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Full text of "The Times documentary history of the war"

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Ctmes 

DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 
OF THE WAR 



VOL. IV. 









DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 
OF THE WAR 



VOLUME IV. 



NAVAL PART 2 




LONDON 

PRINTING HOUSE SQUARE 
1917 




L 



> 



v.if- 



INTRODUCTION 



THE TIMES " DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF THE 
WAR is a collection of documents concerning the 
War in all its aspects, so arranged as to record the events 
of the great struggle in which the Nations are now involved, 
and the circumstances which led up to them. 

It consists of documents issued officially or recognised 
by the various belligerents, such as diplomatic correspondence, 
proclamations, ultimatums, military orders, reports, des- 
patches, messages from monarchs to their people, etc., 
together with public statements by responsible Ministers 
and Correspondence in the Press of an authoritative 
character ; the whole collated, classified, indexed, and 
where necessary cross-referenced and annotated. 

The documents are left to speak for themselves, except 
where brief unbiased notes are needed to elucidate them. 
These are placed within square brackets, to distinguish them 
from the notes in the originals. 

The Times, with its network of Correspondents in all parts 
of the world, is in a particularly favourable position to obtain 
information, and, having at its service an experienced staff, 
is able to reach sources not generally accessible to others. 

As the large mass of documents involved in the collection 
has been systematically classified and arranged from the 
commencement of the War, it has been found possible to 
issue to the public simultaneously a representative series 
of volumes. 



Naval II. 



INTRODUCTION 

A survey of the constantly accumulating material would 
appear to indicate that The Times DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 
OF THE WAR will be grouped into at least five main 
divisions : 

I. DIPLOMATIC. 
II. NAVAL. 

III. MILITARY. 

IV. OVERSEAS, comprising documents dealing with 

events in the Dominions and Possessions Over- 
seas and in enemy territories not included in 
the first three divisions. 

V. INTERNATIONAL LAW, including documents relating 
to the Laws of War, the Proceedings of Prize 
Courts, etc. 

Each division will appear in its own distinct set of 
volumes. 






PREFACE 

This is the second volume of the Naval division of The 
Times DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF THE WAR, and the 
fourth of the whole work. The general scheme of the work 
and its distribution into a series of separate divisions is out- 
lined in the foregoing Introduction. It has not, however, 
always been found possible to maintain a clear-cut distinc- 
tion between the several divisions Diplomatic, Naval, Mili- 
tary, and so forth, there indicated. A certain degree of cross- 
division is inherent in the nature ,of the work, since the naval 
events to be recorded and the questions of policy and acts 
of State of which they are the outcome and the manifestation 
are sometimes diplomatic, sometimes military, and so forth, 
as well as naval in character. Some illustrations of these 
characteristics are to be found in the present volume, and 
will probably not be infrequent in succeeding volumes of the 
several divisions ; but they need not here be specified in 
detail, since the inclusion in the naval volume of documents 
not exclusively naval in character will generally be found to 
explain itself, as in the case of the official papers relating to 
" Operations in the Persian Gulf and in Mesopotamia " (see 
pages 172-192, and pages 360-402 of the present volume). 
One case in particular must, however, be mentioned since 
it is in some respects an exceptional one. The official " Corre- 
spondence respecting events leading to the rupture of relations 
with Turkey " (pages 34-172 of the present volume) is mani- 
festly a series of documents illustrative of the Diplomatic 
History of the War, and must, therefore, as such, of course 
be given in extenso in the Diplomatic division of this History. 
But, apart from its diplomatic character, the Correspondence 
was found on examination to contain a copious and unique 
record of naval events and naval issues of great moment 
organically embedded in its text, and for this reason it has 
been deemed advisable to give the text in extenso in this 

vii 



PREFACE 

volume also. On the other hand the Diplomatic division 
contains also in extenso the text of a second Orange Book 
issued by the Russian Government in illustration of the 
same topics. The text of the Russian Correspondence has not, 
however, been given in the present volume. It adds little 
or nothing of importance from a naval point of view to the 
information to be obtained from the British Correspondence 
here given, and it has therefore seemed sufficient to refer 
the student to the text of the Russian Correspondence as 
given in the Diplomatic division. 

For convenience of reference an explanatory list of the 
abbreviations used in the margin of this volume to indicate 
sources of information is here appended : 

(1) C.O. = COMMUNIQUES OFFICIELS. These are ex- 

tracted and translated by permission from a French 
publication entitled " Nos Marins et la Guerre/' 
belonging to the well-known series of " Pages 
d'Histoire " (Paris and Nancy, Librairie Militaire 
Berger-Levrault), and containing, amongst other 
matter of a less official character, the official com- 
munications of the French Ministry of Marine. 

(2) D.N.S.B. = DUTCH NORTH SEA BOOK, an official 

publication of the Netherlands Government entitled 
" Diplomatieke Bescheiden betreffende de Vaart 
in de Noordzee en het Kanaal in Verband met 
den Oorlogstoestand " (s' Gravenhage Algemeene 
Landsdrukkerij 1915). The correspondence ex- 
tracted from this publication and cited in the 
present volume is given, in the original, in English 
as regards the English despatches, and in French 
as regards the Dutch. The latter have been trans- 
lated. 

(3) D.R. = " DAILY REVIEW " of the Foreign Press, 

issued by the General Staff, War Office. By the 

viii 



PREFACE 

courtesy of the War Office, copies of this publica- 
tion have been supplied to the Editors of this 
History. 

(4) K.D. = KRIEGS-DEPESCHEN, a German serial pub- 
lication entitled " Kriegs-Depeschen, nach den 
amtlichen Berichten des W.T.B. (i.e., the Wolff 
Telegraphic Bureau) zusammengestellt " (Boll u. 
Pickardt, Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin). This serial 
is largely, but not entirely, identical with that next 
to be described, and most of the extracts common 
to both have been taken from the latter. In all 
cases they have been translated. 

(5).'K.V. = KRIEGSVERLAUF, another German serial, 
entitled " Der Kriegsverlauf, Sammlung der amtli- 
chen Nachrichten von den Kriegsschauplatzen, 
Depeschen des Deutschen Grossen Hauptquartiers, 
des Osterreichischen Generalstabes, des Tiirkischen 
Hauptquartiers, Meldungen von W.T.B. , Urkunden 
und Berichte " (Carl Heymanns Verlag in Berlin 
W.8. Mauerstrasse, 43, 44). It is more copious 
than " K.D." and has/ therefore, commonly been 
used in preference. 

(6) L.G. = THE " LONDON GAZETTE." 

(7) P.B. = THE PRESS BUREAU, which it is unnecessary 

to describe. 



CONTENTS 



NOVEMBER, 1914 
DECEMBER, 1914 
INDEX 



PACK 

I 



359 
491 




NOVEMBER. 



THE ACTION OFF CORONEL. 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty issued the following Times, 
statement early this morning : Nov - 5 

Rumours and reports have been received at the Admiralty I 9 I 4- 
from various sources of a naval action having taken place off 
the Chilian coast. 

The Admiralty have no official confirmation of this, 
and such accounts as they have received rest admittedly on 
German evidence. 

It is reported that the Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Leipzig, 
Dresden, and Niirnberg concentrated near Valparaiso, and 
that an engagement was fought with a portion of Admiral 
Cradock's squadron on Sunday, November ist. 

The German report asserts that the Monmouth was sunk 
and the Good Hope very severely damaged. The Glasgow 
and the armed auxiliary cruiser Otranto broke off the action 
and escaped. 

The Admiralty cannot accept these facts as accurate at 
the present time, for the battleship Canopus, which had been 
specially sent to strengthen Admiral Cradock's squadron, 
and would have given him a decided superiority, is not 
mentioned in them, and, further, although five German ships 
concentrated in Chilian waters, only three have come into 
Valparaiso harbour. It is possible, therefore, that, when 
full accounts of the action are received, they may considerably 
modify the German version. 

Effective measures have been taken to deal with the 
situation in any event. 



Valparaiso, November 4. 

The following account of the naval battle in the Pacific 
is given by Admiral von Spee, commanding the German 

Naval II A 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

squadron, to the Chilian authorities. Four German cruisers, 
including the Scharnhorst and the Gneisenau, fought on Sunday 
shortly before night the English cruisers Good Hope, Mon- 
mouth, Glasgow, and Otranto. 

The fight lasted about an hour and ceased at dark. 

The Good Hope was damaged to such an extent that she 
was obliged to fly, protected by the darkness. An explosion 
was seen between the funnels. The Monmouth attempted 
to fly, followed by a small German cruiser. 

The Monmouth sank after various shots. It was unfor- 
tunately impossible to lower any boats, owing to the storm. 
It is supposed that the Glasgow and the Otranto suffered small 
damage and escaped in the darkness owing to their high 
speed. The German ships did not suffer any serious damage. 
The Gneisenau had two men slightly wounded. 

The fight took place near Santa Maria Island off Coronel. 
The above report is the only news available. Up to date 
there is no news of the Glasgow, Good Hope, or Otranto. 
It is anticipated that all the crew of the Monmouth are lost. 
The German officers bear testimony to the great gallantry of 
the crew of the Monmouth, which while in a sinking condition 
attempted to ram one of the German vessels. The Gneisenau, 
Scharnhorst, and Nurnberg, which are still at Valparaiso 
and show small signs of damage, sail to-day. It is reported 
that outside are the Leipzig and Dresden, and four armed 
transports. 

The universal opinion is that the German squadron was 
always well provided with wireless information, whilst the 
contrary was the case with the English squadron. 

The mail steamer Oronsa arrived this morning accompanied 
by a Chilian torpedo-boat, safe, thanks to her observance of 
the three-mile limit. The mail steamer Orcoma was retained 
at Coronel. 



The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 
announcement : 

November 6. 

The Admiralty have now received trustworthy information 
about the action on the Chilian coast. 

During Sunday, November ist, the Good Hope, Mon- 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

mouth, and Glasgow came up with the Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, 
Leipzig, and Dresden. Both squadrons were steaming south 
in a strong wind and considerable sea. The German squadron 
declined action until sunset, when the light gave it an im- 
portant advantage. 

The action lasted an hour. Early in the action both the 
Good Hope and the Monmouth took fire, but fought on until 
nearly dark, when a serious explosion occurred on the Good 
Hope, and she foundered. 

The Monmouth hauled off at dark making water badly, 
and appeared unable to steam away. She was accompanied 
by the Glasgow, who had meanwhile during the whole action 
fought the Leipzig and Dresden. On the enemy again 
approaching the wounded Monmouth, the Glasgow, who was 
also under fire from one of the armoured cruisers, drew off. 
The enemy then attacked the Monmouth again, with what 
result is not definitely known. 

Glasgow is not extensively damaged, and has very few 
casualties. Neither Otranto nor Canopus was engaged. 

Reports received by the Foreign Office from Valparaiso 
state that a belligerent warship is ashore on the Chilian coast, 
and it is possible that this may prove to be the Monmouth, 
Energetic measures are being taken on this assumption to 
rescue any survivors. 

The action appears to the Admiralty to have been most 
gallantly contested, but in the absence of the Canopus the 
enemy's preponderance of force was considerable. 



Berlin, November 6. 

According to an announcement by the English Official K. V. 
Press Bureau the English armoured cruiser Monmouth was 
destroyed and the armoured cruiser Good Hope severely 
damaged by our Cruiser Squadron near the Chilean coast. 
The small cruiser Glasgow escaped in a damaged condition. 
S.M. large cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, and S.M. small 
cruisers Nilrnberg, Leipzig and Dresden were present, and do 
not appear to have suffered. 

BEHNCKE. 
Acting Chief of Admiral Staff. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [ 

Times, The German official war news contains the following 

Nov 9, reference to the naval engagement off Valparaiso : 

Admiral Cradock's fleet has been annihilated in the 
Pacific. On the German side the losses amounted only to a 
few wounded and the material damage to the ships was 
insignificant. This engagement is a striking contrast to the 
British vessels' coast-hunting exploits in search of German 
cruisers. 



Berlin, November 14. 

K.V., The following wireless despatch is to hand (via North 

Nov. 14, America) from the Cruiser Squadron Commander concerning 
i9 I 4- the naval battle off Coronel : 

On November ist S.M.S. Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Leipzig 
and Dresden met the English cruisers Good Hope, Monmouth, 
Glasgow and Otranto off Coronel. S.M.S. Number 'g was 
detached during the fight. In a heavy seaway, firing was 
opened at .long range, and. the fire -of the hostile ships was 
silenced in fifty-two minutes ; firing ceased after dark had 
set in. The Good Hope, which was heavily damaged by gun- 
fire and an explosion, was lost to sight in the darkness. The 
Monmouth was met by the Numb erg as she was escaping. 
She was already severely damaged, and capsized on being- 
fired at again. It was not possible to save the crew, on 
account of the heavy sea and lack of boats. The Glasgow 
escaped apparently slightly damaged. The auxiliary cruiser 
fled out of the action after the first shot struck her. On our 
side we had no losses, and no damage to speak of. 

BEHNCKE. 
Acting Chief of Admiral Staff. 



November 23. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty communicates following 
report from H.M.S. Glasgow (Captain John Luce, R.N.) con- 
cerning action off the Chilian coast : 

Glasgow left Coronel at 9 a.m. on November ist to rejoin 
Good Hope (flagship), Monmouth, and Otranto at rendezvous. 
At 2 p.m. flagship signalled that apparently from wireless calls 
there was an enemy ship to northward. Orders were given 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

for squadron to spread N.E. by E. in the following order : 
Good Hope, Monmouth, Otranto, and Glasgow, speed to be 
worked up to 15 knots. 4.20 p.m., saw smoke ; proved to 
be enemy's ships, one small cruiser and two armoured cruisers. 
Glasgow reported to Admiral, ships in sight were warned, and 
all concentrated on Good Hope. At 5.0 p.m. Good Hope was 
sighted. 

5.47 p.m., squadron formed in line ahead in following 
order : Good Hope, Monmouth, Glasgow, Otranto. Enemy, who 
had turned south, were now in single line ahead, twelve miles 
off. Scharnhorst and Gneisenau leading. 6.18 p.m., speed 
ordered to 17 knots, and flagship signalled Canopus : "I am 
going to attack enemy now/' Enemy were now 15,000 yards 
away and maintained this range, at the same time jamming 
wireless signals. 

By this time sun was setting immediately behind us from 
enemy position, and while it remained above horizon we had 
advantage in light, but range too great. 6.55 p.m., sun set, 
and visibility conditions altered, our ships being silhouetted 
against afterglow, and failing light made enemy difficult to see. 

7.3 p.m., enemy opened fire 12,000 yards, followed in 
quick succession by Good Hope, Monmouth, Glasgow. Two 
squadrons were now converging, and each ship engaged 
opposite number in the line. Growing darkness and heavy 
spray of head sea made firing difficult, particularly for main 
deck guns of Good Hope and Monmouth. Enemy firing salvos 
got range quickly, and their third salvo caused fire to break 
out on fore part of both ships, which were constantly on fire 
till 7.45 p.m. 7.50 p.m., immense explosion occurred on 
Good Hope amidships, flames reaching 200 feet high. Total 
destruction must have followed. It was now quite dark. 

Both sides continued firing at flashes of opposing guns. 
Monmouth was badly down by the bow and turned away 
to get stern to sea, signalling to Glasgow to that effect. 8.30 
p.m., Glasgow signalled to Monmouth : " Enemy following us/ 1 
but received no reply. Under rising moon enemy's ships 
were now seen approaching, and as Glasgow could render 
Monmouth no assistance, she proceeded at full speed to avoid 
destruction. 8.50 p.m., lost sight of enemy. 9.20 p.m., 
observed seventy-five flashes of fire, which was no doubt final 
attack on Monmouth. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Nothing could have been more admirable than conduct of 
officers and men throughout. Though it was most trying to 
receive great volume of fire without chance of returning it 
adequately, all kept perfectly cool, there was no wild firing, 
and discipline was the same as at battle practice. When 
target ceased to be visible, gunlayers spontaneously ceased 
fire. The serious reverse sustained has entirely failed to 
impair the spirit of officers and ship's company, and it is our 
unanimous wish to meet the enemy again as soon as possible. 



Amsterdam, July 7. 

Times, The German newspapers publish Admiral Spee's report 

July 8, upon the battle of Coronel on November ist, which has only 
just reached its destination. It says : 

The squadron under my command, composed of the large 
cruisers Schamhorst and Gneisenau, and the small cruisers 
Nurnberg, Leipzig, and Dresden, reached on November ist a 
point about 20 sea miles from the Chilian coast in order 
to attack a British cruiser which, according to trustworthy 
information, had reached the locality on the previous evening. 
On the way to the spot the small cruisers were several times 
thrown out on the flanks to observe steamers and sailing 
ships. 

At 4.15 p.m., the Nurnberg, which was detached on one 
of these missions, was lost sight of to the north-east, while 
the Dresden remained about 12 sea miles behind. With 
the bulk of the fleet I was about 40 miles north of Arauco 
Bay. At 4.17 p.m. there were sighted to the south-west at 
first two ships, and then, at 4.25 p.m., a third ship about 
15 miles away. Two of them were identified as warships, 
and were presumed to be the Monmouth and Glasgow, while 
the third was evidently the auxiliary cruiser Otranto. They, 
too, seemed to be on a southerly course. The squadron 
steamed at full speed in pursuit, keeping the enemy four 
points to starboard. The wind was south, force 6, with 
a correspondingly high sea, so that I had to be careful not 
to be manoeuvred into a lee position. Moreover, the course 
chosen helped to cut off the enemy from the neutral coast. 

About 4.35 p.m. it was seen that the enemy ships were 
steering to the west, and I gradually changed my course to 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

south-west, the Scharnhorst working up 22 knots, while the 
Gneisenau and the Leipzig slowed down. The enemy's 
numerous wireless messages were jammed as far as 
possible. 

At 5.20 the arrival of another warship was reported, 
which took the head of the line and was identified as the 
Good Hope, the flagship of Rear-Admiral Cradock. The 
enemy ships now got into battle formation, hoisted their 
mast-head flags, and tried slowly to approach a southerly 
course. From 5.35 p.m. onwards I held to a south-westerly 
course and later to a southerly course, and reduced speed 
to enable my own ships to come up. At 6.7 both lines 
(Dresden about one mile astern), except the Number g, which 
was at considerable distance, were on an almost parallel 
southerly course, the distance separating them being 135 
hectometres. 

At 6.20, when at a distance of 124 hectometres, I altered 
my course one point towards the enemy, and at 6.34 opened 
fire at a range of 104 hectometres. There was a head wind 
and sea, and the ships rolled and pitched heavily, particularly 
the small cruisers on both sides. Observation and range- 
finding work was most difficult, the seas sweeping over the 
forecastles and conning towers, and preventing the use of 
some guns on the middle decks, the crews of which were 
never able to see the sterns of their opponents, and only 
occasionally their bows. On the other hand, the guns of the 
two armoured cruisers worked splendidly and were well 
served. At 6.39 the first hit was recorded in the Good Hope. 
Shortly afterwards the British opened fire. I am of opinion 
that they suffered more from the heavy seas than we did. 
Both their armoured cruisers with the shortening range and 
the failing light were practically covered by our fire, while 
they themselves, so far as can be ascertained at present, only 
hit the Scharnhorst twice and the Gneisenau four times. At 
6-53, when at a distance of 60 hectometres, I sheered off a 
point. 

The enemy's artillery at this time was firing more slowly, 
while we were able to observe numerous hits. Among other 
things it was seen that the roof of the fore double turret 
was carried away and that a fierce fire was started in the 
turret. The Scharnhorst reckons thirty-five hits on the Good 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Hope. As the distance, in spite of our change of course, had 
now decreased to 49 hectometres, it was to be presumed that 
the enemy doubted the success of his artillery and was 
manoeuvring for torpedo firing. The position of the moon, 
which had risen about six o'clock, favoured this manoeuvre. 
At about 7.45, therefore, I gradually sheered off. In the 
meantime darkness had set in and the rangefinders in the 
Scharnhorst for the moment used the reflections of the fires 
which had broken out in the Good Hope to estimate the dis- 
tances ; gradually, however, rangefinding and observation 
became so difficult that we ceased fire at 7.26. 

At 7.23 a great explosion was observed between the funnels 
of the Good Hope. So far as I could see, the ship did not 
fire after that. The Monmouth seems to have stopped firing 
at 7.20. 

The small cruisers, including the Nurnberg, -which came up 
in the meantime, were ordered by wireless at 7.30 to pursue 
the enemy and make a torpedo attack. At this time rain 
squalls limited the range of vision. The small cruisers were 
not able to find the Good Hope, but the Nurnberg came upon 
the Monmouth, which, badly damaged, crossed' her bows and 
then tried to come alongside. At 8.58 the Nurnberg sank her 
by a bombardment at point-blank range. The Monmouth 
did not reply, but she went down with her flag flying. There 
was no chance of saving anybody owing to the heavy sea, 
especially as the Nurnberg sighted smoke, and believed that 
another enemy ship was approaching, which she prepared to 
attack. At the beginning of the fight the Otranto made off. 
The Glasgow was able to keep up her harmless fire longer than 
her consorts maintained theirs, and she then escaped in the 
darkness. 

The Leipzig and the Dresden believe that they hit her 
several times. The small cruisers sustained neither loss of 
life nor damage. The Gneisenau had two slightly wounded. 
The crews went into the fight with enthusiasm. Every man 
did his duty and contributed to the victory. Renter. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(From letters of Admiral Count von Spec, dated November 
2nd and 3rd, 1914.) 

Yesterday was All Saints' Day, and a lucky day for us. D.R., 
I was cruising with the squadron southwards along the coast Jan. 2, 
when I received intelligence that an English cruiser had put I 9 I 7- 
in to Coronel, a small coaling harbour near Concepcion. 
As a warship cannot stay longer than twenty-four hours in 
a neutral port, I determined to intercept her. I placed my 
ships so that Nurnberg should run past the entrance to the 
harbour to see if the enemy ship was still in there, while 
my other ships waited much farther out. At 4.25 my 
squadron was somewhat spread out when it was reported that 
two ships had been sighted to the west-south-west. 

Ordering the other ships to join me, I held in that direction, 
for it was evident that they must be enemy ships in fact, 
the Monmouth and Glasgow. Soon afterwards the auxiliary 
cruiser Otranto appeared, and then a little later the armoured 
cruiser Good Hope. The enemy attempted some manoeuvres 
with the object, I believe, of getting nearer to the coast and 
thence to windward, which would have been very harmful to 
me. 

I immediately ordered Scharnhorst and Gneisenau to get 
all their boilers to work, and in fifteen minutes I was 
running at twenty knots against a heavy sea, and got 
parallel to the enemy, but had to await the other ships. 
The enemy was so obliging as not to disturb me in this 
undertaking ; the distance between us was then about nine 
miles. 

When my ships except the Nurnberg, which was nowhere 
in sight had come up at ten minutes past six, I began to 
diminish the distance. And when we were about five miles 
off I ordered the firing to commence. The battle had 
begun, and, with a few changes, of course, I led the line 
quite calmly. 

I had manoeuvred so that the sun in the west could not 
disturb me. The moon in the east was not yet full, but 
promised a bright night. There were scuds of rain in various 
directions. 

My ships fired rapidly and with success against the big 
ships. Scharnhorst engaged Good Hope (Admiral Cradock's 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

flagship), Gneisenau fired on the Monmouth, Leipzig against 
Glasgow, and the Dresden against Otranto. The last-named 
ship left the line after a time ; and, I believe, escaped. 

Fires broke out on Good Hope and Monmouth. There 
was a tremendous explosion on the former, which looked 
like a splendid firework display against the dark sky. The 
glowing white flames, mingled with bright green stars, 
shot up to a great height. I made sure that the ship would 
sink, but no, she was still afloat, and the fight went on un- 
interruptedly. 

Meanwhile it had become dark ; I had diminished the 
distance between us to 4,500 metres ; then I turned outward 
so that it gradually increased. The enemy's ships could only 
be made out by the fires, but the cannonade was kept up 
against them, and only ceased when the gunners could no 
longer take aim. The enemy fire had ceased, and I ordered 
the small cruisers to take up the pursuit. But as it seemed 
that he had succeeded in extinguishing the fires on board, 
no trace of him could be found, and steaming round the 
enemy's line in order to get it into a favourable light brought 
no further result. The artillery battle had lasted fifty-two 
minutes. 

At 8.40 p.m. I was on a north-west course, and heard 
artillery fire in front at a very great distance (estimated at 
nine to ten miles). I made towards it to help if necessary. 
It came from the Nurnberg, which had failed to get into 
touch with us, and had accidentally fallen in with the 
Monmouth in flight. The latter listed heavily to starboard. 
Nurnberg went close up (ging dicht heran) and finished 
her off with gun-fire. Monmouth turned over and went 
down. 

Unfortunately the heavy sea rendered rescue work im- 
possible, added to which Nurnberg thought she had seen 
Good Hope in the vicinity an assumption which was doubt- 
less incorrect. Probably in the moonlight, at a great distance, 
she mistook one of our cruisers for the Good Hope. I do not 
know what became of the latter. Lieutenant G., who had 
opportunity for observation, believed that she, too, had a 
heavy list ; and, when I recall the incidents, I am inclined 
to think he was right, although during the battle I believed 
it to have been an appearance caused by the movements of 

10 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the ship in a heavy sea. It is quite possible that she sank ; 
in any case she was completely disabled. The Glasgow 
could hardly be seen ; it is supposed that she got hit, too, 
but in my opinion she made good her escape. 

Thus we were victorious along the whole line, and I thank 
God for the victory. We have been protected in an absolutely 
marvellous manner ; we have no losses to mourn. There 
were a few cases of slightly wounded on Gneisenau ; the 
small cruisers did not get a single hit, while the hits scored 
on Scharnhorst and Gneisenau have inflicted hardly any 
damage at all. I found one 15-centimetre shell in a store- 
room on the Scharnhorst ; it had come through an unarmoured 
spot, broken a lot of things, but fortunately had not exploded 
and lay there as a kind of greeting. One funnel was hit, but 
not so badly as to prevent it performing its functions. Similar 
trivialities occurred on Gneisenau. 

I do not know what unfortunate circumstances could 
have prevailed with our opponent which deprived him of 
any and every success. The enthusiasm among our men is 
enormous. I was especially pleased that the Nurnberg, 
which through no fault of her own took no part in the 
battle itself, was still able at the end to contribute to our 
success. 

If Good Hope has escaped, then in my opinion she will be 
compelled by her injuries to put into a Chilian harbour. In 
order to find out I am going to-morrow with Gneisenau and 
Nurnberg into Valparaiso. Should the Good Hope have 
sought refuge there I shall endeavour to have her disarmed 
and interned by the Chilian authorities, and shall be then 
rid of two strong opponents. 

Good Hope is bigger than Scharnhorst, but her artillery is 
not so powerful. It is true she has heavy guns, but only 
two of them. Monmouth, on the other hand, is inferior to 
the Scharnhorst, as she had only 6-inch guns. The English 
have another ship out here like the Monmouth, and, as it 
would seem further, a ship of the line (Queen class) with 
30'5-centimetre guns. Against the latter we could hardly 
do anything at all. If the English had kept their forces 
together then we should certainly have got the worst of 
it. 

You can hardly imagine the joy which prevails amongst 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

us. At least we have been able to add to the glory of our 
arms, even if it may have little significance for the whole, 
and in view of the enormous number of English ships. 



November 3, 1914. 

We arrived at Valparaiso this morning. Legation Secre- 
tary von Erckert and Consul Gumprecht came on board. 
The news of our naval victory had not preceded us, but it 
very soon spread. On landing to visit the chief of the station 
there was a huge crowd round the landing stage, while groups 
here and there shouted " Hurrah ! " Of course, the Germans 
wanted to have a big celebration, a proposal which I abso- 
lutely refused ; but under pressure I paid a visit to the 
German club and spent an hour and a half there. 

[The foregoing extract is taken from the official publication entitled 
" Daily Review of the Foreign Press, issued by the General Staff, War Office." 
The original source of the extracts is indicated by the Daily Review of January 
2nd, 1917, as follows : " Vice-Admiral Kirchhoff has collected a volume of 
narratives of naval actions by German sailors and published them in a 
volume entitled ' Der Seekrieg, 1914-1915.' The extracts are taken from 
a translation by Dr. Thomas F. A. Smith in the Journal of the Royal United 
Service Institution, November, 1916."] 



House of Commons. 

Hansard, MR p ALLE as k e( j t h e Fi rst L oro l of the Admiralty if he is 

1915. ' aware that five men of His Majesty's Ship Good Hope were 

landed on a rock or islet in the Pacific previous to the naval 

engagement in which that ship was sunk ; and if he will give 

the names of these men ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : One acting warrant officer and four 
men had been landed from the Good Hope before she was 
lost. Their relatives were informed of their safety shortly 
after the loss of the ship was made public, but it is not 
proposed|to publish their names. 



4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(RUSSIA ON TURKISH HOSTILITIES 
(Official.) 
Petrograd, November i. 

THE Berlin and Vienna agencies have issued communiques Times, 
asserting that the Russian Fleet began hostilities against a Nov - 2 > 
Turkish squadron (see Part I., pp. 364-366). This statement Z 9 14 ' 
is a gross invention, evidently intended to mislead public 
opinion in Constantinople, which is carefully kept in ignorance 
of the treacherous attack on our coast by Turkish vessels 
commanded by German officers. The same method was 
adopted when Germany declared war on us, she justifying 
it by stating that German territory had been invaded by 
Russian soldiers, whereas not a single Russian soldier had 
crossed the frontier before war was declared. 

Now, as then, our Fleet committed no hostile act before 
Turkey opened hostilities against our Fleet, and it is evident 
that if the initiative had come from the Russian Fleet the 
bombardment of our ports and the sudden attack by the 
Turkish Fleet could not have taken place. Renter. 

ARREST OF ENEMY RESERVISTS. 

Foreign Office, November i, 1914. 

IN view of the action taken by the German forces mLG. 
Belgium and France of removing, as prisoners of war, all 
persons who are liable to military service, His Majesty's 
Government have given instructions that all enemy reservists 
on board neutral vessels should be made prisoners of war. 

THE ALLIED FLEETS AT CHESNE. 

THE Imperial and Royal Telegraphic Correspondence K.V. 
Bureau at Vienna reports as follows under date November 2nd. 
According to trustworthy reports an Anglo-French fleet 
yesterday entered the Gulf of Chesne in Asia Minor with a 
view to attacking the small Turkish gunboat Burak Reiss and 
the steamer Kinali Aga. The Commander of the Burak 
Reiss sank the Kinali Aga in order to prevent her destruction 
by the enemy and then blew up his own vessel. 

13 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

NORTH SEA A " MILITARY AREA." 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 
announcement : 

November 2. 

During the last week the Germans have scattered mines 
indiscriminately in the open sea on the main trade route from 
America to Liverpool via the North of Ireland. Peaceful 
merchant ships have already been blown up with loss of 
life by this agency. The White Star liner Olympic escaped 
disaster by pure good luck. But for the warnings given by 
British cruisers, other British and neutral merchant and 
passenger vessels would have been destroyed. These mines 
cannot have been laid by any German ship of war. They 
have been laid by some merchant vessel flying a neutral flag 
which has come along the trade route as if for the purposes 
of peaceful commerce and, while profiting to the full by the 
immunity enjoyed by neutral merchant ships, has wantonly 
and recklessly endangered the lives of all who travel on the 
sea, regardless of whether they are friend or foe, civilian or 
military in character. 

Mine-laying under a neutral flag and reconnaissance 
conducted by trawlers, hospital ships, and neutral vessels 
are the ordinary features of German naval warfare. In 
these circumstances, having regard to the great interests 
entrusted to the British Navy, to the safety of peaceful 
commerce on the high seas, and to the maintenance within 
the limits of International Law of trade between neutral 
countries, the Admiralty feel it necessary to adopt exceptional 
measures appropriate to the novel conditions under which 
this war is being waged. 

They therefore give notice that the whole of the North Sea 
must be considered a military area. Within this area merchant 
shipping of all kinds, traders of all countries, fishing craft, 
and all other vessels will be exposed to the gravest dangers 
from mines which it has been necessary to lay, and from 
warships searching vigilantly by night and day for suspicious 
craft. All merchant and fishing vessels of every description 
are hereby warned of the dangers they encounter by entering 
this area except in strict accordance with Admiralty direc- 
tions. Every effort will be made to convey this warning to 

14 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

neutral countries and to vessels on the sea, but from Nov- 
ember 5th onwards the Admiralty announce that all ships 
passing a line drawn from the northern point of the Hebrides 
through the Faroe Islands to Iceland do so at their own 
peril. 

Ships of all countries wishing to trade to and from Norway, 
the Baltic, Denmark, and Holland are advised to come, if 
inward bound, by the English Channel and the Straits of 
Dover. There they will be given sailing directions which 
will pass them safely, so far as Great Britain is concerned, 
up the East Coast of England to Farn Island, whence a safe 
route will, if possible, be given to Lindesnaes Lighthouse. 
From this point they should turn north or south according 
to their destination, keeping as near the coast as possible. 
The converse applies to vessels outward bound. By strict 
adherence to these routes the commerce of all countries will 
be able to reach its destination in safety, so far as Great 
Britain is concerned, but any straying, even for a few miles, 
from the course thus indicated, may be followed by fatal 
consequences. 



TURKEY AND THE WAR. 

(French Official Statement.} 

Bordeaux, November 2. 

AN official statement was issued to the Press to-day Times, 
dealing with the departures from neutrality by the Ottoman Nov - 3 
Government and announcing the rupture of diplomatic rela- I9I 4* 
tions. After citing the facts mentioned in the statement of 
the British Foreign Office with reference to the Goeben and the 
Breslau, and the increasing number of German officers in 
Turkey, and referring to the acts of war committed in the Black 
Sea, the communique proceeds : 

The Russian and French Governments, in concert with 
the British Government, being willing to hope that these acts 
were imputable to the initiative of German officers, who 
attempted to usurp the authority due to the Ottoman com- 
mand, proposed to the Sublime Porte that it should dissociate 
its policy from that of the Berlin Cabinet, dismissing imme- 

15 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

diately all the German officers employed in the Ottoman 
service. 

Following a meeting of the Grand Council of the Turkish 
Government and the Committee of Union and Progress, held 
on the evening of the 30th, the Turkish Government confined 
itself to proposing to the Ambassadors of the Triple Entente 
the recall of the Turkish warships in the Dardanelles, and 
expressed a desire to remain at peace with the Cabinets of 
Russia, France, and Great Britain ; but in default of the 
dismissal of the German officers in the Ottoman service the 
Governments of the Triple Entente could not hope that 
Turkey would be able to maintain the passive attitude which 
she offered. It was evident that Germany, after having pro- 
voked a rupture, would take full advantage of it. Moreover, 
the proposals of the Ottoman Government had for the Govern- 
ments of the Triple Entente the same disadvantages as an 
open war, since they obliged them to divert a part of their 
forces to guard themselves against an aggression which it 
was no longer permissible to consider as an imaginary 
peril. 

The Ottoman Government not having thought it its duty 
to give, by dismissing the German officers, the mark of the 
sincerity of its intentions which was requested of it, the three 
Ambassadors of Russia, France, and Great Britain, in confor- 
mity with the instructions of their Governments, demanded 
their passports from the Grand Vizier. This step was taken 
on the morning of October 3ist. Following on this diplomatic 
rupture, the Ambassadors left Turkey. 

News received from Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco follow- 
ing the Turkish aggression proves that the Mussulman world 
in Northern Africa has very well understood the error and 
mistakes committed by the Sublime Porte in abdicating its 
sovereignty and the independence of a Mussulman Empire 
into the hands of Germany. It would appear that the 
Mussulman world intends in no degree to throw in its lot with 
the Turks and to compromise in so reckless a manner the 
Mussulman cause. 



1 6 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



'Russian Official Statement. 

On October 20th (November 2nd) the Russian Government 
published the following official communication : 

" The report of the Berlin and Vienna telegraphic agencies, 
to the effect that our fleet opened hostile operations against 
the Turkish squadron, is a vulgar fiction having the palpable 
object of misleading public opinion at Constantinople. The 
latter is deliberately kept in ignorance respecting the 
treacherous attack effected on our coast by Turkish ships, 
under the guidance of German officers. 

" The same method was practised by Germany on the 
declaration of war against us, which was justified by the 
alleged incursion of Russian troops into her territory, whereas 
not a single Russian soldier had crossed the neighbouring 
frontier before the declaration of war. 

" In exactly the same way now, before the commence- 
ment of hostile movements by Turkey, the Russian fleet 
on its part did not undertake such movements. 

" It is evident that if the initiative of attack had pro- 
ceeded from the Russian fleet, the bombardment of the 
ports and the sudden raid of the Turkish fleet could not 
have ensued/' [See p. 13.] 

On October 26th (November 8th) the Naval General Staff 
reported the following particulars concerning the commence- 
ment of war operations in the Black Sea, which clearly show 
the mendacity of German and Turkish assertions to the 
effect that the initiative of attack belonged to the Russians. 

" On October 15 th (October 28th) the Black Sea fleet, 
after a sojourn at sea, returned to the roadstead of Sevastopol, 
having failed to meet any Turkish vessels at sea. 

" At 5 a.m. on October i6th (October 2Qth) the com- 
mander of the Black Sea fleet received from Odessa a report in 
which it was stated that at 3 a.m. two Turkish torpedo-boats, 
having distinguishing lights and Russian flags, entered the 
harbour ; the words of command on the torpedo-boats were 
loudly pronounced in Russian. Nevertheless, the gunboat 
Kubanetz, which was on guard duty in the harbour, not 
receiving a recognisable signal from the incoming torpedo- 
boats, immediately opened fire. Another gunboat, the 
Donetz, which was also lying in the harbour, had no time 
to fire a single shell, inasmuch as she was sunk by the first 

Naval II-B 17 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

torpedo discharged by the Turks. The enemy torpedo- 
boats, shelled by the Kubanetz, retreated and put to sea 
at full speed, the smokestack on one having been dismantled. 
In retiring they fired on and caused inconsiderable damage 
to the Kubanetz and the merchant vessels lying near, and 
also damaged one of the shore petroleum cisterns. 

" On receipt of the message from Odessa, the commander 
of the fleet reported to the shore batteries of Sevastopol the 
discovery of Turkish ships in the Black Sea and made arrange- 
ments to send out a trawling squadron for the customary 
examination of the outlets to the open sea prior to the 
departure of the fleet from the roadstead, as an indispensable 
precaution against possible enemy floating mines. 

" About 6.30 a.m. in a fog the cruiser Goeben approached 
Sevastopol from the north of Eupatoria and opened fire. 
The shore batteries and ships near the outlet answered with 
an energetic fire the Goeben, whose cannonade of the roadstead 
proved unsuccessful ; several shells fell in the town without 
causing any considerable damage, or human casualties. 
One shell fell in the coal stores, another struck the railway 
track, and the fragments of one, which burst near the naval 
hospital building, killed two patients and wounded five 
privates. 

" At the same time a patrol division of torpedo-boats, 
under command of Captain Prince Trubetskoi, openly 
attacked the Goeben. The enemy's strong fire which met 
this attack did not permit it to continue ; a large hole was 
made in the torpedo-boat Leitenant Pus chin and fire broke out 
on board. 

" The cannonade of the Goeben continued about twenty 
minutes, after which the enemy cruiser went out to 
sea. 

" On the way from Sevastopol the Goeben sighted the 
transport Prut returning, and veering towards her, signalled 
her to surrender. In reply to this the Prut, which had no 
artillery armament, ran up war flags, directed her course 
towards the shore, and the commander, opening the Kingstons 
and blowing up the bottom with an explosive cartridge, 
sank the transport. In preparing the explosion of a second 
cartridge, Lieutenant Rogusky heroically perished together 
with the transport, A portion of the crew were saved in 

18 




DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

>ats, hammocks and lifebelts, while a portion were picked 
ip by the Turkish torpedo-boats escorting the Goeben. 

"A trawling squadron, which suspended its labours during 
;he bombardment, at the close of the firing finished the 
examination of the outlet from the roadstead, and thereafter 
the Black Sea fleet put out to sea in pursuit of the enemy, 
but the latter, avoiding an engagement, escaped to its base 
in the Bosphorus Straits. 

" Our losses : on the transport Prut, perished two officers, 
a chaplain and twenty-six men ; on the torpedo-boat Leitenant 
Puschin, seven men were killed and seven wounded ; on the 
gunboat Kubanetz were wounded seven men, and on the 
gunboat Donetz a ship's doctor perished. 

"As is now known, the Turkish plan contemplated 
simultaneously with the attack on Sevastopol and Odessa, 
the bombardment of other points of our coast ; the cruiser 
Breslau shelled Theodosia and the cruiser Hamidieh 
Novorossiisk." 



TURKISH ACCOUNT OF SEA FIGHT IN THE 
BLACK SEA. 

K J~) 

Vienna, November 3. 

ACCORDING to reports received here from the Turkish 
Ministry the sea fight in the Black Sea (see Part I., pp. 364-366) 
was much more serious than the first news led us to suppose. 
In the action the battleship Torgud Reisz distinguished herself 
especially. The success of the Turkish fleet can be estimated 
as follows : five Russian warships sent to the bottom and 
19 transports sunk. The bombardment of the ports resulted 
in the destruction of 55 warehouses containing petroleum 
and corn, i.e., 50 in Sebastopol and Novorossiisk and 5 in 
Odessa. 

OPERATIONS IN GERMAN EAST AFRICA. 
THE TANGA DISASTER. 

THE Secretary of State for India communicates the Times, 
following regarding the military operations in East Africa. Nov - 2 4 

I 9 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [ 

As regards East Africa, it appears from the latest infor- 
mation to hand that as an important German railway terminus 
was reported to be weakly held, a force was sent from British 
East Africa to seize it. On the evening of November 2nd 
one and a half battalions were landed within two miles of 
the place and at once advanced. This small force became 
heavily engaged just outside the town, but as the enemy 
were in much superior strength it was compelled to fall back 
and await reinforcements. At n a.m. on the 4th the attack 
was renewed. When within 800 yards of the position the 
troops engaged came under very heavy fire. On the left 
flank, in spite of heavy casualties, the loist Grenadiers actually 
entered the town and crossed bayonets with the enemy. 
The North Lancashire Regiment and Kashmir Rifles, on the 
right, pushed on in support. under very heavy fire, and also 
reached the town, but found themselves opposed by tiers of 
fire from the houses, and were eventually compelled to fall 
back to cover 500 yards from enemy's position. 

The losses were so heavy and the position so strong that 
it was considered useless to renew the attack, and the force 
re-embarked and returned to its base to prepare for future 
operations. From recent reports just received the total 
casualties in this unsuccessful operation were 795, including 
141 British officers and men. The wounded are mostly 
doing well, and many are convalescent. The above casualties 
were included in the statement recently made by Lord Crewe 
in the House of Lords. 



ibid. Speaking in the House of Lords on Wednesday (November 

i8th), the Marquess of Crewe said : 

" No less than seven different actions had taken place in 
East Africa. Those operations had not taken place without 
considerable loss to ourselves. In one particular case an 
attack was made on a very strong position, which w r as power- 
fully met by the enemy with a number of guns and a machine 
gun. Very heavy casualties were suffered by our troops 
without achieving their purpose. The total casualties in 
all the operations in East Africa during two months amounted 
to something like 900." 

Reports have now been received, of which the following 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

is a summary, giving an account of the unsuccessful attack The 
upon Tanga in German East Africa. Pioneer 

The British Force, which included both British and Indian ^ c ' lg 
regular troops, as well as Imperial Service troops, sailed from 
Bombay in October last. It left Mombassa, its port of 
rendezvous, on a date previously arranged and arrived off 
Tanga, the place selected for a landing, at daylight on 
November 2nd. Tanga is an unfortified port and town in the 
north of German East Africa, some miles south of our border. 
As it was an open town and reported to be undefended by 
the enemy, it was apparently deemed right to give notice 
of the intention to occupy the place and to summon it to 
surrender before commencing a bombardment. 

This honourable, perhaps somewhat too punctilious, action 
was largely responsible, as after events proved, for the failure 
of the attack, as Tanga is at the end of a line of railway 
which leads from one of the most settled districts of the 
interior, whence it was very easy to obtain help. The sum- 
mons to surrender, made by H. M.S. Fox, the escorting warship, 
was refused by the German Governor of the town who, it 
appears, had already received news of the intended attack 
and energetically employed the respite thus afforded him in 
preparing the place for defence and in getting up reinforce- 
ments from the interior by rail. 

Access to the locality selected for landing proved difficult, 
the navigation being somewhat intricate, and it was not until 
4.30 p.m. on November 2nd that, the first troops anchored 
within reach of the shore. To save time a battalion-and-a- 
half were landed by moonlight. The only landing place was 
a difficult one and it was after midnight when these troops got 
ashore. Patrols were at once sent out and at dawn the troops 
advanced on Tanga. They were met by a heavy rifle fire, 
but held their ground until the enemy, strongly reinforced, 
delivered a counter attack before which they were com- 
pelled to give ground until H.M.S. Fox opened fire on the 
enemy, who then hastily withdrew. Meanwhile further troops 
had been landed and the combined force securely entrenched 
a position to cover the landing of the remainder of the force. 

Despite the great distance from the shore at which the 
transport had to anchor, the dangerous channels leading in 
and the lack of pilots, by 9 a.m. on November 4th all the 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

infantry of the force were ashore. The enemy had made 
no attempt to molest the landing troops, having apparently 
suffered severely on November 2nd. 

An immediate advance on Tanga was not ordered. Some 
indication of the extreme difficulty of this operation is afforded 
by the face that, although the distance to Tanga was only 
one-and-three-quarter miles, it was two-and-a-half hours 
before our troops came under fire. The country was a mass 
of dense plantation in which it was seldom possible to see a 
hundred yards, and often not nearly so far. The handling 
of troops in such country naturally demanded continuous 
exposure of selves by the British officers, a fact to which the 
casualty list bears eloquent testimony. 

Artillery support being almost impracticable owing to 
the density of the bush, it was decided to attack without 
waiting for the guns to be landed. The guns were accordingly 
left on board and fired from the deck of a transport in the 
outer harbour at such targets as could be made out. The 
advance was begun at noon and at 2.30 p.m. the troops came 
under a heavy fire from rifles and machine guns. 

The loist Grenadiers, making a fine effort to fill a gap 
in the firing line due to the difficulty of advancing in line 
through the dense bush, came under exceedingly heavy cross 
fire of rifles and machine guns, were unable to advance, but 
tenaciously held their own. The Loyal North Lancashire 
Regiment and the Kashmir Rifles on the right had mean- 
while slowly gained ground and entered Tanga, to the out- 
skirts of which they held on despite a heavy fire from the 
houses which had been loopholed and strongly prepared for 
defence. Unfortunately the somewhat extended disposal 
of the troops, due to the thick bush, rendered it impossible 
to support these regiments at the moment when efficient 
support might have enabled them to carry the town. 

Darkness coming brought the action to a conclusion, after 
which our troops withdrew unmolested to an entrenched 
position a quarter-of-a-mile in the rear. In view of the ex- 
treme difficulty of the country in the vicintiy of Tanga it 
was judged inadvisable to attempt a second attack without 
adequate reinforcements. Orders for embarkation were 
accordingly issued and this was carried out without any 
interference on the part of the enemy. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

It has transpired that the Germans had some 2,000 to 
3,000 European troops in Tanga. Our troops had to move 
to the attack immediately they landed, after having been at 
sea a fortnight. This was necessary in order to give the 
enemy no time in which to reconnoitre and ascertain the 
strength of the attacking force. The attack had to be 
delivered over a most difficult country covered with dense 
bush. Every house in the town, which itself lies concealed in 
the bush, was prepared for defence, many with several tiers 
of loopholes, and the enemy possessed a large number of 
machine guns. It is no small credit to the troops who reached 
the town that they succeeded in doing so despite all these 
difficulties. 

Among those that did particularly well may be mentioned 
the Loyal North Lancashire Regiment, the loist Grenadiers 
and the Kashmir Rifles, the last named being of course 
Imperial Service troops. 

Official reports from the Governor of German East K.D., 
Africa are now to hand concerning the battle of Tanga, the Jan. 16, 
most important military event that has hitherto taken I 9 I 5- 
place on the soil of our colony. According to these reports 
the success was far more important than the English accounts 
had admitted. The actions took place on November 3rd, 
4th and 5th. On November 2nd the English appeared before 
Tanga with two warships and twelve transports and demanded 
unconditional surrender, which was, however, refused by the 
Governor, Dr. Schnee. The ships then steamed away but 
appeared again on the third day before Tanga and landed 
one European and four Indian regiments, including some 
cavalry, with about eight machine and nine field guns, at . 
Ras Kasone. Marines were also landed. The big naval 
guns from the cruiser Fox supported the enemy's attack 
from the sea. After three days of embittered fighting the 
enemy landing corps was beaten back with heavy losses to 
the enemy. On November 4th the fighting lasted for 
15! hours without interruption/ The decisive fight against 
the whole of the enemy forces took place in the evening, 
notwithstanding a violent bombardment of the town by the 
enemy's naval guns. The fire from our guns set fire to one 
of the English transports. The cruiser Fox also received 

23 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

serious hits. On the 6th the English ships withdrew towards 
the north. The landing forces amounted to about 8,000 
men, while ours only amounted to 2,000 men. The losses 
of the English amounted to over 3,000 men killed, wounded 
and prisoners ; our losses were unimportant ; exact figures 
are to follow ; a cursory computation shows the following 
booty : eight machine guns, 300,000 cartridges, 30 field 
telephones, over 1,000 woollen blankets, in addition to many 
rifles and articles of equipment and large quantities of 
provisions. The spirits of our victorious troops (Protectorate 
and police troops and volunteers from the Protectorate) 
were excellent ; the Ascaris also displayed self-sacrificing 
devotion and heroism. The full extent of the far-reaching 
importance of the English defeat cannot yet be gauged even 
approximately from here. 

K.D., In addition to the earlier news concerning the battle of 

Feb. 14, Tanga the following is now reported : two warships and 14 
I 9 I 5- transports arrived off Tanga on November 2nd. The sum- 
mons to surrender the town unconditionally being refused, 
the ships sailed away again but landed troops during the night 
near Tanga. In a battle lasting three days from November 
3rd to 5th the enemy troops composed of 8 companies of 
the North Lancashire Regiment and 8 Indian regiments 
were beaten with disastrous losses by our troops under Chief 
Lieutenant v. Lettow. The enemy left behind 150 English, 
and 600 Indians killed ; many English and Indians were 
taken prisoner, 8 machine guns taken, many arms, munitions 
and provisions were captured ; the ships sailed away with 
many wounded including 60 severely wounded and two 
lieutenants and a number of other officers who had 
pledged their word of honour not to fight against Germany 
again. Our losses are slight, 15 killed among whom Von 
Prince. During the bombardment of Tanga a number of 
houses were damaged. 

The English troops which had penetrated into the German 
district near Kifumbiro to the West of the Victoria Lake, 
were thrown out of German territory by our troops under 
Major v. Stumer in November ; English Kisiba was occupied. 
At present German East Africa is entirely clear of the enemy. 
Parties of German troops are on enemy territory in British East 
24 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Africa and Uganda. Off the East African coast are the English 
cruisers Chatham, Weymouth, Fox and a few auxiliary cruisers. 

Amsterdam, January 18, 1915. 

An official telegram from Berlin states that the Emperor 
William has sent the following telegram from Main Head- 
quarters to Dr. Solf, Secretary of State for the Colonies : 

Your report of the brilliant victory near Tanga, in East 
Africa, has pleased me greatly. I heartily congratulate you 
upon this glorious deed of our colonial troops. Communicate 
my appreciation to all the brave men who, far from the Father- 
land, decisively defeated an enemy four times their strength 
to the glory of the German name. The Fatherland is proud 
of its sons. 

WILHELM I.R. 

A Berlin telegram, reproducing an official report from 
the Governor of German South- West Africa, states that on 
November 24th " the open and undefended town of Swakop- 

mund was bombarded by the English, after Captain , 

the commander of the auxiliary cruiser - , had repeatedly 
threatened a bombardment." Renter. 



DARDANELLES FORTS AND AKABA SHELLED. 

THE following statements are issued by the Secretary of Times, 
the Admiralty : Nov. 4, 

A combined British and French squadron bombarded the I 9 I 4- 
Dardanelles forts at long range at daybreak on November 3rd. 

The forts replied, but no ships were hit and the Allies 
suffered no loss, only one projectile falling alongside. 

The material damage to the forts cannot be estimated, 
but a large explosion, accompanied by dense volumes of black 
smoke, occurred at Helles Fort. 

On arrival at Akaba, H.M.S. Minerva (Captain Percival 
H. Warleigh) found the place in the occupation of soldiers, 
one of whom had the appearance of a German officer, and 
armed natives. The Minerva then shelled the fort and the 
troops. The town was evacuated, and a landing party pro- 
ceeded to destroy the fort, the barracks, the post office, and 
the stores. 

There was some loss to the enemy, but no British casualties. 

25 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Constantinople. 

Times, According to later intelligence, the English warships 

Nov. 5, Inflexible, Indefatigable, Gloucester and Defence and one of 

I 9 I 4- the two French ironclads Republique and Bouvet, together with 

two French cruisers and eight torpedo-craft, took part in the 

bombardment of the entrance to the Dardanelles. They 

fired 240 rounds. Nevertheless they inflicted no considerable 

damage. Our forts fired only ten rounds one of which hit 

an English armoured vessel causing an explosion therein. 



Cairo, November 17. 

Times, The following official account of the attack on Akaba has 

Nov. 18, just been published : 

I 9 I 4- In consequence of a report received that mines had been 

sent to Akaba for laying in the Gulf of Akaba and possibly 
in the Red Sea, the cruiser Minerva was ordered to proceed to 
Akaba to investigate and stop any such action. On arriving 
at Akaba the captain found it occupied by a small detachment 
of troops. Negotiations for a surrender were attempted, but 
were frustrated by German officers present. The Minerva 
was compelled to open fire, confining her attack to the fort, 
the post office, and Government buildings. 

Later a landing party reconnoitred in the direction of 
Wadi-el-Ithm, and only encountered a few armed men, who 
rapidly disappeared. The patrol returned to the town and 
re-embarked, after posting a proclamation inviting the 
inhabitants to return and assuring their safety. The town 
and wells were not damaged and there were no British 
casualties. 

Constantinople. 

K-V; The following official announcement is made from Head- 

Nov. 4, quarters: On November ist, the English Fleet bombarded 
Akaba on the Egyptian frontier and made an attempt to 
land. But after four Englishmen had fallen the remainder 
threw themselves back into their boats. Although the 
English guns fired a thousand rounds only a single gendarme 
was killed on our side. 

K y Constantinople. 

Nov< ' 6> Headquarters report officially that the English landed 

1914. ' troops a second time at Akaba but were attacked by gen- 
26 



4 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

darmes and native tribes. After an English officer had been 
killed the English threw away their ammunition and took to 
flight. 

LOSS OF THE " D 5." 

Admiralty, November 3, 1914. 

EARLY this morning an enemy's squadron fired on the Times, 
Halcyon, a coastguard gunboat engaged in patrolling, with Nov. 4. 
the result that one man was wounded. 

The Halcyon having reported the presence of these vessels, 
various naval movements were made, as a result of which 
they retreated rapidly, and although shadowed by the light 
cruisers they could not be brought to action before dusk. 

The rearmost German cruiser, in retirement, threw out 
a number of mines, and submarine D 5 was sunk by exploding 
one of these. Two officers and two men who were on the 
bridge of the submarine, which was running on the surface, 
were saved. 

Nothing else has happened during the day in home waters, 
except that the. gunboat flotilla has been available in support 
of the Belgian left flank. 



The Secretary of the Admiralty announces that the Times, 
following officer, petty officers, and men have, it is feared, Nov. 5, 
lost their lives owing to the sinking of H.M. Submarine D 5, 1 9 I 4- 
by a mine on the 3rd inst. : 

OFFICER. 
Lieutenant Donald F. O'C. Brodie, R.N. 

MEN. 

Blunsdon, F. D., P.O., ist Class, Portsmouth, 203087. 
Boardman, W., Leading Seaman, Devonport, 237913. 
Bradley, F., Acting Leading Stoker, Devonport, 302220. 
Copland, W. J., E.R.A., 2nd Class, Devonport, 271454. 
Crimp, G., Leading Seaman, Devonport, 217450. 
Dowsett, W. R. C., Sig., Portsmouth, J. 8219. 
Dunne, J., A.B., Devonport, J. 14090. 
Houlcroft, E., E.R.A., 3rd Class, Chatham, M. 2924. 
Ingham, T., Stoker, ist Class, Devonport, K. 7494. 
King, G. C., Telegraphist, Devonport, J. 5994. 
Leake, J. R., Acting Leading Stoker, Portsmouth, 304084. 

27 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Norris, A., Leading Seaman, Devonport, 187835. 
Penhaligon, R. C., Stoker, ist Class, Devonport, 223326. 
Simmons, S. C. S., Stoker, ist Class, Devonport, K. 1975. 
Smith, A. C., Acting Chief, E.R.A., 2nd Class, Portsmouth, 

270627. 

Smith, T., Stoker P.O., Portsmouth, 344519. 
Tilley, J. T. P., E.R.A., 3rd Cla1>s, Devonport, 272256. 
Whiting, H., Stoker, ist Class, Devonport, K. 7502. 
Wilcox, E., A.B., Devonport, 222115. 
Worth, E., Stoker, ist Class, Devonport, K. 2292. 
The following casualty has also been reported : 

H.M.S. "HALCYON." 
Died of Wounds : Scotney, H., A.B., S.S. 3063, Chatham. 

Main Headquarters, Berlin, November 6. 

K.V. On November 3rd our large and small cruisers made an 

attack on the English coast at Yarmouth. 

They bombarded the coast defences there and also some 
small vessels which lay at anchor and did not seem to expect 
an attack. 

Strong English forces were not present to defend .this 
important harbour. The English submarine D 5, which 
seems to have followed our cruisers, ran on a mine and sank ; 
this was announced by the English Admiralty. 

VON POHL, 
Chief of the Admiral Staff. 



PASSAGE CLOSED BY ADMIRALTY. 

November 4. 

P.B. THE Secretary of the Admiralty announces, in reply 

to numerous inquiries in regard to the freedom of the passage 
into the North Sea from the Great Minch and the Little 
Minch, that this passage into the North Sea will be closed 
in connection with the declaration of a proclaimed area under 
the Defence of the Realm Act. 

ILLICIT WIRELESS. 

Times, THE Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 

Nov. 4, announcement : 

I 9 I 4- Many letters have been received from wireless amateurs 

28 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

throughout the country suggesting they should be permitted 
to use their apparatus for the detection of secret wireless 
stations. In considering this question, it must first of all 
be remembered that there are several thousands of holders 
of wireless licences, and since it is impossible to make distinc- 
tions, the rule must be all or none. 

The successful detection of illicit wireless telegraphy 
stations depends on the careful collation of relevant observa- 
tions, and it is obvious that a small and select body of observers 
can give much better results than a very large number who 
have not the necessary knowledge of the circumstances. 

Illicit wireless telegraphy stations, to be dangerous must 
be capable of sending a considerable distance, and although 
it is true that reception can be carried out to some extent 
without a formal and visible aerial, yet transmission to any 
serious extent would be impossible. 

Under the present rule, where all private stations are 
closed, any aerial seen to be hoisted must be either Govern- 
ment or illicit, a very great help to the police, who are saved 
all trouble of discrimination. 

It is, therefore, to the common good that all known 
private stations should be closed and rendered reasonably 
incapable of being used. 

JAPANESE SUCCESSES AT KIAO CHAU. 

Tokyo. 

IT is officially announced that the bombardment of Tsingtau K.V., 
continues. Most of the German forts have been silenced. Nov. 4, 
Only two of them reply without intermission to the attacks 
of the Allies by sea and land. The bombardment caused 
an outbreak of fire near the harbour and the explosion of an 
oil tank. The fort Siaochausan is in flames. A German 
gunboat which lost its funnel is no longer to be seen. 



Tokyo, November 4. 

A Dispatch from Tsinanfu, Shantung, says that the Times, 
Japanese forces have captured 800 prisoners and destroyed Nov. 5, 
26 guns. I 9 I 4- 

An official statement says it is believed that the Austrian 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

cruiser Kaiserin Elisabeth, which was. at Tsingtau when the 
siege began, has been deliberately blown up, and that the 
floating dock in Tsingtau Harbour has also been sunk. The 
bombardment continues. 

The Japanese Foreign Office has issued an unequivocal 
denial of the reports said to emanate from the United States 
that a defensive alliance has been concluded between Japan 
and Russia. The communique said : 

Surely it is unnecessary to state that the report is 
absolutely without foundation. It is only another glaring 
instance of German intrigue in America, seeking to stir up 
animosity and suspicion against Japan. A moment of serious 
consideration will convince the people of the United States 
that the story is too far-fetched to command attention, while 
the Japanese people will ignore this latest baseless canard. 



Tokyo, November 5. 

Times, The following official announcement has been issued here : 

Nov. 6, The bombardment of Tsingtau is being vigorously continued. 

On the night of November 3rd the Germans made a counter- 
attack in order to hinder our operations. 

The power house has been destroyed. The attacking 
forces are gradually closing in, and our shells are now falling 
in the streets. 



GERMAN HOSPITAL SHIP DETAINED. 

Times, THE Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 

Nov. 5, announcement : 

I 9 I 4- The German vessel Ophelia, flying the Red Cross flag, was 

detained because her name had not been notified to His 
Majesty's Government as a hospital ship in accordance with 
the requirements of the Convention, and at the time she was 
encountered she was behaving in a manner inconsistent with 
the duties of a hospital ship. 

The vessel will be brought before the Prize Court in due 
course. 

[The Ophelia was detained by H.M.S. Meteor on October i8th, 1914.] 
30 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
LOSS OF THE " YORCK." 

Amsterdam, November 5. 

THE German cruiser Yorck yesterday forenoon struck Times, 
the chain of mines blocking the entrance to Jahde Bay and Nov - 6 
sank. ^ 

The latest reports say that up to the present 382 men 
more than half of the crew have been saved. The work 
of rescue has been rendered more difficult by a thick fog. 

BEHNCKE. 
Acting Chief of the Admiral Staff. Renter. 

NOTIFICATION OF WAR WITH TURKEY. 
NOTICE. 

Foreign Office, November 5, 1914. 

Owing to hostile acts committed by Turkish forces L - G -> 
under German officers, a state of war exists between Great Nov * 5* 
Britain and Turkey as from to-day. 



BY THE KING. 
A PROCLAMATION 

EXTENDING TO THE WAR WITH TURKEY THE PROCLAMATIONS 
AND ORDERS IN COUNCIL NOW IN FORCE RELATING 
TO THE WAR. 

W T HEREAS, owing to hostile acts committed by Turkish 
forces under German officers, a state of war now exists between 
Us and the Sultan of Turkey ; 

AND WHEREAS on the 4th day of August, 1914, a state 
of war came into existence between Us and the German 
Emperor ; 

AND WHEREAS We did on the same date and on certain 
other dates subsequent thereto issue certain Proclamations 
and Orders in Council connected with such state of war ; 

AND WHEREAS on the I2th day of August, 1914, a state 
of war came into existence between Us and the Emperor of 
Austria, King of Hungary ; 

AND WHEREAS certain of the aforesaid Proclamations 
and Orders in Council have since been extended so as to cover 

31 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the state of war between Us and the Emperor of Austria, King 
of Hungary ; 

AND WHEREAS it is desirable now to provide for the state 
of war between Us and the Sultan of Turkey ; 

AND WHEREAS the Convention relating to the status 
of enemy merchant vessels at the outbreak of hostilities, 
signed at The Hague on the i8th October, 1907, has not 
been ratified by the Sultan of Turkey, and therefore We do 
not think fit to extend to Turkish ships the Order in Council 
issued on the 4th day of August, 1914, with reference to the 
departure from Our ports of enemy vessels, which at the 
outbreak of hostilities were in any such port or which sub- 
sequently entered the same : 

Now, THEREFORE, We have thought fit, by and with the 
advice of Our Privy Council, to issue this Our Royal Proclama- 
tion declaring, and it is hereby declared, as follows : 

1. The Proclamations and Orders in Council issued with 
reference to the state of war between Us and the German 
Emperor, or with reference to the state of war between Us 
and the German Emperor and the Emperor of Austria, King 
of Hungary, other than the Order in Council issued on the 
4th day of August, 1914, with reference to the departure 
from Our ports of enemy vessels, which at the outbreak 
of hostilities were in any such port, or which subsequently 
entered the same, shall, if still in force, apply to the state 
of war between Us and the Sultan of Turkey as from this 
5th day of November, 1914. 

2. The Proclamation issued on the 5th day of August, 
1914, warning all Our subjects, and all persons resident or 
being in Our Dominions, from contributing to or participating 
in, or assisting in the floating of, any loan raised on behalf 
of the German Government, or from advancing money to 
or entering into any contract or dealings whatsoever with 
the said Government, or otherwise aiding, abetting, or assist- 
ing the said Government, shall be deemed as from this 5th 
day of November, 1914, to apply to all loans raised on behalf 
of, or contracts or dealings entered into with, or to aiding, 
abetting, or assisting the Ottoman Government. 

3. The words " enemy country " in any of the Proclama- 
tions or Orders in Council referred to in Article I of this 
Proclamation shall include the Dominions of His Imperial 

32 






] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Majesty the Sultan of Turkey other than Egypt, Cyprus, and 
any territory in the occupation of Us or Our Allies. 



Constantinople. 

The Porte publishes the text of an Imperial Irade which K.V., 
contains the Declaration of War. The Irade says: On Nov - I2 > 
October zgth, at a time when the Ottoman Fleet was under- 
taking manoeuvres in the Black Sea, a portion of the Russian 
Fleet, which as we learnt later had been set in motion in order 
to lay mines at the entrance of the Bosphorus, interrupted 
our manoeuvres and advanced towards the Strait in prosecu- 
tion of an act of hostility. The Imperial Russian Fleet began 
the action. Nevertheless the Ottoman Government, in view 
of this untoward event, approached the Russian Government 
and proposed to open an inquiry to elucidate the causes of 
the event, and in this wise to maintain its neutrality. In 
spite of this the Russian Government, without answering this 
invitation, withdrew its Ambassador and began hostilities, 
ordering its armed forces to cross the frontier at several points 
in the neighbourhood of Erzeroum. Meanwhile the English 
and French Governments recalled their Ambassadors and 
began effective hostilities including an attack of the English 
and French Fleets on the Dardanelles and the bombardment 
of Akaba by an English cruiser. Since these Powers have 
thus shown that they consider themselves in a state of war 
with the Ottoman Government, I, trusting in the support of 
the Almighty, now declare war on the aforesaid States." The 
Irade is signed by the Sultan and all his Ministers. 



Constantinople. 

A proclamation of the Sultan to the Army announces a Md. 
Holy War for all Mussulmans. 



Naval 1 1 C 33 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [ 

CORRESPONDENCE RESPECTING EVENTS LEAD- 
ING TO THE RUPTURE OF RELATIONS 
WITH TURKEY. 

MISCELLANEOUS. No. 13 (1914). [Co. 7628.] 

No. i. 
Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Beaumont. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, August 3, 1914. 

TURKISH ships building in Great Britain. 

Arrangements are being made with the firm of Armstrong, 
Whitworth, and Co. for His Majesty's Government to take 
over the Turkish battleship Osman I. now building with 
that firm. 

Please inform Turkish Government that His Majesty's 
Government are anxious to take over the contract. 



No. 2. 

Mr. Beaumont to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 4.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 3, 1914. 

GRAND VIZIER and Minister of the Interior spoke to 
me with some vexation of the detention of Turkish ship, 
which they seemed to consider an unfriendly act as Turkey 
is not at war. Minister of the Interior referred to the very 
heavy financial sacrifices by which this ship had been paid 
for with money borrowed at a rate amounting to interest at 
20 per cent. 

No. 3. 

Mr. Beaumont to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 4.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 4, 1914. 

GRAND VIZIER to-day renewed assurances that Turkey 
intends to observe strict neutrality. Mobilisation had been 
decided upon only because it would take months to com- 
plete, and because the Government wished not to be taken 
by surprise in case of aggression by Bulgaria, though they 
had also been alarmed by rumours of action by Russia - 
attributable, I think, to German Ambassador. Retention 
of German military mission meant nothing and had no po- 
litical significance. He regarded them as Turkish employes 

34 



, 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

vho were doing good work, and, as they had offered to remain, 
t would have been ungracious to refuse. 



No. 4. 
Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Beaumont. 

[Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, August 4, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of August 3rd. 1 

I am sure Turkish Government will understand necessity 
for His Majesty's Government to keep all warships available 
in England for their own needs in this crisis. 

Financial and other loss to Turkey will receive all due 
consideration, and is subject of sincere regret to His Majesty's 
Government. You should inform Grand Vizier. 



No. 5. 
Sir Edward Gr^ey to Mr. Beaumont. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, August 7, 1914. 

IF Turkey remains neutral and Egypt remains quiet, 
and should no unforeseen circumstances arise, His Majesty's 
Government do not propose to alter the status of Egypt. 

A report has reached me that it is being alleged that the 
annexation of Egypt is under consideration by His Majesty's 
Government. 

You should emphatically contradict this to the Turkish 
Government, and say that we have no intention of injuring 
Turkey, and you should add an assurance in the sense of 
the first paragraph. 

No. 6. 

Mr. Beaumont to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 10.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 9, 1914. 

AN official communique was recently published here 
which showed a distinctly hostile tone towards Great Britain. 
This communique dealt with the requisition of the Turkish 
warships by His Majesty's Government. The Grand Vizier 
has told me that Turkish Government had to pretend to the 

1 See No. 2. 

35 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Turkish public, as the latter had subscribed towards the 
purchase money for the vessels, that they were taking a 
stronger line than really was the case. He said, however, 
that we should not attach too much importance to pub- 
lications of this kind. 

Public opinion is daily growing more excited, and I think 
that if His Majesty's Government were able to give an assur- 
ance that Turkey would have the ships, if possible, on the 
conclusion of hostilities, such an assurance would have a 
soothing effect. 

I have received a most emphatic assurance from the 
Grand Vizier that nothing will induce Turkey to join Austria 
and Germany as long as he remains in power. His position 
is strong enough to give a certain value to this assurance. 



No. 7. 

Mr. Beaumont to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August n.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August n, 1914. 

A REPORT has reached me from vice-consul at the 
Dardanelles, dated evening of the loth August, that two 
large warships, thought to be the Goeben and the Breslau, 
have entered the Straits, and that the German consul went 
to meet them. Arrival of these vessels at Nagara late on 
same evening was reported in a second telegram. 



No. 8. 

Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Beaumont. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, August n, 1914. 

I LEARN that at 8.30 p.m. last night Goeben and Breslau 
reached the Dardanelles. These ships should not be allowed 
to pass through the Straits, and they should either leave 
within twenty-four hours, or be disarmed and laid up. You 
should point out to the Turkish Government that these are 
the duties entailed upon them by their neutrality, and that 
His Majesty's Government expect that they will act up to 
their obligations. 

36 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 9. 
VLr. Beaumont to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 12.) 

Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 11, 1914. 

My telegram of August nth. 1 

The Ottoman Government have bought Goeben and 
Breslau. Officers and men will be allowed to return to Ger- 
many. Grand Vizier told me that purchase was due to our 
detention of Sultan Osman. They must have ship to bargain 
with regard to question of the islands on equal terms with 
Greece, and it was in no way directed against Russia, the 
idea of which he scouted. 

He formally asked that the British naval mission might be 
allowed to remain. 

No. 10. 

Mr. Beaumont to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 12.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August n, 1914. 

FOLLOWING from consul, Dardanelles, to-day : 
' The large German ship has just left for Constantinople. 
" Boats from small German ship have perquisitioned 
our ships here, and destroyed Marconi apparatus on French 
ships under threat of sinking them. 

' We have protested, demanding disarmament or ex- 
pulsion of German ships before night. 

' It seems that they desire to force Turkey into war/ 1 
Military authorities seem to have completely lost their 
heads. British ships are capriciously detained at Dardan- 
elles, and port officials here are refusing to issue papers to 
outgoing vessels. 

No. n. 
Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Beaumont. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, August 12, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of August nth. 2 

If the crews of the Goeben and Breslau are returned to 
Germany at once and if the transfer of those vessels to Turkey 
is bona fide, so that they can only reappear as Turkish ships 
with Turkish crews, there seems no reason that the British 
naval mission should be withdrawn. 

1 See No. 7. * See No. 9. 

37 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 12. 

Mr. Beaumont to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 13.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 12, 1914. 

I SAW the Grand Vizier this morning and made strong 
representations to him against restrictions of free passage 
of the Straits, which the military authorities are now im- 
posing under various pretexts. I said they had been hold- 
ing up passenger and grain ships in the Dardanelles, refusing 
to deliver papers to ships wishing to leave Constantinople, and 
ordering grain ships to return to Constantinople at their caprice. 

The Grand Vizier admitted that the War Office had been 
most high-handed in their action, in violation of international 
obligations. 

It seems that the Minister of War has now got entirely 
out of hand, and I gather that he alone is responsible for the 
present situation. - Matters are undoubtedly becoming serious, 
but a Cabinet Council is being held this afternoon, and I hope 
I may be able afterwards to report some improvement. 

I should add that all foreign shipping is affected by the 
restrictions to which I have alluded above. 



No. 13. 
Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Beaumont. 

(Telegraphic.) . Foreign Office, August 12, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of August nth. 1 

You should at once point out to Grand Vizier that Turkish 
Government must not permit German ships to commit acts 
of war in the Straits, and ask why British merchant ships 
are detained. 



No. 14. 
Tewfik Pasha to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 13.) 

(TRANSLATION.) 

Turkish Embassy, London, August 13, 1914. 
THE Turkish Ambassador presents his compliments to 
Sir E. Grey and has the honour to communicate herewith 
the text of a telegram just received from his Government, 
which runs as follows : 

1 See No. 10. 
38 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

" In order that there may be no doubt as to the pacific 
attitude which the Turkish Government have decided to 
observe in the existing struggle, I inform you forthwith 
that they are determined to maintain strict neutrality." 



No. 15. 

Mr. Beaumont to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 15.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 14, 1914. 

ADMIRAL LIMPUS has received promise from Minister 
of Marine that his Excellency will make crews for the Goeben 
and Breslau. This will take time, but nevertheless it will 
be done ; and his Excellency has undertaken to hand over 
the two ships bodily to the British admiral. 

Admiral Limpus informs me that a month will probably 
elapse before Sultan Selim (late Goeben) can be even moved 
by the Turkish crew ; but the formalities of transfer may be 
complete technically in a day or two. Further delay in 
taking delivery from the Germans is unavoidable. 

Minister of Marine declared there was no intention of 
sending the ships outside Sea of Marmora until the end of the 
war. 

No. 16. 

Mr. Beaumont to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 16.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 15, 1914. 

ADMIRAL LIMPUS and all officers of British Naval 
Mission have suddenly been replaced in their executive com- 
mand by Turkish officers, and have been ordered to continue 
work at Ministry of Marine if they remain. Although I have 
been given to understand by a member of the Government 
that they are still anxious to get officers and crew of the 
Goeben and Breslau out of Turkey, this will probably mean 
retention of mechanics and technical experts at least, which 
will create most dangerous situation here. 



No. 17. 
Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Beaumont. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, August 16, 1914. 

AS soon as French and Russian Ambassadors are similarly 

39 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [ 

instructed, you are authorised to declare. to Turkish Govern- 
ment that if Turkey will observe scrupulous neutrality during 
the war England, France, and Russia will uphold her inde- 
pendence and integrity against any enemies that may wish 
to utilise the general European complication in order to 
attack her. 

No. 18. 

Mr. Beaumont to Sir Edward Grey. Received August 17.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 16, 1914. 

THIS morning Grand Vizier assured me again most 
solemnly that Turkish neutrality would be maintained. 
That Germany was doing her utmost to compromise the 
Turkish Government he did not deny, and he went so far as 
to admit that there was a danger of provoking Russia if 
Turkey leant herself to German designs which it served 
Turkey's interests to acquiesce in. This ambiguous ex- 
pression no doubt refers to the fact that a certain number 
of German experts will be left on the Goeben and Breslau, 
owing to the inability of the Turks to handle those ships 
themselves. It would have been an impossible situation 
for Admiral Limpus, if he had had under his direct orders 
a mixed crew of Turks and Germans, and perhaps reason 
of his withdrawal from executive command may lie in this 
consideration. 

The Goeben and Breslau are -at present lying off Con- 
stantinople. The Grand Vizier has assured me that there 
is no intention of moving them from Marmora. They are 
now flying the Ottoman flag under nominal command of 
Turkish officer, and have been transferred. This at least 
is a good sign. 

No. 19. 

Mr. Beaumont to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 17.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 16, 1914. 

I HAVE received the following telegram, dated the I5th 
August, from His Majesty's vice-consul at Dardanelles : 

" A new field of mines has been laid in the zone formerly 
sown with mines of observation type. It may be assumed 
that these latter had previously been removed. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

" The new contact mines, to the number of forty-one, 
were laid by the Mtibah from Kephez to Suahdere in a double 
line. Seven were kept on the ship, and the twenty-four 
from the Selanik, which is proceeding to Constantinople, 
were also taken on board. 

" The "Lily Rickmers, a German ship which has arrived 
here, carries a wireless installation." 



No. 20. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 18.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 18, 1914. 

I HAVE been accorded most cordial reception upon my 
return to my post by the Grand Vizier, of whom I enquired 
whether the German crews would be removed soon, and 
what guarantee he would give that the Goeben and Breslau 
would be used neither against Great Britain nor against 
Russia. I also expressed my surprise that the Turkish 
Government should be apparently entirely under German 
influence, and that they should have committed such a 
serious breach of neutrality as was involved by their action 
in the matter of the German ships. 

His Highness said that he deeply deplored this breach of 
neutrality, which he could not deny. He begged me to give 
him time to get rid of German crews, which he promised he 
would do gradually, but, until arrival of Turkish transport 
with crews from London, Turkish Government had no crew 
to replace Germans. 

His Highness added that he had protested against the 
action of the Breslau in boarding British and French ships 
at the Dardanelles, and he expressed the hope that I would 
not take too serious a view of that incident. 

Situation is delicate, but I have great hopes that if His 
Majesty's Government will exercise patience, it may yet be 
saved ; for Grand Vizier solemnly assured me that neither 
the Goeben nor the Breslau would go into the Black Sea or 
the Mediterranean. 

His Highness said that seizure of Turkish ships building 
in England by His Majesty's Government had caused the 
whole crisis, and, as almost every Turkish subject had sub- 
scribed towards their purchase, a terrible impression had 

41 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

been made throughout Turkey, where British attitude had 
been attributed to intention to assist Greece in aggressive 
designs against Turkey. Turkish population would have 
understood if Great Britain had paid for the ships, or if she 
had promised to return them when the war was over ; but 
as it was it looked like robbery. Germans had- not been 
slow to exploit the situation, of which they had taken every 
advantage. 

His Highness was much impressed and relieved when I 
informed him. of the declaration authorised in your telegram 
of the i6th August. 1 He said that this would be of enormous 
assistance to him, and he assured me that I need not be 
anxious lest Turkey should be drawn into war with Great 
Britain or with Russia. The present crisis would pass. 

I am convinced of the absolute personal sincerity of Grand 
Vizier in these utterances. 



No. 21. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallett. 

raphic.) Foreign Office, August 18, 1914. 

I TOLD the Turkish Ambassador, who had expressed 
uneasiness as to our intentions towards Turkey, that Turkey 
would have nothing to fear from us, and that her integrity 
would be preserved in any conditions of peace which affected 
the Near East, provided that she preserved a real neutrality 
during the war, made the Breslau and Goeben entirely Turkish 
by sending away the German crews of these vessels, and 
gave all ordinary facilities to British merchant vessels. 



No. 22. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 19.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August ^19, 1914. 

IN view of the possibility that a coup d'Etat may be 
attempted with the assistance of the Goeben, in co-operation 
with the military authorities under German influence, who 
exercise complete control, I wish to make it clear that in 
my opinion the precaution of presence of British Fleet at 

1 See No. 17. 

42 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the Dardanelles is wise. I am anxious to avoid any mis- 
understanding as to the gravity of the situation, notwith- 
standing the assurances received from the Grand Vizier. 



No. 23. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 20.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 19, 1914. 

I SAW the Grand Vizier on the afternoon of I7th August, 
and made strong representations to him with regard to the 
detention of vessels laden with cargoes consigned from Russian 
ports to the Mediterranean. 

He promised to give immediate instructions that ships 
should be allowed to proceed. 

The port authorities were undoubtedly instructed yester- 
day morning to permit seven ships loaded with grain and 
one with petroleum for the Mediterranean, and one ship 
with coal for the Danube, to depart, but this permission 
was cancelled later. 

It appears from this as if the military party, supported 
by the Germans, were determined to reassert themselves, 
and that a serious conflict of authority has arisen. 

I propose to see Grand Vizier, whom I was unable to see 
last night, as early as possible this morning, and to insist 
upon his carrying out of his promise with regard to laden 
ships. 

If these are permitted to leave, only four ships Vill re- 
main, and no others have arrived since yesterday. 

Of these four ships only one in is a position to leave im- 
mediately, but their case is different to that of the nine^ships 
mentioned above, of which the cargoes have never touched 
Turkish soil, and which are covered by treaties guaranteeing 
free passage of the Straits at all times, thus making their 
detention a far more serious matter. 



No. 24. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 21.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 20, 1914. 

MINISTER of Marine came to see me to-day and ex- 
pressed his relief at being able to talk to me freely. 

43 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

He put forward the following proposal : 

Firstly, that the Capitulations should be abolished im- 
mediately. I pointed out the difficulty of this, and he sug- 
gested that the Minister of Finance should come and discuss 
the question with me. 

Secondly, he demanded the immediate return of the two 
Turkish battleships acquired by His Majesty's Government 
at the commencement of the war. I told him that this was 
impossible, but that I would endeavour to obtain as good 
terms as possible for them, and that I hoped they would not 
be needed during the war, and would soon be returned to 
Turkey ; in the meanwhile they should be regarded as a 
loan from Turkey to a friend. 

Thirdly, he asked for renunciation of any interference 
with the internal affairs of Turkey. This need not be taken 
seriously, and is, of course, an absurd proposal. 

Fourthly, he asked that if Bulgaria should intervene 
against the Triple Entente, Western Thrace should be given 
back to Turkey. 

Fifthly, he wanted the restoration of the Greek islands. 
I told him that this was impossible, and he finally agreed to 
the basis arranged just before the present war broke out. 

His final proposal was that the allied Powers should 
undertake to oblige the Triple Alliance to accept any agree- 
ments which might be reached with respect to the Capitula- 
tions. 

Our conversation was of the friendliest description, and 
at its close the Minister of Marine asked whether I would 
sanction the chartering of a British oil-tank steamer now 
at Tenedos to convey oil from Constanza. I asked him 
the purposes for which this oil was required, and he replied 
that it was for use in Turkish destroyers. I said that I 
thought that such a request, when the German crews of the 
Breslau and Goeben were masters of the situation here, would 
greatly surprise His Majesty's Government, and he replied 
that he did not wish to create any suspicion in their minds, 
and would therefore withdraw his request, adding that any 
suspicion that the German ships would be allowed to attack 
our shipping was absurd. 

I said that, although I personally believed in the sincerity 
of his assurances, there seemed to be no doubt that the 

44 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

German admiral was now the master here. Minister seemed 
greatly surprised at this, but finally asked me to assure you 
that he would open the Dardanelles to the British fleet, if 
the German crews would not leave the two ships when he 
told them to do so. 

No. 25. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 21.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 20, 1914. 

FOLLOWING from His Majesty's vice-consul, Dardan- 
elles, dated August iQth : 

" Passages were stopped this afternoon, while seventeen 
more mines were laid in a zigzag line along one side of the 
channel, which has been rendered extremely narrow. There 
is a heavy oil-steamer to pass to-morrow, and it may not be 
easy. 

" Mines remain, but I suspect that there are more on 
board Rickmers. 

' Weber Pasha, who has returned with other German 
officers, is believed to be on the latter vessel. 

" Several Hotchkiss guns have arrived and have been 
mounted on both sides of the Straits commanding minefield." 



No. 26. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 22.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 21, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of August 12th. 1 

Reply to representations received from Porte expresses 
regrets for unfortunate incident of which British merchant 
vessels at Dardanelles were object, and gives formal assurances 
that similar acts shall not occur again. Explanation of 
detention of ships given in Porte's note is that in consequence 
of some mines having been detached from their moorings, 
authorities had prevented vessels from continuing their 
voyage until mines had been picked up, in order to avoid 
accidents. 

No mention is made of real reason, which was wish of mili- 
tary authorities to requisition grain and other cargoes. 

1 See No. 13. 

45 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

No. 27. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 22.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 21, 1914. 

I WAS informed by the Grand Vizier to-night that he 
wanted all the support that the Triple Entente could give him, 
and that the sooner they could give a written declaration 
respecting the independence and integrity of Turkey the 
better. 

A sharp struggle, which may come to a head at any 
moment, is in progress between the Moderates and the German 
party, headed by the Minister for War, and is meanwhile 
creating anarchy here. 

Marshal Liman 1 and the German Ambassador are reck- 
lessly striving to force the Turks into declaring war on Russia, 
in which case the Goeben and Breslau would presumably 
sail for the Black Sea. They are ^prepared to achieve this 
object, if necessary, by a coup d'Etat, making the Minister 
of War dictator. 

It is said that the Dardanelles forts have German garri- 
sons, and that the Goeben, which has been slightly damaged, 
will be repaired by September 2nd, or possibly earlier. 



No. 28. 
Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, August 22, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of August 20th. 2 

The demands made by the Turkish Government are 
excessive ; we do not, however, wish to refuse all discussion, 
and you may therefore, as soon as "the French and Russian 
Ambassadors have received similar instructions, address 
the following communication to the Porte : 

" If the Turkish Government will repatriate immediately 
the German officers and crews of the Goeben and Breslau, will 
give a written assurance that all facilities shall be furnished 
for the peaceful and uninterrupted passage of merchant 
vessels, and that all the obligations of neutrality shall be 
observed by Turkey during the present war, the three allied 
Powers wil i return agree, with regard to the Capitulations, 

1 Head of the German Military Mission in Turkey. * See No. 24. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to withdraw their extra-territorial jurisdiction as soon as a 
scheme of judicial administration, which will satisfy modern 
conditions, is set up. 

" They will further give a joint guarantee in writing that 
they will respect the independence and integrity of Turkey, 
and will engage that no conditions in the terms of peace at the 
end of the war shall prejudice this independence and integrity/' 



No. 29. 
Tewfik Pasha to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 22.) 

(TRANSLATION.) 

Turkish Embassy, London, August 22, 1914. 
THE Turkish Ambassador presents his compliments to 
Sir E. Grey, and with reference to the conversation which 
he had with him, and which he reported to the Turkish 
Government in a telegram of the i8th instant, hastens to 
state that his Highness Said Halim Pasha has just replied 
in a telegram dated yesterday, and just received, as follows : 

1. The necessary orders have been given in the proper 
quarter for the free navigation of Turkish waters by all 
merchant vessels ; 

2. The Turkish Government will replace the German 
officers and men by those of the Sultan Osman as soon as they 
arrive at Constantinople. 



No. 30. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 23.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 22, 1914. 

I SAW Minister of Marine, as the Turkish transport has 
now arrived, and asked him when the crews of the Goeben 
and Breslau would be repatriated. 

He said that it depended upon the Grand Vizier. He 
was himself in favour of their repatriation. 

I shall press the matter strongly, but do not know whether 
the Moderates are sufficiently strong to insist upon such a 
step being taken at once. 



47 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY- NAVAL 
No. 31. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 24.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 23, 1914. 

I HEAR that a further contingent of German officers 
has recently arrived via Sophia for service here. 



No. 32. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 25.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 24, 1914. 

THE Minister of War has not yet recovered from his 
illness. I have made it absolutely clear to the Grand Vizier 
that there is evidently no reason for delaying transfer of ships 
now that changes have come, and I said that His Majesty's 
Government would not tolerate that the Turkish fleet, as well 
as the Turkish army, should be in the hands of Germany, 
warning his Highness that the British fleet would not leave the 
Dardanelles until His Majesty's Government were satisfied 
that the Turkish Government had loyally carried out the 
condition laid down, and until British merchantmen could 
navigate Turkish waters without either delay or molestation. 
It was therefore obvious that if there was any idea of man- 
ning the Turkish fleet with German officers and men it must 
be given up. The situation was already quite humiliating 
enough for the Turkish Empire, which was in peril of total 
ruin if the Turkish Government allowed the domination of 
Constantinople by Germany. The Grand Vizier assured me 
that the Turkish Government had not the slightest intention 
of Germanising their fleet ; and while it is my impression 
that the forces in favour of the maintenance of strict neu- 
trality by Turkey are slowly gaining, I replied that I should 
not be satisfied with less than the actual departure of the 
German crews. 



No. 33. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 25.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 25, 1914. 

I RECEIVED yesterday a written assurance from Grand 
Vizier that merchant vessels will be allowed to go and come 

4 8 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

in Turkish ports without hindrance in accordance with 
treaties. 

No. 34. 
Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, August 25, 1914. 

HIS Majesty the King desires that your Excellency should 
convey to His Imperial Majesty the Sultan of Turkey a 
personal message from His Majesty, expressing his deep 
regret at the sorrow caused to the Turkish people by the 
detention of the two warships which His Imperial Majesty's 
subjects had made such sacrifices to acquire. His Majesty 
the King wishes the Sultan to understand that the exigencies 
of the defence of his dominions are the only cause of the 
detention of these ships, which His Majesty hopes will not 
be for long, it being the intention of His Majesty's Govern- 
ment to restore them to the Ottoman Government at the 
end of the war, in the event of the maintenance of a strict 
neutrality by Turkey without favour to the King's enemies, 
as at present shown by the Ottoman Government. 



No. 35. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 26.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 25, 1914. 

I HEAR from His Majesty's consul at Jerusalem that 
forty camels laden with food-stuffs have been seized from 
Egyptians at Gaza. 

No. 36. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 26.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 25, 1914. 

SEIZURE of camels reported in my telegram of to-day. 1 
I am making strong representations to Ottoman Govern- 
ment. The Germans, who are no doubt responsible for the 
activity now reported, are doing tneir best to embroil us with 
the Turks. 

The Grand Vizier vehemently denies that it is his inten- 

1 See No. 35. 

Naval II-D 49 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL [ 

tion to attack Egypt in any way or to attempt any sort of 
intrigues there. In this, I think, he is sincere. He is forming 
a Moderate party genuinely in favour of Turkey remaining 
neutral. 

No. 37. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 26.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 25, 1914. 

HIS Majesty's vice-consul, Dardanelles, reports that 
former channel on the European side of the Straits was 
further mined on August 24th. More buoys have been 
placed in new channel on the Asiatic side, and that channel 
may now be followed. Passages were prevented on August 
24th by the work of laying these buoys, but they have been 
resumed from to-day. 

No. 38. 
Sir Edward Grey to Tewfik Pasha. 

Your Excellency, Foreign Office, August 26, 1914. 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of the 
note which your Excellency was so good as to address to me 
on the 22nd instant. 1 

In reply, I have the honour to state that I have taken 
note that : 

1. The necessary orders have been sent by the Imperial 
Ottoman Government to the competent authorities to allow 
free passage in Ottoman waters to all foreign merchant vessels. 

2. That the Imperial Ottoman Government will replace 
the German officers and crew of the late Goeben and Breslau by 
those of the Sultan Osman the moment the latter arrive at 
Constantinople. 

I have, &c., 
E. GREY. 

No. 39. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 27.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 26, 1914. 

NINETY German sailors passed through Sophia yesterday 
on their way to Constantinople. I have protested strongly, 

1 See No. 29. 

50 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

but Grand Vizier is unable to control the situation, which is 
dominated by the German Ambassador and generals. Weber 
Pasha, who is in command at the Dardanelles, is said to be 
urging closing of the Straits. I have brought this to the 
notice of the Grand Vizier. His Highness most positively 
repudiated any such idea, and begged me to have patience, 
as this situation would not last, and he was gaining authority. 
In the meantime, general mobilisation is proceeding 
feverishly, and preparations are being pushed on in the fleet. 
Eighty pounds' worth of surgical appliances, dressings, &c., 
were bought by doctor of the Corcovado to-day. I am 
informed that there is a 5-inch gun hidden by canvas at her 
stern. She still lies at Therapia. It is not likely that the 
two German men-of-war will come out of the Dardanelles, 
but there are grounds for thinking that German plan is to 
urge Turkey to attack Russia after France is beaten about 
ten days hence, in their estimation. Straits would be entirely 
closed, and, according to the German Ambassador, quite 
impossible to force, since Germans have taken special measures 
to make them impregnable. 



No. 40. 

Sir G. Barclay to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 27.) 

(Telegraphic.) Bucharest, August 27, 1914. 

PRESS to-day reports special train from Berlin, carrying 
500 German marines, passed through Bucharest yesterday for 
Constantinople. 

Official communication this evening states that this was 
not a military transport, but that men were workmen, mostly 
Germans, under the direction of several engineers and func- 
tionaries, on the way to Turkey via Bulgaria for work on 
Bagdad Railway. 

Communique adds that in future foreign subjects will not 
be allowed passage through the country in groups of more 
than twenty, even if their individual passports are in order. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [] 

No. 41. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 27.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 27, 1914. 

GERMAN ships. 

There are grounds for thinking that Germans are urging 
Turks to send Goeben into Black Sea, where they would argue 
that she has a right to go as a Turkish ship. Germans would 
count upon Russian warship attacking her, and war would 
ensue, seemingly provoked by Russia. 

Object of Germans is to create a diversion here, draw off 
some Russian troops and enemies from Austria, and embroil 
us at the same time. 

There are, it is said, 162 German officers here and many 
reservists. 

No. 42. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 28.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 27, 1914. 

MY telegram of August 27th. 1 

Russian Ambassador is at present with Grand Vizier, 
whom I have just seen. I again impressed upon his Highness 
my apprehensions lest Goeben should make a raid. I expressed 
my conviction that, should Turkey be so unwise as to provoke 
the Powers of the Triple Entente, it would mean the end of 
the Ottoman Empire. To these observations on my part, 
his Highness replied that the Goeben, manned as she was 
with German crew, would never be allowed by the Turkish 
Government to enter the Black Sea. His language on this 
point was most emphatic, and I believe that he was sincere 
in what he said. I did not fail, however, to draw his High- 
ness's attention to the fact that, if the Minister of Marine, 
the Minister of War, and the German Ambassador ordered 
the Goeben to go there, I did not quite see how his Highness 
was going to prevent it. If the German Emperor ordered 
the German admiral to go into the Black Sea, it did not seem 
to me that the two Turkish Ministers could, even if they 
would, prevent the admiral from obeying those commands. 

Grand Vizier assured me most emphatically that my fears 

1 See No. 41. 

52 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



were entirely without foundation, but he did not give me 
any reasons to back up this optimistic opinion. His High- 
ness was much upset when I rejoined that, so long as German 
crews remained his Highness was not master of his own 
house, but at the mercy of the Germans, who had, to all 
intents and purposes, occupied Constantinople. His Highness 
admitted that Germans were urging Turkey to depart from 
her neutrality, and that they wished to embroil her with 
the Russians and ourselves, but he nevertheless solemnly 
assured me that Turkish Government would not depart from 
their neutrality. He fully understood Germany's aims in this 
matter, and all Turkish Government were determined not to 
fall into the trap. 

Grand Vizier is, I am sure, absolutely sincere himself. 
But none the less the situation is as I have described it in the 
preceding paragraphs. 



No. 43. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 28.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 27, 1914. 

MY telegram of August 24th. 1 

In reply to my enquiries, Grand Vizier stated that neither 
he nor Minister of Marine knew anything about the reported 
arrival of German sailors. They had not been asked for by 
the Turkish Government. 

I said that, if this really was the case, it furnished yet 
another proof of how completely Germany had obtained 
control here. German merchantmen were, to my knowledge, 
arming in the port of Constantinople, and it was obvious that 
the German sailors were to be put into these ships or on board 
the Turkish fleet. This being so, it was my duty to warn 
his Highness of the unfortunate effect that this continued 
violation of Turkish neutrality in favour of Germany was 
bound to have upon the Governments of the Triple Entente. 



1 See No. 39. 

53 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
No. 44. 

Mr. Cheetham to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 28.) 

(Telegraphic.) Cairo, August 28, 1914. 

OTTOMAN forces are being mobilised in Hedjaz and 
further south, and existing military activity in Red Sea 
may thus be explained. About sixty Turkish officers arrived 
at Alexandria recently and passed through Egypt down 
Red Sea. Their destination was the Yemen. 

Twelve thousand Turkish troops are reported in Jeddah 
region. 

Signs are not lacking that, in case of war, an attack on 
Egypt is contemplated by Turkey. A few Turkish officers 
are now in the Delta. Steps have been taken to watch all 
those that are known. I learn from a good source that all 
information of Turkish mobilisation reported from Con- 
stantinople is correct. Meanwhile emissaries are being sent 
to India, the Yemen, Senoussi, and Egypt, to stir up feeling 
against Great Britain. Activity at Gaza is reported, but 
it is uncertain whether this is more than raising of levies 
to replace regulars withdrawn from the north by mobilisation. 



No. 45. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 29.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 28, 1914. 

GENERAL situation here. 

It is possible, though I consider it highly improbable, 
that Turks may make a dash out of the Dardanelles when 
their fleet is better prepared. It is equally possible that 
Turkey may make some forward movement against Serbia 
or Greece on land. Nevertheless, I trust that you will not 
read my various reports to mean that I have abandoned 
last hope that neutrality will be maintained to extent of not 
actually attacking Russia in Black Sea. I still think that 
it is far from probable that Turkey will for the time being 
make any forward move. 

News propagated by German Ambassador here this morn- 
ing is that Germans are marching on Paris, and that they 
have decisively worsted the Allies. This message has without 
doubt come by wireless, as the Ambassador is in direct 

54 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

communication with German General Staff. This news 
will, I fear, tend to shake Turks still further, as they now 
confidently expect that Triple Entente will be annihilated. 
There is also no doubt that very active preparations are 
in hand, and that Germans here are confident of hostilities. 
Consignments of gold from Germany have arrived for German 
and Austrian banks, private German residents have sent away 
their wives, and quantities of medical stores have been 
purchased and put on board German ships. 

I hear that German Ambassador is adopting tone of 
friendly commiseration for Great Britain, who, he asserts, 
will never assist Russia in any movement against Turkey. 
He has made the remarkable statement that his Government 
will now offer favourable terms to France, which she will 
certainly accept ; that Germany will then wage a platonic 
war with England, whose heart is not in the struggle, and who 
will make terms to save her fleet ; and that Germany and 
England will then combine against Russia. 

German Ambassador's attitude seems to indicate great 
preoccupation as regards British fleet and as regards Russian 
advance in East Prussia, and a desire to make terms now in 
order to save Germany's resources for a final struggle with 
us under more favourable conditions. I have made it known 
privately in the proper quarter that under no conditions 
would Great Britain abandon her allies, and that, whatever 
the present situation in the field may be, it is still but the 
beginning of a struggle from which we are firmly resolved to 
emerge victoriously. 



No. 46. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 29.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 28, 1914. 

FROM information that has reached me, there is no doubt 
that in course of time the whole area of the Dardanelles, 
Constantinople, and the Bosphorus will become nothing 
more nor less than a sort of German enclave. Sailors recently 
arrived from Sophia will be sent to Straits forts and more 
will follow. This is over and above German military reservists 
already allotted to garrison those forts. 

55 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

I hear that, although Turks have not yet any ordnance of 
the more modern type for mounting in Straits defences, it is 
very probable that consignment of guns will arrive in the 
near future from Germany and Austria through Constanza. 



No. 47. 

Sir H. B ax-Ironside to Sir Edward Grey. (Received 

August 29.) 
(Telegraphic.) Sophia, August 28, 1914. 

SPECIAL train full of German sailors with officers passed 
Sophia last night for Constantinople, making total passed 
about 600. 

I am informed credibly that large consignment of guns 
and artillery material has passed through Roumania to 
Giurgevo and is now being brought across to Rustchuk. 



No. 48. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received August 31.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, August 30, 1914. 

I AND my colleagues still do not regard situation as 
hopeless, and are of opinion that we should go on as long 
as possible without provoking a rupture. I find it hard 
to believe that, when it comes to the point, Turks would declare 
war on Russia or on ourselves. 

Eventuality of a general war is doubtless counted on by 
Germany with the object of diverting energies of Russia 
from the main object of European conflict. Germans may 
even argue that, in the event of Russians receiving serious 
check in Germany, they might be induced to desist from 
struggle by bait of Constantinople. 

There is no doubt that it is object of Germany to involve 
Russia and Great Britain in serious troubles here in the hope 
of general Balkan conflagration and of complications for 
us in India and Egypt. I heard to-day on good authority 
that it is admitted in Berlin that, if necessary, they will 
encourage a " jehad " l with this object. 

I have strong impression that Turkish Government, with 
1 i.e., Holy War. 

56 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

exception of its extreme chauvinists, are aware of Germany's 
objects, which I have not ceased to instil into them, and 
that time may cool their ardour for their German masters. 
I warned Grand Vizier this morning of inevitable results 
of siding with Germany against us, and said that our patience 
was not inexhaustible, and that consequences of allying 
themselves with our enemies would be serious. His Highness 
seemed to be impressed, and promised that German sailors 
should be sent away. 

No. 49. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September i.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September i, 1914. 

MINISTER of Marine called on Russian Ambassador 
last night and assured him that he was working hard for 
neutrality, that he would send away German sailors in 
fortnight, and that 200 were leaving to-day, truth of which 
we shall verify. He may only be gaining time. 



No. 50. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September i.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September i, 1914. 

I AGAIN discussed subject of Turkish neutrality to-day 
with Grand Vizier. His Highness evidently relies on Minister 
of Interior, who returns shortly. He assured me most 
solemnly that Turkish Government would not depart from 
their neutrality. I replied that we should not be satisfied 
until the German sailors left, as Turkish neutrality had already 
been so gravely compromised already. He reiterated with 
much vehemence that all German sailors should go. 



No. 51. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September i.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September i, 1914. 

SULLEIMAN-EL-BUROUNI, a highly-placed senator, 
is in Egypt, probably in Cairo, engaged in fomenting revolu- 
tionary movement. 

57 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 52. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, September i, 1914. 

IN order that there may be no room for misconception, 
you should inform Turkish Government that Egyptian Govern- 
ment are taking measures to patrol Suez Canal on both 
banks and that this step is necessary to protect the safe and 
proper working of the Canal. You should add that no 
advance into Sinai, nor military operations in that region, 
are under contemplation. 



No. 53. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 2.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 2, 1914. 

I SHOULD be glad to learn whether British Admiral 
has instructions in case Goeben went into Mediterranean under 
Turkish flag. Should I tell Turkish Government that, so 
long as she has Germans on board, we shall regard her as a 
German ship and treat her as such, and that, before she goes 
out into Mediterranean, Admiral Limpus must be allowed to 
assure himself that there are no Germans on board ? 

I do not anticipate her going out, but should like to make 
it clear beforehand what our attitude would be in case she 
does so. 

No. 54. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 3.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 2, 1914. 

AM I authorised to make public statement that Turkey 
will have nothing to fear from British ships if she maintains 
strict neutrality and keeps peace during European conflict, 
if British trade is not interfered with, and if German naval 
officers and crews are sent out of the country ? 



No. 55. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 3.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 3, 1914. 

I SHOULD be glad to have discretion to let it be known 
that if Turkish fleet leaves the Dardanelles we shall treat it 

58 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

as part of the German fleet, as it has German crews arid officers 
on board. 

No. 56. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, September 3, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of September 2nd. 1 

So long as German crews have not been sent away, Goeben 
will certainly be treated as a German ship if she comes out 
of the Straits. It was only on express condition that German 
crews would be sent away that we waived demand, to which 
we were strictly entitled, that ship should be interned until 
the end of the war. 



No. 57. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 
(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, September 4, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of September 2nd. 2 

You may make statement you propose, but we cannot 
restrict movements of British fleet. 



No. 58. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, September 4, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of September 3rd : 3 Turkish fleet. 
Proposal approved. 



No. 59. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 6.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 5, 1914. 

I HEAR that Inspector from Constantinople of Committee 
of Union and Progress left Erzeroum on September ist 
for Persia, where he has previously lived. He was accom- 
panied by three Persian revolutionists from Constantinople, 
one of them named Agha Mehemet Ali. They have ideas 
1 See No. 53. 2 See No. 54. 3 See No. 55. 

59 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N< 

about Afghan and Indian Moslems, and also intend to stir 
up anti-Russian trouble in Persia. 



No. 60. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 6.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 5, 1914. 

I HAVE to-day gone over the whole ground with the 
Minister of the Interior, who seems more inclined to be 
reasonable. I think there is an improvement in the situation- 
Minister quite understands that Goeben will be treated as 
a German ship if she goes out. They assure me that Turkish 
fleet will not leave the Dardanelles on any account. 



No. 61. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 6.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 6, 1914. 

SURPRISES are always possible, but I feel fairly confident, 
from what I hear from many prominent people with whom 
I am in touch, that public opinion will change in our favour. 

There is growing discontent among influential people, 
who are now beginning to realise that they are in German 
hands. This they resent, and they are openly declaring that 
they will not allow war. 

In view of all this, I think I can safely say that there are 
many signs of an improvement in the situation here. 



No. 62. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 7.) 

Constantinople, August 19, 1914. 
SIR, 

WITH reference to your telegram of August 12th 1 to 
Mr. Beaumont, I have the honour to transmit herewith copy 
of a note verbale addressed by him to the Sublime Porte in the 
sense of your instructions respecting the perquisitions effected 
by the German cruiser Breslau off British ships in the port 

1 See No. 13. 
60 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of Chanak and the detention of British ships in the 
Dardanelles. 

I have, &c., 
LOUIS MALLET. 

ENCLOSURE IN No. 62. 

Note verbale communicated to Sublime Porte, Constantinople, 

August 14, 1914. 

IT having been brought to the notice of His Britannic 
Majesty's Government that, while in the neutral port of 
Chanak (Dardanelles), boats of the cruiser Breslau, flying the 
German flag, boarded and effected perquisitions on British 
ships, His Britannic Majesty's Charge d' Affaires has been 
instructed to request that the Imperial Ottoman Government 
will not permit German ships to commit acts of war in Turkish 
ports or in the Straits, the neutrality of which is guaranteed 
by international treaties. 

Mr. Beaumont is instructed at the same time to enquire 
n what grounds British ships have recently been prevented 
from leaving the port of Constantinople, and have been 
detained on arrival at the Dardanelles, in some cases for 
several days. 

According to a telegram received to-day from His Majesty's 
vice-consul at the Dardanelles, British ships are still being 
help up there, and His Britannic Majesty's Charge d' Affaires 
has the honour to request that immediate orders may be sent 
to allow them to proceed. 



No. 63. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 7.) 

Constantinople, August 01, 1914. ' 
SIR, 

WITH reference to my immediately preceding despatch, 1 
I have the honour to forward herewith a note verbale from 
the Sublime Porte, expressing regret for the incidents at the 
Dardanelles and offering explanations. 

I have, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 

1 See No. 62. 

61 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ENCLOSURE IN No. 63. 

Note verbale communicated by Sublime Porte. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

THE Imperial Ministry for Foreign Affairs had the honour 
of receiving the note verbale which His Britannic Majesty's 
Embassy was good enough to communicate on the I4th 
instant. 

In reply, the Imperial Ministry for Foreign Affairs hastens 
to express great regret to the Charge d' Affaires for the annoy- 
ing incident suffered by some merchant vessels flying the 
British flag in the harbour of Chanak ; the Sublime Porte 
are able to give the most formal assurances that such an 
act shall not be repeated. 

As regards the vessels detained at Chanak, some sub- 
marine mines having become detached, the Imperial author- 
ities thought it incumbent upon them to prevent those 
vessels from continuing their voyage until the said mines 
had been recovered, in order that annoying incidents might 
be prevented. This provisional prohibition is, it will thus 
be seen, the result of a general measure which the Imperial 
Government have been obliged to take with a view to ensur- 
ing the safety of navigation in Turkish waters. 

The Ministry for Foreign Affairs has the honour to inform 
His Britannic Majesty's Embassy that, the mines having 
been recovered, the competent authorities have been requested 
by the Government to raise the prohibition of free passage, 
and to do their best to facilitate navigation for all vessels. 

August 16, 1914. 



No. 64. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 7.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 6, 1914. 

MINISTER of Interior yesterday assured me that there 
was no question of Turkey going to war. 

I used every possible argument to dissuade Minister of the 
Interior from leaping on a military adventure, reminding him 
that in the end Turkey would inevitably pay. I told him 
His Majesty's Government regarded Turkish fleet an annex 
of German fleet, and that if it went out into the ^Egean we 

62 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

should sink it. He quite realised this, and said that fleet 
had no intention of leaving Dardanelles. 

I went carefully over several infringements of neutrality 
of which Turks had been guilty, and I said that so long as 
a single German officer, naval or military, remained here I 
should consider Turkey as a German protectorate ; that I 
had been informed that Turkish Government attached no 
importance to written declaration which I and my French 
and Russian colleagues had made them respecting their 
integrity. I was greatly surprised at this attitude, but 
personally somewhat relieved,- as to guarantee integrity 
and independence of Turkey was like guaranteeing life of 
man who was determined to commit suicide. 

We sincerely desired independence and integrity of Turkey, 
but he must not imagine that Great Britain was afraid of 
Turkey, or that we feared to face alternative if forced upon 
us. Most ridiculous stories about insurrections in India 
and Egypt and approaching downfall of British Empire were 
being circulated broadcast, and were apparently believed 
by Minister of War. I hoped that Minister of the Interior 
was not under those and similar dangerous illusions. 

Minister of the Interior said that he understood. 

He then proceeded to state that Turkish Government 
now wished to sell us two Turkish ships outright. They 
wanted money badly, as the economic situation was desperate. 
I replied that I did not know His Majesty's Government's 
views, which I would enquire, but that, personally, I should 
be reluctant to inflict so mortal a stab on the wounded heart 
of the Turkish people, who were already suffering so much 
by temporary detention of their ships. Their purchase 
might give rise to another tempest of indignation. 

Moreover, I doubted whether His Majesty's Government 
would readily pay several millions to a country which was 
entirely in German hands, and which was breathing out 
threats against ourselves and our allies. 

He replied that His Majesty's Government could make 
what conditions they liked if they bought ships ; and that 
Turkish Government would send away all Germans. I said 
that I would reflect on proposal and repeat it to you. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

-No. 65. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 7.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 7, 1914. 

THERE is fresh evidence that there has been no sale of 
the Goeben and Breslau to Turkey. I learn on unimpeachable 
authority that German Ambassador has twice sent down 
orders to customs for admission, duty free, of effects for His 
Imperial Majesty's ship Goeben. I have brought this to 
notice of Grand Vizier, and have reminded him that we do 
not recognise sale. 

Should I not tell his Highness that His Majesty's Govern- 
ment will require to be satisfied that the sale is a genuine and 
legal one, before they can recognise the ship as Turkish ? 
I think that this should be done, even if the German crews go. 

I have said to both Talaat and Grand Vizier that if Goeben 
and Breslau leave Dardanelles they will be treated as German 
ships. They fully realise this, and have assured me that 
the ships will on no account leave. 



No. 66. 

Mr. Cheetham to Sir Edward Grey. -(Received September 8.) 

(Telegraphic.) Cairo, September 8, 1914. 

PRESENCE of numerous Turkish officers in Egypt is 
undoubtedly a danger, and measures against suspected 
individuals may become necessary at any moment. A Turkish 
naval officer recently left Egypt hurriedly for Beirout. A 
letter belonging to him has been found, in which it is stated 
that he has been doing his best to cause a strike amongst 
Moslem stokers and engineers of four Khedivial mail steamers, 
which are to be used as transports for our troops. The letter 
continues that he has not succeeded in his attempts, but that 
he will do his best to sink the vessels after the troops have 
embarked. It is worth noting that a strike on steamers in 
question has now occurred. 



I DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 67. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 
(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, September 8, 1914. 

BRITISH Naval Mission. 

Before any decision respecting the recall of the mission 
is taken by His Majesty's Government, I wish to have your 
views on the subject. I am reluctant to take any step, 
however justified it may be, that would precipitate unfavour- 
able developments, t as long as there is a reasonable chance 
of avoiding them. 'What effect do you consider that with- 
drawal of mission would have upon the political situation ? 

The Admiralty are of opinion that the position of the 
mission may become unsafe, and that it is already undignified. 
They therefore wish it to be recalled and attached to the 
embassy until you can arrange a safe passage home for 
Admiral Limpus and the other officers. There is clearly ample 
justification for the view taken by the Admiralty. 



No. 68. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. 1 (Received September 9.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 8, 1914. 

I HAVE on more than one occasion told Grand Vizier 
that resentment is probable in England, especially in present 
circumstances, at the slight put upon British admiral, and 
that, much as His Majesty's Government desire to remain 
on friendly terms with Turkey, such proceedings on the part 
of the Turkish Government cannot be indefinitely overlooked. 

In many respects the situation seems to show improve- 
ment, but unless His Majesty's Government wish mission to 
remain indefinitely it seems to me that the present would be 
a suitable moment to withdraw it. The Turks could not 
regard this step as a grievance as it is obviously justified by 
their conduct. The mission are at present treated as non- 
existent, and their position is consequently both false and 
invidious. German hold on the navy is becoming stronger 
daily, and there is no sign of German crews leaving. As a 
matter of fact, far from being disadvantageous to us, this 

1 This telegram crossed Sir E. Grey's telegram of September 8th, see 
No. 67. 

Naval II E 65 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

is becoming embarrassing to the Turkish Government, who 
are at least beginning to realise that the Germans are not an 
unmixed blessing. Great discontent reigns among Turkish 
naval officers, so Admiral Limpus tells me, as they dislike 
German officers, and they even hint that they would rather 
mutiny than serve under them. 

I am of opinion that the time has come to withdraw the 
mission, and if this can be approved in principle, I will speak 
to the admiral, who feels his position acutely, and ask him 
to make the necessary arrangements. 



No. 69. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 10.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 9, 1914. 

GRAND VIZIER admitted this morning that the Turkish 
Government were going to abolish Capitulations. 

I said that this information would greatly surprise my 
Government, whom I would at once apprise. 

The Capitulations and conventions were not a unilateral 
agreement ; we had on a former occasion informed the Turkish 
Government that we were willing to consider any request 
they might put forward in a generous spirit, but I did not 
imagine that my Government would acquiesce in their total 
abolition by a stroke of the pen. We were now under martial 
law. Did he expect us to allow British subjects to be judged 
by court-martial, especially so long as army was in hands of 
Germans ? 

His Highness made some ineffectual endeavours to defend 
his action, but I cut them short. 



No. 70. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 10.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 9, 1914. 

MINISTER of Interior told me to-day that note to 
embassies on subject of the abolition of the Capitulations had 
already been despatched. German Ambassador had just 
called to protest. Earlier in the day the Italian Ambassador 



a 

: 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

had informed me that German and Austrian Ambassadors 
were ready to associate themselves with us in protesting 
against the abolition. 

German Ambassador has disclaimed authorship of this 
ove on the part of Turkey, and I think that he may be speak- 
g the truth ; but every statement he makes must be received 
with caution. Nevertheless, statement by Minister of In- 
terior, to which I have alluded above, seems to bear him 
ut in this case. 

I have discussed the proposed abolition with the Minister 
f the Interior, and he maintains that they all feel that the 
ime has come to emancipate Turkey from foreign shackles, 
ut he disclaimed any intention of hostility against foreigners, 
e had already sent instructions to all Valis and police 
fficials not' to inflame people against foreigners, and he would 
ive strictest orders that no foreigners should be taken before 
ourts-martial. 

I told his Excellency that I thought the action of the 
urkish Government would inevitably lead to greater inter- 
ference than ever in the internal affairs of Turkey. I could 
nly regret that they should have acted so precipitately. 



No. 71. 
>irJL. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 10.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 9, 1914. 

ABOLITION of Capitulations. 

It has been arranged that all the embassies shall send in 
identic notes to-morrow, acknowledging Turkish note and 
inting out that abolition of the Capitulations cannot be 
tccepted, as consent of both contracting parties is necessary. 



No. 72. 
Mr L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September II.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 10, 1914. 

CONSIGNMENTS of warlike material from Germany 
raced up to date amount to 3,000 rounds of projectiles for 
roeben, battery of field guns with ammunition, several 

6 7 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Ni 

batteries of heavy howitzers, probably for field army use, 
and some thousands of rifles. More consignments are on the 
way. All German reservists who have not been able to leave 
Turkish Empire have been instructed to report for enrol- 
ment with Turkish troops. 



No. 73. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September n.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 10, 1914. 

MY telegram of September 9th. 1 

Note abolishing all the Capitulations was received last 
night. All my colleagues, including German and Austrian. 
Ambassadors, have to-day addressed identic nc-tes to the 
Sublime Porte stating that, while communicating to our 
respective Governments note respecting abolition of Capitu- 
lations, we must point out that capitulatory regime is not an 
autonomous institution of the Empire, but the resultant of 
international treaties, diplomatic agreements, and contractual 
acts of different kinds. It cannot be abolished in any part, 
a fortiori wholly, without consent of contracting parties. 
Therefore, in the absence of understanding arrived at before 
October ist between Ottoman Government and our respective 
Governments, we cannot recognise executory force after that 
date of a unilateral decision of Sublime Porte. 



No. 74. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 14.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 13, 1914. 

I HEAR that Germans are now dominant at Alexandretta, 
and secretly suggest and control everything. From September 
7th to morning of September I2th, 24 mountain guns, 400 
horses and mules, 500 artillery troops belonging to service 
of 6th Army Corps, and large quantity of ammunition 
passed through Alexandretta, proceeding by railway to 
Constantinople. 

1 See No. 71. 

68 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
No. 75. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 15.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 14, 1914. 

GERMAN Ambassador has received instructions from 
Berlin to publish widely report of revolution in India, with 
addition that His Majesty's Government have asked Japan 
to assist, and that Japan has agreed, in jeturn for free immigra- 
tion into the Pacific Coast, a free hand in China, and a 
40,000,000^. loan. I was warned in time by. the Russian 
Ambassador, and instructed all consuls by telegraph to deny 
*.t, if published, and wrote to the Grand Vizier. 

Nothing official has appeared here, but the agencies are 
publishing part of the story. 



No. 76. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 16.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 15, 1914. 

FLEET is now entirely in German hands, and Minister 
of Marine is powerless. Germans consider that Dardanelles 
are now* impassable, and they are impressing this upon 
military authorities. It is said that, if the Turkish fleet 
moved into the Black Sea, Straits would be entirely closed by 
additional mines, which have just been sent there on the 
Nilufer. 

Though I do not say that this coup will actually come off, 
danger is undoubtedly greater since news has been received 
of the recent successes of the allies, as the Germans are all 
the more anxious to create a diversion. My impression is 
that majority of the Cabinet and the Grand Vizier himself 
are entirely opposed to any such adventure, and that they 
are doing their utmost to prevent it ; but they are finding 
out, though they will not admit it, that they are powerless 
to stop matters. 

Both I and my Russian colleague have received, 
independent information that German and Austrian Am- 
bassadors are making a determined effort to force the Minister 
of War to send the Goeben and the rest of the fleet into the 
Black Sea. Fifty transports have been ready for some time, 

69 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

and I understand that everything is prepared for the reception 
on board these vessels of a large number of Turkish troops. 

Abolition of the Capitulations is now the principal card 
in the hands of the peace party. They would, I think, be 
ready to defer discussion of abolition of judicial Capitulations 
if abolition of fiscal and commercial treaties could be agreed 
to forthwith by the three Powers. 

I hear that 15 per cent, duties will be applied from October 
ist, but a law is at present under consideration exempting 
existing contracts. As nothing is at present coming into 
ports, application of these duties is, as a matter of fact, of 
little consequence. The temettu also will be applied to 
foreigners. 

No. 77. 
Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, September 16, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of September 15th 1 : Abolition of Capitu- 
lations. 

I am inclined to point out to Turkish Government that, 
so long as they maintain neutrality, what we have said to 
them already holds good, and that we shall be prepared to 
consider reasonable concessions about Capitulations ; but 
they must not expect concessions from us while their present 
irregular conduct in the matter of the German officers and 
crews continues. Perhaps we might also say that if they 
break the peace we cannot be responsible for the consequences ; 
that we hope they will keep the peace, but whether they do 
so or not is their own affair. 



N 78. 

United Shipowners' Freight, Demurrage, and Protectiv 
Association to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 17.) 

Vienna Chambers, Bute Docks, Cardiff, 
September 16, 1914. 
SIR, 

WE are instructed by the owners of the steamship Reliance 
to seek your aid for the recovery of compensation from the 

1 See No. 76. 
70 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Turkish Government for the detention of their steamer by 
the Turkish authorities. 

The facts of the case are as follows : 

On August ist last the steamship Reliance sailed from 
Nickolaief with a cargo of barley for Hamburg and arrived 
off Constantinople at noon on the 3rd. The captain waited 
at Constantinople for orders from the owners of his steamer 
until the 6th, but he received no communication from his 
owners as the Turkish authorities had stopped the delivery 
of telegrams. 

On August 6th the captain proceeded on his voyage and 
arrived off Nagara Point, Dardanelles, on the following day 
at 8 a.m. when he sent his permit to pass through the Dar- 
danelles ashore in accordance with the usual practice and 
received a signal from the fort that the canal was blocked. 
This blocking signal was kept up on August 8th, Qth and 
loth ; on the latter date several Italian vessels were piloted 
out and the German warships Goeben and Breslau were piloted 
in by Turkish torpedo craft and anchored in Nagara Bay. 
A German merchant vessel, the General, was also piloted in. 

The captain of the Reliance daily saw the British consul at 
Chanak, but the consul was unable to obtain permission for 
the Reliance to pass through the Dardanelles. 

On August nth, I2th, I3th and I4th the Reliance remained 
off Nagara Point, and on these days Roumanian, French, 
and Italian steamers were piloted in and out, but no British 
ships were allowed to leave. 

At 5.50 p.m. on August I4th the captain received orders 
from Turkish officials to proceed to Constantinople and remain 
there until the cargo had been discharged. Several other 
British steamers that were waiting received similar orders, 
amongst them being the steamship Hillhouse, the steamship 
Countess of Warwick, and the steamship Barrowmore. 

The captain proceeded to Constantinople and arrived 
there at i p.m. on August I5th. On arrival he went ashore 
and noted protest against the detention of his steamer and 
also saw the British consul. On the following day the roeben 
and Breslau arrived off Constantinople under the Turkish 
flag. On this day the Reliance was boarded by a Turkish 
officer who asked for the displacement of the vessel and for 
information as to the capacity for carrying horses and troops. 

71 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

On the 1 8th the captains of all British ships at Constan- 
tinople were told by the British harbour-master, on instructions 
from the British consul-general, that they were now allowed 
to proceed and were again to apply for permits. On the same 
day the captain of the Reliance obtained a permit and sailed 
from Constantinople and arrived again off Nagara Point at 
8 a.m. the following morning (August igth) when he sent 
his second permit ashore, but the Turkish authorities cancelled 
the permit and ordered the Reliance to anchor. On August 
20th one Italian ship and the British ship Ryton, in ballast, 
were allowed to pass through, and on the following day the 
steamship Bullmouth loaded with kerosene a ad three other 
steamers were piloted out. It was not until the 22nd ultimo 
at 11.40 a.m. that the Reliance was allowed to sail. 

We respectfully submit that the Turkish authorities 
should be made to pay compensation for their action in de- 
taining British ships, and on behalf of the owners of the 
Reliance we request that their claim of 640^., being at the 
ordinary charter-party rate of 40^. a day, for the detention 
of their steamer from August 6th to the 22nd should be made 
against the Turkish Government by the British Ambassador 
at Constantinople. 

We are, &c. 
DOWNING & HANDCOCK. 



No. 79. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 17.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, Septe ber 16, 1914. 

MINISTER of Marine has assured me that he is quite 
aware of German intrigues, and that Turkish Government 
are not so innocent as to fall into the trap that has been 
laid for them. His Excellency admitted, however, that 
there had been an idea of sending the fleet to visit Trebizond, 
as he claimed that the Government had a right to do. 

I pointed out, should they do so, as long as German officers 
were on board, there was bound to be a certain, risk of some 
incident occurring, in view of well-known desire of Germans 
to provoke trouble between Russia and Turkey. His 
Excellency did not demur to this opinion, and said that he 
would at once see the Grand Vizier in order to stop it. 

72 



I 

If 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

I have also seen Grand Vizier. His Highness said there 
was no intention of sending the Goeben into the Black Sea, 
and stated that the Minister of War must obtain the authorisa- 
tion of the Cabinet before he could issue any such order. 



i 



No. 80. 
ir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 19.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 18, 1914. 

FOLLOWING telegram received from His Majesty's 
consul at Basra : 

11 1 am informed officially by Turkish commodore that a 
British man-of-war is lying near boundary line in Shatt-el- 
Arab, whole of which is within Ottoman waters. Vali intends 
to ask the captain to allow wireless apparatus to be sealed 
and to leave, as more than twenty-four hours have elapsed 
since ship entered the river. Vali knows that I am informing 
you." 

No. 81. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 19.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 18, 1914. 

FOLLOWING sent to Basra : 

" Turkish authorities have, of course, no right to interfere 
with wireless on men-of-war." 



No. 82. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 19.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 19, 1914. 

TURKISH military preparations. 

In conversation with the President of the Chamber to-day, 
I said that if it was really Turkey's intention to go to war 
with Russia, I considered such a policy absolute madness. 

President said that, even if Turkish fleet went into Black 
Sea, it would not be with any hostile intention towards 
Russia, with whom they were not going to war. I pointed 
out to him that Germany was pressing Turkey to send their 
fleet into the Black Sea with one object only, namely, that 

73 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

war might be provoked by some incident. I therefore urged 
him most strongly against any such action. He said that 
he was against it, and that he saw the force of my argument, 
to which I replied that as the Minister of War was supreme 
it was unfortunately no guarantee that it would not be done. 
President told me that the Cabinet had their own policy, 
which was to remain neutral, and that they were all alive 
to the aims of Germany. I pressed him hard as to what was 
the policy of the Minister of War. 

I do not regard situation as hopeless. Party in favour of 
neutrality is growing, but it would be unsafe to rely on their 
power to restrain war party. 

I hear that 156 more mines and the minelayer Ghairet 
have been sent to Roumeli Kanak, on the Bosphorus. Turkish 
fleet went to Malki yesterday for review, and will probably 
remain there till next week, when the Hamidieh and 
Messudiyeh will be ready. German officers and men continue 
to arrive by train. It is probable that there are German 
reservists resident in Turkey who have been incorporated in 
Turkish army. Two hundred Germans arrived at the Dar- 
danelles on September lyth. 

Cavalry and horse artillery are reported to have moved 
from Erzeroum towards the frontier. 



No. 83. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 20.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 20, 1914. 

I BELIEVE that Minister of War is the only firebrand. 
Committee of Union and Progress is exercising a restraining 
influence. I think it is undoubted that party in favour of 
peace is daily increasing. 

French Ambassador had a conversation yesterday with 
Minister of Marine. Latter assured his Excellency that 
Turkish Government were determined not to be drawn into 
war, to which His Excellency retorted that if this assurance 
was correct, it was difficult to understand why preparations 
to send Turkish fleet into Black Sea were being made. Minister 
of Marine replied that Council of Ministers had decided that 
two destroyers only should go into Black Sea and that the 

74 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

fleet should not go. He admitted that the Minister, of War, 
who was generalissimo of the army and navy, had as a matter 
of fact ordered the fleet to go, but, as all orders had to pass 
through him as Minister of Marine, he had insisted that this 
order should be referred to the Council, with the result above 
stated. 

As an illustration of the entire lack of control possessed 
by the Cabinet over the Minister of War and the Germans, 
if any further illustration is needed, I have to report that, 
despite this assurance from the Minister of Marine, the Breslau 
and three other smaller ships passed us this morning and 
entered the Black Sea. My Russian colleague trusts that no 
incident will happen and proposes to ignore this proceeding. 



No. 84. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 21.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 20, 1914. 

I HAVE just had an animated interview with the Grand 
Vizier, and I am convinced that he is sincere. Other Ministers 
are all peaceably inclined, with the exception of the Minister 
of War. So long as the latter remains supreme an incident 
may occur at any moment. I tackled the Grand Vizier on 
the subject of the Bveslau entering the Black Sea. He 
vehemently disclaimed any intention of attacking Russia, 
and said that Turkish Government had a right to send their 
fleet into the Black Sea if they wished to. I reminded him 
that neither the Goeben nor the Breslau were Turkish ships 
according to international law, and said that if they left the 
Dardanelles we would most certainly treat them as enemy 
ships. He replied that I had told him this often before, and 
there was no question of the ships leaving the Dardanelles. 
I then said that information had reached me that Council of 
Ministers, in order to avoid risk of an incident, had come to the 
wise decision that the Goeben and the Breslau should not go 
into the Black Sea ; and yet, on the very day on which this 
decision had been reached by the Cabinet, it was totally 
disregarded by the Minister of War, as his Highness was 
doubtless aware. This showed how much control his High- 
ness now exercised. Constantinople and the neighbourhood 
formed nothing more nor less than an armed German camp, 

75 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

and we all, including his Highness, were at the mercy of 
Liman Pasha 1 and the Minister of War. Many more German 
officers and men had arrived, and there must now be between 
4,000 and 5,000 German soldiers and sailors here. Grand 
Vizier replied that he was determined to maintain peace, 
and that more adherents were joining the peace party every 
day. He would never allow Minister of War or anyone else 
to supersede him. Speaking with the utmost energy and 
even violence he assured me that, in spite of appearances, 
which he admitted looked bad, nothing would happen. 

I said that doubtless peace party was growing, but, 
nevertheless, Minister of War was pushing forward warlike 
preparations uninterruptedly. I was receiving constant in- 
formation respecting British official war news being stopped, 
cases of requisitions, &c., and I knew as a fact that intrigues 
against Egypt were being carried on. If his Highness could 
stop these things, why did he not do so, and when would he 
be able to do so ? His Highness gave me to understand 
that if a crisis did come there would be a means of stopping 
Minister of War. 



No. 85. 
Mr. Cheetham to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 22.) 

(Telegraphic.) Cairo, September 21, 1914. 

INFORMATION respecting Turkish preparations against 
Egypt receives fresh corroboration. There has been no 
slackening of military preparation in Palestine and in Syria. 

If Turkish preparations continue, it may become necessary 
to put patrols into Sinai and to support our posts in the 
peninsula. Action of forces in Egypt has been hitherto 
confined, as you are aware, to patrol of Suez Canal, but I 
think that Turkish Government should be warned that 
measures for the protection of the Egyptian frontier may 
become necessary. 



1 General Liman von Sanders, Head of the German Military Mission. 

76 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 86. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 23.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 22, 1914. 

A LETTER was yesterday received by British postmaster 
from a subordinate official in the Turkish postal administra- 
tion. In this letter postmaster was informed that foreign 
post offices in Turkey would be abolished as from October 
ist next. I instructed British postmaster to return the letter, 
and to say that matter had been referred to his Ambassador. 

This discourteous manner of communication was my first 
official information of any intention to abolish foreign post 
offices in Turkey. I accordingly saw Grand Vizier at once, 
and said that I resented the manner of communication, and 
had instructed British postmaster to return the letter. Post 
offices did not depend upon the Capitulations, and if Turkish 
Government wished to see the system modified, they should 
approach His Majesty's Government through the usual 
diplomatic channel. I warned him that His Majesty's Govern- 
ment would not allow themselves to be ignored in this manner, 
and I would not, unless by your instructions, consent to 
summary closing of British post offices on October ist unless 
Turkish Government had given guarantees for safeguarding 
British interests. His Highness said that Great Britain was 
not aimed at specially. A similar communication had been 
addressed to all the Powers. I said I was indifferent as to 
view of the matter taken by my French and Russian colleagues, 
nor had I yet had time to ascertain what they thought. Grand 
Vizier assured me that until an understanding had been come 
to with His Majesty's Government nothing further would be 
done in the matter. 

I would observe that, in my opinion, considerable modi- 
fication of existing system cannot properly be resisted. If 
Russian and French Ambassadors agree, may I come to 
some arrangement on the lines of consenting to incorporation 
of the British post office as a section of the Ottoman post, 
if the latter will undertake to take over some of present 
British employes ? I think we might also consent to use 
Turkish stamps. 



77 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 87. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 23.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 22, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of 25th August. 1 

Sultan received me yesterday in audience, when I de- 
livered the King's message. His Majesty expressed his 
earnest desire for good relations with Great Britain, and 
emphatically declared his firm intention of maintaining 
peace. He requested me to thank the King for his message. 
Full report follows by despatch. 



No. 88. 
Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, September 23, 1914. 

POLITICAL situation in Turkey. 

His Majesty's Government regard state of things at 
Constantinople as most unsatisfactory. On behalf of His 
Majesty's Government you should speak in the following 
sense to the Grand Vizier : 

British Government contemplate no hostile act towards 
Turkey by British fleet, and they have no desire to pre- 
cipitate a conflict with her. But the fact that Great Britain 
has not taken any hostile action against her must not mislead 
Turkish Government into supposing that His Majesty's 
Government consider Turkey's attitude is consistent with 
the obligations imposed upon her by the neutrality which 
she has officially declared. German officers and men are 
participating increasingly in Turkish fleet and Dardanelles 
defences, and not only has Turkey failed to send away the 
German officers and crews, as she promised, but she has 
admitted more overland, and they are now in active control 
of the Goeben and Breslau. The capital is undoubtedly now 
under the control of the Germans. If His Majesty's Govern- 
ment so desired, present state of things affords ample 
justification for protesting against violation of neutrality. 
Great Britain has not, however, so far taken action, as she 
cherishes the hope that the peace party will win the day. 

1 See No. 34. 

78 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

It should, however, be realised by the Grand Vizier and his 
supporters that unless they soon succeed in getting the 
situation in hand and bringing it within the limits of 
neutrality, it will become clear that Constantinople is no 
longer under Turkish but German control, and that open 
hostility will be forced on by Germany. 



No. 89. 
Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, September 24, 1914. 

I HEAR that Egyptian frontier has been violated by 
armed mounted Arabs said to be encouraged by Turkish 
troops, and also that Hedjaz line is being reserved for troops. 
British military authorities consider that breach of the 
peace on Egyptian frontier is imminent, whether with or 
without sanction of Turkish Government. You should bring 
these facts to the knowledge of the Grand Vizier and of the 
Khedive, who is at present at Constantinople. 



No. 90. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 25.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 24, 1914. 

TURKISH preparations against Egypt. 

I have addressed a note to the Grand Vizier recapitulating 
information recently received on this subject. I reminded 
His Highness of the assurances which I had several times 
given him, based upon your telegram of 7th August, 1 and I 
specially pointed out their conditional nature. Finally I 
warned him that the information respecting Turkish pre- 
parations against Egypt would infallibly produce a most 
serious impression upon His Majesty's Government. 

I later communicated the contents of my note to Presi- 
dent of the Council, Minister of Finance, and Minister of 
Interior, and asked them what explanation they could give, 
whereupon they enquired why so many thousand Indian 
troops were being sent to Egypt by His Majesty's Govern- 
ment. To this I answered that it was essential to ensure 

1 See No. 5. 

79 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

the safety of Egypt and the protection of the Suez Canal, 
and that as the British garrison of Egypt had been sent to 
France, it was necessary to replace it by British Indian 
troops. This seemed to satisfy them. 

I cannot believe that they are not alive to the disastrous 
consequences of going to war with us, or that they seriously 
can contemplate an expedition against Egypt. They have 
undoubtedly been strongly urged to send such an expedition 
by the Germans, and I think that they have allowed pre- 
parations to be made,, partly to profit as much as possible 
by German connection and by allowing the Germans to 
think that they will act, and partly in order to be ready, if 
Great Britain sustains a serious defeat by land or sea. 

Danger of the present situation is obvious, and develop- 
ments are not improbable, and I shall see the Grand Vizier 
this morning and endeavour to bring him to book. There 
is a circumstantial report that the Germans are now making 
desperate efforts to force the Turks' hands and to compel - 
them to fulfil their part of the bargain, but that at the same 
time their efforts are meeting with considerable resistance. 



No. 91. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 25.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 24, 1914. 

I HAVE informed the Grand Vizier that Austro-German 
intrigues to involve Turkey in an expedition against Egypt 
are within my knowledge. Grand Vizier denied that such 
intrigues existed, but he finally admitted that pressure was 
being exerted. He declared that he was firmly resolved to 
keep out of any such intrigue, any complicity in which he 
disclaimed with emphasis. I strongly urged His Highness 
to make his position clearer, for preparations at the Dar- 
danelles showed that he was either guilty of complicity or 
that he was not master in his own house. He answered 
that his intentions were entirely pacific, and that he did not 
mean to engage in any quarrel with Great Britain. 

His Highness seemed more preoccupied with the Balkan 
situation at the moment than with anything else. He said 
that Turkish Government would be unable to refrain from 

80 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

an attempt to get back what they had lost in Balkan wars 
if Balkan complications ensued. No arguments of mine 
would induce him to change his attitude in this respect. 
He said he would be powerless to prevent it. 



No. 92. 

Mr. Cheetham to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 25.) 

(Telegraphic.) Cairo, September 25, 1914. 

TURKISH preparations on Sinai frontier. 

Two thousand men with stores passed Gaza on night of 
September iSth following coast towards frontier. Six more 
battalions are expected at Gaza. In that neighbourhood 
very strong and secret military preparations are being made 
on the frontier. Three battalions of Redif completely mobil- 
ised have marched to a place one day south of Jaffa on their 
way to the frontier. 



No. 93. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, September 25, 1914. 

ABOLITION of post offices. 

You should make the best arrangements you can with 
regard to post offices, but it must be on record that we reserve 
the subject for future settlement, and that we do not agree 
to their abolition. 



No. 94. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 26.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 25, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of 23rd September. 1 

I have again seen Grand Vizier, and pointed out to him 
as earnestly as is within my power the fatal result to the 
Turkish Empire of persisting in a course of veiled hostility 
and petty intrigue against the British Empire. I recalled 
to him. that time and again he had undertaken that the 

1 See No. 88. 

Naval II F 8 1 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

German crews of the Goeben and the Breslau should be sent 
out of Turkey, and that not only had these promises been 
broken, but further German officers and men had actually 
arrived. This proved conclusively that he was either in- 
sincere in his assurances or that he was powerless. His 
Highness begged that I would credit him with the fact that 
for eight weeks he had kept the peace. He assured me 
that he had every intention of seeing to it that peace was 
maintained. I replied that it was not his good intentions that 
I doubted, but I did distinctly doubt his ability to control 
the situation. The Germans had evidently gained complete 
control. An incident might happen at any moment, and the 
most serious consequences might be involved. His High- 
ness was evidently nettled at what I said, and angrily replied 
that he was determined to keep the peace, and that, in a 
matter of peace and war, he was absolute master. This I 
met by referring him to the serious character of the pre- 
parations at present on foot, and by pointing out that, 
whether he wished it or not, a repetition of the Arab raid 
across the Egyptian frontier might lead to incidents which 
would involve him. His Highness said that Minister of War 
was returning to-day, and that he would at once ask what 
the preparations were to which I referred. He asserted with 
violence that no incident would occur. 

I have also seen Halill Bey, to whom news of prepara- 
tions against Egypt seemed to be unknown. He expressed 
astonishment to hear of them, and was evidently horrified 
at the idea of war with us. He promised to go and see the 
Minister of War at once. 

Position of Grand Vizier is difficult, and, to maintain any 
kind of control, he is obliged to shut his eyes to much that 
is going on. I am still strongly of opinion that, unless some 
act of gross antagonism takes place, we should maintain 
policy of reserve and abstain from making categorical 
demands with, which his Highness is not yet able to reply, 
continuing to devote all our efforts towards preventing 
Turkey from taking active part in hostilities which German 
and especially Austrian Ambassadors are urging. Main fact 
of the situation is that, in spite of great pressure, Grand 
Vizier has kept the peace, and that his party is gaining 
ground. 

82 






11 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 95. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 26.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 25, 1914. 

ON September 22nd and 23rd, 183 horses, 112 nizam, 
2 officers, and 88 carts and carriages, all from Aintab, were 
entrained at Aleppo for Damascus. 

Secret notice was given that in six days' time 120 rail- 
way waggons were to be in readiness to convey to Damascus^ 
troops arriving from Mosul via Tel Abiyat, and that in all 
from 25,000 to 30,000 troops were to be drafted from Mosul 
to Aleppo, of which at least half are destined for Kama or 
Damascus. 

Two Germans connected with Bagdad Railway, one of 
whom is an expert in blasting operations and mine-laying, 
left Aleppo this morning for Damascus, the other telling his 
servant that they were going to Akaba. They had with 
them i, 600 dynamite cartridges and 1,500 metres of de- 
tonating wires. They may, perhaps, be commissioned to 
lay mines in Red Sea as there has been talk of Turkish military 
designs regarding Akaba recently. 



No. 96. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 27.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 26, 1914. 

GRAND VIZIER has been informed of the information 
reported by Mr. Cheetham in his telegram of September 25th, 1 
and in my telegram of the same date. 2 I warned his High- 
ness that if these preparations against Egypt were allowed 
to continue, serious consequences would ensue. Minister of 
War was with Grand Vizier when I made these repre- 
sentations, and his Highness informed me that he fully 
realised the importance of the question, with which he was 
occupying himself. I have taken steps to enlighten in- 
fluential people with what is being done as regards Egypt, 
and I have seen Minister of Interior and left a memorandum 
with him on the subject ; I have also put the facts before 
other prominent members of the Cabinet. 

1 See No. 92. z See No. 95. 

83 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

No. 97. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 28.) 

(Telegraphic.) ^ ! : Constantinople, September 27, 1914. 

AN incident has occurred outside the Dardanelles. At 
6 o'clock this evening I heard that a Turkish destroyer was 
stopped last night outside the Dardanelles and turned back 
by one of our destroyers. Upon this, Commandant of the 
Dardanelles closed the Straits. When the news arrived, the 
Russian and French Ambassadors were with me, and we 
at once went to see the Grand Vizier. When I arrived! the 
Grand Vizier was in a state of some perturbation. He said 
sudden action of British fleet had given rise to the belief 
that an immediate attack was contemplated. Having 
reassured his Highness that any such belief was unfounded, 
I said that it seemed to me highly desirable that the Dar- 
danelles should be opened at once, for should the incident 
become known, it would certainly create the impression that 
some desperate step was intended by Turkish Government. 
I explained to his Highness that we were naturally appre- 
hensive lest Germans on Turkish destroyers might endeavour 
to torpedo or mine our ships, and that it was for that reason 
that British fleet had been instructed to prevent any Turkish 
ships from leaving the Dardanelles, so long as any German 
officers or crews remained. 

Grand Vizier asserted that he, personally, favoured the 
reopening of the Straits, and he requested me to assure 
His Majesty's Government, in the most formal and solemn 
manner, that Turkish Government would never make war 
upon Great Britain. I said that if the accounts that I had 
received were accurate, Turkish action on Egyptian frontier 
required explanation, where they had already committed 
acts of war. He said that facts had been greatly exagger- 
ated ; that I might rest assured that there would be no 
more acts of aggression ; that there was no thought or ques- 
tion of attacking Egypt ; and that orders had been sent 
for the immediate withdrawal of raiding Bedouins. He 
added that mobilisation was general, and therefore included 
those parts ^of the Empire contiguous to Egypt. He has 
promised to send a formal answer to my representations on 
the subject. 

8 4 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 98. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 28.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 27, 1914. 

MY telegram of to-day. 1 

I have just received a message from the Grand Vizier 
that, if His Majesty's Government will move the fleet a 
little further from the entrance to the Dardanelles, the 
Straits will be reopened. I said that I would ask for your 
instructions.- 

No. 99. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received September 29.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, September 29, 1914. 

DARDANELLES. 

Germans are making capital out of closure of the Straits, 
and I hear on good authority that great pressure is being 
exerted by them to induce Turkey to attack Russia in the 
Black Sea. Turks have, however, refused so far to fall in 
with this scheme. 

Great umbrage has been caused to the Turks by fact that 
it was upon the German Ambassador's order that the Breslau 
went into the Black Sea the other day. 

Grand Vizier is most anxious to reopen the Straits, and 
has again begged me this morning to let him know whether 
His Majesty's Government would not consent to move 
British fleet a little further off. 



No. 100. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, September 29, 1914. 

INFORMATION has reached His Majesty's Government 
that Turkish Minister of War telegraphed to Bin Saud, Emir 
of Nejd, several times towards the end of July that, owing 
to the imminence of war in Europe, arms, ammunition, and 
officers for training his Arabs were being sent to him. 

Vali of Basra has been informed by Turkish Minister of 

1 See No. 97. 

85 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N< 

War that thirty- two secret emissaries, including German 
officers, are on their way to preach a " jehad " in India, 
Afghanistan, and Baluchistan ; that arms and ammunition 
are being sent to Basra under German flag, and that Turkish 
Government are prepared to help Germany in return fo 
assistance received during Balkan war. 



No. 101. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, September 29, 1914. 

UNDER instructions from his Government, Turkish 
Ambassador has reverted to the continued presence in the 
Shatt-el-Arab of H.M.S. Odin. Tewfik Pasha said that we 
would doubtless observe the rules of neutrality in other 
countries, since we had gone to war to defend the neutrality 
of Belgium. I informed him that, as Turkey had violated 
the rules of neutrality on her own initiative, and so long as 
she persisted in her present unneutral attitude, His Majesty's 
Government did not admit that she could appeal to those 
rules. 

In the event of your being approached on this matter 
by the Grand Vizier, you should state that His Majesty's 
Government will observe neutrality towards Turkey, if 
Turkey will do so towards us, and you should inform him 
of the reply which has been given to Turkish Ambassador. 



No. 102. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 
(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, September 30, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of 2yth September 1 and subsequent 
telegrams. 

Dardanelles were closed unnecessarily by Turkish author- 
ities, and there is no reason why they should not be reopened. 
Turkish Government are well aware that we have no inten- 
tion of initiating any aggressive action against Turkey. 

The watch maintained by British fleet outside Dar- 

1 See No. 97 

86 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

dandles cannot be withdrawn so long as German officers 
and men remain in Turkish waters and are in control of 
Turkish fleet. Until, therefore, the German officers and 
crews are repatriated, the request that the fleet should be 
moved cannot be entertained. 

You should inform Grand Vizier. 



No. 103. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 2.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October i, 1914. 

CONSUL at Basra reports to-day that British man-of- 
war has left Turkish waters. 

He had previously telegraphed that he heard there was 
an intention to block Shatt-el-Arab in order to prevent 
departure of British man-of-war, and I had already called 
Grand Vizier's notice to this report. 



No. 104. % 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 3.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 2, 1914. 

INFORMATION continues to reach me corroborating 
reports of Turkish preparations against Egypt. Large trans- 
port camel corps arrived at Jerusalem yesterday, and I 
hear of transport of warlike materials, food-stuffs, and 
military stores on line Jenin-Nablus- Jerusalem, and also 
to Maan. Seven German military officers have been sent 
to Damascus and neighbourhood. This has stimulated pre- 
parations, and it is believed in Syria that Turkish Govern- 
ment has decided upon a movement against Egypt, Damascus 
division being assembled for advance by Akaba, Jerusalem 
division for that by Rafa. Inhabitants at Beirout and 
Haifa are being removed inland as a precautionary measure 
against any action which may be taken by British fleet when 
the advance on Egypt begins. It is reported from Haifa 
that localities along the coast are being garrisoned by newly- 
arrived troops. I have brought the gravity of the existing 
situation to the notice of the Grand Vizier in the strongest 

87 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

terms in a further note, though I do not view any actual 
movement against Egypt as imminent at the rrioment. In 
my note I have informed His Highness that the measures 
now undertaken can have no reason except as a threat 
against Egypt, and that they can no longer be regarded 
as incidental to an ordinary mobilisation of troops in their 
peace stations, and I have stated that His Majesty's Govern- 
ment can only view any further preparations at Jerusalem 
or at Maan in a serious light. 

In addition to above-mentioned military measures, move- 
ments of suspicious individuals have now been supplemented 
by those of a German naval officer named Hilgendorf, who 
is at present on his way from Damascus to Petra with a 
party of eight Germans. It is understood that they will be 
joined by a smaller party from Haifa via Amman, and that 
they are conveying a large supply of explosives. I have 
made representations to the Grand Vizier explaining that 
such hostile enterprises against Great Britain cannot be 
allowed in a neutral country, and that these people must be 
arrested. 

Speaking generally, I am inclined to think that both in 
the neighbourhood of Constantinople, on the Black Sea, 
the Egyptian frontier, and elsewhere, the Turks intend to 
have their troops all ready for action at a favourable point 
should the general European situation afford a good oppor- 
tunity. Should the German admiral take the Goeben into 
the Black Sea and attack the Russian fleet, or should things 
take an unfavourable turn for the Allies, Turkish troops 
would be in a position to cross the Egyptian frontier without 
much further delay. His Majesty's Government will doubt- 
less consider what, if any, military measures are necessary 
for the strengthening of strategical points in the Sinai 
peninsula. . 

No. 105. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 3.) 
Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 3, 1914. 

CLOSING of Dardanelles. 

Germans have certainly long been working for the closing 
of the Straits, presumably with the object of obtaining a 

88 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

freer hand in the Black Sea. There is every reason to- suppose 
that the Dardanelles are closed to shipping not only by 
administrative act, but also effectively by mines. From 
information that reaches me from a reliable source, it seems 
that these mines have been laid by the Germans, and that 
the Turks are unaware of their position. 

(No. 106. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 4.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 4, 1914. 

HIS Majesty's consul at Basra telegraphs as follows 
dated 3rd October : 

' Warships in Shatt-el-Arab. 

" I have received a letter from the Vali saying that your 
Excellency has been informed by the Turkish Government 
of the measures proposed to be adopted in Turkish waters 
with regard to foreign belligerent warships ; he says that 
the Shatt-el-Arab from Fao to Duma is closed to foreign 
warships, being inland waters just as much as Smyrna and 
the Dardanelles. British men-of-war must therefore leave 
Shatt-el-Arab within twenty-four hours. Vali ends by say- 
ing that he will have to apply strict measures if I cannot 
induce captains of His Majesty's ships to go outside Fao. 
I told the Vali that I was asking for instructions from your 
Excellency, and I informed His Majesty's consul at Moham- 
merah of the gist of Vali's communication. 

" It is possible that H.M.S. Lawrence may also be in the 
river." 

No. 107. 
Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, October 4, 1914. 

DARDANELLES. 

It is the Germans who keep the Straits closed, to the great 
detriment of Turkey. If you concur, you may point out. to 
the Turks that the British fleet will move away as soon as 
the German officers and crews leave and the Turkish navy 
ceases to be under German control. We should then have 
'no fear of hostile action on the part of the Turks. 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 108. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey Received October 5.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 5, 1914. 

TURKEY is now bankrupt. Supply of coal is, I am glad 
to say, cut off. Fresh provisions are not coming in, and 
there is some discontent in the navy and even in the army. 
Situation is doubtless very delicate, but Turks would be 
unlikely to go all lengths with Germany, at any rate until 
German success in the war seems more assured. 1 think that 
Turks are possibly less blind to their interests than is gener- 
ally supposed, and I am still of opinion that situation may 
be saved. Time is now on our side, and I am strongly in 
favour of avoiding all occasion of conflict by temporising. 

The question of reopening the Dardanelles is really no 
longer a practical one, for the Straits are now effectively 
closed by mines, and I am informed that their position is 
unknown to the Turks themselves. 

Russian and French Ambassadors agree with me that our 
interests are not primarily affected by the closure, as the 
requisitioning and other measures taken by the Turks against 
our nationals had already stopped our trade. This is the 
line I am taking with the Turks. I think they will begin to 
realise the facts before long. Total cessation of imports is 
already causing anxiety to Minister of Finance, and Turkish 
Government will soon become aware that they are the chief 
losers. The Germans have closed the Straits from political 
motives, partly, no doubt, because they believe that, by 
closing the Straits and preventing the entry of the British 
fleet, it will be easier for them to induce the Turks to take 
action against Russia in the Black Sea ; partly, no doubt, 
in order to injure the trade of the allies and to prevent com- 
munication by sea with Russia. 

I think that self-interested designs of Germany are not 
unknown to the Turks, who are playing up to Germany, 
not with the intention of falling in with those designs, at 
any rate for the present, to the extent of making war, but 
in order to extract as much as possible from her. In the 
opinion of many people, Germans are now in a position to 
take matters into their own hands, if they think that German- 
interests demand it. If, however, the Turks' game is such 

90 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

as I have outlined above, it is undoubtedly a dangerous one. 
As is only natural, Turkish Government profess their ability 
to check any attempt on the part of Germany to take matters 
into their own hands, but it is not quite clear how they would 
be able to prevent it. 



No. 109. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 6.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 6, 1914. 

MILITARY attache had a long interview with Minister 
of War yesterday, from which he derived the impression that 
His Excellency had ambitious schemes in the Arab world 
and in Egypt. These may perhaps refer more to the future, 
and possibly measures are now being taken so as to prepare 
for the eventuality of Great Britain being worsted in war 
with Germany ; meanwhile the way is being paved indirectly 
for present or future action. During the conversation, 
Minister of War disclaimed any intention on the part of the 
Turks of initiating, themselves, any offensive movements 
against Egypt, and pointed out that ordinary Syrian garrison 
had not been reinforced. He said that, as in the case of other 
troops within the Empire, Syrian garrison had been fully 
mobilised. It was being equipped with necessary transport 
animals, &c., on a war scale, and it was being carefully trained 
with the help of the officers of the German mission as else- 
where throughout Turkey. Everything, he said, depended 
on the political situation, for which he was not responsible 
individually ; and it was quite possible that the Syrian 
army corps might finally be moved in another direction, 
even, perhaps, to Constantinople. He scouted the idea of 
individual Germans undertaking enterprises against the Suez 
Canal or elsewhere, but he admitted that proposals had 
certainly been made to the Bedouin tribes to enlist their 
sympathies as supporters of the Empire in all eventualities. 
He defended the concentration of stores at Maan, Nablus, 
and Jerusalem, and he added that no troops, but only gen- 
darmes, had been moved in the direction of Gaza. Never- 
theless, he could not deny that some of the measures taken 
were certainly precautionary against Great Britain, and in 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

justification of this he pointed to the entrance of British 
men-of-war into the Shatt-el-Arab, to the arrival of Indian 
troops in Egypt, and to the presence of the British fleet in 
Turkish territorial waters outside the Dardanelles. Military 
attache said that, as far as the action of the fleet and of his 
Majesty's Government were concerned, this was due to 
infringement of neutrality by Turks, and Great Britain 
certainly had not the slightest intention of making any 
attack upon Turkey. It was quite ridiculous to suppose 
that the arrival of Indian troops in Egypt had anything to 
do with hostility to Turkey. Minister of War at once 
advanced such arguments as that Turkey had maintained 
her neutrality ; that German officers and men on auxiliary 
ships were entirely under Turkish control, indeed they were 
in the Turkish service. Military attache said that Turks 
could not be surprised that Great Britain should be pre- 
occupied if Turkish troops were assembled further south than 
Jerusalem or Beersheba on the one side, or Maan on the 
other. 



No. no. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 7.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 6, 1914. 

HIS Majesty's consul at Basra telegraphs to-day as 
follows : 

" Vali says that he must obey the orders which he has re- 
ceived. They are to the effect that the whole of the Shatt-el- 
Arab and sea within six miles of the shore are closed to warships, 
as they are territorial waters. Any men-of-war disregarding 
this prohibition will be fired upon by the guns at Fao. These 
regulations will be enforced from to-morrow evening, Wednes- 
day, 7th October. They are somewhat obscure, but they 
mean that H.M.S. Espiegle in the Karun and H.M.S. Dal- 
housie at Abadan will be interned, unless they leave before 
the time fixed. No other British man-of-war is this side of 
Fao. H.M.S. Lawrence is in the Shatt-el-Arab to the best 
of my belief. His Majesty's consul at Mohammerah has 
been informed of the above." 




DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. in. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, October 7, 1914. 

BRITISH warships in the Shatt-el-Arab. 
H.M.S. Espiegle, Odin, and Dalhousie are not in Turkish 
waters. There can be no question of their being ordered out 
by the Turkish Government. According to generally 
accepted principles of international law, Turkish territorial 
waters extend to 3 miles out to sea from the coast. Two of 
His Majesty's ships are being instructed to keep outside the 
-mile limit, while the remaining ship is being told to remain 
t Mohammerah, which does not belong to Turkey. Our 
ng-established right to pass freely up and down Shatt-el- 
ab at all times is not in question, and it must be recognised 
at we fully reserve, that right. 



No. 112. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 8.) 

Sir, Constantinople, September 22, 1914. 

REFERRING to your telegram of 25th August, 1 in 
which I was authorised to convey to His Imperial Majesty 
a message from the King, on the occasion of my reception 
in audience after my return from leave of absence, I have 
the honour to state that I was received in audience by His 
Imperial Majesty yesterday. 

In view of the difficulty of conversing with His Majesty 
in an ordinary way, I prepared a written statement con- 
taining the message, and I read a separate statement of my 
own on the subject of the withdrawal of Admiral Limpus, 
having previously arranged with the Master of the Cere- 
monies, who was to act as interpreter, that this should be 
translated clause by clause as I read it. I enclose a 
copy of these statements which I read as arranged, subject 
to some slight modifications necessitated by the turn which 
the interview took. 

His Imperial Majesty seemed not only fully to grasp the 
sense of the communication, to which he listened with eager 

1 See No. 34. 

93 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Nc 

attention, but responded to it immediately with great vivacity 
and vehemence, showing a considerable grasp of the issues 
with which his country is now confronted. 

I was much impressed with the earnestness of His Imperial 
Majesty's repeated assurances of his desire and determination 
to maintain the ancient friendship between the two Empires 
and to avoid war with any Power. 

A memorandum is enclosed recording what passed at my 
audience. 

I have, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 



ENCLOSURE i IN No. 112. 

Communication read to the Sultan by- Sir L. Mallet on 
September 21, 1914. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

MY Sovereign has commanded me to express his profound 
regret to your Majesty that the exigencies of unforeseen 
circumstances have compelled his Government to detain- 
the two warships intended for the Imperial Turkish Navy. 
His Majesty the King is aware of the painful impression 
that this action must have made upon your Majesty, but he 
thinks that the decision of his Government to return these 
vessels to Turkey at the end of the present war will suffice 
to convince you that their detention was due to no unfriendly 
intention towards an Empire bound to his by a friendship of 
more than a century. It is owing to the fact that this friend- 
ship has never been broken that my Sovereign trusts that 
Turkey will do nothing to prevent his Government from 
acting up to this decision, that she will maintain strict and 
absolute neutrality during the present war, and that there 
will be no delay in putting an end to certain facts contrary 
to neutrality which have caused some anxiety as to the 
attitude of the Turkish Government. 



94 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ENCLOSURE 2 IN No. 112. 

Statement by Sir L. Mallet with regard to Admiral Limpus 

on September 22, 1914. 

U (TRANSLATION.) 

ADMIRAL LIMPUS, who, under your Majesty's auspices, 
is rendered such great services to the Turkish navy, has 
begged me to inform your Majesty of his regret that he was 
unable to pay his respects to your Majesty before leaving 
Constantinople. Your Majesty is aware of circumstances 
necessitating his departure from the moment when he and 
the naval mission under his command were relegated to a 
position in which they could do nothing further for the wel- 
fare of the Turkish navy. Recalled in these regrettable 
circumstances by my Government, Admiral Limpus was 
obliged to obey the orders of his superiors and to leave Con- 
stantinople within too short a space to be able to request an 
audience of your Majesty. 



ENCLOSURE 3 IN No. 112. 

Memorandum. 

THE Sultan listened to my communication in silence 
until the Master of the Ceremonies translated the clause 
containing the words " quelques faits contraires a la neu- 
tralite." He then broke in with an eager disclaimer of any 
unneutral conduct on the part of Turkey. On my mention- 
ing, as a specific instance, the retention of German officers 
and crews on board the Goeben and Breslau, His Majesty 
explained with some lucidity that they had been kept for 
a short time to train the Turkish crews. The " captains " 
available in the Turkish navy were unequal to the task, and 
it was necessary for that reason to do what had been done. 
The German crews would be sent away in " five or ten days," 
and the officers also. Only one or two of the latter would 
be retained. He would speak frankly, he said. Great 
Britain was a great Power with a great navy, and had no 
need of the two ships of the Ottoman fleet. Great Britain 
had taken them, but he knew they would be given back at 
the end of the war. On my remarking that Great Britain 
wished to make absolutely sure of the position at sea, the 

95 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Sultan again said that she was too great a maritime Power 
to need these ships, but he once more stated his conviction, 
that they would be given back. Anyhow, he and his Govern- 
ment were not going to depart from their neutrality. His 
Majesty repeated this once more, saying that they knew 
that that was the only path of safety, and that his great 
desire was to keep the peace. He laid stress on the friend- 
ship between Great Britain and Turkey. This was the 
more striking, because the words were not put into his mouth, 
as might be supposed, by myself, the Master of Ceremonies 
having quite failed to render the parts of my communication 
in which I dwelt on past relations between England and 
Turkey. 

When, referring to what the Sultan had said about the 
need for training his navy, I expressed regret that the British 
naval mission had not been allowed to complete that task. 
His Majesty did not seem to grasp the main point, but on 
my referring to the circumstances of Admiral Limpus's 
departure, he broke in with some emotion, and said twice 
over that it was not by his wish that the admiral had left 
Constantinople without an audience. The admiral had not 
asked for one or come to the Palace. Had he done so he, 
the Sultan, would have postponed all other business in order 
to see him. I said I would convey this to Admiral Limpus. 
I also promised to communicate the Sultan's assurances, 
which I said I sincerely believed, to the King, who would be 
gratified at receiving them. 

Just before I took my leave, his Majesty was good enough 
to express his warm personal regard, and made some further 
kind remarks about the value which he attached to his per- 
sonal relations with me. The Sultan spoke throughout in 
the most homely language, but with great liveliness and 
point, and with obvious sincerity. His assurances about 
his desire to observe neutrality and remain at peace, rather 
lost than gained in force by the way in which the Master of 
Ceremonies (whose mind is slow and whose French is defective) 
translated them. His remarks on the embargo on the two 
ships were plainly, but not discourteously or resentfully, 
worded. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 113. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 8.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 7, 1914. 

BRITISH warships in Shatt-el-Arab. 
Grand Vizier assured me this afternoon that Vali of Basra 
had been instructed to avoid all interference with His 
lajesty's ships in the Shatt-el-Arab. 



No. 114. 
nr L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 8.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 7, 1914. 

THERE has been fighting during the last few days on 
rontier between Russian troops and Kurds supported by 
'urkish troops. Last night Russian Ambassador made 
>trong representations to the Grand Vizier, and said that 
ie Turkish Government must restrain the activities of their 
roops on the frontier. Furthermore, Russian consul had 
been arrested. Replying to these . representations, Grand 
Vizier assured Russian Ambassador, in writing, that the 
consul should be released at once and that the fighting should 
cease. Russian Ambassador has certain information that 
Turks are being incited to fight by Germans and Austrians. 
His Excellency agrees with me that Grand Vizier is honestly 
exercising what influence he has in favour of peace, but it is 
doubtful if he has the power to restrain the military party 
under Enver Pasha. 

No. 115. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October n.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 10, 1914. 

IT is highly probable that for some time past money has 
been sent to Syria mainly with the object of subsidising the 
Bedouins. It is also supposed that the Germans in Syria 
have had sums of money with them. The following is the 
number of German military officers known to be in Syria 
at present : Seven who went there some time ago, of whom 
Colonel Kress von Kressenstein is one, four who arrived 
October 2nd at Damascus, and five more who arrived there 

Nava II G gj 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

on October 6th. My information is to the effect that seven 
more may since have arrived at Alexandretta. Meanwhile, 
another party of Turkish sailors is leaving Constantinople 
overland for Bagdad and the Tigris. Information has just 
reached me from Damascus to the effect that Colonel von 
Kressenstein had gone to Maan to inspect, but only two 
military trains with details and stores had left in the last 
two days. West of the Jordan no movements had taken 
place. Two railway vans of dynamite had left Damascus 
for Beirout ; 4,000 Mosul troops had reached Aleppo, but 
were waiting there for the present. 



No. 116. 
Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, October n, 1914. 

IT seems to me that the key of the situation lies in Con- 
stantinople. It would be fatal to give way to Turkish de- 
mands beyond a certain point, especially in the Persian 
Gulf, but, nevertheless, I entirely share your view that His 
Majesty's Government should avoid giving even a plausible 
cause of offence to Turkey. I think that our attitude during 
the past eight weeks has shown irrefutably that we desire to 
avoid a rupture with Turkey. 



No. 117. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 12.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 12, 1914. 

I HAVE received note dated October nth from Porte, 
of which following is substance : 

From information received by Porte, two British men 
of-war have one after the other passed up the Shatt-el-Arab 
to anchor at Mohammerah. 

According to Treaty of Erzeroum, the town of Mo- 
hammerah and its port belong to Persia, whilst Shatt-el-Arab 
is under Turkish domination. 

This principle was re-affirmed by Turco-British Declara- 
tion of July 29th, 1913, which specifies that from Nahr 

98 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Nazaille, above Mohammerah, frontier follows river to sea, 
leaving under Turkish sovereignty river itself and all the 
islands except ten, and modern port and anchorage of Mo- 
hammerah. This port and the anchorage thus formed an 
enclave in Ottoman waters which must be traversed in order 
to reach them. Consequently men-of-war in question have 
not respected Imperial territory in penetrating into her 
internal waters and have disregarded neutrality of the Porte, 
whose duty it is not to allow passage of foreign men-of-war. 

On these grounds the Porte asks me to cause instructions 
to be sent to commanders of men-of-war in question to leave 
the port of Mohammerah within eight days and to go to sea. 



No. 118. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 12.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 12, 1914. 

MY despatch of October 4th. 1 

I have received note from the Porte in reply to my note 
of October 2nd respecting Turkish preparations against 
Egypt. 

It says that military activity in Syria is common to all 
provinces of the Empire, and is natural consequence of mo- 
bilisation, having no other object than to put Turkey on a 
footing to defend her neutrality. Turkey's position being 
one of simple and legitimate precautions, it will be readily 
recognised that it would not be conceivable that she should 
change it in order to attack Egypt, which is one of her own 
provinces. 

The Porte goes on to observe that, although I have on 
several occasions assured Grand Vizier that His Majesty's 
Government have no intention of altering status of Egypt, 
yet declaration that Egypt is in a state of war, dismissal of 
German and Austrian agents, who receive their exequaturs 
from the Porte, and above all arrival in Egypt of important 
contingents from India as well as other acts, have attracted 
serious attention of Imperial Government and have created 
real anxiety. 

Note concludes by reiterating to me assurance that 
1 Received on October igth. See No. 143. 

99 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [No 

Turkey has no hostile intention towards any Power what- 
ever, and that military preparations have purely and ex- 
clusively defensive character. 

I think that it would be right to remind Grand Vizier 
that I have always made it perfectly clear that undertaking 
not to change the status of Egypt was conditional on Turkey 
maintaining strict neutrality. 



No. 119. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 12.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 12, 1914. 

THIS morning Turkish fleet left Constantinople and 
steamed into the Black Sea. 



No. 120. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 12.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 12, 1914. 

I DO not think that we could now leave Mohammerah 
without loss of prestige. In view of receipt of Vali's note 
respecting presence of British men-of-war in the Shatt-el- 
Arab, effect of moving His Majesty's ships at the request of 
the Turkish Government, once they were sent to Moham- 
merah, might have led the Arabs to misinterpret the action 
of His Majesty's Government. 

I would not regard the note in the light of an ultimatum, 
though it is not impossible that Turks might close the channel, 
and thus prevent His Majesty's ships from going out, except 
in agreement with the Turkish authorities. 

General belief is that Germans are at present applying 
considerable pressure upon the Turks to take part in the 
war, but that the Turks are so far resisting. My anxiety is 
lest the resistance which the Minister of War is encountering 
from the Moderates should be weakened by any act on our 
part which could be interpreted as aggressive by the Turks. 
Enver Pasha is said to be in favour of immediate co-operation 
with the Germans. 



100 



u 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 121. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October ' 13.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 12, 1914. 

MY telegram of October 12th. 1 

I have informed Grand Vizier that I was surprised to 
receive his Highness's note, inviting His Majesty's ships to 
leave Mohammerah within eight days. I knew his Highness 
had no intention of creating difficulties, but it sounded almost 
like an ultimatum. Mohammerah was, as his Highness 
was aware, a Persian port. Grand Vizier replied at once 
that there was no question of an ultimatum. I explained 
His Majesty's Government's point of view, and he said that 
he was at present awaiting your, reply to Turkish note. 

In the course of ensuing conversation, His Highness 
seemed as confident as ever that he was able to resist German 
pressure, and he repeated that he was absolutely determined 
to avoid war in any case. 

In reply to some observations of mine in regard to Turkish 
fighting recently reported in Persia, he said that strict orders 
had been sent that no Turkish troops were to cross the frontier. 



No. 122. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 13.) 

"(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 13, 1914. 

CONSULAR officer at Basra telegraphs as follows : 
" I have been notified by Vali that H.M.S. Espiegle must 
be interned until the end of the war unless she departs from 
Mohammerah and the Shatt-el-Arab within eight days from 
the nth instant. If she attempts to leave after the ex- 
piration of the said period, her passage through the Shatt- 
el-Arab will be stopped by force of arms. The Dalhousie 
departed several days ago. 

:t I have informed His Majesty's consul at Mohammerah 
of the Vali's communication."' 



1 See No. 117. 

101 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 123. 
Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, October 13, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of October 12th. 1 

Your Excellency should make the following reply to the 
Turkish note protesting against the presence of British men- 
of-war in the Shatt-el-Arab : 

" As regards the passage through the Shatt-el-Arab to 
and from the port of Mohammerah, His Majesty's Govern- 
ment maintain in principle the legitimacy of such passage, 
but express themselves quite ready to examine in a friendly 
spirit any representation that the Ottoman Government may 
make on the subject, if the Sublime Porte themselves strictly 
observe their neutrality, which they have gravely violated 
by continuing to retain the German officers and crews on the 
Goeben and Breslau, in spite of all assurances and promises 
to the contrary. 

" His Majesty's Government are prepared to respond in 
a conciliatory spirit whenever the Ottoman Government shall 
have conformed, as a neutral, to the principles of international 
law prescribing the duties of neutral Powers. 

" As regards the presence of British warships at the port 
of Mohammerah, this is a matter with which the Sublime 
Porte is in no wise concerned, since Mohammerah is not in 
Ottoman territory ; Porte have, therefore, no right to request 
their departure." 

No. 124. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir dward Grey. (Received October 14.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 14, 1914. 

MOSLEMS in Aleppo district are reported to have been 
so inveigled and incited by German and Turkish deliberate 
official misrepresentations and falsehoods of every kind that 
masses seem to believe German Emperor has embraced Islamic 
faith, and that Germans are fighting for Islam against Russia. 



1 See No. 117. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 125. 

Mr. Cheetham to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 15.) 

Cairo, September 30, 1914. 

SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to transmit to you herewith copies 
of two interrogatories which I have received from the Adviser 
to the Ministry of the Interior, regarding the case of Lieu- 
tenant Robert Mors, a German employe of the Alexandria 
City Police, who was arrested on his return from leave, via 
Constantinople. He explained his return by stating that 
he had been excused from military service in Germany. 

I have, &c., 

MILNE CHEETHAM. 



ENCLOSURE i IN No. 125. 
Interrogatories of Lieutenant Mors. 



(I-) 
MULAZIM AWAL ROBERT CASIMIR OTTO MORS, 

Egyptian Police, examined, states : 

" At Constantinople I was acquainted with a German 
official who was formerly in the German diplomatic agency 
in Cairo. This gentleman, whose name I must refuse to give, 
was in agreement with the Turkish Government on the subject 
of military operations in Egypt, and as he knew that I knew 
Egypt very, well, he conducted me to Enver Pasha, the 
Turkish Minister of War. The latter questioned me on the 
military situation ; if it were true that the British had 
disarmed the Egyptian army, &c. I replied that I did not 
know, and thought it unlikely. I then left the presence of 
Enver, and he remained talking with the German official. 
I forgot to mention that he asked me if I would participate 
in operations in Egypt. I replied that I would only participate 
in open military action. I was afterwards informed by the 
German official that Enver had sent officers from the Turkish 
army to Egypt to prepare native public opinion for action 
in favour of Turkey. I also heard from the German official 
that one of Enver's emissaries was an officer of the Egyptian 

103 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

army, but I did not know his name tHen. I must mention 
here that I understood from various things and from conver- 
sations that I overheard between the said German official 
and various people that he had the intention of sending 
printed matters and explosives to Egypt. I also under- 
stood that it was the Egyptian army officer who was charged 
with the transport- of these things. We were held up in the 
Dardanelles for six days owing to the wreck of a cargo boat. 
On the second we were stopped there ; the ' Bash Reis ' 
(boatswain) of the ' Saidieh ' brought me a small leather bag 
(which I recognised as being the property of the said German 
official), and told me that somebody on board had given it 
to him to give to the passenger in No. 7 cabin, viz., my cabin. 
At the same time the ' Bash Reis ' asked me if it belonged to 
me. I said ' Yes/ because I began to suspect that the con- 
tents of the bag were the explosives that I had heard about. 
I opened the bag and found it was half full of packing material ; 
and on probing it I found there were hard substances under- 
neath. I thought that if I said that the sack did not belong 
to me it might be handed over to the ship's captain, and it 
would then be discovered what the contents were, and an 
accident might even occur. I did not know at this time that 
the ' Bash Reis ' had guilty knowledge of the contents of 
the bag, and therefore told him that there was nothing in 
it. I then took it into my cabin to examine it, and found 
the two tin boxes which you seized. Whilst we were still 
in the Dardanelles as far as I can remember it was the fourth 
day there the Egyptian officer came to me and said in 
Arabic : ' Are you not the passenger occupying No. 7 cabin ? ' 
I said : ' Yes ; why ? ' and he said : ' Have you received the 
things ? ' (' Wasal-lak el shay ? ') I replied : ' Was it you 
who sent it to me ? ' He said : ' Perhaps ' (' Yimkin/) 

" I then said : ' What have such things to do with me ? ' 
He said : ' I cannot keep such things myself/ I then asked 
him who gave them to him. He replied : ' Fouad/ I do 
not know who this Fouad is exactly, but it is possibly Ahmad 
Fouad at Constantinople, whom I have seen with the German 
official, and who is an intimate friend of Sheikh Abd-el-Aziz 
Shawish, according to all reports. He then told me his 
name was Ahmad Hamuda, and that he had fought against 
the Italians in Tripoli. He showed me his card, on which 

104 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

was written : ' Ahmad Hamuda, Officer of the Egyptian 
Army/ I do not remember if the card bore his rank or not. 
I saw Ahmad Hamuda Effendi after leaving Piraeus, when 
he came and asked me what I had done with the tin boxes. 
I understood, from the way he put it, that he wanted to take 
them from me, but this is only an idea I had. I told him I 
had thrown them overboard. When we were anchored in 
the harbour, he again came and asked me to take his revolver 
ashore. I replied that I had my own revolver, and that I 
should be searched like everybody else. He then asked me 
if they would search his wife. I said : ' Naturally ; they 
have female searchers at the Customs/ 

" I had the intention of throwing the tin boxes overboard, 
but I was afraid that they might explode on striking the 
water. I therefore procured some cord with which I meant 
to lower them into the water. I never got a chance, and I 
was afraid that the propeller would catch the cord, and the 
steamer might be blown up or damaged. 

" Another thing which deterred me was that I was afraid 
the boxes might float and be dangerous to shipping, so I 
postponed it until our arrival at Smyrna, where I telegraphed 
to the German official at Constantinople stating that two tin 
boxes with unknown contents had been handed to me, and 
I desired instructions. At Piraeus I received a telegram 
telling me to throw them overboard, which, for the reasons 
I have just given, I again postponed/' 

Q. Have you any witnesses to prove that the boatswain 
gave you the bag containing the tin boxes ? A . Yes, a certain 
Fortunato, the cabin steward, was present, and I gave him 
the bag with the packing after removing the tin boxes, asking 
him to throw the packing overboard. He did so, and returned 
me the bag. 

On arrival. in port here I gave the tin boxes to Mohamed 
Ali, the purser, and asked him to keep them with him until 
he had a chance to throw them overboard without being 
observed by the various launches. I also recommended him 
not to throw them from the deck, but to descend the gangway 
and drop them into the sea carefully after weighting them 
with a piece of iron. I told him they contained dangerous 
substances, and to be very careful. I noticed he seemed 
afraid, and told him if he did not wish to do it he should give 

105 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

them back to me. He said he did not mind doing it, and if 
I wished he would pass them through the Customs for me 
without difficulty. 

Q. Why did you select Mohamed Ali for the mission ? 
A . Because I heard at Piraeus that he was a Turkish agent. 

Q. From whom did you hear this ? A . From a Turk at 
the German consulate at Piraeus. 

Q. How did you meet this Turk ? A. He was introduced 
to me by the German vice-consul. 

?. What is his name ? A . I do not remember. He gave 
is visiting card, and I destroyed it. 

Q. How did you approach Mohamed Ali on the subject ? 
A. I showed him the visiting card of the Turk, to which he 
said at once, salaaming with his hand, " Ahlan wa Sahlan." 

Q. Where did you procure the map of the Suez Canal ? 
A. It was given to me by the German official. 

Q. W T hy did he give you the map ? I do not know. 
We were talking together, and he showed me the map. I 
admired it, and he told me to take it. 

Q. Where did you get the cypher found with your effects ? 
A . I invented it with the assistance of the German official, 
for correspondence with him at Constantinople. 

Q. Where is the key to it ? A. I destroyed it. 

Q. Can you tell me what it was ? A. It was to let him 
know if the Egyptian army had been disbanded ; if there 
were difficulties for me here to enter the country ; by what 
route I intended to return, &c. 

R. MORS. 

Alexandria, September 28, 1914. 



(2.) 

Enquiry into Mors's Case, held on September 28, 1914. 
i. Mors interrogated. 

Q. Can you explain this telegram (telegram addressed 
to " Prill, Bacos, Bulkely, Alexandria," from Schneider) ? 
A. No. You must ask the French lady who is staying with 
us (" il faut demander a Mademoiselle chez nous "), as it is 
a private telegram of hers. It seems to be asking news of her 
health. 

106 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Q. Who is Schneider ? A. I do not know. 

Q. Who is Omar Fawzi and Suliman Askari ? A. Two 
officers I met in Constantinople whom the German introduced 
to me. 

Q. Where did you meet them ? A. At the hotel Tokatlian 
in Constantinople. 

Q. What is the name of this German official ? A. I do 
not know. 

Q. When was he in Cairo ? A. Two years ago. 

Q. Was this your first visit to Constantinople ? A. Yes. 

Q. Did you know this gentleman before ? A. No. 

Q. You realise that your position is a serious one ? A. 
Yes. 

Q. You refuse to give his name ? A. Yes. 

Q. Can you tell me the name of the Turk whom you met 
in Alexandria? A. I must refuse, but if you suggest his 
name I will tell you if you are right or wrong. 

Q. Do you deny that the German official is Baron Oppen- 
heim ? A. Yes ; Oppenheim is at Berlin. 

Q. Do you know Baron Oppenheim? A. I have never 
seen, but often heard of him. He is over 50 years of age. 
According to Berlin opinion, he is merely a " blagueur," and 
of no importance. 

Q. Did you see Ezzedin Fawzi in Constantinople? A. 
No ; he had left before I arrived. 

Q. What did he do there ? A. I do not know. I heard 
from my sister-in-law that he had left for Constantinople. 
He was charged with my private affairs. 

Q. Was not this rather a serious arrangement to make ? 
A. No ; he was always a great friend of mine. 

Q. Do you know his political opinions ? A . No. 

Q. You appear to have had some previous knowledge 
of the preparation of explosives for use in Egypt ? A . I 
heard in Constantinople that something of the nature of 
explosives were to be prepared and sent to Egypt. 

Q. What was the ultimate destination of these things ? 
A . I don't know. I was only three days at Constantinople. 

Q. Have these explosives penetrated into Egypt ? 
A. I don't know. Perhaps other emissaries arrived in Egypt 
at the same time as I did. 

Q. Who is Fahmy Bey? A. Mohamed Bey Fahmy, 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Master of Ceremonies in the Khedive's household, who arrived 
in Constantinople in the Saidieh. 

Q. How did you get to know him ? A. He rented our 
house three years ago. 

Q. Who sent you this telegram ? A. It was the answer 
to my telegram. 

Q. Why did you send the first telegram? A. To see 
if it were possible and advisable, in view of the reported state 
of things in Egypt, for me to return here, or if it would be 
better for my family to join me there. 

Q. Is this the bag you brought with you ? A . Yes. 

Q. Who sent it to you ? A. I do not know. The boat- 
swain brought it to me saying it was for whoever occupied 
cabin No. 7. Probably Ahmed Hamuda gave it to him to 
give to me. 

Q. Did you see Enver Pasha in Contantinople ? A . Yes. 
I had a conversation with him. 

Q. How was it that you had this conversation ? A. The 
German official introduced me to Enver at the War Office. 

Q. What did Enver Pasha say to you ? A . He questioned 
me as to the state of affairs in Egypt. 

Q. Is the German official a German naval officer ? A . No. 

Q. Did Enver Pasha express any opinions ? A. He said 
that he wanted a campaign against Egypt, should war break 
out, for which two army corps would be required. 

Q. What did he want you to do here ? A. He asked 
me if I would help. 

Q. What did you reply ? A. I agreed to do so in the 
event of a military expedition. 

Q. Who gave you the idea that explosives were being 
prepared to be sent to Egypt ? A. I suspected the German 
officer, whom I saw with an Egyptian Effendi unknown 
to me. 

Q. How did Ahmed Hamuda get to know you ? A. He 
came to see me on the voyage in the Dardanelles, I think. 

Q. Why did he trust you ? A . I do not know. 

Q. Had you made no previous promises ? A. No. 

Q. Whom did you see at the Piraeus? A. The consul, 
where I saw the telegrams and the Turkish gentleman who 
told me of Mohamed All, the purser. 

Q. Why did you send this telegram ? %A. Because I knew 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

something was being prepared, and suspected that the bag 
had some connection with it. Besides, there were several 
emissaries on board, and there had been many circulars in 
the hotels in Constantinople. 

Q. Who were these emissaries ? A. I do not know, but 
I heard that Sheikh Shawish had said there were thirteen who 
had left. 

Q. Will you explain how you knew of these preparations ? 
A. Through the German official and various people I met 
casually at odd times. The German official arrived in Con- 
stantinople from Berlin the day before me. 

Q. Did Omar Fawzi speak to you of Egypt? A. Yes; 
he said he had fought in Tripoli and had been to Egypt where 
he had many friends. 

Q. Where did you meet the Turk at Piraeus IA. At the 
German consulate. 

Q. Have you ever visited Tchiboukli Palace? A. No. 

Q. Why did you write Omar Fawzi's name hi the piece 
of paper? A. Because I had to meet him at the "Petit 
Champs/' a restaurant in Constantinople, and I wished to 
remember. 

Q. Will you explain what the code found in your tarbush 
was ? A . The references to cotton were information about 
troops, the best quality denoted British and the inferior 
Native soldiers. Kantars referred to the number of men. 
Certain phrases referred to the disarmament of Egyptian 
troops. " Suis dispose/' I recollect, meant that I should 
return. 

Q. When did you want to leave the country? A. As 
soon as possible, for I understood that all Germans serving 
under foreign Governments had to resign. 

Q. What did " venez par le premier bateau " mean ? 
A. That things were in a dangerous state here. 

Q. And No. 15 ? A. "Don't come to Turkey/' 

Q. " Ne venez pas-tout arrange " ? A. I have forgotten. 

Q. " Venez de suite " ? A. I have forgotten. 

Q. " Bebe va mieux " ? A. I have forgotten all this 
was made up hurriedly before I left Constantinople during 
the last half -hour when I was packing my luggage. I did 
not look at it again before I destroyed the key ; it is now 
three weeks since I left Constantinople. 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

Q. How is it that you know some of the expressions and 
not others ? A. In view of what I have explained, it seems 
clear. Those referring to the " Sante de la famille " refer to 
Turkish officers, but I cannot remember the details. 

Q. Did it refer to their going to the Red Sea? A. I 
don't know, but I have an idea it was with a view to finding 
out what difficulties were placed in the way of Turkish officers 
in Egypt. 

Q. Who was to have taken charge of the explosives here ? 
A. The agents of Sheikh Shawish. 

Q. Who ? A. I do not know. 

Q. Did you not know that the German official was going 
to give you these things ? A . No. 

Q. How did you recognise the bag ? A. I saw it in the 
hotel at Constantinople and recognised the repair which I 
had seen at a restaurant in the hands of an effendi. 

Q. How did you get to know so many people ? A. I 
met them casually at the hotel and the German Embassy, 
where I called and learnt that it was difficult to get to Egypt. 

Q. How did you meet the German official ? A. I met him 
at the embassy. 

2. Boatswain interrogated. 

Q. Have you seen this bag before? A. Yes. I first 
saw it on board the Saidieh in Constantinople on September 
3rd with a sailor called Ali, who asked me to give it to the 
occupant of cabin No. 7. 

Q. Where was it given to you? A. I think on deck. 
I told Ali that he had better give it to a steward in the first 
class, which he did. The next morning Mors asked me who 
had given me the bag. 

Q. Why should Mors have asked you this ? How was 
it that he connected the bag with you ? A . Because I told 
the steward to give it to him, and perhaps he told Mors so. 

Q. When did Mors speak to you ? A. The next morning 
at about 8 a.m. He brought me the bag and asked me who 
gave it to me, as he wanted to give me a tip. I refused the 
latter as it was not I who brought the bag. 

Q. Who gave Ali the bag ? A. He told me an Arab did 
so. 

Q. Was the latter on the steamer ? A. I do not know. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

3. Mors and Boatswain confronted. 

Q. (To Mors.) Who brought you this bag? A. This 
boatswain with the steward. 

Q. Did you offer the boatswain a tip ? A. Yes, but he 
refused it. 

Q. Why did you want to give it to him if the bag was not 
yours ? A . I accepted the bag for the reasons I have already 
given you. 

Q. Why offer him a tip ? A. For the sake of my friend, 
and because I did not want the matter exposed. 

Q. Who gave him the bag? A. I do not know, but it 
must have been Ahmad Hamuda. 

Q. (To the Boatswain.) Do you know Ahmad Hamuda ? 
A. No. 

Alexandria, September 29, 1914. 



No. 126. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 15.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 14, 1914. 

THE whole of the Turkish fleet has re-entered the 
Bosphorus. 

The Leros and Erissos, two German steamers which have 
been convoyed from Sulina by the Breslau, sailed under the 
Turkish flag until they were inside the Bosphorus. The 
same thing was done on a former occasion, when two ships 
from Black Sea ports were similarly convoyed by the Breslau. 



No. 127. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 15.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 14, 1914. 

ABOUT 600 Moslem " fedahis," dressed in various guises, 
have arrived at Aleppo in batches during past fortnight, 
their head being an officer related to Ottoman Minister of 
War ; 400 of these came from Smyrna, where they had incited 
Moslems against Greeks. At Aleppo they intrigued, with the 
aid of Committee of Union and Progress, with sheikhs against 
Great Britain. Discourses of a guarded anti-British tendency 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

were pronounced in mosques. The last batch left Aleppo 
October I2th by rail. Parties of them have proceed to Hama, 
Horns, Baalbek, Damascus, the Hauran, to incite sheikhs 
against Great Britain, and they are to continue their journey 
south by Hedjaz Railway, and to find their way into Egypt 
to incite Moslems there. Many of the principal sheikhs of 
Aleppo seem now gained over to side of Germany. 



No. 128. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 15.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 14, 1914. 

WITH the object of spreading the belief that Great 
Britain is the enemy of Islam, the German Embassy daily 
emits a stream of mendacity and calumny, which is circulated 
throughout the country by the Turkish newspapers, all of 
those in the capital being in the pay of the German Embassy 
as a result of the large sums spent by it in corruption both 
in Constantinople and in the provinces. 



No. 129. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sn Edward Grey. (Received October 16.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 15, 1914. 

SON of Kurdish chief Issa, who is stated to have influence 
in Mesopotamia, and who has been in Constantinople for 
instructions, is said to have left for Basra to work anti- 
English propaganda, and other agents, including Germans, 
are said to be on their way to Afghanistan on similar errand. 

I learn that Zekki Pasha, commander of 8th corps, has 
lately received 5,000^. to distribute amongst Bedouins, and 
that as much as 35,000^. in gold left here by train on I2th 
for Syria. Senator Abdurrahman is working among Bedouins 
at Maan and Muntaz Bey on the west by Beersheba and 
Jerusalem. 

Party of Turkish sailors mentioned as having left here 
by train for Basra are now stated to be on the way to Akaba 
with consignment of metal boats. Another lot of boats is 
at Rayak, possibly on the way to Beirout. Quantities of 
dynamite have been sent to the coast towns of Syria, probably 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to serve for mining purposes of land defence. This is in 
addition to sea mines which have been also forwarded. 
Numbers of " working battalions " (soldiers as yet untrained), 
are road constructing in southern Syria. 

All above and previous reports in a similar sense show 
that there is very considerable activity being directed in a 
sense hostile to us, and this activity is being worked by 
German influence and agents in every conceivable direction. 
Probably Government as a whole have little control over 
these activities, but do not disapprove of them. As regards 
actual military preparations, German element has sufficient 
power to persuade the authorities on certain points. German 
press is directing movement, and has obtained despatch of 
numbers of German officers to Syria to superintend prepara- 
tions and training of corps there for war, concentration of 
stores and supplies at suitable spots, preparation of lines 
of communication and defence of coast. 



No. 130. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 16.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 15, 1914. 

GERMAN plots have been so extensive that it is conceiv- 
able that they may introduce individuals into Egypt who, 
impersonating Indian soldiers, may cause mischief. 

In substantiation of this I have to state that His Majesty's 
consul at Aleppo has learnt that a tailor in that town has 
been commissioned to make a variety of Indian costumes and 
head-dresses on design and measurement supplied by German 
officers there. 

No. 131. 
Sir H. Bax-Ironside to Sir Edward Grey. ^(Received October 16.) 

(Telegraphic.) Sophia, October 16, 1914. 

NINETY-SEVEN cases of bullion passed through Rust- 
chuk yesterday for Constantinople, accompanied by six 
Germans. This consignment was preceded by 200 other 
cases. In the last three weeks many heavy cases and stores 
have passed through same town. 

Armaments are believed to be sent through in the night. 

Naval II-H 113 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 132. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 16.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 16, 1914. 

LOCAL authorities at Jaffa have distributed 10,000 
rifles amongst Bedouins, each with 100 cartridges, 5,000 
ten-shot to owners of horses and riding camels, and 5,000 
single-shot to owners of baggage camels. Bedouins have 
been employed to dig wells, and Germans to fit them with 
motor pumps ; ovens have been built near frontier. 

It is believed that Bedouins' next move is to be towards 
Akaba. 

Horses and mules throughout the whole district are being 
requisitioned most energetically. 



No. 133. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 17.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 16, 1914. 

MAJOR OMAR FEVZI BEY, son of Arimm Effendi, ex- 
Governor-General of Damascus, accompanied by five German 
officers, arrived at Aleppo October i4th from Constantinople 
bringing 25,000 liras. The officers passed for engineers, and 
are buying saddle horses to proceed to Bagdad via Ana. 
From Ana they are to take two batteries of guns, which, 
together with money and loads of rifles and ammunition taken 
from Aleppo, they are to deliver to Ibn-el-Reshid. 

Railway trucks full of dynamite for Alexandretta and 
Damascus are expected to arrive from Constantinople. Ger- 
man officers of Breslau have already laid thirteen mines at 
Alexandretta according to report that has now reached me. 



No. 134. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 17.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 16, 1914. 

MINISTER of War, who is willing tool of Germans, is 
now supreme. Minister of the Interior was most influential 
Minister before mobilisation, but is so no longer. His position 
now is rather mysterious. Whilst taking advantage of 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

European struggle to carry through so-called emancipation 
of Turks from foreign control, he is not supposed to be in 
favour of war, which he thinks would end badly for Turkey. 
If this diagnosis is correct, he and others like him are more 
or less powerless at present, and, though they declare their 
ability and intention to stop military preparations, evidently 
are unable to check them. 



No. 135. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 17.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 17, 1914. 

RELIABLE information reaches me that mines are being 
sent to Basra, and will reach Bagdad in a day or two. 



No. 136. 

Sir F. Elliot to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 17.) 
(Telegraphic.) Athens, October 17, 1914. 

ONE Bouhadi Sadil has been discovered buying arms for 
importation into Egypt. He had already bought 700 Gras 
rifles and ammunition. I understand that two of this man's 
accomplices were recently convicted in Egypt. 



No. 137. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 
(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, October 17, 1914. 

ANY attack upon H.M.S. Espiegle by Turkish authorities 
will be a wanton act of aggression, as she is not in Turkish 
territorial waters. 

You should inform Turkish Government that there is no 
present intention of her passing down the Shatt-el-Arab, but 
His Majesty's Government consider they have a right to claim 
that passage so long as Goeben and Breslau, with German 
crews and officers, have free use of Turkish territorial waters 
and the Straits. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [I 

No. 138. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 18.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 17, 1914. 

SINCE end of September following have reached Con- 
stantinople : 

Six thousand nine hundred cases of Mauser ammunition, 
540 cases of Mauser rifles, 13 trucks of war material, and about 
800, ooo/. in bar gold. 

Arrival of a submarine in sections is expected shortly, 
and I am informed that such a consignment, together with 
two aeroplanes, left Rustchuk on October 8th. 

Two German ships were recently escorted from Sulina by 
Breslau, and are reported to have brought submarine. But 
there is no evidence at present to prove this. 



No. 139. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 18.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 18, 1914. 

AEROPLANE, three airmen, and several mechanics left 
Beersheba yesterday. 

Governor left Jaffa with a view to allaying panic. 

Following is resume of a telegram from Minister of War 
to commandant at Jaffa which has come to my knowledge : 

" On the approach of enemy warships destroy boats and 
lighters, kill horses, break carriages, and destroy railway. 
Strictly guard telegraph. When surrender of town is de- 
manded ask for time to consult Jerusalem. If Jerusalem 
instructs you not to surrender, oppose landing of the enemy 
by force of arms. See no looting of town takes place, and 
find suitable place to shelter your archives. Explain above 
to the population and arm them, taking oath from them. At 
signal not to surrender send away women and children. 
Hoist flag on konak and barracks so as not to have other 
places bombarded. Break enemy's flagstaff and remove 
insignia from the door of his consulate/' 



116 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 140. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 19.) 

Constantinople, October 2, 1914. 
SIR, 

WITH reference to my telegram of September 22nd 1 
and your telegram of September 25th, a I have the honour 
to forward herewith copies of notes exchanged between the 
Grand Vizier and myself respecting the suppression of the 
British post offices in the Turkish Empire. 

I have, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 



ENCLOSURE i IN No. 140. 

Grand Vizier to Sir L. Mallet. 
(TRANSLATION.) 

Constantinople, September 27, 1914. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

IN continuation of my note of the 9th instant, I have 
the honour to inform you that, in consequence of the abolition 
of the Capitulations as from October ist, 1914, the foreign 
post offices provisionally existing in the Turkish Empire must 
cease working from that date. 

I accordingly request your Excellency to be so good as 
to request the directors of British post offices in Turkey to 
act in conformity with the communications addressed to them 
by the Imperial Minister of Ports and Telegraphs, copies of 
which have already been communicated to His Britannic 
Majesty's Embassy on September 24th, 1914. 



ENCLOSURE 2 IN No. 140. 

Sir L. Mallet to Grand Vizier. 

Constantinople, October i, 1914. 

M. LE MlNISTRE, 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of the 
note dated September 27th, by which your Highness requests 

1 See No. 86. * See No. 93. 

117 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

me to instruct the directors of the British post offices estab- 
lished in the Ottoman Empire to act in accordance with the 
communications which have been addressed to them by 
officials of the Imperial Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs 
with a view to their ceasing their operations from to-day 
onwards. 

The fact that a measure of such importance affecting an 
official department of His Majesty's Government should have 
been adopted in virtue of an unilateral decision of the Sublime 
Porte, and that effect has been given to the measure in so 
precipitate a manner, compels me to formulate the most 
express reservations both as to the procedure followed and 
as to the principle underlying the question. 

With a view to avoiding incidents of a public nature I 
have instructed the British post offices in the Empire to 
suspend their ordinary postal operations from to-day onwards. 
By so doing and by authorising a verbal exchange of views, 
in order to mitigate the inconvenience resulting from this 
suspension, I must not be considered to have prejudiced the 
question of principle. It will be for my Government to 
consider what further action shall be taken in the matter. 

I avail, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 



No. 141. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 19.) 

Constantinople, October 2, 1914. 
SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to transmit a copy of a note which I 
have addressed to the Sublime Porte referring to the repeated 
assurances which the Grand Vizier has given me that the 
German crews will be sent back to Germany, assurances which 
were confirmed to me by His Imperial Majesty the Sultan on 
the occasion of my audience of His Imperial Majesty on the 
2ist ultimo, and enquiring whether the Ottoman Government 
have the intention of fulfilling their undertakings, and, if so, 
on what date this will take effect. 

I have, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ENCLOSURE IN No. 141. 
Sir L. Mallet to Grand Vizier. 

Constantinople, October 2, 1914. 
YOUR HIGHNESS, 

ON the occasion of the audience which His Imperial 
Majesty the Sultan was graciously pleased to accord me on 
the 2 ist ultimo, I had the honour to convey to His Imperial 
Majesty a message from the King, my Sovereign, respecting the 
detention in England of the two Turkish vessels of war. I had 
previously communicated to your Highness the substance of this 
message, as your Highness will doubtless remember. His Im- 
perial Majesty deigned in reply to charge me with his thanks to 
the King, my Sovereign, and whilst regretting that His Majesty's 
Government should have detained the vessels, which seemed 
unnecessary in view of the large naval supremacy of Great 
Britain, His Imperial Majesty said that he was unalterably 
determined to maintain the historic friendship between the 
two countries and on no account to depart from the neutrality 
which had hitherto been observed by his Government. Re- 
ferring to a passage in the King's message, expressing His 
Majesty's regret at certain events which had seemed to 
impair that neutrality, His Imperial Majesty authorised me 
to inform the King that the services of the German admiral, 
officers, and crews of the German warships had been tem- 
porarily retained in order to train the Turkish officers and 
crews, but that the task was on the point of accomplishment, 
and that they would return to Germany within a few days' time. 

I replied that these assurances which I had also received 
repeatedly from your Highness would not fail to give great 
satisfaction to the King, coming as they did from the lips of 
His Imperial Majesty the Sultan himself. 

I now address myself to your Highness to enquire whether 
the Ottoman Government have the intention of repatriating 
the German officers and crews in accordance with the oft- 
repeated assurances of your Highness, which have now been 
solemnly confirmed by His Imperial Majesty the Sultan. 

If such is their intention, I should be grateful if I might be 
informed of the date on which their departure will take place. 

I avail, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 

119 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Nc 

No. 142. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 19.) 

Constantinople, October 4, 1914. 
SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to forward herewith a copy of a note 
which I addressed to the Sublime Porte, protesting against 
the abrogation of the Capitulations. 

I have, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 



ENCLOSURE IN No. 142. 
Note Verbale communicated to Sublime Porte. 

His Britannic Majesty's Embassy has received instructions 
from His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs to make the following statement to the Imperial 
Ministry for Foreign Affairs : 

His Britannic Majesty's Government expressly confirm 
the protest against the suppression of the Capitulations which 
His Majesty's Ambassador addressed to the Imperial Minister 
for Foreign Affairs on the loth ultimo. 

The regime of the Capitulations being founded on synal- 
lagmatic instruments the Porte cannot abrogate them by a 
unilateral act. His Majesty's Government therefore reserve 
their full liberty of action as regards the measures which the 
Ottoman authorities may have taken or may take in violation 
of the Capitulations and will demand due reparation for any 
prejudice which their subjects may suffer in consequence of 
such measures. 

His Majesty's Government, desirous of maintaining the 
friendly relations which have hitherto existed with the Otto- 
man Empire, feel constrained to call the serious attention of 
the Porte to the consequences which may follow upon the 
adoption of the new policy upon which the Imperial Govern- 
ment would seem to have embarked. 

It is not in the interests of the Ottoman Government to 
alienate the sympathy of Great Britain, which constitutes a 
guarantee of present tranquillity and a pledge of future 
support. 

Constantinople, October^, '1914. 



120 



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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 143. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 19.) 

Constantinople, October 4, 1914. 
SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to forward herewith copy of a note 
which I addressed to the Grand Vizier protesting against 
certain military preparations in Syria. 

On October 2nd I addressed a further note, copy of which 
is also enclosed, pointing out that no answer had been received 
either to my previous note or to two letters of the 25th and 
26th on the same subject. 

I have, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 



ENCLOSURE i IN No. 143. 

Sir L. Mallet to Grand Vizier. 
(TRANSLATION.) 

Constantinople, September 23, 1914. 
YOUR HIGHNESS, 

IN the course of our interview of yesterday morning, I 
had the honour to inform your Highness of the anxiety that 
the news which reached me from Syria in regard to the 
military preparations and plots against Egypt now going on 
in that province, was causing me. So long as it was a question 
of preparations similar to those made in other parts of the 
Empire, as a consequence of the general mobilisation, I did 
not mention the matter to your Highness, although special 
importance might attach to all such doings in the neighbour- 
hood of the Egyptian frontier. Similarly, I have been able 
up to the present to reject, as improbable tales, the rumours 
which have reached me from more than one source, according 
to which a sudden blow directed against the Suez Canal was 
being planned with the object of rendering it impassable, 
although I am aware that the enemies of Great Britain are 
intriguing with the object of leading your Highness's Govern- 
ment into adventures as insensate, and even more insensate, 
than this. I should, however, fail in my duty towards my 
Government, and I may add also towards the Government of 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

your Highness, if I did not bring to your Highness 's knowledge 
the latest reports which have reached me. It appears from 
these reports that the minds of the Bedouins are being excited 
by professional agitators, who, encouraged by the Ottoman 
Government, are desirous of inflaming them against England. 
The military preparations, which up to a certain moment 
bore a similar character to those in the other provinces of the 
Empire, have lately changed into a converging movement 
towards the south. Troops are being brought from such 
distant centres as Mosul. General activity reigns everywhere 
from Damascus to Maan, and cumulative evidence leads my 
consul at Jerusalem to the belief that an organised expedition 
against Egypt is in project for the next few days. 

I trust that the reports, the contents of which I have 
just summed up to your Highness, put a wrong interpretation 
on facts which, as such, cannot be discussed. But I repeat 
that I should fail in my duty if I did not bring to your High- 
ness's knowledge the grave pre-occupation which they cause 
me, and the impression which they make upon His Britannic 
Majesty's Government, and if I did not place you on your 
guard against the disastrous consequences, which would ensue 
for your Highness's Government, if they were to follow a 
course so contrary to their own interests as that of becoming 
the accomplice of Germany in an attack upon Egypt. 

Your Highness will remember that at the beginning of the 
present war, Sir E. Grey instructed Mr. Beaumont to give 
you the assurance that, provided that Turkey maintained 
strict and absolute neutrality during the war, and so long as 
unforeseen circumstances did not arise, His Britannic Majesty's 
Government had no desire to, nor intention of annexing 
Egypt, nor of modifying her regime in any way whatsoever. 
I had the honour to confirm this assurance to your High- 
ness shortly after my return to Constantinople. Since then, 
being desirous of avoiding any possibility of misunderstanding 
with the Imperial Government, I have repeatedly called your 
Highness's attention to the conditional character of the 
assurances given by Sir E. Grey. Now, I hold it to be my duty 
to declare once more to your Highness that my Government 
take the most serious view of the unprecedented violations of 
neutrality already committed by the Turkish Government 
in retaining German officers and men on board the German 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

warships, and by subsequently taking into their service 
numerous other Germans in a similar military capacity. 

It does not seem to me necessary at this moment to 
recapitulate the details of still further departures from 
neutrality committed by Turkey in favour of the enemies 
of Great Britain. Nor need I insist on the consequences 
which might ensue if, to add the last touch to so grave a 
situation, my Government were to become convinced that the 
Imperial Government were seriously meditating an attack 
against Egypt, or that they were a party to disloyal intrigues 
against the security of the Suez Canal, or against the present 
regime in Egypt. Your Highness can judge of the whole 
importance and possible extent of these consequences. 

I enclose in this note a Memorandum, enumerating in 
detail the facts which can be considered as indications of a 
forthcoming attack upon Egypt. 

I avail, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 



Memorandum. 
(TRANSLATION.) 

From a report dated the i8th instant, it appears that the 
authorities were using all their efforts in order to excite the 
Bedouin tribes against England by representing her as the 
enemy of Islam, and that 30,000 men belonging to these tribes 
were ready to rise. A supplementary report states that the 
instigators of this movement are Muntaz Bey, an officer of 
the army, Essad Shoucair, deputy or former deputy, and a 
certain Beheddine Bey, aided by several other persons, and 
with the support of the local, civil, and military authorities. 
The report adds categorically that, according to current 
rumour, these tribes were to arm immediately in order to 
march on Egypt. 

From a further report dated the i8th instant, it appears 
that a military movement from Damascus towards the south 
was expected about September 20th ; that the Mosul troops 
were on their way to Damascus ; that large stores of food- 
stuffs were being prepared ; that 3,000 camels had been 
collected at Maan ; and that two staff officers had returned 
from Akaba after studying the possibility of a movement 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

across the desert. This report was supplemented by another 
of the same date to the effect that it was intended to send 
a large number of men from Horns to Damascus by rail, 
between September 20th and 23rd, and that a great con- 
centration converging towards the south was expected. 
From a third report, which was received subsequently, it 
appears that another 5,000 camels had been requisitioned 
at Maan ; that all the rolling-stock of the southern section of 
the Hedjaz Railway was being concentrated at Deraa ; and 
that the Mosul troops had reached Tel-Abiad, near Aleppo. 

A report, dated the 2ist instant, stated that there was 
cumulative evidence to show almost certainly that an attack 
against Egypt on a large scale would take place in the very 
near future ; that the troops would advance on both sides 
by way of Akaba and by way of El Arish ; and that a large 
provision of things necessary for their transport across the 
desert was being prepared. A further report of the same 
date stated that camels and men had arrived at Damascus 
from Horns ; that thirty battalions were expected to arrive 
during the week ; that the chief staff officer from Damascus 
had proceeded to Maan ; and that the chiefs of the Bedouin 
tribes had left for the south after a conference with the Vali. 

Constantinople, September 23, 1914. 



ENCLOSURE 2 IN No. 143. 
Sir L. Mallet to Grand Vizier. 

Constantinople, October 2, 1914. 
YOUR HIGHNESS, 

IN my communication of September 23rd and subsequent 
letters of the 25th and 26th, various military and other 
preparations in Syria, initiated by the Ottoman Government, 
were brought to the notice of your Highness, as likely to cause 
apprehension to His Majesty's Government. 

To the representations made in these communications, no 
written reply has yet been received, and it appears that not 
only has the' verification of the details already given been 
confirmed, but further news of a disquieting nature has now 
arrived. For instance, the transport of food-stuffs, military 
stores, and material of war to Maan continues. As this place 

124 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

is in nowise a Turkish military centre in peace, and has no 
connection with a mobilisation of the Syrian divisions in their 
ordinary stations, but is, on the other hand, in proximity 
to the Egyptian frontier, His Majesty's Government would 
desire to be informed why it is considered necessary to make 
the preparations in question, which are evidently for the 
maintenance of a considerable body of trpops, or for their 
transit further in the direction of Akaba. 

2. Similar preparations are also apparently being made 
on the road Jenim-Nablus- Jerusalem, and the collection of 
a camel corps at the latter place was announced yesterday. 
These measures tend to show a projected concentration of 
troops on the limits of Syria to the west, and again in proximity 
to the Egyptian frontier. 

3. The above steps have latterly coincided with the 
sudden arrival of Colonel Kress von Kressenstein and six 
other German officers, with the result that it is openly 
rumoured in Syria that the Jerusalem division is preparing 
to move towards Rafa and that of Damascus towards Akaba. 

4. From Beirout arrive reports that the inhabitants are 
retiring inland, and from Haiffa that the customs and railway 
staff have also been transferred from the coast. These 
measures are stated to be taken as precautionary steps against 
the hostile action of the British fleet, which is expected to 
ensue on the movement of Turkish forces against Egypt. 

5. In view of all these circumstances, it is undoubtedly 
the case that it is fully .believed in Syria that an offensive 
movement against Egypt is contemplated by the Ottoman 
authorities, and, although His Majesty's Government do not 
necessarily share this view, they cannot but regard any 
continuance of the military movement in anything but the 
most serious light. 

6. Apart from recognised military measures, the move- 
ments of a German engineer belonging to the Bagdad Railway 
with a large consignment of explosives destined for an attempt 
on the Suez Canal has already been brought to your High- 
ness's notice in my letter of the 25th ultimo. 

Not only have the movements of this individual been 
confirmed, but the departure of a German naval officer 
named Hilgendorff is now also announced with the same 
purpose. This individual has left Petra with a party of eight 

125 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Germans, ostensibly on a shooting expedition, but with a 
large amount of stores, including explosives, and intending 
to meet another similar party journeying via Haiffa- Amman. 

As both these parties are acting from neutral territory 
with the avowed intention of committing acts hostile to Great 
Britain, it is incumbent on the Porte to secure their appre- 
hension, coupled with an assurance that all necessary steps 
will be taken to put an end to any enterprises of this nature. 

I have been repeatedly assured by your Highness and 
by other members of the Ottoman Government that Turkey 
is firmly determined to maintain an attitude of strict neutrality 
during the European war. To these assurances I have been 
unfortunately obliged to reply that the Ottoman Government 
have failed in several most essential particulars to maintain 
their neutralit}^ and I would now desire to point out, with 
all the emphasis at my command, that, if these preparations 
continue, only one conclusion can be deduced namely, that 
the Ottoman Government are taking preliminary steps to 
send an expedition against Egypt and that they are conniving 
at the preparation of a plot against the Suez Canal on the 
part of German subjects, who are either in the Ottoman service 
or are acting independently. 

I cannot too earnestly impress upon your Highness the 
absolute necessity of putting an end to this situation of 
uncertainty at the earliest moment possible, in order that 
those relations of confidence and sincerity may be restored 
between the two Governments which it has constantly been 
my object to foster. 

I avail, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 



No. 144. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 19.} 

Constantinople, October 6, 1914. 
SIR. 

I HAVE the honour to forward herewith copy of a note 
which I have addressed to the Grand Vizier referring to the 
circular note 1 enclosed in my immediately succeeding des- 

1 See Enclosure in No. 145. 
126 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

patch, recently received from the Sublime Porte,, defining 
the rules which they propose to apply during the war in 
order to defend their neutrality, expressing my satisfaction 
that they should have adopted views in regard to the use of 
wireless in neutral waters, by belligerent merchantmen, 
identical with those of His Majesty's Government, and 
enquiring when they propose to dismantle the wireless 
apparatus on the Corcovado. 

I have, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 



ENCLOSURE IN No. 144. 

Sir L. Mallet to Grand Vizier. 

Constantinople, October 2, 1914. 
YOUR HIGHNESS, 

I HAVE received a note verbale from the Sublime Porte 
dated the 28th ultimo defining the rules which the Govern- 
ment of your Highness propose to apply during the present 
war in order to secure respect for their neutrality and to 
enable them to perform what they recognise to be their duty 
as neutrals. 

I propose to reply to this circular in detail, but in the 
meantime I desire at once to express my satisfaction that the 
Imperial Government should have adopted views which, in 
so far as the installation of wireless stations on land and the 
use of wireless apparatus by belligerent merchantmen in 
neutral ports arid waters are concerned, are identical with 
those of His Majesty's Government. 

I have had the honour to discuss this question on frequent 
occasions with your Highness during the last few weeks, in 
special reference to the notorious case of the German vessel 
Corcovado, amongst others. 

The Corcovado has since the beginning of the war laid at 
Beicos, almost opposite to the British Embassy, and has, in 
gross violation of the laws of neutrality, which should have 
been enforced by the Ottoman Government, regularly received 
and transmitted, and still, so far as I am aware, continues 
to receive and transmit, wireless messages in such a way as 
to serve as a base of radio-telegraphic communication for the 
general purposes of the German Government. 

127 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

In deference to the wishes of your Highness, I have hitherto 
confined my remonstrances to verbal representations, but in 
view of the circular note now received from the Sublime 
Porte defining the attitude of the Government of your High- 
ness in regard to the question, I feel at liberty to address to 
your Highness a formal note asking, on behalf of His Majest}^s 
Government, that the Ottoman regulations may be applied 
without further delay to the Corcovado and other vessels 
which still fly the German flag, or which flew it at the beginning 
of the present war, and that their wireless installations may 
be at once dismantled. 

I feel convinced that your Highness will see the justice 
and the propriety of this step. 

I avail, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 



No. 145. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 19.) 

Constantinople, October 6, 1914. 
SIR, 

I HAVE the honour to forward herewith copies of notes 
from and to the Sublime Porte on the subject of the Turkish 
regulations for belligerent warships in Turkish territorial 
waters. 

I have, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 



ENCLOSURE i IN No. 145. 

Note verb ale communicated by Sublime Porte. 
(TRANSLATION.) 

THE Ministry for Foreign Affairs, with a view to the 
observance of their duties of neutrality throughout the 
hostilities, brings the following regulations to the notice 
of the British Embassy : 

i. Entry to Turkish ports, roadsteads, and territorial 
waters, is forbidden to warships belonging to belligerent 
Powers, except in the case of damage, or by reason of the 
state of the sea. In these cases they may only remain strictly 

128 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the length of time actually necessary for the repair of the said 
damage, or to wait until the state of the sea has improved. 

2. Every belligerent vessel, which shall ask permission 
to enter a Turkish port or roadstead for purposes of refuelling 
or re victualling, may be authorised to do so, on condition 
that the authorisation of the local Turkish authority is ob- 
tained, after having declared the reasons for her arrival ; 
that she does not remain more than twenty-four hours in 
the said port or roadstead ; and that there be not more 
than three vessels under the same flag simultaneously in the 
same port or roadstead. 

3. The ports of Smyrna and Beirout are prohibited to the 
said ships, as are the inland waters, access to which is barred 
either by submarine mines or by other defensive means. 

4. If the warship does not leave Turkish waters within 
the period provided for above, the Turkish Government 
will take such steps as they may deem necessary to render 
the vessel incapable of putting to sea during the war. 

5. Warships are expected to respect the sovereign rights 
of the Turkish Empire, to refrain from all acts prejudicial to 
Turkish neutrality, and not to commit any hostile acts in 
Turkish territorial waters, including capture and the right 
of search. 

6. If enemy belligerent warships happen to be simul- 
taneously in the same Turkish port or roadstead, at least 
twenty-four hours must elapse between the departure of one 
belligerent warship and that of the other enemy belligerent 
warship, the order of departure being decided by that of 
arrival, unless the vessel which arrived first be obliged to 
remain for reasons foreseen above in No. i. Similarly a 
belligerent warship may only leave a Turkish port or road- 
stead twenty-four hours after the departure of a merchant 
vessel under an enemy flag. 

7. In non-prohibited Turkish ports and roadsteads bel- 
ligerent warships may only repair their damages to such an 
extent as is consonant with the safety of navigation, and 
may not increase their military strength in any manner 
whatsoever. The Turkish authorities will verify the nature 
of the repairs to be made ; these must be carried out as 
quickly as possible. 

8. The said vessels may only re victual up to their normal 

Naval 1 1 I I2Q 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N< 

supply in peace time. Nevertheless, in the exceptional 
circumstances of the present war, the Turkish authorities 
may, in the first instance, reduce this supply, according to 
the requirements of the districts, to what is strictly necessary 
to reach the nearest neutral foreign port, and may refuse all 
supplies in the case of a second return by vessels of a like 
belligerent nation. 

9. Such vessels may only take in sufficient fuel to reach 
the nearest harbour in their own country, or of a country the 
administration of which is entrusted to their Government, 
or of an allied country, at the discretion of the local Turkish 
authority. The preceding restrictions concerning supplies 
will be applicable to fuel. 

10. The Turkish sanitary, pilotage, customs, port and 
lighthouse regulations must be observed and respected by 
belligerent warships. 

11. It is forbidden to bring prizes into any of the (non- 
prohibited) Turkish ports or roadsteads, save in the case of 
impossibility of navigation, of roughness of the sea, lack of 
fuel or provisions, in which case permission must be asked 
from the local Turkish authorities ; the latter will grant it 
after verification of the aforesaid cause. The prize shall be 
required to leave as soon as the said cause shall have ceased 
to exist ; the taking in of fuel and provisions shall be carried 
out in accordance with the conditions laid down for warships. 

No Prize Court may be established by a belligerent either 
on Turkish territory or on a vessel in Turkish territorial waters. 

12. Belligerents are forbidden to make Turkish harbours 
and roadsteads a base for naval operations against their 
adversaries ; to erect on land or in territorial waters any 
wireless telegraphy station or installation destined to serve 
as a means of communication with belligerent forces by land 
or sea ; to establish depots of fuel either on Turkish territory 
or on ships stationed in Turkish territorial waters. 

13. The above provisions in no way supersede the regu- 
lations governing the Straits, which remain as established 
by international treaty. 

14. General international law is applicable in all questions 
not provided for in the above regulations. 

Constantinople, September 28, 1914. 



130 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL , 

ENCLOSURE 2 IN No. 145. 
Note verbale communicated to Sublime Porte. 

HIS Britannic Majesty's Embassy is in receipt of the 
note verbale of the Imperial Ministry of Foreign Affairs of 
September 28th, in which are set forth at length the rules 
laid down by the Imperial Ottoman Government with a view 
to securing proper respect for their neutrality during the 
present hostilities in Europe. 

In the preamble to this note verbale the Imperial Ministry 
states that the rules contained in it have been adopted in 
order to enable the Imperial Government to discharge their 
duties as neutrals. The rules themselves indicate a con- 
ception of those duties closely in accord with the general 
principles held by His Majesty's Government. It is all the 
more, therefore, a matter of surprise to His Majesty's Em- 
bassy that the practice of the Ottoman Government should 
have hitherto been so entirely at variance with these prin- 
ciples. 

Rule i prohibits the entrance into Ottoman ports of 
belligerent warships, except in case of damage or on account 
of the state of the sea, and requires their departure as soon 
as circumstances permit. 

Rule 2 prescribes that no belligerent warship, even though 
authorised for special reasons to enter an Ottoman- harbour, 
shall remain more than twenty-four hours. These rules 
were not applied by the Imperial Ottoman Government 
when they allowed the German warships Goeben and Breslau 
to enter the Dardanelles and to remain in Turkish waters 
for an indefinite period, on the pretext that a sale, as to the 
genuineness of which no evidence exists, had taken place. 

Neither did the Imperial Ottoman Government apply to 
these ships the provisions of Rule 4, which requires that 
vessels which have exceeded a visit of twenty-four hours 
should be incapacitated from taking part in any hostilities 
during the war, as both these vessels, which remain under 
German control, are notoriously in a state of complete pre- 
paration to proceed to sea. 

Rule 5, which prohibits the performance of acts preju- 
dicial to Ottoman neutrality, including acts of capture and 
search, was violated in a flagrant manner by the Breslau, 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

when it visited and searched British ships in the Dardanelles 
shortly after its arrival in those waters. The Imperial 
Government have never demanded any public satisfaction 
from the Government whose ship committed this indefensible 
outrage on their neutrality. By thus condoning the act of 
the Breslau, the Imperial Government failed signally in their 
own duties as a neutral. 

The Imperial Ottoman Government have not applied 
the provisions of Rule 7, prohibiting foreign war vessels from 
increasing their military value in an Ottoman port, where 
they are only permitted to make such repairs as their own 
security demands and within the shortest possible period of 
time, nor the provisions of Rule 8, regarding the prohibition 
of all revictualling, &c., of belligerent warships returning a 
second time to the same Ottoman port. The Goeben and 
the Breslau remaining, as has been said above, under German 
control, have been repaired under the auspices of the official 
representatives of the German Government, have put to sea 
under German command, and have been revictualled at Ger- 
man expense on returning from the various cruises in the Black 
Sea. By tolerating these violations of their own rules the Turk- 
ish Government have again failed in their duty as neutrals. 

The Imperial Ottoman Government have further neg- 
lected the obligation to prevent foreign warships from making 
an Ottoman port a base of naval operations against their 
enemies ; from installing wireless stations on land or in 
territorial waters, to serve as a means of communication 
with the belligerent forces on land or sea, obligations which 
are clearly recognised by the adoption of Rule 12. The 
flagrant violation of this rule by ships like the General, the 
Lily Rickmers, and the Corcovado, has not been checked by 
the Imperial Government. They have, indeed, departed 
from their duty as neutrals, not merely by tolerating the 
proceedings of those ships, but they have in some cases 
facilitated them by allowing German ships to fly the Ottoman 
flag, as a result of illegal and fictitious transfers. The special 
case of the Corcovado has iormed the subject of a separate 
communication, to which His Majesty's Embassy trusts 
that an early reply will be returned. 

Finally, Rule 13, which states that the status of the Straits 
is unaffected by the measures taken by the Imperial Govern- 
132 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ment, has been violated by the Ottoman authorities them- 
selves, who, in violation of a series of international acts, 
have interfered with the free passage of the Dardanelles by 
British merchant vessels. 

In the presence of the facts set forth above, it is impos- 
sible for the Imperial Ottoman Government to maintain 
that they have hitherto observed that duty as neutrals, the 
performance of which the Imperial Minister for Foreign 
Affairs declares them to have had in view when drawing up 
the rules embodied in its circular note of September 28th. 
If, after consecrating their recognition of these duties by an 
official communication, the Imperial Government should 
continue to tolerate the use of its territory by German ships 
and agents for purposes connected with the war, His Majesty's 
Embassy will feel itself constrained to protest with renewed 
vigour against what it cannot but consider a partial and 
unneutral attitude on the part of the Imperial Ottoman 
Government, and must reserve to His Majesty's Government 
complete liberty of action. -If, on the other hand, the object 
of the communication is to prove that the Imperial Govern- 
ment are prepared to embark on a new line of action, His 
Britannic Majesty's Embassy will have the utmost satisfaction 
in taking act of an assurance in that sense and bringing it to 
the knowledge of His Britannic Majesty's Government. 

Constantinople, October 4, 1914. 



No. 146. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 19.) 

SIR, Constantinople, October 6, 1914. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith copy of a note 
I have addressed to the Grand Vizier on the subject of the 
measures the Porte propose to take against British warships 
in the Shatt-el-Arab, expressing the hope that no action be 
taken which might have serious consequences. 

I have, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 



133 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ENCLOSURE IN No. 146. 
Sir L. Mallet to Grand Vizier. 

YOUR HIGHNESS, Constantinople, October 4, 1914. 

I HAVE just received a telegram from His Majesty's consul 
at Basra stating that the Vali has written to him saying that 
the Porte have communicated to me the measures which they 
propose to take against a British man-of-war which is in the 
Shatt-el-Arab unless it leaves within twenty-four hours, and 
that the Shatt-el-Arab from Fao to Gurna is inland water, 
like the Dardanelles, and closed to foreign warships. 

I am instructed by His Majesty's Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs to enquire on what grounds the Sublime 
Porte base their objection to His Majesty's ship remaining 
in Mohammerah, a Persian port ? 

In the meantime I would express the hope that your 
Highness will instruct the Vali without loss of time to avoid 
taking any measures against a British man-of-war which 
might have serious consequences at this critical period. 

As a matter of fact, H.M.S. Odin left the Shatt-el-Arab 
some days ago, and I am not aware what British ship has 
taken her place. 

I avail, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 



No. J47. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 19.) 

SIR, Constantinople, October 6, 1914. 

I HAVE the honour to forward herewith copy of a note 
addressed by me to the Imperial Ottoman Government on 
the 5th instant with regard to the hostile attitude oi the 
Ottoman press towards Great Britain and British interests. 

I also enclose copy of a letter I addressed to Talaat Bey 
on the previous day on the same subject. 

I have, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 



134 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ENCLOSURE i IN No. 147. 
Sir L. Mallet to Grand Vizier. 

Constantinople, October 5, 1914. 
YOUR HIGHNESS, 

I HAVE on several occasions complained to your High- 
ness of the hostile tone of the Ottoman press towards Great 
Britain and British interests, and I have frequently repre- 
sented to your Highness and to the Minister of the Interior 
the unfavourable impression which His Majesty's Govern- 
ment will derive of the sentiments of the Ottoman Govern- 
ment from the deliberate misrepresentations and the malicious 
accusations of the organs of public opinion. 

Your Highness has assured me from time to time of your 
regret that the press should display so hostile a spirit to- 
wards my country and to the cause for which we have taken 
up arms, and owing to your Highness' s intervention I most 
willingly admit that there have been short periods during 
which it has displayed a greater moderation in the volume 
and frequency of its abuse. Your Highness has also begged 
me not to attach too great an importance to the newspapers, 
which you have assured me do not influence public opinion 
to any appreciable extent, and are not therefore deserving 
of serious attention. 

In ordinary circumstances I should have been in agree- 
ment with your Highness, except in regard to the extent of 
the harm done by these irresponsible writers, a matter of 
which I am incompetent to judge, but it must be remem- 
bered that the Ottoman Empire is now living under martial 
law, and that vigorous press censorship is enforced ap- 
parently in the interests of Germany which has rendered 
the publication of news from British sources difficult, and 
the public expression of opinion favourable to England im- 
possible both at Constantinople and in the provinces. 

The press articles of which I complain are, therefore, 
authorised and approved by the press censor, or in other 
words by the Ottoman Government, whose views they must 
be held to represent. 

This state of affairs is the more grave, as one of the main 
objects which certain newspapers have had in view has been 
to misinform public opinion in this country as to the true 

135 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

character of British rule in India and British control in 
Egypt, and as to the attitude of the populations of those 
countries towards Great Britain. 

It is, however, difficult to reconcile these hostile utter- 
ances with those of your Highness, who has always assured 
me of the friendly sentiments of the Ottoman Government 
towards Great Britain, and of their desire and intention 
to maintain good relations with His Majesty's Government. 

In these circumstances, I am at a loss to know what I 
should report to my Government, who will doubtless desire 
to know why the Ottoman Government permit the publica- 
tion of inflammatory articles against Great Britain if their 
sentiments are well-intentioned. I would call your High- 
ness's special attention to two articles which have appeared 
in the Terdjuman-i-Hakkikat of the i6th (2Qth) September 
and the igth September (October 2nd). The first of these 
articles gives an entirely untrue account of the action of the 
British fleet outside the Dardanelles, which it accuses of 
preventing merchandise from coming into the port. The 
object of these accusations is to mislead public opinion with 
regard to the intentions of Great Britain, and to hide the 
real reason for the presence of the British fleet, which, as is 
well known to your Highness, is the retention of the German 
officers and crews. 

The second article which I enclose 1 not only misrepresents 
the motives which induced my Government to embark on 
the present war, but characterises England as the enemy of 
small nations, declares that she wishes to drive the Moslem 
Powers into a holy war against Germany, -and traduces the 
character of British control in Egypt. Both articles are 
only examples of the innumerable utterances of a similar 
kind in which the Terdjuman-i-Hakkikat and other papers 
indulge. I will not weary your Highness with other speci- 
mens in Turkish, but to prove how varied are the attacks 
made on my country and my Government with the express 
sanction of the authorities responsible for the press, I enclose 
a copy * of a paper called the Defense nationale, a French 
organ which is specially distinguished for its virulent and 
calumnious attacks on Great Britain, and which, while pur- 
porting to represent authorised military opinion, is in reality, 

1 Not printed. 
136 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

as your Highness is doubtless aware, produced by 'a person 
of non-Ottoman and non-Moslem origin and of most dis- 
reputable antecedents. 

I venture to beg your Highness, who has laboured un- 
ceasingly and devotedly in the interests of peace, to give 
instructions to the responsible authorities not to allow the 
publication in future of articles so totally at variance with 
what your Highness has repeatedly declared to be the policy 
of the Imperial Government. I would at the same time beg 
of your Highness to secure publicity for the enclosed state- 
ment which I have prepared, the object of which is, as your 
Highness will see, to correct one of the most specific calumnies 
recently published. 

I avail, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 



ENCLOSURE 2 IN No. 147. 

Statement. 

THE statement made in the Terdjuman-i-Hakkikat of the 
i6th (29th) September that the British and French fleets 
outside the Dardanelles have prevented the importation of 
merchandise into the port of Constantinople is an entire 
misrepresentation. The allied fleet has never in a single 
instance interfered with the export or import trade of this 
country. 

The retention of the allied fleets in the neighbourhood 
of the entrances to the Straits is solely due to the continued 
presence of the German admiral, officers, and crews on the 
warships recently sold to Turkey, and to the officering of the 
rest of the Turkish fleet by Germans. 



ENCLOSURE 3 IN No. 147. 

Sir L. Mallet to Talaat Bey. 
(TRANSLATION.) 

Constantinople, October 4, 1914. 
MY DEAR MINISTER, 

CAN you explain to me why the censor suppressed an 
important part of the speech recently made by the Agha Khan ? 

137 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

I enclose a copy 1 of the speech, showing the part that 
was suppressed. Would you please have it printed in the 
Turkish press ? It is only right that every opinion should 
be published in a neutral country. 

I would also draw your attention to an article which ap- 
peared in the Terdjuman-i-Hakkikat of October 2nd, which 
is untrue and full of malevolence towards Great Britain. 

As the press is censored, I can only conclude that the 
sentiments of Agha-olu Ahmed are approved or inspired by 
the Government. In any case, so long as the censorship 
exists the Government are clearly responsible. In the cir- 
cumstances, whom can we believe ? For the Government 
speak with two conflicting voices, both of which are none 
the less official. 

LOUIS MALLET. 



No. 148. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 19.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 19, 1914. 

NEW Governor-General of Basra with six army officers, 
including two German officers, also six naval officers, in- 
cluding two Germans, and 150 Turkish sailors with three 
columns of ammunition, arrived at Alexandretta on morning 
of October i8th by railway from Constantinople. Their 
final destination is believed to be Basra. I am also informed 
that Maan is their true destination. 



No. 149. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 19.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 19, 1914. 

WITHIN last few days following have passed through 
Adana in direction of Syria : 450 gendarmes with 600 sailors, 
of whom 200 were German, 52 German naval and military 
officers, a commandant of police, 45 civilian officials, of whom 
two were German, 10 engines, and 3 or 4 automobiles, said 
to contain German officers. 

1 Not printed. 
138 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 150. 

Mr. Cheetham to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 19). 
(Telegraphic.) Cairo, October 19, 1914. 

I AM informed that Bimbashi Gamil, staff officer in 
Turkish army, Khoga (Imam) Ali Haider, Khoga (Imam) 
Amin, and Khoga (Imam) Rustom, have left Smyrna in 
order to carry on a Turcophile propaganda in India. 



No. 151. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 20.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 19, 1914. 

IT is pretty clear that naval parties are on their way 
both to Akaba and the Persian Gulf, as well as smaller groups 
to Syrian coast ports. There are plenty of German reserve 
mercantile marine officers available, in addition to Goeben 
and Breslau officers and others who have subsequently ar- 
rived. Although there is at present no actual confirmation 
of arrival in Constantinople of Austrian officers and sailors, 
this is regarded as also possible. 

It is very likely now that consignment of mines has 
actually got as far as Maan. 

At Akaba it is not impossible that floating mines may be 
let loose penetrating into the Red Sea ; in Persian Gulf 
defence of waterway will no doubt be prepared. 

Consul at Damascus reports that fifty Germans arrived 
at Akaba quite recently. These are believed to be wounded 
from East Africa. 



No. 152. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 22.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 21, 1914. 

BATTERY of six guns which left Constantinople on nth 
instant, and whiqh I think were heavy guns, have, together 
with aeroplane, arrived at Alexandretta and left for the 
south. 

Since October i8th there have been no movements of 
troops to or from Damascus. Some trucks of ammunition 

139 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL No 

went round by rail to Nablus Sidi, and cases of rifles arrived 
from Aleppo. 

No. 153. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey (Received October 22.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 21, 1914. 

r^ IT should not be forgotten that one of the elements in 
the situation that cannot be overlooked is possibility of coup 
d'Etat by Minister of War, supported by Germans. 



No. 154. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 22.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 22, 1914. 

jp* A MANIFESTO, the authorship of which is attributed 
to Sheikh Aziz Shawish, is being secretly circulated at Beirout. 
Manifesto bears alleged signatures of ten representatives of 
Moslem countries under foreign rule. It incites Moslem 
soldiers to mutiny in their respective countries in defence of 
Islam, and bids them desert the allies and join Germany. 
Whole tenor is fanatical and inflammatory. 



No. 155. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 22.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 22, 1914. 

MY immediately preceding telegram. 

I understand that several thousand copies of manifesto 
are to be smuggled into Egypt and India and other Moslem 
countries through Syria. 



No. 156. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 
(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, October 22, 1914. 

GERMAN officers now on frontier seem bent on forcing 
matters. General Officer Commanding Egypt anticipates 
Arab raid at any moment at their instigation. 



140 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 157. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 23.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 22, 1914. 

I HAVE seen the Russian Ambassador again this morning. 
He is sure that unless Turks mean to betray Germans, the 
possibility of which he does not exclude, they will make war 
on Russia on receipt of first half of a sum of 4,000,000 which 
Germany is providing. 

It is currently reported about 100,000 has already arrived. 

Russian successes on Vistula will spur on Germans to 
further efforts here, but it is difficult to say whether it will 
increase or diminish chance of Turkish participation in the 
war. 

Virulent attacks and propaganda against Great Britain 
seem to show Government are anxious to justify them- 
selves in public estimation if war breaks out, and it may 
indicate that they mean to provoke war themselves, as they 
are aware that we shall not do so. 



No. 158. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 22.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 22, 1914. 

ONE of objects of press campaign here now is to prove 
that Great Britain is aiming deliberate blows at Islam, as such, 
and a statement is being circulated here that British Govern- 
ment are preventing pilgrimages from Egypt this year. One 
form of this statement is that a Fetva has been issued prescrib- 
ing that as Egyptian Government cannot protect pilgrims 
there shall be no pilgrimage. It is insinuated that this 
Fetva has been extorted by British. 



No. 159. 
Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, October 23, 1914. 

MINING of the Shatt-el-Arab. 
Your telegram of October lyth. 1 

The ancient right of free navigation of the river was 
1 See No. 135. 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N O i 

solemnly affirmed as late as July 2gth, 1913, in Article i 
of the Anglo-Turkish Agreement signed on that day. It 
is a right which His Majesty's Government cannot allow to be 
nullified by the mining of the channel. They will be forced 
to regard any attempt to lay mines in the river as an act 
of open hostility and provocation to this country, and they 
must reserve to themselves the right of taking their own 
measures, if necessary, to maintain the freedom of navigation. 
You should make a representation in these terms to the 
Turkish Government, and add a firm protest against the 
apparent intention of blocking the international waterway 
of the Shatt-el-Arab, which offers the only means of access 
to the port of Mohammerah and the neighbouring Persian 
littoral. 

No. 160. 

Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Cheetham. 
(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, October 23, 1914. 

I HEAR that Turkish Minister at Sophia has left his post 
for Germany. Reported object is to arrange with German 
Government for stirring up of Moslem fanaticism in India, 
Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunis. 



No. 161. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 24.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 23, 1914. 

TWENTY projectors, 10 electric mines, 4 electric motors, 
500 cases of Mauser ammunition have arrived via Rustchuk 
in addition to arrivals already reported previously. 



No. 162. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 24.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 23, 1914. 

VERY large quantities of bar gold have recently arrived. 
Nearly a million's worth was taken to Deutsche Bank three 
nights ago under escort, and there is information that previous 
consignments have been similarly conveyed. It is probable 
that between two and three millions have arrived altogether. 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 163. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 24.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 23, 1914. 

GERMAN named Kellerman has just left Aleppo for Haifa 
or the south. Two thousand camels, 1,500 water-skins, 
400 bicycles, all canvas and canvas bags, together with food- 
stuffs, are being requisitioned in Aleppo. 

Information goes to show that an Arab raid has been 
possible during last few weeks, and contingency has certainly 
to be watched. 



No. 164. r 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 24.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 23, 1914. 

LAST night Minister of Marine sent me message to say 
that neutrality would be maintained by Turkish Government. 
He gave same assurances in categorical terms yesterday 
to French Ambassador, and said that Minister of Interior's 
views were the same. Ambassador said that it was reported 
that an agreement existed with Germany to go to war on 
certain terms being fulfilled. Minister of Marine denied 
this absolutely, and also declared that Turkey was not going 
to war. My French colleague then enquired what was 
meaning of preparations in Syria and of all the violent talk 
about Egypt. Minister of Marine replied that England was 
treating Egypt as if it belonged to her, whereas it formed 
part of Ottoman dominions. Turks were indifferent about 
India, Tripoli, and Tunis, etc., but Egypt was on their frontier, 
and they felt about it as French did about Alsace-Lorraine. 
They would do nothing officially, but would shut their eyes to 
any agitation which was directed against English occupation 
of Egypt. Continuing, he referred to a proposal which he 
had made me a fortnight ago, to the effect that England and 
Turkey should now sign convention on lines of Drummond- 
Wolff Convention, providing for evacuation of Egypt by 
British troops at end of war. It is quite true he made this 
suggestion. I did not report it at the time because it was so 
entirely unpractical. This shows that Germans are turning 
all their attention to Egypt, and are inciting the Turks against 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

us, so that we must expect to have a considerable amount 
of trouble on frontier. 

Turkish newspapers are full of Egypt just now and of our 
high-handed proceedings. It is, e.g., announced to-day that 
we have closed El Azhar mosque. There is no doubt that 
Germans are at bottom of this, and are inciting religious 
fanaticism of Turks against us. 



No. 165. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 24.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 23, 1914. 

\JNITED efforts of Germans and Ottoman Government 
at Haifa are being concentrated on arousing anti-English 
feeling amongst the Moslems ; German consul is touring 
the district with this vie^. The worst offender is the Otto- 
man Telegraph Agency. Yesterday, for example, it announced 
that the Ameer of Afghanistan will start a Holy War, and that 
he is invading India. 



No. 166. 
Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, October 24, 1914. 

YOUR telegram of October 23rd 1 gives the impression that 
Turkey considers sending an armed force over the frontier 
of Egypt as being in some way different from acts of war 
against Russia. You should disabuse the Turkish Govern- 
ment of any such idea, and inform them that a military 
violation of frontier of Egypt will place them in a state of 
war with three allied Powers. 

I think you should enumerate to Grand Vizier the hostile 
acts of which we complain, and warn him that, if German 
influences succeed in pushing Turkey to cross the frontiers 
of Egypt and threaten the international Suez Canal, which 
we are bound to preserve, it will not be we, but Turkey 
that will have aggressively disturbed the status quo. 

The following is a convenient summary of Turkish acts 
of which we complain, and which, combined, produce a most 

1 See No. 164. 

i 44 



[4 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

H unfavourable impression. You might send it to Grand 
Vizier : 
' The Mosul and Damascus Army Corps have, since their 
mobilisation, been constantly sending troops south prepara- 
tory to an invasion of Egypt and the Suez Canal from Akaba 
and Gaza. A large body of Bedouin Arabs has been called 
out and armed to assist in this venture. Transport has been 
collected and roads have been prepared up to the frontier 
of Egypt. Mines have been despatched to be laid in the 
Gulf of Akaba to protect the force from naval attack, and 
the notorious Sheikh Aziz Shawish, who has been so well 
known as a firebrand in raising Moslem feeling against 
Christians, has published and disseminated through Syria 
and probably India, an inflammatory document urging 
Mahommedans to fight against Great Britain. Dr. Priiffer, 
who was so long engaged in intrigues in Cairo against the 
British occupation, and is now attached to the German 
Embassy in Constantinople, has been busily occupied in 
Syria trying to incite the people to take part in this conflict/' 



No. 167. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 26.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 25, 1914. 

WHOLE fleet has been at Kadikeui since October 20th. 

Breslau took seventy mines on board yesterday, and had 
steam up in company of mine-layers Nilufer and Samsun. 

There is fairly sure evidence that no submarine has yet 
arrived in parts or otherwise. 



No. 168. 

Sir G. Buchanan to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 27.) 
(Telegraphic.) Petrograd, October 26, 1914. 

FORTY-TWO Germans, disguised as tourists, are said 
to have arrived at Aleppo. They are members of General 
Staff and of crews of Goeben and Breslau. It is believed 
that they have 150 mines with them. Some of the officers 
are bound for Bagdad and Basra, others for Beirout and 
Tripoli. 

Naval II-K *45 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

No. 169. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 27.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 27, 1914. 

ENVER PASHA, Jemel, and Talaat Bey, are making 
every preparation for an expedition against Egypt, which 
is evidently now their uppermost thought. A majority 
of the Committee are, however, said to be against war, and 
are showing considerable opposition to the scheme. I am 
unable to vouch for this, but the news appears to be fairly 
well authenticated. Halill Bey started for Berlin this morn- 
ing, and he is said to be about to negotiate with the German 
Government. It seems difficult to explain his journey 
on any other hypothesis than that the Turks wish to postpone 
any decisive action. 



No. 170. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 28.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 27, 1914. 

IT is now clear that, with exception of Minister of War, 
Turkish Government are seeking to temporise. 

I have reliable information that on October 22nd Austrian 
Ambassador urged immediate war on Minister of Interior 
and Halill. Both these officials maintained that it would 
be wiser to wait until the situation in Egypt and Caucasus 
cleared before moving, and suggested it would be time enough 
to move in the spring. They were not sure that, if they 
went to war, Italy might not join the Allies. Austrian 
Ambassador retorted that spring would be too late, and 
that it was essential to Germany and Austria that Turkey 
should declare herself with them at once. His Excellency 
was clearly greatly dissatisfied at their attitude. 

Enver Pasha, on the other hand, whom Austrian Ambassador 
saw subsequently, said that he was determined to have war, 
whatever his colleagues might desire. Turkish fleet would 
be sent into Black Sea, and he could easily arrange with 
Admiral Suchon to provoke hostilities. 

Fleet has, in point of fact, to-day gone into Black Sea, 
so it is impossible to foretell what is in store. 



146 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 171. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 28.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 28, 1914. 

PORTE regrets that owing to pressure of military require- 
ments they are unable to accept wireless telegraphy messages 
sent from England for His Majesty's Embassy. 



No. 172. 
Mr. Cheetham to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 28.) 

(Telegraphic.) Cairo, October 28, 1914. 

I HAVE received reliable information that some German 
officers unsuccessfully endeavoured to persuade commandant 
of Turk post to attack our post at Kossaimo, and that, on 
making further efforts with this object, they were arrested 
and sent to Beersheba. If true, story shows desire of Germans 
to precipitate matters. 



No. 173. 
Mr. Cheetham to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 28.) 

(Telegraphic.) Cairo, October 28, 1914. 

TWO thousand armed Bedouins are advancing to attack 
the Canal, and have watered at Magdaba, which is 20 miles 
inside Egyptian frontier, October 26th. 



No. 174. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 
(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, October 28, 1914. 

IT is reported that four Turkish gunboats are intending 
to proceed from Alexandretta. 

You should warn Turkish Government that, as long as 
German officers remain on Goeben and Breslau and Turkish 
fleet is practically under German control, we must regard 
movement of Turkish ships as having a hostile intention, 
and, should Turkish gunboats proceed to sea, we must 
in self-defence stop them. 

As soon as Turkish Government carry out their promise 

147 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

respecting German crews and officers and observe the laws 
of neutrality with regard to Goeben and Breslau, and free the 
Turkish fleet from German control, we shall regard Turkish 
ships as neutrals, but, till then, we must protect ourselves 
against any movements that threaten us. 



No. 175. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 29.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 28, 1914. 

ON October 26th a special train left Aleppo for Jerablus 
with two German and four Turkish naval officers and 100 
Turkish sailers, with large quantities of ship's tackle and 
accessories. 

No. 176. 
Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 29.) 

(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 29, 1914. 

I HAVE seen the Grand Vizier and informed him that, 
in spite of his assurances, the Bedouins had crossed the 
frontier and were in occupation of wells of Magdaba, 20 miles 
within Egyptian territory. I reminded him of the warning 
which I had addressed to him on the receipt of instructions 
contained in your telegram of October 24th, 1 and asked 
him for explanation. His Highness replied that he had 
instructed Minister of War, after representations which 
I had made to him, on no account to allow movement of any 
force across the frontier. If it were true, he would give 
immediate orders for recall of Bedouins, but he did not 
believe accuracy of the information. 

I replied that it was necessary at such a crisis that I should 
speak quite frankly, that it was a matter for public notoriety 
that there were divisions of opinion in the Cabinet, that his 
Highness was not master of the situation, and that, if Minister 
of War and extremists had decided upon an expedition against 
Egypt, his Highness could not prevent it. Grand Vizier 
replied that I was absolutely mistaken, and that, if it came 
to that, military party would not act without full assent 
of the Government. I said that in that case the time had 

1 See No. 166. 

148 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

<;ome to put them to the test, and that unless expedition 
vere immediately recalled; I could not answer for the conse- 
quences. As it was, I might at any moment receive 
instructions to ask for my passports, in which case Turkish 
Government would be at war with the Triple Entente at a 
ime when German official communiques admitted defeat 
on the Vistula. 

No. 177. 
Sir G. Buchanan to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 29.) 

(Te phic.) Petrograd, October 29, 1914. 

RUSSIAN gunboat at Odessa has been sunk, and Feodosia 
bombarded by Turkish fleet. Turkish officers who were sent 
on shore to demand surrender of Novorossiisk were arrested 
by prefect and ship left without taking further action. 

Above information just communicated by Russian 
Government. 

No. 178. 
Mr. Roberts to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 29.) 

(Telegraphic.) Odessa, October 29, 1914. 

BEFORE dawn this morning two or three Turkish 
torpedo-boats raided Odessa harbour and sank Russian 
gunboat Donetz. French ship Portugal damaged ; two of 
the crew killed, two wounded. Russian steamships Vitiaz 
and Liazaref and Whanpao damaged. Some loss of life was 
caused in the town itself by shell fire. 



No. 179. 
Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

(Telegraphic.) Foreign Office, October 30, 1914. 

IN view of hostile acts that have been committed, Russian 
Government have instructed Russian Ambassador to leave 
Constantinople with all his staff. 

Should his Excellency leave, you should yourself send in a 
note to the Sublime Porte to say that His Majesty's Govern- 
ment have learnt with the utmost surprise of the wanton 
attacks upon open and undefended towns of a friendly 

149 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

country without any warning and without the slightest 
provocation, and that these acts constitute an unprecedented 
violation of the most ordinary rules of international law, 
usage, and comity. Russia has shown the utmost patience 
and forbearance in face of repeated violations of the rules 
of neutrality by Turkey, and in face of most provocative acts, 
amounting in reality to acts of hostility, and in this attitude 
of restraint her Allies, Great Britain and France, have co- 
operated. It is evident that there is no chance of a return 
to a proper observance of neutrality so long as the German 
naval and military missions remain at Constantinople, and 
such a situation cannot be prolonged. 

Unless, therefore, the Turkish Government will divest 
themselves of all responsibility for these unprovoked acts of 
hostility by dismissing the German military and naval 
missions, and fulfilling their often repeated promises about 
the German crews of the Goeben and Breslau, and will give you 
a satisfactory reply to this effect within twelve hours from 
the date of the delivery of the note, you should ask for 
your passports and leave Constantinople with the staff of the 
embassy. 

No. 180. 

Sir L. Mallet to Sir Edward Grey. (Received October 31.) 
(Telegraphic.) Constantinople, October 30, 1914. 

RUSSIAN Ambassador asked for his passports this after- 
noon and I and my French colleague have followed suit. 

Minister of the Interior, in conversation with a neutral 
colleague this afternoon, practically admitted that Turkey 
had thrown in her lot with Germany. 

I have had a very painful interview with the Grand Vizier, 
who had been kept in the dark as to his colleagues' intentions, 
and who will doubtless be set aside to-night. 



No. 181. 

Mr. Cheetham to Sir Edward Grey. (Received November 2.) 
Sir, Cairo, October 20, 1914. 

WITH reference to my despatch of the 30 th ultimo, 1 

1 See No. 125. 
150 



9 i [] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

I have the honour to submit copies of further interrogatories of 
the German spy, Robert Mors. 

I have, &c. 
(For Mr. Cheetham), 

ROBERT GREG. 



ENCLOSURE IN No. 181. 
Further Interrogation of Lieutenant Mors. 

MULAZIM AWAL ROBERT MORS, recalled and re- 
examined, states : 

" I arrived in Constantinople on the evening of September 
4th, 1914, and put up at the Hotel Germania. I met M. 
Curt Pr lifer there, and he introduced me to Omar Fatizi Bey, 
the Turkish staff officer who asked me to call upon him at 
the War Office. I did so on September 6th. He questioned 
me on the state of Egypt and on the chances of success of a 
native rising in this country. He mentioned that the German 
diplomatic and consular officials had been expelled, and that 
all German subjects had been arrested and were to be de- 
ported. He also asked me if I knew M. Dusreicher, who, 
he declared, had also been sent out of the country. He 
stated likewise that he had heard that the Egyptian army 
and police had been disarmed, and asked me if it were true, 
to which I replied that I thought it was very improbable. 
He then told me he had emissaries in Egypt fomenting trouble 
to prepare the way for a Turkish invasion, and to compel the 
British to split up their forces. In reply to my enquiry, he 
explained that two bands of native marauders were to be 
organised in each Imdiria, to attack the railway, and commit 
outrages on the property of British subjects, &c. These 
bands were to be recruited from the malefactor class, and 
there would be a Turkish officer in every province to direct 
their operations. Each band would be composed of from 
ten to fifteen men, and when an important coup was con- 
templated in any Imdiria the two bands would unite, the 
idea being to oblige the British to scatter their forces all over 
the country. Fauzi Bey said he had a list of fifty Egyptian 
army and police officers, from whom he expected either active 
or passive assistance. Four strong bands of Bedouins were 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

also being formed to operate in the Suez Canal zone, two east 
and two west. Each band was to be fifty strong. Fauzi 
Bey made a rough sketch of the Canal to explain to me the 
role t>f these Bedouins. He said the British had detached 
posts at intervals along the Canal. Two of the most isolated of 
these would be attacked simultaneously and, if possible, 
annihilated. The intermediate posts would then go to their 
assistance, whereupon the third and fourth troops of 
Bedouins would raid the weakened points and fire on the 
steamers in the Canal. The instructions given to the 
bands were to retire into the desert if the post attacked 
was strongly reinforced, and then to return and attack 
another post, &c. 

" Fauzi Bey asked me if I would help to carry out these 
plans, and suggested that I should assist a Turkish officer 
who was already in Alexandria to carry out these komitajis 
operations in that district. If not, I could take part in some 
way in the military operations to be undertaken in Egypt. 
I replied that, as an officer, I could have nothing to do with 
the komitajis part of his programme, which, from a German 
point of view, was beneath the dignity of an officer, but that 
I was quite disposed to participate in military operations 
against Egypt on condition (i) I was granted* the rank of 
officer in the Turkish army, (2) that the German Ambassador 
approved of my decision, and (3) that I was not required 
to start before my family arrived from Egypt. At this 
stage of our conversation a Bedawi sheikh arrived, and I 
rose to take my leave, but Fauzi Bey begged me to remain. 
The sheikh talked to Fauzi Bey on the Canal part of the 
programme, and I gathered from their remarks that it had 
already been discussed between them. I should mention 
that the sheikh on arriving asked the Bey if he could speak 
in my presence, to which Fauzi assented. They then discussed 
plans for destroying the embankment between the fresh- 
water canal and the Suez Canal, in order to cut off the drinking 
water supply of Ismailia and Suez. I asked the sheikh how 
he proposed to divert the fresh-water canal into Suez Canal. 
He replied that with 200 men and sufficient dynamite he could 
do it in thirty-four hours. Fauzi Bey interposed that he 
could easily have 1,000 kilog. of dynamite if he required it. 
I asked the sheikh sarcastically if he meant to employ Bedouin 

152 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

or fellaheen on the job, to which he replied, somewhat nettled, 
that it did not matter which. The sheikh left us and Fauzi 
Bey and I continued our conversation. I asked him how 
he was going to organise a revolution in Egypt without arms, 
arid mentioned that the Arms Law had been vigorously applied 
since two years ago. He replied that he had a sufficient 
quantity of arms in the country, and in any case arms could 
be smuggled through with ease. I reverted to the subject 
of the fresh-water canal, remarking that I thought it an 
absurd project, to which he replied that he believed it quite 
practical and that the sheikh was a man of intelligence and 
sense. He went on to say that it was not the only means 
which he had with which to deal with the Canal problem. 
A wealthy Turk had presented the Government with a steam- 
ship which sailed under the Italian flag and was commanded 
by an ex-officer of the Turkish navy. This ship was to take 
a full cargo of cement from an Italian port and her manifests 
were to be made out for Massowa. The captain was to 
submit to any search by British warships without demur, 
and on reaching Port Said to steam at full speed down 
the Canal. He was then to sink her by one of three methods, 
. viz. : (i) To collide with a British ship ; (2) to provoke a 
British warship to sink her by ignoring signals ; (3) to sink 
her himself. Fauzi Bey told me he had a trustworthy Egyp- 
tian officer who was leaving for Egypt by the first Khedivial 
mail steamer to take part in the operations there and to bear 
instructions to his agents. I afterwards spoke to Dr. Priifer 
about Fauzi's Canal project. He did not seem to approve, 
but gave me the map of the Suez Canal. I met Fauzi again 
at the passport office as I was about to embark on the steam- 
ship Saidia. He only greeted me, and said he hoped to see 
me back soon. He is the officer whom I mentioned in my 
former evidence as having seen me at the quays and who 
may have overheard my cabin number." 

Q. Who are the police officers in league with Fauzi Bey ? 
A . He did not give me their names. I mentioned the names 
of several officers of my acquaintance, but after scrutinising 
the list he gave me a negative answer. 

Q. Do you know the names of any of the army officers 
who figured on the list ? A . No. 

Q. Who were the officers despatched to Egypt in connec- 
ts 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

tion with the organisation of the komitaji bands? A. I do 
not know ; they left for Egypt before me. 

Q. Who was the Bedawi sheikh who discussed the fresh- 
water canal project ? A. I do not know his name. He was 
a man of about fifty years of age, with a full grey beard. He 
was about my height, but broad-shouldered and stout. He 
spoke educated Arabic without a Bedawi or Maghrabi 
accent. 

Q. Who was the officer in Alexandria with whom you 
were to co-operate ? A . He gave me no inkling as to who 
he was. 

Q. Did Enver Pasha speak to you on the subject of 
military operations in Egypt, the destruction of the Canal, 
&c. ? A. Yes, on the day before I sailed, when I called 
upon him with Dr. Priifer and the officer of the Lorelei. He 
questioned me on public opinion here, whether the natives 
would revolt against the English if the Turks marched against 
Egypt, and suggested that I should see Fauzi Bey on the 
subject. I replied that I had already seen him, and I recapitu- 
lated what he had told me. Enver Pasha replied that there 
would be certainly something for me to do in Egypt when 
the time came for action there if I was then still disposed to 
accept. He also asked me if I spoke Arabic. 

Q. Did Fauzi Bey mention the name of the Egyptian 
officer who was leaving for Egypt by the first Khedivial mail 
steamer ? A . No ; but in the light of subsequent events I 
believe it was Hamuda Effendi. 

Q. When you told Fauzi Bey that you were disposed to 
participate in military operations against this country, 
did he accept your offer? A. Yes; but it was agreed 
between us that this should take effect after I returned from 
Alexandria with my family. 

Q. Then why were you given the detonators to take to 
Egypt ? A. I do not know. I am convinced that Hamuda 
Effendi was the person designed for the enterprise connected 
with the detonators. I do not think that this mission was 
connected with the subject which Omar Fauzi Bey discussed 
with me. I think it must have been a secret between Sheikh 
Abd-el-Aziz Shawish, Drs. Ahmad Fuad and Priifer, and 
Hamuda Effendi. 

Q. Have you no idea what Hamuda was to do with the 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

detonators ? A . I knew they were for use with bombs 
to be manufactured in this country. 

Q. How do you know that? A. Because once I found 
Sheikh Shawish sitting with Dr. Priifer in the latter 's room 
at the Hotel Germania. They were copying in Arabic a 
receipt for making bombs. The paper from which Sheikh 
Shawish was copying contained directions, a list of the 
component chemicals, and a sketch of a bomb in the right- 
hand bottom corner. I heard them mention that it was 
to be given to the Egyptian officer, and Sheikh Shawish said 
to me in Arabic " Hua zaoit aryak." 

Q. To what use were the bombs to be put ? A. I have 
no idea. 

R. O. C. MORS. 



No. 182. 

Telegram communicated by Count Benckendorff on November 2. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

M. SAZONOF telegraphs on November ist, 1914, as 
follows : 

" The Turkish Charge d' Affaires has just read me the 
following telegram from the Grand Vizier : ' I request you 
to inform the Minister for Foreign Affairs that we infinitely 
regret that an act of hostility, provoked by the Russian fleet, 
should have compromised the friendly relations of the two 
countries. You can assure the Imperial Russian Government 
that the Sublime Porte will not fail to give the question such 
solution as it entails, and that they will adopt fitting measures 
to prevent a recurrence of similar acts. You can declare 
forthwith to the Minister that we have resolved no more to 
allow the Imperial fleet to enter the Black Sea, arid that we 
trust that the Russian fleet, on their side, will no longer cruise 
in our waters. I have the firm hope that the Imperial Russian 
Government will give proof, on this occurrence, of the same 
spirit of conciliation in the common interests of both countries/ 

" I replied to the Turkish Charge d'Affaires that I most 
categorically denied what he had just said respecting the 
initiation of hostilities by the Russian fleet ; I told him that 
I feared it was too late to negotiate ; that nevertheless, if 

155 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Nov. 

the Sublime Porte decided upon the immediate dismissal of 
all the German military and naval officers and men, it might be 
possible to consider the question, and that discussion might 
not be impossible to reach some basis of satisfaction to be 
given by Turkey for the illegal act of aggression against our 
coasts and for the damage thereby inflicted. 

" I authorised Fahr-Eddin to send a cypher telegram in 
this sense, but pointed out to him at the same time that the 
representation he had made in no way altered the situation. 
Fahr-Eddin will receive his passports to-morrow, and the 
reply from the Turkish Government can be s.ent through the 
Italian Embassy." 

No. 183. 
Sir E. Grey to Sir F. Bertie, Sir G. Buchanan, and Sir C. Greene. 

Foreign Office, November 3, 1914. 
SIR, 

THE Turkish Ambassador called on the 3ist ultimo 
and enquired whether this Department could give his High- 
ness any information regarding the telegrams which had 
appeared in the press on the subject of a Turkish attack 
on certain Russian ports. 

Sir A. Nicolson informed his Highness of what had actually 
occurred in the Black Sea. Tewfik Pasha expressed surprise, 
and enquired what he should do in the extremely difficult 
position in which he now found himself. Sir A. Nicolson 
assured his Highness that His Majesty's Government would 
treat him personally with all respect and consideration, and 
that he would be given notice if it became necessary for 
diplomatic relations between Great Britain and Turkey to 
cease. 

On the 2nd instant Tewfik Pasha again called and com- 
municated to Sir A. Nicolson the text of a telegram which he 
had just received from the Grand Vizier, a copy of which is 
enclosed herein. 

Sir A. Nicolson replied, and he was sure that I would agree 
with him, that he strongly demurred to the statement in the 
last paragraph of the Grand Vizier's telegram, to the effect 
that " His Majesty's Government had provoked a rupture 
o plomatic relations." It was absurd to state that we 

156 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

had done so in view of the indisputable fact that Turkish ships 
had bombarded the ports of one of our allies, and had burnt 
and sunk a British steamer lying peaceably in a friendly port. 
Furthermore, there were active, not to say feverish, military 
and other preparations directed against the Suez Canal and 
Egypt. If the Ottoman Government were as desirous as they 
asserted of maintaining friendly relations with Great Britain 
they should at once dismiss the German naval and military 
missions. 

I am, &c., 

E. GREY. 



ENCLOSURE IN No. 183. 

Text of Telegram to be communicated to Sir Edward Grey on 
behalf of Said Halim Pasha. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

I AM much grieved that, in consequence of the deplorable 
incident that has occurred in the Black Sea, the British 
Government have decided to recall their Ambassador from 
Constantinople. 

As I have many times declared to Sir Louis Mallet, I am 
deeply desirous to maintain the relations of friendship exist- 
ing between our two countries, and I am working without 
cease in order that they may not be compromised in any way. 

I should therefore much regret if an incident, due to un- 
foreseen circumstances, were to be considered by His Britannic 
Majesty's Government as a cause of conflict between the two 
countries. 

Consequently, I hope that His Majesty's Government 
will be willing, in witness of their reciprocal desire to maintain 
intact the friendly relations of the two countries, to put 
an end at the earliest possible moment to the rupture of 
diplomatic relations which they have just provoked. 

Constantinople, November I (14), 1914. 



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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Nov 

No. 184. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir G. Buchanan, Sir F. Bertie, and Sir 

C. Greene. 

g IR Foreign Office, November 4, 1914. 

TEWFIK PASHA called upon me this afternoon, and 
informed me that he had received instructions to ask for his 
passports, as His Majesty's Ambassador had already left 
Constantinople. 

I expressed to Tewfik Pasha my personal regret at our 
official relations being terminated, as he had always acted 
in a loyal, straightforward, and friendly manner, and I had 
much appreciated the intercourse which we had had together 
during the .past few years. I informed Tewfik Pasha that 
if his Government wished that hostilities between the two 
countries should cease, the only chance was to dismiss the 
German naval and military missions, and especially the 
officers and crews of the Goeben and Breslau. So long as 
German officers remained in complete naval and military 
control at Constantinople, it was clear that they would con- 
tinue to make war against us. 

I am, &c., 

E. GREY. 



DESPATCH FROM HIS MAJESTY'S AMBASSADOR AT 
CONSTANTINOPLE SUMMARISING EVENTS 
LEADING UP TO RUPTURE OF RELATIONS 
WITH TURKEY, AND REPLY THERETO. 

MISCELLANEOUS, No. 14 (1914) : [Cd. 7716.] 

[In continuation of " Miscellaneous, No. 13 (1914) " 

Cd. 7628.] 

5 IR ^ London, November 20, 1914. 

I HAVE the honour to report on the circumstances which 
preceded and accompanied my departure from Constantinople 
on November ist. 

On my return to my post on August i6th, a fortnight 
after the outbreak of the European war, the situation was 
already such as to give ground for the apprehension that 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Turkey would be driven by Germany sooner or later to take 
part in it as her ally. The Ottoman army, under the supreme 
command of Enver Pasha, who was entirely in German hands, 
had been mobilised, and although the Government had de- 
clared their intention of preserving their neutrality, they had 
taken no proper steps to ensure its maintenance. They had, 
on the contrary, jeopardised their ability to do so by the 
admission of the German warships Goeben and Breslau into 
the Dardanelles on August loth. Events have confirmed 
what I and my French and Russian colleagues constantly 
impressed upon the Grand Vizier and other Ministers at the 
time, that so long as the German admiral and crews remained 
on board the German warships, the German Government 
were masters of the situation, and were in a position to force 
the hand of the Turkish Government if at any given moment 
it suited them to do so. 

So far as the Grand Vizier was concerned, the warning 
fell upon deaf ears, and it was at no time possible to persuade 
his Highness to admit that he would not be able to control 
developments to which he was himself opposed and which 
had not the approval of the whole Government. It is quite 
possible that he was sincere in this conviction, but he was 
fully alive to the precarious nature of his own position and 
to the fact that any real attempt on his part to run counter 
to the policy of Enver Pasha and the military authorities 
would have meant his elimination. This event would have 
brought matters to a head at once, which would have been 
contrary to the policy of the allied Powers of postponing for 
as long as possible, if they were unable to avert altogether, 
the intervention of Turkey in the war, with the vast and 
complicated issues involved in the raising of the Eastern 
question, so that my role and that of my French and Russian 
colleagues, with whom I acted in complete accord throughout, 
was necessarily restricted to one of remonstrance and to an 
endeavour to expose and defeat the German intrigues. 

In pursuance of a long-prepared policy, the greatest 
pressure was at once exercised by Germany to force Turkey 
into hostilities. German success in the European war was 
said to be assured. The perpetual menace to Turkey from 
Russia might, it was suggested, be averted by a timely 
alliance with Germany and Austria. Egypt might be re- 

159 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

covered for the Empire. India and other Moslem countries 
represented as groaning under Christian rule might be kindled 
into a flame of infinite possibilities for the Caliphate of Con- 
stantinople. Turkey would emerge from the war the one 
great Power of the East, even as Germany would be the one 
great Power of the West. Such was the substance of German 
misrepresentations. It is a matter of common consent that 
Enver Pasha, dominated by a quasi-Napoleonic ideal, by 
political Pan-Islamism, and by a conviction of the superiority 
of the German arms, was from the first a strong partisan of 
the German alliance. How far his several colleagues and other 
directing spirits outside the Ministry entered into his views 
is to some extent a matter of speculation ; but it may be 
taken as certain that the Sultan, the Heir Apparent, the 
Grand Vizier, Djavid Bey, a majority of the Ministry, and a 
considerable section of the Committee of Union and Progress 
were opposed to so desperate an adventure as war with the 
allies. At what moment Talaat Bey, the most powerful 
civilian in the Cabinet and the most conspicuous of the Com- 
mittee leaders, finally threw in his lot with the war party 
cannot be ascertained precisely. His sympathies were 
undoubtedly with them from the beginning, but the part 
which he actually played in the earlier stages is shrouded 
in mystery. I have reason to think that for some time he 
may have thought it possible, by steering a middle course, 
to postpone a decision until it was clearer what would be the 
result of the European war ; and he may well have been 
anxious to gain time and to secure in exchange for Turkey's 
adhesion to the German cause something more solid than 
promises. These were tendered, indeed, on a lavish scale, 
but I am not aware that they were given in a form which 
could be considered binding. It is certain in any case that 
Talaat Bey's hesitations were overcome, and that he had 
definitely joined the conspiracy to bring about war this 
autumn some three weeks before the crisis was precipitated. 

Whatever the views of individual Ministers or others 
may have been, the Turkish Government made no effort to 
emancipate themselves from German influence or to stem 
the tide of its progress. The material hold established by 
the introduction of the two German ships was on the contrary 
allowed to be strengthened. Not only did these ships remain 

1 60 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

under effective German control, but a strong German element 
was imported into the remainder of the fleet, even before the 
British naval mission, which had been reduced to impotence 
by order of the Minister of Marine, had been recalled by His 
Majesty's Government. Large numbers of Germans were 
imported from Germany as unostentatiously as possible, to 
be employed in the forts of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus 
and at other crucial points. Numerous German merchant 
vessels, of which the most important were the Corcovado and 
the General, served as bases of communication and as auxili- 
aries to what had become, in effect, a German Black Sea 
Fleet. Secret communications with the German General 
Staff were established at the outbreak of the war by means 
of the wireless apparatus of the Corcovado, which was anchored 
opposite the German Embassy at Therapia, and which was 
continuously used for this among other purposes throughout 
the whole period under review, in spite of my urgent repre- 
sentations and those of my French and Russian colleagues. 
Other German ships played with the Turkish flag as they 
pleased, in order to facilitate their voyages or cloak their 
real character while in port, and a department was constituted 
at the German Embassy for the purpose of requisitioning 
supplies for the use of the German Government and their 
ships. All these things were tolerated by a complaisant 
Turkish Government, who appeared to be indifferent to the 
incessant encroachments on their sovereignty if not to welcome 
them. 

On land, the officers of the German military mission dis- 
played a ubiquitous activity. Their supremacy at the 
Ministry of War, combined with the close co-operation 
which existed between them and the Militarist party, made 
it easy to fortify an already strong position. Acting in con- 
junction with other less accredited agents of their own nation- 
ality, they were the main organisers of those military prepara- 
tions in Syria which so directly menaced Egypt, and which 
became a serious source of preoccupation and a constant theme 
of my remonstrances. 

The evidence of these preparations became daily more 
convincing. Emissaries of Enver Pasha were present on the 
frontier, bribing and organising the Bedouins. Warlike 
stores were despatched south, and battalions of regular troops 

Naval II L I6l 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

were posted at Rafah, whilst the Syrian and Mosul army 
corps were held in readiness to move south at short -notice. 
The Syrian towns were full of German officers, who were 
provided with large sums of money for suborning the local 
chiefs. As an illustration of the thoroughness of the German 
preparations, I was credibly informed that orders were given 
to obtain estimates for the making of Indian military costumes 
at Aleppo in order to simulate the appearance of British Indian 
troops. Under directions from the Central Government the 
civil authorities of the Syrian coast towns removed all their 
archives and ready money to the interior, and Moslem families 
were warned to leave to avoid the consequences of bombard- 
ment by the British fleet. The Khedive himself was a party 
to the conspiracy, and arrangements were actually made 
with the German Embassy for his presence with a military 
expedition across the frontier. 

However difficult it would have been for the Ottoman 
Government to regain their control over the armed forces 
of the State after the arrival of the Goeben and Breslau, the 
insidious campaign carried on with their encouragement by 
means of the press, the preachers in the mosques, and the 
pamphleteers, is evidence that its most powerful members 
were in sympathy with the anti-British movement. I had, 
indeed, actual proof of the inspiration by Talaat Bey and 
Djemal Pasha of articles directed against Great Britain. 
Every agency which could be used to stimulate public opinion 
in favour of Germany and to inflame it against the allies was 
set at work with the connivance, and often with the co- 
operation, of the Turkish authorities. All the Turkish news- 
papers in Constantinople became German organs ; they 
glorified every real or imaginary success of Germany or 
Austria ; they minimised everything favourable to the allies. 

The enclosures in an earlier despatch will have shown 
to what depths of scurrility some of the more corrupt and 
unbridled of them descended in their onslaughts on Great 
Britain, and how unequally the censors of the press held 
the balance when exercising their practically unlimited powers. 
The provincial papers were no less enthusiastically pro- 
German ; the semi-official telegraphic agency, which is 
practically worked by the Ministry of the Interior, was placed 
at the disposal of German propaganda. Through these 

162 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

agencies unlimited use was made of Turkey's one concrete 
and substantial grievance against Great Britain as distin- 
guished from other European Powers, that is, the detention 
of the Sultan Osman and the Reshadie at the beginning of the 
European war. Other grievances, older and less substantial, 
were raked out of the past ; and the indictment of Great 
Britain and her allies was completed by a series of inventions 
and distortions of the truth designed to represent them as 
the enemy, not merely of Turkey, but of the whole of Islam. 
Attacks of the latter kind became especially frequent in the 
latter half of October, and were undoubtedly directly inspired 
by Germany. My urgent representations to the Grand 
Vizier and to Talaat Bey, both verbal and written, had 
hardly even a temporary effect in checking this campaign. 

It may seem strange that, thus equipped and thus abetted, 
those who sought to involve Turkey in the European war 
failed so long to achieve their object. The reasons were 
manifold. As I have already indicated, the party which 
stood for neutrality contained men who, lacking though they 
were in any material means of enforcing their views, could 
not easily be ignored. By whatever various routes they 
may have been arrived at, the ideas of these men coincided 
with a body of less sophisticated and hardly articulate opinion 
which, however wounded by England's action in preventing 
delivery of the Sultan Osman and the Reshadie, could still 
not reconcile itself to a war with England and France. In 
my despatch of September 22nd I had the honour to report 
how frankly and how emphatically the Sultan himself voiced 
this feeling in conversation with me. There can be little 
doubt that the Grand Vizier exercised what influence he had 
in favour of neutrality. Djavid Bey, the Minister of Finance, 
whose influence in favour of neutrality was of weight as 
representing the Jewish element, and whose arguments in 
favour of peace were supported by the fact that Turkey was 
already absolutely bankrupt, and not in a position to embark 
upon war with the allies, became towards the end so formidable 
an obstacle to the fulfilment of the German plan that instruc- 
tions were sent from Berlin to force his resignation. 

Again, seriously convinced as most prominent Turks 
appear to have been of the ultimate success of Germany, 
their confidence could not but be a little dashed by the 

163 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

actual course of events in the two main theatres of war ; 
and the more thoughtful realised that even in the event of 
Germany being victorious, the fact of Turkey having fought 
by her side would not necessarily ensure any advantage to 
the Ottoman Empire. As for the Germans themselves, it 
was true, as I have said, that they could at any moment force 
Turkey to march with them, but to do so before every means 
of suasion had proved useless would obviously not have been 
politic. It was clearly only in the last resort that the Monarch 
whom Pan-Islamic pro-Germans acclaimed as the hope of 
Islam, and whom the devout in some places had been taught 
to regard as hardly distinguishable from a true believer, would 
run the risk of scandalising the Moslem world, whom he hoped 
to set ablaze to the undoing of England, Russia, and France, 
by using the guns of the Goeben to force the hands of the 
Sultan-Caliph. But the factor which more than any other 
delayed the realisation of the German plans, and which enabled 
me and my French and Russian colleagues to protract the 
crisis until they could only be realised in such a way as to 
open the eyes of the Moslem world to the real nature of the 
conspiracy, was the inherent tendency of Turkish statesmen 
to procrastinate, in the hope that by playing off one side 
against the other they might gain more in the long run. 

However slender the chances in our favour, it was obviously 
my duty, in conjunction with my French and Russian col- 
leagues, to support and encourage by all possible means those 
forces which were obscurely striving for the preservation of 
peace. 

If this policy necessarily involved the acceptance of acts 
on the part of the Ottoman Government which, in ordinary 
circumstances, would have called for more than remonstrance 
and the reservation of our rights, and which it would have 
been easy to make the occasion of a rupture of relations, the 
patience displayed by the allies was justified by the results 
achieved. 

Although unsuccessful in averting war, two objects of 
main importance were gained by delaying its commencement. 
On the one hand, the allied Powers are now in a position to 
deal with the problem with a freer hand, and, on the other, 
Germany has been forced to show her cards and to act inde- 
pendently of a majority of the Turkish Cabinet. 

164 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Under the stress of events in the main theatre of the war, 
and owing to the vital necessity of providing a diversion in 
the Near East, Germany was constrained to intensify still 
further their pressure on the Turks. During the first three 
weeks of October their pressure took yet another form, and 
a new weight was cast into the scale by the importation into 
Constantinople, with every circumstance of secrecy, of large 
quantities of bullion consigned to the German Ambassador 
and delivered under military guard at the Deutsche Bank. 
The total amount was estimated at some 4,ooo,ooo/. This 
sum was far more than was necessary for the maintenance of 
the German military and naval establishments, and I have 
every reason to believe that a definite arrangement was 
arrived at between the Germans and a group of Ministers, 
including Enver Pasha, Talaat Bey, and Djemal Pasha, that 
Turkey should declare war as soon as the financial provision 
should have attained a stated figure. My information estab- 
lishes the fact that a climax was reached about the middle 
of the third week in October, when it had been decided to 
confront the Grand Vizier with the alternative of complicity or 
resignation, and that only the Russian successes on the 
Vistula, or some other more obscure cause, prevented this 
plan from being carried out. 

Whatever the exact history of the first three weeks of 
October, it is certain that on or about the 26th of that month 
the German conspirators realised that the pace must be 
forced by still more drastic measures than they had yet used, 
and that any further attempts to win over the Grand Vizier 
and the Turkish Government as a whole to their ideas and 
to induce them to declare war would be useless. On that 
afternoon an important meeting of Committee leaders was 
held, at which Enver Pasha was present, but which only 
decided to send Halil Bey, the President of the Chamber, 
on a mission to Berlin. In the circles in which this decision 
became known it was regarded as a partial triumph for the 
Peace party, and as a fresh attempt to gain time for the sake 
either of mere procrastination or of securing more concrete 
offers from Germany. Be that as it may, Halil Bey never 
left on his mission, and it is believed that its abandonment 
was due to a more than usually blunt hint from the German 
representative in Constantinople. Whilst Constantinople 

165 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

generally was comforting itself with the reflection that nothing 
could well happen until after the four days' Bairam festival, 
beginning on October 30th, two events of capital importance 
occurred. 

On the morning of the 2gth I received intelligence from 
Egypt of the incursion into the Sinai peninsula of an armed 
body of 2,000 Bedouins, who had occupied the wells of 
Magdaba, and whose objective was an attack upon the Suez 
Canal. On learning this news I at once proceeded to the 
Yali of the Grand Vizier, to acquaint him of the serious con- 
sequences which must ensue if the expedition were not at once 
recalled. His Highness received the intelligence with every 
appearance of surprise. He emphatically disclaimed all 
knowledge of it, and gave me the most solemn assurance that 
if the facts were as stated he would at once issue orders for the 
withdrawal of the invading party. He assured me once more 
that nothing was further from the intention of the Government 
than war with Great Britain. It was unthinkable, he said, 
that an expedition of this kind could have been organised by 
any member of the Government ; and he felt certain that if 
anything of the kind had occurred, it could only have been 
a raid by irresponsible Bedouins. I told his Highness that 
I feared that he deceived himself. I reminded him of the 
various occasions on which he had given me similar assurances, 
and of the negative results of the instructions which he had 
given on previous occasions. I warned him of the disastrous 
consequences to the Ottoman Empire of a crisis which could 
not now be long postponed unless he and the friends of peace 
were prepared to take some serious stand against the con- 
spiracy of which I was fully cognisant, to involve it irretriev- 
ably in the general war. On this, as on every occasion of my 
interviews with the Grand Vizier, I was impressed with his 
inability to realise the facts or to disabuse himself of the con- 
viction, in spite of his many unfortunate experiences, that 
he would be able, in a really serious crisis, to exert his authority 
with effect. 

The second event of capital importance was the attack 

'on Odessa and other Russian ports in the Black Sea on the 

morning of the same day, October 29th. It is now certain 

that the actual orders for these attacks were given by the 

German admiral on the evening of October 27th, but it was 

166 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

not until after they had actually taken place, that is, on the 
afternoon of October 29th, when news of the raid on Odessa 
was telegraphed to me direct by Mr. Consul-General Roberts, 
that my Russian and French colleagues and myself realised 
that the die had actually been cast and the crisis that we had 
so long feared and striven to avert had occurred. Imme- 
diately on receiving the news M. Bompard and I called on 
M. de Giers and decided to ask for authority from our respec- 
tive Governments to confront the Porte with the alternative 
of rupture or dismissal of the German naval and military 
missions. On the morning of the soth, however, I learnt 
from my Russian colleague that he had received instructions 
from his Government immediately to "ask for his passports. 
He had written to the Grand Vizier to ask for an interview, 
which his Highness had begged him to postpone until the 
following day owing to indisposition. The instructions of 
my Russian colleague being in a categorical form, he had 
therefore been constrained to address a note to the Grand 
Vizier demanding his passports ; and I and my French 
colleague, acting on the instructions with which the Am- 
bassadors of the allied Powers had at my suggestion already 
been furnished to leave Constantinople simultaneously, should 
any one of them be compelled to ask for his passports, owing 
either to a Turkish declaration of war or to some intolerable 
act of hostility, decided without further delay to write to the 
Grand Vizier and ask in our turn for interviews to enable us 
to carry out these instructions. In view of his Highness' s 
indisposition we had not expected to be received that day, 
but a few hours later the Grand Vizier sent us word that he 
would, nevertheless, be glad to see us, and notwithstanding 
the excuse which he had made earlier in the day he received 
the Russian Ambassador also in the course of the afternoon. 
My interview with the Grand Vizier partly coincided with that 
of M. de Giers, and preceded that of M. Bompard. It was 
of a painful description. His Highness convinced me of his 
sincerity in disclaiming all knowledge of or participation in 
the events which had led to the rupture, and entreated me 
to believe that the situation was even now not irretrievable. 
I replied that the lime had passed for assurances. The crisis 
which I had predicted to his Highness at almost every inter- 
view which I had had with him since my return had actually 

167 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

occurred, and unless some adequate satisfaction were im- 
mediately given by the dismissal of the German missions, 
which could alone prevent the recurrence of attempts upon 
Egyptian territory and attacks on Russia, war with the allies 
was inevitable. My Russian colleague had already demanded 
his passports, and I must, in pursuance of the instructions I 
had received, follow the same course. The Grand Vizier 
again protested that even now he could undo what the War 
party had done without his knowledge or consent. In reply 
to the doubt which I expressed as to the means at his disposal, 
he said that he had on his side moral forces which could not 
but triumph, and that he meant to fight on to the end. He 
did not, indeed, hint at a possibility of immediately dis- 
missing the German mission, but he informed me that there 
was to be a meeting of the Council at his house that evening, 
when he would call upon his colleagues to support him in his 
determination to avert war with the allied Powers. 

The Council was duly held, and, as he had predicted, the 
majority of the Ministers supported the Grand Vizier, who 
made a strong appeal in favour of peace, and was seconded by 
Djavid Bey. But the powerlessness of the Sultan's Ministers 
to do more than vote in the Council Chamber was evident. 
The question of dismissing the German naval officers was 
discussed, but no decision to do so was taken, and no "Minister 
ventured even to propose the expulsion of the military mission. 
In the interval the War party had sealed their resolution to 
go forward, by publishing a communique in which it was 
stated that the first acts of hostility in the Black Sea had 
come from the Russian side. Untrue and grotesque as it 
was, this invention succeeded in deceiving many of the 
public. 

It is not possible to establish by proof which of the Ministers 
had pre-knowledge of the German admiral's coup, but it may 
be regarded as certain that Enver Pasha was aware of it, 
and highly probable that Talaat Bey was also an accomplice. 

The story of a Russian provocation was plainly an after- 
thought, and if the official report of the Russian Government 
were not sufficient to disprove it, I could produce independent 
evidence to show that the orders to begin hostilities were 
given at the mouth of the Bosphorus on the evening of 
October 27th, as the result of a conspiracy hatched between 

168 



,i. ] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the German representatives in Constantinople and a small 
and unscrupulous Turkish faction. 

My Russian colleague left Constantinople without incident 
on the evening of October 3ist. My own departure was 
eventually arranged for the following evening, when I left 
for Dedeagatch, accompanied by my staff of sixty officials 
and their families, the British advisers in the service of the 
Turkish Government and some other British subjects also 
travelled with me. My French colleague and his staff left 
by the same train. 

Owing to the wanton refusal of the military authorities 
at the last moment to allow the departure of a great number 
of British and French subjects who were to have left by an 
earlier train than that which had been placed at my disposal, 
the station was for some hours the scene of indescribable 
confusion and turmoil. 

My protests and those of the French Ambassador were 
disregarded, and after protracted discussion we agreed to 
leave matters in the hands of the United States Ambassador, 
who undertook to use all his influence to procure the depar- 
ture of our fellow subjects on the following day. The " sous- 
chef de protocole " of the Sublime Porte and the " chef de 
cabinet particulier " of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs were 
sent to bid farewell to M. Bompard and myself at the railway 
station, and two Secretaries of the Political Department of 
the Ministry accompanied us to the frontier. 

It would be impossible to exaggerate the assistance which 
I have received from Mr. Morgenthau, the United States 
Ambassador. During the last two days especially the 
difficulties arising out of the abnormality of the situation 
would have been immeasurably greater had it not been for 
his invaluable help and his untiring efforts on behalf of myself 
and my staff. We are heavily indebted not only to Mr. 
Morgenthau himself, but to every member of the United States 
Embassy. It is entirely owing to their exertions that the 
British and French subjects who were detained at the station 
on the night of my departure were allowed to leave on the 
following evening. 

Before concluding this despatch I desire also to place on 
record my sense of the cheerful courage displayed by the 
British community in Constantinople, as well as in other 

169 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

towns, during the whole of this trying period. A large 
proportion of them ha.ve suffered severely in their business 
from the instability of the situation in Turkey. Many have 
suffered heavily and more directly by the military requisi- 
tions which from the beginning of August were carried out 
in an inconceivably arbitrary manner. By the suppression 
of the Capitulations all saw themselves deprived at a moment's 
notice of the secular privileges which had hitherto secured 
the persons and the property of foreigners against caprice 
and injustice. But they have one and all faced these adver- 
sities with a reasonable and manly fortitude. 

Shortly after my return to my post, I recommended those 
British subjects who applied to me for advice to send home, 
when opportunity offered, those members of their families 
who had no particular reason to stay in the country. 

A certain number left during the autumn, and many have 
left since. Those who have chosen to stay, or who have not 
been in a position to leave, remain under the protection of the 
United States Ambassador. As regards the British com- 
munity at Bagdad, I instructed the acting British consul- 
general at Bagdad, early in October, to charter a steamer for 
the conveyance to thexoast of any British subjects who might 
wish to leave. A large number of British and British-Indian 
subjects availed themselves of this opportunity. 

I cannot conclude this report without calling your atten- 
tion to the zeal shown by the junior members of my staff, 
including Mr. Ovey, Lord Gerald Wellesley, Mr. Charles 
Lister, Mr. Thomas, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Astell, and by Mr. 
Fuller, Archivist to His Majesty's Embassy, in the perform- 
ance of their duties in the Chancery, as well as to the able 
and conscientious work of the members of the Dragomanate 
and consulate-general. 

The Chancery was greatly assisted by the voluntary help 
kindly offered to them by Judge Cator, the Rev. Canon White- 
house, Chaplain to His Majesty's Embassy, and by Dr. 
Clemow, Physician to His Majesty's Embassy, as well as 
by Mr. Weakley, Commercial Attache. 

I need not do more than refer to the work of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Cunliffe Owen, Military Attache to His Majesty's 
Embassy, whose information respecting the military prepara- 
tions was often obtained with considerable difficulty. 

170 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

I should like to place on record my high appreciation of 
the conduct of His Majesty's consular officers throughout the 
Ottoman Empire during the whole period of the crisis. They 
one and all performed their often difficult duties with zeal 
and discretion. I was especially indebted to Mr. Cumber- 
batch, His Majesty's consul-general at Beirut, Mr. Heathcote 
Smith, acting British consul-general at Smyrna, and to 
Mr. Palmer, vice-consul at the Dardanelles, for the valuable 
information which they supplied. 

I would wish to bring to your particular notice the services 
rendered by Mr. Ryan, Acting First Dragoman of His Majesty's 
Embassy. His ability, knowledge of Turkey, sound judg- 
ment and untiring industry, were of invaluable assistance to 
me, and are deserving of your special commendation. 

I have, &c., 

LOUIS MALLET. 



No. 2. 

Sir Edward Grey to Sir L. Mallet. 

Foreign Office, December 4, 1914. 
SIR, 

I HAVE received your Excellency's despatch of the 20 th 
ultimo, in which you summarise the events since your return 
to your post on August i6th last until your departure on 
November ist. 

I have read with great appreciation and pleasure of the 
invaluable assistance rendered to your Excellency in the 
difficult circumstances of your departure by the United 
States Ambassador and every member of the United States 
Embassy, and I have already requested the United States 
Government to convey to Mr. Morgenthau the most sincere 
thanks of His Majesty's Government for the valuable services 
rendered by his Excellency on that occasion, and subsequently 
in helping the British community to leave Constantinople. 

I have also been much gratified to receive your Excellency's 
testimony of the cheerful courage of the British community 
in Turkey under exceptionally trying circumstances, and I 
have noted with great satisfaction your Excellency's apprecia- 
tion of the valuable services of the embassy and consulate 

171 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

staff, and of the members of His Majesty's consular service 
throughout the Ottoman Empire. 

I desire also to convey to your Excellency my high sense 
of the marked ability, patience, and discretion shown by 
your Excellency in carrying out, in the face of great difficulties, 
the policy of His Majesty's Government. War was eventually 
forced by wanton and unprovoked hostilities of the Turkish 
fleet under German inspiration and orders, but it was the 
desire of His Majesty's Government to avoid a rupture with 
Turkey ; and your Excellency rightly directed all your efforts 
to encourage those influences at Constantinople that were 
moderate and reasonable. To your efforts it was at any rate 
in some degree due that the inevitable catastrophe did not 
occur sooner. 

I am, &c., 

E. GREY. 



THE KAISER AND PRINCE HENRY STRUCK OUT OF 

NAVY LIST. 

THE Navy List for November omits the name of the 
German Emperor and his brother, Prince Henry of Prussia, 
from the list of Honorary Admirals of the British Fleet. The 
Tsar alone now possesses that distinction. 

OPERATIONS IN THE PERSIAN GULF AND IN 

MESOPOTAMIA. 

FIELD OPERATIONS. 

No. 205. The Governor-General in Council has much 
pleasure in directing the publication of the following letter 
from the Chief of the General Staff, dated the 2nd February, 
1915, submitting despatches from Brigadier-General W. S. 
Delamain, C.B., D.S.O., and Lieutenant-General Sir A. A. 
Barrett, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., describing the operations of 
I.E.F. " D ": at the head of the Persian Gulf up to the 28th 
November, 1914. The Governor-General in Council concurs 
in the opinion expressed by His Excellency the Commander- 
in-Chief regarding the manner in which the operations were 
conducted and the behaviour of the troops engaged. His 



igc4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Excellency in Council also shares the Commander-in-Chief s 
appreciation of the support rendered by the Royal Navy 
which conduced so materially to the success of the operations. 



From the Chief of the General Staff to the Secretary to the Govern- 
ment of India, Army Department, dated Delhi, February 
2nd, 1915. 

I am directed by His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief 

in India to submit for the information of the Government of 

India the undermentioned reports on the operations of Indian 

Expeditionary Force " D " up to the 28th November, 1914 : 

(i.) Report by Brigadier-General W. S. Delamain, 

C.B., D.S.O., on the operations of I.E.F. " D," up to the 

I4th November, 1914 ; and 

(ii.) Report by Lieutenant-General Sir A. A. Barrett, 
K.C.B., K.C.V.O., Commanding I.E.F. " D," on the 
operations of his force at the head of the Persian Gulf, 
from the I4th to the 28th November, 1914. 

2. His Excellency considers that the operations were 
conducted with skill and energy and that the discipline and 
steadiness of the troops reflect the greatest credit on all ranks. 
He desires to commend to the favourable consideration of 
Government the officers, non-commissioned officers and 
men whose services are brought to notice in the reports, and 
wishes specially to invite attention to Lieutenant-General 
Sir Arthur Barrett's remarks in regard to the very valuable 
assistance rendered by the Royal Navy which he cordially 
endorses. 

3. His Excellency recommends that the reports be treated 
as despatches and published in the Gazette of India. 



From Brigadier-General W. S. Delamain, C.B., D.S.O., Com- 
manding i6th Brigade, I.E.F. " D," to the Chief of the 
General Staff, Simla, dated Camp Saniyeh, November 
i6th, 1914. 

On the arrival of Lieutenant-General Sir A. A. Barrett at 
this camp and on conclusion of my period of independent 
command I have the honour to report as follows : 

173 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Nov 

2. The force under my command, known as I.E.F. " D," 
left Bombay on the i6th October in four transports, part of 
a large convoy. On igth October we parted company and 
steered for Bahrain Islands, under escort of H.M.S. Ocean. 
.No. i Brigade, Indian Mountain Artillery, joined the force off 
Jask on the 2ist. We arrived on the 23rd and anchored off 
Manama. Here we remained until the 2nd November. 

3. On that date the Force sailed for the mouth of the 
Shatt-el-Arab in compliance with instructions contained in 
your radio-telegram No. 6571. Pilots were taken on board 
off Bushire, and the Force arrived at the outer bar of the 
river on the evening of the 3rd November. 

4. The 4th and 5th November were occupied with naval 
preparations, and the transports themselves were prepared 
with bullet-proof cover on the upper decks for the use of 
parties detailed for covering fire. 

Major Radcliffe, 2nd Dorset Regiment, returned from 
Kuweit on 5th with information that the Fort was in ruins, 
but that guns were in position. A landing force was detailed 
for the capture of Fao, under Lieutenant-Colonel H. L. 
Rosher, 2nd Dorset Regiment, and orders issued. On the 
5th the transports crossed the outer bar of the Shatt-el-Arab 
and anchored just outside the inner bar. 

5. At 6 am. on 6th November H.M.S. Odin, preceded by 
launches sweeping for mines, stood in and bombarded the 
Turkish guns outside the Fort, 3 miles south-east of the 
telegraph station at Fao. The hostile guns were soon silenced ; 
they were well served for a time and hit the Odin twice. On 
the signal being made that the guns were silenced, the trans- 
ports Umaria and Varela advanced in that order, each towing 
eight boats full of troops alongside ; the Mashona (armed 
launch) towed seven boats full of troops and the Royal Navy 
steam launches towed the detachment of Marines from H.M.S. 
Ocean. Off the telegraph station the boats were cast off and 
made for the shore. Some 600 Infantry landed with one 
section, Mountain Artillery, complete with mules and one 
squad, Sappers and Miners. There was no opposition. 
When the first and second reinforcements had also landed, 
Colonel Rosher assembled his force and marched south-east- 
wards to occupy the Fort. This was accomplished during 
the night of the 6th~7th, the guns were dismounted and 

174 



] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

thrown into the river, and Colonel Rosher's command returned 
to Fao. 

6. While the troops who had landed were being 
re-embarked on the 7th November, the General Officer Com- 
manding with remaining transports proceeded up the river 
till within sight of the Oil Refinery on Abadan Island. On 
the 8th November the river was reconnoitred for a suitable 
landing place. A firm, high bank with deep water close up 
to it was found at Saniyeh ; the transports were called up 
and troops began to disembark. The disembarkation con- 
tinued during gth and loth November being practically 
complete by evening of latter date. 

7. It was proposed to advance from this camp and attack 
the Turks at Shamshumiya by land, but the reported advance 
of Turkish troops from Basrah and the necessity of safe- 
guarding the Oil Works, combined with the absence of news 
from India regarding the arrival of reinforcements, decided 
me to remain at Saniyeh. With the intention of an early 
forward movement, as little baggage and supplies as possible 
were landed at this camp. Reconnaissances both up and 
down stream on the gth and loth failed to discover any enemy. 

8. On the evening of the loth reliable news was received 
from the Sheikh of Mohammerah that Sami Bey, with a 
strong combined force of Turks and Arabs had arrived from 
Basrah at a point opposite Mohammerah with the intention 
of attacking our camp. At 3 a.m. on the nth the Sheikh 
reported that Sami Bey had started to make the attack. 
Troops were turned out and outposts strengthened. The 
Turkish force, of whom over 300 were actually seen, delivered 
a determined attack at 5.30 a.m. on an advanced post held 
by one double company H7th Mahrattas with two machine 
guns. They advanced to within 50 yards of the post, but 
were driven off by a dashing counter-attack delivered by the 
2Oth Duke of Cambridge's Own Infantry, with the assistance 
of the 23rd Peshawar Mountain Battery. The enemy lost 
heavily in their retirement across the desert, nineteen dead 
were counted, fourteen wounded were brought in by us and 
six prisoners were taken. Abandoned rifles and equipment 
were found . The Turks officially acknowledged a loss of eighty 
men. 

9. The defences of the camp were further strengthened and 

175 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Nc 

daily reconnaissances made. On the i4th November, Lieu- 
tenant-General Sir A. Barrett with the i8th Brigade and 
Divisional Troops arrived at this camp. 

10. I would invite attention to the difficulties of com- 
munication in the Persian Gulf during the period covered by 
this report. Constant thunderstorms interrupted the wire- 
less system. The installation on R.I.M.S. Dalhousie is 
apparently of poor quality, and the operators not very experi- 
enced. This ship had to be stationed at Bushire to connect 
with the cable there. The wireless station at Jask was 
frequently in communication with H.M.S. Ocean, in the sense 
that the station would answer the call of the warship, but it 
would not take in any message for transmission. No night 
watch is kept at Jask. 

11. Several points to which I would earnestly invite 
attention are mentioned in the " Notes " made at intervals 
in the " War Diary " which is forwarded by the same mail 
as this report. 

12. I would mention that the stay of the Force at Bahrain 
was of advantage as it enabled me to have British and Indian 
Corps instructed in rowing and handling of boats and to 
rehearse the operation of a landing in force. 

13. All ranks have performed their duties in a most zealous 
and creditable manner. 

14. I would bring to notice the great assistance given me 
by the following officers in planning and carrying out the 
operations for the occupation of Fao and the landing at this 
camp : 

Captain Hayes-Sadler, R.N., Senior Naval Officer, 
H.M.S. Ocean. 

Commander Hamilton, Royal Indian Marine, Prin- 
cipal Marine Transport Officer. 

15. I would also report that the masters of the various 
transports 1 gave all the assistance in their power. I would 
specially bring to notice the name of Mr. T. L. Mills, R.N.R., 



1 Varela. 
Umaria. 
Umta. 
Berber a. 

Masunda 



British India Steam Navigation Company. 



176 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Master of the S.S. Varela, British India Steam Navigation 
Company, who displayed great zeal and willingness to per- 
form operations beyond those usually required of a master 
of a merchant vessel. I trust that it will be found possible 
to recognise his services. 

16. In connection with the Turkish night attack on the 
nth November I would report that the counter-attack I 
ordered on the attacking force was carried out in a most 
dashing and skilful manner by the 20th Duke of Cambridge's 
Own Infantry and the 23rd Peshawar Mountain Battery 
under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel C. Rattray, 20th 
Infantry. 



REPORT OF OPERATIONS OF INDIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 
" D " FROM NOVEMBER 14 TO 28, 1914. 

From Lieutenant-General Sir A. A. Barrett, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., 
Commanding Indian Expeditionary Force " D," to the 
Chief of the General Staff, Army Headquarters, Delhi. 
No. IOI-G, dated Basrah, December jih y 1914. 

I have the honour to submit for the information of His 
Excellency the Commander-in-Chief, the following report 
of the operations of the troops under my command from the 
I4th to the 28th November, 1914. * 

2. On the morning of the I4th November, the SS. Elephant a 
with my Headquarters, and four other transports anchored 
in the river opposite Saniyeh, where Brigadier-General Dela- 
main's force was already bivouacked. The disembarkation 
of the troops was commenced at once. Infantry used the 
ships' boats and experienced no difficulty in getting ashore. 
The landing of the guns, wagons and horses of the field artillery 
and of the cavalry horses in lighters and dhows was greatly 
delayed by the strong tide and current, the want of proper 
landing places, and by the shortage of lighters and steam 
craft for towing purposes. Every possible use was made of 
all the craft available, and with the hearty co-operation of the 
officers and men of the Royal Navy, the Indian Marine and 
the transports, considerable progress was made. The hatch 
covers of the transports were utilised as ramps for horses and 
guns, while excellent work was done by the Sapper companies. 

Naval II M 177 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [IS 

3. In the course of the day I learnt from General Delamain 
of the presence of a hostile force at Saihan, four miles distant, 
and I ordered him to attack it the following morning. A full 
account of the action which ensued will be found in the 
attached report from General Delamain. I have already 
mentioned, in my telegraphic report of this action, my appre- 
ciation of the skilful and spirited manner in which this attack 
was carried out, and of the credit due to all who were engaged. 
The result was entirely satisfactory, as it enabled our advance 
on the I7th November to take place without our right flank 
being harassed. 

4. Our information on the evening of the i6th was to the 
effect that a force of the enemy would probably be met with 
about Sahil and Zain, while his main body was believed to 
be in position at Balyaniyeh. At that time the whole of the 
cavalry, sappers, and the infantry of the i8th Brigade had 
been landed, but only one battery of the loth Brigade, Royal 
Field Artillery. I was informed that the Sheikh of Moham- 
merah was apprehensive of an attack on Failieh from the 
enemy's forces on the left bank, and also that the attitude 
of the neighbouring Arabs would depend, to a great extent, 
upon our ability to make headway against the Turks without 
undue delay. I therefore decided that it would be in our 
best interests to advance at once, with the whole of the force 
then at my disposal, leaving the remaining field batteries to 
be disembarked as rapidly as possible and to follow us as soon 
as circumstances would permit. 

5. A copy of operation orders issued for Tuesday the I7th 
November will be found attached. 1 My intention was to 
turn the enemy's right flank, and drive him through the palm 
groves on to the river, so that the two sloops, Odin and Espiegle, 
which moved up the river on a level with our advance, might 
be able to co-operate. 

6. After leaving the bivouac we moved across the open 
desert, the surface of which, owing to recent rain, was still 
very muddy in places, though fortunately free from creeks 
or other obstructions. 

At 8.50 a.m. a report was received from the advanced guard 
to the effect that the enemy's position extended from a ruined 
mud fort, which was plainly visible, somewhat to the right of 

1 Appendix II. 

178 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

our line of advance, north-westwards through Hassanain to 
Zain. 1 At 10 a.m. the enemy's guns opened fire. I then 
ordered the noth Mahratta L.I. to reinforce the advanced 
guard and moved up the i6th Brigade on its right, leaving a 
space between the two brigades for the artillery to come into 
action, and retaining as reserves the 48th Pioneers and the 
I2oth Infantry. Each of the two Brigade commanders had 
then at his disposal three battalions of infantry and a com- 
pany of sappers, with the cavalry covering the left flank of 
the whole force, and the two sloops on the river to our right, 
though at some distance, with only the tops of their masts 
appearing above the belt of palm trees. The whole of the 
artillery, consisting of the 23rd and 3Oth Mountain Batteries, 
and the 63rd Battery, Royal Field Artillery, subsequently 
joined by three guns of the 76th Battery, which were hurried 
up during the action from the landing place, were placed 
under the Commander, Royal Artillery. 

7. While these dispositions were being made, a heavy 
downpour lasting for half an hour came on. The front was 
entirely obscured, while the surface of the ground was con- 
verted into a quagmire ankle deep over which guns and 
horses could only move at a walk. The enemy's guns ceased 
firing, and I was in some doubt as to whether he intended 
to maintain his position. Our troops continued to advance 
steadily until 11.45 a.m., when the enemy simultaneously 
opened a heavy gun, rifle and machine-gun fire along his 
whole front. Our artillery and infantry also came into 
action. After watching the course of the engagement for 
some time, I came to the conclusion that it would be advisable 
to abandon my original intention of turning the enemy's 
right, which extended some distance, and was echeloned 
back into broken ground and palm groves. The key of his 
position appeared to be the old mud fort. I therefore sent 
word to General Fry with the i8th Brigade to engage the 
enemy's right and centre with a frontal attack, while General 
Delamain with the i6th Brigade turned his left flank and 
captured the fort. At the same time I reinforced General 
Delamain with a battalion from the reserve. General Dela- 
main had meanwhile anticipated my intentions and had 

1 This report proved substantially correct, except that their position 
extended about f mile to the south of Old Fort along the date-palm belt. 

179 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Nc 

already commenced the turning movement. It was at this 
stage that a large number of casualties occurred on our right, 
especially in the 2nd Dorset Regiment, which had been the 
first to come into action, and had met with heavy fire in an 
exposed position, not only from the mud tort and trenches 
in front of it, but also from a body of the enemy entrenched 
on the edge of the palm groves behind and to the south of it. 
These Turkish regulars were using smokeless powder and 
were invisible from the point where the guns were in action, 
the latter being fully engaged with the enemy's artillery and 
with the long line of entrenchments on the main front Has- 
sanain-Zain. The sloops on the river managed to put a few 
shells into the mud fort, but were soon obliged to desist owing 
to their view being obstructed by the belt of palm trees. The 
turning movement was very skilfully carried out by portions 
of the I04th Infantry, the H7th Mahrattas and the 22nd 
Company, Sappers and Miners, and was directed by General 
Delamain himself. The i8th Brigade and the main body of 
the i6th Brigade also pressed on steadily, supported by very 
efficient fire from our artillery.* At 1.15 p.m. the whole of 
the enemy's line quitted its entrenchments and fled rapidly 
to the right rear into the broken ground and palm trees, 
his guns covering the retirement, and finally being skilfully 
withdrawn from successive positions in the same direction 
under cover of long earthen embankments, which concealed 
them from view. The whole of our force advanced firing 
heavily and doing considerable execution, but the enemy's 
losses would have been much greater if the state of the ground 
had not precluded rapid movement, more especially on the 
part of the cavalry and artillery. 

Two abandoned mountain guns fell into the hands of the 
7th Rajputs, who were on the left of the line, and numerous 
prisoners were captured. 

At 2.50 p.m. I thought it advisable to issue orders for the 
pursuit to be stopped. The enemy were then retiring through 
the palm groves, with banks and mud walls affording facilities 
for defence, and their retirement was covered by distant fire 
from their guns. I had to form an entrenched camp before 
nightfall, and to bring in a large number of wounded, who 
were scattered over a considerable extent of country. 

The enemy's losses have been variously estimated, and 

i so 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

probably amounted to about 2,000. Two days after the 
action sixty-nine dead bodies were found lying in one portion 
of the position. His total strength is estimated at 3,000 
Turks and 1,500 Arabs, with twelve guns. 

The troops bivouacked at Sahil on the banks of the river 
with outposts on the line Sahil Old Fort to river bank. 

The conduct of the troops throughout this engagement 
excited my warmest admiration. A very large majority of 
the men had never been under fire before, yet they behaved 
as steadily as if at an ordinary field-day, all the details of their 
training, as inculcated in peace time, being carried out auto- 
matically. The behaviour of the Dorset Regiment, when 
exposed to both frontal and enfilade fire, is especially to be 
commended. General Delamain has also brought to notice 
the 22nd Company, Sappers and Miners, who were on the 
right of the Dorsets. 

The enemy's guns were well served and cleverly handled, 
but fortunately the fusing of the shells was indifferent and 
the elevation generally too great. Their rifle fire was also 
too high, and not very effective at close quarters, otherwise 
our losses would have been much heavier. Our artillery 
suffered for want of observation posts, but in spite of this 
their fire was highly effective, and, as was afterwards ascer- 
tained, produced a demoralising effect on the enemy. 

As may be gathered from the above report, the duties of 
the commanders of brigades and of other units, as also of the 
staff were carried out most efficiently. I propose to defer 
bringing the names of individual officers to notice until the 
operations of this Force as a whole are finally recorded. At 
this stage I need only mention those who were especially 
conspicuous during the actions of the I5th and I7th, as set 
forth in the brigade commanders' reports attached. 

The work of bringing in the wounded continued far into 
the night, and one ambulance party actually remained out 
all night, in spite of the fact that the enemy were firing on our 
piquets at intervals. I desire to pay a very high tribute to 
the personnel of the medical services, both for efficiency of 
organisation, and for devotion to duty. In addition to our 
own men, a large number of wounded Turks and Arabs had 
to be cared for and conveyed on board the transports, at a 
spot where shelving mud flats and a strong current made 

181 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

boating operations extremely troublesome and at times even 
hazardous. 

On the afternoon of the I7th, it was blowing a hurricane 
for several hours, in the course of which three large dhows 
lying alongside the transports, laden with stores ready to 
disembark, were wrecked, and ten sepoys and two lascars 
were drowned. 

On the i8th, igth, and 20th we were employed in landing 
supplies and blankets for the troops, and in reconnoitring 
the enemy's position at Balyanieh, which was found to be at 
right angles to the river, with four guns in position on the 
bank, commanding the north end of Dabba Island, where the 
SS. Ekbatana and two smaller craft had been sunk to block the 
ship channel. The naval sloops engaged these guns from 
below the obstruction, and, as was discovered afterwards, 
placed a shell inside the battery. 

I formed a plan of attack to be carried out on the 22nd 
in which naval and military forces were to co-operate, but on 
the 2 ist I received trustworthy information, confirmed by 
our cavalry, that the enemy had vacated his position. The 
report stated that the Turks had quitted Basrah and retired 
northward in boats to Baghdad, that numbers of armed 
Arabs had deserted, and that the town of Basrah was in danger 
of being looted. 

Accordingly, I ordered a forced march for 8 p.m. that 
evening, while the naval sloops were to proceed by river to 
Basrah, and two battalions were hastily got on board shallow 
draft steamers to follow them. We started across the desert 
at 8 o'clock, and at 12 noon the next day we reached the 
outskirts of Basrah, after a march that was extremely trying 
to the troops. Frequent delays were caused by the high 
banks of water channels, which had to be levelled, and in some 
cases bridged to admit the passage of field guns. 

On arrival at Basrah, we learned that the two sloops had 
got in at 9 p.m. the previous evening, and had succeeded in 
protecting the buildings on the river bank, to which no damage 
had been done, except the partial burning of the Custom House 
and destruction of its contents. 

The two battalions had arrived at 9 a.m. on the 22nd 
and were then patrolling the town, which was perfectly orderly. 

I therefore decided to defer making a formal entry into 

182 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the town until the next morning, as the troops were badly in 
need of food and rest, and it would have been difficult to 
arrange quarters for them until the place had been more fully 
examined. 

On the 23rd the troops made a ceremonial march through 
the town to a selected spot near the mouth of the Ashar 
Creek, where the foreign Consuls and notables were assembled 
to meet us, and were presented to me by Mr. Bullard, our late 
Consul. A proclamation prepared by Sir Percy Cox was 
then read, the Union Jack was hoisted on a prominent 
building, a salute was fired from the sloops, the troops 
presented arms, and three cheers was given for His Majesty 
the King-Emperor. The German Consul and five other 
Germans were placed on board transports for conveyance to 
India. 

We were cordially welcomed by the inhabitants, who 
appeared eager to transfer their allegiance to the British 
Government. 

In concluding this report, I wish to lay stress upon the 
very great assistance that I have received throughout from 
Captain Hayes-Sadler, R.N., the Senior Naval Officer in the 
Persian Gulf, and the officers and men serving under him, 
without which it would have been quite impossible to bring 
these operations to a successful issue. 

I am also much indebted to Sir Percy Cox for his advice 
and help on all occasions, and for the valuable and accurate 
information that he was able to procure for me, chiefly through 
the Sheikh of Mohammerah, who, at the risk of drawing upon 
himself the hostility of the Turks, has spared no pains to 
prove himself our true friend and ally. 

I reserve for a future report an acknowledgment of the 
good services done by the officers of the Royal Indian Marine, 
whose duties in connection with naval transport work have 
been most onerous. 

We have also received very ready help throughout from 
the officers and men of the transports belonging to the British 
India Steam Navigation and other companies. 

The following is a list of documents that accompany the 
report : 

(1) Extract from Brigadier-General Delamain's report. 

(2) Operation Order No. i. 

183 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

(3) Details regarding enemy engaged I7th November, 
1914. 

(4) Commendations for conspicuous conduct. 

(5) Map 1 4 miles to i inch. 

(6) Sketch 1 map of action. 



APPENDIX I. 

Extract from a Report by Brigadier-General W. S. Delamain, 

D.S.O., on the Operations of November i^th, 1914. 

***** 

Information from various sources went to show that 
Turkish troops were concentrating near Saihan only four 
miles west of our camp at Saniyeh ; and on the I4th Novem- 
ber I received the Force Commander's instructions to recon- 
noitre and dislodge this hostile gathering without involving 
my own force too seriously. I thereupon issued Operation 
Order No. i. 

The force under my command consisted of the 30th Moun- 
tain Battery, the 2nd Battalion, Dorset Regiment, and the 
I04th Rifles, with 23rd Mountain Battery and the 2Oth 
Infantry in camp held ready to reinforce if we became engaged. 

The force marched at 6 a.m. from Camp Saniyeh and on 
reaching the southern edge of the date palms turned west- 
wards, the Advanced Guard (Major Clarkson, i Section 
Mountain Battery, 4 Companies 2nd Dorsets) keeping 1,200 
yards from the edge of the date groves and followed by the 
Main Body at approximately the same distance. 

The march was continued in this order till the Advanced 
Guard was approximately south of Saihan village and creek 
at 7 a.m. At 7.10 a.m. the enemy opened fire on the Ad- 
vanced Guard from two positions on the edge of the date 
groves with rifles and machine guns and on the main body 
with artillery. The iO4th Rifles were sent immediately to 
turn and capture the enemy's first position and then to work 
through the date groves from the east. The Mountain 
Battery (2 Sections) assisted the iO4th Rifles and i Section 
kept the hostile guns in the Turkish second position in check. 

1 Not reproduced. 

184 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The io4th took the first Turkish position in capital style 
about 8.30 a.m. At the same hour the reinforcements arrived 
from camp. 

The Advanced Guard was then reinforced by the remaining 
half-battalion of the 2nd Battalion, Dorset Regiment, and 
extended to their left so as to outflank the second Turkish 
position from the desert side. The 30 th Mountain Battery 
was put under the orders of the Officer Commanding 2nd 
Battalion Dorset Regiment, who now commanded the 
Advanced Guard. The 20 th Infantry (less 4 Companies) 
filled the gap between the Advanced Guard and the io4th 
Rifles on our right, leaving the 4 Companies of the 20th 
Infantry and 23rd Peshawar Mountain Battery in general 
reserve under my own hand. A general advance was then 
made on the second Turkish position, assisted by the admir- 
ably directed fire of both the Mountain Batteries, from which 
the enemy suffered severely. The position was entrenched 
and held by the Turks with determination. It was gallantly 
rushed by the 2nd Battalion, Dorset Regiment, about 
9.30 a.m. The enemy made off northwards through the date 
palms. 

In the meanwhile, the iO4th Rifles on our right found the 
ground inside the wood very difficult owing to the numerous 
irrigation cuts. They pushed forward slowly till they reached 
the line held by the 2nd Dorsets and the 2Oth Infantry, 
meeting with strong opposition at a fortified village, where 
there were posted one gun and one machine gun. 

The arrival of Turkish reinforcements from their force 
near Umm-ur-Rowais might now be expected at any minute. 

In view, therefore, of my instructions not to get too 
seriously engaged, I ordered a withdrawal to camp, after doing 
considerable damage to the Turkish camp. The retirement 
was unmolested. 

H.M.S. Odin co-operated in the action by steaming up 
the river parallel with the troops, but owing to the impossi- 
bility of observing fire through and over the belt of date 
palms, her fire was necessarily restricted to a minimum. 

I estimated the enemy's strength at 1,200 with four moun- 
tain guns and three machine guns. From information given 
by prisoners the force appears to have been considerably 
stronger. I put their losses at 160 dead and wounded unable 

185 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



[No 



to move. We took prisoners six unwounded and nineteen 
wounded, including a battalion commander. 
Our casualties came to : 

Captain Maclean, lo/jih Rifles. 
Lieutenant Yeatman, 2nd Battalion, 
Dorset Regiment. 



Severely 
wounded. 



Rank and File. 


Killed. 


Wounded. 


Missing. 


2nd Battalion, Dorset Regiment 


5 


38 


Nil 


io4th Rifles 


3 


14 





2oth Infantry 




2 





No. i Brigade, Indian Mountain Artillery 





I 






The behaviour of all the troops was admirable. The 
co-operation between artillery and infantry was good. 

I would mention that the information regarding the enemy 
obtained by Major H. Smyth, Special Service Officer, proved 
to be absolutely correct. 

I bring to notice the good work done by the following : 

(a) Lieutenant-Colonel H. L. Rosher, 2nd Battalion, 
Dorset Regiment, who commanded the main attack on 
the enemy's position in an able manner. 

(b) Major H. A. Holdich, Brigade Major, i6th Brigade. 
An able Staff Officer who gave me the greatest assistance 
during the engagement. 

(c) Lieutenant E. B. Allnutt, R A.M.C., in medical 
charge of the 2nd Battalion, Dorset Regiment, reported 
as having displayed great gallantry in attending the 
wounded on the open plain. 

(d) Bugler Surain Singh, 20th Duke of Cambridge's 
Own Infantry, reported by the Officer Commanding, 
I04th Wellesley's Rifles, as having very bravely set fire 
to a village held by the enemy. 



186 



,i, ] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

APPENDIX II. 

Operation Order No. i by Lieutenant-General Sir A. A. Barrett, 
K.C.B., K.C.V.O., Commanding Force " D," dated 
Force Headquarters, Camp Saniyeh, November i6th, 
1914. 

(Reference 4 miles to i inch map. 1 } 

1. Information. A considerable body of the enemy was 
driven out of their camp at Saihan yesterday with severe loss. 
Opposition may be expected from other bodies here and 
further north-west. 

2. Intention. To march as light as possible to new camp 
on Turkish bank of river, all baggage, &c., being carried on 
ships. The Naval forces will co-operate under the orders 
of the Senior Naval Officer. 

3. Ammunition. Infantry must carry 200 rounds per 
rifle on person and other arms as much as possible. 

4. Starting point. The starting points are the three 
bridges south-west of the i6th Brigade camp ; they will be 
marked by red lamps and flags by the i6th Brigade. 

Head of Main Body to pass at 6 a.m. 

Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General will control traffic. 

5. Advanced Guard. Officer Commanding Major-General 
C. I. Fry. Guide Captain Cochran. 

Troops : 

i Squadron, 33rd Light Cavalry. 

1 Mountain Battery. 

1 7th Company, Sappers and Miners. 

2 Battalions i8th Brigade. 

6. Main Body in order of march : 

Cavalry less i squadron. 

Force Headquarters. 

Headquarters and Divisional Signal Section, No. 34 

Divisional Signal Company. 
Divisional Engineers less i Company Sappers and 

Miners. 

Remainder i8th Infantry Brigade. 
48th Pioneers. 

Divisional Artillery, less i Mountain Battery. 
i6th Infantry Brigade, less ij Battalions. 

1 Not reproduced. 

187 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Nc 

Field Ambulances (Bearer Sub-Divisions only) less 

those allotted to Brigades. 
2nd Line Transport. 

7. Flank Guards. Right Flank Guard, Officer Command- 
ing Lieutenant-Colonel McGeorge, ii7th Mahrattas. 

Troops. | Battalion i6th Brigade. 
Left Flank Guard, Officer Commanding Major Scott. 

Troops. i Double Company i6th Brigade. 
The Right Flank Guard to march 1,000 yards west of 
date palms. 

8. Rear Guard. Officer Commanding, Major Robinson, 
H7th Mahrattas. 

Troops. i Double Company i6th Brigade. 

9. Medical. Field Ambulances are allotted as follows : 

i6th Brigade ^ B.F.A. A ^ 5 c Bearer s^-pmsion OD i y . 
i8th Brigade | B.F.A. t|l' LF.A. 
Unallotted B.F.A. and f and f I.F.A. 
Sick and wounded will be carried with the force by these 
medical units. 

10. Transport. Pack transport will be allotted as follows 
at 4 p.m. to-day : 

British Infantry . . . . 50 pack mules per Battalion. 

Indian Infantry 38 

Mountain Artillery Brigade . . 18 
Royal Field Artillery Brigade Nil. 
Divisional Engineers . . . . 70 

Pioneer Regiment . . . . 53 

Cavalry . . . . . . - 50 

Field Ambulances . . . . 48 pack and 80 riding mules. 

Divisional Signal Company . . \ 
Headquarters and Divisional ( 

Section and each Brigade f 

Section . . ... . . J 

Reports to Force Headquarters at head of main body. 

R. N. GAMBLE, Colonel, 
General Staff Force " D." 



188 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
APPENDIX III. 

ENEMY ENGAGED IN THE BATTLE OF SAHIL, NOVEMBER I7TH, 

1914. 

Estimated Strength. 

4 Q.F. Field guns (3-25 in.). 

8 Mountain guns. 

3 Machine guns. 

3,500 Regular Infantry. 

200 Gunners. 

350 Gendarmes. 

Probably another 1,000 armed Arabs in the palm belt. 

They belonged to the following Regiments : 

ist Battalion, ii3th Regiment. 

2nd Battalion, H3th Regiment. 

2nd Battalion, H2th Regiment. 

160 men of ist Battalion, 26th Regiment, European 
Turks. 

Gendarmes of Halim Bey. 

Part of the ist Battalion, ii4th Regiment was probably 
present. 

The enemy were commanded by Bimbashi Adie Bey. 

Enemy taken Prisoners. 

Major Mahomed Ali \ 

Captain Raouf yof ist Battalion, ii3th Regiment. 

Lieutenant Mahhi J 

47 men (excluding those severely wounded). 

* Estimated Enemy's Casualties. 

About 800 killed and severely wounded, and a considerable 
number of slightly wounded. 

Captured. 
Two mountain guns and a large number of rifles. 



189 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [No 

APPENDIX IV. 

Extract from the Report of the General Officer Commanding, 
i6th Infantry Brigade, on the Operations of his Brigade 
up to November zoth, 1914 

***** 
I recommend for reward the following officers, non-com- 
missioned officers and men from those favourably brought 
to notice by Commanding Officers : 

2nd Dorset Regiment. 

Major H. St. J. Clarkson, for gallantry. 

Lieutenant and Adjutant F. G. Powell, for general assist- 
ance and conveying messages under heavy fire. 

Second Lieutenant E. L. Stephenson, for commanding his 
company with conspicuous coolness and dash after his Major 
and Captain had been killed. 

Lieutenant E. B. Allnutt, R.A.M.C., in medical charge, for 
again displaying conspicuous bravery in attending the wounded 
under heavy fire in the open. Many men owe their lives to 
this officer. 

No. 3865 Colour-Sergeant and Acting Sergeant-Major 
Delara, for coolness and gallantry. 

No. 8558 Private Moores, who showed great courage in 
bringing up ammunition under heavy fire. 

No. 7712 Private Hughes, who, when the machine-gun 
officer was wounded, took command of the one uninjured gun, 
and, under heavy fire, brought it to close range where it was 
of much use. 

No. 6591 Sergeant Drew, who, though wounded, continued 
to lead his men with coolness and bravery. 



Sappers and Miners. 

Lieutenant Matthews, R.E., for gallantry in leading a 
mixed party of Sappers and I04th Rifles and establishing the 
flank attack on the edge of the date groves. 

Jemadar Feroze Ali. After Captain Twiss and the Sub- 
adar were wounded, this Indian Officer was in command 
of about 100 men who did excellent work in spite of heavy 
casualties. 

190 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No. 2855 Naik Dalip Singh, No. 22 Company, 3rd Sappers 
and Miners, behaved with conspicuous gallantry in the action 
at Sahil on the I7th November, 1914, when, with a party of 
Sappers under Lieutenant Matthews, R.E., he showed himself 
very forward in action and led his squad with great deter- 
mination into Turkish trenches. 



Wellesley's Rifles. 

Captain Chadwick, for gallantry. 

Subadar Sabal Singh (first in grove), ( for gallantry with 
No. 2336 Lance Naik Net Singh, Lieutenant Mat- 

^ thew's party. 

117^ Mahrattas. 

Captain and Adjutant E. G. Hall, for gallantry. This 
officer was severely wounded. 

I regret that I omitted to bring to favourable notice the 
services of Mr. Bryant, the Marconi operator on board 
SS. Varela, of the British India Steam Navigation Company. 
Mr. Bryant was untiring in his efforts to secure communica- 
tion, and when the apparatus on the Dalhousie broke down, 
he volunteered instantly to go across from Bahrain to Bushire 
to set matters right. The force owed much to his skill and 
devotion to duty, and I trust that it may be found possible to 
recognise his services. 



Extract from the Report of the General Officer Commanding, 
iSth Infantry Brigade, on the operations of his Brigade 
up to November 20th, 1914. 

***** 

When all did well and where there was no opportunity for 
conspicuous individual action, I have no special recom- 
mendations to make. 



Extract from the Report of the Officer Commanding Royal 
Artillery^ I.E.F. " D " on the operations of the Artillery 
under his command up to November zoth, 1914. 
***** 

All ranks behaved with exceptional coolness and steadi- 
ness, and I wish to bring to notice the good work done by 

191 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Lieutenant-Colonel Greer and Major Broke Smith throughout 
the action. 

Extract from Reports of the Assistant Director, Medical Services, 
Indian Expeditionary Force " D," in connection with 
the Service under his command up to November 20th, 
1914. 

I wish to bring to notice the especially excellent work done 
by the following Medical Officers during the engagement of 
the I7th instant : 

Captain Wright, I. M.S., i26th Indian Field Ambulance. 
Captain Hislop, I. M.S., I26th Indian Field Ambulance. 
Captain Lambert, R.A.M.C., I7th British Field Ambulance. 
Lieutenant Allnutt, R.A.M.C., Medical Officer, Dorset 
Regiment. 

* * * * * 

The undermentioned Assistant Surgeons and Sub-assistant 
Surgeons did conspicuously good work in attending the 
wounded under heavy fire on the I7th November, 1914, and 
are recommended for promotion as stated opposite their 
names : 

3rd Class Assistant Surgeon J. H. S. Huff ton, to ist Class 
Assistant Surgeon. 

4th Class Assistant Surgeon J. H. T. Pacheco (wounded) 
to 3rd Class Assistant Surgeon of three years' standing. 

No. 282 ist Class Sub-Assistant Surgeon V. U. R. Pandit, 
I04th Rifles, to 2nd Class Senior Sub-Assistant Surgeon. 

No. 318 2nd Class Sub-Assistant Surgeon Shaikh Azimud- 
din-Shaik Ismail to 2nd Class Senior Sub-Assistant Surgeon. 



SUPPLEMENTARY REPORTS CONCERNING FORE- 
GOING OPERATIONS. 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty announces that a success- 
ful operation against Fao, at the mouth of the Shatt-El-Arab, 
Persian Gulf, has been conducted by a military force from 
India covered by H.M.S. Odin (Commander Cathcart R. 
Wason), the armed launch Sirdar, a force of Marines with a 
maxim-gun party, and a boat from the Ocean. 

192 



)i.] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The enemy's guns were silenced after an hour's resistance 
and the town was occupied by the troops and the Naval 
Brigade. There were no naval casualties. 

It is expected that no further opposition will be met with 

below Fao. 



THE Secretary of State for India communicates the Times, 
following regarding the military operations at the head of Nov. 24, 
the Persian Gulf : I 9i4- 

The recent operations in the Persian Gulf have been 
crowned with even greater and more rapid success than was 
anticipated. After the signal defeat inflicted upon the 
Turkish forces on the I5th and lyth, the latter, abandoning 
all further resistance here, fled, leaving eight guns and many 
wounded in our hands. The Walis of Basrah and Bagdad 
accompanied the defeated Turkish forces in their flight up 
the Tigris. Basrah was occupied on 2ist instant by both our 
naval and land forces. All the British in Basrah are reported 
safe. 

(Official Report from Great Headquarters.) 

Constantinople, November 7. 

In Schatt-El-Arab (the confluence of the Euphrates and K.D., 
Tigris), in Mesopotamia, a Turkish motor-boat, cruising on Nov - 7 
patrol duty, there encountered an English gunboat near 
Abadan and exchanged shots with it, causing an explosion 
on the gunboat. Several shots from the motor-boat struck 
the English petroleum stores of Abadan and caused a fire. 

Our motor-boat returned to Bassorah without any damage. 
The petroleum stores are still burning. 



RUSSIAN OFFENSIVE IN THE BLACK SEA. 

Petrograd, November 7. 

An official communique issued to-day states : Times, 

In the Black Sea our fleet has bombarded Zunguldak, Nov. 9, 
sinking four Turkish transports, three of which were laden I 9 I 4- 
with stores and munitions, and the fourth appearing to have 
troops on board. Renter. 



Naval II N JQ3 



1914. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Journal de With reference to the destruction of Turkish transports 
Petrograd, by the Black Sea Fleet, the General Staff communicates the 
IZ * following details : Having approached the port of Zunguldak, 
the commander of the fleet sent two vessels accompanied 
by torpedo craft to destroy the establishments of the fort 
and the workshops. This enterprise was successfully carried 
out, and we further succeeded in sinking a vessel moored 
in the roadstead. Meanwhile the cruiser on patrol observed 
a transport with soldiers in the offing. Seeing that the 
transport was hastily making for the shore in order to save 
the troops embarked in her, the cruiser gave chase, opened 
fire and sank the transport. The fleet then withdrew. 

A short time afterwards two vessels were observed to 
port in the mist, and these proved to be Turkish transports. 
One of them, the Midhat Pasha, had hoisted the military 
flag. Destroyers ordered to attack them subsequently ob- 
served a third. All three were laden with military stores, 
automobiles, aeroplanes and guns. They were sunk ; 243 
men were saved and made prisoners ; among them were 
several German officers and a Staff-Officer with documents 
in his possession. From information obtained from the 
prisoners it was ascertained that these transports were making 
for Ounie to take up troops there for Trebizond. 



Times, 
Nov. 9, 
1914. 



K.V., 
Nov. 8, 
1914. 



Amsterdam, November j. 

THE following official communique from the Turkish 
Chief Headquarters was issued yesterday in Constantinople : 

Yesterday the Russian Army showed no activity. This 
morning the Russian Fleet bombarded for two hours Zungul- 
dak and Koslu, on the Black Sea coast. At Koslu the Greek 
steamer Nikoa, 648 tons, was sunk, while at Zunguldak the 
French church and Consulate and two houses in the French 
quarter were destroyed. No other damage was done. 



Constantinople. 

According to an official report, after a portion of the 
Russian Fleet had fired at Koslu and Zunguldak the Turkish 
Fleet gave chase to the Russian ships. The latter, however, 
succeeded in escaping under cover of a mist. 

194 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Constantinople . 

An official report from Headquarters says : Nothing has K.V. 
been heard of the Turkish transports Bezemialen, Bahriahmen Nov - 
and Midhat Pacha which left Constantinople eight days ago. I9I4< 
As these ships were in the neighbourhood of Zunguldak when 
that place was bombarded it seems probable that they were 
seized by the Russian Fleet. 



Constantinople. 

A communication from the Turkish Headquarters says : 
Further enquiries about the three missing Turkish transports 
show that these ships which left before the bombardment 
of Zunguldak to serve as transports for our troops fell in 
with the Russian Fleet which bombarded Zunguldak and 
were sunk by it. According to the Russian report, the crews 
and some passengers amounting to 219 men were made 
prisoners by the Russians. The loss of these vessels is to be 
regretted, but they will be replaced by three better vessels 
taken from the Russians which will henceforth bear the 
names of the three vessels which have been lost. 



TURKISH ATTACK ON POTI. 

Tiflis, November 8. 

A dispatch from the Headquarters Staff of the Army of Times, 
the Caucasus says : Nov ' 

This morning an enemy cruiser of the Breslau type 191 " 1 
arrived at Poti and opened fire on the town, the port light- 
house, and the station. After firing 120 to 150 rounds the 
cruiser came close in to the breakwater and opened fire 
with machine-guns on the Russian troops, who replied at 
once with artillery and rifles. On the first Russian cannon 
shots taking effect, the cruiser made off rapidly in the direction 
of Sukhum. We had three soldiers wounded and four bruised. 
The damage to the town and port is insignificant. There were 
no victims among the inhabitants. Reuter. 

195 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

THE WAR IN EAST AFRICA. 

K.D., THE following is officially reported from German East 

Feb. 14, Africa : The attempted landing of four armed enemy long 
boats and a steamer under cover of a bombardment of the 
Rufigi Delta by three English cruisers was defeated by machine- 
gun fire on November yth. A large English steamer which 
came in under cover of gunfire from cruisers, convoyed by 
four armed long boats and a steamer, was sunk on November 
nth in the estuary near Simba Uranga. Four European 
coast guards were slightly wounded during the action ; the 
enemy suffered losses ; details are lacking. 

Likewise in November a Belgian company with two 
machine guns attacked the German position under Lieutenant 
Hasselbacher near Pambete and Kasakalawe on British 
territory at the southern extremity of Lake Tanganyika 
during the absence of .the Kingani and the Hedwig Wissmann 
which were busy carrying away captured telegraph plants. 
The Hedwig Wissmann returned and took part in the action. 
After a fight lasting five hours the enemy turned back leaving 
behind five dead Askaris and taking away several dead and 
wounded Europeans and Askaris. On our side we had one 
mate and two Askaris slightly wounded. The English steamer 
Cecil Rhodes which had run aground was blown up. 

An English steamer of the same size as our Kingani was 
destroyed near Kituta on Lake Tanganyika by the Hedwig 
Wissmann and the Kingani under Captain Lieutenant 
Hendrick ; an English steel boat was also captured. 

FALL OF TSINGTAU. 

Tokio, November 7. 

IT is officially announced that Tsingtau has surrendered. 

The Germans hoisted the white flag at seven o'clock in 
the morning on the Observatory. Two companies of infantry 
with a squad of sappers captured the central fort of the main 
line of defence at midnight and took 200 prisoners. The 
charge was led by General Yoshimi Yamada. 

The Germans made desperate efforts to repair the damage 
done to their batteries, but the Japanese shells killed the men 
at work and demolished the batteries anew. It is thought 

196 



4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

that the capitulation of the port was hastened by stopping 
the smuggling of provisions from the Ling Chan coast. 

The Vice-Minister of the Navy, Baron Suzuki, speaking 
on the future of Tsingtau, said : ' Whilst this war lasts 
Tsingtau will be administered by Japan. On its conclusion 
Japan will open negotiations with China." 

There are general rejoicings throughout Japan. Tokio 
is decked out with flags, among which the Union Jack is 
prominent. A lantern procession is being arranged to cele- 
brate the occasion. 

An official report says that after the capture of the Central 
Fort the left wing of the attacking force advanced and occupied 
Chan Shan at ten minutes past five yesterday morning. Chan 
Shan formed the base of the right wing of the German line 
of defence. Meanwhile other forces captured the forts of the 
first line at the point of the bayonet and the dangerous 
defence works connecting the forts. Other forces advanced 
on the main line of the Iltis, Bismarck, and Moltke forts. 
Suddenly the flag of surrender was run up in the breeze 
on the Observatory, which stands on a hill. 

1 The Japanese casualties in the final action were thirty-six 
killed and 182 wounded. Two British officers were wounded. 
Reuter. 

London, November 7. 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty announces that the 
following telegrams have been exchanged between the Board 
of Admiralty and the Japanese Minister of Marine : 

The Board of Admiralty send their heartiest congratu- 
lations to the gallant Army and Navy of Japan on the pros- 
perous and brilliant issue of the operations which have 
resulted in the fall of Tsingtau. 

Reply. I fully share with you in the felicitations on the 
fall of Tsingtau. It affords me great pleasure to assure 
you that the outcome of the efforts of the Navy of our Ally 
in co-operation with that of ours during the investment of 
Tsingtau was splendid. 

MINISTER OF MARINE, Tokio. 



197 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Nc 

The War Office announces that the following telegram 
has been sent to the Japanese Minister of War, Tokio, by 
the Secretary of State for War : 

Please accept my warmest congratulations on the 
success of the operations against Tsingtau. Will you be so 
kind as to express my felicitations to the Japanese Forces 
engaged ? The British Army is proud to have been associated 
with its gallant Japanese comrades in this enterprise. 

KITCHENER. 



November 8. 

K.D., According to an official report from Renter's Agency 

Nov. 8, i n Tokio, Tsingtau fell on the morning of November 7th, 
I 9 I 4- after a heroic defence. Fuller details are still lacking. 

The Deputy Chief of the Admiral Staff, 

BEHNCKE. 



Tokio, November 10. 

It is officially stated that the Japanese losses during the 
final assault on the fortress from the evening of Friday to 
the morning of Saturday amounted to fourteen officers 
wounded and 426 men killed and wounded. The British 
casualties were one man killed and one man wounded. Two 
thousand three hundred prisoners were taken. Renter. 



Amsterdam, November 12. 

Times, A Berlin telegram states that the Governor of Tsingtau, 

Nov. 13, through the Japanese Legation at Peking, sent the following 
i9 I 4- telegram to the German Emperor : 

Tsingtau, November 9. 

After exhausting all its means of defence, the fortress, which 
was stormed and broken through in the centre, fell. The 
fortress and the town were badly damaged by 28-centimetre 
howitzer fire and a strong bombardment|from the sea. The 
force of our artillery was completely overcome. f|| $*- 

Our losses have not yet been ascertained, but in spite of 
the heavy fire they are less than we expected. 

MEYER-WALDECK. 

198 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Press Bureau. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty announces that informa- Times, 
tion has been received that the following enemy vessels were Nov - 16 
found sunk through explosion in Tsingtau on the surrender 
of the fortress : 

The Austrian light cruiser Kaiserin Elizabeth, the German 
gunboats Iltis, Jaguar, Lucks, Tiger, Cormoran, the German 
destroyer Taku, and the mine-layer Ruchin. 



With regard to the sinking of the East Asiatic squadron, Times, 
the President of the Reichstag, Herr Kaempf, sent a telegram Dec - l6 ' 
to the Kaiser wherein he states that the entire population - 
knows itself to be at one in its sorrow and grief for the loss 
of so many promising lives ; also in its admiration and pride 
in their glorious and heroic death. The nation which pro- 
duces such heroes may unflinchingly face even the heaviest 
sacrifices with unbroken courage and be sure of victory. 
The Kaiser replied, among other things, as follows : 
May the heavy sacrifices which we are compelled to 
make in this battle for our existence be borne by each of us 
as a single man, supported by the unshaken hope that God 
our Lord, from whose gracious hand we humbly receive 
fortune and misfortune, joy and sorrow, will turn even the 
most difficult hour into a blessing for the nation and the 
Fatherland. 

RATES OF HIRE FOR TRANSPORT. 

November 7. 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty communicates the 
following : 

The Sub-Committee appointed r^y the Admiralty Trans- 
port Arbitration Board have presented a report suggesting 
conditions and scales of rates of hire for vessels of different 
classes requisitioned by the Admiralty for transport and 
other purposes. Copies of these reports can be obtained 
on application to the Secretary of the Board (Scotland House, 
Victoria Embankment, S.W.), by shipowners or brokers 
having an interest in, and desiring to make themselves 
acquainted with, their contents. 

199 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
TURKISH REPORTS OF VICTORY. 

Constantinople. 

K.V., GENERAL Headquarters states : -With God's help the 

Nov, 8, Egyptian frontier was yesterday crossed by our troops. 
Since the Russian Fleet has withdrawn to its war harbours, 
our Fleet has bombarded Poti (see p. 195), one of the most 
important ports of the Caucasus, and has inflicted all kinds 
of damage. Our gendarmes and the tribes taking our side 
have annihilated the English troops which had landed at 
Akaba. Four English ironclads which were there have now 
withdrawn, and only a single criuser remains. 



NAVAL OPERATIONS OFF BELGIAN COAST, 
OCTOBER 17 TO NOVEMBER 9, 1914. 

Admiralty, April 13, 1915. 

The following despatch has been received from Rear- 
Admiral the Hon. Horace L. A. Hood, C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O., 
reporting the proceedings of the flotilla off the coast of Belgium 
between October I7th and November 9th, 1914 : 

Office of Rear- Admiral, 
Dover Patrol, 

November n, 1914. 
SIR, 

I have the honour to report the proceedings of the flotilla 
acting off the coast of Belgium, between October I7th and 
November o,th. 

The flotilla was organised to prevent the movement of 
large bodies of German troops along the coast roads from 
Ostend to Nieuport, to support the left flank of the Belgian 
Army, and to prevent any movement by sea of the enemy's 
troops. 

Operations commenced during the night of October I7th, 
when the Attentive, flying my flag, accompanied by the 
monitors Severn, Humber, and Mersey, the light cruiser 
Foresight, and several torpedo-boat destroyers, arrived and 
anchored off Nieuport Pier. 

Early on the morning of October i8th information was 
received that German infantry were advancing on Westende 
village, and that a battery was in action at Westende Bains. 

200 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The flotilla at once proceeded up past Westende and Middle- 
kirke to draw the fire and endeavour to silence the guns. 

A brisk shrapnel fire was opened from the shore, which 
was immediately replied to, and this commenced the naval 
operations on the coast which continued for more than three 
weeks without intermission. 

During the first week the enemy's troops were endeavour- 
ing to push forward along the coast roads, and a large accumu- 
lation of transport existed within reach of the naval guns. 

On October i8th machine guns from the Severn were 
landed at Nieuport to assist in the defence, and Lieutenant 
E. S. Wise fell, gallantly leading his men. 

The Amazon, flying my flag, was badly holed .on the water- 
line and was sent to England for repairs, and during these 
early days most of the vessels suffered casualties, chiefly from 
shrapnel shell from the field guns of the enemy. 

The presence of the ships on the .coast soon caused altera- 
tions in the enemy's plans, less and less of their troops were 
seen, while more and more heavy guns were gradually mounted 
among the sand dunes that fringe the coast. 

It soon became evident that more and heavier guns were 
required in the flotilla. The Scouts therefore returned to 
England, while H.M.S. Venerable and several older cruisers, 
sloops and gunboats arrived to carry on the operations. 

Five French torpedo-boat destroyers were placed under 
my orders by Admiral Favereau, and on October 30th I 
had the honour of hoisting my flag in the Intrepide, and lead- 
ing the French flotilla into action off Lombartzyde. The 
greatest harmony and enthusiasm existed between the allied 
flotillas. 

As the heavier guns of the enemy came into play it was 
inevitable that the casualties of the flotilla increased the most 
important being the disablement of the 6-inch turret and 
several shots on the waterline of the Mersey, the death of the 
Commanding Officer and eight men and the disablement of 
sixteen others in the Falcon, which vessel came under a heavy 
fire when guarding the Venerable against submarine attack ; 
the Wildfire and Vestal were badly holed, and a number of 
casualties caused in the Brilliant and Rinaldo. 

Enemy submarines were seen and torpedoes were fired, 
and during the latter part of the operations the work of the 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Nc 

torpedo craft was chiefly confined to the protection of the 
larger ships. 

It gradually became apparent that the rush of the enemy 
along the coast had. been checked, that the operations were 
developing into a trench warfare, and that the work of the 
flotilla had, for the moment, ceased. 

The arrival of allied reinforcements and the inundation of 
the country surrounding Nieuport rendered the further 
presence of the ships unnecessary. 

The work of the squadron was much facilitated by the 
efforts of Colonel Bridges, attached to the Belgian Head- 
quarters, and to him I am greatly indebted for his constant 
and unfailing support. 

I would like especially to bring to your notice : 

Capitaine de fregate Richard, of the Dunois, Senior Officer 
of the French flotilla, whose courtesy and gallantry assisted 
to make the operations a success. 

Captain C. D. Johnson, M.V.O., in charge of 6th Destroyer 
Flotilla. 

Commander Eric J. A. Fuller ton, in command of the 
monitors, whose ships were constantly engaged in the inshore 
fighting. 

Commander A. D. M. Cherry, of the Vestal, who commanded 
the sloops, which were constantly engaged for the whole 
period. He remained in command of the flotilla after my 
departure on November 7th, and continued the bombardment 
on November 8th, returning to England the next day. 

Commander H. C. Halahan, of the Bustard, whose gunboat 
was constantly in action close to the shore. 

Commander A. L. Snagge, of the Number. 

Commander H. G. L. Oliphant, of the Amazon. 

Lieutenant-Commander R. A. Wilson, of the Mersey. 

Lieutenant-Commander G. L. D. Gibbs, of the Crusader, 
in which ship my flag was hoisted during most of the operations. 

Lieutenant-Commander J. B. Adams, R.N.R., on my staff. 

Lieutenant H. O. Wauton, of the Falcon, who maintained 
his position in a heavy fire on the look-out for submarines, and 
was unfortunately killed. 

Lieutenant H. O. Joyce, of the Vestal, who was badly 
wounded by a shell, but rallied his men to attend to the 
wounded, and then got his gun again into action. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Sub-Lieutenant C. J. H. DuBoulay, of the Falcon, who 
took command of his ship after the Captain and 24 men were 
killed and wounded. 

Petty-Officer Robert Chappell, O.N. 207788, of the Falcon, 
who, though both legs were shattered and he was dying, con- 
tinued to try and assist in the tending of the wounded. He 
shortly afterwards died of his wounds. 

Petty-Officer Fredk. William Motteram, of the Falcon, 
O.N. 183216, for immediate attention to the wounded under 
fire on October 28th. 

Able Seaman Ernest Dimmock, of the Falcon, O.N. 204549, 
who directly the casualties occurred in Falcon, finding himself 
the only person unwounded on deck, went immediately to the 
helm and conned the ship. 

Herbert Edward Sturman, of the Mersey, Boy, ist class 
O.N. J. 24887, who, when wounded by shrapnel, continued to 
serve the guns. 

Leading Seaman John Thos. Knott, O.N.J. 1186, of the 
Brilliant, who, when all men at his gun being killed or wounded, 
and himself severely wounded, endeavoured to fight his gun. 

The following are specially recommended by their Com- 
manding Officers for their good behaviour and coolness under 
fire : 

Chief Engine-Room Artificer William Ernest Brading, of 
the Falcon, O.N. 268579. 

Private R.M.L.I. Alfred J. Foster, of the Brilliant, O.N. 
Ch. 110605. 

Petty-Officer Sydney Edric Murphy, of the Mersey, 
O.N. 190841. 

Petty-Officer Henry Sayce, of the Mersey, O.N. 132956. 

Herbert Edward Sturman (Boy), of the Mersey, O.N.J. 
24887. 

Leading Signalman Cyril Henry Swan, of the Sirius, 
R.F.R., O.N. 230592. 

Petty-Officer James Weatherhead, of the Rinaldo, O.N. 
127747. 

Leading Seaman John Keane, of the Rinaldo, O.N. 204128. 

Private R.M.L.I. Joseph Martin, of the Humber (who 
landed with Marine detachment), O.N. Ch. 115582. 

Stoker, ist, Samuel Johnston, of the Humber, O.N. 
Ch. 1282822 (R.F.R. Ch.B. 4090). 

203 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Nc 

Petty-Officer Robt. Frederick Jennings, of the Vestal, 
O.N. 157343 (R.F.R. Po. B. 1481.) ^ 

Petty-Officer Charles Henry Sutton, of the Vestal, O.N. 
158086. 

Leading Seaman Frederick Stanley Woodruff, of the Vestal, 
O.N. 237062. ' 

Able Seaman William Chapman, of the Vestal, O.N. 183312 
(R.F.R. Po. B. 1666). 

Officer's Steward James Whiteman, of the Vestal, O.N. L. 

1275. 

I beg to append a list of the vessels engaged. 

I have the honour to be, Sir. 

Your obedient servant, 
HORACE HOOD, 
Rear-Admiral, Dover Patrol. 
The Secretary of the Admiralty. 



Enclosure to Rear-Admiral Hood's Despatch of November n. 

LIST OF SHIPS WHICH TOOK PART IN OPERATIONS OFF 
BELGIAN COAST. 

Venerable, Captain V. H. G. Bernard. 
Attentive, Captain C. D. Johnson, M.V.O. 
Foresight, Captain H. N. Garnett. 
Brilliant, Captain (ret.) H. Christian. 
Sirius, Commander (ret.) W. H. Boys. 
Severn, Commander E. J. A. Fullerton. 
H umber, Commander A. L. Snagge. 
Mersey, Lieutenant-Commander R. A. Wilson. 
Vestal, Commander A. D. M Cherry. 
Rinaldo, Commander H. J. Kennard. 
Wildfire, Commander E. Altham. 
Bustard, Commander H. C. Halahan. 
Excellent, Lieutenant-Commander (ret.) E. A. Digby. 
Crane, Commander R. H. Coppinger. 
Falcon, Lieutenant H. O. Wauton (killed). 
Flirt, Lieutenant H. S. Braddyll. 
Mermaid, Lieutenant P. R. P. Percival. 
Myrmidon, Lieutenant-Commander (ret.) R. H. B. Ham- 
mond-Chambers. 

Racehorse, Lieutenant E. P. U. Pender. 
204 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Syren, Commander T. C. H. Williams. 

Amazon, Commander H. G. L. Oliphant. 

Cossack, Lieutenant-Commander G. C. Harrison. 

Crusader, Lieutenant-Commander G. L. D. Gibbs. 

Maori, Lieutenant-Commander B. W. Barrow. 

Mohawk, Commander E. R. G. R. Evans, C.B. 

Hazard, Commander N. E. Archdale. 

Nubian, Commander C. E. Cundall. 

Viking, Lieutenant J. P. Gibbs. 

Submarine C. 32, Lieutenant-Commander B. V. Layard. 

Submarine C. 34, Lieutenant-Commander J. F. Hutchings. 

Dunois, Capitaine de fregate Richard. 

Capitaine Mehl, Lieutenant de vaisseau Rossignal. 

Francis-Gamier, Lieutenant de vaisseau de Pianelli. 

Intrepide, Lieutenant de vaisseau Vaudier. 

Aventurier, Lieutenant de vaisseau Semichon. 

MR. CHURCHILL AT THE GUILDHALL. 

MR. CHURCHILL said : 

Eighty miles away the greatest battle in the world is Times, 
going on. Our countrymen and their Allies are striving Nov. 10, 
from minute to minute to breast and stem the cruel tides of I 9 I 4- 
German devastation. And here we sit in this old hall, as 
we have so often sat before in bygone years, and, as we hope, 
future generations will sit when the sorrows of this time are 
forgotten and only the glories remain. Here we sit, and to 
the outward eye, to the material sense, nothing is altered. 
An unthinking stranger coming here to-night would scarcely 
distinguish any characteristic which marks our gathering 
from those which have so often taken place before, when 
each year we celebrate this important civic festival. That 
is the Navy. It is due to the Navy that we are able to sit 
here to-night, and while we do not shirk or shrink from the 
full rigours of war, we are, through the Navy, so far happily 
guarded from most of them. 

Some few weeks ago I had a talk with Sir John Jellicoe 
and his principal Admirals. They spoke to me of the distress 
with which all the great Fleet watched the heroic struggles 
of our Army in France and in Belgium, and saw the fearful 
sacrifices demanded of them and given by them. They spoke 

205 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [No 

also of their keen desire to bring more direct and immediate 
aid to bear with the mighty weapon which they wield, and 
of their natural desire to share more immediately in the 
sufferings and losses of the Army in the field. " But/' they 
said, " Cornwallis was nearly three years off Brest and Admiral 
Nelson was more than two years off Toulon. We are only 
just beginning. We must not be impatient. Our turn will 
come/' It is not always easy to be patient, and I express 
to-night, on behalf of the Navy and Admiralty, our gratitude 
for the generous confidence you have so abundantly and 
unswervingly bestowed upon us. The conditions of naval 
warfare are curious and novel. We have a great preponder- 
ance in force and numbers, but we have also a task to discharge 
infinitely greater and more difficult than that which our 
enemies are called upon to undertake. We are endeavouring 
to maintain all the seas ; we are endeavouring to secure all 
the highways across the seas ; we are endeavouring to secure 
the most peaceful commerce of the world against a multitude 
of new dangers, against methods never before practised in 
the warfare of civilised nations. We also transport great 
armies to the decisive theatre of the war. We are endeavour- 
ing to preserve the whole trade of this country on an enormous 
scale in all quarters of the globe. We have conveyed and 
convoyed expeditions to attack and take every German colony 
which exists. And this great task forces us to expose a target 
to the enterprise of the enemy incomparably greater than 
any target exposed to our own daring and vigilant sailors. 

The British people have taken for themselves this motto 
" Business carried on as usual during alterations on the map 
of Europe/' They expect the Navy, on which they have 
lavished so much care and expense, to make that good, and 
that is what, upon the whole, we are actually achieving at 
the present time. It is very difficult to measure the full 
effects of naval pressure in the early stages of the war. The 
punishment we receive is clear and definite. The punishment 
we inflict is very often not seen, and even when seen cannot 
be measured. The economic stringency resulting from a naval 
blockade requires time, if it is to reach its full effectiveness. 
We are only looking at it in the third month. But wait a bit. 
Examine it in the sixth month, in the ninth month, in the 
twelfth month, and you will begin to see results, results which 

206 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

will be gradually achieved, silently achieved, but which 
spell the doom of Germany as surely as the approach 
of winter strikes the leaves from the trees. There is 
another way in which the Navy contributes to the vast 
decision of this war. It gives to Britain and to the British 
Empire the time necessary to realise their vast military power. 
It gives to my noble friend Lord Kitchener the time to 
organise, equip, discipline, arm, and place in the field a million 
men of a quality and power such as have never been employed 
yet in this struggle on the Continent. 

At the end of very nearly 100 days the Navy, whose 
memory and work you have paid your tribute to to-night 
in spite of losses of ships of no great consequence, of officers 
and men irreparable the Navy, in spite of losses, is actually 
and relatively stronger than it was on the day war was de- 
clared, and it is stronger most particularly in those branches 
of the Naval Service which all the circumstances of modern 
war prove exercise most powerful influence upon the struggle. 

I shall not stand between you further and the other 
speakers who present themselves on this memorable occasion, 
but I will say just one last word. In this famous hall, where 
we have so often gathered, we must to-night feel ourselves 
in the company of the great men of the great war. We see 
the monuments of the men who fought Napoleon. We may 
feel to-night almost as if we had their counsel and their aid, 
and we may derive inspiration and encouragement from their 
memory. The scale of the events to-day is greater vastly 
greater than those with which they had to deal, but the 
problems they had to face were more desperate, more full of 
anxiety and peril, than those with which we are confronted, 
and the resources with which they faced them were infinitely 
less ample and less wide. They were often alone against the 
whole of Europe. They never counted, as we can count, upon 
an absolutely united nation. They only spoke for a little 
island ; we exert and wield the power of a world-wide Empire. 
Yet with all their difficulties and dangers they came safely 
through the conflict, and we, by imitating their example and 
redoubling our exertions, will surely come safely through 
them too. 



207 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [No 

THE " KONIGSBERG " OUT OF ACTION AND THE 
" EMDEN " DESTROYED. 

Admiralty, November 10. 

AFTER the whereabouts of the Konigsberg was indicated 
by the attack on the Pegasus on September igth, a concen- 
tration of fast cruisers was arranged by the Admiralty in 
East African waters, and a thorough and prolonged search 
by vessels in combination was made. 

This search resulted on October 30th in the Konigsberg 
being discovered by H.M.S. Chatham (Captain Sidney R. 
Drury-Lowe, R.N.), hiding in shoal water about six miles up 
the Rufigi River, opposite Mafia Island (German East Africa). 
Owing to her greater draught, the Chatham could not reach the 
Kb'nigsberg, which is probably aground, except at high water. 
Part of the crew of the Konigsberg is landed and entrenched 
on the banks of the river. Both the entrenchments and the 
Konigsberg have been bombarded by the Chatham, but owing 
to the dense palm groves amid which the ship lies, it is not 
possible to estimate the damage. 

Pending operations for her capture or destruction, effective 
steps have been taken to block the Konigsberg in by sinking 
colliers in the only navigable channel, and she is now 
imprisoned and unable to do any further harm. The fast 
vessels which had been searching for her are thus released for 
other service. 

Another large combined operation by fast cruisers against 
the Emden has been for some time in progress. In this 
search, which covered an immense area, the British cruisers 
have been aided by French, Russian, and Japanese vessels 
working in harmony. H.M.A.S. Melbourne and Sydney were 
also included in these movements. Yesterday morning news 
was received that the Emden, which had been completely lost 
after her action with the Zhemtchug, had arrived at Keeling, 
Cocos Island, and landed an armed party to destroy the wireless 
station and cut the cable. Here she was caught, and forced 
to fight by H.M.A.S. Sydney (Captain John C. T. Glossop, 
R.N.). A sharp action took place, in which the Sydney 
suffered a loss of three killed and fifteen wounded. The 
Emden was driven ashore and burnt. Her losses in personnel 
are reported as very heavy. All possible assistance is being 
208 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY- NAVAL 

given to the survivors by various ships which have been 
dispatched to, the scene. 

With the exception of the German squadron now off the 
coast of Chile, the whole of the Pacific and Indian Oceans are 
now clear of the enemy's warships. 



Admiralty, January i, 1915. 

The following dispatch has been received from Captain L.G. 
John C. T. Glossop, reporting the capture of the German 
Cruiser Emden by H.M.A.S. Sydney. 

H.M.A.S. Sydney at Colombo. 
SIR, November 15, 1914. 

I have the honour to report that whilst on escort duty 
with the Convoy under the charge of Captain Silver, H.M.A.S. 
Melbourne, at 6.30 a.m., on Monday, November 9th, a wireless 
message from Cocos was heard reporting that a foreign 
warship was off the entrance. I was ordered to raise steam 
for full speed at 7.0 a.m. and proceeded thither. I worked 
up to 20 knots, and at 9.15 a.m. sighted land ahead and 
almost immediately the smoke of a ship, which proved to be 
H.I.G.M.S. Emden coming out towards me at a great rate. 
At 9.40 a.m. fire was opened, she firing the first shot. I kept 
my distance as much as possible to obtain the advantage of 
my guns. Her fire was very accurate and rapid to begin 
with, but seemed to slacken very quickly, all casualties occur- 
ring in this ship almost immediately. First the foremost 
funnel of her went, secondly the foremast, and she was badly 
on fire aft, then the second funnel went, and lastly the third 
funnel, and I saw she was making for the beach on North 
Keeling Island, where she grounded at 11.20 a.m. I gave her 
two more broadsides and left her to pursue a merchant ship 
which had come up during the action. 

2. Although I had guns on this merchant ship at odd 
times during the action I had not fired, and as she was making 
off fast I pursued and overtook her at 12.10, firing a gun 
across her bows, and hoisting International Code Signal to 
stop, which she did. I sent an armed boat and found her to 
be the s.s. Buresk, a captured British collier, with 18 Chinese 
crew, i English Steward, i Norwegian Cook, and a German 
Prize Crew of 3 Officers, i Warrant Officer and 12 men. The 

Naval II O 209 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [No 

ship unfortunately was sinking, the Kingston knocked out 
and damaged to prevent repairing, so I took -all on board, 
fired four shells into her and returned to Emden, passing men 
swimming in the water, for whom I left two boats I was tow- 
ing from Buresk. 

3. On arriving again off Emden she still had her colours up 
at mainmast head. I inquired by signal, International Code, 
" Will you surrender ? " and received a reply in Morse " What 
signal ? No signal books." I then made in Morse " Do you 
surrender ? " and subsequently " Have you received my 
signal ? " to neither of which did I get an answer. The 
German Officers on board gave me to understand that the 
Captain would never surrender, and therefore, though very 
reluctantly, I again fired at her at 4.30 p.m., ceasing at 4.35, 
as she showed white flags and hauled down her ensign by 
sending a man aloft. 

4. I then left Emden and returned and picked up the 
Buresk' s two boats, rescuing two sailors (5.0 p.m.), who had 
been in the water all day. I returned and sent in one boat 
to Emden, manned by her own prize crew from Buresk, and 
one Officer, and stating I would return to their assistance 
next morning. This I had to do, as I was desirous to find out 
the condition of cables and Wireless Station at Direction 
Island. On the passage over I was again delayed by rescuing 
another sailor (6.30 p.m.), and by the time I was again ready 
and approaching Direction Island it was too late for the night. 

5. I lay on and off all night and communicated with 
Direction Island at 8.0 a.m., November loth, to find that the 
Emden 1 's party consisting of 3 Officers and 40 men, i launch 
and 2 cutters had seized and provisioned a 70 tons schooner 
(the Ayesha), having 4 Maxims, with 2 belts to each. They 
left the previous night at six o'clock. The Wireless Station 
was entirely destroyed, i cable cut, i damaged, and i intact. 
I borrowed a Doctor and 2 Assistants, and proceeded as fast 
as possible to Emden's assistance. 

6. I sent an Officer on board to see the Captain, and in 
view of the large number of prisoners and wounded and lack 
of accommodation, etc., in this ship, and the absolute im- 
possibility of leaving them where they were, he agreed that 
if I received his Officers and men and all wounded, " then as 
for such time as they remained in Sydney they would cause no 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

interference with ship or fittings, and would be amenable to the 
ship's discipline." I therefore set to work at once to tranship 
them a most difficult operation, the ship being on weather side 
of Island and the send alongside very heavy. The conditions 
in the Emden were indescribable. I received the last from her 
at 5.0 p.m., then had to go round to the lee side to pick up 
20 more men who had managed to get ashore from the ship. 

7. Darkness came on before this could be accomplished, 
and the ship again stood off and on all night, resuming 
operations at 5.0 a.m. on November nth, a cutter's crew 
having to land with stretchers to bring wounded round to 
embarking point. A German Officer, a Doctor, died ashore 
the previous day. The ship in the meantime ran over to 
Direction Island to return their Doctor and Assistants, send 
cables, and was back again at 10.0 a.m., embarked the 
remainder of wounded, and proceeded for Colombo by 10.35 
a.m. Wednesday, November nth. 

8. Total casualties in Sydney : Killed 3, severely wounded 
(since dead) i, severely wounded 4, wounded 4, slightly 
wounded 4. In the Emden I can only approximately state 
the killed at 7 Officers and 108 men from Captain's statement. 
I had on board n Officers, 9 Warrant Officers, and 191 men, 
of whom 3 Officers and 53 men were wounded, and of this 
number i Officer and 3 men have since died of wounds. 

9. The damage to Sydney's hull and fittings was surprisingly 
small ; in all about 10 hits seem to have been made. The 
engine and boiler rooms and funnels escaped entirely. 

13. I have great pleasure in stating that the behaviour 
of the ship's company was excellent in every way, and with 
such a large proportion of young hands and people under 
training it is all the more gratifying. The engines worked 
magnificently, and higher results than trials were obtained, 
and I cannot speak too highly of the Medical Staff and arrange- 
ments on subsequent trip, the ship being nothing but a 
hospital of a most painful description. 

I have the honour to be, 

Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 

JOHN C. T. GLOSSOP, 

Captain. 
The Secretary of the Admiralty. 

211 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [No 

The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 
announcement : 

The captain of the Emden and Prince Franz Joseph of 
Hohenzollern are both prisoners and un wounded. The losses 
of the Emden in killed are reported unofficially as 200, with 
30 wounded ; no further details have been received. 

The Admiralty have given directions that all honours of 
war are to be accorded to the survivors of the Emden and that 
the captain and -officers will not be deprived of their swords. 



The following war news, officially circulated through 
German wireless stations, has been received by the Marconi 
Company : 

Berlin, November 12. 

It is reported from Valparaiso that a transport ship 
searching for survivors of the naval engagement in the Pacific 
returned without having sighted any of the missing British 
cruisers or wreckage from those vessels. 

The English newspapers pay the highest respect to the 
crew of the cruiser Emden and its commander, von Miiller, 
whom they credit with the greatest ability and chivalry. 



Amsterdam, November 18. 

The Kaiser, replying to a telegram of sympathy from 
the public authorities of Emden on the occasion of the loss of 
the Emden, says : 

Hearty thanks for your telegram of sympathy on the 
sad but heroic end of my cruiser Emden, the brave ship which, 
even in the latest fight against an overpowering enemy, won 
laurels. A new and stronger Emden shall arise, on whose bow 
the Iron Cross shall be affixed in remembrance of the old 
Emden. 

WILHELM, R.I. 

K.V., Commander von Miiller, of the Emden, reports that 

Nov. 26, the English cruiser Sydney approached Cocos Island at high 

I 9 I 4- speed, at the moment when a landing party despatched -from 

the Emden was cutting the cable. An action between the 



212 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

two cruisers then began. He states that the Emden' s shoot- 
ing was good, but in a very short time the superiority of 
the English fire caused heavy losses among his gunners, and 
this resulted in his guns soon being silenced. Notwith- 
standing the fact that the rudder of the Emden was damaged, 
he fired a torpedo at the Sydney, but missed his object. The 
speed of his vessel was reduced in consequence of damage 
to her funnel, and he was obliged to run the ship ashore on 
a reef, from which point a landing party set out followed 
by the English, who, however, gave up the pursuit and 
resumed their fire against the wrecked Emden. In order to 
avoid further unnecessary loss of life he surrendered with the 
officers and crew, consisting of six officers, four deck officers, 
twenty-eight petty officers, and ninety-three men. One 
petty officer and seven men were severely wounded. 



News has been received concerning S.M.S. Ayesha to the K.D., 
effect that Commanding Captain - Lieutenant von Miicke Feb. 1915. 
has arrived in the neighbourhood of Hodeida (South West 
coast of Arabia) together with the landing party of S.M.S. 
Emden, and that they have been received with enthusiasm 
by the Turkish troops. After having successfully passed 
through the Strait of Perim unobserved by the English and 
French patrol forces, the landing took place undisturbed on 
the coast within sight of a French armoured cruiser. 



On March 27th, the crew of H.I. M.S. Ayesha (the landing K.D., 
party of H.I. M.S. Emden) arrived at the Arabian port Lidd Apri 
to the south of Jeddah, having succeeded for the second time I 9 I 5- 
in evading the Anglo-French vessels patrolling those waters, 
and completing their voyage of 300 miles from Hodeida without 
detection. During their further march on land they were 
attacked by Arabs who were bribed by the English. After 
three days' hard fighting, the attacks of these marauding 
bands were beaten off, and the way towards the Hedjaz 
Railway was open. Unhappily, the brave band suffered 
heavy losses on this occasion. A telegram from the Turkish 
Headquarters informs us that Lieutenant Z. See Roderick 
Schmidt, Seaman Rademacher and Stoker Lauig were killed, 

213 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

while some of the Turkish escort, together with Seaman 
Mauritz von Koschinsky, were severely and Seaman Witte 
slightly wounded. The wounded are now under good care 
in the military hospital at Jeddah. 



Keeling or Coces Islands, November gth, 1914. The 
landing party left the Emden at 6 a.m. There were forty-five 
men and three officers, equipped with four machine guns. 
Some 700 souls inhabit the islands, of whom 200 are Europeans. 
On the island there are wireless and cable electric stations ; 
from the latter three cables go respectively to Batavia, Singa- 
pore, and Australia. We knew that the English valued this 
station, and hence our desire to destroy it. 

The steam-pinnace towed us between coral reefs to the 
landing stage. In the harbour we saw a sailing-ship three- 
master but little dreamt that this insignificant looking vessel 
would become of great importance to us. We sprang from 
the cutters ; one party made for the wireless and the other 
for the cable station. 

As we arrived there I saw the operator sending off signals 
of distress, but I quickly turned the machine off and the 
work of destruction began. We then proceeded to the cable 
station and blew it up, as well as the receiver for wireless 
messages. Then the cables were cut. The installations were 
very powerful and of great value ; in fact we had no idea 
that the station was so large. 

Suddenly at 9 o'clock the Emden signalled with her search- 
lights in the Morse code, telling us to hurry up. We loaded 
the cutters hurriedly and were towed out again, only to see 
the Emden putting out to sea. 

At first this manoeuvre was quite incomprehensible ; but 
she next fired a broadside, and then shells began to drop all 
round her. 

We were condemned to look on in complete helplessness, 
while the Emden seemed to be getting the worst of it. 

We returned to the landing stage, climbed to the roofs 
to watch the fight which drew off to the open sea. Next we 
prepared to hold the island ; the machine guns were placed 
in position and all weapons taken from the inhabitants. 
Meanwhile the Emden s foremast and one funnel had been shot 

214 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

away. Lieutenant-Captain von Miicke called us together 
and ordered those men who had any experience of sailing ships 
to seize the Ayteha and make her ready for sea, his intention 
being to leave the island before sunset to find the Emden 
in case she had survived the fight. 

It was bitterly hard to think of our comrades waging an 
unequal fight outside with forty-eight of the crew missing. 
Poor Emden \ It was now 5 o'clock and the fight not ended. 
Meanwhile the schooner Ayesha had been provisioned and 
water taken on board unfortunately very little of the latter 
for the needs of forty-eight men, for we hoped to make 
Batavia. Towards sunset the pinnace towed us out of the 
harbour and the voyage began. 

November 10. 

At sea. We camped on deck under very primitive con- 
ditions. I had never dreamed that I should ever set foot on 
a sailing-tub again in this life. We are making three knots 
in the hour. There is no water for washing. 



A stop of only twenty-four hours was made at Padang 
in order to get provisions, but after Emden II. (i.e., Ayesha) 
had left the harbour she was followed by the C noising, a 
freight steamer belonging to the Norddeutscher Lloyd. 
The Choising sighted the sailing ship in heavy weather on 
December i4th, and held by till the storm passed and a dead 
calm followed. After a conference it was decided to sink 
Emden II., and, by means of axes, holes were cut in her hull, 
everything of use taken off her, and at 5 p.m. she disappeared 
in 4,000 feet of water. 

Black smoke clouds gushed out of Emden III.'s (Choising} 
funnels as she steered south-west, and later on changed this 
to a westerly course. To the amazement of the world 
Emden III. popped up, two and a half months after the crew 
had left the Keeling Islands, in the Turkish harbour, Hodeida, 
in the Red Sea. During the voyage quite a number of small 
coasting steamers had been caught and sunk. 

The long voyage had led across the Indian Ocean, past 
the English fortress, Aden, through the Straits of Bab-el- 

215 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Mandeb, past Perim to Hodeida on the Arabian coast, where 
the men had landed in sight of a French armoured cruiser. 

An attempt to leave Hodeida by land encled in failure on 
account of the climate, but in the night of March i5th they 
succeeded in dodging the English blockade and got clear in 
two small sailing ships. One ran aground in the dark in 
twelve feet of water. All the occupants were rescued, but a 
quantity of provisions had to be thrown overboard as the 
other boat was overloaded and there were seventy souls on 
board. 

Dschidda was the next place where provisions could be 
obtained, and, as it was blockaded by three English ships, 
the Germans decided to land at Lidd and march the remainder 
of the way through the robber-infested country. After a 
six-days' march the caravan was attacked in the night of 
April ist by Bedouins, but these ran off when the Germans 
attacked with the bayonet. 

Nevertheless, a continuance of the march was impossible, 
for there were 300 armed Arabs opposed to sixteen German 
and thirteen Turkish rifles. One sailor was shot through the 
heart ; Naval Lieutenant Roderick Schmidt was mortally 
wounded and died during the night. A demand from the 
Arabs for 22,000, our arms and ammunition, was rejected, 
but a regular little fortress with trenches, &c., was completed. 
During a three-days' fight the Germans had several more 
casualties, but three had already escaped, disguised as 
Bedouins, to get help from Dschidda. 

From this point they employed sailing boats, succeeded 
again in getting through the English blockading line, and 
reached El Wesch. A five-days' march brought them to 
El Ulah, on the Hedjaz railway. Provisions sent by the 
German Consul in Damascus awaited them at that point. 
The heroes arrived in Damascus on May loth, and from there 
to Constantinople their journey was a triumphal procession. 
On June loth they reached Vienna. 

[The foregoing narrative is taken from the diary of one of the Emden's 
landing party. For the original source of this document see note on p. 12.] 



216 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 
THE " KONIGSBERG " A TOTAL WRECK. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty made the following Times, 
announcement last night : July 13, 

It will be remembered that since the end of October last I 9 I 5 
the Konigsberg has been sheltering some distance up the 
Rufigi River (German East Africa) in a position which rendered 
attack most difficult, only shallow-draught ships being able 
to get sufficiently close to her to be able to engage effectively. 

Two months ago the Admiralty decided to send two river 
monitors, namely, Severn (Captain Eric Fullerton, R.N.) and 
Mersey (Commander Robert A. Wilson, R.N.), to assist the 
Commander-in-Chief of the Cape Station, Vice-Admiral H. 
King Hall, C.V.O., C.B., D.S.O., in these operations. 

The position of the Konigsberg was accurately located by 
aircraft, and as soon "as the monitors were ready the operations 
were begun. 

On the morning of July 4th the monitors entered the river 
and opened fire, to which the Konigsberg replied immediately, 
firing salvoes of five guns with accuracy and rapidity. H.M.S. 
Mersey was hit twice, four men being killed and four wounded 
by one shell. 

As the Konigsberg was surrounded by jungle, the aero- 

E lanes experienced very great difficulty in " spotting " the 
ill of the shot. She was hit five times early in the action, 
but after the monitors had fired for six hours the aeroplanes 
reported that the Konigsberg s masts were still standing. A 
salvo then burst on her and she became heavily on fire between 
the masts. 

She continued to fire with one gun intermittently for a 
while ; but for the last part of the engagement she did not 
fire at all, either on account" of lack of ammunition or disable- 
ment of her guns. Although not totally destroyed as a result 
of this engagement, she was probably incapacitated. 

The Commander-in-Chief reports that the task of the 
monitors was an extremely difficult one on account of the 
jungle and difficulties of accurate " spotting " ; but they 
were assisted by H.M.S. Weymouth, Captain Denis Crampton, 
M.V.O. (in which ship the Commander-in-Chief flew In's flag), 
which followed them across the bar of the river and engaged 
small guns on the banks, whilst H.M.S. Pioneer (Acting 

217 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [No- 

Commander T. W. Biddlecombe, R.A.N.) engaged the guns 
at the mouth of the river. 

In order to complete the destruction of the Konigsberg the 
Commander-in-Chief ordered a further attack on July nth, 
and a telegram has now been received from him stating that 
the ship is a total wreck. In this last engagement our 
casualties were only two wounded in H.M.S. Mersey. 



NAVAL DEBATE IN THE HOUSE OF LORDS. 

House of Lords, November 11. 

THE EARL OF SELBORNE : My Lords, the gracious 
Speech from the Throne was entirely concerned with the 
war, and I ask your Lordships' permission to-night to allude 
to certain naval aspects of the war. I shall not detain you 
long, but there are certain observations which I think ought 
to be made, and certain questions which I think ought to be 
asked. First of all I wish to speak about the expedition to 
Antwerp. I have no opinion to express as to the military 
wisdom or unwisdom of that expedition. I have not the 
facts on which to form an opinion, and therefore I shall express 
none. The question I want to ask is, Why was this expedi- 
tion, which was of a purely military nature, entrusted to the 
Admiralty to carry out ? I should regard with absolute 
dismay any attempt of the War Office to control trie move- 
ments of the Grand Fleet and I regard with no less dismay the 
attempt of the Admiralty to conduct the defence of a fortress. 
Therefore I ask, Why was this task entrusted to the Admir- 
alty ; and was this expedition undertaken on the advice of 
the military advisers of the Government ? My second 
question is, Why was this expedition to Antwerp entrusted 
to a Naval Brigade ? 

I confess that under all circumstances I regard with 
jealousy the use of a Naval Brigade on shore. Sometimes, of 
course, it is amply justified. But I think its use always 
requires explanation, and particularly in this case, because 
although Marines, as we know, are trained to serve on land as 
well as afloat, only a portion of this Brigade consisted of 
Marines. I am only stating a fact which is known to the 
whole world when I say that Naval Brigades, apart from 

218 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Marines, are not trained to undertake land operations ; there- 
fore under no circumstances could this have been a thoroughly 
trained military unit. Further than that, we know that many 
of the men of this Brigade had only recently joined the Naval 
Volunteer Reserve, and although it is true that Germany is 
using many untrained troops in the operations in Flanders, 
there are many German practices which I would rather we 
should avoid than copy. Therefore many of us regarded the 
employment of this particular Brigade for this particular 
purpose with nothing less than amazement, and I think it is 
wonderful quite wonderful how splendidly the men did 
under the circumstances. We have every reason to be most 
proud of them. Their deficiencies were no fault of theirs ; 
they were part of an organisation meant to serve afloat, and 
they were suddenly called upon to conduct an operation of 
a purely military character. Therefore I feel it my duty to 
ask, Was this particular force selected for this particular pur- 
pose by the military advisers of the Government as the most 
suitable to conduct the defence of a fortress ? 

Next, my Lords, I wish to allude to our recent defeat in 
the Pacific. We have had many discussions in this House 
about the standards of naval strength and the numbers of our 
squadrons. This is not the moment to continue that dis- 
cussion ; we shall have to examine that question at the end 
of the war. But I feel it my duty to ask now, how it could 
possibly have happened that such a squadron as that which 
has been in large part destroyed could have been chosen to 
defend our flag in the Pacific against such a squadron of 
cruisers as that which the German Admiralty had sent forth ? 
According to the information at my disposal, the German 
squadron consisted of three excellent third-class cruisers of 
the Emden class the class which has become famous owing 
to the exploits of a gallant captain whose escape from the 
loss of his ship I am sure all your Lordships are glad to learn 
combined with the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, two very 
powerful first-class cruisers. All those five ships are fast 
ships. Now, what was the squadron collected to meet those 
ships ? The Glasgow, a better ship than the Emden class ; 
the Monmouth and the Good Hope, two good ships of their 
date, but of a type not to be compared for a single moment 
with the Scharnhorst and the Gneisenau. The inferiority of 

219 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [No 

those three ships to the German combination was so manifest 
that we were told by the Admiralty that they had joined to 
that squadron the battleship Canopus. 

I want to allude to the Memorandum published by the 
Admiralty. I must say I did not like it. I did not like its 
tone altogether. I am sure there was no kind of intention to 
suggest a reflection on that most gallant seaman, Admiral 
Cradock, who gave his life for his country when the Good 
Hope went down ; but I could not help thinking when I read 
it that he might have had something to say about that 
Memorandum, particularly when he read the part about the 
Canopus. The point is this. If you add the Canopus to the 
Monmouth and the Good Hope and the Glasgow, most surely 
you have a squadron more powerful than the German squadron 
it was intended to meet ; yet also you have a squadron which 
under no possible circumstances could force the German 
squadron to action, because the Canopus is slow. All the 
cruisers on both sides concerned are over 2O-knot cruisers 
I think, running up to 22 and 23 knots. I do not suppose the 
Canopus at the most can steam more than 17 knots. There- 
fore it was perfectly clear that so long as the Good Hope and 
Monmouth were in company with the Canopus they never by 
any possibility could force the German squadron to action. 
Consequently for the purpose of catching and defeating the 
German squadron the addition of the Canopus to the cruisers 
we have lost was obviously futile. 

I confess that the explanation about the Canopus only 
filled me with astonishment, and with a greater desire for an 
explanation from the Government as to how this could ever 
have come to pass. It is quite clear what happened. The 
Good Hope and the Monmouth and the Glasgow had to meet 
the whole of the German squadron alone, and from that 
moment it was only a contest between the two 9.2 guns of 
the Good Hope and the sixteen 8.2 guns of the Scharnhorst 
and the Gneisenau, and there could be no doubt whatever 
as to the issue. All we can do is to pay our tribute of intense 
admiration for the officers and men of those two ships who, 
fighting against hopeless odds, gave their lives for England. 
But I do think that the country is entitled to a better explana- 
tion than has been given as to how such a squadron was sent 
to meet the German squadron. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

I should like to take this opportunity of making a protest. 
The Board of Admiralty is an historic body, and the First 
Lord is not in the position of a Secretary of State. I wish 
the present First Lord, who has thrown the whole of his great 
intelligence and power of work into the task entrusted to 
him, would remember that, and not send messages to foreign 
Powers, to Fleets, or to Naval Brigades in his own name. 
I may have offended myself when I was at the Admiralty, but 
I have no recollection of ever having done so. If I did, 
I repudiate that precedent altogether, and I apologise for it. 
But it is a great breach of historic continuity and of real 
constitutional custom for any communication to be sent as 
from or to the Navy except by the Secretary in the name of 
the Board of Admiralty. 

Then, my Lords, I wish to say a word about Prince Louis 
of Battenberg. It was my privilege, when I was First Lord 
of the Admiralty, to have Prince Louis as Director of Naval 
intelligence, and I got to know him very well. I wish to say 
here what I have said elsewhere, that a more devoted, a more 
loyal, servant of the Crown has never existed in the Navy, 
the Army, or the Civil Service. Prince Louis of Battenberg 
is a man of great abilities, who became an Englishman by 
adoption in his fourteenth year, and who has lived ever since 
for nearly half a century for no other purpose in the per- 
formance of his profession than to give his very best to his 
King and country. That such a man should be singled out 
for attack is, I venture to say, nothing less than a national 
humiliation. I can scarcely find words to express my indig- 
nation that there should be people among us who seem unable 
to distinguish between the man who is as loyal, as true, to 
the country of his adoption as man can be, and the man 
who has shamefully abused our national hospitality, merely 
because both of them had German parents. I should not 
think it right to let this the first opportunity that has occurred 
pass by without expressing to all my countrymen my sense of 
the immense services Prince Louis of Battenberg has rendered 
to the Crown of England, to the British Navy, and to the 
English people, and my misery and shame at the attacks 
which have been made upon him. 

In conclusion I wish to associate myself in the strongest 
possible way with what my noble friend Lord Curzon and 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [No 

the Leader of the House said about the services rendered by 
the Fleet in this great war. I wish also and here I speak 
for all my noble friends on this side of the House, and I do 
not think that noble Lords opposite will dissociate themselves 
from what I say to express our pride in the Australian Navy 
of the King, and our gratitude and admiration for the great 
service rendered by the Sydney in the destruction of the 
Emden. And when my noble friend voiced the admiration 
we all feel for the efforts of our Allies in Europe, I must add 
and again I shall carry all your Lordships with me our great 
admiration for the way our Japanese Ally has fought in the 
recent siege of the German fortress which they have captured 
captured in the main, of course, by the skill and bravery 
of Japanese arms, but I am glad to think that a small body of 
British troops were associated with them in the task. All 
that my noble friend has said about our Allies in Europe 
applies equally to Japan. 

THE EARL OF CRAWFORD : My Lords, I wish to take this 
opportunity of referring to an administrative matter namely, 
the position of alien enemies in this country and the danger 
caused by their presence. A few months ago I brought this 
matter before the notice of the Government, but I am afraid 
ineffectually. The noble Marquess the Leader of the House 
received my observations with great courtesy but at the same 
time with very amiable scepticism, and the district in which 
I live in Scotland has up to a very few days ago continued, 
as regards this danger, in a condition which I am afraid has 
been most unsatisfactory. But the noble Marquess and his 
colleague Lord Allendale at any rate comforted me by the 
assurance that the whole of the County of Fife was a pro- 
hibited area. Fife is a sea-girt county. It has on the north 
the submarine base of Dundee, and on the south the great 
naval base of Rosyth, the Forth Bridge, the fortified island of 
Inch Keith, and the city of Edinburgh. I live in Fifeshire, 
and your Lordships will all admit that the strategic importance 
of this county justifies my laying before you certain facts with 
regard to it. 

Two months ago when I raised this matter, Fife became a 
prohibited area ; in other words, there being no parish in 
Fife more than ten miles from the sea-coast, the whole of that 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

county became ipso facto an area in which alien enemies were 
not entitled to live. None the less alien enemies continued 
to reside there, to go into that county and to leave it appar- 
ently at their own sweet will. Up to last week there was 
actually an alien enemy living in the county to whom the 
Home Office had refused naturalisation papers for reasons 
which, long before this war was thought of, they considered 
adequate and ample. But up till a few days ago that alien 
enemy continued to reside, as every German in Fife does 
reside, at a spot commanding the sea. Next door, or next 
door but one, to that particular alien enemy is living another 
notorious German who makes no secret of his relatives serv- 
ing in the German Army or of his profound contempt for 
this country. He is living there to-day, although he is an 
alien and a non-naturalised German who publicly and con- 
temptuously expresses his views about us. 

Let me quote a further concrete instance. At the extreme 
easterly end of the County of Fife, which northwards, with 
glasses of course, commands the extreme coast of Aberdeen, 
and to the south the Fame Islands, a German was residing 
up till the end of August, although this was a prohibited area 
then. That German was detected tampering with official 
messages sent along the coast to the coastguards by telephone. 
He was removed, but somehow or another he persuaded the 
authorities military, I presume that he was innocent, and 
he came back to Fife to his house, and the only penalty that 
this person incurred was that he was cut off the telephone. 
We have got rid of him now, because on October 2Qth he was 
removed ; but I am not quite certain that he will not get 
back again, and on that point I should like assurances from 
the Government. 

It is what these people do to which I desire to call your 
Lordships' attention. I am not talking about the minor spy, 
the hotel waiter and insignificant people like that, who watch 
a Territorial in the street and see what shoulder-strap he has 
on and then communicate it to some one else who may not 
think it worth while to communicate it to Germany. I am 
talking about super-espionage, something more advanced 
than collecting materials of that character. I am talking 
about active and highly organised communication with the 
enemy direct, and I ask your permission to explain two or 

223 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Nov 

three phases of the forms which this activity takes. In the 
first place, night signalling from our shores, and from the 
high ground which rises from our shores in Fife, to ships in the 
Forth whether to merchant ships or submarines I cannot 
say is continuous. I can if you like give you the names of- 
six places within a very few miles of my own home where 
this lamp signalling has been in regular progress. But it is 
not only flash signalling which is a form of communication 
with the enemy. Only the other day one of these persons 
who has now left was discovered to have filled up a form of 
questions a questionnaire submitted to him from Germany. 

A third form of communication with the enemy was dis- 
covered quite recently a very carefully prepared system of 
communication by 'post, in such a way as to escape the 
activities of the Censor ; in other words, a private postal 
system arranged from our Fife ports to Germany and con- 
fined to commercial boats which come into the Forth- 
Swedish, Dutch, Norwegian, Danish, I do not know what. 
That was discovered the other day, and the person from 
whom this document was taken is still residing there, or was 
a few days ago. Now, who are these people ? When war 
breaks out it is understood always that the Ambassador 
leaves, the Minister leaves, and the Consular staff leave. The 
Consular work of Fife, such as it was, with Germany and 
Austria is being conducted in the ordinary way by the Consul 
of the United States of America at the town of Dunfermline. 
But Germany is not content 'with our ordinary hierarchy of 
Consuls ; she has Consular agents as well, and in one of 
the ports which have given the maximum of trouble to the 
authorities the Consular agent of Germany and the Consular 
agent of Austria are still resident or were a week ago. Neither 
of them is German or British ; they both belong to neutral 
nations ; both have been officials of the enemy. Their trade 
and avocation make it for those two particular individuals 
ideal that they should remain there, because they are such 
persons as ship chandlers and so on, who in the ordinary 
course of their business see every foreign seaman who comes 
into the port ; and the Forth is full of foreign sailors day by 
day. Our policy has been the fatal one of trying in com- 
mercial life to ignore the existence of war, and at all hazards 
to keep going between Norway and Denmark the butter trade. 

224 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Therefore it is quite easy for Germany, which has any number 
of Danish, Norwegian, Dutch, or Frisian subjects, to send 
their sailors in and out on those boats. 

Then there are cases of illegal export and import of cargoes. 
There have been two cases of illegal importation of dynamite 
without the formalities of what is called " entry." Wretched 
little twopenny-halfpenny boats carrying small negligible 
cargoes of merchandise but also carrying immense quantities 
of dynamite there have been two cases of that within the 
last few weeks. Again at this particular port by my own 
home there have been : ; n the last few weeks two cases of 
illegal export of petrol, not great quantities which would be 
useful to a belligerent Power as a cargo delivered on land, 
but small consignments which would be invaluable to enemy 
ships lying off our own shores. I hope the noble Marquess 
takes my meaning without my having to be more precise. 
There have been two cases of that within the last few weeks, 
and I am only speaking of one or two ports within a whole 
row of ports on the north and the south side of the Forth. 
What happened ? I only know what occurred in one case. 
In one of these cases the man who committed this crime was 
fined 5. The fine was paid. Had the fine been 500 it 
would have been paid the next day. I ask the noble and 
learned Viscount on the Woolsack, who has control of these 
things from the legal point of view, to bear that in mind. A 
fine is no use. There is more money to pay those fines than 
a penny on the Income Tax in this country would produce, 
and it is always available. 

My last point is the danger of mines. A ship was 
brought into one of these ports the other day and searched, 
and it was discovered that one of her coal bunkers was half 
filled with sawdust. No sailor in his senses would carry 
sawdust close to the boilers and engines. Of course the 
assumption was that this harmless ship had been dropping 
mines, which we know to our cost have been sown up and 
down our North-Eastern shores. I have spoken about Fife, 
the county where I live, and about matters which are common 
knowledge to us all. I have no doubt from conversations 
that I have had with noble Lords Lords Lieutenant and 
soldiers and others that these facts can be duplicated with 
regard to other ports in Scotland, Ireland or England. On 

Naval II-P 225 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

October I2th the Government issued a statement as to what 
had actually been achieved by the Home Office. It was a 
wholly complacent announcement the spy system was 
broken up, and so on ; it was so placid in its confidence that 
it gave a shock to public opinion. Soon afterwards there 
were very unfortunate disturbances in London, such as will 
always occur when people think that the Government are not 
carrying out the law as it should be carried out. I deprecate 
these hostile demonstrations against aliens, because I think 
that they defeat our greatest interests ; but none the less they 
will continue unless the Government are more active than 
they have been. 

I have brought these facts before the highest authorities. 
There has been a little renewed activity, but none the less 
conditions to my mind remain very dangerous indeed. Some 
naturalised British subjects I refer again now to Fife have 
been removed. Others remain against whom there is not the 
suspicion but the knowledge of offences against the law. 
German subjects still remain resident, or were until three or 
four days ago, in this prohibited area ; and if they are re- 
moved their wives are allowed to remain and in several cases 
the sons of these people actually remain. It is obvious, 
therefore, that there is considerable disparity of treatment 
and doubt as to the proper course to pursue: I should like, 
however, to say that most admirable work has been done in 
Fife by the soldiers, sailors, and police ; but they know that 
the Government authority is not quite clear in its own mind 
as to what should be done. The result is that they live in 
fear of a snub from the Home Office, or from the Scottish 
Office which follows the policy of the Home Office in England. 

I venture to make two or three suggestions. In the first 
place, I suggest that there should not be the ridiculous farce 
of fining a man who has committed a crime against the country 
and an act of war against the State. Such a man should not 
be fined ; he should be imprisoned. Secondly, I suggest that 
the authorities should announce that the police, soldiers, and 
sailors are empowered to remove any naturalised British 
subject of German birth who is open to reasonable suspicion. 
This is a matter of life and death, and if there is a German 
who is a British subject and is open to suspicion, in my opinion 
we are in many ways more entitled to fear his activities than 

226 




H4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

if the man were a bona fide German. Finally, we must 
remove this disparity of treatment. We must let the local 
authorities know how they are entitled to act. I throw out 
the suggestion for what it may be worth, that a Joint Aliens 
Board should be established, on which the military, naval, 
police, and Home Office authorities should be represented, to 
work out a policy the materials are already available and 
that that policy should be published so that the public as a 
whole, both British and non-British, should know what the 
wish of the Government is. The result, I think, would be 
that we should be able to remove from our midst some of the 
dangers to which I have referred. This is a legal matter, and 
I hope that the noble and learned Viscount on the Woolsack 
will give my remarks some consideration, and perhaps in the 
course of next week he might be able to announce some line 
of policy. I do not ask him, nor do I expect him, to make 
any reply at the present juncture ; but to my mind the matter 
is so important that the sooner it is brought to the knowledge 
of the House the sooner shall we be able to get something 
from the Government. 

LORD LEITH OF FYVIE : MY Lords, I should like to say a 
few words following upon the Question which I put to the 
Government on this subject in the early part of September, 
because the experience of the progress made shows that in 
some districts, as the noble Earl has told your Lordships, the 
prohibition does not apply at all. For instance, in Aberdeen- 
shire the prohibited areas were increased very promptly, but 
they stopped at the bridge. Since then it took sixty days 
to bring it about the Scottish Office has extended the area 
until it stretches from John o' Groats as far south as to cover 
the Scottish coast. As to the English coast, it is apparent 
from the information that has reached me that signalling and 
interference with shipping is going on actively along the 
Norfolk coast. I have requested the Home Office several 
times to have the matter thoroughly investigated, and the 
Lord Lieutenant of the county wrote to me to say that the 
]ocal authorities could not make any progress because the 
Home Office refused to allow them authority. 

As I understand, the powers under the Restriction of 
Aliens Act do not seem to be understood. They are certainly 

227 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

'not practised. For instance, in Devonshire, where I live 
in the winter months, the Chief Constable of the county does 
not consider that he has a power which our Chief Constables 
in the North of Scotland have assumed and already acted 
upon. When the recent extension by Order in Council was 
made there was a large number arrested in Torquay and 
district, but they were returned in a few days by the military 
authority because no arrangements had been made for them. 
In Scotland, on the other hand, the military authorities had 
the orders beforehand and were prepared to remove them out 
of the prohibited areas, or take them to a camp. While poor 
men, barbers, waiters, and so on and women workers have 
been arrested and removed, alien enemies who employ a few 
men and women have been returned and are living where they 
were and practising their business as before. This shows the 
inconsistencies of these two Acts, which were passed perhaps 
without proper consideration of the finality of them. In 
other words, the general theory of the Chief Constables I have 
spoken to about the matter is that they are acting for the 
Home Office, or, in Scotland, for the Scottish Office, and then 
they turn the cases over to the military. The military, on 
the other hand, do not assume authority in all cases. Now 
I understand the question is going to be thoroughly threshed 
out, and the noble and learned Viscount on the Woolsack 
will doubtless be able to make a statement subsequent to the 
consideration of the whole subject. There are at present 
overlapping laws which are inconsistent and not thorough. 

In calling attention to this question in your Lordships' 
House two months ago I said that I particularly desired to 
see a " clean sweep " of all enemy aliens as a precaution and 
not as a persecution. It has acted the reverse way. At 
present the poor alien and the wage-earner are interned ; 
but the rich financiers, the contractors, and the big men in 
the City of London escape. Those are our enemies ; those 
are the ones you will sooner or later have to arrest. We are 
acting with Allies, and we must consider the policy which our 
Allies have pursued with regard to alien enemies in their 
midst. We are not doing so to-day, but we must do so. I 
hope the noble and learned Viscount will take this point into 
consideration with the other subjects. Additional legislation 
is required to protect the State against these alien enemies, 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

who are actively engaged, and who, I have every reason to 
suppose, robbed this land of an enormous amount of money 
just previous to the war robbed the country on such a 
gigantic scale that it is hard to prove, yet there is no reason 
why this could not be proved in a Court. As the noble Earl 
who has just spoken said, there must be a Court of experience 
and knowledge of the facts, civil, military, and financial, and 
prepared to act on them. I understand from this morning's 
report that a very large number of persons are being arrested, 
and the question must come up how they are to be distributed. 
There must be equity ; there must be justice. We must 
cease this persecution and arresting of the poor wage-earners 
and arrest the rich men in our midst who are working against 
us, employed probably by the Kaiser for a number of years. 
Let them be arrested and let them be held responsible. 

THE LORD CHANCELLOR (VISCOUNT HALDANE) : My 
Lords, perhaps it will be thought convenient that I should 
deal with the two speeches to which we have just listened 
before I proceed to the points raised in the speeches from the 
Front Opposition Bench. The speech which we have just 
heard illustrates the extraordinary difficulties attending this 
subject. I agree with the noble Lord that there has been a 
most highly-organised and systematic arrangement for obtain- 
ing secret information a most highly-organised system of 
preparation, not for a few months, but for years before this 
war. At the time I was Secretary of State for War I was 
cognizant of it and watched it. When that has gone on for 
a long time it becomes very difficult, after the outbreak of 
war, to put your hand upon the people who are giving real 
information. You are dealing with people of great astute- 
ness, countrymen not only of other countries but of this 
country. The result is that in well-intentioned efforts to put 
down the evil you inevitably do an enormous meed of injustice, 
more than you do by proceeding by summary methods. 
The result has been that the task not only of the Police but 
of the naval and military authorities has been very hard. 

As the noble Lord who last spoke said, it is very unfortun- 
ate to have to lay hold of a man who may be perfectly innocent 
and in a humble class of life and take him from his wife and 
children and from his little business and shut him up. Yet 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

that is what we have had to do in order to cope with this 
difficulty and meet the demands of public opinion. I trust 
that the process of sifting is a process which will be pursued 
in a very thorough fashion, and that we shall succeed in some 
measure at all events in making sure that we are not getting 
the wrong man and diverting our attention from the real 
one. I can only say to the noble Lord and to the noble Earl 
who spoke before him that the naval and military authorities 
and the Police are putting their heads together, and that 
I doubt very much whether any board or committee would 
be of any good. It would be a slow and abstract kind 
of institution. 

THE EARL OF CRAWFORD : What is really wanted is that 
the Home Office should know what the soldiers and sailors 
on the spot require. 

THE LORD CHANCELLOR : That is quite right. The noble 
Earl brought forward such remarkable cases that I fear 
there might be a doubt that, if we sifted them, they might 
not be all substantiated ; but if the noble Earl would not 
mind jotting down the heads and giving them to me as con- 
fidentially as he can I will have them investigated. 

THE EARL OF CRAWFORD : It is because these cases have 
not been investigated by the Home Office that I have raised 
the matter here. Every case that I have mentioned is some 
of them have been for three months at the disposal of the 
authorities. If the noble and learned Viscount will inquire 
of the authorities he will find that that is so. 

THE LORD CHANCELLOR : The case of the merchant ship 
carrying mines does the noble Earl say that that has been 
before the authorities ? 

THE EARL OF CRAWFORD : That case has not been before 
the authorities because there is nothing illegal in having a 
coal bunker full of sawdust. But the authorities know about 
the matter, and take the gravest view of it. 

THE LORD CHANCELLOR : I am sure that if they had 
suspicions in that case the naval authorities would interfere. 
I do not say this with a view of in the least minimising the 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

importance of what the noble Earl has brought forward. 
The authorities naval, military, and Home are applying 
themselves with, as far as I can judge, great vigour at the 
present time"; and certainly it is the policy and the duty 
of the Government to see that that vigour is increased rather 
than relaxed. At the same time we have arrested a great 
number of people, some of whom may be perfectly innocent. 
But we must do our best to assist the authorities at the present 
time. 

The noble Earl on the Front Opposition Bench, Lord 
Selborne, raised certain questions. The first was the question 
of Antwerp. I will say very little about it, but I will say this. 
What was done at Antwerp was done not only in consultation 
with the Admiralty but after consultation with the Secretary 
of State for War. It had to be done very quickly, and with 
the resources that were available. But for the encourage- 
ment which the swift action taken gave, but for the delay 
which that encouragement and support brought about, I 
am not sure that the line on which we are fighting to-day 
would be the same as it is. I do not desire to go into details 
upon that subject, further than to state that what was done 
was done by the First Lord after consulting the Secretary of 
State for War ; in fact, we take the fullest responsibility and 
think that the intervention was a useful intervention. Then 
the noble Earl asked why it was entrusted to a Naval Brigade ? 
It was entrusted to the body handiest to do it quickly, and 
the Naval Brigade behaved very well in the trenches. Then 
the noble Earl raised the question of the defeat in the Pacific > 
and asked how such a squadron was chosen. The Canopus 
was there, but he says that the Canopus was not a fast boat 
17 or i8-knots. 

A NOBLE LORD : Sixteen. 

THE LORD CHANCELLOR : The answer is this. It was 
impossible to foresee how the German ships would concentrate. 
It must be remembered that the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau 
had been thousands of miles away just before, and their 
concentration was a thing which no one could foresee. We 
do not yet know the circumstances of the affair sufficiently. 
I have no doubt that the gallant Admiral whose loss we all 
mourn and who fought so splendidly exercised the wisest 

231 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

judgment in what he did. If these ships were separated for 
the moment from the Canopus it was no doubt to carry out 
an enterprise which seemed to him in the circumstances the 
wisest course to take. Certainly we have no information 
from which we can criticise in the least the view which he 
formed, nor is there information which leads us to think that 
the Admiralty policy was wrong. Noble Lords must re- 
member that the Atlantic and Pacific oceans have an enormous 
space ; that we are hunting comparatively few ships ; that it 
takes a great many ships, and it is impossible to foresee or 
forecast from day to day or even sometimes from hour to 
hour, where ships will be found ; and that it is an enterprise 
involving a certain amount of time and a certain amount of 
risk. 

Then the noble Earl made an allusion to Prince Louis of 
Battenberg, and I have deep sympathy with the manner in 
which he spoke of that officer. We all think that there is no 
more devoted sailor in the British Navy than Prince Louis. 
For years he has devoted himself to the service of the Crown 
and the Navy, and I entirely share the sentiments of the 
noble Earl. I do not think that he spoke one word too 
strongly when he said that it was monstrous that attacks 
of the kind that were made should be made upon a sensitive 
and high-souled man, who felt himself placed in a difficult 
and impossible position. The noble Earl also alluded to the 
composition of the Board of Admiralty, and pointed out, quite 
truly, that the First Lord is not a Secretary of State. That 
is quite true. But the noble Earl also remembers that under 
the Order in Council he is in a peculiar position, and he is 
the Minister responsible to Parliament. Therefore it does 
come about that more communications are made by the First 
Lord in his own name than by any other member of the 
Board. I cannot tax my memory, but my impression is 
that the bulk of the communications that have been issued 
have been in the name of the Board, and that whilst the 
Minister who is at the head of the Department is bound to 
make speeches and send telegrams and issue manifestoes 
at times, that has not been done to an extent which is inordi- 
nate. At any rate that is a matter on which my right hon. 
friend is sensitive and anxious to conform to what is the best 
practice on the subject. You have to discriminate between 

232 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

his capacity as a Minister and as the head of the Board, and 
he has conscientious views, as far as I am able to judge, upon 
that point. I have dealt with the points raised. I cannot 
go further into details on such matters as the movements 
of ships. It is very difficult to say much at a time of war, 
particularly with regard to such movements as those which 
took place in connection with what happened in the Pacific. 
We are passing through a time of great difficulty, .and the 
Government is grateful for the tone which noble Lords sitting 
on the Opposition Benches have adopted to-day and for 
the support and sympathy which they are giving to the 
Government in the discharge of one of the most difficult 
duties that have ever fallen upon the persons responsible 
for the administration of affairs. 

VISCOUNT ST. ALDWYN : My Lords, I will only detain 
the House for a few minutes, but I must say that I do not 
think that the noble and learned Viscount on the Woolsack 
has at all satisfactorily answered the remarks which have 
been made by my noble friend Lord Crawford and by the 
noble Lord who followed him. It must be nearly two months 
ago since my noble friend Lord Crawford called attention to 
this very subject. He brought forward cases then of a kind 
similar to those which he has instanced to-day, and the noble 
Marquess who leads the House promised that careful atten- 
tion would be given to the matter by the Government. Yet 
my noble friend has shown that precisely similar instances 
are going on now. It was, of course, impossible to expect 
the noble and learned Viscount to answer particulars with 
regard to each of these cases to-night, but I wish that he had 
shown some stronger sense of the inefficiency of the organisa- 
tion that exists to deal with this matter. Surely the sug- 
gestion made by Lord Crawford that there should be some 
arrangement for co-ordinate action between the three au- 
thorities concerned the Home Office, the Admiralty, and 
the War Office was a very good one. I wish that the noble 
and learned Viscount had given us hope that some arrange- 
ment of that kind would be made, for I must confess that 
what I have heard to-night and on the previous occasion 
leaves no impression on my mind except this, that there 
has been on the part of the Home Office a lack of uniform 
and efficient action which is very much to be deplored. 

233 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

LORD ST. DAVIDS : My Lords, I listened with great 
interest to the speech of the noble Earl, Lord Crawford, and, 
like the noble Viscount who has just sat down and like 
many other members of the House, I suspect I do not con- 
sider the Government answer at all a satisfactory one. If I 
may say so, it was unsatisfactory not on the point of detail 
but on the broadest line of policy. The noble and learned 
Viscount said that this spy question could not be gone into, 
wholesale without causing an immense deal of inconvenience 
and hardship to innocent persons. A great many of the 
people of this country are aware that there must be suspicion 
that a great deal too much information is leaving our shores, 
especially on naval affairs. To put it broadly, no one doubts 
it. I do not believe there is one of us in this House who 
would not subject himself, his f amity, his county, or his 
country to an immense amount of hardship in order to pre- 
vent one single item of information leaking out. That is 
what we ourselves and our families would gladly suffer if it 
would prevent information going out. 

Where I dissent strongly from the Government on this 
matter is that we should consider for one moment any incon- 
venience or hardship which we may inflict upon alien enemies 
and their families. If we could bear that hardship for our- 
selves and our own families, I think we should at least equally 
let the families of alien enemies bear that inconvenience. 
The point of view which the Government has taken is one 
with which the country does not sympathise. We wish that 
the search for information going out of the country should 
be made far more drastic than it has been. After all, we 
do not want to keep these people here. If there are a great 
number of families of aliens who are suffering hardship be- 
cause their breadwinners are in concentration camps, why 
should not we offer to return them to Germany ? I believe 
that the Germans are keeping a number of English people in 
Germany who are of no use to them and would be no help to 
us ; they are keeping them there for their own reasons. Of 
course, I do not want to see any aliens suffer hardships un- 
necessarily ; I think the Government might offer them to 
Germany and pass them through the lines. What we want 
to see is the stoppage of this leakage of information and the 
reassurance of the public, who ought to know that the best 

234 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

is being done. When the public read a speech" like that of 
the noble and learned Viscount to the effect that we must 
take great care that the families of alien enemies do not suffer 
inconvenience and serious hardships, I do not think it is 
considered that that is the spirit in which this thing ought 
to be handled. We ought to treat alien enemies and their 
families as we would treat ourselves. I believe that it is 
not in detail but in the spirit that tne method in which this 
question is being handled wants to be fundamentally altered. 

LOSS OF THE " NIGER." 

Admiralty, November n. 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 
announcement : 

His Majesty's Ship Niger (Lieutenant-Commander Arthur 
T. Muir, R.N.) was torpedoed by a submarine this morning in 
the Downs, and foundered. 

All the officers and seventy-seven of the crew were saved ; 
two men are severely and two slightly injured. It is thought 
there was no loss of life. 

His Majesty's Ship Niger was a torpedo gunboat of 810 
tons, built in 1892. She was employed in semi-combatant 
duties. 



JAPANESE TORPEDO-BOAT LOST. 

Tokyo, November n. 

IT is officially announced that the Japanese torpedo- 
boat No. 33 was sunk to-day whilst dragging for minesfat 
the mouth of Kiao-chau Bay. The majority of the crew were 
saved. Renter. 



GUNNERY ALLOWANCE (BOATSWAINS). 

House of Commons, November 12. 

MR. FALLE asked the First Lord of the Admiralty ii Hansard. 
he is aware that in modern ships boatswains have often gun- 
nery work to perform and that in some ships all the gunners 
are boatswains ; and if he can grant these men their gunnery 
allowance for first and second-class certificates ? 

235 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Nov 

DR. MACNAMARA : I am aware that boatswains, in com- 
mon with the majority of officers of a ship, often have gunnery 
duties to perform, but am not aware that in some ships all 
the gunners are boatswains. It is not proposed to grant 
gunnery allowance to boatswains who have not undergone 
the training necessary to qualify for such allowance. 



THE " GOEBEN " AND " BRESLAU "THE TROU- 
BRIDGE COURT MARTIAL. 

SINCE Rear-Admiral Troubridge's return to England 
an exhaustive inquiry has been held, as a result of which he 
applied to the Admiralty for a trial by court martial. The 
request having been granted, a court martial was held at 
Portland, and Rear-Admiral Troubridge was honourably 
acquitted. 

The proceedings of the court martial began on Thursday, 
November 5th, and sittings were held daily, including 
Sunday/ until Monday last. Admiral Sir George Le C. 
Egerton, K.C.B., Commander-in-Chief at Devonport, was 
President of the Court, all the members of which were flag 
officers. Paymaster-in-Chief F. J. Krabbe, Deputy Judge 
Advocate of the Fleet, was in attendance, and Rear-Admiral 
Troubridge was assisted in his defence by Mr. Leslie Scott, K.C., 
M.P., the charge against him being that he failed to pursue 
the Goeben and Breslau. The proceedings of the court 
martial were strictly private, representatives of the Press being 
refused admission. 



RESTRICTIONS IN FIRTH OF FORTH. 

THE Admiral Commanding the Coast of Scotland has 
issued an important notice that for purposes of national 
defence it has become necessary to impose restrictions on all 
vessels navigating the waters of the Firth of Forth until 
further notice. After 5 p.m. to-day no vessel of any 
description will be allowed to come within a distance of 
one mile from Forth Bridge either eastward or westward, 
nor will vessels of any description be allowed to remain 

236 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

under way in the Firth of Forth to the westward of 
Inchkeith unless under the charge of a pilot authorised by 
the Admiral Commanding the Coast of Scotland. Further, 
after November 25th all mercantile traffic is to cease to 
westward of Oxcars for both outward and inward bound vessels. 
In the Firth of Forth all navigation is dangerous for vessels 
except when under the charge of authorised pilots. 

ANNOUNCEMENT BY THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT 
WITH REFERENCE TO THE BLOCKADE OF 
THE NORTH SEA. 

November 13. 

THE English Government is falsely accusing Germany K.D., 
of having laid mines in the North Sea and carried out recon-Nov. 13, 
noitring expeditions under the cloak of hospital ships and I 9 I 4- 
merchant vessels under neutral colours, and on November i 
2nd it issued a notice J concerning navigation to and ^ 
in the North Sea, in which it recommends to ships the route p 
through the English Channel, the Downs and along the 
English east coast, under the pretext of the presence of mines 
in the northern part of the North Sea ; at the same time it 
warns them against the route through the northern part of 
the North Sea round the Orkney and Shetland Islands. 

As against this it may be pointed out that the waters 
of the northern North Sea, including the lines Hebrides- 
Faroe-Iceland, the waters on the Norwegian coasts, and 
the Skager Rak have such depths of water throughout that 
the laying of mines is entirely out of the question. 

On the other hand, it is known that in the southern part 
of the North Sea and in the English Channel there are many 
unexploded mines drifting about, which have been proved 
to be of English and French origin, and that in many places 
on the route recommended by England along the English 
east coast there are mines laid, of which isolated ones have 
been recently encountered drifting about. 

The route recommended by England through the English 
Channel, the Downs and along the English east coast thus 
presents grave risks to navigation, whereas the route through 
the northern North Sea is free from mines and therefore 
without danger. 

237 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
TERMINATION OF BLOCKADE OF KIAO-CHAU. 

Foreign Office, November 14, 1914. 

HIS MAJESTY'S Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 
has received a telegram from His Majesty's Ambassador at 
Tokio reporting that on the loth instant the Japanese naval 
authorities officially proclaimed the termination of the 
blockade of the coast of Kiao-Chau, the establishment of 
which was notified in the London Gazette of September ist 
last (see Part I., p. 116). 

JAPANESE TORPEDO-BOAT SUNK. 

Tokio. 

OFFICIAL. A Japanese torpedo-boat has been sunk 
by a mine while sweeping for mines in Kiao-chau Bay. 

BRITISH MEASURES IN NORTH SEA. 

(Statement by British Legation.} 

The Hague, November 15. 

IN commenting on the measures taken by the British 
Admiralty, some people appear to have lost sight of the origin 
of these measures, and it is therefore useful to point out 
that it is the Germans who are violating international law, 
and who have rendered the North Sea inaccessible. It was 
the Germans who scattered floating mines in the North Sea, 
thereby doing irreparable damage to neutral trade. The 
role of the British Navy is merely to protect neutrals from 
greater damage, and to keep open certain routes which may 
still be used by shipping. 



[Nov. 



NAVAL CADETS. 

House of Commons, November 16. 

MR. JOYNSON-HICKS asked the First Lord of the 
Admiralty how many naval cadets were discharged from 
Dartmouth at the commencement of the war and placed on 
board ship ; and how many of these have since been killed 
in action ? 

THE FIRST LORD OF THE ADMIRALTY (MR. CHURCHILL) 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The answer to the first part of the question is 434. Of this 
number I am very sorry to say that 23 have lost their lives 
in action. The chance of war has fallen with exceptional 
severity in the early stages on the ships of the reserve Fleets. 

MR. JOYNSON-HICKS : Does the right hon. Gentleman 
include those in the Monmouth in that number ? There were 
ten in the Monmouth. I think there must be a mistake. 

MR. CHURCHILL : The Return has been compiled from 
headquarters. It may be so. 

MR. JOYNSON-HICKS asked the First Lord of the 
Admiralty what were the reasons which influenced the Ad- 
miralty in sending the naval cadets from Dartmouth on board 
ship at the commencement of the war ; and whether he 
proposes that they should return to complete their education 
after the war is over ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : The decision to send the naval cadets 
from Dartmouth to sea in time of war was arrived at a con- 
siderable time ago. It was felt that young officers of their 
age would be of great use on board His Majesty's ships, and 
that they would learn incomparably more of their profession in 
war than any educational establishment on shore could teach 
them. They are a regular part of the ship's complement. The 
question as to whether these young officers should return to 
Dartmouth after the war is over must depend upon circum- 
stances, and in particular upon the duration of the war. I 
do not think it is at all likely. 

MR. JOYNSON-HICKS asked the First Lord of the Admir- 
alty whether he intends to send at the end of each term at 
Dartmouth a fresh supply of naval cadets on to the Fleet, or 
whether he proposes that those boys now entering Dartmouth 
should complete their education in the ordinary way ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : It is not intended to send any cadets 
from Dartmouth to sea at the end of the present term, and 
drafting in the future will depend on the requirements of the 
Fleet. The syllabus of their education is being arranged 
accordingly. 

MR. JOYNSON-HICKS asked the First Lord of the Admir- 
alty on what date were the naval cadets on the Aboukir, 
Hogue and Cressy promoted midshipmen, and by whose 
orders did such promotions take place ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : The surviving cadets of the Aboukir 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

were rated midshipmen from September 22nd by order of 
the Admiralty. The cadets of the Rogue were rated by their 
captain from August 2nd. The cadets of the Cressy were 
understood to have been rated midshipmen by their captain 
immediately prior to the loss of the ship, but the report did 
not reach the Admiralty. The captain having been lost, 
the Admiralty ordered the surviving cadets to be rated mid- 
shipmen from September 22nd. 

ROYAL NAVAL RESERVE (ASSISTANT PAYMASTERS). 

House of Commons, November 16. 

Hansard. SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the 

Admiralty whether any assistant paymasters, Royal Naval 
Reserve, direct from the shore, have been granted commissions 
and appointed to ships in charge of accounts ; whether the 
experience of Royal Naval Reserve officers in naval work 
of this kind is comparable to the experience of writers in the 
Royal Navy ; and will he say why vacancies for the officers' 
accountancy branch, Royal Navy, are not filled in the same 
way as other vacancies in the Royal Navy ? 

THE PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE ADMIR- 
ALTY (DR. MACNAMARA) : The answer to the first part of the 
question is in the affirmative; but generally speaking, vacancies 
in the accountant branch of the Royal Navy have been filled 
from the Reserve of officers, as is done in all other branches. 
With regard to the rest of the question, the claims to advance- 
ment to chief writers will not be overlooked. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE : Is there any truth in the 
statement that someone has been tried by court-martial and 
convicted ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I have no knowledge. If the hon. 
Gentleman thinks it desirable to get any information on the 
point, he had better put down a question. 

ALLOWANCES AND PENSIONS (NAVY AND ARMY). 

House of Commons, November 16. 

Hansard. SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the 

Admiralty whether the wives of warrant officers serving in 

the Royal Navy are eligible for the separation allowance ; 

and whether in this respect they are treated in the same 

240 



[Nc 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

way as warrant officers of the Royal Marines ; and, if not, 
can he explain why a difference is made ? 

LORD CHARLES BERESFORD asked the First Lord of 
the Admiralty whether the wives of naval warrant officers are 
not receiving separation allowance whilst their husbands are 
on active service with the Fleet ; and, if so, whether it is 
proposed to grant such separation allowance to them ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The wives of warrant officers of the 
Navy are not eligible for separation allowance. I am giving 
their case consideration, but can give no undertaking in the 
matter. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COpKE asked the First Lord of the 
Admiralty whether hardship has arisen in the case of widowed 
mothers of boys who have been lost in ships sunk during the 
war and who were within a short period of being rated ; and 
whether he will consider the advisability of asking the State 
to pay these women something better than twelve months' 
pay at 7d. a day ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : While I fully share the hon. Member's 
sympathy with the widowed mothers in these cases, I am 
unable to hold out any hope that the general principle of 
assessing gratuities upon annual earnings will be modified. 

MR. FALLE asked the Secretary to the Admiralty if the 
grant of allowances to wives and dependants and also to 
widows and dependants apply to all married persons whether 
married before or since the War began ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : So far as the Navy is concerned, yes, 
Sir. 

MR. NEWTON asked the Prime Minister whether he will 
at once take the necessary steps to improve the pensions 
payable to the widows of and persons dependent upon soldiers 
and sailors killed in the War and to improve the pensions of 
soldiers and sailors wholly or partially disabled by wounds, 
illness, or accident sustained in or occasioned by the War ? 

THE PRIME MINISTER : I would refer the hon. Mem- 
ber to what I said on this subject on Wednesday last, 
n, in the debate on the Address.] 

SIR J. D. REES : Has the right hon. Gentleman taken 
into consideration representations made to him by different 
bodies ? 

THE PRIME MINISTER : Yes, Sir. 

Naval II Q 241 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

MR. BOYTON asked the Prime Minister whether he is 
aware that the wives of soldiers married after the enlistment 
of their husbands and since August i4th are not receiving 
separation allowances ; and if there are many who if they 
had remained unmarried would now be receiving separation 
allowances ? 

THE FINANCIAL SECRETARY TO THE WAR OFFICE 
(MR. H. BAKER) : Yes, Sir, as a general rule ; but it is not 
intended that a woman who was qualified to receive separation 
allowance as dependent on a soldier should forfeit it by 
marrying him. 

SIR WILLIAM BULL asked the Prime Minister whether 
he is aware that, by legislation passed since the beginning of 
the present War, the French Government has undertaken to 
pay to the wives resident in France of British, Belgian, Russian, 
and Serbian Reservists called up for service the same weekly 
allowance as is paid to the wives of French Reservists ; and 
whether His Majesty's Government will take steps to recipro- 
cate this good office in the case of the wives resident in the 
United Kingdom of French Reservists, and to extend it 
similarly in the case of our other allies ? 

THE PRIME MINISTER : The question has already been 
brought to the attention of His Majesty's Government. The 
French Government have been officially informed that there 
is every reason to suppose that private agencies in this country 
will be in a position to render the necessary assistance to the 
families of French citizens serving in the War, but that, in 
the event of these agencies failing, the French Government 
may be assured that effective measures to provide the neces- 
sary assistance will be taken by His Majesty's Government. 

SIR GEORGE TOULMIN asked whether evidence was 
taken in connection with the inquiry into soldiers' and sailors' 
pensions and allowances and dependants' allowances ; whether 
it was printed ; and whether it can be laid before Parliament ? 
. THE PRIME MINISTER : In the course of inquiries made 
by the Departments concerned, advice and assistance, for 
which the Government is most grateful, was freely forth- 
coming from many of those specially interested and informed ; 
no formal evidence was recorded, and there are therefore no 
Papers which can be laid. 



242 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
ALLOTMENTS FROM HIS MAJESTY'S SHIPS. 

Hoitse of Commons, November 16. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the Hansard. 
Admiralty whether he has had any adverse reports on the 
question ~ of forwarding the lists of allotments from His 
Majesty's ships ; is he aware that in many cases, owing to 
allotments not being forwarded in time, hardship has occurred 
to the dependants of the men making the allotments ; that in 
several instances these dependants have had to seek advances 
from the Soldiers' and Sailors' Families Association when they 
ought to have been in possession of their own money, and 
that in some instances aid has had to be sought from charitable 
organisations ; and will he see that in future, when a man 
.makes an allotment, the officer responsible for forwarding the 
list does not make undue delay ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I am aware that there have been some 
cases of hardship, which have been alleviated by the Soldiers' 
and Sailors' Families Association, owing to the non-declaration 
of allotments on the part of the men. As far as active service 
men are concerned there need have been no hardship, as the 
Admiralty facilities for regular allotment to their families 
existed before the War. As regards Reservists, it is probable 
that in some cases, owing to the necessity for extremely rapid 
mobilisation and departure for various stations, the men did 
not find time to declare allotments before sailing, and that 
such allotments, declared later, could only be forwarded from 
the next port of call. I am not aware, however, that the 
allotment once made, there has been any delay on the part of 
the responsible officers on board ship in forwarding the lists. 
There has been no delay in making payment when the lists 
were received, and every endeavour has been made, both by 
general Admiralty orders and by specific references to ships 
in particular cases, to induce men to adopt the method of 
allotment for forwarding part of their wages to their families ; 
and I may add that the number of allotments has since the 
commencement of the War increased from 73,000 to over 
160,000. 1 can only add for the information of the hon. 
Member, and any other hon. Members interested, that I shall 
be glad to receive personally particulars of any cases in which 
difficulties or delays occur. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE : Has not the right hon. Gentle- 

Naval II-R 243 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Ncrv 

man received any complaints that the assistant paymasters, 
Royal Naval Reserve, have not forwarded the allotment ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I cannot recall them. I have 
received complaints that wives have not received their allow- 
ances. They have been attended to. I am only too glad of 
the opportunity to deal with them. 

SIR C. KINLOCH COOKE asked the First Lord of the 
Admiralty whether a man on promotion to warrant rank from 
the lower deck is as a rule married ; whether he has had 
before him the case of a boatswain who has attained warrant 
rank receiving 6s. a day and paying 303. to 2 a month for 
his mess and washing ; and will he say what amount of money 
that man can allot a month, taking into consideration the 
basis on which the new separation allowance scheme is 
formed, and show that this sum is sufficient to support a 
wife and six children as well as to meet rent and other neces- 
sary outgoings ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I am aware that a man on promotion 
to warrant rank from the lower deck is, as a rule, married, 
and I am, as I have already said, giving consideration to the 
question whether separation allowance ought to be extended 
to his case. I may add that a boatswain's pay on promotion 
is 6s. a day, of which he may allot 6 a month to his wife, but 
I have some doubt whether his ordinary messing and washing 
cost him as much as is stated in the question. 

ROYAL NAVAL* DIVISION (ENGINEER UNITS). 

House of Commons, November 16. 

SIR WILLIAM BULL asked the First Lord of the Admiralty 
if the institutions of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineers 
were invited to obtain picked men for the divisional Engineer 
units and Signal company of the Royal Naval Division re- 
cently formed, and if a number of labourers and other recruits 
without engineering knowledge were afterwards added to 
these units on the same terms of enlistment ; and, if so, will 
he explain why these unskilled recruits have been embodied 
in the, units raised for the performance of technical duties 
which the engineering recruits were asked to undertake ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The institutions were invited, as 
stated, and provided a considerable number of recruits, but 

244 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

owing to the nature of the work required of the Engineer 
company, which includes manual and unskilled labour, and 
also care of horses, other recruits whose qualifications are 
suitable have to be taken. 

H.M.S. "CANOPUS." 

House of Commons, November 16. 

MR. MACMASTER asked at what date the Canopus was Hansard. 
ordered to join the British squadron in the Pacific on the 
West Coast of South America ; and when and from what place 
or port she proceeded to join that squadron ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : In order to form a true judgment upon 
this episode, it would be necessary for the hon. Member to 
know the dispositions of all the ships involved and to study 
the actual text of the orders under which they were acting. 
This is clearly impossible at present. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE : Has the right hon. Gentleman 
any news of the Canopus ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : I have every reason to believe she is 
quite safe. 

ALIEN SPIES. 

House of Commons, November 16. 

MR. JOYNSON-HICKS asked whether one Mark Auerbach, Hansard. 
a German spy, has been found on a mine sweeper in the North 
Sea, and, instead of being handed over to the naval authorities, 
has been prosecuted merely as an unregistered alien and 
sentenced to three months' hard labour : and, if so, why this 
leniency was shown ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The man was removed from his 
employment on a hired trawler and full inquiries were made. 
No sufficient evidence, however, was forthcoming that the 
man was a spy, and it was therefore intended that he should 
be handed over to the civil authorities to be dealt with. 
Owing to a regrettable mistake at the port, this order mis- 
carried, and the man was discharged to the shore. He was, 
however, rearrested and prosecuted as stated in the question. 
I may add that he entered and served in the trawler under 
the name of Alexander Gordon. 

MR. JOYNSON-HICKS : In these circumstances, would it 

245 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [No\ 

not have been better for the Navy to take charge of this man 
themselves ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : It is very doubtful how far we could * 
proceed under the Naval Discipline Act. He was discharged 
because no charge was formulated against him, and then 
handed over to the civil authorities, who punished him as 
stated. 

MR. JOYNSON-HICKS asked the First Lord of the Admir- 
alty whether, having regard to the probability that information 
has been conveyed to the enemy's fleet by alien spies, he 
proposes to take further and, if so, what steps to prevent this 
being repeated ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I can assure the hon. Member that 
every step is being taken that offers any possibility of checking 
the practice, but he will readily understand that a statement 
by me as to measures being taken and to be taken would be 
more likely to defeat their purpose than assist it. 

MR. JOYNSON-HICKS : May I take it, then, that the right 
hon. Gentleman agrees with the practice ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : You may take it from me that we 
will take every opportunity of checking it. 

ST. JOHN AMBULANCE BRIGADE. 

House of Commons, November 16. 

MR. THOMAS asked the First Lord of the Admiralty 
whether he is aware that at the outbreak of War members of 
the St. John Ambulance Brigade were asked to volunteer 
for service and were paid 45. per day and los. per week 
separation allowance to the wife ; that similar invitations 
have been issued to these men from the Admiralty, the 
remuneration being 35. per day and 6s. per week separation 
allowance ; and, having regard to the fact that these men 
are drawn from the same class and doing the same work, 
will he take steps to see that the remuneration shall be equal ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Members of the St. John Ambulance 
Brigade employed by the Admiralty are enrolled in the Royal 
Naval Auxiliary Sick Berth Reserve, and such enrolments 
have been made at various dates since the establishment of 
this Reserve in 1902. There are different grades in the 
Reserve, the pay ranging from 33. to 45. 6d. a day, according 

246 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to rating and nature of employment, with increase of pay 
after six months' service. The separation allowances are in 
accordance with the Navy scale, a copy of which I will send 
my hon. Friend. It is not considered necessary now to alter 
these conditions of service, which have been accepted by the 
men on enrolment in the Reserve. . 

YOUNG BOYS (HIS MAJESTY'S SHIPS). 

House of Commons, November 16. 

MR. FALLE asked the First Lord of the Admiralty if Hansard. 
he is aware that a number of very young boys are carried on 
His Majesty's ships ; and if, in view of the loss of life which 
has already taken place in the Navy, he will arrange that very 
young boys shall be employed ashore ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Naval ratings designated as " Boys " 
are not less than sixteen years old when drafted to ships on 
completion of their harbour training, and the majority of 
them are well over that age. 

MR. JOHN WARD : I should like to know whether the 
Admiralty has received any complaint as to the employment 
of these young men, and if there have been any orders exclud- 
ing them from active service. I hope he will make an excep- 
tion in the case of my son who wants to get in touch with the 
enemy at the first opportunity ? 

ROYAL AUSTRALIAN NAVY (ALLOTMENTS). 

House of Commons, November 16. 

MR. FALLE asked if the men lent by the Royal Navy Hansard. 
to the Royal Australian Navy can allot money to their wives 
and children ; and if the wives, &c., can obtain the separation 
allowance ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : By an arrangement made with the 
Commonwealth Government men of the Royal Navy who are 
lent to the Royal Australian Navy can declare allotments to 
relatives in England, and such allotments are paid monthly 
by the Admiralty on behalf of the Commonwealth. I under- 
stand that owing to the high rates of pay received by these 
men, it has not been considered necessary to pay separation 
allowance to families resident in England. 

247 



DOCUMENTARY IJISTORY NAVAL 

MR. FALLE : Does that mean that separation allowances 
will not be paid ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : That is so. In consideration of 
higher pay they do not receive allowances. They receive 
allotments. 

ROYAL FLEET RESERVE. 

House of Commons, November 16. 

MR. TOUCHE asked the First Lord of the Admiralty 
if he is aware that some ex-quartermaster-sergeants, Royal 
Marines, who, since being discharged to pension, have been 
serving in the Royal Fleet Reserve as colour-sergeants, have, 
on mobilisation, had to retain the rank of colour-sergeant, 
while ex-quartermaster-sergeants who have not served in 
the Royal Fleet Reserve have been given their former service 
rank of quartermaster-sergeant, thus placing them in a senior 
position, both as regards rank and pay, to those ex-quarter- 
master-sergeants who have maintained their interest in the 
Service with the Royal Fleet Reserve ; and will he give 
consideration to the facts with a view to removing a grievance 
keenly felt by the non-commissioned officers concerned ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Marine pensioners who do not belong 
to the Royal Fleet Reserve are entitled when called out for 
active service to resume the pay of the rank they held on 
discharge to pension. Pensioners in the Royal Fleet Reserve, 
however, are in common with other Fleet Reservists required 
when called out to serve in the rank they held in the Reserve, 
and it is a condition of enrolment in the Reserve that Royal 
Marines above the rank of colour-sergeant shall revert to that 
rank on enrolment. It is not practicable or desirable to vary 
this condition of service in the Reserve on the outbreak of war, 
and it is not considered that the non-commissioned officers 
concerned have any legitimate grievance in the matter, since 
their service in the Reserve, whether they are called out or 
not, qualifies them for an increase of pension at the age of 
fifty years. Pensioners, other than Reservists, are eligible 
for a similar pension from Greenwich Hospital funds at the 
age of fifty-five years, but as the amount of money available 
for these Greenwich Hospital pensions is limited, awards are 
not usually made to men until they have attained the age of 
about fifty-nine, or are even older than in the case of men with 
large naval pensions. 

248 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
REQUISITES FOR WINTER CRUISING. 

House of Commons, November 16. 

SIR GEORGE TOULMIN asked the Secretary to ite Hansard. 
Admiralty whether the ships of His Majesty's Navy at sea 
have a sufficient supply of sea-boots and other re4uisites for 
winter cruising ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The answer is in the affirmative. To 
meet the special requirements of the situation, the Admiralty 
have increased the supply of protective clothing supplied to 
His Majesty's ships such as sea-boots, oilskins, &c. at a 
cost of over 300,000. They have also provided a very large 
amount of personal warm clothing for the men, such as caps, 
gloves, jerseys, &c., involving the expenditure of something 
like another 300,000. My hon. Friend is no doubt aware 
that each rating is supplied with a free kit on entry. The 
Admiralty have thus taken steps to supply the men of the 
Fleet with all necessaries in the way of clothing, though 
doubtless supplementary comforts would at all times be 
welcome, and with reference to certain statements which have 
appeared, we made it clear in our communication to the Press 
on September i6th (see below) that we were not asking for 
additional supplies from private sources, but merely endeav- 
ouring to suggest the direction in which private enterprise 
might be usefully applied. Information which we have 
received from the Commander-in-Chief indicates that the 
results of that enterprise have been very greatly appreciated 
by the men of the Fleet. Private supplies can usefully consist 
of woollen caps, jerseys, mitts, woollen drawers, thick socks 
and stockings, and warm mufflers. Parcels can be sent to 
particular ships, addressed c/o General Post Office, London ; 
but when the supply is too large to be sent by post, application 
should be made to the Director of Victualling, Admiralty, 
London, who will advise as to the dispatch of the goods. 

[The following communications were issued to the Press 
on September 5th, 1914, and September I4th, 1914, 
respectively : 

The Admiralty states that parcels and packages of books, Times, 
periodicals, and clothing intended for the use of the Fleet Sept. 5, 
will be conveyed free of charge over the British railways to I 9 I 4- 

249 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Ncr 

naval ports, provided they are despatched and consigned 
direct by a properly constituted and recognised organisation, 
e.g., the secretaries of branches of the Navy League and 
kindred bodies, recognised charitable organisations, or urban 
or parish councils. 

The naval addresses to which such parcels may be con- 
signed are : Admiral Superintendent, Portsmouth, Plymouth, 
or Chatham ; Commodore, Portland ; King's Harbour Master, 
Dover ; S.N.O., Humber, H.M.S. Victorious ; the Captain, 
Shotley Barracks ; Captain Superintendent, Pembroke Dock ; 
Admiral Commanding, Queenstown or Rosyth. 

Societies are desired to send only recent periodicals, &c., 
and to send chiefly the following articles of clothing : woollen 
comforters, woollen drawers, thick stockings, thick socks, 
mitts, woollen caps, body belts. 

Parcels should be clearly marked on the outside thus : 
"Periodicals, clothing, &c., for the Fleet from ..." the 
name of the society sending them being stated. 

Any communication on the subject of newspapers should 
be addressed to the London Chamber of Commerce, i, Oxford 
Court, Cannon Street, E.C. 



The Secretary of the Admiralty, in response to numerous 
enquiries, has communicated through the Press Bureau the 
following particulars for the guidance of those societies and 
individuals who wish to send gifts of clothing to the Fleet : 

The articles which will be most useful are : knitted caps 
or Balaclava helmets (blue), jerseys (blue), knitted mitts or 
gloves (blue), woollen drawers, thick stockings, thick socks, 
comforters (blue). Further particulars of the above will 
be supplied on application to the Director of Victualling, 
Admiralty. 

Societies or persons interested should acquaint the Director 
of Victualling periodically with the supplies of each article 
ready for distribution. Information will then be given as 
to where to send the goods. The packages will generally be 
received at one or other of His Majesty's Victualling Yards 
to await opportunities of transmission to the Fleet ; the 
particular yard will be notified in each case. 

Parcels should be securely packed, articles of different 

250 



4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

kinds being sent in separate packages clearly marked with the 
description of article and quantity. Instructions relating to 
gifts of clothing which were set forth in the Press notice 
issued on September 6th may be regarded as cancelled.] 

THE TURKS CLAIM SUCCESS OVER THE ENGLISH 

AT FAO. 

Constantinople, November 16. 

OFFICIAL report from Turkish Headquarters:. Yester- K.D., 
day we attacked the English at Fao. They lost many Nov. 16, 
killed, the number of which we estimate at 1,000. Abdur- I 9 I 4- 
rezak Bederkhani, who is held in abhorrence by the whole 
Mussulman community on account of the revolutionary 
intrigues to which he has devoted himself for a long time, 
had crossed the frontier with 300 men in the neighbourhood 
of Maku to assist the Russians, but he was at once driven 
back by our troops. A large number of his followers was 
killed. A Russian flag which they had hoisted in a neigh- 
bouring village was captured by our troops. Abdurrezak 
is a Kurd, and belongs to the tribe of the Bederkhani. 

BELLIGERENT RESERVISTS, CONTRABAND AND 
NORTH SEA MINES. 

House of Commons, November 17, 

SIR GILBERT PARKER asked the Prime Minister Hansard. 
whether, in view of the anxiety of public opinion in the United 
States with regard to the search for belligerent reservists in 
American vessels, the declaration of oil and copper as con- 
traband, and the mining of the North Sea, he will make a 
general explanatory statement of the policy of His Majesty's 
Government on these subjects ? 

THE PRIME MINISTER (MR. ASQUITH) : I will deal in 
turn with each of the matters referred to in the question : 

(i) ENEMY RESERVISTS. 

In view of the action taken by the German forces in 
Belgium and France, where they have arrested and removed 
as prisoners of war all male inhabitants of military age, His 
Majesty's Government have found it necessary to give instruc- 
tions that all enemy subjects liable to military service who 

251 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [No 

may be found on board neutral vessels shall be made prisoners 
of war. This instruction applies to neutral vessels under 
whatever flag. As a matter of fact, no case has, so far as I 
am aware, occurred where enemy reservists have been found 
in United States ships. 

(2) OIL AND COPPER. 

As regards oil and copper, His Majesty's Government 
have reliable information that in the present circumstances 
any oil, copper, and certain other substances that may be 
imported into Germany or Austria will certainly be used 
exclusively for warlike purposes, and His Majesty's Govern- 
ment have for this reason felt justified in adding those items 
to the list of absolute contraband. Every possible care is 
being taken to ensure that oil and copper bona fide intended 
for neutral countries should not be interfered with. 

(3) MINES. 

From the commencement of the War the German naval 
authorities resorted to the indiscriminate laying of mines in 
large numbers in the North Sea outside territorial limits. 
The mines were laid upon the trade routes without regard for 
the safety of peaceful shipping, and in furtherance of no 
definite military operation, their purpose being clearly to 
endanger trade with Great Britain. There is good reason to 
suppose that in many cases they were laid by fishing vessels 
disguised as neutral, and ostensibly following their ordinary 
pursuits. 

These proceedings, besides violating the principle of the 
freedom of the seas for peaceful trading, constituted a breach 
of the 8th Hague Convention of 1907, which was duly signed 
and ratified by Germany in the following respects : i. The 
mines were not so constructed as to become harmless on 
breaking adrift from their moorings. 2. No precautions 
whatever were taken for the security of peaceful shipping. 
The mines were not kept under observation, and no steps were 
taken to notify the danger zones by a notice to mariners. 

As a result of these proceedings, a number of British and 
neutral merchant and fishing vessels have been lost, as well 
as many lives of neutral and non-combatant persons. 

His Majesty's Government deliberately abstained, and 

252 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

abstained entirely, from the use of mines during the first *two 
months of the War outside British territorial waters, but 
eventually found it necessary to adopt counter measures in 
order to cope with the German policy of mine-laying combined 
with their submarine activities. A mine field was, therefore, 
laid across the southern portion of the North Sea in such a 
way as to guard the approaches to the English Channel, and 
due public warning was given in accordance with the Hague 
Convention. 

In the last week of October the Germans succeeded in laying 
a mine field off the north coast of Ireland on the main trade 
route from America to Liverpool via the North of Ireland. 
More peaceful merchant ships were blown up and lives lost. 
But for the warnings given by British cruisers, other British 
and neutral merchant and passenger steamers would have 
been destroyed. These mines could not have been laid by 
any German ship of war, nor any vessel under the German 
flag. They could only have been laid by some merchant 
vessel flying a neutral flag, which must have come along the 
trade route as if for the purpose of peaceful commerce and, 
while profiting to the full by the immunity enjoyed by neutral 
merchant ships, wantonly and recklessly endangered the lives 
of all who travel on the sea, regardless of whether they were 
friend or foe, civilian or military in character. 

The menace to peaceful shipping presented by these wholly 
illegal methods of waging war is so great that His Majesty's 
Government have been compelled to adopt the only possible 
means of protection, namely, to declare the whole North Sea 
to be a military area, and to restrict all shipping crossing it 
to a narrow passage along which the strictest supervision 
can be exercised. Access to the coasts of Great Britain and 
neutral countries has thus been made as safe as is in the power 
of the British Navy to make it, and although this has been 
done at the price of certain inconvenience and delay to shipping 
through its inability to follow its accustomed routes, the price 
cannot in the circumstances of the case be considered a high 
one. 

His Majesty's Government are fully aware of the anxiety 
prevailing in the United States and other neutral countries 
on these subjects, and they trust that their policy will be fully 
understood. They are confident that public opinion in neutral 

253 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

coiAitri.es will appreciate their earnest desire that there should 
be no interference with neutral trade, provided the vital 
interests of Great Britain, which are at stake in the present 
conflict, are adequately maintained. 

Any interference by the British Navy is directed not to 
increase British trade, or to diminish the trade of any neutral 
foreign country, but solely to prevent goods from reaching 
the enemy which would increase his power in the War against 
the British and allied forces. 



ROYAL NAVY LOSSES. 

House of Commons, November 18. 

Hansard. LORD CHARLES BERESFORD asked the First Lord 
of the Admiralty whether he is able to state the total losses in 
the Royal Navy since the commencement of the war, giving, 
if possible, particulars of killed, wounded, and missing, respec- 
tively ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : The figures asked for are as follows : 

Officers. 
Killed . . . . . . . . . . 222 

Wounded (of whom 14 are severely 
wounded) . . . . . . . . 37 

Missing . . . . . . . . 5 

Total . . . . 264 

Men. 

Killed 3,455 

Wounded . . . . . . . . 428 

Missing . . . . . . . . i 

The figures for men do not include those missing from 
the Royal Naval Division, or the ship's company of His 
Majesty's Ship Good Hope, the lists in these cases not having 
been yet completed. As regards the Royal Naval Division 
the approximate number missing is 1,000. As regards the 
Good Hope the number of men on board was approximately 
875. These figures do not include, of course, the officers 
and men of the Royal Naval Division interned in Holland. 

254 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
THE SPY PERIL. 

House of Lords, November 18. 

THE EARL OF HALSBURY rose to call attention to the Hansard. 
various acts of high treason alleged to have been committed 
in this country, and to ask 'whether His Majesty's Govern- 
ment have investigated the facts alleged, and, if they have 
been accurately alleged, why no indictment for high treason 
has been preferred. 

The noble and learned Earl said : My Lords, I hope that 
neither the noble and learned Viscount on the Woolsack nor 
the noble Marquess who leads the House will misunderstand 
the object of my Question. The very last thing that I should 
desire to do would be in any way to embarrass His Majesty's 
Government. I say most sincerely that I wish to help them 
in every way in my power, and I regard that as the duty of 
all in the present emergency. My Question, therefore, has 
no reference to any criticism of His Majesty's Government. 
It is put with a wish to get rid of what I think is a great 
delusion, which is, I believe, leading to very great mischief. 
We have been so long away from the region of the adminis- 
tration of the law of high treason that nobody seems to think 
of it. Unfortunately I was not in the House at the time it 
was made, but I read with something like amazement the 
speech of the noble Earl, Lord Crawford, last Wednesday, 
(see pp. 222-227), and the instances to which he referred, 
including a case where certainly there was evidence of 
high treason, if it was not actually proved, which was 
punished by a 5 fine. The result of such a punishment 
is to make people misunderstand the exact position of 
the law. 

We all know that the " chivalrous " and " courageous " 
mode of making war that of spending enormous sums of 
money to induce people to betray their country is going on. 
A man may think very lightly of the possibility of being fined 
5, or, indeed, of being sent to prison for six months ; but if 
everybody was made to understand that the sending of letters, 
signalling, or any act by which the enemy could be assisted 
in what they were doing or in defending themselves was 
presumably an act of high treason for which the offenders 
might be hanged, people would probably think a little more 

255 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of the risk they were incurring. I know nothing about the 
facts to which my noble friend Lord Crawford referred, but 
he professed to know them of his own knowledge. The 
question which I venture to ask is this. If these facts are 
known and if they are capable of being proved, what is the 
reason why the course of procedure has not been taken which 
I suggest should be taken, and which is the natural and proper 
and ordinary course in cases of the kind when one country is 
at war with another ? 

I am afraid that a great deal of mischief may be done by 
the manner in which the Criminal Law is approached. We 
have got so much out of the habit of placing responsibility 
in the hands oHhe local magistrates and chief constables that 
everybody seems to think that the Home Office is the only 
authority who can authorise or begin a prosecution. I need 
not tell your Lordships that every grand jury in the country 
may find a bill for high treason to-morrow if they have 
evidence upon it ; indeed, it has been held that they are 
entitled to do so upon hearsay. But be that as it may, what 
seems to me to be the very serious error which is pervading 
the whole country is that minor offences invented in time of 
peace in order to avoid the necessity of prosecuting in every 
case for high treason are taking the place of prosecutions for 
high treason when we are at war, and when very serious injury 
indeed may be done by signalling and epistolary correspond- 
ence. What my noble friend said the other day was that 
a regular code had been discovered by which information 
of every sort and kind might be conveyed to the enemy. A 
conspiracy of that kind for the purpose of communicating 
with the enemy is in itself high treason, and has been so held. 
If the offence is treated as lightly as it has been, the fear 
is that people will not consider the risk they are running 
when they enter into a conspiracy of that sort. Should the 
facts that have been stated be capable of being proved, then 
the persons concerned ought to be prosecuted for high treason, 
so that those who are guilty of these offences should learn 
the serious risk they run in conspiring with the enemy with 
whom His Majesty is at war. 

THE LORD CHANCELLOR (VISCOUNT HALDANE) : My 
Lords, so far from complaining of the speech which the noble 
and learned Earl has just made I think it is very useful that 

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attention should be called to these matters, as it enables us 
to have the opportunity of sifting them and knowing where 
truth is and where fiction is, for I need not say that at a time 
of public excitement like the present fiction and truth are 
very liberally intermixed. I have no doubt of the bo na fides 
of the impressions which people form about these cases. Last 
week the noble Earl, Lord Crawford, who is not here to-day, 
referred to certain cases in Scotland. I have^had an oppor- 
tunity since then of conferring with both the military and 
the civil authorities in Scotland about those cases. I find 
that the authorities were cognisant of all of these rumours 
and investigated them, and wherever they found a case where 
there was the least hope of success they took action. The 
cases in which they did not take action were based on hearsay 
cases in which A had repeated information to B and B had 
passed it on to C, with the result that one could not get back 
to the original facts or obtain any evidence to establish the 
charge. I quite agree that in a case where anything approach- 
ing to high treason has been committed a 5 fine is ludicrous, 
and that the serious proceedings of which the noble and 
learned Earl spoke ought to be taken. 

I am able to state to your Lordships that vigorous action 
is being taken not only by the military but by the civil author- 
ities. There are three modes of dealing with treasonable acts. 
First the ordinary Common Law prosecution for high treason, 
which is done here almost invariably at the instance of the 
Attorney-General, and in Scotland invariably at the instance 
of the Lord Advocate. Secondly, when an alien enemy 
commits an offence of this kind he can be tried before a Court- 
Martial for a war crime ; a man was so tried the other day, 
and convicted. The third course is a prosecution before a 
Court-Martial under the Defence of the Realm Act which was 
passed the other day and under which certain statutory 
regulations were made to cover offences of almost every kind, 
extending to what, if tried civilly, would be high treason, the 
only difference being that although a Court-Martial can give 
penal servitude for life at any rate for twenty years ; I 
think for life it cannot decree the capital sentence. Con- 
sequently in all cases in which the offence is one which seems 
likely to lead to a capital sentence, proceedings have been 
taken outside the Defence of the Realm Act. The other 

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day, as I have said, an alien enemy was tried before a Court- 
Martial for a war crime and convicted ; at this moment there 
is a prosecution for high treason pending, and there are others 
under investigation. 

I can assure my noble and learned friend that it is not 
through want of attention on the part of the authorities that 
any of these cases escape. So far from its being in contem- 
plation that these matters should be tried before magistrates 
or by inferior criminal tribunals, the desire is that they should 
be tried with the supreme majesty of the law. Investigations 
take place into every case to see whether it is one in which 
there is a reasonable hope of conviction. There is, of course, 
a class of offence a serious class of offence in which it is 
not necessary or desirable to proceed for high treason ; but 
in some of these cases very heavy sentences have been given 
for crimes such as trading with the enemy, which either by 
Statute or Common Law are taken cognisance of by the 
Jurisprudence of this realm. Since I had notice of this 
Question I have had an opportunity of conferring with the 
Attorney-General, and I can only repeat to your Lordships 
what I have already said that all cases that promise to be 
of the least importance come before him for investigation, 
and he unhesitatingly directs prosecution when they present 
a chance of success. A large number of other cases have 
been inquired into by the military authorities, and I do not 
think your Lordships need be under any apprehension that 
any offence of a serious nature will escape punishment. There 
are other offences of a quite minor character which ought to 
be dealt with at a time like this, and which are being dealt 
with, by the inferior tribunals. 

At this moment, however, I am talking of cases which 
amount to high treason. Fortunately there are not a lai*ge 
number of cases of that kind. But whether there are or are 
not, the authorities are taking the view which the noble and 
learned Earl has expressed namely, that these are matters 
which, at a juncture like this, are of serious moment and 
should be so dealt with. They are being dealt with, as I 
have said, wherever there is a fair chance of success the 
difficulty of evidence is one which must not be overlooked 
and I can assure the House that the authorities are alive 
to their duties in connection with these cases. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

THE MARQUESS OF LONDONDERRY: My Lords, I 
have listened with interest to the remarks of the noble and 
learned Viscount on the Woolsack, but I regret to say that 
they have given me no confidence whatever. I live on the 
North-East coast of England, where the position is most 
precarious. We have reason to believe, as mines have been 
washed ashore on that coast, that assistance has been given 
to the enemy by people living on our own shores or by neutral 
ships. The Home Secretary made a speech the other day in 
which, as far as I could gather, he placed the responsibility 
on every single Department except his own. " Please, Sir, 
it was the other boy, not me/' That was his cry a contemp- 
tible cry. He stated that he thought chief constables ought 
to be in a position to arrest and bring before the authorities 
those who were suspected of assisting the enemy. I ask, 
What are the powers of a chief constable ? According to 
the Home Secretary the whole responsibility has been placed 
on the chief constable. Is he to arrest people at once ; is 
he to have them tried at once ; and what is to be done with 
them ? The German Consul at Sunderland has been arrested 
on account of seditious papers and plans found in his possession, 
and he has been in Durham Gaol since August. What is going 
to be done to him ? Is he going to be let out on a 5 penalty ? 

I have not hesitated to write to my noble friend the 
Lord Lieutenant of my county, Lord Durham grieved as 
he is at the moment by a bereavement to which I need not 
further allude suggesting that he and the chairman of the 
county council should call a meeting of the magistrates of 
the county, at which the chief constable should be requested 
to attend. I ask, Shall we be justified in giving instructions 
to the chief constable ? If that meeting is called I shall 
suggest that the chief constable be instructed to order the 
arrest of any man whom he considers to be a spy and have 
him tried before a proper tribunal, and that if the man is 
found guilty of spying and assisting the enemy, we, the 
magistrates, should take the law into our own hands and have 
him shot on the spot. That is the only way in which you will 
stop this ; and although we may afterwards be arrested for 
murder, I doubt whether any jury would not say that in the 
action we had taken we were doing what the Government 
ought to have done in defence of the country. 

Naval II-S 259 



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THE EARL OF MAYO : My Lords, I regret to say that the 
country in which I live is riddled with seditious literature. 
An enormous quantitiy of anti-recruiting pamphlets is being 
issued in Ireland. A great many Irishmen have joined the 
Colours, but these pamphlets are distributed in out-of-the- 
way parts of Ireland and are doing considerable harm. There 
is no printer's name upon them and it is quite impossible to 
find out by whom they are printed. Then, again, several 
newspapers in Dublin consistently preach sedition. In old 
days a newspaper of that sort was easily stopped. A four- 
wheeled cab drove to the office in the early morning and the 
occupants broke open the premises, smashed up the type, 
and took the copies of the newspaper away. I wish the 
authorities would now follow that example of the Fenian 
days. This literature is distributed broadcast throughout 
the country, and that fact is not only exceedingly trying to 
the Loyalist population but also to the Nationalist Party, who, 
I am glad to say, have done their best of late to encourage 
recruiting in Ireland. I venture to urge that steps should be 
taken to put a stop to these proceedings. 

THE EARL OF DESART : My Lords, in reference to what 
has just been said by my noble friend Lord Mayo, I should 
like to state that I was informed in September last that in a 
part of Ireland which I know well a large motor-car had 
travelled through three counties distributing at every cottage 
leaflets of the character mentioned. The responsible police 
officer in the neighbourhood said that he knew the owner 
of the car and where it was hired, and that he had reported 
the matter to Dublin Castle. Nothing, however, came of it, 
and it seemed to me at the time a matter of some surprise 
that no notice should have been taken of so serious an offence. 

In my part of the country we are all a little disappointed 
at the results of the recruiting campaign that was undertaken 
by Mr. Redmond and others of his supporters. We know 
how loyally and earnestly Mr. Redmond has pursued that 
campaign. But it is interfered with by the fact that there is 
published week by week in Irish newspapers literature which, 
whether it constitutes high treason or not, is seditious in 
character and certainly disloyal to the interests of the Empire 
at this juncture. It is quite true that the pamphlets that are 
distributed do not make the recipients of them Sinn Feiners, 

260 



4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

but we know that there have been in the last fifty years a 
number of leagues in Ireland which have influenced the popula- 
tion very largely and have almost exercised judicial functions. 
Though they may not endorse the views set forth in these 
pamphlets, the recipients of them think that it is better not 
to offend these people, and to that extent the distribution of 
this literature does have an influence upon recruiting. 

We who live in the South of Ireland have supported Mr. 
Redmond as loyally as we could in his campaign. We feel 
that the insufficiency of the response to his appeal is a reproach 
to us, and we earnestly desire, whatever other causes there 
may be for it, that this cause to which attention has been 
called, which is capable of being removed, as I submit, should 
be removed by the Government. I think I speak for every- 
body in Ireland who wants to see the Empire supported 
at this juncture when I say that we have viewed with appre- 
hension and surprise the inaction of the authorities in connec- 
tion with this particular kind of literature. In Cork, I think 
it was, a man was tried by Court-Martial for having one of 
these papers in his possession, but he was acquitted on the 
ground that there was nothing to show that he had incited 
or done anything with it ; he simply possessed a copy. It 
was rightly held that it was rather absurd to prosecute a man 
for having a paper in his possession when the person who 
published it was left unscathed. I hope that action will be 
taken in cases where the evidence is sufficient to put a stop to 
this form of propaganda. 

THE EARL OF MEATH : My Lords, I can corroborate as 
far as Dublin is concerned what has been said by my noble 
friends from Ireland. Dublin at this moment is being 
swamped by literature which I should think came within the 
category of high treason. A good portion of this literature 
is issued from America, and is distributed in the poorer parts 
of the City of Dublin. I know this to be the case, because 
these leaflets have been distributed over my property in one 
of the poorest parts of Dublin. It has been done openly, 
so much so that people are stopped on the road and requested 
not to do anything which would assist the British Government 
in any way, whether by recruiting or anything else. Even 
the children have taken it up. Like children, they play at 
war ; but they all want to be Germans. 

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The truth is that there is a large amount of German money 
in Ireland. How it comes there is not known. I am not 
speaking from a Party point of view. The Lord Mayor of 
Dublin said openly in the Corporation that he knew there 
was " a good deal of German money going." We know this 
is so, because there are a great many people who have not 
much money of their own and yet are spending a lot. How 
did those mines get laid off the coast of Ireland ? I should 
like to ask. I do not want any secrets told, but I think the 
man in the street could say pretty nearly how. I do not 
suppose that it was done by German men-of-war ; that would 
not be suggested for one moment. The fact of the matter, 
I suppose, is that it was done by German agents or by dis- 
guised German officers in Irish fishing boats. I want to know, 
Have we a Government in Ireland or have we not ? For the 
last few years I have come to the conclusion that there is 
nobody at all responsible in Ireland. I have hesitated to 
approach the Chief Secretary, because I know that I should 
get the answer which always has been given namely, that 
nothing can be done. As a matter of fact, we do not know 
who governs us in Ireland. When we had the lamentable 
collision in the streets of Dublin it made one unhappy to feel 
that everybody threw the blame upon everybody else, and 
whether the people who eventually got punished were the 
real offenders nobody knows. But the point is that we are 
at war now. We are fighting for our very existence, and we 
must not be mealy-mouthed. We have to tackle this question 
of spies. It must be tackled somehow or other, and it should 
be done by noble and learned Lords. 

EARL CURZON OF KEDLESTON : My Lords, as Lord 
Desart said, not one of us wishes in the smallest degree to attack 
the Government ; on the contrary, we want to render their 
action more prompt and more effective for the purposes that 
we have in view. But in my opinion noble Lords like the 
three noble Lords from Ireland who have addressed us are 
rendering a public service, not merely to this House but to 
the Government and to the country, by bringing before us 
their individual experience in these debates. I venture to 
say that this discussion will be by no means the last, any 
more than it is the first, that will take place in this House on 
the question of spies. 
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Noble Lords must be already thoroughly familiar with the 
fact that there is great and widespread uneasiness throughout 
the country on this matter an uneasiness which the speeches 
that have so far been made from the Ministerial Benches 
either in this House or in the other have done nothing what- 
ever to allay. One noble Lord comes here and speaks as to 
the scattering of mines on our coasts ; another speaks of the 
circulation of seditious literature ; another speaks and we 
know how true it is as to the large extent to which German 
money is employed in our midst. These are only slight 
evidences among many of a scheme of spy-mongering in this 
country conceived with consummate ability and secrecy, 
carried out with a lavish expenditure of money, and at this 
moment in operation on a scale which would startle every one 
of us if we knew its internal ramifications. 

The noble Marquess, Lord Londonderry, was dissatisfied 
with the speech of the noble and learned Viscount on the 
Woolsack. I must confess that I thought it a better speech 
than the one he made the other evening, though perhaps that 
is not giving him the praise to which he thinks he is entitled. 
I own, after hearing the damaging case that was made the 
other evening by Lord Crawford, that I was both astonished 
and pained to hear the noble and learned Viscount get up and 
argue that the test to be applied in these cases was the comfort 
and convenience of the enemy aliens in our midst rather than 
the safety of this realm. I heard that doctrine forcibly re- 
pudiated by a noble Lord sitting opposite, and I was delighted 
that, after that unexpected castigation, the argument was 
not again used by the noble and learned Viscount to-night. 

THE LORD CHANCELLOR : I never said that. What 
I said was that to arrest aliens wholesale, irrespective of their 
guilt or innocence, irrespective of whether or not they had 
wives and families dependent upon them, in such a way that 
you might be subjecting absolutely innocent people to the 
greatest hardship, was a policy as inhuman as it was ineffi- 
cacious. 

EARL CURZON OF KEDLESTON : I do not think that 
was the language used by the noble and learned Viscount on 
the former occasion, otherwise the speech of Lord St. Davids 
would not have been delivered. From what he then said, the 
noble and learned Viscount appeared to be more concerned. 

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with considering the degree of discomfort of aliens which 
might be caused in these operations, and which in my view 
is no matter for alarm or regret, and to bestow insufficient 
attention on the much greater necessity of the State. My 
noble friend behind me called attention to the speech of the 
Home Secretary in the House of Commons. The general 
apprehension that prevails, so far from being stilled, was 
rather enhanced by that speech. There appeared to be an 
effort made by the Home Secretary to throw off the respon- 
sibility from his own shoulders on to the shoulders of the War 
Office. The War Office surely has enough to do at this junc- 
ture of our affairs with organising and equipping the Army, 
with sending it out to the field, with supplying it with drafts 
and guns and ammunition, not to be charged with the addi- 
tional labour of rounding up spies on our East coast and 
elsewhere. And in this respect I was pleased to hear the 
remarks of the noble and learned Viscount on the Woolsack 
just now, because they did seem to me to mark an advance 
from the position taken up by the Home Secretary. He 
talked about " vigorous co-operation between the civil and 
the military authorities." I heard that statement with 
pleasure. I only wish that the noble and learned Viscount 
had carried the matter a little further, and that we had heard 
something about a suggestion which, if I remember rightly, 
was made in the House of Commons and received a good 
deal of support the other day namely, that a special Board 
should be constituted of all the various Departments and 
authorities concerned, to deal with this spy question ; in 
other words, that there should be created a Spy Bureau in 
this country for the purposes of the war. Unless you have 
some new machinery to relieve the War Office of a burden 
which it is not able to bear, you will have these discussions 
from time to time, you will have these cases of discontent and 
alarm arising, and we shall not satisfactorily deal with the 
problem with which we are now confronted. Personally, 
therefore, I am grateful to the noble and learned Viscount 
for having gone further than he did the other evening, but I 
should have been much more grateful had he gone still further 
than he has now done. 

THE LORD PRIVY SEAL AND SECRETARY OF STATE 
.FOR INDIA (THE MARQUESS OF CREWE) : My Lords, I venture 

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to think that in some of its parts this debate serves as an 
illustration of the inconvenience which from time to time 
attaches to our procedure. A considerable and important 
part of this discussion has been taken up by reference to the 
particular case of sedition in Ireland and kindred subjects con- 
nected with that country. I quite understand that the House 
might well wish to discuss that subject, but my noble friend 
who represents the Irish Office is not in his place. He had no 
notice that any such discussion was likely to be brought forward, 
and we are therefore not prepared, on behalf of the Irish Office, 
to state the particular case in the form in which they might 

THE EARL OF DESART : I was at great pains to say that 
I was making no attack. The whole of my speech constituted 
an expression of opinion that these matters required con- 
sideration. I do not think I suggested that I expected a 
categorical answer to-day. 

THE MARQUESS OF CREWE : I never supposed that the 
noble Earl was making an attack : in fact, all noble Lords 
who have spoken have expressly disavowed their intention of 
doing anything of the kind, and we fully accept their state- 
ment. But since this question of Ireland has been raised 
and has been the subject of three important speeches, it 
would have been an advantage for us to be able to reply with 
the knowledge which can only be obtained from the particular 
Department. I shall not, therefore, attempt to pursue the 
particular question as it concerns Ireland, because I am not 
prepared to do so. But on the one particular point which 
the noble Earl, Lord Meath, raised, he stated that it was a 
presumption, which he appeared to share, that the sowing of 
mines not far from the Irish coast was in some way the result 
of Irish sedition, the result of some combined action between 
the enemy and Irish spies, with the implication, as I gathered, 
that the mines themselves came from the Irish coast in boats 
of some kind belonging to Ireland. That is a suggestion 
which I am sure will interest the Admiralty, but it is one which 
I confess we have not heard made before. So far as that 
particular sowing of mines was concerned, our belief has been 
that they were sown altogether improperly, as we think, 
by the obligation of the laws of war under a neutral flag, 
but the particular association of them with Irish sedition is, 
I confess, entirely new to me. 

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So far as regards the general question of espionage and 
the punishment to be inflicted upon it, I am quite aware that 
no little excitement has been caused throughout the country 
at what has been conceived, as I think not quite fairly, as 
the failure of the Government to deal with sufficient energy 
or in a sufficiently drastic manner with cases of espionage. I 
may say at once and I believe that in saying so I speak for 
all my colleagues that we are not troubled by any kind of 
sentimentality or with a desire even to exercise mercy in 
cases in which action of this kind is proved either against 
alien enemies or against others in this country who may 
be guilty of such practices ; because it is always important 
to bear in mind, in considering this question of espionage, 
that you cannot rely upon action of that sort being simply 
confined to alien enemies belonging to the nations with whom 
we are at war. It is, unfortunately, not safe to attempt so 
to limit the possibilities of the case, and therefore we have to 
include the possibility of other persons being involved. But 
when we speak of the punishment of these war crimes, some- 
times amounting even to the crime which is the special 
subject of the noble and learned Earl's question the actual 
crime of high treason we always have to remember that, 
even though you put the country under what is called martial 
law, you still demand, if not the full amount of evidence which 
satisfies a British jury in ordinary cases, something in the 
nature of positive evidence before you can convict people, even 
more before you can think of putting them to death. The 
noble Marquess, Lord Londonderry, spoke of the North-East 
coast with which he is so well acquainted, and foretold the 
possibility that the resentment against the absence of con- 
victions might become so serious in that part of England that 
the ordinary processes of law might be exchanged for a system 
of something approaching lynch law, carried on even by 
the magistrates themselves. 

THE MARQUESS OF LONDONDERRY : I merely said 
that if the Lord Lieutenant and the chairman of the county 
council called the meeting to which I referred, I should 
advocate that course. 

THE MARQUESS OF CREWE : I quite understand, and in 
a matter of this sort one is particularly anxious in no way 
to misrepresent what the noble Marquess said. Where a 

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system of the wild justice of revenge has been instituted in 
other countries for instance; in the Southern States of 
America, where, as we know, for many years lynch law was 
of frequent occurrence it has almost always been because 
juries or courts have refused to convict in the face of reasonable 
evidence, or where for one reason or another criminals have 
not been put on their trial ; such wild action has been brought 
about by what the people of a neighbourhood have believed 
to be a distinct failure of justice. 

I pass for a moment to the cases which were named the 
other day by the noble Earl, Lord Crawford, who is not now 
in his place. He mentioned cases in which, according to his 
statement, a serious public offence had been committed and 
was punished by a penalty which, as he described the case, 
appeared to be almost derisory. But, of course, before form- 
ing an opinion on the action which the magistrates took in 
that case one would have to be acquainted with all the circum- 
stances and know what the charge really was, what the 
evidence was that was brought in support of it, and also what 
the plea advanced by the defendant was ; and I have no 
doubt that those cases have received, since the noble Earl 
spoke, the careful attention of the authorities. I repeat once 
more, these are, and are bound to be, matters of evidence ; 
and I cannot help thinking that at the back of the minds of 
some of those who criticise the Government so freely there 
exists the thought that, after all, in these cases, where there 
is great public danger, evidence does not so very much matter, 
and that even if you are unfortunately wrong and hang or 
shoot two or three people against whom nothing is really 
proved well, you are sorry ; it is their bad luck ; but in a 
great public crisis you cannot afford to be quite so particular 
as all that. That is not an attitude which it is possible for 
the Government or for the legal advisers of the Government, 
as I venture to think, to take up. 

In the first place, the existence of so great a public danger 
from information given to the enemy from this country 
so great a public danger as to justify a regular departure from 
what we conceive to be the ordinary course of justice is 
not sufficiently proved. People may have their own opinion 
as to the amount and the value of the information which is 
conveyed to the enemy from this country. Some people 

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believe that an enormous quantity of information of cardinal 
importance is somehow or other conveyed to Germany from 
this country. At the other end of the scale, you will find 
people who believe that scarcely anything of serious import- 
ance from the point of view of our success in the war or of 
the loss of life of men in our Services can by any means be 
so conveyed. It is not easy to strike the correct balance 
between those extreme views, and the positive suggestion 
that has been made it was mentioned by the noble Earl 
who is leading the Opposition that a special Committee 
representing various Departments should be formed for the 
particular purpose of dealing with this spy question, is one of 
which I do not deny the attraction in some respects, but there 
are, if the noble Earl will consider, certain difficulties connected 
with it. At present these matters are in the hands of the naval 
and military authorities respectively. If you are to have 
a system which is approaching martial law, it is not easy 
to place it in any hands except those of the fighting Depart- 
ments, and I should expect that an attempt to divide up 
responsibility by creating such a Committee might be some- 
what resented by them. 

But surely there is a further practical difficulty. Among 
all these aliens, of whom, by general admission, a large 
number are quite harmless, you would have to inquire into 
the circumstances of each particular case before you could 
decide whether such a person ought to be interned, or possibly 
deported, or conceivably put on his trial with the possibility 
of his incurring in the last resort the death penalty. My Lords, 
can you devise a Committee representing the different De- 
partments which, in the space of three months, six months, 
or a year, could make an investigation into the case of each 
one of those aliens ? I am arguing on the supposition that 
you should do what is proposed as the remedy that every 
person of German or Austrian birth should be treated as a 
prisoner and as a more or less guilty person until the contrary 
is proved. Those investigations would occupy a vast amount 
of time, and in a great number of cases they certainly would 
not be worth the trouble which it would take to undertake 
them. 

I can say, on behalf of the Government, that we do not 
resent, but on the contrary we welcome, any criticism that 

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can be made of what has been done, and we also welcome 
any suggestions that can be made for improvement in the 
method of dealing with this alien question. This question 
takes a somewhat different form here from that which it 
takes in any of the countries on the Continent of Europe. 
Our insular position introduces somewhat new factors into 
the situation which you would not find, for instance, in France, 
in Germany, or in any of the belligerent countries on the 
Continent. So far as we can, we shall endeavour to improve 
the methods by which we are working. We do not desire 
to encourage what I may call a spy panic in the country, to 
which some organs of the Press, as I venture to think, give a 
quite unrestrained vent ; but we do not in the least deny 
the gravity or the difficulty of the problem, and I myself 
am glad that this discussion has taken place. 

THE EARL OF HALSBURY : I do not understand that 
either the noble Marquess or the noble and learned Viscount 
on the Woolsack has answered my specific question. Has 
a system of correspondence, a very ingenious and extensive 
system, been discovered ? Has that matter been investigated 
by any of the authorities, and, if so, have the allegations 
turned out to be accurate ? 

THE LORD CHANCELLOR : Every case in which there 
have been traces of anything of the kind has been investigated, 
with the result that the civil and military authorities have 
got to the bottom of everything that they can. 

THE EARL OF HALSBURY : I would point out that there 
are no accessaries in treason. That which makes a person 
an accessary in ordinary crime makes him a principal in 
treason. 

THE LORD CHANCELLOR : There is a case in which 
a true bill has been found. 

THE MARQUESS OF LONDONDERRY : The noble and 
learned Viscount has not answered the question which I put. 
The Home Secretary has thrown the responsibility of the 
Home Office on to the shoulders of the chief constables. I 
ask, What are the powers of chief constables, and what are 
they to do ? 

THE LORD CHANCELLOR : A chief constable has the 
power which arises in a case of serious crime of arresting 
without warrant. But the proper person to refer these things 

269 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to is the Public Prosecutor, who gives directions as to what 
is to be done. The chief constable has all the powers that are 
wielded by the constabulary in a county, and the magistrates 
have the power of issuing warrants. Really those things 
should be dealt with locally they can be so dealt with much 
better ; and if the noble Marquess would take vigorous action 
and send up the details to the Public Prosecutor these cases 
would be attended to. 

THE MARQUESS OF LONDONDERRY : But that all takes 
time. 

THE LORD CHANCELLOR : The noble Marquess has 
his police officers on the spot, and there is the bench of 
magistrates. 

THE MARQUESS OF LONDONDERRY : In the meantime 
we have these mines being washed ashore. 

THE LORD CHANCELLOR : Does the noble Marquess 
think that the Public Prosecutor or the Lord Chancellor will 
catch the mines more quickly than will the military and civil 
authorities on the spot ? 

THE MARQUESS OF CREWE : I think the reason why 
the Home Secretary referred to the chief constables was this. 
The Home Secretary is the superior of the Metropolitan Police, 
and therefore there is sometimes a disposition to regard him 
as being the head of the police all over England. That is not 
the case. As the noble Marquess knows very well, the police 
in counties are under the statutory joint committee, and their 
active officer is the chief constable. That, I think, was the 
reason why the Home Secretary, as the noble Marquess put 
it, placed the burden on the shoulders of the chief constables. 
He merely wished to make it clear that he had nothing to 
do with the country police. 

LORD ST. DAVIDS : My Lords, I am sorry to find myself 
not quite satisfied with the vigour of the Government on this 
particular matter. I hold very strongly the view that in 
most Departments of Government no war has ever been 
waged with greater vigour than the war which is being waged 
by the present Government ; but as regards the danger of 
information going out of this country, I do not think the 
Government quite appreciate the public view. The noble 
Marquess the Leader of the House said just now that he did 
not think that sufficient public danger was yet proved for the 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Government to go out of their usual course as regards trials 
in these cases. I know nothing of this matter except what 
I see in the newspapers, but there was one item in the news- 
papers the other day which surely showed that information 
of enormous value had gone out of this country I refer to the 
attempted raid on Yarmouth. We saw it stated that large 
enemy ships went at full speed through the passages of a 
mine field. A passage through a mine field is a crooked 
passage, and no enemy ship could possibly have gone at a 
fast speed through that crooked passage without most valuable 
information having left this country. It is possible, if that 
kind of information does go out of the country, that one item 
of information might lead in some case to a great national 
disaster. Surely this is a matter which requires exceptional 
treatment. With the attitude of the noble Marquess the 
Leader of the House I do not at all agree. He laid down 
the fine old English maxim that you must not punish any- 
body who by any conceivable chance may be innocent 

THE MARQUESS OF CREWE : I must protest against what 
my noble friend says. What I said was that a great number 
of persons were apparently desirous, upon this particular 
subject and at this particular time, to convict people without 
any positive evidence. I do not know whether my noble 
friend is one of them. 

LORD ST. DAVIDS : I am certainly not one of them, 
and I am very glad indeed if I misunderstood the noble Mar- 
quess. But the position, it seems to me, is this. You want 
to see that justice is done, that you do not hang an innocent 
man, and that the man is given the benefit of every possible 
doubt. In fact, I should say that in England it is almost 
impossible, under ordinary circumstances, for a man to be 
put to death who is innocent. But in the case of spies, what 
you have to do is to stop information going out of this country ; 
and surely in an emergency like this you have to lean the 
other way. If there is any doubt as to whether a man is 
innocent or guilty, that man ought not to be let go. You 
are not trying to punish a man or wishing to be vindictive 
because he is a foreigner ; what you are trying to do is to 
keep your information in your own country. That is the point 
of view upon which we should act. I am bound to say that 
that point of view was not laid down with any distinctness 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL - [N< 

by the noble Marquess. Although on most things the Govern- 
ment are strong enough, on this question of aliens they are 
not hard enough. 

I do not want in the least to make any alien suffer unneces- 
sarily. If you put aliens into concentration camps, I hold 
that they should be fed as well as our soldiers. I would not 
have any unnecessary hardship inflicted upon them. But 
the country must not run any unnecessary risk even if these 
aliens do suffer hardships. All countries in time of war 
have to be hard. Take any successful Government, say the 
Government of Cromwell ; that was a hard Government. 
Take the Government which acted under the greatest possible 
difficulties which any Government in the world had to face, ' 
the Government under the Revolution in France ; that 
Government won by reason of being a hard Government ; it 
won by stamping out everything that was opposed to it. The 
Government of this country to-day has this advantage, that 
no class is opposed to it ; we are all doing everything we can 
to assist it. I do think, my Lords, that His Majesty's Ministers 
should harden their hearts, and that on this particular matter 
they should adopt a much more drastic point of view. 

BRITISH EAST AFRICA AND THE PERSIAN GULF. 

EARL CURZON OF KEDLESTON : My Lords, I beg 
to ask the Secretary of State for India whether he can, 
consistently with the public interest, give any information 
regarding the military operations that are proceeding in 
British East Africa and neighbouring parts, and I may, 
perhaps, be allowed to say a few words as to my reason for 
putting this Question. One of the features of the war in 
which we are engaged is that it is almost a world- wide war. 
Wherever the German flag is planted in different parts of 
the world we and our Allies have been engaged in endeavour- 
ing to pull it down. That is a necessary and a proper feature 
of the campaign, and the operation has been conducted with 
success, we are glad to say, in many parts of the world. The 
German flag has been hauled down, as we know, in Samoa, 
in Kiaochau, in German New Guinea, in some of the Islands 
of the Pacific, and we have every reason to believe and hope 
that it will not be flying very much longer in German South- 
West Africa. 

272 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

But as regards British East Africa, where there are very 
extensive German possessions, extending for many hundreds 
of miles and covering many millions of acres co-terminous 
with our own, although military operations have been pro- 
ceeding, scarcely a word I think I may say not one word 
of information has been vouchsafed to the British public. 
It was only by accident that I myself was aware that a 
considerable number of Indian troops were operating in that 
part of the world ; and the nature of the fighting, which must 
have been severe, was really brought home to the British 
public for the first time only a few days ago by the publication 
in the newspapers of an extensive list of casualties. I am 
aware of a case where a parent heard for the first time of the 
part of the world in which his son was being engaged by 
reading the news of the death of the officer on this distant 
field of battle. The full extent of those casualties I do not 
for the moment bear in mind, but I think I am not wrong 
in saying that the number of killed and wounded has been 
considerable. 

In this position of affairs I was somewhat startled to read 
only yesterday in The Times newspaper the letter of an officer 
serving at the front in British East Africa, which, as it may 
have escaped the attention of some of your Lordships, you 
will perhaps permit me to read. This letter was written on 
October nth that is to say, five weeks ago ; and the writer 
expressed himself as follows : 

" I have been away at the front for six weeks, fighting 
In other words, the war was already in existence six weeks 
before that date : 

" I volunteered in the East Africa Rifles as a trooper. 
They then said that they wanted to form a Somali troop 

to go to the front at once, so applied for me. So I went 

with him down to the Tsavo as a corporal acting as an officer. 
We had one quite big fight, when we were attached to one 
company of the King's African Rifles. The Germans, about 

150 of them, very nearly surrounded us at dawn. , who 

was in command of the King's African Rifles, got killed in the 
first ten minutes, but we drove the Germans back and made 
them absolutely run. We got fifteen of them and wounded 
eight, and the Germans got six of our soldiers, seven of our 
mules, and wounded four. We then had to hold the place 

273 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

for two days until we were relieved by No. 2 Company of the 
K.A.R. People don't seem to realise at home what a big 
thing this is out here. The Germans have got anything 
from 6,000 to 12,000 troops and lots of guns/' 

My Lords, we have had no opportunity of realising whether 
it is a big thing or a small thing over here, because we know 
nothing at all about it. I, of course, have not the slightest 
desire to press the Secretary of State to give us any informa- 
tion which he considers it necessary in the interests of the 
Government or military operations to withhold ; but I 
submit that if large forces are engaged in that part of the 
world, if the danger that is being met is a considerable one, 
as appears to be the case, and if the number of casualties is 
large, it would relieve a great deal of legitimate anxiety at 
home if we could hear something about the operations. The 
fighting, as I understand, is not merely in British East Africa 
or on the borders of British East Africa. I believe it extends 
to the British territory lying to the south of the Province 
which we call British East Africa that is to say, the neigh- 
bourhood of Lake Tanganyika and on the frontiers of Nyassa- 
land. Where exactly fighting is taking place I do not know, 
because nothing has appeared about it in the papers ; but 
there, again, I am under the impression that I have seen a 
list of casualties recorded in the Press. 

Although the part of the world to which I am next about 
to refer is not contiguous to British East Africa, and therefore 
is not, perhaps, fairly covered by my Question on the Paper, 
yet I should be grateful if the Secretary of State could also 
tell us something about the fighting that is also proceeding 
in another and a very important area of conflict I mean 
the Persian Gulf. Here the only information that we have 
we owe to the Government themselves. About a week ago, 
I think it was, they published the important and, to me, ' 
joyful tidings that they had taken the Turkish fort and port 
of Fao (see p. 192) at the mouth of the Shatt-el-Arab, which is 
the estuary of the Tigris and the Euphrates. But yesterday 
I read in the Press that the Secretary of State for India, 
the noble Marquess, had himself authorised the communication 
of the following announcement regarding military operations 
now in progress at the head of the Persian Gulf : 

" On the nth inst., at 5.30 a.m., the Turks made a deter- 

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4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

mined attack on our outposts, but were held in check by the 
H7th Mahrattas and finally routed by a counter-attack 
made by the 2Oth Infantry, supported by fire from a mountain 
battery. Our casualties were few ; those of the enemy at 
least 80. On the i4th further troops arrived from India 
under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir A. Barrett 
The large scale of the operations is sufficiently indicated by 
the fact that you take one of the most capable Indian officers 
and place him in command of what is obviously a military 
expedition of some size. The official statement goes on to 
say : 

" On the I5th the latter (Sir A. Barrett), hearing that a 
strong force of the enemy with mountain artillery were occupy- 
ing a post about four miles distant, sent General Delamain 
with three battalions and two mountain batteries to evict 
them. After a sharp action in which his Majesty's ships 
Espiegle and Odin co-operated, this was successfully accom- 
plished. The enemy's entrenched camp was captured and 
his losses were very heavy. Several prisoners, including a 
Turkish major, were captured and two of the enemy's machine 
guns were destroyed. Our casualties were two officers 
wounded ; rank and file, eight killed and 51 wounded." 
It is obvious that military operations of a rather important 
and serious nature have been going on there. There is not the 
slightest indication where they are taking place, except that 
it is in the area of the Persian Gulf. I assume that it must 
be somewhere at the upper end of the Gulf. Again I do not 
want to press the noble Marquess to give information upon 
this which should be withheld, but if with regard to the 
operations either in British East Africa or the Persian Gulf 
he can give us any information I am sure we shall be grateful 
to receive it. 

THE MARQUESS OF CREWE : My Lords, it is evident, 
from what the noble Earl has said, that he fully understands 
the nature .of the limitations that have to be set upon the 
giving of information in respect of military operations in 
different parts of the world. It is, of course, clear, if one 
reflects, that those limitations do not apply with absolute 
equality in all areas ; but, on the other hand, it is probably 
safer and wiser to lay down the general rule and to say that 
speaking broadly the sort of information which is given with 

Naval II T 275 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

regard to operations in Europe must remain as the only kind 
of information which can be given about operations in other 
parts of the world. Therefore the noble Earl and his friends 
will, I am sure, understand that the account which I am about 
to give of what generally has occurred in East Africa is as 
far as the Government are able to go at the moment. 

As the noble Earl pointed out, German East Africa is a 
large and important Colony. It covers, I think, some 350,000 
square miles. It has, of course, a large native population, 
and it has a white, German, population of between 5,000 and 
6,000 ; and in that connection it is important to note, although 
I do not know what the proportion of the sexes may be, that 
in a planter's country of that kind the proportion of males, 
and probably of males of fighting age, must be infinitely 
larger than such a population would indicate in a European 
country. Those forces there, those white inhabitants of 
German East Africa, a large proportion of whom it must 
be remembered must have served in the German Army, have 
been reinforced from different sources ; we are told, to some 
extent, by Reservists from other parts of the world who were 
brought there because, I suppose, there was doubt or difficulty 
about bringing them to Europe. There may have been 
some despatch of Regular troops even from the East, but of 
that I am not quite certain ; but I believe that some naval 
forces were landed also from the Far East. The Germans 
in East Africa are well provided with guns in the ordinary 
sense and also with a number of machine guns ; and there- 
fore, as the House will see, they constitute what in America 
I believe is called a formidable proposition. 

British East Africa is not quite so large. It covers, I 
think, about 250,000 square miles. The white population is 
somewhere about the same, rather less I imagine, and, of 
course, it does not contain the military element which the 
German Colony must contain. In both countries there is a 
native force. In German East Africa there is a force of 
native infantry and of native police numbering altogether 
several thousands. In British East Africa there is a consider- 
able force of similar police, and also a body, though not so 
large, of the force which the noble Earl mentioned a quite 
efficient force, well officered, and by no means badly manned, 
the King's African Rifles. It was clear, therefore, that 

276 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

as matters stood at the beginning of the war our position in 
East Africa could not be an altogether secure one. The 
initial position of the Germans was stronger than ours. We 
also had to remember that German East Africa borders both 
on Nyassaland, as the noble Earl has pointed out, and also 
on Uganda, in each of which there is a force in Uganda some 
King's African Rifles, and in Nyassaland a small force and 
also a small proportion of white men who act as volunteers. 
But those colonies also constituted relatively a source rather 
of weakness than of strength as compared with German East 
Africa. It was therefore necessary to reinforce the colony 
from India, and at an early date a small force was sent that 
was afterwards considerably increased. Fighting, I think, 
actually began up on the Western side before any of the 
fresh Indian troops had arrived there, and it has been con- 
tinuing at a great number of different points since, with various 
forces engaged and with somewhat varying results. And 
as we learned more of the German preparations it became 
necessary further to reinforce from India. Of the different 
actions that have taken place, no less than seven small 
actions of different kinds have taken place within the 
confines of British East Africa. There was one, to which I 
think he noble Earl alluded, in Nyassaland, and there have 
been others on the borders. 

EARL CURZON OF KEDLESTON : That was on the Tsavo 
in British East Africa. 

THE MARQUESS OF CREWE : Yes ; but I think the noble 
Earl also alluded to some fighting having taken place in 
Nyassaland about which he said casualty lists had appeared, 
which was, I think, the case. 

EARL CURZON OF KEDLESTON : Yes. 

THE MARQUESS OF CREWE : Those different operations 
have not taken place without considerable losses to ourselves. 
In one particular case, I am sorry to say, an attack was made 
in the South (see p. 19) on a very strong position which was 
powerfully held by the enemy with a number of guns and 
machine guns. Very heavy casualties were suffered by our 
troops there without their achieving the object for which they 
were immediately striving. The total casualties in all the 
operations in East Africa during the two months amount to 
something over 900. 

277 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL [Nc 

At an early stage I noticed that some of the German 
publicists, speaking of the fighting that was likely or sure 
to take place in or in the neighbourhood of their colonies, 
pointed out that the result of those actions, which they 
seemed to assume would in all cases be unfavourable to them- 
selves, could not affect the ultimate result of the war. That, 
of course, is quite true ; the fate of all the different German 
possessions in different parts of the world must depend 
upon the ultimate settlement at the close of the war. But 
it is necessary for us to preserve the position of Great Britain 
as the paramount country in Central and Southern Africa. 
Therefore the Union of South Africa has undertaken a task 
of its own ; and in East Africa we are bound to maintain our 
position there and to repel with all the forces we can muster 
any attacks which are made by our German neighbours, 
and, where occasions are favourable and the forces available 
make it possible, to attack in our turn. That is all the infor- 
mation which I am able to give the noble Earl. He will 
understand that I do not mention the names of the particular 
places at which various actions have occurred or the particular 
troops which have been employed, although there is no harm 
in mentioning some of the particular Indian regiments 
engaged, and I can do so if it is desired. 

The noble Earl passed on to a different part of the world 
and asked me some questions about the Persian Gulf; as to 
which we have been rather more handsome, as he admitted, in 
the information we have given. So much so that, owing 
to the difficulty of communication with those parts of the 
world where the telegraph service is not very easily conducted, 
that which we have put in the newspapers and which the noble 
Earl read out about the operations at the head of the Persian 
Gulf the noble Earl is right in thinking that the operations 
that have taken place are in the immediate neighbourhood of 
the Shatt-el-Arab practically covers all that we know our- 
selves ; and I fear, therefore, that I have very little more 
information that I can give the noble Earl. But may I say 
this much, that when Turkey went to war with us one of her 
first steps, carrying out, indeed, what had been her apparent 
policy some little time previously, was to assert herself at 
the head of the Persian Gulf in a part of the world where we, 
as is known, have a very special interest, and where also our 

278 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Ally, the Sheikh of Mohammerah, who is, as we know, under 
Persian suzerainty but who is on special terms of intimacy 
with the British Government, was severely threatened by 
the Turks. They destroyed the telegraph station at Fao, 
and announced their intention of stopping the navigation of 
the Shatt-el-Arab (see p. 141). It was clearly impossible for 
us, not merely in view of our positive and actual interests in 
that region but also in view of the necessity of keeping up our 
due name in the minds of the Arab world, to tolerate such 
violent proceedings as those. Therefore we thought it right 
to send an expedition of considerable strength under a 
distinguished General one of our best Indian officers, as the 
noble Earl has pointed out in order to make it clear to the 
Turks that they cannot venture to assert themselves in that 
region in the manner in which they have been attempting to 
do. And I say with the utmost confidence that a step of that 
kind receives as much approval, if not more, in the Moslem 
world in India as it does in any other part of the British 
Empire. 

THE EARL OF MAYO : Might I ask the noble Marquess 
whether there will be published a list of the casualties in the 
operations in British East Africa. He mentioned 900. 

THE MARQUESS OF CREWE : I think that most of the 
British officers' casualties have already appeared in the 
newspapers. 

THE EARL OF MAYO : I mean not only officers but white 
settlers who have enlisted as privates. I have a relation 
out there. 

THE MARQUESS OF CREWE : I have no doubt that their 
names will appear in due course. As a matter of fact, I think 
the names of some of the volunteers have appeared already. 

EARL CURZON OF KEDLESTON : I should like to 
thank the noble Marquess for the information he has given 
me in reply to my Question, and to say that we on this side 
of the House earnestly wish success to His Majesty's arms in 
the two theatres of conflict to which reference has been made. 

THE TURKS AT NOVOROSSIISK AND SHATT-EL-ARAB. 

Constantinople. K.V., 

AN official report from Headquarters says : The cruiser NOV. 21, 
Hamidieh yesterday bombarded and, destroyed the Russian 19*4- 

279 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

oil depots and the wireless station at Tuapfe in the neighbour- 
hood of Novorossiisk. On November i8th a sharp action 
which lasted for nine hours took place between the English 
and our troops at Shatt-el-Arab. The enemy's losses were 
considerable. English prisoners declared that the Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the English troops was among the wounded. 
One shot fired by our gunboat Marmariss hit an English 
gunboat and caused an explosion on board. 



Constantinople. 

Headquarters report that according to information received 
after the action at Shatt-el-Arab the ascertained English 
losses amounted to 750 dead and 1,000 wounded. 



Petrograd. 

The General Staff of the Army of the Caucasus reports 
that the Turkish cruiser Hamidieh accompanied by torpedo 
craft appeared before Tuapfe and opened fire. She fired 
about 125 rounds. Our losses amounted to three soldiers 
and one sister of mercy wounded, one inhabitant killed, seven 
others injured. The material damage done was insignificant. 



BOMBARDMENT OF LIBAU. 

Petrograd. 

A report of the Admiral Staff says : Yesterday morning 
a German squadron consisting of two cruisers, several steam 
ships and ten torpedo craft appeared before Libau. The Ger- 
mans again bombarded the town and the harbour, causing 
several fires. 



Amsterdam 'November 19. 

ACCORDING to a telegram from Berlin the following 
official announcement is issued there : 

On Tuesday [November 17] part of the German Baltic 
Fleet blockaded the entrance -to the port of Libau by sinking 
some vessels and bombarded important military works. The 
torpedo-boats which entered the port state that no hostile 
warships were there. Renter. 

280 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
BOMBARDMENT OF TREBIZOND. 

Petrograd. 

ON November i8th the Russian Black Sea Fleet approached K.V. 
the Fort of Trebizond and bombarded the fort and the Nov - 
barracks, causing a considerable outbreak of fire on the shore. 
No Turkish ships were observed in the roadstead. 

ACTION BETWEEN RUSSIAN AND TURKISH 
SQUADRONS OFF SEVASTOPOL. 

Amsterdam, November 19. 

AN official telegram received in Berlin from Constantinople 
says : 

" Our Fleet, on the look-out for the Russian Black Sea 
Fleet which bombarded Trebizond, met the enemy off 
Sevastopol. The Russian Fleet consisted of two battleships 
and five cruisers. 

" During the engagement one of the Russian battleships 
was badly damaged and the others fled in the direction of 
Sevastopol, pursued by our warships/' Renter. 



Petrograd, November 19. 

The first discharge of the 1 2-inch guns from the flagship 
Svyatoi Evstafii struck the Goeben, and caused an explosion 
on board her which gave rise to an outbreak of fire. 

The Russian flagship and other vessels continued to make 
excellent practice, and further explosions occurred in the 
Goeben. 

The Goeben opened fire after some delay, the erfemy very 
apparently being taken by surprise. 

The Germans fired broadsides with their heavy guns, 
concentrating their fire upon the Russian flagship. 

The action lasted 14 minutes, after which the Goeben 
disappeared in the mist. 

The Breslau, taking advantage of her speed, did not take 
part in the action, but kept in the offing. 

The Svyatoi Evstafii was the only Russian vessel to suffer 
any damage, and that was insignificant. 

Our casualties were a lieutenant, three midshipmen, and 
twenty-nine sailors killed ; one lieutenant and nineteen sailors 
seriously wounded, and five sailors slightly wounded. Reuter. 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
NAVAL CADETS. 

House of Commons, November 19, 1914. 

MR. JOYNSON-HICKS asked how many naval cadets, 
including those on the Monmouth, have been killed in action 
since the War began ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The answer is thirty-one, of whom 
ten lost their lives in the Monmouth. The additional eight 
above the number given in my right hon. Friend's reply to 
the question of the hon. Member on the i6th instant were 
not Dartmouth cadets, but were serving afloat in the Training 
Cruiser Cumberland when War broke out. 

MR. JOYNSON-HICKS asked the First Lord of the 
Admiralty what exact duties the naval cadets perform ; and 
whether he consulted any of the captains of the ships upon 
which they were placed as to the desirability of sending them 
to sea before their training was completed ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Naval cadets perform the same 
duties as midshipmen. The answer to the second part of the 
question is in the negative. 

BRITISH MERCANTILE MARINE (MASTERS AND 

OFFICERS.) 

House of Commons, November 20, 1914. 

LORD CHARLES BERESFORD asked the First Lord 
of the Admiralty if he is considering the desirability of enlist- 
ing, wherever possible, the services of the masters and officers 
of the British mercantile marine, particularly by retaining 
those at their posts already commanding and officering the 
merchant vessels taken over by the Admiralty for service 
with the Fleet ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The course suggested by the Noble 
Lord has been pursued since the beginning of the War, and 
will be continued. 

AIRCRAFT ATTACK ON ZEPPELIN WORKS AT 
FRIEDRICHSHAFEN. 

Memorandum by the Director of the Air Department. 

Admiralty, December 17, 1914. 

ON November 2ist, 1914, Squadron Commander E. F. 
Briggs, Flight Commander J. T. Babington, and Flight 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Lieutenant S. V. Sippe, Royal Navy, carried out an aerial 
attack on the Zeppelin airship sheds and factory at Fried- 
richshafen on Lake Constance. 

Leaving French territory shortly before 10 a.m., they 
arrived over their objective at about noon, and, although 
under a very heavy rifle, machine-gun and shrapnel fire from 
the moment they were sighted, they all three dived steeply 
to within a few hundred feet of the sheds, when they released 
their bombs in all eleven. 

Squadron Commander Briggs was wounded, brought down, 
and made a prisoner, but the other two officers regained their 
starting-point after a flight of more than four hours across 
hostile country under very bad weather conditions. 

It is believed that the damage caused by this attack in- 
cludes the destruction of one airship and serious damage to 
the larger shed, and also demolition of the hydrogen-producing 
plant, which had only lately been completed. Later reports 
stated that flames of considerable magnitude were seen issuing 
from the factory immediately after the raid. 



Friedrichshafen, November 21. 

TOWARDS one o'clock (noon) to-day two English aero- K.D. 
planes made their appearance over the town and attempted 
to make an attack on the airship shed. One of the airmen 
who was circling over the shed at a height of some 400 metres 
was shot down with shrapnel and machine-gun fire from 
the anti-aircraft force. The other airman, who kept at a 
fairly great height and who repeatedly circled round the 
shed, managed to escape ; according to later information 
he is stated to have fallen into the Lake of Constance. The 
airmen dropped five bombs which partly fell in the close 
proximity of the shed. The occupant of the machine which 
was shot down is an English naval officer. A journeyman 
tailor named Wiedmann, a native of Switzerland, twenty-one 
years of age, was killed on the spot by bombs thrown by the 
airman who was brought down, and who sustained grave 
injuries in the head and hand. Two women were seriously 
injured, one in the head and shoulder, the other one had her 
left fore-arm torn away. The surmise that the second airman 
was drowned in the Lake of Constance has not been confirmed ; 
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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [No 

he has in fact dropped a bomb, which, however, missed its 
effect, over Manzell while flying very low. 



Stuttgart, November 21. 

The Deputy General Staff of the I3th Army Corps in 
Stuttgart reports officially : 

To-day at 12.15 noon an attack took place on the airship 
shed at Friedrichshafen by two English airmen, as already 
previously noted and reported. The available anti-aircraft 
force and the infantry garrison at Freidrichshafen soon shot 
down and captured one of the airmen, an English naval 
lieutenant, who was seriously wounded, whilst the other 
escaped in the direction of the Swiss shore. Most of the 
bombs dropped by the airmen caused no damage whatever 
to the airship shed ; on the other hand, one man was killed 
and several persons injured by fragments of shells among 
the civilian population. The machine which was brought 
down is only slightly damaged. 



ALLEGED TURKISH ATTACK ON SUEZ CANAL. 

Constantinople. 

HEADQUARTERS officially report : Turkish troops have 
reached the Suez Canal. In an encounter near Kantara 
the English were beaten and took to flight with heavy losses. 



Constantinople. 

Further information from Headquarters states : With 
God's help our troops have occupied the Suez Canal. In 
the action which took place near Kataba and Kertebe, both 
30 kilometres east of the Canal and near Kantara on the 
Canal itself, the English losses included Captain Wilson, 
one Lieutenant, and many men killed, and a large number 
wounded. We have taken a fair number of prisoners. The 
English troops withdrew in disorderly flight. Men of the 
English camel corps who were stationed at the outposts 
and gendarmes in the English service surrendered to us. 

[There appears to be no British or other official account from any Allied 
souice of any attack on the Canal or any action near Kantara at this time ; 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

but on November 20th the Bikanir Camel Corps and twenty camelmen 
of the Camel Guard had a skirmish with the enemy between Bir-el-Nass 
and Katia. Details of this skirmish will be found in the Military Section.] 

MINES IN THE BLACK SEA. 

Petrograd, November 22. 

IT is officially announced that the Russian littoral in the 
Black Sea has been mined in many places for a distance of 
20 leagues (about 60 miles) out from the coast. 

It is absolutely forbidden for vessels to sail by night in 
or out of Russian ports in the Black Sea, of the mouths of 
the Dnieper and Bug and of the Gulf of Kertch. Renter. 

SINKING OF U 18 AND A GERMAN DESTROYER. 

Admiralty, November 23. 

THE German submarine U 18 was reported on the 
Northern Coast of Scotland this morning at 12.30. A British 
patrolling vessel reported having rammed her. 

She was not sighted again until 1.20, when she was seen 
on the surface, crew on deck, and flying the white flag. 

Shortly after this she foundered, just as the destroyer 
Garry came alongside and rescued three officers and twenty- 
three of her crew, one only being drowned. 

The names of the German officers captured were : 

Captain-Leutnant Von Hennig. 

Leutnant Zur See Neuerburg. 

Marine Ober-Ingenieur Sprenger. 



Berlin, November 24. 

The Admiralty confirms the statement of the British Times, 
Admiralty that the German submarine U 18 was sunk by a Nov. 25, 
British patrol boat near the coast of Scotland. Three officers I 9 I 4- 
and twenty-three of the crew were saved by the British 
destroyer Garry. The Danish boat Anglo-Dane, a small 
steamer, rammed a German torpedo-boat, which latter was 
badly damaged. Two stokers badly injured were taken 
aboard the steamer, bound for Copenhagen, but one died on 
the way and the other died on arrival there. 

285 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [No 

Copenhagen, November 23. 

The German destroyer S 124 was rammed at midnight 
by the United Steamship Company's oldest and smallest 
ship Anglo-Dane, of 800 tons. With assisting destroyers on 
either side she made for the Swedish coast, where she is 
believed to have been beached. The Anglo-Dane was un- 
damaged. 



SUBMARINE U 21 OFF HAVRE. 

ON November 23rd the German submarine U 21 fired at 
the small English steamer Malachite four miles north-west 
of Cap de la Heve. Five minutes were allowed for abandoning 
the vessel, and the crew reached Havre in boats. Flotillas 
of destroyers and torpedo boats were at once sent in pursuit 
of the submarine which when discovered on the 25th dived 
and fired three torpedoes at one of its pursuers without 
success. The next day, the 26th, U 21 reappeared off Cape 
Antifer and fired at another English steamer, the Primo, 
whose crew were picked up by fishing boats. The Primo, 
which carried a cargo of coal, took fire and drifted away. 
On the 28th U 21 was again chased off Cape Antifer and fired 
a torpedo without success at a destroyer. In the end she 
withdrew to the northward. 

COALING GERMAN WARSHIPS. PROTEST BY 

CHILE. 

THE Press Bureau issued the following at midnight : 
His Majesty's Government has been informed by the 
Chilian Minister in London that he has received a telegram 
from the Chilian Minister for Foreign Affairs announcing 
that the German steamers Negada and Luxor sailed surrepti- 
tiously, the former from the port of Punta Arenas (Straits of 
Magellan) and the latter from Coronel, laden with coal, 
without having obtained the necessary permission to clear. 
In view of this the Chilian Government has prohibited the 
provisioning in any port of the Republic of the vessels of the 
Kosmos Company, to which the steamers named belong, and 
have ordered that no ship be allowed to leave any Chilian 
port. This provisional measure will become definitive if the 
286 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

careful investigation which is being conducted should prove, 
as is suspected, that the steamers mentioned carried the said 
coal for the purpose of supplying German warships. *ff 

The Chilian Government is determined to punish with 
the severest penalties every attempt to violate Chilian 
neutrality. 

BOMBARDMENT OF ZEEBRUGGE. 

Admiralty, November 24. 

ON MONDAY, November 23rd, all points of military 
significance in Zeebrugge were subjected to severe bombard- 
ment by two British battleships. The German opposition 
was feeble. The extent of the damage is not known. 

The British ships returned safely. 

NAVAL AND MARINE BRIGADES. 

House of Commons, November 23. 

LORD CHARLES BERESFORD asked the First Lord Hansard. 
of the Admiralty whether he can state what are the numbers, 
what the composition, and what the cost to the country of 
the Naval and Marine Brigades, a portion of which was 
recently employed at Antwerp in land service ; and whether 
he can state how many officers and men of the original brigade 
are interned in Holland, giving the men's ratings ? 

THE FIRST LORD OF THE ADMIRALTY (MR. 
CHURCHILL) : The German Admiralty have not published 
the strength and composition of the Naval and Marine 
Brigades they are now employing in Belgium, and I see no 
reason why a similar reticence should not be practised here. 
I shall be happy to give the Noble Lord, as honorary colonel 
of one of the brigades, the fullest details of its composition. 
The names of all officers and men interned in Holland were 
published in the Press on the 26th of last month. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : May I ask the right hon. Gentle- . 
man to clear up a point ? The Times issued a list on the 2ist, 
which they called " Further List of Casualties." On the i8th 
the right hon. Gentleman said that the list was approximately 
1,000. Is the further list in addition to the 1,000 on the i8th ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : I do not concern myself with the 
issue of these lists, but I will make inquiries as to what is 
the full number. My impression is no ; certainly not. 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
ACTION OFF THE CHILIAN COAST. 

House of Commons, November 23. 

LORD CHARLES BERESFORD asked the First Lord 
of the Admiralty whether the two official statements referring 
to the action off the Chilian coast, issued by the Admiralty 
on November 5th and 6th (see pp. i and 2), respectively, were 
intended to mean that the Canopus had already joined Admiral 
Cradock's flag, or that she had reached a point which would 
have enabled her, had Admiral Cradock so disposed, to join 
in the action and whether the Admiralty had good reason to 
believe, before the news of the action reached them, that 
the Canopus had joined him by the time in question ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : I must refer the Noble Lord to my 
answer of the i6th of this month (see p. 245) to the Hon. 
Member for Chertsey. 

PENSIONS AND ALLOWANCES. 

House of Commons, November 23. 

LORD CHARLES BERESFORD asked the First Lord 
of the Admiralty whether he is aware that, looking to recent 
regulations, separation allowance to wives and dependants 
is conditional upon the allotment by the man of a certain 
minimum sum, in two cases from His Majesty's ships Rogue 
and Aboukir, and now from His Majesty's ships Good Hope 
and Monmouth, no allotment papers have apparently been 
received at the Admiralty, although there is a strong pre- 
sumption that the men intended to provide fully for their 
wives in this way ; whether he is aware that, in consequence 
of these allotment papers not having been received, the 
wives affected have had no separation allowance since the 
War began, and in some cases have been almost destitute ; 
and whether the Admiralty will allow as much latitude as 
possible in this matter ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : As regards men killed before 
October ist, the date as from which separation allowances 
were payable, any allotment having been declared is paid 
at the end of the month in which the death took place. Con- 
currently with this, pensions to the widow and orphans, if 
any, have been awarded on the old scale. In the case of 
men killed since October ist, the allotment, if any, is treated 

288 



[No 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

similarly ; the allowances are being continued in anticipation 
of the decision to pay them for six months after the notifi- 
cation of death ; and in certain cases, widows' and orphans' 
pensions on the old scale had already been paid in advance 
for a period of three months. With regard to the Rogue 
and Aboukir, so far as I know, all pensions or separation allow- 
ances payable, have been or will immediately be awarded. 
Claims arising from the loss of the Good Hope and Monmouth 
are being dealt with with all expedition. In the absence of 
any allotment all that will be payable at the moment will 
be the widows' and orphans' pensions on the old scale. Should 
that scale be improved, of course the persons concerned will 
receive pensions on the revised scale. The question of con- 
tinuing for twenty-six weeks allotment and allowance in such 
cases as those indicated in the question, i.e., where it would 
clearly have been very difficult, if not impossible to have 
made allotment, is receiving consideration. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : Will allotments be made in 
those cases where they have not yet been received on account 
of the men being drowned ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I have just said that those cases 
are being considered. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE : What has been done with 
regard to the Paymasters who have been unable to make a 
return of allotments to the Admiralty ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The Paymasters have nothing to 
do with it. If the hon. Member means that allotments that 
should have been made in the ordinary way have not been 
received, I say that we are taking those cases into considera- 
tion. 

COMPENSATION FOR ACCIDENTS. 

House of Commons, November 23. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the Hansard. 
Admiralty whether he is aware that in the case of partial 
incapacity (civil servant, His Majesty's dockyard) a weekly 
payment must not exceed the difference between the amount 
of the average weekly earnings of the workman before the 
accident and the average weekly amount which he is earning, 
or able to earn, in some suitable employment or business 
after the accident, but must bear such relation to the amount 

289 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of that difference as in the circumstances of the case may 
appear proper ; that a hired hammerman now employed 
in the Devonport dockyard is for this reason receiving no 
compensation pension for the months of August and 
September ; that the man in question has been compelled 
to work overtime owing to the exigencies of war and thought 
he was doing right in so doing ; and whether, in these cir- 
cumstances, some exception can be made, as otherwise the 
position would be that a man is compelled to work overtime 
to save the Government paying him the pension or com- 
pensation to which he is by their own action entitled ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The reply to -the first portion of the 
question is in the affirmative, the procedure being in con- 
formity with the provisions of Clause 3 of the First Schedule 
to the Workmen's Compensation Act, 1906. As this proce- 
dure is statutory, I cannot hold out any hope of an exception 
being made in the case referred to in the latter part of the 
question. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE : Does not the right hon. 
Gentleman think it fair to inform the man of the fact, so that 
he would not be compelled to go on working overtime and 
have the amount deducted from his pension ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The men had the opportunity of 
coming under the Workmen's Compensation Act or under 
our scheme. The matter was fully stated to the men at the 
time. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE : I am afraid the right hon. 
Gentleman does not quite understand the case. This occurs 
in time of War, and, if the man is obliged to work overtime, 
he could not possibly have had placed before him whether he 
would come under one scheme or the other. Cannot some- 
thing be done to relieve this poor man from being compelled 
to work overtime ? [HoN. MEMBERS : " Order, order ! "] 
It is very important to the man. 

ARMY AND NAVY COMMISSIONS. 

House of Commons, November 23. 

Hansard. MR. EVELYN CECIL asked the First Lord of the 

Admiralty whether any person or persons, by birth of German 
or Austrian nationality, have been given commissions in the 
290 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Army or Navy since the declaration of War ; if so, whether 
he will state his or their names and positions ; and on what 
grounds and by whose recommendation he and they were 
appointed ? 

MR. CHURCHILL: Questions relating to the Army 
should be addressed to my right hon. Friend the Under- 
secretary of State for War. I know of no such case in the 
Navy. 

MR. CECIL : Or the Naval Brigade ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : Or the Naval Brigade. 

OIL FUEL (BATTLESHIPS). 

House of Commons, November 23. 

SIR FRANCIS LOWE asked the First Lord of the Admir- Hansard. 
alty whether, in view of the fires which have occurred on 
battleships in action and of the probability of the risk of 
fire being increased by the adoption of oil fuel, the Admiralty 
have considered or are prepared to consider the desirability 
of in future using, as far as possible, timber and other materials 
which have been rendered fire-resisting for the internal 
fittings of these ships ; and whether their attention has been 
drawn to any of the processes which exist for attaining this 
object ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I can assure the hon. Member 
that all possible steps are being taken to minimise the risks 
of fire. 

SEPARATION ALLOWANCES. 

House of Commons, November 23. 

LORD CHARLES BERESFORD asked the First Lord Hansard. 
of the Admiralty whether his attention has been called to 
the separation allowances in the Army and Royal Naval 
Division, respectively ; whether he is aware that, from the 
pay of a private soldier, the allotment is 35. 6d. per wife and 
yd. per child weekly, with a maximum of 55. 3d., and that 
this is not compulsory when a man is serving at home pro- 
vided the wife agrees to forgo the allotment ; whether he 
is aware that, from the pay of a seaman in the Royal Naval 
Division, a minimum allotment of 55. weekly, irrespective of 
the size or circumstances of his family, must in every case 
be made, and that the men of the Royal Naval Division are 

Naval II U 291 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

infantry soldiers all rated as ordinary seamen ; and, seeing 
that a large compulsory allotment to their families, together 
with the various deductions, leave most of the men serving 
without money, whether he can see his way to remedy this 
state of affairs ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The deduction from the pay of the 
private soldier is, I understand, less than stated, the yd. per 
child having been added to the separation allowance pro- 
vided by the State. As regards the Navy, we decided to 
make the payment of separation allowances to wives and 
children contingent upon the minimum allotment of 20s. a 
month. We do not propose to waive that condition, and so 
far as I am aware little or no difficulty has arisen in con- 
nection with it. In point of fact, allotments have rapidly 
increased since the announcement of the contingent separa- 
tion allowance. On August ist we paid out 73,400 allotments 
declared by the men on behalf of their wives and families ; 
on September ist, 105,700 ; on October ist, 126,800 ; and 
on November ist, 161,000. The average allotment being 
paid at the time of the introduction of the new separation 
allowance was about -2 2s. a month ; 205. was fixed in order 
to meet the case of the few married ordinary seamen, but, 
as the Noble Lord is aware, ordinary seamen are, as a rule, 
single young fellows between eighteen and nineteen. It is 
the fact that the men of the Royal Naval Division are entered 
as ordinary seamen, but under certain circumstances a field 
allowance of 6d. a day is payable, whereas the private soldier 
is not entitled to this allowance. I may inform the Noble 
Lord that field allowance has been payable while in camp at 
Walmer, and will be payable if and when the Division takes 
the field, and that the question of paying it when the men go 
into camp at Blandford is now under consideration. 

MR. FALLE asked the Secretary to the Admiralty if the 
grant of separation allowances and allotments which are to 
be paid to the widows and dependants of seamen, Marines, 
and soldiers for twenty-six weeks after notification of the 
death of the seaman, Marine, or soldier are to be retrospective 
and paid to the widows and dependants of those men who had 
already given their lives for their King and country before the 
separation allowance was granted ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : That is a question which will no 

292 



4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

doubt come within the purview of the Select Committee now 
considering separation allowances and other matters. I 
should prefer to await their recommendations before giving 
a definite answer. 

THE STATUS OF THE ROYAL MARINES. 

House of Lords, November 24. 

LORD LATYMER rose to ask His Majesty's Government Hansard. 
whether they will appoint a Committee to inquire into the 
status of the Royal Marines in His Majesty's Forces and to 
make such recommendations as may appear necessary. 

The noble Lord said : I must apologise as a civilian for 
addressing your Lordships upon a naval or military matter 
I am not quite sure in which category this question comes 
but I am representing those who are not able to speak for 
themselves. I may be told that perhaps this is not an oppor- 
tune moment at which to bring forward such a subject. 
With that suggestion I could not agree, because I think 
it is only at such times as these that the country takes an 
adequate interest in naval and military affairs. I venture 
to say that the position of the Royal Marines is almost an 
intolerable one. Many examples could be given of their 
subjection to rules and customs to which no other part of 
His Majesty's Service is subjected. As I am anxious not 
to detain the House unduly, I will bring forward only two 
examples, but they are typical ones. It may seem almost 
incredible but it is the fact that Royal Marine officers were 
once deprived of their right of discipline over their own men. 
This took place when they were fighting in Egypt, and all 
punishments were given by captains in the Navy who had to 
come all the way from Alexandria. It is equally incredible 
but also a fact that the Marines were, during the same period, 
deprived of their artillery. Their field guns and their mules 
were taken away from them and given to the Bluejackets, 
with the result that at General McNeil's Zareeba, at the most 
critical moment, the guns jammed, because the Bluejackets 
had not been used to working them. Surely a force that is 
liable to such indignities must suffer both in spirit and in 
efficiency. However, I do not wish to labour details. 

I pass on to two great grievances which depress both the 

293 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [No 

officers and men of the Marines. The first relates to command 
over the men, and the second to rewards for good service. 
When in war time the Marines are landed they are liable 
to have a commodore or some such naval officer put over the 
heads of their own officers. This occurred also in Egypt. 
It will, I 'am sure, surprise many in this House to hear that ; 
and I am sure it will surprise a great many more outside. 
Then it is notorious that Royal Marine officers scarcely ever 
receive the highest rewards for good service, even those for 
which they have been recommended. I have been told on 
very good authority that there is a rule of the Admiralty 
that no Marine officer shall ever get the G.C.B. Whether 
that is correct or not, I do not venture to say ; I was informed 
so. These matters ought not to be called stale history. 
Liability to be treated in this manner exists now exactly 
as before, and quite recently the Marines were subjected to 
what I may almost call an insult by having a naval officer 
put over them as their honorary colonel. 

The Marines seem to be not only an amphibious body 
but also an amorphous body ; you really cannot make out 
exactly what their shape is. When they are on board ship 
they are under the paramount control of the captain ; when 
they are on land they are in connection with the Army without 
forming part of it. Their position is an exceedingly anomalous 
one. I cannot conceive any better means of interfering with 
their efficiency as a force than putting over them commanders 
who have had no opportunity of commanding them before. 
It is like changing the conductor of an orchestra at the last 
moment always a disastrous matter. Has not the time 
come when the position of the Royal Marines should be re- 
adjusted ? The days have gone by when they were required 
to keep discipline on board ship over unruly men impressed 
by the Press Gangs. Is it not possible for the Admiralty to 
find some other means of policing their forces and allow the 
Marines to take up a better position, either by entirely 
amalgamating them with the Army or in some other way ? 
I have said all that I intend to say on the subject, although 
there is far more to be said. I beg to put the Question 
standing in my name. 

LORD WIMBORNE : My Lords, I do not complain at all 
of the action of the noble Lord in raising the question of the 

294 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

status of the Royal Marines, more especially as I think, from 
what I shall be able to tell him and the House, there is really 
very little in the case which he laid before the House as far 
as I was able to understand it. But I am of opinion that it 
would be inopportune now to discuss the question of the 
appointment of a Committee such as the noble Lord suggests. 
The present time seems to me I think it will so appear to 
your Lordships to be very unsuitable for going into what, 
after all, is a Departmental question ; for it is not a question 
of the fighting efficiency of the Marines that the noble Lord 
has in view, but their position in relation to the Army and 
to the Navy. Therefore I hope the noble Lord will not press, 
at present, for the appointment of a Committee. 

If I may say so with respect, the noble Lord's knowledge 
of the status of the Marines goes back rather far. He talked 
about their position in the Egyptian campaign, and alluded, 
I think, to an incident which occurred in the year 1882 with 
reference to their status on land. Since that date material 
changes have been introduced into the status which the 
Marines occupy, and I do not think it would be the least bit 
informing for us to go back all that time, for the position has 
altered very much to the good since those days. I understand 
that the noble Lord is mainly concerned with the question of 
discipline, I suppose what he really has in mind is the question 
of Marine officers serving afloat sitting on Courts-Martial 
when a Marine is under trial. I am aware of that point. 
Prima facie there might appear to be something in it, but 
the whole question of naval discipline is involved, and if 
you were to make Marine officers responsible for naval discip- 
line when Marines were on trial before a Court-Martial it 
would be difficult to refuse that right to other subordinate 
services in the Navy, such as the engineering service. I 
think the noble Lord will see that a much bigger question is 
raised by that point than appears at first sight. 

Perhaps the House will allow me to specify briefly some 
of the changes that have been introduced, I think to the 
advantage of the Marine service, in recent years, and to 
state generally how the situation stand*. The House is 
aware that the Corps of Royal Marines is in fact a military 
body ; it is a branch of the Army, but is specially organised 
and trained for service in the Fleet as well as ashore. When 

295 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

a force of Marines is landed from ships for military operations, 
they may be under the Naval Discipline Act or under the 
Army Act, that will depend upon the discretion of the senior 
naval officer on the station. If a Marine force were landed 
to act for a considerable time with the Army, the probability 
is that they would be put under the Army Act, but when they 
are employed in conjunction with a naval party it is generally 
considered better to keep them under the Naval Discipline 
Act. That is the principle which governs them in that respect, 
and I do not think it is inconvenient. With regard to the 
question of pay, a considerable increase in the then existing 
rates of pay of Royal Marine officers was authorised in 1903, 
more especially in the case of the senior ranks. Since then 
from time to time various additions have been made to their 
pay in consequence of the increased scope of employment 
afloat which they now fulfil. For instance, they now carry 
out certain duties in connection with wireless and the 
Intelligence Department. Only last year increased rates afloat 
were authorised, and this year a general increase has been 
sanctioned to approximate more closely to the rates authorised 
for Army officers. So that the position of Royal Marine 
officers has been taken into consideration and improved on 
several occasions in recent years. 

With regard to non-commissioned officers and men, there 
has been since 1902 a steady improvement in their conditions 
first, in connection with increased pay ; secondly, awards 
for efficiency ; and, indirectly, by the award of free rations 
of bread and meat. An additional grade of warrant officers 
was created in 1912, principally in connection with service 
afloat, and last year a higher rate was introduced for men 
serving afloat. Then as to relative rank. In 1913 Marine 
officers when embarking on His Majesty's ships were given a 
higher relative rank with respect to naval officers to make 
their seniority more closely allied to that of naval officers of 
corresponding age in the Service. That, I understand, has 
been much appreciated in the Royal Marines. Again, this 
year the Commandants of Royal Marine Divisions were 
granted the rank of Brigadier-Generals. With regard to 
the general scope of the employment of Royal Marine officers, 
of late years a great deal has been done to improve their 
position in this respect. Ashore every encouragement is 

296 



:4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(given to Marine officers to qualify at the Staff College, the 
Royal Naval War College, and the Ordnance College, and 
other instructional courses are organised both for the Navy 
and the Army ; and many Marine officers are now employed 
on the staff of the Army in the Ordnance Department and 
the War College and on the War Staff at the Admiralty. 
So that whatever grievance there may have been in the past 
with regard to the appointment of Marine officers on the same 
level as other officers of the Army and Navy, that grievance 
has to a great extent disappeared. 

Then, with regard to their work afloat, the duties of Marine 
officers have been increasingly assimilated to those of execu- 
tive officers on board ship ; they are more and more taking 
their place in carrying out naval duties afloat, such as being 
on the bridge and so forth, and the whole tendency is to 
assimilate the two services to equal position when they are 
serving afloat. Marine officers are employed as Intelligence 
officers on various foreign stations and in wireless telegraphy 
duties in the Fleet itself. They are also employed as physical 
training officers in ships in conjunction with naval officers, 
and as musketry instructors. As regards the position of 
General officers in the Royal Marines, it was, I believe, felt 
to be somewhat of a grievance that General officers were not 
employed on Staff work, and last year the Admiralty ap- 
proached the War Office on the subject with a view to con- 
certing with them some scheme for the employment of Marine 
General officers in Staff appointments. The Army Council 
agreed to consider Marine officers for such appointments, 
and only recently one General officer of Marines was selected 
for, and is now in command at, Sierra Leone, and I under- 
stand that the claims of other officers will be considered as 
vacancies occur. Therefore there is every indication that 
the policy concerted between the Admiralty and the War 
Office on this subject has not only attained already a definite 
result in the appointment of this particular officer, but that 
other appointments will be considered as vacancies arise. 

I hope I have said enough to show that the Corps of Royal 
Marines, of which, as the House will remember, His Majesty 
the King is Colonel-in-Chief, is not by any means, as perhaps 
the noble Lord would have led your Lordships to believe, 
left out in the cold or not considered. On the contrary, the 

297 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Admiralty and the War Office are fully conscious of the great 
and valuable services which this distinguished corps has 
performed, and they are prepared, as they always have been, 
to consider any point of grievance which might arise with 
a view to remedying it. I really do not think the noble 
Lord has made out any case for the inquiry for which he asks, 
and I hope, especially in the present circumstances, he will 
see his way to withdraw his request. 

LORD LATYMER : The noble Lord has not said anything 
about the question of honours or that of awards. 

LORD WIMBORNE : I was not aware that the noble 
Lord was going to raise those points. I will consider them 
and communicate with him. 

LORD LATYMER : I gladly accede to the noble Lord's 
request not to press for the appointment of a Committee. 

STEAMSHIP " AQUITANIA." 

House of Commons, November 24. 

MR. WATT asked the First Lord of the Admiralty at 
what date the steamer Aquitania was launched and what 
date was ready for sea ; what was the price reported to be 
paid for her by her owners ; at what date was she taken over 
by the Government, and how much money was spent on gut- 
ting her out and fitting her for the Admiralty's work ; is the 
Government under contract to replace the whole of the 
fittings, &c., taken out of her ; and, if so, will he say 
what it is estimated such replacement will cost his Depart- 
ment ? 

THE PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE BpARD 
OF ADMIRALTY (DR. MACNAMARA) : The Aquitania was 
launched on April 2ist, 1913. She was ready for sea about 
May soth, 1914, that being the date of starting her first 
voyage. The Admiralty have no knowledge of the price 
paid by the Cunard Company for the vessel. She was taken 
over by the Admiralty on July 3ist, 1914. The work of 
removing superfluous woodwork from the ship, and fitting 
her out for Admiralty purposes, was carried out by the 
Cunard Company, the figures of the actual cost not yet being 
available. Liability as to replacement of fittings, &c., is 
set forth in the agreement with the company, Command 

298 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Paper, No. 1703, of 1903. Negotiations are now in progress 
with the company as to the extent of those liabilities. 

MERCHANT SHIPPING. 

House of Commons, November 24. 

SIR GEORGE TOULMIN asked the Prime Minister Hansard. 
whether he is aware that there is at the present moment a 
considerable demand for merchant shipping ; and whether, 
in order to meet this demand, he can initiate steps for the 
prompt sale of all merchant ships prizes of war, thus en- 
abling them to be utilised at once for the carriage of mer- 
chandise ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : There is a lack of shipping, and it 
would be to some extent relieved by the prompt sale of the 
prizes. The whole matter is receiving careful attention. 

NAVAL CASUALTIES. 

House of Commons, November 25. 

MR. CHURCHILL (in reply to Mr. Nidd) : The following Hansard. 
is a statement showing all casualties (killed, wounded, missing, 
and interned) in the Royal Navy and Royal Marines, in- 
cluding the Royal Naval Division, since the beginning of the 
war : 



299 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



"g 
- a 



.B m <a 

S -"S 



M O MOO M 



111 



MI i I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I ! I I 1 I III 




En 



Mined 
Action 
Action 
Gros 



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-2 -s 



TJ 

s 

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liliifc* 




-2 



* * 8 S -1? "2 I * V 9 S- 8 

S^s^ilS^S.srSii 

* 5S <S 't * .<> **! frl <X.. i 5J W 









888 

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CO C^C^ii 



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kd^d^d ^t' v d k d k d l d k d k d k d^ v d^ 1 ^^ ^H^ksH 1 ^ 1 ^ 1 ^^ 1 ^ y^ ^ ^ y^ 



300 



oo oo oo oo oo oo oo 



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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



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MOO 



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B-rf 



i 1 M i N N i i |f5<^o 



f 1 1 



MM 



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<L) H - 

a -s 3 -as 



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t 

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Action off Yarmouth 
Sunk 
Mined 
Lost in seaplane 1 220 
Turkish rifle fire off A 
Action with Emden 



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301 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
DARTMOUTH CADETS (PROMOTION.) 

House of Commons, November 25. 

MR. JOYNSON-HICKS asked the First Lord of the 
Admiralty whether he is aware of the diversity in the pro- 
motion of the Dartmouth naval cadets to the rank of mid- 
shipmen, and that, for instance, some first-term boys, who 
could not possibly know anything of officers' duties, were 
promoted midshipmen, dating from August 2nd ; and that 
some fourth and fifth-term boys were appointed, dating from 
September 22nd, after the cruiser disasters, thus ranking 
for all time in the Navy as juniors to the first-term boys 
previously promoted ; and yhether he will inquire into the 
whole question of seniority in future years which has arisen 
from his action in regard to the Dartmouth cadets ? 

THE PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE BOARD 
OF ADMIRALTY (DR. MACNAMARA) : I am aware- of the 
diversity in promotion mentioned by the hon. Member. It 
is, however, not a fact that cadets of any term can be passed 
over in their future career by cadets of a lower term on account 
of the seniority given them as midshipmen. A circular will 
shortly be issued to the Fleet containing regulations which 
will allay the anxiety as to the future of these young officers 
apparently existing. 

NAVAL BRIGADE. 

House of Commons, November 25. 

LORD CHARLES BERESFORD asked the First Lord 
of the Admiralty whether he is aware that the members of 
the Naval Brigade now interned in Holland lost the whole of 
their kits at Antwerp ; whether he is aware that these men 
allotted most of their pay to those dependent upon them, 
and are therefore unable to provide themselves with comforts ; 
whether money orders can be sent through the post offices 
to prisoners of the Naval Brigade ; and, if so, can the Admir- 
alty send the interned men their pay ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : All the kits lost by the Naval 
Brigade in Antwerp are being replaced by the Government 
and supplies of warm clothing similar to those issued to the 
Fleet in Home waters are being sent to Holland. It is the 
case that a considerable number of the brigade had allotted 

302 



[Nov. 






' 

. 

* DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

their pay, but letters and parcels are being sent to them free 
of postage charges, and my information is that officers and 
men are being treated with great consideration and humanity 
by the Netherlands Government. The question whether they 
may receive any part of their pay in excess of the payments 
that are being made by the Netherlands Government is 
under consideration, but pending a settlement all allotments 
declared are being paid, separation allowances are being 
issued, and those interned are being credited with the full 
pay of their rank or rating. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : Is the right hon. Gentleman aware 
that there is considerable anxiety among the dependants of 
officers and men of the Naval Brigade, more particularly with 
regard to casualties, and that that anxiety has been con- 
siderably increased since the statement of the First Lord ? 
Can he inform the House of the large number of missing, of 
whom no account has been given ? . Can he give 

MR. SPEAKER : The Noble Lord ought to give notice of 
that. 

NORTH SEA PATROLS (STEAM DRIFTERS). 

House of Commons, November 25. 

MR. COWAN asked the Secretary to the Admiralty Hansard. 
whether his attention has been called to the fact that the 
Admiralty, while employing a considerable number of Peter- 
head steam drifters for patrol purposes in the North Sea, is 
not similarly employing any Fraserburgh steam drifters, 
notwithstanding the fact that the whole of the Fraserburgh 
fishing fleet is at present laid up on account of the War ; and 
whether he will now take steps to provide for the employment 
by the Admiralty of a proportion of Fraserburgh steam 
drifters in order to more equitably distribute, as between 
different ports, moneys expended by the Admiralty for such 
service ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The suggestion of my hon. Friend 
will be borne in mind. 

MR. COWAN : Will the right hon. Gentleman now give 
me an answer to the letter which I wrote to him on October 
20th on this very urgent matter ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : If my hon. Friend has not had a 
reply in writing, he will have one. 



303 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
THE NAVAL DISASTER IN THE PACIFIC. 

House of Commons, November 25. 

MR. CHARLES ROBERTS (on behalf of the Prime 
Minister) replied as follows to a question by the Earl of 
Ronaldshay as to whether the Republics of Colombia and 
Ecuador were guilty of a breach of neutrality in connection 
with the naval battle in which H.M.S. Good Hope and H.M.S. 
Monmouth were lost : Information in the possession of His 
Majesty's Government indicates that the Governments of 
Colombia and Ecuador have, in certain respects, failed to 
observe an attitude of strict neutrality, and that their failure 
to do so is likely to be detrimental to the interests of this 
country. 

In the case of Colombia, the principal cause of complaint 
has reference to the high-power wireless telegraph station at 
Cartagena. Mr. Bowie, His Majesty's Charge d' Affaires at 
Bogota, has repeatedly endeavoured, since the outbreak of 
war, to induce the Colombian Government either to remove 
the German staff from the station and to institute strict 
control to prevent the passage of messages of an unneutral 
nature, or, alternatively, to close the station completely. He 
has also made every effort to secure the adoption of measures 
by the Colombian Government which will effectively prevent 
the use of wireless installations by belligerent merchant ships 
lying in Colombian ports. 

As the reports received from Mr. Bowie left it in doubt 
whether the steps taken by the Colombian Government, in 
consequence of his urgent and repeated representations, were 
of an effective nature, Captain Gaunt, Naval Attache to His 
Majesty's Embassy at Washington, was sent to Colombia 
for the purpose of ascertaining the true position. Captain 
Gaunt reported, under date of September 28th, that the 
wireless station at Cartagena was working nominally under 
censorship, but was in reality entirely subject to German 
influence, of which he considered it very important to obtain 
the removal. He also reported, under date of October 8th, 
that German steamers in Colombian ports, though their 
wireless installations had ostensibly been dismantled, had 
been continuing to use them with the attachment of a muffler. 

It appeared to His Majesty's Government that further 

34 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

representations to the Colombian Government, through His 
Majesty's Charge d' Affaires at Bogota, were unlikely to be 
of any avail, and they therefore decided to appeal, in con- 
junction with the French Government, to the good offices 
of the United States Government, asking them to use their 
influence at Bogota to secure a more correct observance of 
the obligations of Colombian neutrality, and stating that, 
in the event of Colombia continuing in her existing attitude, 
the allied Governments might be obliged, in self-defence, to 
take such measures as they deemed necessary for the pro- 
tection of their interests. 

A similar communication was also made to the United 
States Government in respect of Ecuador, the grounds in 
this case being : (i) that the Ecuadorean Minister for Foreign 
Affairs had himself informed Mr. Jerome, His Majesty's 
Charge d' Affaires at Quito, and his French colleague, on 
October 4th, that German warships had converted the Gala- 
pagos Islands, belonging to Ecuador, into a naval base, and 
(2) that the Ecuadorean Government had failed to comply 
with the request of the British and French Legations that 
proper control should be exercised over the wireless station 
at Guayaquil to prevent its use as an intelligence centre for 
belligerents. Mr. Jerome and his French colleague were both 
of opinion that further diplomatic protests to the Ecuadorean 
Government would be useless, and His Majesty's Government, 
not being prepared to acquiesce in the disregard of Ecuador's 
obligations of neutrality, judged it expedient to refer the 
matter to the United States Government, as explained above. 

The latter have consented to make a communication to 
the two South American Governments, but I am as yet 
unaware what result has attended their action. The Note 
addressed to the United States Government by His Majesty's 
Ambassador at Washington contained no assertion of the 
nature mentioned in the question. 

CHIEF WRITERS (PROMOTION). 

House of Commons, November 25. 

LORD C. BERESFORD asked the First Lord of the Hansard. 
Admiralty if he will state why chief writers in the Navy are 
not allowed to attain commissioned rank ; whether, in 1913, 

305 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

there was a shortage of accountant officers, and whether 
since that time the Admiralty have endeavoured to provide 
for this shortage by the special entry of assistant clerks from 
the shore who, after three and a half years' service, would be 
promoted to the rank of assistant-paymaster, and thus 
provide the accountant officers required for peace service 
and assistant-paymasters R.N.R. (formerly bank clerks, 
pursers and assistant-pursers of the mercantile marine, and 
clerks in ordinary commercial life) ; whether none of these 
new entry assistant-paymasters have any knowledge of naval 
accountant work, with the result that official reports have been 
sent to the Admiralty to the effect that they are not capable 
of performing the duties required of them ; whether he is 
aware that 200 chief writers have been recommended for 
promotion ; and if he will explain why these chief writers 
have not been promoted to a rank for which they are 
qualified ? 

DR. MAGNAMARA : The question of providing the 
necessary number of officers for the Accountant Branch was 
under the consideration of the Admiralty when war broke 
out, and this question, in common with others, had to be 
deferred. The branch is manned in peace by officers entered 
as assistant clerks and by warrant writers, supplemented 
by assistant paymasters of the Royal Naval Reserve. To 
meet the growing requirements of the Fleet, additional entries 
of assistant clerks have been made in the past two years, 
and additional assistant paymasters, R.N.R. , have been 
entered from the shore to meet the heavy demands made 
upon this branch. Generally speaking it is found that with 
a little experience the latter officers do their work very well, 
though in one or two isolated cases adverse reports have been 
received. The number of chief writers now serving who 
were recommended for warrant rank by the last half-yearly 
returns available was 113. To make any large number of 
promotions from chief writer would seriously deplete their 
numbers at a time when every available writer is required for 
his ordinary work, but it is under consideration at the present 
time to make some advancements. I regret, however, that 
I am unable to hold out any prospect of immediate advance- 
ment to commissioned rank. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : Can the right hon. Gentleman 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

say how soon he will be able to advance these men ? They 
ought to have been advanced before. 

DR. MACNAMARA : The matter is under consideration. 
I should not like to give an answer now. 

THE LOSSES IN THE FIGHTS ROUND TSINGTAU. 

November 25. 

ACCORDING to the news available up till to-day 
number of prisoners belonging to the garrison taken during Nov. 25, 
the fights at Tsingtau and at the fall of the fortress amounts I 9 I 4- 
to about 4,250, including 600 wounded. The number of 
killed is said to be about 170, among whom are 6 officers. 
On board the Austro-Hungarian cruiser Kaiserin Elisabeth, 
i lieutenant and 8 men are wounded, and 8 men killed. 

The treatment of the prisoners in Japan is said to be good. 

The Japanese Government expects to supply lists of names 
of the dead, wounded and prisoners at an early date. 

TURKISH REPORT ON OPERATIONS AT BASRAH. 

Constantinople, December 25. 

AN official report from Headquarters says : After the ibid. 
action at Basrah on November igth (see p. 280), which ended 
with heavy losses in killed and wounded on the English side, 
the enemy received reinforcements and advanced slowly along 
the river under cover of the fire of his gunboats. Our troops 
awaited the enemy in a new position where his guns and his 
ships could not help him. The ship Nilufer has been sunk 
off Kilia as the result of an accident. 

DESTRUCTION OF H.M.S. " BULWARK." 

House of Commons, November 26. 

MR. CHURCHILL : I regret to say that I have bad news Hansard. 
for the House. The Bulwark battleship, which was lying in 
Sheerness this morning, blew up at 7.53 a.m. The Vice and 
Rear-Admirals who were present have reported their convic- 
tion that it was an internal magazine explosion which rent 
the ship asunder. There was, apparently, no upheaval of 
water. The ship had entirely disappeared when the smoke 

Naval II X 307 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

had cleared away. An inquiry will be held to-morrow, which 
may possibly throw more light on the occurrence. 

The loss of the ship does not sensibly affect the military 
position, but I regret to say the loss of life is very severe. 
Only twelve men are saved. All the officers and the rest of 
the crew, who I suppose amounted to between 700 and 800, 
have perished. 

I think the House would wish me to express on their 
behalf the deep sorrow with which the House heard the news, 
and their sympathy with those who have lost their relatives 
and friends. 



House of Lords, November 26. 

Hansard. VISCOUNT MIDLETON : My Lords, I should like to ask 

the noble Lord who represents the Admiralty whether he has 
any information he can give the House with regard to the 
alleged loss of H.M.S. Bulwark. 

LORD WIMBORNE.: My Lords, I have to say that 
H.M.S. Bulwark was blown up at eight o'clock this morning 
while at anchor in the Medway. Both the Admirals on the 
spot are of opinion that the cause was internal magazine 
explosion. An inquiry will be held to-morrow. I regret 
to add that all the officers on board lost their lives and that 
twelve only of the ship's company were saved. 



Times, 
Dec. 16, 
1914. 



Press Bureau, December 15. 

The Court of Inquiry which was appointed to inquire 
into the loss of His Majesty's Ship Bulwark has now reported, 
and it is clear from the evidence which has been produced 
that the explosion which caused the loss of the ship was due 
to an accidental ignition of ammunition on board the ship. 

There is no evidence to support a suggestion that the 
explosion was due either to treachery on board the ship or to 
an act of the enemy. 



308 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
STATE OF BRITISH AND GERMAN SHIPPING. 
TABLE issued by the Board of Trade on November 26th, 

showing the state of British and German shipping respectively 

after sixteen weeks of war : 






No. of 
Steam- 
ships 
of over 
100 tons 
gross. 


Per- 
centage 
of Total 
Number. 


Gross 
Tonnage. 


Per- 
centage 
of Total 
Gross 
Tonnage. 


Total Number : 


10,123 


IOO 


20, "523,706 


IOO 


German . . . . . 


2,090 


IOO 


<;, 1 34, 720 


IOO 


Unavailable for various causes : 
British : 
Captured 
Detained in German ports 
Held up in Baltic and Black Sea 


49 

75 
7i 


} , 


585.551 


2-9 


Total 


195 








German : 
Captured 
Detained in British or Allied ports . . 
Seeking refuge in neutral ports 
In German ports 


80 
1 66 
646 
329 


58-4 


4,584,926 


89-3 


Total.. 


1,221 








Plying : 
British 


9,928 


98-1 


20,122,173 


97-1 


Plying or not accounted for : 
German : 
Known to be at sea 
Ships over 500 tons not accounted for 
Steam trawlers not accounted for . . 
Small coasters not accounted for 


10 

125 

353 
38i 


41-6 


549,794 


10-7 


Total.. .. .. 


869 









NOTICE TO MARINERS. 
No. 1781 of the year 1914. 
UNITED KINGDOM. 

New Pilotage stations to be established at certain Ports onL.G., 
account of defensive Minefields. Dec 

Former Notice. No. 1752 of 1914 ; hereby cancelled. 
In view of the extension of the system of Mine defence, 

309 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

notice is hereby given that on and after November 27th, 
Pilotage will be compulsory at the following ports for all 
vessels (including fishing vessels) which have a draught of 
over eight feet, and that it will be highly dangerous for any 
vessel to enter or leave such ports without a pilot. Fishing 
and other small vessels having a draught of over eight feet 
should assemble at the Pilotage stations and will be conducted 
into and out of port in groups. 

(1) RIVER HUMBER. All incoming vessels must call 
for a pilot at a station which is to be established seven 
miles E.S.E. (magnetic) from Spurn Point. 

Outgoing vessels are to discharge their pilots at the 
same station. 

(2) RIVER TYNE. All incoming vessels from the 
northward must call for a pilot off Blyth, and those from 
the southward off the River Wear. 

Outgoing vessels are to discharge their pilots off one 
or the other of these places. 

(3) FIRTH OF FORTH. All incoming vessels must 
call for a pilot at a station to be established on the Isle 
of May. 

Outgoing vessels are to discharge their pilots at the 
same station. 

It will be dangerous for any vessel to be under way 
to the westward of the Isle of May without a pilot. 

(4) MORAY FIRTH. All vessels bound to Cromarty 
or Inverness must call for a pilot at Wick or Burghead 

Outgoing vessels are to discharge their pilots at one 
or the other of these places. 

It will be dangerous for any vessel to be under way 
to the south-westward of a line joining Findhorn and 
Tarbetness without a pilot. 

(5) SCAPA FLOW. All entrances are dangerous. 
Examination services have been established in the 

entrances to Hoxa and Hoy sounds ; vessels wishing 
to enter must communicate with the Examination vessel 
and follow the instructions received from her very care- 
fully. 

The only vessels permitted to enter Hoy sound from 
3 io 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the westward are those bound for Stromness ; vessels 
cannot enter Scapa Flow from Stromness. 
Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
By Command of their Lordships, 

J. F. PARRY, 

Hydrographer. 

Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, November 26th, 1914. 

PRIZE MONEY (ROYAL NAVY). 

House of Commons, November 26. 

MR. JOYNSON-HICKS asked the First Lord of the Hansard. 
Admiralty if he can say how much prize money is now lying 
to the credit of the Navy ; and when the new system of prize 
bounties, promised by the Royal Proclamation of August 
28th, 1914, will be announced ? 

THE PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE ADMIR- 
ALTY (DR. MACNAMARA) : No information as to the amount 
of the prize fund can be given as a great many cases are still 
under adjudication. The system of award is under con- 
sideration, but the appropriation of the fund will not be 
determined until the end of the War. 

MR. JOYNSON-HICKS : Has not this been under con- 
sideration now for three months ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Certainly, and we have been con- 
sidering the system of the War as a basis of future distribution. 

MR. GERSHOM STEWART : Will there be no distribu- 
tion until this War is over ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I do not know ; I must have notice of 
that. 

PENSIONER SIGNALMEN. 



House of Commons, November 26. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the Hansard. 
Admiralty whether the Admiralty order stating that pen- 
sioner signalmen are to be given naval rates of pay and such 
allowances as they may be entitled to under the Naval 
Regulations covers the cases of all such signalmen employed 
in similar services since the War began ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : An Admiralty order was issued 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

on November i6th authorising the payment of active service 
pay and allowances to pensioner signalmen employed in the 
Naval Port Signal Stations during the period of hostilities, 
in lieu of the civilian wages which they have received in time 
of peace. This decision will have effect as from August 2nd. 

FRIEDRICHSHAFEN ZEPPELIN SHEDS 
(BOMBARDMENT). 

House of Commons, November 26. 

MR. BOOTH asked the Prime Minister if instructions were 
given to the aviators who bombarded the Zeppelin sheds 
at Friedrichshafen to avoid neutral territory ; and what is 
the policy of His Majesty's Government with regard to the 
passage of warlike machines over the land or territorial 
waters of neutral countries ? 

THE FIRST LORD OF THE ADMIRALTY (MR. 
CHURCHILL) : My right hon. Friend has asked me to reply 
to this question. Instructions were given to the Naval 
Flying officers who attacked the Zeppelin factory at Fried- 
richshafen to avoid neutral territory, and the course drawn 
on the maps supplied to them should have taken them well 
clear of Switzerland. When machines are flying at a great 
height it is almost impossible for any but a skilled observer 
to determine with any accuracy the course the aircraft are 
taking unless he is directly beneath them. No agreement 
was reached at the Paris Conference, 1910, in regard to 
the passage of belligerent aircraft over neutral territory. 



PAYMENTS TO DEPENDANTS OF SEAMEN. 

House of Commons, November 26. 

LORD CHARLES BERESFORD asked the President 
of the Board of Trade, if in connection with the payment 
of allowances to dependants of officers and seamen employed 
on captured and detained vessels, the Board have now given 
further consideration to the desirability of extending the 
scheme so as to cover payments to relatives of officers and 
men who might lose their lives and compensation for loss 
of effects ? 

MR. RUNCIMAN : The question whether the insurance 

312 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

scheme can be extended so as to cover payments' to depend- 
ants of seamen who lose their lives owing to hostilities 
but who are not already provided for under the Workmen's 
Compensation Act is being considered, and I hope to come 
to a decision very shortly. I will give consideration to the 
question of insurance of seamen's effects. 

ASSISTANT PAYMASTERS. 

House of Commons, November 26. 

LORD CHARLES BERESFORD asked the First Lord Hansard. 
of the Admiralty if he will state the number of commissions 
as assistant paymaster, Royal Naval Reserve, that have been 
granted to men from the shore since the outbreak of war ; 
whether any official representations have been made as to 
the inefficiency of any assistant paymasters, Royal Naval 
Reserve, since the outbreak of war ; how many chief writers 
now serving were recommended for promotion by the latest 
half-yearly returns available ; whether he is aware that all 
the highly trained and recommended chief writers are fully 
competent to carry out the duties of an assistant paymaster ; 
how many have been promoted to that rank since the declara- 
tion of war ; whether official representations have been made 
as to the desirability of promotion of chief writers in place 
of granting commissions to inexperienced men entered from 
the shore without examination ; and, if so, what are the 
Admiralty proposals and when is it intended to give effect 
to them ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The answer to the first part of the 
question is 178, of whom 53 were serving as pursers or assistant 
pursers in ships taken over from the mercantile marine. 
The second and third parts of the question were dealt with in 
the reply I gave to the Noble Lord yesterday. I am fully 
aware that there are many deserving chief writers. who are 
competent to carry out the duties of assistant paymaster, 
and their claims to advancement to warrant writer are at 
present under consideration. 



313 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
FRENCH REPORT ON NAVAL SITUATION. 

Bordeaux, November 27. 

AN official Navy bulletin says : 

In the Mediterranean the French and British squadrons 
continue to block the Adriatic and the Dardanelles, and to 
protect the coasts of Egypt and the Suez Canal. 

In the North Sea British and French ships have made a 
reconnaissance of the German batteries established on the 
Belgian coast. 

The German cruisers in the Pacific do not appear to have 
left Chilian waters since the fight of November ist. Renter. 

ROYAL FLEET NAVAL RESERVE (MOUSTACHES). 

House of Commons, November 27. 

MR. WILLIAM THORNE asked the First Lord of the 
Admiralty if it has been the custom to allow the men serving 
in the Royal Fleet Naval Reserve to wear a moustache ; if 
he is aware that an order has just been given out that those 
men must shave off their moustaches ; and if he intends taking 
any action in the matter ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The wearing of a moustache only is 
forbidden by the King's Regulations, but this is not usually 
enforced in the case of Reserve men during peace. On being 
" called out " they become a part of the Navy proper, and 
as such would be expected to conform to the Regulations of 
the Service. If the men objected to shaving their moustaches, 
they are at liberty to discontinue the use of the razor alto- 
gether. 

BRITISH MERCANTILE MARINE (ALIEN MASTERS 
AND OFFICERS). 

House of Commons, November 27. 

LORD C. BERESFORD asked the President of the Board 
of Trade if he can state the number of alien masters and 
officers who possess the Board of Trade certificate as masters 
or officers of British ships ; how many of these are alien 
enemies ; and whether the Board of Trade propose taking 
any steps to secure that the issue of these certificates is limited 
to British seamen, in view of the network of communications 

314 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

scattered widespread over the ocean, and seeing that merchant 
ships are more or less the eyes of the Fleet ? 

MR. RUNCIMAN : I am unable to state the number of 
alien masters and officers who at present possess Board of 
Trade certificates as master, mate or engineer in the British 
mercantile marine, as deaths of holders of certificates are not 
necessarily reported to the Board. The average number of 
certificates of competency issued during the twenty years 
1896 to 1913 was 4,682 per annum, of which eighty-nine or 
1.9 per cent, were issued to aliens and fifteen or 0.3 per cent, 
to subjects of the three Governments with which we are at 
present at war. I may add that steps have been taken to 
prevent the issue of certificates of competency to subjects 
of enemy States, and to remove all such subjects from British 
ships, whether officers or crew. 



MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT. 

House of Commons, November 27. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : Before the House adjourns I Hansard. 
want to bring before Members and the country some matters 
connected with the Royal Navy. It would be impossible 
for me to speak of anything in connection with the Royal 
Navy for the moment without referring to the terrible disaster 
which occurred yesterday. A similar catastrophe has never 
before occurred in our Navy, because we do not know the 
cause of it. In the case of the Royal George, which capsized 
in 1781 a somewhat similar case the cause is well-known. 
All I would say about it is this : that I deprecate most 
strongly any conclusions being formed at present either in 
the House or the country as to the cause. My brother officers 
are on their trial by court martial, and the Court of Inquiry 
is endeavouring to find out the cause of the disaster. I 
would particularly ask that nobody in the Press or in the 
country in the present state of excitement about alien 
enemies, should think that this case is one of treachery. It 
is much better to wait with a dignified calm until by the 
constituted authorities we find out really what occurred. 
The loss to myself is most painful. The Bulwark was one of 
my own flagships. Every seaman has a natural affection for 

315 



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his ship, and of all the ships I have had I never had more 
affection than for the Bulwark. But the thought of the loss 
of the ship is eclipsed by the thought of the loss of the officers 
and men, and our sympathy is with the dependants of those 
who have lost their lives. I would ask the House to consider 
that these officers and men have lost their lives in the service 
of their country quite as much and the sympathy should be 
quite as great as if they had lost them by shot or shell. 

What I particularly want to speak about is this : It has 
come to my knowledge and I think many hon. Members will 
concur in what I say that there is a doubt in the public 
mind, and a want of confidence in the Navy to carry out its 
duties. Things have occurred which have caused that doubt. 
But without a doubt the Navy is really stronger now than 
before we went into war both in ships, trained men, and in 
organisation. The Navy is not in sight, but we sometimes 
hear or read of what it is doing. The Navy has done every- 
thing ! The Navy, with its silent vigil, its attention to duty, 
to discipline, and the loyalty of its officers and men has enabled 
us to carry out this War at all. It has enabled us, with a 
certain amount of luck, to do this. The German military 
bureau hurried the War to such an extent that the naval 
bureau was not consulted, or we might have had a very 
serious time if the German naval bureau had got their 
armoured cruisers into our trade routes. But we do not want 
to discuss what might have been, but what has happened ; 
and to ask what is the Navy doing is not to give those officers 
and ^ men credit for having enabled us so far as it goes at 
present to carry on the War. So far as invasion goes, in my 
humble opinion, people need not be the least alarmed, but 
every precaution should be taken against what may occur. 
My opinion is that the invasion of this country at the present 
time, now that we are organised for war, is more or less 
impossible. With regard to the loss of confidence which I 
have described, if it exists, as to the Navy not being able to 
carry out its duties in all and every way, that loss of confidence, 
in my opinion, is absolutely unwarrantable. The Navy will 
be able to carry out its duties in every way and in every point 
for which it is instituted to carry them out. The reason why 
that sentiment exists is this. A lot of incidents occurred 
which were more or less disasters, but the officers and men 

316 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of the Fleet are in no way responsible for any of these incidents- 
There was a leading article in The Times of Monday, which 
rather conveyed the sentiments of the Fleet, and certainly 
conveyed my sentiments. I am not here to discuss or criticise 
what occurred in any way whatever. This is not the time. 
We have got to support authority with all the energy and 
ability in our power. My only point is to exercise whatever 
influence I possess to see that our confidence in the Fleet, 
which ought to exist, and does exist, is in no way removed. 
The incidents to which I referred are these : There was first 
the three Cressys. There, again, the Navy had nothing what- 
ever to do with that. I am not going to ask why or where- 
fore, or who is to blame. This is not the time to criticise, 
if mistakes were made. We must back up authority as 
well as we can. I am only referring to these incidents in 
order to say that the men of the Fleet are in no way respon- 
sible 

MR. SPEAKER : Message from the Lords .... 

LORD C. BERESFORD (continuing) : I was referring to the 
three Cressys. The next case was the escape of the Goeben, 
a serious incident which led to the Turkish Declaration of War. 
The House will remember that the admiral in 4:his case was 
acquitted of any neglect of duty with regard to. that ship. 
Then there was the loss of the Pegasus. With regard to the 
Pacific action, I will tell the right hon. Gentleman opposite 
that generally in the Service we regret that some mark of 
esteem and sympathy for that great admiral (Admiral Cradock) 
was not brought forward at the instance of the Government. 
I think that was a mistake, and probably it was unintentional, 
but we felt it very greatly in the Service. He was one of the 
most brilliant of our admirals, and his pluck was impossible 
to overrate. He was a very capable officer. He was very 
popular and a great leader of men, and there was no better 
admiral in the whole Service. I say this with some feeling, 
because I had the honour of commanding a fleet in which 
he was my captain. Some small attempt has been made 
to. throw blame upon this admiral, but again I say that the 
Service bitterly resents any remarks of that sort. He fought 
a superior force and he had ineffective ships and reserve 
crews, but he maintained the old tradition of our Navy, 
Are we to be told that on any occasion when we are fighting a 

317 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

superior force that orders must never be disregarded? It 
is well-known that our brilliant actions and our Empire 
have been brought about by some sort of neglect of orders 
in the presence of the enemy, always with the knowledge that 
though you may go down yourself the opposing force does 
not escape damage. Admiral Cradock's action contained 
the best traditions of the Service, and anything that is said 
about him of this nature would be resented most violently 
by me and the whole of the British Navy. With regard to 
the Antwerp incident, this is not the time to discuss it. This 
is not the time to give our opinions as to what authority did 
or did not do. Mistakes are being made, but until the end of 
the War, and until it has been fought to a finish, we must 
support authority with all the effort that we can in all parts 
of the House. I say that the confidence in the Fleet must 
rest supreme. The only feeling we should have at present 
is one of gratitude to the Navy for the position in which we 
find ourselves, of enabling our gallant and heroic Army to 
get to the front to fight our battles on shore. We must not 
underrate our enemy. That German fleet will come out in 
my opinion. She will never line up in line of battle. She 
may come out in a fog, or she may come out and try and 
fight a melee, and in that case nobody knows what might 
happen, but I can assure the House that whatever happens, 
luck or no luck, we shall win in the end. I would ask the 
right hon. Gentleman to remember this. The Duke of Welling- 
ton laid down a very fine maxim in fighting : " Tell your 
admirals or your generals what your object is, but do not 
give orders to them how they are to carry out that object, 
as a circumstance may occur in which the general or the 
admiral by obeying your orders will defeat the object." 
That is a fine sentiment. There cannot be any better for 
fighting, and I hope the administrative authority will, as is 
their duty, make out the policy, but will not tell the admirals 
in command how they are to carry out that policy. I say 
once more that any little doubt as to the power of the Navy, 
the discipline of the Navy, and the efficiency of the Navy 
ought to be removed. There ought to be no doubt cast on 
those three qualifications by the incidents that have occurred. 
I say to the House respectfully, " Trust the Royal Navy, 
and it will never fail you/' 
318 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

THE FIRST LORD OF THE ADMIRALTY (MR. 
CHURCHILL) : I certainly have no cause to complain of the 
tone of the Noble Lord's (Lord Charles Beresford) brief 
remarks, and I must say that I think the principle 
on which he goes, that everything that goes right is to 
be attributed to the Navy and everything that goes wrong 
is to be attributed elsewhere is an exceedingly sound 
principle, one with which I am quite content, and one 
which cannot be too widely adopted. The Noble Lord 
sees, as most Members of the House know, that the time 
has not yet arrived when we can discuss with any profit some 
and probably most of the particular incidents to which he 
has referred. It is no use attempting to discuss the rights 
and wrongs, if rights and wrongs there be, of particular actions 
unless all the facts can be disclosed. If I take the incidents 
to which he has referred the action in^the Pacific, the loss 
of the cruisers off the Dutch coast, or the expedition to 
Antwerp as good examples of his principle I would say 
that before it is possible to form a judgment it is necessary 
that the orders should be disclosed, that the telegrams which 
have passed should be disclosed, and that the dispositions 
which prevail, not only at the particular point, but generally 
throughout the theatre of war, should also in their broad 
outline and even in considerable detail be made known. 
That is clearly impossible at the present time. It would be 
very dangerous for the Minister representing the Admiralty 
to be drawn into what would necessarily become a contro- 
versial, and what might easily become an acrimonious dis- 
cussion of these matters. And, above all, to disclose partially 
what has taken place would only lead to demands for fuller 
and further publication, which would be very prejudicial, 
not only to the actual conduct of the war but to the general 
interests of the Naval Service, during the course of the war. 

It is not possible, however desirable it may be, at present 
for the public or the House to form any judgment on these 
matters. The only rule which should guide us in regard 
to information is that nothing must be published which is 
against the public interest, or hampers naval or military 
operations. It is the only rule, and it is a rule which must 
be capable of wide interpretation. Of course, it would be 
entirely wrong for a Department or a Minister to use the 

319 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Nc 

term " public interest " on naval and military matters in 
order to shield the .Department or himself from blame or 
censure. This is a war so serious and formidable in its 
character that persons ought not to be spared. If an im- 
provement can be made in any command the officer ought 
to give way for others who can better discharge the public 
duty. That is a rule and principle that should not be con- 
fined to naval and military officers, but equally to heads of 
Departments. The Prime Minister is especially charged by 
the country at this time, and it is his duty, if he considers any 
improvement can be made in the conduct of a public Depart- 
ment, not to allow any considerations of party association or 
personal friendship to stand in the way of making any change 
that is necessary in the public interest. 

The Prime Minister in times like these is the servant of 
the Crown directly and personally responsible that the with- 
holding of information in the public interest shall not be 
abused by the Departments of State and Ministers specially 
affected. It is also the desire of the Admiralty to give as 
much information as is possible on all these matters without 
prejudice to the interests to which I have referred, and I 
think we have done so. I think we have done it, and we shall 
continue to do so whenever the opportunity offers and the 
season presents itself. Once information has been given 
about any action or incident I am of opinion that comment 
upon it should be perfectly free. Criticism is always advan- 
tageous. I have derived continued benefit from criticism 
at all periods of my life, and I do not remember any time 
when I was ever short of it. But there is a salutary rule 
about criticism which applies in time of peace as well as in 
time of war, in private as well as in public things, and that 
is that criticism should be very restrained when the party 
criticised is not able to reply, and it is especially so when 
he is not able to reply without disclosing facts which would do 
harm to the critic as well as the party criticised if they were 
disclosed. 

But I recognise the great difficulties of the Press during 
the present war, and I sympathise very keenly with them 
in the prohibitions and limitations which fence them about 
on every side, and which from day to day deny them the 
opportunity of publishing quantities of information which 

320 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

reach them information which is most interesting and which 
may have been collected in many cases with great trouble 
and expense. There is often a tendency to underrate the 
acute discomfort under which our great newspapers are living 
at the present time, and speaking as one of the heads of one 
of the combatant departments I feel bound to say that we 
owe the Press a very great debt, so far as this war has pro- 
ceeded, for the way in which it has helped, with inconsiderable 
exceptions and with only momentary lapses, the course of 
the military operations, and has upheld the interests of the 
country. I would like to say that I greatly appreciate the 
kindness and confidence with which the House during this 
Session has treated the Admiralty and its representatives in 
not pressing for information on many matters in which the 
keenest interest is taken, and upon which there is a natural 
desire to arrive at conclusions and to pronounce judgment. 

Ultimately, and as soon as possible, all the facts connected 
with past operations, and with the administration of the 
Navy, now and immediately before the war, will be made 
public in a form in which they can be studied and weighed 
by the nation. For my part I look forward hopefully to that 
day. There is, however, one other reason why I think it is 
not desirable to dwell too much on particular incidents at 
the present time. The incidents which are seen are a very 
small proportion of the work which is going forward all over 
the world, and it would be a great pity if the mind of the 
public were disproportionately concerned with particular 
incidents, and if the departments concerned were occupied 
in defending themselves or in justifying themselves in regard 
to these incidents. We are waging this war, on which from 
day to day our vital safety depends, and no one who is con- 
cerned with military departments ought to have his attention 
drawn away from the immediate needs of the military and 
naval operations for the purpose of going at undue length into 
matters which lie in the past. I am going in a few words, if 
the House will permit me, to draw the attention of the House, 
and through the House the attention of the country, to some 
of the larger aspects of the naval situation at the present time. 

The British Navy was confronted with four main perils. 
There was first the peril of being surprised at the outbreak 
of war before we were ready and in our war stations. That 

321 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

was the greatest peril of all. Once the Fleet was mobilised 
and in its war station the greatest danger by which it could 
be assailed had been surmounted. Then there was the danger, 
which we had apprehended, from the escape on to the High 
Seas of very large numbers of fast liners of the enemy, equipped 
with guns for the purpose of commerce destruction. During 
the last two years the sittings of the Committee of Imperial 
Defence have been almost unbroken, and we have been con- 
cerned almost exclusively with the study of the problems of 
a great European war, and I have always, on behalf of the 
Admiralty, pointed out the great danger which we should 
run if, at the outset of the war, before our cruisers were on 
their stations, before our means of dealing with such a menace 
had been fully developed, we had been confronted with a 
great excursion on to our trade routes of large numbers of 
armed liners for the purpose of commerce destruction. 

That danger has for the present been successfully sur- 
mounted. Our estimate before the war of losses in the first 
two or three months was at least 5 per cent, of our mercantile 
marine. I am glad to say that the percentage is only 1-9, 
and the risks have been fully covered under a system of 
insurance which was brought into force, the premiums on 
which it has been found possible steadily and regularly to 
reduce. The third great danger was due to mines. Our 
enemy have allowed themselves to pursue methods in regard 
to the scattering of mines on the highways of peaceful com- 
merce that, until the outbreak of this war, we should not 
have thought would be practised by any civilised Power. 
And the risks and difficulties which we have had to face from 
that cause cannot be underrated. But I am glad to tell 
the House that, although we have suffered losses, and may, 
no doubt will, suffer more losses, yet I think the danger from 
mining, even the unscrupulous and indiscriminate mining of 
the open seas, is one the limits of which can now be dis- 
cerned, and which can be and is being further restricted 
and controlled by the measures, the very extensive measures, 
which have been taken, and are being taken. 

Fourthly, there is the danger from submarines. The 
submarine introduces entirely novel conditions into naval 
warfare. The old freedom of movement which belongs 
to the stronger power is affected and restricted in narrow 

322 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

waters by the development of this new and formidable arm. 
There is a difference between military and naval anxiety, 
which the House will appreciate. A division of soldiers 
cannot be annihilated by a cavalry patrol. But at any 
moment a great ship, equal in war power, and as a war unit, 
to a division or an army, may be destroyed without a single 
opportunity of its fighting strength being realised, or a 
man on board having a chance to strike a blow in self-defence. 
Yet it is necessary for the safety of this country, it is neces- 
sary for the supply of its vital materials, that our ships should 
move with freedom and with hardihood through the seas on 
their duties, and no one can pretend that anxiety must not 
always be present to the minds of those who have the respon- 
sibility for their direction. It is satisfactory, however, to 
reflect that our power in submarines is much greater than 
that of our enemies, and that the only reason why we 
are not able to produce results on a large scale in regard 
to them, is that we so seldom are afforded any target to attack. 
Those are the four dangers. I do not include among 
them what some people would perhaps wish to include as a 
fifth, the danger of oversea invasion, although that is an 
enterprise full of danger for those who might attempt it. 
The economic pressure upon Germany continues to develop 
in a healthy and satisfactory manner. My right hon. Friend 
the President of the Board of Trade published some remark- 
able figures' 11 yesterday upon the relative condition of British (1) ( See 
and German trade since the war. Out of 20,500,000 tons of 
British shipping, 20,122,000 tons are plying, or 97 per cent, 
of the whole, whereas out of five millions of German tonnage 
only 549,000 tons remain plying or unaccounted for, and of 
those plying it is estimated that only ten ships are at present 
carrying on German commerce on the sea. On the average 
very nearly one hundred ships per day of over three hundred 
tons burden arrive and leave the ports of the United Kingdom, 
and we are not only carrying on our own business effectively 
but we are applying special restrictions to certain vital com- 
modities required for military purposes by the German 
and Austro-Hungarian Empires. The German Army depends 
primarily on its military materiel. The enormous supplies 
of all kinds of explosives and of all kinds of scientific apparatus 
directed to warlike purposes which they have prepared m 

Naval II Y 323 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

times of peace gave them then, and gives them to-day, an 
advantage most marked in both theatres of war. But that 
advantage will no longer, as time passes, be wholly theirs. 
Gradually that advantage will change sides. We are able 
to draw, in virtue of sea-power, from all over the world, for 
the cause of the Allies everything that is needed to procure 
the most abundant flow of munitions of war which can pos- 
sibly be required, and, on the other hand, the deficiencies 
in essential commodities necessary for the waging of war is 
already beginning to show itself clearly marked, as far as 
we can discern, in our enemy's military organisation. 

I see no reason at all for any discontent in regard to the 
protection of British commerce or the restriction which is 
being placed on the enemy's supplies. Risks, of course, 
have to be run. The great number of troops which we have 
had to move to and fro freely across the world and their 
convoying, have involved serious risks ; and although one's 
eye is fixed on the mischances which have occurred in this 
war, knowing as I do all the circumstances and all the incidents 
which have occurred, I am bound to say that I think we have 
had a very fair share of the luck. If our enemies did not 
attack on the high seas on the outbreak of war or just before 
it, we must presume that it was because they did not consider 
themselves strong enough to do so ; because then would 
have been the moment of greatest advantage, when the 
dispatch of an army to the Continent might have been 
prevented or delayed. If that moment was not used, it 
could only be because they were counting upon reducing 
the British Fleet, by a process of attrition, to a condition 
of greater equality with their own. We have been at war 
for four months. I should like to consider how that process 
of attrition is working. The losses of submarines have been 
equal, as far as we know ; but, of course, the proportion 
of loss has been much greater to the Germans than to our- 
selves, because we have more than double the number of 
submarines in constant employment. With regard to torpedo- 
boat destroyers, our boats have shown their enormous superi- 
ority in gun power, which, of course, was not unknown 
before the war. No loss has been experienced by us, while 
eight or ten of the enemy's vessels have been destroyed. 
Of the older armoured cruisers we have lost, I think, six, 
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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

and Germany has lost two. But there again the number 
of vessels of this class which we have disposed was three or 
four times as great as that of our opponents, and, of course, 
we have of necessity to expose them more frequently and 
more openly to .possible attacks. 

But the most important class of minor vessels is that of 
fast modern light cruisers. The modern light cruisers which 
have been built from the year 1903 onwards by Great Britain 
and Germany, which are of good speed, fast vessels, are a 
most important factor in the course of the . war. At the 
outset of the war the Germans disposed of twenty-five 
of these vessels, and we disposed of thirty-six. Since the 
war begun we have lost two out of our thirty-six, or one- 
eighteenth of the number. The Germans have lost, or 
have got shut up and I am including the Breslau in this 
calculation practically a quarter of their modern light 
cruiser strength. These have been joined since the war 
broke out by a number of new cruisers greater than those 
which our opponents have lost, so that our strength to-day 
is vastly greater beyond all comparison greater in this 
important arm than it was at the outset of the war. The 
prospects for the future are even more satisfactory, because 
we have an enormous delivery of cruisers rapidly approaching 
completion, and the possible cruisers which the enemy can 
get from all sources during the next twelve months cannot 
exceed half of those on which we can count. 

The relative strength in Dreadnoughts has been so often 
discussed in this House before the war that it may be interest- 
ing to review it at the present time, and see how far our 
arguments of peace time relate to the actual facts which 
are now disclosed. I may say that, of course, I am giving 
no information which is not readily accessible to anybody 
who studied the published Returns of peace times. When the 
war broke out we mobilised thirty-one Dreadnoughts 
and Lord Nelsons, and Germany could have had, and I 
presume did have if her latest ships were ready twenty- 
one Dreadnoughts battleships and battle-cruisers so 
we were just a little under the 60 per cent, which we had 
always kept before ourselves. I cannot say how many ships 
have joined the Fleet since. It is a matter of great im- 
portance to keep secret the number of vessels which at any 

325 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

one moment are available with the Flag of the Commander- 
in-Chief, and it is the duty of every Englishman, every 
British subject, and every friend of our country, to do his 
utmost to wrap that fact in secrecy and mystery. Although, 
however, I cannot tell the number of ships which have 
joined the flag since the declaration of war, I can say, firstly, 
that the relative strength of the Fleet is substantially greater 
now than it was at the outbreak of the war ; and, secondly, 
I can indicate the reinforcement which both countries will 
receive between now and the end of 1915. The maximum 
reinforcement which Germany can receive it is not possible 
by any human agency to add to these numbers in the period 
is three ships on the figure I have given the Lutzow, the 
Kronprinz, the Salamis, which is a Greek ship which has 
presumably been taken over. 

Two years ago I set up a Committee of the Admiralty 
to go into the whole question of the acceleration of new 
construction immediately after the outbreak of war so that 
the greatest possible number of deliveries could be made 
in the shortest possible time and very elaborate reports 
were furnished, and a complete system was worked out 
in every detail. In carrying out this system we have been 
aided by the patriotism and energy of the workmen in all 
the yards, who have strained their physical strength to the 
utmost, and have, by so doing, made themselves, in fact, 
the comrades of their fellow citizens who are fighting in the 
trenches at the front. During this period between the 
beginning of the war and the end of 1915 while the Germans 
will be receiving an accession of three ships we shall receive 
the following ships : the Agincourt and the Erin, acquired 
from Turkey, the Tiger, the Benbow, the Emperor of India, 
the Queen Elizabeth, the Warspite, the Valiant, the Barham, the 
Resolution, the Ramilies, the Revenge, the Royal Sovereign, and 
the Malaya, and the Ammirente Latorre, renamed the Canada, 
that we acquired from Chile fifteen ships in all. All these ships 
are, of course, of the greatest power of any vessels that have 
ever been constructed in naval history, and it is no exaggera- 
tion to say that we could afford to lose a super-Dreadnought 
every month for twelve months without any loss occurring to 
the enemy and yet be in approximately as good a position of 
superiority as we were at the declaration of the war. 

326 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

I hope that these facts will be of comfort to nervous 
people during the months that lie before us. They prove 
that so far as any policy of attrition is concerned the results 
so far, and the forecast so far as we may judge it, are not 
unsatisfactory to us : nor is there any attrition by wear 
and tear. The refits of the Fleet and flotillas are being 
regularly conducted. The health of the sailors is nearly twice 
as good as in time of peace. Six hundred thousand pounds 
has been spent by the Admiralty on warm clothing, and I have 
every reason to believe that the arrangements are thoroughly 
satisfactory, though, of course, if friends like to send additional 
comforts, arrangements are made for their reception and 
distribution. The sailors have received with warm gratitude 
the separation allowance which the Navy had, always hitherto, 
been completely denied. The conduct of the Fleet is exem- 
plary, and any crime there is arises mainly among men who 
have been a long time in civil life, and who have not fully 
remembered the excellent precepts of their naval training. 
In the Grand Fleet the conduct of the men is almost perfect. 
Tho whole personnel of the Navy consists of a most intelligent 
class of skilled workmen and mechanicians. They have 
studied fully the conditions of the war, and they follow 
with the closest interest the heroic struggles of our soldiers 
in the field, and the zeal and enthusiasm with which they 
are discharging their duties inspires those who lead them with 
the utmost confidence. 

I have thought it right to offer these few remarks of a 
general character to the House because despondent views 
are prejudicial to the public interest, and ought not to be 
tolerated by persons in the responsible position of Members 
of Parliament while they are in any public situation. There 
is absolutely no reason whatever for nervousness, anxiety, 
or alarm. We are now separating for an adjournment of 
some weeks, which will probably be very important weeks 
in the history of this war. There is every reason for complete 
confidence in the power of the Navy to give effect to the 
wishes and the purposes of the State and the Empire. We 
have powerful Allies on the seas. The Russian Navy is 
developing in strength ; the French Navy has complete 
command of the Mediterranean, and the Japanese Navy 
has effective command of the Pacific, and the utmost cor- 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

diality characterises the working of the Admiralties of the 
four countries. But even if we were single-handed, as we 
were in the days of the Napoleonic wars, we should have no 
reason to despair of our capacity no doubt we should 
suffer discomfort and privation and loss but we should have 
no reason to despair of our capacity to go on indefinitely, 
drawing our supplies from wherever we needed them, and 
transporting our troops wherever we required them, and to 
continue this process with a strength which would grow 
stronger with each month the war continued until in the end, 
and perhaps not at any very distant date, the purposes for 
which we are fighting are achieved. 

MR. BONAR LAW : As I listened to the speech of the 
right hon. Gentleman I had no intention of rising to address 
the House after he had spoken, but I feel that the statement 
he has made is so important that it might be misunderstood 
if some words were not spoken on behalf of the Opposition. 
I agree with every word the right hon. Gentleman said at 
the outset about criticism, and what is more important, I 
think we have shown by our attitude that we realise the 
importance of the situation. I agree also thoroughly with 
what the right hon. Gentleman said about the duty of a 
Prime Minister, on whom the responsibility nominally rests, 
to allow no consideration of friendship or anything else to 
influence him in a situation so vital as this. We all know 
that in the time of the French Revolutionary wars, where 
public sentiment was effective in creating one of the greatest 
and most ^efficient armies that ever existed, a very simple 
rule was laid down. It was, in effect, that any general who 
failed lost his head without any further consideration. That 
was pretty drastic, but I think it was fairly effective, and it 
was certainly not found that the penalty prevented ambition 
from finding plenty of others willing to take his place. I do 
not suggest that a course so drastic as that should be taken 
in any case, but I do say, if anyone conducting this War, 
whether soldier or sailor, creates an impression that he is 
not successful, that in itself is half the battle, and no con- 
sideration of a personal kind should apply in regard to any 
general or admiral. 

MR. CHURCHILL : I think in regard to an admiral or 
a general it should not be a question of creating an 

328 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

impression, but of whether, in fact, he is doing right or 
wrong. 

MR. BONAR LAW : I am not sure that I quite agree. 
I would rather do an injustice to an individual than feel that 
his power was weakened by a lack of confidence in him on 
the part of those who are obeying him soldiers or sailors. 
That is my point. I consider this statement of the right 
hon. Gentleman is as necessary and perhaps almost as im- 
portant as the statement made by Lord Kitchener in regard 
to the conduct of the War in the House of Lords yesterday. 
There has undoubtedly grown up a feeling, for which I think 
there is no justification and never has been, that accidents 
have happened in the Navy which we might not have expected. 
There is no justification for that feeling, but I am not sure 
that it has not partly been created by too optimistic utterances 
in the country. There is no ground for it whatever. The 
right hon. Gentleman said that before the War the anticipation 
was that there would be a much greater loss of commerce 
than has actually taken place. I made the same statement, 
I think, at the beginning of this Session. That was the 
view of everyone, and I think there is every reason for grati- 
fication that, taking the work of the Admiralty as a whole, 
we have every reason to rejoice at what has happened and 
to feel that, in spite of these accidents, good fortune as well 
as good management has been on our side. The right hon. 
Gentleman has called our attention to the. tremendous increase 
in the strength of our Fleet which is coming forward. It 
is in the highest degree desirable that information should have 
been given in this formal way though, of course, it was 
available to anybody who had studied it to the whole of 
the people of this country, for, after all, in such a war as we 
are engaged in now, the moral influence tells enormously, 
and nothing could be worse on the whole than that any feeling 
should grow up that there was any danger of the Navy not 
being able to carry out the work which we expected from it. 
It is not so with our Army, but once the impression is created 
that we cannot rely on the Navy protecting these shores one 
would feel that everything almost had gone. For that 
reason it is in the highest degree desirable the country should 
realise what I have always myself believed to be the fact, 
that, come what may, whatever may happen, bad luck or 

329 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Nc 

good luck, we can rely on the Navy protecting our commerce 
and our shores from the enemy. 

OPERATIONS AT DAR-ES-SALAAM. 

Nairobi, December 15, 
By Cable from Cape Town, January 4. 
H.M.S. Fox and H.M.S. Goliath have carried out successful 
operations at Dar-es-Salaam. [November 28th.] 

The enemy was bombarded, the town suffering consider- 
ably. All the enemy's vessels in harbour were entirely dis- 
abled. Fourteen Europeans and twenty natives were taken 
prisoners. Our losses were one killed and twelve wounded. 
Renter. 

Admiralty, April 10, 1915. 

The King has been graciously pleased to approve of the 
grant of the Victoria Cross to Commander Henry Peel Ritchie, 
R.N., for the conspicuous act of bravery specified below: 

" For most conspicuous bravery on November 28th, 
1914, when in command of the searching and demolition 
operations at Dar-es-Salaam, East Africa. Though 
severely wounded several times, his fortitude and reso- 
lution enabled him to continue to do his duty, inspiring 
all by his example, until at his eighth wound he became 
unconscious. The interval between his first and last 
severe wound was between 20 and 25 minutes/' 



With reference to the bombardment of Dar-es-Salaam the 
following is officially reported : 

Renter's Agency announced some time ago that " owing 
to the misuse of the white flag by the Germans," the open, 
undefended town of Dar-es-Salaam had been shelled by 
English cruisers and a few Europeans taken prisoners. With 
reference to the above, Governor Schnee reports as follows : 
On November 28th the battleship Goliath, the cruiser Fox, 
a cable steamer and a tug arrived off Dar-es-Salaam. After 
a parley under a flag of truce, the Government representative 
granted permission for an English pinnace to enter the harbour 
in order to ascertain whether the steamer of the German 
East Africa line there was in working order. In breach of 

330 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the agreement concluded, two more English pinnaces armed 
with machine guns followed at intervals and blew up the 
machinery of the steamers Feldmarschall, Kdnig and Kaiser 
Wilhelm, causing damage to the extent of some hundreds of 
thousands of rupees. A portion of the crew, including 
a stewardess, were taken prisoners. When, however, a third 
armed pinnace entered the harbour she was fired at by our 
machine guns. This was followed by the bombardment of 
Dar-es-Salaam, and under its cover the pinnaces managed to 
slip out, with losses. Thirteen of the English were taken 
prisoners including Lieutenant Commander Patterson of the 
Goliath. The Governor's Palace was totally destroyed by 
gun fire and other houses were damaged. 

On November 30th the warships appeared again. Their 
appeal by signals for a resumption of negotiations was dis- 
regarded in view of the breach of contract by the English 
on November 28th. The warships then at once proceeded 
to bombard the open undefended town of Dar-es-Salaam once 
more. A row of houses was seriously damaged and a number of 
Swahili women killed or wounded. (According to the above 
account, the events that led up to the bombardment of 
Dar-es-Salaam appear in an essentially different light to the 
reports of Reuter's Agency published at the time. No 
misuse of the white flag on our side took place.) 



NAVY AND NAVAL RESERVES. 

Pensions and Allowances. 

Order in Council under section 3 of the Naval and Marine 
Pay and Pensions Act, 1865 (28 & 29 Viet. c. 73), altering 
Regulations as to Pensions and Compassionate Allow- 
ances to Widows and Children of Officers of the Navy, 
Naval Reserve, and Naval Volunteer Reserve. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, 
The 28th day of November, 1914. 

PRESENT, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a 

331 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Memorial from the Right Hon. the Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty, dated the 26th day of November, 1914, in the 
words following, viz. : 

" Whereas by Section 3 of the Naval and Marine Pay and 
Pensions Act, 1865, it is enacted that all pay, wages, pensions, 
bounty money, grants, or other allowances in the nature 
thereof, payable in respect of services in" Your Majesty's 
Naval or Marine force to a person being or having been an 
Officer, Seaman, or Marine, or to the Widow or any relative 
of a deceased Officer, Seaman, or Marine, shall be paid in 
such manner, and subject to such restrictions, conditions, and 
provisions, as are from time to time directed by Order in 
Council : 

" And whereas we have had under our consideration the 
Regulations governing the award of pensions and compas- 
sionate allowances to the Widows and Children of Officers 
of Your Majesty's Navy, Naval Reserve, and Naval Volunteer 
Reserve : 

" And whereas we are of opinion that certain alterations 
are desirable in those Regulations : 

" We, therefore, beg leave humbly to recommend that 
Your Majesty may be graciously pleased, by Your Order in 
Council, to authorize the alterations of Regulations specified 
in the attached Schedule. 

" The Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Treasury 
have signified their concurrence in the proposal. 

" SCHEDULE. 

" i. The period within which death must have resulted (in 
cases where it is attributable to the service) in order to render 
the Widow and Children eligible for the higher rates of pension 
and compassionate allowances, to be extended from 2 years 
to 7 years. 

"2. The pensions and compassionate allowances at present 
approved for Assistant Paymasters of 6 years' seniority to 
be granted in future to Widows and Children of Assistant 
Paymasters of 4 years' seniority. 

"3. Compassionate allowances on the following scale to be 
provided for the Children of Sub-Lieutenants, Assistant Pay- 
masters of under 4 years' seniority, and Engineer Sub- 
Lieutenants, viz. : 



332 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

" (a) If the Officer be killed in action or die from 
wounds received in action, scale 12-^14. 

" (b) If the Officer be drowned or suffer other violent 
death in an immediate act of duty, scale fy-i2. 
" 4. Widows, Children, and other relatives of Officers who 
may have been granted temporary Commissions, or have held 
acting appointments, to be eligible for pensions and allow- 
ances on the same scales as are prescribed for Officers of 
similar ranks holding permanent Commissions in the Royal 
Navy." 

His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy 
Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And the 
Right Hon. the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty are to 
give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 

PROMOTIONS, APPOINTMENTS, HONOURS AND 

REWARDS. ' 

Admiralty, November 4. 

ADMIRAL SIR PERCY M. SCOTT, BART., K.CB., K.C.V.O., Times. 
LL.D., to the President, additional, for special service, t 
date November 3rd. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 5th day of L.G., 
November, 1914. Nov - 6 

PRESENT, I 9 I 4- 

The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 
THIS day Admiral His Serene Highness Prince Louis 
Alexander of Battenberg, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., was, 
by His Majesty's Command, sworn of His Majesty's Most 
Honourable Privy Council, and took his place at the Board 
accordingly. 

ROYAL NAVAL DIVISION. 

Colonel (temporary Brigadier-General) Archibald Paris, L.G., 
C.B., Royal Marine Artillery, to command the Royal Naval Nov. 6, 
Division, with the temporary rank of Major-General. Dated I9I 4* 
October 3rd, 1914. 

His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to L.G., 
appoint the undermentioned Officer to be a Companion of the March 
Distinguished Service Order : 

333 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Captain Dudley Graham Johnson, 2nd Battalion, the 
South Wales Borderers. For conspicuous ability on the night 
of November 5th-6th, 1914, during the operations against 
the German positions at Tsingtau, and for great gallantry 
in rescuing several wounded men whilst exposed to heavy 
machine-gun fire. 

Times, Captain J. E. Drummond, who commanded the armoured 

Nov. 6, cruiser Aboukir when she was sunk in the North Sea on 

I 9 I 4- September 22nd by a German submarine, is again on active 

service, having assumed command of the battleship Illustrious, 

vacant by the appointment of Captain B. M. Chambers to 

the armoured cruiser Roxburgh. 

Admiralty, November 23, 1914. 

L.G., The King has been graciously pleased to confer the Royal 

Nov. 27, Naval Reserve Officers' Decoration on Lieutenant-Commander 
I 9 I 4- Edward James Minister. 

L.G., The following Vice-Admirals have been promoted to the 

Nov. 27, ran k O f Admiral in His Majesty's Fleet : 
I 9 I 4- The Honourable Sir Stanley Cecil James Colville, K.C.B., 

C.V.O. Dated September nth, 1914. 

Sir Arthur Murray Farquhar, K.C.B., C.V.O. Dated 
September I4th, 1914. 

Ernest Alfred Simons. Dated October 24th, 1914. 

Rear-Admiral Sir Richard Henry Peirse, K.C.B., M.V.O., 
has been promoted to the rank of Vice-Admiral in His 
Majesty's Fleet. Dated October 24th, 1914. 

The following Captains have been promoted to the rank 
of Rear- Admiral in His Majesty's Fleet : 

Ernest Frederic Augustus Gaunt, C.M.G., A.D.C. (Com- 
modore Second Class). Dated October 24th, 1914. 

Robert John Prendergast, A.D.C. Dated November 2nd, 
1914. 

ROYAL NAVAL DIVISION. 

Colonel David Mercer, Royal Marine Light Infantry 
(Assistant Adjutant General, Royal Marines), to command 
the First Brigade, with the temporary rank of Brigadier- 
General. Dated November nth, 1914. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Edmund George Evelegh, Royal Marine 

334 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Light Infantry, to command the 5th (Nelson) Battalion. 
Dated November 2ist, 1914. 

ROYAL MARINE LIGHT INFANTRY. 

Major Alexander Richard Hamilton Hutchison to be 
Lieutenant-Colonel by Brevet, under the provisions of Order 
in Council of March igth, 1883. Dated November 20th, 1914. 

DETENTIONS AND CAPTURES OF ENEMY SHIPS 

OR CARGOES. 

[The lists which follow dated successively October gih, October 23rd } 
and October 27th should have been given in Part I. of the Naval Section. 
But having been accidentally overlooked in the preparation of that volume 
they are inserted here.] 

SHIPS, WHOSE CARGOES, OR PART OF THEM, HAVE BEEN 

DETAINED. 

(In continuation of previous notice published in 
Supplementary London Gazette of October 3rd, 1914.) 



< " )ct ' 9* 



Name of Vessel. 


Nationality. 


Cargo Detained at 


Aleppo 
Alnwick Castle 


British 
British 


Hull. 
London. 


Atreus 


British 


London. 


Celebes 


Netherland 


London. 


Cherbury 
Chester 


British 


Liverpool. 
Portsmouth. 


Clan Cameron 


British 


London. 


Clan Mactavish . . 


British 


London. 


Clarissa Radcliffe 
D'Jebres 

Fairhaven 


British 
Netherland 
British 


Bristol. 
Greenock. 
London. 


Hitachi Maru 
Holly Branch 
India 


Japanese 
British 
British 


Liverpool. 
Swansea. 
London. 


Junin 
Katwijk 
Marthara 


British 
Netherland 
British 


Liverpool. 
Portsmouth. 
Swansea. 


Nagoya 
Nias 


British 
Netherland 


London. 
London. 


Ningchow 
Orama 


British 
British 


Liverpool. 
London. 


Orcoma 


British 


Swansea. 



335 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



L.G., 
Oct. 23. 



Name of Vessel. 


Nationality. 


Cargo Detained at 


Orsova ,-J- 


British 


London. 


Panariellos 


Greek .. .. 


Swansea. 


Riouw 


Netherland 


London. 


Salybia 


British 


London. 


Swindon 


British 


Bristol. 


Teespool 


British 


Falmouth. 


Thistleban 


British 


Bristol. 


Toscello 





London. 


Turakina . . 


British 


London. 


Twickenham 


British 


Dublin. 


Tyningham ... ,'," 


British 


Cardiff. 


Umtata 


British .. .. 


London. 


Villede Paris .. 


French 


Liverpool. 


Westbury .. v >/ 


British 


Swansea. 


Wirral Coast. . 


British 


Swansea. 


Yangtsze 


British 


Liverpool. 



Foreign Office, 

October 9, 1914. 

VESSELS DETAINED OR CAPTURED AT SEA BY His MAJESTY'S 

ARMED FORCES. 

(In continuation of the notification which was published 
in the Supplementary London Gazette of October 3rd, 1914.) 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Aenne Rickmers (4,083) 


German 


Alexandria. 


Annaberg (4,463) . . 


German 


Alexandria. 


Barenfels (5,398) 


German 


Alexandria. 


Derfflinger (9,144) . . 


German 


Alexandria. 


Goslar (4,331) 


German 


Alexandria. 


Gutenfels (5,528) 


German 


Alexandria. 


Helgoland (5,666) 


German 


Alexandria. 


Herzogin Elisabeth (548) 


German 


* 


Koerber (5,440) 


Austrian 


Alexandria. 


Lauterfels (5,811) 


German 


Alexandria. 


Liitzow (8,826) 


German 


Alexandria. 


Pindos (2,933) 


German 


Alexandria. 



* Sunk in the Cameroon River. 



336 



" 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Pontoporos (4,049) . . 
Rabenfels (4,678) 
Rio Pasig (3,250) 
Rostock (4,957) 
Tannenfels (5,341) . . 
Werdenfels (4,504) 


Greek 
German 
United States 
German 
German 
German 


Alexandria. 
Hong Kong. 
Alexandria. 
Hong Kong. 
Alexandria. 



f Captured at sea. 
Foreign Office, 

October 22, 1914. 

VESSELS DETAINED OR CAPTURED AT SEA BY His MAJESTY'S 

ARMED FORCES. 

(In continuation of previous notice published in theL.G., 
London Gazette of October 23rd, 1914.) Oct - 2 7< 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Achaia (2,733) 


German 


Alexandria. 


Andros (2,991) 


German 


Alexandria. 


Brindilla . . . . ... 


United States 


Halifax (Nova 






Scotia). 


Haidar Pascha (3,424) 


German . . . . 


Alexandria. 


Markomannia (4,505) 


German 


* 


New York . . 


United States 


Falmouth. 


Ocean 


Netherland 


Plymouth. 


Paros (3,57 6 ) 


German 


Alexandria. 


Platuria (3,445) - 


United States 


Stornoway. 


Pontoporos (4,049) 


Greek 


Singapore. 


Prdsident (3,335) 


German 


t 



* Sunk at sea. 

f Captured in Lindi River (German East Africa). 



337 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



SHIPS, WHOSE CARGOES, OR PART OF THEM, HAVE BEEN 

DETAINED. 

L.G., (In continuation of previous notice published in the 

Oct. 27, Supplementary London Gazette of October gth, 1914.) 



Name of Vessel. 


Nationality. 


Cargo Detained at 


Aburi.. 


British 


Liverpool. 


Adalia 


British 


Zanzibar. 


Alcantara 


British 


Liverpool. 


American 


Netherland 


Plymouth. 


Amsterdam . . 


British 


Harwich. 


Antilochus 


British 


London. 


Arzila 


British 


London. 


Ashburton 


British 


London. 


Bassam 


British 


Liverpool. 


Berbera 


British 


Zanzibar. 


Cape Antibes 


British 


Zanzibar. 


Charlois 


Netherland 


Portsmouth. 


Clan Macaulay 


British 


Zanzibar. 


Clan Macintyre 


British 


London. 


Clan JJrquhart 


British 


London. 


Clintonia 


British 


London. 


Colchester 


British 


Harwich. 


Colorado 


British 


Hull. 


Copenhagen 


British 


Harwich. 


Den of Glamis 


British 


Durban. 


Erato 


British 


Hull. 


Erich Lindol 


British 


London. 


Eugene Schnider 


French 


Cork. 


Eumaeus 


British 


London. 


Francisco 


British 


Hull. 


Galileo 


British 


Hull. 


Golconda 


British 


Zanzibar. 


Intaba 


British .. .. 


London. 


lyo Maru 


J apanese 


London. 


Kongsfos 


Norwegian 


Zanzibar. 


Matiana 


British 


Liverpool. 


Norderdyk 


Netherland 


Falmouth. 


Oranje 


Netherland 


London. 


Potsdam 


Netherland 


London. 


Professor 


British 


Swansea. 


Ptarmigan 


British 


London. 


Rhineland 


British 


Liverpool. 


Rosetta . . 


British 


London. 



338 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Name of Vessel. 


Nationality. 


Cargo Detained at 


Ruperra 
Scindia 


British 
British 


Bristol. 
Liverpool. 


Strathness 


British 


Swansea. 


Teano 


British 


Hull. 


Tourmaline 


British * . . 


Liverpool. 


Trent 


British 


Liverpool. 


Tydeus 


British 


Liverpool. 


Warrior 


British 


Zanzibar. 



Foreign Office, 

October 26, 1914. 

VESSELS DETAINED OR CAPTURED AT SEA BY His MAJESTY'S 

ARMED FORCES. 

(In continuation of previous notification published in the L.G., 
London Gazette of October 27th, 1914.) Nov - 3 

LIST OF VESSELS. I 9 I 4 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Carl (1,197) 


German 


Falmouth. 


Graecia (2,753) 


German 


Gibraltar. 


Marquis Bacquehem (4,396) 


Austrian 


Alexandria. 


Regina d' Italia (6,240) 


Italian 


Gibraltar. 


San Giovanni (6,592) 


Italian 


Gibraltar. 


Ulrich (2,335) 


German 


Berehaven. 



LIST OF SHIPS WHOSE CARGOES, OR PART OF THEM, HAVE 

BEEN DETAINED. 

(In continuation of previous notice published in the London ibid. 
Gazette of October 27th, 1914.) 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name of Vessel. 


Nationality. 


Cargo Detained at 


Amsteldijk 
Asturias 
Batsford 


Netherland 
British 
British 


London. 
Southampton. 
Grimsby. 



Naval II- Z 



339 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Name of Vessel. 


Nationality. 


Cargo Detained at 


Clan Davidson 










British 






London. 


Corfu 










British 






London. 


Cufic . . 










British 






London. 


Edgerbina 










Netherland 






Oban. 


Egret 










British 






Portsmouth. 


Egypt.. 










British 






London. 


Harpalyce 










British 






Grimsby. 


Hitano Maru 
Ixion 










Japanese 
British 






London. 
London. 


Naiad 










British 






Liverpool. 


Polo .. 










British 






Hull. 


Professor 










British 






Liverpool. 


Prosper III. 










Norwegian 






Leith. 


Rembrandt . . 










British 






London. 


Saint Marie 










French 






Glasgow. 


Tregarthen . . 










British 






Falmouth. 


Virginia 










British 






Liverpool. 


Wills 










Netherland 




Southampton. 



Foreign Office, 

November 2, 1914. 



L.G., 
Nov. 20, 

1914. 



GERMAN VESSELS DETAINED BY THE BELGIAN AUTHORITIES 
AT ANTWERP ON THE OUTBREAK OF HOSTILITIES. 

Foreign Office, November 17, 1914. 

As notified in the Supplementary London Gazette of 
September 2, 1914, and in the London Gazette of September 
4th, 1914 (seePa.it I., pp. 167 and 172), a Commission was 
originally appointed by the Belgian Government to prepare 
inventories of the cargoes of these vessels, claims in respect 
of which were to be submitted to the Belgian Tribunal of 
First Instance at Antwerp. 

It is understood that in some cases the cargoes were un- 
loaded by the Belgian Authorities ; in other cases the cargoes 
remained on board the vessels. 

According to the latest reliable information the vessels 
were lying in dock with their cargoes intact at the time of 
the investment of the city by the German forces. 

His Majesty's Government have no information to show 

340 









DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

what treatment will be applied by the German Government 
to merchandise either on board ship or warehoused at Antwerp. 

VESSELS DETAINED OR CAPTURED AT SEA BY His MAJESTY'S 

ARMED FORCES. 

(In continuation of previous notification published in ibid. 
the London Gazette of November 3rd, 1914.) 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Adjutant (231) 


German 


Mombasa. 


Ascot (4,334) 


British 


Gibraltar. 


Bimbashi Riza Bey (1,398) . . 


Turkish 


Glasgow. 


Buyak Ada (550) . . 


Turkish 


Colchester. 


Empress IX. (90) 


German 


Comox Spit (B.C.). 


Ernst (2,285) 


German 


Sydney. 


Komet (977) 


German 


Sydney. 


Marina (600) 


German 


Accra. 


Matupi 


German 


New Britain. 


Melpomene (1,784) 


German 


Queenstown. 


Ophelia (1,153) 


German 


London. 


Sexta 


German 


New Britain. 


Siar (325) 


German 


New Britain. 


Wrestler (192) 


Turkish 


Glasgow. 



LIST OF SHIPS WHOSE CARGOES, OR PART OF THEM, HAVE 

BEEN DETAINED. 

(In continuation of previous notification published in the ibid. 
London Gazette of November 3rd, 1914.) 

* LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name of Vessel. 


Nationality. 


Cargo Detained at 


Alfred Nobel 
Astyana 
Atlantic 
Basque 
Bergensfjord 
Bjornstjerne Bjornson 
Cormorant 


Norwegian . . 
British 

French 
Norwegian 
Norwegian 
British 


Lerwick. 
Liverpool. 
Durban. 
London. 
KirkwalL 
Kirkwall. 
Manchester. 



341 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Name of Vessel. 


Nationality. 


Cargo Detained at 


Duca di Genova 


Italian 


Gibraltar. 


Europa 


Italian 


Gibraltar. 


Falernian 


British 


Liverpool. 


Flamenco 


British 


Liverpool. 


Fridland 


Swedish 


Kirkwall. 


Glaucus 


British 


Liverpool. 


Hero 


British 


Hull. 


Italia 


British 


Gibraltar. 


Kenuta 


British 


London. 


Kronprinsessan Victoria . . 


Swedish 


Stornoway. 


Kroonland 


United States 


Gibraltar. 


Lancashire Coast 


British 


Liverpool. 


Lord Erne 


British 


Liverpool. 


Margareta 


Russian 


Falmouth. 


Orduna 


British 


Liverpool. 


Palermo 


Italian 


Gibraltar. 


Pavia 


British 


Liverpool. 


Poona 


British 


London. 


Redstart 


British 


London. 


Regina d' Italia 


Italian 


Gibraltar. 


San Giovanni 


Italian 


Gibraltar. 


San Guglielmo 


Italian 


Gibraltar. 


Syria 


British 


London. 


Tabor 


Norwegian 


Gibraltar. 


Teenkai 


British 


London. 


Tower gate 


British 


Liverpool. 


Verona 


Italian 


Gibraltar. 


Warrior 


British 


Liverpool. 


Zeelandia 


Netherland 


Plymouth. 


Zeemeeuw 


Netherland 


Falmouth. 



Foreign Office, 

November 19, 1914. 



342 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

VESSELS DETAINED OR CAPTURED AT SEA BY His MAJESTY'S 

ARMED FORCES. 

(In continuation of previous notification published in the.G., 

London Gazette of November 20th, 1014.) Dec - r 

1914. 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Altair (3,220) 
Bjornstjerne Bjornson 
Concadoro (1,793) 
Fram 
Fridland 
Kara Deniz (5,012) 
Kim 
Sigrun 


German 
Norwegian 
Austrian 
Norwegian 
Swedish 
Turkish 
Norwegian 
Norwegian 


Alexandria. 
Leith. 
Alexandria. 
Kirkwall. 
Kirkwall. 
Bombay. 
Falmouth. 
Newport (Mon.). 



LIST OF SHIPS WHOSE CARGOES, OR PART OF THEM, HAVE 

BEEN DETAINED. 

(In continuation of previous notification published in theL.G., 

London Gazette of November 20th, 1014.) Dec - 

1914. 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name of Vessel. 


Nationality. 


Cargo Detained at 


Anselm 


British 


Liverpool. 


Antigone 


British 


London. 


Asturian 


British 


Liverpool. 


Brescia 


British 


Liverpool. 


Craigisla 


Norwegian 


Simons Bay. 


Danube 


British 


London. 


Egba . . 


British 


Liverpool. 


Elisabethville 


Belgian 


Liverpool. 


Erato 


British 


London. 


Jeanne Cordonnier . 


French 


Cork. 


Kalomo 


British 


London. 


Orcoma 


British 


Liverpool. 


Perseus 


British 


London. 



343 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Name of Vessel. 


Nationality. 


Cargo Detained at 


Prins Maritz 
Salybia 
Serasia 
Tyr 


Netherland 
British 
British 
Norwegian 


Trinidad. 
Trinidad. 
London. 
Glasgow. 



Foreign Office, 

November 30, 1914. 

ADMIRALTY MONTHLY ORDERS. 

Admiralty, S.W., December i, 1914. 
225. Joint Captures by French and British War Vessels. 

. THE following Convention has been agreed upon by the 
British and French Governments, in regard to joint captures 
which may be made by the naval forces of the allied countries, 
or captures made of merchant vessels belonging to nationals of 
one of the countries by cruisers of the other. 

The instructions in the annex to the Convention are to be 
strictly observed by the Commanding Officers of H.M. Ships : 

CONVENTION. 

ARTICLE i. 

The adjudication of neutral or enemy prizes shall belong 
to the jurisdiction of the country of the capturing vessel, 
without distinguishing whether that vessel was placed under 
the orders of the naval authorities of one or other of the 
allied countries. 

ARTICLE 2. 

In case of the capture of a merchant-vessel of one of the 
allied countries, the adjudication of such capture shall always 
belong to the jurisdiction of the country of the captured 
vessel. In such case the cargo shall be dealt with, as to the 
jurisdiction, in the same manner as the vessel .- 

When a merchant vessel of one of the allied countries, 
whose original destination was an enemy port, and which is 

344 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

carrying an enemy or neutral cargo liable to capture, has 
entered a port of one of the allied countries, the prize jurisdic- 
tion of that country is competent to pronounce the condem- 
nation of the cargo. In such case the value of the goods, after 
deducting the necessary expenses, shall be placed to the 
credit of the Government of the allied country whose flag 
the merchant vessel flies. 

n 

ARTICLE 3. 

When a joint capture shall be made by the naval forces 
of the allied countries, the adjudication thereof shall belong 
to the jurisdiction of the country whose flag shall have been 
borne by the officer having the superior command in the action. 

ARTICLE 4. 

When a capture shall be made by a cruiser of one of the 
allied nations in the presence and in the sight of a cruiser of 
the other, such cruiser having thus contributed to the intimi- 
dation of the enemy and encouragement of the captor, the 
adjudication thereof shall belong to the jurisdiction of the 
actual captor. 

ARTICLE 5. 

In case of condemnation under the circumstances described 
in the preceding articles : 

1. If the capture shall have been made by vessels of the 
allied nations whilst acting in conjunction, the net proceeds 
of the prize, after deducting the necessary expenses, shall be 
divided into as many shares as there were men on board the 
capturing vessels, without reference to rank, and the shares 
of each ally as so ascertained shall be paid and delivered to 
such person as may be duly authorised on behalf of the allied 
Government to receive the same ; and the allocation of the 
amount belonging to each vessel shall be made by each 
Government according to the laws and regulations of the 
country. 

2. If the capture shall have been made by cruisers of one 
of the allied nations in the presence and in sight of a cruiser 
of the other, the division, the payment, and the allocation of 
the net proceeds of the prize, after deducting the necessary 

345 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

expenses, shall likewise be made in the manner above 
mentioned. 

3. If, in accordance with article 2, paragraph i, a capture, 
made by a cruiser of one of the allied countries, shall have 
been adjudicated by the Courts of the other, the net proceeds 
of the prize, after deducting the necessary expenses, shall be 
made over in the same manner to the Government of the 
captor, to be distributed according to its laws and regulations. 

ARTICLE 6. 

The commanders of the vessels of war of the allied countries 
shall, with regard to the sending in and delivering up of 
prizes, conform to the instructions which are annexed to the 
present convention, and which the two Governments reserve 
to themselves the right to modify by common consent, if it 
should become necessary. 

ARTICLE 7. 

When, with a view to the execution of the present conven- 
tion, it shall become necessary to proceed to the valuation 
of a captured vessel of war, the calculation shall be according 
to the real value of the same ; and the allied Government 
shall be entitled to delegate one or more competent officers 
to assist in the valuation. In case of disagreement, it shall 
be decided by lot which officer shall have the casting voice. 

ARTICLE 8. 

The present convention shall be ratified, and the ratifica- 
tions shall be exchanged in London as soon as possible. 

ARTICLE 9. 

The non-signatory allied Powers shall be invited to accede 
to the present convention. 

A Power which desires to accede shall notify its intention 
in writing to the Government of His Britannic Majesty, who 
shall immediately forward to the Government of the French 
Republic a duly certified copy of the notification. 

In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have 

346 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

signed the present convention, and have affixed thereto the 
seals of their arms. 

Done at London, in duplicate, the gth day of November, 
1914. 

(L.S.) E. GREY. 

(L.S.) PAUL CAMBON. 

ANNEX. 

Instructions to the Commanders of Ships of War of His Majesty 
the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland and of the French Republic. 

You will find enclosed a copy of a convention which was 
signed on November gth, 1914, between His Majesty the 
King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and 
the President of the French Republic, regulating the jurisdic- 
tion to which shall belong the adjudication of the captures 
made by the allied naval forces, or of the captures of merchant 
vessels belonging to the nationals of either of the two 
countries which shall be made by the cruisers of the other, 
as likewise the mode of distribution of the proceeds of such 
joint captures. 

In order to ensure the execution of this convention, you 
will conform yourself to the following instructions : 

ARTICLE i. 

Whenever, in consequence of a joint action, you are 
required to draw up the report or proces-verbal of a capture, 
you will take care to specify, with exactness, the names of 
the ships of war present during the action, as well as the 
names of their commanding officers, and, as far as possible, 
the number of men embarked on board those ships at the 
commencement of the action, without distinction of rank. 

You will deliver a copy of that report or proces-verbal 
to the officer of the allied Power who shall have had the 
superior command during the action, and you will conform 
yourself to the instructions of that officer, as far as relates 
to the measures to be taken for the conduct and the adjudica- 
tion of the joint captures so made under his command. 

If the action has been commanded by an officer of your 

347 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N< 

nation, you will conform yourself to the regulations of your 
own country, and you will confine yourself to handing over to 
the highest officer in rank of the allied Power who was present 
during the action, a certified copy of the report or the proces- 
verbal which you shall have drawn up. 

ARTICLE 2. 

When you shall have effected a capture in presence and 
in sight of an allied ship of war, you will mention exactly, 
in the report which you will draw up when the capture is a 
ship of war, and in the report or proces-verbal of the capture 
when the prize is a merchant vessel, the number of men on 
board your ship at the commencement of the action, without 
distinction of rank, as well as the name of the allied ship of 
war which was in sight, and, if possible, the number of men 
embarked on board that ship, likewise without distinction of 
rank. You will deliver a certified copy of your report, or 
proces-verbal, to the commander of that ship. 

ARTICLE 3. 

Whenever, in the case of a violation of a blockade, of the 
transport of contraband articles, of land or sea troops of the 
enemy, or of official despatches from or for the enemy, you 
find yourself under the necessity of stopping and seizing a 
merchant vessel of the allied nation, you will take care : 

1. To draw up a report (or proces-verbal), stating the place, 
the date, and the motive of the arrest, the name of the vessel, 
that of the captain, the number of the crew ; and containing 
besides an exact description of the state of the vessel and 
her cargo ; 

2. To collect and place in' a sealed packet, after having 
made an inventory of them, all the ship's papers, such as 
registers, pass-ports, charter-parties, bills of lading, invoices, 
and other documents calculated to prove the nature and the 
ownership of the vessel and of her cargo ; 

3. To place seals upon the hatches ; 

4. To place on board an officer, with such number of men 
as you may deem advisable, to take charge of the vessel, 
and to ensure its safe conduct ; 

5. To send the vessel to the nearest port belonging to the 
Power whose flag it carried ; 

348 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

6. To deliver up the vessel to the authorities of the port 
to which you shall have taken her, together with a duplicate 
of the report (or proems-verbal), and of the inventory above- 
mentioned, and with the sealed packet containing the ship's 
papers. 

ARTICLE 4. 

The officer who conducts the captured vessel will procure 
a receipt proving his having delivered her up, as well as his 
having delivered the sealed packet and the duplicate of the 
report (or proces-verbal) and of the inventory above-mentioned. 

ARTICLE 5. 

In case of distress, if the captured vessel is not in a fit 
state to continue its voyage, or in case the distance should be 
too great, the officer charged to conduct to a port of the allied 
Power a prize made on the merchant service of that Power, 
may enter a port of his own country, and he will deliver his 
prize to the local authority without prejudice to the ulterior 
measures to be taken for the adjudication of the prize. He 
will take care, in that case, that the report or proces-verbal, 
and the inventory which he shall have drawn up, as well as 
the sealed packet containing the ship's papers, be sent exactly 
to tKe proper Court of Adjudication. 

E. GREY. 

PAUL CAMBON. 

[The adhesion of Russia to the foregoing Convention is recorded in the 
following Correspondence, published in Parliamentary Paper, Cd. 7858, 
Treaty Series 1915, No. 4: 

Imperial Russian Embassy, London. 

March 5, 1915. 
SIR, 

In acceding, in the name of my Government, to the Convention con- 
cluded between Great Britain and France on the 9th November, 1914, 
I desire to call your Excellency's attention to the fact that, according to 
Russian legislation, the condemnation of enemy cargoes on board merchant 
vessels of the allied States which enter Russian ports does not appertain 
to Prize Court jurisdiction, but is pronounced by the Imperial administrative 
authorities. It is consequently in this sense that Article 2, paragraph 2, 
of the aforesaid Convention should be interpreted so far as regards Russia. 
In requesting your Excellency to take note of this communication in 
the name of His Britannic Majesty's Government, I have, &c. 

BENCKENDORFF. 

349 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

DECLARATION. 

The undersigned, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 

His Majesty the Emperor of Russia, duly authorised to that effect, hereby 

declares, iii the name of his Government, their accession to the Convention 

concluded between Great Britain and France on the gth November, 1914. 

In witness whereof the undersigned has signed the present Declaration. 

BENCKENDORFF. 
London, March 5, 1915. 

SIR E. GREY TO THE RUSSIAN AMBASSADOR. 

Foreign Office, 

March 12, 1915. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Excellency's 
note of the 5th instant, conveying the formal accession of Russia to the 
Convention relating to prizes captured during the present war, which was 
concluded between Great Britain and France on the gth November, 1914. 

Due note has been taken of this communication, a certified copy of 
which will, in accordance with Article 9 of the Convention, be forwarded 
by His Majesty's Government to the Government of the French Republic. 

I have, &c. 

E. GREY. 
His Excellency the 

Count Benckendorff, &c.] 

228. Carrier Pigeons in Ships arriving at British Ports. 

The following instructions have been issued by the Board 
of Customs and Excise to their Officers : 

CARRIER PIGEONS. 

Collectors and other officers concerned are informed that 
by an Order in Council dated the I7th ult., no person is 
allowed to bring into the United Kingdom carrier or homing 
pigeons unless provided with a permit from the Chief Officer 
of Police. 

Steps are to be taken to prevent unauthorised landing, 
and any such birds found on board ships arriving in the United 
Kingdom are either to be retained on board and returned with 
the ship in which they arrived, or liberated. If the ship has 
arrived from a port in Europe the birds should be liberated, 
care being taken that no messages are attached before they 
are given their liberty. If the ship has arrived from a port 
outside Europe, the birds may at the owner's option be 

350 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

retained on board for return, with the ship, or liberated. If 
retained on board, the cages in which they are contained are 
to be sealed so as to prevent their liberation while in port. 
If liberated, care is to be taken that no messages are attached 
before they are given their liberty. 



230. Coast Towns Reduction of Public and Private Lighting. 

Municipal Authorities at towns on the East and South 
Coasts of England, as far West as Weymouth (inclusive), and 
on the North and East Coasts of Scotland, have been requested 
by the Home Office and Scottish Office to reduce to the 
greatest possible extent the number and intensity of the 
lights on shore which are visible from seaward or which would 
cause a glare in the sky visible from seaward, the following 
specific instructions being issued : 

" Sky signs and brilliantly illuminated shop fronts to be 
dispensed with ; in cases where a shop front consists of a 
considerable area of glass illuminated from inside, the lighting 
intensity to be reduced to a minimum ; the majority of 
main street lamps to be extinguished, and those left alight to be 
irregularly spaced ; all bright lights visible from seaward to 
be extinguished at 10 p.m., as many as possible to be left 
unlighted at all times and the remainder darkened by 
shading or painting them on the top and on the side facing 
the sea ; blinds to be drawn in windows facing the sea." 

The intention of the instructions is to reduce the likelihood 
of town lights being of assistance to the enemy in the naviga- 
tion of their vessels and aircraft. 

Municipal Authorities on the West Coast of Scotland have 
been informed that any powerful elevated lights or sky signs, 
known to be visible from a distance should be suppressed, 
as in certain circumstances these might enable hostile aircraft 
to fix their position. 

A report should be made of any case observed by Officers, 
where these instructions do not appear to have been effectually 
carried out. 

Special attention should be paid to the lights at Brighton, 
Hove, Worthing, Eastbourne, Hull, and Grimsby. 



351 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [> 

235. Acting Admiral Sir John R. Jellicoe, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., 
Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleets Rank and Com- 
mand. 

In accordance with the provisions of Order-in-Council 
dated November loth, 1914, Acting Admiral Sir John R. 
Jellicoe, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleets, 
has been authorised to take rank and command as Admiral 
with seniority of August 4th, 1914, while holding his present 
appointment, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 172 
of the King's Regulations and Admiralty Instructions, under 
which an Officer if only acting in the rank shall rank and 
command after Officers holding the corresponding confirmed 
rank. 

236. Distinguished Service Medal Establishment of. 

His Majesty the King has been pleased to approve of the 
establishment of a Medal, to be called the Distinguished Service 
Medal, to be awarded to Chief Petty Officers, Petty Officers, 
Men and Boys of all Branches of the Royal Navy, to Non- 
Commissioned Officers and Men of the Royal Marines, and to 
all other persons holding corresponding positions in His 
Majesty's Service afloat, for distinguished conduct in war in 
cases where the award of the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal 
would not be appropriate. 



237. Rank of Lieutenant-Commander, &c., for Retired and 
Emergency Officers. 

It has been decided to extend the rank of Lieutenant- 
Commander, or its equivalent, to Officers on the Retired and 
Emergency Lists, viz. : 

Lieutenants retired from that rank to be allowed to assume 
the rank of Lieutenant-Commander from date of attaining 
eight years' seniority on the Active or Retired Lists. 

Engineer-Lieutenants retired from that rank, who are 
qualified under the regulations for advancement, to be 
allowed to assume the rank of Engineer-Lieutenant-Com- 
mander, at the discretion of the Admiralty, from the date of 
attaining eight years' seniority on the Active or Retired Lists. 

352 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Engineer-Lieutenants on the senior list to be allowed to 
assume the rank of Engineer-Lieutenant-Commander from 
the date of advancement to that list. 

Carpenter-Lieutenants retired from that rank to be 
allowed to assume the rank of Carpenter-Lieutenant-Com- 
mander from the date of attaining eight years' seniority on 
the Active or Retired Lists. 

Lieutenants Royal Naval Reserve and Royal Naval 
Volunteer Reserve retired from those ranks to be allowed 
to assume the rank of Lieutenant-Commander from the date 
of attaining eight years' seniority on the Active or Retired 
Lists. 

Lieutenants and Engineer-Lieutenants on the Emergency 
List who held those ranks on the Active List, and, in the case 
of Engineer-Lieutenants are qualified for advancement under 
the regulations, to be allowed to assume the rank of Lieutenant- 
Commander or Engineer-Lieutenant-Commander respectively 
from the date of attaining eight years' seniority on the Active 
or Emergency Lists. Promotions to the latter rank are at 
the discretion of the Admiralty. 

The following Officers will not be eligible for the rank or 
equivalent rank of Lieutenant-Commander, which will be 
confined to Officers who held the rank or relative rank of 
Lieutenant on the Active List : 

Commissioned Warrant Officers granted the rank o 
Lieutenant, Engineer-Lieutenant, or Carpenter-Lieutenant, 
on being pensioned. 

Divisional Chief Officers and Chief Officers of Coast 
Guard granted the honorary rank of Lieutenant on being 
pensioned. 

Sub-Lieutenants on the Emergency List promoted to 
Lieutenant while on that List. 

Retired and Emergency Officers granted the step in rank 
who had less than eight years' seniority prior to retirement or 
resignation, will be eligible to receive the pay of Lieutenant- 
Commander, Engineer-Lieutenant-Commander, or Carpenter- 
Lieutenant-Commander, respectively, instead of the rate of 
which they were in receipt at the time of retirement or 
resignation. 

Retired Lieutenant-Commanders, R.N.R. and R.N.V.R., 
are not to receive pay in excess of ten shillings a day. 

353 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
243. Officers' Uniforms Landing of. 

The following Dresses are to be landed at the first oppor- 
tunity by all Officers employed afloat : 

No. i. " Full dress." 
No. 2. "-Ball dress." 
No. 9. " White Mess dress." 

On Home Stations : 

No. 8. " White undress," 

No. 10. " White Mess undress," 

are also to be landed. 

Claims for compensation under Article 1559 f the King's 
Regulations in respect of loss of such articles cannot in the 
future be entertained. 

252. W IT. Operators R.N.R. Enrolment, &c. 

There are only two authorised methods of entry for civilian 
Wireless Operators entered for the Naval Service temporarily 
for the period of the war : 

(a) In certain classes of Auxiliaries by the signing of the 

form of Agreement for Mercantile Fleet Auxiliaries 
(T. 124) : the men receiving their civilian rates of 
pay plus such additional bonus as may be authorised 
from time to time. 

(b) By enrolment in the R.N.R. as Wireless Telegraphy 

Operators, with pay, kit, etc., as follows : 

Pay. s. d. 

Wireless Telegraphy Operators, ist Class 5 o a day.. 
Wireless Telegraphy Operators, ist Class, 

after two years . . . . . . -.56,, 

Wireless Telegraphy Operators, ist Class, 

after five years . . . . . . ..60,, 

Wireless Telegraphy Operators, 2nd Class 30 
Wireless Telegraphy Operators, 2nd Class, 

after two years . . . . . . ..36,, 

Wireless Telegraphy Operators, 2nd Class, 

after five years 4 o 

354 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAI, 

War Retainer. 

il. a month, under Article 125, V., R.N.R. Regula- 
tions. (To be credited on the ledgers of ship in 
which borne, il. on the last day of each month, 
broken periods being calculated at the rate of 8^. 
a day.) 

Free Issue of Bedding and Kit. 

As for E.R.A., R.N.R., but no blue jean combination 
suits. 

War Clothing Gratuity. 
6/., under Article 125, IV., R.N.R. Regulations. 

Uniform. 
That of C.P.O. Telegraphist. 

Qualifications. 

Operators must be British subjects of high character, 
and hold certificates as Wireless Operators from 
recognised Wireless Telegraph Companies or the 
General Post Office. 

253. Advancement in Substantive Rating of Men Entered for 

the War. 

Men .entered or re-entered for the period of the war may 
be rated by their Commanding Officers to fill actual vacancies 
in the ships in which they are serving. 

254. Re-entered Seamen and Marines Former Service. 

All Seamen and Marines who are allowed to re-enter during 
the period of the war will be allowed to count their former 
service towards pension irrespective of the period they have 
been out of the Service. 

261. Clothing of Survivors from Action, &c. Procedure. 

Men who provide out of their own kits articles of Clothing 
for survivors from Action, &c. (pending their being properly 

Naval II 2 A 355 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [N 

re-kitted) may be credited on the Ledger with two-thirds of 
the full value of such articles of Clothing. The credits are 
to be supported by detailed statements of the Articles, show- 
ing how the amounts are arrived at, and charged to Vote n H. 
The garments recovered from the survivors on their being 
properly kitted up are to be taken on charge, and retained 
for similar use in the event of emergency, or forwarded to 
one of H.M. General Depots for the purpose. 

262. Losses of Uniform, Clothing, &c., in Action and by 

Shipwreck. 

Claims for compensation for losses of clothing, equipment 
and linen, etc., are to be dealt with as far as practicable in 
accordance with the procedure laid down in Article 1559, 
King's Regulations, in war as in peace. 

2. The following points in particular should not be over- 
looked : 

(i.) Compensation is awarded on the principle of making 
good actual losses with a view to re-equipment for 
service (clause 2) . 

(a) All claims should therefore show in detail the 
number and value of the articles lost. 

(b) Claims for plain clothes and private effects are 
inadmissible. 

(c) Claims for loss of money are also inadmissible 
(clause 3). 

(d) Claims for losses of books and instruments 
should be supported by details showing the full 
titles of books, the makers of the instruments, and 
their original cost. 

(ii.) Claims of Officers and Chief Petty Officers should be 
submitted to the Admiralty for consideration 
(clause 8). 

(a) Reasonable advances in cash, which should 
be reported to the Admiralty, may, however, be 
made locally immediately after the loss. 

(b) If any difficulty is experienced in obtaining 
local advances, application may be made to the 
Admiralty, in writing or in person, for an advance. 

356 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(iii.) Claims of men (below Chief Petty Officer) are invari- 
ably to be dealt with in accordance with the pro- 
cedure laid down in clause 9. 

(iv.) Claims relating to deceased Officers and men will be 
settled at the Admiralty. 

(v.) The value of uniform clothing issued to men below 
Chief Petty Officer, although shown as a charge on 
Ship's Ledger in the accounts of those concerned 
should not actually be abated from pay pending the 
result of the investigation of their claims (clause 9 (a), 
2nd sentence) nor are such charges to be taken into 
account for any purpose in connection with issues of 
pay and allowances or allotments and remittances, 
the charges being merely intended as a record of 
issues which cannot be finally allowed pending 
approval. Where a: man who is in debt to the 
Crown from this cause is transferred from one ship 
to another, a note should be made on the transfer 
list to the effect that the balance " includes 
for clothing issued under Article 1559, King's 
Regulations/' 

3. Attention is specially drawn to paragraph 2 (v.), 
representations having been made to the Admiralty which 
suggest that ratings are under the impression that they will 
have to replace, at their own expense, kits, etc., lost by a 
casualty of the Service. 

267. Marriage of Men of the Fleet during War. 

Home Fleets only. 

The question of the facilities existing under present con- 
ditions for the marriage of men serving in H.M. Ships of the 
Home Fleets has been under consideration, and Their Lord- 
ships are advised as follows : 

I. Brides resident in England, but marriage to be performed in 
Scotland.. 

Marriages can be celebrated in Scotland without previous 
residence of the bride there under the following conditions : 
" Where banns of the intended marriage have been 

357 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

published in the English or Welsh parish in which the bride 
is then residing, and banns have similarly been published 
on board H.M. Ship under the Naval Marriages Act, 1908, 
then, upon the bride producing the Certificate of Banns in 
the English or Welsh parish where she has been residing to 
the Officiating Minister in Scotland who is to perform the 
ceremony, the marriage can be then celebrated in Scotland 
without any previous residence of the bride there/' 

2. Brides residing in Scotland. 

Under the Scottish Marriage Law, notice of an intended 
marriage can be given by a bride resident in Scotland to the 
Registrar of the parish or district in which she has resided 
for not less than fifteen days. After the publication by the 
Registrar of such notice for seven days, and a like publication 
on board the Ship to which the man belongs, the marriage 
could be celebrated by any Minister, Clergyman or Priest in 
Scotland on production of the Certificates of Publication. 

If banns have already been published on board ship, such 
procedure is equally as effective as publication of notice, but 
proclamation of banns necessarily takes three weeks, whereas 
only seven days are required for publication of notice (see 
Art. 716, clause 7, of the King's Regulations) . 

The above procedure does not apply to marriages intended 
to be solemnised in England, Wales or Ireland. 



358 



34] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



DECEMBER. 

NOTICE TO MARINERS. 
No. 1795 of the year 1914. 
NORTH SEA AND ENGLISH CHANNEL. 

Alterations in positions or withdrawal of Light-vessels 
and Buoys; Extinction of Lights and lights of Light-buoys, 
and Alteration or discontinuance of Fog-signals. 

After sunrise on December loth, 1914, in the English L.G., 
Channel and the Downs eastward of a line joining Selsea Dec - 
Bill and Cape Barfleur and to the Southward of the parallel 
of 51 20' North latitude, all Light-vessels and buoys are 
liable to withdrawal or alteration in position, the lights and 
lights of Light-buoys are liable to be extinguished, and the 
fog-signals to be altered or discontinued without further 
notice. Trinity House Pilot Stations will be established 
by sunrise on December loth, 1914, at the undermentioned 
places, and Merchant vessels are very strongly advised to 
take pilots, as navigation in the area in question will be 
exceedingly dangerous without their aid : 

1. St. Helens, Isle of Wight, where ships proceeding 
up Channel can obtain pilots capable of piloting as far 
as Great Yarmouth. 

2. Great Yarmouth, where ships from the North 
Sea bound for the English Channel can obtain pilots 
capable of piloting as far as the Isle of Wight. 

3. Dover, where ships from French Channel Ports, 
but no others, can obtain pilots for the North Sea. 

4. The Sunk Light-vessel, where ships crossing the 
North Sea between the parallels of 51 40' and 51 54' 
North latitude, but no others, can obtain pilots for the 
English Channel. 

359 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [E 

5. Pilots can also be obtained at London for the 
English Channel or North Sea. 

Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
By Command of their Lordships, 
J. F. PARRY, 

Hydrographer, 

Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, December ist, 1914. 

DISPOSAL OF PRIZES OF WAR. 

Times, THE Treasury have appointed a Committee to report in 

Dec. 2, what classes of case it is expedient that prize ships captured 

19 1 4- or detained at ports outside the United Kingdom should be 
moved for sale or disposal to other ports, or should be chartered 
for purposes of trade, and to make the necessary arrange- 
ments in such cases as are remitted to them by the depart- 
ments concerned in the administration of the territories where 
the prize ships are detained. 

The Committee is constituted as follows : 

Vice- Admiral Sir E. J. W. Slade, Chairman. 

Mr. G. L. Barstow, C.B., of the Treasury. 

Mr. W. J. Evans, of the Admiralty. 

Mr. Garnham Roper, of the Board of Trade. 

Mr. C. B. L. Tennyson, of the Colonial Office. 

Mr. H. W. Malkin, of the Foreign Office. 

Mr. L. D. Wakeley, of the India Office. 

Mr. T. H. Holt, Head of the Shipping Department of the 
Office of the Crown Agents for the Colonies. 

Mr. R. A. Wiseman, of the Colonial Office, is Secretary 
to the Committee. 

OPERATIONS IN THE PERSIAN GULF AND IN 

MESOPOTAMIA. 

FIELD OPERATIONS. 

Parl. Paper No. 597. THE Governor-General in Council has much 
(Cd. 8074), pleasure in directing the publication of the following letter 

1 9 1 5- from the Chief of the General Staff, dated June 8th, 1915, 
submitting despatches from Lieutenant-General Sir A. A. 

3 6o ** 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Barrett, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., describing certain operations of 
Indian Expeditionary Force " D " up to March 3ist, 1915. 
The Governor-General in Council concurs in the opinion of 
His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief regarding the 
manner in which the operations were carried out and the 
conduct of the troops engaged. His Excellency in Council 
also shares the Commander-in-Chief 's appreciation of the 
valuable assistance rendered by the Royal Navy and the 
Royal Indian Marine. 



From the Chief of the General Staff to the Secretary to the 
Government of India, Army Department, No. 11854-1, 
dated Simla, June 8, 1915. 

I am directed by His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief 

in India to submit for the information of the Government of 

India the undermentioned reports on the operations of 

Indian Expeditionary Force " D," up to March 3ist, 1915 : 

(i.) Report by Lieutenant-General Sir A. A. Barrett, 

K.C.B., K.C.V.O., on the operations result- 

ing in the capture of Qurnah, December 9th, 



(ii.) Report by Lieut enant-General Sir A. A. Barrett, 
K.C.B., K.C.V.O., on an engagement north 
of Qurnah on January 20th, 1915 ; 

(iii.) Officers, warrant officers and non-commissioned 
officers brought to notice by Lieut enant- 
General Sir A. A. Barrett, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., 
for good services rendered during the opera- 
tions from November, 1914, to March 3ist, 



1. His Excellency considers that the operations in ques- 
tion were skilfully carried out and that the conduct of the 
troops reflects credit on all ranks. He desires to commend 
to the favourable consideration of Government the officers, 
non-commissioned officers and men whose services are brought 
to notice in the reports, and wishes to invite attention to 
the valuable assistance rendered by the Royal Navy and 
Royal Indian Marine. 

2. His Excellency recommends that these reports be 
treated as despatches and published in the Gazette of India. 

361 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

From Lieutenant-General Sir A. A. Barrett, K.C.B., K.C.V.O.,- 
Commanding Indian Expeditionary Force " D," to 
the Chief of the General Staff, Army Headquarters, 
Delhi. Headquarters, Basrah, No. 174-^., dated 
December 29, 1914. 

I have the honour to submit, for the information of His 
Excellency the Commander-in-Chief, the accompanying re- 
ports by Major-General C. I. Fry, Lieutenant-Colonel G. S. 
Frazer and Commander W. Nunn, R.N., on the operations 
which resulted in the capture of Qurnah, and the surrender 
of the Turkish garrison with its commander, the late Vali of 
Basrah. 

The force originally despatched from Basrah on the 
evening of December 3rd for this purpose consisted of two 
guns of the 82nd Battery, Royal Field Artillery, one company 
of Norfolks, half company 3rd Sappers and Miners, the I04th 
Rifles and the noth Mahrattas under command of Colonel 
G. S. Frazer. Two of the transports containing these troops 
were armed with two field guns each, to be placed at the 
disposal of the Senior Naval Officer as soon as the landing 
of the troops had been completed. 

Colonel Frazer's orders were to land at a spot, selected 
by Captain Hayes-Sadler, R.N., on the left bank of the river 
a few miles below Qurnah, and, acting in concert with the 
naval force, to clear bank of the enemy up to and beyond 
Qurnah, after which he had a free hand to decide whether 
to cross the river and attack the village of Qurnah, or to hold 
on and await reinforcements. 

It will be seen from Colonel Frazer's report that the 
clearing of the left bank was carried out most successfully. 

The enemy on this bank, after being driven from his en- 
trenchments and from the village of Muzaira'ah, fell back to 
the north, while our leading troops got engaged with those 
holding the village of Qurnah on the right bank. Owing to 
the thick groves of palm trees at this spot, intersected as 
usual by numerous creeks, touch was lost with the retreating 
Turks, who were thus enabled to cross the river unmolested 
higher up stream ; while Colonel Frazer, being unable to 
cross the river under a heavy fire, withdrew for the night. 
It will be seen from the report of Captain Nunn, R.N., that 
although the naval guns and the field guns on the transports 

362 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

were able to afford most efficient support during the first 
part of the action, the ships and armed launches, one of 
which was disabled, could not, owing to being exposed to 
heavy shell fire, go far enough up stream to bring an effective 
fire to bear upon the enemy holding this village. 

1 consider that Colonel Frazer accomplished all that 
could have been expected of him, having regard to the limited 
number of troops under his command. The Turks had been 
reinforced before the action commenced and were in greater 
strength than was expected. 

As soon as the transports containing wounded and 
prisoners returned to Basrah, I ordered General Fry to take 
up reinforcements consisting of four more field guns, the 
remaining three companies of the Norfolk Regiment, the 1 yth 
Rajputs and a half battalion of the I20th Infantry. 

His orders were to reconnoitre the ground thoroughly 
before renewing the engagement, and to let me know if he 
considered more troops would be required. He asked for a 
Mountain Battery and some transport mules, which were 
despatched as quickly as possible. 

The further course of the action is fully described in 
General Fry's report, and it only remains for me to express 
my high appreciation of the skilful manner in which they 
were carried out and of the excellent behaviour of the troops 
engaged. I consider that the crossing of the river was a most 
creditable performance, and I trust that the gallant conduct 
of Lieutenant Campbell and the non-commissioned officers 
and men of the 3rd Sappers and Miners, who swam the river, 
will meet with due recognition. 

I also wish to endorse General Fry's commendations of 
other officers and men who distinguished themselves during 
this engagement, although, as I have already mentioned 
in a previous report, I propose to defer bringing the names 
of individual officers to notice until the operations as a whole 
have been concluded. I much regret that the force has now 
lost the services of Captain Hayes-Sadler, R.N., and the 
officers and men of H.M.S. Ocean, who have now rejoined 
their ship and quitted the Gulf. 



363 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

List of accompaniments to despatch. 

I. Report on the operations of General Fry's column 

on December 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th, 1914. 
Appendix " A." Report on transport arrangements. 
Appendix " B." Order of battle for operations, 

December 7th. 

Appendix " C." Detail of ordnance and prisoners 
taken at Qurnah on December 
9th. 
II. Report on the operations of Lieutenant-Colonel 

Frazer's column on December 4th, 1914. 
Appendix " D." Report by Lieutenant-Colonel 
r Clery, i04th Rifles, on operations 

December 4th. 

Appendix " E." List of casualties December 4th. 
III. Report by Commander W. Nunn, Senior Naval 
Officer, Persian Gulf Division, on the operations 
December 4th to 9th, 1914. 
Maps and Sketches : 

Sketch map of Camp Shaib. 



Sketch map of action of December 7th. 

Sketch map of Muzaira'ah. 

Sketch of crossing of River Tigris. 

Sketch showing operations of December 4th. 

Map of country round Qurnah, scale 4 inches 

to i inch. 
Sketches illustrating the Senior Naval Officer's 

Report (Part III.) 



O 

3 

I 

OH 



ENCLOSURE No. i. 

Report on the Operations of General Fry's Column on December 
6th, jth and &th, 1914, culminating in the Surrender of 
Qurnah. 

The troops despatched from Basrah on December 5th 

to reinforce Lieutenant-Colonel Frazer's Column (i04th 

Rifles, noth, Mahratta Light Infantry and section 82nd 

Battery) arrived at Camp Shaib at 5 a.m. on December 6th 

364 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

and disembarked, extending the existing perimeter camp 
to the north. Colonel Frazer had arranged for a reconnais- 
sance of the enemy's position by three companies under 
Major Hill at 8 a.m., and during this, I and one of my staff 
went on board H.M.S. Lawrence to confer with Sir P. Cox 
and Captain Hayes-Sadler, Senior Naval Officer. 

The enemy had re-occupied Muzaira'ah after Colonel 
Frazer's operation of December 4th and appeared to be 
actively engaged in entrenching the position. 

At 10.30 a.m. the enemy opened fire with two guns from 
the southern end of Muzaira'ah on Major Hill's reconnaissance, 
firing about six groups of two shots of well-timed shrapnel, 
and at u a.m. opened on the Lawrence, firing six groups of 
two shots. They appeared to be ranging new guns. 

The reconnaissance returned to camp, while the Lawrence 
withdrew a short distance down stream. 

At 2.30 p.m. the Senior Naval officer reported that about 
500 enemy with two guns were advancing from Muzaira'ah 
across the plain. The noth were sent forward to reinforce 
the outposts with two sections, 76th Battery, Royal Field 
Artillery. After some brief long range fire the enemy retired, 
and beyond a small affair of outposts just before dusk, when 
the enemy advanced too close, necessitating the reinforce- 
ment of the outposts by one double company, there was no 
sniping or other disturbing element during the ensuing night. 

From my intelligence it appeared that the enemy had 
been considerably reinforced since Colonel Frazer's action 
on 4th, and were now estimated at 1,200 to 1,500 about 
Muzaira'ah with six guns, and about 800 in Qurnah with four 
guns. 

As any forward movement from Muzaira'ah would enable 
the enemy to shell the camp (though the danger was a night 
one only), and to prevent any further reinforcement to the 
enemy, I decided that an early attack on Muzaira'ah, with 
the clearing of the left bank of the Tigris River was essential 
to further operations. This, however, would have been 
ineffectual unless I was prepared to remain in possession of 
captured ground. The opening of a short line of communica- 
tion to Shaib Camp would be essential, and consequently 320 
mules were wired for, being the minimum estimated require- 
ment. (For the working of this line see Appendix " A.") 

365 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

On December jih the force (Appendix " B "), less one 
half-double company per battalion and details of other units 
left in camp, assembled on the further side of the creek just 
north of the camp at 9 a.m. Considerable delay occurred 
owing to difficulties experienced by the field artillery in 
crossing this shallow creek, filled by an exceptionally high 
tide. 

My plan of attack was for the 2nd Norfolk Regiment and 
the I20th Infantry to attack the village of Muzaira'ah and 
the trenches south of that place, while the uoth Light 
Infantry, echeloned back on the right of the 2nd Norfolk 
Regiment, was to carry out a turning movement against the 
north of- the village, the jih Rajputs and I04th Rifles being 
held in reserve. The section, 82nd Battery, was directed 
to support the left attack, the two sections, 76th Battery, 
Royal Field Artillery, the right attack. The Mountain 
Battery and transport mules asked for had arrived at camp, 
and I must here express my thanks for the p'rompt despatch 
of these, the latter being specially necessary for my plans. 
The 30th Mountain Battery at once joined the force for the 
action, and was placed between the field batteries to support 
either flank as required. 

Close co-operation had been arranged for with the Senior 
Naval Officer. For the distribution of troops and subsequent 
movements see Sketch Map of action of December 7th. 1 

The advance commenced at n a.m. over an absolutely 
level and bare open plain without a vestige of cover, and at 
11.15 a - m - 82nd Battery opened fire on Muzaira'ah at a 
range of 2,750 yards. 

Ten minutes later the enemy opened rifle fire from the 
village and trenches covering it, and at 11.45 a - m - the 76th 
Battery, Royal Field Artillery, came into action at 3,800 yards 
range. Two of the enemy's guns then opened fire on the 
76th Battery from the north end of Muzaira'ah, the flashes 
being visible, but they were silenced in ten rounds and did 
not re-open fire, being subsequently captured intact. 

The infantry were meanwhile steadily advancing and all 
artillery advanced to closer ranges. As the infantry came 
into action each line successively dropped their blankets to 
facilitate movement and these were collected after the action. 

1 Not reproduced. 

366 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The 2nd Norfolk Regiment and i20th Infantry came under 
some enfilade fire from trenches on the enemy's right, but the 
prompt switching of fire on to that flank by the 82nd Battery 
and guns from the ships, combined with vigorous action on 
the part of the i2Oth Infantry, reinforced by a double company, 
7th Rajputs, with Maxim guns effectually checked any danger 
from that direction. 

Meanwhile the noth Light Infantry executed their turn- 
ing movement against trenches on the north of Muzaira'ah, 
till at 12.50 p.m. the whole of the 2nd Norfolk Regiment 
being now merged in the firing line, the village was stormed 
at the point of the bayonet, the enemy not waiting to receive 
the charge. 

The pursuit through the palm groves was vigorously 
carried out by the I20th Infantry and 2nd Norfolk Regiment, 
while the noth Light Infantry cleared the trenches im- 
mediately north of Muzaira'ah. The iO4th Rifles followed 
closely after the noth Light Infantry and, as the latter 
regiment swung towards the river, moved northwards clear- 
ing further trenches occupied by the enemy in their retirement. 
All the artillery moved round the north of Muzaira'ah and 
shelled the enemy. 

At 2 p.m. two hostile guns opened fire from the north- 
north-east, the flashes only being visible. These were silenced 
in seven minutes by searching fire from 76th Battery at 
4,100 yards range, and teams were seen galloping away, 
leaving the guns. A squadron of cavalry or even a troop 
during this pursuit would have been invaluable, for the two 
guns could undoubtedly have been captured and probably 
a large body of the enemy (estimated from 1,000 to 1,500) 
could have been rounded up, with their line of retreat up the 
river bank cut. 

Major Maule, 82nd Battery, had meanwhile placed one 
of his guns in position on the left bank of the Tigris at the 
northern edge of the palm groves and effectually raked the 
river front of Qurnah at a range of 2,300 yards. 

The 7th Rajputs, except for one double company rein- 
forcement to the I20th, were in reserve throughout the action. 

Through the palm groves the fighting continued till nearly 
dusk, the enemy bringing a heavy fire to bear from Qurnah 
and along the river bank. 

367 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [] 

Camp was arranged for the force in some gardens between 
Muzaira'ah and the palm groves, where, though within shell 
fire from Qurnah, it was hidden from view and covered by 
the glare of the burning village. By 5 p.m. all units were 
settling into camp except the noth Light Infantry, who 
were covering the operation from the north-west and who 
came in after dark. About this time two enemy's shell were 
burst outside the north-west corner of camp, and at 9.30 p.m. 
five shells were fired over the glowing village : no damage 
was done and the ensuing night was devoid of incident. 

The captures this day included 3 field guns, about 130 
prisoners and a large number of rifles which were destroyed. 

The enemy are estimated to have had about 2,000 troops 
on the left bank, and subsequent information places their 
casualties at about 200 killed and 300 wounded, but the 
latter is probably under-estimated. Our casualties were 
British officers wounded 5 ; Indian officers wounded 3 ; 
rank and file killed 8 ; wounded 112, of whom 2 have since 
died. 

I must acknowledge the admirable support extended by 
the Artillery and the Navy, which seems to have paralyzed all 
artillery resistance. 

From my intelligence this evening it appeared that about 
1,500 of the enemy escaped northwards up the left bank 
of the Tigris and that the majority had embarked and fled 
north, while in Qurnah itself were some 800 regulars with 
4 guns. 

I decided to attempt a crossing of the Tigris without delay. 

Early on the morning of December 8th the half Company 
(No. 17) Sappers and Miners were despatched to the northern 
edge of the palm groves to get a line across the river. The 
iO4th Rifles were to reconnoitre and cover the operations 
from the north ; the noth Light Infantry and 2nd Norfolk 
Regiment were moved to the edge of the palm groves, the 
former to cross and the latter to cover the crossing, while 
the artillery moved to positions in support, and the I20th 
Infantry and yih Rajputs were to distract attention opposite 
Qurnah itself in combination with the naval force. 

The dispositions of the crossing are shown in sketch of 
crossing of River Tigris. 1 

1 Not reproduced. 

368 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

At 11.30 a.m. Havildar Ghulam Nabi swam across the 
Tigris with a log line accompanied by Lance Naik Nur Dad 
and Sapper Ghulam Haidar, and in spite of a strong current 
and the possibility of a heavy fire being brought on them 
at any moment, they succeeded in swimming tha 130 yards 
of river and landing on the right bank. Lieutenant Campbell, 
R.E., then went across and the ij inch wire cable, especially 
brought up for the purpose, was hauled over and made fast ; 
a difficult feat in the strong current on an ebb tide. 

A dhow was secured with the assistance of two or three 
friendly Arabs, and being brought across, the first party of 
some 70 men, uoth Light Infantry, under Lieutenant- 
Colonel Frazer and Captain Cochran, General Staff Officer, 
3rd grade, for Intelligence, successfully landed on the right 
bank at 1.20 p.m. under some rifle fire from dhows down 
stream. Though the operation was tedious, the rest of the 
Battalion was gradually pushed over. 

Meanwhile the Navy and a Double Company of each of 
the I20th Infantry and 7th Rajputs were distracting the 
enemy's attention in front of Qurnah successfully ; for the 
crossing did not appear to have been realized by the enemy 
till too late, though some rifle and ineffectual shell fire was 
experienced. 

The I04th Rifles had earlier reported that they could 
cross about i J miles up stream by 3 dhows, the crews of which 
were friendly. They were directed to cross and come up on 
the right of the uoth Light Infantry for the advance on 
Qurnah, while the 2nd Norfolk Regiment detached half a 
battalion to replace them. 

The single gun, 82nd Battery, only returned the enemy's 
fire, and it was not found necessary for the other guns to 
disclose themselves. One Section, 30th Mountain Battery, 
without mules, followed the uoth Light Infantry across the 
river, but were not employed, as Lieutenant-Colonel Frazer, 
meeting with some opposition north of Qurnah, decided it 
was too late in the day to storm the town with the prob- 
ability of street fighting. 

The I04th Rifles, uoth Light Infantry and Section 30th 
Mountain Battery accordingly went into camp on the right 
bank near the flying bridge. One Double Company uoth 
Light Infantry, under Lieutenant-Colonel Britten, however, 

369 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

moving down the right bank, did not get the order to retire, 
and entering the enemy's position on their right, enfiladed 
their northern defence and occupied three towers in this 
part of their position. This Double Company, being isolated, 
later withdrew to camp without casualty for the night. 

To support this force on the right bank, the 2nd Norfolk 
Regiment were left to camp at the end of the palm groves on 
the left bank, other units resuming their camp at Muzaira'ah. 

The ensuing night was devoid of incident. 

Our casualties this day were 23 rank and file wounded. 

At 5 a.m. on December gth. as I was about to resume 
operations, I received intimation from the Senior Naval 
Officer that a deputation of officers from Subhi Bey, the late 
Vali of Basrah and Turkish Commander, had boarded 
H.M.S. Espibgle about midnight, stating that the Vali was 
prepared to surrender unconditionally. 

I met a deputation, consisting of the Chief Staff Officer 
and 2 Lieutenants on board at 8.30 a.m. when arrange- 
ments for surrender were made and all movements of troops 
stopped. 

At 1,30 p.m., accompanied by Sir Percy Cox, Captain 
Hayes-Sadler (Senior Naval Officer) and Staffs, I landed at 
the Vali's house and received his surrender, returning to him 
his sword in recognition of his able defence. 

Meanwhile the I04th Rifles and noth Light Infantry 
had moved into Qurnah, and piquets were posted round the 
town, the remainder of the battalions being drawn up round 
the Turkish force which had fallen in with piled arms on the 
open square at the south corner of the town. 

At 2.30 p.m., the Union Jack was formally hoisted and 
the transference of the prisoners to the paddle steamer 
Blosse Lynch was proceeded with. The detail of ordnance 
and prisoners taken at Qurnah are shown in Appendix 
"C." 

General remarks and recommendations I cannot speak 
too highly of the; conduct of the troops throughout these 
operations and their steadiness under heavy fire. Their 
tactical formations were admirably adapted to the ground 
which afforded no cover, and the units were handled with 
marked ability. 

My thanks are due to Captain Hayes-Sadler, R.N., for his 

370 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

very close co-operation with his naval force throughoutjthese 
operations, which was of invaluable assistance. 

The fact that there were so few casualties was due to the 
splendid co-operation of the field and mountain artillery. 
Their fire was rendered very difficult owing to mirage, but 
in spite of this they maintained an accurate fire on the 
enemy's trenches right up to the moment of assault. They 
also immediately silenced any of the enemy's guns which 
opened fire. Major St. T. B. Nevison, 76th Battery, Royal 
Field Artillery, acted as Commander, Royal Artillery and 
directed this co-operation with great skill and ability. Major 
St. J. Maule, 82nd Battery, Royal Field Artillery, throughout 
showed great initiative, and his action in bringing a gun to 
bear on the river front of Qurnah on December jih and 8th 
had much to do with the decisive issues of the operations. 

Major H. J. Cotter, 30 th Mountain Battery, and Captain 
E. V. Sarson, 76th Battery, Royal Field Artillery, gave 
valuable services. 

No. 98166 Battery Sergeant Major H. E. Haggett, 76th 
Battery, Royal Field Artillery, is noted for exceptionally 
able and energetic assistance. 

No. 17 Company, 3rd Sappers and Miners. I cannot 
speak too highly of the services rendered by this half Company 
throughout, under the command of Lieutenant R. C. Lord, 
R.E. They have had very hard work and their devotion 
to it has been of incalculable assistance. 

Major H. E. Winsloe, R.E., acted as my A.C.R.E. and 
ably directed the operation of bridging the river Tigris. 

Havildar Ghulam Nabi, No. 2632, swam across the Tigris 
with a log line accompanied by Lance-Naik Nur Dad, No. 
3742, and No. 3898 Sapper Ghulam Haidar. There was a 
strong current in the river which was about 130 yards wide, 
and the enemy were occupying the opposite bank only a 
short distance down stream. Although they were not fired 
on, there was every reason to expect they would be, as the 
ground on the opposite bank was densely wooded and 
favoured the approach of an enemy. It was owing to their 
gallant action that the steel cable was got across and the 
flying bridge constructed. I recommend Havildar Ghulam 
Nabi for the " Order of Merit " and Lance-Naik Nur Dud and 
Sapper Ghulam Haider for the "Distinguished Conduct Medal." 

Naval II-2 B 371 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [D 

Lieutenant M. G. G. Campbell, R.E., deserves special 
recognition for his gallant crossing over the Tigris, holding 
on to the log line only, when a strong current was running, 
to superintend the hauling over the steel hawser and fix the 
running tackle for the flying bridge he was for some time 
under fire while performing this difficult operation. 

2nd Battalion, Norfolk Regiment. This fine Regiment 
has throughout been an example to others, both in the field 
and in camp. Their cohesion and the precision in their 
movements showed that they have attained a very high 
standard of efficiency in their peace training, the credit for 
which is due to Lieutenant-Colonel E. C. Peebles, D.S.O., 
who has commanded the Regiment with marked ability and 
energy. 

Captain W. J. O'B. Daunt (severely wounded) proved 
himself a gallant leader. 

Captain and Adjutant G. de Grey was particularly con- 
spicuous in taking messages to the firing line, and conveying 
ammunition to it when it was running short. 

Lieutenant H. S. Farebrother for bold handling of his 
machine gun section over absolutely open ground. 

No. 5008 Sergeant W. Bailey (twice wounded) for work 
with machine guns. 

No. 5223 Lance-Sergeant L. Snell 



No. 5973 Sergeant A. Cornwall 
No. 7226 Lance-Sergeant Leveridge 
No. 7345 Corporal W. Fristin 
No. 7545 Musician Mullinger 
No. 7784 Musician Sharpe 



for exceptionally 
gallant and useful 
work during the 
attack on Muz- 
aira'ah. 



No. 8049 Private A. Dawson 

No. 8365 Private F. Pryor 1 did particularly well, at- 

No. 8632 Private A. George [ tending to Captain Daunt 

when wounded. 

Captain D. Arthur, I. M.S., was particularly conspicuous 
in attending Captain Daunt and other wounded when exposed 
to heavy fire, and throughout the action. 

7th Rajputs. This Regiment was held in reserve through- 
out, but one Double Company under Lieutenant-Colonel 
Parr did well when it reinforced the I20th Infantry. 

Lieutenant W. L. Harvey. For the very efficient manner 
in which he brought up his machine gun section in support 

372 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of the I20th Infantry ; he was wounded just after adjusting 
a jam in one of his guns. 

Subadar Brijmohan Singh handled his company in a very 
efficient manner when brought up in support of the i2Oth 
Infantry and acted throughout with conspicuous bravery and 
coolness. 

I04th Rifles. This Regiment has been engaged in every 
action which has taken place during this campaign and has 
met with very heavy casualties. Their work under my 
command during these operations has throughout been 
excellent and quite up to the fine traditions of the Regiment. 
During the action of the 7th they were in reserve, but were 
thrown in towards the end of the action and carried out the 
pursuit well. On the 8th Lieutenant-Colonel C. B. Clery 
showed great initiative in securing the 3 dhows up stream 
and his action greatly facilitated the rapidity of crossing. 

Captain H. M. Butler (severely wounded) for exceptional 
skill and gallant leading of his Double Company in the attack 
on Muzaira'ah. 

Sub-Assistant Surgeon Pundit, I.S.M.D. During the 
attack on Muzaira'ah on December yth, 1914, Rifleman Ghos 
Mahammad was shot by an Arab, who was hiding in one of 
the huts. Sub-Assistant Surgeon Pundit called on a sepoy 
of another Regiment to enter the hut and clear it. The sepoy 
seemed reluctant to do so, and this Sub-Assistant Surgeon 
took his rifle and bayonet, entered the house and closed with 
the Arab. The sepoy followed and between them they killed 
him. He has also shown exceptional bravery in attending 
wounded under fire. 

uoth Mahratta, Light Infantry, This Regiment carried 
out the turning movement on the enemy's left flank on the yth 
with great intelligence and dash and worked well on the 8th. 

Lieutenant-Colonel T. X. Britten. His action on December 
8th, 1914, in capturing 3 towers on the right of the enemy's 
position at Qurnah shows him to be a resourceful and dashing 
leader. 

Captain K. E. Cooper showed great dash and bravery 
attacking through the north end of Muzaira'ah. He ap- 
proached one small house from which fire was being kept up, 
climbed a wall at the back and shot 4 Turks, who were occupy- 
ing it, with his revolver. 

373 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Subadar Hari Savant and Jemadar Vishun Ghone for 
conspicuous coolness and ability in handling their Half 
Double Companies on December 7th and 8th, 1914. 

No. 2089 Lance-Naik Bhan Sawant (since killed), a young 
soldier who showed much dash and spirit in command of the 
scouts of his company. 

No. 1148 Lance-Naik Haider Beg, a signaller, who on 
two occasions signalled an important message .from the 
firing line to the artillery, standing up fearlessly in the open 
under heavy fire, doing so, as he could not see properly in 
any other position. 

i2Oth Rajputana Infantry. This Regiment, consisting 
of only Headquarters and 2 Double Companies, acted with 
great boldness and spirit on our left flank and ably supported 
the 2nd Norfolk Regiment when the latter came under enfilade 
fire from the enemy's right. 

Lieutenant and Adjutant W. L. Miskin showed great 
dash and capacity. After Captain Macready was wounded 
he took command of that officer's Double Company and 
handled it well, having twice to change direction to meet 
enfilade fire, and on each occasion succeeded in turning out 
the enemy. 

Subadar Dunga Rawat for conspicuous bravery and 
coolness in handling his Half Double Company. 

No. 978 Havildar Gunesh for marked capacity as a leader. 

Medical Services. The Field Ambulances under Major 
E. Bennett, R.A.M.C., worked with great devotion on the 
7th and were under shell fire for a short time that night. 

Transport. I must recognise the good work done by the 
portion of the loth Mule Corps under Jemadar Allah Din 
and endorse the recommendations to notice of individuals 
mentioned in pargraph 12 of Appendix " A." 

Headquarters. Finally I would bring forward the names 
of Captain E. G. Dunn, Royal Irish Rifles, my Brigade 
Major, who again gave most valuable and energetic assistance 
in the working out of the details of the operations. His 
clear conveyance of my orders materially assisted in the 
successful issue of the operations. Also Captain W. F. C. 
Gilchrist, 52nd Sikhs (F. F.), my Staff Captain, who again 
proved himself an able, energetic and resourceful Staff 
Officer ; he, in the absence of either a Supply or Transport 

374 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Officer, organized and maintained an unfailing supply to 
the troops from my original camp at Shaib. 

Captain H. G. Morrell, ugth Infantry, in command of 
the 1 8th Brigade Section of the 34th Divsional Signal Company 
the 1 8th Brigade Section of the 34th Divisional Signal 
Company, carried out his duties under difficult circumstances 
very ably and with untiring energy. 

Captain G. W. Cochran, 8ist Pioneers, General Staff 
Officer, 3rd Grade for Intelligence, worked unsparingly and 
the information he collected turned out to be very accurate. 
He also gave me much assistance in other ways. 



APPENDIX A. 

Report on the working of the transport between Shaib Camp 

and Muzaira'ah. 

1. On arrival at Shaib on the morning of December 5th, 
1914, General Fry decided to get up three hundred mules, 
his intention being, when the village of Muzaira'ah was 
captured and the troops reached the left bank of the Tigris, 
to maintain himself there and attempt to cross above 
Qurnah. 

2. A demand for 320 mules was therefore sent to Basrah 
at I p.m. on December 5th. 

3. These mules (320) arrived on the morning of the 7th 
at 7 a.m. They were disembarked by 9 a.m. 

4. I ordered them to feed and saddle up at 12 noon. 
Captain Lanyon, of the Norfolk Regiment, was put in charge 
of the mules to distribute them. I gave him a distribution 
list showing how mules were to be allotted. 

5. At i p.m., orders were telephoned to camp to load 
up the mules as it was seen that Muzaira'ah would soon be in 
our possession. 

6. About 4.30 p.m. the mules began to arrive in Camp 
Muzaira'ah. As it was getting dark and spasmodic firing 
was going on the confusion was considerable. 

All the mules were unloaded, however, and in the dark 
assembled by the duffadars and taken back to camp. 

375 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

This evening the Regiments got each : 
16 loads rations, 
8 loads ammunition, 
8 loads tools, 
8 loads cooking pots, 

some kits, 
and so were amply provided for. 

7. The orders for the 8th, gth and loth were to send up 
one day's rations each day. 

8. As it was feared that the horses might not be able 
to get full forage rations on 8th, 190 loads of forage were sent 
for and arrived after dark on 8th. 

With them came 48 mules for duty in Muzaira'ah as ist 
line mules in case of a further advance across the river. The 
mules this day therefore did a double trip. 

9. There being ample forage in camp, the mules on 9th 
and loth only brought up men's rations from Shaib, while 
48 mules assisted in carrying up kits of units as they were 
sent across the Tigris. 

10. Eventually all the mules were taken to the right 
bank of Tigris on the I2th, having been used to ration the 
troops left on the left bank and to bring up the remains of 
kits left in camp. 

n. On the 8th, when two units were passed over to the 
right bank, all available mules and the 30th Mountain Battery 
baggage were used to send up their kits, so that by the even- 
ing the troops across the river were rationed and had their 
blankets that night. 

12. Captain Lanyon speaks very highly of the work done 
by Jemadar Allah Din who commanded the mules. His 
work was of the greatest help. 

The Kote Duffadars : 
2193 Busaki Ram, 
6417 Jamal Din, 

205 Mir Dad, 

were of the greatest help to me in collecting their mules in 
the dark and in constantly moving backwards and forwards. 

The men, of whom I saw a certain amount, were cheery 
and worked well, and though they were under spasmodic 
shell fire on 7th and 8th and had to cross the plain where 
bullets, though spent, were falling, behaved very well indeed 

376 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
APPENDIX B. 

ORDER OF BATTLE 

Major-General C. /. Fry's Column on December 7, 1914. 
Commanding, Major-General C. I. Fry, Indian Army. 

Staff: 

Brigade Major, Captain E. G. Dunn, Royal Irish Rifles. 
Staff Captain, Captain W. F. C. Gilchrist, 52nd Sikhs. 

Attached : 

G.S.O., 3rd grade (Intelligence), Captain G. W. Cochran, 

8ist Pioneers. 

A.C.R.E., Major H. E. Winsloe, R.E. 
O. C. Brigade Section, 34th Divisional Signal Company, 

Captain H. G. Morrell, ngth Infantry. 

TROOPS. 
Artillery : 

76th Battery, R.F.A. (less i Section), Major St. T. B. 

Nevinson. 
82nd Battery R.F.A. one section on each of Medijieh 

and Blosse Lynch, Major H. St. J. Maule. 
30 th Indian Mountain Battery, Major H. J. Cotter. 

Engineers : 

I7th Company, 3rd Sappers and Miners (less 2 Sections), 
Lieutenant R. C. Lord. 

Infantry : 

i8th Brigade : 

2nd Battalion, Norfolk Regiment, Lieutenant-Colonel 
E. C. Peebles, D.S.O. 

7th D.C.O. Rajputs (less i D.C.), Lieutenant-Colonel 
N. E. Robin. 

I20th Rajputana Infantry (less 2 D.C.), Lieutenant- 
Colonel E. Codrington. 

noth Mahratta Light Infantry, Lieutenant-Colonel 
G. S. Frazer. 

i04th Rifles, Lieutenant-Colonel C. B. Clery. 



377 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



[I 



APPROXIMATE STRENGTH. 


NAVAL FORCE. 


Unit. 


B. 0. 


I. 0. 


Br. 
R. &F. 


Ind. 
R. &F. 


Guns. 


H.M. Ships : 
Esptigle. Odin, 
Lawrence. 














H.M. Gunboats : 














Miner, Lewis PeUy, 














Shaitan. 


76th Battery, Royal 












S.S. Mediiieh, Blosse 


* Field Artillery 


4 





60 





4 i8-pr. 


Lynch. 


82nd Battery, Royal 
Field Artillery 


5 


_ 


62 




6 


2 guns on 
S.S. Medijieh. 


3Oth Mountain Battery 
1 7th Company, Sap- 


5 


3 





277 


6 lo-pr. 


2 guns on 
Blosse Lynch. 


pers and Miners . . 


3 


i 





75 







2nd Norfolk Regiment 


23 





845 




2 m.g. 




7th Rajputs 
noth Mahratta Light 


10 


13 




479 2 m.g. 


N.B.One % D.C. 
each unit (i2oth 


Infantry 


10 


1 7 





675 I m.g. 


details only) and 


i2oth Infantry 


9 


10 





404 


2 m.g. 


details from other 


iO4th Rifles 


12 


16 





670 


2 m.g. 


units were left in 


Brigade Signal Section 


I 





ii 


18 




Camp Shaib as 


Staff and Attached . . 


5 





3 




guard out of these 












.^i 


Total 


87 


60 


981 


2,598 


10 i8-pr. 


11 U 1 11 DciS. 












6 lo-pr. 














9 m. g. 





APPENDIX C. 

Detail of Ordnance and prisoners taken at Qurnah on 

December 9, 1914. 
Ordnance : 

2 Krupp Field guns. 

2 Mountain guns. 

i .303 Maxim-gun (recovered after its loss December 

4th, 1914). 
22 Officers' swords. 
776 Rifles (of which some 250 were handed over to Navy 

at their request). 
N.B. Large quantities of ammunition were destroyed. 



378 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Prisoners of War. 
Subhi Bey, late Vali of Basrah and Turkish Commander. 







Officers. 


Rank and File. 




ist Battalion, 26th Regiment (Anatolia) 


12 


353 


2nd Battalion, Murrattab Regiment 




v 


(Bagdad) (Amara) 


J 3 


345 


ist Company, ist Battalion 28th Regi- 






ment Artillery 








2 


63 


Turkish Navy 


. 






I 


3 


Basrah Battalion Genda 


merie 






7 . 


177 


Medical 


. 






4 


ii 


Supply, etc. 


. 






3 


IT. 


Vali 's Staff 


. 






i 


5 


Wounded in hospital 









2 


21 


Total 


45 


989 



ENCLOSURE No. 2. 

Copy of Report by Lieutenant-Colonel, G. S. Frazer, noth 
Mahratta Light Infantry, Commanding, Qurnah Column, 
on the operations of December 4, 1914, dated Camp 
Um Rash, December 5, 1914. 

I have the honour to report as follows on the operations 
yesterday : 

1. My Staff Officer, Captain Branson, who was wounded, 
has already taken to you most of the details, and I sent you 
a wireless in code last night. 

2. The disembarkation yesterday morning was carried 
out quickly and without confusion. 

Two small creeks delayed the advance of the column till 
they could be rendered passable. 

My Advanced Guard was, in the first instance, directed 
so as to pass well to the east of Muzaira'ah. 

As all the scouting had to be done with Infantry, the 
advance was not very quick. 

It was first reported that there was no enemy in Muzaira'ah 
and I then changed the direction of the Advanced Guard 
so that their right passed to the east of Muzaira'ah. 

379 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

It was then discovered beyond a doubt that the enemy 
were in position along the edge of the date palms between 
Muzaira'ah and Qurnah. 

I directed the Advanced Guard to clear the village and 
brought up the other half Battalion of the noth on their 
left, and attacked the enemy on their left flank. 

It then became known that Muzaira'ah was occupied 
by the enemy. 

I sent the Norfolks, i D.C., to support the half Battalion 
noth attacking the village. 

Eventually the Sappers and Miners also joined the right 
attack. 

The village was cleared and also the trenches in front of 
the date trees, where the noth captured 69 prisoners and 
2 abandoned field guns (9 prs). 

In the meantime, the ships had been shelling Qurnah and 
the date groves, and the Royal Field Artillery Muzaira'ah, 
and the practice of all guns seemed to be excellent. 

The troops after this did not come under shell fire, but the 
rifle fire opposed to them was considerable. 

When the troops entered the date grove I reinforced the 
left half of the noth by half the Battalion of iO4th, and 
the enemy was driven back to the Tigris River, where they 
quickly effected a crossing by means of boats arranged as 
flying bridges. 

At 2.1 o p.m. I ordered a retirement to the place near where 
we disembarked and there formed camp. 

After my Infantry entered the date grove my Field 
Artillery was unable to render any further assistance. 

The Tigris east of Qurnah is from 200 to 300 yards wide 
and field guns cannot operate against Qurnah owing to the 
date trees. 

My retirement to camp was well and steadily carried out. 

I am of opinion that until guns can be brought up to 
demolish the houses of Qurnah, the only way to effect a 
landing would be to do so with country boats north of 
Qurnah. 

All the troops under my command performed their duty 
most thoroughly. 

Captain Branson, noth Mahratta Light Infantry, my 
Staff officer, afforded me the greatest assistance and was 

380 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

wounded shortly after I had decided to retire, while I was 
issuing the orders. 

I attach a report from Officer Commanding iO4th. 
The Officer Commanding noth reports as follows : 

" Of the officers who came under my observation I 
should like to particularly mention Major Hill and Lieu- 
tenant Hind in the Company firing line, and Lieutenant 
Ball who handled the machine guns most efficiently." 
No. 959 Lance-Naik Apa Bagive displayed great bravery 
during the attack on the enemy's position in the date groves, 
and in the subsequent advance towards Qurnah. He was 
carrying the flag on the left of the line in order to indicate 
the position of the line to the warships. The flag was a very 
conspicuous mark, and drew a heavy fire from the enemy. 
Lance-Naik Apa Bagive carried the flag absolutely in the 
open. Had he taken cover, the flag might not have been 
visible. 

I am sending down all prisoners on Blosse Lynch, Malomir 
and Medijieh under command of Captain Bayley, Royal 
Field Artillery. 



APPENDIX D. 

Report by Lieutenant-Colonel C. Clery, Commanding, I04th 
Rifles, to the Staff Officer, Qurnah Column, dated December 



As requested, I have the honour to forward the names 
of the following officers and men of the regiment under my 
command, who were conspicuous for their gallant conduct 
during the action of the 4th instant opposite Qurnah : 

Captain E. G. J. Byrne. This officer in the face of a heavy 
and accurate fire brought his machine guns right up to the 
firing line on the river bank opposite Qurnah. From here 
his fire was so galling to the Turks that they brought up a 
field gun and endeavoured to silence the machine guns. 
Several of the shells hit the parapet where the machine 
guns were ; notwithstanding this, Captain Byrne kept his 
guns in action, and did not retire from his position until 
ordered to retire. This officer on two previous occasions on 
which the Regiment has been in action, has brought his 

381 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [] 

detachment forward most intelligently and gallantly. On 
this occasion he received one bullet through his helmet 
and one cut his puttee. 

2. Subadar Ghulam Rasul. This Indian officer was 
conspicuous for the gallant manner in which he led his men 
forward in the face of a heavy accurate and short range fire 
from the Turks. 

This officer was subsequently killed. 

3. Jemadar Kishna Ram. Conspicuous pluck under fire, 
and assisted a wounded man to rear under heavy fire during 
the retirement. 

4. No. 2317 Lance-Naik Guman Singh. 

5. No. 2866 Rm. Khota Ram. 

6. No. 2578 Rm. Dhanna Ram. 

7. No. 2090 Rm. Maula Dad. 

8. When ordered to retire, the two machine guns had to 
be carried by hand some 250 yards back to the mules under 
heavy fire. Not having enough men to take away all the 
ammunition -boxes as well as guns, the machine gun officer 
asked four men to return to the position and recover the 
ammunition boxes. They did so under a heavy gun and 
rifle fire and brought back all the boxes to the mules, although 
the troops had left the trench. 

9. No. 2435 Havildar Mohru Ram, when left in command 
of a long mixed firing line, performed meritorious service 
in controlling this line and opening very heavy, accurate 
fire on the Qurnah position, thus keeping the enemy's fire 
down while other parts of the firing line retired. 

10. No. 1615 Reservist Jhonta Singh, " B " Coy. 
Meritorious conduct during the retirement from the river, 
in carrying Rm. Jai Singh, who was severely wounded through 
the chest, on his shoulders for 600 yards under heavy fire, 
over a number of water nullahs, finally handing him over 
to some dhoolie bearers. 

Reservist Jhonta Singh was previously recommended by 
his Double Company Commander for good work during the 
action of November I5th, when he carried ammunition 
forward to the firing line from mules that had fallen into a 
canal. 

ii No. 2263 Bugler Narsu Singh, "A" Coy. For 
meritorious conduct in taking written orders regarding the 

382 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

retirement under a heavy fire along the firing line on two 
occasions once to extreme right and again later on to 
the machine guns on the left. 

12. No. 3241 Rm. Sobh Singh, " A " Coy., and No. 2981 
Rm. Kan Singh, " A " Coy. For meritorious conduct in 
carrying between them Rm. Jat Singh, "A," who was 
severely wounded in the head, under a heavy fire during the 
retirement for some 300 yards to the dhoolie. 

14. No. 3195 Rm. Ratna Ram. 

15. No. 2112 Rm. Dunga Ram. 

16. No. 2670 Rm. Kheta Ram. 

17. No. 3143 Rm. Koema Ram. 

18. No. 2422 Rm. Jowana Ram. 

The above men for meritorious conduct, who, in the 
absence of Indian Officers and Non-Commissioned Officers, 
were conspicuous in taking the place of Non-Commissioned 
Officers in leading their commands forward under a heavy 
and accurate fire. 

19. No. 2463 Bugler Kala Khan, for meritorious conduct. 
On November I5th this man with another during retirement 
from Saihan carried Captain Maclean out of action. On 
November i7th and December 4th he again performed meri- 
torious work in carrying messages backwards and forwards 
from the Officer Commanding to the officers in the firing line. 



APPENDIX E. 

Casualties on December 4. 



Units. 


Killed. 


Wounded. 


Missing. 


2nd Norfolks . . 


_ 


3 





3rd Sappers and Miners 





2 


2 


noth Mahratta Light Infantry 


5 


16 


3 


io4th Rifles 


j i I. O. 

( 13 


28 


2\V. M. 
8M. 


No casualties, Royal Field Artillery 








2 mules killed 








2 mules wounded 








i machine gun missing, noth 









383 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [I 

i B. O. wounded ; i I. O. killed. 
Indians. 18 killed. 
British. 3 wounded. 
Indians. 46 wounded. 
Indians. 15 missing. 

Enemy reported in Qurnah, 600 and 4 guns ; outside, 
700 and 2 guns. 
Captured : 

Gunner officer. 

Infantry Captain, 2nd-in-command. 
Another officer. 
75 prisoners, 
i gun captured, 
i gun destroyed. 



ENCLOSURE No. III. 

From Commander W. Nunn, Senior Naval Officer, Persian 
Gulf Division, to the General Officer Commanding, 
iSth Brigade, dated H.M.S. "Espiegle," Qurnah, 
December 15, 1914. 

In the absence of Captain Hayes-Sadler, R.N., of H.M.S. 

Ocean, who was Senior Naval Officer at the time, I beg to 

forward a short report from the naval point of view on the 

Qurnah operations from December 3rd to December gth, 

1914. 

The names of H.M. ships engaged were as follows : 

H.M.S. Espiegle (Commander W. Nunn, R.N!) 

H.M.S. Odin (Commander C. R. Wason, R.N.) 

H.M.S. Lawrence (Commander R. N. Suter. R.N.) 

H.M. Armed Launch Lewis Petty (Lieutenant in Command, 

J. F. B. Carslake, R.N.) 

H.M. Armed Launch Miner (Lieutenant in Command, 

C. H. Heath-Caldwell, R.N.) 

H.M. Armed Launch Shaitan (Lieutenant Commander in 

Command, F. G. S. Elkes, R.N.R. killed in action.) 

I have the honour to report as follows on the part taken 

in the operations for attack and occupation of Qurnah by 

H.M.S. Espiegle under my command 

On Thursday, December 3rd, H.M.S. Espiegle left Basrah 
384 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

at 3.50 p.m., and anchored to northward of Dair, about 
10 miles south of Qurnah, at 7.45 p.m., and weighed, and 
proceeded at 5.5 a.m, on December 4th towards Qurnah, 
followed by H. M. Ships Odin and Lawrence and armed 
launches Miner, Lewis Pelly, and Shaitan and the four Lynch's 
steamers Medijieh, Blosse Lynch, Malomir, and Salami, 
carrying the troops. 

Medijieh and Blosse Lynch each had two i8-pr. field 
artillery guns mounted in the forepart of the deck house. 

On rounding the river bend near Um Rash, fire was opened 
on us by two Turkish guns mounted to the south-west of 
Muzaira'ah village, and we at once replied, opening fire at 
6.45 a.m. 

The transports went alongside the bank just south of 
Urn Rash village and disembarked troops, and at 9.20 a.m., 
they had disembarked and were advancing towards enemy. 

The Blosse Lynch and Medijieh came up and anchored 
off our port quarter at 9.55 a.m., and opened fire. At this 
point the enemy's fire was fairly accurate, and they were 
firing on us from the two Muzaira'ah guns and also from 
Qurnah. 

At 10.5 a.m., Espiegle was hit on port bow but not 
damaged, and was also hit several times later, Lawrence also 
being hit several times. 

Odin had been left in position to guard the camp which 
was formed at the place of disembarkation. 

At i.o p.m., the armed launches were ordered up to 
assist in the attack as our troops were seen to have practically 
reached the left bank of the Tigris opposite Qurnah. The 
launches opened a rapid, accurate fire and a hot fire was 
opened on them by the Turkish guns and riflemen. 

At about 1.40 p.m., Miner was seen to be listing and she 
returned towards ship and grounded just ahead of Espiegle 
and reported that she had been hit and that a shell had 
penetrated starboard side into engine room. 

Assistance was at once sent by Espiegle and leak stopper 
placed over hole and Miner was, later on, able to raise 
steam again and proceed down river where during the night 
she was patched by Odin. 

All this time Espiegle was in extremely shallow water and 
unable to move nearer Qurnah. The Espiegle' s fire had been 

385 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

directed on the enemy's guns at Qurnah, which had been 
several times temporarily silenced, also those at Muzaira'ah. 

During the advance of our troops Espiegle and Lawrence 
also shelled the enemy's trenches. 

At 2.37 p.m., extremely heavy firing was heard near 
the bank of the Tigris opposite Qurnah and at 3.0 p.m., a 
signal was received from Lieutenant- Colonel Frazer, Com- 
manding Troops, that he had decided to retire to Shaib Camp 
south of Urn-Rash. 

Espiegle and Lawrence at once directed a heavy fire on 
the only Qurnah houses which could be seen plainly enough 
to be sure of not hitting our troops, and ordered the armed 
launches back at 4 p.m. 

At 6.15 p.m., the retirement had been effected and Blosse 
Lynch and Medijieh and launches had gone down river, as 
Espiegle proceeded towards the camp and remained there 
for the night. 

Reinforcements were asked for from Basrah and the 
river steamers sent down for them on December 5th, bringing 
up four more i8-pr. guns and two-and-a-half battalions of 
troops, with General Fry in command, on Sunday morning 
December 6th, and disembarked on arrival. 

On Sunday forenoon General Fry held a conference on 
board Lawrence during which the enemy opened fire, and 
in the afternoon at 2.10 p.m., Lawrence which was anchored 
just to north-west of camp reported that the enemy were 
advancing with guns across the plain from Muzaira'ah. 

Espiegle at once proceeded to a position north-west of 
camp and opened fire. with shrapnel on the enemy at 2 p.m., 
Lawrence also firing on them. 

Espiegle was hit twice by enemy's shell, one piercing the 
side of port bow near 3-pr. gun port. This shell had been 
fired by enemy's guns near Muzaira'ah village. At 3.10 p.m., 
one of them was silenced and, it is thought put out of action 
by a shell by Espiegle. Lawrence was also hit. 

Our field artillery had also got into action and the enemy 
retired across the plain with considerable loss. 

Espiegle ceased fire at 3.25 p.m., and returned to anchorage 
for protection of Shaib Camp. More reinforcements arrived 
in the river steamers about 6.30 p.m., on December 7th, and 
the troops left the camp at 9 a.m. to advance for attack on 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Turks' position in accordance with scheme arranged, so. that 
Navy and Army could co-operate as much as possible. 

Espiegle weighed at 9.45 a.m., and proceeded up river 
and anchored at 10.10 a.m., to north-west of Urn-Rash with 
Lawrence astern and launches and Odin to south-east. 

The enemy at once opened fire from the guns at Qurnah 
and Muzaira'ah, and we at once replied attacking the guns 
with lyddite and co-operating with the field guns in the 
river steamers Blosse Lynch and Medijieh in shelling enemy's 
trenches during the advance of our troops, Lieutenant A. G. 
Seymour, R.N., of H.M.S. Espiegle, directing the gun fire 
from the mast-head. 

At 11.30 a.m., a very heavy musketry fire was opened on 
our troops from Muzaira'ah village, and Espiegle moved further 
up the river at 11.50 a.m., and again at 2.10 p.m., although 
in very shallow water, in order to support the troops. 

The armed launches were sent forward at 2 p.m., and at 
this time Lieutenant G. E. Harden, R.N., of H.M.S. Espiegle 
went in the steam-cutter to locate and sound round the dredger 
which the Turks had sunk in the river between us and Qurnah. 

A heavy fire was being kept up by the Turkish guns, and 
at 3.30 p.m. the Shaitan returned with her Captain, Lieutenant 
Commander F. O. S. Elkes, R.N.R., killed and several 
wounded, and steaming gear disabled. Her wounded were 
taken and treated on board Espiegle. 

The launches were recalled at 2.45 p.m., and Espiegle 
remained in the same position for the night, the enemy 
firing a few shells when the moon rose. 

The enemy's fire had been very heavy and fairly accurate 
during the day and Espiegle was hit several times, two men 
being wounded by a segment of shell which hit spreader of 
main topmast rigging and burst over afterpart of the ship. 
Another shell pierced foremast cowl and lodged in netting. 

Great difficulty was experienced in keeping signal com- 
munication with the Army, but we ascertained during the 
night that they had camped near Muzaira'ah and would 
advance on Qurnah in the morning. 

At 8.30 a.m. on December 8th, the armed launch Lewis 
Petty was ordered to reconnoitre towards Qurnah and was 
heavily fired on by Turkish guns and riflemen at 9 a.m. 

Espiegle therefore opened fire and ordered Lewis Petty 

Naval II 2 C 3 8 7 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

back. Heavy firing in the woods indicated that our troops 
were engaged and we received information from General 
Fry that he intended to attempt to cross the Tigris above 
Qurnah and advance on the town. 

Espiegle proceeded further up the river and Lieutenant 
G. E. Harden, of Espiegle, placed a buoy on the outer side 
ol (lie sunken lighter, and, with /.r/r/'.s /V//v sounding ahead, 
Espiegle passed it about n a.m. and anchored to northward 
of it, opening fire on the guns at Qurnah and firing lyddite 
at the houses. Blosse Lynch and Medijieh also moved up 
and assisted, and Lawrence anchored some cables astern. 
Firing continued intermittently until sunset, and heavy 
rifle nre and the burning buildings indicated that the troops 
were progressing. The guns did not fire till after sunset, and 
early in the middle watch a small steamer with all lights 
burning was observed to be coming down the river from the 
direction of the town blowing her siren to attract attention. 

Espiegle's siren pipe had been cut by shell so Blosse 
Lynch was directed to sound her siren in reply, and I sent 
an armed boat away under Lieutenant G. H. Harden, R.N., 
to board her as she approached. She was found to have on 
board a deputation of three Turkish Officers to discuss terms 
of surrender of Qurnah. 

They came on board at 12.35 a - m - an d were interviewed 
by Captain Hayes-Sadler, R.N., of H.M.S. Ocean, who is 
directing Naval operations from Espiegle, and agreed to an 
unconditional surrender and to meet General Fry on board 
Espiegle at 8.30 a.m. 

At 8.30 a.m. on December Qth the three Turkish Officers, 
viz., Major Hussain, Lieutenant Kornal, and Lieutenant 
Ismail Haki, returned on board and met General Fry and 
Staff and arranged details as to surrender. 

Espiegle went further up the river at high water with 
Lewis Pelly again sounding ahead, and although very shallow 
was able to reach the deeper water near Qurnah and entered 
.the Tigris, anchoring off Qurnah at 10.50 a.m. 

In the afternoon, General Fry landed from H.M.S. Espiegle 
and received the sword of the Turkish Vali and Officers, the 
Turkish troops were disarmed and sent down the river as 
prisoners of war, and the Union Jack was hoisted over Qurna h. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVA1, 

From the General Officer Commanding, iSth Brigade, to the 
General Staff, Indian Expeditionary Force "/)," dated 
Qurnah, December 15, 1914. 

Forwarded. In my report on these operations I have 
already mentioned the great assistance and co-operation 
extended by the Naval Force under Captain Hayes-Sadler, 
K.N. I much admired the intrepidity shown by the Com- 
manders of the armed launches in ascending the Shatt-al- 
Arab River under shell fire each day, and sincerely regret 
the death of one of these, Lieutenant Elkes, R.N. 



From Lieutenant-General Sir A. A. Barrett, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., 
Commanding, Indian Expeditionary Force " D," to 
the Chief of the General Staff, Army Headquarters, 
No. 204 (G.), dated Basrah, February 3, 1915. 

I have the honour to submit, for the information of His 
Excellency the Commander-in-Chief , the following report on an 
engagement with the Turks north of Qurnah on January aoth. 

Reports from naval and cavalry reconnaissances were 
to the effect that Turkish outposts had occupied some sand- 
hills about six miles north of Muzaira'ah on the left bank 
of the Tigris. I thoughj: it advisable to drive them back, 
and to impress upon our troops, as well as upon our adver- 
saries, that it was not our intention merely to maintain a 
passive defence of our prepared position at Qurnah 
Muzaira'ah. 

A copy of the operation order issued is attached. 1 

The cavalry of the advanced guard, after drawing the 
enemy's fire from his trenches on the sand-hills, moved 
eastward to cover our right flank, sending a patrol to the 
west to watch the villages near the river bank. The Oxford- 
shire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry then advanced 
direct on the sand-hills, which were speedily cleared of the 
enemy. The I03rd Light Infantry prolonged the line to 
the left, with the 22nd Punjabis and H9th Infantry in second 
line, and the Norfolk Regiment and half a battalion of the 
7th Rajputs in reserve. The Turkish guns, six in number, 
opened fire from a position near the village of Rotah and 
were heavily shelled by the Espiegle and by our batteries. 

1 Page 392. 

389 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

As our infantry advanced they came under fire from the 
Turkish main trenches. 

These were at the time believed to be north of the Rotah 
creek, but a comparison of reports received since the action 
leads to the conclusion that some of them must have been 
on the south bank. A large extent of ground in front of the 
creek was marshy, so that the men of our leading battalions 
were over their knees in water. 

The cavalry were also in wet ground. Our artillery were 
in action at a range of 3,500 yards, engaging the enemy's 
guns and shelling his trenches and camps, which were plainly 
visible beyond the creek. The 4-inch guns of the Espiegle, 
firing lyddite, were also within effective range, with two guns 
of the 82nd Battery, Royal Field Artillery, mounted on the 
deck of the s.s. Medjidieh. The enemy's guns were tempor- 
arily silenced, and some of his troops were seen to be retiring 
to the north-east. 

At this stage I was inclined to order a general advance 
on Rotah village, with a view to destroying the Turkish camp, 
and possibly capturing his guns. But I had warned the troops 
beforehand that I had no intention of crossing the creek, 
and an advance through marshy ground without cover would 
probably have entailed considerable loss. I also had to 
consider that our force was hardly' strong enough to hold a 
position at Rotah as well as at Qurnah in the event of more 
troops being brought down from Baghdad. 

I therefore issued orders to stand fast and prepare to 
withdraw to camp. Our second line took up a position on 
the sand-hills and our first line withdrew almost unmolested, 
except for an occasional shell from the enemy's guns, their 
infantry fire being well kept down by our artillery and the 
guns of the Espiegle. Shortly after noon the engagement 
ceased, and by 2 o'clock the last of our troops were back 
in camp at Muzaira'ah. 

Arab reports gave the strength of the enemy at about 
5,000, and variously estimated his losses at from 200 to 300 
killed, besides many wounded. These numbers may be 
exaggerated, but it is evident that his troops were much 
demoralised by our fire. Askari Bey, who had recently 
arrived from Constantinople to take command, was wounded, 
and is said to have returned to Baghdad. 

390 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

I was much pleased with the behaviour of the troops on 
this occasion. General Dobbie handled his brigade skilfully, 
and the rapid and spirited advance of the Oxfordshire and 
Buckinghamshire Light Infantry and the I03rd Mahrattas 
is worthy of special mention. 

I am greatly indebted to Captain Nunn, R.N., for the 
valuable assistance afforded by H. M.S. EspiZgle and the armed 
launch Miner. 
Enclosures : 

i. Casualty return. 

Operation Order No. 17. 
Captain Nunn's R.N. report. 



2. 

3- 
4- 
5- 



Rough sketch of ground. ) XT , -, -, 

Map of Qurnah and district. ] Not re P roduced - 



INDIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE " D." 

CASUALTIES. 



Units. 


BRITISH. 


INDIAN. 


Officers. 


Rank and 
File. 


Officers. 


Rank and 
File. 


K 


W 


M 


K 


W 


M 


K 


W | M 


K 


W 


M 


? orce Headquarters 





i* 
































I/TH BRIGADE. 


























stBn., Oxford and Bucks 
L. I 
2nd Infantry 
oard Mahratta L. I. 
i gth Infantry 














12 








it 
i| 





6 
i 


3 

20 

3 


i 


i8TH BRIGADE. 


























thJRajputs 
































i 





IOTH BRIGADE, R.F.A. 


























3rd Battery 
6th Battery 
3rd Cavalry 

Total 














4 

2 


E 


E 











i 








i 








18 








2 





y 


29 


i 



Grand Total 



* Captain Cochran. f Subadar RajpaljSingh. J Subadar Krishna Rao Gadgi. 

39i 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [I 

OPERATION ORDER No. 17 BY GENERAL OFFICER 
COMMANDING, " D " FORCE. 

Dated Qurnah, January 19, 1915 

Reference i mile to i-inch map issued to-day. 

- 

1. The enemy is believed to be receiving reinforcements 
by river at Sakhricha and north of Mazeeblah, and he occupies 
an advanced position on the sand-hills, one mile south of the 
Rotah canal. 

2. The Force Commander intends to attack this advanced 
position to-morrow. 

3. The Senior Naval Officer will co-operate from the Tigris. 
The Medjidieh, with two i8-pr. guns of 82nd Battery, Royal 
Field Artillery, and half a double company i2Oth Infantry 
on board, is placed at his disposal. The Navy will also guard 
the mouth of the Shatt-al-Shaib and the Euphrates. 

4. Advanced guards. Officer Commanding, Lieutenant- 
Colonel Wogan Brown. 

Troops : 

33rd Cavalry, less 2 squadrons. 

Half battalion, I7th Brigade. 

i section, No. 17 Company, Sappers and Miners. 

5. Rendezvous. Just north of the central redoubt at 
Muzaira'ah at 5.30 a.m. 

Troops : 

I7th Infantry Brigade (less i battalion) in two lines of 

Company Columns, 
loth Brigade Royal Field Artillery (less 82nd Battery 

and i section 76th Battery). 
No. 30 Battery Mountain Artillery. 
No. 17 Company, Sappers and Miners, less i section. 
2nd Battalion, Norfolk Regiment (in reserve). 
Distances 100 paces between lines, intervals, 50 paces 
between units. 

The left hand man of the right battalion of the front line 
will direct. 

6. One double company, I7th Brigade, on each flank. 

7. The improvised Divisional Ammunition Column Two 
British and three Indian Bearer Sub-Divisions, Field Ambu- 
lances and 50 riding, mules escorted by two double companies 

392 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of the 7th Rajputs Officer Commanding, Captain Ogg 
will follow the main body starting at 6 a.m. 

Clearing Hospital. i section British and i section Indian 
Field Ambulance on the Medjidieh. 

8. Captains Cochran and Taylor will guide the Column. 

9. One hundred and fifty rounds of ammunition and a 
haversack ration to be carried on person. 

Signalling, entrenching tools and section reserve ammuni- 
tion to be carried on mules with units. 

10. Reports to Force Headquarters during operations 
with the Royal Field Artillery. 

11. The remainder of the force in garrison as follows : 
Tigris Redoubt. Officer Commanding, Major Pocock. 

Troops : 

laoth Infantry, less half a double company, 
i section, 76th Battery, Royal Field Artillery. 
Qiirnah Fort. Officer Commanding, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Frazer. 

Troops : 

noth Mahratta Light Infantry. 
7th Rajputs, less 2 double companies and details. 
Muzaira'ah. Officer Commanding, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Harward. 

Troops : 

48th Pioneers, less 2 double companies. 
Sirmur Sappers and details. 

R. N. GAMBLE, Colonel, 

General Staff. 

Issued at 1.30 p.m. 

Copy No. 

General Officer Commanding, I7th Infantry Brigade . . i 

Commanding Royal Artillery . . . . . . . . 4 

Officer Commanding, 33rd Cavalry . . . . . . 5 

Officer Commanding, Muzaira'ah . . . . . . 7 

Senior Naval Officer . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 

General Officer Commanding, i8th Brigade . . . . 3 

Officer Commanding, Qurnah . . . . . . . . 6 

Record 8 

General Officers Commanding Brigades to pass copy to 
Sappers and Medical Units. 

393 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [D] 

Copy of a report from Captain W. Nunn, Royal Navy, Senior 
Naval Officer, Persian Gulf Division, to the General 
Officer Commanding, Indian Expeditionary Force " D," 
dated Qurnah, January 21, 1915. 

I have the honour to forward the following report on the 
Naval operations in the Shatt-el-Arab on January 20th. 

At 6.50 a.m. H.M.S. Espiegle (Captain W. Nunn, R.N., 
Senior Naval Officer) followed by H.M. Armed Launch Miner 
(Lieutenant in Command, S. N. Heath-Caldwell) and 
Medjidieh, having on board two i8-p. Royal Field Artillery 
guns, proceeded up the river from anchorage off Tigris Camp. 

At 7.30 a.m., the ships came under fire of the enemy's guns 
posted on south side of Rotah village, and at 7.58 a.m. 
Espiegle anchored in reach of Tigris beyond Bahran village 
heading E.N.E in a position in which her whole broadside 
bore oh enemy's position, and opened fire on enemy's guns. 

At 8.15 a.m. Medjidieh anchored as previously arranged 
about a quarter of a mile to southward of Espiegle and warped 
her stern round to bring her guns to bear and then opened fire. 

At 8.20 a.m. Miner anchored off Bahran village and was 
attacked by twenty armed Arabs who ran out from the village. 
Miner drove them away with a well directed fire and then 
continued to engage parties of armed Arabs and cavalry on 
the right bank of Tigris. 

Espiegle s fire was at first directed entirely on enemy's 
guns, of which five were plainly visible from the ship in pits 
south of Rotah village (just north of Rotah Creek) Medjidieh 
assisting. 

Later on Espiegle and Medjidieh also shelled enemy's 
trenches and parties of Turks, who came forward close along 
left bank of river under cover of the raised bank and sniped 
at the ship. 

After 10.45 a - m - the enemy's guns seldom fired. Their 
fire had been fairly good for direction, but badly laid for 
elevation, and shots and fragments of shell often fell near 
the ship but did no damage. 

About 10.45 a - m - the signal arrived that our forces were 
retiring to camp, so Espiegle shelled the trenches vigorously 
and ordered Miner and Medjidieh to drop down river firing 
as they went. 

394 



I .:] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

A large body of the enemy's infantry were observed about 
10.0 a.m. to be leaving the camp near Sakhricha marching in 
column and numbering between one and two thousand. 
They marched to south-eastward round Pear Drop bend and 
reinforced the trenches and position near Rotah about noon. 
Espiegle was able to put a few shells amongst them and they 
scattered and took cover. 

On their left was a large scattered body of enemy, pre- 
sumably Arabs, numbering several thousand. On our de- 
parture they appeared to march into Rotah with red and green 
flags flying. 

At noon the Miner was ordered to set Bahran village on 
fire, which she did and took two Arabs in Turkish uniforms 
prisoners who were fighting for the Turks ; at the same 
time the Royal Engineers were destroying Halla village. 

At 12.10 p.m. Espilgle weighed and followed the others 
down river, the enemy keeping up gun and rifle fire as we left. 



From the General Officer Commanding, I.E.F. " D," to the 
Chief of the General Staff, Army Headquarters, India, 
Simla. No. S6o-A., dated Basrah, March 31, 1915. 

As I am about to relinquish the command of Indian 
Expeditionary Force " D," I have the honour to submit, 
for the favourable consideration of His Excellency the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, the names of those officers, warrant officers 
and non-commissioned officers, whose good services during 
the operations from November, 1914, to March 3ist, 1915, 
I desire to bring to notice, in addition to those who have 
already been mentioned in my reports No. ioi-G., dated 
December 7th, J-9J-4, 1 and 174-0., dated December 29th, 
1914 J : 

Commanders, Headquarters Staff, &c. 

Major-General C. I. Fry. Has done excellent service 
throughout. He commanded during the highly successful 
engagements which led to the surrender of Subhi Bey at 
Qurnah in December, 1914. 

Brigadier-General W. H. Dobbie, C.B. A keen and 

1 Published in the Gazette of India, dated February 26th, 1915. 

395 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Di 

capable Brigade Commander, and a good leader of troops in 
the field. 

Brigadier-General W. S. Delamain, C.B., D.S.O. Com- 
manded the Force before my arrival and showed great skill 
and resource in his arrangements for overcoming the resistance 
of the Turks, and landing his troops in face of considerable 
difficulties. Has shown much dash and gallantry when 
leading his Brigade in action. 

Brigadier-General C. T. Robinson. A very capable Artil- 
lery Commander. When in command of a mixed force at 
Ahwaz he was greatly outnumbered by the enemy, and suc- 
ceeded in extricating his troops from a very difficult situation 
with much coolness and decision. 

Colonel R. N. Gamble, D.S.O. His services as senior 
General Staff Officer have been carried out to my entire 
satisfaction, and have contributed greatly to the success of 
the operations. He is full of tact and resource, and possesses 
all the qualities that go to make a good staff officer. 

Colonel L. W. Shakespear. His duties as Assistant 
Quartermaster-General to the Force in connection with the 
landing, movement and location of troops have been of a 
most onerous and responsible nature, and he has spared 
no pains to carry them out successfully in face of many 
difficulties. 

Colonel P. Hehir, M.D. As senior medical officer he has 
done much to promote the general efficiency of the Force by 
his unceasing care for the physical welfare of the troops 
and followers, and for the treatment of the sick and wounded. 
He possesses great administrative ability and is an extremely 
valuable officer. 

Colonel U. W. Evans. A thoroughly capable and energetic 
Engineer Commander with high abilities and full of resource. 
Owing to the difficult nature of the country the work of the 
technical troops has been throughout of a most arduous 
nature, and has been carried out with thorough success. 

Lieutenant-Colonel H. L. D. Fordyce. Has performed 
his important duties as Assistant Director of Supplies in a 
highly satisfactory manner. He has good administrative 
ability. 

Lieutenant-Colonel A. S. R. Annesley. A very competent 
and energetic transport officer, with a thorough knowledge 

896 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of the duties connected with his Branch. Under his able 
direction the transport has been kept in a highly efficient 
state, and its organisation and work in the field has left 
nothing to be desired. 

Major J. H. M. Da vie. An officer of great administrative 
ability, whose most arduous and responsible duties as Deputy 
Assistant Adjutant-General to the Force have been carried 
out to my entire satisfaction. 

Major G. A. F. Sanders. An officer of great talent and 
resource, whose general, professional ability and know- 
ledge of staff duties in the field are much above the 
average. I cannot speak too highly of the quality of 
his work. 

Major C. C. R. Murphy. Has done valuable work as head 
of the Intelligence Branch. He has been successful in 
obtaining accurate information of the enemy's strength and 
movements, and his local knowledge of the country and people 
has been of great assistance. 

Major J. F. Tyrrell. His most responsible duties as head 
of the Ordnance Branch have been performed to my entire 
satisfaction. 

Major d'A. C. Brownlow. In addition to his work as 
Deputy Judge Advocate General to the Force, he has filled 
the important appointment of Military Governor of Basrah 
with marked success. 

Captain H. S. Cardew. His work as Assistant Director 
of Army Signals has been thoroughly satisfactory. He has 
good abilities and considerable powers of organisation. 

Lieutenant C. K. Green way. As Aide-de-Camp this 
Officer has proved himself to be a most energetic and capable 
young officer. 

i. The following staff and regimental officers are also 
worthy of special commendation : 

Adamson, Lieutenant-Colonel H. M., M.B. 

Ali, Risalder Mahomed. 

Anthony, Major W. S. 

Arthur, Captain D., M.B. 

Barber, Captain C. H., M.B. 

Browne, Lieutenant-Colonel A. J. Wogan. 

Browne-Mason, Major H. O. B. 

Booth, Captain F. 

^597 



- 

DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL [D 

Collins, Major D. J., M.B. 

Cook, Captain W. K. 

Dallas, Major A. E. 

Dent, Captain W. 

Donegan, Lieutenant- Colonel J. F 

Farmar, Major W. C. R. 

Gillies, Captain F. G. 

Goldsmith, Captain H. A. 

Grey, Captain A. J. H. 

Gribbon, Captain W. H. 

Harward, Lieutenant-Colonel A. J. N. 

Hewett, Captain G. 

Horton, Major J. H., D.S.O. 

Irvine, Lieutenant-Colonel G. B. 

Khan, Lieutenant Abdul Majid (Nawab of Savanur). 

Khan, Lieutenant Murtaza. 

Landale, Lieutenant C. H. 

Lyttle, Lieutenant W. J. 

Lloyd, Major J. H. 

McCreery, Captain A. T. J., M.B. 

Messenger, Captain H. T. K. 

Ogg, Captain A. C. 

O'Keefe, Major D. S. A., M.B. 

Parr, Lieutenant-Colonel H. O. 

Peel, Captain G. G. 

Pirrie, Lieutenant-Colonel F. W. 

Pocock, Major P. F. 

Pogson, Lieutenant C. A. 

Radcliffe, Major F. W. 

Riddell, Major H. J. 

Roe, Captain J. W. 

Shah, 2nd Lieutenant Abdul Samad 

Shairp, Major H. F. 

Shuttleworth, Major A. R. B. 

Singh, Lieutenant Jiwan. 

Singh, Risaldar Hukum. 

Stace, Captain R. E. 

Sykes, Lieutenant-Colonel C. A. 

Thornton, Lieutenant-Colonel C. E. 

Whiteley, Captain E. C. 

Wright, Lieutenant R. 

398 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The following departmental warrant officers, non-com- 
missioned officers and men have rendered valuable service, 
for which I recommend suitable departmental promotion in 
each case in the order named : 

Medical Services. 

No. 854 ist Class S. A. S. Mohun Lai. 
3rd Class Assistant Surgeon E. A. Cotton, 
ist Class S. A. S. Ganga Ram Hariba. 
3rd Class Assistant Surgeon S. C. Raphael. 
3rd Class Assistant Surgeon H. Vincent, 
ist Class S. A. S. Y. Sambasiva Nayakar. 

Ordnance Department. 
Sub-Conductor A. T. Hardens. 
Conductor W. J. J. Chambers. 
Arm. Staff Sergeant L. R. Anderson. 

Supply and Transport Corps. 
Conductor S. Fowles. 
Sub-Conductor F. Carey. 

India Miscellaneous List. 
Conductor H. Joyner. 
Sub-Conductor J. Bryce. 

No. 34 Divisional Signal Company. 
No. i Sergeant-Major J. McConville. 
No. 40 2nd Corporal W. Fletcher. 
No. 45 Private H. J. Newstead. 
Jemadar Murugesan. 
No. 78 Sapper Adimulam. 
No. 48 Lance-Naick Joshua. 

Searchlight Section. 
Staff Sergeant J. Houghton. 
Sergeant F. N. Booth. 1 
Sapper T. G. Pendrigh. 1 
Sapper J. Mulhern. 1 
Sapper W. J. Mooney. 1 

2. The following officers are specially brought to notice 
for gallantry in the field : 

1 Volunteers. 



399 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Major M. H. Anderson, 33rd Cavalry. In the operations 
from Mezera on the left bank of the Tigris on January 30th, 
1915, he led a successful charge against the enemy with con- 
spicuous gallantry and resolution he had two horses shot 
under him. 

Captain W. M. Hunt, 23rd Mountain Battery. At Ahwaz, 
on March 3rd, 1915, this officer displayed conspicuous cool- 
ness and bravery in repeatedly checking the enemy with his 
own rifle, although severely wounded, and thus enabling his 
section on the 23rd Mountain Battery to withdraw at a most 
critical stage of the fight. 

r 2nd Lieutenant H. J. Baillie, 2nd Battalion Dorset Regi- 
ment. Near Ahwaz, on March 3rd, 1915, displayed conspicu- 
ous courage. With a handful of men he gallantly checked 
the advance of overwhelming numbers of the enemy and was 
thus instrumental in saving many of our wounded from falling 
into their hands. 

Lieutenant-Colonel C. S. Stack, 33rd Cavalry. Severely 
wounded near Shaiba on March 3rd, 1915, whilst displaying 
great personal gallantry and handling his regiment in a most 
skilful manner. This officer did extremely good work whilst 
commanding the Shaiba Post for over two months. 

Captain H. E. Shortt, I. M.S. In the operations from 
Mezera on the left bank of the Tigris on January 3oth, 1915, 
this Medical Officer displayed great devotion and courage 
in attending wounded in the open, in face of rifle fire at 
comparatively close quarters. 

Captain A. R. Thomson, yth Rajputs. Near Ahwaz, on 
March 3rd, 1915, was acting as Signalling Officer on the Staff 
of the Column Commander. At a critical moment he dis- 
played great initiative in collecting as many men as he could 
and holding a position to cover the retirement. He next 
gallantly led a bayonet charge against a paVty of the enemy 
who were blocking the road to camp and succeeded in clearing 
them out. 

Captain H. C. West, " S " Battery, R.H.A. Near Shaiba, 
on March 3rd, 1915, at a critical moment of the operations, 
when the teams of a gun and a waggon were down, displayed 
conspicuous coolness and courage in keeping the enemy at 
bay with his revolver, whilst he enabled his defenceless drivers 
to escape on foot. 

4 oo 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Lieutenant R. H. Sheepshanks, i2th Cavalry (attached 
33rd Cavalry). Was conspicuous for his gallantry and 
skilful handling of a small body of cavalry near Ahwaz on 
March 3rd, 1915. Re-forming his troop he repeatedly 
charged the foremost lines of the enemy and inflicted heavy 
loss on them. 

3. In a previous report, I mentioned the good service 
of the officers and men of the Royal Navy. Since the depar- 
ture of Captain Hayes-Sadler, the duties of Senior Naval 
Officer have been most ably performed by Captain Nunn, R.N., 
of H. M.S. Espiegle, whose valuable advice and ready co-opera- 
tion in all our undertakings has contributed so greatly to 
the success of the operations. 

4. I am also much indebted to the officers of the Royal 
Indian Marine, who have shown zeal and energy in organising 
a most efficient river transport service, and in making all 
arrangements for the berthing and unloading of the large 
fleet of vessels that has been employed on transport duties. 
The whole has been under the able direction of Captain 
Hamilton, R.I.M., and among those serving under him I 
would specially mention Captains Goldsmith and Marsh. 

5. I am glad to take this opportunity of expressing my 
thanks' to the officers and crews of the steamers of the British 
India Steam Navigation Company which conveyed the troops 
from India at the outset of the operations, while the Turks 
were still in occupation of the country. At this time there 
was much risk owing to the difficult navigation of the river, 
and to the fact that the banks were often held by the enemy. 
The one desire of the captains of these vessels was to push 
forward as rapidly as possible, and to afford us all the help 
that was in their power. The same remark applies to the 
captains of Lynch Bros, steamers and of the other river 
craft which have been in constant employment on transport 
duties, and have many times been in situations of considerable 
danger. 

The following are those who are worthy of special com- 
mendation : 

Captain R. W. Coope, H.T. Elephanta. 
Captain G. R. Elton, H.T. Umaria. 
Captain J. S. Kilmer, H.T. Ekma. 
Lieutenant S. L. Mills, R.N.R., H.T. Varela. 

4 oi 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Captain J. S. Reddock, H.T. Erinpura. 
Captain C. J. Swanson, H.T. Torilla. 
Captain C. H. Cowley, Mejidieh. 
Captain E. C. P. D'Eye, Blosse Lynch. 
Captain F. W. Lyte, Shushan. 
Captain O. Sczulczewski, Malamir. 
Captain Hassan bin Ghulami, Salimi. 
Captain Tahir bin Bangool, Mozaffari. 

6. In a previous report I expressed my great indebtedness 
to Sir Percy Cox for his valuable advice and assistance. His 
intimate knowledge of local politics, and his remarkable 
personal influence over the surrounding tribesmen, have 
smoothed over many difficulties, and greatly assisted the 
military operations. 

I also wish to mention the good services of Mr. E. G. 
Gregson, of the Indian Police, Mr. D. Gumley of the Indo- 
European Telegraph Department, Mr. E. Cleric!, of the Postal 
Department, and Mr. Thomas Dexter, Personal Assistant and 
interpreter to the Military Governor of Basrah. 

Doctor Arthur Bennett, of the American Mission Hospital, 
has helped us greatly by undertaking the treatment of wounded 
Turkish and Arab officers and men. 

7. Several recommendations of Indian ranks for the 
Indian Order of Merit and Indian Distinguished Service 
Medal on account of recent acts of gallantry, which are now 
being recorded, will be submitted in due course. 



GERMAN MINES IN THE NORTH SEA. DANGER 
TO MERCHANT SHIPS. 

Admiralty, December 5. 

THE North-German Lloyd s.s. Berlin has recently put into 
Trondjhem almost empty of coal, and with her speed con- 
siderably reduced, due, presumably, to fast steaming. 

She has been specially fitted for mine-laying. 

So far as is known, she now has no mines on board, the 
probability being that these have been sown broadcast on 
the high seas, under cover of darkness. 

From past experience it is known that the track of mer- 
chant shipping (neutral as well as British) is a favourite 
locality for this operation. 

402 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

German floating mines are constantly being sighted, and 
on many occasions these mines have proved to be still 
dangerous. 

Merchant vessels should, therefore, be warned of the 
grave danger to which they are exposed, and they must bear 
in mind that waters which, owing to their great depth, have 
hitherto been regarded as comparatively safe, must now be 
navigated with caution. 

ADMIRALTY ORDER WITH RESPECT TO PILOTAGE 
CERTIFICATES IN WAR TIME. 

THE Admiralty, under the powers given to them by the L.G., 
Defence of the Realm Consolidation Act, 1914, and the Dec - IX 
Defence of the Realm (Consolidation) Regulations, 1914, 
hereby make the following Order : 

(1) This Order shall relate to the ports and territorial 
waters adjacent to the United Kingdom from and including 
Plymouth eastward up to and including Great Yarmouth, 
with the exception of the existing pilotage district of Arundel. 

(2) Any bye-law in force for the time being in the area 
to which this Order relates shall have effect only subject to 
the provisions of this Order and of Orders made by the 
Trinity House in accordance with instructions hereunder. 

(3) The Trinity House, as defined in the Pilotage Act, 
1913, is hereby instructed as follows : 

(i.) To suspend, if it shall think fit, the licences of 
all or any present pilots and the existing pilotage certifi- 
cates of all or any masters or mates within the said 
area. 

(ii.) Subject to the provisions of this Order and to 
the approval of the Admiralty to make orders in respect 
of the said area for all or any of the, purposes specified 
in Regulation 39 of the Defence of the Realm (Consoli- 
dation) Regulations, 1914. 

(4) No person shall act as pilot within the said area 
without the special licence of the Trinity House. 

(5) No licence shall be granted under this Order for a 
period longer than fourteen days, and all licences shall be 
revocable and renewable at the absolute discretion of the 
Trinity House. 

Naval II 2 D 43 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DE< 

(6) A licence shall not be granted unless the pilot signs 
an agreement to conform with the Trinity House Orders. 

(7) The Trinity House is authorised to make new rates or 
to modify existing rates for pilotage. 

NOTE. Any person failing to comply with the provisions of 
this Order or of the Orders issued by the Trinity House will be guilty 
of an offence against the Defence of the Realm (Consolidation) 
Regulations, 1914, and liable to be dealt with accordingly. 

Given under our hands this fifth day of December, 1914. 

F. T. HAMILTON. 
CECIL LAMBERT. 

THE DEFENCE OF PORT SAID. 

London, December 6. 

IT is reported from Cairo, by Renter, that the military 
authorities have flooded the desert to the east of Port Said 
in order to isolate the town. 

OPENING OF JAPANESE DIET. 

Tokyo, December 7. 

THE Emperor's speech contained the following : 

I am happy to announce that the friendship of the Empire 
with the Treaty Powers is growing in cordiality. 

The alliance with Great Britain and the ententes with 
France and Russia have been cemented in the present critical 
stage by stronger bonds of amity. 

Peace in the Orient is gradually being restored, but the 
Great War is riot yet ended. We rely upon the loyalty and 
bravery of our subjects in our wish to obtain the final object 
as quickly as possible. 

SPEECH ON JAPANESE POLICY BY BARON KATO. 

& Tokyo, December 8. 

IT is a matter of deep regret that the war in Europe, far 
from approaching its end, has greatly extended its field of 
operations, and holds out as yet no prospects of peace ; but 
in the meantime I am happy to be able to say that the rela- 
tions between Japan and the Powers which are in common 
with us in a state of war have grown more intimate, than 
ever, and that in all matters of importance frank exchange 
of views has taken place with those Powers. 

404 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Our relations with neutral Powers are also in an excellent 
condition. Various questions which were raised between 
Japan and China in connection with the attack on Kiao-chau 
have been on the whole satisfactorily settled, the Chinese 
Government being fully alive to the general situation. Com- 
plete success has attended the efforts of our army and navy 
at Tsingtau, and in this respect I wish highly to appreciate 
the loyal assistance rendered by the British land and naval 
forces. 

With regard to our action in the Pacific, the Imperial 
Government dispatched a squadron to the German South Sea 
Islands namely, the Marshall, the Caroline, the Mariana, and 
the Palao Islands which islands are now under military 
occupation and are being guarded. 

Previous to the rupture of our diplomatic relations with 
Germany the German Government, on the pretext that they 
were protecting the Japanese, detained many of them in 
different parts of the country, and even in some cases in- 
carcerated them. The German Government ignored the 
protest of our representative in Berlin against such treat- 
ment, and they flatly refused his repeated request to be 
allowed to visit the places where Japanese subjects were 
interned. The Imperial Government having requested the 
United States Government to protect the Imperial Embassy 
in Berlin and Japanese interests in Germany, the United 
States Government willingly consented, and as the result of 
the kindly and timely action taken by them the great majority 
of the Japanese in detention were released. It is believed 
that there are some still detained, for whose release we shall 
have to rely upon the further good offices of the United 
States Governmetvt. We deeply appreciate and are sincerely 
grateful to the United States Government for their -good 
will. 

With regard to China, the Imperial Government most 
earnestly hope that nothing will arise there to disturb peace 
and order, as their maintenance is of the greatest importance. 

Lastly, strict vigilance on the part of the Imperial Govern- 
ment is .demanded at the present juncture, and we are pre- 
pared, after mature consideration of the circumstances, to 
spare no effort for the safeguarding and promotion of the 
interests of the Empire. 

405 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
BATTLE OFF THE FALKLAND ISLANDS. 

Times, THE Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 

Dec. 10, announcement : 

19*4- At 7.30 a.m. on December 8th the Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, 

Nurnberg, Leipzig and Dresden were sighted near the Falkland 
Islands by a British Squadron under Vice-Admiral Sir Fred- 
erick Sturdee. 

An action followed, in the course of which the Scharnhorst, 
flying the flag of Admiral Graf von Spefc, the Gneisenau, and 
the Leipzig were sunk. 

The Dresden and the Niirnberg made off during the action, 
and are being pursued. Two colliers were also captured. 

The Vice-Admiral reports that the British casualties are 
very few in number. Some survivors have been rescued from 
the Gneisenau and the Leipzig. 



Admiralty, December n. 

The following telegrams have been received and sent 
through the Japanese Embassy : 

To the Right Honourable Winston L. Spencer-Churchill, M.P. 
On behalf of Imperial Japanese Navy I express my 
heartfelt congratulations on the splendid victory attained by 
the British Squadron off Falkland Islands. 

VICE-ADMIRAL R. YASHIRO, 

Minister of Marine, Tokio. 

To Vice-Admiral R. Yashiro, Minister of Marine, Tokio. 

On behalf of the British Navy I heartily thank your 
Excellency for your message conveying Ijjie congratulations 
of the Imperial Japanese Navy on the action oft the Falk- 
lands. With the sinking of the Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, 
Leipzig, and Niirnberg the whole of the German Squadron 
based on Tsingtau at the outbreak of the war has been 
destroyed, and that base itself reduced and captured. This 
event marks the conclusion of the active operations in which 
the Allied Fleets have been engaged in the Pacific for more 
than four months, and thoug;h it has fallen to a British 
Squadron in the South Atlantic to strike the final blow, it 
is largely owing to the powerful and untiring assistance 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

rendered by the Japanese Fleet that this result has been 
achieved. 

Had the enemy turned westward again the honours would 
have rested with the Japanese and Australian Squadrons 
moving forward in the general combination. 

The peace of the Pacific is now for the time being restored, 
and the commerce of all nations can proceed with safety 
throughout the vast expanses from the coasts of Mozambique 
to those of South America. The expulsion of the Germans 
from the East is complete, and with good arid vigilant arrange- 
ments all return should be rendered extremely difficult and 
hazardous. 

I take the opportunity of your Excellency's cordial message 
to express on behalf of the British and Australian Navies our 
earnest recognition of the invaluable naval assistance of 
Japan. 

CHURCHILL. 



The Secretary of the Admiralty also announces : 
A telegram has been received from Vice-Admiral Sir 
Do vet on Sturdee reporting that in the action off the Falk- 
land Islands no British officers were killed or wounded, and 
that the total British casualties amount to seven killed and 
four wounded. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty further announces that 
the following telegram has been received from Petrograd : 

Ayant appris 1'heureuse nouvelle de la brillante victoire 
de TAmiral Sir Frederick Sturdee, je m'empresse de vous en 
feliciter chaleureusement en mon nom, ainsi qu'en celui de la 
Flotte et de TArmee Russes ; ce glorieux exploit de la Flotte 
Britannique ne peut que raffermir notre confiance inebranlable 
dans le succes definitif de la cause des Allies. 

GRAND DUC NICOLAS. 



His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to send Times, 
a message to Vice-Admiral Sir Frederick Sturdee, and the Dec. n, 
officers and men under his command, congratulating them on I 9 I 4- 

their victory. 

407 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DEC 

The following message also has been dispatched by Sir 
John French to the First Lord of the Admiralty : 

General Headquarters, France. 

The Army in France warmly congratulate Admiral 
Sturdee and the Navy on their brilliant victory, and may I 
also congratulate you and the Admiralty on now having 
practically swept the seas clear of the enemy's ships ? 

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF, 

British Expeditionary Force. 



The following message has been received from Ministre 
Marine, Paris, addressed to Right Hon. Winston Churchill, 
the Admiralty, Londres : 

J'adresse a votre Excellence les felicitations enthousiastes 
de la Marine Frangaise pour Teclatante victoire et la bravoure 
de la flotte Britannique. 

VICTOR AUGAGNEUR. 



The Board of Admiralty have sent the following message 
to Vice-Admiral Sir Frederick Sturdee : 

Our 'thanks are due to yourself, and to the officers and 
men under your command, for the brilliant victory you have 
achieved. 

The Sudan Government, Khartum, have sent the following 
message to Vice-Admiral Sir Frederick Sturdee : 

Heartiest congratulations from all in Sudan on splendid 
naval success in Pacific. 

WINGATE. 



Admiralty, March 3, 1915. 

The following dispatch has been received from Vice- 
Admiral Sir F. C. Doveton Sturdee, K.C.B., C.V.O., C.M.G., 
reporting the action off the Falkland Islands on Tuesday, 
December 8th, 1914 : 

"Invincible" at Sea, December 19, 1914. 
SIR, 

I have the honour to forward a report on the action which 

4 o8 



i )i4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAV^L 

took place on December 8th, 1914, against a German Squadron 
off the Falkland Islands. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

F. C. D. STURDEE, 
Vice- Admiral, Commander-in-Chief. 
The Secretary, Admiralty. 

(A) PRELIMINARY MOVEMENTS. 

The squadron, consisting of H.M. Ships Invincible, flying 
my flag, Flag Captain Percy T. H. Beamish ; Inflexible, 
Captain Richard F. Phillimore ; Carnarvon, flying the flag 
of Rear-Admiral Archibald' P. Stoddart, Flag Captain Harry 
L. d'E. Skipwith ; Cornwall, Captain Walter M. Ellerton ; 
Kent, Captain John D. Allen ; Glasgow, Captain John Luce ; 
Bristol, Captain Basil H. Fanshawe ; and Macedonia, Captain 
Bertram S. Evans ; arrived at Port Stanley, Falkland Islands, 
at 10.30 a.m. on Monday, December 7th, 1914. Coaling was 
commenced at once, in order that the ships should be ready 
to resume the search for the enemy's squadron the next 
evening, December 8th. 

At 8 a.m. on Tuesday, December 8th, a signal was received 
from the signal station on shore : 

" A four-funnel and two-funnel man-of-war in sight from 
Sapper Hill, steering northwards/' 

At this time, the positions of the various ships of the 
squadron were as follows : 

Macedonia : At anchor as look-out ship. 

Kent (guard ship) : At anchor in Port William. 

Invincible and Inflexible : In Port William. 

Carnarvon : In Port William. 

Cornwall : In Port William. 

Glasgow : In Port Stanley. 

Bristol : In Port Stanley. 

The Kent was at once ordered to weigh, and a general 
signal was made to raise steam for full speed. 

At 8.20 a.m. the signal station reported another column 
of smoke in sight to the southward, and at 8.45 a.m. the Kent 
passed down the harbour and took up a station at the entrance. 

409 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DEC 

The Canopus, Captain Heathcoat S. Grant, reported at 
8.47 a.m. that the first two ships were eight miles off, and that 
,the smoke reported at 8.20 a.m. appeared to be the smoke 
of two ships about twenty miles off. 

At 8.50 a.m. the signal station reported a further column 
of smoke in sight to the southward. 

The Macedonia was ordered to weigh anchor on the inner 
side of the other ships, and await orders. 

At 9.20 a.m. the two leading ships of the enemy (Gneisenau 
and Number g), with guns trained on the wireless station, 
came within range of the Canopus, who opened fire at them 
across the low land at a range of 11,000 yards. The enemy 
at once hoisted their colours and turned away. At this time 
the masts and smoke of the enemy were visible from the 
upper bridge of the Invincible at a range of approximately 
17,000 yards across the low land to the south of Port William. 

A few minutes later the two cruisers altered course to port, 
as though to close the Kent at the entrance to the harbour, 
but about this time it seems that the Invincible and Inflexible 
were seen over the land, as the enemy at once altered course 
and increased speed to join their consorts. 

The Glasgow weighed and proceeded at 9.40 a.m. with 
orders to join the Kent and observe the enemy's movements. 

At 9.45 a.m. the squadron less the Bristol weighed, 
and proceeded out of harbour in the following order : Car- 
narvon, Inflexible, Invincible, and Cornwall. On passing Cape 
Pembroke Light, the five ships of the enemy appeared clearly 
in sight to the south-east, hull down. The visibility was at 
its maximum, the sea was calm, with a bright sun, a clear 
sky, and a light breeze from the north-west. 

At 10. 20 a.m. the signal for a general chase was made. 
The battle cruisers quickly passed ahead of the Carnarvon 
and overtook the Kent. The Glasgow was ordered to keep 
two miles from the Invincible, and the Inflexible was stationed 
on the . starboard quarter of the flagship. Speed was eased 
to 20 knots at 11.15 a - m - to enable the other cruisers to get 
into station. 

At this time the enemy's funnels and bridges showed just 
above the horizon. 

Information was received from the Bristol at 11.27 a - m - 
that three enemy ships had appeared off Port Pleasant, 

4 io 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

probably colliers or transports. The Bristol was therefore 
directed to take the Macedonia under his orders and destroy 
transports. 

The enemy were still maintaining their distance, and I 
decided, at 12.20 p.m., to attack with the two battle cruisers 
and the Glasgow. 

At 12.47 P- m - tne signal to " Open fire and engage the 
enemy " was made. 

The Inflexible opened fire at 12.55 P- m - from her fore 
turret at the right-hand ship of the enemy, a light cruiser ; 
a few minutes later the Invincible opened fire at the same 
ship. 

The deliberate fire from a range of 16,500 to 15,000 yards 
at the right-hand light cruiser, who was dropping astern, 
became too threatening, and when a shell fell close alongside 
her at 1.20 p.m. she (the Leipzig) turned away, with the 
Nurnberg and Dresden to the south-west. These light cruisers 
were at once followed by the Kent, Glasgow, and Cornwall, 
in accordance with my instructions. 

The action finally developed into three separate encounters, 
besides the subsidiary one dealing with the threatened landing. 

(B) ACTION WITH THE ARMOURED CRUISERS. 

The fire of the battle cruisers was directed on the Scharn- 
horst and Gneisenau. The effect of this was quickly seen, 
when at 1.25 p.m., with the Scharnhorst leading, they turned 
about 7 points to port in succession into line ahead and 
opened fire at 1.30 p.m. Shortly afterwards speed was 
eased to 24 knots, and the battle cruisers were ordered to 
turn together, bringing them into line ahead, with the 
Invincible leading. 

The range was about 13,500 yards at the final turn, and 
increased, until, at 2 p.m., it had reached 16,450 yards. 

The enemy then (2.10 p.m.) turned away about 10 points 
to starboard and a second chase ensued, until, at 2.45 p.m., 
the battle cruisers again opened fire ; this caused the enemy, 
at 2.53 p.m., to turn into line ahead to port and open fire at 
2.55 p.m. 

The Scharnhorst caught fire forward, but not seriously, 
and her fire slackened perceptibly ; the Gneisenau was badly 
hit by the Inflexible. 

4 n 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

At 3.30 p.m. the Scharnhorst led round about 10 points 
to starboard ; just previously her fire had slackened per- 
ceptibly, and one shell had shot away her third funnel ; 
some guns were not firing, and it would appear that the turn 
was dictated by a desire to bring her starboard guns into 
action. The effect of the fire on the Scharnhorst became 
more and more apparent in consequence of smoke from fires, 
and also escaping steam ; at times a shell would cause a large 
hole to appear in her side, through which could be seen a dull 
red glow of flame. At 4.4 p.m. the Scharnhorst, whose flag 
remained flying to the last, suddenly listed heavily to port, 
and within a minute it became clear tha.t she was a doomed 
ship ; for the list increased very rapidly until she lay on her 
beam ends, and at 4.17 p.m. she disappeared. 

The Gneisenau passed on- the far side of her late flagship, 
and continued a determined but ineffectual effort to fight 
the two battle cruisers. 

At 5.8 p.m. the forward funnel was knocked over and 
remained resting against the second funnel. She was evi- 
dently in serious straits, and her fire slackened very much. 

At 5.15 p.m. one of the Gneisenau' s shells struck the 
Invincible ; this was her last effective effort. 

At 5.30 p.m. she turned towards the flagship with a heavy 
list to starboard, and appeared stopped, with steam pouring 
from her escape pipes and smoke from shell and fires rising 
everywhere. About this time I ordered the signal " Cease 
fire," but before it was hoisted the Gneisenau opened fire 
again, and continued to fire from time to time with a single 
gun. 

At 5.40 p.m. the three ships closed in on the Gneisenau, 
and, at this time, the flag flying at her fore truck was appar- 
ently hauled down, but the flag at the peak continued flying. 

At 5.50 p.m. " Cease fire " was made. 

At 6 p.m. the Gneisenau heeled over very suddenly, 
showing the men gathered on her decks and then walking 
on her side as she lay for a minute on her beam ends before 
sinking. 

The prisoners of war from the Gneisenau report that, by 
the time the ammunition was expended, some 600 men had 
been killed and wounded. The surviving officers and men 
were all ordered on deck and told to provide themselves with 

412 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

hammocks and any articles that could support them in the 
water. 

When the ship capsized and sank there were probably 
some 200 unwounded survivors in the water, but, owing to 
the shock of the cold water, many were drowned within sight 
of the boats and ship. 

Every effort was made to save life as quickly as possible, 
both by boats and from the ships ; life-buoys were thrown 
and ropes lowered, but only a proportion could be rescued. 
The Invincible alone rescued 108 men, 14 of whom were found 
to be dead after being brought on board ; these men were 
buried at sea the following day with full military honours. 

(C) ACTION WITH THE LIGHT CRUISERS. 

At about i p.m., when the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau 
turned to port to engage the Invincible and Inflexible, the 
enemy's light cruisers turned to starboard to escape ; the 
Dresden was leading and the Nurnberg and Leipzig followed 
on each quarter. 

In accordance with my instructions, the Glasgow, Kent, 
and Cornwall at once went in chase of these ships ; the Car- 
narvon, whose speed was insufficient to overtake them, closed 
the battle cruisers. 

The Glasgow drew well ahead of the Cornwall and Kent, 
and at 3 p.m. shots were exchanged with the Leipzig at 
12,000 yards. The Glasgow's object was to endeavour to 
outrange the Leipzig with her 6-inch guns and thus cause her 
to alter course and give the Cornwall and Kent a chance of 
coming into action. 

At 4.17 p.m. the Cornwall opened fire, also on the Leipzig. 

At 7.17 p.m. the Leipzig was on fire fore and aft, and the 
Cornwall and Glasgow ceased fire. 

The Leipzig turned over on her port side and disappeared 
at 9 p.m. Seven officers and eleven men were saved. 

At 3.36 p.m. the Cornwall ordered the Kent to engage the 
Nurnberg, the nearest cruiser to her. 

Owing to the excellent and strenuous efforts of the engine 
room department, the Kent was able to get within range of 
the Nurnberg at 5 p.m. At 6.35 p.m. the Nurnberg was on 
fire forward and ceased firing. The Kent also ceased firing 
and closed to 3,300 yards ; as the colours were still observed 

4*3 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to be flying in the Number g, the Kent opened fire again. 
Fire was finally stopped five minutes later on the colours 
being hauled down, and every preparation was made to save 
life. The Nurnberg sank at 7.27 p.m., and, as she sank, a 
group of men were waving a German ensign attached to 
a staff. Twelve men were rescued, but only seven survived. 

The Kent had four killed and twelve wounded, mostly 
caused by one shell. 

During the time the three cruisers were engaged with 
the Nurnberg and Leipzig, the Dresden, who was beyond her 
consorts, effected her escape owing to her superior speed. 
The Glasgow was the only cruiser with sufficient speed to have 
had any chance of success. However, she was fully employed 
in engaging the Leipzig for over an hour before either the 
Cornwall or Kent could come up and get within range. During 
this time the Dresden was able to increase her distance and 
get out of sight. 

The weather changed after 4 p.m., and the visibility was 
much reduced ; further, the sky was overcast and cloudy, 
thus assisting the Dresden to get away unobserved. 

(D) ACTION WITH THE ENEMY'S TRANSPORTS. 

A report was received at 11.27 a - m - from H.M.S. Bristol 
that three ships of the enemy, probably transports or colliers, 
had appeared off Port Pleasant. The Bristol was ordered 
to take the Macedonia under his orders and destroy the 
transports. 

H.M.S. Macedonia reports that only two ships, steamships 
Baden and Santa Isabel, were present ; both ships were sunk 
after the removal of the crew. 

I have pleasure in reporting that the officers and men 
under my orders carried out their duties with admirable 
efficiency and coolness, and great credit is due to the Engineer 
Officers of all the ships, several of which exceeded their normal 
full speed. 

The names of the following are specially mentioned : 

Officers. 

Commander Richard Herbert Denny Townsend, H.M.S. 
Invincible. 
414 



-"4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Commander Arthur Edward Frederick Bedford, H.M.S. 
Kent. && .-j 

Lieutenant-Commander Wilfred Arthur Thompson, H.M.S. 
Glasgow. 

Lieutenant - Commander Hubert Edward Dannreuther, 
First and Gunnery Lieutenant, H.M.S. Invincible. 

Engineer-Commander George Edward Andrew, H.M.S. 
Kent. 

Engineer - Commander Edward John Weeks, H.M.S. 
Invincible. 

Paymaster Cyril Sheldon Johnson, H.M.S. Invincible. 

Carpenter Thomas Andrew Walls, H.M.S. Invincible. 

Carpenter William Henry Venning, H.M.S. Kent. 

Carpenter George Henry Egford, H.M.S. Cornwall. 

Petty Officers and Men. 

Ch. P.O. D. Leighton, O.N. 124238, Kent. 

P.O., 2nd CL, M. J. Walton (R.F.R., A. 1756), O.N. 118358, 
Kent. .*-*! 

Ldg. Smn. F. S. Martin, O.N. 233301, Invincible, Gnr's. 
Mate, Gunlayer, ist Cl. 

Sigmn. F. Glover, O.N. 225731, Cornwall. 

Ch. E. R. Art., 2nd CL, J. G. Hill, O.N. 269646, Cornwall. 

Actg Ch. E. R. Art., 2nd CL, R. Snowdon, O.N. 270654, 
Inflexible. 

E. R. Art., ist CL, G. H. F. McCarten, O.N. 270023, 
Invincible. 

Stkr. P.O. G. S. Brewer, O.N. 150950, Kent. 

Stkr. P.O. W. A. Townsend, O.N. 301650, Cornwall. 

Stkr., ist CL, J. Smith, O.N. SS 111915, Cornwall. 

Shpwrt., ist CL, A. N. E. England, O.N. 341971, Glasgow. 

Shpwrt., 2nd CL, A. C. H. Dymott, O.N. M. 8047, Kent. 

Portsmouth R.F.R.B. 3307, Sergeant Charles Mayes, H.M.S. 
Kent. 

F. C. D. STURDEE. 



415 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

BRITISH CARGOES LANDED FROM GERMAN SHIPS 
AT TSINGTAU. 

* Foreign Office, December 9, 1914. 

L.G., HIS MAJESTY'S Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 

Dec. n, h as received a telegram from His Majesty's Ambassador at 
Tokio to the following effect : 

British subjects who possess interests in cargoes which 
may have been landed from German ships at Tsingtau should 
address their claims, through His Majesty's Embassy at 
Tokio, to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs, sending 
detailed description of cargo, and documentary evidence in 
support of them. 

The delivery of such cargo can only take place at 
Tsingtau. Permission to enter that place, subject to the 
consent of the military authorities, has been granted to 
foreigners having property there since November 20th last. 



. Foreign Office, December 31, 1914. 

Tan '5 WITH reference to the notification which appeared in the 

1915. London Gazette of December nth, His Majesty's Ambassador 
at Tokyo telegraphs that the following German ships are 
believed to have been at Tsingtau prior to the establishment 
of the blockade, viz. : 
Markomannia. 
0. J. D. Ahlers. 
Gouverneur Jaeschke. 
C. Ferd Laiesz. 
Albenga. 
Loongmoon. 
Sikiang, and 
Litung. 

The following vessels were sunk in the harbour : 
Durendart. 
Ellen Rickmers. 
Michael Jebsen. 

Full lists of British property at Kiao-chow are, it is under- 
stood, now at the headquarters of the Japanese Army at 
Tsingtau, and it is. recommended that claimants in respect 
thereof should now forward documentary evidence in support 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of their claims in duplicate, under flying seal, to His Majesty's 
Consul at Tsinanfu, for presentation to the headquarters of 
the Japanese Army at Tsingtau. 

RUSSIAN MINES IN BLACK SEA. 

(Official.) 

Petrograd, December 10. 

THE Russian Government notifies neutral shipping that 
military reasons compel it to place mines off Russian and 
Turkish coasts and ports in the Black Sea. While admitting 
that neutral shipping will consequently incur great dangers 
in the Black Sea, the Russian Government declines all re- 
sponsibility for any accidents that may arise to neutral ships 
as a result of possible contact with mines placed in Russian 
or Turkish waters. Renter. 

THE " GOEBEN " IN THE BLACK SEA. 

(Official communique from the Headquarters of the Army in 

the Caucasus.) 

Petrograd, December n. 

YESTERDAY about two o'clock in the afternoon, the Times 
Goeben, accompanied by the cruiser Berk-i-Satvet, approached D GC 
Batum and attempted to bombard the town and fortress, but 1914. 
the forts having opened fire the ships drew off quickly, having 
fired fifteen shots which caused insignificant damage. Renter. 



Constantinople, December u. 

The Turkish fleet yesterday bombarded the environs K.V., 
of Batoum and thus refuted the Russian assertion that the Dec. n. 
Turkish warships were driven from the Black Sea and that 
the Sultan Javus Selim and Midille were out of action. In 
yesterday's successful action the Russians lost 100 killed and 
a number of wounded. 



Constantinople. 

It is reported from the Turkish Headquarters that iheK.V., 
great cruiser Sultan Javus Selim, which according to Russian Dec - X 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

reports has been seriously injured, bombarded Batoum on 
December loth, and set the town on fire. The Russian shore 
batteries returned her fire without result. 

[Sultan Javus Selim and Midille are the names given by the Turks to 
the Goeben and the Breslau.] 



SUBMARINE RAID IN THE DARDANELLES. 

December 14. 

THE Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 
announcement : 

Yesterday, submarine B n, Lieutenant-Commander Nor- 
man D. Holbrook, R.N., entered the Dardanelles, and, in 
spite of the difficult current, dived under five rows of mines 
and torpedoed the Turkish battleship Messudiyeh, which was 
guarding the mine-field. 

Although pursued by gunfire and torpedo-boats, B n 
returned safely after being submerged on one occasion for nine 
hours. 

When last seen the Messudiyeh was sinking by the stern. 



WAR WORKMEN : KING'S PRAISE OF THE 

MEN. 

Times, IN reply to a telegram sent by the Lord Mayor of New- 

Dec. 15, castle to the King from a meeting addressed by Dr. Macnamara 
I 9 I 4- last night, the following message was received later in the 
evening : 

' The King appreciates the loyal and untiring service 
which is being rendered to the country by the skilled workmen 
in the great shipbuilding and armament firms. His Majesty 
greatly admires that spirit of patriotism which arouses in 
them the desire to enlist and fight at the front, but His 
Majesty wishes to remind them that by work they alone 
can most successfully perform they are assisting in the 
prosecution of the war equally with their comrades serving 
by land and sea." 
4 i8 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
RUSSIAN NAVAL SUCCESS. 

Petrograd, December 17. 

The following communique was issued on the evening of 
the I4th inst. by the Staff of the Russian Black Sea Fleet : 

Several units of our naval forces sighted near the Turkish 
coast a vessel with two funnels and two masts. They dis- 
charged torpedoes, which seemed to strike home, for two 
explosions, followed by an outbreak of flames, were heard. 
The darkness and other circumstances rendered it impossible to 
ascertain the effects of the explosions. Renter. 



NOTICE TO MARINERS. 

NORTH SEA, RIVER THAMES AND ENGLISH 
CHANNEL. 

Alterations in positions or withdrawal of Light-vessels and L.G., 
Buoys: Extinction of Lights and lights of Light-buoys /Dec. 18, 
Alteration or discontinuance of Fog-signals ; Information I 9 I 4- 
re Pilotage. 

1. Until further notice, in the English Channel and 
the Downs eastward of a line joining Selsea Bill and Cape 
Barfleur and to the southward of the parallel of 51 20' 
North latitude, all Light-vessels and buoys are liable to with- 
drawal or alteration in position, all Rights and the lights of 
Light-buoys are liable to be extinguished and the Fog-signals 
to be altered or discontinued. 

2. Trinity House Pilot Stations have been established 
at the undermentioned places, and merchant vessels are 
very strongly advised to take pilots, as navigation in the 
area in question will be exceedingly dangerous without their 
aid : 

(a) ST. HELENS, ISLE OF WIGHT, where ships pro- 
ceeding up Channel can obtain pilots capable of piloting 
as far as Great Yarmouth ; and also pilots for the River 
Thames. 

(b) GREAT YARMOUTH, where ships from the North 
Sea bound for the River Thames or the English Channel 
can obtain pilots capable of piloting as far as the Isle 
of Wight. 

Naval II 2 E 419 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(c) DOVER, where ships from Dover and also French 
Channel ports, but no others, can obtain pilots for the 
English Channel and North Sea (including the River 
Thames and approaches). 

(d) THE SUNK LIGHT-VESSEL, where ships crossing 
the North Sea between the parallels of 51 40' and 
51 54' North Latitude, but no others, can obtain pilots 
for the River Thames and the English Channel. 

(e) Pilots can also be obtained at London and Har- 
wich for the English Channel and North Sea (including 
the River Thames and approaches). 

3. RIVER THAMES. All traffic into and out of the River 
Thames must pass through the Edinburgh Channels, or 
through the Black Deep south of the Knock John and Knob 
Light-buoys, and through the Oaze Deep, until further 
notice. 

No vessels are to remain under way in the above-men- 
tioned Channels inside the Sunk Head Light-buoy, or within 
a line joining the positions of the South Long Sand and East 
Shingles buoys, between the hours of 7 p.m. and 6 a.m. 

Vessels at anchor within these limits must not exhibit 
any lights between the hours of 7 p.m. and 6 a.m. 

All other channels are closed to navigation. 

Note. The pilot station in the vicinity of the Tongue 
Light- vessel has been discontinued. 

Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
By Command of their Lordships, 
J. F. PARRY, 

Hydrographer. 

Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, December i^th, 1914. 

BOMBARDMENT OF ENGLISH COAST TOWNS. 

Admiralty, December 16, 9. 20 p.m. 

Times, THIS morning a German cruiser force made a demonstra- 

Dec. 17, tion upon the Yorkshire coast, in the course of which they 
I 9 I 4- shelled Hartlepool, Whitby, and Scarborough. 

A number of their fastest ships were employed for this 
purpose, and they remained about an hour on the coast. 
They were engaged by the patrol vessels on the spot. 
420 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

As soon as the presence of the enemy was reported a 
British patrolling squadron endeavoured to cut them off. 
On being sighted by British vessels the Germans retired at 
full speed, and, favoured by the mist, succeeded in making 
good their escape. 

The losses on both sides are small, but full reports have 
not yet been received. 

The Admiralty take the opportunity of pointing out that 
demonstrations of this character against unfortified towns 
or commercial ports, though not difficult to accomplish 
provided that a certain amount of risk is accepted, are devoid 
of military significance. 

They may cause some loss of life among the civil population 
and some damage to private property, which is much to be 
regretted ; but they must not in any circumstances be allowed 
to modify the general naval policy which is being pursued. 

War Office, 11.35 P- m - 

At 8 a.m. to-day three enemy ships were sighted ofiibid. 
Hartlepool, and at 8.15 they commenced a bombardment. 

The ships appeared to be two battle cruisers and one 
armoured cruiser. The land batteries replied, and are 
reported to have hit and damaged the enemy. 

At 8.50 the firing ceased, and the enemy steamed away. 

None of our guns were touched. One shell fell in the 
R.E. line and several in the lines of the i8th (Service) Battalion 
of the Durham Light Infantry. 

The casualties amongst the troops amounted to seven 
killed and fourteen wounded. 

Some damage was done to the town, and the gasworks 
were set on fire. 

During the bombardment, especially in West Hartlepool, 
the people crowded in the streets, and approximately twenty- 
two were killed and fifty wounded. 

At the same time a battle cruiser and an armoured cruiser 
appeared off Scarborough and fired about fifty shots, which 
caused considerable damage, and thirteen casualties are 
reported. 

At Whitby two battle cruisers fired some shots, doing 
damage to buildings, and the following casualties are reported : 
Two killed and two wounded. 

421 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [DE 

At all three places there was an entire absence of panic, 
and the demeanour of the people was everything that could 
be desired. 

Earlier in the day (at 11.25 a.m.) the Admiralty had 
issued the following : 

German movements of some importance are taking place 
this morning in the North Sea. 

Scarborough and Hartlepool have been shelled, and our 
flotillas have at various points been engaged. 

The situation is developing. 

The Secretary of the War Office at 1.45 p.m. made the 
following announcement : 

The Fortress Commander at West Hartlepool reports that 
German war vessels engaged that fortress between eight 
o'clock and nine o'clock this morning. The enemy were 
driven off. 

A small German war vessel also opened fire on Scarborough 
and Whitby. . 

Berlin, December 16. 

A portion of our High Sea Fleet made an attack on the 
English East Coast, and early on December i6th bombarded 
the fortified coast towns of Scarborough and Hartlepool. 
Further information concerning the undertaking cannot yet 
be published. 

VON POHL. 

Chief of the Admiral Staff. 



Berlin, December 17. 

Details are now to hand respecting the attack on the 
English coast. On nearing the coast, our cruisers were 
unsuccessfully attacked in a bad light by four English de- 
stroyers, one of which was destroyed and another disappeared 
from sight in a very severely damaged condition, ^he 
Hartlepool batteries were silenced and the gasometer destroyed. 
Several explosions and three large fires in the town were seen 
from on board. The coastguard station and the waterworks 
at Scarborough were destroyed, also the coastguard and 

422 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

signal stations at Whitby. Our ships were hit once or twice 
by the coast batteries, but very little damage was done. 
Another English destroyer was also sunk in another place. 

BEHNCKE. 

Acting Chief of the Admiral Staff. 



The Secretary of the Admiralty announces that no British Times, 
ship of war of any kind was lost in the recent operations. Dec. 19 
All German statements to the contrary are untrue. I 9 I 4 



Letter of the First Lord of the Admiralty to the Mayor of 

Scarborough. 

Admiralty, S.W., December 20, 1914. 

MY DEAR MR. MAYOR, I send you a message of sym- Times, 
pathy, not only on my own account, but on behalf of the Dec - 2I 
Navy, in the losses Scarborough has sustained. We mourn I 9 I 4- 
with you the peaceful inhabitants who have been killed or 
maimed, and particularly the women and children. We 
admire the dignity and fortitude with which Scarborough, 
Whitby, and the Hartlepools have confronted outrage. We 
share your disappointment that the miscreants escaped 
unpunished. We await with patience the opportunity that 
will surely come. 

But viewed in its larger aspect, the incident is one of the 
most instructive and encouraging that have happened in 
the war. Nothing proves more plainly the effectiveness of 
British naval pressure than the frenzy of hatred aroused 
against us in the breasts of the enemy. This hatred has 
already passed the frontiers of reason. It clouds their vision, 
it darkens their counsels, it convulses their movements. We 
see a nation of military calculators throwing calculation to 
the winds ; of strategists who have lost their sense of propor- 
tion ; of schemers, who have ceased to balance loss and gain. 

Practically the whole fast cruiser force of the German 
Navy, including some great ships vital to their fleet and 
utterly irreplaceable, has been risked for the passing pleasure 
of killing as many English people as possible, irrespective 
of sex, age, or condition, in the limited time available. To 

423 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

this act of military ana political folly they were impelled by 
the violence of feelings which could find no other vent. This 
is very satisfactory, and should confirm us in our courses. 
Their hate is the measure of their fear. Its senseless expres- 
sion is the proof of their impotence and the seal of their 
dishonour. Whatever feats of arms the German Navy may 
hereafter perform, the stigma of the baby-killers of Scar- 
borough will brand its officers and men while sailors sail the 
seas. 

Believe me, dear Mr. Mayor, 

Yours faithfully, 

WINSTON S. CHURCHILL. 



House of Commons, February 3, 1915. 

SIR HENRY DALZIEL : I beg to ask the Under-Secretary 
of State for War a question of which I have given him private 
notice : Whether it is the case that immediately after the 
raid on Scarborough, the military authorities issued an order 
compelling all alien enemies to remove thirty miles inland ? 
Will he state the reasons which induced the authorities to 
issue such an order ? Is it the case that the order was sub- 
sequently cancelled ; and, if so, why ? 

THE UNDER-SECRETARY OF STATE FOR WAR (Mr. Tennant) : 
Shortly after the raid on Scarborough and other towns 
on the east coast, orders, under Regulation 14 of the Defence 
of the Realm Regulations, were served by the military 
authorities personally upon certain suspected individuals, 
requiring each person to remove outside the area. The 
reason is set forth in the Regulation referred to, and is that 
the persons were suspected of acting or of having acted 
or of being about to act in a manner prejudicial to the public 
safety or the Defence of the Realm. Further investigation 
into individual cases led to the order being cancelled in 
some instances. I am inquiring as to the number. In the 
remainder of the cases the order was enforced. 

SIR H. DALZIEL : May I ask why it was cancelled ? 

MR. TENNANT : It was cancelled because there was not 
sufficient ground for suspecting that these persons were 
acting or were about to act in the manner set forth as I have 
just read. 

424 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
ENEMY RAIDS (DAMAGE.) 

House of Commons, February 4, 1915. 

MR. RONALD M'NEiix asked the Prime Minister whether Hansard. 
the Government have undertaken or intend to undertake 
to compensate, and, if so, to what extent, persons whose 
property has been or may be injured by raids of the enemy 
by sea or air ? 

THE PRIME MINISTER : The Government have under- 
taken to give relief for damage caused by the raids which 
have taken place. A Committee has been appointed, over 
which Lord Parmoor is presiding, to advise as to the extent 
and scope of such relief. I am not prepared to give any 
general undertaking as regards future events. 



SPEECH BY FRENCH MINISTER OF MARINE. 

Paris, December 17. 

THE Minister of Marine to-day gave the Naval Com- 
mittee of the Chamber a review of the Navy's doings since 
the outbreak of hostilities. He reminded the Committee 
that thousands and thousands of men from Algeria, Tunis, 
West Africa, Morocco, and Madagascar had been safely 
transported to the Mother Country, notwithstanding the 
presence of Austrian and German warships in the Mediter- 
ranean. Not a ship, not a man, had been lost. The Navy 
had likewise, in co-operation with the Allied Fleets, ensured 
the transport of British troops from Asia, Australia, and 
Canada, and of French troops from Tongking. Their pro- 
visions have been coming in freely, whilst the sea was closed 
to their adversaries. 

The Minister also gave information regarding the co- 
operation of the British and French Navies in the Mediter- 
ranean, the Channel, and the North Sea, and concerning the 
effective bombardment of the Belgian coast occupied by 
the enemy. In conclusion, he described the help given 
to the Army on land by the naval infantrymen and gunners, 
the use of naval guns on land, etc. The Committee begged 
him to transmit their congratulations to the Navy. Reuter. 

425 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [Di 

PAY OF OFFICERS OF THE ROYAL NAVAL DIVISION. 

Order in Council under section 3 of the Naval and Marine 
Pay and Pensions Act, 1865 (28 & 29 Viet. c. 73), 
approving rates of Pay and Allowances of Officers and 
Men of the Royal Naval Division. 



At the Court at Buckingham Palace, 
The I7th day of December, 1914. 

PRESENT, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a 
Memorial from the Right Hon. the Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty, dated the gth day of December, 1914, in the 
words following; viz. : 

" Whereas by Section 3 of the Naval and Marine Pay 
and Pensions Act, 1865, it is enacted, inter alia, that all 
pay, pensions, or other allowances in the nature thereof, 
payable in respect of services in Your Majesty's Naval or 
Marine Force to a person being or having been an Officer, 
Seaman, or Marine therein, shall be paid in such manner, 
and subject to such restrictions, conditions, and provisions, 
as are from time to time directed by Order in Council : 

" And whereas we have deemed it expedient to organise 
the Active and Reserve Officers and Men not immediately 
required for service in Your Majesty's Fleet into a separate 
Corps known as the Royal Naval Division, in which certain 
Officers and Men of Your Majesty's Army are also employed, 
together with volunteers entered by direct recruitment : 

" And whereas it is desirable that provision should be 
made for the emoluments of the Officers and Men whose 
cases are not already provided for by existing regulations, 
and we consider that the rates of pay at present authorised 
for certain ranks are not suitable for Officers serving in the 
Royal Naval Division. 

" We beg leave humbly to recommend that Your Majesty 
may be graciously pleased, by Your Order in Council, to 
approve of the rates of pay and allowances set forth in the 
annexed schedule. 

" The Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Treasury 
have signified their concurrence in these proposals." 

426 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

SCHEDULE. 

PAY OF OFFICERS AND MEN OF THE ROYAL NAVAL DIVISION. 
HEADQUARTERS STAFF. 



Appointment, 
General Staff. 


Rank. 


Emoluments. 


ist grade 


Lieut. -Colonel 


750 per annum. 


2nd 


Major 


550 


3rd 


Captain 


40 


Assistant Adjutant and 


Lieut. -Colonel 


750 


Quartermaster-General. 






Deputy- Assistant Adju- 


Major 


550 


tant and Quartermaster- 






General. 






Deputy-Assistant Quarter- 


Major 


550 


master-General. 






Command Paymaster (ad- 


Lieut. -Colonel (now 


Army pay and allow- 


visory). 


ceased duty). 


ances. 



BRIGADE STAFF APPOINTMENTS OF THE NAVAL BRIGADES WHEN 
HELD BY OFFICERS HAVING MILITARY RANK. 



Brigade Major 
Staff Captain 


Major 
Major 


500 a year. 
400 



REGIMENTAL APPOINTMENTS OF THE NAVAL BRIGADES WHEN 
HELD BY OFFICERS HAVING MILITARY RANK. 



Battalion Commandant . . 


Lieut.-Colonel 


Army pay of Lieut.- 






Colonel, viz., 235. a 






day, with 55. com- 






mand money. 


Adjutant and Second in 


Major 


Army pay of i6s. a 


Command. 




day with Adjutant 







additional pay of 






2s. 6d. a day. 


Company Commander . . 


Major 


Army pay of i6s. a 






day. 


Company Second in Com- 


Captain 


Army pay of us. yd. 


mand. 




a day. 



427 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

BRIGADE AND BATTALION STAFF OFFICERS. 

Royal Marine Brigade. 



Brigade Commander 


Colonel as Brigadier- 


1,000 a year. 




General. 




Deputy- Assistant Quarter- 


Major (or Brevet 


550 a year. 


master-General. 


Lieut.-Colonel.) 




Brigade Major 


Captain 


500 a year. 


Lieut. -Colonels Command- 







ing Battalions. 




55. a day in addition 


Adjutants 





to pay of rank. 



Regimental Appointments of the Royal Marine Brigade. 
All Officers to receive pay at the rates applicable to Officers of the Royal 
Marines serving afloat. 

Second Lieutenants, Royal Marines. 
Pay to be at the rate of 55. a day. 

Engineers' Branch. 



Commanding Officer 



Other Officers 



Lieut.-Colonel 



According to Rank 



Army pay of Lieut.- 
Colonel, Royal En- 
gineers, i.e., i8s. a 
day with Corps' pay 
14$. a day and al- 
lowances. 

Army scale of pay and 
allowances. 



Medical Branch (Army Officers}. 
Army Officers to receive Army rates of pay. 

Special Rates of Pay for Officers of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve 
serving with the Royal Naval Division. 

Lieutenant-Commanders 145. a day. 

Lieutenants of four years' seniority . . I2s. 
Assistant Paymasters . . . . . . los. 

Officers of the Indian Army. 

Officers of the Indian Army serving with the Division to receive their 
Indian rates of pay unless the pay of a British Staff appointment they are 
filling is higher, in which case the Officers to have the option of drawing the 
higher rate. 

Deduction for Messing. 

All Officers, including Army Officers, to be subject to a deduction of 
2s. a day in pay when messed at the public expense. 
428 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Seamen and Marines. 

To receive pay and allowances at Naval and Marine rates respectively. 
Army recruits until incorporated in the Division to receive Army pay of 
is. a day together with Army Separation Allowance : pay then to be at 
Naval or Marine rates according to the Brigade to which they are finally 
attached. 

Non-Commissioned Officers and Men of the Engineer Unit to receive 
Royal Engineers' rates of pay. 

Field Allowance. 

Field Allowance to Naval Officers and Men and to Marine Officers other 
than those borne on " shore " strength to be payable under Naval Regulations, 
but the minimum rate for all ranks of Officers to be 55. a day. 

Field Allowance of Army Officers to be governed by Army Regulations, 
but the minimum rate for all Officers to be 55. a day subject to the under- 
standing that they do not draw any messing allowance under paragraph 535 
of the Army Allowance Regulations. 

Marine Officers borne on " shore " strength to be paid Field Allowance 
under Army Allowance Regulations subject to a minimum rate of 55. a day. 

Non-Commissioned Officers and Men of the Royal Marines who are 
borne on " shore " strength in order that they may have the benefit of 
Separation Allowances on the Army scale not to be eligible to receive Field 
Allowance. 

Separation Allowance. 

To be paid in the usual way according as the Men are borne on ship's 
books or on " shore " strength. 

His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy 
Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And the 
Right. Hon. the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty are 
to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 

ALLEGED OPERATIONS AT AKABA. 

Constantinople. 

IT is reported from Headquarters that an English cruiser, K.V., 
which had been cruising off Akaba for some days, landed Dec - 18 > 
troops there. They were attacked by our troops which I9I 4* 
hurried to the spot and were compelled to re-embark. Our 
fire destroyed the cruiser's searchlight. 

NAVAL OPERATIONS IN LEVANT. 

Petrograd, December 20. 

A communique issued by the Naval Headquarters says : Times, 
The Commander of the cruiser Askold, which has arrived Dec. 21, 
at Port Said, reports that his ship while scouting on the 1914. 

429 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Syrian coast captured at the port of Haifa a German vessel 
named Haifa, and took her to Port Said under the command 
of an officer. 

At Beirut the Askold blew up a Turkish steamer and 
sank another. The cruiser sent steam pinnaces ashore to 
conduct reconnaissances at six points on the coast. Renter. 



Constantinople. 

K.V., It is officially stated that an English cruiser has unsuc- 

Dec. 16. cessfully bombarded one of our observation stations between 

I 9 14 * Jaffa and Gaza. The Russian cruiser Askold has sunk two 

small vessels off Beirut. Investigation has shown that the 

old guardship Messoudieh was destroyed either by a mine or 

by a torpedo. 

Constantinople. 

K.V., Headquarters report that a French ship yesterday bom- 

Dec. 21, barded the coasts to the northward of Alexandretta without 
doing harm of any kind. 



THE CITY AND THE FLEET SIR JOHN JELLICOE'S 

THANKS. 

Times, THE Lord Mayor has received the following letter from 

Dec. 28, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe in reply to a message at Christmas : 

H.M.S. Iron Duke, December 22, 1914. 

MY DEAR LORD MAYOR, On behalf of the officers and 
men of the vessels of the Fleet under my command, may I 
express grateful thanks for the good wishes which you send 
in the name of the citizens of London, and which are most 
heartily reciprocated. We trust that all good things may 
attend upon you and upon the City at this Christmas season 
and at all times. I take this opportunity to thank you and 
those in whose name you write for the kind thoughts which 
have prompted the gifts which have been sent to the men 
of the Grand Fleet. They have given the greatest pleasure 
and have much alleviated the severity of the winter weather. 
The Fleet deeply appreciates the confidence which you 
express, and officers and men will do their utmost to merit 

430 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

it. I have communicated the contents of your kind letter 
to the officers and men of the Fleet under my command, 
who will receive with much satisfaction the message of good 
cheer which you send from the first City of the Empire. 

I am, etc., 

J. R. JELLICOE, 
Commander-in-Chief, Grand Fleet. 

ENEMY OPERATIONS IN ADRIATIC. 

Vienna, December 23. 

THE French submarine Curie was bombarded and sunk-K-^ 
on our coast by coast batteries and guardships, before it was Dec * 2 3- 
able to make an attack. The Commander and twenty-six 
men were saved and taken prisoners ; only the Second 
Officer is missing. 

Our Submarine XII., commanded by Lieut. Egon Lerch, 
attacked on the morning of December 2ist a French fleet 
consisting of sixteen large vessels, in the Straits of Otranto. 
He hit the flagship, a vessel of the Courbet class, twice. The 
submarine was unable to ascertain the actual condition of the 
torpedoed ship, on account of the activity displayed by 
the hostile fleet, the dangerous proximity of certain vessels, 
and the heavy sea-way in thick weather. 

COMMANDER OF THE FLEET. 



An Austrian submarine fired two torpedoes at one of our 
ironclads cruising in squadron in the Straits of Otranto. One J an * 2 ' 
of the torpedoes hit the vessel in the fore part and exploded. I9 
The injuries to the ship are not serious and no man was 
wounded. Austrian and Italian newspapers have announced 
that the French submarine Curie struck a boom in attempting 
to enter the port of Pola, and being thereby forced to come 
to the surface, was fired at and sunk. It is true that the Curie 
was detached for the purpose of attempting an attack on the 
Austrian warships moored in the port of Pola, and as she has 
not rejoined the fleet the foreign statements about her may 
be taken as correct. 



431 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

C.O. THE foreign Press, reproducing information from Vienna, 

Jan. 16, sa y s it was the battleship Courbet which was torpedoed by the 

I 9 I 5- Austrian submarine E 12, that this battleship was sunk, 

and that the Jean Bart in going to her assistance was damaged 

as the result of a collision. This information is absolutely 

incorrect. No French ship has been sunk by an Austrian 

submarine. The vessel which was torpedoed by submarine 

E 12 sustained only trifling damages. No collision occurred. 

The battleship Courbet, which was not at the scene of the 

attack, is at her post in excellent condition. 



CONTRABAND OF WAR. 



Proclamation, dated December 23, 1914, Revising the List of 
Contraband of War. 

BY THE KING. 
L.G. A Proclamation revising the List of Articles to be treated as 

Contraband of War. 
George R.I. 

<[See WHEREAS on the fourth day of August, 1914, (1) We did 

2 - 6 1 i ssue Our Royal Proclamation specifying the articles which it 

'- 1 was Our intention to treat as contraband of war during the 

war between Us and the German Emperor ; and 

[See W 7 hereas on the twelfth day of August, 1914, (2) We did by 

p ari 87-8 1 ^ ur Ry a l Proclamation of that date extend Our Proclama- 

' 9 ' J tion aforementioned to the war between Us and the Emperor 

of Austria, King of Hungary ; and 

^[See Whereas on the twenty-first day of September, 1914, (3) 

Part I., w e ^d by Q ur Royal Proclamation of that date make certain 
pp. 214-5.] additions to the list of articles to be treated as contraband of 

war ; and 

< 4) [See Whereas on the twenty-ninth day of October, 1914, We (4) 

Part 1.^ did by Our Royal Proclamation of that date withdraw the 
52] 349 ~ sa ^ ^ s ^ s ^ contraband, and substitute therefor the lists 
contained in the schedules to the said Proclamation ; and 

Whereas it is expedient to make certain alterations in and 
additions to the said lists : 

Now, therefore, We do hereby declare, by and with the 
432 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

advice of Our Privy Council, that the lists of contraband 
contained in the schedules to Our Royal Proclamation of the 
twenty-ninth day of October aforementioned are hereby 
withdrawn, and that in lieu thereof during the continuance 
of the war or until We do give further public notice the articles 
enumerated in Schedule I. hereto will be treated as absolute 
contraband, and the articles enumerated in Schedule II. 
hereto will be treated as conditional contraband. 

SCHEDULE I. 

1. Arms of all kinds, including arms for sporting purposes, 
and their distinctive component parts. 

2. Projectiles, charges, and cartridges of all kinds, and 
their distinctive component parts. 

3. Powder and explosives specially prepared for use in war. 

4. Ingredients of explosives, viz., nitric acid, sulphuric 
acid, glycerine, acetone, calcium acetate and all other metallic 
acetates, sulphur, potassium nitrate, the fractions of the 
distillation products of coal tar between benzol and cresol 
inclusive, aniline, methylaniline, dimethylaniline, ammonium 
perchlorate, sodium perchlorate, sodium chlorate, barium 
chlorate, ammonium nitrate, cyanamide, potassium chlorate, 
calcium nitrate, mercury. 

5. Resinous products, camphor, and turpentine (oil and 
spirit) . 

6. Gun mountings, limber boxes, limbers, military wagons, 
field forges, and their distinctive component parts. 

7. Range-finders and their distinctive component parts. 

8. Clothing and equipment of a distinctively military 
character. 

9. Saddle, draught, and pack animals suitable for use in 
war. 

10. All kinds of harness of a distinctively military character. 

11. Articles of camp equipment and their distinctive com- 
ponent parts. 

12. Armour plates. 

13. Ferro alloys, including ferro-tungsten, ferro-molyb- 
denum, ferro-manganese, ferro- vanadium, ferro-chrome. 

14. The following metals : Tungsten, molybdenum, vana- 
dium, nickel, selenium, cobalt, haematite pig-iron, manganese. 

15. The following ores : Wolframite, scheelite, motyb- 

433 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

denite, manganese ore, nickel ore, chrome ore, haematite iron 
ore, zinc ore, lead ore, bauxite. 

16. Aluminium, alumina, and salts of aluminium. 

17. Antimony, together with the sulphides and oxides of 
antimony. 

18. Copper, un wrought and part wrought, and copper 
wire. 

19. Lead, pig, sheet, or pipe. 

20. Barbed wire, and implements for fixing and cutting 
the same. 

21. Warships, including boats and their distinctive com- 
ponent parts of such a nature that they can only be used on 
a vessel of war. 

22. Submarine sound signalling apparatus. 

23. Aeroplanes, airships, balloons, and aircraft of all 
kinds, and their component parts, together with accessories 
and articles recognisable as intended for use in connection with 
balloons and aircraft. 

24. Motor vehicles of all kinds and their component 
parts. 

25. Tyres for motor vehicles and for cycles, together with 
articles or materials especially adapted for use in the manu- 
facture or repair of tyres. 

26. Rubber (including raw r , waste, and reclaimed rubber) 
and goods made wholly of rubber. 

27. Iron pyrites. 

28. Mineral oils and motor spirit, except lubricating oils. 

29. Implements and apparatus designed exclusively for 
the manufacture of munitions of war, for the manufacture or 
repair of arms, or war material for use on land and sea. 

SCHEDULE II. 

1. Foodstuffs. 

2. Forage and feeding stuffs for animals. 

3. Clothing, fabrics for clothing, and boots and .shoes 
suitable for use in war. 

4. Gold and silver in coin or bullion ; paper money. 

5. Vehicles of all kinds, other than motor vehicles, available 
for use in war, and their component parts. 

6. Vessels, craft, and boats of all kinds ; floating docks, 
parts of docks, and their component parts. 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

7. Railway materials, both fixed and rolling stock, and 
materials for telegraphs, wireless telegraphs, and telephones. 

8. Fuel, other than mineral oils. Lubricants. 

9. Powder and explosives not specially prepared for use 
in war. 

10. Horseshoes and shoeing materials. 

11. Harness and saddlery. 

12. Hides of all kinds, dry or wet ; pigskins, raw or 
dressed ; leather, undressed or dressed, suitable for saddlery, 
harness, or military boots. 

13. Field glasses, telescopes, chronometers, and all kinds 
of nautical instruments. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Twenty- 
third day of December, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand nine hundred and fourteen, and in the 
Fifth year of Our Reign. 

FURTHER OPERATIONS AT AKABA. 

Constantinople. 

HEADQUARTERS report that yesterday an English K.V., 
cruiser attempted to effect a landing at Akaba, but was com- Dec. 24, 
pelled to withdraw under fire of our artillery. The fire of the I 9 I 4- 
cruiser did no damage. 

INTERVIEW GIVEN BY ADMIRAL VON TIRPITZ TO 
' UNITED PRESS " (U.S.A.). 

" ENGLAND/' he said, " England alone is responsible Times, 
for this war. Did Germany want anything, or had Germany Dec. 24, 
ever demanded anything from anybody ? Had Germany a I 9 I 4- 
quarrel with anybody ? No ; Germany wanted only to be 
left alone, and to be free to continue her peaceful growth 
and development. England's hostility to Germany goes 
back to 1870, to the time of our victory over France. Always 
overbearing, like a dictator, England was unwilling that 
Germany should develop in the economic field or should 
take the place in the world to which she was entitled as a 
great Power. England will cut the throat of everybody 
who comes across her way, or who in her opinion might cross 
her path. England has not the conscientious sense of the 
white race, as her alliance with Japan proves. If any 

Naval 1 1 2 F 435 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

advantage is to be drawn she is ready to conclude an alliance 
with anybody without respect of race or colour/' 

Germany developed too quickly, and became too strong 
and too powerful ; she crossed England's path, and there- 
fore her throat had to be cut. 

"That is the truth of it in a nutshell. King Edward 
years ago laid down the lines for this policy ; he had a quite 
inexplicable antipathy against Germany. He looked about 
him and seized as the instruments of his policy pan-Slavism 
in the East and the revanche idea' in the West. England con- 
cluded the alliance with the yellow race in the Far East, 
with the Russian barbarians in the Near East, and in the 
West with the French, who were not in a position to throw 
off the bondage of the revanche idea. Germany, hemmed 
in by pan-Slavism on one side and by the lust for revanche 
on the other, and by England on the sea, was doomed to be 
broken and thrust back into the place assigned to her by 
England. These are the weapons with which England has 
designed to destroy or to break up Germany, and she has the 
effrontery to proclaim to the whole world that by smashing 
up Germany with the aid of Allies like the Russian Tartars, 
the Japanese, the Hindus, Senegalese, negroes, Turcos, etc., 
she is the champion of the holiest and highest treasures of 
civilisation and Kultur. Does the world really believe this ? >J 

In reply to a remark that there was an impression abroad 
that German militarism had contributed in some degree to 
provoke the war, Admiral von Tirpitz said : 

" Yes, that is the cry that England has set up about our 
militarism. But what about England's militarism, which 
for years past lays claim to the sole mastery of the seas ? 
In Germany there is no militarism, unless universal service 
is so to be described ; and this service is necessary for the 
defence of our country, which for centuries has been the 
arena for the conflicts of the nations of Europe. During 
the past 200 years France has declared war on Germany some 
thirty times. In my opinion universal service makes for 
peace and not for war. Ask the mothers among our people. 
They know what war means, and knew it before it came. 
And they knew it because their sons are soldiers. England, 
who has her hireling army, goes in for football matches and 
for races at which large crowds are always present. Can you 

436 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

imagine anything of this kind going on in a German town ? 
No, German mothers and wives are weeping. They give 
them all freely for the Fatherland, but they weep/' 

In reply to a question as to his views with regard to the 
" Japanese " problem, Admiral von Tirpitz observed : 

" That is a problem for the Americans. They will have 
to give it their attention. Then we shall look on. When I 
say that we shall only look on, I am of course joking. That 
would depend entirely upon the circumstances upon circum- 
stances ! . . . I can assure you of one thing ; Germany will 
never be a traitor to the white race. Japan will make China 
her vassal and will make a military people out of China's 
millions. Then your country (the United States) will have 
to be on its guard. Admiral Togo once said to a European : 
' The next war will be a general European war, and after that 
will come the great war between my race and yours.' ' 

Admiral von Tirpitz admitted that the fall of Tsingtau 
had been a heavy blow for him. He could not explain 
to himself the apparent indifference of America in presence of 
the activity of Japan in the Pacific, or the apparent inability 
of America to recognise the serious complications which 
might arise for her in the very near future. In his opinion, 
no one could be misled by the announcement that Japan 
intended to leave to Australia the islands in the Pacific. 

Admiral von Tirpitz went on to say that " we are not in 
the least disturbed by ' Kitchener's millions.' ' 

' We, too, have several millions of perfectly serviceable 
men upon whom we can fall back. If necessary we shall 
take those who do not come up to the ordinary average, and 
we shall thus be able to put several more millions into the 
field. I am sure that the world will no longer doubt but that 
if this necessity should arise we shall fight to the bitter end." 

With regard to aircraft in general, Admiral von Tirpitz 
expressed himself as being personally in favour of aeroplanes 
for naval service. But, of course, Zeppelins were far superior 
for carrying heavy loads for long distances. For the moment 
he was unable to say which of the two types would prove to be 
the more effective under given weather conditions, but both 
of them were used for different purposes. 

In reply to a question as to whether the day of large 
ships was over, Admiral von Tirpitz said : 

437 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL | 

" It is difficult to draw conclusions just yet. It is un- 
questionable that submarines are a new and powerful weapon 
of naval warfare. At the same time one must not forget that 
submarines do their best work along the coasts and in shallow 
waters, and that for this reason the Channel is particularly 
suitable for these craft. The successes which have been 
achieved hitherto do not warrant the conclusion that the 
day of large ships is past. It is still questionable whether 
submarines would have made such a fine show in other waters. 
We have learnt a great deal about submarines in this war. 
We thought that they would not be able to remain much 
longer than three days away from their base, as the crew 
would then necessarily be exhausted. But we soon learned 
that the larger type of these boats can navigate round the 
whole of England and can remain absent as long as a fort- 
night. All that is necessary is that the crew gets an oppor- 
tunity of resting and recuperating, and this opportunity can 
be afforded the men by taking the boat into shallow and still 
waters, where it can rest on the bottom and remain still in 
order that the crew can have a good sleep. This is only 
possible where the water is comparatively shallow." 

Admiral von Tirpitz's interviewer parenthetically remarks 
that it is an open secret that Germany is building forty new 
submarines of the goo-ton type. 

In Admiral von Tirpitz's opinion a submarine war against 
British merchant ships would be more effective even than 
an invasion of England by means of Zeppelins. 

"Will the German Navy come out to fight the British Fleet ? " 

" Certainly/' Admiral von Tirpitz replied, " if the British 
give us an opportunity to engage them. But can it be 
expected that our fleet, the strength of which is only about 
one-third of that of the British Fleet, will seize an opportunity 
unfavourable in the military sense and challenge the British 
Fleet to fight ? As far as we know the British Grand Battle 
Fleet is lying off the west coast of England in the Irish Sea." 

THE KING'S CHRISTMAS GREETING TO THE FLEET. 
Times, THE Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 

Dec. 26, announcement : 
I 9 I 4- The following is a copy of a telegram, dated the 24th 

438 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

instant, which was sent by His Majesty the King to all His 
Majesty's ships and bases at home and abroad : 

' The Queen and I send the officers and men of the Navy 
our hearty good wishes for Christmas and the New Year." 

And the following reply has been received from the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, Grand Fleet : 

" All ships, officers and men of the Fleet, with humble 
duty beg to thank their Majesties for their gracious Christmas 
message, which all ranks respectfully and loyally reciprocate." 

JELLICOE. 

RECENT OPERATIONS IN THE BLACK SEA. 
IT is officially reported from Constantinople that theK.V., 
Turkish Fleet, including the Hamidieh, sailed through the Dec - 2 7> 
Black Sea and returned undamaged. One of our men-of-war 
met the Russian Fleet, consisting of seventeen units i.e., 
fiye ships of the line, two cruisers, and ten torpedo-boats, 
and three minelayers on December 24th. This meant one 
Turkish ship against seventeen of the enemy. This Turkish 
ship attacked this fleet nevertheless, and fired at the ship of 
the line Rostislav with good results, successfully sank the 
two minelayers, Oleg and Atthe, and saved and took as prisoners 
two officers and thirty Russian marines. At the same time 
other parts of our fleet successfully bombarded Batum on 
December 25th. Two of our ships tried to force the above- 
mentioned Russian Fleet into battle, but they preferred to 
flee towards Sebastopol. 



Petrograd, January 3. 

The Turco-German reports of victories won in the Black Times, 
Sea by the Breslau on December 24th against an entire Russian J an - 4 
fleet consisting of five battleships, two cruisers, and ten 
destroyers are obviously fanciful. The truth is that through- 
out the 24th the Breslau used her superior speed to elude 
our pursuit. On the 25th the Breslau near Sebastopol sighted 
four small destroyers and began to chase them. She opened 
fire on them, but, failing to inflict any damage, turned about 
towards the open sea in spite of the fact that her greater 
speed rendered further pursuit possible. The Breslau was then 
sighted by the Russian Fleet, which attempted to cut her off, 

439 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

but after our first salvoes the enemy fled. The ability of the 
fast cruiser to approach the Russian coast and avoid an 
engagement with the slower Russian boats is magnified into 
a glorious victory, but the activity of the Breslau enabled the 
Turks to reinforce their Caucasian front. 



Constantinople. 

K.V., Headquarters report that a French torpedo-boat fired 

Dec. 28, some shells at our look-out stations near Kikili opposite the 

I 9 I 4- island of Tenedos, but without result. The English have 

once more attempted a landing at Akaba ; two of their boats 

tried to approach the shore but retreated under the fire of our 

gendarmerie. They lost four killed. 



GERMAN AIR RAIDS. 

War Office, December 24. 

Times, AN enemy's aeroplane was seen over Dover this morning 

Dec. 26, about 10.55. It dropped a bomb, which fell in a garden 
and exploded, but did no damage. The aeroplane was only 
seen for a few seconds, and left again over sea. 

British aircraft went up at once, but did not see the 
enemy again. The weather was foggy and cloudy. 



War Office, December 25. 

ibid. A hostile aeroplane was sighted to-day at 12.35 P- m - % m g 

very high, East to West, over Sheerness. British aircraft 
went up in pursuit and engaged the enemy, who, after being 
hit three or four times, was driven off seaward. 

AIR RAIDS ON CUXHAVEN AND BRUSSELS. 
Times, THE Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 

Dec. 28, announcement : 

On Friday, the 25th inst., German warships lying in 
Schillig Roads, off Cuxhaven, were attacked by seven naval 
seaplanes piloted by the following officers : 
Flight Commander Douglas A. Oliver, R.N. 
Flight Commander Francis E. T. Hewlett, R.N. 
44 o 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Flight Commander Robert P. Ross, R.N. 

Flight Commander Cecil F. Kilner, R.N. 

Flight Lieutenant Arnold J. Miley, R.N. 

Flight Lieutenant Charles H. K. Edmonds, R.N. 

Flight Sub-Lieutenant Vivian Gaskell Blackburn, R.N. 

The attack was delivered at daylight, starting from a 
point in the vicinity of Heligoland. The seaplanes were 
escorted by a light cruiser and destroyer force, together with 
submarines. As soon as these ships were seen by the Germans 
from Heligoland, two Zeppelins, three or four hostile seaplanes, 
and several hostile submarines attacked them. It was 
necessary for the British ships to remain in the neighbourhood 
in order to pick up the returning airmen, and a novel combat 
ensued between the most modern cruisers on the one hand 
and the enemy's aircraft and submarines on the other. By- 
swift manoeuvring the enemy's submarines were avoided, and 
the two Zeppelins were easily put to flight by the guns of 
the Undaunted and Arethusa. 

The enemy's seaplanes succeeded in dropping their bombs 
near to our ships, though without hitting any. 

The British ships remained for three hours off the enemy's 
coast without being molested by any surface vessel, and 
safely re-embarked three out of the seven airmen with their 
machines. Three other pilots, who returned later, were 
picked up, according to arrangement, by British submarines 
which were standing by, their machines being sunk. 

Six out of the seven pilots, therefore, returned safely, 
Flight Commander Francis E. T. Hewlett, R.N., is, however, 
missing. His machine was seen in a wrecked condition about 
eight miles from Heligoland, and the fate of this daring and 
skilful pilot is at present unknown. The extent of the 
damage by the British airmen's bombs cannot be estimated, 
but all were discharged on points of military significance. 



December 28, 1914. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty announces : 
On Thursday, December 24th, Squadron Commander Times, 
Richard B. Davies, R.N., of the Naval Air Service, visited Dec - 2 9> 
Brussels in a Maurice Farman biplane for the purpose of 1914 ' 
dropping twelve bombs on an airship shed reported to contain 

44 i 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [D] 

a German Parseval. Eight of these bombs, of which six are 
believed to have hit, were discharged at the first attack, and 
the remaining four on the return flight. Owing to the clouds 
of smoke which arose from the shed the effect could not be 
distinguished. 

Berlin. 

K.V., On December 25th, in the forenoon, a small British 

Dec. 26, force made an attack by hydroplanes on our estuaries, and 

1914. dropped bombs on some anchored ships and one gasometer 

in the neighbourhood of Cuxhaven without hitting or 

damaging anything. 

After dropping the bombs the British Airmen disappeared 
in a westerly direction. Our airships and aeroplanes engaged 
the British forces and dropped bombs on two British destroyers 
and one convoy vessel. On the latter fire was observed to 
break out. Misty weather prevented any further engagement 
taking place. 

BEHNCKE, 
Acting Chief of the Admiral Staff. 

Times, The following Admiralty Memorandum on the combined 

Feb. 19, operations by H.M. Ships and Naval Seaplanes on Christmas 
I 9 I 4- day is published : 

On December 25th, 1914, an air reconnaissance of the 
Heligoland Bight, including Cuxhaven, Heligoland, and 
Wilhelmshaven, was made by naval seaplanes, and the 
opportunity was taken at the same time of attacking with 
bombs points of military importance. The reconnaissance 
involved combined operations by light cruisers, destroyers, 
and seaplane-carriers, under Commodore Reginald Y. Tyr- 
whitt, C.B., and submarines acting under the orders of Commo- 
dore Roger Keyes, C.B., M.V.O. 

The vessels detailed for the operations arrived at their 
rendezvous before daylight, and as soon as the light was 
sufficient the seaplanes were hoisted out and despatched. 
The following Air Service officers and observers took part in 
the reconnaissance : 

PILOTS. 

Flight Commander (now Squadron Commander) Douglas 
Austin Oliver. 
442 



4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Flight Commander Francis Esme Theodore Hewlett. 

Flight Commander Robert Peel Ross. 

Flight Commander Cecil Francis Kilner. 

Flight Lieutenant (now Flight Commander) Arnold John 
Miley. 

Flight Lieutenant Charles Humphrey Kingsman Edmonds. 

Flight Sub-Lieutenant (now Flight Lieutenant) Vivian 
Gaskell Blackburn. 

OBSERVERS. 

Lieutenant Erskine Childers, R.N.V.R. 

C.P.O. Mechanic James W. Bell. 

C.P.O. Mechanic Gilbert H. W. Budds. 
The seaplane carriers were commanded by : 

Squadron Commander Cecil J. L' Estrange Malone. 

Flight Commander Edmund D. M. Robertson. 

Flight Commander Frederick W. Bowhill. 
At the beginning of the flight the weather was clear, but 
on nearing the land the seaplanes met with thick weather, 
and were compelled to fly low, thus becoming exposed to a 
heavy fire at short range from ships and shore batteries. 
Several machines were hit, but all remained in the air for 
over three hours, and succeeded in obtaining valuable in- 
formation regarding the disposition of the enemy's ships and 
defences. Bombs were also dropped on military points. In 
the meanwhile German submarines, seaplanes and Zeppelins 
delivered a combined attack upon the light cruisers, de- 
stroyers and seaplane-carriers, but were driven off. 

Flight Commanders Kilner and Ross and Flight Lieutenant 
Edmonds regained their ships. Flight Commander Oliver, 
Flight Lieutenant Miley, and Flight Sub-Lieutenant Black- 
burn became short of fuel, and were compelled to descend 
near Submarine E n, which with other submarine vessels 
was watching inshore to assist any seaplane that might be 
in difficulties. Lieutenant-Commander Martin E. Nasmith, 
commanding E n, although attacked by an airship, succeeded, 
by his coolness and resource, in rescuing the three pilots. 
Flight Commander Hewlett, after a flight of three-and-a-half 
hours, was compelled to descend on account of engine trouble, 
but was rescued by a Dutch trawler, landed in Holland, and 
returned safely to England. 

443 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [D] 

An expression of their Lordships' appreciation has been 
conveyed to Commodore Keyes (Commodore S.), Commodore 
Tyrwhitt (Commodore T.), and to Captain Sueter (Director 
of the Air Department), for their share in the combined 
operations which resulted in this successful reconnaissance. 



AWARDS OF THE D.S.O. 

The King has been graciously pleased to give orders for 
the following appointments to the Distinguished Service 
Order : 

To BE COMPANIONS OF THE DISTINGUISHED SERVICE 

ORDER. 

Captain Cecil Francis Kilner, R.M.L.I. (Flight Com- 
mander). 

Lieutenant Charles Humphrey Kingsman Edmonds, R.N. 
(Flight Lieutenant). 

The following awards have also been made : 

TO RECEIVE THE DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEDAL. 

Chief Petty Officer Mechanic James William Bell, No. M. 
489. 

Chief Petty Officer Mechanic Gilbert Howard William 
Budds, No. 271764. 
Admiralty, February igth, 1915. 



Amsterdam, January i. 

Flight Commander Hewlett received the following telegram 
from the King to-day at Ymuiden : 

" I am delighted and greatly relieved to hear that you 
are safe, and I heartily congratulate you. 

GEORGE R.I." 

After a week's consideration the German naval authorities 
issued on January 2nd a statement about the raid on Cux- 
haven, which is published in various forms in most of the 
German newspapers. It runs : 

" The attempt of the English to sing a song of praise about 
their penetration of the German Bight causes no surprise, 
but does not alter the fact that nothing is known in Germany 

444 



914] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

about the depression supposed to have been caused by this 
attempted attack, and that actually the English achieved 
nothing at all. They cannot themselves report anything 
definite about the success of their bombs, nor is that indeed 
possible, as all the bombs missed their mark. Not a single 
one of the seaplanes that are so highly praised was able to 
hit anything. 

" On the other hand, it is certain that several of the British 
seaplanes were lost, and that in a number of cases our bombs 
found their mark. An English ship was set on fire and to 
mention a name the cruiser Arethusa was hit three times by 
German bombs. It may also be presumed that two English 
destroyers made the same unpleasant acquaintance. What, 
then, was the result ? On the English side a complete failure." 

The German naval Press Bureau has also issued another 
long article about the attack on the English coast and the 
" defences " of Scarborough, which, it says, are proved by 
a study of the Army List and Navy List. The following 
invention of Grand Admiral von Tirpitz's department seems 
new : 

" If the English did not fire all their guns, or if all the 
guns were not manned by gunners perhaps because these 
guns were partly of an obsolete type, or for reasons of economy 
had not been kept ready for war this state of things would 
not justify the charge that the enemy had bombarded un- 
fortified places, any more than would the fact which has 
reached us from a trustworthy neutral source, that the 
defenders ran away from their guns when the German ships 
opened their well-aimed fire." 



THE TURKISH COMMANDER TO HIS TROOPS IN 

SYRIA. 

Constantinople. 

ARAB papers publish the following Army Order issued K.V., 
by the Commander to the troops of the Syrian Army told off Dec. 26, 
for the attack on Egypt : ' Warriors ! Behind you lie the Z 9i4. 
vast deserts, before you is the craven enemy, behind him the 
rich land of Egypt which is waiting impatiently for your 
coming. If you falter death will overtake you, before you 
Paradise lies." 



445 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
MINEFIELD CLEARED OFF SCARBOROUGH. 

Admiralty, February 18. 

THE following Memorandum has been furnished by the 
Admiral Commanding the East Coast Mine-sweepers, detailing 
the recent mine-sweeping operations off Scarborough : 

From December igth to the 3ist sweeping operations 
were conducted by the East Coast Mine-sweepers with the 
object of clearing the minefield which had been laid by the 
enemy off Scarborough. 

At the beginning there was no indication of the position 
of the mines, although owing to losses of passing merchant 
ships it was known that a minefield had been laid. 

In order to ascertain how the mines lay it was necessary 
to work at all times of tide, with a consequent large increase 
in the element of danger. 

The following officers are specially noticed for their 
services during the operations : 

Commander Richard H. Walters, R.N., A.M.S. Staff, 
was in charge of the whole of the mine-sweeping operations 
from December igth to 3ist. During this period a large 
number of mines were swept up and destroyed. By December 
25th, a channel had been cleared, and traffic was able to pass 
through by daylight. 

Commander (now Captain) Lionel G. Preston, R.N., 
H.M.S. Skipjack, on December igth, proceeded at once into 
the middle of the area where the mines had exploded to give 
assistance to the damaged trawlers. He anchored between 
the trawlers and the mines which had been brought to the 
surface, and proceeded to sink them. 

Lieutenant Godfrey Craik Parsons, R.N., H.M.S. Pekin, 
displayed great skill and devotion to duty in continuing to 
command his group of trailers after having been mined in 
Trawler No. 58 on December igth. On this day his group 
exploded eight mines, and brought to the surface six more, 
Trawler No. 99 being blown up and Nos. 58 and 465 damaged, 
all in the space of about ten minutes. 

Lieutenant H. Boothby, R.N.R., H.M.S. Pekin. When 
Trawler No. 99 (Orianda] in which he was serving was blown 
up by a mine on December I9th, Lieutenant Boothby suc- 
cessfully got all his crew (except one who was killed) into 

446 



: 914] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

safety. Lieutenant Boothby was again blown up on January 
6th, 1915, in Trawler No. 450 (The Banyers). 

Lieutenant C. V. Crossley, R.N.R., H.M.S. Pekin. Whilst 
sweeping on December I9th, three violent explosions occurred 
close under the stern of his ship, Trawler No. 465 (Star of 
Britain). He controlled the crew, and himself crawled into 
a confined space near the screw shaft, discovered the damage, 
and temporarily stopped the leak sufficiently to enable the 
pumps to keep the water down and save the ship. 

Skipper T. Tringall, R.N.T.R., Trawler Solon, No. 55, on 
his own responsibility went to the assistance of the steamer 
Gallier, which had just been mined on the night of December 
25th. It was low water at the time and dark, and the Gallier 
was showing no lights, so had to be searched for in the mine- 
field. 

Skipper Ernest V. Snowline, R.N.T.R., Drifter Hilda and 
Ernest, No. 201, carried out his duties as Commodore of the 
Flotilla of Lowestoft drifters under Chief Gunner Franklin, 
R.N., in a most satisfactory manner. He kept to his station 
in heavy weather, standing by the S.S. Gallier after she had 
been damaged by a mine. 

Lieutenant W. G. Wood, R.N.R., Trawler Restrivo, No. 48, 
did excellent work in going to the assistance of damaged 
trawlers on December I9th, and performed the risky duty 
of crossing the minefield at low water when sent to bring in 
the Valiant, which had been disabled by a mine. 

Skipper George W. Thornton, R.N.T.R., Trawler Passing, 
No. 58, displayed great coolness and rendered valuable assist- 
ance to Lieutenant Parsons in controlling the crew when 
No. 58 had been mined. 

Skipper William Allerton, R.N.T.R., Drifter Eager, No. 202, 
kept to his station in heavy weather, standing by the S.S. 
Gallier after she had been damaged by a mine. 

Sub-Lieutenant W. 'L. Scott, R.N.R., Drifter Principal, 
went alongside the Trawler Garmo in a dinghy to rescue a 
man at considerable risk to himself and his boat, as the vessel 
was floating nearly vertical at the time, with only the fore- 
castle above water. She turned completely over and sank 
a few minutes after he left her. 

Skipper Thomas B. Belton, R.N.T.R., Drifter Retriever, 
No. 223, kept to his station, marking the safe channel for 

447 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

shipping when all other drifters were driven in by the weather. 
[::;.; The following are also commended for Good Service done 
under dangerous conditions : 

Robert A. Gray, Engineman, R.N.R. No. 6g4ES., M.S.Tr. 
No. 465. 

William A. Lewis, P.O., Id., O.N. 178498, M.S.Tr. No. 450. 

Christopher Briggs, Engineman, R.N.R. No. I542ES., 
M.S.Tr. No. 450. 

William Gladding, Cook, R.N.R. No. 223T.C., M.S.Tr. 
No. 450. 

pi Robert Frost, Second Hand, R.N.R. No. SiD.A., M.S.Tr. 
No. 43. 

Edwin F. Frankland, Deck Hand, R.N.R. No. 248iD.A., 
M.S.Tr. No. 49. 

Rl George Newman, Engineman, R.N.R. No. 625ES., M.S.Tr. 
No. 451. 

William R. Kemp, Engineman, R.N.R. No. 846ES., 
M.S.Tr. No. 49. 

DECORATIONS AWARDED. 

The King has been graciously pleased to give orders for 
the following appointment to the Distinguished Service 
Order and for the award of the Distinguished Service Cross 
in respect of the undermentioned Officers, in recognition of 
their services mentioned in the foregoing dispatch : 

To be a Companion of the Distinguished Service Order. 
Lieutenant H. Boothby, R.N.R. 

To receive the Distinguished Service Cross. 

Lieutenant C. V. Crossley, R.N.R. 
Skipper T. Tringall, R.N.T.R. 
Skipper Ernest V. Snowline, R.N.T.R. 

The following awards have also been made : 

To receive the Distinguished Service Medal. 
Robert A. Gray, Engineman, R.N.R. No. 694ES. 
William A. Lewis, Petty Officer, ist Class, O.N. 178498. 
Christopher Briggs, Engineman, R.N.R. No. I542ES. 
William Gladding, Cook, R.N.R. No. 223T.C. 
Robert Frost, Second Hand, R.N.R. No. SiD.A. 
44 8 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

SIR GEORGE BUCHANAN ON THE WAR/ AND THE 
WORK OF THE BRITISH NAVY. 

Petrograd, December 31. 

SIR GEORGE BUCHANAN, the British Ambassador, 
speaking this evening at the annual dinner of the New English 
Club, referred to the last dinner of the British colony over 
which he presided, given in June to the officers of the British 
Squadron visiting Cronstadt. His Excellency said : 

I then said the Navy was our glory and pride, and that, 
however the type of ships might change, the officers and men, 
like the great sea captains of the past, would ever maintain 
the high traditions of their noble service. I little thought 
when I made the speech that Sir David Beatty and his gallant 
officers would, ere two months had passed, be fighting a 
brilliant action in the Bight of Heligoland. Nobody then 
dreamed that Germany was already preparing to plunge 
Europe in war, in her mad craving for world dominion. The 
war is now entering on its sixth month, and we Englishmen 
have every reason to be proud of the part our country has 
played in it. A small and insignificant section, however, of 
public opinion in Russia seems to take a very different view 
of what we have done. A few well-known Germanophiles 
have for some time past been preaching an anti-English 
crusade, and their little band of proselytes is busy trying to 
sow dissensions between Russia and her Allies. We are 
accused of having pushed Russia into war for our own selfish 
ends, and of leaving her to bear the brunt of it, carefully 
reserving our resources in order to seize the lion's share of 
the booty when the war is over. 

' Where is the British Navy ? " and " What is the British 
Army doing ? " are questions these gentlemen are asking in 
Petrograd, Moscow, and Odessa. I will tell them what the 
British Navy has done. It has, with the aid of the Allied 
Fleets, driven the German flag from the high seas. The first 
great bloodless victory was won on the day when the German 
Navy shut itself up in the Kiel Canal, and when nearly every 
vessel of the German commercial fleet had to seek refuge in 
some neutral port. With the exception of two or three small 
cruisers, all the German cruisers which during the first months 
of the war were able to prey on our commerce have been 

449 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

sunk, and England is now mistress of the high seas. Thanks 
to that the Allies can draw their supplies from the whole 
world, while Germany is suffering from an economic pressure 
which in the end may prove the decisive factor of the war. 
Thanks to that also we were able to send an army to France 
and to strengthen it with continual reinforcements, and to 
transport a large number of troops from India and the Colonies. 
Besides the successful actions of Heligoland and the Falkland 
Isles and the sinking of the Emden, the daring exploit of the 
submarine, which, after braving the eddying currents of the 
Dardanelles and diving under five rows of mines, sank the 
Turkish guardship, ought to appeal to our critics, as it served 
to weaken the Turkish Fleet operating in the Black Sea. If 
no decisive battle has yet been fought it is because the German 
Fleet lies sheltered behind an impenetrable line of forts. 
Mines and submarines have revolutionised naval warfare, 
and the Grand Fleet has to be content for the present with 
keeping what is aptly termed " a silent vigil " until the German 
" Dreadnoughts " sally forth and challenge our hold of Nep- 
tune's trident. 

If we deserve blame for anything, it is for not foreseeing 
the war and not raising a larger army in time of peace, We 
cannot be blamed for anything done, or left undone, since 
the war broke out. We have strained every nerve to support 
the Allies with all the resources of our Empire. At the 
present moment we are spending 1,500,000 daily on the war; 
2,000,000 men are under training or in the field, and despite 
the colossal loan of 350,000,000 just raised to meet our war 
expenses, we are doing all we can to assist our friends in 
matters of finance and supplies. If our critics, who happily 
do not voice the true sentiments of the Russian people, refuse 
to accept my testimony, I would refer them to an authority 
whose impartiality is unquestionable, and whose word would 
perhaps carry more weight than mine to Germany. 

Prior to the war the Germans regarded the British as a 
decadent race, whose Empire would crumble to pieces before 
the German menace. Now that they have met our soldiers 
face to face, at Mons, on the Marne, the Aisne, and the Yser, 
and have failed, despite vastly superior numbers and urgent 
orders by the Emperor to break through the British lines, 
now that they have realised what the naval power of England 

450 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

means, they have singled us out as the special object of their 
hatred. It is to England, the arch-enemy, that the poets 
address their hymns of hate ; it is on England that the 
professors pour all the vials of their wrath. They hate us 
because they know that the British Empire blocks the way 
to that world-dominion of which they have dreamed, and to 
win which they have violated the laws of God and man. 
Could they pay us a greater compliment, or have borne more 
eloquent testimony to the services which Great Britain is 
rendering to her Allies ? Ever since the war began the 
armies of France, Belgium, and England have been fighting 
shoulder to shoulder, and beating off the attacks of some 
two million Germans. Now our armies are on the offensive. 
The dangers shared in common, and the heroism with which 
they have faced them have forged an indissoluble link of 
friendship between the three countries. 

In the Eastern theatre of war Russia has had to bear by 
herself the shock of the united armies of Austria and Germany, 
while in the south she has had to repel the armies of the 
Sultan. She has nobly confronted her gigantic task. Under 
the brilliant leadership of the Grand Duke Nicholas, the 
armies of the Emperor have won the admiration of the world 
by their heroic exploits. They have gained great victories 
and occupied the greater part of Galicia. The difficulties 
have been immense. They have had to defend a front from 
the Baltic to the Black Sea. They have had to move troops 
and supplies over enormous distances over bad roads, and in 
Poland to fight in a country flanked on the right and left by 
hostile territory, while their mobile enemy had at its disposi- 
tion a perfect network of strategic railways. 

But, despite all difficulties, the Russian Army, as those 
knowing it knew it would, has fought splendidly. Moreover, 
it has shown a spirit of self-sacrifice in its efforts to relieve 
the pressure on the West, and in so doing has rendered in- 
valuable services, of which her Allies are deeply sensible. 
By wearing out and gradually destroying the enemy's forces 
it is attaining one of the main objectives of this war of attri- 
tion, and by continuing the process it will ere long break 
down the barrier guarding the entrance to Silesia. My only 
regret is that, owing to the distance separating us, our troops 
cannot fight side by side with their Russian comrades, as 

Naval II 2 G 451 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [D 

then both would get to know and understand each other. 
Englishmen love brave men, and the Russian soldier is among 
the bravest of the brave. I have seen him in our hospital 
bearing sufferings with patient stoicism, never complaining, 
always grateful for any little kindness, and expressing thanks 
with a delicacy of feeling that marks him as one of nature* s 
gentlemen. Since I first presided at the annual dinner, five 
winters ago, Russia and Great Britain have gradually drawn 
nearer and nearer to each other. I have since then often 
dreamed of an Anglo-Russian alliance that would serve to 
maintain the world's peace ; but the dream has been shattered 
by the war which Germany has forced upon us, and it is with 
their children's blood that Russia and England have conse- 
crated their alliance. But the sacrifice will not have been 
made in vain, and although we of this generation have to pay 
a heavy price, those coming after us will enjoy the blessings 
of peace, for Russia, England, and France are all resolved to 
fight to the finish, until the spirit of German militarism is 
for ever exorcised. I confidently look forward to the future. 
Just as in these dreary winter months we console ourselves 
with the thought of the coming spring and summer, so I take 
comfort at the thought that ere summer has changed to 
autumn the arms of the Allies will be crowned with victory 
and the foundation laid for a lasting peace. Renter. 

. 

THE KAISER'S NEW YEAR'S ORDER TO THE ARMY 

AND NAVY. 

Great Headquarters, December 31. 
To THE GERMAN ARMY AND THE GERMAN NAVY. 

D 

AFTER five long months of severe and fierce struggling 
we are about to enter the new year. 

Brilliant victories have been gained, great successes have 
been won. Almost everywhere the German armies stand on 
enemy soil. Repeated attempts by the enemy to overrun 
German soil with his massed armies have been frustrated. 

My ships have covered themselves with glory on every 
sea ; their crews have proved that they can not only fight 
victoriously but that they know how to die heroically when 
crushed by superior force. 

452 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Behind the army and the fleet the German nation stands 
in unparalleled unity prepared to give up its best for the holy 
homely hearth that we are defending against a wicked un- 
expected attack. Much has happened in the old year ; but 
even now the enemy is not brought down ; fresh hosts hurl 
themselves continuously against our armies and those of our 
faithful Allies. 

But their number do not frighten us. Though the times 
are serious and the task before us difficult, we can look into the 
future with full confidence. 

Next to God's wise guidance I rely on the incomparable 
bravery of the army and navy and know that I have the 
entire German nation with me. 

Let us therefore go forth towards the new year undis- 
mayed to fresh deeds and fresh victories for the beloved 
Fatherland. 

WILHELM, I.R. 



AUSTRIAN EMPEROR'S NEW YEAR GREETING TO 
THE AUSTRIAN NAVY AND ARMY.- 

Amsterdam, December 31. 

A TELEGRAM from Vienna states that the Emperor 
Francis Joseph has issued the following proclamation to the 
Austro-Hungarian army and navy : 

" For the last five months of this year the Dual Monarchy 
has been waging war with numerous and powerful enemies 
a war which was forced upon us and on our faithful Allies. 

" In view of the proved steadfast and warlike spirit and the 
heroic bravery of my army and navy, the prospect of a fresh 
year of war gives me confidence that Austria-Hungary's 
warriors, both on land and sea, will emerge with honour 
from any trials, however severe, that may be imposed on their 
prowess for the welfare of their country. 

' In sorrowing gratitude I call to memory those who have 
sacrificed their lives on the blood-stained field of battle fighting 
for our just cause. In sincerest recognition of their heroic 
patriotism I salute all my brave subjects, and I pray that 
with God's help the new year may lead them to victory." 
Renter. 

453 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

PROMOTIONS, APPOINTMENTS, HONOURS AND 
REWARDS. 

Admiralty, December 6, 1914. 

., THE KING has been graciously pleased to confer the 

Dec. 8, Royal Naval Reserve Officers' Decoration upon the following 
Officers : 

Lieutenant-Commander Cyril Edwards, Senior Engineer 
James McGowan, Engineer Peter George Eckford. 

Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. 

Admiralty, December u, 1914. 

L - G >> His Grace the Duke of Leeds to be Commander, in corn- 

Dec. 15, mand of the Tyneside Division. Dated December 8th, 1914. 

The Victoria Cross. 

December 22, 1914. 

L 'G-> His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to 

Dec. 22, approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to Lieutenant 
Norman Douglas Holbrook, Royal Navy, for the conspicuous 
act of bravery specified below : 

For most conspicuous bravery on December 3th, when 
in command of trie Submarine B n, he entered the Darda- 
nelles, and, notwithstanding the very difficult current, dived 
his vessel under five rows of mines and torpedoed the Turkish 
battleship Messudiyeh, which was guarding the mine-field. 

Lieutenant Holbrook succeeded in bringing the B n 
safely back, although assailed by gun-fire and torpedo boats, 
having been submerged on one occasion for nine hours. 



Admiralty, December 22, 1914. 

The King has been graciously pleased to give orders for 
the following appointment to the Distinguished Service Order 
in respect of the undermentioned Officer, who was second in 
command of Submarine B n which torpedoed the Turkish 
battleship Messudiyeh in the Dardanelles on December I3th, 
1914: 

To be Companion of the Distinguished Service Order. 
Lieutenant Sydney Thornhill Winn. 

454 



ig 4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Admiralty, December 28, 1914. 

Captain Edwyn Sinclair Alexander-Sinclair, M.V.O., has L.G., 
been appointed a Naval Aide-de-Camp to His Majesty the J an - *> 
King, in place of Captain Norman Craig Palmer, C.V.O., I9I5> 
promoted to Flag rank. Dated December i8th, 1914. 

Royal Naval Division. 

Admiralty, December 28, 1914. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Cunliffe McNeile Parsons, Royal Marine L.G., 
Light Infantry, to command the Third (Royal Marine) Brigade, J an - 6 
with the temporary rank of Brigadier-General, from October I915 ' 
loth to 26th, 1914, inclusive. 

Royal Naval Division. 

Admiralty, December 29, 1914. 

The undermentioned to be temporary Majors, R.M. : L - G -> 
Major and Quartermaster W. R. Lidington (Queen's J an .*' 
Own Oxfordshire Hussars). Dated September 3oth, 1914. J< 

Temporary Captain G. H. Spittle. Dated November 
loth, 1914. 

Temporary Captain A. J. D. Chivers. Dated 
November I2th, 1914. 

Temporary Captain S. R. Adams. Dated November 
2oth, 1914. 

Temporary Captain W. Wilberforce. Dated Decem- 
ber ist, 1914. 

To be temporary Captains, R.M. : 

F. Holmes. Dated September 8th, 1914. 

Temporary Honorary Second Lieutenant the 
Honourable G. Howard, M.P. Dated September 2ist, 
1914. 

H. M. Leaf (Captain, Reserve of Officers). Dated 
September 28th, 1914. 

Temporary Lieutenant G. H. Spittle. Dated October 
I2th, 1914. 

Temporary Lieutenant R. G. Aston, R.M. Dated 
October 2Oth, 1914. 

W. Mills. Dated November 4th, 1914. 

Temporary Lieutenant S. R. Adams. Dated Novem- 
ber loth, 1914. 

455 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Temporary Lieutenant G. E. Morgans. Dated 
November I2th, 1914. 

Temporary Lieutenant J. W. Teale, R.M. Dated 
November zoth, 1914. 

Temporary Lieutenant H. Burges- Watson (temporary 
Lieutenant, R.N.V.R.). Dated December ist, 1914. 

Temporary Lieutenant C. O. F. Modin (temporary 
Lieutenant, R.N.V.R.). Dated December ist, 1914. 

Assistant Paymaster D. S. Hitch, R.N.V.R. Dated 
December 9th, 1914. 

Temporary Lieutenant C. W. S. Paine, R.M. Dated 
December 9th, 1914. 

Temporary Lieutenant F. W. Tisley (late Lieutenant, 
R.N.V.R.). Dated December I7th, 1914. 



DETENTIONS AND CAPTURES OF ENEMY SHIPS OR 

CARGOES. 

L.G., VESSELS DETAINED OR CAPTURED AT SEA BY His MAJESTY'S 

D 60 - XI > ARMED FORCES. 

1914. 

(In continuation of previous notification published in the 
London Gazette of December i, 1914.) 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Alfred Nobel (4,769) 




Norwegian 






Kirkwall. 


Kalymnos (2,932) . . 




German 






Malta. 


Kamerun (5,861) . . 




German 






* 


Liberia (2,518) 




British 






Sierra Leone. 


Ran (3,022) . . 




Norwegian 






Liverpool. 


Rechid Pacha (570) 




Turkish 






Glasgow. 


Sandefjord (6,026) . . 




Norwegian 






Halifax (N.S.) 



Captured outside Duala. 



456 



ic i 4 ] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

SHIPS WHOSE CARGOES, OR PART OF THEM, HAVE BEEN 

DETAINED. 

(In continuation of previous notification published in 
London Gazette of December i, 1914.) 

Foreign Office, 

December 9, 1914. 
LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name of Vesse 


[. 




Nationality. 




Cargo Detained at 


Ajax . . 






British 




Falmouth. 


Amatonga 






British 




London. 


Canton . . . 






Swedish 




Newcastle. 


City of Madras 






British 




London. 


Cumberland . . 






British 




Falmouth. 


Danube 






French 




London. 


Flaminian . . 






British 




Liverpool. 


George Hawley 






United States 




Falmouth. 


Glenlochy 






British 




London. 


Llandovery Castle 






British 




London. 


Mardinian . . 






British 




Liverpool. 


Moeris 






British 




Liverpool. 


Onitsha 






British 




Liverpool. 


Peking 






Swedish 




Falmouth. 


Sarpedon. 






Netherland 




London. 


Sorfareren 






Norwegian . . 




Glasgow. 


Stuart Prince 






British 




Manchester. 


Taurus 






Norwegian . . 




Gibraltar. 


Troldfos 






Norwegian . . 




Zanzibar. 


Vondel 






Netherland 




London. 



BRITISH CARGOES LANDED FROM GERMAN SHIPS 

AT TSINGTAO. 

Foreign Office, 

December 9, 1914. 

HIS Majesty's Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 
has received a telegram from His Majesty's Ambassador at 
Tokio to the following effect : 

" British subjects who possess interests in cargoes which 
may have been landed from German ships at Tsingtao should 
address their claims, through His Majesty's Embassy at Tokio, 
to the Japanese Ministry for Foreign Affairs, sending detailed 
description of cargo, and documentary evidence in support 
of them. 

457 



L.G., 
Dec. 22, 

1914. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

' The delivery of such cargo can only take place at 
Tsingtao. Permission to enter that place, subject to the 
consent of the military authorities, has been granted to 
foreigners having property there since November 20th last." 



[Di 



SHIPS WHOSE CARGOES, OR PART OF THEM, HAVE BEEN 

DETAINED. 

(In continuation of previous notification published in the 
London Gazette of December n, 1914.) 

Foreign Office, 

December 21, 1914. 
LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name of Vessel. 


Nationality. 


Cargo Detained at 


Addah .. ..- .. 


British 


Liverpool. 


Agamemnon 


British 


London. 


Alexandra 


Danish 


Leith. 


Bornu 


British 


Liverpool. 


Bulgarian 


British 


Liverpool. 


Carnarvonshire 


British 


Liverpool. 


Chateaubriand . . 


French 


London. 


Chyebassa . . 


British 


Liverpool. 


Corcovado 


British 


Liverpool. 


Deli 


Netherland 


Liverpool. 


Eden Hall 


British 


Liverpool. 


Francisco 


British 


Hull. 


Galavale 


British 


Liverpool. 


Idaho 


British 


Hull. 


Kinfauns Castle 


British 


Southampton. 


Koningen der Nederlanden 


Netherland 


Liverpool. 


Kwango 


Belgian 


Liverpool. 


Oruba 


British 


London. 


Pak Ling 


British 


Liverpool. 


Parchim 


Russian 


London. 


Perugia 


British 


Gibraltar. 


Poland 


British 


Liverpool. 


Quentin 


British 


Leith. 


Rindjani 


Netherland 


Liverpool. 


Ronan 


British 


Leith. 


San Giorgio 


Italian 


Gibraltar. 


Tellus 


Norwegian 


Gibraltar. 


Toronto 


British 


Hull. 


Tunisie 


French 


Swansea. 



458 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

VESSELS DETAINED, OR CAPTURED AT SEA BY His MAJESTY'S 
ARMED FORCES. 

(In continuation of previous notification published in the 
London Gazette of December n, 1914.) 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name and Tonnage. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained. 


Exford (4,542) 
Jungshoved (3,835) 


British 
Danish 


Singapore. 
Falmouth. 



VESSELS DETAINED, OR CAPTURED AT SEA BY His MAJESTY'S 

ARMED FORCES. 

(In continuation of previous notification published in the ibid. 
London Gazette of December 22, 1914.) 



Foreign Office, 

January 4, 1915. 



LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name. 


Nationality. 


Where Detained/ 


Tanga (tug) 
23 lighters* . . . . \ 
45 dhows, and . . 1 
17 small dhow-boats [ 
and canoes . . j 


German 
German 


Zanzibar. 
Zanzibar. 



(* These range from 170 tons downwards. The names of the more 
important are Gema, Inshalla, Kibibi, Kijana, Kipanga, Kipenda, Naja, 
Simba, Ulaya, and Zuri.} 



459 



ibid. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL p 

SHIPS WHOSE CARGOES, OR PART OF THEM, HAVE BEEN 

DETAINED. 

(In continuation of previous notification published in the 
London Gazette of December 22, 1914.) 

LIST OF VESSELS. 



Name. 


Nationality. 


Cargo Detained at 


Arkansas 








Danish 






Newcastle-on-Tyne. 


Augusta 








Swedish 






Kirkwall. 


Botnia 








Danish 






Leith. 


Brescia 








British 






Liverpool. 


City of Camb 


idge 






British 






' Liverpool. 


Elele .. 








British 






Liverpool. 


Guido . . 








British 






Hull. 


Kentucky 








Danish 






Leith. 


Kittiwake 








British 






Liverpool. 


Kong Helge 








Danish 






Leith. 


Lycaon 








British 






London. 


Mirjam 








Norwegian 






Leith. 


New Sweden 








Swedish 






Newcastle-on-Tyne. 


Nile .. 








British 






London. 


Oronsa 








British 






Liverpool. 


Romsdal 








Norwegian 






Leith. 


Sorland 








Norwegian 






Leith. 


Veria 








British 






Liverpool. 


Virginia 








Danish 






Newcastle-on-Tyne. 


Zamora 








Swedish 






Kirkwall. 



ADMIRALTY MONTHLY ORDERS. 

Admiralty, S.W., January i, 1915. 
I. -Defence of the Realm (Consolidation] Regulations, 1914. 

* THE following Regulations made by His Majesty's Order 
in Council, dated the 28th day of November, 1914, are pro- 
mulgated for information and guidance : 

[N.B. The numbers in brackets at the end of paragraphs 
See Part re j er f ^ e corresponding provision in the existing Regulation^ 
- (M.O. 116/1914) . (1) The passages containing alterations and 
new matter are denoted by thick black lines.} 
4 6o 



pp 205 

305 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

General Regulations. 

1. The ordinary avocations of life and the enjoyment of 
property will be interfered with as little as may be permitted 
by the exigencies of the measures required to be taken for 
securing the public safety and the defence of the Realm, and 
ordinary civil offences will be dealt with by the civil tribunals 
in the ordinary course of law. [i.] 

The Admiralty and Army Council, and members of the 
Naval and Military Forces, and other persons executing the 
following Regulations shall, in carrying those Regulations into 
effect, observe these general principles. 

Powers of competent naval and military authorities, etc. 

2. It shall be lawful for the competent naval or military 
authority and any person duly authorised by him, where for 
the purpose of securing the public safety or the defence of the 
Realm it is necessary so to do 

(a) to take possession of any land and to construct military 

works, including roads, thereon, and to remove any 
trees, hedges, and fences therefrom ; 

(b) to take possession of any buildings or other property, 

including works for the supply of gas, electricity, or 
water, and of any sources of water supply ; 

(c) to take such steps as may be necessary for placing any 

buildings or structures in a state of defence ; 

(d) to cause any buildings or structures to be destroyed, or 

any property to be moved from one place to another, 
or to be destroyed ; 

(e) to take possession of any arms, ammunition, explosive 

substances, equipment, or warlike stores (including 
lines, cables, and other apparatus intended to be laid 
or used for telegraphic or telephonic purposes) ; 
(/) to do any other act involving interference with private 
rights of property which is necessary for the purpose 
aforesaid. [2.] 

3. The competent naval or military authority and any 
person duly authorised by him shall have right of access to 
any land or buildings or other property whatsoever. [3.] 

4. The competent naval or military authority may by 
order authorise the use of land, within such limits as may be 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

specified in the order, for the training of any part of His 
Majesty's naval or military forces ; and may by such order 
confer such rights of user of the land, and provide for such 
temporary suspension of rights of way over roads and foot- 
paths, as are conferred and are exerciseable with respect 
to authorised land, roads and footpaths under the Military- 
Manoeuvres Acts, 1897 and 1911, and the competent naval 
or military authority shall have all the powers exerciseable* 
by a Military Manoeuvres Commission under those Acts. 

[3A-] 

5. The competent naval or military authority may by 
order if he considers it necessary so to do for the purposes of 
any work of defence or other defended military work, or of 
any work for which it is deemed necessary in the interests of 
public safety or the defence of the Realm to afford military 
protection, stop up or divert any road or pathway over or 
adjoining the land on which such work is situate for so long 
as the order remains in force : [30.] 

Provided that where any such road or pathway is so 
stopped up or diverted the competent naval or military 
authority shall publish notice thereof in such manner as he 
may consider best adapted for informing the public, and where 
any road or pathway is stopped up by means of any physical 
obstruction he shall cause lights sufficient for the warning of 
passengers to be set up every night whilst the road or pathway 
is so stopped up. 

6. The competent naval or military authority may by 
order require all or any vehicles, boats, vessels, aircraft, 
transport animals, live stock, foodstuffs, fuel, tools, and 
implements of whatever description, and all or any forms of 
equipment and warlike stores, within any area specified in 
the order to be removed from that area within such time as 
may be so specified, or in the case of warlike stores incapable 
of removal to be destroyed, and if any person being the owner 
or having control thereof fail to comply with the requisition, 
he shall be guilty of an offence against these regulations, and 
the competent naval or military authority may himself cause 
them to be removed or in the case of warlike stores to be 
destroyed. [4.] 

7. The Admiralty or Army Council may by order require 
462 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the occupier of any factory or workshop in which arms, ammu- 
nition, or any warlike^ stores or equipment, or any articles 
required for the production thereof, are manufactured, to 
place at their disposal the whole or any part of the output of 
the factory or workshop as may be specified in the order, 
and to deliver to them the output or such part thereof as 
aforesaid in such quantities and at such times as may be 
specified in the order ; and the occupier of the factory or 
workshop shall be entitled to receive in respect thereof such 
price as, in default of agreement, may be decided to be 
reasonable having regard to the circumstances of the case 
by the arbitration of a judge of the High Court selected by 
the Lord Chief Justice of England in England, by a judge of 
the Court of Session selected by the Lord President of the 
~ourt of Session in Scotland, or by a judge of the High Court of 
Ireland selected by the Lord Chief Justice of Ireland in Ireland. 

If the occupier of the factory or workshop fails to comply 
with the order, or without the leave of the Admiralty or 
Army Council delivers to any other person any part of the 
output of the factory or workshop to which the order relates, 

shall be guilty of an offence against these regulations. 

8. The Admiralty or Army Council may take possession of 
any such factory or workshop as aforesaid, or of any plant 
Belonging thereto without taking possession of the factory or 
workshop itself, and may use the same for His Majesty's naval 
or military service at such times and in such manner as the 
Admiralty or Army Council may consider necessary or ex- 
pedient, and the occupier and every officer and servant of the 
occupier, and, where the occupier is a company, every director 
of the company shall obey the directions of the Admiralty 
or Army Council as to the user of the factory or workshop or 
plant, and if he fails to do so he shall be guilty of an offence 
against these regulations. 

9. The competent naval or military authority may by 
order require the whole or any part of the inhabitants of any 
area specified in the order to leave that area if the removal of 
such inhabitants from that area is necessary for naval or 
military reasons, and if any person to whom the order relates 
fails to comply with the order he shall be guilty of an offence 
against these regulations and the competent naval or military 

463 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [D] 

authority may cause such steps to be taken as may be neces- 
sary to enforce compliance therewith. [6.] 

10. The competent naval or military authority may by 
order require all or any premises licensed for the sale of 
intoxicating liquor within any area specified in the order to 
be closed except during such hours and for such purposes as 
may be specified in the order, either generally or as respects 
the members of any of His Majesty's forces mentioned in the 
order, and, if the holder of the licence in respect of any such 
premises fails to comply with the order, he shall be guilty 
of an offence under these regulations, and the competent naval 
or military authority may cause such steps to be taken as 
may be necessary to enforce compliance with the order. [7.] 

11. The Secretary of State or any person authorised by 
him may by order direct that all or any lights, or lights of any 
class or description, shall be extinguished or obscured in such 
manner and between such hours as the order directs, within 
any area specified in the order and during such period as 
may be so specified, and if the person having control of the 
light fails to comply with the order, he shall be guilty of an 
offence against these regulations, and the Secretary of State 
may cause the light to be extinguished or obscured as the case 
may be, and for that purpose any person authorised by the 
Secretary of State in that behalf or any police constable may 
enter the premises in which the light is displayed, and do any 
other act which may be necessary. [7A.] 

Any such order as aforesaid may provide that vehicles or 
vehicles of any class or description shall, when travelling 
within the area specified in the order during the period between 
one hour after sunset and one hour before sunrise, carry such 
[amps as may be specified in the order, properly trimmed, 
lighted and attached ; and any police officer may stop and 
seize any vehicle which does not carry lamps in compliance 
with the order, and the person in charge or having control 
of the vehicle shall be guilty of a summary offence against 
these regulations. 

The powers conferred by this Regulation shall be in 
addition to, and not in derogation of, the powers conferred 
on the competent naval or military authority by Regulation 

464 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

12, and the competent naval or military authority may, 
notwithstanding anything in an order under this Regulation, 
on any occasion when he may consider lights necessary for 
any naval or military purpose, require any lights to be lighted 
or kept lighted. 

In the application of this regulation to Scotland, references 
to the Secretary for Scotland shall be substituted for references 
to the Secretary of State. 

12. The competent naval or military authority may by 
order direct that all or any lights, other than lights not visible 
from the outside of any house, shall be kept extinguished or 
obscured between such hours and within such area as may be 
specified in the order ; and if. any person resident within that 
area fails to comply with the order he shall be guilty of an 
offence against these regulations. [23.] 

13. The competent naval or military authority may by 
order require every person within any area specified in the 
order to remain within doors between such hours as may be 
specified in the order, and in such case, if any person within 
that area is or remains out between such hours without a 
permit in writing from the competent naval or military 
authority or some person duly authorised by him, he shall be 
guilty of an offence against these regulations. [24.] 

14. Where a person is suspected of acting, or of having 
acted, or of being about to act in a manner prejudicial to the 
public safety or the defence of the Realm and it appears to the 
competent naval or military authority that it is desirable that 
such person should be prohibited from residing in or entering 
any locality, the competent naval or military authority may 
by order prohibit him from residing in or entering any area 
or areas which may be specified in the order and upon the 
making of such an order the person to whom the order relates 
shall, if he resides in any specified area, leave that area within 
'such time as may be specified by the order, and shall not 
subsequently reside in or enter any area specified in the 
order, and if he does so, he shall be guilty of an offence against 
these regulations. [24A.] 

tAny such order may further require the person to whom 
he order relates to report for approval his proposed place of 
esidence to the competent naval or military authority and 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [I 

to proceed thereto and report his arrival to the police within 
such time as may be specified in the order, and not subse- 
quently to change his place of residence without leave of the 
competent naval or military authority, and in such case 
if he fails to comply with the requirements of the order he 
shall be guilty of an offence against these regulations. 

15. Where a competent naval or military authority makes 
an order for the purpose, all persons residing or owning or 
occupying lands, houses or other premises in such area as may 
be specified in the order, or such of those persons as may be 
so specified, shall, within such time as may be so specified, 
furnish a list of all goods, animals, and other commodities of 
any nature or description so specified, which may be in their 
custody or under their control within the specified area on 
the date on which the order is issued, stating their nature and 
quantity and the place in which they are severally situate, and 
giving any other details which may reasonably be required. [5.] 

If any person fails to comply with any such order or 
attempts to evade this regulation by destroying, removing, or 
secreting any goods, animals or commodities to which an 
order issued under this regulation relates, he shall be guilty 
of an offence against these regulations. 

16. The competent naval or military authority may by 
order require the authority or person controlling any harbour, 
dock, wharf, waterworks, gasworks, electric light or power 
station, or other structure, to prepare a scheme for destroying 
or rendering useless the equipment or facilities of the harbour, 
dock, wharf, waterworks, gasworks, station, or structure, or 
such part thereof as may be specified in the order, and if the 
authority or person fails to prepare such a scheme within such 
time as may be specified in the order, he shall be guilty of an 
offence against these regulations. 

17. The restriction on the power to make byelaws under 
the Military Lands Acts, 1892 to 1903, imposed by the follow- 
ing provisions of the Military Lands Act, 1892, that is to say, 
the proviso to subsection (i) of section fourteen, section 
sixteen, and subsection (i) of section seventeen of that Act, 
and by the following provisions of the Military Lands Act, 
1900, that is to say, the provisoes to subsection (2) of section 
two and subsection (3) of section two of that Act, are hereby 
suspended, and the powers of the Admiralty and the Secretary 

466 * 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

lof State to make byelaws under the said Acts shall extend to 
jthe making of byelaws with respect to land of which possession 
Ihas been taken under these regulations. [36.] 

Provisions respecting the collection and communication of 

information, etc. 

* 

18. No person shall without lawful authority collect, 
record, publish or communicate, or attempt to elicit, any 
information with respect to the movement, numbers, descrip- 
tion, condition, or disposition of any of the forces, ships, or 
war materials of His Majesty or any of His Majesty's allies, 
or with respect to the plans or conduct, or supposed plans or 
conduct, of any naval or military operations by any such 
forces or ships, or with respect to any works or measures 
undertaken for or connected with, or intended for the fortifica- 
tion or defence of any place, or any other information intended 
to be communicated to the enemy or of such a nature as is 
calculated to be or might be directly" or indirectly useful to 
the enemy, and if any person contravenes the provisions of 
this regulation, or without lawful authority or excuse has in 
his possession any document containing any such information 
as aforesaid, he shall be guilty of an offence against these 
regulations. [14.] 

19. No person shall without the permission of the com- 
petent naval or military authority make any photograph, 
sketch, plan, model, or other representation of any naval or 
military work, or of any dock or harbour work or, with intent 
to assist the enemy, of any other place or thing, and no person 
in the vicinity of any such work shall without lawful authority 
or excuse have in his possession any photographic or other 
apparatus or other material or thing suitable for use in making 
any such representation, and if any person contravenes the 
provisions of this regulation or without lawful authority or 
excuse has in his possession any representation of any such 
vork of such a nature as is calculated to be or might be 
iirectly or indirectly useful to the enemy, he shall be guilty 
)f an offence against these regulations. [15.] 

For the purpose of this Regulation this expression " har- 
bour work " includes lights, buoys, beacons, marks, and other 

Naval II 2 H 467 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

things for the purpose of facilitating navigation in or into a 
harbour. 

20. No person without lawful authority shall injure, or 
tamper or interfere with, any wire or other apparatus for 
transmitting telegraphic or telephonic messages, or any 
apparatus or contrivance intended for. or capable of being 
used for a signalling apparatus, either visual or otherwise 
or prevent or obstruct or in any manner whatsoever interfere 
with the sending, conveyance or delivery of any communica- 
tion by means of telegraph, telephone, or otherwise, or be 
in possession of any apparatus intended for or capable of 
being used for tapping messages sent by wireless telegraphy 
or otherwise, and if any person contravenes the provisions of 
this regulation he shall be guilty of an offence against these 
regulations. [16.] 

21. No person shall keep or have in his possession or carry 
or liberate or bring into the United Kingdom any carrier or 
homing pigeons, unless he has obtained from the chief officer 
of police of the district a permit for the purpose, and if any 
person without lawful authority contravenes the provisions of 
this regulation he shall be guilty of an offence against these 
regulations, and the chief officer of police or any officer of 
customs and excise may, if he considers it necessary or ex- 
pedient to do so, cause any pigeons kept or brought into the 
United Kingdom in -contravention of this regulation to be 
liberated detained or destroyed, or, in the case of pigeons 
brought into the United Kingdom, to be immediately returned 
in the ship in which they came. [3. O. in C. i/th Sept.] 

Any person found in possession of or found carrying or 
liberating any carrier pigeons shall, if so required by any naval 
>r military officer or by any sailor or soldier engaged on sentry, 
>atrol or other similar duty, or by any officer of police, produce 
iis permit, and if he fails to do so, may be arrested. 

22. No person shall, without the written permission of the 
Postmaster-General, buy, sell, or have in his possession or 
under his control any apparatus for the sending or receiving of 
messages by wireless telegraphy, or any apparatus intended 
to be used as a component part of such apparatus ; and no 
person shall sell any such apparatus to any person who has 
not obtained such permission as aforesaid ; and if any person 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

contravenes the provisions of this regulation he shall be guilty 
of an offence against these regulations. [i6A.] 

I If the competent naval or military authority has reason 
Ito suspect that any person having in his possession any 
[apparatus for sending or receiving messages by telegraphy, 
[telephony, or other electrical or mechanical means is using 
or about to use the same for any purpose prejudicial to the 
[public safety or the defence of the Realm, he may, by order, 
[prohibit that person from having any such apparatus in his 
[possession, and may take such steps as are necessary for en- 
forcing the order, and if that person subsequently has in his 
[possession any apparatus in contravention of the order he 
Ishall be guilty of an offence against these regulations. 

For the purposes of this regulation any apparatus ordinarily 
used as a distinctive component part of apparatus for the 
sending or receiving of messages by wireless telegraphy shall 
be deemed to be intended to be so used unless the contrary 
is proved. 

23. Where the competent naval or military authority or 
any person duly authorised by him or an aliens officer has 
reason to suspect that any person who is about to embark on 
any ship, vessel, or aircraft is attempting to leave the United 
Kingdom for the purpose of communicating directly or 
indirectly with the enemy or with any subject of any sovereign 
or state at war with His Majesty, he may prevent the em- 
barkation of that person. [i6B.] 

Where the embarkation of any person has been so pre- 
vented the case shall be reported to a Secretary of State, and 
the Secretary of State may if he thinks fit by order prohibit 
that person at any time subsequently from leaving the United 
Kingdom so long as the order is in force, and if any person 
leaves the United Kingdom in contravention of such an order 
he shall be guilty of an offence against these regulations. 

24. No person shall without lawful authority transmit, 
otherwise than through the post, or convey to or from the 
United Kingdom, or receive or have in his possession for such 
transmission or conveyance, any letter or written message 
from or originating with, or to or intended for 

(a) any person or body of persons, of whatever nationality, 
resident or carrying on business in any country for 

469 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the time being at war with His Majesty, or acting 
on behalf or in the interests of any person or body 
of persons so resident or carrying on business ; or 

(b) Any person or b.ody of persons whose sovereign or state 
is at war with His Majesty, and who resides or 
carries on business in the United Kingdom ; 
and if any person contravenes this provision he shall be guilty 
of an offence against these regulations : [i6c.] 

Provided that a person shall not be deemed to be guilty of 
a contravention of this regulation if he proves that he did not 
know, and had no reason to suspect, that the letter or message 
in question was such a letter or message as aforesaid. 

This regulation is in addition to and not in derogation of 
any provisions contained in the enactments relating to the 
Post Office, and shall not prejudice any right to take pro- 
ceedings under those enactments in respect of any transaction 
which is an offence against those enactments. 

25. No person shall without lawful authority be in posses- 
lion of any searchlight, semaphore, or other apparatus in- 
tended for signalling, whether visual or otherwise, or display, 

[erect, or use any signal, and if any person contravenes this 
>rovision he shall be guilty of an offence against these regula- 
ions ; and the competent naval or military authority may 
equire any flagstaff or other erection capable of being used 
a means of signalling to be removed, and if the owner 
:hereof fails to comply with the requirement, he shall be 
lilty of an offence against these regulations and the com- 
itent naval or military authority may cause the flagstaff or 
)ther erection to be removed. 

26. No person shall without the permission of the com- 
petent naval or military authority, or some person authorised 
by him, display any light or ignite or otherwise make use of 
any fireworks or other similar device or any fire in such a 
manner as could serve as a signal, guide, or landmark, and if 
he does so he shall be guilty of an offence against these 
regulations. [22 & 22A.] 

27. No person shall by word of mouth or in writing or in 
any newspaper, periodical, book, circular, or other printed 
publication, spread false reports or make false statements or 

47 



4] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

reports or statements likely to cause disaffection to His 
Majesty or to interfere with the success of His Majesty's forces 
by land or sea or to prejudice His Majesty's relations with 



foreign powers, or spread reports or make statements likely 
to prejudice the recruiting, training, discipline, or administra- 
tion of any of His Majesty's forces, and if any person contra- 
venes this provision he shall be guilty of an offence against 
these regulations. [21.] 

Provisions against injury to Railways, Military Works, etc. 

28. No person shall trespass on any railway, or loiter on, 
under or near any tunnel, bridge, viaduct or culvert, or on or 
in any road, path or other place, being a road, path or place 
to which access has been forbidden by order of the competent 
naval or military authority, and if he does so shall be guilty 
of an offence against these regulations. [9 & 18.] 

If any person does any injury to any railway, or is upon 
any railway, or on, under or near any tunnel, bridge, viaduct 
or culvert, or loiters on or in any road or path or other place 
near a railway tunnel, bridge, viaduct or culvert, with intent 
to do injury thereto, he shall be guilty of an offence against 
these regulations. 

29. The competent naval or military authority may by 
order prohibit any person from approaching within such 
distance as may be specified in the order of any camp, work of 
defence or other defended military work, or any work to which 
it is deemed necessary in the interest of the public safety or 
the defence of the Realm, to afford military protection, and if 
any person contravenes any such order he shall be guilty of 
an offence against these regulations. 

Provisions as to Arms and Explosives. 

30. The competent naval or military authority may by 
order prohibit the manufacture or sale of firearms, ammunition, 
or explosive substances or any class thereof, within the area 
specified in the order, either absolutely or except subject to 
such conditions as may be specified in the order, and if any 
person without a permit from the competent naval or military 
authority manufactures, sells, or has in his possession for sale 
within the area so specified any arms, ammunition, or explosive 
substance in contravention of the order or fails to comply with 

471 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [I 

the conditions imposed by the order he shall be guilty of an 
offence against these regulations. 

31. No person shall bring into the United Kingdom any 
firearms, military arms, or ammunition or any explosive 
substance without a permit from the competent naval or 
military authority, and if he does so shall be guilty of an 
offence against these regulations, and any person authorised 
for the purpose by the competent naval or military authority, 
and any police constable or officer of customs and excise, may 
examine, search and investigate any ship or vessel for the 
purpose of the enforcement of this provision, and may seize 
any arms or ammunition or any explosive substance which 
are being or have been brought into the United Kingdom 
without such permit as aforesaid. [i2A, O. in C. I7th Sept.] 

32. If any person by the discharge of firearms or otherwise 
endangers the safety of any member of any of His Majesty's 
forces he shall be guilty of an offence against these regulations. 

[I9-] 

33. No person, without the written permission of the 
competent naval or military authority, shall, on or in the 
vicinity of any railway, or in or in the vicinity of any dock 
harbour or in or in the vicinity of any area which may be 
specified in an order made by the competent naval or military 
authority, be in possession of any explosive substance _or 
any highly inflammable liquid, in quantities exceeding the 
immediate requirements of his business or occupation, or of 
any firearms or ammunition (except such shotguns, and 
ammunition therefor, as are ordinarily used for sporting 
purposes in the United Kingdom), and if any person contra- 
venes this provision he shall be guilty of an offence against 
these regulations. [20.] 

34. Every place used for the storage of petroleum, turpen- 
tine, methylated spirit, wood naphtha, or any other highly 
inflammable liquid, exceeding in the aggregate one hundred 
gallons shall be surrounded by a retaining wall or embankment 
so designed and constructed as to form an enclosure which will 
prevent in any circumstances the escape of any part of the 
petroleum or other inflammable liquid. [20 A.] 

This requirement shall not apply to any storage place sunk 
below the level of the ground so as to form a pit, nor to any 
472 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY N A VAJ. 

[storage place so situated that the overflow of the petroleum or 
liquid from the vessel or vessels in which it is contained could 
pot in case of fire seriously endanger life or cause material 
Idamage to property. 

If any person uses or permits to be used, for the storage of 
petroleum or other such inflammable liquid, any premises 
which do not comply with the requirements of this regulation 
he shall be guilty of an offence against these regulations. 

UFor the purposes of this regulation " petroleum " means 
troleum as defined in section three of the Petroleum Act, 
6:871, having a flashpoint below 150 F. (Abel). 

Nothing in this regulation shall prejudice the effect of 
any requirements as to the storage of petroleum or other 
inflammable liquid lawfully imposed by any local authority, or 
the taking of any proceedings in respect of the violation of such 
requirements. 

35. No person shall, in any prescribed area, have in his 
possession or in premises in his occupation or under his control 
any celluloid or any cinematograph film exceeding the pre- 
scribed amount, unless he has obtained the prescribed permit 
and observes all the prescribed requirements, and if any 
person contravenes this provision he shall be guilty of a 
summary offence against these regulations. [9 A.] 

Any police constable or any person authorised in writing 
by the Chief Officer of Police of the district, may enter, if 
need be by force, and search any premises in which he has 
reasonable cause to believe that celluloid or cinematograph 
film is kept or stored ; and, if the prescribed permit has not 
been obtained or if any of the prescribed requirements are 
not complied with, may remove and destroy any such celluloid 
or film. 

For the purpose of this Regulation " celluloid " includes 
the substances known as celluloid or xylonite and other 
similar substances containing nitro-cellulose or other nitrated 
product, but does not include celluloid which has been sub- 
jected to any manufacturing process : and " cinematograph 
film " means any film which is intended for use in cinemato- 
graph or similar apparatus and contains nitro-cellulose or 
other nitrated product : and " prescribed " means prescribed 
by order made by a Secretary of State, or, in Scotland, by 
the Secretary for Scotland. 

473 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [D 

Provisions as to navigation. 

36. If the master oi a ship, or any other person, disobeys 
or neglects to observe any reflations relating to the naviga- 
tion or mooring of ships in a harbour or the approaches 
thereto, or any signals from, or any orders, whether verbal 
or written, of the competent naval or military authority of 
the harbour, or any examining or other officer acting under 
his authority, relating to such navigation or mooring, he 
shall be guilty of an offence against these regulations. 

37. Every vessel shall comply with such regulations as to 
the navigation of vessels as may be issued by the Admiralty 
or Army Council, and shall obey any orders given, whether by 
way of signal or otherwise, by any officer in command of any 
of His Majesty's ships, or by any naval or military officer 
engaged in the defence of the coast. 

If any vessel fails to comply with any such regulations or 
to obey any such orders, the master or other person in 
command or charge of the vessel shall be guilty of an offence 
against these regulations, and if the vessel is at any time 
subsequently found at a port of, or within the territorial 
waters adjacent to, the United Kingdom, the competent naval 
or military authority may cause the vessel to be seized and 
detained. 

This Regulation shall not apply to a vessel not being a 
British vessel where the non-compliance with the regulations 
or disobedience to the orders takes place on the high seas 
outside the territorial waters adjacent to the United Kingdom. 

38. The Admiralty or Army Council may by order pro- 
libit any vessel, or any vessel of any class or description 
pecified in the order, from entering any area which they 
may consider it is necessary to keep clear of vessels, or vessels 
of that class or description, in the interests of the public 
safety or the defence of the Realm, and if any vessel, or any 
vessel of that specified class or description, enters any such 
area, the master or other person in command or charge of 
the vessel shall be guilty of an offence against these regula- 1 
tions. 

This regulation shall not apply to a vessel not being a 
British vessel so far as the area specified in the order extends 
beyond the territorial waters adjacent to the United Kingdom. 

474 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

39. The Admiralty or Army Council, or any pilotage 
authority acting under their instructions, may make orders 
as to the pilotage of vessels entering, leaving or making use 
of any port or navigating within any part of the territorial 
waters adjacent to the United Kingdom, and any such order 
may provide for pilotage being compulsory for all or any 
class of such vessels within such limits as may be specified in 
the order, for the granting of special pilotage licences and the 
suspension of existing pilotage licences and certificates, and 
for the supply, employment, and payment of pilots. 

Any enactment, order, charter, custom, byelaw, regulation 
or provision in force for the time being in any area to which 
any such order relates shall have effect subject to the provisions 
of the order. 

If any person fails to comply with the provisions of any 
such order he shall be guilty of an offence against these 
regulations. 

Miscellaneous offences. 

40. If any person with the intent of eliciting information 
for the purpose of communicating it to the enemy or for any 
purpose calculated to assist the enemy, gives or sells to a 
member of any of His Majesty's forces any intoxicant, or 
gives or sells to a member of any of His Majesty's forces any 
intoxicant when not on duty, with intent to make him drunk 
or less capable of the efficient discharge of his duties, or 
when on sentry or other duty, either with or without any 
such intent, he shall be guilty of an offence against these 
regulations. [17.] 

For the purposes of this Regulation the expression " in- 
toxicant " includes any intoxicating liquor, and any sedative, 
[narcotic, or stimulant, drug or preparation. 

41. If any unauthorised person wears any naval, military, 
police or other official uniform, or any uniform so nearly 
resembling any such uniform as aforesaid as to be calculated 
to deceive, or if any person without lawful authority supplies 
a naval or military uniform to any person not being a member 
of His Majesty's forces, he shall be guilty of an offence against 
these regulations. 

42. If any person attempts to cause mutiny, sedition, or 
disaffection among any of His Majesty's forces or among the 

475 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

civilian population he shall be guilty of an offence against these 
regulations. 

43. No person shall obstruct or otherwise interfere with or 
impede, or withhold any information in his possession which 
he may reasonably be required to furnish, from any officer or 
other person who is carrying out the orders of the competent 
naval or military authority, or who is otherwise acting in accord- 
ance with his duty under these regulations, and if he does 
so shall be guilty of an offence against these regulations. [8.] 

44. If any person, verbally or in writing, in any report, 
eturn, declaration, or application, or in any document signed 
y him or on his behalf of which it is his duty to ascertain 

:he accuracy, knowingly makes or connives at the making 
any false statement or any omission, with intent to mislead 
my officer, or other person acting under the orders of any 
Dfficer, in the exefcution of his duties, he shall be guilty of an 
offence against these regulations. 

45. If any person forges, alters or tampers with any naval, 
military, or police pass, permit or other document, or uses or 
has in his possession any such forged, altered or irregular 
naval, military, or police pass, permit or document, or person- 
ates any person to whom such a pass, permit or other document 
has been duly issued, he shall be guilty of an offence against 
these regulations. [25.] 

46. If any person is found in possession of a false passport 
or, being a subject of a Sovereign or State at war with His 
Majesty, passes under an assumed name, he shall be guilty of 
an offence against these regulations. 

47. It shall be the duty of every person affected by any 
order issued by the competent naval or military authority or 
other person in pursuance of these regulations to comply with 
that order, and if he fails to do so he shall be guilty of an 
offence against these regulations. 

48. Any person who attempts to commit, or procures, aids 
or abets, or does any act preparatory to, the commission of, 
any act prohibited by these regulations, or harbours any 
person whom he knows, or has reasonable grounds for suppos- 
ing, to have acted in contravention of these regulations, shall 
be guilty of an offence against these regulations. [26.] 

476 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

49. It shall be the duty of any person who knows that 
some other person is acting in contravention of any provisions 
of these regulations to inform the competent naval or military 
authority of the fact, and if he fails to do so he shall be guilty 
of an offence against these regulations, [cf. 10.] 

50". If any person does any act of such a nature as to be 
calculated to be prejudicial to the public safety or the defence 
of the Realm and not specifically provided for in the foregoing 
regulations, with the intention or for the purpose of assisting 
the enemy, he shall be deemed to be guilty of an offence against 
these regulations. 

Powers of Search, Arrest, etc. 

51. The competent naval or military authority, or any 
person duly authorised by him may, if he has reason to suspect 
that any house, building, land, vehicle, vessel, aircraft, or 
other premises or any things therein are being or have been 
constructed, used or kept for any purpose or in any way 
prejudicial to the public safety or the defence of the Realm, 
or that an offence against these regulations is being or has 
been committed thereon or therein, enter, if need be by 
force, the house, building, land, vehicle, vessel, aircraft, or 
premises at any time of the day or night, and examine, search, 
and inspect the same or any part thereof, and may seize 
anything found therein which he has reason to suspect is 
being used or intended to be used for any such purpose as 
aforesaid, or is being kept or used in contravention of these 
regulations (including, where a report or statement in con- 
travention of Regulation 27 has appeared in any newspaper 
or other printed publication, any type or other plant used or 
capable of being used for the printing or production of the 
newspaper or other publication), and the competent naval or 
military authority may order anything so seized to be des- 
troyed or otherwise disposed of. [12.] 

52. Any officer, or any soldier or sailor engaged on sentry 
patrol or other similar duty, and any police officer, may stop 
any vehicle travelling along any public highway, and, if he 
has reason to suspect that the vehicle is being used for any 
purpose or in any way prejudicial to the public safety or the 
defence of the Realm, may search and seize the vehicle and 

477 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

seize anything found therein which he has reason to suspect 
is being used or intended to be used for any such purpose as 
aforesaid. [i2A, O. in C. ist Sept.] 

53. It shall be the duty of any person, if so required by an 
officer, or by a soldier or sailor engaged on sentry patrol or 
other similar duty, or by a police constable, to stop and answer 
to the best of his ability and knowledge any questions which 
may be reasonably addressed to him, and if he refuses or 
fails to do so he shall be guilty of an offence against these 
regulations. 

The competent naval or military authority may by order 
require any person or persons of any class or description to 
furnish him, either verbally or in writing, with such informa- 
tion as may be specified in the order, and the order may 
require any person to attend at such time and such place as 
may be specified in the order for the purpose of furnishing 
such information, and if any person fails to comply with the 
order he shall be guilty of an offence against these regulations. 

54. Any person landing or embarking at any place in the 
United Kingdom shall, on being required to do so by the 
competent naval or military authority or any person authorised 
by him, or by an aliens officer or officer of police, make a 
declaration as to whether or not he is carrying or conveying 
any letters or other written messages intended to be trans- 
mitted by post or otherwise delivered, and, if so required, 
shall produce to the person making the requisition any such 
letters or messages ; and the competent naval or military 
authority or person authorised by him or aliens or police officer 
may search any such person and any baggage with a view 
to ascertaining whether such person or the person to whom 
the baggage belongs is carrying or conveying any such letters 
or messages. 

The competent naval or military authority or persons 
authorised by him or aliens or police officer may examine any 
letters or other messages so produced to him or found on such 
search, and unless satisfied that they are of an innocent nature, 
may transmit them to an officer appointed to censor postal 
correspondence. [ISA.] 

UAny person who knowingly makes any false declaration 
der this regulation, or on being required to produce any 
47 8 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

isuch letters or messages as aforesaid refuses or neglects 
Ito do so, shall be guilty of an offence against these regula- 
Itions. 

55. Any person authorised for the purpose by the com- 
petent naval or military authority, or any police constable or 
officer of customs and excise or aliens officer, may arrest 
without warrant any person whose behaviour is of such a 
nature as to give reasonable grounds for suspecting that he 
has acted or is acting or is about to act in a manner prejudicial 
to the public safety or the defence of the Realm, or upon whom 
may be found any article, book, letter, or other document, 
the possession of which gives grounds for such a suspicion, 
or who is suspected of having committed an offence against 
these regulations. [13.] 

If any person assists or connives at the escape of any person 
who may be in custody under this regulation, or knowingly 
harbours or assists any person who has so escaped, he shall be 
guilty of an offence against these regulations. 

Trial and Punishment of Offences. 

56. A person alleged to be guilty of an offence against these 
regulations may be tried either by a court-martial or before a 
:ourt of summary jurisdiction : 

Provided that in the case of any offence against these 
regulations declared to be a summary offence the alleged 
offender shall not be liable to be tried otherwise than before 
a. court of summary jurisdiction. 

Where a person is alleged to be guilty of an offence against 
these regulations (other than offence declared by these regula- 
tions to be a summary offence) the case shall be referred to 
the competent naval or military authority who shall investi- 
gate the case and determine whether it shall be tried by 
court-martial or summarily or shall not be proceeded with, 
and if the alleged offender is in custody he shall if he is to be 
tried by court-martial be kept in or handed over to military 
custody, and if he is to be tried summarily be handed over 
to or kept in civil custody. 

57. A person found guilty of an offence against these 
regulations by a court-martial shall be liable to be sentenced 
to penal servitude for life or any less punishment, or if the 

479 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

court finds that the offence was committed with the intention 
of assisting the enemy to suffer death or any less punishment, 
and the court may in addition to any other sentence imposed 
order that any goods in respect of which the offence has been 
committed be forfeited : [27.] 

Provided that a sentence of detention in detention barracks 
shall not be awarded for an offence under these regulations 
and that no sentence exceeding six months* imprisonment 
with hard labour shall be imposed in respect of any contra- 
vention of Regulations 12, 13, 21, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28 (first 
paragraph), 35, 53, 60, and 61 if the offender proves that he 
acted without any intention of assisting the enemy, or, in the 
case of Regulation 27, of causing disaffection or alarm or 
prejudicing the recruiting, training, discipline, and administra- 
tion of any force. 

A court-martial having jurisdiction to try offences under 
these Regulations shall be a general or district court-martial 
convened by an officer authorised to convene such description 
of court-martial within the limits of whose command the 
offender may for the time being be ; but nothing in this 
regulation shall be construed as authorising a district court- 
martial to impose a sentence of penal servitude. 

Any person tried by court-martial under these regulations 
shall, for the purposes of the provisions of the Army Act 
relating to offences, be treated as if he belonged to the unit in 
whose charge he may be ; but no such person shall be liable 
to summary punishment by a commanding officer. 

58. A person convicted of an offence against these regula- 
tions by a court of summary jurisdiction shall be liable to be 
entenced to imprisonment with or without hard labour for a 
term not exceeding six months or to a fine not exceeding one 
hundred pounds, or to both such imprisonment and fine, and 
the court may, in addition to any other sentence which may be 
imposed, order that any goods in respect of which the offence 
has been committed shall be forfeited. 

For the purpose of the trial of a person for such an offence 
the offence shall be deemed to have been committed either at 
the place in which the same actually was committed, or at any 
place in which the offender may be, and the court in Scotland 
shall be the sheriff court. 

480 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Section seventeen of the Summary Jurisdiction Act, 1879, 
shall not apply to the charge of offences against these 
regulations. 

Any person aggrieved by a conviction of a court of summary 
jurisdiction under these regulations may appeal in England to 
a court of quarter sessions, and in Scotland under and in terms 
of the Summary Jurisdiction (Scotland) Acts, and in Ireland in 
manner provided by the Summary Jurisdiction (Ireland) Acts. 

9 Supplemental. 

59. The powers conferred by these regulations are in 
addition to and not in derogation of any powers exerciseable 
by members of His Majesty's naval and military forces and 
other persons to take such steps as may be necessary for 
securing the public safety and the defence of the Realm, and 
nothing in these regulations shall affect the liability of any 
person to trial and punishment for any offence or war crime 
otherwise than in accordance with these regulations. [28.] 

60. The competent naval or military authority, or any 
other person by whom an order is made in pursuance of these 
Regulations, shall publish notice of the order in such manner 
as he may consider best adapted for informing persons affected 
by the order, and no person shall without lawful authority 
deface or otherwise tamper with any notice posted up in 
pursuance of these regulations, and if he does so shall be guilty 
of an offence against these regulations, [n.] 

61. Any person claiming to act under any permit or per- 
mission granted under or for the purposes of these Regulations 
shall, if at any time he is required to do so by the competent 
naval or military authority or any person authorised by him, or 
by any naval or military officer, or by any sailor or soldier 
engaged on sentry patrol or other similar duty, or by any 
officer of customs and excise, officer of police or aliens' officer, 
produce the permit or permission for inspection, and if he 
refuses to do so he shall be guilty of an offence against these 
Regulations. 

1 Any permit or permission granted under or for the pur- 
poses of any provision of these regulations may at any time be 
(revoked. 

62. The Admiralty or Army Council may appoint any 

4 8i 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

commissioned officer of His Majesty's Naval or Military 
Forces, not below the rank^of lieutenant-commander in the 
Navy or field officer in the Army, to be a competent naval or 
military authority and may authorise any competent naval 
or military authority thus appointed to delegate, either 
unconditionally or subject to such conditions as he thinks fit, 
all or any of his powers under these regulations to any officer 
qualified to be appointed a competent naval or military 
authority, and an officer so appointed, or to whom the powers 
of the competent naval or military authority are so delegated, 
is in these regulations referred to as a competent naval or 
military authority. [29.] 

For the purposes of these regulations the expression " aliens 
officer " shall have the same meaning as in the Aliens Restric- 
tion (Consolidation) Order, 1914. 

63. These regulations may be cited as the Defence of the 
Realm (Consolidation) Regulations, 1914. [30 and 31.] 

The Interpretation Act, 1889, applies for the purpose of 
the interpretation of these regulations in like manner as it 
applies for the purpose of the interpretation of an Act of 
Parliament. 

The said Orders in Council of the I2th of August, the 
ist and T_7th of September, and the I4th of October 1914 are 
lereby revoked. 

Provided that the revocation of any such Order shall not 

(a) affect the previous operation of any Order so revoked 

or anything duly done or suffered under any Order 
so revoked ; or 

(b) affect any right, privilege, obligation, or liability 

acquired, accrued, or incurred under any Order so 
revoked ; or 

(c) affect any penalty, forfeiture, or punishment incurred 

in respect of any offence committed against any 
Order so revoked ; or 

(d) affect any proceedings or remedy in respect of any 

such right, privilege, obligation, liability, penalty, 
forfeiture, or punishment as aforesaid ; 
and any permission or direction given, or order, requirement, 
or appointment made, authority issue'd or other action taken 
under any Order so revoked shall be deemed to have been 
482 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Igiven, made, issued, or taken under the corresponding 
Iprovision of this Order. 

In accordance with the provisions of the final paragraph of 
the above Regulations, the competent naval authorities 
already appointed shall continue to act in that capacity. 

Further detailed instructions for the guidance of the 
appointed competent authorities will shortly be issued, 
(M.O. 116/1914 is cancelled.) 

2. Defence of the Realm Act, 1914 Competent Naval 

Authorities. 

The Naval Members of the Board of Admiralty have been 
constituted competent naval authorities under the provisions 
of the Defence of the Realm Regulations, 1914. 

10. Engineer Officers (Old System) Status and Pay. 

1. It has been decided that from the ist January 1915, 
Engineer Officers of the old system of entry shall be classified 
as part of the Military Branch. 

2. They will wear uniform exactly similar to that of 
Officers of corresponding ranks of the existing Military 
Branch. 

The distinctive colour between the lace on the sleeve will 
be retained. 

They will retain their present titles. 

There will be no change in their status as regards the 
command of His Majesty's Ships. 

In all details relating to the duties of the Fleet and to the 
discipline and interior economy of His Majesty's Ships they 
will be subject to the authority of any Officer who may be in 
charge of the Executive duties of the Ship, or acting as Officer 
of the Watch, or specially detailed for the charge of any other 
special service or duty, of whatever seniority such Officer 
may be. Otherwise the authority of the Engineer Officer in 
the work of his department will continue to be regulated as at 
present. 

Promotion will continue on the same lines as at present. 

3. From the ist January 1915, the alterations as shown 

Naval II 2 I 483 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

below will be made in the pay of Engineer Lieutenant- 
Commanders and Engineer Commanders : 



[I 





Present. 


Future. 




s. d. 


s. d. 


Engineer Lieutenant-Commander on 






promotion 


16 o a day. 


16 o a day. 


Engineer Lieutenant-Commander after 






2 years from date of promotion to 






Engineer Lieutenant Commander 


17 o 


17 o 


Engineer Lieutenant-Commander and En- 






gineer-Commander after 4 years from 






date of promotion to Engineer Lieuten- 






ant Commander 


18 o 


20 


Engineer Lieutenant-Commander and En- 






gineer Commander after 6 years from 






date of promotion to Engineer Lieuten- 






ant-Commander 


20 


22 


Engineer Lieutenant-Commander and En- 






gineer-Commander after 8 years from 






date of promotion to Engineer Lieuten- 






ant-Commander 


24 o 


24 o 



12. Armed Merchant Cruisers Appointment of Lieutenants 

(G) and (N). 

It has been decided to allow Lieutenants (G) and (N) in 
the complements of Armed Merchant Cruisers, in lieu of two 
R.N.R. Officers now allowed, i.e., without increase of total 
complement. 

In the event of Officers R.N. being appointed they will 
be entitled to the usual Naval allowances. 

In other cases the Captain may select and appoint Officers 
for these duties from among the R.N.R. Officers borne. The 
names of those so selected are to be reported to the Admiralty 
and a notation of the fact is to be made on the Ledger. 

The Gunnery Officer will be entitled to an allowance of is. 
a day, and the Navigating Officer may be paid Navigating 
allowance under Articles 101, 102 and 104 of the R.N.R. 
Regulations (Officers). The rate of Navigating Allowance 
payable to an Officer of the R.N.R. should be ascertained from 
the Accountant-General. 

484 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

13. Acting Sub-Lieutenants Promotion to Sub Lieutenant. 

During hostilities Acting Sub-Lieutenants are to be pro- 
moted to Sub-Lieutenant on their proper dates notwith- 
standing the fact that they have not completed their examina- 
tions for the rank of Lieutenant. On the termination of war, 
courses will be arranged for all those who have not completed 
their examinations, these courses being of a special nature 
to meet the requirements of the case, and examinations will 
be held on the result of which Sub-Lieutenants may gain 
accelerated promotion to the rank of Lieutenant. 

If an Officer is promoted specially for war service to the 
rank of Lieutenant, the time so gained shall be in addition to 
the accelerated promotion gained by examinations, but in no 
case shall the total acceleration enable an Officer to be less 
than six months on the Sub-Lieutenants' list. 

In the case of Officers who subsequently fail in their 
examinations for the rank of Lieutenant, promotion to 
Lieutenant will be delayed by the time lost and such time will 
not count as service for retired pay. 

14. Acting Mate Promotion to. 

In view of the suspension of the usual system of qualifica- 
tion for the rank of Acting Mate, owing to the war, the follow- 
ing arrangements for the promotion of junior Warrant 
Officers and selected Petty Officers to that rank have been 
approved as a temporary measure. 

The names of any junior Warrant Officers and Petty 
Officers who are recommended by their Commanding Officers 
for promotion to Acting Mate are to be considered by a 
Committee of Officers in each Squadron as laid down in 
Appendix X., Part HA. (i) of the King's Regulations, and the 
names of those who are considered to be in all respects suitable 
for commissioned rank are to be forwarded at once to the 
Admiralty through the usual channels. From these can- 
didates a selection will be made for immediate promotion to 
Acting Mate. 

In addition to those so selected, the names of any Warrant 
Officers and men who come prominently to the front in actual 
war operations should be brought to the notice of Their Lord- 
ships, provided their conduct in action has shown them to be 
eminently fitted for commissioned rank. 

485 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The next selection, after that to be made shortly as above, 
will take place in May 1915, and the names of candidates for 
consideration on that occasion should be forwarded so as to 
reach the Admiralty by the middle of that month. Any 
recommendations for distinguished war service should, how- 
ever, be made at the time of such service being performed. 

All candidates promoted to Acting Mate under the above 
conditions will be required to undergo courses after the 
termination of the war. 



19. Acting Artificer Engineer and Acting Warrant 
Mechanician Promotion to. 

Examinations for advancement to Acting Artificer Engineer 
and Acting Warrant Mechanician having been suspended for 
the present, Commanding Officers of H.M. Ships are to report 
through the usual channels the names of any Chief Engine- 
room Artificers, Engine-room Artificers and Mechanicians 
recommended for promotion. Each recommendation is to be 
endorsed by the Senior Officer of the Fleet or Squadron, and 
accompanied by a copy of the candidate's Service Certificate. 
Candidates must comply with the conditions laid down in 
Articles 307 and 308 of the King's Regulations and Admiralty 
Instructions except as regards examination. Only men of 
more than average ability are to be recommended, and they 
must have given evidence to the Commanding Officer and 
Engineer Officer of the ship, by the actual performance of their 
duties, that they may be expected to carry out satisfactorily 
the duties of the positions for which they are recommended. 

Acting promotions will be made as necessary from the list 
of candidates recommended in the foregoing manner. 

After the conclusion of hostilities an examination will be 
held at which all men who have been recommended will be re- 
quired to attend, whether they have been given Acting Warrant 
rank or not, provided they are still considered fit in all respects 
for Warrant rank. Successful candidates not already pro- 
moted to Acting Warrant rank will be placed on a roster in 
order of merit and promoted according to requirements. 
Successful candidates actually holding Acting Warrant rank 
who have seniority of one year or more in the Acting rank 
will be confirmed in such rank. Successful candidates who 

486 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

have less than one year's seniority in the Acting rank will be 
confirmed on attaining one year's seniority, subject to being 
recommended in the usual way for confirmation. Candidates 
unsuccessful at the examination will be removed from the 
roster, and, if already promoted to Acting Warrant rank, 
will revert to the ratings held by them before such advance- 
ment. 

25. Provisional Seamen and Stokers, R.N.R. Confirmation. 

Provisional R.N.R. Seamen and Stokers who were under- 
going training when the Royal Proclamation was issued and 
those entered since the commencement of the War, are to be 
confirmed in their respective ratings after three months' 
satisfactory service, and particulars of such confirmation hi 
rating noted on pages 43 and 44 of Certificates R.V. 2. 

26. Ordinary Seamen, R.N.V.R. Advancement. 

Ordinary Seamen, R.N.V.R., serving in H.M. Ships who 
are recommended for advancement may, for the time being, 
be advanced to the rating of A.B., R.N.V.R., without further 
qualification than a recommendation for such advancement. 

43. Life Insurance Additional Premiums during the 

War. 

The position of members of the Naval and Military Forces 
of the Crown holding policies of assurance on their lives has 
been under consideration. 

Some of these policies were issued free of all restrictions as 
to occupation or residence. The conditions of issue of other 
policies, however, expressly excluded exposure to particular 
risks, e.g., participation in active JTaval or Military operations, 
without the previous consent of the Life Office and the pay- 
ment of such additional premium as might be determined. 
Failure to pay this additional premium rendered the insured 
person liable to the voidance of his policy. 

In the special circumstances of the present War, the 
Companies have been approached on the subject of the 
possible modification of these conditions. It was found that 

487 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [] 

there was a general feeling among Life Offices that the cir- 
cumstances were such as to justify concessions, and the results 
of the deliberations which have taken place are embodied in 
the following memorandum : 

I. POLICIES OF ASSURANCE EFFECTED PRIOR TO 
THE OUTBREAK OF WAR. 

A. ATTITUDE OF LIFE OFFICE ORGANISATIONS. 

(a) The Life Offices Association and the Associated Scot- 
tish Life Offices have made the following recommendations to 
Life Assurance Companies in regard to policies of assurance 
on the lives of members of the Naval and Military Forces. 

(i) Royal Naval Reserve, Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, 
Royal Naval Auxiliary Sick Berth Reserve, and new 
levies raised for this War only. 

As regards members of these Forces no additional premiums 
should be asked for. 

(ii) Royal Navy, Royal Marines, and Royal Fleet Reserve. 

Members of these forces already insured at an all-risk rate 
of premium should of course be required to pay nothing in 
addition. Those not insured at an all-risk rate of premium 
should be required to pay an additional premium. This is in 
most cases 5/. 55. per cent, per annum. 

(b) The Association of Industrial Assurance Companies 
and Collecting Friendly Societies have decided that for the 
present no extra premium shall be charged upon policies 
issued up to and including the 4th August 1914 on the lives 
of any persons engaged in any capacity with His Majesty's 
Forces during the present war. 

B. ACTION OF INDIVIDUAL LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANIES. 

While it is recognised that the recommendations made by 
the Life Offices Association and the Associated Scottish Life 
Offices are not binding upon any particular Life Office, it is 
known that a very large number of the latter have decided to 
act in accordance with these recommendations, and it is con- 
fidently hoped that no Company will adopt a course less 
generous than that advocated. 

4 88 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 
C. MODE OF PAYMENT OF ADDITIONAL PREMIUMS. 

Consideration has been given by the Associations referred 
to at (a) above, to the question whether some scheme or 
schemes could be devised for the payment of the additional 
premiums demanded in certain cases by some less onerous 
method than the immediate payment of the full amount. 
It has not been possible to suggest any scheme of general 
applicability, and the Associations are of opinion that in view 
of the varying circumstances of the different Life Offices, the 
latter should be left to deal with their policies according to 
the circumstances of each particular case. It is anticipated 
that all possible consideration will be given by Life Offices 
generally to cases of difficulty and hardship. 



II. POLICIES OF ASSURANCE EFFECTED AFTER 
THE OUTBREAK OF THE WAR. 

The Life Office organisations referred to in I. A. above 
have recommended that persons effecting assurances on their 
lives after the outbreak of war should be required to pay 
additional premiums if they engage in active operations. 



489 



INDEX 



Abadan, see under Mesopotamia and 

District north of the Persian Gulf. 
Abd-el-Aziz Shawish, Sheikh, 104 , 109, 

no, 154-5. 

Manifesto attributed to, inciting Mos- 
lem soldiers to join Germany, 140, 

*45- 

Abdul Majid Ehan, Lieutenant (Nawab 
of Savanur) mentioned in despatches, 
398. 
Abdul Samad Shah, 2nd Lieutenant, 

mentioned in despatches, 398. 
Abdurrahman, Senator, anti - English 
propaganda among Bedouins by, 112. 
Abdurrezak Bederkhani, alleged Turkish 

defeat of, 251. 
Aboukir, H.M.S., 334 : 
Casualties in, 300. 

Naval Cadets, rating of as midship- 
men, 239-40. 

Pensions and allowances, 288-9. 
Adams : 

Lieut. -Commander J. B., R.N.R., men- 
tioned in despatches, 202. 
Temp. Lieutenant S. R. : 

Appointed temp. Captain R. M., 455. 
Appointed temp. Major R.M., 455. 
Adamson, Lieut.-Colonel H. M., M.B., 

mentioned in despatches, 397. 
Adimulam, Sapper, recommended for 

promotion, 399. 

Admiralty, see under Great Britain. 
Adriatic, operations in, 431-2. 
Aerial Navigation : 
British raids : 
Brussels, 441-2. 
Cuxhaven, 440-5. 
Zeppelin sheds, Friedrichshafen, 

282-4 : 

Avoidance of neutral territory, 
question and answer in the 
House, 312. 

Naval II 2 K 



Aerial Navigation cont. 

German raids : 
Dover, 440. 
Sheerness, 440. 

Admiral von Tirpitz on, 437. 
Afghanistan : 

Ameer of, alleged to be starting Holy 
War and to be invading India, 144. 

Anti-English propaganda in, 1*2. 

" Jehad " to be preached in, 86. 
Agha Ehan, suppression of part of 

speech by, by Turkish censor, 137-8. 
Agha Mehemet Ali, Persian revolu- 
tionary, 59-60. 
Agha-olu Ahmed, 138. 
Agincourt, H.M.S., 326. 
Ahmad Fouad, Dr., 104, 154. 
Ahmad Hamuda, officer of the Egyptian 

Army, 103-5, IQ 8, m. 
Akaba, see under Arabia. 
Akaba, Gulf of, mines to be laid in, 145. 
Albengo, German s.s., at Tsingtau, notice 

re British cargoes, 416. 
Aleppo, see under Syria. 
Alexander-Sinclair, Captain Edwyn Sin- 
clair, M.V.O., appointed Naval Aide- 

de-Camp to H.M. the King, 455. 
Alexandretta, see under Syria. 
Alexandria, see under Egypt. 
Algeria : 

Attitude of Mussulmans towards Tur- 
key, 1 6. 

Moslem fanaticism to be stirred up in, 

142. 

Ali, sailor of Saidieh, no. 
Ali Haider, Khoga (Imam), Turcophile 

propaganda to be carried on by, in 

India, 139. 
Alien Enemies in Great Britain, see under 

Great Britain. 
Allah Din, Jemadar, loth Mule Corps, 

commendation of, 374, 376. 

491 



INDEX 



Allen, Captain John D., H.M.S. Kent, 

action off Falkland Islands, 409-14. 
Allerton, Skipper William, R.N.T.R,. 

Drifter Eager, special mention for 

services, 447. 
Allnutt, Lieutenant E. B., R.A.M.C. : 

Mentioned in despatches, 186, 192. 

Recommended for reward, 190. 
Altham, Commander E., Wildfire, in 

operations off Belgian coast, 204. 
Amazon, H.M.S., operations off Belgian 

coast, 201, 202, 205. 

Amin, Khoga (Imam), Turcophile pro- 
paganda to be carried on by, in India, 

139- 

Ammirente Latorre, see Canada. 
Amphion, H.M.S. , casualties in, 300. 
Anderson : 

Army Staff Sergt. L. R., recommended 
for promotion, 399. 

Maj. M. H., 33rd Cav., noticed for 

gallantry, 400. 
Andrew, Engineer-Commander George 

Edward, H.M.S. Kent, mentioned in 

despatches, 415. 

Anglo-Dane, Danish s.s., German tor- 
pedo boat rammed by, 285, 286. 
Anglo-French Fleet : 

Bombardment of Dardanelles forts, 
25-6, 33. 

in Gulf of Chesne, 13. 
Anglo-Turkish Agreement, July 29, 1913, 

142. 

Annesley, Lieut.-Colonel A. S. R., men- 
tioned in despatches, 396. 
Anthony, Major W. S., mentioned in 

despatches, 397. 
Antwerp, see under Belgium. 
Apa Bagive, Lance-Naik, commendation 

of, 381. 
Aquitania, s.s., question and answer in 

the House re, 298-9. 
Arabia : 

Akaba : 83. 

Annihilation of English troops 
landed at, reported from Turkey, 
200. 
British bombardment and landing, 

25-7. 33- 
attempted British landing, Turkish 

report, 429, 435, 440. 
Germans arrived at, probably 

wounded from East Africa, 139. 
Turkish naval parties proceeding to, 

112, 139. 
492 



Arabia cont. 

Ayesha's crew in, 16, 2134, 216. 
Hedjaz, mobilisation of Turkish forces 

in, 54. 

Hodeida, Emden III. at, 215-6. 
Jeddah region, Turkish troops in, 54. 
Maan, 98 : , 

German officer at, 98. 

Military preparations at, 124. 
The Yemen, 54 : 

Turkish emissaries in, 54. 

Turkish officers for, 54. 
Arabs : 

See also Bedouins. 
Attack on crew of the Ayesha, 216. 
alleged Bribery of, by British, 213. 
Defeat by British at Saniyeh, 175, 177. 
Raid into Egypt, possibility of, 140, 

143- 
Violation of Egyptian frontier, 79, 82. 

Archdale, Commander N. E., H.M.S. 
Hazard, in operations off Belgian 
coast, 205. 

Arethusa, H.M.S. : 
Casualties in, 300. 
Combat with Zeppelins, 441, 445. 

Arimm Effendi, ex-Governor of Damas- 
cus, 114. 

Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., taking 
over by British Government of battle- 
ship building by, for Turkey, 34-6. 

Arthur, Capt. D., M.B., mentioned in 
despatches, 372, 397. 

Askari Bey, wounded in engagement 
north of Qurnah, 390. 

Ask old, Russian cruiser, operations in the 
Levant, 42930. 

Asquith, Rt. Hon. H. H., M.P., P.C., 
replies to questions in the House : 
Belligerent reservists, 251-2. 
Compensation for damage from enemy 

raids, 425. 

North Sea mines, 252-4. 
Oil and copper as contraband* 252. 
Pensions and separation allowances, 
241, 242. 

Astell, Mr., H.M. Embassy, Constanti- 
nople, testimony to, by Sir L. Mallet, 
170. 

Aston, Temp. Lieutenant R. G., ap- 
pointed temp. Captain R.M., 455. 

Attentive, H.M.S., operations off Belgian 
coast, 200, 204. 

Atthe, Russian minelayer, alleged sinking 
of, 439. 



INDEX 



Auerbach, Mark, case of, 245-6. 
Augagneur, Victor, French Minister of 

Marine : 

Congratulations by, on Falkland Is- 
lands battle, 408. 
Speech on Navy's doings since outbreak 

of war, 425. 

Australia, Royal Australian Navy Allot- 
ments, questions and answers in the 
House, 247-8. 
Austria : 

Ambassador in Turkey, see under 

Turkey. 
Army, Emperor's New Year greeting 

to, 453. 

Casualties, Kaiserin Elisabeth, 307. 
Lists of vessels detained or captured at 
sea by H.M. armed forces, 3367, 

339-43- 
NAVY : 

Emperor's New Year greeting to, 453. 
Loss of the Kaiserin Elisabeth at 
Tsingtau, 2930, 199. 

Austrians, no Commissions given in 
English Navy since war, Mr. Churchill, 
290-1. 

Aventurier, French destroyer, opera- 
tions off Belgian coast, 205. 

Ayesha, H.I.M.S. (Emden II.}, 210, 215 : 
Crew of, in Arabia, 213-4, 2l6 - 
Sinking of, by Germans, 215. 

Azimud-din-Shaik Ismail, 2nd Cl. Sub- 
Asst. Surgeon Shaikh, recommended 
for promotion, 192. 

Aziz Shawish, Sheik, see Abd-el-Aziz 
Shawish. 

B ii, raid in the Dardanelles and tor- 
pedoing of the Messudiyeh, 418, 450, 

454- 

Baalbek, see under Palestine. 
Babington, Flight Commander J. T., 

attack on Friedrichshafen Zeppelin 

sheds, 282-4. 
Balyanieh, see under Mesopotamia and 

District north of the Persian Gulf. 
Baden, German s.S., sunk off Falkland 

Islands, 414. 
Bagdad, see under Mesopotamia and 

District north of the Persian Gulf. 
Bahran Village, see under Mesopotamia 

and District north of the Persian Gulf. 
Bahriahmen, Turkish transport, sunk by 

Russian fleet, 193-5. 

Bailey, Sergt. W., Norf. Regt., com- 
mendation of, 372. 



Baillie, 2nd Lieut. H. J., Dorset Regt., 

noticed for gallantry, 400. 
Baker, H., M.P., reply to question re 

separation allowances, 242. 
Balkan Situation, Turkish attitude, 

80-1. 
Baluchistan, " jehad " to be preached 

in, 86. 

The Banyers, trawler, mined, 447. 
Barber, Capt. C. H., B.M., mentioned in 

despatches, 397. 
Barclay, Sir G., K.C.S.I., K.C.M.C., 

C.V.O., Bucharest, telegram to Sir E. 

Grey, Aug. 27, 51. 

Bardens, Sub-Commander A. T., recom- 
mended for promotion, 399. 
Barham, H.M.S., 326. 
Barrett, Lieut.-Gen. Sir A. A., K.C.B., 
K.C.V.O., Commanding, Indian Ex- 
peditionary Foice " D/' : 176. 

Despatch, Dec. 7, describing operations 
at the head of the Persian Gulf, 
177-92. 

Report by, on operations of I.E.F. 

" D," 362-93. 
Barrow, Lieut.-Comdr. B. W., H.M.S. 

Maori, in operations off Belgian coast, 

205. 

Barrowmore, s.s., ordered to Constanti- 
nople by Turkish authorities, 71. 
Barstow, G. L., C.B., on Committee on 

Disposal of Prizes of War, 360. 
Basrah, see under Mesopotamia and 

District north of the Persian Gulf. 
Battenberg, Admiral H.S.H. Prince Louis 
Alexander of, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., 
K.C.M.G. : 

Viscount Haldane on, 232. 

Earl of Selborne on, 221. 

Sworn of H.M. Privy Council, 333. 
Batum, see under Russia. 
Bax-Ironside, Sir H., Sophia, telegrams 

to Sir E. Grey, Aug. 20, 56 ; Oct. 16, 

II3-4- 
Bayley, Capt., R.F.A., prisoners from 

Mesopotamia sent down under com- 
mand of, 381. 
Beamish, Flag Captain Percy T. H., 

H.M.S. Invincible, action off Falkland 

Islands, 409-14. 
Beaumont, Mr., communications to and 

from Sir E. Grey, 34-41. 
Bedford, Commander Arthur Edward 

Frederick, H.M.S. Kent, mentioned 

in despatches, 415. 

493 



INDEX 



Bedouins, 145. 
See also Arabs. 
Advancing to attack Canal, and at 

Magdaba, 147, 148, 166. 
Anti-British propaganda against, 112, 

122, 123. 

Distribution of rifles to, by local 
authorities at Jaffa, and probable 
move towards Akaba, 114. 
Incursion into Sinai peninsula, 166. 
Money believed to be sent to Syria for 

subsidising, 97. 
Movement across the frontier not to 

be allowed, Grand Vizier, 148. 
Proposals made to. to enlist sym- 
pathies as supporters of the Empire, 
91. 

Raiding, on Egyptian frontier, orders 

sent from Turkey for withdrawal, 84. 

Beheddine Bey, incitement of Bedouins 

against England by, 123. 
Behneke, Acting Chief of Admiral Staff, 

statements by, 3, 4, 31, 198, 422-3. 
Beirut, see under Palestine. 
Belgians, operations in Ease Africa, 196. 
Belgium : 
ANTWERP : 

British expedition to, Earl of 
Selborne on, 218-9 ; reply by 
Viscount Haldane, 231. 
German ships detained at, Foreign 

Office notice, 340-1. 
Brussels, British air raid on, 441-2. 
Naval operations off coast, Oct. 17 to 

Nov. 9, 2005. 
Nieuport, machine guns landed at, 

201. 
Ships whose cargoes or part of them 

have been detained, 458. 
Zeebrugge, British bombardment, 287. 
Bell, Ch. P.O. Mechanic James William : 
Distinguished Service Medal awarded, 

444- 
Observer during reconnaissance in 

Heligoland Bight, 443. 
Belton, Skipper Thomas B., R.N.T.R., 
Drifter Retriever, special mention for 
services, 447-8. 
Benbow, H.M S., 326. 
Benckendorff, Count, Russian Ambas- 
sador in Great Britain : 
Correspondence re Convention as to 
joint captures by war vessels, 349- 

5- 
Telegram communicated by, 155. 

494 



Bennett : 

Dr. Arthur, mentioned in despatches 

402. 
Maj. E., R.A.M.C., commendation of, 

374- 
Berbera, s.s., operations in Persian Gulf, 

176. 
Beresford, Admiral Lord Charles, G.C.B.. 

G.C.V.O., M.P. : 
Questions in the House : 

Action off Coronel and H.M.S. 

Canopus, 288. 
Allotments from H.M. ships and 

pensions and allowances, 2889. 
Assistant Paymasters, 313. 
British Mercantile Marine, 282, 314. 
Chief Writers, promotion, 305-6. 
Naval and Marine Brigades, 287. 
Naval Brigade interned in Holland, 

302. 

Naval Brigade, missing, 303. 
Payments to dependents of seamen, 

312. 

Royal Navy losses, 254. 
Separation allowances, 241, 291-2. 
Speech on the navy, 3158. 
Berk-i-Satvet, Turkish cruiser, operations 

in Black Sea, 417. 
Berlin, North-German Lloyd s.s., mine 

laying by, 402. 

Bernard, Captain V. H. G., H.M.S. 
Venerable, in operations off Belgian 
coast, 20 1, 204. 

Bertie, Sir Francis Leveson, British 
Ambassador at Paris, communications 
from Sir E. Grey, Nov. 3, 156 ; Nov. 4, 

158- 
Bezemialen, Turkish transport, sunk by 

Russian fleet, 193-5. 
Bhan Sawant, Lance-Naik, i loth Mahratta 

L.I., commenda'ion of, 374. 
Biddlecombe, Actg.-Commander T. W., 
R.A.N., H.M.S. Pioneer, operations at 
mouth of Rufigi' River, 217-8. 
Bin Saud, Emir of Nejd, supply of arms, 

ammunition, etc., from Turkey, 85. 
Black Sea : 

Mines in, Russian announcement, 285, 

417. 
Movement of Turkish fleet into, see 

under Turkey. 
Operations in, 13, 17-9, 33, 166-7, 

168-9, 417-8, 439-40. 
Interview between M. Sazonof and 
Turkish Charge d' Affaires re, 155-6. 



INDEX 






Black Sea cent. 

Operations in cont. 

Interviews between Tewfik Pasha and 

Sir A. Nicolson re, 156-7. 
alleged Russian initiation of, 168 ; 

denial by M. Sazonof, 155. 
Telegram from Grand Vizier to 

Tewfik Pasha re, 157. 
Russian naval success in, 419. 
Russian offensive, 1935. 
Blackburn, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Vivian 
Gaskell, R.N., aerial attack on war- 
ships off Cuxhaven, 441, 4425. 
Blosse Lynch, s.s., 370, 377, 378, 381, 402. 

Operations before Qurnah, 385-8. 
Blunsdon, F. D., P.O., ist Cl., D 5, 

death, 27. 
Boardman, W., Leading Seaman, D 5, 

death, 27. 
Bompard, M., French Ambassador in 

Turkey : 
Conversations with Minister of Marine, 

75. 143- 

Departure from Constantinople, 169. 
Interview with Grand Vizier, 84. 
Request for passports, 150, 167. 
Booth : 

Captain F., mentioned in despatches, 

397- 

F. H., M.P., question in the House re 
bombardment of Friedrichshafen 
Zeppelin sheds, 312. 
Sergt. F. N., recommended for pro- 
motion, 399. 
Boothby, Lieutenant H., R.N.R., H.M.S. 

Pekin : 

Appointed Companion, D.S.O., 448. 
Special mention for services, 446. 
Bosphorus : 

probable German control, 55. 
Roumeli Kanak, Turkish minelayer 

at, 74. 
Bouhadi Sadil, purchase of arms for 

Egypt, 114. 
Bouvet, French ironclad, bombardment 

of Dardanelles forts, 26. 
Bowkill, Flight Commander Frederick W., 
in command of seaplane carriers during 
reconnaissance in Heligoland Bight, 

443- 

Bowie, Mr., H.M. Charge d' Affaires at 
iT;. Bogota, 304. 
Boys, Commander (ret.) W. H., H.M.S. 

Sirius, in operations off Belgian coast, 

204. 



Boyton, J., M.P., question in' the House 

re separation allowances, 241-2. 
Braddyll, Lieutenant H. S., H.M.S. Flirt, 

in operations off Belgian coast, 204. 
Brading, Chief Engine-Room Artificer, 
William Ernest, H.M.S. Falcon, men- 
tioned in despatches, 203. 
Bradley, P., acting Leading Stoker, 

D 5, death, 25. 
Branson, Captain, noth Mahratta L.I., 

379 ; testimony to, 380-1. 
Breslau (Midille), 15, 42, 44, 71, 115, 116, 
130, 131-2, 139, 145, 159, 162, 281, 
417: 
Boarding of British and French ships 

at the Dardanelles, 41, 60-1, 62. 
Court martial on Rear-Admiral Trou- 

bridge in connection with, 236. 
Crew, 39, 40, 41, 45, 47, 48, 50, 78, 

81-2, 102, 147-8. 
German officers and crew : 
Explanation by Sultan, 95. 
Repatriation, British demand for, 

150, 158. 

in the Dardanelles and at Nagara, 36. 
German officers of, mines laid by, at 

Alexandretta, 114. 
German steamers under Turkish flag, 

convoyed by, in. 

no Intention by Turkish Government 
to send outside Sea of Marmora 
until end of war, 39, 40, 41. 
Mines on, 125. 
Movement into Black Sea, 75 : 

Ordered by German Ambassador, 85. 
Operations in the Black Sea, 439-40. 
Purchase by Ottoman Government, 37. 
No sale to Turkey, evidence of, 64. 
Theodosia shelled, 19. 
to be Transferred to British, 39. 
to be Treated as enemy ships in case 
of leaving Dardanelles, 64, 75 ; no 
question of leaving, Grand Vizier, 75. 
Brewer, Stoker P.O. G. S., H.M.S. Kent, 

mentioned in despatches, 415. 
Bridges, Lieut.-Colonel G. T. M., D.S.O., 

202. 
Briggs : 

Engineman Christopher, R.N.R. : 
Awarded Distinguished Service 

Medal, 448. 

Commended for good service, 448. 
Squadron Commander E. F., attack 
on Friedrichshafen Zeppelin sheds, 
282-4. 

495 



INDEX 



Brijmohan Singh, Subadar, 7th Rajputs, 

commendation of, 373. 
Brilliant, H.M.S. 
Casualties in, 301. 
Operations off Belgian coast, 201, 203, 

204. 
Bristol, H.M.S., action off Falkland 

Islands, 40914. 
British East Africa : 
German troops in, 24-5. 
Operations in, Debate in the House of 

Lords, 2729. 

British India Steam Navigation Co., 
testimony to work of officers and 
crews of, 401. 
Britten, Lieut.-Colonel T. X., noth 

Mahratta L.I. : 
Commendation of, 373. 
Operations under, 369-71 . 
Brodie, Lieutenant Donald F. O'C., 

R.N., I>5, death, 27. 
Browne, Lieut.-Colonel A. J. Wogan : 
Mentioned in despatches 397. 
in Operations north of Qurnah, 392. 
Browne-Mason, Major H. 0. B., men- 
tioned in despatches, 397. 
Brownlow, Major d'A. C., mentioned in 

despatches, 397. 
Brussels, see under Belgium. 
Bryant, Mr., Marconi operator, s.s. 
Varela, recommended for reward, 
191. 
Bryce, Sub-Commander J., recommended 

for promotion, 399. 

Buchanan, Sir George W., G.C.M.G., 
G.C.V.O., C.B., British Ambas- 
sador in Russia : 
Communications from Sir E. Grey, 

Nov. 3, 156 ; Nov. 4, 158. 
Speech at annual dinner of the New 

English Club, Petrograd, 449-52. 
Telegrams to Sir E. Grey, Oct. 26, 

145 ; Oct. 29, 149. 

Budds, Ch. P.O. Mechanic Gilbert Howard: 
Distinguished Service Medal awarded, 

444. 
Observer during reconnaissance in 

Heligoland Bight, 443. 
Bulgaria : 

British representative, see Bax-Iron- 

side, Sir H., K.C.M.G. 
Intervention against Triple Entente, 
return of Western Thrace to Turkey, 
requested by Minister of Marine in 
event of, 44. 
496 



Bull, Sir William, M.P., question in 

the House : 

Allowances to wives resident in United 
Kingdom of French reservists and 
other Allies, 242. 

Royal Naval Division Engineer units, 
244. 

Bullard, Mr., Consul at Basrah, 183 : 
Information from, 73, 87, 89, 92, 101. 

Bullmouth, s.s., 72. 

Bulwark, H.M.S. , destruction of, 307-8 ; 
Lord C. Beresford on, 315-6. 

Burak Reiss, Turkish gunboat, blown up 
by Commander, 13. 

Buresk, s.s., sinking of, 209-10. 

Burges- Watson, temp. Lieutenant H., 
appointed temp. Major, R.M., 456. 

Busaki Ram, Kote Duffadar, commen- 
dation of, 376. 

Bustard, H.M.S., in operations off Belgian 
coast, 204. 

Butler, Captain H. M., i04th Rifles, 
commendation of , 373. 

Byrne, Captain E. G. J., i04th Rifles, 
mention of, for gallant conduct, 381-2. 

C 32, Submarine, in operations off Bel- 
gian coast, 205. 

C 34, Submarine, in operations off Bel- 
gian coast, 205. 

C. Ferd Laiesz, German s.s., at Tsingtau, 
notice re British cargoes, 416. 

Campbell, Lieutenant R. E. : 

Recommended for special recognition, 

37 2 - 

Swimming of the Tigris, 363, 369, 372. 
Canada, H.M.S., 326. 
Canopus, H.M.S., i, 3, 5 : 

and Action off Coronel, Earl of Sel- 
borne on, 220 ; reply by Viscount 
Haldane, 231-2. 

Action off Falkland Islands, 410. 

in the Pacific, question and answer 

in the House, 245, 288. 
Cap Trafalgar, German armed merchant 

cruiser, 300. 
Capitaine Mehl, French destroyer, in 

operations off Belgian coast, 205. 
Cardew, Captain H. S., mentioned in 

despatches, 397. 
Carey, Sub-Commander F., recommended 

for promotion, 399. 
Carmania, H.M.S., auxiliary cruiser, 

casualties in, 300. 
Carnarvon, H.M.S., action off Falkland 

Islands, 409-14. 






INDEX 



Caroline Islands, Japanese occupation, 

4<>5- 

Carrier Pigeons, in ships arriving at 
British ports, Admiralty orders, 350-1. 
Carslake, Lieutenant J. F. B., R.N., 
H.M. armed launch Lewis Pelly, 
operations before Qurnah, 3848, 389. 
Cartagena, see under Colombia. 
Casualties : 

Arabs, district north of Persian Gulf, 

181. 
Australian, H.M.A.S. Sydney, 208, 

209, 211. 

Austrian, Kaiserin Elisabeth, 307. 
BRITISH ; 

Belgian coast operations, 201. 

Bulwark, H.M.S., 308. 

D 5, 27-8. 

in East Africa, 20, 277. 

Falkland Islands battle, 407. 

at Fao (Turkish statement), 251.' 

H.M.S. Halcyon, 28. 

at Hartlepool, Scarborough and 

Whitby, 421. 

Indian Expeditionary Force, 179, 
181, 186, 280, 368, 370, 383-5, 391. 
Naval cadets, 282. 
Naval casualties since war, 254, 

300-1. 

at Tanga, 20, 24. 
Tsingtau, final action, 198. 
FRENCH, in Portugal, 149. 
GERMAN : 

Action off Coronel, 2, 4, 8, n. 
among Ayesha's crew in Arabia, 

213-4, 2l6 - 
Emden, 211. 
Gneisenaii, 412-3. 
at Tanga, 24. 
Tsingtau, 307. 
U 18, 285. 
Yorck, 31. 
Japanese, at Tsingtau, in final action, 

197, 198. 
RUSSIA : 

Black Sea operations, Turkish re- 
port, 417. 

Odessa harbour, 149. 
off Sevastopol, 281. 
at Tuapfe, 280. 
TURKS : 

in Black Sea transports, 193. 
Mesopotamia and district north of 
the Persian Gulf, 175, 180-1, 189, 
185-6, 368, 390. 



Cator, Judge, testimony to, by Sir L- 

Mallet, 170. 

Cecil, Evelyn, M.P., question in the 
House re Commissions to Germans or 
Austrians, 290-1. 
Cecil Rhodes, English s.s., alleged blowing 

up of, on Lake Tanganyika, 196. 
Chadwiek, Captain, i04th Wellesley's 
Rifles, recommended for reward, 191. 
Challenger, H.M.S., casualties in, 301. 
Chambers : 

Captain B. M., appointment to H.M.S. 

Roxburgh, 334. 
Commander W. J. J., recommended 

for promotion, 399. 
Chanak Port, see under Dardanelles. 
Chapman, Able Seaman William, H.M.S. 

Vestal, mentioned in despatches, 204. 
Chappell, P.O. Robert, H.M.S. Falcon : 
Death from wounds, 203. 
Mentioned in despatches, 203. 
Chatham, H.M.S. : 
Casualties in, 301. 
Discovery of the Konigsberg, 208. 
off East African coast, 23. 
Cheetham, Mr., Cairo, communications 
to Sir E. Grey, 54, 64, 76, 81, 103, 139, 
147, 150. 
Cherry, Commander A. D. M., H.M.S. 

Vestal : 

Mentioned in despatches, 202. 
in Operations off Belgian coast, 204. 
Chesne, Gulf of, Asia Minor, Anglo- 
French fleet in, 13. 

Guilders, Lieutenant Erskine, R.N.V.R., 
observer during reconnaissance in 
Heligoland Bight, 443. 
Chile Government, protest re suspected 

coaling of German warships, 286-7. 
China : 

KIAO-CHAU : 

Blockade, termination, 238. 
Japanese successes at, 29, 30. 
Questions raised between China and 
Japan in connection with, satis- 
factorily settled, Baron Kato, 405. 
Siaochausan fort, in flames, 29. 
Kiao-Chau Bay, loss of Japanese 
torpedo-boat at mouth of, 235, 
238. 
TSINGTAU : 

Bombardment, 29-30. 
British cargoes landed from German 
ships at, Foreign Office notices, 
416-7. 

497 



INDEX 



China cont. 

TSINGTAU cont. 
Fall of, 196-9 : 

Earl of Selborne on, 222. 
Admiral von Tirpitz on, 437. 
Future of, Baron Suzuki on, 197. 
German counter attack, 30. 
German losses in fights round, 307. 
drivers, temp. Captain A. J. D., ap- 
pointed temp. Major R.M., 455. 
Choising (Emden III.}, 215. 
Christian, Captain (ret.) H., H.M.S. 
Brilliant, in operations off Belgian 
coast, 204. 
Churchill, Rt. Hon. Winston L. Spencer, 

M.P. : 

Congratulatory message from Vice- 
Admiral Yashiro on Falkland Is- 
lands battle and reply to, 406-7. 
Announcement of loss of H.M.S. 

Bulwark, 3078. 
Congratulations to, on Falkland Islands 

battle, 408. 
Letter to Mayor of Scarborough after 

bombardment, 4234. 
Replies to questions in the House : 
Bombardment of Friedrichshafen 

Zeppelin sheds, 312. 
H.M.S. Canopus, 245, 288. 
Commissions to Germans or 

Austrians, 290-1. 
Men of H.M.S. Good Hope landed 

previous to action, 12. 
Naval cadets, 238-40. 
Naval casualties, 254, 299-301. 
Naval and Marine Brigades, 287. 
on the Navy and the naval situation, 

319-28. 

Sending of messages by, to foreign 
Powers, etc., in his own name, Earl 
of Selborne on, 221 ; reply by 
Viscount Haldane, 232-3. 
Speech at the Guildhall, 205-7. 
Clarkson, Major H. St. J., 2nd Dorset 

Regt. : 

at Battle of Saihan, 184. 
Recommended for reward, 190. 
Clemow, Dr., Physician to H.M. Embassy, 
Constantinople, testimony to, by Sir L. 
Mallet, 170. 
Clerici, E., Indian Postal Department, 

mentioned in despatches, 402. 
Clery, Lieut.-Colonel C. B., i04th Rifles, 

377- 
Commendation of, 373. 

498 



Clery, Lieut.-Colonel C. B. cont. 

Report by, 381-8. 
Cochran, Capt. G. W., 8ist Pioneers, 187, 

377 : 

Commendation of, 375. 

Operations under, 369, 393. 

Wounded, 391. 
Codrington, Lieut.-Colonel E., i2oth 

Rajputana Infantry, 377. 
Collins, Major D. J., M.B., mentioned 

in despatches, 397. 
Colombia : 

British representative, see Bowie, Mr. 

Cartagena wireless station, working 
under German influence, 304. 

Government, failure to observe strict 

neutrality, 304-5. 
Colville, Vice-Admiral the Hon. Sir 

Stanley Cecil James, K.C.B., C.V.O., 

promotion to Admiral, 334. 
Constantinople, see under Turkey. 
Constanza, chartering of British oil- 
tank steamer at Tenedos to convey oil 

from, desired by Turkish Minister of 

Marine, 44. 

Contraband of War, proclamation, 432-5. 
Cook, Captain W. K., mentioned in 

despatches, 398. 
Coope, Captain R. W., H. T. Elephanta, 

mentioned in despatches, 401. 
Cooper, Captain K. E., noth Mahratta 

L. I., commendation of, 373. 
Copland, W. J. E.R.A., 2nd Cl., D 5, 

death, 27. 
Coppinger, Commander R. H., H.M.S. 

Crane, in operations off Belgian coast, 

204. 
Corcovado, German merchant ship : 

Preparation for war, 51. 

Wireless installation on, 127-8, 132, 

168. 
Cormoran, German gunboat, sunk at 

Tsingtau, 199. 
Cornwall, H.M.S., action off Falkland 

Islands, 409-15. 

Cornwall, Sergt. A., Norf. Regt., com- 
mendation of, 372. 
Coronel, action off, Nov. i : 

Admiralty statements, 12-3. 

Lord C. Beresford on, 317-8. 

Failure of Governments of Colombia 
and Ecuador to observe strict neu- 
trality, 304-5. 

German accounts, 12, 3-4. 

Letters of Admiral von Spee, 911. 






INDEX 



Coronel, action off cont. 

Questions in the House re, 12, 288. 

Report from Captain John Luce, R.N., 
4-6. 

Report from Admiral von