversary. This very simple rule is laid down at the 
start, but its full scope is apparent only when it is read in connection 
with Article 18. 

ARTICLE 2. 

In accordance with the Declaration of Paris of 1856, a blockade, in 
order to be binding, must be effective that is to say, it must be maintained 
by a force sufficient really to prevent access to the enemy coastline. 

The first condition necessary to render a blockade binding is that 
it should be effective. There has been universal agreement on this 
subject for a long time. As for the definition of an effective blockade, 
we thought that we had only to adopt the one to be found in the 
Declaration of Paris of April i6th, 1856, which, conventionally, 
binds a great number of States, and is in fact accepted by the rest. 

ARTICLE 3. 

The question whether a blockade is effective is a question of fact. 

It is easily to be understood that difficulties often arise on the 
question whether a blockade is effective or not ; opposing interests are 
at stake. The blockading belligerent wishes to economise his efforts, 
and neutrals desire their trade to be as little hampered as possible. 

434 



LONDON] APPENDIX 

Diplomatic protests have sometimes been made on this subject. The 
point may be a delicate one, because no absolute rule can be laid down 
as to the number and position of the blockading ships. All depends 
on matters of fact and geographical conditions. In one case a single 
ship will suffice to blockade a port as effectively as possible, whereas 
in another a whole fleet may not be enough really to prevent access 
to one or more ports declared to be blockaded. It is therefore essentially 
a question of fact, to be decided on the merits of each case, and not 
according to a formula drawn up beforehand. Who shall decide it ? 
The judicial authority. This will be, in the first place, the national 
tribunal which is called on to pronounce as to validity of the prize and 
which the vessel captured for breach of blockade can ask to declare 
the capture void, because the blockade, not being effective, was not 
binding. This resort has always existed ; it may not always have 
given satisfaction to the Powers concerned, because they may have 
thought that the national tribunal was rather naturally led to consider 
effective the blockade declared to be so by its Government. But, 
when the International Prize Court Convention conies into force, there 
will be an absolutely impartial tribunal, to which neutrals may apply, 
and which will decide whether, in a given case, the blockade was 
effective or not. The possibility of this resort, besides allowing certain 
injustices to be redressed, will most likely have a preventive effect, in 
that a Government will take care to establish its blockades in such a 
way that their effect cannot be annulled by decisions which would 
inflict on it a heavy loss. The full scope of Article 3 is thus seen when 
it is understood that the question with which it deals must be settled 
by a Court. The foregoing explanation is inserted in the Report at the 
request of the Committee, in order to remove all possibility of mis- 
understanding. 

ARTICLE 4. 

A blockade is not regarded as raised if the blockading force is tempor- 
arily withdrawn on account of stress of weather. 

It is not enough for a blockade to be established : it must be 
maintained. If it is raised it may be re-established, but this requires 
the observance of the same formalities as though it were established 
for the first time. By tradition, a blockade is not regarded as raised 
when it is in consequence of stress of weather that the blockading 
forces are temporarily withdrawn. This is laid down in Article 4. 
It must be considered limitative in the sense that stress of weather 
is the only form of compulsion which can be alleged. If the blockading 
forces were withdrawn for any other reason, the blockade would be 
regarded as raised, and, if it were resumed, Articles 12 (last rule) and 
13 would apply. 

435 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL [DECL. 

ARTICLE 5. 

A blockade must be applied impartially to the ships of all nations. 

Blockade, as an operation of lawful warfare, must be respected by 
neutrals in so far as it really remains an operation of war which has 
the object of interrupting all commercial relations with the blockaded 
port. It may not be made the means of allowing a belligerent to favour 
the vessels of certain nations by letting them pass. This is the point 
of Article 5. 

ARTICLE 6. 

The commander of a blockading force may give permission to a war- 
ship to enter, and subsequently to leave, a blockaded port. 

Does the prohibition which applies to all merchant vessels apply 
also to war-ships ? No definite reply can be given. The commander 
of the blockading forces may think it useful to cut off all communication 
with the blockaded place, and refuse access to neutral war-ships ; no 
rule is imposed on him. If he lets them in, it is as a matter of courtesy. 
If a rule has been drawn up merely to lay down this it is in order that 
it may not be claimed that a blockade has ceased to be effective on 
account of leave granted to such and such neutral war-ships. 

The blockading commander must act impartially, as stated in 
Article 5. Nevertheless, the mere fact that he has let a war-ship pass 
does not oblige him to let pass all neutral war-ships which may come. 
It is a question of judgment. The presence of a neutral war-ship in a 
blockaded port may not have the same consequences at all stages of the 
blockade, and the commander must be left free to judge whether he can 
be courteous without making any sacrifice of his military interests. 

ARTICLE 7. 

In circumstances of distress, acknowledged by an offieer of the blockad- 
ing force, a neutral vessel may enter a place under blockade, and sub- 
sequently leave it, provided that she has neither discharged ncr shipped 
any cargo there. 

Distress can explain the entrance of a neutral vessel into a blockaded 
place, for instance, if she is in want of food or water, or needs immediate 
repairs. A soon as her distress is acknowledged by an authority of the 
blockading force, she may cross the line of blockade ; it is not a favour 
which she has to ask of the humanity or courtesy of the blockading 
authority. The latter may deny the state of distress, but when once 
it is proved to exist, the consequence follows of itself. The vessel 
which has thus entered the blockaded port will not be obliged to 
remain there for the whole duration of the blockade ; she may leave 
as soon as she is fit to do so, when she has obtained the fopd or water 
which she needs, or when she has been repaired. But the leave 

436 



5NDON] APPENDIX 

granted to her must not be made an excuse for commercial transactions ; 
therefore she is forbidden to discharge or ship any cargo. 

It is needless to say that a blockading squadron which insisted 
on preventing a vessel in distress from passing, might do so if she 
afforded her the help which she needed. 

ARTICLE 8. 

A blockade, in order to be binding, must be declared in accordance 
with Article 9, and notified in accordance with Articles n and 16. 

Independently of the condition prescribed by the Declaration of 
Paris that it must be effective, a blockade, to be binding, must be 
declared and notified. Article 8 confines itself to laying down the 
principle which is applied by the following Articles. 

To remove all possibility of misunderstanding it is enough to 
define clearly the meaning of these two expressions, which will 
frequently be used* The declaration of blockade is the act of the 
competent authority (a Government or commander of a squadron) 
stating that a blockade is, or is about to be, established under con- 
ditions to be specified (Article 9) . The notification is the fact of bring- 
ing the declaration of blockade to the knowledge of the neutral Powers 
or of certain authorities (Article n). 

These two things declaration and notification will in most 
cases be done previously to the enforcement of the rules of blockade, 
that is to say, to the real prohibition of passage. Nevertheless, as we 
shall see later, it is sometimes possible for passage to be forbidden by 
the very fact of the blockade which is brought to the knowledge of 
a vessel approaching a blockaded port by means of a notification which 
is special, whereas the notification which has just been defined, and 
which is spoken of in Article n, is of a general character. 

ARTICLE 9. 

A declaration of blockade is made either by the blockading Power or 
by the naval authorities acting in its name. 
It specifies : 

(1) The date when the blockade begins ; 

(2) The geographical limits of the coastline under blockade ; 

(3) The period within which neutral vessels may come out. 

The declaration of blockade in most cases emanates from the 
belligerent Government itself. That Government may have left the 
commander of its naval forces free himself to declare a blockade 
according to the circumstances. There will not, perhaps, be as much 
reason as formerly to give this discretion, because of the ease and 
rapidity of communication. This, being merely an internal question, 
matters little. 

437 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. OF 

The declaration of blockade must specify certain points which it is 
in the interest of neutrals to know, in order-to be aware of the extent of 
their obligations. The moment from which it is forbidden to communi- 
cate with the blockaded place must be exactly known. It is important, 
as affecting the obligations both of the blockading Power and of 
neutrals, that there should be no uncertainty as to the places really 
blockaded. Finally, the custom has long been established of allowing 
neutral vessels which are in the blockaded port to leave it. This 
custom is here confirmed, in the sense that the blockading Power must 
allow a period within which vessels may leave ; the length of this 
period is not fixed, because it clearly depends on very varying circum- 
stances, but it is understood that the period should be reasonable. 

ARTICLE 10. 

// the operations of the blockading Power, or of the naval authorities 
acting in its name, do not tally with the particulars, which, in accordance 
with Article 9 (i) and (2), must be inserted in the declaration of blockade, 
the declaration is void, and a new declaration is necessary in order to 
make the blockade operative. 

The object of this Article is to insure the observance of Article 9. 
Supposing the declaration of blockade contains statements which do 
not tally with the actual facts ; it states that the blockade began, or 
will begin, on such a day, whereas, in fact, it only began several 
days later. Its geographical limits are inaccurately given ; they are 
wider than those within which the blockading forces are operating. 
What shall be the sanction ? The nullity of the declaration of blockade, 
which prevents it from being operative. If then, in such a case, a 
neutral vessel is captured for breach of blockade, she can refer to 
the nullity of the declaration of blockade as a plea for the nullity of 
the capture ; if her plea is rejected by the national tribunal, she can 
appeal to the International Court. 

To avoid misunderstandings, the significance of this provision 
must be noticed. The declaration states that the blockade begins 
on February ist, it really only begins on the 8th. It is needless to 
say that the declaration had no effect from the ist to the 8th, because 
at that time there was no blockade at all ; the declaration states a 
fact, but does not take the place of one. The rule goes further : the 
declaration shall not even be operative from the 8th onwards ; it is 
definitely void, and another must be made. 

There is no question here of cases where Article 9 is disregarded by 
neglect to allow neutral vessels in the blockaded port time to leave 
it. The sanction could not be the same. There is no reason to annul 
the declaration as regards neutral vessels wishing to enter the blockaded 

438 



TOON] APPENDIX 

port. A special sanction is needed in that case, and it is provided by- 
Article 1 6, paragraph 2. 

ARTICLE n. 

A declaration of blockade is notified : 

(1) To neutral Powers, by the blockading Power by means of 
a communication addressed to the Governments direct, or to their 
representatives accredited to it ; 

(2) To the local authorities, by the officer commanding the blockad- 
ing force. The local authorities will, in turn, inform the foreign 
consular officers at the port or on the coastline under blockade as soon 
as possible. 

A declaration of blockade is not valid unless notified. The observ- 
ance of a rule can only be required by those who have the opportunity 
of knowing it. 

Two notifications must be made : 

(1) The first is addressed to neutral Powers by the belligerent 
Power, which communicates it to the Governments themselves 
or to their representatives accredited to it. The communication 
to the Governments will in most cases be made through the 
diplomatic agents ; it might happen that a belligerent had no 
diplomatic relations with a neutral country ; he will then address 
himself, ordinarily by telegraph, directly to the Government of 
that country. It is the duty of the neutral Governments advised 
of the declaration of blockade to take the necessary measures to 
despatch the news to the different parts of their territory, especially 
their ports. 

(2) The second notification is made by the commander of the 
blockading force to the local authorities. These must inform^ 
as soon as possible, the foreign Consuls residing at the blockaded 
place or on the blockaded coastline. Those authorities would be 
responsible for the neglect of this obligation. Neutrals might 
suffer loss from the fact of not having been informed of the blockade 
in sufficient time. 

ARTICLE 12. 

The rules as to declaration and notification of blockade apply to- 
cases where the limits of a blockade are extended, or where a blockade is 
re-established after having been raised. 

Supposing a blockade is extended beyond its original limits : as 
regards the new part, it is a new blockade, and, in consequence, the 
rules as to declaration and notification must be applied to it. The 
same is true in cases where a blockade is re-established after having 
been raised ; the fact that a blockade has already existed in the same 
locality must not be taken into account. 

-439 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. o 

ARTICLE 13. 

The voluntary raising of a blockade, as also any restriction in the 
limits of a blockade, must be notified in the manner prescribed by 
Article n. 

If it is indispensable to know of the establishment of a blockade, 
it would at least be useful for the public to be told of its raising, since 
it puts an end to the restrictions imposed on the relations of neutrals 
with the blockaded port. It has therefore been thought fit to ask the 
Power which raises a blockade to make known the fact in the form 
in which it has notified the establishment of the blockade (Article n). 
Only it must be observed that the sanction could not be the same 
in the two cases. To ensure the notification of the declaration of 
blockade there is a direct and adequate sanction : an unnotified 
blockade is not binding. In the case of the raising there can be no 
parallel to this. The public will really gain by the raising, even 
without being told of it officially. The blockading Power which did not 
notify the raising would expose itself to diplomatic remonstrances on 
the ground of the non-fulfilment of an international duty. This 
non-fulfilment will have more or less serious consequences, according 
to circumstances. Sometimes the raising of the blockade will really 
have become known at once, and official notification would add nothing 
to this effective publicity. 

It is needless to add that only the voluntary raising of a blockade 
is here in question ; if the blockading force has been driven off by the 
arrival of enemy forces, it cannot be held bound to make known its 
defeat, which its adversary will undertake to do without delay. Instead 
of raising a blockade, a belligerent may confine himself to restricting 
it ; he only blockades one port instead of two. As regards the port 
which ceases to be included in the blockade, it is a case of voluntary 
raising, and consequently the same rule applies. 

ARTICLE 14. 

The liability of a neutral vessel to capture for breach of blockade is 
contingent on her knowledge, actual or presumptive, of the blockade. 

For a vessel to be liable to capture for breach of blockade, the first 
condition is that she must be aware of the blockade, because it is not 
just to punish some one for breaking a rule which he does not know. 
Nevertheless, there are circumstances in which, even in the absence 
of proof of actual knowledge, knowledge may be presumed, the right 
of rebutting this presumption being always reserved to the party 
concerned (Article 15). 

440 



DON] APPENDIX 

ARTICLE 15. 

Failing proof to the contrary, knowledge of the blockade is presumed 
if the vessel left a neutral port subsequently to the notification of the blockade 
to the Power to which such port belongs, provided that such notification 
was made in sufficient time. 

A vessel has left a neutral port subsequently to the notification of 
the blockade made to the Powers to which the port belongs. Was 
this notification made in sufficient time, that is to say, so as to reach the 
port in question, where it had to be published by the port authorities ? 
That is a question of fact to be examined. If it is settled affirmatively, 
it is natural to suppose that the vessel was aware of the blockade 
at the time of her departure. This presumption is not however 
absolute, and the right to adduce proof to the contrary is reserved. 
It is for the incriminated vessel to furnish it, by showing that circum- 
stances existed which explain her ignorance. 

ARTICLE 16. 

// a vessel approaching a blockaded port has no knowledge, actual 
or presumptive, of the blockade, the notification must be made to the vessel 
itself by an officer of one of the ships of the blockading force. This notifi- 
cation should be entered in the vessel's logbook, and must state the day 
and hour, and the geographical position of the vessel at the time. 

If through the negligence of the officer commanding the blockading 
force no declaration of blockade has been notified to the local authorities, 
or, if in the declaration, as notified, no period has been mentioned within 
which neutral vessels may come out, a neutral vessel coming out of the 
blockaded port must be allowed to pass free. 

A vessel is supposed to be approaching a blockaded port without 
its being possible to tell whether she knows or is presumed to know 
of the existence of the blockade ; no notification in the sense of Article n 
has reached her. In that case a special notification is necessary in 
order that the vessel may be duly informed of the fact of the blockade. 
This notification is made to the vessel herself by an officer of one of 
the war-ships of the blockading force, and is entered on the vessel's 
logbook. It may be made to the vessels of a convoyed fleet by a 
neutral war-ship through the commander of the convoy, who acknow- 
ledges receipt of it and takes the necessary measures to have the 
notification entered on the logbook of each vessel. The entry notes 
the time and place where it is made, and the names of the blockaded 
places. The vessel is prevented from passing, and the blockade is 
thus made binding for her, though not previously notified ; this adverb 
is therefore omitted in Article 8. It cannot be admitted that a merchant 
vessel should claim to disregard a real blockade, and to break it for 
the sole reason that she was not personally aware of it. But, though 

441 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. c 

she may be prevented from passing, she may only be captured when 
she tries to break blockade after receiving the notification. This 
special notification is seen to play a very small part, and must not be 
confused with the special notification absolutely insisted on by the 
practice of certain navies. 

What has just been said refers to the vessel coming in. The vessel 
leaving the blockaded port must also be considered. If a regular noti- 
fication of the blockade has been made to the local authorities (Article n 
(2)), the position is simple ; the vessel is, or is presumed to be, aware 
of the blockade, and is therefore liable to capture in case she has not 
kept to the period for leaving allowed by the blockading Power. But 
it may happen that no declaration of blockade has been notified to the 
local authorities, or that that declaration has contained no mention 
of the period allowed for leaving, in spite of the rule prescribed by 
Article 9 (3). The sanction of the blockading Power's offence is that 
the vessel must be allowed to go free. It is a strong sanction, which 
corresponds exactly with the nature of the offence committed, and 
will be the best means of preventing its commission. 

It is needless to say that this provision only concerns vessels to 
which the period allowed for leaving would have been of use that is 
to say, neutral vessels which were in the port at the time when the 
blockade was established ; it has nothing to do with vessels which are in 
the port after having broken blockade. 

The commander of the blockading squadron may always repair his 
omission or mistake, make a notification of the blockade to the local 
authorities, or complete that which he has already made. 

As is seen from these explanations, the most ordinary case is assumed 
that in which the absence of notification implies negligence on the 
part of the commander of the blockading forces. The situation is 
clearly altogether changed if the commander has done all in his power 
to make the notification, but has been prevented from doing so by 
lack of good-will on the part of the local authorities, who have inter- 
cepted all communications from outside. In that case he cannot be 
forced to let pass vessels which wish to leave, and which, in the absence 
of the prescribed notification and of presumptive knowledge of the 
blockade, are in a position similar to that contemplated in Article 16, 
paragraph I. 

ARTICLE 17. 

Neutral vessels may not be captured for breach of blockade except within 
the area of operations of the war-ships detailed to render the blockade 
effective. 

The other condition of the liability of a vessel to capture is that 
she should be found within the area of operations of the war-ships 

442 



w] APPENDIX 

detailed to make the blockade effective ; it is not enough that she 
should be on her way to the blockaded port. 

As for what constitutes the area of operations, an explanation has 
been given which has been universally accepted, and is quoted here as 
furnishing the best commentary on the rule laid down by Article 17 : 

' When a Government decides to undertake blockading opera- 
tions against some part of the enemy coast it details a certain 
number of war-ships to take part in the blockade, and intrusts 
the command to an officer whose duty is to use them for the pur- 
pose of making the blockade effective. The commander of the 
naval force thus formed posts the ships at his disposal according 
to the line of the coast and the geographical position of the block- 
aded places, and instructs each ship as to the part which she has 
to play, and especially as to the zone which she is to watch. All 
the zones watched taken together, and so organised as to make 
the blockade effective, form the area of operations of the blockading 
naval force. 

' The area of operations so constituted is intimately connected 
with the effectiveness of the blockade, and also with the number 
of ships employed on it. 

" Cases may occur in which a single ship will be enough to keep 
a blockade effective for instance, at the entrance of a port, or 
at the mouth of a river with a small estuary, so long as circum- 
stances allow the blockading ship to stay near enough to the 
entrance. In that case the area of operations is itself near the 
coast. But, on the other hand, if circumstances force her to 
remain far off, one ship may not be enough to secure effectiveness, 
and to maintain this she will then have to be supported by others. 
From this cause the area of operations becomes wider, and extends 
further from the coast. It may therefore vary with circumstances, 
and with the number of blockading ships, but it will always be 
limited by the condition that effectiveness must be assured. 

" It does not seem possible to fix the limits of the area of 
operations in definite figures, any more than to fix beforehand 
and definitely the number of ships necessary to assure the effective- 
ness of any blockade. These points must be settled according to 
circumstances in each particular case of a blockade. This might 
perhaps be done at the time of making the declaration. 

" It is clear that a blockade will not be established in the same 
way on a defenceless coast as on one possessing all modern means 
of defence. In the latter case there could be no question of 
enforcing a rule such as that which formerly required that ships 
should be stationary and sufficiently close to the blockaded places ; 
the position would be too dangerous for the ships of the blockading 

443 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. 

force which, besides, now possess more powerful means of watching 
effectively a much wider zone than formerly. 

' The area of operations of a blockading naval force may be 
rather wide, but as it depends on the number of ships contributing 
to the effectiveness of the blockade, and is always limited by the 
condition that it should be effective, it will never reach distant 
seas where merchant vessels sail which are, perhaps, making for 
the blockaded ports, but whose destination is contingent on the 
changes which circumstances may produce in the blockade during 
their voyage. To sum up, the idea of the area of operations 
joined with that of effectiveness, as we have tried to define it, 
that is to say, including the zone of operations of the blockading 
forces, allows the belligerent effectively to exercise the right of 
blockade which he admittedly possesses and, on the other hand, 
saves neutrals from exposure to the drawbacks of blockade at a 
great distance, while it leaves them free to run the risk which they 
knowingly incur by approaching points to which access is forbidden 
by the belligerent." 

ARTICLE 18. 

The blockading forces must not bar access to neutral ports or coasts. 

This rule has been thought necessary the better to protect the 
commercial interests of neutral countries ; it completes Article i, 
according to which a blockade must not extend beyond the ports and 
coasts of the enemy, which implies that, as it is an operation of war, 
it must not be directed against a neutral port, in spite of the importance 
to a belligerent of the part played by that neutral port in supplying his 
adversary. 

ARTICLE 19. 

Whatever may be the ulterior destination of a vessel or of her cargo, she 
cannot be captured for breach of blockade, if, at the moment, she is on her 
way to a non-blockaded port. 

It is the true destination of the vessel which must be considered 
when a breach of blockade is in question, and not the ulterior destina- 
tion of the cargo. Proof or presumption of the latter is therefore not 
enough to justify the capture, for breach of blockade, of a ship actually 
bound for an unblockaded port. But the cruiser might always prove 
that this destination to an unblockaded port is only apparent, and 
that in reality the immediate destination of the vessel is the blockaded 
port. 

4H 



NDON] APPENDIX 

ARTICLE 20. 

A vessel which has broken blockade outwards, or which has attempted 
to break blockade inwards, is liable to capture so long as she is pursued 
by a ship of the blockading force. If the pursuit is abandoned, or if the 
blockade is raised, her capture can no longer be effected. 

A vessel has left the blockaded port or tried to enter it. Shall she 
remain indefinitely liable to capture ? To reply by an absolute affirma- 
tive would be to go too far. This vessel must remain liable to capture 
so long as she is pursued by a ship of the blockading force ; it would 
not be enough for her to be encountered by a cruiser of the blockading 
enemy which did not belong to the blockading squadron. The question 
whether or not the pursuit is abandoned is one of fact ; it is not enough 
that the vessel should take refuge in a neutral port. The ship which 
is pursuing her can wait till she leaves it, so that the pursuit is neces- 
sarily suspended, but not abandoned. Capture is no longer possible 
when the blockade has been raised. 

ARTICLE 21. 

A vessel found guilty of breach of blockade is liable to condemnation. 
The cargo is also condemned, unless it is proved that at the time of the 
shipment of the goods the shipper neither knew nor could have known 
of the intention to break the blockade. 

The vessel is condemned in all cases. The cargo is also condemned 
on principle, but the interested party is allowed to oppose a plea of 
good faith, that is to say, to prove that, when the goods were shipped, 
the shipper did not know and could not have known of the intention 
to break the blockade. 

CHAPTER II. 

CONTRABAND OF WAR. 

This chapter is one of the most, if not the most, important of the 
Declaration. It deals with a matter which has sometimes given rise 
to serious disputes between belligerents and neutrals. Therefore 
regulations to establish exactly the rights and duties of each have often 
been urgently called for. Peaceful trade may be grateful for the pre- 
cision with which a subject of the highest importance to its interests 
is now for the first time treated. 

The notion of contraband of war connotes two elements : it con- 
cerns objects of a certain kind and with a certain destination. Cannons, 
for instance, are carried in a neutral vessel. Are they contraband ? 
That depends : if they are destined for a neutral Government no ; 

445 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Di 

if they are destined for an enemy Government yes. The trade in 
certain articles is by no means generally forbidden during war ; it is 
the trade with the enemy in these articles which is illicit, and against 
which the belligerent to whose detriment it is carried on may protect 
himself by the measures allowed by international law. 

Articles 22 and 24 enumerate the articles which may be contraband 
of war, and which are so in fact when they have a certain destination 
laid down in Articles 30 and 33. The traditional distinction between 
absolute and conditional contraband is maintained : Articles 22 and 30 
refer to the former, and Articles 24 and 33 to the latter. 

ARTICLE 22. 

The following articles may, without notice* be treated as contraband 
of war, under the name of absolute contraband : 

(1) Arms of all kinds, including arms for sporting purposes, and 
their distinctive component parts. 

(2) Projectiles, charges, and cartridges of all kinds, and their 
distinctive component parts. 

(3) Powder and explosives specially prepared for use in war. 

(4) Gun-mountings, limber-boxes, limbers, military waggons, 
field forges and their distinctive component parts. 

(5) Clothing and equipment of a distinctively military character. 

(6) All kinds of harness of a distinctively military character. 

(7) Saddle, draught, and pack animals suitable for use in war. 

(8) Articles of camp equipment, and their distinctive component 
parts. 

(9) Armour plates. 

(10) War-ships, including boats and their distinctive component 
parts of such a nature that they can only be used on a vessel of war. 

(n) Implements and apparatus designed exclusively for the 
manufacture of munitions of war, for the manufacture or repair of 
arms, or war material for use on land or sea. 

This list is that drawn up at the second Peace Conference by the 
Committee charged with the special study of the question of contraband. 
It was the result of mutual concessions, and it has not seemed wise to 
reopen discussion on this subject for the purpose either of cutting out 
or of adding articles. 

The words de plein droit (without notice) imply that the provision 
becomes operative by the mere fact of the war, and that no declaration 
by the belligerents is necessary. Trade is already warned in time of 
peace. 

* In view of the difficulty of finding an exact equivalent in English for the 
expression " de plein droit," it has been decided to translate it by the words 
" without notice," which represent the meaning attached to it by the drafts- 
man of the present General Report. 

44 6 



ONDON] APPENDIX 

ARTICLE 23. 

Articles exclusively used for war may be added to the list of absolute 
contraband by a declaration, which must be notified. 

Such notification must be addressed to the Governments of other Powers, 
or to their representatives accredited to the Power making the declaration. 
A notification made after the outbreak of hostilities is addressed only to 
neutral Powers. 

Certain discoveries or inventions might make the list in Article 22 
insufficient. An addition may be made to it on condition that it con- 
cerns articles exclusively used for war. This addition must be notified 
to the other Powers, which will take the necessary measures to inform 
their subjects of it. In theory the notification may be made in time 
of peace or of war. The former case will doubtless rarely occur because 
a State which made such a notification might be suspected of meditating 
a war ; it would, nevertheless, have the advantage of informing trade 
beforehand. There was no reason for making it impossible. 

The right given to a Power to make an addition to the list by a mere 
declaration has been thought too wide. It should be noticed that this 
right does not involve the dangers supposed. In the first place it is 
understood that the declaration is only operative for the Power which 
makes it, in the sense that the article added will only be contraband 
for it, as a belligerent ; other States may, of course, also make a similar 
declaration. The addition may only refer to articles exclusively used for 
war ; at present, it would be hard to mention any such articles which 
are not included in the list. The future is left free. If a Power claimed 
to add to the list of absolute contraband articles not exclusively used 
for war, it might expose itself to diplomatic remonstrances, because it 
would be disregarding an accepted rule. Besides, there would be an 
eventual resort to the International Prize Court. Suppose that the 
Court holds that the article mentioned in the declaration of absolute 
contraband is wrongly placed there because it is not exclusively used 
for war, but that it might have been included in a declaration of con- 
ditional contraband. Confiscation may then be justified if the capture 
was made in the conditions laid down for this kind of contraband 
(Articles 33-35), which differ from those enforced for absolute contra- 
band (Article 30). 

It had been suggested that, in the interest of neutral trade, a period 
should elapse between the notification and its enforcement. But that 
would be very damaging to the belligerent, whose object is precisely 
to protect himself, since, during that period, the trade in articles which 
he thinks dangerous would be free and the effect of his measure a 
failure. Account has been taken, in another form, of the considera- 
tions of equity which have been adduced (see Article 43). 

447 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DEC 

ARTICLE 24. 

The following articles, susceptible of use in war as well as for purposes 
of peace, may, without notice, be treated as contraband of war, under the 
name of conditional contraband : 

(1) Foodstuffs. 

(2) Forage and grain, suitable for feeding animals. 

(3) Clothing, fabrics for clothing, and boots and shoes, suitable 
for use in war. 

(4) Gold and silver in coin or bullion ; paper money. 

(5) Vehicles of all kinds available for use in war, and their 
component parts. 

(6) Vessels, craft, and boats of all kinds ; floating docks, parts 
of docks and their component parts. 

(7) Railway material, both fixed and rolling stock, and material 
for telegraphs, wireless telegraphs, and telephones. 

(8) Balloons and flying machines and their distinctive component 
parts ; together with accessories and articles recognisable as intended 
for use in connection with balloons and flying machines. 

(9) Fuel ; lubricants. 

(10) Powder and explosives not specially prepared for use in 
war. 

(n) Barbed wire and implements for fixing and cutting the 
same. 

(12) Horseshoes and shoeing materials. 

(13) Harness and saddlery. 

(14) Field glasses, telescopes, chronometers, and all kinds of 
nautical instruments. 

On the expression de plein droit (without notice) the same remark 
must be made as with regard to Article 22. The articles enumerated 
are only conditional contraband if they have the destination specified 
in Article 33. 

Foodstuffs include products necessary or useful for sustaining man, 
whether solid or liquid. 

Paper money only includes inconvertible paper money, i.e. bank- 
notes which may or not be legal tender. Bills of exchange and cheques 
are excluded. 

Engines and boflers are included in (6). 

Railway material includes fixtures (such as rails, sleepers, turntables,, 
parts of bridges), and rolling stock (such as locomotives, carriages, and 
trucks). 

ARTICLE 25. 

Articles susceptible of use in war as well as for purposes of peace 
other than those enumerated in Articles 22 and 24, may be added to the 
448 



NDON] APPENDIX 

list of conditional contraband by a declaration, which must be notified in 
the manner provided for in the second paragraph of Article 23. 

This provision corresponds, as regards conditional contraband, to 
that in Article 23 as regards absolute contraband. 

ARTICLE 26. 

// a Power waives, so far as it is concerned, the right to treat as contra- 
band of war an article comprised in any of the classes enumerated in 
Articles 22 and 24, such intention shall be announced by a declaration, 
which must be notified in the manner provided for in the second paragraph 
of Article 23. 

A belligerent may not wish to use the right to treat as contraband 
of war all the articles included in the above lists. It may suit him to 
add to conditional contraband an article included in absolute contra- 
band or to declare free, so far as he is concerned, the trade in some 
article included in one class or the other. It is desirable that he should 
make known his intention on this subject, and he will probably do so 
in order to have the credit of the measure. If he does not do so, but 
confines himself to giving instructions to his cruisers, the vessels searched 
will be agreeably surprised if the searcher does not reproach them with 
carrying what they themselves consider contraband. Nothing can 
prevent a Power from making such a declaration in time of peace. See 
what is said as regards Article 23. 

ARTICLE 27. 

Articles which are not susceptible of use in war may not be declared 
contraband of war. 

The existence of a so-called free list (Article 28) makes it useful thus 
to put on record that articles which cannot be used for purposes of war 
may not be declared contraband of war. It might have been thought 
that articles not included in that list might at least be declared con- 
ditional contraband. 

ARTICLE 28. 

The following may not be declared contraband of war : 

(i) Raw cotton, wool, silk, jute, flax, hemp, and other raw materials 
of the textile industries, and yarns of the same. 
.(2) Oil seeds and nuts ; copra. 

(3) Rubber, resins, gums, and lacs ; hops. 

(4) Raw hides and horns, bones, and ivory. 

(5) Natural and artificial manures, including nitrates and 
phosphates for agricultural purposes. 

(6) Metallic ores. 

Naval 12 F 449 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. 

(7) Earths, clays, lime, chalk, stone, including marble, bricks, 
slates, and tiles. 

(8) Chinaware and glass. 

(9) Paper and paper-making materials. 

(10) Soap, paint and colours, including articles exclusively used 
in their manufacture, and varnish. 

(n) Bleaching powder, soda ash, caustic soda, salt cake, ammonia, 
sulphate of ammonia, and sulphate of copper. 

(12) Agricultural, mining, textile, and printing machinery. 

(13) Precious and semi-precious stones, pearls, mother-of-pearl, 
and coral. 

(14) Clocks and watches, other than chronometers. 

(15) Fashion and fancy goods. 

(16) Feathers of all kinds, hairs, and bristles. 

(17) Articles of household furniture and decoration ; office 
furniture and requisites. 

To lessen the drawbacks of war as regards neutral trade it has been 
thought useful to draw up this so-called free list, but this does not 
mean, as has been explained above, that all articles outside it might 
be declared contraband of war. 

The ores here referred to are the product of mines from which 
metals are derived. 

There was a demand that dye stuffs should be included in (10), but 
this seemed too general, for there are materials from which colours are 
derived, such as coal, which also have other uses. Products only used 
for making colours enjoy the exemption. 

" Articles de Paris," an expression the meaning of which is uni- 
versally understood, come under (15). 

(16) refers to the hair of certain animals, such as pigs and wild 
boars. 

Carpets and mats come under household furniture and ornaments 



ARTICLE 29. 

Likewise the following may not be treated as contraband of war : 

(1) Articles serving exclusively to aid the sick and wounded. 
They can, however, in case of urgent military necessity, and, subject 
to the payment of compensation, be requisitioned, if their destination 
is that specified in Article 30. 

(2) Articles intended for the use of the vessel in which they are 
found, as well as those intended for the use of her crew and passengers 
during the voyage. 

The articles enumerated in Article 29 are also excluded from treat- 
ment as contraband, but for reasons different from those which have 
led to the inclusion of the list in Article 28. 



450 



ONDON] APPENDIX 

Motives of humanity have exempted articles exclusively used to 
aid the sick and wounded, which, of course, include drugs and different 
medicines. This does not refer to hospital-ships, which enjoy special 
immunity under the convention of The Hague of October i8th, 
1907, but to ordinary merchant vessels, whose cargo includes articles 
of the kind mentioned. The cruiser has, however, the right, in case of 
urgent necessity, to requisition such articles for the needs of her crew 
or of the fleet to which she belongs, but they can only be requisitioned 
on payment of compensation. It must, however, be observed that 
this right of requisition may not be exercised in all cases. The articles 
in question must have the destination specified in Article 30, that is 
to say, an enemy destination. Otherwise, the ordinary law regains 
its sway ; a belligerent could not have the right of requisition as regards 
neutral vessels on the high seas 

Articles intended for the use of the vessel, which might in them- 
selves and by their nature be contraband of war, may not be so treated 
for instance, arms intended for the defence of the vessel against 
pirates, or for making signals. The same is true of articles intended 
for the use of the crew and passengers during the voyage ; the crew 
here includes all persons in the service of the vessel in general. 

Destination of Contraband. As has been said, the second element 
in the notion of contraband is destination. Great difficulties have 
arisen on this subject, which find expression in the theory of continuous 
voyage, so often attacked or adduced without a clear comprehension 
of its exact meaning. Cases must simply be considered on their merits 
so as to see how they can be settled without unnecessarily annoying 
neutrals or sacrificing the legitimate rights of belligerents. 

In order to effect a compromise between conflicting theories and 
practices, absolute and conditional contraband have been differently 
treated in this connection. 

Articles 30 to 32 refer to absolute, and Articles 33 to 36 to condi- 
tional contraband. 

ARTICLE 30. 

Absolute contraband is liable to capture if it is shown to be destined io 
territory belonging to or occupied by the enemy, or to the armed forces of 
the enemy. It is immaterial whether the carriage of the goods is direct or 
entails transhipment or a subsequent transport by land. 

The articles included in the list in Article 22 are absolute contraband 
when they are destined for territory belonging to or occupied by the 
enemy, or for his armed military or naval forces. These articles are 
liable to capture as soon as a final destination of this kind can be shown 
by the captor to exist. It is not, therefore, the destination of the 
vessel which is decisive, but that of the goods. It makes no difference 

451 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECI 

if these goods are on board a vessel which is to discharge them in a 
neutral port ; as soon as the captor is able to show that they are to be 
forwarded from there by land or sea to an enemy country, it is enough 
to justify the capture and subsequent condemnation of the cargo. 
The very principle of continuous voyage, as regards absolute contra- 
band, is established by Article 30. The journey made by the goods 
is regarded as a whole. 

ARTICLE 31. 

Proof of the destination specified in Article 30 is complete in the 
following cases : 

(1) When the goods are documented for discharge in an enemy 
port, or for delivery to the armed forces of the enemy. 

(2) When the vessel is to call at enemy ports only, or when she is 
to touch at an enemy port or meet the armed forces of the enemy before 
reaching the neutral port for which the goods in question are docu- 
mented. 

As has been said, the obligation of proving that the contraband 
goods really have the destination specified in Article 30 rests with the 
captor. In certain cases proof of the destination specified in Article 31 
is conclusive, that is to say, the proof may not be rebutted. 

First Case. The goods are documented for discharge in an enemy 
port, that is to say, according to the ship's papers referring to those 
goods, they are to be discharged there. In this case there is a real 
admission of enemy destination on the part of the interested parties 
themselves. 

Second Case. The vessel is to touch at enemy ports only ; or she 
is to touch at an enemy port before reaching the neutral port for which 
the goods are documented, so that although these goods, according to 
the papers referring to them, are to be discharged in a neutral port, the 
vessel carrying them is to touch at an enemy port before reaching that 
neutral port. They will be liable to capture, and the possibility of 
proving that their neutral destination is real and in accordance with 
the intentions of the parties interested is not admitted. The fact that, 
before reaching that destination, the vessel will touch at an enemy 
port, would occasion too great a risk for the belligerent whose cruiser 
searches the vessel. Even without assuming that there is intentional 
fraud, there might be a strong temptation for the master of the merchant 
vessel to discharge the contraband, for which he would get a good 
price, and for the local authorities to requisition the goods. 

The same case arises where the vessel, before reaching the neutral 
port, is to join the armed forces of the enemy. 

For the sake of simplicity, the provision only speaks of an enemy 
port, but it is understood that a port occupied by the enemy must be 
regarded as an enemy port, as follows from the general rule in Article 30. 

452 



DON] APPENDIX 

ARTICLE 32. 

Where a vessel is carrying absolute contraband, her papers are con- 
clusive proof as to the voyage on which she is engaged, unless she is found 
clearly out of the course indicated by her papers and unable to give adequate 
reasons to justify such deviation. 

The papers, therefore, are conclusive proof of the course of the 
vessel, unless she is encountered in circumstances which show that 
their statements are not to be trusted. See also the explanations 
given as regards Article 35. 

ARTICLE 33. 

Conditional contraband is liable to capture if it is shown to be destined 
for the use of the armed forces or of a government department of the enemy 
State, unless in this latter case the circumstances show that the goods can- 
not in fact be used for the purposes of the war in progress. This latter 
exception does not apply to a consignment coming under Article 24 (4). 

The rules for conditional contraband differ from those laid down 
for absolute contraband in two respects : (i) there is no question of 
destination for the enemy in general, but of destination for the use 
of his armed forces or government departments ; (2) the doctrine of 
continuous voyage is excluded. Articles 33 and 34 refer to the first, 
and Article 35 to the second principle. 

The articles included in the list of conditional contraband may 
serve for peaceful uses as well as for hostile purposes. If, from the 
circumstances, the peaceful purpose is clear, their capture is not justi- 
fied ; it is otherwise if a hostile purpose is to be assumed, as, for instance, 
in the case of foodstuffs destined for an enemy army or fleet, or of coal 
destined for an enemy fleet. In such a case there is clearly no room 
for doubt. But what is the solution when the articles are destined for 
the civil government departments of the enemy State ? It may be 
money sent to a government department, for use in the payment of its 
official salaries, or rails sent to a department of public works. In these 
cases there is enemy destination which renders the goods liable in the first 
place to capture, and in the second to condemnation. The reasons 
for this are at once legal and practical. The State is one, although 
it necessarily acts through different departments. If a civil depart- 
ment may freely receive foodstuffs or money, that department is not 
the only gainer, but the entire State, including its military administra- 
tion, gains also, since the general resources of the State are thereby 
increased. Further, the receipts of a civil department may be con- 
sidered of greater use to the militap^ administration and directly 
assigned to the latter. Money or foodstuffs really destined for a civil 
department may thus come to be used directly for the needs of the 

453 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. 

army. This possibility, which is always present, shows why destina- 
tion for the departments of the enemy State is assimilated to that for 
its armed forces. 

It is the departments of the State which are dependent on the central 
power that are in question, and not all the departments which may 
exist in the enemy State ; local and municipal bodies, for instance, 
are not included, and articles destined for their use would not be 
contraband. 

War may be waged in such circumstances that destination for the 
use of a civil department cannot be suspect, and consequently cannot 
make goods contraband. For instance, there is a war in Europe, and 
the colonies of the belligerent countries are not, in fact, affected by it. 
Foodstuffs or other articles in the list of conditional contraband destined 
for the use of the civil government of a colony would not be held to be 
contraband of war, because the considerations adduced above do not 
apply to their case ; the resources of the civil government cannot be 
drawn on for the needs of the war. Gold, silver, or paper money are 
exceptions, because a sum of money can easily be sent from one end 

of the world to the other. 

i 

ARTICLE 34. 

The destination referred to in Article 33 is presumed to exist if the 
goods are consigned to enemy authorities, or to a contractor established 
in the enemy country, who, as a matter of common knowledge, supplies 
articles of this kind to the enemy. A similar presumption arises if the 
goods are consigned to a fortified place belonging to the enemy, or other 
place serving as a base for the armed forces of the enemy. No such 
presumption, however, arises in the case of a merchant vessel bound for 
one of these places if it is sought to prove that she herself is contraband. 

In cases where the above presumptions do not arise, the destination is 
presumed to be innocent. 

The presumptions set up by this Article may be rebutted. 

Contraband articles will not usually be directly addressed to the 
military authorities or to the government departments of the enemy 
State. Their true destination will be more or less concealed, and the 
captor must prove it in order to justify their capture. But it has been 
thought reasonable to set up presumptions based on the nature of the 
person to whom, or place for which, the articles are destined. It may 
be an enemy authority or a trader established in an enemy country who, 
as a matter of common knowledge, supplies the enemy Government 
with articles of the kind in question. It may be a fortified place 
belonging to the enemy or a place used as a base, whether of operations 
or of supply, for the armed forces of the enemy. 

454 



ONDON] APPENDIX 

This general presumption may not be applied to the merchant 
vessel herself on her way to a fortified place, though she may in herself 
be conditional contraband, but only if her destination for the use of 
the armed forces or government departments of the enemy State is 
directly proved. 

In the absence of the above presumptions, the destination is pre- 
sumed to be innocent. That is the ordinary law, according to which 
the captor must prove the illicit character of the goods which he claims 
to capture. 

Finally, all the presumptions thus set up in the interest of the captor 
or against him may be rebutted. The national tribunals, in the first 
place, and, in the second, the International Court, will exercise their 
judgment. 

ARTICLE 35. 

Conditional contraband is not liable to capture, except when found 
on board a vessel bound for territory belonging to or occupied by the 
enemy, or for the armed forces of the enemy, and when it is not to be 
discharged in an intervening neutral port. 

The ship's papers are conclusive proof both as to the voyage on which 
the vessel is engaged and as to the port of discharge of the goods, unless 
she is found clearly out of the course indicated by her papers, and unable 
to give adequate reasons to justify such deviation. 

As has been said above, the doctrine of continuous voyage is ex- 
cluded for conditional contraband, which is only liable to capture 
when it is to be discharged in an enemy port. As soon as the goods 
are documented for discharge in a neutral port they can no longer 
be contraband, and no examination will be made as to whether they 
are to be forwarded to the enemy by sea or land from that neutral port. 
It is here that the case of absolute contraband is essentially different. 

The ship's papers furnish complete proof as to the voyage on which 
the vessel is engaged and as to the place where the cargo is to be dis- 
charged ; but this would not be so if the vessel were encountered 
clearly out of the course which she should follow according to her 
papers, and unable to give adequate reasons to justify such deviation. 

This rule as to the proof furnished by the ship's papers is intended 
to prevent claims frivolously raised by a cruiser and giving rise to 
unjustifiable captures. It must not be too literally interpreted, for 
that would make all frauds easy. Thus it does not hold good when the 
vessel is encountered at sea clearly out of the course which she ought 
to have followed, and unable to justify such deviation. The ship's 
papers are then in contradiction with the true facts and lose all value 
as evidence ; the cruiser will be free to decide according to the merits 
of the case. In the same way, a search of the vessel may reveal facts- 

455 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. 

which irrefutably prove that her destination or the place where the 
goods are to be discharged is incorrectly entered in the ship's papers. 
The commander of the cruiser is then free to judge of the circumstances 
and capture the vessel or not according to his judgment. To resume, 
the ship's papers are proof, unless facts show their evidence to be false. 
This qualification of the value of the ship's papers as proof seems self- 
evident and unworthy of special mention. The aim has been not to 
appear to weaken the force of the general rule, which forms a safeguard 
for neutral trade. 

It does not follow that, because a single entry in the ship's papers 
is shown to be false, their evidence loses its value as a whole. The 
entries which cannot be proved false retain their value. 



ARTICLE 36. 

Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 35, conditional contraband, 
if shown to have the destination referred to in Article 33, is liable to 
capture in cases where the enemy country has no seaboard, 

The case contemplated is certainly rare, but has nevertheless 
arisen in recent wars. In the case of absolute contraband, there is no 
difficulty, since destination for the enemy may always be proved, 
whatever the route by which the goods are sent (Article 30). For 
conditional contraband the case is different, and an exception must 
be made to the general rule laid down in Article 35, paragraph i, so 
as to allow the captor to prove that the suspected goods really have 
the special destination referred to in Article 33 without the possibility 
of being confronted by the objection that they were to be discharged in 
a neutral port. 

ARTICLE 37. 

A vessel carrying goods liable to capture as absolute or conditional 
contraband may be captured on the high seas or in the territorial waters 
of the belligerents throughout the whole of her voyage, even if she is to 
touch at a port of call before reaching the hostile destination. 

The vessel may be captured for contraband during the whole of 
her voyage, provided that she is in waters where an act of war is 
lawful. The fact that she intends to touch at a port of call before 
reaching the enemy destination does not prevent capture, provided 
that destination Jn her particular case is proved in conformity with 
the rules laid down in Articles 30 to 32 for absolute, and in Articles 33 
to 35 for conditional contraband, subject to the exception provided for 
in Article 36. 

456 



&NDON] APPENDIX 

ARTICLE 38. 

A vessel may not be captured on the ground that she has carried 
contraband on a previous occasion if such carriage is in point of fact 
at an end. 

A vessel is liable to capture for carrying contraband, but not for 
having done so. 

ARTICLE 39 

Contraband goods are liable to condemnation. 
This presents no difficulty. 

ARTICLE 40. 

A vessel carrying contraband may be condemned if the contraband, 
reckoned either by value, weight, volume, or freight, forms more than 
half the cargo. 

It was universally admitted that in certain cases the condemnation 
of the contraband is not enough, and that the vessel herself should also 
be condemned, but opinions differed as to what these cases were. It 
was decided that the contraband must bear a certain proportion to the 
total cargo. But the question divides itself into two parts : (i) What 
shall be the proportion ? The solution adopted is the mean between 
those proposed, which varied from a quarter to three-quarters. (2) 
How shall this proportion be reckoned ? Must the contraband form 
more than half the cargo in volume, weight, value, or ireight ? The 
adoption of a single fixed standard gives rise to theoretical objections, 
and also to practices intended to avoid condemnation of the vessel 
in spite of the importance of the cargo. If the standard of volume or 
weight is adopted, the master will ship innocent goods occupying space, 
or of weight, sufficient to exceed the contraband. A similar remark 
may be made as regards the standard of value or freight. The conse- 
quence is that, in order to justify condemnation, it is enough that 
the contraband should form more than half the cargo by any one of 
the above standards. This may seen harsh ; but, on the one hand, 
any other system would make fraudulent calculations easy, and, on 
the other, the condemnation of the vessel may be said to be justified 
when the carriage of contraband formed an important part of her 
venture a statement which applies to all the cases specified. 

ARTICLE 41. 

// a vessel carrying contraband is released, she may be condemned 
to pay the costs and expenses incurred by the captor in respect of the 
proceedings in the national prize court and the custody of the ship and 
cargo during the proceedings. 

457 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. 

It is not just that, on the one hand, the carriage of more than a 
certain proportion of contraband should involve the condemnation of 
the vessel, while if the contraband forms less than this proportion, it 
alone is confiscated. This often involves no loss for the master, the 
freight of this contraband having been paid in advance. Does this not 
encourage trade in contraband, and ought not a certain penalty to be 
imposed for the carriage of a proportion of contraband less than that 
required to entail condemnation ? A kind of fine was proposed which 
should bear a relation to the value of the contraband articles. Objec- 
tions of various sorts were brought forward against this proposal, 
although the principle of the infliction of some kind of pecuniary loss 
for the carriage of contraband seemed justified. The same object 
was attained in another way by providing that the costs and expenses 
incurred by the captor in respect of the proceedings in the national 
prize court and of the custody of the vessel and of her cargo during the 
proceedings are to be paid by the vessel. The expenses of the custody 
of the vessel include in this case the keep of the captured vessel's crew. 
It should be added that the loss to a vessel by being taken to a prize 
port and kept there is the most serious deterrent as regards the carriage 
of contraband. 

ARTICLE 42. 

Goods which belong to the owner of the contraband and are on board 
the same vessel are liable to condemnation. 

The owner of the contraband is punished in the first place by the 
condemnation of his contraband property ; and in the second by that 
of the goods, even if innocent, which he may possess on board the same 
vessel. 

ARTICLE 43. 

// a vessel is encountered at sea while unaware of the outbreak of 
hostilities or of the declaration of contraband which applies to her cargo, 
the contraband cannot be condemned except on payment of compensation ; 
the vessel herself and the remainder of the cargo are not liable to con- 
demnation or to the costs and expenses referred to in Article 41. The 
same rule applies if the master, after becoming aware of the outbreak 
of hostilities, or of the declaration of contraband, has had no opportunity 
of discharging the contraband. 

A vessel is deemed to be aware of the existence of a state of war, or 
of a declaration of contraband, if she left a neutral port subsequently to 
the notification to the Power to which such port belongs of the outbreak 
of hostilities, or of the declaration of contraband, provided such notifica- 
tion was made in sufficient time. A vessel is also deemed "to be aware 
of the existence of a state of war if she left an enemy port after the outbreak 
of hostilities. 

458 



BNDON] APPENDIX 

This provision is intended to spare neutrals who might in fact be 
carrying contraband, but against whom no charge could be made. 
This may arise in two cases. The first is that in which they are 
unaware of the outbreak of hostilities ; the second is that in which, 
though aware of this, they do not know of the declaration of contraband 
made by a belligerent, in accordance with Articles 23 and 25, which is, 
as it happens, the one applicable to the whole or a part of the cargo. 
It would be unjust to capture the ship and condemn the contraband ; 
on the other hand, the cruiser cannot be obliged to let go on to the 
enemy goods suitable for use in the war of which he may stand in 
urgent need. These opposing interests are reconciled by making 
condemnation conditional on the payment of compensation (see the 
Convention of October i8th, 1907, on the rules for enemy merchant 
vessels on the outbreak of hostilities, which expresses a similar idea). 

ARTICLE 44. 

A vessel which has been stopped on the ground that she is carrying 
contraband, and which is not liable to condemnation on account of the 
Proportion of contraband on board, may, when the circumstances permit, 
be allowed to continue her voyage if the master is willing to hand over the 
contraband to the belligerent war-ship. 

The delivery of the contraband must be entered by the captor on the 
logbook of the vessel stopped, and the master must give the captor duly 
certified copies of all relevant papers. 

The captor is at liberty to destroy the contraband that has been handed 
over to him under these conditions. 

A neutral vessel is stopped for carrying contraband. She is not 
liable to condemnation, because the contraband does not reach the 
proportion specified in Article 40. She can, nevertheless, be taken 
to a prize port for judgment to be passed on the contraband. This 
right of the captor appears too wide in certain cases, if the importance 
of the contraband, possibly slight (for instance, a case of guns or re- 
volvers), is compared with the heavy loss incurred by the vessel by 
being thus turned out of her course and detained during the time 
taken up by the proceedings. The question has, therefore, been asked 
whether the right of the neutral vessel to continue her voyage might 
not be admitted if the contraband articles were handed over to the 
captor, who, on his part, might only refuse to receive them for sufficient 
reasons, for instance, the rough state of the sea, which would make 
transhipment difficult or impossible, well-founded suspicions as to 
the amount of contraband which the merchant vessel is really carrying, 
the difficulty of stowing the articles on board the war-ship, &c. This 
proposal did not gain sufficient support. It was alleged to be impossible 
to impose such an obligation on the cruiser, for which this handing 

459 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. o 

over of goods would almost always have drawbacks. If, by chance, 
it has none, the cruiser will not refuse it, because she herself will 
gain by not being turned out of her course by having to take the 
vessel to a port. The idea of an obligation having thus been excluded, 
it was decided to provide for the voluntary handing over of the contra- 
band, which, it is hoped, will be carried out whenever possible, to the 
great advantage of both parties. The formalities provided for are very 
simple and need no explanation. 

There must be a judgment of a prize court as regards the goods thus 
handed over. For this purpose the captor must be furnished with 
the necessary papers. It may be supposed that there might be doubts 
as to the character of certain articles which the cruiser claims as 
contraband ; the master of the merchant vessel contests this claim, 
but prefers to deliver them up so as to be at liberty to continue his 
voyage. This is merely a capture which has to be confirmed by the 
prize court. 

The contraband delivered up by the merchant vessel may hamper 
the cruiser, which must be left free to destroy it at the moment of 
handing over or later. 

CHAPTER III. 
UNNEUTRAL SERVICE. 

In a general way, it may be said that the merchant vessel which 
violates neutrality, whether by carrying contraband of war or by 
breaking blockade, affords aid to the enemy, and it is on this ground 
that the belligerent whom she injures by her acts is justified in inflicting 
on her certain losses. But there are cases where such unneutral 
service bears a particularly distinctive character, and for such cases 
it has been thought necessary to make special provision. They have 
been divided into two classes, according to the gravity of the act of 
which the neutral vessel is accused. 

In the cases included in the first class (Article 45), the vessel is 
condemned, and receives the treatment of a vessel subject to con- 
demnation for carrying contraband. This means that the vessel 
does not lose her neutral character and has a full claim to the rights 
enjoyed by neutral vessels ; for instance, she may not be destroyed 
by the captor except under the conditions laid down for neutral vessels 
(Articles 48 et seqq.) ; the rule that the flag covers the goods applies to 
goods she carries on board. 

In the more serious cases which belong to the second claSs (Article 
46), the vessel is, again, condemned ; but further, she is treated not 
only as a vessel subject to condemnation for carrying contraband, 

460 



ONDON] APPENDIX 

but as an enemy merchant vessel, which treatment entails certain 
consequences. The rules governing the destruction of neutral prizes 
does not apply to the vessel, and, as she has become an enemy vessel, 
it is no longer the second but the third rule of the Declaration of Paris 
which is applicable. The goods on board will be presumed to be 
enemy goods ; neutrals will have the right to claim their property on 
establishing their neutrality (Article 59). It would, however, be 
going too far to say that the original neutral character of the vessel 
is completely lost, so that she should be treated as though she had 
always been an enemy vessel. The vessel may plead that the allega- 
tion made against her has no foundation in fact, that the act of which 
she is accused has not the character of unneutral service. She has, 
therefore, the right of appeal to the International Court in virtue of 
the provisions which protect neutral property. 

ARTICLE 45. 

A neutral vessel will be condemned and will, in a general way, receive 
the same treatment as a neutral vessel liable to condemnation for carriage 
of contraband : 

(1) // she is on a voyage specially undertaken with a view to the 
transport of individual passengers who are embodied in the armed 
forces of the enemy, or with a view to the transmission of intelligence 
in the interest of the enemy. 

(2) //, to the knowledge of either the owner, the charterer, or 
the master, she is transporting a military detachment of the enemy, or 
one or more persons who, in the course of the voyage, directly assist 
the operations of the enemy. 

In the cases specified under the above heads, goods belonging to the 
owner of the vessel are likewise liable to condemnation. 

The provisions of the present Article do not apply if the vessel is 
encountered at sea while unaware of the outbreak of hostilities, or if the 
master, after becoming aware of the outbreak of -hostilities, has had no 
opportunity of disembarking the passengers. The vessel is deemed to 
be aware of the existence of a state of war if she left an enemy port sub- 
sequently to the outbreak of hostilities, or a neutral port subsequently to 
the notification of the outbreak of hostilities to the Power to which such 
port belongs, provided that such notification was made in sufficient time. 

The first case supposes passengers travelling as individuals; the 
case of a military detachment is dealt with hereafter. The case is that 
of individuals embodied in the armed military or naval forces of the 
enemy. There was some doubt as to the meaning of this word. Does 
it include those individuals only who are summoned to serve in virtue 
of the law of their country and who have really joined the corps to- 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. 

which they are to belong ? Or does it also include such individuals 
from the moment when they are summoned, and before they join that 
corps ? The question is of great practical importance. Supposing 
the case is one of individuals who are natives of a continental European 
country and are settled in America ; these individuals have military 
obligations towards their country of origin ; they have, for instance, 
to belong to the reserve of the active army of that country. Their 
country is at war and they sail to perform their service. Shall they be 
considered as embodied in the sense of the provision which we are 
discussing ? If we judged by the municipal law of certain countries, 
we might argue that they should be so considered. But, apart from 
reasons of pure law, the contrary opinion has seemed more in accord- 
ance with practical necessity and has been accepted by all in a spirit 
of conciliation. It would be difficult, perhaps even impossible, without 
having recourse to vexatious measures to which neutral Governments 
would not willingly submit, to pick out among the passengers in a 
vessel, those who are bound to perform military service and are on 
their way to do so. 

The transmission of intelligence in the interest of the enemy is to 
be treated in the same way as the carriage of passengers embodied in 
his armed force. The reference to a vessel especially undertaking a 
voyage is intended to show that her usual service is not meant. She 
has been turned from her course ; she has touched at a port which 
she does not ordinarily visit in order to embark the passengers in 
question. She need not be exclusively devoted to the service of the 
enemy ; that case would come into the second class (Article 56 (4) ). 

In the two cases just mentioned the vessel has performed but a 
single service ; she has been employed to carry certain people, or to 
transmit certain intelligence ; she is not continuously in the service 
of the enemy. In consequence she may be captured during the voyage 
on which she is performing the service which she has to render. Once 
that voyage is finished, all is over, in the sense that she may not be 
captured for having rendered the service in question. The principle 
is the same as that recognised in the case of contraband (Article 38). 

The second case also falls under two heads. 

There is, first, the carriage of a military detachment of the enemy, 
or that of one or more persons who during the voyage directly assist 
his operations, for instance, by signalling. If these people are soldiers 
or sailors in uniform there is no difficulty, the vessel is clearly liable to 
condemnation. If they are soldiers or sailors in mufti who might be 
mistaken for ordinary passengers, knowledge on the part of the master 
or owner is required, the charterer being assimilated to the latter. 
The rule is the same in the case of persons directly assisting the enemy 
during the voyage. 

462 



ONDON] APPENDIX 

In these cases, if the vessel is condemned for unneutral service, the 
goods belonging to her owner are also liable to condemnation. 

These provisions assume that the state of war was known to the 
vessel engaged in the operations specified ; such knowledge is the 
reason and justification of her condemnation. The position is alto- 
gether different when the vessel is unaware of the outbreak of hostilities, 
so that she undertakes the service in ordinary circumstances. She 
may have learnt of the outbreak of hostilities while at sea, but have 
had no chance of landing the persons whom she was carrying. Con- 
demnation would then be unjust, and the equitable rule adopted is in 
accordance with the provisions already accepted in other matters. 
If a vessel has left an enemy port subsequently to the outbreak of 
hostilities, or a neutral port after that outbreak has been notified to 
the Power to whom such port belongs, her knowledge of the existence 
of a state of war will be presumed. 

The question here is merely one of preventing the condemnation 
of the vessel. The persons found on board her who belong to the 
armed forces of the enemy may be made prisoners of war by the 
cruiser. 

ARTICLE 46. 

A neutral vessel is liable to condemnation and, in a general way, to 
the same treatment as would be applicable to her if she were an enemy 
merchant vessel : 

(1) // she takes a direct part in the hostilities. 

(2) // she is under the orders or control of an agent placed on 
board by the enemy Government. 

(3) // she is in the exclusive employment of the enemy Government. 

(4) // she is exclusively engaged at the time either in the transport 
of enemy troops or in the transmission of intelligence in the interest 
of the enemy. 

In the cases covered by the present Article, goods belonging to the 
owner of the vessel are likewise liable to condemnation. 

The cases here contemplated are more serious than those in Article 
45, which justifies the severer treatment inflicted on the vessel, as 
explained above. 

First Case. The vessel takes a direct part in the hostilities. This 
may take different forms. It is needless to say that, in an armed 
conflict, the vessel takes all the risks incidental thereto. We suppose 
her to have fallen into the power of the enemy whom she was fighting, 
and who is entitled to treat her as an enemy merchant vessel. 

Second Case. The vessel is under the orders or control of an agent 
placed on board by the enemy Government. His presence marks the 

463 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL [DECL. 

relation in which she stands to the enemy. In other circumstances the 
vessel may also have relations with the enemy, but to be subject to 
condemnation she must come under the third head. 

Third Case. The whole vessel is chartered by the enemy Govern- 
ment, and is therefore entirely at its disposal ; it can use her for 
different purposes more or less directly connected with the war, notably, 
as a transport ; such is the position of colliers which accompany a 
belligerent fleet. There will often be a charter-party between the 
belligerent Government and the owner or master of the vessel, but all 
that is required is proof, -and the fact that the whole vessel has in 
fact been chartered is enough, in whatever way it may be established. 

Fourth Case. The vessel is at the time exclusively devoted to the 
carriage of enemy troops or to the transmission of intelligence in the 
enemy's interest. The case is different from those dealt with by Article 
45, and the question is one of a service to which the ship is permanently 
devoted. The decision accordingly is that, so long as such service 
lasts, the vessel is liable to capture, even if, at the moment when an 
enemy cruiser searches her, she is engaged neither in the transport 
of troops nor in the transmission of intelligence. 

As in the cases in Article 45 and for the same reasons, goods found 
on board belonging to the owner of the vessel are also liable to con- 
demnation. 

It was proposed to treat as an enemy merchant vessel a neutral 
vessel making, at the time, and with the sanction of the enemy Govern- 
ment, a voyage which she has only been permitted to make subsequently 
to the outbreak of hostilities or during the two preceding months. 
This rule would be enforced notably on neutral merchant vessels 
admitted by a belligerent to a service reserved in time of peace to the 
national marine of that belligerent for instance, to the coasting trade. 
Several Delegations formally rejected this proposal, so that the question 
thus raised remains an open one. 

ARTICLE 47. 

Any individual embodied in the armed forces of the enemy who is 
found on board a neutral merchant vessel may be made a prisoner of 
war, even though there be no ground for the capture of the vessel. 

Individuals embodied in the armed military or naval forces of a 
belligerent may be on board a neutral merchant vessel when she is 
searched. If the vessel is subject to condemnation, the cruiser will 
capture her and take her to one of her own ports with the persons on 
board. Clearly the soldiers or sailors of the enemy State will not be 
set free, but will be treated as prisoners of war. Perhaps the case will 
not be one for the capture of the ship for instance, because the master 
was unaware of the status of an individual who had come on board 

464 



WDON] APPENDIX 

as an ordinary passenger. Must the soldier r soldiers on board the 
vessel be set free ? That does not appear admissible. The belligerent 
cruiser cannot be compelled to set free active enemies who are physically 
in her power and are more dangerous than this or that contraband 
article. She must naturally proceed with great discretion, and must 
act on her own responsibility in requiring the surrender of these 
individuals, but the right to do so is hers ; it has therefore been thought 
necessary to explain the point. 

CHAPTER IV. 
DESTRUCTION OF NEUTRAL PRIZES. 

The destruction of neutral prizes was a subject comprised in the 
programme of the second Peace Conference, and on that occasion no 
settlement was reached. It reappeared in the programme of the 
present Conference, and this time agreement has been found possible. 
Such a result, which bears witness to the sincere desire of all parties 
to arrive at an understanding, is a matter for congratulation. It has 
been shown once more that conflicting hard-and-fast rules do not 
always correspond to things as they are, and that if there be readiness 
to descend to particulars, and to arrive at the precise way in which 
the rules have been applied, it will often be found that the actual 
practice is very much the same, although the doctrines professed appear 
to be entirely in conflict. To enable two parties to agree, it is first 
of all necessary that they should understand each other, and this 
frequently is not the case. Thus it has been found that those who 
declared for the right to destroy neutral prizes never claimed to use 
this right wantonly or at every opportunity, but only by way of 
exception ; while, on the other hand, those who maintained the 
principle that destruction is forbidden, admitted that the principle 
must give way in certain exceptional cases. It therefore became a 
question of reaching an understanding with regard to those exceptional 
cases to which, according to both views, the right to destroy should be 
confined. But this was not all : there was need for some guarantee 
against abuse in the exercise of this right ; the possibility of arbitrary 
action in determining these exceptional cases must be limited by 
throwing some real responsibility upon the captor. It was at this 
stage that a new idea was introduced into the discussion, thanks to 
which it was possible to arrive at an agreement. The possibility of 
intervention by a court of justice will make the captor reflect before 
he acts, and at the same time secure reparation in cases where there was 
no reason for the destruction. 

Such is the general spirit of the provisions of this chapter. 

Naval 12 G 465 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL 

ARTICLE 48. 

A neutral vessel which has been captured may not be destroyed by the 
captor ; she must be taken into such port as is proper for the determination 
there of all questions concerning the validity of the prize. 

The general principle is very simple. A neutral vessel which has 
"been seized may not be destroyed by the captor ; so much may be 
admitted by every one, whatever view is taken as to the effect produced 
by the capture. The vessel must be taken into a port for the deter- 
mination there as to the validity of the prize. A prize crew will be 
put on board or not, according to circumstances. 

ARTICLE 49. 

As an exception, a neutral vessel which has been captured by a belligerent 
war-ship, and which would be liable to condemnation, may be destroyed 
if the observance of Article 48 would involve danger to the safety of the 
war-ship or to the success of the operations in which she is engaged at 
the time. 

The first condition necessary to justify the destruction of the 
captured vessel is that she should be liable to condemnation upon the 
facts of the case. If the captor cannot even hope to obtain the con- 
demnation of the vessel, how can he lay claim to the right to destroy 
her? 

The second condition is that the observation of the general principle 
would involve danger to the safety of the war-ship or to the success 
of the operations in which she is engaged at the time. This is what 
was finally agreed upon after various solutions had been tried. It 
was understood that the phrase compromettre la securite was synony- 
mous with mettre en danger le navire, and might be translated into 
English by : involve danger. It is, of course, the situation at the 
moment when the destruction takes place which must be considered 
in order to decide whether the conditions are or are not fulfilled. For 
a danger which did not exist at the actual moment of the capture 
may have appeared some time afterwards. 

ARTICLE 50. 

Before the vessel is destroyed all persons on board must be placed in 
safety, and all the ship's papers and other documents which the parties 
interested consider relevant for the purpose of deciding on the validity of 
the capture must be taken on board the war-ship. 

This provision lays down the precautions to be taken in the interests 
of the persons on board and of the administration of justice. 
4 66 



NDON] APPENDIX 

ARTICLE 51. 

A captor who has destroyed a neutral vessel must, prior to any decision 
respecting the validity of the prize, establish that he only acted in the face 
of an exceptional necessity, of the nature contemplated in Article 49. // 
he fails to do this, he must compensate the parties interested, and no 
examination shall be made of the question whether the capture was valid or not. 

This claim gives a guarantee against the arbitrary destruction of 
prizes by throwing a real responsibility upon the captor who has 
carried out the destruction. The result is that before any decision is 
given respecting the validity of the prize, the captor must prove that 
the situation he was in was really one which fell under the head of the 
exceptional cases contemplated. This must be proved in proceedings 
to which the neutral is a party, and if the latter is not satisfied with the 
decision of the national prize court he may take his case to the Inter- 
national Court. Proof to the above effect is, therefore, a condition 
precedent which the captor must fulfil. If he fails to do this, he must 
compensate the parties interested in the vessel and the cargo, and the 
question whether the capture was valid or not will not be gone into. 
In this way a real sanction is provided in respect of the obligation not 
to destroy a prize except in particular cases, the sanction taking the 
form of a fine inflicted on the captor. If, on the other hand, this proof 
is given, the prize procedure follows the usual course ; if the prize is 
declared valid, no compensation is due ; if it is declared void, the 
parties interested have a right to be compensated. Resort to the 
International Court can only be made after the decision of the prize 
court has been given on the whole matter, and not immediately after 
the preliminary question has been decided. 

ARTICLE 52. 

// the capture of a neutral vessel is subsequently held to be invalid, 
though the act of destruction has been held to have been justifiable, the 
captor must pay compensation to the parties interested, in place of the 
restitution to which they would have been entitled. 

ARTICLE 53. 

// neutral goods not liable to condemnation have been destroyed with 
the vessel, the owner of such goods is entitled to compensation. 

Supposing a vessel which has been destroyed carried neutral 
goods not liable to condemnation : the owner of such goods has, in 
every case, a right to compensation, that is, without there being occasion 
to distinguish between cases where the destruction was or was not 
justified. This is equitable and a further guarantee against arbitrary 
destruction. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. 

ARTICLE 54. 

The captor has the right to demand the handing over, or to proceed 
himself to the destruction of any goods liable to condemnation found on 
board a vessel not herself liable to condemnation, provided that the circum- 
stances are such as would, under Article 49, justify the destruction of a 
vessel herself liable to condemnation. The captor must enter the goods 
surrendered or destroyed in the logbook of the vessel stopped, and must 
obtain duly certified copies of all relevant papers. When the goods have 
been handed over or destroyed and the formalities duly carried out, the 
master must be allowed to continue his voyage. 

The provisions of Articles 51 and 52 respecting the obligations of a 
captor who has destroyed a neutral vessel are applicable. 

A cruiser encounters a neutral merchant vessel carrying contraband 
in a proportion less than that specified in Article 40. The captain 
must put a prize crew on board the vessel and take her into a port 
for adjudication. He may, in conformity with the provisions of 
Article 44, agree to the handing over of the contraband if offered by 
the vessel stopped. But what is to happen if neither of these solu- 
tions is reached ? The vessel stopped does not offer to hand over 
the contraband, and the cruiser is not in a position to take the vessel 
into a national port. Is the cruiser obliged to let the neutral vessel 
go with the contraband on board ? To require this seemed going too 
far, at least in certain exceptional circumstances. These circum- 
stances are in fact the same a,s would have justified the destruction 
of the vessel, had she been liable to condemnation. In such a case, 
the cruiser may demand the handing over, or proceed to the destruction, 
of the goods liable to condemnation. The reasons for which the right 
to destroy the vessel has been recognised may justify the destruction 
of the contraband goods, the more so as the considerations of humanity 
which can be adduced against the destruction of a vessel do not in 
this case apply. Against arbitrary demands by the cruiser there are 
the same guarantees as those which made it possible to recognise the 
right to destroy the vessel. The captor must, as a preliminary, 
prove that he was really faced by the exceptional circumstances 
specified ; failing this, he is condemned to pay the value of the goods 
handed over or destroyed, and the question whether they were con- 
traband or not will not be gone into. 

The Article prescribes certain formalities which are necessary 
to establish the facts of the case and to enable the prize court to 
adjudicate. 

Of course, when once the goods have been handed over or des- 
troyed, and the formalities carried out, the vessel which has been 
stopped must be left free to continue her voyage. 

468 



NDON] APPENDIX 

CHAPTER V. 
TRANSFER TO A NEUTRAL FLAG. 

An enemy merchant vessel is kable to capture, whereas a neutral 
merchant vessel is immune. It can therefore be readily understood 
that a belligerent cruiser encountering a merchant vessel which lays 
claim to neutral nationality has to inquire whether such nationality 
has been acquired legitimately or merely in order to shield the vessel 
from the risks to which she would have been exposed had she retained 
her former nationality. This question naturally arises when the 
transfer has taken place a comparatively short time before the moment 
at which the ship is searched, whether the actual date be before, or 
after, the outbreak of hostilities. The answer will be different accord- 
ing as the question is looked at from the point of view of commercial 
or belligerent interests. Fortunately, rules have been agreed upon 
which conciliate both these interests as far as possible and which at 
the same time teW belligerents and neutral commerce what their 
position is. 

ARTICLE 55. 

The transfer of an enemy vessel to a neutral flag, effected before the 
outbreak of hostilities, is valid, unless it is -proved that such transfer 
was made in order to evade the consequences to which an enemy vessel, as 
such, is exposed. There is, however, a presumption, if the bill of sale is not 
on board a vessel which has lost her belligerent nationality less than sixty 
days before the outbreak of hostilities, that the transfer is void. This 
presumption may be rebutted. 

Where the transfer was effected more than thirty days before the out- 
break of hostilities, there is an absolute presumption that it is valid if it 
is unconditional, complete, and in conformity with the laws of the coun- 
tries concerned, and if its effect is such that neither the control of, nor the 
Profits earned by, the vessel remain in the same hands as before the transfer. 
If, however, the vessel lost her belligerent nationality less than sixty days 
before the outbreak of hostilities, and if the bill of sale is not on board, the 
capture of the vessel gives no right to damages. 

The general rule laid down in the first paragraph is that the transfer 
of an enemy vessel to a neutral flag is valid, assuming, of course, that 
the ordinary requirements of the law have been fulfilled. It is upon 
the captor, if he wishes to have the transfer annulled, that the onus lies 
of proving that its object was to evade the consequences entailed by 
the war in prospect. There is one case which is treated as suspicious, 
that, namely, in which the bill of sale is not on board when the ship 
has changed her nationality less than sixty days before the outbreak 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. 

of hostilities. The presumption of validity which has been set up by 
the first paragraph in favour of the vessel is then replaced by a pre- 
sumption in favour of the captor. It is presumed that the transfer 
is void, but the presumption may be rebutted. With a view to such 
rebuttal, proof may be given that the transfer was not effected in order 
to evade the consequences of the war ; it is unnecessary to add that the 
ordinary requirements of the law must have been fulfilled. 

It was thought desirable to give to commerce a guarantee that 
the right of treating a transfer as void on the ground that it was effected 
in order to evade the consequences of war should not extend too far, 
and should not cover too long a period. Consequently, if the transfer 
has been effected more than thirty days before the outbreak of hostilities, 
it cannot be impeached on that ground alone, and it is regarded as 
unquestionably valid if it has been made under conditions which show 
chat it is genuine and final ; these conditions are as follows : the 
transfer must be unconditional, complete, and in conformity with the 
laws of the countries concerned, and its effect must be such that both 
the control of, and the profits earned by, the vessel pass into other 
hands. When once these conditions are proved to exist, the captor 
is not allowed to set up the contention that the vendor foresaw the 
war in which his country was about to be involved, and wished by the 
sale to shield himself from the risks to which a state of war would 
have exposed him in respect of the vessels he was transferring. Even 
in this case, however, when a vessel is encountered by a cruiser and 
her bill of sale is not on board, she may be captured if a change of 
nationality has taken place less than sixty days before the outbreak of 
hostilities ; that circumstance has made her suspect. But if before 
the prize court the proof required by the second paragraph is adduced, 
she must be released, though she cannot claim compensation, inasmuch 
as there was good reason for capturing her. 

ARTICLE 56. 

The transfer of an enemy vessel to a neutral flag, effected after the 
outbreak of hostilities, is void unless it is proved that such transfer was 
not made in order to evade the consequences to which an enemy vessel, as 
such, is exposed. 

Provided that there is an absolute presumption that a transfer is void 

(1) // the transfer has been made during a voyage or in a 
blockaded port. 

(2) // a right to repurchase or recover the vessel is reserved to 
the vendor. 

(3) // the requirements of the municipal law governing the right 
to fly the flag under which the vessel is sailing have not been fulfilled. 
470 



ONDON] APPENDIX 

The rule respecting transfers made after the outbreak of hostilities: 
is more simple. Such a transfer is only valid if it is proved that its 
object was not to evade the consequences to which an enemy vessel, 
as such, is exposed. The rule accepted in respect of transfers made 
before the outbreak of hostilities is inverted. In that case there is a 
presumption that the transfer is valid ; in the present, that it is void 
provided always that proof to the contrary may be given. For instance, 
it might be proved that the transfer had taken place by inheritance. 

Article 56 recites cases in which the presumption that the transfer 
is void is absolute, for reasons which can be readily understood : in the 
first case, the connection between the transfer and the war risk run 
by the vessel is evident ; in the second, the transferee is a mere man of 
straw, who is to be treated as owner during a dangerous period, after 
which the vendor will recover possession of his vessel ; lastly, the 
third case might strictly be regarded as already provided for, since a 
vessel which lays claim to neutral nationality must naturally prove 
that she has a right to it. 

At one time provision was made in this Article for the case of a 
vessel which was retained, after the transfer, in the trade in which 
she had previously been engaged. Such a circumstance is in the 
highest degree suspicious ; the transfer has a fictitious appearance, 
inasmuch as nothing has changed in regard to the vessel's trade. 
This would apply, for instance, if a vessel were running on the same 
line before and after the transfer. It was, however, objected that to 
set up an absolute presumption would sometimes be too severe, and 
that certain kinds of vessels, as, for example, tank-ships, could, on 
account of their build, engage only in a certain definite trade. Ta 
meet this objection, the word " route " was then added, so that it 
would have been necessary that the vessel should be engaged^tn the 
same trade and on the same route ; it was thought that in this way the 
above contention would have been satisfactorily met. However, the 
suppression of this case from the list being insisted on, it was agreed 
to eliminate it. Consequently a transfer of this character now falls 
within the general rule ; it is certainly presumed to be void, but the 
presumption may be rebutted. 

CHAPTER VI. 
ENEMY CHARACTER. 

The rule in the Declaration of Paris, that " the neutral flag covers 
enemy goods, with the exception of contraband of war," corresponds 
so closely with the advance of civilisation, and has taken so firm a hold 
on the public mind, that it is impossible, in the face of so extensive 

471 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. 

an application, to avoid seeing in that rule the embodiment of a prin- 
ciple of the common law of nations which can no longer be disputed. 
The determination of the neutral or enemy character of merchant 
vessels accordingly decides not only the question of the validity of 
their capture, but also the fate of the non-contraband goods on board. 
A similar general observation may be made with reference to the 
neutral or enemy character of goods. No one thinks of contesting 
to-day the principle according to which " neutral goods, with the 
exception of contraband of war, are not liable to capture on board 
an enemy ship." It is, therefore, only in respect of goods found on 
board an enemy ship that the question whether they are neutral or 
enemy property arises. 

The determination of what constitutes neutral or enemy character 
thus appears as a development of the two principles laid down in 1856, 
or rather as a means of securing their just application in practice. 

The advantage of deducing from the practices of different countries 
some clear and simple rules on this subject may be said to need no 
demonstration. The uncertainty as to the risk of capture, if it does 
not put an end to trade, is at least the most serious of hindrances to 
its continuance. A trader ought to know the risks which he runs in 
putting his goods on board this or that ship, while the underwriter, if 
he does not know the extent of those risks, is obliged to charge war 
premiums which are often either excessive or else inadequate. 

The rules which form this chapter are, unfortunately, incomplete ; 
certain important points had to be laid aside, as has been already 
observed in the introductory explanations, and as will be further 
explained below. 

ARTICLE 57. 

Subject to the provisions respecting transfer to another flag, the neutral 
or enemy character of a vessel is determined by the flag which she is entitled 
to fly. 

The case where a neutral vessel is engaged in a trade which is closed 
in time of peace, remains outside the scope of this rule, and is in no wise 
affected by it. 

The principle, therefore, is that the neutral or enemy character of a 
vessel is determined by the flag which she is entitled to fly. It is a simple 
rule which appears satisfactorily to meet the special case of ships, 
as distinguished from that of other movable property, and notably 
of the cargo. From more than one point of view, ships may be said 
to possess an individuality ; notably they have a nationality, a national 
character. This attribute of nationality finds visible expression in the 
right to fly a flag ; it has the effect of placing ships under the protection 
and control of the State to which they belong ; it makes them amenable 

472 



NDON] APPENDIX 

to the sovereignty and to the laws of that State, and liable to requisition, 
should the occasion arise. Here is the surest test of whether a vessel 
is really a unit in the merchant marine of a country, and here there- 
fore the best test by which to decide whether her character is neutral 
or enemy. It is, moreover, preferable to rely exclusively upon this 
test, and to discard all considerations connected with the personal 
status of the owner. 

The text makes use of the words " the flag which the vessel is 
entitled to fly " ; that expression means, of course, the flag under 
which, whether she is actually flying it or not, the vessel is entitled 
to sail according to the municipal laws which govern that right. 

Article 57 safeguards the provisions respecting transfer to another 
flag, as to which it is sufficient to refer to Articles 55 and 56 ; a vessel 
may very well have the right to fly a neutral flag, as far as the law of 
the country to which she claims to belong is concerned, but may be 
treated as an enemy vessel by a belligerent, because the transfer in 
virtue of which she has hoisted the neutral flag is annulled by Article 
55 or Article 56. 

Lastly, the question was raised whether a vessel loses her neutral 
character when she is engaged in a trade which the enemy, prior to 
the war, reserved exclusively for his national vessels ; but as has been 
observed above in connection with the subject of Unneutral Service, 
no agreement was reached, and the question remains an open one, as 
the second paragraph of Article 57 is careful to explain. 

ARTICLE 58. 

The neutral or enemy character of goods found on board an enemy 
vessel is determined by the neutral or enemy character of the owner. 

Unlike ships, goods have no individuality of their own ; their 
neutral or enemy character is made to depend upon the personal 
status of their owner. This opinion prevailed after an exhaustive 
study of different views, which inclined towards reliance on the country 
of origin of the goods, the status of the person at whose risk they are, 
of the consignee, or of the consignor. The test adopted in Article 58 
appears, moreover, to be in conformity with the terms of the Declara- 
tion of Paris, as also with those of the Convention of The Hague of 
the i8th October, 1907, relative to the establishment of an International 
Prize Court, where the expression neutral or enemy property is used 
(Articles i, 3, 4, 8). 

But it cannot be concealed that Article 58 solves no more than a 
part of the problem, and that the easier part ; it is the neutral or 
enemy character of the owner which determines the character of the 
goods, but what is to determine the neutral or enemy character of 
the owner ? On this point nothing is said, because it was found 

473 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL 

impossible to arrive at an agreement. Opinions were divided between 
domicile and nationality ; no useful purpose will be served by repro- 
ducing here the arguments adduced to support the two positions. It 
was hoped that a compromise might have been reached on the basis 
of a clause to the following effect : 

" The neutral or enemy character of goods found on board 
an enemy vessel is determined by the neutral or enemy nationality 
of their owner, or, if he is of no nationality or of double nationality 
(i.e., both neutral and enemy), by his domicile in a neutral 
or enemy country ; 

" Provided that goods belonging to a limited liability or joint 
stock company are considered as neutral or enemy according as 
the company has its headquarters in a neutral or enemy country." 
But there was no unanimity. 

ARTICLE 59. 

In the absence of proof of the neutralj : character of goods found on 
board an enemy vessel, they are presumed to be enemy goods. 

Article 59 gives expression to the traditional rule according to 
which goods found on board an enemy vessel are, failing proof to the 
contrary, presumed to be enemy goods ; this is merely a simple 
presumption, which leaves to the claimant the right, but at the same 
time the onus, of proving his title. 

ARTICLE 60. 

Enemy goods on board an enemy vessel retain their enemy character 
until they reach their destination, notwithstanding any transfer effected 
after the outbreak of hostilities while the goods are being forwarded. 

If, however, prior to the capture, a former neutral owner exercises, on 
the bankruptcy of an existing enemy owner, a recognised legal right to 
recover the goods, they regain their neutral character. 

This provision contemplates the case where goods which were 
enemy property at the time of despatch have been the subject of a sale 
or transfer during the course of the voyage. The ease with which 
enemy goods might secure protection from the exercise of the right 
of capture by means of a sale which is made subject to a reconveyance 
of the property on arrival has always led to a refusal to recognise such 
transfers. The enemy character subsists. 

With regard to the moment from which goods must be considered 
to acquire and retain the enemy character of their owner, the text 
has been inspired by the same spirit of equity as governed the Conven- 
tion of The Hague, relative to the status of merchant vessels on the 
outbreak of hostilities, and by the same desire to protect mercantile 
operations undertaken in the security of a time of peace. It is only 

474 



INDON] APPENDIX 

when the transfer takes place after the outbreak of hostilities that it is, 
so far as the loss of enemy character is concerned, inoperative until 
the arrival of the goods in question. The date which is taken into 
consideration here is that of the transfer, and not of the departure 
of the vessel. For, while the vessel which started before the war 
began, and remains, perhaps, unaware of the outbreak of hostilities, 
may enjoy on this account some degree of exemption, the goods may 
nevertheless possess enemy character ; the enemy owner of these 
goods is in a position to be aware of the state of war, and it is for that 
very reason that he is likely to seek to evade its consequences. 

It was, however, thought right to add what is, if not a limitation, 
at least a complement agreed to be necessary. In a great number of 
countries an unpaid vendor has, in the event of the bankruptcy of the 
buyer, a recognised legal right to recover the goods which have already 
become the property of the buyer but not yet reached him (stoppage 
in transitu). In such a case the sale is cancelled, and, in consequence 
of the recovery, the vendor obtains the goods again and is not deemed 
ever to have ceased to be the owner. This right gives to neutral com- 
merce, in the case of a genuine bankruptcy, a protection too valuable 
to be sacrificed, and the second paragraph of Article 60 is intended 
to preserve it. 

CHAPTER VII. 
CONVOY. 

The practice of convoy has, in the past, occasionally given rise to 
grave difficulties and even to conflict. It is, therefore, satisfactory to 
be able to record the agreement which has been reached upon the 
subject. 

ARTICLE 61. 

Neutral vessels under national convoy are exempt from search. The 
commander of a convoy gives, in writing, at the request of the commander 
of a belligerent war-ship, all information as to the character of the vessels 
and their cargoes, which could be obtained by search. 

The principle laid down is simple : a neutral vessel under the 
convoy of a war-ship of her own nationality is exempt from search. 
The reason for this rule is that the belligerent cruiser ought to be able 
to find in the assurances of the commander of the convoy as good a 
guarantee as would be afforded by the exercise of the right of search 
itself ; in fact, she cannot call in question the assurances given by the 
official representative of a neutral Government, without displaying a 
lack of international courtesy. If neutral Governments allow belli- 
gerents to search vessels sailing under their flag, it is because they do 

475 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. 

not wish to be responsible for the supervision of such vessels, and 
therefore allow belligerents to protect themselves. The situation is 
altered when a neutral Government consents to undertake that respon- 
sibility ; the right of search has no longer the same importance. 

But it follows from the explanation of the rule respecting convoy 
that the neutral Government undertakes to afford the belligerents 
every guarantee that the vessels convoyed shall not take advantage 
of the protection accorded to them in order to do anything inconsistent 
with their neutrality, as, for example, to carry contraband, render 
unneutral service to the belligerent, or attempt to break blockade. 
There is need, therefore, that a genuine supervision should be exercised 
from the outset over the vessels which are to be convoyed ; and that 
supervision must be continued throughout the voyage. The Govern- 
ment must act with vigilance so as to prevent all abuse of the right of 
convoy, and must give to the officer who is put in command of a convoy 
precise instructions to this effect. 

A belligerent cruiser encounters a convoy ; she communicates with 
the commander of the convoy, who must, at her request, give in 
writing all relevant information about the vessels under his protection. 
A written declaration is required, because it prevents all ambiguities 
and misunderstandings, and because it pledges to a greater extent 
the responsibility of the commander. The object of such a declaration 
is to make search unnecessary by the mere fact of giving to the cruiser 
the information which the search itself would have supplied. 

ARTICLE 62. 

// the commander of the belligerent war-ship has reason to suspect that 
the confidence of the commander of the convoy has been abused, he com- 
municates his suspicions to him. In such a case it is for the commander 
of the convoy alone to investigate the matter. He must record the result 
of such investigation in a report, of which a copy is handed to the officer of 
the war-ship. If, in the opinion of the commander of the convoy, the facts 
shown in the report justify the capture of one or more vessels, the protection 
of the convoy must be withdrawn from such vessels. 

In the majority of cases the cruiser will be satisfied with the declara- 
tion which the commander of the convoy will have given to her, but 
she may have serious grounds for believing that the confidence of the 
commander has been abused, as, for example, that a ship under convoy 
of which the papers are apparently in order and exhibit nothing sus- 
picious is, in fact, carrying contraband cleverly concealed. The 
cruiser may, in such a case, communicate her suspicions to the com- 
mander of the convoy, and an investigation may be considered neces- 
sary. If so, it will be made by the commander of the convoy, since 
it is he alone who exercises authority over the vessels placed under 

476 



NDON] APPENDIX 

his protection. It appeared, nevertheless, that much difficulty might 
often be avoided if the belligerent were allowed to be present at this 
investigation ; otherwise he might still suspect, if not the good faith, 
at least the vigilance and perspicacity of the person who conducted the 
search. But it was not thought that an obligation to allow the officer 
of the cruiser to be present at the investigation should be imposed upon 
the commander of the convoy. He must act as he thinks best ; if 
he agrees to the presence of an officer of the cruiser, it will be as an act 
of courtesy or good policy. He must in every case draw up a report 
of the investigation and give a copy to the officer of the cruiser. 

Differences of opinion may occur between the two officers, par- 
ticularly in relation to conditional contraband. The character of a 
port to which a cargo of corn is destined may be disputed. Is it an 
ordinary commercial port ? or is it a port which serves as a bas*e of 
supply for the armed forces ? The situation which arises out of the 
mere fact of the convoy must in such a case be respected. The officer 
of the cruiser can do no more than make his protest, and the difficulty 
must be settled through the diplomatic channel. 

The situation is altogether different if a vessel under convoy is 
found beyond the possibility of dispute to be carrying contraband. 
The vessel has no longer a right to protection, since the condition upon 
which such protection was granted has not been fulfilled. Besides 
deceiving her own Government, she has tried to deceive the belligerent. 
She must therefore be treated as a neutral merchant vessel encoun- 
tered in the ordinary way and searched by a belligerent cruiser. She 
cannot complain at being exposed to such rigorous treatment, since 
there is in her case an aggravation of the offence committed by a 
carrier of contraband. 

CHAPTER VIII. 
RESISTANCE TO SEARCH. 

The subject treated in this chapter was not mentioned in the pro- 
gramme submitted by the British Government in February, 1908, but 
it is intimately connected with several of the questions in that pro- 
gramme, and thus attracted the attention of the Conference in the 
course of its deliberations ; and it was thought necessary to frame a 
rule upon it'; the drafting of which presented little difficulty. 

A belligerent cruiser encounters a merchant vessel and summons 
her to stop in order that she may be searched. The vessel summoned 
does not stop, but tries to avoid the search by flight. The cruiser 
may employ force to stop her, and the merchant vessel, if she is damaged 
or sunk, has no right to complain, seeing that she has failed to comply 
with an obligation imposed upon her by the law of nations. 

477 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. 

If the vessel is stopped, and it is shown that it was only in order 
to escape the inconvenience of being searched that recourse was had 
to flight, and that beyond this she had done nothing contrary to 
neutrality, she will not be punished for her attempt at flight. If, on 
the other hand, it is established that the vessel has contraband on 
board, or that she has in some way or other failed to comply with her 
duty as a neutral, she will suffer the consequences of her infraction 
of neutrality, but in this case as in the last, she will not undergo any 
punishment for her attempt at flight. Expression was given to the 
contrary view, namely, that a ship should be punished for an obvious 
attempt at flight as much as for forcible resistance. It was suggested 
that the prospect of having the escaping vessel condemned as good 
prize would influence the captain of the cruiser to do his best to spare 
her. But in the end this view did not prevail. 

ARTICLE 63. 

Forcible resistance to the legitimate exercise of the right of stoppage, 
search, and capture, involves in all cases the condemnation of the vessel. 
The cargo is liable to the same treatment as the cargo of an enemy vessel. 
Goods belonging to the master or owner of the vessel are treated as enemy goods. 

The situation is different if forcible resistance is made to any 
legitimate action by the cruiser. The vessel commits an act of hostility 
and must, from that moment, be treated as an enemy vessel ; she will 
therefore be subject to condemnation, although the search may not 
have shown that anything contrary to neutrality had been done. So 
far no difficulty seems to arise. 

What must be decided with regard to the cargo ? The rule 
which appeared to be the best is that according to which the cargo 
will be treated like the cargo on board an enemy vessel. This assimila- 
tion involves the following consequences : a neutral vessel which has 
offered resistance becomes an enemy vessel and the goods on board 
are presumed to be enemy goods. Neutrals who are interested may 
claim their property, in accordance with Article 3 of the Declaration 
of Paris, but enemy goods will be condemned, since the rule that 
the flag covers the goods cannot be adduced, because the captured vessel 
on board which they are found is considered to be an enemy vessel. 
It will be noticed that the right to claim the goods is open to all neutrals, 
even to those whose nationality is that of the captured vessel ; it 
would seem to be an excess of severity to make such persons suffer for 
the action of the master. There is, however, an exception as regards 
the goods which belong to the owner of the vessel ; it seems natural 
that he should bear the consequences of the acts of his agents. His 
property on board the vessel is therefore treated as enemy goods. 
A fortiori the same rule applies to the goods belonging to the master. 
478 



NDON] APPENDIX 

CHAPTER IX. 

COMPENSATION. 

This chapter is of very general application, inasmuch as the pro- 
visions which it contains are operative in all the numerous cases in 
which a cruiser may capture a vessel or goods. 

ARTICLE 64. 

// the capture of a vessel or of goods is not upheld by the prize court, 
or if the prize is released without any judgment being given, the parties 
interested have the right to compensation, unless there were good reasons 
for capturing the vessel or goods. 

A cruiser has captured a neutral vessel, on the ground, for example, 
of carriage of contraband or breach of blockade. The prize court 
releases the vessel declaring the capture to be void. This decision 
alone is evidently not enough to indemnify the parties interested for 
the loss incurred in consequence of the capture, and this loss may 
have been considerable, since the vessel has been during a period, 
which may often be a very long one, prevented from engaging in her 
ordinary trade. May these parties claim to be compensated for this 
injury ? Reason requires that the affirmative answer should be given, 
if the injury has been undeserved, that is to say, if the capture was not 
brought about by some fault of the parties. It may, indeed, happen 
that there was good reason for the capture, because the master of the 
vessel searched did not produce evidence which ought in the ordinary 
course to have been available, and which was only furnished at a 
later stage. In such a case it would be unjust that compensation should 
be awarded. On the other hand, if the cruiser has really been at 
fault, if the vessel has been captured when there were not good reasons 
for doing so, it is just that compensation should be granted. 

It may also happen that a vessel which has been captured and 
taken into a port is released by the action of the executive without 
the intervention of a prize court. The existing practice, under such 
circumstances, is not uniform. In some countries the prize court 
has no jurisdiction unless there is a question of validating a capture, 
and cannot adjudicate on a claim for compensation based upon the 
ground that the capture would have been held unjustifiable ; in other 
countries the prize court would have jurisdiction to entertain a claim 
of this kind. On this point, therefore, there is a difference which is 
not altogether equitable, and it is desirable to lay down a rule which 
will produce the same result in all countries. It is reasonable that 
every capture effected without good reasons should give to the parties 
interested a right to compensation, without its being necessary to 

479 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [0ECL. 

draw any distinction between the cases in which the capture has or 
has not been followed by a decision of a prize court ; and this argu- 
ment is all the more forcible when the capture may have so little 
justification that the vessel is released by the action of the executive. 
A provision in general terms has therefore been adopted, which is 
capable of covering all cases of capture. 

It should be observed that in the text no reference is made to the 
question whether the national tribunals are competent to adjudicate 
on a claim for compensation. In cases where proceedings are taken 
against the property captured, no doubt upon this point can be enter- 
tained. In the course of the proceedings taken to determine the 
validity of a capture the parties interested have the opportunity of 
making good their right to compensation, and, if the national tribunal 
does not give them satisfaction, they can apply to the International 
Prize Court. If, on the other hand, the action of the belligerent has 
been confined to the capture, it is the law of the belligerent captor 
which decides whether there are tribunals competent to entertain a 
demand for compensation, and, if so, what are those tribunals ; the 
International Court has not, according to the Convention of The Hague, 
any jurisdiction in such a case. From an international point of view, 
the diplomatic channel is the only one available for making good such 
a claim, whether the cause for complaint is founded on a decision 
actually delivered, or on the absence of any tribunal having jurisdiction 
to entertain it. 

The question was raised as to whether it was necessary to draw a 
distinction between the direct and indirect losses suffered by vessel 
or goods. The best course appeared to be to leave the prize court 
free to estimate the amount of compensation due, which will vary 
according to the circumstances and cannot be laid down in advance 
in rules going into minute details. 

For the sake of simplicity, mention has only been made of the 
vessel, but what has been said applies of course to cargo captured 
and afterwards released. Innocent goods on board a vessel which has 
been captured suffer, in the same way, all the inconvenience which 
attends the capture of the vessel ; but if there was good cause for 
capturing the vessel, whether the capture has subsequently been 
held to be valid or not, the owners of the cargo have no right to com- 
pensation. 

It is perhaps useful to indicate certain cases in which the capture 
of a vessel would be justified, whatever might be the ultimate decision 
of the prize court. Notably, there is the case where some or all of 
the ship's papers have been thrown overboard, suppressed, or inten- 
tionally destroyed on the initiative of the master or one of the crew 
or passengers. There is in such case an element which will justify 

480 



ONDON] APPENDIX 

any suspicion and afford an excuse for capturing the vessel, subject 
to the master's ability to account for his action before the prize court. 
Even if the court should accept the explanation given and should 
not find any reason for condemnation, the parties interested cannot 
hope to recover compensation. 

An analogous case would be that in which there were found on 
board two sets of papers, or false or forged papers, if this irregularity 
were connected with circumstances calculated to contribute to the 
capture of the vessel. 

It appeared sufficient that these cases in which there would be a 
reasonable excuse for the capture should be mentioned in the present 
Report, and should not be made the object of express provisions, 
since, otherwise, the mention of these two particular cases might have 
led to the supposition that they were the only cases in which a capture 
could be justified. 

Such then are the principles of international law to which the 
Naval Conference has sought to give recognition as being fitted to 
regulate in practice the intercourse of nations on certain important 
questions in regard to which precise rules have hitherto been wanting. 
The Conference has thus taken up the work of codification begun by 
the Declaration of Paris of 1856. It has worked in the same spirit 
as the second Peace Conference, and, taking advantage of the labours 
accomplished at The Hague, it has been able to solve some of the 
problems, which, owing to the lack of time, that Conference was com- 
pelled to leave unsolved. Let us hope that it may be possible to say 
that those who have drawn up the Declaration of London of 1909 are 
not altogether unworthy of their predecessors of 1856 and 1907. 

FINAL PROVISIONS. 

These provisions have reference to various questions relating to 
the effect of the Declaration, its ratification, its coming into force, 
its denunciation, and the accession of unrepresented Powers. 

ARTICLE 65. 

The provisions of the present Declaration must be treated as a whole, 
and cannot be separated. 

This Article is of great importance, and is in conformity with that 
which was adopted in the Declaration of Paris. 

The rules contained in the present Declaration relate to matters of 
great importance and great diversity. They have not all been accepted 
with the same degree of eagerness by all the Delegations. Concessions 
have been made on one point in consideration of concessions obtained 
on another. The whole, all things considered, has been recognised 

Naval I 2 H 481 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DECL. < 

as satisfactory, and a legitimate expectation would be falsified if one 
Power might have reservations on a rule to which another Power 
attached particular importance. 

ARTICLE 66. 

The Signatory Powers undertake to insure the mutual observance of 
the rules contained in the present Declaration in any war in which dtl the 
belligerents are parties thereto. They will therefore issue the necessary 
instructions to their authorities and to their armed forces, and will take 
such measures as may be required in order to insure that it will be applied 
by their courts, and more particularly by their prize courts. 

According to the engagement resulting from this Article, the 
Declaration applies to the relations between the Signatory Powers 
when the belligerents are likewise parties to the Declaration. 

It will be the duty of each Power to take th measures necessary 
to insure the observance of the Declaration. These measures may vary 
in different countries, and may or may not involve the intervention 
of the legislature. The matter is one of national legal requirements. 

It should be observed that neutral Powers also may find them- 
selves in a position of having to give instructions to their authorities, 
notably to the commanders of convoys as previously explained. 

ARTICLE 67. 

The present Declaration shall be ratified as soon as possible. 
The ratifications shall be deposited in London. 

The first deposit of ratifications shall be recorded in a Protocol signed 
by the Representatives of the Powers taking part therein, and by His. 
Britannic Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. 

The subsequent deposits of ratifications shall be made by means of a 
written notification addressed to the British Government, and accompanied 
by the instrument of ratification. 

A duly certified copy of the Protocol relating to the first deposit of 
ratifications, and of the notifications mentioned in the preceding para- 
graph as well as of the instruments of ratification which accompany them, 
shall be immediately sent by the British Government, through the diplo- 
matic channel, to the Signatory Powers. The said Government shall, 
in the cases contemplated in the preceding paragraph, inform them at 
the same time of the date on which it received notification. 

This provision, of a purely formal character, needs no explanation. 
The wording adopted at The Hague by the second Peace Conference 
has been borrowed. 

482 



APPENDIX 

ARTICLE 68. 

The present Declaration shall take effect, in the case of the Powers 
which were parties to the first deposit of ratifications, sixty days after the 
date of the Protocol recording such deposit, and, in the case of the Powers 
which shall ratify subsequently, sixty days after the notification of their 
ratification shall have been received by the British Government. 

ARTICLE 69. 

In the event of one of the Signatory Powers wishing to denounce the 
Present Declaration, such denunciation can only be made to take effect at 
the end of a period of twelve years, beginning sixty days after the first 
deposit of ratifications, and, after that time, at the end of successive periods 
of six years, of which the first will begin at the end of the period of twelve 
years. 

Such denunciation must be notified in writing, at least one year in 
advance, to the British Government, which shall inform all the other 
Powers. 

It will only operate in respect of the denouncing Power. 

It follows implicitly from Article 69 that the Declaration is of 
indefinite duration. The periods after which denunciation is allowed 
have been fixed on the analogy of the Convention for the establishment 
of an International Prize Court. 

ARTICLE 70. 

The Powers represented at the London Naval Conference attach 
Particular importance to the general recognition of the rules which they 
have adopted, and therefore express the hope that the Powers which were 
not represented there witt accede to the present Declaration. They request 
the British Government to invite them to do so. 

A Power which desires to accede shall notify its intention in writing 
to the British Government, and transmit simultaneously the act of accession, 
which will be deposited in the archives of the said Government. 

The said Government shall forthwith transmit to all the other Powers 
a duly certified copy of the notification, together with the act of accession, 
and communicate the date on which such notification was received. The 
accession takes effect sixty days after such date. 

In respect of all matters concerning this Declaration, acceding Powers 
shall be on the same footing as the Signatory Powers. 

The Declaration of Paris also contained an invitation to the Powers 
which were not represented to accede to the Declaration. The official 
invitation in this case, instead of being made individually by each of 
the Powers represented at the Conference, may more conveniently 
be made by Great Britain acting in the name of all the Powers. 

483 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The procedure for accession is very simple. The fact that the 
acceding Powers are placed on the same footing in every respect as 
the Signatory Powers of course involves compliance by the former 
with Article 65. A Power can accede only to the whole, but not 
merely to a part, of the Declaration. 

ARTICLE 71. 

The present Declaration, which bears the date of the 26th February, 
1909, may be signed in London up till the ^oth June, 1909, by the Pleni- 
potentiaries of the Powers represented at the Naval Conference. 

As at The Hague, account has been taken of the situation of certain 
Powers the Representatives of which may not be in a position to sign 
the Declaration at once, but which desire nevertheless to be considered 
as Signatory, and not as acceding, Powers. 

It is scarcely necessary to say that the Plenipotentiaries of the 
Powers referred to in Article 71 are not necessarily those who were, as 
such, delegates at the Naval Conference. 

In faith whereof the Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Declara- 
tion and have thereto affixed their seals. 

Done at London, the twenty-sixth day of February, one thousand nine 
hundred and nine, in a single original, which shall remain deposited in 
the archives of the British Government, and of which duly certified copies 
shall be sent through the diplomatic channel to the Powers represented at 
the Naval Conference. 



484 



INDEX 



A E i, loss of, 202. 

A E 34, Em den, German trawler, mines 

laid in North Sea, 162. 
Aboukir, H.M.S. : 
Loss OF, SEPT. 22 : 

Admiralty announcements, 269-70. 
Awards for rescuing survivors, 371. 
Berlin announcements, 270-1, 275. 
Report by Commander Bertram 

W. L. Nicholson, R.N., 271-2. 
Report by Commander Reginald A. 

Norton, R.N., 272-4. 
U 9*5 Commander awarded Order 

Pour It M trite for, 344. 
Men of Immediate Class R.F.R. in, 

175- 

Acland, P. D., Under-Secretary of State 
for Foreign Affairs, on position re 
goods, not enemy cargoes, on German 
ships, 161. 

Adams, Lieut. -Commander J. B., R.N.R., 
mentioned in despatches, 359. 

Admiral Makaroff, Russian cruiser, at- 
tacked by submarines, 320. 

Admiralty, see under Great Britain. 

Admiralty Islands, expedition to, hoisting 
of British flag and garrisoning, 266. 

Adriatic, French fleet in, 90, 276-7, 

319. 336- 

Adriatic, British merchant ship, com- 
munications with U.S.A. re defensive 
armament of, 40-1, 47-8. 

Aerial Navigation : 

Assistance of aeroplanes and balloons 
in naval operations on Belgian coast, 

344. 345- 

British attack on Cologne, 319. 
British attacks on Diisseldorf, 275-6, 

313. 3I7- 8 . 318-9. 
Japanese attacks on ships, etc., at 

Tsingtau, 198, 288, 315, 331. 



Aerial Navigation cont. 

Japanese vessels before Tsingtau, at- 
tempted attack by German aero- 
plane, 315. 

Order by Secretary of State, restrict- 
ing private flying, 9. 
Agincourt, battleship ordered by Turkey, 

taken over by Admiralty, 10. 
Albion, H.M.S. : 

Flagship of Rear- Admiral H. L. Tot- 
tenham, C.B., 163. 

Men of Immediate Class R.F.R. in, 175. 

Algiers, bombardment of Bona and 

Philippeville by Goeben and Breslau, 51. 

Allsup, Lieut. -Commander C. F.. H.M.S. 

Legion, sinking of German destroyers 

by, 337-8- 

Altham, Commander E.. H.M.S. Wild- 
fire, in operations off Belgian coast, 361 . 

Amazon, s.s., operations off Belgian 
coast, 357, 359, 361. 

Amethyst, British flotilla cruiser, action 
in Heligoland Bight, 117, 118, 124. 

Amiral Ganteaume, French s.s., torpedoed. 

344-5- 

Amista, Italian s.s., suspicious character 
of voyage from America, correspond- 
ence re, 279-82. 

Amphion, H.M.S. : 

Loss of, by striking mine, 56, 56-7, 58-9. 
Sinking of the Konigin Luise by, 54, 58. 

Amphitrite, H.M.S., 163. 

Aniche, see under France. 

Antivari, see under Montenegro. 

Antram, Alfred George, Petty officer, 
D.C.M. awarded, 373. 

Antwerp, see under Belgium. 

Apia, see under Samoa. 

Arbuthnot, Lieut. -Commander Ernest K., 
H.M.S. Arethusa, mentioned in des- 
patches, 128. 

45 



INDEX 



Archdale, Commander N. E., H.M.S. 
Hazard, in operations off Belgian 
coast, 361. 
Arethusa, British light-armoured cruiser, 

284 : 
Heligoland Bight action, 118-9, 123, 

124, 125-9. 
Mention of officers and members of 

crew, 128-9.' 
Verses to be engraved on brass plate 

and fixed in, 134-5. 
Argentine, protection of trade routes 

to, Press Bureau statement, 85-6. 
Ariadne, S.M.S., German cruiser, sinking 

of, by British, 118, 119, 120-1. 
Armstrong, James William, Engine Room 

Artificer, D.C.M. awarded, 373. 
Aspern, Austrian cruiser, type of, 90. 
Aston, Colonel Second Commandant Sir 
George Grey, K.C.B., A.D.C., R.M.A., 
promotion, 288, 370. 
Atlantic Ocean : 
German captures in, 344. 
Search for German cruisers in, 342. 
South, action between H.M.S. Car- 
mania and Cap Trafalgar, 215-6, 
217-8. 
Trade routes, protection of, Press 

Bureau statement, 85-6. 
Attentive, H.M.S., operations off Belgian 

coast, 357-360. 
Augsburg, German cruiser, bombardment 

of Libau, 10. 
Austin, Mr. Sidney, boatswain, H.M.S. 

Hawke, landed at Aberdeen, 331. 
Australia : 
A E i, loss of, 202. 
Expeditionary force of 20,000, offer 

of, and acceptance, 17, 66. 
Expeditions to New Britain and New 
Guinea, see under New Britain and 
New Guinea. 
NAVY : 

Operations in the Pacific, 199-200. 
Thanks of H.M. Government, 260-1. 
Transfer to King's naval forces, 18, 

66. 

Vessels to be placed under control 
of British Admiralty in event of 
war, 17. 
Australia, H.M.S., 222, 236 : 

Expedition to Fiji and Samoa, 138, 

139, 141-2, 156-8. 

Expedition to New Britain, 229, 232, 
237, 240, 248. 

486 



Austria-Hungary : 
Ambassador in London, see Mensdorff, 

Count. 

Attitude of, Sir E. Grey on, 4-5. 
Attitude re different Conventions of 

second Hague Conference, 1007, 405, 

406, 408, 411, 414, 421, 423, 429. 
Blockade of Montenegrin coast, 85. 
British Ambassador in, see Bunsen, 

Sir M. de. 
British merchant ships in, or captured 

by, Foreign Office statements, 89-90, 

368-9. 
CATTARO : 

French bombardment, 1 78-9. 

Skirmish between Austrian ships, 
etc., and French cruiser Waldeck- 
Rousseau, 337. 
Cattaro, Bay of, French bombardment 

of works in, 276-7. 
Declaration of London to be observed 

by, 96. 
Declaration of Paris, 1856, signed by, 

400. 
FLEET : 

Bombardment of Antivari and de- 
struction of wireless station, 79. 

Raid on Antivari by torpedo craft, 

337- 
MERCHANT SHIPS : 

British Foreign Office statements 

re detention of, 89-90, 368-9. 
List of, detained in British ports or 
captured by H.M. armed forces, 
167-72, 374-9- 

List of, whose cargoes or part of 

them have been detained, 380-1. 

List of, detained or captured by 

French naval authorities, 290. 
List of, detained or captured by 
Russian naval authorities, 293-4. 
Notification of war with, 86-7. 
Ragusa, flight of authorities on arrival 

of French fleet before, 319. 
Right to convert merchant vessels on 
the high seas insisted on at second 
Hague Conference and London Naval 
Conference, 34. 

Royal Proclamation, applying pro- 
clamations and orders re Germany, 
to 87-9. 

Zenta, sunk by French, 90. 
A venturier, French torpedo - boat de- 
stroyer, in operations off Belgian 
coast, 361, 



INDEX 



Bacchante, H.M.S., 124, 163 : 

Men of Immediate Class R.F.R. in, 

175- 

Backhouse, Commodore 0., Command- 
ing Second Naval Brigade, mentioned 
in despatches, 327. 

Badcock, Assistant Paymaster Kenneth 
E., mentioned in despatches, 129. 

Badger, H.M.S., destroyer, German sub- 
marine rammed and sunk, 343. 

Ballard, Captain George Alexander, C.B., 
A. D.C.. Commodore, promotion, 164. 

Baltic : 
Dangers in, Russian announcement, 

337- 

Free from enemy vessels, Berlin state- 
ment, 102. 

GERMAN SUBMARINES IN : 

Attacks on Russian ships, 319-20. 
Sinking of, 320. 

Loss of Russian cruiser Pallada in, 
319-20. 

Russian Fleet, message from the Tsar, 

345- 
Barbados, alleged destination of s.s. 

Amista, 280-1. 

Barclay, Colville, British Charge" d'Affaires, 
Washington, correspondence with Mr. 
Bryan and Mr. Lansing, 31-8. 
Barnardiston, Brigadier-General, landing 
of British force under, at Kiao-chau, 199. 
Barnes, G. N., M.P., questions re Naval 
pensioners' wages, Greenock torpedo 
factory, 198. 

Barrow, Lieut.-Commander B. W., H.M.S. 
Maori, in operations off Belgian coast, 
361. 
Barttelot, Lieut.-Commander Nigel K. W., 

H.M.S. Liberty : 

Killed in Heligoland Bight action, 12*0. 
Mentioned in despatches, 131. 
Bate man, John W., Stoker, H.M.S. 

Laurel, mentioned in despatches, 131. 
Battenberg, Admiral H.8.H. Prince Louis 
Alexander of, G.C.B., K.C.M.G., 
G.C.V.O., A.D.C. : 

Demobilisation of fleet postponed by, 3. 
Letter to Mr. Winston Churchill, 1915, 
re responsibility for postponing de- 
mobilisation of the Fleet, 4. 
Resignation of appointment as First 
Sea Lord, 362 ; correspondence with 
Mr. Churchill, 362-3 ; message from 
the Fleet, 363. 
to be Sworn of the Privy Council, 362. 



Bayan, Russian cruiser, attacked by 

submarines, 320. 
Beadle, James Samuel, Acting Chief 

Petty Officer, H.M.S. Liberty : 
D.C.M. awarded, 373. 
Mentioned in despatches, 131. 
Beatty, Vice- Admiral (Acting) Sir David, 
K.C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O., H.M.S. Lion : 
Action in Heligoland Bight, 117. 
Despatch re Heligoland Bight action, 

121-4. 
Granted acting rank of Vice-Admiral, 

162. 

Beirne, Private William J., H.M.S. 
Arethusa, mentioned in despatches, 129. 
Belgium : 
ANTWERP : 

Evacuation, 321-2, 326. 
German merchant ships detained at : 
Foreign Office notice re, and list 

of, 172-3. 
Procedure re cargo claims. 

Foreign Office notice, 179. 
Royal Naval Division at : 

Address issued by First Lord, 322-3. 
Admiralty announcement, 320-2. 
Despatch from Sir J. D. P. 

French, 323-4. 
Despatch from Major-General 

Paris, 324-8. 

Attitude re different conventions of 

second Hague Conference, 1907, 

405, 406, 408, 411, 414, 421, 423, 429. 

Rt. Hon. W. Churchill on, 210-11. 

Coast, naval operations on, 340, 343-4, 

35 6 - 35 6 - 01 . 368. 
Dixmude, French Marine Fusiliers at, 

367- 

Lokeren, German attack near, 321. 
Lombartzyde, naval action off, 357. 
Middlekerke, naval operations against, 

357- 
NIEUPORT : 

British ships, anchored off pier, 357. 

German attacks repulsed, 344. 

Machine guns landed at, 340, 357. 
OSTEND : 

British aerial base, 312. 

British Marines landed at, 112. 

German batteries near, bombard- 
ment from the sea, 344. 
Right to convert merchant vessels on 
. the high seas opposed by, at second 

Hague Conference, 34-5. 
Westende, naval operations against,357. 

47 



INDEX 



Bengal, Bay of, Emden in, and capture 
and sinking of ships by, 215, 278. 

Benmohr, British s.s., sunk by the 
Emden, 341. 

Benn, Ion Hamilton, M.P., grant of 
temporary commission in R.N.R., 370. 

Benning, Lieut. -Commander Charles S., 
E 5, in Heligoland Bight, 336. 

Berc-i-Satwet, Turkish torpedo-boat de- 
stroyer, bombardment of Novorossisk, 

365- 

Beresford : 
ADMIRAL LORD CHARLES, G.C.B., 

G.C.V.O., M.P. : 
Appointed Honorary Colonel, Royal 

Marine Brigade, 182. 
Questions in the House : 

re Home remittances of men in 

Royal Navy, 106. 
Validity of Declaration of Paris, 

etc., 400. 
COMMANDER J. A. H., R.A.N. : 

Attack on New Britain, 221, 22-6-7, 

228, 230. 
Commanding garrison at Herberts- 

hohe, 241, 259. 

Berkhout, Johan Adam, s.s. Titan, award 

of medal to, for saving life at sea, 371. 

Bernard, Captain V. H. G., H.M.S. 

Venerable, in operations off Belgian 

coast, 360, 368. 

Berrima, H.M.A.S., expedition to New 

Britain, 228, 232, 238, 239, 259. 
Berwind- White Coal Mining Company.New 
York, suspected of chartering neutral 
ships to supply German cruisers, 280. 
Bethania, German auxiliary cruiser, cap- 
ture of, by British warship, 187. 
Bethell, Vice-Admiral the Hon. Sir A. E., 
K.C.B., K.C.M.G., flag hoisted in 
Prince George, Aug. i, 163. 
Birmingham, H.M.S., sinking of U 15 by,84. 
Black Sea : 

Rupture between Russia and Turkey, 
telegram from Grand Vizier to M. 
Sazonof, 366. 

Turkish operations in, 364-6. 
Blockades : 

Declaration of Paris re, 1856, 401. 
Declaration of London re, 434-5. 
Blunt, Captain William Frederick, H.M.S. 

Fearless : 

Appointment to D.S.O., 371-2. 
in Heligoland Bight action, and com- 
mendation of, 124, 128. 
4 88 



Boiston, William Rochester, Engine 
Room Artificer, H.M.S. Laurel : 

D.C.M. awarded, 373. 

Mentioned in despatches, 131. 
Bombardments by naval forces in time 

of war, convention re, 412-4. 
Bona, see under Algiers. 
Bond, Lieutenant : 

and Attack on New Britain, 227. 

Mentioned in despatches, 228. 
Bordeaux, see under France. 
Bougainville, occupied by Australian 

troops, 266. 
Bowen, Lieutenant Rowland G., R.A.N. : 

and Attack on New Britain, 226. 

Mentioned in despatches, 228. 

Wounded, 221, 228. 
Bozberger, Ritter, doctor, S.M.S. Ariadne, 

killed in Heligoland Bight action, 

120. 
Boyle, Lieut. -Commander Edward C., 

D 3, in Heligoland Bight, 336. 
Boys, Commander W. H., H.M.S. Sirius, 

in operations off Belgian coast, 361. 
Braddyll, Lieutenant H. S., H.M.S. Flirt, 

in operations off Belgian coast, 361. 
Brading, Chief Engine Room Artificer 

William Ernest, H.M.S. Falcon, re- 
commended for coolness under fire, 

359- 
Brazil, protection of trade routes to, 

Press Bureau statement, 856. 
Breslau, German cruiser : 

on Algiers coast, 51. 

in the Dardanelles and off Constanti- 
nople, 52. 

Escape from Messina, 52, 53 ; Court of 
Inquiry to be held, 201-2. 

History of adventures of, by Emil 
Ludwig, 524. 

Measures of Admiral Sir Berkeley 
Milne re, approved by Admiralty, 
160. 

in Messina, English and German ac- 
counts, 51-2. 

Operations in the Black Sea, 365, 366. 
Bridges, Lt.-Col. G. T. M., D.S.O : 

Assistance rendered during evacuation 
of Antwerp, 327. 

Commendation of, 358. 
Bright : 

Alfred S., gunner, H.M.S. Speedy, 
wounded, 820. 

E. F., gunner, H.M.S. Pathfinder, 
missing, 180. 



INDEX 



Brilliant, H.M.S., in operations off Belgian 
coast and casualties in, 356-61. 

Brindisi, s.s., 79. 

Bristfl, H.M.S., 218. 

Bristol, see under Great Britain. 

Britton, Alfred, Stoker Petty Officer, 

H.M.S. Laurel: 
D.C.M. awarded, 373. 
Mentioned in despatches, 131. 

Broberg, Danish s.s., mined in North Sea, 
105-6. 

Broke, destroyer-leader, ordered by Chile, 
taken over by Admiralty, 10. 

Bruce, Sergeant 0. H., R.F.R., Royal 
Marine Brigade, mentioned in des- 
patches, 328. 

Bruix, French cruiser, capture of Duala 
by forces under protection of, 286. 

Bryan, W. J., Secretary of State, Wash- 
ington, correspondence with British 
Charg6 d" Affaires and Ambassador, 
31-40. 

Bulgaria, attitude re different Conven- 
tions of second Hague Conference, 1907, 
405, 406, 408, 411, 414, 421, 423, 429. 

Buns en, Sir Maurice de, British Ambassa- 
dor at Vienna, communication from 
Sir E. Grey, 4-5. 

Buresk, British collier, captured by the 
Emden, 288. 

Burns, The Rt. Hon. James Cleland, 
Baron Inverclyde, see Inverclyde. 

Bustard, H.M.S., operations off Belgian 
coast, 358, 361. 

Butler, Engineer Lieut. - Commander 
Frank A., H.M.S. Liberty, mentioned 
in despatches, 131. 

Byrne, Captain 0. C., A.M.C. : 
at Friedrich Wilhelmshafen, 258, 259. 
Transfer to force in New Britain, and 
appointment as Captain, 238. 

C 32, Submarine, in operations off Bel- 
gian coast, 361. 

C 34, Submarine, in operations off Bel- 
gian coast, 361. 

Casar, H.M.S., men of Immediate Class 
R.F.R. in, 175. 

Callaghan, Admiral Sir George Astley, 

G.C.V.O., K.C.B. 
Appointed First and Principal Naval 

Aide-de-Camp to H.M., 163, 289. 
on Court of Inquiry re escape of 
Goeben and Breslau from Messina, 
202. 

Cameroon River, German ships in, 216. 



Cameroons : 

Cocobeach, H.M.S. Surprise at, 286. 

Duala, capture of, 286. 
Campbell : 

Lieut. -Colonel and Brevet- Colonel 
Gunning Morehead,. R.M.A., pro- 
motion, 370. 

Rear-Admiral H. H., C.V.O. : 

Flag hoisted in H.M.S. Bacchante, 

163. 

Heligoland Bight action, 124. 
Canada : 

Expeditionary force, offered and ac- 
cepted, 66. 

Hospital Ship, offer of, by women, and 
acceptance, 67. 

Niobe and Rainbow placed at dis- 
posal of His Majesty, 17, 66. 
Cap Trafalgar, German armed merchant 

cruiser, sinking of, in action with H.M.S. 

Car mania, 215-6, 217-8. 
Cape Qris Nez, see under France. 
Capitaine Mehl, French torpedo-boat 

destroyer, in operations off Belgian 

coast, 361. 

Garden, Rear-Admiral Sackville Hamil- 
ton, promotion, 164. 
Carmania, H.M.S., auxiliary cruiser, 

action with Cap Trafalgar, and sinking 

of latter, 215-6, 217-8. 
Caroline Archipelagos, East and West, 

Japanese occupation of, announced, 

339- 

Carter, Lieutenant E. J., H.M.S. Path- 
finder, missing, 180. 
Cassel, see under France. 
Castro, Wilson Liner, explanation by 

German Embassy of reported seizure 

of, 8. 
Casualties : 

Australian Force, New Britain, 221, 

221-2, 227-8. 

BRITISH : 

Aboukir, Hague and Cressy, 270. 
Action off Dutch coast, 338. 
Amphion, H.M.S., 56. 
Brilliant, H.M.S., 356, 358. 
Falcon. H.M.S., 356, 358. 
Fisgard II., H.M.S., 200. 
Hawke, H.M.S., 331. 
Heligoland Bight action, 120, 126. 
Highflyer, H.MS., 112. 
Imperialist, steam trawler, 184. 
Kennet, H.M.S., 107. 
Lindsell, steam drifter, 180. 

489 



INDEX 



Casualties cont. 
BRITISH cont. 

Pathfinder, H.M.S., 180. 

Pegasus, H.M.S., 215, 217. 

Reporting of, Admiralty order, 387. 

Rinaldo, H.M.S., 356, 358. 

R.N.D. in Belgium, 321, 326. 

Speedy, H.M.S., 180. 

at Tsingtau, 331. 
FRENCH : 

Portugal, packet, 366. 

from Torpedo-boat, 319. 
GERMAN : 

in Cameroon River, 216. 

Cap Trafalgar, 216. 

Heligoland Bight action, 121. 

Nachtigall, merchant ship, 216. 

at Tsingtau, 316. 
JAPANESE : 

Takachiho, 332. 

at Tsingtau, 287, 316. 
RUSSIAN : 

Jemchug, cruiser, 367. 

Pallada cruiser, 320. 

Catherine Elizabeth, British merchant 
ship, case of defensive armament during 
Napoleonic wars, 41. 
Cattaro, see under Austria-Hungary. 
Cazalet, Midshipman, mentioned in 

despatches, 274. 
Chapman : 
Lieutenant Charles Manners Sutton, 

Eg: 

D.S.O. awarded, 372. 

Recommendation of, 335. 
Able Seaman William, H.M.S. Vestal, 

recommended for coolness under 

fire, 360. 
Chappell, Petty Officer Robert, H.M.S. 

Falcon, special mention of, 359. 
Charybdis, H.M.S. : 

Flagship of Rear- Admiral R. E. 

Wemyss, 163. 
Men of Immediate Class R.F.R. in, 

175- 

Chatham, see under Great Britain. 
Cherry, Commander A. D. M., H.M.S. 
Vestal : 

Mentioned in despatches, 358. 

in Operations off Belgian coast, 361. 
Chevalley, M., French Minister at 

Christiania, communication to M. 

Bienvenu-Martin, 3. 
Chichester, Lieutenant, mentioned in 

despatches, 274. 

490 



Chile : 

Destroyer-leaders ordered by Govern- 
ment of, taking over of, by British 
Government, 10. 
Protection of trade routes to. Press 

Bureau statement, 85-6. 
Chilkana, British s.s., sunk by the Emden, 

341- 
China : 

Commander-in-Chief, report from, 107. 
German auxiliary cruisers, loss of, 

339- 
KIAO-CHAU : 

Casualties sustained in H.M.S. Kennet 

off, 107. 

Japanese advance, 199. 
Japanese blockade of coast, declara- 
tion of, 1 1 6. 

Landing of British force, 199. 
Railway station, capture by Japan- 
ese scouts, 198. 

S 90, escaped from Tsingtau, found 
aground and destroyed 60 miles 
south of, 339. 
Kiao-chau Bay, Takachiho sunk by 

mine, 332. 

Laoshan Bay, Japanese destroyer flo- 
tilla in, 198. 

Laoshe Harbour, occupation by Japan- 
ese force, 288. 
SQUADRON : 

Message to the King, 59. 
Operations in the Pacific, 199-200. 
TSINGTAU : 

American consul, some Chinese sub- 
jects and German women , and 
children to be escorted to Tientsin, 
316. 
Attacks on, by Allied forces, 287, 

316. 

Barracks, bombed by Japanese aero- 
plane, 198. 

Bombardment of, 369. 
British troops before, message sent 
to, from Crown Prince of Japan 
and gift of rice-wine, 340. 
Conference between Japanese Com- 
manders and Governor of, 316. 
Forts : 

Bombardment by Japanese fleet 

and British warship, 287. 
Destruction of portions of Iltis 
and Kaiser forts by allied naval 
forces, 331. 
German attack, 316. 



INDEX 



China cont. 
TSINGTAU cont. 

German captive balloon near : 

Attacked by Japanese aeroplane, 

315- 

Floated away, 316. 
German fire slackening, 316. 
German gunboat Iltis hit by Japan- 
ese guns, 315. 
German vessels, bombing of, by 

Japanese aeroplanes, 288. 
Japanese army, shelled by German 

forts and ships, 315. 
Japanese vessels, attempted attack 

on, by German aeroplane, 315. 
Mine sweeping, 288. 
Cholmley, Lieut.-Commander George P., 

E 3, loss of, 338. 
Christian : 

Rear-Admiral Arthur H., M.V.O., 
H.M.S. Euryalus, action in Heligo- 
land Bight, 117 ; despatch re, 124-5. 
Captain H., H.M.S. Brilliant, in opera- 
tions off Belgian coast, 361. 
Churchill, The Right Hon. Winston L. 

Spencer, M.P. 

Correspondence with Prince Louis of 
Battenburg re his resignation of 
appointment of First Sea Lord, 
Oct. 28-29, 362-3. 

Exchange of courtesies with Vice- 
Admiral Yashiro, 339. 
Exchange of telegrams with Duchess 

of Connaught, 67. 
Interview in the Giornale d'ltalia, 

283-6. 

Landing of Marines at Ostend an- 
nounced, 112. 

Letter from Prince Louis of Batten- 
berg, re responsibility for postponing 
demobilisation of the Fleet, 4. 
Message to Lord Mayor of Birming- 
ham, 84. 
Sinking of the Kaiser Wilhelm der 

Grosse announced by, 112. 
SPEECHES : 

House of Commons, 56-8. 
Liverpool, 202-13. 
London Opera House, 188-96. 
Clan Grant, British s.s., sunk by Emden, 

34 1 - 
Clark, Petty Officer, in charge of captured 

s.s. Star, 264, 265. 
Claxton. E. A., officer's steward, H.M.S. 

Speedy, missing, 180. 



Coast Guard, see under Great Britain. 
Cochrane : 
Lieut.-Commander Archibald D., D i, 

in Heligoland Bight, 336. 

Captain Henry L., H.M.S. Yarmouth, 

sinking of the s.s. Markomannia and 

capture of the s.s. Pontoporos by, 330. 

Cole, Stoker Petty Officer W. 8., Naval 

Brigade, special mention of, 327. 
Collet : 

Lieutenant Charles Herbert, R.M.A., 

appointment to D.S.O., 372. 
Flight-Lieutenant C. H., R.N.A.S., 
attack on Dtisseldorf airship shed, 
218, 275-6. 

Cologne, see under Germany. 
Comet, German sailing vessel, see Komet. 
Condor, s.s., captured by Germans, 344. 
Connaught : 

Arthur, Duke of, telegram to Mr. 

Harcourt, 17. 

Louise Margaret, Duchess of, exchange 
of telegrams with Mr. Churchill, 67. 
Conspicuous Gallantry Medal, award 

of, 373- 
Conspicuous Service Cross, see 

tinguished Service Cross. 
Constantinople, see under Turkey. 
Contraband of War : 
Circular of the Department of State 
of the United States with reference 
to neutrality and trade in, 328-30. 
Declaration of London, 445-60. 
Royal Proclamations prohibiting British 
vessels from carrying, from one 
foreign port to any other foreign 
port, 26, 89. 

Royal Proclamations specifying articles 
to be treated as, 24-6, 88, 214-5, 
340-52. 

Convoy, Declaration of London, 475-7. 
Cook, Lance-Corporal W. J., Royal 
Marine Brigade, mentioned in des- 
patches, 328. 

Coppinger, Commander R. H., H.M.S. 
Crane, in operations off Belgian coast, 
361. 

Coriander, trawler, see L. T. Coriander. 
Cormoran, 158. 
Cornwall, H.M.S., 218. 
Cossack, H.M.S., in operations off Belgian 

coast, 361. 

Courtney, able seaman, in charge of 
engine-room of captured s.s. Star, 
264, 265. 

49i 



INDEX 



Crane, H.M.S., in operations off Belgian 
coast, 361. 

Crane, Edward, Stoker Petty Officer, 
H.M.S. Laurel, mentioned in des- 
patches, 131. 

Crefeld, prisoners landed from, at Tener- 
iflfe (and taken charge of by British 
Consul), 344. 

Cremer, Able Seaman Ernest Randall, 

E 6: 
Award of conspicuous gallantry medal, 

373- 

Mentioned in despatches, 335. 
Crescent, H.M.S., 163. 
Cressy, H.M.S. , 124 : 
Loss OF : 

Admiralty announcements, 269-70. 
Awards for rescuing survivors, 371. 
Berlin announcements, 270-1, 275. 
Report by Commander Bertram 

W. L. Nicholson, R.N., 271-2. 
Report by Commander Reginald A. 

Norton, R.N., 272-4. 
U g's commander awarded Order 

Pour le Merite for, 344. 
Men of Immediate Class R.F.R. in, 175. 
Gronstadt, see under Russia. 
Crusader, H.M.S., in operations off Bel- 
gian coast, 359, 361. 
Cumberland, H.M.S., cruiser : 
Capture of Duala by forces under 

protection of, 286. 
Reports re German ships in Cameroon 

River, 216. 

Cundall, Commander C. E., H.M.S. 
Nubian, in operations off Belgian 
coast, 361. 
Cyprus, enemy merchant ships in ports 

of, Order in Council re, 20-4. 
D i, in Heligoland Bight operations, 

336. 
D 2, in Heligoland Bight action, 333, 

336. 

D 3, in Heligoland Bight operations, 336. 
D 5, in Heligoland Bight operations, 336. 
D 8, in Heligoland Bight action, 333. 
Dalhousie, I.M.S. vessel, Order in Council 
issued, placing under command of 
Senior Naval Officers of stations, 56. 
Dane, Lieut. -Commander C. R., H.M.S. 
Lennox, sinking of German destroyers 
by, 337-8. 

Danish Ships, Losses : 
t<, Broberg, s.s., mined, 105-6. 
? Maryland, s.s., mined, 105-6. 
492 



Dardanelles : 

Drifting mines reported as being set 
adrift from, 197. 

Franco-British bombardment against 
forts at entrance (Helles, Kum- 
Kalesi), 366. 

Goeben and Breslau in, 52. 
Dar-es-Salaam, see under German East 

Africa. 
Davidson, H. E. W. E., message to Mr. 

Harcourt, and reply, 19. 
De Chair, Rear-Admiral D. R. 8., C.B., 

M.V.O., flag hoisted in H.M.S. Crescent 

163. 
de Robeck, Rear -Admiral J. H., flag 

hoisted in H.M.S. Amphitrite, 163. 
Declaration of London : 

Austria-Hungary to observe, 96. 

Blockade in time of war, 434-43. 

Compensation, 479-81. 

Contraband of war, 445-60. 

Convoy, 475-7. 

Decree issued by President of French 
Republic identical in effect with 
H.M. Order in Council and Pro- 
clamation, 354. 

Destruction of neutral prizes, 465-8. 

Enemy character, 471-5.