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WAR is a collection of documents concerning the 
War in all its aspects, so arranged as to record the events 
of the great struggle in which the Nations are now involved, 
and the circumstances which led up to them. 

It consists of documents issued officially or recognised 
by the various belligerents, such as diplomatic correspond- 
ence, proclamations, ultimatums, military orders, reports, 
despatches, messages from monarchs to their people, etc., 
together with public statements by responsible Ministers and 
Correspondence in the Press of an authoritative character ; 
the whole collated, classified, indexed, and where necessary 
cross-referenced and annotated. 

The documents are left to speak for themselves, except 
where brief unbiased notes are needed to elucidate them. 
These are placed within square brackets, to distinguish them 
from the notes in the originals. 

The Times, with its network of Correspondents in all 
parts of the world, is in a particularly favourable position 
to obtain information, and, having at its service an ex- 
perienced staff, is able to reach sources not generally acces- 
sible to others. 

As the large mass of documents involved in the collection 
has been systematically classified and arranged from the 
commencement of the War, it has been found possible to 
issue to the public simultaneously a representative series 
of volumes. 


a 2, 


A survey of the constantly accumulating material would 
appear to indicate that The Times DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 
OF THE WAR will be grouped into at least five main 
divisions : 



IV. OVERSEAS, comprising documents dealing with events 

in the Dominions and Possessions Overseas and 
in enemy territories not included in the first three 

V. INTERNATIONAL LAW, including documents relating 
to the Laws of War, the Proceedings of Prize 
Courts, etc. 

Each division will appear in its own distinct set of 



DOCUMENTS dealing with the Military aspects of the War 
will be found in this and the subsequent volumes of this 
division. The present volume covers the year 1914 in respect 
of Royal Proclamations and Orders, and Public Notices 
relating to Military affairs ; Extracts from Army Orders 
connected with the War ; Appointments and Promotions of 
general officers ; Parliamentary Proceedings and Public 
Speeches ; and Proclamations of and exchanges of Messages 
between the Belligerent Powers on Military matters. In the 
sub-section devoted to the Proclamations of Powers hostile 
to Great Britain, one of the aims kept in view is to show by 
characteristic examples a class of document which is count- 
less in number, but the whole of which cannot at present .be 
obtained. They will be added to in subsequent volumes. 

The use of illegal ammunition by the enemy is illustrated 
by a number of documents dealing with operations in 1914. 
In subsequent volumes any further information obtainable on 
this head will be given. The question of the violation of 
frontiers before the war is also dealt with. 

Sir John French's despatches issued in 1914, and those 
relating to the operations around Antwerp, are included, and 
these are illustrated by maps. In a few cases it has been 
found necessary to alter the spelling of geographical names 
in the despatches, in order to agree with the Staff maps. 
Orders and Reports of British Generals, and a list of Victoria 
Crosses gazetted in 1914 conclude the volume. 

In the Appendix will be found the official English text of 
The Hague Declarations of 1899 respecting Expanding Bullets 
and Asphyxiating Gases ; of the Geneva Convention of 1906 ; 



and of the Hague Conventions of 1907 concerning the Opening 
of Hostilities and the Laws and Customs of War on Land. 

It will thus be seen that a considerable number of docu- 
ments relating to Military affairs in 1914 have been included ; 
others belonging to that year will appear in the next volume. 

The authority for each document is clearly indicated. 

Serbian names are spelt according to the Croatian system, 
as explained on p. 292, in the case of all Serbian documents 
and communiques issued by the Serbian Government or by 
the Serbian Press Bureau. When occurring in documents 
issued by other countries, the usual English spelling has been 

Thanks are due to the Serbian Ministry in London with 
regard to Serbian documents ; to the French Ministry of War 
for- permission to include matter contained in the Bulletin 
des Armees ; and to Messrs. Berger-Levrault of Paris for their 
kindness in allowing their official publications to be utilised. 



A.O. . 

Belg. Off. Comm. 

French Yellow Book 
G. W. P. 

J. de St. P. 
J. de P. . 
Junker . 

K.A. . 
K.V. . 

L.G. . 

N. de la B. 


Army Orders (British Army, issued monthly). 

Bulletin des Armees (French official military publica- 
tion, issued monthly) ; and Histoire de la Guerre 
par le Bulletin des Armees. Paris, Hachette. 

Commission Officielle du Gouvernement Beige. Rap- 
ports sur la Violation du Droit des Gens en 
Belgique. Paris, Berger-Levrault. 

Official translation [Cd. 7717]. 

German War Proclamations : Arretes et Proclamations 
de Guerre Allemandes du 20 aout 1914 au 
25 Janvier 1915. Documents nistoriques affiches 
a Bruxelles pendant I'occupation. London, 
George Allen and Unwin, Limited. 

Journal de St. Petersbourg. 

Journal de Petrograd. 

Dokumente zur Geschichte des Europaischen Krieges 
1914-15. Carl Junker. Vienna, Moritz Perles. 

Der Kriegsausbruch, 1914 : Thron- und Kanzlerrede, 
Denkschrift und Aktenstucke. Berlin, Carl Hey- 
mann, 1914. 

Der Kriegsverlauf : Sammlung der amtlichen Nach- 
richten von den Kriegsschaupldtzen. Berlin, 
Carl Heymann. (Issued monthly.) 

London Gazette. 

La Neutralite de la Belgique: edition officielle du 
Gouvernement Beige. Paris, Berger-Levrault. 

Press Bureau. 


P. d'H. . . . Pages d'Histoire 1914 - 1916. Paris, Berger- 


Pol. Doc. . . A collection of documents relating to Polish affairs, 

published anonymously in Switzerland in the 
Polish language, entitled Recueil de documents 
concernant la question polonaise. Aout 1914 
Janvier 1915. (Zbior Dokumentdw dotyczacych 
Sprawy Polskiej.) 

Second Belgian Grey Correspondance Diplomatique relative a la Guerre de 
Book 1914-15, ii. 
















POWERS , . .313 



APPENDIX . . . . . . . . .462 

INDEX . 487 





THE BATTLE OF THE MARNE . . . . . . . 365 









(i & 2 GEO. V., c. 4) AND 1913 (2 & 3 GEO. V., c. 22). 

In pursuance of the powers conferred on me by the Aerial 
Navigation Acts, 1911 and 1913, I hereby make, for the 
purposes of the safety and defence of the realm, the following 
Order : 

I prohibit the navigation of aircraft of every class and 
description over the whole area of the United Kingdom, and 
over the whole of the coastline thereof and territorial waters 
adjacent thereto. 

This Order shall not apply to naval or military aircraft or 
to aircraft flying under naval or military orders : nor shall it 
apply to any aircraft flying within three miles of a recognised 
aerodrome. R. McKENNA, 

One of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State. 
Home Office, Whitehall, 

2nd August 1914. 


His Majesty's Government informed the German Govern- L. ., 
ment on August 4th, 1914, that, unless a satisfactory reply Aug. 7, '14 
to the request of His Majesty's Government for an assurance 
that Germany would respect the neutrality of Belgium was 
received by midnight of that day, His Majesty's Government 
would feel bound to take all steps in their power to uphold 
that neutrality and the observation of a treaty to which 
Germany was as much a party as Great Britain. 



The result of this communication having been that His 
Majesty's Ambassador at Berlin had to ask for his passports, 
His Majesty's Government have accordingly finally notified the 
German Government that a state of war exists between the 
two countries as from n P.M. to-day. 

Foreign Office, August 4, 1914. 




L.G., WHEREAS by the Reserve Forces Act, 1882, it is amongst 

Aug. 4, '14 O ther things enacted that in case of imminent national danger 
or of great emergency it shall be lawful for Us by Proclamation, 
the occasion having first been communicated to Parliament, 
to order that the Army Reserve shall be called out on per- 
manent service ; and by any such Proclamation to order a 
Secretary of State from time to time to give and when given 
to revoke or vary such directions as may seem necessary or 
proper for calling out the forces or force mentioned in the 
Proclamation or all or any of the men belonging thereto : 

And Whereas the present state of public affairs and the 
extent of the demands on Our Military Forces for the protec- 
tion of the interests of the Empire do in Our opinion con- 
stitute a case of great emergency within the meaning of the 
said Act, and We have communicated the same to Parliament : 
And Whereas by the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act, 
1907, it is, amongst other things, enacted that immediately 
upon and by virtue of the issue of a Proclamation orde'ring the 
Army Reserve to be called out on permanent service it shall 
be lawful for Us to order Our Army Council from time to time 
to give and when given to revoke or vary such directions as 
may seem necessary or proper for embodying all or any part 
of the Territorial Force, and in particular to make such special 
arrangements as they think proper with regard to units or 
individuals whose services may be required in other than a 
Military capacity : 


Now, Therefore, We do in pursuance of the Reserve 
Forces Act, 1882, hereby order that Our Army Reserve be 
called out on permanent service, and We do hereby order the 
Right Honourable HERBERT HENRY ASQUITH, one of Our 
Principal Secretaries of State, from time to time to give and 
when given to revoke or vary such directions as may seem 
necessary or proper for calling out Our Army Reserve or all 
or any of the men belonging thereto : 

And We do hereby further order Our Army Council from 
time to time to give and when given to revoke or vary such 
directions as may seem necessary or proper for embodying 
all or any part of the Territorial Force, and in particular to 
make such special arrangements as they think proper with 
regard to units or individuals whose services may be required 
in other than a Military capacity. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Fourth day 
of August, in the year of our Lord One thousand nine 
hundred and fourteen, and in the Fifth year of Our 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 4th day of August 


The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

WHEREAS, by virtue of Article 6 of the Act intituled ' L6i L. G., 
sur la Milice/ passed by the States of the Island of Jersey on Au - 4 
the loth day of October, 1905, sanctioned by Order in Council 
made the nth day of December, 1905, it is lawful for His 
Majesty at any time by Order in Council to recall to Active* 
Militia Service the Royal Militia Reserve of the said Island 
or any part thereof, Notice of such recall being given by Pro- 
clamation and by Warning to each reservist at his residence : 

And whereas the present state of public affairs and the 
extent of the demand on His Majesty's Military Forces for the 
protection of the interests of the Empire do, in His Majesty's 
opinion, constitute a case which justifies such recall of the 
said Reserve to Active Militia Service : 

Now, Therefore, His Majesty, by and with the advice of 
His Privy Council, is pleased to order, and it is hereby ordered, 
in pursuance of the said enactment, that the Militia Reserve 



of the Island of Jersey as a whole be recalled to active service, 
and that Notice of this Order be given by Proclamation and 
by Warning, as aforesaid. 

And His Majesty is further pleased to direct that this 
Order, together with the Proclamation aforesaid (a copy 
whereof accompanies this Order), be entered upon the Register 
of the Island of Jersey, and observed accordingly. 

Whereof the Lieutenant-Governor or Commander-in-Chief , 
the Bailiff and Jurats, and all other His Majesty's Officers, 
for the time being, in the said Island, and all other persons 
whom it may concern, are to take notice and govern themselves 





WHEREAS, in pursuance of the Act intituled ' Loi sur la 
Milice/ passed by the States of the Island of Jersey on the 
loth day of October, 1905, and sanctioned by Order in Council 
of the nth day of December, 1905, We were this day pleased, 
by and with the advice of Our Privy Council, to order that 
the Militia Reserve of the Island of Jersey as a whole be 
recalled to active service, and that Notice of the Order be 
given by Proclamation, and by warning to each reservist 
at his residence : 

Now, Therefore, We do hereby, by and with the advice 
of Our Privy Council, by this Our Royal Proclamation, give 
Notice of Our said Order, and do direct that Warning thereof 
be given to each reservist at his residence. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Fourth 
day of August, in the year of Our Lord One thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen, and in thfe Fifth year of 
Our Reign. 




WHEREAS by the i7th Section of the Volunteer Act, 1863, L. G., 
as amended by Section i of the Volunteer Act, 1900, it is Aug. 14, '14 
enacted that it shall be lawful for Us in case of imminent 
national danger or great emergency (the occasion being first 
communicated to both Houses of Parliament if Parliament is 
sitting, or declared in Council and notified by Proclamation 
if Parliament is not sitting) to direct the Lieutenants of 
Counties throughout Great Britain, or such of them as we 
may judge necessary, to call out the Volunteer Corps of their 
respective counties, or any of them, for actual military service : 

And whereas a state of war now exists between this 
country and Germany, we do hereby, by and with the advice 
of Our Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, 
delegate to Our Lieutenant-Governor of the Isle of Man all 
such jurisdiction, powers, and duties with regard to calling 
out the Volunteers as may be vested in and exercisable by Us, 
and do hereby order Our said Lieutenant-Governor to call out 
the Volunteer Corps of the Isle of Man forthwith for actual 
military service. . 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace this Fifth day 
of August 1914. 





WHEREAS by the Army Act it is amongst other things L. G., 
enacted that it shall be lawful for Us in case of imminent Aug. 4, '14 
national danger or of great emergency by Proclamation, 
the occasion being first communicated to Parliament, to 
direct from time to time that all or any persons who would 
otherwise be entitled in pursuance of the terms of their enlist- 
ment to be transferred to the Reserve shall continue in Army 


Service, and such persons shall accordingly continue in Army 
Service for the same period for which they might be required 
to serve if they had been ^transferred to the Reserve and 
called out for permanent service by a Proclamation issued by 
Us under the enactments relating to the Reserve : 

And Whereas the present state of public affairs and the 
extent of the demands on Our Military Forces for the pro- 
tection of the interests of the Empire do in Our opinion 
constitute a case of great emergency within the meaning 
of the said Act, and We have communicated the same to 
Parliament : 

Now, Therefore, We do in pursuance of the said Act 
hereby direct that all soldiers who on or after this date would 
otherwise be entitled in pursuance of the terms of their enlist- 
ment to be transferred to the Reserve, shall continue in Army 
Service until legally discharged or transferred to the Army 

And We do hereby direct the Right Honourable HERBERT 
HENRY ASQUITH, one of Our Principal Secretaries of State, to 
give all necessary directions herein accordingly. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Fourth 
day of August, in the year of our Lord One thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen, and in the Fifth year of 
Our Reign. 



(Under the Army Act, Sec. 115) 

L-G: WHEREAS by Section 115 of the Army Act it is amongst 

Aug. 4, '14 O ther things enacted that it shall be lawful for His Majesty, 
by Order distinctly stating that a case of emergency exists, 
and signified by a Secretary of State, to authorise any General 
or Field Officer Commanding His Majesty's Regular Forces 
in any military district or place in the United Kingdom to 
issue a Requisition of Emergency under his hand, requiring 
Justices of the Peace to issue warrants for the provision, for 


the purposes mentioned in the Requisition, of carriages, 
animals, vessels, and aircraft, as prescribed by the said Act : 

And Whereas it is further enacted by the said Act that, 
whenever a proclamation ordering the Army Reserve to be 
called out on permanent service or an Order for the embodi- 
ment of the Militia is in force, His Majesty's Order may 
authorise such Officers to extend such Requisitions to the 
provision of carriages, animals, vessels, and aircraft for the 
purpose of being purchased, as well as of being hired, on His 
Majesty's behalf : 

And Whereas a proclamation ordering the Army Reserve 
to be called out on permanent service is in force : 

And Whereas a case of emergency exists within the meaning 
of the said Act : 

Now, Therefore, His Majesty, in pursuance of the said Act, 
is pleased to order and authorise any General or Field Officer 
Commanding the Regular Forces in any military district or 
place in the United Kingdom to issue Requisitions of Emer- 
gency under the said Act, and to extend such Requisitions as 
by the said Act authorised. 

The Fourth day of August 1914. 




(Under the Army Act, Sec. io8A) 


WHEREAS by Section io8A of the Army Act it is amongst L. G., 
other things enacted that where directions have been given Aug. 4, 14 
for embodying all or any part of the Territorial Force it shaU [See post, 
be lawful for His Majesty, by Order distinctly stating that a P- 2 
case of emergency exists, and signified by a Secretary of State, 
to authorise any General or Field Officer Commanding any 
part of His Majesty's Forces in any military district or place 
in the United Kingdom to issue a Billeting Requisition under 
his hand, requiring Chief Officers of Police to provide billets in 
such places and for such number of officers and soldiers and 



their horses and for such period as may be specified in the 
Requisition in accordance with the provisions of the said 
Section : 

And Whereas directions have been given for embodying 
all of the Territorial Force : 

And Whereas a case of emergency exists within the mean- 
ing of the said Act : 

Now, Therefore, His Majesty, in pursuance of the said 
Act, is pleased to order and authorise any General or Field 
Officer Commanding any part of His Majesty's Forces in any 
military district or place in the United Kingdom to issue 
Billeting Requisitions under the said Act. 

The Fourth day of August 1914. 




L. G., WHEREAS by the Law of Our Realm it is Our undoubted 

Aug. 4, '14 prerogative and the duty of all Our loyal subjects acting in 

Our behalf in times of imminent national danger to take all 

such measures as may be necessary for securing the public 

safety and the defence of Our Realm : 

And Whereas the present state of public affairs in Europe 
is such as to constitute an imminent national danger : 

Now, Therefore, We strictly command and enjoin Our 
subjects to obey and conform to all instructions and regulations 
which may be issued by Us or Our Admiralty or Army Council, 
or any officer of Our Navy or Army, or any other person 
acting in Our behalf for securing the objects aforesaid, and 
not to hinder or obstruct, but to afford all assistance in their 
power to any person acting in accordance with any such 
instructions or regulations or otherwise in the execution of 
any measures duly taken for securing those objects. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Fourth 
day of August, in the year of our Lord One thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen, and in the Fifth year of 
Our Reign. 





WHEREAS by the 8th Section of ' The Customs and Inland L. G., 
Revenue Act, 1879,' it is enacted that We may by Proclama- Aug. 5, '14 
tion or Order in Council prohibit the exportation of, amongst 
other things, any articles which We shall judge capable of 
being converted into or made useful in increasing the quantity 
of military or naval stores, provisions, or any sort of victual 
which may be used as food for men : 

And Whereas We, by and with the advice of Our Privy 
Council, deem it expedient and necessary that We should 
exercise such power of prohibition in manner hereinafter 
appearing : 

Now, We, by and with, the advice aforesaid, do hereby 
order and direct that from and after the date hereof the 
following goods, being articles which We have judged capable 
of being converted into or made useful in increasing the 
quantity of military or naval stores, that is to say 

Forage and food of all kinds for animals, 

And also provisions and victual of all sorts which may be 

used as food for men, 

shall be, and the same are hereby prohibited to be exported 
from the United Kingdom. 

Given at Our Court at Buckingham Palace, this Fifth day 
of August, in the year of our Lord One thousand nine 
hundred and fourteen, and in the Fifth year of Our 




(Under the Army Act, Sec. 115) 


L. G., WHEREAS by Section 115 of the Army Act it is amongst 

Aug. 10, '14 o ther things enacted that it shall be lawful for His Majesty, 
by Order distinctly stating that a case of emergency exists, 
and signified by a Secretary of State, to authorise any General 
or Field Officer Commanding His Majesty's Regular Forces in 
any military district or place in the United Kingdom to issue 
a Requisition of Emergency under his hand, requiring Justices 
of the Peace to issue warrants for the provision, for the 
purposes mentioned in the Requisition, of carriages, animals, 
vessels, aircraft, food, forage, and stores of every description, 
as prescribed by the said Act : 

And Whereas it is further enacted by the said Act that, 
whenever a proclamation ordering the Army Reserve to be 
called out on permanent service or an Order for the embodi- 
ment of the Militia is in force, His Majesty's Order may 
authorise such Officers to extend such Requisitions to the 
provision of carriages, animals, vessels, aircraft, food, forage, 
and stores of every description, for the purpose of being 
purchased, as well as of being hired, on His Majesty's behalf : 

And Whereas a proclamation ordering the Army Reserve 
to be called out on permanent service is in force : 

And Whereas a case of emergency exists within the 
meaning of the said Act : 

Now, Therefore, His Majesty, in pursuance of the said Act, 
is pleased to order and authorise any General or Field Officer 
Commanding the Regular Forces in any military district or 
place in the United Kingdom to issue Requisitions of Emer- 
gency under the said Act, and to extend such Requisitions as 
by the said Act authorised. 

The Tenth day of August 1914. 




Diplomatic relations between France and Austria being L.G., 
broken off, the French Government have requested His Aug. 13, '14 
Majesty's Government to communicate to the Austro-Hun- 
garian Ambassador in London the following Declaration : x 

' Having declared war against Serbia and thus taken the 
initiative in bringing about hostilities in Europe, the Austro- 
Hungarian Government, without the slightest provocation of 
the Government of the French Republic, has declared itself 
at war with France : 

' i. After Germany had in succession declared war against 
Russia and France, Austria-Hungary has intervened in the 
conflict by declaring war against Russia, who was engaged 
with France in the struggle. 

'2. Numerous credible reports show that Austria has 
despatched troops to the* German frontier, in such a manner 
as to constitute a direct menace to France. 

'Taking all these facts into consideration, the French 
Government is forced to inform the Austro-Hungarian 
Government that it must take all the steps necessary to 
reply to these deeds and menaces/ 

In communicating this Declaration accordingly to the 
Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, His Majesty's Government 
have declared to His Excellency that the rupture with France 
having been brought about in this way, they feel themselves 
obliged to announce that a state of war exists between Great 
Britain and Austro-Hungary as from midnight. 

Foreign Office, August I2th, 1914. 



INDIA OFFICE, October 30, 1914. 

WHEREAS We deem it expedient that Officers who may L. G., 
be granted commissions with honorary rank in Our Indian 001.30/14 

1 [The Declaration is translated from the French original given in the 
London Gazette.} 



Army Departments on or after the date of this Warrant, and 
who may retire on pension, shall be liable to be recalled to 
service in Our Indian Forces in time of emergency : 
Our Will and Pleasure is as follows : 

1. An officer who shall have been granted a commission 
with honorary rank in Our Indian Army Department on or 
after the date of this Warrant, and who may retire on pension, 
shall remain liable to be recalled to service in Our Indian 
Forces in time of emergency, in accordance with such regu- 
lations as may from time to time be made by Our Secretary 
of State for India in Council. 

2. Officers thus recalled to service will take precedence 
from the date of appointment notified in the London Gazette, 
or, when not gazetted, from the date on which they assume 
duty on recall to Army Service. 

Given at Our Court at St. James's, this Eleventh day of 
September One thousand nine hundred and fourteen, 
hi the Fifth year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 



L. G. t Owing to hostile acts committed by Turkish forces under 

Nov. 5, '14 German officers, a state of war exists between Great Britain 
and Turkey as from to-day. 
Foreign Office, November $th, 1914. 



Your King and Country Need You 

Will you answer your Country's Call ? Each day is fraught Times, 
with the gravest possibilities, and at this very moment the Au g 5. '14 
Empire is on the brink of the greatest war in the history of the 

In this crisis your Country calls on all her young unmarried 
men to rally round the Flag and enlist in the ranks of her 

If every patriotic young man answers her call, England 
and her Empire will emerge stronger and more united than 

If you are unmarried and between 18 and 30 years old, will 
you answer your Country's Call ? and go to the nearest 
Recruiter whose address you can get at any Post Office, and 


Your King and Country Need You 

An addition of 100,000 men to His Majesty's Regular Times, 
Army is immediately necessary in the present grave National Au S 7 ' X 4 

Lord Kitchener is confident that this appeal will be at 
once responded, to by all those who have the safety of our 
Empire at heart. 

Terms of Service 

General Service for a period of 3 years or until the war is 

Age of Enlistment between 19 and 30. 

How to Join 

Full information can be obtained at any Post Office in the 
Kingdom or at any Military depot. 





LONDON, E.G., August i$fh, 1914. 


In view of the spirited appeal of Field-Marshal Earl 
Kitchener for the addition of 100,000 men to the Army at this 
crisis, I look with great confidence to the men of the Capital 
of the Empire to place themselves in the van of the movement, 
and to come forward and enrol themselves in the Service of 
their King and Country. I also urge Employers to do their 
part, and keep situations open for all patriotic men so enlisting, 
to the end that none may be prejudiced by responding to their 
Country's call. 

Lord Mayor of London. 


Times, Two thousand Junior Officers (unmarried) are immediately 

Aug. 10/14 required in consequence of the increase of the Regular 

Terms of Service 

To serve with the Regular Army until the war is con- 
cluded. Ages 17 to 30. 

An allowance of 20 will be made for uniform and of 
5, 155. for equipment. 

How to obtain His Majesty's Commission 

Cadets or ex-Cadets of the University Training Corps or 
Members of a University should apply to their Commanding 
Officers, or to the Authorities of their University. Other 
young men of good general education should apply in person 
to the Officer Commanding the nearest depot. Full informa- 
tion can be obtained by written application to The Secretary, 
War Office. 




The following circular has been issued to the Lord- Times, 
Lieutenants of counties and chairmen of the Territorial Force Aug. io, '14 
County Associations : 

WAR OFFICE, LONDON, S.W., jtk August 1914. 

SIR, In the present grave emergency the War Office looks 
with the utmost confidence to you for a continuance of the 
invaluable help which you have given in the past. 

I therefore desire to invite your co-operation in the work 
of raising the additional number of Regular troops required 
at once for the Army. 

It is intended to enlist as soon as possible 100,000 men, 
and I would ask you to use your great local influence and that 
of the Territorial Associations to secure these necessary recruits 
as soon as possible. 

The men will be accommodated in camps established at 
or near the existing regular depots to which intending recruits 
may be sent, the camp nearest the place from which they are 
drawn being selected. 

No responsibility for clothing or equipping the men will 
devolve upon County Associations ; this will be arranged by 
the military authorities. 

Members of the Territorial Force may be enlisted, provided 
theyf ulfil the prescribed conditions as to age and physical fitness. 

Territorial Force units that are at full strength will not 
recruit additional men until the 100,000 men are provided, 
but should any of their numbers desire to join the Regular 
Forces now being raised, their places in the Territorial unit 
should be filled as soon as possible by men desirous of joining 
the Territorial Force only, and not the Regular Army. 

Territorial units available for foreign service will naturally 
not be affected by this recruiting of Regular troops. 

Such is the general outline of the scheme, in the furtherance 
of which you are desired to co-operate as far as possible. 

It is not an ordinary appeal from the Army for recruits, 
but the formation of a second Army, and it is hoped that you 
will be able to assist in getting the men in every way in your 
power. I am, Sir, your obedient servant, KITCHENER. 



Times, Lord Kitchener has sent the following communication to 

Aug. 15, '14 Territorial Force County Associations and officers commanding 
Territorial units : 

' There seems to be a certain amount of misunderstanding in 
some cases with regard to the division of Territorial units into 
homogeneous corps for home and foreign service respectively. 

' Lord Kitchener is fully aware that the spirit of the 
Territorials would induce many to volunteer for foreign 
service in their units, although they may have very important 
duties to look after in this country which necessitate their 
remaining at home. He would point out that home defence 
is a matter of great importance, and he does not desire that 
those who cannot, on account of their affairs, volunteer for 
foreign service, should by any means be induced to do so, or on 
account of such inability should leave the Territorial Forces. 

' County Associations and officers commanding units 
should arrange that, in Territorial districts, certain units 
should be designated for home service and receive all those 
who cannot volunteer for foreign service into their ranks, 
whilst those who have not such important ties at home should 
be passed from units remaining for home defence into units 
of the Territorial Force who have selected to volunteer for 
foreign service. 

' Lord Kitchener would then be able to organise both 
forces for the respective roles they will have to perform. 
He hopes to be able to arrange that the training of the Home 
Defence Territorial Forces may be on a system by which 
leave can be given for those serving to look after their urgent 
private affairs, somewhat on the commando principle which 
prevailed in South Africa. 

' On the other hand, homogeneous units for foreign service 
should take up continuous training, and endeavour by every 
means in their power to make themselves thoroughly efficient 
for service in the field. The fact of a Territorial unit having 
volunteered for foreign service, and being, by this arrange- 
ment, full up with men who can give their entire time to the 
Service, does not imply that such units will be employed 
abroad until they reach a standard of efficiency which would 
enable them to do credit to the British Army on foreign service. 


Each of such units will be carefully inspected and reported 
on from time to time as to their efficiency for taking the field. 
' It must be distinctly remembered that once the division for 
foreign and home service has taken place, recruits can only be 
taken into the units of the category to which that unit belongs/ 


Lord Kitchener has authorised the National Rifle Associa- Times, 
tion to form an organisation for the training in rifle shooting Aug. 15/14 
of recruits now flocking to the Colours. 

Acting in consultation with Major-General Lord Cheyles- 
more, the War Office has ordered the formation of a special 
corps of expert service rifle shots to undertake the rapid in- 
struction of recruits in musketry. The new corps will be 
formed from the ranks of the 2000 rifle clubs now on the roll 
of the N.R.A. These clubs contain thousands of the most 
expert marksmen in the country, and many of them have 
served in His Majesty's forces. None will be taken who are 
eligible to serve with the troops, but the civilian riflemen and 
ex-Service men will be numerous enough to supply all needs. 
Each marksman will be posted for duty as a musketry in- 
structor, and a camp will be formed at Bisley under the 
command of Lord Cheylesmore, who will be supported by the 
School of Musketry and the Regular Service. The instructors 
will receive military rank. Those willing to serve should 
apply through the secretaries of their clubs, who are requested 
to forward applications to the Secretary, N.R.A., Bisley Camp, 
Brookwood, Surrey. 


The War Press Bureau says : 

A proposal has been made public with the object of raising Times, 
and drilling local forces as town guards, or to act in a similar Aug. 15, '14 
capacity. Such proposals are not official, and are considered 
by the authorities to be undesirable. Adequate steps have 
been taken, and will be taken, to maintain public order in any 
contingency which may arise. It is considered that the un- 
authorised recruitment of men for military or police purposes 
may interfere with the great national response which is being 
made to Lord Kitchener's appeal. 




Times, The response which has been made to Lord Kitchener's 

Sept. i, '14 appeals for recruits 1 has been distinctly satisfactory, but the 
1 t See ante > influx of recruits makes it more than ever necessary to find 
pp. 13, *4> n on-commissioned officers and drill instructors for the new 
units that are in course of formation. 

Lord Kitchener therefore specially appeals to all who 
have had previous service as non-commissioned officers, 
either in the Regular Army or in any branch of His Majesty's 
forces, to come forward at once and offer their services at the 
nearest military depot. He is sure that there must be many 
such non-commissioned officers who have served under him 
in the past, and he looks to their valuable assistance in organ- 
ising and training the new units which are now in course 
of being raised. They will, as far as possible, be reinstated 
in the rank which they originally held in the Army. 



Times, You are leaving home to fight for the safety and honour of 

Aug. 19/14 my Empire. 

Belgium, whose country we are pledged to defend, has 
been attacked, and France is about to be invaded by the 
same powerful foe. 

I have implicit confidence in you, my soldiers. Duty is 
your watchword, and I know your duty will be nobly done. 

I shall follow your every movement with deepest interest 
and mark with eager satisfaction your daily progress ; indeed, 
your welfare will never be absent from my thoughts. 

I pray God to bless you and guard you and bring you 
back victorious. 

gth August 1914. GEORGE R.I. 



Times, You are ordered abroad as a soldier of the King to help our 

Aug. 14/14 French comrades against the invasion of a common enemy. 
You have to perform a task which will need your courage, 


your energy, your patience. Remember that the honour of 
the British Army depends on your individual conduct. 

It will be your duty not only to set an example of dis- 
cipline and perfect steadiness under fire, but also to maintain 
the most friendly relations with those whom you are helping 
in this struggle. The operations in which you are engaged 
will, for the most part, take place in a friendly country, and 
you can do your own country no better service than in showing 
yourself in France and Belgium in the true character of a 
British soldier. 

Be invariably courteous, considerate, and kind. Never 
do anything likely to injure or destroy property, and always 
look upon looting as a disgraceful act. You are sure to meet 
with a welcome and to be trusted ; your conduct must justify 
that welcome and that trust. 

Your duty cannot be done unless your health is sound. 
So keep constantly on your guard against any excesses. In 
this new experience you may find temptations both in wine 
and women. You must entirely resist both temptations, and, 
while treating all women with perfect courtesy, you should 
avoid any intimacy. 

Do your duty bravely. Fear God. Honour the King. 

KITCHENER, Field-Marshal. 


As the result of the visit of Colonel Sir Aubrey Woolls- Times, 
Sampson and Major Pickburn, who have just concluded a Oct. 25, 
special mission to this country in regard to South African 
participation in the war, Lord Kitchener (says South Africa) 
has sent the following telegram to General Botha as a message 
to all South Africans : 

' Woolls-Sampson has asked me what he can do to help the cause 
and the Empire, and how South Africans can do most. I said that in 
my view every man in the Union ought to go at once for the Germans 
in South-West Africa, and see that matter through properly. After 
this is completed I will see that those who fought there Afrikander 
and Briton shall be represented here if the war is still in progress, and 
I hope that all will serve the Empire loyally. If you care to publish 
this expression of my opinion as being likely in any way to help you 
and that is its only object please do so. On my. advice, Woolls- 
Sampson is going back to South Africa at once. KITCHENER/ 





4.0.281, (A) Continuance of soldiers in Army service. His Majesty 

Aug. 4, '14 the King having been graciously pleased by Royal Procla- 
mation to authorise the retention of soldiers in Army service, 
the following instructions are promulgated to all concerned : 

Soldiers now serving who, on or after the 5th day of 
August 1914, would otherwise be entitled, in pursuance of the 
terms of their enlistment, to be discharged, or transferred to 
the Reserve, will continue in Army Service until legally dis- 
charged, or transferred to the Reserve. 

(B) Calling out and mobilisation of the Army Reserve 
(Regular and Special Reservists), and embodiment and mobilisa- 
tion of the Territorial Force. His Majesty the King having 
been graciously pleased by Royal Proclamations to authorise 
the Secretary of State for War to call out on permanent 
service such men of the Reserve as he may think fit, and 
further having ordered the Army Council to give such direc- 
tions as may seem necessary for embodying all or any part of 
the Territorial Force, the following instructions are promul- 
gated to all concerned : 

1. Army reservists will be called out on permanent service 
and directed to report themselves immediately at such places 
as they may be directed to attend for the purpose of joining 
the Army. 

2. The Territorial Force will be embodied, and all men 
belonging to the said force will be required to report them- 
selves immediately at their headquarters. 



3. The whole of the Regular, Special Reserve, and Territorial 
Forces in the United Kingdom will be mobilised, in accordance 
with the regulations and instructions previously issued. 

4. The 5th day of August 1914 is to be considered the 
first day of mobilisation. 




WHEREAS it has been represented to Us that it may be 4.0.282, 
necessary on the outbreak of war to provide temporarily from Aug. 4, '14 
civil sources additional artificers, tradesmen, clerks, labourers, 
and others, for service in Our Army : 

And Whereas We deem it expedient to make provision for 
the pay of those so enlisted : 

Our Will and Pleasure is that Our Army Council shall have 
power to enlist, when the exigencies of Our Service may 
require, additional artificers, tradesmen, clerks, labourers, 
and others, for various quasi-civilian services in Our Army 
during war, and to pay those so enlisted at such rates as may 
be approved by Our Army Council. 

Given at Our Court at St. James's, this Thirtieth day of 
June One thousand nine hundred and fourteen, in 
the Fifth year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command. 




i. Pursuant to Section io8A (3) (c) of the Army Act, the 4. 0.289, 
prices to be paid to an occupier other than the keeper of a Aug. 4> J 4 
victualling house for billets requisitioned in accordance with ^ * so j 



the provisions of Section io8A have been fixed at the rates 
shown in the subjoined schedule : 


Accommodation to be provided. 

Lodging and attendance for soldier where meals furnished 
Breakfast as specified in Part I. of the Second Schedule 

to the Army Act . . . . 

Dinner as so specified 

Supper as so specified 

Where no meals furnished, lodging and attendance, and 

candles, vinegar, salt, and the use of fire, and the 

necessary utensils for dressing and eating his meat . 
Stable room and ten pounds of oats, twelve pounds of 

hay, and eight pounds of straw per day for each horse 
Stable room without forage . . . . 
Lodging and attendance for officer 

Price to be paid to 

an occupier other 

than the keeper of a 

victualling house. 


9 per night. 

7J each. 

1 7! each, 
o 4! each. 

o 9 per day. 

2 7i per day. 
o 9 per day. 

3 o per night. 

Note. An officer must pay for bis food. 

2. The following special rates have been fixed for troops 
accommodated in buildings (other than dwelling-houses) 
where bed and attendance are not provided, and for horses 
where proper stabling is not provided : 

Price to be paid. 

For each officer or soldier . .1 -, . , , 

For each horse . . . J 3d. per night. 


A. 0. 292, Service dress will be worn for all purposes by all ranks. 
Aug. 5, '14 No further issues of full dress clothing will be made. 

This order does not apply to Household Cavalry and 
Foot Guards in London. 


A. 0. 314, With reference to Section 189 of the Army Act, it is noti- 
Aug. 16/14 fied for information that all troops serving under that Act in 



the United Kingdom and abroad, except in India, are to be 
considered on active service from the date of receipt of this 




Officers who are granted temporary commissions and who A. 0. 393, 
are not posted to a regiment, corps, or department for duty Sept'x5,'z4 
will wear the following badges, as laid down in paragraph 1391, 
Dress Regulations : 

Cap badge The Royal Arms. 
Collar badges The Royal Arms. 
Buttons Universal pattern bearing the Royal Arms. 
Their service dress will be of infantry pattern. 


1. Ex-soldiers of the Regular Army will be permitted to A. 0. 295, 
re-enlist in the Special Reserve for a period of one year, or, Au S- 6 > ' J 4 
if the war lasts longer, for the duration of the war. If the 

war is over in less than one year, they may be discharged at 
once. Men so enlisted and employed with hospitals, remount 
depots, and veterinary hospitals, and as clerks, may be retained 
after the termination of hostilities until their services can be 
spared, but in no case will the retention exceed six months. 

2. Ex-soldiers re-enlisted in the Special Reserve will be 
eligible in the ordinary course for drafting to service units 
if found fit when the occasion arises. 

3. The conditions affecting these enlistments will be as 
follows : 

(a) Ex-soldiers must have served not less than one year 
in the Regular Army, have been discharged with a military 
character of not less than ' fair/ be not less than 30 or more 
than 42 years of age, and be otherwise eligible in accordance 
with the regulations. 



(b) An ex-soldier may re-enlist as follows : 
(i) Into the R.F.A. Special Reserve : 

As a gunner, if he has served as such in the 

R.H.A. or R.F.A. 
As a driver, if he has served as such in the 

R.H.A. or R.F.A. 
As an artificer, if he has served as such in the 

Cavalry, R.H.A. or R.F.A. 
(ii) Into R.G.A. Special Reserve, if he has served as 

a gunner in the R.H.A., R.F.A., or R.G.A. 
(iii) Into R.E. Special Reserve : 

As a sapper if he has served in a field troop, 
or field, fortress, railway, telegraph, or 
signal company of R.E. 

As a driver, if he has served as such in the R.E. 
(iv) Into Infantry Special Reserve, if he has served in 
Cavalry, Royal Artillery, Infantry, or A.S.C. 
(v) Into R.A.M.C. Special Reserve, if he has served 
in the R.A.M.C., or has been trained in India 
as a nursing orderly, and is in possession of 
the certificate (Indian Army Form X 1843). 
(vi) Into the A.V.C. Special Reserve, if he has served 
in the A.V.C. 


A. 0. 296, It has been decided that, in addition to enlistments under 

Aug. 6, '14 existing conditions, enlistments in the Regular Army will be 

opened under the following conditions for men who are 

anxious to serve their country during the continuance of the 

present war : 

(1) Enlistments will be for a period of three years with the 

colours, or if the war lasts longer for the duration of 
the war. If, however, the war lasts for less than 
three years, men so enlisting will be discharged with 
all convenient speed. 

(2) Age 19 to 30 years. 

(3) All such enlistments to be for general service. 

(4) Standards of height and chest measurement and all 

other conditions as at present in force. 



His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to A. 0.297, 
approve of pardons being granted to soldiers who were in a Aug. 7, '14 
state of desertion from the Regular Forces on the 5th August 
1914, and who surrender themselves in the United Kingdom 
on or before the 4th September 1914, or at any station abroad 
where there are Regular Forces on or before the 4th October 
1914. They will forfeit all service prior to the date of sur- 
render, but such service may subsequently be restored under 
the conditions laid down in the King's Regulations for 
restoration of service forfeited under Section 79 of the Army 

Deserters who enlist between the 5th August 1914 and 
4th October 1914, both days inclusive, in any Colonial Corps 
which have been or may be placed at the disposal of the 
Imperial Government for the war will be granted a free 
pardon, and at the expiration of their service in such corps 
will not be claimed for further service in the Regular Forces 
of the United Kingdom. 

They will, however, forfeit all service rendered in the 
Regular Forces of the United Kingdom prior to the date of 
such enlistment. 

The provisions of this Order will not apply to men who 
have fraudulently or improperly enlisted. 


Deserters who surrender and receive a free pardon under 4.0.327, 
Army Order I. of the 7th August 1914, will be supplied free Aug. 23/14 
with clothing and necessaries on the scale for recruits and re- 
enlisted soldiers authorised by Army Order of the isth idem. 


In consequence of the present national emergency, His 
Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to approve the 
suspension, until further notice, of the professional examina- 
tions of officers for promotion. 




A. 0. 303, With reference to the Army (Supply of Food, Forage, and 
Aug. 10/14 Stores) Act, 1914, amending Section 115 of the Army Act, 
whereby a duly constituted military authority is empowered 
to requisition anything required for the use of His Majesty's 
Forces, authority to requisition will, for the present, be re- 
stricted to those officers who are empowered to requisition 
under the Army Act, as may be specially appointed by the 
Army Council. 1 


REALM ACT, 1914 

4.0.310, i. Copies of the Defence of the Realm Regulations, 1914, 
Aug. 15, '14 m ade by Order in Council under the Defence of the Realm 
Act, 1914, have been issued to all concerned. 2 

A copy of these regulations is to be kept at the head- 
quarters of all units, and in addition one should be laid before 
every court-martial assembled for the trial of a person for a 
contravention of the regulations. 

2. Where any person is arrested under paragraph 13 of 
the regulations by a military officer or soldier duly authorised 
for the purpose, or, having been arrested by a police or 
customs officer, is brought by him to the military authorities, 
the military authorities will decide whether he should be tried 
by court-martial for any offence under Part II. of the regula- 
tions or for any other offence triable by military law. 

If it is decided after due investigation that he is not to be 
tried by court-martial, he must be released unless it appears 
that he has committed some offence against the ordinary law 
(e.g., an offence under the Official Secrets Act or against the 
Aliens Restriction Order in Council), in which case he should 
be handed over to the civil authorities, or unless being an 
alien enemy he is detained as a prisoner of war. 

3. If it is decided that the offender should be tried by court- 
martial for an offence under Part II. of the regulations, the 
following procedure will be adopted : 

1 [See ante, p. 7.] 

2 [These Regulations are given in a later volume.] 


(a) The preliminary investigation of the charge, or charges, 

preferred against any person so received or taken 
over will be carried out and all necessary steps taken 
for bringing the offender to trial by court-martial, in 
the same way as though such person belonged to the 
unit in whose charge he may be. 

(b) Unless the nature of the charge, or charges, preferred 

against any such person is of such a serious nature 
as to make it desirable that a sentence in excess of 
two years' imprisonment, with or without hard 
labour, should be awarded, all such persons will be 
tried by a district court-martial. 

(c) A charge preferred before a court-martial against a 

person who has contravened any regulation in Part II. 
of the Defence of the Realm Regulations, 1914, will 
be prepared in a form similar to that given below : 

Charge Sheet 

The accused. (name) is charged Regulation 

with the following contravention of the Defence l6 - 
of the Realm Regulations, 1914 ; that is to say 
without lawful authority injuring a wire used for 
the transmission of telegraphic messages, 
in that he, at on the 

(date) cut the telegraph wire between 
(place) and (place). 


Commanding (the unit with which the 
offender is in custody). 



To be tried by a *District Court-Martial. 


*(Of an officer empowered under the Army Act to 
convene a court-martial of the description ordered.) 



(d) The Rules of Procedure under the Army Act will be 

followed by the officer investigating the charge, the 



convening officer, the court, and the confirming 

(e) Proceedings of all such courts-martial will be trans- 
mitted to the Judge-Advocate-General. 

4. The Army Council under the powers conferred on them 
by Regulation 29 appoint the following to be a competent 
military authority for the purposes of the regulations : 

In a defended port, the fortress commander. 

In places outside a defended port, the G.O.C.-in-C. of 
a command or army, the G.O.C. of a district, and a 
commander of lines of communication defence. 

5. The following persons should be authorised by the 
competent military authority to make arrest under the 
conditions laid down in Regulation 13, viz. all officers, 
warrant officers, and non-commissioned officers, also such 
soldiers as are on actual military duty at the time the occasion 
for such arrest arises. 

6. The provisions of Section 45 (4) of the Army Act are to 
be strictly complied with by the persons making arrests under 
the regulations. 

7. In any case arising out of the regulations in which 
naval interests are affected, military officers administering 
the regulations will consult with the local naval authorities. 

8. Under the powers given by Regulation 29, the Army 
Council declare the following places to be ' Defended Har- 
bours ' for the purposes of the regulations : 

1. Cromarty. 15. Falmouth. 

2. Aberdeen. 16. Milford Haven. 

3. Tay. 17. Swansea. 

4. Forth. 18. Cardiff and Barry. 

5. Tyne. 19. Mersey. 

6. Tees and Hartlepool. 20. Barrow. 

7. Humber. 21. Clyde. 

8. Thames and Medway. 22. Lough Swilly. 

9. Harwich. 23. Belfast. 

10. Dover. 24. Queenstown. 

11. Newhaven. 25. Berehaven. 

12. Portsmouth. 26. Dublin. 

13. Portland. 27. The Orkneys. 

14. Plymouth. 28. The Shetlands. 


9. An alien enemy found committing a war crime in the 
United Kingdom may be tried by court-martial independently 
of the Defence of the Realm Regulations, but proceedings of 
this nature will not be taken without reference to the Army 


1. With reference to Army Order 310 of 1914, it is notified A. 0. 397, 
for information that under the Defence of the Realm (No. 2) Se P- J 9> ' X 4 
Act, 1914, the power of making regulations by Order in 
Council has been extended. 

In -order to avoid confusion the regulations made under 
the original Act should no longer be used. 

Copies of consolidated regulations embodying all regu- 
lations drawn up under both Acts are now being issued to all 
concerned, and should be acted on accordingly. 

2. The Army Council under the powers conferred on them 
by Regulation 29 hereby make the following additions to the 
list of competent military authorities set forth in paragraph 4 
of Army Order 310 of 1914 : 

Every military member of the Army Council. 
The general officer commanding a training centre or a 

3. The Army Council in virtue of the power conferred on 
them by the Defence of the Realm (No. 2) Act, 1914, and the 
regulations made thereunder, hereby proclaim the areas set 
forth in Appendix I. to this Order to be ' proclaimed areas/ 

4. A schedule giving the areas of certain of the ' defended 
harbours ' mentioned in paragraph 8 of Army Order 310 of 
1914, is issued herewith (Appendix II.) 

5. With reference to Regulation 3 (a), separate instructions 
are now being drawn up and will shortly be issued to all com- 
petent military authorities concerned. 







Sub-areas to be omitted. 


Oxfordshire (east 
River Cherwell). 
Middlesex . \ 
Suffolk . 

Essex . 


London County area. 

Such portion of Harwich For- 
tress Defences within -county. 

(a) Such portion of Harwich 

Fortress Defences within 

(b) Such portion of Thames and 

Medway Fortress Defences 

within county. 
(c} Purfleet training area. 
(d) Colchester training area. 

County boundaries. 



Sub-areas to be omitted. 


Northumberland . 

Durham . . 

(a) Parliamentary division of 

(&) Such portion of Tynemouth 
Fortress Defences within 

(a) Such portion of Tynemouth 
Fortress Defences within 

() Such portion of Tees and 
Hartlepool Fortress De- 
fences within county. 

County boundaries. 





Fife . 



Sub-areas to be omitted. 

Such portion of Forth and Tay 
Fortress Defences within 

Such portion of Clyde Fortress 

Defences within county. 
Such portion of Forth Fortress 

Defences within county. 
Such portion of Forth Fortress 

Defences within county. 
Such portion of Forth Fortress 

Defences within county. 


County boundaries. 



Sub-areas to be omitted. 


East Riding. 
North Riding. 

(a) Rural districts of Startforth 
Reeth Aysgarth Rich- 
mond Leyburn. 

() Municipal Borough of Rich- 

(c} Such portion of Tees and 
Hartlepool Fortress De- 
fences and Humber Fortress 
Defences within county 

County boundaries. 



Sub-area to be omitted. 



As administered by 
London District 





Sub-areas to be omitted. 



Newhaven Fortress Defences. 

(a) Dover Fortress Defences. 

(b) Such portion of Thames and 

Medway Fortress Defences 
within county. 

(c) Shorncliffe training area. 

County boundaries. 



Rural Districts. 

Urban Districts. 

Boundaries all inclusive. 


Surrey . 


Hartley Witney 
Alton Pe- 
tersfield Bas- 

Farnham Guild- 
ford H amble- 


Aldershot Alton 

Farnham Wok- 
ing Frimley. 

North and East. Line of 
the River Thames from 
Reading to junction of 
Thames and Wey, thence 
line of River Wey to 
Guildford, thence line of 
South-Western Railway 
to Petersfield. 

North and West. Line of 
Kennet, Avon canal to 
Aldermaston, thence road 
to Basingstoke, thence 
line of Basingstoke 
Alton light railway to 
Alton, thence by Meon 
Valley railway to Privet, 
thence by road to Peters- 



Sub-areas to be omitted. 


Wiltshire . . . 
Hampshire . 

The whole county. 
The whole county, except portions 
included in Aldershot training 
area and Portsmouth Fortress. 







Rural Districts. 

Urban Districts. 


Boundaries all 



Kent . 

Elham Romney 

Cheriton Sand- 

Lydd New 






Rural Districts. 

Urban Districts. 


Boundaries all inclusive. 

Essex . 

Lexden and Wins- 

Braintree Wit- 


North. Colchester 

Braintree Mai- 


Braintree road. 
West. Railway be- 
tween Braintree 


East River Colne. 



Rural Districts. 

Urban Districts. 


Boundaries all inclusive. 

Essex . 

Romford Orsett 


North. Great East- 


ern Railway be- 

tween Ilford and 


East. Road between 

Brentwood East 

Horndon, thence by 


London and Tilbury 
Railway, via Ray- 

leigh to Tilbury. 

West. The road be- 

tween Barking 




Rural Districts. 


Dorset .... 

Wareham and Purbeck 

North. -The River Piddle. 
West. The road between 
Puddletown Weymouth. 







Rural Districts. 

Urban Districts and 
Municipal Boroughs. 

Boundaries all inclusive. 


Oakham Stam- 

South. Stamford Oak- 


ham Road. 


Bingham Bas- 
ford South- 

Carlton West 

West. Oakham Melton 
Mowbray Road thence 

well Newark. 


Midland Railway to 



Leicestershire . 

Melton Mowbray 

Melton Mowbray. 

North. Midland Rail- 


way N ottingham to 

Newark, thence Newark 

Sleaford Road. 


Claypole Slea- 

Sleaford, Gran- 

East. Sleaford Bo wen 

ford Gran- 

tham, Bourne. 

Stamford Road. 

tham Bourne. 



Boundaries all inclusive. 


County Boundaries. 





Castlenock Uppercross Newcastle Rath- ^ All parishes 
down Nethercross Dublin Balrothery \ contained 
East Balrothery West Coolock. J therein. 



Kildare . 


North Gait Clane Ikeathy and Aghterany ' 
North Naas Carbury Kilkea and A 
Moone Kilcullen West Oflfally South A11 
Naas Narragh and Reban West South f c tamed 
Gait Narragh and* Reban East Connel !in ' 

East Offally. 





County in 



Rural Districts. 

Urban Districts. 





South Shields. 


South Shields. 









Newburn. Newcastle- 



Gosforth. upon-Tyne. 

Whitley and Tynemouth. 
























West Hartlepool. 


Cowpen Bewley. 
Monk Heseldon. 




County in which situated. 


Urban Districts. 


Yorkshire . 

Southbank in Normanby. 

Sheraton with Hulam. 


County in which 



Rural Districts. 

Urban Districts. 

County Borough. 


Yorkshire . 





County in which situated. 

Area : Parishes. 










East Halton. 

North Killingholme. 

South Killingholme. 








Great Coates. 

Little Coates. 

Great Grimsby. 





County in which situated. 

Area: Parishes. 

Lincolnshire (continued} . 


Barnoldby le Beck. 


Holton le Clay. 








County in which situated. 

Area: Parishes. 


Suffolk . 

St. Nicholas. 
Little Oakley. 

Stratton Hall. 
Trimley St. Martin. 
Trimley St. Mary. 


County in which situated. 

Area : Parishes. 


North Shoebury. 
South Shoebury. 
Great Wakering. 
East Tilbury. 
West Tilbury. 
Little Thurrock. 
Grays Thurrock. 




County in which 


Rural Districts. 

Urban Districts. 

Municipal Boroughs. 



Milton Regis. 



County in which situated. 


Rural District. 

Municipal Borough. 






v^uumjr in wiiiuu siiuctieu. 

Urban District. 


^Jf* \XfTl 1 VPtt 

T^TI rl rl i TI crTi rtA 

A^l C Wild VCll* 


1 1 1 U.U.111^ I1UC< 





Tarring Neville. 

Denton Urban. 

South Heighten'. 






West Firle. 










County in 

which situated. 






Hampshire . 

Isle of Wight. 

Gosport and 






East Cowes. 

St Helens. 






County in 

which situated. 





Dorsetshire . 




Winterbourne Herring- 

and Mel- 



Winterbourne Came. 



West Knighton. ^ 




Chaldon Harring. 

Winfrith Newburgh. 

West Lulworth. 

East Lulworth. 



Bounty in 
which situated. 





Devonshire . 

Plympton St. 

East Stone- 

Devon port. 

Bere Ferrers. 



County in 
which situated. 






Cornwall . 

St. Germans. 



St. Dominick. 



County in which 


Municipal Boroughs. 


Cornwall i, 




Budock Rural. 





St. Gluvias. 


P erranar worthal. 


St. Just in Roseland. 


St. Anthony in Roseland. 


County in which 



Rural Districts. 

Urban Districts. 

County Borough. 



Llandaff and 



Dinas Powis. 




. .. 



St. Mellons. 










County in 



Rural Districts. 

Urban Districts. 





Swansea (less 






Briton Ferry. 


Baglan Lower. 


County in which 











Milford Haven. 







North Prendergast. 

Hamlet of St. Martin. 

Haroldston St. Issells. 




Hamlet of St. Thomas. 

Walton West. 

Walwyn Castle. 

Robeston West. 




St. Ishmaels. 

St. Brides. 









Urban Districts. 





Little Crosby. 
Great Crosby. 



Waterloo with Seaforth. 




Huyton with Roby. 







County in which 



Rural District. 


Urban Districts. 

Hoylake and West 


Neston and Parkgate. 
Higher Bebington. 
Lower Bebington. 
Ellesmere Port and 

County Borough. 



County in which 


Urban Districts. 

Municipal Borough. 









County in which situated. 

Area : Parishes. 


Linlithgowshire and Edinburghshire. 





























Kirkcaldy and Dysart. 





County in which situated. 

Area : Parishes. 

Renfrewshire . 




Port Glasgow. 






New Kilpatrick. 

Old Kilpatrick. 





County in which situated. 

Area : Parishes. 

Dumbartonshire (continued] . 








Dunoon and Kilmun. 



County in which situated. 

Area : Parishes. 


Fifeshire . 






Mains and Strathmartine. 

Liffand Benvie. 

Fowlis Easter. 






Ferry Port on Craig. 



County in which situated. 

Area: Parishes. 




Kilmuir Easter. 

Logic Easter. 







County in which situated. 

Area : Parishes. 


Old Machar. 


Peterculter. \ 
Banchory Devenick. 


The whole of. 

County in which situated. 

Area: Parishes. 

Donegal . 






Lower Fahan. 

Upper Fahan. 

Mintiaghs or Ban of Inch. 






County in which situated. 

Area: Parishes. 





Carrickfergus or St. Nicholas. 





Holy wood. 








County in which situated. 

Area: Parishes. 






County in which situated. 


Area : Parishes. 














St. Anne's Shandon. 

St. Mary's Shandon. 

Little Island. 


Temple Robin. 

St. Finbars. 












St. Nicholas. 

It' Pauls!' 1 Sma11 P aris ^ es in Cork 
HolyTTrinity. J City ' 


The whole of. 



1. Until the establishment of non-commissioned officers A.O. 315, 
in units of the new six divisions and army troops is complete, Au - I 7.' I 4 
an ex-non-commissioned officer of the Regular Army who 

enlists under Army Order I. or II. of the 6th August 1914 
(as amended) will, if he was not below the rank of corporal 
when discharged from the Regular Army, be posted whenever 
possible to a unit of his former corps in the new six divisions 
and army troops and promoted forthwith to the rank he held 
on discharge. 

2. Further promotion will be made to fill vacancies in the 
establishment of non-commissioned officers in each unit, in 
accordance with instructions which will be issued shortly. 

3. In order further to provide the required number of 
warrant officers and non-commissioned officers above the 
rank of sergeant, the officer commanding a unit of the new 
six divisions and army troops, with the approval of the 
officer in charge of records, is authorised to extend to 45 the 
age limit of 42 referred to in Army Order I. of 6th August 
1^14, in the case of an ex-soldier whom he wishes to enlist in 
the unit under his command. 

4. This Order does not apply to re-enlistments into the 
Army Ordnance Corps in respect of which a further Army 
Order will be issued. 

5. This Order does not apply to the re-enlistment of ex- 
regular non-commissioned officers of the National Reserve, 
regarding whose enlistment instructions will be issued through 
County Associations. 


An ex-non-commissioned officer of any branch of His A.O. 384, 
Majesty's forces who is more than 45 years of age, but is likely ^P 1 - 
to prove a competent drill instructor, may be enlisted for 
service in the Regular Army for one year or the duration of the 
war, whether this be more or less than one year, and will not 



be required to serve outside the United Kingdom unless he 
voluntarily undertakes to do so. If he has previously served 
as a non-commissioned officer in the Regular Army he will be 
given, from the date of attestation, acting non-commissioned 
rank corresponding to that held by him on discharge from 
the Regular Army, and full pay of that rank.. If he has not 
previously served as a non-commissioned officer of the 
Regular Army he will similarly be given the acting rank and 
full pay of corporal. Further promotion in acting rank may 
be given according to his capabilities as an instructor, but he 
will not be eligible for permanent rank. Attestations will be 
carried out on Army Form B 248, the notice paper being Army 
Form B 24&A, both being amended in manuscript in accord- 
ance with instructions issued to recruiting officers to make it 
clear that the soldier will not be required to serve outside the 
United Kingdom. 




A. 0. 312, WHEREAS We deem it expedient to provide for the con- 

Aug. 16, '14 tribution towards the maintenance of their families by married 

soldiers serving in Our Army who are not borne on the married 

establishment, and for pensions for the widows and legitimate 

children of such soldiers : 

Our Will and Pleasure is that for the period of the present 
war the provisions of Article 986 of Our Warrant of 20th 
August 1913, for the Pay, Appointment, Promotion, and Non- 
Effective Pay of Our Army, shall apply to all married soldiers 
who are eligible for separation allowance and are separated 
from their wives and families owing to service abroad. 

It is Our further Will and Pleasure that the widows and 
legitimate children of non-commissioned officers and men not 
on the married establishment who were married before the 
I4th August 1914, who are on the Imperial establishment, 
and the depot of whose unit is in the United Kingdom, and 
whose deaths are due to active service, shall be granted 
pensions at the rates and under the conditions laid down in 


Our Warrant of 20th August 1913 for the widows and children 
of soldiers on the married establishment. 

Given at Our Court at St. James's, this Fifteenth day of 
August One thousand nine hundred and fourteen, in 
the Fifth year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 



Extension of issue to those not on the Married Establishment 

and conditions of eligibility generally 

i. Separation allowance. From the 5th August 1914, and 4.0.319, 
for the period of the war, the grant of separation allowance, Au 8- i6.*i 
as detailed in sub-section III., Section 4, of the Allowance 
Regulations, will be extended as follows : 

(1) The grant in the case of regular units will be no longer 

confined to those on the married establishment, but 
will be subject in these and all other cases to the 
conditions of paragraph 95 and sub-section II., 
Section 4, of the Allowance Regulations. , 

(2) The extension applies only to soldiers who are on 

Imperial establishment, and the depot of whose 
unit is in the United Kingdom. 

(3) In addition to those on the married establishment of 

the Regular Army, the allowance will now be issuable 
to all men who were married and already serving on 
the I4th August 1914, whether in the Regular Army, 
the Reserves, or the Territorial Force. 

It will also be issuable to all men enlisting subse- 
quent to the I3th August 1914, who are permitted 
to enlist as married men. In all cases of enlistment 
on and after I4th August 1914, where the terms of 
enlistment exclude married men, no claim to separa- 
tion allowance will be admitted. 

For the period subsequent to the I3th August, no 
men who marry while serving, whether in the Regular 
Army, the Reserves, or the Territorial Force will be 
entitled to separation allowance (except in the cases 
in which men are filling a vacancy on, the married 
establishment of a regular unit). 



(4) In cases in which married families not on the married 

establishment are allowed to retain public quarters 
under paragraph 1081 King's Regulations, no rent 
need be charged, and separation allowance will be 
issuable at the lower rate. 

(5) No other privileges of the married establishment are 

hereby conferred, but men granted separation allow- 
ance will be under the same obligations to allot a 
portion of their pay when abroad as if on the married 

Mode of issue in the case of men married off the strength 

(6) As there are no rolls of the persons affected by the 

extension in paragraphs (i) and (2), women married 
off the strength have been invited by public advertise- 
ment to apply to the record offices of their husbands' 
regiments, giving the soldier's name, rank, number, 
and regiment, with the date and place of the marriage, 
and the names, ages, and sexes of their children, if 
any. Marriage and birth or baptismal certificates 
are required, and should, if possible, be enclosed with 

their application, to save delay in the issue of the 

(7) Instructions have been issued that when possible the 

commanding officers of units shall send to the officer 
in charge of records rolls of the men concerned, with 
the name and address of the wife, place and date of 
marriage, and particulars as regards children ; but 
in many cases these rolls will not be immediately 
forthcoming, and issue should not be delayed for 
corroboration by them, when the case is otherwise 

(8) The officer in charge of records will notify the pay- 

master upon Army Form O 1794, adapting it to 
serve for soldiers not on the married roll, of all cases 
in which the woman furnishes the requisite certifi- 
cates, or provisionally satisfies him by other evidence 
of her claim. (Subsequent verification to be made 
in this case.) 

(9) If difficulty arises in obtaining the certificates of 

marriage or of birth, the War Office (or, in the case 


of marriages or births in Scotland or Ireland, the 
Local Auditor, Scottish or Irish Command) will be 
prepared upon receipt of such particulars (date and 
place, etc) as can be obtained, to take steps to verify 
them. The production of certificates (or verification 
as above) is necessary in all cases. 

(10) Arrangements have been made that the families in 
question may obtain temporary relief, such relief 
being repaid by the Army and deducted from 
separation allowance. The amounts to be recovered 
will be notified to the paymasters concerned, and 
will be recovered from the first issue after notification. 
Otherwise the ordinary course of issue will be 
followed with all promptitude. 

2. Pensions. The widows and legitimate children of non- 
commissioned officers and men whose deaths are due to active 
service, may, if they were entitled to separation allowance 
under the above conditions, be granted pensions at the rates 
and under the conditions laid down for the widows and children 
of soldiers on the married establishment. 


Separation Allowance 

1. The grant of separation allowance as detailed in sub- 
section II., Section 4, of the Allowance Regulations will be 
extended to include families of soldiers who 'enlist into the 
units of the new divisions and army troops if they were 
married before enlistment. The conditions of paragraph 95, 
Allowance Regulations, will apply except that there will be 
no ' married establishment/ and no other privileges of the 
married establishment will be conferred. 

2. In cases in which married families are allowed to occupy 
public quarters under paragraph 1081, King's Regulations, 
no rent need be charged, and separation allowance will be 
issuable at the lower rate. 


3. The allowance will be issued by the regimental pay- 
master of the record office station to which the unit is affiliated. 

4. The officer in charge of records will verify the fact of 
marriage and dates of birth of children, as stated on the form 
of attestation, by obtaining marriage and birth or baptismal 
certificates from the wife of the soldier, and he will notify the 
paymaster upon Army Form O 1794, adapting it to suit the 
case. If difficulty arises in obtaining the certificates of mar- 
riage or birth, the War Office (or, in the case of marriages or 
births in Scotland or Ireland, the Local Auditor, Scottish or 
Irish Command) will be prepared, upon receipt of such par- 
ticulars (date and place, etc.) as can be obtained, to take steps 
to verify them. The production of certificates (or such veri- 
fication) is necessary in all cases before issue is made. 

5. Instructions have been issued for making advances of 
los. to such families upon the soldier's statement prior to in- 
vestigation of their claims. These advances will be recovered 
from the first issue of separation allowance, or from the 
soldier's pay if the claim is not established. 

6. Married men will be under the same obligations to allot 
a portion of their pay when abroad as if on the married 
establishment. 1 

7. Pensions. The widows and legitimate children of non- 
commissioned officers and men enlisting under the above 
circumstances, and declaring their marriage on enlistment, 
whose deaths are due to active service, may be granted pensions 
at the rates and under the conditions laid down for the widows 
and children of soldiers on the married establishment. 




A. 0. 321, WHEREAS We deem it expedient to fix a date from which 
Aug. 20, '14 married soldiers of all units of Our Expeditionary Force shall 

be required to contribute a portion of their pay towards the 

maintenance of their wives and families : 

1 [By Royal Warrant, dated September 23, 1914, published as A. 0. 
402 of 1914, the amounts of separation allowance were increased. See 
Post, p. 65 et seq., and p. 76 et seq.] 


Our Will and Pleasure is that Article 986 of Our Warrant 
of 20th August 1913, for the Pay, Appointment, Promotion, 
and Non-Effective Pay of Our Army, as amended by Our 
Warrant of the isth August 1914, shall, until Our further Will 
and Pleasure be made known, be extended to apply to all 
married soldiers of units of Our Expeditionary Force who are 
eligible for separation allowance and are separated from their 
wives and families owing to service with units of the Expe- 
ditionary Force, and the stoppages referred to in the Article 
shall commence not later than the loth August 1914, so far 
as all such soldiers are concerned. 

Given at Our Court at St. James's, this Twentieth day of 
August One thousand nine hundred and fourteen, in 
the Fifth year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 


By Royal Warrant published in Army Order 342 of 
August 31, 1914, the provisions of this warrant were extended 
to apply to all married soldiers, including the Territorial Force, 
serving at home who are eligible for separation allowance, 
and who are separated from their wives and families owing to 


His Majesty the King having been graciously pleased to A. 0.322, 
appoint certain gentlemen to temporary combatant com- Aug. 20/14 
missions in the Regular Army, the Special Reserve of Officers, 
and the Territorial Force, for the period of the present war, 
it has been decided to grant to such officers an outfit allow- 
ance of jfao. 1 This allowance will not be subject to the 
conditions as to refund laid down in the Regulations for 
the Special Reserve of Officers and the Regulations for the 
Territorial Force, which will only apply to outfit allowances 
issued under ordinary conditions. 

The regulated allowance for provision of camp kit will 
also be issuable to these officers under the usual conditions. 

1 [Increased to 30 by A. 0. 390, published Sept. 14, '14.] 



A. 0. 376, With reference to paragraph 674A, Allowance Regulations, 
Sept. 3, '14 an( | paragraph 6i5A, Territorial Force Regulations, the maxi- 
mum allowance for purchase of camp kit is temporarily in- 
creased to 7, los. This increase has effect as from 5th August 
1914 ; and officers (and members of Queen Alexandra's Im- 
perial Military Nursing Service) to whom further sums may 
be due in respect of purchases made by them on or since that 
date should forward supplementary claims to the paymaster 
or other paying officer concerned, supported where necessary 
by further receipted bills. 


4.0.324, i. With reference to Army Order II. of 6th August IQI4 1 
Aug. 21, '14 ( as amended by Army Order III. of 7th August 1914) intro- 
ducing special terms of enlistment into the Regular Army, 
His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to approve 
of the addition to the Army of six divisions and Army Troops. 

2. .* * * The establishment of each unit will follow 
War Establishments (Part I.), 1914. 

3. The new battalions will be raised as additional battalions 
of the regiments of Infantry of the Line, and will be given 
numbers following consecutively on the existing battalions 
of their regiments. They will be further distinguished by 
the word ' Service ' after the number, e.g. 

' 8th (Service) Bn. The Royal Welsh Fusiliers/ 

4. Recruits will be clothed and equipped at depots, and 
subsequently collected at training centres, where brigades 

and divisions will be formed. 

* * * * * * * * 

6. The battalions allotted as Army Troops will be attached 
to divisions for training as indicated. 

7. A general officer will be appointed to command each 
training centre, and will be known as the General Officer 
Commanding Training Centre. He will be responsible for 
the discipline as well as the training of the new units at his 
centre. He will be provided with a staff, and until brigade 
and divisional headquarters are formed will communicate 

1 [See ante, p. 24.] 


direct with artillery brigade and battalion commanders on 
matters of training and discipline. 

8. The administration of the new units will be undertaken 
by the Major-Generals (or Brigadier-Generals) in charge of 
administration of Commands. 


1. During the period of the war, competitive examinations A. 0. 326, 
of candidates from the Special Reserve of Officers, the Militia, Aug. 23, '14 
the Territorial Force, and the ranks for commissions in the 
Regular Army will be suspended, and qualifying literary 
examinations for such candidates will not be held. 

2. Officers (whether Cavalry, Royal Artillery, Royal En- 
gineers, or Infantry) belonging to the Special Reserve of 
Officers, the Militia, or the Territorial Force, who were serving 
prior to mobilisation, and who intended to present themselves 
at a competitive examination, will be considered for appoint- 
ment to regular commissions if and when they have fulfilled 
the following conditions. 

They must 

(a) have completed not less than six months' service in the 

Special Reserve of Officers, the Militia, or the Terrir 
torial Force ; 

(b) have passed the Army Entrance Examination, or one 

of the tests accepted in lieu thereof (paragraph 10, 
Regulations under which commissions in the Regular 
Army may be obtained by Officers of the Special 
Reserve of Officers, etc.) ; 

(c) have attained the age of 19 years and not have attained 

the age of 25 ; 

(d) be recommended by their commanding officer as in all 

respects suitable for appointment to Regular Army 
commissions. * 

3. Recommendations should be made on Form M.T. 
3I5A (copies of which will be supplied to commanding officers 
on application to the Secretary, War Office), and should reach 
the War Office not later than I5th September 1914. 




A. 0. 394, General Officers Commanding Training Centres, Divisions 
Sept. 16/14 and Brigades of the First, Second, Third, and Fourth New 
Armies are empowered to nominate to units under their 
command as officers in any rank gentlemen likely to be suit- 
able for temporary commissions. 

When General Officers Commanding have satisfied them- 
selves that candidates are suitable, the nominations on 
Form M.T. 423, giving full Christian names and ages of can- 
didates, with a medical certificate, signed by an officer of the 
Royal Army Medical Corps, should at once be forwarded to 
the Military Secretary, War Office, S.W., who will then proceed 
with the appointments. 

Candidates duly nominated may join for duty in anti- 
cipation of their appointments being confirmed. The date of 
joining is to be reported to the Military Secretary. 


A. 0. 410, The four-company organisation, promulgated in Army 
Oct. i, '14 Order 323 of 1913, has been extended to Reserve battalions 
of Foot Guards and to ah 1 Reserve and Extra-Reserve bat- 
talions, Infantry of the Line, with effect from 5th August 1914. 


4.0.329, It is notified in continuation of Special Army Order 
Aug. 24/14 (General Mobilisation) of 4th August 1914, that discharges 
on termination of engagement are suspended till demobilisa- 
tion or the expiration of the extra year for which soldiers 
of the Regular Forces and Territorial Forces are liable. 1 

Discharges under sub-paragraphs (v), (xiv), (xv), (xva), 
(xv), (xviii), (xix), (xxii), (xxiv), (xxvi) of paragraph 392 of 
the King's Regulations are also suspended till further orders. 
A record will, however, be kept of any application under sub- 

1 [See ante, p. 20 ] 


paragraph (v), in order that the soldier's right under Section 81 
of the Army Act may be retained. 

Questions of discharge under sub-paragraph (xxvii) of the 
above paragraph will be referred to the War Office. 


For the period during which the Army is mobilised, non- A. 0. 330, 
commissioned officers may be exempted from the educational Aug. 23, '14 
qualifications required for promotion laid down in paragraphs 
286 and 297 of the King's Regulations. 


The following regulations have been approved with respect A. 0. 338, 
to Civil Servants who have been called up for service in any Aug. 29, '14 
rank as Army Reservists, Special Reservists (other than the 
Royal Engineer Special Reservists of the Postal and Signal 
Sections and Special Telegraph Reserve), or as members of the 
Territorial Force. The regulations should be communicated 
to all soldiers concerned. Particular attention should be 
directed to paragraph 7. 

These instructions are now promulgated for the information 
of Civil Servants serving in the forces, in order that they may 
be aware of their position as regards their civil appointments 
and pay. 

Detailed instructions for carrying out these regulations 
have already been issued to all general officers commanding 
for the information and direction of civil departments under 
the control of the Army Council, to enable them to deal with 
the civil pay ; and similar instructions are being issued by 
other Government departments to the paying authorities under 
their control. 

i. The civil posts of Civil Servants will be kept open 
until their return from military service, and such service will 
count for civil pension (where the employee occupies an 



established, i.e. pensionable post), or gratuity under the 
Superannuation Acts, and for increment of civil pay in the 
case of those employees who are being paid on progressive 
scales of pay. 

2. All such employees will receive through their civil 
department direct their civil pay, less Army pay (see 
paragraphs 3 and 6) and Army separation allowance, and no 
distinction will be made between married and unmarried 

3. The deduction to be made by the Government Depart- 
ment concerned on account of Army pay will be a uniform 
deduction of 75. (seven shillings) a week for all ranks below 
commissioned officers. 

4. In addition to the foregoing deduction, the actual 
amount of Army separation allowance will be deducted from 
the civil pay of married men whose families are in receipt of 
separation allowance. 

5. The amount of separation allowance will be ascertained 
by the Government Department concerned from the person to 
whom payment of the civil pay is made, who will be asked to 
produce to the officer of the department responsible for the 
issue of civil pay the Army identity certificate issued for 
separation allowance, etc. Such officers will take all reason- 
able steps to satisfy themselves departmentally whether 
separation allowance is likely to be due in any given 
case. 1 

6. In the case of Civil Servants who are serving as com- 
missioned officers, the actual rate of Army pay (including 
engineer, armament, corps or extra pay), but not allowances, 
will be deducted from civil pay, and the Government Depart- 
ment responsible for the issue of such civil pay will com- 
municate with the officer or his agents to ascertain the rate of 
Army pay. 

7. The net amount of civil pay iriay be paid to any person 
designated in writing by the Civil Servant to receive his civil 
pay on his behalf, the usual receipt being obtained from the 

Sums due will be held to the credit of the Civil Servant in 
the departmental accounts, by the Government Department 

1 Paragraphs 5 and n are inserted for information only, and no action 
in respect to them need be taken by Government employees now serving. 


concerned, until authority in writing is received to pay them 
over to any person designated or to forward them to the 
employee himself, at his own risk, through the usual postal 

Civil Servants now serving in the Land Forces should, 
unless they have already done so, immediately communicate 
to the Head of their Department their wishes in respect to the 
disposal of their civil pay. 

8. The above regulations will apply to any Civil Servant 
who joins the Army after the 4th August 1914, with the per- 
mission of the Head of his Department. 

Such permission will not be given if the Head of the 
Department in the exercise of his discretion considers 
that serious detriment to the public service is thereby 

9. They also apply to persons holding whole time un- 
established and temporary situations in Government Depart- 
ments, provided that their service is not intermittent but 
quasi-permanent and regular. 

10. These regulations do not, however, apply to employees 
who receive commissions in or enlist in His Majesty's Regular 
Forces (not including Special Reserve and Territorial Force) 
for a period longer than the term of the war. 

11. In all cases of future enlistment or embodiment, steps 
will be taken by the Government Department concerned to 
obtain from the employee before departure, or failing that, at 
the earliest possible moment, particulars showing his regiment, 
rank, regimental number, whether he is married or single, 
the number of his children, if any, and the name and address 
of any person to whom he desires his net civil pay to be paid 
on his behalf. 1 


i. Enlistments into these units will be carried out under A. 0.339* 
Army Order I. of 6th August 1914, and Army Order II. of Aug. 29/14 
6th August 1914, as amended by Army Order III. of 7th 
August 1914. 

1 [See footnote on previous page.] 


2. Age. 

(a) Armament artificers and armourers, 21 to 60 years. 

(b) Ex- Army Ordnance Corps men, up to 50 years. 

(c) Others, 19 to 45 years. 

3. The proportion of warrant officers and non-commis- 
sioned officers will be as laid down for an Ordnance Company 
in Part L, War Establishments, 1914. 

4. Until the establishment of warrant officers and non- 
commissioned officers is complete, ex-warrant officers and 
non-commissioned officers, Army Ordnance Corps, will be 
attested as privates, but after final approval by the Officer 
Commanding Training Depot, Army Ordnance Corps, may be 
promoted to the rank they held immediately preceding their 
discharge if within the regulated establishment. 

Ex-non-commissioned officers of the National Reserve if 
called up by military authority and accepted for service may 
be promoted to the rank they formerly held in the Regular 
Army on discharge. Ex-non-commissioned officers of the 
National Reserve will only be accepted and promoted within 
the regulated establishment. 

5. Pay and corps pay will be issuable at the rates and 
under the conditions laid down in the Pay Warrant. The 
issue of corps pay will be according to qualifications, subject 
to the percentages prescribed in paragraph 96 of Standing 
Orders of the Army Ordnance Corps. 

6. Tradesmen will be required to undergo a test as to' 
trade proficiency before they are finally approved by the 
Officer Commanding Training Depot, Army Ordnance Corps, 

7. Married men and widowers may be enlisted or re- 
enlisted, and will be entitled to separation allowance if married 
prior to enlistfrient or re-enlistment under Army Order III. of 
igth August 1914. A preference will be given to single men 
as far as possible. 

8. Standard of height and chest measurement and all other 
conditions as at present in force. 

9. Special instructions regarding numbers to be enlisted 
and re-enlisted, and regarding other executive action to be 
taken by recruiting officers, will be issued to all concerned. 




1. The troops serving in the United Kingdom, the Channel A. 0. 340, 
Islands and the Isle of Man being now on active service, the Au S-29,'] 
powers of commanding officers in dealing with offences, as 

laid down in Section 46 (2) (d) of the Army Act, can legally be 

2. Such powers may be used by commanding officers, 
subject to the following restrictions : 

(a) In no case is Field Punishment No. i, as defined in the 

Rules for Field Punishment on page 721 of the 
Manual of Military Law, and Section 107, sub-section 
II. of Field Service Regulations, Part II., 1909 
(reprint 1913), to be awarded. 

(b) In awarding Field Punishment No. 2, the offender will 

only be subject to such restraint, etc., as is laid down 
in the Rules for Field Punishment (2) (d), on page 721, 
of the Manual of Military Law, and Section 107, sub- 
section II. iv. of Field Service Regulations, Part II., 
1909 (reprint 1913). 

3. Attention is called to paragraphs 493 and 494, King's 
Regulations, as amended by Army Order 209 of 1912, and 
to the footnote added to the King's Regulations by th^t 
Army Order, which deal with forfeiture of pay under Section 46 
(2) (d) of the Army Act. 

4. Although under the above-quoted section of the Army 
Act the powers of a commanding officer extend to 28 days' 
Field Punishment, for the present such powers are to be 
limited to the award of 14 days' Field Punishment, and any 
award considered necessary by a commanding officer in excess 
of such period is to be an award of detention only as laid 
down in Section 46 (2) (a) of the Army Act. 

5. Field Punishment when awarded is to be carried out 
at the place where the unit is quartered, and in the case of 
detention exceeding 14 days the offender should be com- 
mitted to one of the detention barracks in the United King- 
dom after it has been ascertained that there is accommodation 





4.0.341, i. The Army Council have decided to amend the con- 

Aug.3o,'i4 ditions of enlistment under Army Orders Nos. I. and II. 

of 6th August 1914, No. III. of 7th August 1914, No. I. of 

I7th August 1914, No. I. of 24th August 1914, as follows : x 

(a) Certain selected men who were non-commissioned 

officers in the Regular Army above the rank of 
sergeant at time of discharge, may be accepted up 
to the age of 50 years. 

(b) Men who have served in the Regular Army, Militia, 

Special Reserve, the Territorial or Volunteer Forces 
for not less than one year and have been discharged 
with a military character not less than ' Fair/ may 
be accepted up to the age of 45 years. 

(c) Men who have not previously served may be accepted 

between the ages of 19 and 35. 

2. Men under i (a) and (b) will be attested for the Special 
Reserve, and will be appointed to a corps or regiment of the 
arm in which they previously served. 

Except in the case of Cavalry and Foot Guards, all ex- 
regular non-commissioned officers irrespective of age, and all 
men under 35 years of age, will be posted to units of the new 
six Divisions and Army Troops. Other men will be posted to 
Reserve units of the Regular Army. 

In the case of men enlisted under i (c), those for Cavalry 
or Foot Guards will be posted to Reserve units of those corps, 
others will be posted to the units of the new six Divisions and 
Army Troops. 

o * * * * * * * 

4. Except as provided in this Army Order, the conditions 
laid down in the previous Army Orders above quoted remain 
in operation. 

1 [See ante, A. 0. 295, pp. 23, 24. A. Os. 315, 384, pp. 47, 48. A. 0. 
329, p. 56.] 



Until further orders, shoeing-smiths, saddlers, and tele- -4.0.349, 
graphists may be enlisted into the Territorial Force up to the Aug. 31, '14 
age of 50 years, provided they are otherwise fit and are 
required for service. 


i. With reference to Army Order I. of 2ist August 1914,* A.0. 382, 
His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to approve Sept. 11/14 
of a further addition to the Army of six divisions and Army 
Troops. 2 


i. With reference to Army Order I. of 2ist August 1914 4.0.388, 
(Army Order 324 of 1914), and Army Order XII. of nth Sept. 13/14 
September 1914, His Majesty the King has been graciously 
pleased to approve of a further addition to the army of six 
divisions and Army Troops. 3 


With reference to Army Orders I. of 2ist August (324 of A. 0. 389, 
1914), XII. of nth September, and XVIII. of I3th September Sept. 14/14 
1914, the several additions to the Army will be known as 
follows : 

gth to I4th Divisions and Army 

Troops ist New Army. 

I5th to 20th Divisions and Army 

Troops 2nd New Army. 

2ist to 26th Divisions and Army 

Troops 3 rd New Army. 

27th to 32nd Divisions, of which the 

infantry will be selected from the 

duplicated Reserve Battalions . 4th New Army. 

1 [See ante, p. 54.] 

2 [This made twelve in all additional to the first eight. The numbers ot 
the new divisions were gth to 20th. The original British Expeditionary Force 
comprised six divisions ; two others, the 7th and 8th, were subsequently 
added to it. These were the last ' regular ' divisions, i.e, of the old Army.] 

3 [These were numbered 2ist to 26th.] 



4.0.399, I. County Associations are authorised to form a Home 

Sept. 21/14 Service unit for each unit of the Territorial Force which has 
been accepted for Imperial Service. 

2. The Home Service unit will 

(a) Take the place, when called upon, of the Imperial 

Service unit, if and when the latter is ordered 

(b) Act as a feeder to replace wastage in the Imperial 

Service unit. 

3. The Home Service unit will be composed of 

(a) All men from the corresponding Imperial Service 

unit referred to in paragraph i who cannot go 

(b) Recruits enlisted both for Imperial and Home 


4. Enlistments will be carried out in the ordinary way on 
Army Form E 501. Army Form E 624 will be completed in the 
case of each man volunteering for Imperial Service. Every 
man enlisted, whether for Home or Imperial Service, will be 
allowed to claim his discharge at the end of the war without 
being required to give the notice which may have been other- 
wise prescribed under the authority of Section IX. (3) of the 
Territorial and Reserve Forces Act, 1907. Any fine pre- 
scribed for payment in the case of premature discharge under 
the provisions of that sub-section will be waived. 

5. The establishment of a Home Service unit as well as that 
of the corresponding Imperial Service unit will be that laid 
down in War Establishments, Part II., for an ordinary Terri- 
torial Force unit of the same arm. 






WHEREAS We deem it expedient to increase the provision A. 0.402, 
made for the maintenance of the wives and families and other Sept. 23/14 
dependants of soldiers of Our Army : 

i. Our Will and Pleasure is that during the remaining 
period of the present war the rates of separation allowance 
issuable to the wives and families of soldiers (including all 
classes of soldiers who have been made eligible for separation 
allowance since mobilisation), under Section 4 of the Regu- 
lations governing the Allowances of Our Army, shall be in- 
creased so that together with the minimum allotments of pay 
specified in Article 986 of Our Warrant for the Pay, Appoint- 
ment, Promotion and Non-Effective Pay of Our Army, dated 
2Oth August 1913, they shall yield the following total weekly 
amounts, with effect from the ist October 1914 : 

Class of soldier for allowances. 


i | 



17 and 18 





S. d. 


s. d. 

Wife ... 



16 6 


12 6 

Wife and i child 



19 6 



Wife and 2 children . 



22 6 


17 6 

Wife and 3 children . 



25 6 


20 O 

Wife and 4 children . 



27 6 



and so on with an addition of 2s. for each additional 

The rate of separation allowance admissible for a mother- 
less child shall be 35. a week in addition to the regulated 
allotment from the soldier. 

2. The allowances for any married families remaining in 
public quarters shall be at the above rates, less the following 
weekly deductions in respect of lodging, fuel, and light : 









17 and 18 

ys. 6d. 





These deductions shall be irrespective of the number of 

3. The extra rate of 35. 6d. a week drawn under present 
regulations in respect of continued residence in the London 
Postal Area from the date of mobilisation (or date of enlist- 
ment since mobilisation), and any compensation allowance 
granted to families on the married establishment for disturb- 
ance, shall be issuable in addition. 

4. Where an unmarried soldier makes an allotment of 
pay to his mother or other person who is in fact dependent 
on him, separation allowance at rates not exceeding the rates 
for that allowance included in the amounts laid down in 
Article I may be granted under regulations to be made by our 
Army Council. 

5. By ' children ' in this Our Warrant is meant 'boys up 
to the age of 14 and girls up to i6/ as prescribed in the regu- 
lations governing the issue of separation allowance. Any 
allotment in respect of boys between the ages of 14 and 16 
shall be dependent of the amounts shown above. 

6. This Warrant shall not apply to units whose depot is not 
in the United Kingdom. 

Given at Our Court at St. James's, this Twenty-third day 
of September, One thousand nine hundred and four- 
teen, in the Fifth year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 


I. The normal scale of weekly payments during the period 
of the war to soldiers' families is now based on allotments of 
pay under Article 986, Pay Warrant, and increased rates of 
Separation Allowance, and is built up as follows ; 


(a) For families not in public quarters 

Class 15. 

Class 1 6. 

Classes 17 and 1 8. 

Class 19. 

Class 20. 
























2 * 



s. d. 

s. d. 

s. d. 

.. /. 

*. d. 

s. d. 

s. d. 

*. ^ 

s. d. 

j. </. 

j. d. 

s. A. 


j. </. 

s. d. 

For wife only . 

5 10 

17 2 

23 o 

5 1 

16 2 


5 10 

10 8 

16 6 

5 10 

9 2 

IS o 

3 6 

9 o 

12 6 

For wife and 

i child 

7 o 

19 o 

26 o 

7 o 

18 o 

25 o 

7 o 

12 6 

19 6 

7 o 


18 o 

4 i 

10 II 

15 o 

For wife and 

2 children . 

8 2 

20 10 

29 o 

8 2 

19 10 

28 o 

8 2 

14 4 

22 6 

8 2 

12 10 


4 8 

12 10 

17 6 

For wife and 

3 children . 
For wife and 

9 4 

22 8 

32 o 

9 4 

21 8 

31 o 

9 4 

16 2 


9 4 

14 8 

24 o 

5 3 

14 9 


4 children . 

9 4 

24 8 

34 o 

9 4 

23 8 

33 P 

9 4 

18 2 

27 6 

9 4. 

16 8 

26 o 

5 3 

16 9 


For each additional child the minimum allotment remains as before and additional separation 
allowance at 2J. per week is issuable. 

For each 



I 2 

3 o 

4 2 

I 2 

3 o 

4 2 

I 2 

3 o 

4 2 

I 2 

3 o 

4 2 

o 7 

3 o 

3 7 

* The allotments for these children are subject to the Pay Warrant maximum. 

(6) For families remaining in public quarters, the corre- 
sponding rates will be as follows, after making the prescribed 
deduction for lodging, fuel and light from the rates of separa- 
tion allowance specified above : . 

Class 15. 

Class 16. 

Classes 17 and 1 8. 

Class 19. 

Class 20. 



























s. d. 

s. d. 

j. d. 

s. d. 

j. d. 

s. d. 

s. </. 

s. d. 

j. .-/. 

*. A 

s. d. 

s. d. 


5. A 

j. <*. 

For wife only . 

5 1 

3 2 

9 o 

5 10 

3 2 

9 o 

5 10 

3 2 

9 o 

S to 

3 2 

9 o 


3 o 

6 6 

For wife and 

i child 

7 o 

S o 



5 o 

12 O 

7 o 

5 o 


7 o 



4 i 

4 ii 

9 o 

For wife and 

2 children . 

8 2 

6 TO 


8 2 

6 10 

IS o 

8 2 

6 10 

IS o 

8 2 

6 10 

15 o 


6 10 

ii 6 

For wife and 

3 children . 

9 4 

8 8 

18 o 

9 4 

8 8 

18 o 

9 4 

8 8 


9 4 

8 8 

18 o 

5 3 

8 9 

14 o 

For wife and 


4 children . 

9 4 

10 8 

20 o 

9 4 

10 8 

20 o 9 4 

10 8 


9 4 

10 8 


S 3 

10 9 16 o 

For each additional child separation allowance at 2J. per week is issuable as under (a). 


2. The amount of separation allowance to be deducted 
from the civil pay of married civil servants and other employees 
of the War Department serving in the Army, under Army 
Order 338 of 1914, will be at the appropriate rates of separation 
allowance shown in Table (a) of paragraph i. 

3. In the case of men specially enlisted for various services 
on mobilisation who are required to make a higher allotment 
to their wives than is prescribed in the Pay Warrant, their 
prescribed allotment will be substituted for the allotment 
shown in paragraph i. 

4. Should circumstances arise in which the allotment of 
pay contemplated in the above tables is not issued in whole 
or part, the amount of separation allowance included in these 
tables will not on that account be increased. 

Separate instructions will be issued as regards the depen- 
dants referred to in Article 4 of the above warrant. 

N.B. By Army Order 406 of September 1914, Family 
Allowances (Separation Allowances and Allotments) were to 
be issued weekly instead of monthly to the recipients. 



4.0.486, The promotion that may be given to infantry officers 
Nov. 19, '14 serving with the New Armies will be temporary and for the 

duration of the war. 

Temporary rank automatically ceases on the conclusion 

of the war, or on the officer ceasing to do duty with the New 

Armies if before the conclusion of the war. 


Conditions of Grant 

4.0.440, i. These regulations are made under Article 4 of the 
Oct. 27, '14 Royal Warrant issued by Army Order 402 of 1914, which 


directs that during the present war 'where an unmarried 
soldier makes an allotment of pay to his mother or other person 
who is in fact dependent on him, separation allowance at rates 
not exceeding the rates for that allowance included in the 
amounts laid down in Article i may be granted under regu- 
lations to be made by our Army Council/ 

These grants do not apply to units whose depot is not in 
the United Kingdom, or to British troops who were in India 
upon the outbreak of war, while they remain there ; but they 
are admissible for British troops from India serving with the 
Expeditionary Force, or elsewhere out of India. 

2. ' Dependants ' for purposes of the grants under this 
order means such members of the soldier's family (other than 
wife and legitimate children and stepchildren) as were wholly 
or in part dependent upon the earnings of the soldier at the 
time of mobilisation, or of his enlistment if subsequent to 
mobilisation. In this definition ' member of a family ' 
means : 

(a) The soldier's father, mother, grandfather, grandmother, 

stepfather, stepmother, grandsons, grand-daughter, 
brother, sister, half-brother, half-sister (' grandson ' 
and ' grand-daughter ' will include illegitimate children 
of whom the soldier is the grandfather, and the 
illegitimacy of the soldier himself will not affect the 
position of his parents or grandparents). 

(b) A woman who has been entirely dependent on a soldier 

for her maintenance and who would otherwise be 
destitute ; and children of the soldier in the charge 
of such person. 

3. ' Unmarried soldier ' will be held to include ' widower/ 
and ' dependants ' may include his dependent sons and 
daughters over the age up to which separation allowance is 
ordinarily issuable. 

4. Grants to such dependants will be made under the 
following rules. The grants will be at the discretion of the 
Army Council in each case, and may be reduced or stopped 
at any time for misconduct or other reason. 

5. In the case of dependants under (a) of paragraph 2, 
the conditions of issue will be as follows : 

(a) There must be proof of actual dependence for a reason- 



able period prior to mobilisation or to the enlistment 
of the soldier if later. 

(b) Separation allowance will only be issuable while the 

soldier (whether serving at home or abroad) makes 
an allotment to the dependant or dependants con- 

(c) Except as provided under (/) below, the combined 

total of separation allowance and allotment issued 
in respect of any one soldier will not exceed the 
amount which the soldier had contributed in the 

(d) The maximum amount of separation allowance and 

allotment issuable will ordinarily be that for a wife 
only ; but if the dependant maintains children of the 
soldier, the maximum will be that for a wife and such 
number of children within the total limit shown in 
Tables L and M. If the soldier has children who 
receive separation allowance at the motherless rate, 
the maximum issuable to a dependant will be less than 
the amount for a wife by 6d. a week for each child. 
NOTE. The London Allowance, where applicable, will 
increase the several maximum limits referred to in 
this paragraph ; but will not cause the issue of a 
larger sum than the soldier actually contributed in 
the past (paragraph (c) ). 

(e) To secure the issue of the amount determined as in 

paragraph 17 the soldier must make the allotment 
shown against that amount in Tables L and M 
according to his rank. If he makes a lower allot- 
ment the amount payable will be correspondingly 
reduced to the upper limit shown against that allot- 
ment in the table. 

(/) If a soldier makes a higher allotment his extra allot- 
ment will be added to the total issuable, but no 
additional separation allowance will be issued in 
respect of such extra allotment. 

(g) No separation allowance will be payable to a dependant 
under this paragraph if 'separation allowance is 
authorised to be issued under paragraph 2 (b). 

6. In any case in which there are one or more children 
of the soldier dependent on him and within the regulated ages, 


who are not in the charge of a dependant drawing separation 
allowance, separation allowance will be issuable at the mother- 
less rate, provided the soldier contributes the regulated child's 
allotment in addition. 

7. In the case of a dependant under (b) of paragraph 2, 
the conditions of issue will be as follows : 

(a) There must be proof that the woman has been depend- 

ent for her maintenance on the soldier and has 
constantly through a reasonable period prior to 
mobilisation or to the enlistment of the soldier been 
supported by him. 

(b) The issue will be conditional on an allotment of pay 

being made by the soldier, whether at home or abroad, 
at the rates for wife and children stated in the Pay 

(c) The rates, etc., will be as for soldiers' wives and children 

in ordinary circumstances (including the London 
Allowance where admissible). 

8. If the same person or persons are dependent on more 
than one soldier, the total weekly sum which may be received 
by any one dependant will not exceed the amount which he 
or she would have received as the sole dependant of one 
soldier of the highest rank held by any of the soldiers in 

9. No separation allowance will be admissible in the 
case of any dependants who are in rate-supported institutions. 

10. The conditions of issue laid down for the normal case 
of wives and children of soldiers will apply as far as applicable, 
and any special instructions issued as to continuance or 
cessation of separation allowance while soldiers are in hospital, 
on furlough, prisoners of war, under detention, etc., will also 
apply unless otherwise provided. 

11. In the case of soldiers now serving, the allowance under 
this Army Order will be issuable as from ist October 1914 
(or date of enlistment if later), provided an application is 
received from the soldier (or, if the soldier is serving abroad, 
from the dependant), before loth November ; thereafter the 
issue will be as from the date of application. In the case of 
soldiers enlisting subsequent to the date of this Army Order, 
the allowance will run from the date of enlistment provided 


the application is received within 10 days, otherwise it will 
run from the date of application. 

12. These regulations will apply to dependants resident 
in the United Kingdom only, except with the approval of the 
Army Council in each case. 

13. Any separation allowance issued under this Army 
Order will be deducted from the amount of civil pay issuable 
to Civil Servants and other Government employees serving in 
the Army, under Army Order 338 of 1914. 

Procedure of Assessment and Payment 

14. In order to obtain ' proof of actual dependence for a 
reasonable period prior to mobilisation or to the enlistment 
of the soldier/ and to ascertain ' the amount which the 
soldier had contributed in the past ' investigation will be made 
by means of 

(a) Declarations of particulars furnished independently 

by the soldier and the dependant. 

(b) Enquiries by the Old Age Pension authorities of the 

area in which the dependant resides. 

15. Officers commanding units, whether serving at home 
or abroad, will take steps to ensure that the conditions under 
which an unmarried soldier can obtain a grant of separation 
allowance for a dependant are made generally known to the 
men under his command. 

A supply of posters for putting up in barrack rooms, etc., 
will be issued. 

16. Every man who wishes to claim such a grant will 
be furnished with a Form of Declaration (Army Form O 1838) 
in which he is required to state, among other particulars, the 
amount which he contributed to his dependant's maintenance 
prior to mobilisation or the date of his enlistment. 


20. Officers Commanding will arrange for all unmarried 
recruits to be furnished with a Form of Declaration on joining 
for duty in order that they may secure payment of separa- 
tion allowance for their dependants without unnecessary 



The privilege of voluntary allotments of pay under para- A. 0.441, 
graph 8 of the Army Council's Instructions to Article 986 of Oct. 27, '14 
the Pay Warrant has been extended. Such allotments may 
be made by all soldiers serving at home and abroad to their 
wives, families, and other relatives and dependants as defined 
in paragraph 2 of Army Order XVII. 

The total of any allotments made by a soldier must not 
exceed three-fourths of his daily pay, including proficiency, 
corps, engineer, service, or good conduct pay. 




WHEREAS We deem it expedient to define the position of A. 0. 445, 
officers of Our Army who are Members of the House of Oct. 27, '14 
Commons : 

Our Will and Pleasure is that officers of Our Regular 
Army, Special Reserve and Territorial Force who are Members 
of the House of Commons and who may be employed on 
military duty on the establishment, by order of Our Army 
Council, during the present war, shall be paid, whilst so em- 
ployed, as officers on full pay notwithstanding any provision 
regarding the cessation of full pay by officers while serving as 
Members of the House of Commons laid down in Our Warrant 
of 20th August 1913, for the Pay, Appointment, Promotion, 
and Non-effective Pay of Our Army. 

Given at Our Court at St James's, this Sixth day of 
October One thousand nine hundred and fourteen, in 
the Fifth year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 







A. 0. 472, WHEREAS We deem it expedient to provide for the exercise 
Nov. 9, 14 Q .f commanc i by, and for the issue of additional pay to, officers 
appointed second in command in infantry battalions of Our 
New Armies : 

Our Will and Pleasure is that the appointment of officers 
as second in command in infantry battalions of Our New 
Armies shall be made by selection, and that officers so ap- 
pointed shall when doing regimental duty receive in addition 
to regimental pay as major is. daily, but not for any period of 
leave beyond 61 days a year. 

When the second in command is in receipt of command 
pay or is not doing regimental duty this additional pay shall 
be drawn by the next senior officer of the unit doing duty. 

The is. additional pay laid down for the senior major in 
Our Warrant of the zoth August 1913, for the Pay, Appoint- 
ment, Promotion, and Non-Effective Pay of Our Army shall 
not be issuable in battalions where a second in command is 

The rules for command, rank, and precedence laid down 
by Our Warrant of ist April 1910, as amended by Our War- 
rant of I3th July 1911, contained in the King's Regulations 
and Orders for the Army shall be read as if the words ' or an 
officer appointed second in command of ' were inserted after 
c command ' in line i of (i) of paragraph 217. 

Given at Our Court at St. James's, this Ninth day of 
November One thousand nine hundred and fourteen, 
in the Fifth year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 



4.0.470, With a view to reduction of clerical labour the Army 
Nov. 7, '14 Council have decided to introduce a simplified form of attes- 


tation, and further to amend the conditions of enlistment under 
Army Orders 295, 296, 315 and 341 of 1914. 

In future all enlistments, other than those under conditions 
that existed before the war and enlistments in the Territorial 
Force, will be in the Regular Army, and for the duration of the 
war, at the end of which men so enlisting will be discharged 
with all convenient speed. 

Men who have never served before may be accepted 
between the ages of 19 and 38. 

Attestations will be carried out on Army Form B 2505, the 
Notice Paper being Army Form B 2505 A. These will be 
taken into use from the date of receipt. 

Except as provided in this Army Order, the conditions 
laid down in the previous Army Orders above quoted will 
remain in operation. 


With reference to Army Order 394 of 1914, the power 4.0.473, 
thereby vested in certain General Officers is extended to Nov. 9, '14 
Officers Commanding Coast Defences. 

Officers Commanding Special Reserve units will submit 
to the Officer Commanding the Coast Defences concerned the 
names of officers on retired pay, or ex-officers or other gentle- 
men with military experience, who are likely to be suitable 
for commissions as majors, captains, or lieutenants in th 
Special Reserve. 

The subsequent procedure will be as laid down in the above- 
quoted Army Order. 


Soldiers who wish to make regular voluntary allotments of A. 0. 474. 
pay to parents, relatives, or dependants, will be permitted to Nov. 9/14 
do so through the public accounts within the limits laid 
down in Army Order 440 of 1914. 

The soldier wishing to allot should apply to his command- 
ing officer, who will notify the Regimental Paymaster or 
Secretary, Territorial Force County Association .concerned. 

Payment will be made by means of postal drafts in the 



same manner as separation allowance and allotments to 

Soldiers who are not prepared to send regular allotments 
must make their own arrangements for casual remittances. 




A. 0. 475, WHEREAS it has been represented to Us that in certain 
Nov. 10, '14 cases the wives and families of soldiers while enjoying the 
increased grants of separation allowance given by Our Warrant 
of 23rd September 1914, are able to dispense with the whole 
or a portion of the allotment from the soldier's pay laid down 
in Article 986 of Our Warrant for the Pay, Appointment, 
Promotion, and Non-Effective Pay of Our Army, dated the 
2Oth day of August 1913 : 

It is Our Will and Pleasure that, if a soldier serving at 
home appeals against the enforcement of the stoppage under 
Our Warrant of the 30th August 1914, it shall be within the 
discretion of Our Army Council to allow its discontinuance 
or reduction, with the wife's consent, or if it be shown that such 
discontinuance or reduction of the allotment will not reduce 
her income below the standard laid down by Our Warrant of 
23rd September 1914. 

Given at Our Court at St. James's, this Twenty-first day 
of October One thousand nine hundred and fourteen, 
in the Fifth year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 





4.0.476, WHEREAS We deem it expedient further to limit the 
Nov. 10/14 amount which a soldier may be required to contribute towards 

the maintenance of his wife and family : 



It is Our Will and Pleasure that from the date of this Our 
Warrant for the remaining period of the present war, a soldier 
whether serving at home or abroad shall not be required to 
make allotments towards the maintenance of his children other 
than for children who are motherless or are granted separation 
allowances as such ; that for such children the maximum 
allotment required from a soldier shall not exceed the amount 
of the allotment for a wife, according to his rank ; and that 
the total amounts issuable to wives and families under Our 
Warrant of 23rd September 1914 shall not be reduced. 

Article 986 of Our Warrant of 20th August 1913, for the 
Pay, Appointment, Promotion, and Non-Effective Pay of Our 
Army, and Our Warrants of 15th and 30th August, and 
23rd September 1914, shall be read accordingly. 

Given at Our Court at St. James's, this Ninth day of 
November One thousand nine hundred and fourteen, 
in the Fifth year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 





WHEREAS We deem it expedient that some provision A. 0. 492, 
be made in certain circumstances for children over the ages Nov. 21/14 
prescribed in the regulations governing the issue of separation 
allowance : 

It is Our Will and Pleasure that for the remaining period 
of the present war the issue of separation allowance may be 
extended at the discretion of Our Army Council to boys who 
attend a State-aided school (other than an evening school) 
until they leave such school, up to the age of 16, and to children 
suffering from mental or physical infirmity up to the age of 21. 
Paragraph 5 of Our Warrant of 23rd September 1914 
shall be amended accordingly. 

Given at Our Court at St. James's, this Nineteenth day of 
November One thousand nine hundred and fourteen, 
in the Fifth year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, . 






A. 0. 477, WHEREAS We deem it expedient to authorise the formation 
Nov. 10/14 of a corps of cyclists, to be entitled the ' Army Cyclist Corps ' : 
Our Will and Pleasure is that the Army Cyclist Corps shall 
be deemed to be a corps for the purposes of the Army Act. 
Given at Our Court at St. James's, this Seyenth day of 
November One thousand nine hundred and fourteen, 
in the Fifth year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 



A. 0.478, His Majesty the King having, by Royal Warrant dated 

Nov. 10/14 ^th November 1914, been graciously pleased to authorise the 

formation of a corps of cyclists to be called the Army Cyclist 

Corps, the following instructions are promulgated for the 

information of all concerned : 

1. The personnel of divisional cyclist companies and of 
men under training as cyclists to provide drafts for these 
companies will be organised as an ' Army Cyclist Corps/ 

2. Officers will be seconded for service with the Army 
Cyclist Corps as required. Other ranks will be found by 
transfer of serving soldiers to the Army Cyclist Corps, or 
by men specially enlisted for the duration of the war and 
appointed to the corps. 

3. The rates of pay for non-commissioned officers and men 
of the Army Cyclist Corps will be as laid down in the Pay 
Warrant for infantry of the line. 

During the war the standard for proficiency pay will be 
proficiency as a cyclist with the necessary physical endurance. 
The special qualifications necessary during the war will be 
those laid down for infantry of the Territorial Force, as 
amended by Army Order 438 of 1914. 

4. Promotions up to and including the substantive rank 
of sergeant will be made by the officer commanding a divisional 


cyclist company to vacancies in the establishment of the 

Promotions to the acting rank of colour-sergeant for 
appointment as acting company sergeant-major or acting 
company quartermaster-sergeant will be made provisionally 
by the officer commanding divisional cyclist company. 

Promotion to colour-sergeant for appointment as com- 
pany sergeant-major or company quartermaster-sergeant will 
be made by the Officer in Charge of Cyclist Records. Rosters 
for promotion for the divisional cyclist companies will be kept 
by the Officer in Charge of Cyclist Records, who will be attached 
to the Infantry Record Office, Hounslow. 

5. The establishment of the Cyclist Record Office will, 
for the present, be : 

i assistant officer in charge of records. 

1 deputy superintending clerk. 

2 clerks. 

6. Special instructions regarding numbers to be enlisted 
and regarding other executive action to be taken by recruiting 
officers will be issued to all concerned. 


1. A motor machine-gun battery will be added to each A. 0. 480, 
division of the Expeditionary Force. Nov - 12 ' >:[ 4 

2. Personnel for these batteries will be found from volun- 
teers from units of the New Armies, or by special enlistments 
for the motor machine-gun service. 

3. Serving non-commissioned officers and men volun- 
teering and accepted for service with a motor machine-gun 
battery will be transferred to the Corps of the Royal Horse 
and Royal Field Artillery, and posted to the motor machine- 
gun service, and will receive pay at the rates laid down for 
Royal Field Artillery. 

4. Instructions will be issued later as to the qualifica- 
tions for proficiency pay. In the meantime men transferred 
to the motor machine-gun service will retain their present 

5. Enlistment for the motor machine-gun service will 



not be carried out without special orders. Any men so en- 
listed will be attested for general service for the duration of 
the war, and appointed to the Royal Horse and Royal Field 
Artillery for duty with the motor machine-gun service. 

6. Officers who volunteer and are accepted will be seconded 
for the period of the war, or while employed with a motor 
machine-gun battery. 

7. The Officer in Charge of Records, Royal Horse and Royal 
Field Artillery, will be the Officer in Charge of Records for 
the motor machine-gun service. 


A. 0. 486, The promotion that may be given to infantry officers 
Nov. 19/14 serving with the New Armies will be temporary and for the 
duration of the war. 

Temporary rank automatically ceases on the conclusion 
of the war, or on the officer ceasing to do duty with the New 
Annies if before the conclusion of the war. 

Promotion will be carried out by battalions on the recom- 
mendations of commanding officers, who will submit to General 
Officers Commanding separate rolls for each battalion. These 
rolls should be forwarded through the usual channel to the 
War Office with the recommendations of the Brigade and 
Divisional Commanders, and no promotions should be notified 
until the recommendations have been approved by the Army 

Only those officers should be selected for promotion who 
are considered by their commanding officer to be qualified. 
Promotion will be governed primarily by an officer's efficiency 
and value ; but consideration of seniority, age, and experience 
should also be borne in mind. It is not to the public interest 
that too much attention should be paid to the accident of 
priority of joining the newly raised units. 

Subject to the above instructions in regard to the grant 
of temporary rank, the promotion of regular officers serving 
with the New Armies will continue in their regular corps under 
existing warrants and regulations. 




WHEREAS We deem it expedient to provide for the manner A. 0. 35 
in which officers holding temporary commissions in Our f ^S. 
Army, and, during the present embodiment, officers of Our P ec j 3- 
Special Reserve and officers of Our Territorial Force, shall take I4 
rank with officers of Our Regular Army : 

Our Will and Pleasure is that officers holding temporary 
commissions in Our Regular Army shall take rank with officers 
of the Regular Army of the same rank according to the dates 
of their appointment to the rank : 

It is Our Further Will and Pleasure that for the above 
purpose and during the present period of embodiment officers 
holding commissions in Our Special Reserve or Territorial 
Force shall take rank as though they held temporary com- 
missions in Our Regular Army, subject to the limitation that 
the relative positions held on the date of embodiment shall 
not be disturbed except by subsequent promotion. 

This Our Warrant shall take effect as from the 5th August 

Our Warrant of the ist April 1910, as amended by Our 
Warrant of the I3th July 1911, contained in paragraph 217 
of the King's Regulations and Orders for the Army, shall be * 
amended accordingly. 

Given at Our Court at St. James's, this Nineteenth day of 
December One thousand nine hundred and fourteen, 
in the Fifth year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 



It is notified that the present organisation of the Land 4.0.31 

Forces into divisions and army corps is being further developed of '*5, t 

jjec. 30, 14 

1 [Army Orders issued from time to time during a month are put 
together and published on the first of the next month. Thus this order 
issued on December 30, 1914, was published on January i as Army Order 35 
of 1915.] 



by the creation of Armies, each of which will consist generally 
of three army corps. 

The ist Army will be commanded by General Sir Douglas 

Haig, K.C.B., K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O. 
The 2nd Army will be commanded by General Sir Horace 

Smith-Dorrien, G.C.B., D.S.O. 
The 3rd Army will be commanded by General Sir Archibald 

Hunter, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., D.S.O. 
The 4th Army will be commanded by General Sir Ian 

Hamilton, G.C.B., D.S.O. 
The 5th Army will be commanded by General Sir Leslie 

Rundle, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., D.S.O. 
The 6th Army will be commanded by General Sir Bruce 

Hamilton, K.C.B., K.C.V.O. 
The ist Army Corps will be commanded by Major-General 

C. C. Monro, C.B., who is granted the temporary rank 

of Lieutenant-General. 
The 2nd Army Corps will be commanded by Lieutenant- 

General Sir Charles Fergusson, Bart., C.B., M.V.O., 

The 5th Army Corps will be commanded by Lieutenant- 

General Sir H. C. O. Plumer, K.C.B. 1 


A. 0.2 i. An outfit allowance of 50, to include camp kit, will be 

f '15. t made to cadets from the Royal Military Academy and Royal 
ec - 4> *4 Military College and others granted first permanent com- 
missions in the Regular Army subsequent to the 4th August 
1914, and during the continuance of the present war ; the 
grant will not be issuable to officers appointed to the Regular 
Army from the Special Reserve or Territorial Force ; nor to 
King's Cadets and Prize Cadets, as to whom separate instruc- 
tions will be issued. 

2. The outfit allowance of 30, granted by Army Order 390 
of 1914 to gentlemen appointed to temporary combatant 
commissions in the Regular Army, the Special Reserve of 

1 [The publishing of details of this character was not kept up, and no 
complete 'Order of Battle' of the British Expeditionary Force has yet 
been published.] 


Officers and the Territorial Force for the period of the present 
war, has been increased to 50 to include camp kit. The 
50 (like the 30) will not be granted to officers appointed to 
the unattached list, Territorial Force, for service with the 
Officers' Training Corps. 

3. The outfit allowance of 50, to include camp kit, will 
also be given during the period of the war to officers com- 
missioned to the Special Reserve or Territorial Force subse- 
quent to 4th August 1914, and eligible on appointment for the 
40 outfit grant laid down in the Special Reserve and Terri- 
torial Force Regulations, and will be in substitution for the 
latter grant. The conditions as to provision of mess and full 
dress and as to refund will be waived in these cases. No re- 
fund of expenditure on camp kit will be made to officers who 
draw the 50. 

4. Officers who have become entitled to outfit allow- 
ances in respect of commissions granted on or after the 
5th August 1914, and have drawn 30 under Army Order 390 
of 1914, or 40 under the Regulations for the Special Reserve 
or Territorial Force, will receive 12, los. in the first case, and 
2, los. in the second from the paymaster or agent from whom 
the original outfit grant was drawn. These payments will be 
in satisfaction of the claims of the officers concerned under 
paragraphs 2 and 3. 

5. Paragraphs i, 2, 3, and 4 will not apply to Medical, 
Veterinary, and Departmental Officers, with regard to whom 
further instructions will be issued if necessary. 

6. The outfit allowance under paragraph 671, Allowance 
Regulations 1914, has been fixed at 50, inclusive of camp 
kit, for the officers referred to therein who join for duty after 
the date of this Army Order. This will not apply to any 
particular class of case where the Army Council have already 
decided that a smaller sum is to be granted. In such cases the 
sum already sanctioned will be applicable to future appoint- 
ments of a similar character in the absence of instructions to 
the contrary. 

7. Further instructions will, if necessary, be issued regard- 
ing any increases which it may be decided to grant to officers 
who have received grants less than 50 under special instruc- 
tions of the Army Council and not under any regulation or 
Army Order. 



8. Officers and others not eligible for outfit grant, but 
eligible for a refund of camp kit expenditure under paragraph 
670, Allowance Regulations, 1914, or paragraph 6i5A, Terri- 
torial Force Regulations will, during the present emergency 
be paid the sum of 7, los. on production of a certificate that 
they have provided themselves with the necessary kit. 

9. In paragraph 670, Allowance Regulations, 1914, line n, 
for ' command paymaster as laid down in paragraph 18 ' read 

' regimental paymaster of the station at which the records of 
the regiment or corps are kept/ 

10. The 50 grant (paragraphs i, 2, 3, and 6) will be 
issued by the agent or paymaster who issues the officers' pay. 




WAR OFFICE, August 4, 1914. 

Field-Marshal Sir John D. P. French, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., L.G., 
K.C.M.G., to be Inspector-General of the Forces. Dated Aug. 4, '14 
ist August 1914. 


At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 6th day of August 


The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

This day Field-Marshal the Right Honourable Horatio L.G., 
Herbert, Earl Kitchener, K.P., G.C.B., O.M., G.C.S.I., Aug.6/i 4 
G.C.M.G., G.C.I. E., was, by His Majesty's command, sworn 
of His Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, and took 
his place at the Board accordingly. 

This day Field-Marshal the Right Honourable Horatio 
Herbert, Earl Kitchener, K.P., G.C.B., O.M., G.C.S.I., 
G.C.M.G., G.C.I. E., was, by His Majesty's command, sworn 
one of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State. 


CROWN OFFICE, zist August 1914. 

The King has been pleased, by Letters Patent under the L. G., 
Great Seal, bearing date the 6th instant, to appoint Aug. 25, '14 

Field-Marshal the Right Honourable Horatio Herbert, Earl 
Kitchener of Khartoum and of Broome t K.P., G.C.B., 
O.M., G.C.S.I., G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., 



General Sir Charles Whittingham Horsley Douglas, G.C.B., 
Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Crichton Sclater, K.C.B., 
Major-General Sir John Steven Cowans, K.C.B., M.V.O., 
Colonel (local and temporary Major-General) Sir Stanley 

Brenton von Donop, K.C.B., 

The Right Honourable Harold John Tennant, and 
Harold Trevor Baker, Esquire, 

to be His Majesty's Army Council. 


L.G., Lieutenant-General Sir Alfred E. Codrington, K.C.V.O., 

Nov. 6, '14 C.B., vice Lieutenant-General Sir W. E. Franklyn, 

K.C.B., deceased. Dated 3Oth October 1914. 

L. G., General Sir Bruce M. Hamilton, K.C.B., K.C.V.O. Dated 

Nov. 20, '14 5 th August 1914. 

Lieutenant-General the Honourable Sir Frederick W. 

Stopford, K.C.M.G., K.C.V.O., C.B. Dated 5th August 



L. G., Major-General Edmund H. H. Allenby, C.B., and to be 

Nov.9/i4& temporary Lieutenant-General. Dated loth October 

Nov.2o/i 4 

L. G., Major-General (temporary Lieutenant-General) Sir Henry 

Nov. 25, '14 s. Rawlinson, Bart., C.V.O., C.B. Dated 5th October 



L. G., Major-General John L. Keir, C.B. (from Commanding 

Aug. 7, '14 South Midland Division, Territorial Force), to Command 

a Division, vice Major-General W. P. Pulteney, C.B., 

D.S.O. Dated 27th July 1914. 

Dated 5th August 1914 

L.G., Major-General E. A. H. Alderson, C.B. 

Oct. i, '14 Major-General F. Hammersley, C.B. 
Major-General C. C. Monro, C.B. 
Major-General T. L. N. Morland, C.B., D.S.O. 
Major-General H. N. C. Heath, C.B. 

L.G., Lieutenant-General Sir B. T. Mahon, K.C.V.O., C.B., 

Oct. 8, '14 D.S.O. Dated 24th August 1914. 



Lieutenant-General Sir L. W. Parsons, K.C.B. Dated 

I4th September 1914. 
Major-General C. H. Powell, C.B., Indian Army. Dated 

i6th September 1914. 
Major-General F. Hammersley, C.B. 1 Dated 22nd August 

Major-General A. Wallace, C.B., Indian Army. Dated 

I4th September 1914. 
Major-General T. L. N. Morland, C.B., D.S.O. Dated 

ist September 1914. 
Major-General F. I. Maxse, C.V.O., C.B., D.S.O. Dated 

2nd October 1914. 
Major-General R. G. Kekewich, C.B. Dated 24th August 

Major-General J. Spens, C.B. Dated 24th August 

Major-General Sir E. O. F. Hamilton, K.C.B. Dated 

I5th September 1914. 
Major-General W. R. Kenyon-Slaney, C.B. Dated i8th 

September 1914. 
Major-General F. J. Davies, C.B. Dated 26th September L.G., 

1914. Oct. 10, '14 

Major-General T. Capper, C.B., D.S.O. Dated 27th 

August 1914. 
Major-General the Honourable J. H. G. Byng, C.B., 

M.V.O. Dated 2gth September 1914. 
Major-General Herbert Mullaly, C.B., C.S.I., vice Major- L.G., 

General (temporary Lieutenant-General) R. C. Maxwell, Oct. 19, '14 

C.B. Dated 3rd September 1914. 
Major-General Charles G. M. Fasken, C.B., retired pay, L.G.. 

Indian Army. Dated 25th September 1914. Oct - 2 4. '14 

Colonel (temporary Brigadier-General) R. H. Davies, C.B., 

New Zealand Staff Corps, and to be temporary Major- 
General. Dated igth October 1914. 
Major-General Henry B. Jeffreys, C.B., Reserve of Officers, L. G., 

vice Major-General R. G. Kekewich, C.B. Dated 26th Oct. 30, '14 

October 1914. 
Colonel (temporary Brigadier-General) Victor A. Couper, 

and to be temporary Major-General, in succession to 

1 [Some of these names are repeated under different dates in the 

London Gazette as given here.] 



Major-General T. L. N. Morland, C.B., D.S.O. Dated 
22nd October 1914. 

L. G., Colonel (temporary Major-General) Hubert de la P. Gough, 

Nov. 2, '14 c.B. Dated i6th September 1914. 

L. G., Major-General Colin J. Mackenzie, C.B., vice Major- 

Nov.9,'14 General H. I. W. Hamilton, C.V.O., C.B., D.S.O. 

Dated I4th October 1914. 
Colonel (temporary Brigadier-General) Henry De B. De 

Lisle, C.B., D.S.O. Dated loth October 1914. 

L. G., Colonel Thomas C. P. Galley, C.B., M.V.O., retired pay, 

Nov. 12, '14 and to be temporary Brigadier-General. Dated 24th 

October 1914. 

L.G., Major-General Henry F. M. Wilson, C.B. Dated 20th 

Nov. 16/14 October 1914. 

L. G., Colonel (honorary Brigadier-General) Charles E. Beckett, 

Nov. 20/14 C.B., retired pay, and to be a temporary Brigadier- 

r General. Dated 6th November 1914. 

Nov 20 & Major-General James A. L. Haldane, C.B., D.S.O. Dated 
Dec. 22, '14 2Is t November 1914. 

L. G., ' Major-General Sir Henry S. Rawlinson, Bart., C.V.O., C.B. 

Nov. 25/14 Dated 2ist September 1914. 

L. G., Maj or-General Herman J . S. Landon, C.B., vice Lieutenant- 

Dec. 3, '14 General S. H. Lomax. Dated ist November 1914. 

L.G., Colonel (Honorary Major-General) James M. Babington, 

Dec.4/i4& C.B., C.M.G., retired pay, and to be temporary Major- 

General. Dated i8th September 1914. 


L. G., Lieutenant-General Sir Alfred E. Codrington, K.C.V.O., 

Aug. 24/14 C.B., to be Military Secretary to the Secretary of State 

for War and Secretary of the Selection Board, vice 

Lieutenant-General Sir W. E. Franklyn, K.C.B. Dated 

gth August 1914. 

L.G., The undermentioned officers to be appointed General 

Aug. 25/14 Staff Officers : 


Major-General H. H. Wilson, C.B., D.S.O. 
Colonel (temporary Major-General) G. F. Ellison, C.B. 



Adj u tan t-General 

Major-General Sir C. F. N. Macready, K.C.B. 
Deputy Adjutant-General 

Major-General E. R. C. Graham, C.B. 

Deputy-Adjutant- and Quartermaster-General 

Major-General L. G. Drummond, C.B., M.V.O. 

Major-GeneralSir W. R. Robertson, K.C.V.O., C.B., D.S.O. 
Deputy Quartermaster-General 

Colonel (temporary Brigadier-General) S. H. Winter, 
retired pay. 

General Officers 

Lieutenant-General Sir J. G. Maxwell, K.C.B. , C.V.O., 

C.M.G., D.S.O. 
Major-General Sir J. Hanbury- Williams, K.C.V.O., C.M.G. 

The undermentioned temporary appointments are made L.G., 
at the War Office : Sept. 25/14 

Assistant to the Chief of the Imperial General Staff 

Major-General Ronald C. Maxwell, C.B. Dated 3ist 

August 1914. 
Major-General Charles E. Heath, C.V.O., C.B.,' to be a 

Director. Dated 26th August 1914. 


Lieutenant-General Sir Edward Locke Elliott, K.C.B., L.G., 
D.S.O., retired pay, Indian Army. Dated 3oth Sep- Oct. 7, '14 
tember 1914, 


Dated 27th September 1914 

Colonel (ranking as Major-General) Sir John Steevens, 
K.C.B., retired pay, to be a Director, vice Honorary 
Maior-General T. P. Battersby, Ordnance Department. 




L - G -> Major-General Laurence G. Drummond, C.B., M.V.O., to 

Oct. 13, '14 b e an inspector of Infantry. Dated 28th September 


Dated 28th September 1914 

L.G., Major-General L. G. Drummond, C.B., M.V.O. 

Nov. 2, '14 Major-General Sir F. Howard, K.C.B., C.M.G., retired pay. 
Major-General E. T. Dickson, retired pay. 
Major-General V. J. Dawson, C.V.O., retired pay. 

L. G., Major-General Sir Frederick S. Robb, K.C.V.O., C.B., to 

Nov. 6, '14 be Military Secretary to the Secretary of State for 

War and Secretary of the Selection Board, vice Lieu- 

tenant-General Sir A. E. Codrington, K.C.V.O., C.B. 

Dated 3oth October 1914. 


L. G., Lieutenant-General Sir H. E. Belfield, K.C.B., D.S.O, 

Nov. 9, '14 Dated l8th September 1914. 


Major-General Reginald H. Mahon, C.B., C.S.I., retired 
list, Indian Army. Dated 2nd November 1914. 


L. G., Major-General Frederick L. Campbell, Reserve of Officers, 

Nov. 10/14 to be a Director, vice Major-General H. B. Jeffreys, 

C.B. Dated 2Oth October 1914. 


L. G., General Sir Archibald Hunter, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., D.S.O. 

Nov.i7/i4 Dated 23rd August 1914. 



Dated 7th September 1914 L. G., 

Major-General Sir Desmond D. T. O'Callaghan, K.C.V.O., Nov. 18/14 
retired pay. 

Inspector of Royal Horse and Royal Field Artillery L. G. t 

Major-General Sir Thomas Perrott, K.C.B. Dated i6th Dec - 4. '14 
October 1914. 

Inspector-General of Communications 

Major-General (temporary Lieutenant-General) Ronald C. L.G., 
Maxwell, C.B. Dated igth September 1914. Dec. 7, '14 

Deputy Inspector-General of Communications L Q 

Colonel John E. Capper, C.B., and to be temporary Nov. 9, '14 

Brigadier-General. Dated igth September 1914. and 

Inspector of the Territorial Force Dec> 7 ' ' I4 

Honorary Lieutenant-General Sir Reginald Pole-Carew, L.G., 
K.C.B., C.V.O., retired pay. Dated 8th November Dec.i8,'i 4 


Major-General Sir Charles Fergusson, Bart., C.B., M.V.O., L.G.. 

D.S.O., to be Lieutenant-General, vice Sir J. M. Grierson, Au - 28 > '*4 

K.C.B., C.V.O., C.M.G., deceased. Dated i8th August 

Colonel (temporary Brigadier-General) Frederick I. Maxse* 

C.V.O., C.B., D.S.O., to be Major-General, vice Sir C. 

Fergusson. Dated i8th August 1914. 
Colonel W. E. Peyton, C.V.O., C.B., D.S.O., is granted L.G., 

the temporary rank of Major-General. Dated 24th Sept. 11/14 

August 1914. 
Colonel (temporary Brigadier-General) Hubert De la P. L.G., 

Gough, C.B., is granted the temporary rank of Major- Sept. 19/14 

General. Dated 2oth September 1914. 

The undermentioned are granted the temporary rank of L.G., ^ 
Lieutenant-General : 

Dated I3th September 1914 
Major-General Sir Cecil F. N. Macready, K.C.B. 
Major-General Sir William R. Robertson, K.C.V.O., C.B., 




L. G., Colonel (temporary Brigadier-General) Charles W. Thomp- 

Sept. 26/14 son, C.B., D.S.O., commanding Cape of Good Hope 

District, is granted the temporary rank of Major- 
General, whilst so employed. Dated 2gth September 

L - G " t Major-General Ronald C. Maxwell, C.B., is granted the 

sept. 29/14 temporary rank of Lieutenant-General. Dated igth 

September 1914. 

L. G., Colonel (temporary Brigadier-General) Charles W. Thomp- 

Sept.29& son > C.B., D.S.O., is granted the temporary rank of 

Oct. 6, '14 Major-General. Dated 20th September 1914. 

L.G., Colonel (temporary Brigadier-General) A. E. Aitken, 

Oct. 9, '14 Indian Army, to be temporary Major-Gen eral. Dated 

loth October 1914. 

L. G., f Major-General Sir H. S. Rawlinson, Bt., C.V.O., C.B., to 

Oct. 13, '14 k e temporary Lieutenant-General. Dated 4th October 


L. G., ^ Major-General Edwin A. H. Alderson, C.B., commanding 

Oct. 27, '14 the Canadian Contingent, to be Lieutenant-General. 

Dated I4th October 1914. 

Major-General Samuel H. Lomax to be Lieutenant- 
General, supernumerary to Establishment, for dis- 
tinguished service in the field. Dated I4th October 

Colonel (temporary Brigadier-General) Herman J. S. 
Landon, C.B., to be Major-General for distinguished 
service in the field. Dated 20th October 1917. 

L. G., His Majesty the King has been pleased to approve of 

Nov. 3, '14 the undermentioned Colonels (temporary Brigadier-Generals) 

being promoted to the rank of Major-General for distinguished 

conduct in the Field : 

Dated 20th October 1914 
Henry F. M. Wilson, C.B. 

Dated 26th October 1914 

Sir David Henderson, K.C.B., D.S.O. 
James A. L. Haldane, C.B., D.S.O. 
Henry S. Home, C.B. 
Frederick D. V. Wing, C.B. 
Hubert De la P. Gough, C.B. 


Edward S. Bulfin, C.V.O., C.B. 

Aylmer G. Hunter- Weston, C.B., D.S.O. 

Dated 26th October 1914 

Colonel (temporary Major-General) Sir Alexander T. 

Godley, K.C.M.G., C.B. 
Colonel (temporary Brigadier-General) Lancelot E. Kiggell, 

Colonel (temporary Major-General) William E. Peyton, 

C.V.O., C.B., D.S.O. 
Colonel (local and temporary Major-General) Sir Stanley 

B. von Donop, K.C.B. 

His Majesty the King has been pleased to approve of the L. G., 
undermentioned Colonels (temporary Brigadier-Generals) being Nov - I 4.' I 4 
promoted to the rank of Major-General for distinguished 
service in the Field : 

Dated 26th October 1914 

Arthur E. Sandbach, C.B., D.S.O. 
Frederick W. N. McCracken, C.B., D.S.O. 

His Majesty the King has been pleased to approve of the L. G., 
promotion of Lieutenant-General Sir Douglas Haig, K.C.B., Nov. 16/14 
K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O., Aide-de-Camp General, to the rank of 
General (supernumerary to Establishment) for distinguished 
service in the Field. 

Major-General Edmund H. H. Allenby, C.B., to be tempo- 
rary Lieutenant-General. Dated loth October 1914. 

Colonel (temporary Brigadier-General) Henry De B. De 
Lisle, C.B., D.S.O., to be temporary Major-General. 
Dated loth October 1914. 

His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to L.G., 
approve of the undermentioned Colonels (temporary Brigadier- Dec. 28, 14 
Generals) being promoted to the rank of Major-General for 
distinguished conduct in the Field : 

Richard C. B. Haking, C.B. 

Frederick C. Shaw, C.B. 





Times, The Secretary of State for War was approached by His 

Sept. 19/14 Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, who urgently desired to 

accompany the ist Battalion of the Grenadier Guards now 

under orders for the front. 

As His Royal Highness had not completed his military 

training, Lord Kitchener submitted to His Majesty that for 

the present it is undesirable that His Royal Highness should 

proceed on active service. 



WAR OFFICE, November 17. 

L. G., Aide-de-Camp. Sec. Lt. H.R.H. Edward, A.C.G.A.P.D. 

Nov. 17/14 Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall, K.G., Grenadier 

Guards, to be Aide-de-Camp to Field-Marshal Sir J. D. P. 

French, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G. (November 16). 


P. B., General Grierson died this morning of heart failure while 

Times, travelling in the train. 
Aug. 18/14 

[Lieutenant-General Sir James Grierson was in command of the Second 

Corps of the British Expeditionary Force ; he was succeeded by Sir H. 



P.B., Lord Kitchener announces, with deep regret, which he 

Times, ^ knows will be shared by the whole of the Army, that he received 
Nov. 15, 14 i 

evenm g i t h e following telegram from Sir John French : 

day, Nov- ' Deeply regret to tell you Lord Roberts died at eight this 

ember 14] evening. FRENCH.' 

Field-Marshal Earl Roberts was on a brief visit to France 
in order to greet the Indian troops, of which he was Colonel- 
in-Chief . He contracted a chill on Thursday, and succumbed, 
after a short illness, to an attack of pneumonia. 





House of Commons, July 31, 1914. 

The PRIME MINISTER (MR. ASQUITH) : I beg to move Hansard 
' That this House do now adjourn/ 

We have just heard not from St. Petersburg, but from 
Germany that Russia has proclaimed a general mobilisation 
of her Army and Fleet, and that, in consequence of this, 
martial law was to be proclaimed for Germany. We under- 
stand this to mean that mobilisation will follow in Germany 
if the Russian mobilisation is general and is proceeded with. 
In the circumstances, I should prefer not to answer any 
questions until Monday next. 


House of Lords, August 25, 1914. 

EARL KITCHENER : My Lords, as this is the first time that Hansard 
I have had the honour of addressing your Lordships, I must 
ask for the indulgence of the House. In the first place, I 
desire to make a personal statement. Noble- Lords on both 
sides of the House doubtless know that while associating 
myself in the fullest degree for the prosecution of the war 
with my colleagues in His Majesty's Government, my position 
on this Bench does not in any way imply that I belong to any 
political Party, for, as a soldier, I have no politics. Another 
point is that my occupation of the post of Secretary of State 
for War is a temporary one. The terms of my service are the 
same as those under which some of the finest portions of our 
manhood, now so willingly stepping forward to join the 



colours, are engaging that is to say, for the war, or, if it 
lasts longer than three years, then for three years. It has 
been asked why the latter limit has been fixed. It is 
because should this disastrous war be prolonged and 
no one can foretell with any certainty its duration 
then after three years' war there will be others fresh 
and fully prepared to take our places and see this matter 

The very serious conflict in which we are now engaged 
on the Continent has been none of our seeking. It will 
undoubtedly strain the resources of our Empire and entail 
considerable sacrifices on our people. These will be will- 
ingly borne for our honour and for the preservation 
of our position in the world, and they will be shared 
by our Dominions beyond the seas, now sending con- 
tingents and assistance of every kind to help the Mother 
Country in this struggle. If I am unable, owing to 
military consideration for the best interests of the Allied 
Armies in the field, to speak with much detail on the 
present situation of our Army on the Continent, I am sure 
your Lordships will pardon me for the necessary restraint 
which is imposed upon me. The Expeditionary Force has 
taken the field on the French North- West frontier, and ad- 
vanced to the neighbourhood of Mons in Belgium. Our 
troops have already been for thirty-six hours in contact with 
a superior force of German invaders. During that time they 
have maintained the traditions of British soldiers, and 
have behaved with the utmost gallantry. The movements 
which they have been called upon to execute have been those 
which demand the greatest steadiness in the soldiers and 
skill in their commanders. Sir John French telegraphed to 
me at midnight as follows : 

' In spite of hard marching and fighting, the British Force is in 
the best of spirits/ 

I replied : 

' Congratulate troops on their splendid work. We are all proud 
of them.' 

As your Lordships are aware, European fighting causes greater 
casualties than occur in the campaigns in which we are gene- 
rally engaged in other parts of the world. The nation will, I 


am sure, be fully prepared to meet whatever losses and sacri- 
fices we may have to make in this war. Sir John French, 
without having been able to verify the numbers, estimates 
the loss, since the commencement of active operations, at 
rather more than 2000 men hors de combat. 

As to the work of the last few weeks, I have to remark 
that when war was declared mobilisation took place without 
any hitch whatever, and our Expeditionary Force proved 
itself wholly efficient, well equipped, and immediately ready 
to take the field. The Press and the public have, in their 
respective spheres, lent invaluable aid to the Government in 
preserving the discreet silence which the exigencies of the 
situation obviously demanded, and I gladly take this oppor- 
tunity of bearing testimony to the value of their co-operation. 
The hands of the military authorities were also strengthened 
by the readiness with which the civilian community faced 
and accepted the novel situation created by the issue of requisi- 
tions for horses, transport, supplies, and billets. The railway 
companies, in the all-important matter of the transport facili- 
ties, have more than justified the complete confidence reposed 
in them by the War Office, all grades of railway services having 
laboured with untiring energy and patience. And it is well 
to repeat that the conveyance of our troops across the Channel 
was accomplished, thanks to the cordial co-operation of the 
Admiralty, with perfect smoothness and without any un- 
toward incident whatever. 

We know how deeply the French people appreciate the 
value of the prompt assistance we have been able to afford 
them at the very outset of the war, and it is obvious that not 
only the moral but the material support which our troops are 
now rendering must prove to be a factor of high military 
significance in restricting the sphere and determining the 
duration of hostilities. Had the conditions of strategy per- 
mitted, every one in this country would have rejoiced to see 
us ranged alongside the gallant Belgian Army in that superb 
struggle against desperate odds which has just been witnessed. 
But although this privilege was perforce denied to us, Belgium 
knows of our sympathy with her in her sufferings, of our 
indignation at the blows which have been inflicted upon her, 
and also of our resolution to make sure that in the end her 
sacrifices will not have been unavailing. 



While other countries engaged in this war have, under a 
system of compulsory service, brought their full resources of 
men into the field, we, under our national system, have not 
done so, and can therefore still point to a vast reserve drawn 
from the resources both of the Mother Country and of the 
British Dominions across the seas. The response which has 
already been made by the great Dominions abundantly 
proves that we did not look in vain to these sources of military 
strength, and while India, Canada, Australia, and New 
Zealand are all sending us powerful contingents, in this 
country the Territorials are replying with loyalty to the stern 
call of duty, which has come to them with such exceptional 
force. Over seventy battalions have, with fine patriotism, 
already volunteered for service abroad, and when trained 
and organised in the larger formations will be able to take 
their places in the line. The 100,000 recruits for which, in 
1 [See ante, the first place, it has been thought necessary to call 1 have been 
P- J 3] already practically secured. This force will be trained and 
organised in divisions similar to those which are now serving 
on the Continent. Behind these we have our Reserves. The 
Special Reserve and the National Reserve have each their 
own part to play in the organisation of our national defence. 

The Empires with whom we are at war have called to the 
colours almost their entire male population. The principle 
which we on our part shall observe is this that while their 
maximum force undergoes a constant diminution, the rein- 
forcements we prepare shall steadily and increasingly flow out 
until we have an Army in the field which, in numbers not 
less than in quality, will not be unworthy of the power and 
responsibilities of the British Empire. I cannot at this stage 
say what will be the limits of the forces required, or what 
measures may eventually become necessary to supply and 
maintain them. The scale of the Field Army which we are 
now calling into being is large, and may rise in the course of 
the next six or seven months to a total of thirty divisions 
continually maintained in the field. But if the war should be 
protracted, and if its fortunes should be varied or adverse, 
exertions and sacrifices beyond any which have been demanded 
will be required from the whole nation and Empire, and where 
they are required we are sure they will not be denied to the 
extreme needs of the State by Parliament or the people. 


House of Lords, August 28, 1914. 

EARL KITCHENER : My Lords, we learn to-day from Sir Hansard 
John French that in the righting which took place between his 
Army and the enemy on Wednesday [August 26], and which 
it appears from the French official report was in the neigh- 
bourhood of Cambrai and Le Cateau, our troops were exposed 
to the attack of five German Army Corps, two Cavalry Divi- 
sions, and a reserve corps, with the Guards Cavalry and the 
Second Cavalry Division. Our Second Army Corps and 
Fourth Division bore the brunt of the Cavalry attack, whilst 
our First Army Corps was attacked on the right and inflicted 
very heavy loss on the enemy. I regret to say that our 
casualties were heavy. Exact particulars are not yet known. 
The behaviour of the troops was in all respects admirable. 
General J off re, in a message published this morning, 1 has l [See post, 
conveyed his congratulations and sincere thanks for the pro- P- 299] 
tection so effectively given by our Army to the French flank. 
In addition to the reinforcements that will shortly proceed 
from this country, the Government have decided that our 
Army in France shall be increased by two Divisions and a 
Cavalry Division, besides other troops, from India. The 
first Division of these troops is now on its way. I may add 
that all wastage in the Army in France is being immediately 
filled up, and that there are 12,000 men waiting for that 
purpose on the lines of communication. 

INDIA (The MARQUESS OF CREWE) : My Lords, perhaps I 
may venture, speaking as Secretary of State for India, to say 
a word in continuation of what has been said by my noble 
and gallant friend behind me with regard to the despatch of 
two Indian Divisions and a Cavalry Division to the seat of 
war in Europe. It has been deeply impressed upon us, from 
what we have heard from India, that the wonderful wave of 
enthusiasm and loyalty which is now passing over that 
country is to a great extent based upon the desire of the 
Indian people that Indian soldiers should stand side by side 
with their comrades of the British Army in repelling the 
invasion of our friends' territory and the attack which has 
been made upon them. It is well known in India that 
African troops of the French Army who have been assisting the 



troops in France are of native origin, and I feel satisfied that 
it would have been a disappointment to our loyal Indian 
fellow-subjects, all the more on that account, if they had 
found themselves debarred for any reason from taking part 
in the campaign on the continent of Europe. We shall find 
our Army there reinforced by soldiers, high-souled men of 
first-rate training and representing an ancient civilisation ; 
and we feel certain that if they are called upon they will give 
the best possible account of themselves side by side with our 
British troops in encountering the enemy. 

I venture to think, my Lords, that this keen desire of our 
Indian fellow-subjects so to co-operate with us is not less 
gratifying than the same desire which has been shown by the 
various self-governing Dominions, some of whose soldiers in 
due course will also be found fighting side by side with British 
troops and with Indian troops in the war. Of course, we all 
know that India does not possess an inexhaustible reservoir 
of troops, and that the defence of India must in itself be a 
primary consideration not only to India itself but also to us. 
But I am able to state, so far as external aggression is con- 
cerned of which I hope and believe there is no prospect- 
that in spite of these heavy drafts upon the Indian Army, 
our Indian frontiers will be held fully and adequately secured ; 
and as regards any risk of internal trouble in India, against 
which in ordinary times, of course, our combined British and 
Indian forces have to secure us, I believe that at this moment 
the general enthusiasm which has been awakened by our 
resistance to the unprovoked attack which has been made 
upon our Allies is such as to render anything of that sort 
altogether impossible. That enthusiasm has pervaded all 
classes and races in India ; it has found vent in many different 
ways in some cases by gifts of great liberality for the service 
of the troops in the field. I was told only yesterday, by the 
Viceroy that one of the principal Indian Princes had sent 
him a gift of fifty lakhs of rupees between 300,000 and 
400,000 for the use of the troops in the field, and there 
have been on varying scales a number of offers of the same 
kind. I feel confident, therefore, that the action we have 
taken will meet with the most enthusiastic response in India, 
and I believe that it will be approved by your Lordships and 
by public opinion here generally. 



House of Lords, September 14, 1914. 

EARL KITCHENER : Your Lordships will expect that some Hansard 
statement should be made by me on the general military 
situation before the session ends, and I will therefore en- 
deavour as briefly as possible to supplement the remarks 
which I had the honour to address to your Lordships' House 
three weeks ago. 1 I need not re-tell the story of the British l [See ante, 
Expeditionary Force in France, which has been read and P-95] 
appreciated by us all in Sir John French's despatch. 2 The 2 [See post, 
quiet restraint of his account of their achievements only P-352] 
brings into relief the qualities which enabled our troops 
successfully to carry out the most difficult of all military 
operations. There is, however, one aspect of this feat of arms 
upon which the despatch is naturally silent. I refer to the 
consummate skill and calm courage of the Commander-in- 
Chief himself in the conduct of this strategic withdrawal in 
the face of vastly superior forces. His Majesty's Government 
appreciate to the full the value of the service which Sir John 
French has rendered to this country and to the cause of the 
Allies, and I may perhaps be permitted here and now, on their 
behalf, to pay a tribute to his leadership as well as to the 
marked ability of the Generals under his command, and 
the bravery and endurance of the officers and men of the 
Expeditionary Force. 

As your Lordships are aware, the tide has now turned, and 
for some days past we have received the gratifying intelli- 
gence of the forced retirement of the German Armies. The 
latest news from Sir John French does not materially change 
the published statement describing the military situation. 
In his telegram Sir John reports that the troops are all in good 
heart, and are ready to move forward when the moment 
arrives. The gallant French Armies, with which we are so 
proud to be co-operating, will receive every support from our 
troops in their desire effectually to clear their country of 
the invading foe, and the undaunted and vigilant activity of 
the Belgian Army in the North materially conduces to this 
end. I would also like to take this opportunity of offering 
our cordial congratulations to Russia upon the conspicuous 
successes which have added fresh lustre to her arms. 

Although, therefore, we have good grounds for quiet 



confidence, it is only right that we should remind ourselves 
that the struggle is bound to be a long one, and that it behoves 
us strenuously to prosecute our labours in developing our 
armed forces to carry on and bring to a successful issue the 
mighty conflict in which we are engaged. There are now in 
the field rather more than six Divisions of British troops and 
two Cavalry Divisions. These are being, and will be, main- 
tained at full strength by a steady flow of reinforcements. 
To meet the wastage of war in this Field Force our Reserve 
units are available. To augment the Expeditionary Force, 
further Regular Divisions and additional Cavalry are now 
being organised from units withdrawn from stations overseas, 
whose places where necessary will be taken by Territorial 
troops, who, with fine patriotism, have volunteered to exchange 
a Home for an Imperial Service obligation. 

On their way from India are certain Divisions from the 
Indian Army, composed of highly trained and very efficient 
troops, and a body of Cavalry including regiments of historic 
fame. The Dominions beyond the seas are sending us freely 
of their best. Several Divisions will be available, formed 
of men who have been locally trained in the light of the 
experience of the South African War, and, in the case of 
Australia and New Zealand, under the system of general 
national training introduced a few years ago. In the response 
to the call for recruits for the new Armies which it is con- 
sidered necessary to raise, we have had a most remarkable 
demonstration of the energy and patriotism of the young men 
of this country. We propose to organise this splendid material 
into four new Armies, and although it takes time to train an 
Army, the zeal and goodwill displayed will greatly simplify 
our task. 

If some of those who have so readily come forward have 
suffered inconvenience, they will not, I am sure, allow their 
ardour to be damped. They will reflect that the War Office 
has had in a day to deal with as many recruits as were usually 
forthcoming in twelve months. No effort is being spared 
to meet the influx of soldiers, and the War Office will do its 
utmost to look after them and give them the efficient training 
necessary to enable them to join their comrades in the field. 
The Divisions of the first two Armies are now collected at 
our training centres ; the Third Army is being formed on 



new camping grounds ; the Fourth Army is being created by 
adding to the establishment of the Reserve battalions, from 
which the units will be detached and organised similarly to 
the other three Armies. The whole of the Special Reserve 
and Extra Special Reserve units will be maintained at their 
full establishments as feeders to the Expeditionary Force. 

In addition to the four new Armies, a considerable number 
of what may be designated local battalions have been specially 
raised by the public-spirited initiative of cities, towns, or 
individuals. Several more are in course of formation, and I 
have received many offers of this character. The Territorial 
Force is making great strides in efficiency, and will before 
many months be ready to take a share in the campaign. This 
Force is proving its military value to the Empire by the will- 
ing subordination of personal feelings to the public good in 
the acceptance of whatever duty may be assigned to it in any 
portion of the Empire. A Division has already left for Egypt, 
a Brigade for Malta, and a Garrison for Gibraltar. The 
soldierlike qualities evinced by the Force are an assurance to 
the Government that they may count to the full upon its 
readiness to play its part wherever the exigencies of the 
military situation may demand. Nor must I omit to refer to 
the assistance which we shall receive from the Division of the 
gallant Royal Marines and Bluejackets now being organised 
by my right hon. friend the First Lord of the Admiralty. 1 * [Mr 
Their presence in the field will be very welcome, for their 
fighting qualities are well known. 

The creation of the new Armies referred to is fraught with 
considerable difficulties, one of which is the provision of regi- 
mental officers. I hope the problem of supplying officers 
may be solved by the large numbers coming forward to fill 
vacancies and by promotions from the non-commissioned 
officer ranks of the Regular forces. In a country which prides 
itself on its skill in, and love of, outdoor sports, we ought to 
be able to find sufficient young men who will train and qualify 
as officers under the guidance of the nucleus of trained officers 
which we are able to provide from India and elsewhere. If 
any retired officer competent to train troops has not yet 
applied, or has not received an answer to a previous applica- 
tion, I hope that he will communicate with me at the War 

Office in writing. 



But our chief difficulty is .one of materiel rather than 
personnel. It would not be in the public interest that I 
should refer in greater detail to this question, beyond saying 
that strenuous endeavours are being made to cope with the 
unprecedented situation, and that, thanks to the public spirit 
of all grades in the various industries affected, to whom we 
have appealed to co-operate with us and who are devoting 
all their energy to the task, our requirements will, I feel sure, 
be met with all possible speed. I am confident that by the 
spring we shall have ready to take the field Armies which will 
be well trained and will prove themselves formidable opponents 
to the enemy. The Government fully recognise the fine spirit 
which animates those who have come forward to fight for their 
country, and will spare no effort to secure that everything is 
done that can be done to enable them worthily to contribute 
to the ultimate success of our arms. 

I have to announce to the House that the Government 
have decided to increase the separation allowances made to 
wives of soldiers, both Regular and Territorial. No change 
will be made in the amounts contributed by the soldier out 
of his pay, but the allowances made from Army Funds will be 
so increased as to bring the income of the family up to a higher 
standard. I will not trouble the House with the figures 
affecting the higher ranks, but will give those for the rank and 

1 [See ante, file. 1 For a wife without child, the income rises from us. id. 

P- 6 5] to I2s. 6d. ; for a wife and one child, from I2S. lod. to 155. ; 
a wife and two children, from 145. 7d. to 175. 6d. ; a wife and 
three children, from i6s. 4d. to 2os. ; a wife and four children, 
from 175. 6d. to 22s. ; and so on, increasing by 2s. for each 
further child. For London families an addition of 35. 6d. 
a week will continue to be made to these figures. Arrange- 
ments have also been made with the Post Office to pay these 
allowances weekly direct to the women in all cases, and both 
weekly payments and new rates will start on ist October, the 
September allowances having already been paid. 

The MARQUESS OF LANSDOWNE : My Lords, I feel that it 
is almost an impertinence on my part to say a word after the 
absorbingly interesting statement to which we have just 
listened, but I should be sorry if complete silence on our 
part lent itself to the interpretation that we were indifferent 


to the great topics which the Secretary of State for War has 
just dealt with in his speech. May we be permitted to say 
that we regard with the profoundest admiration and gratitude 
what the noble and gallant Field-Marshal described as the 
great feat of arms which has been accomplished by the 
British Force since its arrival at the seat of war. And may 
we be permitted to add also that we share the feeling which 
the noble and gallant Earl has expressed with regard to the 
immense service rendered by Sir John French to this country, 
a service to which he, of course, could not himself bear 
witness in the despatch which he sent home. There are only 
two other remarks which, with great deference, I would 
venture to make. One has reference to the noble and gallant 
Earl's statement with regard to the response which has been 
made to his appeal to the country for recruits. That response 
has been memorable and admirable, and I only wish to say 
this that I think, considering the manner in which that 
appeal was responded to, the immense influx of recruits that 
came in in consequence of the appeal which was made to the 
country, we can scarcely be surprised that in the early days 
the strain should have been rather greater than either the 
War Office or the local authorities were able to cope with. 
But we have every reason to believe that that has been 
corrected, and I feel no doubt that all will now go smoothly 
and well. The only other observation which I will take 
leave to make is this, that we have all heard with the greatest 
satisfaction the announcement that the separation allowances 
to the wives of Regulars and Territorials are to be con- 
siderably increased. Considering what our soldiers are doing 
for us at the seat of war the least we can do is to provide 
liberally for the relatives whom they have for a time left 
behind in this country. 

LORD HARRIS : My Lords, may I, with reference to what 
the noble Marquess has just said, add a word on behalf of the 
widows of those who fall in the war. I had a letter in 
The Times the other day calling attention to the fact that 
whereas a wife whose husband lives gets from 143. to 2os., 
a widow drops to about 53., with perhaps 2S. more from the 
Patriotic Fund, so that at any rate for some time after the 
death of her husband she is infinitely worse off .than the wife 

of a soldier who is alive. 



EARL KITCHENER : That particular point is under the 
consideration of the Government ; but there are, of course, 
important considerations and differences in many cases. 


House of Lords, November n, 1914. 

Hansard EARL CURZON OF KEDLESTON : Do not let any of US in 

regarding, as I shall presently have to do, some of the diffi- 
culties which have taken place, underrate the stupendous 
character of the problem which confronted the Government 
at the end of last July. They possessed machinery only com- 
petent to meet a certain strain, and they were suddenly called 
upon to expand it to meet a necessity a hundredfold greater 
than any one of them reasonably contemplated. I do not 
think it is at all surprising if at places and times since then 
the mechanism has shown itself unequal to the load that has 
been placed upon it. Again, when we talk about recruiting 
in terms of some anxiety, do not let us fail to give full credit 
to the tens of thousands of patriotic men who have flocked 
to the colours, and who have cheerfully borne the discomforts 
and I think the Secretary of State for War at the Guildhall 
1 [See post, the other night l rightly used the word the sufferings (because 
p. 198] m some cases they have amounted to sufferings) which they 
have been called upon to endure in the camps and training 
grounds where they are concentrated. Lord Kitchener on 
that occasion spoke about 1,250,000 men as being at the 
present moment under training in this country. I believe 
that is outside the Regular Army, and I imagine the figures 
included the whole of the Territorial Force. It is a very 
remarkable achievement to have raised that body of men, 
and by all means let us give every credit to the organisation 
that has brought it about. But I feel certain that I am not 
misunderstanding the situation, and that I am not misin- 
terpreting the sentiments of His Majesty's Government, if I 
say that, great and successful as those efforts have been, much 
greater are the efforts that in the future will be required if we 
are to rise in the full measure of our responsibilities, and to 
bring this war to the termination that we all desire. 

Upon that point may I address a word to the nobleMarquess? 


I have read some conflicting statements made by spokesmen 
of the Government as to the numbers of men they are likely 
to require. I have no idea myself how many men they 
actually look forward to obtaining. I think it might be well 
if the Government gave us some clear idea of the actual 
limits of their expectations and their desires. Surely on a 
point like this frankness is not only desirable but essential. 
The nation, in being asked to make a great effort, is entitled 
to know what is the extent of the contribution that it is in- 
vited to make to the armies of the State. If another half 
million or another million is required, do let us be told, so 
that we may know where we stand, and set about obtaining 
the men with all the efficacy at our command. I see it 
stated in the Press that in some parts of the country the 
stream of recruiting is flowing slowly, and that in places it 
has dwindled to quite a slender volume. Personally, having 
seen a certain amount of the feeling in different parts of the 
country, I am loth to attribute the variations or the diminu- 
tion of which I am speaking, to selfishness or lack of patriotism 
on the part of our people. On the contrary, I am inclined to 
think that wherever the conditions of the problem are really 
made known to the people by men possessing local knowledge 
or influence, you get a good return to the colours. But there 
must be, and I think there are, other explanations which the 
experience of the past three months has placed quite clearly 
before us obstacles which it ought to be our object to remove, 
and which I have no doubt it is the desire, and I hope the 
intention, of the Government to diminish to the best of their 
ability ; and if I allude briefly to one or two of these obstacles 
I hope I shall not be thought to be casting blame on any 
organisation or any individual. We on this side merely 
desire to assist the Government in the prosecution of their 

In one respect the Government have taken a step, perhaps 
somewhat too long delayed, to remove one of the chief causes 
of hesitation and misapprehension. I allude to the new 
scale of allowances and pensions which has been published. 
I do not think the present moment would be a favourable 
one for criticising that scale. These are difficult questions, 
and no solution is likely to be acceptable to all parties. The 
new system, as I think the noble and gallant Field-Marshal 



said, is undoubtedly much more liberal than that which pre- 
ceded it, but still, so far as I can ascertain, it leaves great 
inequalities. In some cases the grant of money is exorbitant ; 
in others less is given than might be expected or desired. 
Some families will be better off than before the war began ; 
others will be hard hit. There are provisions in this scheme 
which are very doubtful indeed in their moral application 
about which we shall no doubt hear something further in 
this and the other House of Parliament and in its entirety 
the financial burden placed by this scheme upon the nation 
seems to me to have been rather hypothetically and imper- 
fectly calculated, although in any case it must be very great. 
I think it might have been well if the Government had enlarged 
the field of those whom they took into counsel in preparing 
their scheme. And even now if you are to obtain general 
consent for this system, if it is to be fair to all, and if it is to 
escape the risks of demoralisation at one end of the scale and 
waste at the other, I really think it would be well if His 
Majesty's advisers were to convene a representative com- 
mittee of persons qualified by experience and by local know- 
ledge to criticise and examine these proposals in the light of 
the real conditions of the people. I throw out this sugges- 
tion with deference for the consideration of the noble Marquess. 
I see in the papers to-day a further suggestion which has 
been made of the creation of a register of all adult males 
throughout the country between the ages of eighteen and 
thirty-five I wonder why you do not extend the figures a 
little more at both ends of the scale who would be willing 
to serve their country and would be prepared to go when 
wanted by the Government. I think that is an excellent 
suggestion. But, speaking about it, the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer last night he is not always very precise in his 
use of language said that he would like to see each county 
called upon for its quota. There was a flavour of com- 
pulsion about the phrase. I can hardly believe that that 
was what the Chancellor of the Exchequer meant, but perhaps 
the noble Marquess may give us a word upon that point. If 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer merely meant that the 
contribution of each county, or borough, or constituency, 
or whatever area you choose, because I think myself that a 
county is perhaps needlessly large if he meant that the 


contribution of each area is to be made public, and that an 
appeal is thereby to be addressed to those who have been 
laggard in coming forward, then, again, I think it an excellent 
suggestion and that nothing but good can come of it. You 
want to promote a spirit of honourable emulation between 
counties and boroughs and local areas. It would be an 
excellent thing for one area to know what has been done in 
another area, whether it has contributed its own quota or 
whether it is behindhand. I believe that in this way perhaps 
more than in any other you would raise the spirits of the 
country, and produce a much fairer level of contribution all 
the way round. 

One other criticism may, I think, not unfairly be made. 
Surely the Government have been rather indifferent to what 
I may call the spectacular side of war or rather of the pre- 
parations for war. May not we remind them of the well- 
known lines in Shakespeare : 

The spirit-stirring drum, the ear-piercing fife, 

The royal banner, and all quality, 

Pride, pomp and circumstance of glorious war ! 

Those are conditions which it is necessary to bear in mind, 
because they are a part of the human appeal that you must 
make to a people if you are trying to turn them into a nation 
in arms. I venture to say that we have seen too little of 
this side in the country. There has been a certain drab 
monotony in the movements, marchings, and parades of the 
newly recruited men. To-day I was glad to see quite a change 
in the streets. Whether it was due to the presence of His 
Majesty or to the opening of Parliament I do not know, but 
there were bands galore ; and I venture to think that what 
you did in London to-day you might with great advantage 
do in every part of the country. If you wish to rely, as I 
believe you do, upon the voluntary system, if you think that 
the voluntary system is going to give you all that you want, 
then I say you must make 1 your appeal to popular sentiment, 
and you must get upon your side the imaginative sympathy 
of the nation. 

There is one other respect in which greater publicity can 
be given in easy and quite defensible conditions I refer 
to a wider circulation of the brave deeds of our brave men. 



A Noble LORD : And regiments. 

EARL CURZON OF KEDLESTON : Yes, I mean regiments 
and individuals both. I am not going to echo the popular 
criticisms of the Press Bureau. I make every allowance for 
an organisation started as it was without any experience, and 
in circumstances which I believe could not have been over- 
come even by an archangel. As regards the Press Bureau I 
think it is fair to state this, that whatever imperfections have 
been observed in its operations have been due, I am told, 
much less to any fault of its own than to the hampering rules 
and regulations to which it has been subjected by the War 
Office. I believe if blame attaches to any one- although I do 
not want to import blame of any one into my remarks that 
the War Office is the responsible party. I need not say that 
no one on these benches or in this House pleads for informa- 
tion which would be of any use to the enemy. We do not 
want to know the movements and disposition of our troops 
in Belgium or France. We do not ask to know the where or 
the when of the battles that are taking place, but we do ask 
to know something of the how. It surely cannot help the 
Germans to know that this regiment or that brigade, this or 
that individual, has covered himself with glory upon the field 
of combat. But it does help us, it does encourage the men who 
are fighting at the front, it does cheer up their relatives who are 
left behind, and it does promote recruiting in the country. 

I know I am only saying what every noble Lord will bear 
out from his own experience, that too often we only hear of 
these wonderful feats performed in the field, either because 
we have the accident to come across some officer who has 
returned from the front, or because we go to a hospital and 
meet a wounded and, perhaps, garrulous soldier, or when we 
read the extracts that appear from their letters in the news- 
papers. For the rest we have to rely upon the short bulletins 
that appear almost daily in the newspapers and that are 
drawn up with a truly irreproachable obscurity ; or upon the 
longer despatches, masterly in their character but neces- 
sarily late in their arrival, from Sir John French ; or upon 
the picturesque embroideries of an ' Eye- Witness ' at the 
front. If the Suffolks or the Sherwood Foresters or any 
other regiment do a great and brilliant deed, why should it 
not be known in Suffolk or Nottingham, or whatever may be 


the county interested a few days afterwards ? Why should 
it not be blazed abroad throughout the United Kingdom ? 
The London Scottish are almost the only corps who since the 
beginning of the war have had the advantage of this adver- 
tisement. No doubt it has been a splendid thing for the 
Territorials that they have received it. But what about the 
Regulars who have been fighting for two or three months, 
performing prodigies of valour, without almost any recogni- 
tion except what comes almost too late ? As it is, in trying 
to get your recruits you have, by a strange and melancholy 
paradox, to wait for reverses in order to bring them in. The 
moment a reverse happens, men crowd to the recruiting 
stations in order to avenge the losses and sufferings of those 
to whom they are attached. I suggest an absolutely opposite 
method of procedure that instead of obtaining recruits from 
your reverses, you should win them from your triumphs ; and 
if you do I believe that you will find an immediate and 
gratifying response in those who will flock to the colours. 

I hope that my questions have not exceeded the bounds 
of discretion and self-restraint which we all of us desire to 
observe upon this occasion. I would only like in conclu- 
sion to say, on behalf of noble Lords who sit on this side of 
the House x that in prosecuting this war to the only termina- 
tion which is right and which we can contemplate with due 
regard to our own honour and existence, the Government 
will continue to be assisted by our whole-hearted co-operation* 
I read with extreme satisfaction the concluding passage a 
notable and, I think, a noble passage in the speech of the 
Prime Minister at the Guildhall two days ago. 1 It was the 
passage in which he said that the nation would not sheathe 
its sword and I am sure he was speaking for the Allies of 
the nation as well as for ourselves until we had secured the 
objects of the campaign. Those objects were four in number. 
The first was that Belgium should be reinstated I am not 
giving his exact words in its country and its homes ; the 
second was that France should be secured against aggression 
in future ; the third was that the rights and liberties of the 
smaller nations should be placed upon a secure basis ; and 
the last was that the military domination of Prussia should 
be destroyed. My Lords, those are righteous and honour- 

1 [This speech will be given in the Diplomatic Division.] 



able objects, and those are the objects in securing which we 
will support the Government to the end. We will support 
you with all the Parliamentary assistance that we can give. 

INDIA (The MARQUESS OF CREWE) : Every speaker, naturally 
and inevitably, has spoken of the work of the Army and of 
the trials which it has gone through and the losses it has sus- 
tained. The doings of the Army have been watched by every- 
body in this country with an intensity of regard to which I 
imagine no parallel exists with reference to any public events 
within the recollection of anybody now alive. The nation 
has felt an absolutely unqualified pride in its officers and 
men ; it has regarded with equal admiration the leading of 
the troops from the highest to the lowest grades of commis- 
sioned officers, and also the heroic endurance which has 
distinguished the Army in all its ranks, both in advance and 
in retreat. It is, indeed, my Lords, a terrible price that we 
have had to pay even thus far for having been able to hold 
our own, and more than hold our own, in the contest on the 
Continent. This war has been carried on by such numbers 
and has been accompanied by such carnage, owing to the 
perfection to which engines of war have been brought, as the 
world has never thought of contemplating. In this House 
we naturally think first of those with whom we are ourselves 
especially associated the higher ranks of the Army, repre- 
sented by the officers of the different forces. They come 
closer to ourselves here ; and we do not forget to remember 
with sympathy that the Royal Family itself has not escaped 
paying toll by the life of a brave and popular young Prince. 

I remember that in one of the great speeches which Mr. 
Bright made in the course of the Crimean War, he alluded in 
particular to the loss of officers. That speech was made 
three months after the battle of Alma, and he told his audience 
in that famous and thrilling oration that that had been a 
terribly destructive war for officers. ' They have been/ he 
said, ' as one would expect, first in valour as the first in place ; 
they have suffered more in proportion to their numbers than 
the commonest soldiers in the ranks/ Then Mr. Bright went 
on to say that the losses after three months of war, including 
some battles the names of which are so famous, amounted 
to one hundred officers killed ; forty had died of disease, 



and two hundred or so had been in different degrees wounded. 
When we consider the toll the country is paying in this war] 
a toll which, as we know, has not yet by any means been fully 
exacted, those figures seem comparatively small ; and it is 
true now, as it was then, that the proportion of officers who 
fall is large as compared with that of the rank and file. The 
duty of leading imposes special and extra dangers. But 'we 
certainly make no kind of comparison between the different 
grades. All that we can do is to express our thankfulness to 
them .and our admiration of them for the ungrudging gift 
which they have made of their lives in the service of the 
country ; and that, of course, applies to all of whatever 
rank, from the highest to the humblest. 

Before I leave the subject of the Army I must say one word 
about the Indian forces, whose advent to the scene of combat 
was so warmly welcomed by your Lordships' House before 
the Prorogation. They have fulfilled and more than fulfilled 
the highest hopes that we have ventured to entertain. They 
have shown not merely courage, but steadiness and staunch- 
ness in a manner which has awakened the admiration of some 
of those who had never seen them before even in times of 
peace. . They, too, have paid a heavy tribute in casualties, 
and I am certain that on the plains and in the hills of India 
just the same pride will be felt by those who have lost their 
brothers and their sons as is felt by us on this side of the 

I was saying that the noble Earl alluded to one or two 
matters connected with the Army at home, upon which it is 
right that I should say a word in reply. I was grateful to 
him when he mentioned the criticisms, somewhat thought- 
less, which have been levelled not particularly at His Majesty's 
Government, but generally on the subject of 'recruiting. I 
was grateful to the noble Earl for reminding the House what 
actually has been done in that respect, and I can assure him 
that the desire which he expresses that a further eff prt should 
be made and maintained to encourage recruiting is entirely 
shared by us. But I do not think that the Secretary of State 
for War, who is not able to be in his place to-day, would be 
prepared to go the length which the noble Earl suggested of 
naming a final figure as the total number of men at which 
it was desirable to aim for the purposes of this war. I am 



inclined to think that he would desire to proceed as it has 
always been the custom here to proceed that is to say, to 
ask Parliament for a vote to enable a certain number of men 
to be raised. It will soon be necessary to make a demand 
of that kind to Parliament, and I do not think that the 
demand is likely to be a very small one. But until that 
demand is made I would sooner, if the noble Earl would 
excuse me, not go into any figures, particularly in the absence 
of my noble friend the Secretary of State, who will, I have 
no doubt, be in his place in the course of a few days, and will 
make a statement upon military matters generally. 

Then the noble Earl alluded to an observation which was 
made by another colleague of mine with reference to the 
possibility of calling on every county for its quota. The 
interpretation which the noble Earl placed upon it was 
undoubtedly the correct one that what the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer intended to convey was that in his opinion 
it would be a good thing if each county were told what would 
be its numerical proportion of recruits out of a certain number, 
so that in the event of its not producing that number the 
other counties and the rest of the country would know that 
this particular county was falling short, and they would 
certainly wish to know the reason. But I think my right 
hon. friend is well aware that the whole matter is not alto- 
gether so easy as might appear from the simplicity of taking 
a step of that kind, because the position in different districts 
not merely counties, as the noble Earl quite rightly pointed 
out is very various indeed. There are some districts, for 
instance, in which there are industries which it is of the 
highest importance to keep fully manned. Take, for example, 
those parts of the country in which armaments, clothing, 
boots, and so on, are made. It is exceedingly important that 
those trades should be quite fully manned, and the last thing 
we should wish is that the young men who may be engaged 
in them within the service age should enlist in His Majesty's 
forces. That is one thing which produces a discrepancy. 
There is another. There are some parts of England where 
a great number of people have joined the Territorial Force, 
and there are other parts of England and of the United 
Kingdom generally, where people in large numbers have 
joined the new forces that are being raised. It would be 


exceedingly unfair upon those who have contributed hand- 
somely to the Territorials if they were merely twitted with 
not having sent a proper quota to the new armies that are 
being raised. 

VISCOUNT ST. ALDWYN : It is the total. 

The MARQUESS OF CREWE : All these matters would have 
to be carefully borne in mind before a comparison was made 
which, would not be exceedingly unfair to some districts who 
might find themselves to some extent held up to public repro- 
bation while they were really doing as much as others for 
the direct service of the country. 

There were two other points that the noble Earl made. 
One was with regard to allowances and pensions, particu- 
larly those payable to wives and dependants, including 
separation allowances. As regards pensions to widows and 
so on, it is important to bear in mind that we ought not to 
be carried away by the very natural sentiment which would 
desire us to endow and assist these poor women as far as 
possible we ought not to be carried away to an extent which 
would be unfair to other people by dislocating the labour 
market in which these women have to find a place. Points 
of that kind are of great difficulty and great complexity, and 
there is always the risk of being carried away on one line of 
thought to an extent which may make one ignore other con- 
siderations which are not less important. In these matters 
we have endeavoured not to confine our inquiries only to 
those of our own way of thinking, but to get such assistance 
as we could from those who are not in general agreement with 
us* and I can assure the noble Earl that these matters have 
been receiving the closest care and thought from a number of 
those who are qualified to study them with effect and to give 
sound opinions about them. I speak with -some ignorance, 
because it has not happened that my sphere of action has lain 
at all in this direction. I have had nothing to do with any 
of the Committees that have been considering these matters, 
but I know, from having seen the results of some of their 
work, that that work has been most closely thought out and 
conducted with the most scrupulous care ; and I believe that 
it is also true that the further they have gone the more they 
have been impressed by the extreme difficulty of arriving 
at conclusions which are not only fair to the particular people 



who are to be benefited by these allowances and pensions, but 
are not unfair to other people. 

The only other point to which I think the noble Earl 
alluded was that of what he called a wider circulation to be 
given to brave deeds. I am grateful to him for having re- 
frained from bringing up a full discussion on the subject of 
news and the Press Bureau. What I feel about this is that 
it is exceedingly difficult for a civilian to say what are the 
proper limits of reticence in the description of operations, 
even of past operations. I confess that it would seem to 
myself I dare say it also seems to the noble Earl that once 
a battle is over and done with there could be but little harm 
in giving a tolerably full description of many of those engaged 
in it and what took place generally. But I am given to under- 
stand I dare say the noble and gallant Field-Marshal opposite 
could tell me that, on the contrary by a publication of 
that kind, information of value might conceivably be con- 
veyed to the enemy. Therefore it is necessary that what I ^ 
frankly admit to my civilian mind, as to the noble Earl's, * 
appears to be the somewhat nebulous as well as jejune supply 
of news with which we have to content ourselves should be 
given. The only thing I hope is that the noble Earl and his 
friends do not think that we on this side have a vast amount 
of information which he and his friends have not got, over 
which we gloat in private. I can assure him that that is not 
the case. There are a great many subjects of the highest 
interest upon which I am, and my friends are, quite as ignorant 
as the noble Earl could be himself, and upon which I could 
give no information supposing that I was hi communica- 
tion with alien enemies which would be of the smallest 
interest or value to them. 

But I am certain that what the noble Earl has said will 
not be ignored or forgotten. It will be carefully noted that 
he was not making a general complaint, but there were certain 
specific points upon which he thought an improvement might 
reasonably be made. That, I have no doubt, my friends who 
are particularly responsible for this matter will take into 
consideration. Similarly with the other subject which he 
mentioned, that of the possibility of introducing somewhat 
more pomp and circumstance into the conduct of recruiting 
and our life generally with a view of exciting the public mind, 


which in some classes and in some districts may, for all we 
know, still be somewhat apathetic, by the expedients which 
from time immemorial have been used with that object, I 
am certain that what the noble Earl has said will also receive 
close attention from those whose business it is to consider 
these matters. My impression is that something has already 
been done in the way of bands to a certain extent, but I do 
not know how far ; nor do I know whether the practice has 
at all spread to the country. In London I fancy that there 
are a good many more bands, and there have been, I am 
told, some marches of an attractive character. But I can 
assure the noble Earl that what he said will receive the atten- 
tion of the War Office. I think I have now covered the 
various points which were raised by the noble Earl, and that 
enables me to conclude what I have to say, only repeating 
what has also fallen, I think, from the three noble Lords who 
have spoken, that it is our steadfast determination not to 
relax, far less to cease, our efforts until an end has been 
reached which is honourable, which will, so far as we can look 
ahead, be permanent, and which will be satisfactory to the 
nation which is spending so much both in money and in what 
is so much more precious than money, the lives of its citizens, 
in this great cause. 


House of Lords, November 18, 1914. 
EARL CURZON OF KEDLESTON : My Lords, I beg to ask the 
Secretary of State for India whether he can, consistently with 
the public interest, give any information regarding the military 
operations that are proceeding in British East Africa and 
neighbouring parts, and I may, perhaps, be allowed to say a 
few words as to my reason for putting this question. One 
of the features of the war in which we are engaged is that it 
is almost a world-wide war. Wherever the German flag is 
planted in different parts of the world we and our Allies have 
been engaged in endeavouring to pull it down. That is a 
necessary and a proper feature of the campaign, and the 
operation has been conducted with success, we are glad to 
say, in many parts of the world. The German flag has been 
hauled down, as we know, in Samoa, in Kiaochau, in German 



New Guinea, in some of the Islands of the Pacific, and we 
have every reason to believe and hope that it will not be flying 
very much longer in German South- West Africa. 

But as regards British East Africa, where there are very 
extensive German possessions, extending for many hundreds 
of miles and covering many millions of acres coterminous 
with our own, although military operations have been pro- 
ceeding, scarcely a word I think I may say not one word 
of information has been vouchsafed to the British public. 
It was only by accident that I was myself aware that a con- 
siderable number of Indian troops were operating in that 
part of the world ; and the nature of the fighting, which must 
have been severe, was really brought home to the British 
public for the first time only a few days ago by the publica- 
tion in the newspapers of an extensive list of casualties. I am 
aware of a case where a parent heard for the first time of the 
part of the world in which his son was being engaged by 
reading the news of the death of an officer on this distant 
field of battle. The full extent of those casualties I do not 
for the moment bear in mind, but I think I am not wrong 
in saying that the number of killed and wounded has been 

In this position of affairs I was somewhat startled to read 
only yesterday in The Times newspaper the letter of an officer 
serving at the front in British East Africa, which, as it may 
have escaped the attention of some of your Lordships, you 
will perhaps permit me to read. This letter was written on 
October n that is to say, five weeks ago ; and the writer 
expressed himself as follows : 

' I have been away at the front for six weeks, fighting ' 
In other words, the war was already in existence six weeks 
before that date : 

' I volunteered in the East Africa Rifles as a trooper. They 
then said that they wanted to form a Somali troop to go to 

the front at once, so applied for me. So I went with 

him down to the Tsavo as a corporal acting as an officer. We 
had one quite big fight, when we were attached to one com- 
pany of the King's African Rifles. The Germans, about 150 

of them, very nearly surrounded us at dawn. , who 

was in command of the King's African Rifles, got killed in 
the first ten minutes, but we drove the Germans back and 


made them absolutely run. We got fifteen of them and 
wounded eight, and the Germans got six of our soldiers, 
seven of our mules, and wounded four. We then had to 
hold the place for two days until we were relieved by No. 2 
Company of the K.A.R. People don't seem to realise at 
home what a big thing this is out here. The Germans 
have got anything from 6000 to 12,000 troops and lots of guns/ 

My Lords, we have had no opportunity of realising whether 
it is a big thing or a small thing over here, because we know 
nothing at all about it. I, of course, have not the slightest 
desire to press the Secretary of State to give us any informa- 
tion which he considers it necessary in the interests of the 
Government or military operations to withhold ; but I submit 
that if large forces are engaged in that part of the world, if 
the danger that is being met is a considerable one, as appears 
to be the case, and if the number of casualties is large, it 
would relieve a great deal of legitimate anxiety at home if 
we could hear something about the operations. The fighting, 
as I understand, is not merely in British East Africa or on 
the borders of British East Africa. I believe it extends to 
the British territory lying to the south of the Province which 
we call British East Africa that is to say, the neighbourhood 
of Lake Tanganyika and on the frontiers of Nyassaland. 
Where exactly fighting is taking place I do not know, because 
nothing has appeared about it in the papers ; but there, 
again, I am under the impression that I have seen a list of 
casualties recorded in the Press. 

Although the part of the world to which I am next about 
to refer is not contiguous to British East Africa, and therefore 
is not, perhaps, fairly covered by my question on the paper, 
yet I should be grateful if the Secretary of State could also 
tell us something about the fighting that is also proceeding 
in another and a very important area of c'onflict I mean 
the Persian Gulf. Here the only information that we have 
we owe to the Government themselves. About a week ago, 
I think it was, they published the important and, to me, 
joyful tidings that "they had taken the Turkish fort and 
port of Fao, 1 at the mouth of the Shat-el-Arab, which is 
the estuary of the Tigris and the Euphrates. But yesterday 
I read in the Press that the Secretary of State for India, the 
1 [The despatches are given in Part 2.]' 


noble Marquess, had himself authorised the communication 
of the following announcement regarding military operations 
now in progress at the head of the Persian Gulf : 

' On the nth inst., at 5.30 A.M., the Turks made a deter- 
mined attack on our outposts, but were held in check by the 
H7th Mahrattas and finally routed by a counter-attack made 
by the 20th Infantry, supported by fire from a mountain 
battery. Our casualties were f ew ; those of the enemy at 
least eighty. On the I4th further troops arrived from India 
under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir A. Barrett/ 
The large scale of the operations is sufficiently indicated by 
the fact that you take one of the most capable Indian officers 
and place him in command of what is obviously a military 
expedition of some size. The official statement goes on to say : 

' On the I5th the latter (Sir A. Barrett), hearing that a 
strong force of the enemy with mountain artillery were occupy- 
ing a post about four miles distant, sent General Delamain 
with three battalions and two mountain batteries to evict 
them. After a sharp action, in which His Majesty's ships 
Espiegle and Odin co-operated, this was successfully accom- 
plished. The enemy's entrenched camp was captured and 
his losses were very heavy. Several prisoners, including a 
Turkish major, were captured, and two of the enemy's machine- 
guns were destroyed. Our casualties were two officers 
wounded; rank and file, eight killed and fifty-one wounded/ 

It is obvious that military operations of a rather important 
and serious nature have been going on there. There is not 
the slightest indication where they are taking place, except 
that it is in the area of the Persian Gulf. I assume that it 
must be somewhere at the upper end of the Gulf. Again I 
do not want to press the noble Marquess to give information 
upon this which should be withheld, but if with regard to the 
operations, either in British East Africa or the Persian Gulf, 
he can give us any information I am sure we shall be grateful 
to receive it. 

The MARQUESS OF CREWE : My Lords, it is evident, from 
what the noble Earl has said, that he fully understands the 
nature of the limitations that have to be set upon the giving 
of information in respect of military operations in different 
parts of the world. It is, of course, clear, if one reflects, that 
those limitations do not apply with absolute equality in all 


areas ; but, on the other hand, it is probably safer and wiser 
to lay down the general rule and to say that, speaking broadly, 
the sort of information which is given with regard to opera- 
tions in Europe must remain as the only kind of information 
which can be given about operations in other parts of the 
world. Therefore the noble Earl and his friends will, I am 
sure, understand that the account which I am about to give 
of w r hat generally has occurred in East Africa is as far as the 
Government are able to go at the moment. 

As the noble Earl pointed out, German East Africa is a 
large and important colony. It covers, I think, some 350,000 
square miles. It has, of course, a large native population, 
and it has a white German population of between 5000 and 
6000 ; and in that connection it is important to note, although 
I do not know what the proportion of the sexes may be, that 
in a planter's country of that kind the proportion of males, 
and probably of males of fighting age, must be infinitely 
larger than such a population would indicate in a European 
country. Those forces there those white inhabitants of 
German East Africa, a large proportion of whom it must be 
remembered must have served in the German Army, have 
been reinforced from different sources ; we are told, to some 
extent, by Reservists from other parts of the world who were 
brought there because, I suppose, there was doubt or difficulty 
about bringing them to Europe. There may have been some 
despatch of Regular troops even from the East, but of that 
I am not quite certain ; but I believe that some naval forces 
were landed also from the Far East. The Germans in East 
Africa are well provided with guns in the ordinary sense and 
also with a number of machine-guns ; and therefore, as the 
House will see, they constitute what in America I believe is 
called a formidable proposition. 

British East Africa is not quite so large. It covers, I 
think, about 250,000 square miles. The white population is 
somewhere about the same rather less I imagine and, of 
course, it does not contain the military element which the 
German colony must contain. In both countries there is a 
native force. In German East Africa there is a force of native 
infantry and of native police, numbering altogether several 
thousands. In British East Africa there is a considerable 
force of similar police, and also a body, though 'not so large, 



of the force which the noble Earl mentioned a quite efficient 
force, well officered, and by no means badly manned, the 
King's African Rifles. It was clear, therefore, that as matters 
stood at the beginning of the war our position in East Africa 
could not be an altogether secure one. The initial position 
of the Germans was stronger than ours. We also had to 
remember that German East Africa borders both on Nyassa- 
land, as the noble Earl has pointed out, and also on Uganda, 
in each of which there is a force in Uganda some King's 
African Rifles, and in Nyassaland a small force and also a small 
proportion of white men who act as volunteers. But those 
colonies also constituted relatively a source rather of weak- 
ness than of strength as compared with German East Africa. 
It was therefore necessary to reinforce the colony from India, 
and at 'an early date a small force was sent that was after- 
wards considerably increased. Fighting, I think, actually 
began up on the Western side before any of the fresh Indian 
troops had arrived there, and it has been continuing at a 
great number of different points since, with .various forces 
engaged and with somewhat varying results. And as we 
learned more of the German preparations it became necessary 
further to reinforce from India. Of the different actions 
that have taken place, no less than seven small actions of 
different kinds have taken place within the confines of 
British East Africa. There was one, to which I think the 
noble Earl alluded, in Nyassaland, and there have been others 
on the borders. 

EARL CURZON OF KEDLESTON : That was on the Tsavo in 
British East Africa. 

The MARQUESS OF CREWE : Yes : but I think the noble 
Earl also alluded to some fighting having taken place in 
Nyassaland about which he said casualty lists had appeared, 
which was, I think, the case. 


The MARQUESS OF CREWE : Those different operations 
have not taken place without considerable losses to ourselves. 
In one particular case, I am sorry to say, an attack was 
made in the south 1 on a very strong position which was 
powerfully held by the enemy with a number of guns and 
machine-guns. Very heavy casualties were suffered by our 
1 [The Tanga disaster. See Naval, 2, p. 19.] 



troops there without their achieving the object for which 
they were immediately striving. The total casualties in all 
the operations in East Africa during the two months amount 
to something over 900. 

At an early stage I noticed that some of the German 
publicists, speaking of the fighting that was likely or sure to 
take place in or in the neighbourhood of their colonies, pointed 
out that the result of those actions, which they seemed to 
assume would in all cases be unfavourable to themselves, 
could not affect the ultimate result of the war. That, of 
course, is quite true ; the fate of all the different German 
possessions in different parts of the world must depend upon 
the ultimate settlement at the close of the war. But it is 
necessary for us to preserve the position of Great Britain as 
the paramount country in Central and Southern Africa. 
Therefore the Union of South Africa has undertaken a task 
of its own ; and in East Africa we are bound to maintain our 
position there and to repel with all the forces we can muster 
any attacks which are made by our German neighbours, and, 
where occasions are favourable and the forces available make 
it possible, to attack in our turn. That is all the information 
which I am able to give the noble Earl. He will understand 
that I do not mention the names of the particular places at 
which various actions have occurred or the particular troops 
which have been employed, although there is no harm in 
mentioning some of the particular Indian regiments engaged, 
and I can do so if it is desired. 

The noble Earl passed on to a different part of the world 
and asked me some questions about the Persian Gulf, as to 
which we have been rather more handsome, as he admitted, 
in the information we have given. So much so that, owing 
to the difficulty of communication with these parts of the 
world where the telegraph service is not very easily conducted, 
that which we have put in the newspapers and which the noble 
Earl read out about the operations at the head of the Persian 
Gulf the noble Earl is right in thinking that the operations 
that have taken place are in the immediate neighbourhood of 
the Shat-el-Arab practically covers all that we know our- 
selves ; and I fear, therefore, that I have very little more 
information that I can give the noble Earl. But may I say 
this much, that when Turkey went to war with us one of her 



first stepscarrying out, indeed, what had been her apparent 
policy some little time previously was to assert herself at 
the head of the Persian Gulf in a part of the world where we, 
as is known, have a very special interest, and where also our 
ally, the Sheikh of Mohammerah, who is, as we know, under 
Persian suzerainty, but who is on special terms of intimacy 
with the British Government, was severely threatened by 
the Turks. They destroyed the telegraph station at Fao, 
and announced their intention of stopping the navigation 
of the Shat-el-Arab. 1 It was clearly impossible for us, not 
merely in view of our positive and actual interests in that 
region but also in view of the necessity of keeping up our 
due name in the minds of the Arab world, to tolerate such 
violent proceedings as those. Therefore we thought it right 
to send an expedition of considerable strength under a distin- 
guished General one of our best Indian officers, as the noble 
Earl has pointed out in order to make it clear to the Turks 
that they cannot venture to assert themselves in that region 
in the manner in which they have been attempting to do. 
And I say with the utmost confidence that a step of that 
kind receives as much approval, if not more, in the Moslem 
world in India as it does in any other part of the British 

The EARL OF MAYO : Might I ask the noble Marquess 
whether there will be published a list of the casualties in the 
operations in British East Africa. He mentioned 900. 

The MARQUESS OF CREWE ; I think that most of the 
British officers' casualties have already appeared in the 

The EARL OF MAYO : I mean not only officers but white 
settlers who have enlisted as privates. I have a relation out 

The MARQUESS OF CREWE : I have no doubt that their 
names will appear in due course. As a matter of fact, I think 
the names of some of the volunteers have appeared already. 

EARL CURZON OF KEDLESTON : I should like to thank 
the noble Marquess for the information he has given me in 
reply to my question, and to say that we on this side of the 
House earnestly wish success to His Majesty's arms in the 
two theatres of conflict to which reference has been made. 

1 [See Naval, 2, p. 141.] 



House of Lords, November 26, 1914. 

My Lords, since I last addressed your Lordships on the 
general military situation there have been certain important 
changes in the scene and scope of the operations on the 
Continent, and at the risk of repeating what is already 
common knowledge I think it may not be undesirable if I 
briefly allude to some of the salient features of the campaign 
since early in October. In France the German Army was 
then attempting an outflanking movement to the north of 
the French lines, and our troops were being transferred to 
the left flank of the French forces in order to prevent the 
enemy from pushing West, and thus threatening Dunkirk 
and Calais. The Germans were also besieging Antwerp and, 
owing to the overwhelming superiority of their heavy artillery 
which had been brought into action against that place, it 
soon became manifest that the comparatively out-of-date 
fortifications of Antwerp would not be able to resist much 
longer, and though the fall of the town was delayed, and the 
gallant Belgian garrison was safely removed by British efforts, 
Antwerp was occupied by the Germans on October 9. With 
their flank and rear thus secured the German forces were 
pushed rapidly forward in considerable strength, their objec- 
tive being to capture the northern coasts of France. But 
the delay which had been caused in the release of the besieging 
forces in front of Antwerp just gave time for Sir John French, 
by a bold forward march and by taking up an extended 
position from La Bassee to Dixmude, to meet this German 
movement and prevent the Germans from obtaining their 

At this period Sir John French's force was increased by 
an Infantry and a Cavalry Division from England. Very 
severe fighting took place for several days, as the Germans, 
in considerably superior forces, vigorously attacked our left 
line of defence. As an instance I may state that our Cavalry 
Divisions, extended for seven miles of front in trenches, 
threw back the fierce attacks of a whole German. Army Corps 
for more than two days. The arrival of the Indian Divisions 



on the scene was of great assistance to Sir John French, and 
with French reinforcements which were being pushed up to 
the front the Germans gradually realised that their public 
boast to advance to Calais resembled closely their statement 
with regard to Paris. During all this time the long line 
from LiUe to Verdun was maintained intact by our French 
Allies against constant attacks from the German forces. The 
French Army have shown the greatest tenacity and endur- 
ance, and have displayed the highest fighting qualities in 
thus defending their positions against any advance of the 
Germans. For although they have made notable advances 
at various points, they have never yielded up a yard of their 
country since I last addressed your Lordships. 

On our left, the gallant Belgian Army held the line from 
Dixmude to the sea and fought with their well-known pluck, 
throwing back vigorous and incessant attacks on their posi- 
tions. Their fine resistance was supported with energy by 
the co-operation of our Fleet, which effectively shelled the 
German positions within range of our guns. Through the 
whole of the period I am now reviewing, the Belgian Army 
has been constantly led in the field by their King, who, 
though hard pressed, has never yet left Belgian territory, and 
does not intend to do so. Sir John French's successful 
resistance to the German advance was maintained notwith- 
standing German supports being pushed up in large numbers. 
At this time no less than eleven Corps were attacking his 
position. At this critical period the 8th Division was 
despatched to join our forces in the field, and the valuable 
co-operation of General Foch's armies on our left materially 
strengthened the British position. On November u a 
supreme effort was made by the Germans, the Prussian 
Guard being ordered to force its way through our lines at all 
costs and to carry them by sheer weight of numbers. But 
this desperate attempt failed, as had failed its predecessors. 

General Joffre having sent up strong reinforcements, a 
considerable portion of the British trenches in front of Ypres 
was taken over by them, and the British front being thus 
appreciably shortened our troops which for over fourteen 
days and nights had never left the trenches, and never allowed 
the enemy to sustain a footing in them have been enabled 
to enjoy a partial but most certainly well-earned rest. Several 


battalions of Territorial troops have joined Sir John French's 
forces, and have made their presence felt. Our losses, 
naturally, have been very heavy during such strenuous 
fighting, but they are slight in comparison with those inflicted 
on the enemy. Reinforcements have replaced our casualties, 
and the troops under Sir John French are now refitted, in 
the best of spirits, and confident of success under their 

There have been two other prominent changes in the 
military situation which I should like to bring to your Lord- 
ships' notice the advance of Russia and the entrance of 
Turkey into the field against the Allies. Early in October 
the Russian Army was massing on the line of the Vistula and 
San. The Germans were invading Poland from Silesia, and 
about October n had reached the neighbourhood of Warsaw. 
The Russian Army then took the offensive with overwhelming 
force, and drove the Germans back to their frontier, a distance 
of about 133 miles. Recently, by making use of their strategic 
railways and massing troops in the neighbourhood of the 
fortress of Thorn, the Germans were able to bring a pre- 
ponderating force to bear upon the Russian right flank of 
the Vistula, causing them to retire. After a hotly contested 
battle the reinforced Russian troops in this neighbourhood 
have been able to check and defeat the Germans with, I 
believe, heavier losses than they have ever sustained before. 
In the meantime the Russian advance on Cracow and in the 
Carpathian Mountains has been uninterrupted, and has driven 
the Austrian forces before it. 

At the end of October, without any warning, Turkey 
violated her neutrality by suddenly bombarding Odessa and 
other Black Sea ports. Previous to this she had already 
massed troops in order to invade Egypt, and armed Bedouins 
had crossed our frontier. We are now in touch with the 
advanced parties of the Turkish forces about thirty miles east 
of the Suez Canal. On the declaration of war by Turkey 
the Russian Armies in the Caucasus immediately took the 
offensive, and they are now successfully advancing on 
Erzeroum. Fighting is also now going on in the mountainous 
district in the neighbourhood of Van. The hostile action of 
Turkey has further induced us to send an Indian expedition 
against the Turkish provinces at the northern end of the 


Persian Gulf. This force has twice met and twice defeated 
the Turkish troops, and has occupied the important town of 
Basra. Active operations are also going on in South and 
East Africa. 

This short summary of recent military events gives me 
the opportunity to say that the Government desire to keep 
back nothing from the public that cannot be utilised to 
advantage by our enemies. It is not always easy to decide 
what information may or jnay not be dangerous, and when- 
ever there is any doubt we do not hesitate to prevent publica- 
tion. It must be remembered that in this war our troops 
form part of a much larger force engaged in the same cam- 
paign, and the dissemination of news in regard to one part 
of the forces must affect the whole. It is, therefore, the 
Commander-in-Chief of the whole Allied Army, General Joffre, 
who is the man responsible in this and every other matter 
connected with the operations of the Army in the field. 
And I feel in the strongest possible way that it is my duty 
loyally to co-operate with him and to see that his wishes are 
carried out. Subject, however, to these considerations, I 
recognise that it is in the highest degree desirable that news 
from the front which can be circulated without detriment to 
the military position should be communicated to the country, 
and it has always been my aim, while regarding military 
considerations as paramount, to facilitate the circulation of 
all news which can be given with safety. I feel confident 
that the public will respond to the call which we have to 
make upon their patience and moderation with that grit 
which has always been the pride of the British nation, and 
will realise that such reticence as is preserved by the other 
combatants is imperatively demanded of them in the interests 
of their Armies. 

Your Lordships may very reasonably expect a word from 
me as to the preparations that are being made for prose- 
cuting the war in addition to keeping up the forces we now 
have in the field. The difficulties with which the War Office 
have had to contend are many and various, but I may confi- 
dently say that they are being met and dealt with in a more 
satisfactory manner than I at first thought possible. We 
feel strongly that our soldiers have a right to be placed in the 
field provided with all the material of war which modern 


conditions demand fully equipped as well as efficiently 
trained. The wastage of the fighting force naturally demands 
a large stock of men on which to draw, but although the 
number of casualties reported is heavy, our actual losses are 
relatively low, and it must not be forgotten that wounded 
officers and men returning to the front are the more valuable 
from having learnt the caution born of experience which 
adds to the qualifications of the bravest soldier who is taking 
part in such a campaign as this. As regards numbers, there 
is real need and ample room for all the men who are ready 
to come forward and serve their country, and when further 
special calls are made on the manhood of England I am 
confident they will be responded to as before in a manner 
and in a spirit which will ensure the prosecution of the war 
to its successful conclusion. 

EARL CURZON OF KEDLESTON : My Lords, your Lordships 
will, I am sure, feel that a statement of the great importance 
of that to which we have just listened should not pass without 
some appreciative comment from the benches on this side of 
the House. We are grateful to the noble and gallant Earl 
for the manner in which on more than one occasion he has 
come down to this House and from his place on that bench 
has given us in a singularly clear and concise fashion an 
account of the military situation as it is at the moment at 
which he speaks, and of his expectations with regard to the 
future. I am tempted to say, attaching as we all do the 
highest value to these periodical statements, that it would 
be an excellent thing if I may venture to commend the 
suggestion to the noble Marquess opposite and to the noble 
and gallant Earl himself if from time to time during the 
Parliamentary recess which is about to begin similar state- 
ments could be issued from the War Office with a view of 
informing the public. We shall not be here to ask questions ; 
the noble and gallant Field-Marshal himself will be otherwise 
employed ; and it would not only be very encouraging to 
the spirit of the nation but I think it would greatly stimulate 
the recruiting which we all desire if from time to time state- 
ments of that nature could be heard. 

The noble and gallant Earl, in the remarks to which we 
have just listened, has covered a wide field. He has described 
to us what he himself called the salient features of the cam- 



paign, and in his brief summary he has done admirable 
justice to the various combatants who are. concerned. We 
gather from his remarks that in his opinion the German 
troops have, at any rate up to date, failed in the objective 
of their campaign in the West, and that, just as they failed 
to reach Paris, so they have up to the present time failed to 
reach Calais and Dunkirk. He spoke of the singularly gallant 
conduct of our own troops in the trenches. The House will 
well understand how such praise coming from him will infuse 
fresh spirit into those gallant men, and for my own part I 
must thank him for the reference that he made to the Indian 
soldiers. To those who, like myself, advocated the employ- 
ment of those forces in the field and who have followed their 
operations with daily increasing interest, it is indeed a source 
of delight to know that they have comported themselves on 
the field of battle with a gallantry not less than that of our 
European Allies or of the British comrades by whose sides 
they are placed. 

Glad I was to hear the noble and gallant Earl include in 
his tribute words regarding the tremendously heavy part 
that is being played by the French. I think we in this 
country are apt it is a pardonable fault, concentrating our 
attention, as we naturally do, on the fifteen or twenty miles 
where our own troops are fighting to think that this is the 
centre and focus of the war. Do not let us forget that it is 
not, perhaps, more than one-tenth I do not know the exact 
proportion of the line that is being held by our Allies, and 
that to their patience, to the strategy of the French Com- 
mander-in-Chief, to their endurance, is due the fact that 
France, who is fighting our battle as much as her own, has 
so gallantly held her own all the way from Switzerland to 
the sea. It was not without a thrill of satisfaction that we 
heard the noble and gallant Earl include in his tribute a 
word of praise for the valiant little Belgian Army, reduced 
in numbers but indomitable in character, and the patriot 
King who, at its head, has made a name which will live in 

The Secretary of State passed on to consider the Russian 
position, and we were gratified to learn from him an official 
confirmation of that which we had gathered from the news- 
papers of this morning namely, that a substantial victory 


has been won in that theatre of war. It is indeed an encour- 
agement to us to witness the progress of our Allies, so patient 
in their movements, so silent except in the hour of victory, 
and to gather from them an inspiration for our own conduct! 
The noble and gallant Earl then referred to the war with 
Turkey. With this he dealt so fully that words from me 
would be superfluous. But I would like to join in the 
congratulations which I understood him to offer to the 
Indian troops for their singularly successful operations in 
capturing the very considerable port of Basra. Anybody 
who knows the East will believe that this exploit will ring 
throughout Asia, and that it will be regarded there not 
merely as the capture of a substantial position but as a 
damaging blow to Turkish prestige in those parts of the 

The noble and gallant Earl passed on to a matter in which 
we all take supreme interest, and which we have more than 
once presumed to raise in this House. I speak of the question 
of greater publicity as regards the movements and deeds of 
our soldiers in the war. I hope the noble and gallant Earl 
will believe that we thoroughly realise the weighty character 
of the considerations that he placed before us. We fully 
understand the obligations of loyalty to the French Com- 
mander-in-Chief . We realise that it would be impossible for 
one plan of action to be adopted over nine-tenths of the 
field of war and to insist upon an exception for ourselves: 
But I hope I was not wrong in drawing from one sentence 
of his remarks the conclusion that he is disposed to make a 
greater concession to popular sentiment in the matter, and 
that whatever news he can give to the public consistent with 
loyalty to our colleagues and the highest military considera- 
tions he will give. If I am right in that interpretation I 
believe I may thank him on behalf of those who sit in every 
quarter of the House. 

It is not that we are curious about things ; it is that we 
look to the effect that good news produces upon our people. 
We must remember that the Press is almost the only literature 
of the greater number of our population. It is practically 
the sole educator of the people. Many of them know very 
little about this war, and it is only by reading in the news- 
papers the details of what happens, the deeds and achieve- 


ments of their fellow-countrymen, that they understand what 
is passing, and that their spirits are raised to a high and 
becoming level. 

The noble and gallant Earl added a word or two about 
the administration of the War Office. I am sure he will 
believe me when I say that no criticism that has been heard 
on this side of the House has been of a carping or censorious 
nature. We have never made any remarks about War Office 
administration except in the desire to strengthen the hands 
of the noble and gallant Field-Marshal. And may I, as 
Parliament is about to adjourn for the present, take the 
opportunity not merely of confessing our realisation of the 
great strain under which he and his colleagues have worked, 
but also our recognition of the manner in which they have 
risen to the difficulties of the case and removed many of 
the obstacles of which complaint has been made. The 
question of the conditions under which recruits are kept in 
camp, the question of allowances and pensions, the question 
of surrounding the movement of our troops with greater 
colour and pageantry, have all engaged the attention of the 
War Office, and I take this opportunity of acknowledging 
the substantial advance in all these respects that has been 

Upon one point I think we should have been glad if the 
noble and gallant Earl had been a little more explicit 
namely, as to the question of numbers. We know that large 
numbers have been called for and that large numbers are 
still required ; the measure of the demands of the noble and 
gallant Earl we do not know. We see accounts in the news- 
papers that recruiting is in some parts of the country going 
slowly ; anon comes the more reassuring statement that men 
are coming in with all the readiness that is required. I hope 
that some opportunity will be taken before Parliament 
separates of giving us rather more precise information on the 
matter. The noble and gallant Earl concluded by appealing 
to the steadfast and continued spirit of the nation. Upon 
that I believe he may confidently rely. That spirit, I think, 
could not be better expressed than in a letter which I received 
this morning from a friend of mine who had sent to the war 
three sons, one of whom had already given up his life. He 
answered my mingled condolences and congratulations by 


the phrase, ' If I had twenty sons and 20,000 a year I 
would give them all to the same cause/ That spirit, I believe, 
is one which animates not only the members of your Lord- 
ships' House but the entire nation, and it is a spirit which 
is incompatible with anything but ultimate victory. 


LORD CHARNWOOD rose to ask the Secretary of State 
for War whether he is making use of, or will make use of, 
the services of the County Territorial Force Associations for 
the purpose of ensuring that recruits shall present them- 
selves for enlistment in such numbers as may from time to 
time be required. 

The noble Lord said : My Lords, in the impressive speech 
which the noble and gallant Field-Marshal made to your 
Lordships in the month of August last he gave voice to the 
determination of this country that its military forces should 
grow as the war went on. I think I may assume that, for 
obvious reasons, in carrying out that purpose recruits will 
be wanted in larger numbers at one time and in smaller 
numbers at another, but it is obviously impossible^to regulate 
the flow of enlistment, which first and last must be enormous, 
by any simple process comparable to the turning on and 
turning off of a tap. There are two things which add force 
to that consideration. What quite inevitably happened when 
the first rush of recruits came, and came in such large numbers 
that it had to be checked, has had a damping effect which to 
some extent lasts. That would not by itself matter very 
much, but a large number of the people of this country only 
very dimly realise the character of the continuing national 
emergency in which we stand. I do not think that it would 
be reasonable to expect the mothers of the working classes, 
who have such an important say in this matter of enlistment, 
to have any very clear realisation of the position in which 
the country stands. Day by day people read the newspapers 
and see news which, taken altogether, shows a satisfactory 
and continued progress in the war, and they are apt to draw 
the very natural inference that the war will speedily be at 
an end. But in spite of revolting incidents such as occurred 
at Chelsea the other day, when the appeal of 'Colonel Burne 


was treated in the horrible manner in which it was treated 
in spite of occasional incidents of that kind here and there, 
I by no means wish to suggest that the recruiting problem 
is an alarming one. Nevertheless it represents serious difficulty 
more serious in some parts of the country than perhaps is 
easily realised in a large centre such as London. 

A step is being taken to deal with this matter which, so 
far as it goes, is excellent. I mean the circular letter signed 
by the leaders of Parties, which I believe in some districts 
has already been received by every householder upon the 
register. I think your Lordships would welcome, if it be 
convenient to give any such explanation, some statement of 
how it is proposed to follow up that step. Clearly there must 
be on the top of that some canvass of those who neglect to 
fill up the returns. The business of educating those who do 
not understand the country's need must go on hand in hand 
with this canvass. The calling up of the willing men must 
proceed with careful regard to 'the needs of industry, and, so 
far as possible, to special domestic circumstances. Men 
anxious to serve with their friends and neighbours should be 
enabled so far as possible to do so. Men honestly distracted 
between conflicting duties should, as I believe they can, be 
enabled to put themselves at the disposal of some authority 
in close touch with them. 

This, my Lords, is a task which no centralised authority 
could possibly perform completely or satisfactorily. I believe 
that in the County Associations, with the district committees 
which they now command, the Secretary of State has at 
hand an organisation admirably fitted to perform any task 
of this kind which he may lay upon it. I would not, even 
remotely, hint any sort of minute criticism of a Minister 
bearing responsibilities so varied and so vast as are borne by 
the Secretary of State for War. Nor do I wish to -trouble 
him with any detailed suggestions. But I venture earnestly 
to hope that the Secretary of State will in this matter consult 
the Lords-Lieutenant, many of whom are in some ways the 
best organisers of public opinion and of public effort in this 
democratic countty. I think that before the House adjourns 
for a long time, as I understand it will to-morrow, your 
Lordships would welcome some assurance that full use will 
be made of the County Associations in this matter. The 


larger the responsibility that the Secretary of State for War may 
see fit to put upon them the more effectually will they be able 
to help him. I beg to ask the Question standing in my name. 

EARL KITCHENER : My Lords, I am very glad to have 
this opportunity of expressing not only my own grateful 
thanks, but those of the War Office and of the Recruiting 
Department, for what the Parliamentary Committee have 
done to help us in this matter. I can assure the noble Lord 
that the problems which he has mentioned are having our 
most sincere consideration. We are trying to work out 
things on practical lines to help recruiting in every way. On 
August 7 last I addressed a letter to all the Lords-Lieutenant 
and chairmen of County Associations inviting their co- 
operation in the work of raising recruits, and I am very glad 
to have this opportunity of expressing my thanks for what 
they have done. 

The noble Earl opposite (Earl Curzon of Kedleston) asked 
me to give some information as to the number of recruits we 
were obtaining. Of course, it is a variable quantity, and I 
myself, as I said at the Mansion House, 1 have nothing of 1 [See post, 
which to complain. We get approximately 30,000 recruits P- *99] 
a week, besides regiments that are being formed by different 
localities. I do not say that that number will be sufficient. 
I think it will be understood from what I said before that 
the time will come when we shall require many more. Wherj 
that time comes and I shall certainly let it be thoroughly 
well known I feel sure that we shall have the response which 
this country always gives on such an occasion. 


LORD PARMOOR : My Lords, I rise to ask His Majesty's 
Government for information as to -the position of civilians 
towards belligerents. In a certain contingency there is no 
doubt that the relationship between civilians and belligerents 
may become a matter of the most vital importance, and, 
whether the contingency is remote or not, if it can be fore- 
seen as possible it ought to be provided against. The reason 
why I have put this Question, which I hope the noble and 
learned Viscount on the Woolsack will be able to answer, is 



that, so far as I have seen, there have been no regulations 
issued which are sufficiently plain to the ordinary citizen. 
The necessity for some such statement is emphasised by this 
consideration. The systematised rules, which for conveni- 
ence are called Rules of International Law, prevail not as 
regards individuals but as between States, and each State 
becomes at once liable to the charge of having violated these 
rules unless it does all that is practicable to secure that 
individual citizens should have knowledge of them and abide 
by their provisions. I think myself that the violation of 
International Law during a war is to be reprobated in the 
strongest possible terms. Indeed, we have had too much 
of it so far in the present war. I am anxious that in this 
country, even in times of stress and trial, every effort should 
be made to secure that there should be no violation of what 
are the recognised international rules as between civilians on 
the one side and belligerents on the other. Of course, it is 
known generally that if a civilian as such becomes a com- 
batant without any other qualification, he is liable to what 
may be very severe punishment indeed punishment because 
he is infringing the international rule which has been laid 
down in order that war may be carried on in a more humane 
manner as regards non-combatants than it was centuries ago. 
The real position of a civilian is this. If he is attacked 
or wounded or subjected to what I may call the violence of 
war, he has a right to say that International Law has been 
infringed ; but, on the other hand, if he purports to take 
any part in warfare he runs considerable risks. At the 
present moment the rules under which non-combatant 
irregular forces may take part in war are laid down in 
1 [See Article I of The Hague Convention No. 4.* In a certain sense 
Appendix, the provisions are specific. But when we examine them as 
P- 474J guides for the ordinary individual there is much left which 
ought to be filled up by some statement made by the Govern- 
ment. The first of those rules is this, that non-combatants 
or irregulars may put themselves in a position to have the 
advantages which are due to them when engaged in legiti- 
mate warfare if they are ' commanded by a person responsible 
for his subordinates/ That is a very vague phrase, and it 
is necessary that the ordinary citizen should know what 
constitutes the conditions under which an irregular force of 


this kind is commanded by a person responsible for his 
subordinates. In my view any one in such a position ought 
to have a commission in some form direct from the Crown. 
It is exceedingly difficult to see under what other conditions 
a person in that position is really responsible for the subordi- 
nates whom for the time being at any rate he is going to 
command. When a very crucial and vital question may 
arise as to the violation of what are called the legitimate 
rules of warfare, people in this country are entitled to have 
precise information upon what a rule of this kind really 
means and how it ought to be applied. 

I have had a large number of letters upon this very point, 
the question asked being under what conditions are civilians 
entitled to be regarded as combatants in the unfortunate 
event of an invasion of our country. I ask the Lord Chan- 
cellor, in the first instance, whether he will tell us, either 
now or in some circular which may be issued later by the 
Government, what is really meant by the words ' commanded 
by a person responsible for his subordinates/ The second 
rule of The Hague Convention No. 4 is not difficult to follow. 
It is that there must be a fixed distinctive emblem recog- 
nisable at a distance. I do not propose to dwell upon that 
point, because it is a matter which can probably be easily 
determined. The third rule is that the civilian, to have the 
protection which The Hague Convention will give him, has 
to carry his arms openly. That is sufficiently specific and 
does not need further elucidation. The last of the four rules 
laid down by The Hague Convention requires much more 
definition if it is to be of practical use as a guide for civilians 
who may desire to take up arms in defence of their country. 
It says, ' Operations must be conducted in accordance with 
the -laws and customs of war/ Now what are the laws and 
customs of war which would protect a civilian if he complies 
with them, but which would render him subject to be punished 
summarily if he does not comply with them ? I ask the 
noble and learned Viscount on the Woolsack whether on a 
point of that kind far more information might not be available 
than has heretofore been given, in order that a due distinction 
may be raised between civilians who are complying with the 
rules of International Law and those who, by not complying 
with them, would not only submit themselves to punishment 


but might commit the whole of the districts in which they 
live to the horrors of war, from which, on other grounds, 
they ought to be free. 

There is one other point to which I have to refer in order 
that I may completely review the matter we have to consider. 
In The Hague Convention it is recognised that before a 
territory is occupied it is different after a territory has 
been occupied the citizens are entitled to arise en masse in 
their protection, but even when they so arise they have to 
comply with two of the rules of The Hague Convention 
that is to say, they have to carry their arms openly and 
conduct operations in accordance with the laws and customs 
of war. It is of vital importance that the true position of 
civilians as against belligerents should be explained in a way 
that can leave no doubt upon the mind of the ordinary man. 
What is a civilian entitled to do, and what would render 
him liable to the severe punishments and penalties to which 
I have referred ? Personally I feel very strongly that 
civilians should be warned against taking any part in warlike 
operations unless they have been in some form enrolled 
under a recognised officer. Any step short of that may 
subject them to very great risks* 

I should like to ask what is the position of the police 
and of special constables in a matter of this kind. In my 
view neither the police nor special constables would be 
justified, without having special authority conferred upon 
them, in taking any part in warlike matters ; in other words, 
they would have the status of civilians. This is a matter 
of great importance. Suppose that the contingency should 
arise and it is necessary to have civilian forces to deal with 
civilian difficulties and I know that counties likely to be 
affected are earnestly considering this question at the present 
moment. But if our constables and special constables are, 
as I have heard suggested, to be made into what is really a 
military combatant force, then we should lose the advantage 
of their assistance for civilian purposes just at the moment 
when that assistance would be most needed. I apologise 
for having said so much in asking this question, but I could 
not explain more shortly the information which I desire to 
obtain on this matter, which is one of vital importance at 
the present moment. 


the noble and learned Lord is well justified in raising this 
subject, which is one of importance, and if I cannot give him 
a specific and detailed answer on all points to-day he will 
recognise that it is for reasons of weight. The questions 
which he has raised have been under the consideration of 
the Committee of Imperial Defence, and their report on the 
subject has passed into the hands of the noble and gallant 
Field-Marshal the Secretary of State for War. My noble 
and gallant friend has himself taken this question in hand, 
and when the moment comes the instructions for which the 
noble and learned Lord asks will be given. It is not desirable 
that details should be published beforehand about things in 
respect of which there will be ample opportunity for making 
the arrangements when the time comes, But I may say 
that broadly the principle is that the military authorities 
should assume direction in this matter and should give 
directions to the civilian population. I agree with my noble 
and learned friend that it is not desirable that the police and 
special constables should be diverted from their proper 
purpose. They will no doubt have important functions to 
perform at a time of this kind, and they should not be regarded 
as combatants. Their functions are quite different, and it 
would be only confusing those functions and diminishing the 
activities of these officers to divert them to other forms in 
which they may be probably less useful to the State. 

The noble and learned Lord is quite right in saying that 
this question of the position of civilians is no longer in the 
vague condition in which it was formerly. It is regulated 
by The Hague Convention, to which he has referred, the first 
of those rules relating to the laws of war. That Convention 
divides itself into two parts the rules which were agreed on 
as rendering it permissible for a civilian who is not a regular 
combatant to take part in war without exposing himself to 
the penalties attaching to irregular and illegitimate par- 
ticipation, and the provisions to regulate the case of a levee 
en masse to protect territory not yet occupied. The noble 
and learned Lord quite correctly laid down the conditions. 
He is no doubt right in suggesting that the person responsible 
for the direction of any corps of irregulars must be a person 
who has some recognition as representing the Crown that 



is to say, he must be an officer appointed by the military 
authorities. At least, that is highly desirable, and, without 
it, it is impossible to be sure that the interpretation which 
would be placed upon the first of these rules would be generally 
accepted by other countries. Therefore I think the noble 
and learned Lord may assume that arrangements will be 
made which will prevent the irregular assembling in corps 
of the civilians of whom he speaks. 

As regards the other point a distinctive badge steps 
have been taken to that end. Conforming to the laws of 
war, which is the important thing, is, after all, something 
that is not very difficult, because the laws of war are con- 
tained in The Hague Convention and in the Handbook of 
Military Law. They are simple, and not very difficult to 
follow. The carrying of arms in an open fashion is practically 
one of them. It is put separately, but it is really one of 
the regulations under which warfare is to be conducted in 
modern times. As regards a levee en masse, that can only 
take place in the case of territory which has not yet been 
occupied, and there certain conditions, which the noble and 
learned Lord correctly defined, must be complied with. All 
these things have been under careful consideration, and are 
in the hands of the Secretary of State for War. The military 
authorities are busily engaged organising the defence of this 
country, and plans have been carried to a very detailed 
point. The question of what civilians are to do is one of 
those questions with which, of course, they have to deal, 
and in due time the Secretary of State for War will provide 
information in a public fashion which it is not desirable at 
the present moment to discuss in detail. 


House of Commons, August 3, 1914. 

Hansard MR. JOHN REDMOND : I hope the House will not consider 

it improper on my part, in the grave circumstances in which 

we are assembled, if I intervene for a very few moments. I 

was moved a great deal by that sentence in the speech of the 

1 [See Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1 in which he said that 

Diplomatic, the one bright spot in the situation was the changed feeling 

2, p. 414] in Ireland. In past times when this Empire has been engaged 



in these terrible enterprises, it is true it would be the utmost 
affectation and folly on my part to deny it the sympathy 
of the Nationalists of Ireland, for reasons to be found deep 
down in the centuries of history, have been estranged from 
this country. Allow me to say that what has occurred in 
recent years has altered the 'situation completely. I must 
not touch, and I may be trusted not to touch, on any con- 
troversial topic. But this I may be allowed to say, that a 
wider knowledge of the real facts of Irish history has, I think, 
altered the views of the democracy of this country towards 
the Irish question, and to-day I honestly believe that the 
democracy of Ireland will turn with the utmost anxiety and 
sympathy to this country in every trial and every danger 
that may overtake it. There is a possibility, at any rate, 
of history repeating itself. The House will remember that 
in 1778, at the end of the disastrous American War, when it 
might, I think, truly be said that the military power of this 
country was almost at its lowest ebb, and when the shores 
of Ireland were threatened with foreign invasion, a body of 
100,000 Irish Volunteers sprang into existence for the purpose 
of defending her shores. At first no Catholic ah, how sad 
the reading of the history of those days is ! was allowed to 
be enrolled in that body of Volunteers, and yet, from the very 
first day the Catholics of the South and West subscribed 
money and sent it towards the arming of their Protestant 
fellow countrymen. Ideas widened as time went on, and 
finally the Catholics in the South were armed and enrolled 
as brothers in arms with their fellow countrymen of a different 
creed in the North. May history repeat itself. To-day 
there are in Ireland two large bodies of Volunteers. One of 
them sprang into existence in the North. Another has 
sprung into existence in the South. I say -to the Govern- 
ment that they may to-morrow withdraw every one of their 
troops from Ireland. I say that the coast of Ireland will be 
defended from foreign invasion by her armed sons, and for 
this purpose armed Nationalist Catholics in the South will 
be only too glad to join arms with the armed Protestant 
Ulstermen in the North. Is it too much to hope that out of 
this situation there may spring a result which will be good 
not merely for the Empire, but good for the future welfare 
and integrity of the Irish nation ? I ought to apologise for 



having intervened, but while Irishmen generally are in favour 
of peace, and would desire to save the democracy of this 
country from all the horrors of war, while we would make 
every possible sacrifice for that purpose, still, if the dire 
necessity is forced upon this country, we offer to the Govern- 
ment of the day that they may take their troops away, and 
that if it is allowed to us, in comradeship with our brethren 
in the North, we will ourselves defend the coasts of our 



House of Commons, August 6, 1914. 

Hansard The PRIME MINISTER (MR. AsQUiTH) : If I am asked what 

we are fighting for, I reply in two sentences. In the first 
place to fulfil a solemn international obligation, an obliga- 
tion which, if it had been entered into between private persons 
in the ordinary concerns of life, would have been regarded 
as an obligation not only of law but of honour, which no self- 
respecting man could possibly have repudiated. I say, 
secondly, we are fighting to vindicate the principle which, in 
these days when force, material force, sometimes seems to 
be the dominant influence and factor in the development of 
mankind, we are fighting to vindicate the principle that small 
nationalities are not to be crushed, in defiance of international 
good faith, by the arbitrary will of a strong and over-mastering 
Power. I do not believe any nation ever entered into a great 
controversy and this is one of the greatest history will ever 
know with a clearer conscience and stronger conviction that 
it is fighting not for aggression, not for the maintenance even 
of its own selfish interest, but that it is fighting in defence 
of principles, the maintenance of which is vital to the civilisa- 
tion of the world. With a full conviction, not only of the 
wisdom and justice, but of the obligations which lay upon us 
to challenge this great issue, we are entering into the struggle. 
Let us now make sure that all the resources, not only of this 

1 [The full speech will be found in Diplomatic, 2, pp. 421-431.] 


United Kingdom, but of the vast Empire of which it is the 
centre, shall be thrown into the scale, and it is that that 
object may be adequately secured that I am now about to 
ask this Committee to make the very unusual demand upon 
it to give the Government a Vote of Credit of 100,000,000. 
I am not going, and I am sure the Committee do not wish 
it, into the technical distinctions between Votes of Credit and 
Supplementary Estimates and all the rarities and refinements 
which arise in that connection. There is a much higher 
point of view than that. If it were necessary, I could justify, 
upon purely technical grounds, the course we propose to 
adopt, but I am not going to do so, because I think it would 
be foreign to the temper and disposition of the Committee. 
There is one thing to which I do caU attention that is, the 
title and heading of the Bill. As a rule, in the past, Votes of 
this kind have been taken simply for naval and military opera- 
tions, but we have thought it right to ask the Committee to 
give us its confidence in the extension of the traditional area of 
Votes of Credit so that this money, which we are asking them 
to allow us to expend, may be applied not only for strictly 
naval and military operations, but to assist the food supplies, 
promote the continuance of trade, industry, business, and 
communications whether by means of insurance or indemnity 
against risk or otherwise for the relief of distress, and gene- 
rally for all expenses arising out of the existence of a state 
of war. I believe the Committee will agree with us that it 
was wise to extend the area of the Vote of Credit so as to 
include all these various matters. It gives the Government 
a free hand. Of course, the Treasury will account for it, and 
any expenditure that takes place will be subject to the 
approval of the House. I think it would be a great pity in 
fact, a great disaster if, in a crisis of this magnitude, we were 
not enabled to make provision provision far more needed 
now than it was under the simpler conditions that prevailed 
in the old days for all the various ramifications and develop- 
ments of expenditure which the existence of a state of war 
between the great Powers of Europe must entail on any one 
of them. 

I am asking also in my character of Secretary of State for 
War a position which I held until this morning 1 for a 
1 [Lord Kitchener was Mr. Asquith's successor at the War Office, see p. 85.] 



Supplementary Estimate for men for the Army. Perhaps 
the Committee will allow me for a moment just to say on 
that personal matter that I took upon myself the office of 
Secretary of State for War under conditions, upon which I 
need not go back but which are fresh in the minds of every 
one, in the hope and with the object that the. condition of 
things in the Army, which all of us deplored, niight speedily 
be brought to an end and complete confidence re-established. 
I believe that is the case ; in fact, I know it to be. There is 
no more loyal and united body, no body in which the spirit 
and habit of discipline are more deeply ingrained and cherished 
than in the British Army. Glad as I should have been to 
continue the work of that office and I would have done so 
under normal conditions it would not be fair to the Army, 
it would not be just to the country, that any Minister should 
divide his attention between that Department and another, 
still less that the First Minister of the Crown, who has to 
look into the affairs of all departments, and who is ultimately 
responsible for the whole policy of the Cabinet, should give, 
as he could only give, perfunctory attention to the affairs 
of our Army in a great war. I am very glad to say that a 
very distinguished soldier and administrator, in the person 
of Lord Kitchener, with that great public spirit and patriotism 
that every one would expect from him, at my request stepped 
into the breach. Lord Kitchener, as every one knows, is not 
a politician. His association with the Government as a 
Member of the Cabinet for this purpose must not be taken 
as in any way identifying him with any set of political opinions. 
He has, at a great public emergency, responded to a great 
public call, and I am certain he will have with him, in the 
discharge of one of the most arduous tasks that has ever 
fallen upon a Minister, the complete confidence of all parties 
and all opinions. 

I am asking, on his behalf for the Army, power to increase 
the number of men of all ranks, in addition to the number 
already voted, by no less than 500,000. I am certain the 
Committee will not refuse its sanction, for we are encouraged 
to ask for it not only by our own sense of the gravity and the 
necessities of the case, but by the knowledge that India is 
prepared to send us certainly two Divisions, and that every 
one of our self-governing Dominions, spontaneously and 


unasked, has already tendered to the utmost limits of their 
possibilities, both in men and in money, every help they can 
afford to the Empire in a moment of need. Sir, the Mother 
Country must set the example, while she responds with grati- 
tude and affection to those filial overtures from the outlying 
members of her family. 

Sir, I will say no more. This is not an occasion for con- 
troversial discussion. In all that I have said, I Relieve I 
have not gone, either in the statement of our case or in the 
general description of the provision we think it necessary to 
make, beyond the strict bounds of truth. It is not my 

Purpose it is not the purpose of any patriotic man to in- 
ame feeling, to indulge in rhetoric, to excite international 
animosities. The occasion is far too grave for that. We 
have a great duty to perform, we have a great trust to fulfil, 
and confidently we believe that Parliament and the country 
will enable us to do it. 


House of Commons, August 7, 1914. 

We are establishing to-day a Press Bureau, and I am very 
glad to say that the right hon. and learned Member for the 
Walton Division of Liverpool (Mr. F. E. Smith) will preside 
over it. From that bureau a steady stream of trustworthy 
information supplied both by the War Office and the Admiralty 
can be given to the Press, which, without endangering military 
or naval interests, will serve to keep the country properly 
and truthfully informed from day to day of what can be told, 
and what is fair and reasonable ; and thus, by providing as 
much truth as possible, exclude the growth of irresponsible 

With the indulgence of the House, perhaps I may be 
allowed to say that we owe a very great debt to the Press 
of this country. During the precautionary period, when we 
had no legal means of controlling them, the proprietors and 
editors of the great newspapers, irrespective of class, or the 
party to which they belong, all combined together to take no 
notice of questions which the Admiralty and the War Office 



did not want referred to, and it was through that that our 
preparations were expeditiously and discreetly completed, 
without undue alarm being caused in this country at a time 
when no explanation could have been given. We wish to 
deal with the newspaper Press in such a way as to enable the 
people of this country to follow what is taking place reason- 
ably and intelligibly. It is on information of that kind that 
panic and unnecessary alarm can best be avoided. 


House of Commons, August 25, 1914. 

Hansard MR. KING asked the Under-Secretary of State for War 

whether a censorship of the Press has been, or will be, set 
up ; and whether all items of war news must be passed 
before publication by the Press Bureau or other authority ? 
TENNANT) : A Press Bureau has been established which, 
during the continuance of hostilities, will arrange the dis- 
tribution of news on naval and military matters to the Press, 
and to which the newspapers will refer in regard to news 
which in the national interests it is not advisable to make 
public. The arrangement applies to news and matter of that 


House of Commons, August 27, 1914. 

Hansard MR. HOGGE asked the Prime Minister whether he will 

state the principles upon which information is given out by 
the official Press Bureau ; and whether, in view of the fact 
that the nation is interested in the movements of our own 
troops, etc., he can see his way to establishing a censorship, 
assisted by trained journalists, who will communicate to the 
public what they are reasonably entitled to expect ? 

SIR HENRY NORMAN had given private notice of the 
following question : To ask the Prime Minister if he will 
cause the methods of supplying news of the British Expedi- 
tionary Force to be reconsidered, in order that the British 
public may be no longer chiefly dependent upon foreign 
sources for information of their own Army ? 

The PRIME MINISTER : The Government and the military 


authorities recognise to the full the strain which is placed 
upon the public, but more especially on the relations of those 
on active service, by the scarcity of information from the 
front. They will do all in their power to relieve the strain. 
The official Press Bureau is the mouthpiece through which 
communications relative to the progress of naval and military 
operations are made public by the Admiralty, the War 
Office, and other public Departments concerned. The prin- 
ciple upon which information is given to the public is that 
all information which can be given without prejudice to the 
public interest shall be given fully and given at once. This 
has been done, and will be done. The Director of the Bureau 
has access for consultative purposes to the First Lord of the 
Admiralty, the Secretary of State for War, and, in matters 
of special doubt, to myself. The question whether trained 
journalists could usefully be employed with the staff of the 
Bureau was discussed between the Director of the Bureau, 
representatives of the Admiralty and the War Office, and 
an official Press Committee. It was unanimously agreed 
that it was not desirable to add such persons to the staff of 
the Bureau, but that it was desirable that they should be 
associated with the work carried on by the cable censors. 
Steps are being taken to carry this out, and also to co-ordinate 
and harmonise, as far as possible, the principles upon which 
the censorship of Press cables and of other Press information, 
respectively, is carried on. The difficulty of defining general 
standards is not believed to be insuperable, though it is 
evidently great, having regard to the size of the staff required 
to deal with the enormous number of Press cables which are 
daily despatched and received. Every effort has been made, 
and will be made, to consult the legitimate expectations of 
the Press and public, and to harmonise them .with naval and 
military considerations. 

MR. HOGGE : I am not referring to anything which we 
should not know, but to such announcements as that which 
was issued by the Press Bureau as to the fall of Namur. 
We have now in the papers information to the effect that 
the Namur forts are still intact. What I want to ask is 
that when giving out news of this kind to the Press we should 
have something more that would enable us to understand 
really what has happened ? 


The PRIME MINISTER : I could not answer a question like 
that. The Press Bureau does not issue any announcements 
without taking every care to ensure that they are correct. 

SIR A. B. MARKHAM : Is the right hon. gentleman aware 
that military operations have been published in French, 
German, and Belgian papers a week before they have been 
published in any newspaper in this country, and does he 
not think that it is in the public interest that the public here 
should know of these things as soon as the readers of these 
Continental papers ? 

The PRIME MINISTER : I do not know that that is the 

SIR A. B. MARKHAM : It is the case. I beg to give notice 
that I will call attention to this matter on the Adjournment. 


House of Commons, August 26, 1914. 

Hansard MR. DAVID MASON : I beg to ask the Prime Minister 

whether the statements of German atrocities issued through 
the British Press Bureau, and drawn up by the Belgian 
Committee of Inquiry, are true, and, if so, what action His 
Majesty's Government propose to take to protest against so 
flagrant a violation of the rules of civilised warfare ? 

The PRIME MINISTER : The statements are the result of 
inquiry by a committee constituted and presided over by 
the Belgian Minister of Justice and composed of the highest 
judicial and university authorities of Belgium, and have been 
officially communicated to His Majesty's Government by the 
Belgian Minister at this Court. His Majesty's Government 
understand that the Belgian Government are taking all the 
necessary steps to bring the facts established by their official 
committee to the knowledge of the civilised world. 

Hansard Resolved (in Committee August 6, on Report August 7) 

' That an additional number of 500,000 of all ranks be 
maintained for service at Home and Abroad, excluding His 
Majesty's Indian Possessions, in consequence of War in 
Europe, for the year ending on the 3ist day of March 1915.' 


House of Commons, September 10, 1914. 

Motion made in Committee, ' That an additional number Hansard 
of Land Forces, not exceeding 500,000 all ranks, be main- 
tained for the service of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland at Home and Abroad, excluding His 
Majesty's Indian Possessions, in consequence of the War in 
Europe, for the year ending on the 3ist day of March 1915.' 

The PRIME MINISTER (MR. ASQUITH) : The House of Commons 
voted earlier in the session, before any outbreak of war was 
anticipated, under normal conditions, under Vote A, 186,000 
odd men for the Regular Army. It is perhaps not necessary 
to point out, but it may be convenient to put it on record, that 
the total men under Vote A does not include either the Army 
Reserve, the Special Reserve, or the Territorial Force. When 
we come to vote the financial provision under Vote i of the 
Army Estimates, which is consequential upon the passing of 
Vote A, we make provision not only for the 186,000 men 
already sanctioned for the Regular Army, but also for the 
Army Reserve. In the subsequent Votes 3 and 4, provision 
is made for the Special Reserve and the Territorial Force. 
The Army Reserve and the Special Reserve are not called 
upon to serve until, under the regular constitutional machinery 
consequent upon the outbreak or imminence of war, they are 
summoned to do so. It may be convenient to the Com- 
mittee to know that at the time when war broke out, and when 
the Reserves were called to the colours, the state of things 
was this : Parliament had voted 186,000 odd men call it 
roughly 200,000 under Vote A, and the Army Reserve and 
the Special Reserve then became available as part of the 
Regular Forces of the country, amounting also, roughly 
speaking, to another 200,000 men. They made altogether 
400,000 men. 

On 6th August, after war had been declared, I made a 
Motion in Committee, 1 which was assented to in Committee l [See ante, 
and by the House on Report, for the addition of 500,000 men P- 
to the Regular Forces. These 500,000 men, assuming them 
all to have been raised, would, in addition to the 400,000 I 
have just mentioned, amount to a total of 900,000 men. 
think it will be interesting to the Committee, before I state 
the reasons for which I am going to ask them to make this 



further Vote, to know what has actually happened in conse- 
quence of the Vote of 6th August. The number of recruits 
who have been enlisted into the Army since the declaration 
of war this, of course, is exclusive of those who have joined 
the Territorial Force is 438,000, practically 439,000. That 
is up to the evening of gth September. The Committee will 
therefore see that, having sanctioned, as it did very little 
more than a month ago, an addition to the Regular Forces 
of the Crown of half a million of men, we are now within some 
60,000 of having attained that total. The numbers enlisted 
in London since Sunday, 3Oth August, have exceeded 30,000 
men, and the stamp and character of the recruits has been in 
every way satisfactory and gratifying. The high-water mark 
was reached on 3rd September, when the total recruits enlisted 
in the United Kingdom on one day was 33,204. I may 
mention I am sure it will be gratifying to hon. members on 
both sides who represent Lancashire constituencies that on 
that day 2151 men were enlisted at Manchester alone. 

That is a very satisfactory result, but it by no means 
exhausts the requirements of the case. The response to the 
call for recruits has been in every way gratifying, but I am 
aware, not only from a discussion which took place in the 
House yesterday, but from communications which reached us 
from various parts of the country, that there are complaints 
and grievances causing, legitimately or otherwise, deeply felt 
dissatisfaction at the manner in which some parts I say 
advisedly, only some parts of this operation of recruiting 
has been conducted. I should like the Committee to realise 
what were the conditions of the case. We have been recruit- 
ing during the last ten days every day substantially the same 
number of recruits as in past years has been recruited every 
year. I suppose our annual recruiting amounts to about 
35,000 men for the Regular Army. As I pointed out a moment 
ago, on 3rd September we recruited 33,200. No machinery 
in the world which man has ever contrived or conceived could 
suddenly meet, in an emergency and under great pressure, 
the difficulty of bringing into the colours and making ade- 
quate provision in a day for that which, in past experience, we 
only had to provide in the course of a year, and that, be it 
observed, by a Department which during the whole of this 
time has been engaged in superintending and executing an 


operation, I believe unexampled in the history of war, namely, 
the despatch to a foreign country of an Expeditionary Force 
I will not give the exact number, but roughly of 150,000 men 
which has had to be, as the Committee I am sure is well 
aware, in consequence of the necessary and regrettable losses 
caused by the operations of war, constantly repaired by 
reinforcements of men, guns, supplies, transport, and every 
other form of warlike material. 

If our critics I do not complain of legitimate criticism 
even at times like this will put themselves at the point of 
view and try to imagine themselves equipped with the machin- 
ery which was possessed by the War Office at the time the 
war broke out, and then consider, side by side with the 
smooth, frictionless, and most successful despatch of this 
Expeditionary Force which left these shores and arrived at 
its destination I am speaking the literal truth without the 
loss of a horse or a man, the wastage day by day and week by 
week that has had to be repaired in men and in material, 
repaired often at a moment's notice, and the necessity of 
keeping constantly in reserve, and not only in reserve but 
ready for immediate use, the materials to replace further 
wastage as days and weeks rolled on I think when you 
remember that was the primary call on the War Office, and 
that side by side with that it has had to provide for recruits 
in the course of these few weeks of no less than 430,000 men, 
he will be a very censorious and, I venture to say, a very 
unpatriotic critic who would make much of small difficulties 
and friction, and who would not recognise that in a great 
emergency this Department has played a worthy part. My 
tenure at the War Office was a brief one, 1 but no one who has [March 31 
ever had the honour, as I have had, to preside over that to Aug. 6, 
Department can possibly exaggerate the degree of efficiency g^ eeded 
to which it has been brought under the administration of by Lord 
recent years. Everything, as the experience of this War Kitchener, 
has shown, was foreseen and provided for in advance, with see ante, 
the single exception of the necessity of this enormous increase p. 85] 
in our Regular Forces. 

What provision has been made for dealing with this influx 2 d 
of recruits ? In the first place, and I think very wisely, my Kit chener] 
noble friend the Secretary of State for War 2 appealed for the 3 [Se e ante, 
assistance of the County Associations 3 which rendered such p. 16] 



great and patriotic services in connection with the Territorial 
Force. The great bulk of these county associations have 
responded to the call, and enormously facilitated the work 
of providing for this large body of new recruits. Next, he, in 
conjunction with his advisers, has largely multiplied and is 
continuing to multiply the various training centres. There 
has been unfortunately no one can deny it a congestion 
of men ready and willing to recruit and actually enlisted at 
particular places which has produced for the moment, at any 
rate, a certain amount of discomfort and a certain amount of 
difficulty in the provision of food and of the other require- 
ments of such a body. But in that connection I should like 
to make an appeal although I think the difficulty is now 
being almost got over I sTiould like to make an appeal very 
strongly to local authorities, to county councils, town councils, 
and to urban and rural district councils, that when a situation 
of this kind arises in consequence of a national necessity, they 
should show themselves, as I am sure they are most willing 
to do, not only zealous but able to provide accommodation 
for the moment in the public buildings which are under their 
charge. I think a great deal of the congestion which has 
taken place could have been avoided if more liberal use had 
been made I am not making a reproach on any one ; the 
circumstances were exceptional and the pressure very great 
if more liberal use had been made, as could be made, of the 
public buildings, town halls, schools, and other edifices which 
are under the control of the municipal and county authorities 
for the purpose, at any rate at the moment, of relieving 
the great pressure of recruiting. I am quite sure that 
appeal will not go unheeded. But we recognise fully, and 
no one more fully than my noble friend (Lord Kitchener), 
the necessity of facilitating this process, and rendering it 
more easy. 

We do not think the time has come when we ought in any 
way to relax our recruiting efforts, and when people tell me, 
as they do every day, ' These recruits are coming in by tens 
of thousands ; you are being blocked by them, and you cannot 
provide adequately either for their equipment or for their 
training/ my answer is, ' We shall want more rather than less ; 
let us get the men. That is the first necessity of the State 
let us get the men/ Knowing, as we all do, the patriotic 


spirit which always now, of course, with increased emphasis 
and enthusiasm animates every class of the community, I 
am perfectly certain they will be ready to endure hardships 
and discomforts for the moment, if they are satisfied that their 
services are really required by the State, and that in due 
course of time they will be supplied with adequate provision 
for training and equipment and for rendering themselves fit 
for taking service in the field. With that object, a few days 
ago a very important step and the process is now in com- 
plete operation was taken, which, I am sure, will be generally 
welcomed by the Committee and by the country, at the 
depots. Whenever it is necessary, we allow men who are 
recruited and have gone through the processes of attestation, 
medical examination, and actual enrolment so that they are 
not only potentially but actually members of the Regular 
Army we allow these men to go back to their own homes 
until the occasion arises for them to be called upon for actual 
training. In that way we hope to relieve, as we shall, and 
indeed relief has already been given and will be given more 
amply in the near future, to the undoubted block and con- 
gestion which has taken place in certain districts, to the 
natural disappointment of the men who, coming forward 
under an impulse of public duty to serve their country, 
have found themselves sent back home and put for the 
time being in reserve, and have felt perhaps that their 
services were not duly appreciated by the country. That, 
I think, the Committee will agree is a very important step 
in advance. 

I have to announce another step which, I believe, will give 
universal satisfaction and will go a long way to solve practically 
the difficulty, such as it is. We propose from to-day that 
there shall be given to those recruits for whom we are unable 
to find accommodation for the time being in barracks a sum of 
three shillings per day, which is not an extravagant proposal 
or in the nature of a bribe. A shilling a day is their pay. 
(An Hon. Member : ' is. 3d. ! ') I am speaking in round 
figures ; a shilling is the traditional figure, and we will call it 
a shiUing. Then if we take the value of what we may roughly 
call the board and lodging of a soldier receiving a shilling a 
day when accommodated in barracks, and price that at two 
shillings, I do not think you are putting it extravagantly high. 


We think that those men who have come forward to join the 
colours and have been actually enrolled, and are, in fact, 
members of the Regular Army, for whom we cannot make 
immediate provision by way of accommodation, shall be no 
worse off than they would be if they were actually in barracks, 
and I believe the provision of that three shillings a day for 
these men will put them in a position in which they are entitled 
to say not that they are out for gain or anything of that sort, 
but that they are not being prejudiced or penalised by their 
patriotic desires. 

MR. HARRY LAWSON : And their return fares ? 

An HON. MEMBER : And their separation allowances ? 

The PRIME MINISTER : The separation allowance does 
not begin at that point. But as the hon. member has inter- 
jected that phrase, I may add seeing that hon. members 
generally have been very good in not pressing us in regard 
to the separation allowances for soldiers who are actually 
serving that that matter is receiving our daily and constant 
consideration, and I hope, before the session comes to an 
end, to be able to make a further announcement. But it 
does not arise with regard to this vote. Having made that 
defence, if defence were needed I do not think it was that 
statement of what has actually been done by the War Office 
in these very anxious weeks, and also indicating in those 
two important respects that we are endeavouring to facilitate 
the process of recruitment and to remove any possibility of 
hardship, either to the individual recruit or to recruits collec- 
tively in a body, I hope the Committee will agree to pass the 
vote for another 500,000 men. I am perfectly certain, if 
they do so, the response will be no less keen in spirit and 
no less ample in its scale than it has been in the days which 
have just gone by. We shall then be in a position, as is 
apparent from the figures I have already read, to put some- 
thing like I am not giving exact figures something like 
1,200,000 men into the field. 

MR. WALTER LONG : Does that include the Indians ? 

The PRIME MINISTER : No, it is entirely exclusive of them. 

MR. CHAMBERLAIN : And the Dominions ? 

The PRIME MINISTER : This is the provision made by the 
Mother Country, and of course it is exclusive of the Terri- 


MR. F. HALL (Dulwich) : And of the National Reserves ? 

I am pointing out to the Committee that, exclusive of the 
Territorials, exclusive of the National Reserve, and exclusive 
of the magnificent contributions promised from India and 
from our Dominions, we here in these Islands, this Mother 
Country, will be in a position to put into the field, enrolled as 
our Regular Army, something like 1,200,000 men. That is an 
effort which it is worth while making great sacrifices to attain. 
As regards money, I am perfectly certain that this House will 
be ready, willing, and eager to grant it if and when occasion 
arises. What we want now is to make it clear to those who 
are showing all over the Kingdom this patriotic desire to assist 
their country in one of the most supreme and momentous 
crises in the whole of its long history, that they are not going 
to be treated either in a niggardly or an unaccommodating 
spirit, but that they are going to be welcomed, and every 
possible provision is going to be made for their comfort and 
wellbeing, so that under the best possible conditions they 
may take their place and play their part in that magnificent 
Army of ours, which, as every one who has read the moving 
despatch of Sir John French, published this morning, will 
realise, has never done its work better, never shown itself 
more worthy of the long centuries of splendid traditions than 
in the last fortnight. I ask the House to pass this Vote for 
500,000 men. 

MR. BONAR LAW : The right hon. gentleman, in the 
statement he has just made, has left me nothing except to 
express our hearty support of all the measures which the 
Government are taking in this crisis. From the point of 
view of the Government and of this House we welcome the 
putting down of this Vote as showing that both the Govern- 
ment and the House of Commons are deterrhined, whatever 
the cost, whatever the sacrifice, to see this thing through. 
I can only say in regard to that, that I agree entirely with 
the words which I heard the Prime Minister use in another 
place the other day, 1 that in what has taken place so far we * [At the 
have every ground for encouragement and every reason to GUI 
feel pride in what is being done by our troops. I agree ^ 
entirely with what the Prime Minister has said about the j)ipi oma tic, 
action of our soldiers on the field of battle. It does not 2 , p. 446] 
surprise us. We knew that the old spirit is there still, but I 



think it has, to some extent at least, surprised our enemies. 
But while we have reason to be gratified by the action which 
the Government has taken and this House is supporting 
them in taking, I think, as a nation, we have quite as much 
reason to be proud of the spirit which is shown by our country- 
men in rushing to the standard as we have even in what 
has been done by our soldiers on the field of battle. I never 
sympathised I always resented with the view expressed 
at one time that our citizens were holding back. There was 
no justification for it. At the outset they did not realise 
what it means, but from the moment they did realise it 
they have shown that they are prepared to do their share to 
fight the battles of their country. 

I am not going to say anything about the difficulties in 
connection with recruiting this great force to which the 
Prime Minister has referred. No one could have doubted 
that difficulties of that kind would arise, and that hardships 
would occur. Criticism, I am sure, is not deprecated by the 
right hon. gentleman, and ought not to be, if it is framed 
entirely with this view ; to make sure that everything that 
can be done is being done not to do away with but to minimise 
the hardships and difficulties with which the authorities were 
confronted. As the Prime Minister said, the machine was 
not framed to deal with an emergency like this. ' No one could 
expect it to deal with it smoothly, but we have a right to 
expect that the difficulties are understood at the War Office, 
and we have the right also to ask that since they cannot be 
met by the central machine, every effort shall be made in the 
direction of devolution, and that the difficulties shall be met 
where they locally arise. I am sure it is a satisfaction to 
the House, as it was to me, to find that before the discussion 
arose yesterday not only had Lord Kitchener realised the 
difficulties, but that he had taken every step possible to 
meet them, and that the step which he did take was in the 
direction which we all feel is a wise one putting the responsi- 
bility on those at a distance from the War Office, and expect- 
ing them to do it. 

I do not think there is anything more worth my while 
saying. One thing, however, I should like to say. Many 
of us have been asked to take part in helping recruiting. 
When I was asked to join in that I had in my mind the 


feeling, to which I gave expression the other day, that I 
was not satisfied that too much sacrifice was not being 
required from those who were going to fight our battles 
and that the full share of the sacrifice was being borne by 
those who remained behind. I gave expression to that view 
then. I am not going to make any proposal. It is not 
necessary. But this I do say ; Nothing could be more unfair 
than that this country should expect all the sacrifice to 
come from the men who are actually going to risk their 
lives on our behalf. We know with what splendid spirit 
they are coming forward. I could, I suppose, as every 
member of this Committee could, give instances which would 
surprise us all. 

Perhaps it would be interesting to the Committee if I 
gave one that occurred the other day. The son of a friend 
of mine, who is well off, had been writing to the War Office 
and taking every step to try to be accepted in order to fight. 
He was a partner in a big business in Glasgow with splendid 
prospects. He threw them all up. He came and hung at 
the doors of the War Office as if he were seeking for some fat 
job, when all that he wanted was to be placed, not as an 
officer but as a private, in one of the most dangerous branches 
of our service. That is a spirit that is universal. I do not 
say in what way further provisions should be made, but I 
am sure the Committee welcomes the statement the Prime 
Minister has made that they are going to reconsider the 
whole question of the separation allowance to the families 
of the men, and of the pensions which are to be given. I am 
not going to criticise what the Government has done, but I 
am sure of this, and I am expressing not the view of our 
own party at all, but the view of the whole of the Committee, 
that the country realises that when these -men risk their 
lives for us they are making a big enough sacrifice, and the 
country will be glad that in every way possible generosity, 
at the expense of those who remain behind, should be extended 
to those who are fighting for us. (Vote agreed to.) 

Home of Commons, September 14, 1914. 

Report of the Vote of 500,000 additional men for the Hansard 
Army agreed to. 




House of Commons, November u, 1914. 

Hansard MR. BONAR LAW : The first question which I will put to 

the Government is in regard to Antwerp. The country was 
greatly interested in it. We have had up till now no explana- 
tion except the address issued by the First Lord to the men 
who were there. I think the usual course has been for the 
Board of Admiralty to send out such an address, and I am 
not sure it is not the better way. That is the only explana- 
tion we have had, and I am sure that the House in all quarters 
will realise that we ought to have a fuller explanation. The 
two points which have seemed to me to require explanation 
are these. The defence of Antwerp was entirely a military 
operation. Being so, if it were necessary that the head of 
one of our fighting forces should go, why was it the First Lord 
of the Admiralty, who surely has plenty to do in his own 
Department ? Why was it not Lord Kitchener, or some one 
delegated by him ? The second question is, assuming it was 
necessary and right and I do not suggest that it was not 
to send this body of men, were they the men who, from their 
training and experience, both on the part of the officers and 
the men themselves, were the best fitted of all those who were 
available in the country to be sent on such an expedition ? 
I put these questions, and I await, and the House will await, 
the explanation of the Government before it decides whether 
any criticism is necessary at all. 

The second question in regard to the Admiralty is in rela- 
tion to the disaster the other day on the coast of Chili. It is 
certainly very disquieting that a fleet of the enemy should be 
concentrated anywhere in superior force to a British fleet in 
the same waters, and especially surprising that that should 
occur in the Pacific, where we have as an ally Japan, with a 
vast fleet which I should have thought might have been made 
available. I do not know what the explanation is. I do not 
assume that it was the fault of the Admiralty, but it certainly 
is a subject on which we have a right to expect a full explana- 
tion from the Government. These subjects are controversial, 
but I hope they are not party. 

The next subject on which I would like to say a few words 


is with regard to our treatment of alien enemies in this country. 
I know how difficult that question is nobody better. There 
is no one in this House or in the country who wishes to act 
vindictively to the citizens of enemy countries, because they 
belong to those nationalities. Nobody desires it. We do 
not desire to inflict any hardship or any injury upon them. 
All that we want to do is to make sure that they do not injure 
us. I deplore, and I think everybody deplores, the outbreak 
which occurred at one time against aliens in the neighbour- 
hood of London. What I want to know, and what I am sure 
the country wants to know, is what is the principle on which 
the Government are dealing with this subject. We wish to 
know that they are not being influenced doing comparatively 
little one day and more the next by clamouring newspapers. 
We want to feel sure that they have really carefully thought 
out this subject, and that they should tell the House the prin- 
ciple upon which they are acting, and more than that, having 
decided upon the principle, that they are satisfied that it is 
being effectively carried out. That is important. Take, for 
instance, what was done at the outbreak of the war. Every 
one thought it right that alien enemies near our shores who 
might by any possibility give any information against our 
Fleets should be removed. The Government decided to do 
that, but I know in regard to one part of the country I am 
referring to part of the coast of Scotland that has not been 
effectively done, and that we have suffered in consequence. 
What we want to be sure of is that the Government really are 
acting on that principle, and that they are determined effec- 
tively to carry it out. 

There is another subject which is exciting almost as much 
interest as that, and that is the amount of information which 
is given to the country in regard to the war. There again it is 
very easy to find fault, and the responsibility must be the re- 
sponsibility of the Government. But there is a general feeling, 
which I share, that the Press is more muzzled than is necessary 
for military reasons, and consequently, if that be so, it is 
disadvantageous from the point of view of every other interest 
in this country. It may be that the Government to a large 
extent are powerless. Our Army in France is only part of a 
much greater force, and it would be quite right that we should 
not do anything which by any possibility could injure the 


operations of that force, and which was against the wishes of 
the Government responsible for the chief part of the force. I 
quite admit that, but all that I would like to say, and I would 
like to impress it upon the Government, is that where there 
are not military reasons there can be no other reasons for 
keeping back information as to what our soldiers are doing. 
It is bad in every way. It is bad for recruiting. One of 
the hon. Members opposite spoke of the action of the London 
Scottish. I think we are all proud of them, and I have reason 
to be to a greater extent than the Member who spoke. But 
they are not the only regiment. The effect of their action, I 
am told, was immediately to stimulate recruiting for the 
London Scottish. There are other regiments, to my know- 
ledge, representing other districts in the country, who have 
fought as bravely and suffered losses, and the people of those 
districts know nothing about them ; but if the Government 
could give information, it would be of immense advantage to 
give those names to the people of the country. I am quite 
sure that nothing would be a greater mistake I am not 
suggesting that the Government are acting upon this reason 
than to suppose that there could be any disadvantage, apart 
from military considerations, in letting the country know that 
there have been heavy losses when such losses have taken 
place. On the contrary, it is good that we should tell them, 
and I think one of the things which as a nation we have most 
reason so far as the civilian population is concerned to be 
proud of is that what most stimulates recruiting in this 
country is not eloquent speeches, or anything of that kind, 
but the knowledge of the risks our soldiers are running. It 
is that which makes our recruits join the Army. All I say 
on that subject is that, personally, I should have preferred, 
if it were possible, to have accredited reporters at the seat 
of war. That may be impossible, but I do hope the Govern- 
ment will try to give all the information that can be given 
apart from military considerations, and that they will tell 
the House frankly the principle on which they are acting in 
regard to this whole matter. 

In this connection there is another question, a very big 
question, on which I should like to say a word. I am quite 
sure that nothing could be worse than to conceal misfortunes, 
if we have any, from the people of this country. I do not 


mean that it may not be right to delay publishing any in- 
cidents, perhaps for a considerable time, for strategical 
reasons, but I am sure it would be wrong for us to do what 
may have been right in the case of Japan to conceal disasters 
until the war is over. I am sure it would be wrong for us for 
this reason, that the only object, and for us, at least/ the 
main object, would be to prevent panic, and, in my belief, 
one thing which would cause panic would be if the people of 
this country got the idea that they do not know the whole 

The PRIME MINISTER (MR. ASQUITH) : The right *hon. 
gentleman pointed out that in the three months which 
have elapsed since this war began we have gone through 
moving experiences and have learned unexpected lessons. 
First and foremost, we have witnessed not only a complete 
solidity of sentiment and action among all political parties 
in all the constituent parts of the United Kingdom, but 
we have had a manifestation, for which there is no parallel 
in history, from every quarter of the globe, of the sympathy 
and support of our fellow-subjects of every creed, of every 
colour, of every race, and in every clime. That in itself 
was enough, if it stood alone, to make this a memorable as 
well as a proud experience. But further, although it is true 
that both by land and on sea we have sustained grievous 
losses : the loss, as the right hon. gentleman has reminded 
us, of one of our own Members a loss as to which I may 
venture, on behalf of myself and my friends, to give utter- 
ance to a special message of sympathy and the loss on the 
part of the Leader of the Opposition in another place of one 
of his sons. These are typical cases, and the longer this 
war lasts, the more these terrible experiences, which make 
us realise what war means, are brought home to almost every 
class, and almost every village in the country. Despite all 
this, we have seen our troops maintain with a heroism and a 
determination which have never been excelled in any of the 
best days of the British Army, positions of difficulty and 
danger. We see them now I do not want to indulge in the 
language of excessive optimism, but I am speaking my own 
serious conviction when I say we see them now in a posi- 
tion in which, in conjunction with our gallant Allies, France 



and Belgium, they have frustrated and absolutely defeated 
the first design of the German invader. It would ill become 
us in circumstances such as those to adopt the language of 
depression or want of" confidence. The war may last long. 
I doubt myself that it will last as long as many people originally 
predicted, but that it will last long is certain, and we may 
take to ourselves this hope and this assurance, that the longer 
it lasts the more will those great reserves of strength which 
the British Empire possesses show themselves equal to filling 
gaps, replacing losses, maintaining positions, and achieving 
ultimate and complete victory. 

The Empire is on its trial. The experience of these three 
months not only encourages us to believe, but inspires us 
with the confident hope that the longer the trial lasts, and 
the more severe it becomes, the more clearly shall we emerge 
from it the champions of a just cause, and we shall have 
achieved, not only for ourselves for our direct and selfish 
interests are small but for Europe and for civilisation, and 
for the great principle of small nationalities, and for liberty 
and for justice one of their most enduring victories. The 
right hon. gentleman has asked me some questions in regard 
to various matters, which in the course of these three months 
have interested public attention, and have excited, so far as 
the Government is concerned, a certain amount of not ill- 
natured complaint, but of sincere doubt and criticism. The 
first point which he raised was in regard to the conduct of 
the Admiralty, first in the matter of the advance upon Antwerp 
and next in the matter of the recent incidents resulting in the 
sad loss of ships and lives off the South American coast. I 
am sure he will agree with me that these matters, and par- 
ticularly the second, had better be dealt with at length and 
in detail by the First Lord of the Admiralty. But in regard 
to the first one, the proceedings at Antwerp, I feel bound to 
say, and I say it in the clearest and most explicit terms, that 
the responsibility for what was done there was the responsi- 
bility not of any individual Minister, but of the Government 
as a whole, that, in particular, the Secretary of State for War 
was consulted, and that everything that was done was done 
with his knowledge and approval; and although I do not 
think in the public interests that it is desirable at this moment 
to go in detail into the reasons which led up to the circum- 


stances, I do say with the utmost confidence and I believe 
that I am expressing the opinion not only of all my colleagues 
but of our Naval and Military advisers that that expedi- 
tion was a material and most useful factor in the conduct of 
this campaign. I am sure that the more the facts are elicited 
and examined and it is impossible for obvious reasons to 
do so now in detail the more that opinion will become gene- 
rally entertained. 

The right hon. gentleman asked me to explain upon what 
principle we had dealt with what he admitted to be the very 
difficult problem of the civilian alien enemies in this country. 
It is a very difficult problem, and I am not at all ashamed to 
confess, certainly in my own mind, and probably in the minds 
of many of my colleagues, that there have been fluctuations 
in opinion and view from time to time as to the best way of 
dealing with it. But we have gone upon two very simple 
principles: I do not say we have always been perfectly happy 
and wise in the application of them ; that may be a matter of 
opinion but we have gone upon two very simple principles, 
each of which I think is, unassailable. The first is, or was, 
at once, or as soon as might be, after the outbreak of war, to 
seize and place beyond the reach of mischief all those persons 
who, after many years of careful and continuous observation, 
we had reason to suspect of being, at least, emissaries and 
spies of our foreign enemies. I believe that operation was 
successfully conducted before the war had been more than 
a week or a fortnight old. But, of course, the ramifications 
of espionage are infinite. It is a great mistake to suppose 
that, if you were to put under lock and key every German in 
this country, you would necessarily have got rid of the danger 
of espionage. At the best, it could but be a partial measure. 
This is the second principle on which we proceeded : We did 
think, as a precautionary measure, that it was desirable to 
intern those alien residents on our shores, not for the purpose 
of permanently imprisoning perfectly innocent people, but 
for the purpose of passing them through a process of sifting 
or winnowing in order to determine those whom it was safe 
to release and those whom, in the public interests, it was 
desirable to retain. That is the process now being carried 
out, and it is a very difficult and delicate one, and one in 
which mistakes must be necessarily made from time to time, 



but which I hope is perfectly consistent with the second prin- 
ciple, and* one which is certainly not being pursued, so far as 
we the Government is concerned, and so far as we can avoid 
it, with any excess of harshness or cruelty to the individual. 
But we quite agree and who should be more anxious than 
we are to maintain that position ? that, whatever inconveni- 
ence there may be, even if there be particular cases of hardship, 
the first consideration is the safety of the country the first 
dominant and governing consideration, and by that considera- 
tion our conduct has been, and will continue, to be actuated. 
Then the right hon. gentleman raised another and even 
more difficult question namely, the question of the duty 
of the Government in regard to the circulation and dissemina- 
tion of news about the war. It is essential, as everybody 
admits, that in modern warfare some kind of censorship should 
exist. If you have not a censorship, you would simply give 
away thousand of points of your case to the enemy. We here 
in this country, unlike some other nations, are very unaccus- 
tomed to the duties of censorship. A free Press has always 
been one of our most cherished institutions, and it is no 
wonder that a Press which has been accustomed, subject to 
the limitations of the law of libel, to practically unlimited 
liberty, should chafe and fret under restrictions which the 
necessities of the time require. I am not complaining for 
a moment of that. It is felt quite as much among the readers 
of the Press as among those who are responsible for its conduct. 
But what is the principle which ought to govern us ? I think 
it was laid down by the right hon. gentleman in terms to 
which I take no exception, that you should be ready to divulge 
everything, whether favourable or adverse, subject only to 
military considerations. I can say with the utmost confid- 
ence, that so far as we are concerned, and so far as we have 
responsibility in the matter, that is the principle on which 
we have acted throughout. Whatever has been concealed 
or rather withheld for I quite agree there is a difference 
between permanent concealment and temporary postpone- 
ment whatever has been withheld, has been withheld simply 
because, in the opinion of our military and naval advisers 
and ourselves, it was inexpedient that for the moment it 
should be divulged lest it should give the enemy an advan- 
tage he would not otherwise have had. 


I do not think anybody will dispute that that is the prin- 
ciple which ought to govern a censorship in time of war, under 
the conditions such as those which now prevail. Each case 
and there are many difficult cases must be judged upon 
its own merits, and having regard to the political and military 
exigencies of the moment. We should all like, as the right 
hon. gentleman said, to know more than we do I should 
myself of the daily progress of the war, the achievements of 
particular ships, of particular regiments, of particular indi- 
viduals. That is a feeling which is prompted and fed, not 

by a mere sentiment of idle curiosity nothing of the kind 

but by interest in our combatants whether by land or by sea, 
by pride in their prowess and their devotion to our cause! 
But I must say, and I shall have the opinion of the House with 
me; and I hope of the country, when I add that we must keep 
steadily in view, that, under the conditions of modern warfare, 
and of this war in particular, which is unlike any war that 
ever preceded it, patriotic restraint is often one of the first 
duties of a loyal subject. As the right hon. gentleman re- 
minded us, we have Allies, and in the war now going on in 
France, we must remember that our Allies, the French people, 
have a vastly larger army engaged than we have ourselves. 
Whatever is done must be done by conjoint action, and after 
due consultation between both the Allied forces. We must 
have regard to their interests and opinions just as much as to 
our own. 

LORD CHARLES BERESFORD: The French publish more 
than we do. 

THE PRIME MINISTER : No ; I think they have published 
a great deal less than we have. But I do not want to go into 
that. It is a perfectly sound principle that we must have 
regard to what they think their interests are, just as much 
as to what we think are ours. We must go side by side with 
them, and although I quite agree that, from the point of view 
of recruiting, in which, of course, I have special and direct 
interest, it is very desirable indeed that we should have those 
full I was almost going to say full-bloodeddescriptions with 
which the old special correspondents used to furnish us in 
wars gone by special adventures and heroic achievements 
of this or that regiment in this or that stricken field. But 
when you are dealing with a war which extends over a front 





of a hundred or even two hundred miles, with a multiplica- 
tion of scientific developments, the telephone, the telegraph, 
and other means of communication, and everything you 
publish becomes the common property of the world, and 
therefore the property of your enemy, the obligations of reti- 
cence are far greater than they ever were before, and the field 
for this descriptive writing, admirable in its way, and a great 
incentive and a stimulus to patriotic feeling, is a field which, is 
necessarily more curtailed than ever it was before. We all 
regret it, but we must accept it as one of the conditions under 
which we carry on this fight. 

I do not know whether the House realises, but it is worth 
pointing out now that the number of men authorised by the 
three Votes we have had during the present year for* the 
Regular Army is 1,186,000. I am speaking only of the 
Regular Troops and not of the Territorials, and of that 
1,186,000 all but short of 100,000 are already in the service 
of the Crown. That is rather a significant comment upon 
many of the complaints we hear about the slowness and reluct- 
ance of the people, and it is a most remarkable thing. If we 
include the Territorials, it becomes very much larger, but I 
am speaking simply of our actual Regular Troops of the 
Expeditionary Force, with their Reserve units and recruits 
who are now training. It is obviously necessary, therefore, 
that we should come to the House and ask for a considerable 
Vote for more men, and that Vote I shall also propose to take 
upon Tuesday of next week. 

House of Commons, November 12, 1914. 
The PRIME MINISTER : The British casualties in the 
Western area of the .war up to 3ist October are, approxi- 
mately, 57,000 of all ranks. The Government are not in a 
position to estimate the losses of the other allied Powers, nor 
those of the enemy. 

House of Commons, November 16, 1914. 
Motion made, and Question proposed, ' That a supple- 
mentary sum not exceeding 225,000,000 be granted to His 
Majesty beyond the ordinary Grants of Parliament, towards 
defraying the Expenses which may be incurred during the 
year ending the 3ist March 1915, for all measures which may 


be taken for the security of the country, for the conduct of 
Naval and Military operations, for assisting the Food Supply 
and promoting the continuance of Trade, Industry, Business 
and Communications, whether by means of insurance or - 
indemnity against risk, the financing of the purchase and 
re-sale of foodstuffs and materials, or otherwise, for Relief of 
Distress, and generally for all expenses arising out of the 
existence of a state of war/ 

The PRIME MINISTER (MR. ASQUITH) : I propose to deal 
very briefly with this matter to-day, because my right hon. 
friend the Chancellor of the Exchequer 1 will to-morrow present i[Mr Lloyd 
to the House a full statement of the proposals which the George] 
Government propose to make to meet in various ways the 
expenditure incurred and rendered necessary by the war. 
But in submitting to the House this Vote of Credit, I must 
make one or two explanatory observations. It will be in. the 
recollection of the Committee that on the 8th of August a 
Vote was taken of 100,000,000, and the Supplementary Vote 
which we now propose is for no less than 225,000,000, which 
will raise the amounts which the House is asked to vote 
beyond the ordinary Grants of Parliament to 325,000,000. 
I do not know that it is necessary to point out, but I may 
perhaps say in passing, that our machinery in this matter, 
which is well settled by precedent and by usage, is that when 
Votes of Credit of this kind are taken the practice has been to 
use first the ordinary Grants made by Parliament so far as 
they suffice, and only to fall back upon the issues of the Votes 
of Credit when those normal Grants have been exhausted. 
Ultimately, when the accounts of the year are made up, the 
sums chargeable against the Vote of Credit ought and will, 
roughly, at any rate, and approximately, represent the extra 
expenditure due to the war. But at any intermediate period 
of the year the expenditure on the Vote of Credit need not, 
and often will not, exceed the actual total war expenditure 
incurred up to any given date. The House authorised on the 
8th of August last a Vote of Credit of 100,000,000. I do not 
think it would be expedient in the public interest to disclose 
precisely at this moment the figures, at any rate the items of 
expenditure, which have been incurred under the authority 
given by that Vote, but I may state them in general terms. 

In the first place, as the House will readily believe, by far 



the largest amount, if not the largest amount, of the sum 
authorised by that Vote of Credit, has been expended and is 
being expended week after week for what I may call military 
purposes, the actual conduct of operations of war. But, in 
addition to that, there have been large outlays under a number 
of other heads included in the general terms in which the title 
of the Vote is framed, and some of which have gone to the 
grant of loans to our Allies, and some also, a very large sum, 
towards securing the food supplies of the country, especially 
in regard to sugar and in regard to wheat and some of the 
other necessaries of life, which, although on the face of it, and, 
for the moment, will have involved very large disbursements 
of money, will, as we believe, be ultimately recouped to the 
Exchequer when the supplies so secured reasonably and 
prudently secured have been distributed and paid for by 
the. traders and consumers. Then there is the sum the not 
inconsiderable sum which we have had to expend in order 
to secure the active control of the railways of the country, 
which was necessary at a time like this ; and there are other 
smaller matters, some of which I do not think it is expedient 
at this time to particularise, but which include expenditure, 
which I am sure the House will gladly recognise as necessary 
and judicious, in regard to foreign refugees and destitute 
aliens. Of course, full and complete details of these various 
heads of expenditure will in due time be rendered. I trust 
that the Committee will be content for the moment with my 
assurance that it is under those various heads that that 
expenditure has taken place. 

I come now to what is more relevant and important for 
the immediate purpose of the Vote I am asking the Com- 
mittee to entertain this afternoon, namely, What are the 
purposes for which we are asking the sanction of Parliament ? 
There, again, I do not think it would be wise to name particular 
figures, but the great bulk of this new Vote of Credit for no 
less than 225,000,000 will be for Army and Navy expenditure. 
There are certain other categories as to which it is right the 
House should be informed in advance of what the intentions 
of the Government are. They fall under two heads Civil 
Expenditure and Loan Expenditure. The Civil Expenditure, 
I am glad to say, does not amount to anything considerable, 
and in point of money it is largely, if not exclusively, for the 


purpose of completing the supplies of food, sugar, and other 
classes of food, which, owing to the contraction of the market 
resulting from the war, the Government felt bound in the 
interests of the community to take in hand. There are further 
certain particular commodities, some of them necessary for 
our own purposes, and others of them necessary, so far as we 
can, to exclude from the use of our beUigerent opponents. I 
shall not be expected to say precisely what they are. There 
are commodities which fall within both those classes, and with 
regard to them we think it will be right to give the Government 
certain latitude to deal with. The item of loans is a very 
large one. I do not think there is any objection at this point 
to my stating the figure. The Committee will understand 
that this Vote of Credit is entirely for expenditure up to 3ist 
March next, the close of the present financial year. All these 
loans, which, if the Committee authorise this Vote, we shall 
propose to take authority for ourselves to raise during that 
time and not for our own purposes, amount to 44,000,000. 
I said ' not for our own purposes/ but I ought to exclude, 
when I say that, a comparatively small sum which we may 
have to raise for the use of our local authorities here in relief 
of distress. I am glad to say that that is likely to be a very 
small sum of money. I hope it may not be necessary to raise 
any sum at all, but still we must, as a matter of precaution, 
take power to ourselves to raise a small sum for that purpose. 
The main item and there is no objection, I think, in the 
public interest to disclose it is with regard to the Government 
of Belgium, which has already, with the warm approval of 
Members in every quarter of the House, received a loan of 
10,000,000, and, as I said already, a small amount has been 
advanced to the Government of Serbia, which has received a 
loan of 800,000. I may say, with regard to both these loans, 
that we do not propose that any interest should be charged 
upon them until the conclusion of the War. A much larger 
item is the item of loans which we propose to raise for the 
benefit of our Dominions. The Committee will like to under- 
stand what is the position of that matter. These great self- 
governing Dominions would, in the ordinary course, have 
been compelled during the present financial year to come to 
the London market for the purpose of raising, money, some- 
times for the renewal I think to a large extent for the renewal 



of loans which have expired, and the repayment of which 
was due, and, in some cases, for other purposes which were 
essential for their domestic interests. The Dominion of 
Canada, the Union of South Africa, the Commonwealth of 
Australia, and the Dominion of New Zealand, are all in that 
category. Obviously it would be most inexpedient that 
these various Dominions should come into the London market 
each endeavouring to raise for itself upon its own terms the 
money needed for its own local purposes. We propose to 
relieve them of that responsibility, and ourselves to under- 
take the raising of loans for them all to an amount which we 
estimate at the moment at about 30,250,000. I am sure 
the Committee will realise that, under the circumstances, 
that is much the best course to take in the interests of the 
Dominions and of the Empire at large. It is desirable that 
everybody should understand that out of this very large Vote 
of Credit which we are submitting to the House of Commons, 
a sum of nearly 45,000,000 is to be immediately devoted to 
that purpose. In other words, it will not be certainly in 
regard to the loans to the Dominions an ultimate charge on 
the Exchequer of the United Kingdom ; but it is a necessary 
operation for financing our sister and daughter possessions 
in the exigencies caused by the War. These are the main 
items to which the Vote of Credit will be applied. 

The Committee might like to form some kind of estimate, 
or to know what kind of estimate the Government have 
formed, as to the cost of the War itself, I do not it would 
be very undesirable to do so pry into the future ; I do not 
attempt to speculate as to what commitments it may in the 
course of the next few months be necessary for us to incur ; 
but I think I may say this is the only figure I will or ought 
to give, and it is one which anybody who carefully studies 
the national accounts as they are presented from Week to 
week will be able, more or less roughly, to calculate for himself 
that up to the present date that is, up to last Saturday 
the actual cost on the Exchequer of this country for carrying 
on the War, over and above all our normal expenditure as 
voted by Parliament during the last Session, amounts to 
somewhere between 900,000 and 1,000,000 a day. I do 
not say that we shall keep it at that level. On the whole, 
having regard to the enormous scale of the operations, the 


gigantic commitments which we have had to undertake, not 
merely in regard to the Navy and the Army, but in regard to 
other matters connected with the maintenance of the trade 
of the country, the food of the people, and, so far as we could, 
the prevention of supplies reaching our enemy, I do not 
think anybody will say that that is a sum which exceeds 
the expectations which might reasonably have been enter- 
tained. At any rate, I cannot hold out any hope that during 
the continuance of the War that daily expenditure is likely 
to be diminished. I believe that this Committee, and all 
sections of the community, will agree that the Government 
ought to ask from the House of Commons a provision up to 
the 3ist March which will not only satisfy calculations based 
upon the actual experience of the 105 days during which 
the War has lasted, but leave them with a reasonable margin 
in regard to such calculations as they can make for future 
expenditure up to the end of the financial year. I purposely 
confine myself to a very brief businesslike statement, because 
I do not think that this is an occasion upon which it is in the 
least degree necessary to appeal to the patriotism and the 
devotion of the House and country to the cause in which we 
are engaged. I .can only assure them that the estimates have 
been most carefully considered and revised again and again, 
and that they represent the minimum of what the Government 
think it right to ask from the House of Commons in what is 
perhaps the greatest emergency with which in our history we 
have ever been faced. 

[After Debate] 

I think the course of the Debate has shown that it was 
for the general convenience of the Committee that we should 
take the discussion, not only on the strict question of the 
money, but also on the question of the men and the general 
conditions under which this expenditure is going to be applied 
as part and parcel of a single topic. I am quite sure that the 
Committee will recognise that, having done so, we ought not 
to go over the same ground again when we take the same Vote. 
I am the last to complain either of the tone or the substance of 
anything that has been said in the course of the discussion, 
and I particularly recognise the friendly spirit with which the 
right hon. gentleman (Mr. Long) opened the discussion. 


There was not a word in what he has said to which I could 
have taken any objection, and I will deal briefly, but I hope 
not perfunctorily, with the various points which he has raised. 
They are all points worthy of consideration. The first, I 
think, was the question of officers' pay. In regard to that I 
will say, without committing the Government for a moment 
to any specific proposal, that the matter has been engaging 
their attention, and Lord Kitchener has drawn up a scheme 
which is now under the consideration of the Treasury, so that 
I hope before long we may be in a position to remedy what I 
have felt for years to be a very serious grievance, namely, the 
insufficient pay of the lower ranks of commissioned officers. 
The soldiers' pay has received attention and the officers' 
pay has been neglected. I can still understand that the 
soldier is not at present as wealthy as he ought to be, but I 
am sure that the grievance of the officer, who cannot live on 
his pay and must either get into debt or be supported by his 
parents and friends from extraneous sources, is a reproach to 
this country, and ought to have been removed long before, 
for it becomes increasingly urgent and scandalous when men 
are laying down their lives for the sake of their country. 
The Committee may be quite sure that the Government 
has got that matter in hand and will not delay to propose 

In regard to the point of the non-payment of bounties to 
members of the National Reserve, I am not sure that there may 
not be some misapprehension. As I understand the position 
from recollections of the short period when I was at the 
War Office, the bounty was promised to men who registered 
themselves in time of peace in order that when war broke out 
the authorities might know where to find them, and therefore 
might at once avail themselves of their services. That was 
the principle. Men, as I understand, in some cases, who were 
not registered, came forward and enlisted, very properly, 
when the War broke out, and they felt a grievance at not 
having received the bounty, to which they were not strictly 
entitled. The right hon. gentleman will, I am sure, agree. 
I think in many of these cases the matter has been already met 
by the War Office, who have not stuck to the strict letter of the 
law but have interpreted these requirements in a liberal spirit. 
If specific cases of grievance still exist, they will be dealt with 


in the same spirit by the authorities. Then the right hon. 
gentleman raised the question, and a very important and 
serious one it is, of the importance of the speedy announcement 
of rewards and promotions for gallant conduct in the field, 
and particularly in regard to regimental officers and men! 
That is, of course, not a new question. It arises in every war. 
Sir John French has been given, from the first, a very wide 
discretion and very ample power in regard to the promotion 
of non-commissioned officers to the rank of second-lieutenant, 
and that power has been very freely exercised by him. No 
fewer than 438 such promotions have already been made, which 
I think is very satisfactory. Sir John French has taken full 
advantage of the power which the Government gave him. 
With regard to promotion above that rank, it is undoubtedly 
true, and I think has always been the case, that the suggestions 
of the General are formally referred home, but they are always 
attended to. I do not know that there has been any undue 
delay, but if it is possible to accelerate the machinery, 
particularly that of publication, I should be only too glad that 
we should take steps for that purpose. Nothing can be more 
disheartening and unjust than that gallant men who have 
earned promotion should be unduly delayed in receiving 
acknowledgment of it, and sometimes prevented by death 
from knowing they have received it at all. That, I can assure 
the House, we shall do all we can to avoid. 

Then the right hon. gentleman raised the question which 
has been touched upon by many other speakers my hon. 
and learned friend the Member for Cork x amongst others i [Mr. T. M. 
the question of war correspondents, and what is closely allied Healy] 
with it, the functions of the Censor, and the exercise of those 
functions here at home. I go every length with every speaker 
who has taken part in the discussion of this Debate in em- 
phasising the importance of the rapid and complete publica- 
tion of the gallant achievements both of regiments and 
individuals. Allusion has been made to the publicity given 
the other day in a telegram, I think from the Commander-in- 
Chief, to the splendid work of the London Scottish, and, of 
course, no tribute was ever better earned or more appreciated. 
Upon the face of it, however, it does look an invidious thing 
to single out one regiment for praise, however .well deserved 
that praise may be, and leave the achievements of other 


regiments for the time being in the obscurity of silence, only 
to emerge from that obscurity when the immediate interest of 
the situation, and, what is of the highest importance from our 
point of view, the exigencies of recruiting have somewhat 

I should be glad to see any system by which the most 
complete and prompt announcement could be given to all 
the gallant deeds of officers and men, whether of one regiment 
or another. I pointed out in the Debate on the Address that 
there are some difficulties in regard to this matter. The right 
hon. gentleman was very strong in urging us to allow to be 
sent to the front skilled war correspondents, who, though 
they might be unable to cover the whole field of action in the 
extended line of modern operations, could give us detailed 
pictures of particular aspects of the campaign. We are not 
free agents in that matter. We must regulate our proceedings 
by the proceedings of our Allies, and our Allies, who occupy 
the largest share of the fighting and the longest line at the 
front, and who are in their own country, must in the long run 
be permitted to have a decisive voice as to what should, or 
should not, be done in the way of the appointment and freedom 
of correspondents. I am not making any complaint of any 
sort. I am sure everything that has been done has been done 
with strict regard to military exigencies. I know the gallant 
Generals who preside over the fortunes and conduct the 
operations of the French Army are as anxious as we are that 
their public, like ourselves, should get the full advantage of 
the incentive and stimulus which publicity alone can give. 
I hope we shall have in despatches and telegrams from 
the front the fullest possible recognition of the special achieve- 
ments of particular regiments and particular individuals. 
I do not think at the moment we can go further than that. 
We are all anxious, the Government more anxious than 
anybody, that such procedure as is expedient and necessary 
for that purpose shall be adopted, and adopted as fully as 
may be. My hon. friend the Member for Salford (Sir W. 
Byles) spoke of concealment. He said he thought that things 
had been concealed which ought to have been let out, and he 
pointed to the disastrous I will not say disastrous but to 
consequences much to be deplored, and that might impair the 
confidence of the public in the bulletins that have been 


published. I ask the House to accept the assurance that 
nothing has been withheld, or will be withheld, except under 
the stress of immediate military exigencies. There are circum- 
stances in which it is necessary, not to conceal, but to post- 
pone for the time being the knowledge of what has occurred. 
I say there may have been things, even in this War, as there 
have been in all wars that have preceded it, which were 
adverse in themselves, but which it was of importance for the 
time being that the enemy should not know and act upon. 
I think we should have been guilty I am still dealing with a 
hypothesis in such a case of a breach of paramount duty, 
if, for the sake of gratifying a most legitimate desire on the 
part of the public to know everything that is going on, we had 
given away for a moment the security of the strategic interests 
of our gallant troops, whether by land or by sea. I am quite 
certain that the House and the country will recognise that that 
superior duty of reticence, dictated by strategic and military 
considerations, comes above and beyond everything else. As 
far as I am aware, and I think I have the fullest possible know- 
ledge anybody can have, if anything has been concealed or 
withheld from public knowledge, it has been solely and entirely 
in deference to that consideration. I think I have now dealt 
with the main points made by the right hon. gentleman. 

The Member for Kirkcaldy (Sir H. Dalziel) entered upon a 
different line of criticism, but one which, I think, is perfectly 
legitimate in so far as it was a demand for knowledge, namely, 
whether we are taking, and have taken, adequate steps to 
withhold from the enemy's forces supplies on which he de- 
pends. There is no subject which has engaged the more 
anxious attention of the Government from the commence- 
ment of the War. It is one of the most difficult of all prob- 
lems, as we have found, particularly when - the supplies of 
the enemy's forces come very largely from neutral countries, 
are carried in neutral bottoms, and are taken ostensibly and 
in the first instance, to neutral destinations. That applies, 
not perhaps quite to the same extent, but it does apply to 
the cases where this country is the origin and the source from 
which the supplies at any rate immediately proceeded, and 
were carried in British ships to neutral ports. In the first 
set of cases you have constantly the danger of coming into 
collision with the legitimate national rights of neutral countnes, 


and important as it is to withhold from the enemy supplies, 
whether of food or of warlike materials, or other things of 
which he is urgently in need, it is equally important that we 
should not act in a high-handed and lawless fashion in regard 
to neutral nations and neutr&l Powers. We have endeavoured 
it has been a very difficult task with much pains and 
labour, and very considerable anxiety, to reconcile the per- 
formance of both those obligations. I do not want at this 
moment we shall have to have a discussion about this to 
go into details of what we have done. 

Some of these matters are of a very delicate kind, but in 
regard to certain of the commodities to which the right hon. 
gentleman referred, I will take coal. I think the excess he 
has rightly observed in the exports of coal from this country 
to Scandinavian countries particularly as compared with 
the exports at the corresponding time of last year or the year 
before is not due so much is not due at all to that, and 
to their being ultimately destined to Germany, as to the 
fact that these countries were deprived for the time being of 
the supplies they have been accustomed to receive from the 
enemy country. My right hon. friend and I represent 
different parts of the county of Fife, a great coal exporting 
county. He and I know very well that under normal con- 
ditions the coal of Fife does not belong to what I may call the 
aristocracy of coal. It is not less useful, though not in the 
same category as South Wales or the plutocrats of the coal 
world, but in our humble way we export a great deal of very 
useful coal to various parts of the world. One of our main 
competitors, as I have always understood, has been West- 
phalian coal. For practical purposes you may take it that 
the export of Westphalian coal has ceased, and it is not 
unnatural that Scandinavian countries should resort to us in 
Fife, and other parts of the United Kingdom, to make good 
the supply which has been cut off. In that way there has 
been a large, not only an apparent, increase in our exports 
to them. I doubt very much whether any substantial part 
has been re-exported to Germany. 

The case may be different with some other commodities 
tea, for instance. We are dealing with that matter now. 
I will not say for the moment precisely in what way. There 
is reason to believe that a considerable fraction of tea which 


is exported to countries like Holland does find its way by 
re-export to Germany. There are expedients to which I 
think we shall be able to resort successfully by which that 
can be stopped in future. There we are dealing with a neutral 
country. Holland is a country which has enforced her rights 
as a neutral throughout the War in a manner none can com- 
plain of, in a most delicate and dangerous situation, command- 
ing, as she does, the mouth of the Rhine, with Belgium next 
door. I make no complaint of the way in which Holland has 
discharged her duties as a neutral. On the other hand, we 
must, of course, secure that goods which are really destined 
for our enemy, which will nourish his population, support his 
army, and supply him with the munitions of war, do not get 
in under the cloak of being consigned as for immediate destina- 
tion to neutral ports. I am sure that the House will recognise 
that no effort will be spared on our part to prevent any such 
thing being done. 

Another matter which was raised by the hpn. and gallant 
Member for Monmouthshire (Sir Ivor Herbert) was in regard 
to the alleged demoralisation through drink and other causes, 
to which he adverted, of a substantial proportion of the New 
Army. I think that my hon. and gallant friend I am sure 
quite unintentionally took in this respect a much too gloomy 
view. We have made most careful inquiry into the matter, 
and to say that a percentage of from 30 to 40 of these men are 
disabled from preventible causes, from diseases, from serving 
their country in any useful manner is, I believe, entirely 
without any foundation. The Adjutant-General has made 
most careful inquiry into the matter. I do not like to com- 
mit myself to specific figures, but I believe that it would be 
far nearer the truth to say that there have not been more than 
10 or at the outside 15 per cent, of cases of 'disease of every 
sort or kind, not only these particular ones, but all sorts of 
disease of every kind ; and on the whole I do not believe that 
there has ever been brought together a body of men who have 
comported themselves so well and shown such a regard to 
sobriety and decency of conduct as the new recruits for the 
Army. Undoubtedly these men, as is always the case when a 
large aggregation of comparatively young men are brought 
together in this casual way, are exposed to temptation, to 
which some of them probably are strangers, and to which now 



and again individuals succumb. But I believe, if you take 
the average standard of conduct, that it is worthy of the 
country and worthy of the cause. But my hon. friend may 
be quite sure that the Adjutant-General, in conjunction with 
the civil authorities, is taking every possible step to remove 
all temptation and to secure the highest possible standard of 
sobriety and conduct in these troops. 

The hon. Member for Derby (Mr. Thomas) referred to the 
position of railwaymen. I quite agree with him that no 
praise can be too high for the manner in which the railway 
companies of the country discharged the duty of transport 
in regard to our Expeditionary Force and the various matters 
in which they were engaged. I should be very sorry to think 
that any profit or advantage which they have gained from the 
admirable performance of a public duty has not been shared 
by the men. The first suggestion of the kind which I have 
ever heard has been made by my hon. friend to-day. Of 
course, we will inquire into the matter,. but I am quite certain 
that it is the desire, and I believe that it is the practice, of the 
railway companies as a whole to share with their employees, 
particularly in an emergency of this kind, every advantage 
which they have gained for themselves. I think that I have 
covered the whole of the ground we have been taking in the 
course of this Debate, and, in conclusion, I would ask the 
House to pass this Vote on the matter which has been debated, 
and to give us also the million men for whom we are asking 
and whom we hope to enlist before very long. We have now 
under arms in this country I am not speaking for the moment 
of Territorials at all a Regular Army of practically 1,100,000 
men. Of course, I am including in that the Expeditionary 
Force. But that is not enough, and I see nothing in the 
recent figures of recruiting to discourage for one moment the 
belief that we can raise our numbers to the highest point 
which the exigencies of the situation require. Recruiting, no 
doubt, has gone up and down, but it is now in a very en- 
couraging position, and the circular which, in conjunction with 
the right hon. gentleman opposite and my hon. friend the 
Leader of the Labour Party, we, on behalf of the Parliamentary 
Recruiting Committee, are addressing to the householders, 
will, we hope, in the course of the next week or ten days bring 
in information which will enable the War Office to add steadily 


and quickly and on a large scale to the number of men who 
are prepared to register themselves as recruits, as well as of 
those who actually go immediately into training. 

I can give the total number of persons who have been 
recruited. Roughly I do not want to commit myself pre- 
cisely since the week ending the loth of August, approxi- 
matelyI do not say much more, but certainly not less than 
700,000 recruits have joined the Colours, and they are still 
coming in very steadily. They have nothing to do with the 
Territorials. We must add to that a very large number of 
Territorials, at least 200,000, and I think more. I do not 
think that I should be very far short of the mark if I said that 
a million men had been recruited since the first appeal was 
made in the first week in August. Of course, the House 
thoroughly understands that the million for whom we are 
asking now are for the Regular Army and have nothing to 
do with the Territorials, but I wish to take this opportunity 
of saying how greatly we appreciate the services which the 
Territorial Force has rendered. Some people most erroneously 
have formed the notion that there was some disposition on the 
part of the War Office, or persons in authority at the War 
Office, to disparage the Territorial Force. Nothing could be 
further from the fact. Again, for obvious reasons, I do not 
give details, but the Territorial Force is now serving the 
Empire, not only in this country, but at the front and in 
various parts of the Empire, with the utmost efficiency arid 
gallantry, and not only have we reason to hope, but we have 
the most confident grounds for believing, from the reports 
which we receive from generals and those who have an oppor- 
tunity of observing their conduct in action and in garrison 
duty, that the Territorial Force will more than justify the 
highest anticipations which have been formed concerning 
them. It is in no spirit of disparagement of them that we 
press this demand on the House of Commons. I am quite 
sure that the House will accede to it, and that, recognising 
the efforts which the country has already made and that its 
willingness is quite undiminished, compared with what it was 
in the first days of the War, to prosecute this great endeavour 
to its final and successful completion, the House will give us 
the authority, which I am certain the country by its action 
.will ratify, to raise another million of men. (Vote agreed to.) 




House of Commons, November 20, 1914. 

Resolution reported, 

Hansard ' That an additional number of Land Forces, not exceed- 

ing 1,000,000, all ranks, be maintained for the Service of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland at Home 
and Abroad, excluding His Majesty's Indian Possessions, in 
consequence of the War in Europe, for the year ending on the 
3ist day of March 1915.' 

Motion made, and Question proposed, ' That this House 
doth agree with the Committee in the said Resolution/ 

On the Report of the Supplementary Vote for men, the 
Resolution was agreed to and reported to the House. 


House of Commons, November 23, 1914. 

Hansard MR. EVELYN CECIL asked whether any person or persons, 

by birth of German or Austrian nationality, have been given 
commissions in the Army or Navy since the declaration of 
war ; and, if so, whether he will state his or their names and 
positions, and on what grounds and by whose recommenda- 
tion he or they were appointed. 

MR. TENNANT : No one has been accepted who is not a 
British subject either by birth or naturalisation. I cannot 
say with certainty that no candidate has not had in addition 
German or Austrian nationality. 



House of Commons, November 23, 1914. 

SIR WILLIAM BULL asked the Prime Minister the name of 
the German company to whom the Crown leased the Channel 
Island of Herm in 1889 ; the object of such tenancy and the 
nature of the business carried on by the company ; what is the 
length of the term, the premium paid (if any), and the annual 
rent ; was the sub-lease of the mansion-house and grounds 


granted with the consent of the Crown ; the name of the 
sub-lessee and what are the restrictions which he and (or) 
the company impose upon British excursionists ; whether 
he is aware of the purpose for which the company and (or) 
the tenant used the island, and what such purpose in fact 
was ; what number of persons are employed in such under- 
taking ; has there been any recent official Government 
survey of the island ; and, if so, is there any reason to believe 
that the lessees have constructed any works of a military 
character, or concrete bases upon which siege guns can be 
mounted to dominate the surrounding islands, the coastline 
of France, or the adjacent channels ; and, if not, whether he 
will have such survey and inspection made immediately, in 
view of the experience of Maubeuge and elsewhere in France ? 
(MR. McKENNA) : The Prime Minister has asked me to reply 
to this question. The name of the Company is the West Bank 
Liegnitz, Limited. I have no information as to the business 
carried on by the company. The lease is renewable every 
twenty-one years, at the tenant's option, on payment of a fine 
of 42. It has been in existence a great many years, and has 
passed through many hands. It was last renewed in 1905. 
The annual rent is 14. The consent of the Crown was not 
obtained for sub-lease of the house and grounds, and does not 
appear to have been necessary. The sub-lessee is Prince 
Blucher von Wahlstatt. The public are only allowed to land 
by consent. In practice, a steamer is allowed to call once a 
week ; a fee of sixpence a head is charged. Visitors are 
confined to one road. The island is used for farming and 
residential purposes. Twenty-five persons are employed, of 
whom twelve are British, and the rest alien enemies, four 
being males. The island was visited and thoroughly inspected 
immediately after the outbreak of war, and a further inspec- 
tion is now being made by the military authorities. No 
military preparations have been discovered. The island is 
occupied by a detachment of British troops. 




September n, 1914. 

Times, MR. WINSTON CHURCHILL : We have seen the forces of 

Sept. 12, the French and British Armies strong enough not only to 
I 9 I 4- contain and check the devastating avalanche which had 

swept across the French frontier, but now at last, not for 
an hour or for a day, but for four long days in succession, 
it has been rolled steadily back. With battles taking place 
over a front of 100 or 150 miles one must be very careful 
not to build high hopes on results which are achieved even 
in a great area of the field of war. We are not children look- 
ing for light and vain encouragement, but men engaged upon 
a task which has got to be put through. Still, when every 
allowance has been made for the uncertainty with which 
these great operations are always enshrouded, I think it only 
fair and right to say that the situation to-night is better, far 
better, than a cold calculation of the forces available on both 
sides before the war should have led us to expect at this early 

It is quite clear that what is happening now is not what 
the Germans planned, and they have yet to show that they 
can adapt themselves to the force of circumstances created 
by the military power of their enemies with the same efficiency 
that they have undoubtedly shown in regard to plans long 
prepared, methodically worked out, and executed with the 
precision of deliberation. 

The battle, I say, gives us every reason to meet together 
to-night in good heart. But let me tell you frankly that if 
this battle had been as disastrous as, thank God, it appears 
to be triumphant, I should come before you with unabated 

1 [Extract. The full speech is given in Naval, i, pp. 188-196.] 


confidence and with the certainty that we have only to con- 
tinue in our efforts to bring this war to the conclusion which 
we wish and intend. 

We did not enter upon this war with the hope of easy 
victory ; we did not enter upon it in any desire to extend 
our territory, or to advance and increase our position in the 
world ; or in any romantic desire to shed our blood and spend 
our money in Continental quarrels. We entered upon this 
war reluctantly after we had made every effort compatible 
with honour to avoid being drawn in, and we entered upon it 
with a full realisation of the sufferings, losses, disappoint- 
ments, vexations, and anxieties, and of the appalling and 
sustained exertions which would be entailed upon us by our 
action. The war will be long and sombre. It will have 
many reverses of fortune and many hopes falsified by subse- 
quent events, and we must derive from our cause and from 
the strength that is in us, and from the traditions and history 
of our race, and from the support and aid of our Empire all 
over the world, the means to make this country overcome 
obstacles of all kinds and continue to the end of the furrow, 
whatever the toil and suffering may be. 

But though we entered this war with no illusions as to 
the incidents which will mark its progress, as to the ebb and 
flow of fortune in this and that part of the gigantic field over 
which it is waged, we entered it, and entered it rightly, with 
the sure and strong hope and expectation of bringing it to 
a victorious conclusion. I am quite certain that if we, the 
people of the British Empire, choose, whatever may happen 
in the interval, we can in the end make this war finish in 
accordance with our interests and the interests of civilisa- 
tion. Let us build on a sure foundation. Let us not be the 
sport of fortune, looking for victories here and happy chances 
there ; let us take measures, which are well within our power, 
which are practical measures, measures which we can begin 
upon at once and carry through from day to day with surety 
and effect. Let us enter upon measures which in the long 
run, whatever the accidents and incidents of the intervening 
period may be, will secure us that victory upon which our 
life or existence as a nation, not less than the fortune of our 
Allies and of Europe, absolutely depends. 

Now we must look at the Army. The Navy has been 



under every Government, and during all periods of modern 
history, the darling of the British nation. On it have been 
lavished whatever public funds were necessary, and to its 
efficiency have been devoted the unceasing care and thought 
of successive Administrations. The result is that when the 
need came the Navy was absolutely ready, and, as far as we 
can -see from what has happened, thoroughly adequate to 
the tasks which were required from it. But we have not 
been in times of peace a military nation. The Army has 
not had the facilities of obtaining the lavish supplies of men 
and money for its needs which have in times of peace and 
in the past, to our good fortune at the moment, been so freely 
given to the Navy. And what you have to do now is to make 
a great Army. You have to make an Army under the cover 
and shield of the Navy strong enough to enable our country 
to play its full part in the decision of this terrible struggle. 

The sure way the only sure way to bring this war to 
an end is for the British Empire to put on the Continent 
and keep on the Continent an army of at least 1,000,000 
men. I take that figure because it is one well within the 
compass of the arrangements which ar6 now on foot, and 
because it is one which is well within the scope of the measures 

which Lord Kitchener (the rest of the sentence was 

drowned in an outburst of cheering). 

I was reading in the newspapers the other day that the 
German Emperor made a speech to some of his regiments 
in which he urged them to concentrate their attention upon 
what he was pleased to call ' French's contemptible little 
1 [See post, Army/ x Well, they are concentrating their attention upon 
P- 327] it, and that Army, which has been fighting with such extra- 
ordinary prowess, which has revived in a fortnight of adverse 
actions the ancient fame and glory of our arms upon the 
Continent, and which to-night, after a long, protracted, 
harassed, unbroken, and undaunted rearguard action the 
hardest trial to which troops can be exposed is advancing 
in spite of the loss of one-fifth of its numbers, and driving its 
enemies before it that A? my must be reinforced and backed 
and supported and increased and enlarged in numbers and 
in powers by every means and every method that every one 
of us can employ. 

There is no reason why, if you set yourselves to it I 


have not come here to make a speech of words, but to point 
out to you necessary and obvious things which you can do- 
there is no doubt that, if you set yourselves to it, the Army 
which is now fighting so valiantly on your behalf and our 
Allies can be raised from its present position to 250,000 of 
the finest professional soldiers in the world, and that in the 
new year something like 500,000 men, and from that again, 
when the early summer begins, in 1915 to the full figure of 
twenty-five Army Corps fighting in line together. The vast 
population of these islands and all the Empire is pressing 
forward to serve, its wealth is placed at your disposal, the 
Navy opens the way for the passage of men and everything 
necessary for the equipment of our forces. Why should we 
hesitate when here is the sure and certain path to ending this 
war in the way we mean it to end ? 

There is little doubt that an Army so formed will in quality 
and character, in native energy, in the comprehension which 
each individual has of the cause for which he is fighting, 
exceed in merit any Army in the world. We have only to 
have a chance of even numbers or anything approaching 
even numbers to demonstrate the superiority of free-thinking 
active citizens over the docile sheep who serve the ferocious 
ambitions of dynastic kings. Our enemies are now at the 
point which we have reached fully extended. On every 
front of the enormous field of conflict the pressure upon them 
is such that all their resources are deployed. With every 
addition to the growing weight of the Russian Army, with 
every addition to the forces at the disposal of Sir John French, 
the balance must sag down increasingly against them. 

You have only to create steadily week by week and month 
by month the great military instrument of which I have been 
speaking to throw into the scales a weight which must be 
decisive. There will be no corresponding reserve of manhood 
upon which Germany can draw. There will be no correspond- 
ing force of soldiers and of equipment and of war material 
which can be brought into the line to face the forces which 
we in this island and in this Empire can undoubtedly create. 
That will turn the scale. That will certainly decide the issue. 
Of course, if victory comes sooner, so much the better. But 
let us not count on fortune and good luck. .Let us assume 
at every point that things will go much less well than we 



hope and wish. Let us make arrangements which will over- 
ride that. We have it in our power to make such arrange- 
ments, and it is only common prudence, aye, and common 
humanity, to take steps which at any rate will fix some 
certain term to this devastating struggle throughout the 
whole of the European Continent. 

Let me also say this. Let us concentrate all our warlike 
feeling upon fighting the enemy in the field and creating a 
great military weapon to carry out the purposes of the war. 
There is a certain class of person who likes to work his warlike 
feelings off upon the unfortunate alien enemy within our 

Of course all necessary measures must be taken for the 
security of the country and for the proper carrying out of 
military needs ; but let us always have this feeling in our 
heart, that after the war is over people shall not only admire 
our victory, but they shall say they fought like gentlemen. 
The Romans had a motto : 

Par cere subjectis et debellare superbos. 

Let that be the spirit in which we conduct this war. Let 
all those who feel under the horrible provocations of the 
struggle their hearts suffused with anger and with wrath- 
let them turn it into a practical channel going to the front 
or, if circumstances prevent them, helping others to go, 
keeping them maintained in the highest state of efficiency, 
giving them the supplies and weapons which they require, 
and looking after those they have left behind. 

I have not spoken to you much about the justice of our 
cause, because it has been most eloquently set out by the 
Prime Minister and Sir Edward Grey, and by Mr. Bonar Law 
and other leaders of the Opposition ; and much more elo- 
quently than by any speakers in this or any other country 
the justice of our cause has been set out by the brutal facts 
which have occurred and which have marched upon us 
from day to day. Some thought 'there would be a German 
war, some did not ; but no one supposed that a great military 
nation would exhibit all the vices of military organisation 
without those redeeming virtues which, God knows, are 
needed to redeem warlike operations from the taint of shame. 
We have been confronted with an exhibition of ruthlessness 


and outrage enforced upon the weak, enforced upon women 
and children. We have been confronted with repeated 
breaches of the law of enlightened warfare, practices analogous 
to those which in private life are regarded as cheating, and 
which deprive persons or country adopting them, or' con- 
doning them, of the credit and respect due to honourable 

We have been confronted with all this. Let us not 
imitate it. Let us not try to make small retaliations and 
reprisals here and there. Let us concentrate upon the simple 
obvious task of creating a military force so powerful that the 
war, even in default of any good fortune, can certainly be 
ended and brought to a satisfactory conclusion. However 
the war began, now that it is started it is a war of self-preser- 
vation for us. Our civilisation, our way of doing things, our 
political and Parliamentary life, with its voting and its 
thinking, our party system, our party warfare, the free and 
easy tolerance of British life, our method of doing things and 
of keeping ourselves alive and self-respecting in the world 
all these are brought into contrast, into collision, with the 
organised force of bureaucratic Prussian militarism. 

That is the struggle which is opened now, and which must 
go forward without pause or abatement until it is settled 
decisively and finally one way or the other. On that there 
can be no compromise or tru^e. It is our life, or it is theirs. 
We are bound, having gone so far, to go forward without 
flinching to the very end. 

This is the same great European war that would have 
been fought in the year 1909 if Russia had not humbled herself 
and given w r ay to German threats. It is the same war that 
Sir Edward Grey stopped last year. Now it has come upon 
us. If you look back across the long periods of European 
history to the original cause, you will, I am sure, find it in 
the cruel terms enforced upon France in the year 1870, and 
in the repeated bullyings and attempts to terrorise France 
which have been the characteristic of German policy ever 
since. The more you study this question the more you will 
see that the use the Germans made of their three aggressive 
and victorious wars against Denmark, against Austria, and 
against France has been such as to make them the terror 
and the bully of Europe, the enemy and the menace of every 



small State upon their borders, and a perpetual source of 
unrest and disquietude to their powerful neighbours. 

Now the war has come, and when it is over let us be careful 
not to make the same mistake or the same sort of mistake as 
Germany made when she had France prostrate at her feet 
in 1870. Let us, whatever we do, fight for and work towards 
great and sound principles for the European system. And 
the first of those principles which we should keep before us 
is the principle of nationality that is to say, not the conquest 
or subjugation of any great community or of any strong race 
of men, but the setting free of those races which have been 
subjugated and conquered ; and if doubt arises about dis- 
puted areas of country we should try to settle their ultimate 
destination in the reconstruction of Europe which must 
follow from this war with a fair regard to the wishes and 
feelings of the people who live in them. 

This is the aim which, if it is achieved, will justify the 
exertions of the war and will make some amends to the world 
for the loss and suffering, the agony of suffering, which it has 
wrought and entailed, and which will give to those who come 
after us not only the pride which we hope they will feel in 
remembering the martial achievements of the present age of 
Britain, but which will give them also a better and fairer 
world to live in, and a Europe free from the causes of hatred 
and unrest which have poisoned the comity of nations and 
ruptured the peace of Christendom. 

I use these words because this is a war in which we are 
all together all classes, all races, all States, Principalities, 
Dominions, and Powers throughout the British Empire we 
are all together. Years ago the elder Pitt urged upon his 
countrymen the compulsive invocation, ' Be one people/ 
It has taken us till now to obey his appeal, but now we are 
together, and while we remain one people there are no forces 
in the world strong enough to beat us down or break us up. 

I hope, even in this dark hour of strife and struggle, that 
the unity which has been established in our country under 
the pressure of war will not cease when the great military 
effort upon which we are engaged and the great moral causes 
which we are pursuing have been achieved. I hope, and I 
do not think my hope is a vain one, that the forces which 
have come together in our islands and throughout our Empire 


may continue to work together, not only in a military struggle, 
but to try to make our country more quickly a more happy 
and more prosperous land, where social justice and free 
institutions are more firmly established than they have been 
in the past. If that is so, we shall not have fought in vain 
at home as well as abroad. 

With these hopes and in this belief I would urge you, 
laying aside all hindrance, thrusting away all private aims,' 
to devote yourselves unswervingly and unflinchingly to the 
vigorous and successful prosecution of the war. 


September 21, 1914. 

MR. CHURCHILL : Under the shield of the Navy you can 
raise an Army in this country which will settle the war. 
All the great Powers who are engaged in this struggle have 
lived and suffered under the severe competition of military 
armaments in Europe, and all have been able to realise the 
greater part of their forces with great rapidity. Our ally 
Russia has immense reserves upon which she can draw, but 
upon the side of our enemies everything that they have got 
has already been extended. They are all out. In six or 
seven months we can without difficulty, without boasting, 
without indulging in vain speculations, we can undoubtedly 
put in the field twenty-five Army Corps, comprising a million 
men, who for their personal qualities, understanding of the 
quarrel, spontaneous and voluntary energy and initiative, 
will not find their match or counterpart in the armies of 
Europe. And there is no reserve of manhood, there is no 
reserve of vital energy on the side of our enemies, which can 
prevent that million men from turning the scale in our favour. 
The end may come sooner. Victory may come to us more 
easily. Then let -us rejoice; but let us not count on easy 
solutions of these terrible conclusions and struggles. Let us 
make our resolutions calmly and soberly on the basis that in 
a reasonable time we shall compel our antagonists to come 
to our conclusion of this event. In my opinion it is only a 
question of time and of Britain holding firm. It is only a 

1 [Extract. The full speech is given in Naval, i, pp. 202-213.] 



question of how much blood is to be shed, and the more men 
we can send the less the slaughter will be. So many eloquent 
speakers have dealt with the causes of the war that I think I 
should be only talking to those who are of the same opinion if 
I dealt with them with any length. But if you are to look 
to the reasons of this extraordinary explosion in Europe 
you must look back a long way. You must look to the 
foundation of the German Empire between 1860 and 1870. 
In that period Germany was raised to the first position in 
Europe by three calculated wars time considered, plans 
prepared, deliberately organised by Bismarck a war which 
stripped the little State of Denmark of its provinces, a war 
which deprived Austria of the hegemony of the Germanic 
States, and last, the cruel war, malevolently organised and 
timed, which struck down France and robbed her of her 
faithful inalienable provinces. Those were the three care- 
fully planned acts of violence upon which the greatness and 
power of the German Empire all these years have been 
founded. Some people use rough methods in getting to 
power and afterwards improve ; but that has not been the 
case with the German Empire. What have they done with 
their wonderful victory and triumph all these years ? Why, 
they have not even been contented with it ; they have always 
been going round saying : ' Why don't you admire us more ? 
Look how splendid we are. See what military force we 
dispose of. See how efficient we are. See how ready we 
are to strike down any one who stands in our path/ They 
have not even enjoyed their long and wonderful reign at 
the summit of the European position. In the forty-four 
years that have passed since the great victory of Germany 
over France at every stage Germany has sought to humiliate, 
to terrorise the French people, and they are a nasty crowd 
to do that with. Five or six separate times France ha.s been 
threatened with war by Germany. She has been forced to 
live in a continual state of anxiety and trepidation. Since 
we have been in office there have been at least three occa- 
sions in which Europe has been brought to the verge of war, 
and in which war has been averted by the patience and self- 
restraint of France. For forty-four years Germany has 
dealt with France on the basis of what has been called in 
Europe ' rattling the sabre/ What has been her treatment 


of the provinces she has conquered ? Has she assimilated 
any of them ? Has she induced any of them to look with 
feelings of admiration upon her rule? We know that, 
although the most ruthless methods have been employed, 
wherever Germany has conquered land the people who do 
not belong to her have only waited for the hand of their 
deliverer. What has been her attitude towards Russia ? 
Russia was brought low in the great struggle with Japan. 
Now these enemies of ten years ago are in the same line 
together. But while Russia was weak and crushed in her 
military force not in her natural force but in her military 
force after the struggle with Japan, Germany used brutal 
power in 1909, in the days when the German Emperor made 
his boastful speech on shining armour Germany used brutal 
power to humiliate and affront the great Russian people, 
and that is one of the causes of the struggle in which we are 
engaged. What has been the attitude of Germany towards 
the question of international law and the abatement of 
armaments and of the rights of nationalities ? Can any one 
point to a single word spoken by any responsible leader of 
German thought or any ruler of German policy during the 
whole of her great sunlit reign over European Powers in 
favour of the rights of small peoples, in favour of her own 
sanctions of international law, in favour of some abatement 
of the wasteful struggle and competition of armaments which 
has led us to where we are ? During all that time she has 
preached the creed and gospel of force crude force, not the 
force that comes from the virtue of consenting minds or the 
force which comes from moral energy. She has preached the 
crude, brutal force of adding regiment to regiment, bureaucrat 
to bureaucrat, and ramming it aU down the throats of every 
one to the tune of ' Germany over all/ Well, force, in its 
highest expression, is a manifestation not of material but of 
spiritual things. That is what Germany has yet to learn. 
Blood and iron is her motto. Let soul and fire be ours. 
What has been her attitude during her long noonday reign 
of splendour towards this country ? We had no wish to be 
drawn into a position of antagonism with Germany. Far 
from it. We had helped her in her great struggles in the 
past of Frederick the Great and in the time of Napoleon We 
had never been pitted against her in any struggle in aU the 



centuries, and we had no reason to nourish any evil feelings 
against her. Every effort has been made in this country, by 
both great parties, by men of every class, to avoid saying 
things in the time that has gone by which would lead to or 
gird up 'antagonism between these countries. There are 
scores and hundreds of men in this meeting who have sedu- 
lously repressed any expression of opinion which, taking a 
truculent form or hostile form against the German nation, 
might lead to strife. 

What has been our treatment by the Germans ? We 
tried hard to work with them. Lord Salisbury, during the 
whole of his administration, always endeavoured to work in 
Europe in amity with Germany. But the great statesman 
was brought to the conclusion, before he resigned office at 
the end of his life and retired, that it was impossible to main- 
tain a foreign policy based upon association with Germany, 
because, as was said, and has often been said, by those who 
knew the course of foreign affairs, they expected to be bought 
over again every year. During the whole time that we were 
endeavouring I am talking of affairs now of twenty years 
ago endeavouring to work with them in a close arrangement 
of policy, they were always endeavouring by intrigues to get 
us into trouble with Russia and with France, and then to 
come to us and say : ' What are you going to do in order 
to keep our friendship ? ' until at last the British Foreign 
Office, which only changes its policy once in a quarter of a 
century yes, and quite right, too until the British Foreign 
Office was absolutely worn out and disgusted with the impos- 
sible attempts to keep a peaceful Europe on the basis of a 
close Anglo-German co-operation. Then, with the consent 
of all the parties in the State we turned to France and adjusted 
our difficulties with France direct, and His Majesty King 
Edward VII. went to Paris and made that friendship no 
bargain or treaty. Great nations don't require bargains or 
treaties. They fulfil bargains and respect treaties. But 
they can do the right thing with either. King Edward made 
that friendship between England and France which now is 
being tried in the fire of war, and will ultimately shine forth 
in the glory of victory. And then Germany began, while we 
were still on terms of special amity with her, the construc- 
tion of a great Navy, which had no other object I am so 


glad to be able to tell you what I think about it now which 
had no other object, and could have had no other object, but 
our Navy. Every detail of the construction of the German 
Fleet a long-conceived plan unfolding year by year, pro- 
gramme by programme every detail of that great scheme 
on which such extraordinary efforts were directed, and to 
which so much foresight and skill was devoted every detail 
of it showed and proved that it was meant for us, for our 
exclusive benefit. I came into office at the Admiralty after 
the Agadir crisis. I think this war would have taken place 
then if the Chancellor of the Exchequer 1 had not gone to the l [Mr. 
Mansion House and made a speech, and they just thought Lloyd 
they would wait a little longer. After that I became respon- Geor g e l 
sible for this great department, and I have had to see every 
day the evidences of the espionage system which Germany^ 
has maintained in this country. / I have had the evidence 
put under my eye month by month of the agents which they 
have maintained here year after year in great and consider- 
able numbers to report to them all the details of our naval 
organisation 'which they can get by bribery or subornation, 
and not only that, because you might say that was a pro- 
tective measure, because we had a stronger Fleet, but every 
dirty little German lieutenant coming on his leave to England 
has thought he would curry favour with his superiors by 
writing home the details of where water can be got, where 
there is a blacksmith's forge, or how much provisions there 
are for a battalion or brigade in this little village or town- 
ship of our peaceful island. We have been made the subject 
for the last eight or nine years, just in the same way as France 
was before 1870, and Austria before 1866, and Denmark 
before 1864 we have been made the subject of a careful, 
deliberate, scientific, military reconnaissance. Well, they 
know all about us. If they like to come, they know the way. 
We are not asking any favours. But if you leave these deep 
causes the fact that Germany having struck down Fraiice 
did not rest content with the glory of her victory, but looked 
upon it only as the starting-point for fresh usurpations and 
dominations over European Powers, of the fact that she 
made every little country tremble in its shoes ; the fact that 
she preached the gospel of force, and backed it up by the 
greatest development of military organisation and efficiency 



which has yet been seen if you look beyond all this and 
behind all these causes, and the immediate fountain spring 
of this war, I say without hesitation, so far as I am con- 
cerned, I went into it to help and to prevent France from being 
crushed. France is a most peaceful, democratic country, 
probably the most democratic country in the world, the most 
advanced country in every line of politics, with absolute 
mastery of all the Jingo element in its midst ; a nation which 
had decided not to forget the past thank God, they did 
not do that but a nation which had decided that they would 
not take any step to plunge her into war on account of their 
lost provinces. -I see that country return election after 
election men more deeply pledged to peace than any Power 
in Europe. We knew that they had decided a bitter war 
beforehand. It was not for them an event of the imagina- 
tion. I saw that this country, taken by itself, was weaker 
than the German power which rose up, towered up, against 
it. I saw that it earnestly desired to be allowed to live in 
peace. It had fortified its frontiers. On every side its 
frontiers were guarded by the sea or by great lines of fortifi- 
cations, except in the north, and there France lay safe under 
the shelter of a treaty to which England and Prussia were 
parties. I always thought that if Germany attacked France 
and tried to smash her irretrievably we should be bound in 
honour, in sincerity, and for our own self-preservation to 
throw in our lot with her. I don't say we should have 
followed France on a war of revenge or of ambition ; but if 
it could be proved, as it has been^ proved, that France, seek- 
ing continuously and faithfully to preserve the peace of 
Europe, and not to be drawn into war, was nevertheless to 
be struck down, I have always felt we ought to be there too. 
I gave some attention to the consideration of the military 
aspects of the problem three years ago. I was quite sure 
that Germany would violate the neutrality of Belgium. All 
her plans were made in cold blood to do that. She built 
hundreds of miles of railway sidings ; she had made all her 
arrangements of camps, in order to pour into France through 
Belgium, where there were no fortifications, where there was 
only her word of honour to stand between her and her prey. 
And so it fell out. She broke the treaty. Into the gap she 
poured this tremendous avalanche of fire and steel with 


which we are contending now. I said the gap was unguarded 
but by a treaty. No, gentlemen, it was not unguarded 
The unexpected happened. The marvellous presented itself. 
Always in the commission of a crime something is forgotten 
by the criminal. It has all been worked out in every detail. 
Not a mistake in any fact or figure but one. Some quite 
unforeseen and wonderful occurrence takes place which 
ruptures all the calculations to fraud and violence. Un- 
guarded, did I say ? No ; a small, valiant people, whose 
reputation had thundered through the ages, has been smirched 
by calumny, and sprang suddenly into a heroic life that will 
live down the centuries of the future ; a small people who 
were not at all concerned about power or cared nothing 
for the great combinations of European diplomacy, who had 
not an axe to grind, but only wanted to live their own life, 
were suddenly found called upon to play a sublime part in 
the history of the world. All through horrible sufferings, 
which are recurring day by day, and which continue, and 
will aggregate as the weeks and months go past, suffering 
which has not been confined to the soldiers of Belgium, or to 
the volunteers, or to the male population, but have fallen 
in unstinted measure upon the weak, and the poor, and the 
old, and the young, and the women, and the children their 
sufferings cannot be left unredressed. The might of England 
will be exerted, patiently, until full reparation has been 
obtained. We cannot undo the harm that has been done ; 
we cannot restore the lives ; we cannot renew the ties which 
have been sundered ; we cannot repair the ruin which has 
been caused wholly ; but, at any rate, we can with our strong 
arm make Belgium a prosperous, thriving, happy, glorious 
country, and that is a worthy task upon which a sober- 
minded may I say liberal-minded ? Englishman, Scotsman, 
or Irishman may well be willing to risk or, if need be, lay 
down his life. Is it not an exhilarating thing to feel we are 
all together? I rejoice to come here to you in Liverpool, 
and feel that in this crisis of our fortunes we have the whole 
Irish people with us. Of course, party politics are put aside, 
but when we go to the cupboard after the war is over and 
take them out again, things will never be quite the same. 
The Orangemen of Belfast have given their rifles to the 
Belgians. Is there any one, British Liberal or Irish Nation- 


alist, who would allow them to be any worse off for that ? 
Our Nationalist fellow-countrymen are on the march, and 
the words of the poem come back to us across the centuries, 
and are singularly apposite to the situation to-night : 

From Dunkirk to Belgrade 

Lie the bones of the Irish Brigade. 

And we have only to hold together, casting away all the 
impediments, laying aside every hindrance, marching stoutly 
and steadfastly forward, and all will be well, and you will 
have a century as glorious as that which followed the battle 
of Waterloo. We don't seek the subjugation of Germany 
or Austria, or of their people. Nothing is further from our 
intention. However complete our victory may be, however 
shattering their defeat may be, they need never fear from 
us that the measures which they have meted out to others, 
which they have meted out to Alsace, or to Denmark, or to 
Italy, or to Transylvania, or to Poland, will be meted out to 
them. Their independence, their customs, their language, 
all that they care about in their own government, their 
rights as citizens and as freemen, will never be invaded or 
assailed by us ; we shall hold those rights inviolate and 
inviolable, even if the last Prussian soldier has been forced 
to capitulate and the last German ship has been sunk. They 
stand not on the basis of the struggles of nations, but on the 
necessary and vital foundations of human society. We are 
fighting for the elementary rights of civilised men and States ; 
we are not going to give those up, no matter how bitter our 
defeats may be, and we are going to respect and maintain 
them, however complete our victory. 

The worst that can happen to Germany the worst that 
can happen to the peoples of Germany and Austria in the 
days that will follow from this war is that they shall be set 
free to live and let live fairly and justly. There is no ques- 
tion of subjugating them. The ultimate exaction which the 
victory of the Allies will achieve will be the liberation of the 
imprisoned nationalities within their grip. We have heard 
from the German Ambassador in the United States some 
vague talk of peace. It is as insincere as the information 
of which he is the server. This should not come from the 
lips of those who are invading the territories of their neigh- 


bours, who are carrying fire and sword through the peaceful 
villages of France and Belgium. And while that spectacle 
continues, and while the smoke of their abominable cruelties 
goes up to heaven, there is no time for the talk of peace on 
the lips of the German Ambassador to the United States. 
Peace ? Feugh ! Why, we are only just beginning. Peace 
with the German people may be arranged in good time, but 
peace with Prussian militarism no peace short of the grave, 
with that vile tyranny. To those who think that, having 
struck this vile blow with all its frightful consequences, they 
can undo the past get out of it all on a drawn battle 
they reck not of the justice of God or man. Peace, gentlemen, 
will be found, in the words of His Majesty the King, ' When 
the worthy cause for which we are fighting has been fully 
achieved/ ' It 's a long, long way to Tipperary/ But we 
will get there. And when we get there the result will not be 
unworthy even of the prodigious sacrifices required. Across 
the smoke and storm of European battlefields one can see 
great, dim structures, vast structures, of a new and better 
Europe, and a new and better Christendom than we have 
ever known before. We see emerging from the conflict 
first, the great principle of the rights of nationalities ; second, 
the great principle of the integrity of states and nations, their 
old unity and integrity restored ; and we see the sanctions 
of international law so established that the most audacious 
Power will not be anxious to challenge them. Millions^ of 
men are going to suffer and shed their blood in Europe* in 
the next few weeks. No one can compute the suffering ; no 
one can measure the tragedy of what is taking place. Let 
us make sure that that does not take place without a result 
which shall repay the suffering, which shall make our children 
look back and say : ' For all they suffered, they were right/ 
I suppose there are many here to-night who feel in their 
hearts a biting pang of pain or a gnawing anxiety for some 
dear friend in the death grips at the front. We know the 
flower of our manhood, the brightest, finest, bravest, and 
best, has been swept away, and what can we do ? One 
thing only can we do. We can make sure that on a monu- 
ment which records their glory and their death the words 
'Not in vain ' may be graven 'Not in vain/* And we may 
see the spectacle of a Poland after all these generations 



united, and in loyal harmonious relations to the Crown of 
Russia. We may live to see a confederation of the Christian 
States of the Balkans restored to their proper racial limits. 
We may see an Italy whose territory corresponds to her 
Italian population. We may see France restored to her 
proper station in Europe and her rightful place, and we may 
see that old England had something to do with it all. If 
that is so, if these results should be achieved, the million men 
which we are met here to ask for, maintained continuously 
upon the Continent of Europe until a victorious peace is 
concluded, will not have been demanded or supplied in vain. 1 


November 9, 1914. 

Times, ^ LORD KITCHENER : The generous terms in which this 

Nov. 10,' 14 toast has been proposed and the manner in which it has been 
received will, I am sure, be highly appreciated by our soldiers 
in the field who have shown such undaunted courage and 
endurance in carrying out their duty to their King and 
country. It is pleasant for me to be able to tell you that 
every officer returning from the front has the same account 
to bring me : ' The men are doing splendidly/ Our Regular 
forces in France have now beside them both Territorial and 
Indian troops, and I am sure it must have been a pleasure to 
the Lord Mayor and the citizens of London to read Sir John 
French's eulogy of the London Scottish. The Indian troops 
have gone into the field with the utmost enthusiasm, and are 
showing by their courage and devotion the martial spirit 
which with they are imbued. 

I should like on this occasion to voice the tribute of praise, 
of high appreciation, and of warmest gratitude that we owe 
to our gallant Allies. We have now been fighting side by 
side with our French comrades for nearly three months, and 
every day increases the admiration which our forces feel for 
the glorious French Army. Under the direction of General 

1 [We are indebted to the courtesy of the Editor of the Liverpool Post 
for a verbatim report of the foregoing speech, and for permission to use it 
in this volume.] 


Joffre, who is not only a great military leader but a great man, 
we may confidently rely on the ultimate success of the Allied 
Forces in the western theatre of the war. In the East the 
Russian Armies, under the brilliant leadership of the Grand 
Duke Nicholas, have achieved victories of the utmost value 
and of vast strategical importance in the general campaign. 
No words of mine are needed to direct attention to the splendid 
deeds of the gallant Belgian Army. What they have suffered 
and what they have achieved has aroused unstinted and un- 
bounded admiration. To Japan, whose sailors and soldiers 
have victoriously displayed their gallantry and fine military 
qualities side by side with our own men ; to Serbia- and 
Montenegro, valiantly fighting with us the fight for the smaller 
nations ; I wish to testify the admiration, respect, and grati- 
tude of their comrades in arms of the British Army. 

The British Empire is now fighting for its existence. I 
want every citizen to understand this cardinal fact, for only 
from a clear conception of the vast importance of the issue 
at stake can come the great national, moral impulse without 
which Governments, War Ministers, and even Navies and 
Armies can do but little. ' We have enormous advantages in 
our resources of men and material, and in that wonderful 
spirit of ours which has never understood the meaning of 
defeat. All these are great assets, but they must be used 
judiciously and effectively. 

I have no complaint whatever to make about the response 
to my appeals for men and I may mention that the progress 
in the military training of those who have already enlisted is 
most remarkable ; the country may well be prpud of them 
but I shall want more men, and still more, until the enemy 
is crushed. Armies cannot be called together as with a 
magician's wand, and in the process of formation there may 
have been discomfort and inconveniences and, in some cases, 
even downright suffering. I cannot promise that these con- 
ditions will wholly cease, but I can give you every assurance 
that they have already greatly diminished, and that every- 
thing which administrative energy can do to bring them to 
an end will assuredly be done. The men who come forward 
must remember that they are enduring for their country's 
sake just as their comrades are in the shell-torn trenches. 

The introduction of elaborate destructive machinery with 



which our enemies had so carefully and amply supplied them- 
selves has been a subject of much eulogy on the part of military 
critics ; but it must be remembered that, in the matter of 
preparation, those who fix beforehand the date of war have a 
considerable advantage over their neighbours ; so far as we 
are concerned, we are clearly open to "no similar suspicion. 
This development of armaments has modified the applica- 
tion of the old principles of strategy and tactics, and reduced 
the present warfare to something approximating to siege 
operations. Our losses in the trenches have been severe ; 
such casualties, far from deterring the British nation from 
seeing the matter through, will act rather as an incentive to 
British manhood to prepare themselves to take the places of 
those who have fallen. I think it has now been conceded 
that the British Army, under the gallant and skilled leader- 
ship of its commander, has proved itself to be not so contempt- 
ible an engine of war as some were disposed to consider it. 
Sir John French and his generals have displayed military 
qualities of the highest order, and the same level of courage 
and efficiency has been maintained throughout all ranks in 
the Army. 

Although, of course, our thoughts are constantly directed 
towards the troops at the front and the great task they have 
in hand, it is well to remember that the enemy will have to 
reckon with the force of the great Dominion, the vanguard 
of which we have already welcomed in the very fine body of 
men forming the contingents from Canada and Newfoundland ; 
while from Australia, New Zealand, and other parts are 
coming in qui^k succession soldiers to fight for the Imperial 
cause. And besides all these, there are training in this country 
over a million and a quarter of men eagerly waiting for the 
call to bear their part in the great struggle, and as each and 
every soldier takes his place in the field, he will stand forward 
to do his duty, and in doing that duty will sustain the credit 
of the British Army, which, I submit, has never stood higher 
than it does to-day. 



The German Emperor to the President of the United States 

I consider it my duty, sir, to inform you, as the most Times, 
eminent representative of the principles of humanity, that Sept. 10/14 
after the capture of the French fort at Longwy my troops [See post, 
found in that place thousands of dum-dum bullets which had P- 204, cf. 
been manufactured in a special Government factory. Exactly P- 202 ] 
similar bullets were found not only on French killed and 
wounded soldiers and on French prisoners, but also on English 
troops. You know what frightful wounds and suffering are 
caused by these bullets, and that their use is strictly forbidden 
by the recognised rules of international law. 

I solemnly protest to you against this kind of warfare, 
which, thanks to the methods of our adversaries, has become 
one of the most barbarous in history. Not only have they 
employed these horrible weapons, but the Belgian Govern- 
ment has openly encouraged the participation of the civil 
population in the fighting, and has long carefully organised 
it. The cruelties committed in this guerilla warfare, even 
by women and priests, towards wounded soldiers, doctors, 
and hospital nurses (doctors have been killed and hospitals 
attacked with rifle fire), were such that my generals were at ' 
length compelled to adopt the strongest measures to punish 
the guilty and frighten the bloodthirsty population from 
continuing their foul deeds of murder and shame. Some 
villages, and even the old town of Louvain, with the exception 
of its beautiful town hall, had to be destroyed in self-defence 
and for the protection of my troops. My heart bleeds when 
I see that such measures have become inevitable, and when 
I think of the cpuntless innocent people who have lost their 
homes and property in consequence of the barbarous conduct 
of those criminals. (Signed) WILHELM I.E. 

Sept. 7, 1914. 

Late American Ambassador to the German Imperial Court 

' I was given several packages of cartridges containing 
bullets bored out at the top, which the Germans said had been 



found in the French fortress at Longwy. . . . The cartridges 
given to me were marked on the outside, ' Cartouches de 
Stand/ and from this I took it that possibly these cartridges 
had been used on some shooting ranges near the fort, and the 
bullets bored out in order that they might not go too far if 
carelessly fired over the target/ l 

Bordeaux, September 10. 

Times, The German Government issued a communique to the 

Sept. 11/14 American Press Associations on the subject of the alleged 
use of dum-dum bullets by the Allied forces. It has likewise 
intimated that it has shown foreign journalists in Berlin 
some bullets of that type and machines for making them 
which, it is asserted, were found in the baggage of the prisoners 
taken by the German troops. 

The French Government protests in the most formal 
manner against the accusation, and it is to be feared that 
this step on the part of the German Government is nothing 
more than a device intended to justify the use of such bullets 
by the Germans, and in any event to provoke a change of 
opinion in favour of the German Army in the United States, 
in which country there has been just indignation at the 
atrocities committed in Belgium and France. 

The President of the French Republic to the President of 
the United States 

(Telegraphic.) Bordeaux, September n. 

Times, I am informed that the German Government is attempting 

Sept. 13/14 to abuse your Excellency's good faith by alleging that dum- 
dum bullets are manufactured in French State workshops, 
[Cf.pp.2oi, and are used by our soldiers. The calumny is nothing but 
2 4] an audacious attempt to reverse the roles. Germany has 

since the beginning of the war employed dum-dum bullets, 
and has daily committed violations of the laws of nations. 

1 [My Four Years in Germany. The photograph published in Mr. Gerard's 
book bears the mark ' 8 Cartouches de Stand M le 1906.' It is impossible 
to distinguish the last numeral it may be 'o' or '6.' Stand is the 
French for a shooting gallery or short range, such as is often made in the 
ditch of a fort.] 


On August 18 and on several occasions since then we 
have had to report crimes to your Excellency as well as to the 
Powers signatory to the Convention of The Hague. Germany, 
which was aware of our protests, is now trying to deceive and 
to make use of pretexts and lies in order to indulge in further 
acts of barbarity in the name of right. Outraged civilisation 
sends your Excellency an indignant protest. 


House of Commons, September 15, 1914. 

SIR WILLIAM BYLES asked the Under-Secretary of State Hansard 
for War whether he can assure the House that no ammunition 
known as dum-dum bullets has been, or will be, used by 
British troops now in action ? 

MR. TENNANT : No ammunition has been issued for use 
on the Continent which does not comply with the conditions 
laid down by The Hague Convention. 

House of Commons, September 16, 1914. 

MR. SWIFT MACNEILL : I beg to ask the Prime Minister 
whether, having regard to the fact that Great Britain all 
through the Boer War, although then, for technical reasons, 
not a signatory to the Declaration of The Hague Conference 
of 1899 in favour of abstention from the use of dum-dum or 
expanding bullets, vigorously enforced such abstention by 
British troops, and in 1907 assented to The Hague Declara- 
tion, the Government will consider the advisability of issuing 
an authoritative statement to the neutral Powers embodying 
the repudiation by the Under-Secretary of State for War 
yesterday of the calumny emanating from Germany and 
extensively circulated that dum-dum bullets are in use, or 
have been usecj, by British troops in the present war ? 

MR. ACLAND : This has already been done. On the 5th 
of September His Majesty's representatives in neutral countries 
were directed to publish statements to the effect referred to 
on the authority of His Majesty's Government. 

SIR W. BYLES : I ask leave of the House to make a very 
brief personal explanation. Yesterday I put a question to 
the representative of the War Office about the use of dum- 
dum bullets by our troops. I find that question, or at any 
rate my motive in putting it, has been misunderstood in more 



quarters than one. I only desire to say that in the form in 
which I handed my question in at the table it was made 
perfectly clear that my object was only to destroy the calum- 
nious statements on this matter which have been circulated 
in the United States. 

House of Commons, September 17, 1914. 

DR. CHAPPLE asked whether, in view of the conflicting 

evidence with regard to the use of dum-dum bullets, and to 

1 [The atrocities alleged to have been perpetrated in the war, he - 1 will 

Secretary as k the United States Government if it would, in the interests 

*L Foreign an( j h O p e o f their immediate cessation, if the persistent 

rumours of their occurrence be true, set up a committee of 

inquiry into the whole subject ? 

ACLAND) : His Majesty's Government would have no objec- 
tion to an investigation by a committee of inquiry such as 
my hon. friend suggests, and would even welcome it ; but, 
in view of the reply which President Wilson is reported to 
have given to representations from Germany in this matter, 
it would not appear to be of any use for them to make any 
proposal to the Government of the United States on the 

DR. CHAPPLE : Are we to understand that my hon. 
friend has evidence that the United States Government 
would be willing to undertake such an inquiry, and that the 
Government would give every facility ? 

MR. ACLAND : Yes. If we had any evidence that the 
Government of the United States would undertake such an 
inquiry, we should welcome it extremely, and I think I may 
say that we should give it every possible facility. 

President Wilson's Reply to the German Emperor 

Times, I received your Imperial Majesty's important com- 

Oct. 12, '14 munication of the 7th, and have read it with gravest interest 

[Seep. 201] and concern. I am honoured that you should have turned 

to me for an impartial judgment as the representative of a 

people truly disinterested as respects the present war and 

truly desirous of knowing and accepting the truth. 

You will, I am sure, not expect me to say more. Pres- 


ently, I pray God very soon, this war will be over. The day 
of accounting 'will then come, when I take it for granted the 
nations of Europe will assemble to determine a settlement. 
Where wrongs have been committed their consequences and 
the relative responsibility involved will be assessed. 

The nations of the world have fortunately by agreement 
made a plan for such a reckoning and settlement. What such 
a plan cannot compass, the opinion of mankind, the final 
arbiter of all such matters, will supply. 

It would be unwise, it would be premature, for a single 
Government, however fortunately separated from the present 
struggle, it would even be inconsistent with the neutral 
position of any nation which like this has no part in the con- 
test, to form or express a final judgment. 

I speak thus frankly because I know that you will expect 
and wish me to do so, as one friend should to another, and 
because I feel sure that such a reservation of judgment until 
the end of the war, when all its events and circumstances can 
be seen in their entirety and in their true relation, will com- 
mend itself to you as a true expression of sincere neutrality. 



' These reports defaming us gained in intensity when, our 
dirigibles threw bombs over the fortified town of Great 
Yarmouth, and warded off attacks from below as they passed 
over British soil. Now, is not this rather audacious diplo- 
matic journalism, in view of the fact that British vessels 
bombarded the open cities of Dar-es-Salaam, Victoria, Swakop- 
mund, and have often jpombarded towns on the Belgian coast 
without previous announcement, destroying thereby private 
dwellings belonging to the subjects of the Allies, without 
regard as to who might be living there, and that Great Britain 
supplies her troops with rifles and ammunition which only 
outwardly correspond with the rules of The Hague ? Bullets 
with the core constructed in two parts in such a manner that 
in loading the soldier can easily wrench off the points by 
inserting them in a sharp-edged hole drilled in the lever 
attached to the rifle, thus becoming dum-dum ammunition, 



were produced in large quantities and were found. We have 
now in our possession many such rifles. We have them still 
loaded with dum-dum ammunition/ l 


(From our Correspondent) 

New York, January 24, 1915. 

Times, The Secretary of State, Mr. Bryan, has written to Mr. 

Jan. 26, Stone, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 

a letter defending the neutrality of the United States in the 

European War. The letter is as follows : 

DEAR MR. STONE, I have received your letter of the 
8th instant referring to the frequent complaints or charges 
made in one form or another through the Press, that this 
Government has shown partiality to Great Britain, France, 
or Russia against Germany and Austria during the present 
war, and stating that you have received numerous letters to 
the same effect from sympathisers with the latter Powers. 
You summarise various grounds for these complaints, and 
ask that you may be furnished with whatever information 
the Department may have touching these points of complaint 
in order that you may be informed as to what the true situa- 
tion is with regard to these matters. 

THE POINTS seriatim 

In order that you may have such information as the 
Department has on the subjects referred to in your letter, I 
" take them up seriatim. 

1 [From interview published January 25, 1915, of an Associated Press 
correspondent with Herr von Bethmann Hollweg. The full interview 
is given in Diplomatic, 2, pp. 382-388. The suggestion made by the 
Germans that the ' cut-off ' of the British rifle was used to remove the tip 
of the British bullet was entirely without foundation. It was merely used 
to cut-off the supply from the magazine when desired to use the rifle as 
a single-loader, and was quite incapable of the use suggested, as every 
soldier knows.] 

2 [Mr. Bryan's letter is given in full in the Naval division.] 



IX. The United States has not Interfered with the Sale 
to Great Britain and her Allies of Arms, Horses, 
Uniforms, and other Munitions of War, although 
such Sales prolong the Conflict. 

There is no power in the Executive to prevent the sale of 
ammunition to belligerents. The duty of a neutral to restrict 
trade in munitions of war has never been imposed by inter- 
national law or by municipal statute. It has never been the 
policy of this Government to prevent the shipment of arms 
or ammunition into belligerent territory except in the case of 
neighbouring American Republics, and then only when civil 
strife prevailed. Even to this extent the belligerents in the 
present conflict, when they are neutrals, have never, so far 
as records disclose, limited the sale of munitions of war. It 
is only necessary to point to the enormous quantities of arms 
and ammunitions furnished by manufacturers in Germany 
to belligerents in the Russo-Japanese War and in the recent 
Balkan wars to establish the general recognition of the pro- 
priety of this trade by a neutral nation. 

It may be added that on December isth the German 
Ambassador, by direction of his Government, presented a 
copy of a Memorandum of the Imperial German Government, 
which, among other things, set forth the attitude of that 
Government towards traffic in contraband of war by citizens 
of neutral countries. The Imperial Government stated that 
' Under the general principles of international law no excep- 
tion can be taken to neutral States letting war materials go 
to Germany's enemies from or through neutral territory' 
and that ' adversaries of Germany in the present war are, in 
the opinion of the Imperial Government, Authorised to draw 
on the United States .contraband of war, and especially arms, 
worth billions of marks/ 

These principles, as the Ambassador stated, have been 
accepted by the United States Government in a statement 
issued by the Department of State on October I5th last, 
entitled, 'Neutrality and trade in contraband/ Acting in 
conformity with the propositions there set forth, the United 
States has itself taken no part in contraband traffic, and has, 
so far as possible, lent its influence towards equal treatment 



for all belligerents in the matter of purchasing arms and 
ammunition of private persons in the United States. 


X. The United States has not Suppressed the Sale of 
Dum-dum Bullets to Great Britain. 

On December 5th last the German Ambassador addressed 
a Note to the Department, stating that the British Govern- 
ment had ordered from the Winchester Repeating Arms 
Company 20,000 shot guns, model 1897, and 50,000,000 buck- 
shot cartridges for use in such guns. The Department replied 
that it saw published the statement of the Winchester Company, 
the correctness of which Germany has confirmed to the 
Department by telegraph. In this statement the company 
categorically denies it has received an order for such guns 
and cartridges from, or made any sales of such material to, 
the British Government, or to any other Government engaged 
in the present war. The Ambassador further called atten- 
tion to ' information, the accuracy of which is not to be 
doubted/ that 8,000,000 cartridges filled with mushroom 
bullets had been delivered since October by the Union Metallic 
Cartridge Company, for the armament of the British Army. 
In its reply, the Department referred to a letter of December 
loth, 1914, of the Remington Arms-Union Metallic Company 
of New York to the Ambassador, called forth by certain 
newspaper reports of statements alleged to have been made 
by the Ambassador, in regard to sales by that company of 
soft-nosed bullets. From this letter, a copy of which was 
sent to the Department by the company, it appears that, 
instead of 8,000,000 cartridges having been sold, only a little 
over 117,000 were manufactured and 109,000 were sold. 
The letter further asserts that these cartridges were made to 
supply a demand for better sporting cartridges with soft- 
nosed bullets than have been manufactured heretofore, and 
that such cartridges cannot be used in the military rifles of 
any foreign Power. The company adds that its statements 
can be substantiated, and that it is ready to give the Ambas- 
sador any evidence he may require on these points. 

The Department further stated that it was also in receipt 
from the company of a complete detailed list of persons to 


whom these cartridges were sold, and that from this list it 
appeared that cartridges were sold to a firm in lots of 20 
to 2000, and in one lot each of 3000, 4000, and 5000. Of 
these only 960 cartridges went to British North America 
and 100 to British East Africa. The Department added 
that if the Ambassador could furnish evidence that this 
or any other company was manufacturing and selling for the 
use of the contending armies cartridges whose use would 
contravene The Hague Conventions, the Department would 
be g;lad to be furnished with this evidence ; and that the 
President would, in case any American company could be 
shown to be engaged in this traffic, use his influence to pre- 
vent, so far as possible, sales of such ammunition to Powers 
engaged in the European War, without regard to whether 
it was the duty of this Government upon legal or conventional 
grounds to take such action. The substance of both the 
Ambassador's Note and the Department's reply have appeared 
in the Press. 

The Department has received no other complaints of 
alleged sales of dum-dum bullets by American citizens to 
belligerent Governments. 

XVI. Failure to Prevent Transhipment of British Troops 
and War Materials across the Territory of the 
United States. 

The Department has had no specific case of the passage 
of convoys or troops across its territory brought to its notice. 
There have been rumours to this effect, but no actual facts 
have been presented. The transhipment of reservists of all 
the belligerents who have requested the privilege has been 
permitted on condition that they travel as individuals and 
not as organised, uniformed, or armed bodies. The German 
Embassy has advised the Department that it would not be 
likely to avail itself of the privilege, but Germany's ally, 
Austria-Hungary, did so. Only one case raising the question 
of the transit of war material owned by a belligerent across 
United States territory has come to the notice of the Depart- 
ment. This was a request on the part of the Canadian 
Government for permission to ship equipment across Alaska 
to the sea. The request was refused. 



XX. General Unfriendly Attitude of the Government 
toward Germany and Austria. 

If any American citizens, partisans of Germany and 
Austria-Hungary, feel that this Administration is acting in 
any way injurious to the cause of those countries, this feeling 
results from the fact that on the high seas the German and 
Austro-Hungarian naval power is thus far inferior to the 
British. It is the business of belligerent operations on the 
high seas, not the duty of a neutral, to prevent contraband 
from reaching the enemy. Those in this country who sympa- 
thise with Germany and Austria-Hungary appear to assume 
that some obligation rests upon this Government, in the per- 
formance of its neutral duty, to prevent all trade in contra- 
band, and thus to equalise the difference due to the relative 
naval strength of the belligerents. No such obligation exists. 
It would be an unneutral act of partiality on the part of this 
Government to adopt such a policy, if the Executive had the 
power to do so. If Germany and Austria-Hungary cannot 
import contraband from this country, it is not because of 
that fact the duty of the United States to close its markets 
to the Allies. The markets of this country are open upon 
equal terms to all the world, to every nation, belligerent or 

The foregoing categorical replies to specific complaints is 
a sufficient answer to the charge of unfriendliness to Germany 
and Austria-Hungary. I am, my dear Senator, very sincerely 
yours. (Signed) W. J. BRYAN. 

The Use by the Germans of Explosive Bullets 

P. d'H. No. The Austrians used explosive bullets, i.e. bullets in which 

107, pp. fulminating explosives were concealed beneath the lead. 

52 and 53. Some of these were found by the Serbians among Austrian 

ammunition wagons and in German ammunition wagons by 

the French. Serbian wounded were treated who had suffered 

from them, and they were employed against the French at 

Crouy, on the hill of La Chipote, at Ypres, and at Arras. 1 

1 [Explosive projectiles under 400 grammes, i.e. '88 Ib. in weight were 
forbidden by the Convention signed at St. Petersburg on December 11, 
1868. See also Hague Declaration, p. 462, post.] 



Statement of General Count Gleichen 

Major-General Count Gleichen states in The Doings of the 
i$th Infantry Brigade, p. 105, that in a motor car captured 
on September 10, 1914, there were found ' 100 rifle cartridges 
(Mauser) with soft-nosed bullets, To make certain of this 
I kept one of the cartridges and gave it to Sir C. Fergusson/ 

Explosive Bullets in Italy 

A detachment of our shock troops, seeing an officer wounded Tribuna, 
by an explosive bullet, rushed furiously to the charge with Nov.26,'i7. 
fixed bayonets. The Germans attempted to flee, but were 
stopped by the net-work of barbed wire, where they were 
ah 1 killed by our men, with the exception of one, who called 
out, ' I am an Alsatian/ One of our wounded officers re- 
mained for forty-eight hours at his post directing a counter- 

No. 88 

M. Davignon, Minister of Foreign Affairs, to all the 
Diplomatic Representatives abroad 

Ostend, October loth, 1914. 

SIR, I have the honour to send to you herewith a note Second 
containing the protest of the Belgian Government against Belgian 
the use of the so-called ' dum-dum ' bullets by the German 

I should be glad if you would transmit this note to the 
Government to which you are accredited. 

(Signed) DAVIGNON. 



The Belgian Government has the honour to bring to the 
notice of the signatories of the Hague Conventions the under- 

1 [Second Part, Section vii., translated from the Belgian Government's 
Correspondance Diplomatique relative a la Guerre de 1914-15, II. The first 
Belgian Grey Book appears in Diplomatic, 2. The second Grey Book will 
be given in the Diplomatic division.] 



mentioned facts which constitute on the part of the German 
military authorities a violation of the conventions signed by 
the Imperial German Government on October i8th, 1907. 

The Commission of Inquiry in session at Antwerp has on 
several occasions had medical certificates submitted to it 
proving that wounds have been inflicted on Belgian soldiers 
by bullets of the ' dum-dum ' type. 

Bullets of this kind were found in the German lines on 
the battle field of Werchter. 

The reports of the Commission have already drawn atten- 
tion to these facts. 

Now a graver fact has just been notified : The Minister 
of War has sent to the Commission a box of cartridges con- 
taining a series of dum-dum bullets among other ordinary 
bullets. These cartridges were found on the ' Hanoverian 
Oberleutnant von Hadeln ' who was taken prisoner by our 
troops at Ninove, on September the 24th last. These car- 
tridges have been submitted by the Commission. for examina- 
tion to an expert armourer of Antwerp, whose report is as 
follows : ' The box with the green label that you sent me (20 
Patronen, No. 403, fur die Mauser selbstlade Pistole cal. 7.63 
Deutsche Waffen- und Munition-Fabriken, Karlsruhe) was 
intended to contain filled cartridges. One of every three 
racks in it contains expanding dum-dum bullets taken from 
special boxes bearing a yellow label. These bullets are rendered 
expanding in the process of manufacture : they cannot be 
made so by hand/ 

The Belgian Government herewith lodges a vigorous 
protest against the use of such cartridges, with the Powers 
which signed the Hague Conventions. 

No. 89 

M . Davignon, Minister of Foreign Affairs, to Baron ' 
Grenier, Belgian Minister at Madrid 

Havre, March ^ist, 1915. 

Ibid. SIR, I send you herewith a note which I ask you to 

transmit to the Spanish Government, begging them to forward 
it to the German Government. (Signed) DAVIGNON. 




State Inspector Tombeur, commanding the troops on the 
Eastern Frontier of the Belgian Congo, has sent to the 
Belgian Government a sample of cartridges containing, expand- 
ing bullets of the model used for sporting purposes which 
were found on the positions occupied by German troops on 
November 20th, 1914, at the fight of Kasa Kalowe (S.W. of 
Lake Tanganyika). This document has been handed to the 
President of the Commission of Inquiry, on the Violations 
of the Laws of War. M. Tombeur has furthermore notified 
the Belgian Government that two non-commissioned officers 
of our colonial forces who were killed during the night of 
February 25th-26th, in the course of a skirmish with a patrol 
of Germans between Impala and Lukuga, were hit by expand- 
ing bullets, known as ' dum-dum/ The wounds caused by 
the bullets were such that at first sight they seemed to have 
been inflicted by thirty-seven millimetre shells. 

In consequence of this, the Belgian Government has 
requested M. Tombeur to protest to the German commander 
against the use by the troops under his command of bullets 
which are forbidden by International Conventions. He has 
been also instructed to inform that officer that any German 
or native soldier captured by the Belgian troops on whom 
unlawful weapons of this nature are found will be brought 
before a court-martial and tried as a common criminal. , 

Proclamation of the Grand Duke Nicholas, Commander-in- 
Chief, concerning Sokol l Organisations 

In the region of our operations against the Austrians we Times, 
have established the fact of the participation of Galician- Sept. i, '14 
Polish Sokol organisations, and the employment by them of 
explosive bullets. 

" In appealing to the Polish population beyond the border 
with words of fraternal love from the Russian army, 2 1 was con- * [See post. 

p. 272.] 

1 [Sokoiy, a Polish voluntary military organisation which grew out of 
an athletic society. The name means ' Falcons ' : sing, Sok6t, pi. Sokoiy 
or Sokoli.l 



vinced of the loyalty of our mutual relations. I do not for an 
instant admit that the Polish population could rely upon the 
magnanimity of Great Russia while actually participating in 
operations hostile to us, and, moreover, in such an unworthy 
form as the use of expanding bullets with cut off (flattened) 

I am deeply convinced that the phenomenon noted is a 
melancholy accident. In the interests of the entire Polish 
population beyond the border I give warning that I have 
commanded the troops entrusted to me by His Majesty the 
Emperor not to regard the Sokol and similar organisations as 
belligerents, and to treat all their participants who may be 
taken prisoners with all the severity of the laws of war. 


August ii (24), 1914. 

Note Verbale of the Austro-Hungarian Government to the Govern- 
ments of Neutral Countries in the Matter of the Polish 

Pol. Doo. The Commander-in-Chief of the Russian army has ordered 

to be published in the Polish papers an announcement to the 
effect that members of the Polish organisations in Galicia 
bearing the name ' Sokol/ 1 in fighting against the Russian 
army, are using explosive bullets with blunted ends. To this 
charge the Commander-in-Chief added an intimation that the 
' Sokoly ' and other organisations of the same kind, would 
not be regarded as combatants, and that action would be 
taken against the members of these organisations with the 
utmost severity of the Military Regulations. 

The Austro-Hungarian Government declares in formal 
manner the following : The above-mentioned name ' Sokoly/ 
or names of other organisations, apply only to the Polish 
Legions, one section of which is composed of the members of 
such organisations. This circumstance, however, must not 
give rise to doubts of the qualifications of the Polish Legions 
in respect of Military Law. Not only were these Legions 

1 [See note on previous page.] 


created in such a manner that they fulfil all demands pre- 
scribed in Article I of the Regulations regarding the Laws and 
Customs of War on land, but they also form a part of the Austro- 
Hungarian army, with which they are united by an organic 
bond : the members of the Legions have taken an oath on 
the flag, their Divisions are commanded by Austro-Hungarian 
officers, at their head is an Austro-Hungarian general, who 
himself is subordinate to the High Command of the army. 

As regards the alleged use by the Polish Legions of explosive 
bullets with blunted ends, the Austrian Government declares 
that neither these Legions, nor any other part of the Austro- 
Hungarian army, uses such bullets. 

Under these circumstances any action on the part of 
Russia implying that the Polish Legions are not recognised 
as combatants would be a glaring breach of the Hague 
resolutions, against which the Austrian Government already 
enters a most categorical protest. 

October 2, 1914. 

No. 13 

The Governor 2 to the Secretary of State a [Of the 

Gold Coast 

(Received 2gth September 1914) Colony] 

[Answered by No. 21] 

SIR, In order that you may be placed in possession of 
information on the subject at as early a date as possible, ] 
have the honour to forward herewith one copy of a report 
on medical and sanitary matters during the operations of 
the field force in Togoland, which has been prepared by Dr. 
W. W. Claridge, Senior Medical Officer in charge, for the 
information of the Officer Commanding, and has this morning 
been handed to me by Lieutenant-Colonel Rose. 

2. I think you will agree with me in considering that very 
good work has been done by Dr. Claridge, and those asso- 
ciated with him, and that the report may be regarded as very 
satisfactory, having regard to the difficulties inevitable in 

i [From the Togoland Despatches (Cd. 7872), which will be given in 
Part 2.1 



such a situation. Detailed facts and figures, however, are 
not yet to hand, but I hope to forward these to you later. 

3. I would invite your attention to paragraph 2 under (D) 
Casualties, which relates to the use of soft-nosed bullets by 
the enemy. Specimens of these projectiles coUected at 
Kamina are herewith forwarded for your inspection. They 
were to-day handed to me by Lieutenant-Colonel Rose. I 
have, etc. HUGH CLIFFORD, 


From the Report of the Senior Medical Officer of the 
Togoland Field Force 

D. Casualties 

A full list of casualties is appended to this report. The 
names of Tirailleurs Senegalese attended by the British 
Medical Staff are entered as accurately as possible from the 
information given by the men themselves, but I am unable 
to guarantee either their completeness or. entire accuracy. 
The number of carriers wounded is approximate, and their 
names are not entered. 

A most regrettable feature of the campaign, and one that 
influenced me more than any other reason in applying for 
an increase in the Medical Staff, was the consistent use of 
' soft-nosed ' ammunition by the enemy. That of their 
native troops was of large calibre (about .450) with plain lead 
bullets with flattened noses. These mushroomed at once 
and caused frightful injuries. One man had a leg almost 
completely blown away, and it remained hanging by little 
more than a band of skin ; another had his hand practically 
shattered ; the skull of another was lifted from the face ; 
and others, again, had many inches of bone blown away, 
with correspondingly severe injuries to the soft tissues. 
The Europeans appear to have used sporting rifles almost 
without exception, with hoUow-nosed, lead-nosed, and other 
types of expanding nickel-covered bullets of the worst possible 
kind. In fact, the only legitimate ammunition used by the 
enemy at all seems to have been that fired in their machine- 
guns. The contrast between the wounds inflicted by their 
ammunition and by ours was most marked. 


No. 14 

The Governor to the Secretary of State 

(Received 2gth September 1914) 
[Answered by No. 21] 

(Extract.) Government House, Lome, 4th September 1914. 

I have the honour to forward herewith, for your informa- 
tion, in original, papers relating to certain charges made by 
the military authorities against Major von Doering, ex- 
Acting Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Togoland, and 
against Dr. Gruner, late Commissioner at Misahohe, with 
regard to the use of soft-nosed bullets by the forces under 
Major von Doering's command. 

I would also invite your attention to my despatch of even 
date * covering Dr. Claridge's Medical and Sanitary Report l [No. 13] 
on the operations, and to the specimens of the ammunition 
in question which are therewith enclosed. 


The Officer Commanding Togoland Field Force to Lieutenant- 
Colonel R. A. de B. Rose 

Atakpame, 2gth August 1914. 

SIR, I have the honour to forward a report on the am- 
munition used in the late campaign in Togoland by the 
Germans, and also on the manner in which natives were 
forcibly and indiscriminately armed against the allied British 
and French Forces, with the request that you will forward it 
to the proper authority. F. C. BRYANT, Lieut. -Colonel, 

Commanding Togoland Field Force. 

Lieutenant-Colonel R. A. de B. Rose to His Excellency the 
Governor of the Gold Coast Colony 

Atakpame, ist September 1914. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, I have the honour to forward the 

enclosed report ; 




The charges against Major von Doering are : 
i. That as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in Togo- 
land, he is responsible for the use of ammunition by the 
German troops which does not comply with the conditions 
1 [See agreed to in the Hague Convention, dated 2Qth July 1899 l 
Appendix, (page 315, Manual of Military Law). 

Evidence :- 

(a) The bore of the rifles chiefly in use by German 
Europeans was rather smaller than .303. A great pro- 
portion of the ammunition found on European prisoners 
of war consisted of bullets which were enclosed in a 
nickel case which did not wholly cover the core. 

Major von Doering admits the use of this ammuni- 
tion, and states that it was not issued by the German 
Government, but was private property ; that, owing to 
the distance from headquarters, it was difficult for him 
to call in this ammunition. 

This defence cannot be sustained, as all the European 
prisoners captured by us were operating along the railway 
line with Kamina as their base, so that the exchange of 
ammunition presented no difficulties. 

The attached orders (marked Appendix I.) issued at 
Kamina on loth August, prove that Major von Doering 
was perfectly aware that Europeans were in possession 
of private ammunition. The inference is, that the 
Europeans obeyed their Commander's orders and brought 
in their arms and ammunition at 12 o'clock on loth 
August, so that Major von Doering must have known the 
class of ammunition of which his subordinates were in 
possession. He also states that, after his Second-in- 
Command, Major von Roebun, had come into Glei with 
terms of capitulation, and I had remonstrated with Major 
von Roebun about the use of this ammunition, he Major 
von Doering ordered all ammunition which was con- 
trary to the Hague Convention to be handed in. 

This is very probably true, as much of this ammuni- 
tion was found in the pond at Kamina, but as the enemy 
had then decided to surrender, it can hardly be urged 


as an extenuating circumstance, as their object was 
undoubtedly to get rid of ammunition the possession 
of which rendered them liable to be shot. 

(b) The bore of the rifles universally used by the 
native troops, and in many cases by Europeans, was 
about .450. 

The ammunition used was a lead bullet with the nose 
flattened, and was issued by the German Government. 

The amount of this ammunition captured was roughly 
about 200,000 rounds. 

I send, with this report, some samples of the ammuni- 
tion used. 

I attach a report (marked Appendix II.) from Dr. 
Claridge, Senior Medical Officer to the Togoland Field 


Copy of a Report from the Senior Medical Officer, Togoland 
Field Force, to the Staff Officer, Togoland Field Force 


I have the honour to report, for the information of the 
Commanding Officer, that without exception all the wounds 
hitherto treated in the Force by the Medical Staff have been 
caused by soft-nosed bullets of large calibre. 

The injuries inflicted by these projectiles are severe, 
shattering bones and causing extensive damage to the tissues, 
leading in one case already to amputation having to be 

They are in marked contrast to the injuries that have been 
treated by our Medical Staff among the enemy's men and 
carriers. W. W. CLARIDGE, 

Senior Medical Officer i/c, Field Force. - 

Agbelufoe, ijth August 1914. 

No. 15 

Colonial Office to War Office 
[Answered by No. 17] 

Downing Street, &th October 1914. 

SIR, I am directed by Mr. Secretary Harcourt to request 
you to inform the Army Council that it has been reported to 



him that the German forces in Togoland, when engaged with 
the Allied Forces, employed bullets which contravened the 
provisions of the Hague Convention. Specimens of the 
bullets taken at Kamina were sent home by the Governor 
of the Gold Coast in a sealed package, which was handed to 
the Deputy Assistant Director of Artillery on the 8th of 

Mr. Harcourt would be glad if the Army Council could 
cause him to be furnished with a full technical report upon 
the ammunition in question. I am, etc., 


No. 17 

War Office to Colonial Office 
(Received loth October 1914) 

War Office, London, S.W., nth October 1914. 

^No. 15] SIR, With reference to your letter of the 8th instant, 1 
on the subject of bullets employed by the German forces in 
Togoland when engaged with the Allied Forces, I am com- 
manded by the Army Council to inform you that the speci- 
mens of bullets have been examined as requested and a de- 
scriptive report is enclosed. 

No detail identification has been attempted, as the ques- 
tion appears to be one purely of contravention of international 

Bullets Nos. i to 4 and 15 do not appear to contravene 

Article 23 of Section n Hague Convention, 1907, which states 

that it is particularly forbidden ' to employ arms, projectiles, 

or material calculated to cause unnecessary suffering/ The 

remainder undoubtedly contravene the terms of the Hague 

2 See Declaration of 2gth July iSgg, 2 which prohibited the 'use of 

Appendix, bullets which expand or flatten easily in the human body, 

p. 462] suc ] 1 as Bullets with a hard envelope which does not entirely 

cover the core or is pierced with incisions/ 

Nos. 6-10 inclusive would apparently load in the present 
German service Mauser rifle (1898 pattern). Nos. n, 13, and 
15 would, according to size of bullet, load in the large bore 
German (Mauser and Commission) rifle, 1884. 

The cartridges in question are returned herewith. I am, 
etc., B. B. CUBITT. 







of Bullets. 


1-4 36" Rimmed, long cases, fitted with canne- 

lured lead flat-nosed bullets. 

5 36" Rimmed, extra long case, fitted with 
cannelured flat-nosed bullet. 

6-10 .318" Rimless, bottle-necked cases, fitted with 
soft-cored bullets, flattened at nose, 
partially covered with metal envelope, 
the soft core, in all cases, projecting to 
the front, but in varying degrees. 

11 -435" Rimless, bottle-necked case, fitted with 

soft-cored bullet, flattened at nose, par- 
tially covered with metal envelope, but 
with uncovered core projecting to the 

12 .365" Rimless bottle-necked case, fitted with 

bullet completely covered with metal 
envelope with hole in nose exposing soft 

13 -435" Rimless bottle-necked case, fitted with 

bullet completely covered with metal 
envelope, with hole in nose exposing 
soft core. 

14 .438" Rimmed case with flat nosed ' stepped ' 

bullet, with soft core covered with metal 
envelope, the soft core being exposed 
at the front of the bullet. 

15 . 438" Rimmed case, with flat-nosed lead bullet, 

with paper surrounding rear portion. 

[Further references to the use of illegal ammunition will be found in 
subsequent volumes.] 




No. 136 

M. Rene Viviani, President of the Council, Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, to the French Ambassadors at London, St. Peters- 
burg, Berlin, Vienna, Rome, Madrid, Constantinople 

Paris, August 2, 1914. 

French This morning, French territory was violated by German 

Yellow troops at Ciry and near Longwy. They are marching on 

Book l t^ { O rt w hich bears the latter name. Elsewhere the Custom 

House at Delle has twice been fired upon. Finally, German 

troops have also violated this morning the neutral territory 

of Luxemburg. 

You will at once use this information to lay stress on the 
fact that the German Government is committing itself to 
acts of war against France without provocation on our part, 
or any previous declaration of war, whilst we have scrupu- 
lously respected the zone of ten kilometres which we have 
maintained, even since the mobilisation, between our troops 
and the frontier. 

No. 139 

M. Rene Viviani, President of the Council, Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, to M. Jules Cambon, French Ambassador at Berlin 

Paris, August 2, 1914. 

Ibid. German troops having to-day violated the eastern frontier 

at several points, I request you immediately to protest in 
writing to the German Government. You will be good enough 
to take as your text the following note which, in the uncer- 
tainty of communications between Paris and Berlin, I have 
addressed directly to the German Ambassador : 

' The French administrative and military authorities in 

1 [The French Yellow Book is given in full in Diplomatic, i.] 



the eastern district have just reported several acts which I 
have instructed the Ambassador of the Republic at Berlin 
to bring to the knowledge of the Imperial Government. 

' The first has taken place at Delle in the district of 
Belfort ; on two occasions the French Customs station in 
this locality has been fired upon by a detachment of German 
soldiers. North of Delle two German patrols of the 5th 
mounted Jaegers crossed the frontier this morning and 
advanced to the villages of Joncherey and Baron, more than 
ten kilometres from the frontier. The officer who com- 
manded the first has blown out the brains of a French soldier. 
The German cavalry carried off gome horses which the French 
mayor of Suarce was collecting, and forced the inhabitants 
of the commune to lead the said horses. 

' The Ambassador of the Republic at Berlin has been . 
instructed to make a formal protest to the Imperial Govern- 
ment against acts which form a flagrant violation of the 
frontier by German troops in arms, and which are not justified 
by anything in the present situation. The Government of 
the Republic can only leave to the Imperial Government the 
entire responsibility for these acts/ 


No. 146 

M. Rene Viviani, President of the Council, Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, to M. Paul Cambon, French Ambassador at London 

Paris, August 3, 1914. 

I am told that the German Ambassador is said to have Ibid. 
stated to the Foreign Office that yesterday morning eighty 
French officers in Prussian uniform had attempted to cross 
the German frontier in twelve motor cars at Walbeck, to 
the west of Geldern, and that this formed a very serious 
violation of neutrality on the part of France. 

Be good enough urgently to contradict this news, which 
is pure invention, and to draw the attention of the Foreign 
Office to the German campaign of false news which is be- 




No. 147 

Letter handed by the German Ambassador to M. Rene Viviani, 
President of the Council, Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
during his farewell audience, August 3, 1914, at 6.45 P.M. 


Yellow Xhe German administrative and military authorities have 

Book established a certain number of flagrantly hostile acts com- 

mitted on German territory by French military aviators. 
Several of these have openly violated the neutrality of 
Belgium by flying over the territory of that country ; one 
has attempted to destroy buildings near Wesel ; others have 
been seen in the district of the Eif el ; one has thrown bombs 
on the railway near Carlsruhe and Nuremberg. 

I am instructed, and I have the honour to inform your 
Excellency, that in the presence of these acts of aggression 
the German Empire considers itself in a state of war with 
France in consequence of the acts of this latter Power. 

At the same time I have the honour to bring to the know- 
ledge of your Excellency that the German authorities will 
detain French mercantile vessels in German ports, but they 
will release them if, within forty-eight hours, they are assured 
of complete reciprocity. 

My diplomatic mission having thus come to an end, it 
only remains for me to request your Excellency to be good 
enough to furnish me with my passports, and to take the 
steps you consider suitable to assure my return to Germany 
with the staff of the Embassy, as well as with the staff of the 
Bavarian Legation and of the German Consulate General in 

Be good enough, M. le President, to receive the assurances 
of my deepest respect. (Signed) SCHOEN. 

No. 148 

M. Rene Viviani, President of the Council, Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, to the French Representatives abroad 

Paris, August 3, 1914. 

Ibid. The German Ambassador has asked for his passports and 

is leaving this evening with the staffs of the Embassy, the 
German Consulate General, and the Bavarian Legation. 


Baron von Schoen has given as his reason the establishment 
by the German administrative and military authorities of 
acts of hostility which are said to have been committed by 
French military aviators accused of having flown over terri- 
tory of the Empire and thrown 'bombs. The Ambassador 
adds that the aviators are said to have also violated the 
neutrality of Belgium by flying over Belgian territory. ' In 
the presence of these acts of aggression/ says the letter of 
Baron von Schoen, ' the German Empire considers itself in 
a state of war with France in consequence of the acts of this 
latter Power/ 

. formally challenged the inaccurate allegations of the 
Ambassador, and for my part I reminded him that I had " 
yesterday addressed to him a note protesting against the 
flagrant violations of the French frontier committed two days 
ago by detachments of German troops. 

No. 159 

Speech, 1 delivered by M. Rene Viviani, President of the Council, 
in the Chamber of Deputies, August 4, 1914 

(Journal Officiel, August 5, 1914) 

M. Rene Viviani, President of the Council 

The next day, Sunday, the 2nd August, without regard Ibid. 
for the extreme moderation of France, in contradiction to 
the peaceful declarations of the German Ambassador at Paris, 
and in defiance of the rules of international law, German 
troops crossed our frontier at three different points. 

At the same time, in violation of the Treaty of 1867, 
which guaranteed with the signature of Prussia the neutrality 
of Luxemburg, they invaded the territory of the Grand 
Duchy and so gave cause for a protest by the Luxemburg 

Finally, the neutrality of Belgium also was threatened. 
The German Minister, on the evening of the 2nd August, 
presented to the Belgian Government an ultimatum requesting 
facilities in Belgium for military operations against France, 

1 [Extract the complete speech will be found in Diplomatic, i, 
PP- 421-432.] 

MILITARY I. P <.* 225 


under the lying pretext that Belgian neutrality was threatened 
by us ; the Belgian Government refused, and declared that 
they were resolved to defend with vigour their neutrality, 
which was respected by France and guaranteed by treaties, 
and in particular by the King of Prussia. (Unanimous and 
prolonged applause.) . 

Since then, Gentlemen, the German attacks have been 
renewed, multiplied, and accentuated. At more than fifteen 
points our frontier has been violated. Shots have been fired 
at our soldiers and Customs officers. Men have been killed 
and wounded. Yesterday a German military aviator dropped 
three bombs on Luneville. 

The German Ambassador, to whom as well as to all the 
great Powers, we communicated these facts, did not deny 
them or express his regrets for them. On the contrary, he 
came yesterday evening to ask me for his passports, and to 
notify us of the existence of a state of war, giving as his 
reason, in the teeth of all the facts, hostile acts committed by 
French aviators in German territory in the Eifel district, and 
even on the railway near Carlsruhe and near Nuremberg. This 
is the letter he handed to me on the subject : [See p. 224.] 

Need I, Gentlemen, lay stress on the absurdities of these 
pretexts which they would put forward as grievances ? At 
no time has any French aviator penetrated into Belgium, 
nor has any French aviator committed either in Bavaria or 
any other part of Germany any hostile act. The opinion of 
Europe has already done justice to these wretched inventions. 
(Loud and unanimous applause.) 

* * * * * * * 

[The following is extracted from German Truth and a Matter 
of Fact, by the Rt. Hon. J. M. Robertson, M.P.] : 

In the last issue of Le Mouvement Pacifiste, published 
from time to time at Berne, there is an interesting revelation 
which has not, I think, been made current by the British 
Press, but which clearly ought to be. 


In the Deutsche Medizinische W ochenschrift (German 
226 * 


Medical Weekly) of May 18, 1916, Professor Schwalbe writes 
as follows : 

' In my article, " Franzosisch-Nationale Medizin " (French 
National Medicine), No. n, page 327, first column, I have 
asserted, in justification of our policy against the accusations 
of our enemies, that a French aviator had thrown bombs on 
Nuremberg before war had even been declared. As I now 
learn, from information which, at his own request, Privy 
Councillor Riedel (Jena) had obtained from the Mayor (Magis- 
tral) of Nuremberg, my memory has somewhat betrayed me. 
I had, in fact, read in the journals of August 2, 1914, that on 
that day, according to a statement by the administration of 
the railways of Nuremberg, published by the official Bavarian 
Hoffman Agency, " on the Nuremberg- Kissingen line, and 
also on the Nuremberg- Anspach line, aviators had been seen 
who had thrown bombs on the permanent way/' From a 
correspondence which has recently taken place, however, 
between the Privy Councillor and the Mayor of Nuremberg, 
it appears that this assertion, which hitherto has not only 
not been denied, but, on the contrary, has been generally 
regarded among us as a proof of the breach of the law of 
nations by French aviators, is, in fact, untrue (tatsdchlich 
nicht zutnfft}.' 

The Mayor of Nuremberg writes on April 3 of this year : 
1 It has never been conveyed to the knowledge of the com- 
mand of the 3rd Bavarian Army Corps that bombs had been 
thrown, before or after the declaration of war, by enemy 
aviators on the Nuremberg-Kissingen and Nuremberg- Anspach 
lines. All the allegations of this kind and all the reports of 
the journals have been recognised to be false/ 

Privy Councillor Riedel had evidently tried to trace the 
report to a military authority which had been specified as 
cognisant of the facts ; and the Chief Magistrate of Nurem- 
berg has thus explicitly avowed that all reports of the kind 
are false. I have not seen the original Deutsche Medizinische 
Wochenschrift containing Professor Schwalbe's announcement ; 
but I do not doubt that Le Mouvement Pacifiste, which is 
conducted with great care and a high sense of responsibility, 
gives an accurate translation. 




No. 116 

M . Davignon, Minister of Foreign Affairs, to all Diplomatic 
Representatives abroad 

Havre, January 2&th, 1915. 

Second SIR, As you know, Germany is endeavouring to justify 

Belgian her attack on Belgium by alleging facts which, if true, would 
Grey Book 1 p rove that our country was in collusion with France and 
England, and thereby disregarded our obligations as neutrals. 
Thus, the Wolff Agency, according to an article in the 
Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, telegraphed to the news- 
papers that French troops had already entered Belgian terri- 
tory on the 24th July. 

I thought it my duty to issue a contradiction of this 
audacious assertion. 

I should be much obliged if you would have this contra- 
diction published in the press of the country to which you 
are accredited. 

(Signed) DAVIGNON. 



On July 24th a German manufacturer saw two com- 
panies of French troops under arms at Erquelines. He makes 
this statement to the Governor-General of Belgium, and the 
North German Gazette considers the fact established. We 
regret for the anonymous witness* who guaranteed under 
oath the truth of this story that his memory has served him 
very ill. Moreover confusion between the names of places 
is very possible in an interval of six months. 

We have already stated, but we are now compelled to 
repeat that before August 5th no armed troops of any kind, 
whether English or French, entered Belgium. The Govern- 
ment did not appeal to the guarantee of her guarantors, or 
rescind in favour of the troops of France the prohibition to 
enter the territory of the kingdom, until Germany had vio- 

1 [Section xvi., see note on p. 211.] 


lated the neutrality of Belgium. This violation took place 
on August 4th at 8 o'clock in the morning, and it was on the 
same day at 8 o'clock in the evening that the Government 
decided to call France and England to her help. Before that 
date not a single French soldier entered Belgium. 

Against the evidence of the German manufacturer we set 
that of officials of the German Empire, that of the German 
Minister at Brussels, of the Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs, and even of the Chancellor himself. On the night 
of August 2nd M. de Below endeavours to find a grievance 
against us to support his ultimatum. At 2 o'clock in the 
morning he goes to the Secretary-General at the Ministry to 
tell him that a French cavalry patrol has crossed the frontier. 
Baron van der Elst asks him where this has taken place. ' In 
Germany/ is the reply. If a single armed French soldier 
had crossed our frontier, it would clearly not have escaped 
the vigilance of M. de Below's numerous spies. 

On August 3rd the Belgian Minister was received by the 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. ' Have you any com- 
plaint to make against us ? ' asked Baron Beyens. ' Have 
we not always, during three-quarters of a century, observed 
in respect of Germany, as of all the guaranteeing Great Powers, 
all the duties of our neutrality ? ' ' Germany/ replied M. 
de Jagow, ' has no complaint to make against Belgium ; her 
attitude has always been perfectly correct/ 

Finally the Chancellor, at the sitting of the Reichstag on 
the 4th August, expressed himself no less frankly. ' Our 
troops/ he declared, ' have occupied Luxemburg an perhaps 
have already entered Belgian territory. This is a breach of 
international law. The wrong I speak openly the wrong we 
thereby commit, we will repair/ But since the Chancellor's 
frankness has been disavowed by the German press because 
the cynical disregard of the treaties produced unanimously 
in every neutral country the most unfortunate impression, 
Germany has sought for imputations against the loyalty of 

Thus Germany, after having attacked us unjustly, ruined 
us, and slaughtered us, seeks to deprive us of the only thing 
we have left, our honour. But these charges made by witnesses 
whose names are not even given, brought forward six months 
after the events, will not alter public opinion; From the first 



day, it has condemned the premeditated attack which has 
been made upon Belgium, and it has treated as they deserve 
the abominable calumnies invented to justify that attack. 

No. 117 

M. Davignon, Minister of Foreign Affairs, to M. Klobukowski, 

the French Minister 

Havre, February f>th, 1915. 

Second SIR, Your Excellency has been kind enough to draw my 

Belgian attention to the North German Gazette, setting forth the 

Grey Book ev idence according to which armed French soldiers had 

entered Belgian territory before the opening of hostilities. 

This manoeuvre forms part of the campaign which aims at 

proving that Belgium, in complicity with France and England, 

had failed to carry out her international obligations, and that 

the first acts of hostility were perpetrated not by Germany, 

but by Belgium. 

The North German Gazette had already published in the 
month of November seven depositions supplied by witnesses, 
and reproduced in the November number of the Journal de 
la Guerre. These seven depositions agreed as to the pre- 
sence in Belgium of French officers and soldiers before the 
war. But they disagreed concerning the spot where the 
officers and soldiers were seen : it was now at Charleroi, now 
at Namur, at Ougres, at Liege. We have not protested against 
these allegations. Your Excellency knows, of course, that 
French soldiers on leave, in uniform, but without arms, were 
often to be seen in Belgium, especially at Dinant, Namur, 
and Liege. Foreigners also mistake Belgian guides, who wear 
red trousers, for French soldiers. But when a witness swore 
to the presence of two French regiments at the Station 
du Midi on August the 2nd, we issued a denial which was 
published in the Petit Havre. 

In its issue of January gth, the Norddeutsche Allge- 
meine Zeitung mentioned, on the authority of a sworn 
deposition, the arrival at Erquelines, on the 24th of July, of 
French armed troops coming from Paris. In a communique, 
of which a summary was published in the Matin, I pointed 
out the lack of foundation for this accusation. Your Excel- 
lency will find this communique enclosed herewith (see En- 


closure to No. 116). It is evident that if French troops 
had entered Belgium before the latter had appealed to her 
guarantors, the Government would have been informed by the 
officials of the Customs and by the police, as the German 
Minister would have been by his spies. No complaint reached 
me with regard to this, before the German attack. Now that 
our territory has been taken from us, it is not possible for us to 
have the evidence of the German witnesses examined. But 
it will be possible for the French Government to give a denial 
to the accusation mentioned above concerning the arrival of 
troops at Erquelines on the evening of the 24th July. 
We should be very grateful if they would do this. 

No. 118 

M. Klobukowski, French Minister, to M. Davignon, 
Minister of Foreign Affairs 

Havre, March i$th, 1915. 

SIR, Referring to your Excellency's letter of the 6th of Ibid. 
February last, concerning the alleged violations by France of 
Belgian neutrality which were sworn to before German Courts, 
I have the honour to send you herewith a letter from M. 
Millerand and explicit declarations from our Consuls at 
Liege and at Brussels, with which I fully associate my- 
self. These documents, together with the emphatic denials 
'of the Belgian Government, which show the complete 
absence of foundation in the evidence relied upon which 
is full of gross errors and inaccuracies more or less intentional 
will be communicated to the neutral Powers. The Minister 
of Foreign Affairs of the Republic, moreover, proposes to 
have a resume published in the shape of a pamphlet with a 
view to reaching public opinion in various countries. 

The object of the German publications is obviously to 
justify in the eyes of neutrals the attack upon Belgium. 

Although the matter is well known, from the diplomatic 
publications and notably from the Belgian Grey Book and 
the declarations of the German Chancellor in the Reichstag, 
it is nevertheless interesting and instructive to detect the 
Germans once more in the very act of imposture and bad 
faith. (Signed) KLOBUKOWSKI. 




The Minister of War to M. Delcasse, Minister of Foreign 


Paris, February i6th, 1915. 

Second On February the I3th you were good enough to let me 

Belgian know the wish expressed by M. Davignon that the French 
Grey Book Government should contradict the definite accusation con- 
cerning the arrival of, French troops at Erquelines on the 
evening of the 24th July, and to ask my opinion on this 

I have the honour to inform you that I think it would be 
a very good thing to give the most formal contradiction to the 
allegations of the German press on this point, as well as on 
those contained in the letters from your representatives in 
Belgium, of which you have sent me a copy. In order to 
facilitate the measures you may think it necessary to take 
to refute these false statements, I think it right to give you 
the following particulars : 

(a) Not only is it impossible to prove any arrival of the 
French at Erquelines on the 24th of July 1914, but at that 
date no step had been taken of any kind not merely no pre- 
paratory step, but not even a precautionary one, such as 
watching the frontier or guarding the railway lines. 

The first precautionary measure, the suppression of leave, 
dates from the 26th of July. 

(b) Even at a later date, at the moment when the disposi- 
tion of the covering troops was under consideration, no 
measures were taken for posting those troops -at the Belgian 
frontier, the reason being the respect due to the neutrality 
of that country. 

(c) Moreover, on August the 2nd, the first day of the 
mobilisation, in order to avoid any incident, my predecessor 
gave the following telegraphic order to the general command- 
ing the first district. 

' 2nd August, 214 3/n to the ist District, Lille. 
' It is absolutely necessary, under the diplomatic condi- 
tions of the moment, that no incident should occur on the 


Franco-Belgian frontier, and consequently that the troops 
should not approach within a distance of at least two kilo- 
metres from it. 

' The Custom House officials and foresters will be instructed 
to avoid any incident/ 

This order merely extended to the first district, at the 
moment when it received the telegram ordering mobilisation, 
the orders given to the districts of the Franco-German frontier 
which forbade the crossing of a line that, in view of the chances 
of a conflict, my predecessor had thought right to fix at a 
distance of about ten kilometres from the German frontier. 

Therefore the German allegations are all false ; they have 
not even the excuse of probability. 


M. Pallu de la Barriere, French Consul at Liege, at present at 
Havre, to M. Klobukowski, Minister Plenipotentiary of 
the French Republic to the Belgian Government at present 
at Havre 

Havre, February 2nd, 1915. 

I have the honour to cpmmunicate to you the observations Ibid. 
which suggest themselves to me, as far as the Liege Consular 
district is concerned, after reading the Norddeutsche Allge- 
meine Zeitung of January the Qth, 1915, concerning the alleged 
violations of Belgian neutrality by France. 

To the three accusations made on oath before the courts 
of Essen, Eschweiler, and Bonn, I am able to give a formal 

I declare that the facts mentioned by the Norddeutsche 
Allgemeine Zeitung are false. 

This newspaper says : ' In the last days of July I often 
saw French soldiers in the neighbourhood of Liege ; together 
with Belgians they were digging trenches round Liege/ 

No French soldiers can have been seen either at Liege or 
in its neighbourhood at that time (nor, moreover, at a later 
date either), for the excellent reason that there was not a 
single one there. Under those conditions it was equally 
impossible to see our soldiers help Belgian soldiers to dig 
trenches in the neighbourhood of Liege ! I can even guarantee 
that, at that date, the Belgians themselves -were not digging 



trenches, as I was able to ascertain myself when I walked in 
front and between several forts. On the other hand, I saw 
trees being cut down in the neighbourhood of those forts by 
Belgian soldiers on the very first days after mobilisation 
(2nd August 1914). 


Court v/ Eschweiler, October 2Oth, 1914 

' During the last days of July I saw French officers and 
soldiers in the streets of Liege, and they were there, contrary 
to custom, in great numbers. They were French infantry 
of the line (red caps), passing through the streets of the 

Neither at that date, nor down to the 6th of August, when 
I left Liege, did I see either in the streets of that town, or 
in its neighbourhood, or even at my Consulate, a single French 
officer or soldier in uniform. 

On this subject, I think it also necessary to add that 
from the moment of the French mobilisation I gave strict 
injunctions to the Frenchmen who were called up, expressly 
forbidding them to leave Belgium in military attire, so far 
as the reservists possessed any. This was in order to avoid 
manifestations of any kind whatever from the population, 
and to prevent any act inconsistent with the respect due to 
Belgian neutrality. 


Court of Bonn, December gth, 1914 

' At Namur, on August and, it was said generally : " We 
have help, the French are arriving ; whole trainloads have 
arrived at Liege " ; on the road from Namur to Luxemburg, 
one met nothing but French soldiers (cavalry and infantry), 
all the stations were occupied by the French military. We 
were taken from Namur to the frontier under French super- 

I protest indignantly against this new accusation, which 
is as false as the preceding ones. Down to the 6th of August, 
as can be proved by the record of my telephonic messages at 
the Post Office at Liege, I communicated several times a day 
with my consular agent at Namur, who kept me informed 


even of the slightest details. I vouch for it that on 2nd August 
no train had brought any Frenchmen to Namur. Whether 
wrongly informed people declared that ' the French were 
arriving/ I do not know : what is certain is that the in- 
formation was erroneous for Namur as well as for Lige. 

On the other hand, if the French had been found on the 
road from Namur to Luxemburg I should have been informed 
of it at once, as well as of the military occupation of the 
stations of that line by our troops. These statements are 

It is the same with regard to the conveyance of Germans 
to the frontier under French supervision. 


Baron Lahure, French Consul at Brussels, at present at Havre, 
to M. Klobukowski, Minister Plenipotentiary of the French 
Republic to the Belgian Government, at present at Havre 

Havre, February 2nd, 1915. 

You have been good enough to send me the translation Second 
of the reports published in Germany, notably in the issue of Belgian 
the Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung for the gth of January, Gre y Book 
concerning the alleged violations of Belgian neutrality by 

I hasten, as far as Brussels is concerned, to make the follow- 
ing remarks suggested by the reading of these statements. 
I take the quotations in their order. 

(i) Court of Rastatt. ' A regiment in field-grey uniform 
is said to have taken part in the last review on the 26th July at 
Brussels, on the occasion of the visit of the Lord Mayor/ 

The Belgian General Staff, while considering a change in 
their uniforms, caused a company of infantry dressed in the 
new grey blue uniform then under consideration, and with a 
cap of the same colour, to march past at the various reviews 
held in Brussels before the war. The object in view was pro- 
bably to ascertain the opinion of the public as to the uniform 
then on trial. 

I have never heard of an incident said to have occurred in 
the neighbourhood of the Bourse on July 29th, when an 



officer is supposed to have addressed the crowd. The witness 
asserts that he wore four stars on his collar and that he was a 
cavalry officer. 

This is obviously not true ; no French officer wears stars 
on his collar : only Belgian officers wear stars on their collar, 
three being the maximum. 

(3) Court of Tittlungen. ' Soldiers in uniform were to 
be seen in the streets of Brussels as early as the morning of 
August the 3rd, after the ultimatum had been sent, but before 
the declaration of war. The crowd is said to have cheered a 
French hussar/ 

That is quite possible and entirely normal. Indeed, 
French soldiers on leave whose families resided in Belgium 
were allowed to visit their relations in uniform, but without 
arms. As the Belgian national fetes take place at the end 
of July, a date coinciding with the Brussels Fair, it is at this 
date that the soldiers were in the habit, before the manoeuvres, 
of asking for leave of a week to a fortnight to visit their families. 
The case in question may perhaps have been that of a soldier 
on sick leave with his family, who was getting ready to rejoin 
his regiment before the expiration of his leave. 

As our French colony in Brussels numbers 25,000, and 
has its activity centred in the heart of the city, it is quite 
natural that a group of Frenchmen should cheer the uniform 
of our army at the moment when war had just been declared 
against our country ; that Belgians should join in cheering 
a soldier belonging to one of the Powers guaranteeing the 
neutrality of Belgium at the moment when this had just been 
violated by the sending of the ultimatum announced in the 
press, can surprise nobody. 

(5) Court of Diisseldorf . ' Cheering of French soldiers on 
the boulevards at Brussels on August 2nd/ 

As I have just remarked, this is quite normal, in conse- 
quence of the number of French soldiers on leave who were 
in Brussels at that time. August 2nd being the first day of 
our mobilisation, the Legation, which had received notice of 
it during the night, had at once communicated the order of 
mobilisation to the Havas Agency. It had been published 
in the Belgian papers on the morning of Sunday, August 2nd. 
Soldiers in uniform, no doubt, in the course of the day, passed 
through the town to go to the station. 


6. Court of the Reserve battalion of the ngth Infantry 
Regiment of the Landwehr at Stuttgart. ' Several French 
artillery officers were seen on July i6th, and were received 
with enthusiasm by the crowd/ 

The place where this manifestation was said to have 
occurred is not stated exactly. The i6th of July was a 
Thursday. During the festivities, the concourse of people is 
always large in the centre of the city, even on week days. I 
have never heard that a group of officers of our artillery was 
cheered, and I ask how they could have walked about in 
their uniforms without the Legation having been informed 
of it. Our officers would, as a matter of fact, have had to 
ask at the Legation for permission to wear uniform, and this 
is granted only in exceptional cases. May it not have been 
a group of Belgian musicians, since the members of some 
bands of music wear uniforms somewhat resembling those of 
our artillery officers : a black tunic with red band, cap with 
plume and stripe ? 

(8) Court of Hamburg. ' The crowd was singing the 
Marseillaise in front of the Bourse, on August 2nd, and was 
cheering a group of French soldiers/ 

Groups of our fellow-countrymen, so numerous in Brussels, 
have indeed sung the Marseillaise and cheered our soldiers 
on leave when they met them on their way back to France, 
As the Bourse is situated on the main road leading to the 
Midi Station, and as war had been declared against France, 
this patriotic manifestation was quite natural. 

That the crowd should have cheered English officers on 
the arrival of the train at the Nord Station at Brussels on 
August the 5th, is not at all surprising, as the German troops 
had two days before violated the territory of Belgium, and 
the Government had appealed to England on 4th August. 

(9) Court of Anrath. ' On Sunday, 2nd August, on the 
Boulevard Botanique, at Brussels, a French soldier, in full 
kit, with fixed bayonet, was to be seen walking on the pave- 
ment, his mission being apparently to muster young French- 
men of military age/ The witness is said to have recognised 
him as a French soldier by his 'red breeches/ Here there is 
obviously a confusion, as no soldier on leave had a rifle. One 
cannot see, moreover, how a soldier could have been of any 
use in the Boulevard of the Botanical Gardens, where the 



French colony has no place of meeting from which he could 
have mustered reservists. 

It must have been a Belgian private of one of the Guide 
Regiments, which likewise wear red trousers. As the Belgians 
had on August 2nd been mobilised for several days, one 
frequently met soldiers, even solitary individuals, fully 
equipped, going to the station to join the headquarters of 
their corps. 

None of these facts therefore can be seriously appealed to 
as indications of the violation of Belgian neutrality by France. 
But, on the other hand, there exist proofs of German pre- 
meditation which would be easy to verify if one collected the 
evidence of persons with whom German Reserve officers 
lodged, and of firms engaged in furniture removals ; it could 
be proved that from the month of July, Germany had begun 
the mobilisation of her army, by calling up separate indi- 
viduals, and under conditions never previously in force, even 
at the moment of the greatest tension after the demonstra- 
tion at Agadir. 

I was warned of this soon after July I4th, by one of our 
fellow-countrymen belonging- to the business world, with 
whom I lunched at the industrial club on the Boulevard 
Anspach. He regarded as a sure sign of an early war the 
fact, ascertained by him, that a great number of Germans, 
especially officers of the reserve, as if they were obeying a single 
order, had just broken up their establishments in Belgium, 
sent their furniture to Germany, and let their apartments or 
their houses. This had never occurred before, and from it 
might be inferred a resumption of the certainty they felt that 
their country would violate Belgian neutrality. How else 
could be explained their anxiety to place their furniture in 
safety by sending it to Germany ? 

I was much struck by this information, and you will cer- 
tainly remember, Sir, that I mentioned the matter to you. 
I also spoke of it to Lieut.-Colonel Genie, a certain number 
of reserve officers of our army having come to see me in order 
to express their surprise at having not yet received personally 
the order of recall to France. 



No. 119 

M . Davignon, Minister of Foreign Affairs, to all Diplomatic 
Representatives Abroad 

Havre, April loth, 1915. 

SIR, In their ultimatum of August 2nd, the German Second 
Government tried to justify their aggression against Belgium, Belgian 
on the ground of a threat of a French attack which, passing Gre y Book 
through Belgian territory, would have developed against the 
German right wing. 

' The German Government/ said the ultimatum, 1 ' has 
received trustworthy information to the effect that French 
troops intend to march on the line of the Meuse by Givet and 
Namur. This information leaves no doubt as to the intention 
of France to march through Belgian territory against Germany/ 

From the very first day it was apparent that these allega- 
tions were contrary to the formal declarations of the French 
Government and to the facts. Nevertheless, in several neutral 
countries, the question was asked whether there was not 
some foundation of truth for them. 

The course of events has dissipated this doubt, so that 
no sensible person could any longer give them the slightest 

The fact that the Belgian army found itself alone in the 
face of the German armies during the first period of the cam- 
paign has demonstrated the falsity of the German General 
Staff's assertions. 

The German military writer, General von Bernhardi, 
nevertheless endeavoured some weeks ago, in an article pub- 
lished in the New York Sun, to make the Americans believe 
that, as early as the month of July, France and England were 
making ready to violate the neutrality of Belgium. 

The French Government, wishing to reply categorically 
to these accusations, caused a note to be published in which 
they gave precise information as to the position of the French 
troops at the beginning of the war. You will find a copy of 
this note enclosed. 

This publication in the first place proves conclusively the 
sincerity of the declarations made to us by the French Govern- 

1 [For text of the ultimatum, see Diplomatic, "2, pp. 26-7.] 



ment, from before the opening of hostilities : secondly, it 
proves that the German allegations were only an idle pretext 
for the purpose of concealing the real object of the Imperial 
General Staff, which was to surprise France by an overwhelm- 
ing advance while she was in the act of general mobilisation. 

An error thus crept into the communique. The violation 
of Belgian territory took place on the 4th and not on the 3rd 

1 [See of August (First Grey Book No. 30). 1 


2> p ' ^ ENCLOSURE TO No. 119 


Second In an article published by an American newspaper, the 

Belgian German General von Bernhardi, returning to the subject of 
Grey Book t j ie or jgi n o f the war, claims to prove that the French con- 
centration and the .presence on our left wing of our principal 
forces demonstrate the fixed resolve of the French Govern- 
ment to violate Belgian neutrality, jointly with Great Britain. 
To this allegation of General von Bernhardi, the French 
plan of concentration is a categorical reply. 

I. Our Plan of Concentration 

The whole of the French forces, in pursuance of the plan 
of concentration, were placed, when war was declared, facing 
North-East, between Belfort and the Belgian frontier, that 
is to say : 

ist Army : between Belfort and the general line Mire- 
court Luneville ; 

2nd Army : between this line and the Moselle ; 

3rd Army : between the Moselle and the line Verdun 
Audun-le-Roman ; 

5th Army : between this line and the Belgian frontier. 

The 4th Army was in reserve, west of Commercy. In 
consequence, the whole of the French armies were placed 
facing Germany, and facing Germany only. 

II. The Alterations in our Concentration 
This is so true that, when the violation of Belgian neutrality 
by the German troops was known, the French General Staff 
had to prescribe alterations in the plan of concentration. 


The contingency of these alterations had of course been 
studied, because many indications had prepared us to fear 
the violation of Belgian neutrality by Germany. When this 
violation had taken place and the Belgian Government (4th 
of August, Yellow Book, p. isi), 1 had asked us for support, the * [See 
sphere of action of our 2nd Army was extended as far as Diplomatic, 
the Verdun region : the 4th Army was interposed between I; p> 4 5] 
the 3rd and the 4th 2 on the Meuse ; the 5th was slipped 2 [Sic] 
towards the North- West along the Belgian frontier, as far as 
the height of Fourmies. 

Moreover, two corps of the 2nd Army, the i8th and the 
gth, were transferred from the region of Nancy towards 
Mezieres and Hirson. 

In this direction were sent also the two divisions of Algiers 
and the division of Morocco. 

Finally, a cavalry corps received the order to penetrate 
into Belgium to reconnoitre the German columns and to 
slacken the speed of their movement (6th August), three days 
after the latter had violated the Belgian frontier. Thanks 
to this alteration, the French General Staff was in a position 
to face west of the German assault west of the Meuse, by 
bringing our principal forces there. 

If there had been premeditation on their part, this sudden 
displacement of our troops would not have been necessary, 
and we could have arrived in time to prevent the enemy from 
crossing the Meuse in Belgium. 

A small detail may serve to illustrate this conclusive argu- 
ment : Our left covering corps, the second, that is the Amiens 
one, was, in pursuance of the plan of concentration, not facing 
the Belgian frontier, but in the Montmedy-Longuyon district. 

III. The Concentration of the English Army 

As to the English army, its support was assured to us 
only on the 5th of August, that is to say, after the violation 
of the Belgian frontier by the Germans, which occurred on 
3rd August (Yellow Book, p. 151). 3 3 [See 

The concentration of the British army took place behind Diplomatic, 
Maubeuge, from the I4th to the 2Oth August. Ij pt 



IV. Various orders concerning the intentions of the 
French Government 

On July 3oth the French Government gives the order to 
our covering troops to keep at a distance of ten kilometres 
from the frontier, in spite of the military measures taken by 

On August 2nd a second order is given to our troops, 
instructing them to leave to the Germans the entire responsi- 
bility of hostilities and to restrict themselves to repulsing 
any attacking force that may penetrate into French territory. 

On August 3rd, a further telegram gives peremptory 
orders to avoid any incident whatever on the Franco-Belgian 
frontier. The French troops are to keep at a distance of 
from two to three kilometres away from it. 

On the same day, August 3rd, a new order confirms and 
defines the instructions given on August 2nd. 

On August 4th, an order of the Minister of War says : 

' Germany will endeavour, by spreading false news, 
to induce us to violate Belgian neutrality. It is strictly 
and most emphatically forbidden, until an order to the 
contrary is given, to enter upon Belgian territory, even 
with patrols or single cavalrymen, and airmen are forbidden 
to fly over that territory/ 

On August 5th only, at the request of the Belgian Govern- 
ment (formulated on the 4th) the French aeroplanes and air- 
ships are authorised to fly over Belgian territory and our 
reconnoitring troops to penetrate into it. 




Decree of General Mobilisation, published August i, 1914 


By virtue of Article 3 of the Constitutional Law of B. des A., 
February 25, 1875, relating to the organisation of public Aug. 15/14 
powers ; 

By virtue of Titles III. and IV. of the Law of July 24, 
1873, relating to the general organisation of the Army ; 

By virtue of the Law of March 19, 1875, relating to 
mobilisation by means of notices, and their publication on 
public highways ; 

By virtue of the Law of July 3, 1877, on military requisi- 
tions, modified by the Laws of March 5, 1890, March 27, 1906, 
and July 23, 1911 ; 

By virtue of the Law of July 22, 1909, relating to the 
requisition of motor cars ; 

By virtue of the Law of December 28, 1888, modifying 
Articles 22 to 27 (Military Railway Service) of the Law of 
March 13, 1875 ; 

By virtue of the Law of March 21, 1905, modified by the 
Law of August 7, 1913, on the recruitment of the Army. 

Following the advice of the Council of Ministers, 


Article i. Mobilisation of the French armies by land 
and sea is ordered over all the extent of French territory in 
Algeria, in the other Colonies, and in Protectorate countries. 

Article 2. In France, in Corsica, in Algeria, and in Tunis 
the Mobilisation will be brought to the knowledge of the 



inhabitants by means of notices which will be immediately 
placarded on public highways. Every Frenchman subject to 
military obligations must conform to the instructions con- 
tained in these notices, under penalty of being punished with 
all the rigour of the law. 

Article 3. In the Colonies (other than Algeria) Mobilisa- 
tion will be brought to the knowledge of the inhabitants 
under orders of the Governors. In Protectorate countries 
(other than Tunis) it will be brought to the knowledge of 
Frenchmen subject to military obligations under the orders 
of the Resident-General. 

Article 4. The present Decree calls up to the Active List 
men who in time of peace have been designated to constitute 
the units of Customs officials or Foresters, as well as the 
accessory services of the Army (Treasury and Posts, Military 
Telegraph, Field-railway Sections, etc.), and who have in 
consequence been allotted special posts. 

Article 5. The right to requisition is in force in all French 
territory, in Algeria and the Colonies. It will be exercised 
conformably to the existing laws and decrees. In Protectorate 
countries requisitions will operate in accordance with the 
conventions arrived at with the Governments of the Pro- 
tectorate countries. 

Article 6. The civil, military, naval, and colonial authori- 
ties are charged, at their own responsibility, with the execu- 
tion of the terms of the present Decree. 

Done at Paris, ist August 1914. 

By the President of the Republic, R. POINCAR. 


Minister for War to President of the Republic, submitting 
Proclamation of a State of Siege 

August 3. 

P. d'H. The Chambers being adjourned, I have the honour to 
submit for your signature, in accordance with the pro- 
visions of Article II. of the Law of the 3rd April 1878, a 
Decree placing in a state of siege : 

(i) The 86 French Departments and the territory of 
Belfort ; (2) the three Departments of Algeria. 


The provisions of this Decree, which was considered at 
the Council of Ministers, are justified by the necessity of 
concentrating all powers into the hands of the military 
authorities in the frontier zone, as well as on the whole of 
the national territory. The placing of our national forces on 
a war footing, and thereafter the maintenance of the effectives, 
have the effect of causing the reunion, in all parts of France, of 
numerous detachments of men called to the colours. In order 
to assure the maintenance of order under these conditions, it 
seems necessary to give the most extended powers to the 
military authorities. 

Events which may arise in Algeria render this measure 
equally indispensable in the three Departments of that 

There is reason to hope that the attached Decree will be 
ratified <by the patriotism of the Chambers as soon as they 

Accept the assurance, etc. 

Minister of War. 


Proclamation by the President 

August 3. 

The 86 Departments, the territory of Belfort, and the P. d'H. 
three Departments of Algeria, are declared to be in a state 
of siege. 

The state of siege will be maintained during the duration 
of the war. 



PARIS, AUGUST 8, 1914 

The disembarkation of the English troops has begun. P. d'H. 
The units disembarked were saluted by the acclamations of 
the inhabitants. The disembarkation was quickly effected 
under the direction of delegations of French officers speaking 
English fluently. The men rapidly occupied their canton- 



ments. Their talk shows that the exasperation of the English 
people against Germany is at its height. The English soldiers 
are delighted at coming to fight on the Continent by the side 
of their French and Belgian comrades. The accord between 
the two staffs has ensured perfect execution of the programme 
of disembarkation. 

Proclamation by General Joffre, Commander-in-Chief of the 
French Army, to the people of Alsace 1 


Times, After forty-four years of sorrowful waiting, French soldiers 

Aug. 9, '14 once more tread the soil of your noble country. They are 
the pioneers in the great work of revenge. For them what 
emotions it calls forth, and what pride ! 

To complete the work they have made the sacrifice of 

their lives. The French nation unanimously urges them on, 

and in the folds of their flag are inscribed the magic words 

' Right and Liberty/ Long live Alsace. Long live France. 

General-in-Chief of the French Armies, 


Letter to General Joffre from M. Miller and on his appointment 

as Minister of War 

August 27, 1914. 

B. des A., At the moment when I resume the direction of the 

Aug. 28, '14 Ministry of War, I wish as my first act to convey to the 

troops who are fighting under your orders, and to their chiefs, 

the admiration and confidence of the Government of the 

-..;. Republic and the country. 

France is assured of victory because she is determined to 
attain it. With your example, and that of your armies, she 
will maintain to the end calmness and self-control, the .pledge 
of success. 

Under the iron discipline which is the law and strength 
of armies, the entire nation, which has risen in defence of 
its soil and its liberties, has accepted in advance, with a firm 
heart, all trials, even the most cruel. She will remain patient 
and tenacious, strong in her rights and sure of her will. 

I embrace you. A. MILLERAND. 

1 [Occupation of Miilhausen (Mulhouse) by the French, Aug. 8.] 


Proclamation issued by the French Government on September 
3rd, in removing the capital temporarily from Paris to 


For several weeks relentless battles have engaged our Times, 
heroic troops and the army of the enemy. The valour of Sept. 4, '14 
our soldiers has won for them, at several points, marked 
advantages ; but in the north the pressure of the German 
forces has compelled us to fall back. 

This situation has compelled the President of the Republic 
and the Government to take a painful decision. 

In order to watch over the national welfare, it is the duty 
of the public powers to remove themselves temporarily from 
the city of Paris. 

Under the command of an eminent Chief, a French Army, 
full of courage and zeal, will defend the capital and its patriotic 
population against the invader. 

But the war must be carried on at the same time on the 
rest of its territory. 

Without peace or truce, without cessation or faltering, 
the struggle for the honour of the nation and the reparation 
of violated rights must continue. 

None of our armies is impaired. If some of them have 
sustained very considerable losses, the gaps have immediately 
been filled up from the reserves, and the appeal for recruits 
assures us of new reserves in men and energy to-morrow. 

Endure and fight ! Such must be the motto of the Allied 
British, Russian, Belgian, and French armies. 

Endure and fight, while at sea the British aid us, cutting 
the communication of our enemy with the world. 

Endure and fight, while the Russians continue to advance 
to strike the decisive blow at the heart of the German 

It is the duty of the Government of the Republic to direct 
this stubborn resistance. 

Everywhere Frenchmen will rise for their independence ; 
but, to ensure the utmost spirit and efficacy in the formidable 
fight, it is indispensable that the Government shall remain 
free to act. 

At the request of the military authorities, the Govern- 



ment is therefore temporarily transferring its headquarters 
to a place where it can remain in constant touch with the 
whole of the country. 

It requests members of Parliament not to remain away 
from it, in order that they may form, with their colleagues, 
a bond of national unity. 

The Government leaves Paris only after having assured 
the defence of the city and of the entrenched camp by every 
means in its power. 

It knows that it does not need to recommend to the 
admirable population of Paris that calm, resolution, and 
coolness which it is showing every day, and which is on a 
level with its highest traditions. 

People of France, let us all be worthy of these tragic 
circumstances. We shall gain the final victory ; we shall 
gain it by unflagging will, endurance, and tenacity. 

A nation which refuses to perish, and which, in order to 
live, does not flinch either from suffering or sacrifice, is sure 
of victory. 

Proclamation by Military Governor of Paris on September 3 


B. des A., The members of the Government of the Republic have 
Sept. 4, '14 left Paris to give a fresh impulse to national defence. 

I have been entrusted with the task of defending Paris 
against the invader. 

That task I will fulfil to the end. 


Military Governor of Paris, 
Commandant of the Army of Paris. 

The French Minister of War (M. Millerand) to the 
Governor of Maubeuge 

B. des A., In the name of the Government of the Republic and of the 
Sept. 8, '14 entire country, I send to the heroic defenders of Maubeuge 
and to its valiant inhabitants the expression of my profound 
admiration. I know that you will shrink from nothing in 
order to prolong the resistance until the hour of your deliver- 
ance, which I hope will soon arrive. 



The legitimate curiosity of the French public, with regard B. des A. 
to the events of the war, has been directed with very special June 6-9, 
attention to the victory of the Marne. The time has not yet ' T 5 
come for relating its details. But it is now possible to specify 
the conditions under which it was won and the orders which 
prepared the way for it. 

The first of these orders dates from the 25th of August. 
It is worded as follows : 

(i) The intended offensive manoeuvre having been 
incapable of execution, subsequent operations will be 
regulated in such a manner as to reconstitute on our left, 
by the junction of the 4th and 5th Armies with the 
English Army and new forces established in the eastern 
region, a mass of troops capable of resuming the offensive, 
whilst the other forces will contain for the necessary 
period the enemy's efforts. . . . 

The retirement is regulated in such a way as to effect the 
following disposition, in preparation for the offensive : 

In the region of Amiens, a new grouping of forces, 
consisting of the units transported by railway (7th Corps, 
four reserve divisions, and perhaps another Corps of the 
active army), will be assembled from the 27th August 
to the 2nd September. This group will be ready to take 
the offensive in the general direction of Saint-Pol-Arras 
or of Arras-Bapaume. 

The same general instruction of August 25 fixed the zones 
of march for the armies, and laid down : 

The movement will be covered by rearguards left on 
favourable features of the ground, in such a manner as 
to utilise every obstacle which may arrest the enemy's 
march, or at all events delay it, by short and violent 
counter-attacks chiefly by means of artillery. 

(Signed) J. JOFFRE. 



The object of the manoeuvre was thus clearly defined as 
early as August 25 ; it was a preparation not for a defensive 
action, but for the offensive, which was to be resumed as soon 
as the circumstances appeared favourable. 

From August 25 to September 4 the orders for the retire- 
ment were carried out. But the rapid marching of the enemy's 
right wing, the time required for the refitting and reinforce- 
ment of the British Army, and certain difficulties with regard 
to transport, due to the encumberment of the railways by 
the movement from Paris, made it necessary that a portion of 
the troops sent from the east to General Maunoury should 
be assembled farther south than had been foreseen on 
August 25. The offensive was thereby delayed. 

On September 4 the reconnaissances of our cavalry, and 
those of the British airmen, of General Maunoury's Army, and 
of the Military Government of Paris, revealed the fact that the 
German right (Kluck's Army) was bending its march towards 
the south-east (Meaux and Coulommiers), thus abandoning 
the direction of Paris. 

Now at this moment our former army of the left (the 5th 
Army) was ready to make a frontal attack upon the German 
columns, and it was prolonged, to the north-west, by the 
British Army and Maunoury's Army, to the north-east of 
the capital. 

The disposition aimed at in the instruction of August 25 for 
the resumption of the offensive was therefore now brought 
about : we had escaped envelopment ; we had reached the 
positions necessary for outflanking the enemy's right flank. 
We were so placed that our wings found support and freedom 
to manoeuvre through their touch with the strongholds of Paris 
and Verdun. The Commander-in-Chief at once decided to 
assume the offensive, and gave, on the evening of September 4, 
the following General Order : 

September 4, 1914. 

1. It is expedient to profit by the hazardous situation 
of the ist German Army in order to concentrate upon it 
the efforts of the Allied Armies of the extreme left. The 
necessary dispositions will be taken during the 5th Sep- 
tember to start the attack on the 6th. 

2. The dispositions to be carried out by the evening of 
the 5th September will be : 



(a) All the disposable forces of the 6th Army to be to 
the north-east of Meaux, ready to cross the Ourcq, 
between Lizy-sur-Ourcq and May-en-Multien, in the 
general direction of Chateau-Thierry. The available 
units of the ist Cavalry Corps which are in the vicinity 
will be placed under the orders of General Maunoury for 
this operation. 

(b) The English Army, stationed on the front Changis- 
Coulommiers, facing east, will be ready to attack in the 
general direction of Montmirail. 

(c) The 5th Army, closing slightly to its left, will take 
up its position on the general front Courtacon-Esternay- 
Sezanne, ready to attack in a general direction from 
south to north ; the 2nd Cavalry Corps will maintain touch 
between the English Army and the 5th Army. 

(d) The gth Army 1 will cover the right of the 5th 
Army by holding the denies south of the marshes of 
Saint-Gond, and placing a portion of its strength on the 
plateau to the north of Sezanne. 

3. The offensive will be taken by these different armies 
early on the 6th September. 


Consequently, early on the next day orders were given to 
the 4th and 3rd Armies operating on the right of those named 
above : : 

4th Army. To-morrow, 6th September, our armies of 
the left will attack the front and flanks of the ist and 
2nd German Armies. The 4th Army, ceasing its move- 
ment towards the south, will confront the enemy, regu- 
lating its movements by those of the 3rd Army, which, 
debouching from the north of Revigny, will take the 
offensive in a westerly direction. 

3rd Army. The 3rd Army, covering itself on the north- 
east, will debouch towards the west to attack the left 
flank of the enemy's forces which are marching to the 
west of the Argonne. It will regulate its movement 
with that of the 4th Army, which has been ordered to 
confront the enemy. 

1 [The gth Army had been formed on August 27, between the 5th and 
the 4th.] 



Finally, on the morning of September 6 the Commander- 
in-Chief addressed to the Armies a proclamation which has 
been erroneously taken for an order, but was in reality only an 
appeal to the devotion of the troops ; this proclamation, which 
has been published many times, ran as follows : 

At the commencement of a battle on which the safety 
of the country depends, I must impress upon you all that 
the time has arrived to look forward, not backward. 
Every effort must be made to attack the enemy and roll 
him back. 

A body of troops which, unable to advance any farther, 
must hold on to the ground gained, at any cost, and 
must die on the field rather than retreat. In the present 
circumstances there must be no faltering. 

Such were the orders preparatory for the battle which gave 
us the victory, and which had been thought out as far back 
as the 25th of August. 

Proclamation by the Commander-in-Chief to the Army of 
General Maunoury 

The 6th Army has just sustained, during five entire days, 
without interruption or rest, an engagement against a numerous 
enemy whose previous successes had raised their moral to 
a high pitch. The struggle has been a severe one, and the 
losses from fire, as well as from fatigue due to want of sleep, 
and occasionally of provisions, have surpassed any that have 
been hitherto imagined ; you have supported all this with 
a valour, a firmness, and an endurance to which no words can 
possibly give adequate expression. 

Comrades ! Your General asked you, for the sake of 
your country, to do more than your plain duty ; your answer 
has exceeded his most sanguine expectations. Thanks to 
you, victory has crowned our colours. Now that you have 
realised the glorious satisfaction of victory, you will in future 
never let it fall from your grasp. 

As for myself, if I have been able to help I have been 
fully compensated by the greatest honour of my long career, 
namely, to have commanded troops such as you are. For 
all you have done I thank you with sincerest emotion, because 


to you I owe that to which all my efforts and energy for the 
last forty-four years have been directed Revenge for 1870 ! 
My thanks to you ; honour to all the combatants of the 6th 
Army ! JOFFRE. 

(countersigned) MAUNOURY. 
September 10, 1914. 

Order of the Day by General Joffre 

September n. 

The battle which we have been fighting for the last five B. des A 
days has ended in an undoubted victory. The retreat of the Sept. 13-16, 
ist, 2nd, and 3rd German Armies before our left and centre ' I4 
becomes more and more marked. The enemy's 4th Army 
in its turn has begun to withdraw to the north of Vitry and 

Everywhere the enemy has left on the field numerous 
wounded and a quantity of munitions. Everywhere we 
have made prisoners while gaining ground. Our troops bear 
witness to the intensity of the fight, and the means employed 
by the Germans in their endeavours to resist our elan. The 
vigorous resumption of the offensive has determined our 

Officers, non-commissioned officers, and men ! You have 
all responded to my appeal ; you have all deserved well of 
your country. JOFFRE. 

Order of the Day by the Governor of Paris 

September n. 

The Military Governor of Paris is glad to bring this B. des A., 
telegram * to the knowledge of the troops under his orders. Sept. 13-16, 
He adds to it his own congratulations to the Army of Paris J 4 
on account of its participation in the operations. He has 
also congratulated the troops of the entrenched camp on the 
efforts they have made during this period, efforts which must 
unceasingly continue. GALLINI. 

1 [General Joffre's Order, nth September,- above.] 



Message from President Poincare to Minister of War 

BORDEAUX, September n. 

B. des A., Our valiant armies have, during the last four days' fight- 
Sept. 12/14 ing, again given striking proofs of their bravery and high 

The strategic idea, conceived with so much clear-sighted- 
ness by the Commander-in-Chief and realised with so much 
coolness, method, and resolution, has been carried out in recent 
operations by faultless tactics. 

Far from being fatigued by long weeks of marching and 
unceasing battle, our troops have shown more endurance and 
keenness than ever. With the vigorous assistance of our 
English Allies they have forced back the enemy to the east 
of Paris, and the brilliant successes they have gained and the 
magnificent qualities they have shown are sure guarantees of 
decisive victories. 

I beg you , my dear Minister, to be good enough to transmit 
to the General Commanding-in-Chief, to the officers and the 
rank and file, the congratulations and good wishes of the 
Government of the Republic, and with them the personal 
expression of my own deep admiration. 


In forwarding this letter to General Joffre, M. Millerand 
added : 


I have received the above letter from the President of 
the Republic, and in forwarding it to you, I am happy to 
send you again my own personal congratulations. The 
President of the Council of Ministers has asked me to add to 
this proof of the appreciation of the head of the State, the 
most lively congratulations of all the members of the 
Government . MILLERAND. 

Message from General Joffre to the Minister for War 
(Telegraphic.) September 13. 

B. des A., The completeness of our victory becomes more and more 
Sept.i3-i6, apparent. Everywhere the enemy is in retreat. The Germans 
|J 4 254 


are abandoning prisoners, wounded, and material in all 
directions. After the heroic efforts displayed by our troops 
during this formidable battle, which has lasted from the 5th 
to the I2th September, all our armies, exhilarated by success, 
are carrying out a pursuit which is without parallel in its 

On our left we have crossed the Aisiie below Soissons, 
thus gaining more than 100 kilometres in six days of battle. 
In the centre our armies are already to the north of the Marne. 
Our armies of Lorraine and the Vosges are reaching the 
frontier. Our troops, as well as those , of our Allies, are 
admirable in moral, endurance, and ardour. The pursuit 
will be continued with all our energy. The Government of 
the Republic may be proud of the army which it has prepared. 


Message from General Joffre to General de Castelnau 

September 13. 

For nearly a month past the army that you command B des A., 
has fought almost every day, showing remarkable qualities Sept. 17/14 
of endurance, tenacity, and bravery. However difficult 
circumstances may have been for you, you have succeeded 
in holding your ground on the heights of Grand-Couronne", 
and you have repulsed the furious attacks of the enemy, 
whose object was to penetrate into Nancy. I wish to express 
to you my fullest sympathy, and ask you to transmit it to 
the troops under your orders. 


Order of the Day by General Leon Durand, Governor of Nancy 

You have been subjected to a bombardment intended to B. des A,, 
intimidate you. In spite of the innocent victims, whom I Sept. 17/14 
^ salute, and the damage, which I deplore, you have preserved 
your coolness and your moral. I congratulate you. 

Thanks to the success of our armies and the resistance of 
our troops, all danger to the security of the capital of Lorraine 
has now disappeared, and I am glad to inform you of that 

* 255 


The Germans have pillaged at Triancourt the house of 
M. Lucien Poincare, Director of Higher Education, who is a 
brother of the President of the Republic. At Nubecourt the 
residence of the parents of M. Poincare was bombarded with 
special viciousness, as was the open town of Sampigny and 
the property owned by the President there. At Nubecourt 
they broke open the vault of the Poincare family, and buried 
in it German soldiers who had been killed by French troops. 


Telegram from the President of the Republic to the Prefect of 

the Meuse 

B.desA., I have received with equal emotion and indignation the 
Oct. i, '14 sad news x that you have been good enough to send me. 
I ask you to interpret my feelings to my compatriots in the 
Meuse in the cruel trial through which they are passing, and 
to congratulate them from me on their admirable self-sacrifice 
and indomitable courage. 


Telegram from the President of the Republic to the 
Mayor of Commercy 

B. des A., I thank you for your telegram, and ask you to express my 
Oct. 1-3, '14 entire sympathy to my compatriots, and to say how deeply 
I feel for them in the cruel trials which they are bearing with 
so much patriotism and confidence in final victory. 


Protest by the French Minister for Foreign Affairs 2 to Neutral 
Powers against the destruction of Reims Cathedral 

PARIS, September 20. 

B. des A., Without being able to plead even the semblance of military 
Sept. 20/14 necessity, and solely for the pleasure of destruction, the German 

1 [German outrages in the Meuse.] 2 [M. Delcasse*.] 



troops have subjected Reims Cathedral to a systematic and 
furious bombardment. At the present moment the famous 
basilica is nothing but a heap of ruins. 

The Government of the Republic feels it right to expose 
to universal scorn this revolting act of vandalism, which, by 
giving to the flames our historical sanctuary, robs humanity 
of an incomparable portion of its artistic patrimony. 

Resolution passed by the French Academy 

The French Academy protests against all statements by B. des A., 
which Germany falsely imputes to France or to her Allies Oct. 29-31, 
the responsibility for the war. '14 

It protests against the denials, contrary to irrefutable 
evidence, of the abominable deeds committed by the German 

In the name of civilised humanity, it holds up to scorn 
the violators of Belgian neutrality, the murderers of women 
and children, the savage destroyers of the noble monuments 
of the past, the incendiaries of the University of Louvain and 
the Cathedral of Reims, who wished also to burn Notre-Dame 
de Paris. 

It expresses its admiration for the Armies which, like our 
own, are fighting against the coalition of Germany and 

With deep emotion, it sends a greeting to our soldiers, 
who, inspired by the virtues of our ancestors, testify to the 
immortal spirit of France. 

Order of the Day by General Franchet d'Esperey, after the 

Battle of Montmirail 

On the memorable battlefields of Montmirail, of Vau- B. des A., 
champs, and of Champaubert, which a century ago witnessed Sept. 27/14 
our ancestors' victories over Biiicher's Prussians, our vigorous 
offensive has triumphed over German resistance. Pursued 
on the flanks and with his centre broken, the enemy is 
retreating by forced marches towards the east and north. 
The Westphalian, Hanoverian, and Brandenburg contingents, 



the most formidable army corps of ancient Prussia, have 
retreated in haste before you. This first success is only a 
prelude ; the enemy is shaken, but he is not yet decisively 
crushed. You still have to endure heavy fatigue, to make 
long marches, and to fight severe battles. May the sight of 
your country, defaced by barbarians, be always before your 
eyes. Never has it been more necessary to sacrifice every- 
thing for your country. Whilst I salute the heroes who have 
fallen in the fighting of the last few days, my thoughts turn 
towards those who wUl be conquerors in the next engagement. 
Forward, soldiers, for France ! 


Official Announcement on the Walls of Versailles 

PARIS, October i. 

Times, Any German encountered in the rear of the troops, in 

Oct. 2, '14 civilian dress, will be treated as a spy. Persons who have 
provided such people with clothes and have not informed the 
military authorities will be treated as accomplices. 

Any German encountered in the rear of the troops who 
does not surrender at the first summons will be executed. 

A band of more than three Germans bearing [arms, 
encountered in the rear of the troops, will be considered to be 
committing acts of pillage, and will be executed. 

Any person, civil or military, accused of the/t on the 
battlefields will be brought before a Court-martial. 


From the President of the Republic to the Armies 

B. des A., Since the outbreak of hostilities, the President of the 
Oct. 4-7, '14 Republic had expressed his intention of making a visit to the 

Armies and conveying to them his congratulations. 

Hitherto he had been prevented from doing so, partly by 

the necessity of presiding daily at the Council of Ministers and 



partly owing to the wish of the military authorities, who did 
not consider the moment favourable for the realisation of this 

Circumstances to-day permitting of this journey, M. Poin- 
car left Bordeaux on Sunday afternoon 1 by motor car, to 
proceed first to Main Headquarters. 

He was accompanied by M. Millerand, Minister of War, 
and M. Viviani, President of the Council. 

Messages from the President to the Minister for War 


The tour which we have just made in the entrenched B. desA., 
camp of Paris has enabled us to appreciate the excellent P ct - 
measures which General Gallini has taken to assure more ' I4 
completely the eventual defence of the capital. I should be 
obliged if you would again express to him my best con- 



The visit we have just paid to the Armies was deeply Ibid. 
moving ; never before the present war have the imperishable 
military virtues, which have for long centuries past made the 
power of our race and the greatness of our country, flourished 
more completely, and the sight of these magnificent troops, 
living symbol of the national energy, awakens in our mind the 
most glorious memories of our history. They possess as much 
endurance as fire, as much tenacity as dash ; they know that 
victory will be the reward not merely of bravery, but of per- 
severance and tenacity, and the numerous successes which they 
have Already gained, and which they owe to' a happy blend of 
these various qualities, have inspired them with a legitimate 
confidence in their ultimate triumph. They have resolute 
officers, proud to lead them in the firing line, under the orders 
of generals who have proved their worth on the battlefield, 
and under the supreme command of a chief whose method 
and coolness are an object of admiration to all those who see 
him at work. 

1 [October 4.] 



I shall be grateful to you, my dear Minister, if you would 
transmit my renewed and very hearty congratulations to the 
General-in-Chief, to the Army Commanders, to the Corps 
Commanders, to all the Officers, Non-commissioned Officers, 
and Soldiers. They all serve France with the same devotion, 
and they all deserve her warmest gratitude. 

Believe, my dear Minister, in my most devoted sentiments. 


Letter from the President of the Republic to the Minister for War 

PARIS, November 5. 

Times, After a long series of violent engagements our Armies 

Nov. 6, '14 and the troops of our Allies have succeeded in repulsing 

the desperate attacks of the enemy. They have given proof, 

in this new phase of the war, of qualities as admirable as in 

the victorious battle of the Marne. 

In proportion as the hostilities develop, the French 
soldier, without losing anything in ardour and bravery, 
acquires more experience and better adapts these natural 
qualities to the exigencies of the military operations. He 
preserves an incomparable offensive vigour and displays 
patience and tenacity under the fire of the enemy. The 
intimate reliance thus established between leaders and men, 
far from impairing discipline, ennobles it by the enlightened 
feeling of solidarity in devotion and sacrifice. Every time I 
visit the troops I am amazed at the total disregard of self, at 
the glorious and universal courage of all, at the grandeur of the 
spirit of the army, in which are merged alf the hopes of the 

And when, within range of the projectiles, before a horizon 
which the explosions of shells cover with flame-rent smoke, 
one sees the peaceful peasants are found driving the plough 
and sowing the seed, one understands better and better how 
inexhaustible are the stores of energy and vitality in this old 
country of France. 

I ask you to be good enough to transmit my renewed 
congratulations to the General-in-Chief, the Army Com- 
manders, Army Corps Commanders, officers, non-commis- 


sioned officers, and men. I include them all in my admiration. 
The Army is worthy of the nation, as the nation is worthy of 
the Army. France is invincible, because she is sure of her 
right and has faith in her immortality. 


The Minister for War to General Joffre 


The opinion that I had formed whilst accompanying the B. des A., 
President of the Republic on his tour to our armies of the Nov - 8, '14 
centre and the north has been strengthened by the visit I have 
just paid to the armies of the east. 

I found the same military virtues existing in the latter 
army that had so struck me in the former armies ; the same 
quiet and joyous courage, the same good relations between 
officers and men ; in aU of them the same reasoned faith in 
ultimate success. 

Please transmit to your splendid troops my warmest 


November 7, 1914. 

French Official Note on the Subject of Military Aviation 

The note-books found on the German dead, wounded, Times, 
and prisoners go to prove that our aviation branch has per- Nov. 10/14 
formed its duty well and produced at times the most startling 

A few examples will suffice. 

In the course of a reconnaissance on September 3, a 
French pilot was attacked by a German airman. The latter 
in his turn was promptly pursued by a second French airman, 
who, subjecting him to a violent rifle fire, forced him pre- 
cipitately to descend. 

On September 5 a French airman struck the bivouac 
of a company of the Prussian Guards, with the result that 
eight men and eight horses fell, while thirty-two soldiers were 




On September 12 a German non-commissioned officer 
showed his men a coat almost torn to tatters which belonged 
to one of some sixty men wounded by a projectile that had 
just then been hurled by one of our airmen. 

Again, at Autry, towards the end of September, a bomb 
killed some thirty soldiers, while another projectile killed or 
wounded twenty of them. 

On October 9 a bomb which burst in the midst of a 
group of cavalrymen killed thirty men and fifty horses. To 
the south-east of Lille a cavalry division which had been 
pursued and fired on during the whole of October 15 was at 
length prevented from carrying out its object by a bomb. 

As a result of the explosion of the bomb thrown at Autry, 
a major on the staff installed in that locality was obliged to 
change his quarters in all haste. 

A less prudent major than the last mentioned was at 
Thielt, and had a severe trial from the fire of our aero- 
planes, which hurled thirty-two bombs or shells there on 
November i. 

On their side the British airmen, whose activity is well 
known, pushed as far as Diisseldorf and did great damage 
to the hangars and balloons at that place. 

All these feats have been accomplished under the fire of 
the enemy, and not a single French airman has appeared 
without being greeted by a salvo of shrapnel or shells. The 
enemy's fire has, of course, caused us losses, but reserve 
pilots, burning with a desire to wage aerial warfare, have at 
once obtained permission to mount the skies against them. 

In short, the new arm has fulfilled its promise and has 
duly taken its part in the general success. But, if the aviator 
is a new arm, he does not take the place of any ancient arm. 
The cavalry must always reconnoitre and patrol, the artillery 
prepare the way for the infantry, while the engineers must 
prepare the ground for the advance of the latter. Finally the 
infantry, still the mam factor in battle, must as before take 
positions and pursue the enemy. 

PARIS, November g. 


General Joffre s Military Medal 

By virtue of the Decree of August 13, 1914, resolves : 
General Joffre (Joseph Jacques Cesaire), Commander-in- 
Chief of the Armies of the North-East, is entered on the Special 
Roll of the Military Medal, to date November 26, 1914. 

'From the day when the concentration of the French B. des A., 
forces was so remarkably accomplished under his Dec. 5, '14 
direction, he has shown in the conduct of the Armies 
qualities which have never for a moment forsaken him, 
a genius of organisation, of order and of method, a 
cool and wise judgment, a greatness of mind, which 
nothing has been able to move. 


Speech by the President of the Republic to General Joffre at 
French General Headquarters when presenting the Military 
Medal on November 26 


It is my very pleasant duty to hand to you to-day this B. des A., 
simple and glorious Medal, which is the emblem of the highest Nov. 29/14 
military qualities, and which is worn with equal pride alike 
by illustrious generals and modest privates. 

Please see in this symbolic distinction a proof of national 

Since the day when, under your direction, the concen- 
tration of the French forces was so remarkably achieved, you 
have shown in your leadership of our armies qualities which 
have never for one instant failed ; a spirit of organisation, 
order, and method, the happy effects of which extend from 
strategy to tactics ; a cool and reasoned wisdom which has 
always provided for the unforeseen ; strength of will that 
nothing shakes, a calmness whose salutary example inspires 
everywhere confidence and hope. 

I am certain that I am complying with your own wishes in 
adding my congratulations to your great General Staff, which 
has been called upon to prepare, under your supreme com- 
mand, the daily operations, and which is absorbed, like 



yourself, in the sacred task. But beyond the officers and 
men who surround me at this moment, my thoughts go out 
to the whole line of the front, from the Vosges to the North 
Sea, to the splendid troops whom I am to revisit to-morrow 
and on the following days, and I shall certainly be expressing 
your own sentiments, my dear General, when I render to the 
entire army a portion of the honour that you yourself have 

In the difficult weeks which have just passed, you have 
consolidated and prolonged, by the defence of Flanders, the 
brilliant victory of the Marne. Thanks to the happy impetus 
that you have given to all around you, everything has com- 
bined to assure to you new successes ; perfect unanimity 
of views in leadership, active co-operation between the Allied 
armies, judicious employment of military formations, and a 
rational co-ordination of the different arms. But it is the 
incomparable moral energy radiating from the souls of 
Frenchmen which has, above all things, assisted your great 
plans, and which has put all the machinery of the army in 


Proclamation by King Albert to the Army 


N. de la B. Without the slightest provocation from us, a neighbouring 
Power in the pride of its strength has torn up treaties bearing 
its signature, and has violated the territory of our forefathers. 

Because we have been worthy of ourselves, and because 
we have refused to forfeit our honour, we have been attacked. 
But the entire world marvels at our loyal attitude ; may its 
rfespect and esteem be your comfort in these supreme 

Seeing its independence threatened, the nation has roused 
herself and her sons have rushed to defend the frontier. Valiant 
soldiers of a holy cause, I have confidence in your prowess, 
and I salute you in the name of Belgium. Your countrymen 
are proud of you, and you will be victorious because you 
symbolise Might placed at the service of Justice. 


Caesar said to your ancestors, ' The Belgians are the bravest 
race in all Gaul/ 

All honour to you, Army of the Belgian people ! When 
you come face to face with the foe, remember that you are 
fighting for liberty and your hearths. Flemish, remember the 
Battle of the Golden Spurs ! l Walloons of Liege, who have 
the post of honour now, remember the 600 Franchimontois. 2 

Soldiers ! I leave Brussels to place myself at your head. 


Aug. 5, 1914. 

Proclamation by General Leman, Governor of Liege 


Great Germany invades our territory after an ultimatum p. d'H. 
which was an outrage. Little Belgium has proudly taken 
up the gauntlet. The Army will do its duty ! The popula- 
tion of Liege will do the same, and will not cease to be an 
example of calmness and respect to the Law. Its ardent 
patriotism will respond. Long live the King, Commander- 
in-Chief of the Army ! Long live Belgium ! 


August 4 Lieutenant-General. 

Letter from General Leman, Commandant of Liege, to 
King Albert on August 8 

To the King of the Belgians. 

After honourable engagements on August 4th, 5th, and 6th Times, 
I considered that the forts of Liege could only play the role of Sep*- I2 '' I 4 
barrier forts. I nevertheless maintained military government 
in order to co-ordinate the defence as much as possible, and 
to exercise moral influence upon the garrison. 

Your Majesty is aware that I was at Fort Loncin on 
August 6th at noon. You will learn with grief that the 

1 [A.D. 1302.] 

2 [The troops who sallied from Liege when besieged by Louis xi. and 
the Duke of Burgundy, and who were cut up to a man.] 



fort was blown up yesterday at 5.20 P.M., the greater part of 
the garrison being buried under the ruins. That I did not lose 
my Hfe in that catastrophe is due to my escort, who drew me 
from a stronghold whilst I was being suffocated by gas from 
the exploded powder. I was conveyed to a trench, where I 
fell. A German captain gave me drink, and I was made 
prisoner and taken to Liege. 

I am certain that I have shown carelessness in this letter, 
but I am physically shattered by the explosion at Fort Loncin. 
In honour of our arms I have surrendered neither the fortress 
nor the forts. Deign Sire, pardon me. 

In Germany, whither I am proceeding, my thoughts will 
be, as they always have been, of Belgium and the King. I 
would willingly have given my life the better to serve them, 
but death was not granted to me. 


Proclamation by the Belgian Minister for War 1 

OSTEND, Oct. 13. 


Times, For two months and a half, at an heroic price, the 

Oct. 15, '14 Belgian soldiers have defended inch by inch their homeland. 
B. des A., The enemy counted on the annihilation of our Army, but a 
Oct. 15-17, retreat carried out in admirable order has at the same time 
14 wrecked his hopes and assured to us the conservation of 

[See also our m iiitary forces, who will continue to fight to the bitter 
P< en( i f r the highest and most just of causes. From now 
onwards our Army, in conjunction with the Allies, will 
operate on the southern frontier. Thanks to this valorous 
co-operation, the triumph of right is certain. 

To the sacrifices already made and accepted by the Belgian 
nation is added another. So as better to bring to naught 
the designs of the invader, the Belgian Government has pro- 
visionally established itself in a place where, on the one hand, 
it may rest in contact with the Army, and on the other, with 
the help of France and England, it may better exercise and 
continue the national sovereignty. That is why it has left 

1 [Baron de Broqueville.] 


Ostend, carrying with it the memory of the warm reception 
that town extended to it. The Belgian Government goes 
to Havre, where the noble friendship of the French Republic 
will permit it at the same time the fullness of its sovereign 
rights and the complete exercise of its authority and its 

This momentary tribulation to which our patriotism ought 
to yield will have, we are convinced, a prompt revenge. The 
public services in Belgium will be continued in such measure 
as local circumstances may permit. The King and the 
Government count on the wisdom of your patriotism. On 
your side count on the ardent devotion, on the valour of our 
Army, and the help of the Allies to hasten the hour of the 
common deliverance. Our dear country, so odiously treated 
by one of the Powers which had sworn to guarantee its 
neutrality, has excited a growing admiration throughout 
the entire world. Thanks to the unanimity, the courage, 
and the clear-sightedness of all her children, she will remain 
worthy of that admiration which comforts her to-day. To- 
morrow she will emerge from her tribulation greater and 
more beautiful, having suffered for Justice and for the honour 
of civilisation itself. 

Long live Belgium, Free and Independent. 

Proclamation by the King of the Belgians to his Troops 


For more than two months you have fought with marvel- B. des A., 
lous courage and rare energy. You have been unable to guard p ct - 2 5-28, 
the country from an odious invasion ; but Belgium has not ' I4 
submitted, and the Belgian Army is not annihilated. 

Thanks to the wise retreat from Antwerp, considerable 
forces remain intact. The Field Army will be completely 
reconstituted by the recruits and the volunteers who have 
joined it. It will be able to continue the fight side by side 
with the English and French Armies, its glorious seniors, with 
whom it will from henceforth closely co-operate. 

Together, the Allies will retake, step by step, the territory 



soiled by the occupation of a powerful enemy, who had pre- 
meditated the war and brought formidable resources against 

Soldiers ! our towns have been burnt, our fields ravaged, 
our hearths destroyed; mourning is universal in our dear 
country, which has been cruelly devastated by pitiless foes. 
Even greater misfortunes hang over our compatriots if you do 
not deliver them from infamous oppression. 

You have, then, an imperative duty which you will know 
how to perform when your leaders give the sign. 

A great King of France l once wrote this letter in the day 
of defeat : * All is lost save honour/ You have clothed 
your unfortunate country with honour, and to-day you must 
cause it to rise from its ashes. 

Soldiers ! There remains for you more than the glory of 
conquest. You have to rescue the country with the aid of 
our noble Allies. 


October 28. 


Russian Mobilisation 

July 30. 
The Imperial Ukase calls to the colours : 

P. d'H. (i) The entire Reservists of twenty-three Governments, 

and the Reservists in seventy-one Districts of fourteen other 

(2) Another portion of Reservists of nine Districts of four 

(3) The Naval Reservists of sixty-four Districts of twelve 
Russian Governments and of one Finland Government. , 

(4) The free Cossacks of the territories of Kouban, Terek, 
Astrakan, Orenburg, and the Ural. 

(5) A corresponding number of Reserve officers, medical, 
and veterinary officers. 

A corresponding number of horses and wagons are re- 
quisitioned from the Governments and the mobilised Districts. 

1 [Francis i., 'Tout est perdu fors I'honneur.'] 


Imperial Manifesto on Declaration of War by Germany 
ST. PETERSBURG, July 20 (August 2). 

By the Grace of God, We, Nicholas n., Emperor and /. de St. P. 
Autocrat of all the Russias, King of Poland, Grand Duke of 
Finland, etc., etc., To all Our faithful subjects make known : 

That Russia, related by faith and blood to the Slav peoples 
and faithful to her historical traditions, has never regarded 
their fates with indifference. The fraternal sentiments of the 
Russian people for the Slavs have been awakened with perfect 
unanimity and extraordinary force during these last few days, 
when Austria-Hungary knowingly addressed to Serbia claims 
inacceptable for an independent State. 

Having paid no attention to the pacific and conciliatory 
reply of the Serbian Government, and having rejected the 
benevolent intervention of Russia, Austria made haste to 
proceed to an armed attack and began to bombard Belgrade, 
an open place. Forced by the situation thus created to take 
the necessary measures of precaution, we ordered the Army and 
Navy to be put on a war footing, while using every endeavour 
to obtain a peaceful solution of the negotiations which had been 
begun, for the blood and property of our subjects are dear to us. 

Amid friendly relations with Germany and her ally Austria, 
contrary to our hopes in our good neighbourly relations of 
long date, and disregarding our assurances that the measures 
taken were in pursuance of no object hostile to her, Germany 
began to demand their immediate cessation. Having been 
rebuffed in this demand, she suddenly declared war on Russia. 
To-day it is not only the protection of the country related to 
us and unjustly attacked that must be carried out, but we 
must also safeguard the honour, dignity, and integrity of 
Russia and her position among' the Great Powers. 

We steadfastly believe that all our faithful subjects will 
rise with unanimity and devotion for the defence of Russian 
soil, that internal discord will be forgotten in this threatening 
hour, that the unity of the Tsar with his people will become 
still more close, and that Russia, rising like one man, will 
repulse the insolent attack of the enemy with profound faith 
in the justice of our work and with humble hope in omnipotent 
Providence. In prayer we call God's blessing on Holy Russia 
and her valiant troops. - NICHOLAS. 



Imperial Edict (Ukase) given to the Ruling Senate 

July 20 (August 2). 

/. de St. P. Not recognising it to be possible, for general reasons of 
State, how to take command of Our land and sea forces 
destined for war operations, We have most graciously judged 
it advisable to order Our Aide-de-Camp-General, Commander- 
in-Chief of the troops of the Guard and of the Petersburg 
military district, General of Cavalry, His Imperial High- 
ness the Grand Duke Nicholas Nicholaevitch, to be Supreme 

Imperial Manifesto on Declaration of War by Austria-Hungary 

J.deSt.P., By the Grace of God, We, Nicholas n., Emperor and 
Aug. 8, '14 Autocrat of all the Russias, King of Poland, Grand Duke 
of Finland, etc., etc., Declare to all Our loyal subjects : 

1 [See Dip- A few days ago in Our Manifesto 1 We informed the Russian 
lomatic, 2, people of the war declared on Us by Germany. 
P- 47] Now, Austria-Hungary, the primary instigator of world 

strife, unsheathing amid profound peace the sword against 
weak Serbia, has cast off the mask and declared war on 
Russia, who has more than once saved her. 

The forces of the enemy are multiplying : against Russia 
and the whole of Slavdom both the mighty German Powers 
have taken up arms. But with doubled strength the just 
indignation of peaceful peoples is growing against them, and 
with invincible determination and true to the glorious tradi- 
tions of her past, against the foe rises Russia, called forth to 

God sees that not for the sake of warlike designs or vain 
worldly glory have We taken up arms, but, defending the 
dignity and safety of Our Empire, protected by God, We are 
fighting for the Right. In the pending war of peoples We are 
not alone; together with Us have risen Our valiant Allies, 
also compelled to have recourse to the force of arms in order 
to remove once for all the perpetual menace of the German 
Powers to general peace and tranquillity. 

May the Lord Almighty bless Our arms and those of Our 


Allies, and may all Russia rise to martial exploits with iron 
in the hands and the Cross in the heart ! 

Given at 52. Petersburg on the Twenty-sixth (August 8) 
day of July, in the year of our Lord One thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen, and the Twentieth year 
of Our Reign. 

Signed by His Imperial Majesty's own Hand. 


The Tsar's Address to the Representatives of the Army 
at the Winter Palace, August 8, 1914 

With calmness and dignity Our Great Mother-Russia has /. de St. P. 
met the news of the declaration of war on Us. 

I am convinced that with the same feeling of calmness We 
shall carry the war, whatever it may be, to an end. 

I here solemnly announce that I will not conclude peace 
till the last enemy's soldier leaves Our soil, and to you, 
assembled here, the representatives of my beloved troops of 
the Guard and of the Petersburg military district, I appeal, 
and in your person to all My Army, one in soul and kindred, 
strong as a granite wall, and I bid you God speed in your 
martial labour. 

The Tsar's Address to the Imperial Council and Imperial Duma 
in the Winter Palace, August 8, 1914 

I welcome you in the present important and troublous /. de St. P. 
days through which all Russia is passing. Germany and, later, 
Austria have declared war on Russia. That tremendous 
uplifting of patriotic sentiments, of love of our Country and 
devotion to the Throne which has, like a hurricane, swept over 
Our entire land, serves in My eyes and, I think, in yours, as a 
guarantee that Our Great Mother-Russia will carry the war, 
sent down by the Lord God, to the desired end. 

From this unanimous outburst of love and readiness for 
all sacrifices, even to that of one's own life, I derive my strength, 
and tranquilly and confidently look to the future. 

We are not only defending Our honour and dignity in the 
confines of Our soil, but we are fighting for Our brother-Slavs, 
one in blood and faith, and at the present moment I joyfully 



see that the union of the Slavs is also proceeding firmly and 
indissolubly with that of all Russia. 

I am sure that you all, each in his place, will help Me to 
endure the trial imposed upon Me, and that all, beginning 
with Myself, will fulfil their duty to the end. 

Great is the God of the Russian Land. 

Proclamation of the Grand Duke Nicholas, Russian 

C ommander -in-Chief 3 to the Poles 

Gazeta The hour has struck when the sacred dream of your 

Wars- fathers and forefathers may be realised. 
zawska, ^ century and a half ago the living flesh of Poland was 

ug<1 ' I4 torn asunder, but her soul did not die. It lived in hope 
that the hour would arrive for the resurrection of the Polish 
people and their fraternal reconciliation with Russia. 

The Russian army brings you the glad tidings of this 

Let the boundaries which sunder the Polish people be 
effaced. Let them reunite in one under the sceptre of the 
Russian Tsar. 

Under this sceptre Poland will be reborn, free in faith, 
in language, and in self-government. 

Russia expects but one thing from you equal consideration 
for the rights of those peoples with which history has linked 

With open heart, with fraternally extended hand, Russia 
comes forward to meet you. She believes that the sword 
has not rusted which smote the foe at Griinwald. 1 

From the shores of the Pacific Ocean to the northern seas 
the hosts of Russia are on the march. 

The dawn of a new life is breaking for you. 
In this dawn shines the sign of the Cross the symbol of 
the Passion and resurrection of nations. 

The Supreme Commander-in-Chief , 


August i (14), 1914. 

1 [A victory of the Poles and Lithuanians over the Teutonic Knights 
of the Cross, A.D. 1410.] 


Communication from the Staff of His Imperial Highness Grand 
Duke Nicholas, Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army 

His Highness the Commander-in-Chief has issued an order Pol. Doc. 
that it should be announced to all ranks of the army on active 
service, and to the population, that Russia is waging a war 
with the object of shaking off the general enemy of Slavdom. 

Poles, those on Russian territory as well as those within 
the frontiers of Germany and Austria, who have proved their 
loyalty, will be under the special protection of our Army and 
Government, in the sense that their persons and property 
will be safe from any violation. 

All violation of the personal and property rights of Poles 
against whom no actions hostile to Russia have been proved, 
will be punished with the utmost rigour of martial law. 
August i (14), 1914. 

Telegram, of the Russian Emperor to the Population of the 
Kingdom of Poland, conveyed through the Governor- 
General of Warsaw 

It is with pleasure that I have heard of the splendid Pol Doc. 
accomplishment of the mobilisation of the Reservists of the 
Warsaw Military District, and of the patriotic spirit of the 
whole population of the country, proving the general readiness 
to respond to my first call to the ranks of the Russian army 
for the defence of our common Fatherland against the here- 
ditary foe of myself and the whole of Slavdom. 

I recommend that you proclaim to all the population of 
the kingdom of Poland my gratitude for the unshaken love 
and devotion to me and to Russia shown by them in this 
moment, so serious to the Empire. 


August 3 (16), 1914. 

St. Petersburg Renamed 

August 19 (September i). 

By Imperial order the city of St. Petersburg will hence- /. de P. 
forth be known as Petrograd. 



Telegram from the Grand Duke Nicholas to the Tsar on the 

fall of Lemberg 

B.desA., With extreme joy I announce to your victorious Majesty 
Sept. 5, '14 that to-day, at eleven in the morning, the army of General 

Ruszky has taken Lemberg, and the army of General Brusiloff 

has taken Halicz. 

I solicit for General Ruszky some reward for his conduct 

in the preceding battles, and the Cross of St. George for the 

taking of Lemberg. 

I ask the same Decoration for General Brusiloff for his 

conduct in all the engagements, and the Cross of St. George 

of the 4th class for the taking of Halicz. 

Summons of the Russian Military Authorities to 
the Poles (issued in Czernowicz) 

Pol. Doc. On account of the loyal attitude of the Russian Poles 

towards our war, His Imperial Majesty has condescended to 
command the announcement to all the Poles that the present 
war is for the freedom of the Slavs, among them the Poles. 
His Imperial Majesty promises that if, with God's help, he 
concludes the war victoriously, he will unite all the parts of 
ancient Poland, those under German and Austrian as well as 
those under Russian dominion, in one autonomous whole, and 
that Poland shall be revived under the sceptre of the Russian 
Tsar. Therefore His Imperial Majesty expects that all Poles 
will add their endeavours to help in this task of freeing the 
Slavs in general and the Poles in particular. 

The Commander-in-Chief of the Russian army declares 
that he is grieved at the fact that Poles on the other side of 
the frontier are forming divisions of Sokoly, 1 and with arms 
in their hands are opposing the Russian forces. To the 
members of this Sokoly he will show no mercy ; in case of 
capture he will order them to be shot as enemies of Slavdom, 
and he will not consider them as combatants. 

August 27 (September 9), 1914. 

1 [See note on p. 213.] 


Telegram from the Tsar to the Russian Population of Galicia 

To the Governor-General of Galicia, Lemberg. 

Transmit to the delegates of Russian organisations in /. de P. 
Galicia, who have come to you to express their sentiments of 
love and devotion, my thanks, and my good wishes to the 
people who have suffered so much. 

All Russia rejoices with me in the re-establishment of union 
with the ancient Russian Tschervonnaja, so dear to the heart of 
every Russian. 

My wishes for all success to you personally, 


TSARSKOE-SELO, August 30 (September 12), 1914. 

Proclamation of the Grand Duke Nicholas, Commander-in- 
Chief, to the Peoples of Austria-Hungary 


The Vienna Government declared war on Russia because Ibid. 
Russia, true to her historical traditions, could not leave Serbia 
defenceless and permit her enslavement. 

Entering at the head of the Russian army within the con- 
fines of Austria-Hungary, in the name of the Great Russian 
Tsar I declare to you that Russia, more than once already 
having shed her blood for the emancipation of nations from 
an alien yoke, is seeking nothing save the restoration of 
right and justice. To you, peoples of Austria-Hungary, she 
also now brings liberty and the realisation of your national 

The Austro-Hungarian Government for centuries has sown 
among you discord and enmity, because only upon your 
disunion was based her authority over you. 

Russia, on the contrary, is seeking only one thing, that 
each of you may develop and thrive, preserving the precious 
possession of your fathers language and creed ; and, united 
with your own brothers, live in peace and harmony with your 
neighbours, respecting their independence. 

Assured that with all your strength you' will further the 



attainment of this object, I call upon you to meet the Russian 
troops as true friends and champions of your best ideals. 

The Supreme Commander-in-Chief , 


September 3 (16), 1914. 
[This proclamation was published in nine languages.] 

Acknowledgment by the Military Governor-General of Warsaw, 
in the Name of the Commander-in-Chief, of the Favourable 
Reception accorded to the Army in its Passage through the 

Pol. Doc. When the Military Divisions marched through Warsaw 

and its neighbourhood, the local population received them in 
a manner which occasionally assumed a touching character. 
Hearing of this, the Commander-in-Chief has requested me 
to express his sincere gratitude to the population of Warsaw 
and its neighbourhood. 

The Citadel of Alexander, Warsaw. 

The Military Governor-General of Warsaw and its 
immediate neighbourhood, 


September 23 (October 6), 1914. 

Telegram from the Russian Commander-in-Chief to the Troops 

B. des A., On leaving the Headquarters of the Army, the Emperor 

Oct. 11-14, yesterday ordered the train to be stopped at Bielostok ; he 

I 9 I 4 proceeded to the fortress of Ossovetz in order to congratulate 

the garrison in person upon its gallant defence of that place. 

His Majesty thus came quite close to the fighting front. I 

have reported this visit of our august chief to all the armies, 

and feel sure it will inspire the finest exploits that Holy Russia 

has ever witnessed. 



Announcement of the Military Governor-General in regard to 
the Defence of the Town of Warsaw 

By request of the Chief of the Army, I announce to the Pol. Doo. 
population of the district entrusted to me, that they can be 
at ease in regard to approaching events, since the defence of 
the town of Warsaw will be carried on with the utmost effort. 

The Military Governor-General of Warsaw and its neigh- 

September 30 (October 13), 1914. 

Speech of Count J. Bobrinski, Military Governor-General of 
Eastern Galicia, delivered on October 13, 1914, in the 
Viceroy's Palace, in Reply to the Speech of the President of 
the Town of Lemberg, Dr. Rutowski 

My thanks are due to you, Gentlemen, for keeping order Pol. Doo. 
and quiet in the town. I am willing to believe that in the 
future I shall find on your part a complete and sincere colla- 
boration in my future tasks. On you entirely will depend 
the strengthening of my confidence in you, without which no 
common work is possible and profitable. I consider it 
unavoidable to acquaint you with the guiding principles of 
my future activities. 

First of all, Eastern Galicia and Lemkoszczyzna have 
been, from of old, part of one great Rus. 1 On these lands 
the indigenous population has always been Russian ; 2 the 
administration of these lands ought, therefore, to be on 
Russian principles. I shall introduce here the Russian 
language, Russian law and administration. These principles 
will naturally be introduced gradually. I consider it essential 
in the interests of the population not to disturb the normal 
course of the life of the country, therefore I shall limit myself 

1 [Here the word used does not mean 'Russia/ but the old 'Rus/ 
divided into Red Rus, or Eastern Galicia, Little Rus or Ukraine, and 
White Rus. This name is seldom, if ever, used for Great Rus or Great 

2 [Here and subsequently the word used is an adjective formed not 
from ' Rus/ which would follow naturally from the previous use of ' Rus/ 
and which would take the form 'ruska' (Ruthenian), but 'Russian 1 in 
the English sense of the word, having the form ' Rosyjska/] 



for the moment to the nomination of Russian Governors, 
Russian Chiefs of Districts, and Russian police. 

All the officials of the municipality (as, for instance, those 
filling offices urban and rural) will be temporarily permitted 
by me to carry on their duties, naturally under the condition 
that they show themselves loyal to the Russian rule. 

The Seim x will not be summoned. Meetings of the Rural 
and Urban Councils and gatherings of the rural communities 
are forbidden. Until the moment of cessation of military 
operations, all societies, unions, and clubs, without exception, 
will be closed. They may be opened only by special per- 
mission from me for each occasion. 

All that I have said concerns exclusively the lands which 
have been Russian from of old. In Western Galicia the 
historical past is different, and the composition of the popula- 
tion is Polish. When our brave armies set free that part of 
Galicia, I shall with joy put into operation there the principles 
announced in the appeal of the Commander-in-Chief Grand 
Duke Nicholas Nicholaevitch, naturally on condition that the 
Polish population takes up a sympathetic attitude towards 
Russian rule and the Russian armies. I shall certainly not 
tolerate any open or secret action against the Orthodox 

I take advantage of our first meeting to express definitely, 
and to convey through you, Gentlemen, to the whole popula- 
tion of the town of Lemberg and of Galicia, my intention to 
punish the slightest attempt at counteraction, open or secret, 
against the Orders of the Administration, with all the severity 
of Martial Law and of field Courts-martial, without regard 
to position, class, or any other circumstances. 

You are aware of the extent of the power conferred upon 
me for the purpose of preventing any action against the 
Russian State. I anticipate that I shall not be called upon 
to exercise it. 

Administrative Order of Count J. Bobrinski, Military 
Governor-General of Eastern Galicia 

Pol. Doc. According to sections 1,2, and 3 of Article 19 of the Orders 
for the places proclaimed to be under martial law : 

1 [Seim, Polish name for Galician Parliament.] 


1. It is forbidden to hold any function in Clubs, Unions, 
and Societies, until permission is obtained in each particular 

2. It is forbidden to carry on any schools, residential 
hostels, or classes existing in Galicia, with the exception of 
technical classes, until further special order. 

Those guilty of contravening these regulations will be 
subject to the penalty of imprisonment for three months 
under this Administrative Order, or to a fine amounting to 
3000 roubles. 

Oetober 2 (15), 1914. . 

Declaration of Count J. Bobrinski, Military Governor-General 
of Eastern Galicia, in regard to the Appeal of the Com- 

I have received news that the Austrians in Eastern Galicia Pol. Doc. 
are disseminating constant rumours that the Commander-in- 
Chief is said to have withdrawn the promises expressed in the 
Appeal to the Poles, because the latter have been fighting in 
the Polish Legions against Russia. To affirm this, hostile 
individuals are said to be spreading false manifestoes of the 
Grand Duke. I am authorised to announce that these 
rumours of the change which is said to have taken place in 
the attitude of the Commander-in-Chief towards the future 
fate of Poland have no foundation among the Slavs, united 
against their hereditary foe. 

October 7 (20), 1914. 

Imperial Manifesto 

By the Grace of God, We, Nicholas 11., Emperor and Govern- 
Autocrat of all the Russias, King of Poland, Grand Duke of ent M * S - 
Finland, etc., etc., Declare to all our faithful subjects : 0^*21 

In hitherto unsuccessful conflict with Russia, striving by ( N <> v - 3). 
all means to multiply their forces, Germany and Austria- ] 
Hungary have resorted to the help of the Ottoman Government 
and have drawn into the war with Us, Turkey, who has been 

blinded by them. 



Commanded by Germans, the Turkish fleet has dared 
treacherously to attack our Black Sea coast. 

Immediately after this We commanded the Russian 
Ambassador at Tsargrad, 1 with all the Embassy and Consular 
officials, to leave Turkey. 

With entire tranquillity and trust in the help of God, 
Russia accepts this new advent against her of the old per- 
secutor of the Christian faith and of all Slav peoples. 

More than once have the valiant Russian arms overcome 
the Turkish hordes ; and on this occasion also they will 
chastise the insolent foe of Our Country. Together with all 
the Russian people We inflexibly believe that the present ill- 
advised interference of Turkey in the war will only accelerate 
the fateful course of events for her and open the path for 
Russia to the solution of the historical problems bequeathed 
to her by her forefathers on the shores of the Black Sea. 

Given at Tsarskoe-Selo on the Twentieth day of October 
(November 2), in the year of our Lord One thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen, and the Twentieth year of 
Our Reign. 

Signed by His Imperial Majesty's own Hand, 


Acknowledgment from His Imperial Highness Duke Alexander 
Piotrovitch Oldenburg in the Name of His Imperial Majesty 
to the Inhabitants of Warsaw and its Neighbourhood 2 

Pol. Doc. His Imperial Majesty, the Emperor, having learned of the 
unanimous, courageous, and self-sacrificing work of the 
inhabitants of Warsaw and its neighbourhood during the 
trying days through which the country has just passed, has 
commanded me to come here and through you to communi- 
cate the sincere acknowledgment of His Imperial Majesty 
the Emperor, and Their Imperial Majesties the Empresses, to 
all those who offered their services for the benefit of this 
great work. 

October n (24), 1914. 

1 [Constantinople.] 

2 [The above speech was delivered at the Warsaw Station of the 
Petrograd Railway, to the group of people in charge of the arrangements 
for the help and protection of the wounded.] 




To the Serbian Nation ! 

Two days ago the Austro-Hungarian Government handed 
a note to the Serbian Government, with certain demands 
requiring a reply by six o'clock this evening, and threatening 
to break off diplomatic relations should it not prove satis- 

The Serbian Government, believing that it is interpreting 
your wishes, and in the interest of peace, which not only 
Serbia but, we are convinced, the whole of Europe desires, 
has met the Imperial and Royal Government to the utmost 
limits of concession possible to an independent State. 

Trusting in God's help, in the righteousness of our cause, 
and the friendship of the Great Powers who, we are con- 
vinced, wish likewise to preserve peace, we hope that this 
difference will end peacefully. But as the Austro-Hungarian 
Minister declared this evening, on behalf of his Government, 
that he is not satisfied with our reply and that he is definitely 
breaking off diplomatic relations, the Serbian Government is 
compelled to take the most necessary military measures for 
the defence of the country against any emergency. We 
deem it our duty to summon the nation to the defence of the 
Fatherland, believing that all will willingly respond to the 
call of patriotism. Should we be attacked, the army will do 
its duty, and we advise those citizens who have not been 
called to the colours to remain at their homes and calmly 
to follow their avocations. 
BELGRAD, July 25, 1914. 

(Signed) NlK. P. PA&C, 2 2 [Pashitch; 

Prime Minister, see te on 

Minister for Foreign Affairs. transhtera- 

(Signed) DR. L. PAU, J 

Minister of Finance. 
(Signed) STOJ. M. PROTIC, 
iS-^'-iB^ Minister for Home Affairs. 
(Signed) J. P. JOVANOVI^, 

Minister of Public Works. 

1 [Except where otherwise indicated the translations of the following 
documents have been supplied by H. E. the Serbian Minister in London.] 



(Signed) Lj. JOVANOVIC, 

Minister of Education and Public 

(Signed) M. S. GJURICIC, 

Minister of Justice. 
(Signed) DR. V. JANKOVIC, 

Minister of Commerce and 


War Minister. 

July zqth, 1914. 
To My Brave and Well-Beloved Serbs / 

Upon our beloved Serbia a great evil has descended. 
War against us has been declared by Austria-Hungary. 
United as one man we must meet the situation courageously. 

Austria's ill-will towards our kingdom and our nation is 
not the growth of yesterday. Whenever* it suited Vienna's 
purpose, she gave the most solemn promises that justice 
should be meted out to the Serbs and Croats promises, alas ! 
still unfulfilled. In vain has the blood of Serbian and 
Croatian frontier-guards and other heroes of our race been 
spilt throughout Europe for the glory and profit of the 
Viennese Court ; in vain did Serbia sacrifice herself during 
the reign of my Grandfather, when she helped to save the 
Imperial throne from its own discontented and revolting 
nations ; in vain has Serbia ever done her utmost to live in 
amity with her Imperial neighbour : all was of no avail. 

Serbia, both as State and nation, has everywhere and 
always been an object of suspicion, and on that account 
placed in a position of inferiority. Thirty-six years ago, 
Austria occupied Serbian Bosnia and Herzegovina which had 
risen to free themselves ; and six years ago Austria wrongfully 
annexed them, promising them constitutional freedom ; but 
such freedom as they were given did not in the least satisfy 
them. All this caused deep dissatisfaction to our people. 
Especially was this the case among the excited and thought- 
less youth ; and finally it provoked that resistance which 
culminated in the Sarajevo attempt. 


Serbia genuinely deplored that fateful incident, and con- - 
demned it, declaring herself ready to hand over to justice 
all concerned in it. But Serbia has seen with dismay that 
Austria does not in any way admit that the responsibility 
for the crime is due to her own evil administration, nor does 
she limit it to the assassin and his accomplices, but seeks to 
involve the whole kingdom of Serbia. Regardless of the 
fact that the murder in question was save for the help of a 
few fellow-conspirators perpetrated by one man and he 
one of her own subjects and, in fact, in her own country 
and under the eyes of her own authorities, Austria is accusing 
our officials and our officers, the Serbian Government, and 
finally the whole kingdom of "Serbia and all Serbs every- 
where. Such an accusation of a whole independent State 
for the offences of a few is unique in European history, where 
similar crimes unfortunately are not rare. 

In accordance with that imputation, the Austro-Hungarian 
Government handed to My Government on the 23rd inst. 1 l [ 2 3 N - s ] 
an extraordinary Note formulating grave accusations and 
demands, and requesting from Serbia an explanation, giving 
her forty-eight hours in which to reply. 

My Government, in accordance with the wishes of the 
nation and our desire for peace a desire felt not only by 
Serbia but by the whole of Europe wished at any cost to 
avoid conflict ; and, therefore, it met the Austro-Hungarian 
Government by going to the extreme limit of concessions 
possible to an independent State. 

When the Austro-Hungarian Minister was informed of 
this, he immediately declared that his Government was not 
satisfied with the reply, and broke off diplomatic relations 
with My Government. Thereupon, all friendly States, led by 
our Russian brothers, endeavoured to induce the Austro- 
Hungarian Government to agree to a peaceful solution of 
the conflict. Unfortunately, the Vienna Statesmen remained 
deaf to the counsels of wisdom and the interests of humanity. 
They declared war on us yesterday, 2 regardless of the fact 2 [July 28] 
that by so doing they inevitably involve all the dire conse- 
quences of a European conflict. 

Although fully realising all the difficulties and dangers 
involved at the very moment, moreover, when Serbian 
warriors were preparing to gather the ripe fruits of their 



* efforts I am compelled to summon to the Serbian Tricolor 
all My beloved and gallant Serbs, in the conviction that 
they will once again prove worthy of their brave ancestors 
even as they did these last two years before. 

With faith in Almighty God, with hope for sympathy 
from the civilised world, assured of the final victory of our 
righteous cause, relying upon the help of our kinsmen and 
our loyal friends, let us, together with our brave brother 
Serbs from Montenegro, take up the challenge which has 
been so arrogantly thrown down. Our glorious past has ever 
given proof that the Serbs, when united, can conquer against 
the heaviest odds. Let us prove once more that the Serb 
can fight for his country, and, like Obili6, sacrifice himself 
in the defence of his Fatherland against a powerful and 
arrogant foe. 

Serbs, defend with all your might your homes and the 

Serbian race ! 

[NISH] NI, July 29, 1914. 


Prime Minister, 

Minister for Foreign Affairs. 
(Signed) DR. L. PACU, 

Minister of Finance. 
(Signed) STOJ. M. PROTIC, 

Minister of the Interior. 
(Signed) J. P. JOVANOVIC, 

Minister of Public Works. 
(Signed) Lj. JOVANOVIC, 

Minister of Education and Public 

(Signed) M. S. GjURicid, 

Minister of Justice. 
(Signed) DR. V. JANKOVIC, 

Minister of Commerce and 


War Minister. 



Army Order from the Commander -in-Chief H.R.H. Crown 
Prince Alexander to all the Serbian Army 


The greatest and most mortal enemy of our State and 
of our race suddenly and without any reason has furiously 
attacked our honour and our existence. Austria-Hungary, 
our insatiable northern neighbour, has already gathered 
together her army and has made several attempts to cross 
our northern frontier and to enslave our beautiful country. 
It would seem she was not satisfied that we had to listen 
silently to the lamentations from the millions of our brothers 
who lifted up their voice to us from Bosnia and Herzegovina, 
from the Banat and from Backa, from Croatia, Slavonia, 
Srem, and from our sea coast and from rocky Dalmatia. 
This time she asks more : she demands our life, honour, and 

Soldiers ! After the brilliant successes of our arms in 
1912 and 1913, and the State acquisitions which were 
recognised by the whole of Europe that brought us the 
Peace of Bukarest, I desired most sincerely that Serbia and 
her dear warriors should have had their well-earned rest and 
enjoy in peace the benefits resulting from their numerous 
struggles and their victories.^ And it was for this reason 
that Serbia was ready to enter into peaceful discussion with 
Austria-Hungary and to come to an understanding with her 
on all questions under dispute. But, unfortunately, it became 
evident at once that Austria would not treat with us. Even 
if we had fulfilled all her demands, she had resolved to attack 
us, to humble us, and to destroy us. The shameful demands 
of Austria had to receive the answer which they merited. 
I rejected them with scorn, certain that the ignominy with 
which they desired to cover us would be thrown back by you 
in the face of those who tried to sully the brilliance and 
the glory of our arms. For this reason I have called you 
from your busy harvest season in order that though still 
weary from your recent victories you may gather round 
your victorious flags and defend your country. The com- 
munication I have now to make to you is a declaration of war 
on Austria. To arms, my heroes, 1 of whom I am so proud. 

1 [Literally sokols (falcons).] 



Soldiers ! You will have to fight an enemy who has 
never had any success in war nor gained any military 
victories. In this sacred war, I will be your C6mmander-in- 
Chief. During the last two years we have learned to know 
one another on the field of battle. 1 At Kumanovo, Monastir, 
and Bregalnica I witnessed with pride your deeds of heroism 
and your unparalleled self-sacrifice. Therefore, I am con- 
vinced that, on this occasion also, you will, in the defence of 
our country, and in the great work of liberating those Serbs 
still beneath a foreign yoke, know how to add to the glory 
and fame of the Serbian arms. 

Soldiers ! In addition to our Montenegrin brothers and 
all other Serbs who will fight wherever they may be and 
with whatever weapons they may possess you will have as 
your comrades-in-arms in this great fight our powerful and 
mighty brothers the Russians whose august Tsar Nicolas II., 
at the first news of the attack on Serbia, with all Russia in 
arms, chivalrously proclaimed his intention to defend Serbia 
and the Slav cause. In addition to the Russians, we have their 
brave allies and our tried friends the French who have 
already begun bitter fighting against Germany Austria's 

Soldiers ! There is no more sacred duty on this earth 
than the defence of your own State, your own race and 
religion, your own homes, your fathers, and your children. 
Therefore, with faith in God, in His justice and grace, let us 
go forward, with the knowledge of our certain victory, and 
let us decorate our flags with new laurels. For on those flags, 
more clearly to-day than ever before, has Providence in- 
scribed our war cry : War for the freedom and independence 
of the Serbian race ! 

Long live Serbia ! 
Long live the Army, of which I am so proud ! 

Commander-in-Chief of the Army. 

1 [Aug. 4, KRAGUJEVAC, August 4, 1 1914. 

1 [During the war of 1912-13 the Crown Prince commanded only a part 
of the Serbian army, that known as the First Army.] 


KRAGUJEVAC, December qth, 1914. 
Greeting to the Army from His Majesty the King. 

While on his way to the battlefield to visit the troops, His 
Majesty the King commanded the following greeting to be 
conveyed to the whole Army on his behalf : 

' His Majesty the King, filled with admiration for the 
superhuman efforts and with reverence for the enormous 
sacrifices of our army, sends to all officers, non-commis- 
sioned officers, corporals, and privates, His most hearty 
thanks, in the firm conviction that they will all of them 
with that same hardihood which is known to the whole 
civilised world, steadfastly endure in the defence of the 
Fatherland, and guard the honour, glory, name, and 
future of Serbia, bearing even the last sacrifices to the 
altar of the sacred ideals of Serbian Unification, and 
bequeathing unparalleled examples of devotion to pos- 

With the heartfelt cry of ' Long live our Army/ His 
Majesty the King greeted his heroes, 1 in faith and hope in 
God and in the final victory. 

King Peter to his Soldiers 

The following speech to the Serbian soldiers was made by 
King Peter on November 19, o.s. (December 2), 1914, when, 
crippled by age and infirmity, he visited them at the front, 
on the Rudnik Mountains, just before the great Serbian 
rally which drove the Austrians out of the country. 
King Peter said : 

' Heroes ! You have taken two oaths, one to me, your 
King, the other to your country. I am an old and broken 
man, on the edge of the grave, and I release you from 
your oath to me. From your other oath no one can 
release you. If you feel that you cannot go on, go to 
your homes, and I pledge my word that after the war, if 
' we come through it, nothing shall happen to you. But 
I and my sons stay here/ 

1 [See note on p. 285.] 



Order of the Day by the Serbian Prince Regent, 


Times, With superhuman heroism and noble sacrifices, my dear 

Dec. 14, '14 soldiers, in the fighting of the last few days you have beaten 
the enemy, and with a rapidity unheard of in military history 
you are pursuing his army. You have defeated four of the 
enemy's army corps. You have won innumerable trophies, 
and on the crown of your victories you have inscribed the 
names of your glorious victories at Ovcar, Kablar, Suvobor, 
Maljen, Kosmaj, Ljig, and Kolubara. 

In defending the liberty of your country you have raised 
on these mountains, and on the banks of these rivers which are 
dear to you, great and everlasting monuments to your heroism, 
which will speak to posterity of your glorious exploits. Your 
Allies are overjoyed at your victories. They are filled with 
admiration of you. Your country will be everlastingly grate- 
ful to you, and I am proud to be at your head, and to show 
at the same time to my august father another exploit of his 
renowned heroes. 

In addressing my salutations to you, I ask you, soldiers, 
to continue with an iron will the pursuit of the enemy. Drive 
him from our dear country. Give back their homes to the 
helpless one, whom the enemy has so cruelly driven from them. 
Punish him to the last extremity, and for the third time show 
him how a Serb defends his country. Pursue to the last 
breath his cruel hordes. On to the Drina and the Save. Glory 
to those who have fallen on the field of honour. Long live 
my splendid officers and soldiers. 

The Commander-in-Chief of the Serbian Armies, 


Semi-official Statement issued by the Serbian Minister in London l 

LONDON, December 15. 

Times, On behalf of my Government and myself I wish to express 

Oct. 12, '14 my satisfaction and gratitude for the sympathetic interest 

1 [M. Boshkovitch.] 


that has been shown to Serbia, not only in official quarters 
but also by the public and Press of Great Britain. This has 
been demonstrated by the congratulations that have been 
received from all sides on account of our last victories. 

People generally have not understood the military con- 
dition in Serbia, and believed hi their hearts that the Army 
was exhausted. They did not realise that the last great 
battle was fought on the first line of Serbian defence, on ground 
deliberately chosen by the Headquarters Staff in view of the 
defence of the country. All the former military movements of 
four months on the Save and Drina, and our operations in 
Bosnia, were necessitated by the weakness of our opponents, 
by which I do not mean weakness in point of numbers, but 
that which is due to bad generalship. 

At the beginning of the war we expected the capture of 
Belgrad to be only a matter of a few days, and we were sur- 
prised to find the occupation indefinitely delayed. It is still 
more a matter for surprise that it has been recaptured by our 
gallant Army with such rapidity. Let me repeat that our 
first serious Une of defence was that on which we defeated the 
Austrians last week. Since then the pursuit of the enemy 
has been vigorous and rapid. The defeat he has sustained is 
undoubtedly the greatest during the war with Serbia, and we 
believe that the enemy's effort on that occasion will mark his 
last attempt to invade our land. 

Our immediate business is now to clear the enemy from 
the north-western corner of Serbia between Sabac and 
Krupan. So far from our army being exhausted or dis- 
heartened, as Austrian reports have led some to believe, our 
men are in the best of spirits and ready for anything that 
may be required of them. 

Order of the Day addressed to the Serbian Army by the 
Prince Regent, Commander -in-Chief 


Five months have already passed since the enemy attacked 
our beloved country, and although we have been sorely tried 
in two glorious but difficult wars, we have nevertheless with- 
stood his attacks with heroism. After having beaten him once 
at the Mount Cer and at the river Jadar, we have, after many 



fierce but glorious engagements, now inflicted upon him a 
defeat more crushing than any former ones. The thousands 
of prisoners, the hundreds of guns, and the immense war 
booty that we have taken from the enemy, are the evidences 
of his defeat and of our glory. 

Soldiers ! I am proud to announce to you that the terri- 
tory of the kingdom of Serbia has now been cleared entirely 
of the enemy, whom we have driven out, sorely defeated. At 
this solemn moment, when the victorious Serbian Flag is again 
floating over our proud city of Belgrad, I wish before all to 
accomplish a duty of gratitude. In this third war, shoulder 
to shoulder with you, are fighting our brothers whom we have 
delivered from the Turks. You are witnesses of their heroism 
and of their love for the Fatherland. The soldiers of Kossovo 
and of Vardar, of 2egligovo and of Bregalnica, of Bitol 
and Porec have proved themselves worthy of their brothers 
of Sumadia and of the Danube, of Podrinye and the Morava, 
of Timok and of Uzice. They have shown themselves 
worthy descendants of the heroes, Milutin and DuSan, who 
in times gone by carried to the farthest parts the glory of the 
Serbian name and the Serbian armies. 

I wish to give them a visible testimony of the gratitude 
of the country in view of this undoubted proof of their great 
abnegation with which they gallantly shed their blood for 
their Serbian country, and the magnificent way in which they 
have carried out with great enthusiasm their most difficult 
duty as Serbian citizens, and I now announce that they will 
in future enjoy the same political and constitutional rights as 
Serbia, the liberator, herself enjoys. In its first sitting after 
the conclusion of peace the Skupstina will take all the neces- 
sary measures for the putting into force of this decision. 

Soldiers ! The ring of steel of our puissant Allies is 
pressing round our common enemy more and more closely 
each day, and, fearful of the grave consequences that will 
ensue, he is fighting obstinately and desperately. But all his 
efforts are in vain. The number of his soldiers is becoming 
less and less, while our Allies are bringing new armies into 
the field of battle. The end of this gigantic struggle can 
already be seen, although a successful conclusion has not yet 
been reached ; we must continue for some time longer to 
accomplish our difficult duty and to support our great and 


powerful Allies, who are also fighting for us, until they have 
annihilated our common enemy throughout the immense 
battlefield. Then will come peace, the lasting peace which will 
be a just reward for the sacrifices made for our great Serbia, 
and our country will be far more strong and happy than it has 
ever been before. For that, my heroes, Serbia will be grateful 
to you. 

The Commander-in-Chief, 


Nis, 2&th December 1914. 

Order by the Commander-in-Chief for December 17, 1914 


In twelve days of vigorous effort, strenuous marches, and 
fierce fighting, you, my beloved soldiers, have performed 
marvels of heroism and given a brilliant example of supreme 
self-sacrifice for Fatherland and Freedom. 

History will record your glorious deeds in letters of gold, 
and posterity will speak of your valour to future generations. 
Your descendants will be proud of your exploits. 

The lustre of your arms will shine across the centuries. 

All Europe admires you, and our Allies are full of enthu- 
siasm over the splendid exploits of the Serbian Army. 

With vigorous blows you have shattered the enemy and 
laid the strong foundation of a Great and Happy Serbia. 
You have saved the honour of our nation. 

You have returned and recaptured from the enemy the 
capital of our country, beautiful Belgrad. 

You have liberated your beloved native land from the 
barbarous invasion of the arrogant and covetous foe, and 
have driven the hateful enemy over the Saya and Drina. 

With your vigorous attacks you have shattered more than 
five enemy army corps and taken many trophies of war. 

You have taken prisoner 274 officers and over 40,000 non- 
commissioned officers and men. 

You have taken 3 standards, over 130 guns, 70 machine- 
guns and a large quantity of war material. 

And for the third time you have beaten the enemy. 

You have gained a victory which is unsurpassed in history. 

You were, and are, invincible. 



Soldiers ! While thanking you with all my heart for your 
valour and your devotion, I greet you, overjoyed and full of 
confidence in a better future, with the following sacred 
pledge : 

Still onward for the sake of our Fatherland and the 
Freedom of the Serbian race ! 

God is with us. 

Remember always the glorious fate of those who have 
fallen in battle ! 

Long live my splendid army ! 

The Commander-in-Chief, 


Note. Serbian names are spelt here according to the Croatian system. 
The following is the significance of the sounds : 

=sh in the English ' ship.' j=y in the English ' yell.' 

c*=ch ,, 'church/ gj=dj 'adjourn.' 

d=(the same, softer). 2=j in the French 'jour.' 

c=ts in the English ' mats.' 


Japanese Ultimatum to Germany, August 15, 1914. 

From Baron Kato's speech in the Imperial Diet, Tokyo, 
September 5, 1914. 

[See Diplo- Considering it highly important and necessary in the 

matic, 2, present situation to take measures to remove all causes -of 

pp. 300- disturbance to the peace of the Far East, and to safeguard 

30I> the general interests contemplated by the agreement of the 

Alliance between Japan and Great Britain in order to secure 

a firm and enduring peace in Eastern Asia, the establishment 

of which is the aim of the said agreement, the Imperial Japanese 

Government sincerely believe it their duty to give advice to 

the Imperial German Government to carry out the following 

two propositions : 

(1) To withdraw immediately from the Japanese and 
Chinese waters German men-of-war and armed vessels of all 
kinds, and to disarm at once those which cannot be withdrawn. 

(2) To deliver, on a date not later than I5th September, 
to the Imperial Japanese authorities, without condition or 


compensation, the entire leased territory of Kiao-chau, with 
a view to eventual restoration of the same to China. 

The Imperial Government announce at the same time 
that in the event of their not receiving by noon of August 23, 
1914, the answer of the Imperial German Government signi- 
fying the unconditional acceptance of the above advice offered 
by the Imperial Japanese Government, they will be compelled 
to take such action as they may deem necessary to meet the 

Japanese Imperial Rescript declaring War upon Germany, 

August 23, 1914. 

We, by the Grace of Heaven, Emperor of Japan, on the Times, 
throne occupied by the same Dynasty from time immemorial, Au S- 2 4. 
do hereby make the following proclamation to all Our loyal 
and brave subjects : 

We hereby declare war against Germany, and We command 
our Army and Navy to carry on hostilities against that Empire 
with all their strength, and We also command all Our com- 
petent authorities to make every effort in pursuance of their 
respective duties to attain the national aim within the limit 
of the law of nations. 

Since the outbreak of the present war in Europe, the 
calamitous effect of which We view with grave concern, We, 
on our part, have entertained hopes of preserving the pe,ace 
of the Far East by the maintenance of strict neutrality, but 
the action of Germany has at length compelled Great Britain, 
Our Ally, to open hostilities against that country, and Ger- 
many is at Kiao-chau, its leased territory in China, busy with 
warlike preparations, while her armed vessels, cruising the 
seas of Eastern Asia, are threatening Our commerce and 
that of our Ally. The peace of the Far' East is thus in 

Accordingly, Our Government, and that of his Britannic 
Majesty, after a full and frank communication with each other, 
agreed to take such measures as may be necessary for the 
protection of the general interests contemplated in the Agree- 
ment of Alliance, and We on Our part, being desirous to 
attain that object by peaceful means, commanded Our Govern- 
ment to offer, with sincerity, an advice to the Imperial 



German Government. By the last day appointed for the 
purpose, however, Our Government failed to receive an 
answer accepting their advice. 

It is with profound regret that We, in spite of Our ardent 
devotion to the cause of peace, are thus compelled to declare 
war, especially at this early period of Our reign, and while we 
are still in mourning for our lamented Mother. 

It is Our earnest wish that, by the loyalty and valour of 
Our faithful subjects, peace may soon be restored and the 
glory of the Empire be enhanced. 




The President of the French Republic to the King of the Belgians 

PARIS, August 7. 

I am happy to announce to your Majesty that the Govern- p. d'H. 
ment of the Republic has just conferred the Legion of Honour 
on the valiant city of Liege. 

The French Government is anxious thus to do honour 
to the brave defenders of the city and to the whole Belgian 
Army, with whom the French Army since this morning is 
shedding its blood on the field of battle. 

Report to the President of the French Republic 


At a moment when Germany, deliberately violating p. d'H. 
Belgian neutrality, which is recognised by various treaties, 
did not hesitate to invade Belgian territory, the city of Liege, 
which was called upon to bear the first brunt of the German 
troops, was able to keep the invaders' Army in check in a 
struggle which was as unequal as it was heroic. 

This splendid feat of arms constitutes an admirable title 
to glory for Belgium and for the city of Lige in particular, 
and it is right that the Government of the Republic should 
perpetuate its memory by conferring upon the city of Liege 
the Cross of the Legion of Honour. I have the honour, there- 
fore, to beg you to be so good as to append your signature to 
the enclosed draft decree, which has been approved by the 
Council of the Order of the Legion of Honour, declaring that 
the Cross of the Legion of Honour is conferred on the city of 

Minister for Foreign Affairs. 



The following decree is printed below the report : 
The President of the Republic, on the proposal of the 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, decrees : 

1. The Cross of the Knight of the Legion of Honour is 
conferred upon the City of Lige. 

2. The Minister for Foreign Affairs and the Grand 
Chancellor of the Legion of Honour are entrusted with 
execution of the present decree. 

PARIS, August 7. 

The King of the Belgians to the President of the French Republic 

(Telegraphic.) August 7. 

P. #H. I wish to express to your Excellency in my own name 

and that of the Belgian people my most profound gratitude 
for the readiness of France to guarantee our independence and 
neutrality and to reply to our appeal for aid in driving back 
the armies which, in defiance of treaties, have invaded Belgium. 

President Poincare's Reply 

PARIS, August 8. 

I thank your Majesty. I have had occasion in the past to 
assure you of the sentiments of France towards Belgium. 
The friendship of my country for the Belgians is confirmed 
to-day on the field of battle. The French troops are proud to 
second the valiant Belgian Army in the defence of their in- 
vaded territory and in their glorious struggle for independence. 

King George to the King of the Belgians 
(Telegraphic.) LONDON, August 10. 

Times, I heartily congratulate you upon the splendid way in 

Aug. 12/14 which your Army is defending its country, and especially on 
the gallantry displayed against repeated attacks on Lige. 
You must indeed be proud of your brave troops. 

The King of the Belgians to King George 

Deeply touched by your warm congratulation. I thank 
you with all my heart, and express to you the sincere gratitude 
of the Belgian Army and nation. 


The President of the Russian Duma to the Belgian Chamber 
(Telegraphic.) ST. PETERSBURG, August 10. 

Great enthusiasm has been caused in the Duma by the /. de St. P. 
splendid and courageous exploits of the brave Belgian Army 
in the fierce fighting against the German troops. The Duma 
has charged me to inform the Belgian Chamber that the 
whole of the Russian people is animated by a similar desire 
to crush the enemy which has dared to break the European 
peace and to violate the neutrality of Belgium. At this 
solemn time the Duma, unanimously united in admiring the 
heroism of the Belgian people, begs you to accept its warmest 
salutations and the assurance that all the peoples living in 
Russia fervently wish for a brilliant victory over this attack on 
right and justice. Long live King Albert ! Long live the 
Chamber of Deputies ! Long live the brave Belgian people 
and the glorious Army ! 

General Joffre, Commander-in-Chief of the French Army, 
to the King of the Belgians 

g PARIS, August n. 

I am in receipt of the proclamation which you addressed P. d'H. 
to the Belgian Army on August 7th containing the fraternal 
greeting of your Majesty to the French Army. For the 
thought which is so flattering to my troops I hasten to thank 
you in their name and mine. Having been called upon by 
the most odious aggression to fight against the same adversary, 
your admirable soldiers and those of France will bear them- 
selves in all circumstances as true brothers under arms. 
Confident of the triumph of their just cause., they will march 
together to victory. May it please your Majesty to accept 
the expression of my profound respect. JOFFRE. 

France and England : President Poincare's Birthday 
The President of the Republic has received from the B. des A., 
King of England the following telegram on the occasion of the Aug.22,'i4 
anniversary of his birthday (August 20th) : ' 




I wish to convey to you, on the occasion of the anniver- 
sary of your birthday, my sincere wishes and cordial con- 
gratulations. I have the firm conviction that success will 
favour the arms of our two peoples in the great struggle 
which we are maintaining against a common foe, and that, 
in conjunction with our other Allies, we shall continue the 
war until a satisfactory issue has been reached. 

M. POINCAR& replied : 

I thank your Majesty for your cordial wishes, and beg 
you to receive the renewed assurance of my friendship. 

I have the same conviction as your Majesty in the result 
of the war which has been forced upon us, and which we shall 
prosecute, in conjunction with England and our other Allies, 
until the definite victory of right and civilisation. 

The President of the Council (France) to M. Pashitch, President 
of the Council (Serbia) 

B. des A., In the name of the Government of the Republic, I con- 

Aug. 25/14 gratulate you on the decisive success gained by the intrepid 

Serbians over the Austrian Army, and request you to transmit 

to them our cordial salute and the hopes of France for the 

definite triumph of our armies united in the brotherhood of 


Reply from M. Pashitch to M. Viviani 

B. des A., Deeply touched by your very flattering congratulations 
Aug. 27, '14 upon the successes of our Army over the army of Austria- 
Hungary, in the name of the Royal Government I beg your 
Excellency to accept my most lively thanks. I send you our 
most cordial greetings, and I cherish the firm hope that our 
Armies, united in brotherhood in defence of our great and 
noble task, will gain decisive victory over our common enemy. 



President of the Council (France) to the Grand Duke Nicholas 

The French Government have heard with joy of the great B. des A., 
victory that the valiant Russian troops have just gained over Aug. 25/14 
three German army corps. In the name of the Government 
I ask your Imperial Highness to accept our congratulations. 
This victory is a good augury for the crushing of the tyranny 
to which Europe has been subject. 

I have the honour to transmit through you to your noble 
Allied nation the salutations of the Government and the 
French Armies. RENE VIVIANI. 


General Joffre to Sir John French 

The British Army did not hesitate to throw its whole Times, 
strength against forces which had a great numerical superi- Aug. 28/14 
ority. In so doing it contributed in the most effective manner 
to securing the left flank of the French Army. It exhibited 
in this task a devotion, energy, and perseverance to which I 
must now pay my tribute qualities which will be shown 
again to-morrow and will make certain the triumph of our 
common cause. The French Army will never forget the service 
rendered to it. That Army is inspired with the same spirit 
of self-sacrifice and determination to conquer which animates 
the British Forces and will make good its debt of gratitude in 
the battles of the near future. 

The Tsar (Colonel-in-Chief) to the Scots Greys 

I am happy to think that my gallant regiment the Scots Times, 
Greys are fighting with Russia against the common enemy. Aug. 31/14 
Convinced that they will uphold the glorious traditions of the 
past, I send them my warmest greetings and wish them 
victory in battle. 

King George to the King of the Belgians 
(Telegram.) LONDON, August 27. 

I am horrified to hear of the danger you have run from the Times, 
enemy's bombs. I hope that the Queen and the children have Au S- 2 9> '*4 



not suffered. I am following with admiration the great deeds 
of your brave army. 

[At i A.M. on August 25 a Zeppelin appeared over Antwerp and 
dropped several bombs, some of which narrowly escaped hitting the 
Royal Palace.] 

Exchange of Telegrams between M. Millerand, French 
Minister for War, and Lord Kitchener 

The French Minister for War to Lord Kitchener 


Times, I am pleased to be able to forward the following telegram 

Sept. 9, '14 which General Joffre asks me to transmit to you : 

' The Commander-in-Chief of the French Armies offers to 
Lord Kitchener his warm thanks for the constant support 
given to our Armies by the British troops during the course 
of the operations. At the present moment this support is 
of the greatest value, and is being demonstrated in very 
energetic fashion in the action now going on with the German 
right wing. I wish to express my gratitude to Field-Marshal 
French, who has always lent most effective collaboration in 
the work of our Armies/ 

Allow me to add, in the name of the Government, the 
expression of my own gratitude to that of the General Com- 

Lord Kitchener to the French Minister for War 


May I ask you to accept and to forward to General Joffre 
my most sincere thanks for the telegram which you have 
been so kind as to send me ? 

I ask you to believe and to inform General Joffre how 
happy the English Army is in co-operating with the French 
Army, and how proud we are of the worthy task of bringing 
them the help of which you speak in such generous terms and 
on which you can always count with entire confidence. 




Exchange of Telegrams between King Albert and King George 
after the Battle of the Marne 

(Telegraphic.) September 13, 1014. 

His Majesty the King, London. 

I desire to congratulate you most heartily on the splendid Times 
action of the British troops in the Battle of the Marne. In the Sept. 18/14 
name of the whole Belgian nation I express to you our deepest 
admiration for the stubborn courage of the officers and soldiers 
of your Army. 

God will surely help our Armies to avenge the atrocities 
committed on peaceful citizens and against a country whose 
only crime has been that she refused to be false to her engage- 

ments - ALBERT. 

September 14, 1914. 
To His Majesty the King of the Belgians. 

I thank you most sincerely for your kind telegram and 
for your appreciation of the services of my troops. I earnestly 
trust that the combined operations of the Allied Forces, in 
co-operation with your brave Army, whose heroic efforts are 
beyond all praise, will meet with continued success and will 
free your much-tried country from the invader. 


Exchange of Telegrams between the King of the Belgians and 
President Poincare, the Tsar and President Poincare, 
and the Prince Regent of Serbia and President Poincare, 
after the Battle of the Marne 

The King of the Belgians to President Poincare 

To the President of the French Republic. 

The great victory that the Allied Armies have just won, B. des A., 
thanks to their valour and the military genius of their generals, Sept. 13/14 
has deeply rejoiced us. In addressing to you my warmest 
felicitations, I am the interpreter of the entire Belgian nation. 
We maintain an unshakable confidence in the final success of 
the struggle, and the abominable cruelties from which our 
populations are suffering, far from terrorising us, as had been 
hoped, have only increased our energy and the ardour of our 
troops. ALBERT. 



President Poincari to the King of the Belgians 

To His Majesty, King Albert, Antwerp. 

I thank your Majesty eagerly for the felicitations you have 
addressed to the generals and soldiers of the French Army. 
Our troops are proud to fight by the side of the brave Belgian 
and English Armies in the cause of civilisation and liberty. In 
the hour when Justice shall make reparation no one will be 
able to forget what your Majesty and your admirable Belgian 
people will have done for the triumph of the common cause. 


The Tsar to President Poincari 

B. des A., The news of the brilliant victory gained by the French Army 
Sept. 17/14 fills me with joy, and I send you my most cordial congratula- 
tions. The proved valour of the troops and the talent of their 
chiefs are worthy of the great nation to which they belong, 
and it is a pleasure to me to give emphatic expression to 
the admiration which they inspire within me. 

President Poincari to the Tsar 

I thank your Majesty for your congratulations, by which 
France and the Army will be profoundly touched. The 
great victory obtained by the Russian troops in Galicia has 
gladdened all French hearts, and the Government of the 
Republic does not doubt that this victory will soon be followed 
by other successes in Germany and Austria. France herself, 
who is determined to pursue the struggle with all her energy, 
sends the noble allied nation the expression of all her admira- 
tion, and her most confident good wishes. 

The Prince Regent of Serbia to President Poincare 

Ibid. On learning of the brilliant victory gained by the French 

Army, I hasten, Monsieur le President, to convey to you my 
wannest congratulations and the expression of my admiration 
for the traditional heroism of the French. 

President Poincari to the Prince Regent of Serbia 

I thank your Royal Highness for your congratulations, 
and beg you to accept mine and those of the Government of 


the Republic for the bravery and fine military qualities of 
which the Serbian Army is giving daily proofs. 

The King of the Belgians decorated by the Tsar 

The Tsar having conferred upon King Albert the Cross Times. 

of Knight of the Military Order of St. George, the King of Sept 17/14 

the Belgians replied in the following terms : 

I express to your Majesty my profound gratitude for 
the rare and flattering distinction which you have been 
kind enough to confer upon me. I hope your Majesty 
will permit me to bestow all the merit on my valiant 
soldiers. Your Majesty's eulogy of the Belgian people 
and Army particularly touches me, and will be received 
with livery gratitude and pride by the entire nation. 


Telegrams exchanged between President Poincare and King 
George, relating to the visit of the former to the Head- 
quarters of Sir John French (October 5-6) 

President Poincare to King George 

After leaving the French General Headquarters, I had B des A., 
the great pleasure of visiting to-day Field-Marshal French, Oct. 8-10, 
at the General Headquarters, of the valiant British troops. '*4 
I seize this pleasant occasion in order to renew to your Majesty 
my most cordial congratulations, which I should be glad if 
you would be pleased to transmit to the brilliant army which 
fights, as brothers in arms, with the French Army. 

King George to President Poincare 

I heartily thank you, Monsieur le President, for informing 
me of the visit which you so kindly paid to the Headquarters 
of my Army in France. I will gladly convey your message of 
congratulation to my troops, who are proud to be fighting side 
by side with the gallant French Army. 



Telegram from the Grand Duke Nicholas to the French Minister 
for War (for communication to General Joffre) announcing 
the victory of Augustovo 

B. des A., The German Army which, coming from East Prussia, had 
Oct. 4-7/14 invaded our territory as far as the positions of Druskieniki on 
the Niemen and of Ossovetz has been completely defeated 
after 10 days of furious fighting. It is in flight, abandoning 
its wounded, munitions and guns. Its losses are very con- 
siderable. The provinces of Suvalki and of Lomza find them- 
selves thereby freed from the troops of the enemy, who are 
still being pursued. 


ante > P- FROM OSTEND, OCTOBER 13, 1914 


The King of the Belgians to the President of the French Republic 


B. des A., I am profoundly touched -by the hospitality that France 
Oct. 15-17, is prepared to offer so cordially to the Belgian Government, 
' X 4 and by the measures which the Government of the Republic 

is taking to assure our full independence and sovereignty. 

We await with unshakable confidence the hour of victory, 

fighting side by side for a just cause. Our courage will never 


I beg you, M. le President, to believe in my unalterable 

affection. ALBERT. 

Telegram from M. de Broqueville l at Dunkirk to the President 
of the French Republic at Bordeaux 

B. des A., At a moment when the fortunes of war lead it to the hos- 
pct. 15-17, pitable soil of the great nation who is the friend of Belgium, 
' J 4 the Government of the King have the honour to present to 

the Chief of the State the homage of their very respectful 

sentiments, and beg him to receive the expression of their 

staunch faith in the triumph of Right. 

They rejoice that France, united with Great Britain and 

Russia, is its generous and proud defender. 

1 [Belgian Prime Minister and Minister of War.] 



The President of the French Republic to M. de Broqueville 

As I personally gave my assurance to His Majesty King 
Albert, it is with pride that France will receive to-day upon 
her soil the Government of the noble people which defends 
with so much heroism its national independence and outraged 
public right. 

The Government of the Republic does not separate the 
cause of Belgium from that of France, and has taken all neces- 
sary steps to enable the King's Government to retain the free 
exercise of its powers in the city of Havre. 

The certainty of the final victory will lighten for you, as 
well as for the French provinces which are still invaded, the 
passing trial from which our two countries will emerge, more 
closely united, stronger and greater than ever. 


M. de Broqueville to M. Viviani y French Prime Minister 

The Government of the King of the Belgians, deeply B. des A. 
moved by the full-hearted and delicate reception they have P ct - I 5- 
received from the Government of the Republic, beg your I4 
Excellency to accept the assurance of their full gratitude. 

As the President of the Chamber of Deputies said on 
August 5th, Belgium has sacrificed aU to defend honesty, 
honour, and liberty ; she regrets nothing, because she has the 
consciousness of duty accomplished and the certainty of the 
triumph of the cause which we feel honoured to defend, hand 
in hand with the Allied peoples. 

M. Viviani to M. de Broqueville 

The Government of the Republic is proud to offer hos- 
pitality to the Government of the noble and valiant nation 
which, in sacrificing all for the sake of honour and duty, has 
rendered such brilliant service to the common cause. Like 
your Excellency, I feel certain that the close union of the Allied 
nations will assure the ultimate triumph of Justice and Right. 




M. de Broqueville to the French Minister for War 

B. des A., The Belgian Army, pushed back to the French frontier, after 
Oct. 15-17, a struggle lasting two months and ten days, feels honoured and 
>3: 4 rejoices at the thought of reconquering its native soil in close 

union with the splendid Allied armies. It is aware that suffer- 
ing is the prelude to great things ; it is not troubled with any 
doubts, for it can fight, by the side of France, England, and 
Russia, for all that is an honour to an Army ; it is full of con- 
fidence, and expresses its gratitude to the Minister for War who 
has been good enough to assist its efforts. In Belgium, as in 
France, there is only one desire, the wish to see the armies 
united as the nations are. 

The French Minister for War to M. de Broqueville 

Deeply moved by your powerful and stirring words, I wish 
to express to you again our gratitude and admiration for the 
gallant Belgian Army. In the heroic struggle it has fought 
for over two months it has shown the world what a nation can 
do when it is determined to fight to the last to preserve its 
dignity and its independence. 

I congratulate myself and feel honoured that circumstances 
enable me to co-operate with a Minister whose clear-sighted- 
ness and energy have been so powerfully brought to light by 
the course of events. Indissolubly united, Belgian, English, 
Russian, and French, will conquer, because we shall rise 
superior to all trials. A. MILLERAND. 

The Belgian Minister of Justice to the President of the 
French Republic 

B. des A., The members of the Belgian Government and the Ministers 
Oct. 18-21, of State settled at Havre beg the President of the French 
' J 4 Republic to accept this testimony of their very respectful sen- 

timents. They cordially thank the French Government for 
having appointed M. Augagneur, Minister of Marine, to receive 
them on landing and to make them welcome in its name. 
They also wish to express their utmost gratitude for the 
arrangements made for enabling them here to exercise freely 
the rights and duties of Belgian national sovereignty, pending 


the time when in the near future the hour of the triumph 
of Justice will strike. 

They will never forget with what kindly attention France, 
who guaranteed our neutrality, added to the maintenance of 
her pledged word the consolation of the most delicate and 
attentive friendship. CARTON DE WIART. 

The President of the French Republic to M. Carton de Wiart 

I thank you and your colleagues of the Royal Government 
for the sentiments you are good enough to express to me. 
The population of Havre, by the reception it gave you, made 
itself the mouthpiece of the whole of France. 

By the provisions of our treaties, we were guarantors of 
the Belgian neutrality, and we are not of those who disavow 
their signatures. But the heroism of your nation and the 
blood shed in the common cause have made our duty still more 
sacred, and we will fulfil it to the end with all the warmth of 
a fraternal friendship. RAYMOND POINCAR. 


President Poincare to King George 
(Telegraphic.) PARIS, October 29. 

I am informed that Prince Maurice of Battenberg has just B. dcs A., 
succumbed * to the wounds which he had received whilst P ct - 29-31* 
fighting gloriously for the common cause. I beg your Majesty J 4 
to accept the expression of my deepest sympathy. 

President Poincare to Princess Henry of Battenberg 
I had quite recently the great pleasure of seeing Prince 
Maurice in the midst of the splendid British troops ; to-day 
I learn that he has fallen on the field of honour. I beg your 
Highness in this great trial to believe in my keen and respect- 
ful sympathy. 

President Poincare to the King of Spain 
I learn with deep emotion of the glorious death of Prince 
Maurice of Battenberg, whom I had seen quite recently so 

i [Prince Maurice of Battenberg died Oct. 27, 1914, aged 23, from 
wounds received in action.] 



full of ardour and courage. I am aware of the great affection 
which Her Majesty the Queen had for her brother, and I under- 
stand what her grief must be. I beg your Majesty to be so 
kind as to convey to her my respectful condolences, and 
yourself to believe that you have all my sympathy. 

Telegram from General Joffre to the Grand Duke Nicholas 

B. des A., We have received with the greatest pleasure the news of 
Nov. 5, '14 the triumphant march of the Russian armies in the course 
of the last fifteen days, and of the new advance which has 
just brought them close to the German frontier. 

I beg to offer my sincerest congratulations to your Imperial 

On our side, we have arrested furious German attacks, and 
by energetic and unceasing activity we are endeavouring to 
destroy the enemy's forces opposed to us. 

Our present situation is good, and our combined efforts 
will, I trust, lead to final success. JOFFRE. 

The President of the French Republic to the Tsar on the 
anniversary of His Imperial Majesty's accession 

(Telegraphic.) . PARIS, November 5. 

Times, Never has the anniversary of your Majesty's accession 

Nov. 6, '14 to the Throne afforded the President of the French Republic 
a more moving opportunity of expressing the sentiments of 
France towards the Emperor of Russia and the valiant allied 
people. I. beg your Majesty to accept my warmest wishes for 
yourself, for Her Majesty the Empress, for the Cesarevitch, and 
for the Imperial Family. I do not doubt that Russia will 
celebrate your next anniversary in peace and gladness firmly 
established by victory. RAYMOND POINCARE. 

The Tsar to President Poincare 

The Empress and I beg you, Monsieur le President, to 
accept our most sincere thanks for the good wishes you have 
sent me and my family. Like you, Monsieur le President, I 
am firmly convinced of the final success which will crown with 
victory our glorious sister armies. I do not doubt that the 


forces of France and Russia, joined by those of our gallant 
Allies, will secure a firm and durable peace, to the advantage of 
the prosperity of our two friendly countries and of all Europe. 


Telegram from the President of the French Republic to the 
Prince Regent of Serbia 

I have great pleasure in congratulating your Royal High- B. des A., 
ness on the brilliant victory x gained by the Serbian Army and Dec - J 3, '14 
on the admirable example of patriotism given by your brilliant * [Re-occu- 

nation. T> POTNCARI* P^ion of 

xs.. ruiNCAKH,. Belgrade, 

The Prince Regent of Serbia to President Poincare 

In thanking you most sincerely for your cordial con- 
gratulations on the occasion of the recent successes of the 
Serbian Army, I ask you, Monsieur le President, to believe 
in the admiration that we feel in Serbia for the brilliant feats 
of arms of the great French nation, and in our certainty of 
victory over the common enemy who has provoked us. 


December, 1914. 

Telegram sent by His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of 
Russia to H.R.H. the Crown Prince Alexander 2 

His Royal Highness 
The Crown Prince Alexander, Kragujevac. 

1 have received the good news of the victory which the 
gallant Serbian Army has gained over our common enemy. 
With heartfelt gladness I congratulate your Royal Highness 
upon this great success. NICHOLAS. 

Telegram sent by His Majesty the King of England 
to His Majesty King Peter 

His Majesty the King. 

I beg your Majesty to accept my heartiest congratula- 
tions upon the occasion of the great exploits of the gallant 
Serbian Army, as also upon its endurance and heroism during 

2 [The following documents have been supplied by H.E. the Serbian 
Minister in London.] 



the time of the heavy fighting which resulted in the return 
of your Majesty to the capital of your kingdom. 


Telegram sent by His Majesty King Nicholas of Montenegro, 
to the Commander -in-Chief of the Serbian Army, H.R.H. 
the Crown Prince Alexander, on the occasion of the recent 
successes of his troops 

The Commander-in-Chief of the Serbian Army, His Royal 
Highness the Crown Prince Alexander, Kragujevac. 
The fresh successes, by which the troops confided to you 
have established an unforgettable record of their heroic 
exploits, encourages me and gives me the hope that they 
will add to the victory on the Jadar and Cer yet more 
glorious pages in the history of this war of liberation. I beg 
of you to convey, besides my own congratulations and good 
wishes, also those of my heroic troops to your heroes, together 
with a steadfast trust in God and in the final victory and 
the end of the sufferings of our martyred nation. 


Telegram sent by the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, 
H.I.H. the Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevitch, to the 
Commander-in-Chief of the Serbian Army, H.R.H. the 
Crown Prince Alexander 

His Royal Highness The Crown Prince Alexander, 


In the name of the entire Russian army and my own, I 
enthusiastically congratulate the heroic fraternal Serbian 
Army upon their great victory and the defeat of the Austrians. 
May God grant you His help and further bless your exploits 
and successes. Aide-de-Camp-General, 


Telegram sent by the Skupstina to King Peter I. 

The President of the National Skupgtina, Mr. Andra 
Nikolii, addressed the following telegram to His Majesty 
the King in the name of the National House of Represen- 
tatives : 
His Majesty the King, Peter I., Belgrad. 

The National SkupStina having received the joyful news 


that you, together with your illustrious sons, their Royal 
Highnesses the Crown Prince Alexander, Commander-in- 
Chief, and His Royal Highness Prince George, have at the 
head of your valiant Army victoriously entered our renowned 
city of Belgrad, hastens in this historic moment to express 
its admiration of and appreciation of your Majesty, as the 
heroic representative of the House of Karageorgevic", and of 
your heroic and invincible Serbian Army. 

Telegram from M. Sazonoff to M. Pasi6 

The Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
Mr. Nikola Paslc*, received the following telegram from the 
Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mr. E. Sazonoff : 

The news of the fresh brilliant victory of the glorious 
Serbian arms, which received expression in the deliverance of 
Belgrad and all Serbia from the enemy army, has filled all 
Russian hearts with the greatest joy. Straight from the 
Thanksgiving Service, I send you, in the name of the Russian 
Imperial Government, the warmest greeting to His Majesty 
the King, to the heroic Serbian Army, and its chief, Prince 
Alexander, and to the Serbian Government and nation. May 
God help Serbia in the end to overcome her enemies and to 
realise her sacred" national idea. 


Telegram from M. Viviani to M. Nikola Pasic 

The President of the French Cabinet and Minister for 
Foreign Affairs, M. Rene" Viviani, despatched the following 
telegram to the Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, Mr. Nikola PaSi6 : 

PARIS, November (Dec. 

His Excellency the Prime Minister, NiS. 1 1 [Nish- 


In the name of the Government of the Republic I have 

the honour and the satisfaction of conveying to you our 
enthusiastic congratulations upon the successes of the Serbian 
Army and its gallantry, as also our good wishes for the com- 
plete defeat of our common enemy. RENE VIVIANI. 


Telegram from M. Miller and to the Serbian Minister for War 

The French Minister for War, M. Millerand, sent the 
following telegram to the Serbian Minister for War : 

The Minister for War for the French Republic, to the 

Minister for War for the Kingdom of Serbia 
I am happy in that I may, in the name of the French 
Army, convey to your Excellency our warmest congratula- 
tions upon the brilliant victory which the gallant Serbian 
Army has gained. We joyfully hail this new guarantee of 
final success, by which the Allied Armies will be drawn closer 
together. MILLERAND. , 

Telegram from British Ambassador to M. Pasic 

His Britannic Majesty's Ambassador in Ni addressed 
the following communication to the Prime Minister, Mr. N. 
Pasic : 

His Majesty's Ambassador has received instructions from 
Sir Edward Grey to convey to the Royal Government of 
Serbia the expression of the congratulations of His Majesty's 
Government upon the recapture of Belgrade, which fact 
constitutes a brilliant reward for the heroic struggle of the 
Serbian Army. 

Letter from Belgian Minister to M. Nikola Pasic 

The Belgian Minister, M. Michotte de Velle, sent the 
following letter to the Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign 
Affairs, Mr. Nikola Pasic* : 

As owing to ill-health I am confined to my house, I take 
the liberty of conveying the following message to your 
Excellency in writing : 

I have received instructions and have the honour to express 
to your Excellency the sincere congratulations of the Royal 
Government upon the complete deliverance of the territory 
of the Kingdom, as also upon the recapture of Belgrade, 
where such is the hope of our Minister for Foreign Affairs in 
Havre the Royal Government will shortly be re-established. 

I take the opportunity of this occasion, Monsieur le 
Ministre, to assure your Excellency afresh of my profound 



Partial Mobilisation of the Austro-Hungarian Army 
and Landsturm 

In the night of July 25, it was made known that the Junker, 
Emperor of Austria had ordered a partial mobilisation of L P- 8 7 J 
the Army and a partial calling up of the Landsturm. Details Wiener 
of these Orders were given in the public notices posted in e 
the military districts concerned. 

The following instructions were issued in Hungary. His 
Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty has determined to 
call up the Hungarian Landsturm on and from July 25 in 
accordance with the provisions of paragraph 4 of the Law of 
1866 in such portions as the defence of the country requires. 
This decree will be made known either by proclamation or by 
summons cards. Which of these two methods is to be em- 
ployed will be determined by the officials concerned. 

SAMUEL HAZAI, Honved Minister. 

In accordance with paragraph 2 of Act 48 of 1912, 1 hereby Junker, 
make known to all concerned that in all districts of the Holy L P- 88 ' 
Hungarian Crown the obligation to serve commences from 
July 26 of this year. HAZAI, Honved Minister. 

July 28. 

The Hungarian-Korrespondenz-Bureau wires from Agram : Junker, 
A special edition of the Official Gazette published to-day pro- i- P- 120 
claims the introduction of martial law over the town of Agram 
and the whole of Croatian Slavonia. 





ii. p. 176 

German Declaration of ' Kriegszustand ' 

We, Wilhelm, by the Grace of God German Emperor, King 
of Prussia, etc., ordain upon the basis of Article 68 of the Con- 
stitution of the German Empire, in the name of the Empire : 
The territory of the Empire, with the exception of 
the territory of the Kingdom of Bavaria, is hereby 
declared to be in the condition of war (Kriegs- 

This ordinance takes effect on the day of its proclamation. 
Given under Our Own Hand and Imperial Seal at the 
Neues Palais, July 31, 1914. 



The German Mobilisation 

I order the German Army and the Imperial Navy to be 
placed on a war footing in accordance with the scheme of 
mobilisation for the German Army and the Imperial Navy. 

August 2, 1914, is fixed as the first day of mobilisation. 


BERLIN, August i, 1914. 

The Landsturm called up 

The following order for calling up the Landsturm was also 
published on the same date : 

We, Wilhelm, by the Grace of God German Emperor, 
King of Prussia, etc., in accordance with Article IL, paragraph 
25 of the Law concerning certain alterations in the duty of 
bearing arms of February u, 1888, order in the name of the 
Government as follows : In the ist, 2nd, 5th, 6th, 8th, gth, 
loth, I4th, I5th, i6th, I7th, i8th, 20th, and 2ist Army Corps 
Districts, the General Officers concerned will call up the 
Landsturm. This Order comes into force from the date of 
publication. As Witness our signature and seal. 

Done at the Castle, Berlin, August I, 1914. 




General Mobilisation of the Austro-Hungarian Army 

His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty has been pleased Junker, 
to order the general mobilisation of the Army, and the calling- L P- J 55 ; 
up of the Landsturm of Austria and Hungary. Wiener 


1. The following categories have to report themselves for 
immediate service : 

(a) All who have instruction cards ; also all those who 

have notices to rejoin the colours, and who have 
not been recalled to the Army, in accordance with 
the instructions they have received. 

(b) All others not already with the Army ; all other 

citizens up to the 37th year, with the exception 
of those belonging to the Tyrol and Vorarlberg. 

All other Hungarian citizens up to the 42nd 
year and younger, belonging to the Landsturm. 

Ah 1 others up to the 42nd year and younger 
belonging to the Tyrol and Vorarlberg. 

AU others who have served in the Army, in* the 
Navy, Landwehr, or Gendarmerie, in accordance 
with their mobilisation instructions for the Army, 
the Navy, the Landwehr, or the Landsturm. 

(c) All those intended for special war duties who belong 

to the Landsturm, in accordance with the instruc- 
tions they receive. (This applies to those who are 
engaged in Government duties.) 

2. All Recruits and Ersatz Reservists who are liable in 
this year, but have not yet been called up, are by this Decree 
called to the colours. All such Recruits and' Ersatz Reservists 
who have permanent homes or who are for the present residing 
in the following parts of the country must, within 24 hours 
after the publication of this Proclamation, go to the Depots 
nearest to their present abode. These are the Tyrol, Car- 
inthia, Krain, Istria, the counties of Gorizia and Gradisca, 
in Trieste (town and environs), Dalmatia, Lower Silesia, 
Galicia, and in the Bukovina, and in the counties of Bereg, 
Maramaros, Ugocsa, Also-Feher, Besztercze-Naszod, Brasso, 


Esik, Fogaras, Haromszek, Hunyad, Kis-Kukollo, Kolosz, 
Maros-Torda, Nagy-Kiikollo, Szeben, Szigaly, Szolnok-Doboka, 
Torda-Aranyos, Udvarhely, Bacs-Bodrog, Krasso-Szoreny, 
Temes, and Corontal, in Fiume, in Croatia and Slavonia, 
in Bosnia and Herzegovina. All those who know that they 
belong to the Landwehr will report at the Landwehr Depots 
of the Territorial Commands of their abodes. 

All others not included in these previous orders will await 
orders for rejoining. 


All horses which have been lent to private individuals for 
draught purposes from either the Army or the Landwehr 
will at once be delivered to the Stations from which they were 
received. All horses which come under the Law of the 2ist 
December, 1912, R.-G.-B1. Nr. 235, must be at once taken 
to the point named in the document concerning them. 


All persons who have received notice in accordance with 
the Law of 2ist December 1912, to furnish transport, must 
deliver the same in accordance with the instructions they 
have received, together with all the necessary equipment. 


In accordance with the Proclamation of the beginning 
of the time of War, all measures laid down in the War Law 
of the 26th December 1912, R.-G.-B1. Nr. 236, must at once 
be carried out. 

Failure to obey these requirements will be severely 
punished in accordance with the law therein provided. 

The official reason for all these instructions is due to the 
Russian mobilisation. The measures ordered by His Imperial 
and Royal Apostolic Majesty bear no aggressive tendency, 
but are due chiefly to precautionary prevision for the indis- 
pensable protection of the Monarchy. 


Revival of the Iron Cross. 1 

We, William, by the Grace of God King of Prussia, etc., Junker, 
Having regard to the serious situation of our dear Father- IL P- 4 8 
land brought about by the war which has been forced upon us, 
and in thankful remembrance of the deeds of our forebears 
in the great years of the War for Freedom, the War for the 
Unification of Germany, decree that this honourable Order 
of the Iron Cross revived by our revered Grandfather, shall 
be again reconstituted. All members of the Army, Navy, or 
Landsturm, without regard to their rank, members of Volun- 
teer Aid Detachments,, and all other persons who serve with 
the Army or Navy in any official capacity, or who are em- 
ployed in the administration thereof, shah 1 be eligible for it, 
whether belonging to the German fighting organisations, or 
to those of Germany's Allies, as a reward for good service 
done, whether in the field or at home. 

In accordance herewith we order as follows : 

1. The revived decoration of the Iron Cross shall now, 

as formerly, consist of two grades and a Gold Cross. 
The Cross and ribband shall remain * unchanged, 
except that the date 1914 shall be substituted for 

2. The Cross of the Second Class shall be suspended from 

a buttonhole by a black ribband bordered with white 
for those who receive it for service on the field ; for 
those who obtain it for service at home, the ribband 
shall be white with a black border. The Cross of 
the First Class will be worn on the left breast ; the 
Grand Cross suspended round the neck. 

1 [This decoration had been instituted by Frederick William in. on 
March 10, 1813. The material of the Cross for the Order was intentionally 
of little value, to remind the recipients of the hard times in which it had 
been instituted. In this year Prussian ladies gave up their gold ornaments 
in exchange for iron jewellery, which often bore the motto ' Geld gab ich fur 
Eisen' (I gave gold for iron). The Cross bore the initials F.W., with 
a crown above them and the date 1813 below them. In the centre were 
three small oak leaves. The ribband was black with a white border. The 
Cross was reintroduced in 1870 by the Emperor William I., the initials 
F.W. on the original Order being replaced by W., with the date 1870.] 



3. The First Class can only be conferred on those who are 

already in possession of the Second Class, and will 
be worn near to it. 

4. The Gold Cross can only be won by those who have 

already obtained the Second and First grades. It 
will only be conferred on the winner of a decisive 
battle in which the enemy has been forced to abandon 
his position, or on the Commander of an independent 
Army or Fleet which has obtained an important 
success, or on the Commander of an important 
Fortress which has made a long resistance. 

5. All the advantages given to the holders of the Good 

Service Badge, both first and second class, are to 
be enjoyed by the holders of the First and Second 
Class of the Iron Cross, with the reservation of the 
question of an allowance until the regulations for 
the same have been made. 

Given under our hand and the Royal Seal. 

BERLIN, August 5. 1914. 

Von Bethmann Hollweg, von Tirpitz, Delbriick, Beseler, 
von Breitenbach, Sydow, von Trott zu Solz, Freiherr 
von Schorlemer, Lentze, von Falkenhayn, von Loebell, 
Kiihn, von Jagow. 

Proclamation by the German Emperor to the German 
Army and Navy 

K. A. After forty-three years of peace, I call upon all Germans 
capable of bearing arms. We have to defend our most sacred 
possessions, our Fatherland and our hearths, against wicked 
attack. Enemies on all sides of us ! That is the feature of the 
situation. A hard fight, great sacrifices, face us. I am confi- 
dent that the old warlike spirit still lives in the German people 
that mighty warlike spirit which attacks the enemy wherever 
it finds him, regardless of the cost, which already in the past 
has been the dread and terror of our enemies. 

German soldiers ! I have confidence in you. The ardent 
and indomitable will to conquer lives in each and all of you. 
Every one of you knows how, if need be, to die as a hero. 


Remember our great and glorious past ! Remember that you 
are Germans ! God help us ! WILHELM 

BERLIN, THE PALACE, 6th August 1914. 

Proclamation by the Emperor Francis Joseph to the 
Army and Navy 

August 6, 1914. 

His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty is graciously junker, 
pleased to publish the following Orders to the Army and n. p. 420 ; 
Navy : Wiener 

With enthusiasm those liable to service have hastened to Zeitun 8 
join the standards ; earlier than expected the forces have 
reached war strength. 

Every one of my soldiers knows that we have to ward off 
attacks due to hatred, and that in conjunction with our 
glorious Ally we fight for a just cause. 

The strong bond of allegiance to your supreme War Lord 
and to the Fatherland binds you together. You go with 
confidence to join the strenuous fights which lie before you. 

Remember your fathers who upheld the flag in innumerable 
battles and assaults, and carried it to victory. 

Rival them in bravery and constancy. Show the enemy 
what my united Peoples are capable of. 

God bless you, my gallant warriors, and may He lead you 
to victory and fame ! 

German Warnings to France and Belgium 

The following has been communicated through the medium K. A. 
of a Neutral Power : 

i. To the French Government. From information received 
from German troops it has become known that a war of the 
civil population has been organised in France, contrary to 
international law. In numerous instances the civil popula- 
tion, under the protection of civilian clothing, have treacher- 
ously fired on German soldiers. Germany protests against 
this method of carrying on war, which is contrary to the law 
of nations. German troops have been directed to suppress 
with the sharpest measures all hostile behaviour of the civil 
population. Every person not a soldier who either bears 



arms, disturbs lines of communication, cuts telegraph wires 
or causes explosions, or who in short participates in any 
description of warfare in an illegal manner, will under martial 
law be instantly shot. If the conduct of the war is hereby 
made to assume an especially severe character, Germany is 
in no way responsible. France alone is responsible for the 
streams of blood which will flow. 

2. To the Belgian Government. The Royal Belgian 
Government has rejected Germany's well meant entreaties 
to spare 'their country the horrors of war. It has opposed 
by force the German advance, which was necessitated by the 
measures adopted by the enemies of Germany; Belgium 
herself wished for war. In spite of the Note of August 8th, 
in which the Belgian Government announced that war would 
only be carried out by uniformed troops, numerous persons 
have, under the protection of civil clothing, taken part in the 
fighting at Liege. They have not only fired on German 
troops, but have also beaten wounded men in most cruel 
fashion, and have shot down doctors in the performance 
of their duty. At the same time the mob in Antwerp has 
barbarously destroyed German property, and treated women 
and children in a bestial manner. Germany demands justice 
in the eyes of the whole civilised world for the blood of these 
innocent people, and for the method of carrying on war by 
Belgium, a method which is a disgrace to civilisation. If the war 
from henceforth becomes a cruel one, Belgium bears the blame. 

In order to protect German troops from the molestations 
of civilians, from now onwards every person not in uniform 
who does not bear on his person some clearly recognisable sign 
of being entitled to take part in fighting will be treated 
as outside the protection of international law, if he either 
takes part in fighting, disturbs German lines of communica- 
tions, cuts telegraph wires, causes explosions, or in short takes 
any illegal part in the conduct of operations. He will be 
treated as & franc-tireur and instantly shot under martial law. 

Order published by the Commandant of the jth Light Corps 
(German) at Munster 

Times, In our dealings with Holland it behoves us to maintain 

Aug. 21/14 the most friendly relations. To this end it is ordered that 


Dutchmen who can prove their nationality shall be allowed 
to travel on the railways as freely as before to and from 
Germany, and that no avoidable hindrance is to be placed 
in their way. Handcarts and bicycles which they may have 
with them, and carriages and pairs, may only pass into Holland 
when they have come out of that country and it can be proved 
that they have gone into Germany for transportation purposes. 
Furthermore, the General Commanding orders that Dutch- 
men liable to military service who happen to be in Germany 
may freely pass over the frontiers to Holland. The German 
frontier guards must also allow the already numerous Dutch 
soldiers in uniform and bearing arms to pass from Germany 
to Holland. 

Proclamation by General von Emmich (Commander of the 
German Army of the Meuse) to the Belgian People 

I deeply regret that German troops have been compelled Bel Off. 
to cross the Belgian frontier. They are constrained to act thus Comm. 
by an inevitable necessity, the neutrality of Belgium having 
already been violated by French officers who, under disguise, 
have crossed Belgian territory in motor-cars in order to 
penetrate into Germany. 

Belgians ! It is our greatest wish that there may still be 
means of avoiding fighting between two nations who, up to 
the present moment, were friends, and formerly indeed Allies. 
Remember the glorious day of Waterloo, when the German 
armies helped to found and establish the independence and 
prosperity of your country. 

But we must have a clear road. The destruction of bridges, 
tunnels, and railways will be regarded as hostile actions. 
Belgians ! The choice lies with you. 

I hope, therefore, that the German Army of the Meuse will 
not be compelled to fight you. All that we desire is a clear 
road to enable us to attack those who wished to attack us. 

I give FORMAL GUARANTEES to the Belgian population 
that it will not have to suffer the horrors of war ; that we 
will PAY IN GOLD f or supplies that we take from the country ; 
that our soldiers will prove themselves the best friends of a 
people for whom we feel the highest esteem and the greatest 




General Commanding-in-Chief 
the Army of the Meuse. 

[The Proclamation reproduced above was distributed by 
hand by the first German cavalry patrols (Death's Head 
Hussars and Uhlans), who penetrated on the 4th August into 
the frontier towns of Belgium (Stavelot, Spa, Venders), on 
the eve of the siege of Liege.] 

Proclamation of the High Command of the German and 
Austro-Hungarian Eastern Armies to the Poles 1 


Pol. Doc. The moment of your deliverance from the Muscovite yoke 

is approaching. The allied armies of Germany and Austria- 
Hungary will soon cross the frontiers of the Kingdom of 
Poland. The Muscovites are already retiring. Their bloody 
rule, which has weighed on you for more than a hundred years, 
is falling. We come to you as friends. Trust us ! 

We bring you freedom and independence, for which your 
fathers suffered so much. Let Eastern barbarity give way 
before the Western civilisation common to you and to us. 

Rise up, mindful of your past, so great and so full of glory. 

Unite with the allied armies. By common strength we 
shall drive away the Asiatic hordes from the frontiers of 

We bring here freedom and liberty of faith, reverence for 
religion, so terribly oppressed by Russia. Let the groans 
from Siberia, and the bloody slaughter of Praga, and the 
torture of the Uniats speak to you from the past and from 
the present. 

With our standards come to you freedom and indepen- 

August 1914. 

1 [This proclamation was scattered all over the kingdom of Poland by 
German balloons and aeroplanes.] 


Order of the German Military Commandant to the 
Magistracy of the Town of Kalisz 


Since last night several shots have been fired from houses Pol Doo. 
on the garrisons of the town of Kalisz. All consideration for 
the population is ended. I forbid all communication with 
the provinces, and I abolish all safe-conducts. All restaurants 
must be closed, with the exception of the Hotel de 1'Europe, 
which must be regarded as my quarters. To stop in the 
streets or in the squares is prohibited. Non-observance of the 
Military Orders is punished by death. The six citizens 
arrested this night remain under my authority. On the 
slightest opposition they will be shot. As a punishment for 
the occurrence of this night the town will pay, before five o'clock 
this afternoon, 50,000 roubles. In case of a repetition of the 
disturbance on the part of the population, every tenth citizen 
will be shot. From eight o'clock in the evening all houses must 
be closed, and all windows lighted up. The Magistracy must 
immediately take steps to publish this announcement. I 
forbid the issue of the newspapers. 


Major and Commandant 11/155, 
Commandant of the town of Kalisz. 
August 4, 1914. 

Proclamation of the German Command after the Occupation 
of the town of Czestochowa 

I herewith announce : 

1. Every one who carries arms, cartridges, or explosives Pol Doc. 
without permission of the German Commandant will be 
ruthlessly shot. 

2. The houses and parts of the town from which shots 
may be fired on German soldiers will instantly be destroyed 
and levelled to the ground by cannon and subterranean mines. 
Women and children are prohibited from leaving the houses. 

Commandant of the Imperial German 

Army in Czestochowa. 
August 6, 1914. 



Proclamation of the Austro-Hungarian Army to the 
Polish Nation 


Pol. Doe. Through the will of the Almighty, Who directs the fate 

of nations, and by order of their Sovereigns, the allied armies 
of Austria-Hungary and Germany have crossed the frontiers, 
thus bringing to you, Poles, deliverance from the yoke of 

Welcome our standards with confidence, because they 
assure you justice. 

These standards are not foreign to you or to your country- 
men. Already for more than a century and a half your 
nation has been developing splendidly under the sceptres of 
Austria-Hungary and Germany, and, full of glorious traditions 
of your past, it has been firmly united with your neighbours 
of the West ever since the time of King Jan Sobieski, who 
came successfully to the aid of the country of the Habsburgs 
in its time of danger. That is our one great aim, connected 
with the object of our campaign. 

It was not we who sought the war. Russia fought for a 
long time with the weapon of calumnies and with various 
provocations. At last she did not hesitate to stand openly 
by the side of those who tried to obliterate the traces of the 
base crime directed against the Austro-Hungarian dynasty ; 
she took advantage of this occasion to attack the monarchy, 
and the German Empire allied with it. This forced our 
gracious Sovereign, to whom for many decades Europe has 
owed peace, to unsheath the sword. 

All the inhabitants of Russia that the victories of our 
allied armies place under our protection, may expect from us, 
the victors, justice and humanity. 

Poles ! 

Trust gladly and with full confidence in our protection, 
help us and our endeavours with all your hearts ! Trust in 
the justice and magnanimity of our Sovereigns. Do your 
duty, do the duty of keeping your national land, do the duties 
which are laid upon you by the will of the Almighty. 


August 9, 1914. 


Telegram from the Emperor William to the 
Crown Princess Cecilie 

August 10, 1914. 

Heartfelt thanks, my dear child. I rejoice with you over K. V. 
William's first victory. How gloriously God has stood by his 
side. To Him be thanks and honour. I have awarded him 
the Iron Cross of the ist and 2nd classes. Oscar has also 
fought brilliantly with his Grenadiers, and he has received the 
Iron Cross of the 2nd class. God still help and protect your 
children, and be with you and all womankind. 


Telegram from the Austrian Emperor to the German Emperor 

August 10, 1914. 

Victory on victory ! God is with you, and may He be with K. V. 
us all ! I heartily congratulate you, dear friend, also the 
young hero your dear son the Crown Prince, as well as Crown 
Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria, and the incomparably brave 
German Army. Words fail to express what I and my people 
feel in these days of the world's history. I heartily grasp your 
strong hand. FRANZ'JOSEPH. 

The Austrian Emperor to the German Emperor 

August 10, 1914. 

The glorious victories, fought by the German Army under K. V. 
your highest leadership, which have overcome the mighty 
foe, have their foundation on and have to thank your iron 
will, which has sharpened and swung the mighty sword. To 
the laurel wreath which decks your brow as victor I venture 
to add, as token of highest military honour, the Grand Cross 
of my Military Order of Maria Theresa, which I beg you to 
accept as a sign of my true brotherhood with you in arms. 
A special envoy will bring you the insignia, my dear friend, 
when it is convenient to you. Knowing well how you and 
your army treasure the genial guidance of General of Infantry 
Von Moltke, I award him the Cross of Commander of the 
Order of Maria Theresa. FRANZ JOSEPH. 




German Government to Belgian Government (through 
a neutral Power) 

G. W. P. T he Fortress of Liege has been taken by assault after a 

gallant defence. The Government deeply regrets that the 
attitude of the Belgian Government towards Germany has 
led to sanguinary encounters. Germany does not come to 
Belgium as an enemy. It was only when it had been forced 
by circumstances and in presence of military dispositions 
made by France that the German Government was obliged to 
take the grave step of penetrating into Belgium and of occupy- 
ing Liege as a point d'appui for further military operations. 

The Belgian Army having preserved in the most brilliant 
fashion the honour of its armies by its heroic resistance 
against a greatly superior force, the German Government 
* now asks H.M. the King and the Belgian Government to 
spare Belgium the continuation of the horrors of war. The 
German Government is ready to enter into any kind of 
convention with Belgium which can in any way be made 
compatible with the differences between itself and France. 
Germany reaffirms in the most solemn manner that she has 
not been actuated by any intention to appropriate Belgian 
territory ; such an intention is entirely foreign to her. 
Germany is still always ready immediately to evacuate the 
kingdom of Belgium as soon as the situation in the theatre 
of war permits her to do so. 

Reply from Belgian Government to German Government 
(received August 13) 

The proposition which has been submitted to us repeats 
the demand formulated in the ultimatum of August 2. 
Faithful to her international obligations, Belgium can only 
repeat her answer to that ultimatum, especially seeing that 
since August 3 her neutrality has been violated, a lamentable 
war has been waged on her soil, and the guaranteeing Powers 
have immediately and loyally responded to her appeal for 


Army Order by the German Emperor 

We have received from a trustworthy source the text of Times, 
the German Emperor's Arrny Order issued on August igth. Oct - * >][ 4 
It will be remembered that some of the phrases in this order 
were made public in the newspapers some time ago : we did 
not publish it then, as we preferred to await indisputable 
authority before vouching for such a document. 
The following is the text as supplied to us : 
' It is my Royal and Imperial command that you con- 
centrate your energies, for the immediate present, upon one 
single purpose, and that is that you address all your skill and 
all the valour of my soldiers to exterminate first the treacher- 
ous English and walk over General French's contemptible 
little army. 

August 19.' 

The German Emperor's Speech to the Guards at Potsdam 

I draw the sword that with God's help I have kept all Times, 
these years in the scabbard. I have drawn the sword, which Aug. 20/14 
without victory and without honour I cannot sheath again. 
All of you will see to it that only in honour is it returned to 
the scabbard. You are my guarantee that I can dictate peace 
to my enemies. Up and at the foes, and down with the 
enemies of Brandenburg ! 

Address delivered on August 19, 1914, by His Imperial Highness 
Archduke Charles Stephen to the ' Sokoly ' at a -Provincial 
Meeting in Zywiec * 

In the name of our beloved Emperor and King, I thank Pol. Doo. 
you for this new proof of loyalty and devotion. By favour 
of our beloved Sovereign, you, gentlemen, and also another 
like organisation, with like honourable aims, have been 
incorporated among those already mobilised, and I, an old 

1 [This address was delivered in the Polish, language.] 



soldier and sailor, welcome you and speed you on your way 
with my sincerest wishes. 

At the battle of Miechow the Strzelcy l have already given 
heroic proof of what they can do in the service of the country. 
We and all the State have learned this glorious news with 
general appreciation and everlasting gratitude. And you, 
Sokoly, you are ready for a military enterprise, guided by the 
same feelings with which the Strzelcy and our incomparable 
army, set out to fight. 

I wish with aU my heart : ' God help you ' 2 to attain 
glory, and a happy and speedy return. God be with you ! 

Proclamation by General Sixt von Arrmn to the 
People of Brussels 

August 20. 

Times, German troops will pass through Brussels to-day and on 

Aug. 23, '14 the following days, and are obliged by circumstances to demand 
from the city lodging, food, and supplies. All these matters 
will be regularly arranged through the municipal authorities. 
I expect the population to conform itself without resistance 
to these necessities of war, and in particular to commit no 
act of aggression against the safety of the troops, and promptly 
to furnish the supplies demanded. 

In this case I give every guarantee for the preservation of 
the city and the safety of its inhabitants. 

If, however, there should be, as there has, unfortunately, 
been elsewhere, any act of aggression against the soldiers, the 
burning of buildings, or explosions of any kind, I shall be 
compelled to take the severest measures. 

The General Commanding the Army Corps, 


1 [Strzelcy means ' Shooters ' or ' Riflemen/ and is the name of a part 
of the Polish Legions, while another part is called Sokoly, or 'Falcons.' 
(See note on p. 213). All these organisations were incorporated in the 

2 [' Szczec Boze,' an old Polish expression meaning ' God grant you 
fortune,' or ' God help you.'] 



German Prayer for Victory 

The Emperor has ordered the Supreme Council of the Times, 
Evangelical Church to include the following prayer in the Aug. 23/14 
liturgy at all public services throughout the war : 

'Almighty and merciful God ! God of the armies! We 
beseech Thee in humility for Thy Almighty aid for our German 
Fatherland. Bless the entire German war-force, lead us to 
victory, and give us grace that we may show ourselves to 
be Christians towards our enemies as well. Let us soon 
arrive at the peace which will everlastingly safeguard our 
free and independent Germany/ 

The Thanks of the Emperor 

The mobilisation and the mustering of the army on the K. A 
frontiers have been accomplished. The German railways 
have carried out this mighty movement of transportation 
with unexampled punctuality and security. My thoughts go 
out first of all in thankfulness to the men whose silent work 
since the war of 1870-71 has created an organisation which 
has now so splendidly stood this great test. But to all those 
who, answering to my call, have worked together to hurl the 
German nation in arms along the iron roads against the enemy, 
and in particular to the officers commanding the lines and to 
the railway authorities as well as to the German railway 
administration, from the highest officials to the humblest work- 
men, I express my Imperial thanks for their loyal devotion and 
fulfilment of duty. What has been already accomplished affords 
me the fullest assurance that, in the further course of the great 
fight for the future of the German nation, the railways will prove 
themselves equal to every demand which the leaders of the 
army may make upon them. . WILHELM I.R. 

GREAT HEADQUARTERS, 22nd August 1914. 

The German Emperor to the King of Wurtemberg 


With God's gracious assistance Duke Albrecht and his Times, 
splendid army have gained a glorious victory. You will join Aug. 26/14 
me in thanking the Almighty. I have bestowed on Albrecht the 
Iron Cross of the ist and 2nd class. WILHELM. 



Army Order issued by General von Bulow after ike 
Battle of St. Quentin 

Times, O n the eve of the Battle of St. Quentin His Majesty the 

Sept. 15/14 Emperor expressed to me his most complete satisfaction with 

the previous accomplishments of the army. I bring this 

recognition from the Highest Place gladly to the knowledge 

of my gallant troops. 

Things have fallen out as I said at the beginning of this 
war. I demanded great things of you and you have accom- 
plished them. With the co-operation of our splendid field 
artillery and the gallant pioneers you have reduced two 
strong fortresses with admirable rapidity. In the two days' 
battle at Namur you dealt a heavy blow to the Belgians and 
French. You have driven the enemy before you in untiring 
pursuit, and then, in addition, dealt the Englishmen blows 
which their arrogant land will not forget in a hurry. 

All arms have vied with one another in bravery and 
endurance. Rich were the spoils. Six flags, 59 guns, 55 
machine-guns, 6800 arms, 800 vehicles, 10,400 prisoners fell 
into your hands. Great, too, were the losses. Fame and 
honour to those who with their blood have sealed their loyalty 
to their Supreme War Lord. 

Soldiers ! I thank you for what you have accomplished. 
' Onward ' was your watchword up till now, and ' Onward ' 
it shall remain unchanged. 


August 28, 1914. 

Telegram to the Ministry of State from the German Emperor 

at Headquarters 

BERLIN, August 28. 

Times, The infliction cast upon my loyal provinces of East Prussia 

Aug. 29/14 by the invasion of hostile troops fills me with deep sympathy. 
I know too well the unfaltering courage of my East Prussians 
to doubt their readiness to offer their possessions and their 
blood on the altar of the Fatherland. Notwithstanding the 
terrors of the war they will place their trust in the unflinching 
army, and will steadfastly believe in the help of the living God, 
who up to the present has rendered the German nation such 
wonderful assistance in its just cause and defence. None will 


allow their confidence in the early liberation of the Fatherland 
to be shaken. 

As a proof of the Fatherland's gratitude, it is my wish that 
everything possible should be done to relieve the present dis- 
tress in East Prussia and to succour those driven from their 
houses and deprived of the means of earning a livelihood. I 
have accordingly instructed the Ministry of State to co-operate 
with the various State administrative departments and relief 
societies, and to take prompt steps to report to me what should 
be done. 

Notices placarded on the walls of Luneville, during the 
German Occupation 


Any person who damages a telegraphic or telephonic 
wire or cable, also any one who tears down this notice, will be 
shot. If any such offence has been committed in a Communal 
area, the Commune itself will incur the most severe reprisals, 
should the guilty person not be captured. 


[This notice was printed in German, French, and Russian. 
At the foot of it was printed, ' This notice will not be posted 
up in time of peace.'} 


Inhabitants of both sexes are strictly forbidden to leave 
their houses except when it is absolutely necessary to go short 
distances in order to buy provisions or water cattle. At night 
time it is absolutely forbidden to leave their houses under any 
circumstances whatsoever. 

Any one attempting to leave the locality .by day or by 
night, under any pretext whatever, will be shot. 

Potatoes can be dug up only by consent of the Commandant 
and under military supervision. German troops have orders 
strictly to carry out these commands by means of sentries 
and patrols, who are authorised to fire on any one not comply- 
ing with these orders. 





German troops have occupied the town of Luneville. 
The French armies have been beaten all along the line. The 
Allied English corps is dispersed. 

The Austrians and the Germans are penetrating victori- 
ously into Russia. 

I rely on the good sense of the population of Luneville to 
assist me in re-establishing order in the town and in putting 
it again into its normal state. 

At Luneville certain convoys of wounded and supplies 
and transport have been attacked by inhabitants not taking 
part in the war ; this is a contravention of the laws of war. 
The German army makes war on soldiers and not on French 
citizens. It guarantees entire security to the inhabitants for 
their persons and their property, as long as they do not deprive 
themselves of this security by hostile enterprises. 

The Commander of the Town brings the following Orders 
to public notice : 

I. A state of siege is declared in the country occupied 
by German troops. 

II. All persons will be punished by death who 

(1) Take up arms against persons belonging to the 

German army or forming part of their suite. 

(2) Destroy bridges, damage telegraph or telephone 

lines, railways, munitions, provisions, and quarters 
of the troops, or render roads impracticable. 

(3) Tear down these notices. 

(4) Enter into communication with French troops. 

III. Inhabitants are forbidden : 

(1) To congregate in the streets. 

(2) To walk in the streets after 7 P.M. (French time). 

(3) To leave the town after 7 P.M. or before 5 A.M. with- 

out a pass from a German authority. 

IV. Anybody who is sheltering soldiers of the French 
Army must report them ; any one in possession of arms 
or munitions must hand them over to the guard at No. 39, 
Rue d' Alsace. 

V. The German authorities intend to look after the sub- 
sistence of the troops as well as inhabitants. In the interests 
of the population, inhabitants must return to their houses, 


open doors and shutters, and resume their business and 
work in order to assure regular food supply for the men. 

VI. The Town authorities, police and gendarmerie, must 
come and place themselves at the disposition of the German 
military authorities. 

VII. Inhabitants who have to make complaints against 
the soldiers should report to the Commander of the Guard 
without any delay. 

VIII. Details for the execution of this Notice will be 
published shortly. GOERINGER, 

General Commanding-in-Chief 
LUNEVILLE, August 28, 1914. *** Troops at Luneville. 

Proclamation by the Burgomaster of Brussels 

The German Governor of the town of Liege, Lieutenant- 
General von Kolewe, posted up yesterday the following 
Notice : 

' To the inhabitants of the town of Liege. The Burgo- 
master of Brussels has informed the German commander 
that the French Government has notified to the Belgian 
Government that it is impossible to assist it offensively in 
any way whatever, seeing that it is itself compelled to act 
on the defensive/ 

To this statement I oppose the most formal denial. 

The Burgomaster, 
BRUSSELS, August 30, 1914. ADOLPHE MAX. 

Reply, in German and in French, by General von Luettwitz, 
the German Military Governor 


Every person, including the Municipality of the town, 
is strictly prohibited from publishing any notices until my 
special permission has been obtained. 

The German Military Governor, 

BRUSSELS, August 31, 1914. - General. 



Speech of the German Emperor to his Troops near Longwy 

on September I 

Times, ' I greet you as your chief and thank you. I have already 

Sept. 16/14 often seen the regiment on parade and at manoeuvres : it is 
a particular pleasure to me to greet you on conquered land. 
The regiment has fought as I expected and as your fathers in 
'71 fought. The battle of Virton will be eternally inscribed 
in letters of gold in the history of war. When the regiment 
departed I expressed the hope that it would fight as our fathers 
did at Weissenburg and Woerth. 

' Our comrades of the Eastern Army also have already 
fought gallantly under General Hindenburg. Also the army 
of the Crown Prince and the Fourth Army, under Duke Albert 
of Wurtemberg, have advanced victoriously, and our enemies 
are withdrawing in flight. The Eastern Army has driven 
three Russian corps over the frontier, two Russian corps have 
capitulated on the open field, and 60,000 men, with two 
Generals, are prisoners of war. For all these victories we have 
to thank One, and that is our old God, who is over us/ 

Notice as to Passes to Citizens of Brussels 


BRUSSELS, Sept. 2, 1914. 

G. W. P. The town of Brussels is not closed ; every one is at liberty 

to leave the town on foot except in the direction of the 
German outposts, i.e. towards Antwerp and Ostend. 

Any persons wishing to leave Brussels by motor car, 
carriage, wagon, or other vehicle must provide themselves 
with a Pass issued by the Municipality of Brussels and 
countersigned by the German Military Commandant. 
This Pass can be obtained at the Town Hall. 

Commandant of Brussels. 

The Sale of Newspapers in Brussels 


G. W. P. I remind the population of Brussels and the suburbs that 

it is strictly forbidden to sell or distribute newspapers which 


have not been expressly recognised by the German Military 
Governor. Contravention of this order will entail the imme- 
diate arrest of the vendor, who will incur the punishment of 
long imprisonment. VON LUETTWITZ, 


Order to the 8th German Army Corps signed by Lieut. -General 
Tulff von Tschepe und Weidenbach 

(Found when the French troops entered Vitry-le-Franfois) 


Sept. 7, 10.30 A.M. 

The object of our long and toilsome marches is achieved; p. d'H. 
the main French forces, after continual retreat, have been 
obliged to accept battle. Beyond all doubt the great decision 
is at hand : to-morrow not only our Army Corps but the 
entire strength of the German Army will be engaged, along 
the whole line from Paris to Verdun, for the wellbeing and [See ante, 
the honour of Germany. Notwithstanding the hard and P- 2 49 et 
heroic fighting of the last few days, I expect every officer 
and soldier to perform his duty to the utmost, even to his 
last breath ! Everything depends on the result of to-morrow ! 

German Manifesto to the Inhabitants of the Commune of 
Grivegnee, near Liege 



Major Dieckmann gives notice to the persons present Times. 
that : Sept. 24/14 

(1) Before 6 P.M. on the afternoon of September 6, 1914, 
all arms, munitions and explosives, in possession of the 
citizens must be given in at the Chateau des Bruyeres. 
Whoever does not do this will be liable to the penalty of 
death. He will be shot on the spot, or executed, unless he 
can prove that he was not to blame. 

(2) All inmates of inhabited houses in the. places of Beyne, 



Hensay, Bois de Breux, and Fleron must be indoors at night- 
fall (to-day from 7 P.M. German time). The aforesaid houses 
must have lights kept burning as long as any inhabitant is 
still about. The doors must be shut. Any one not obeying 
these orders exposes himself to severe penalties. Resistance 
to the orders entails the penalty of death. 

(3) The Commandant must meet with no difficulties 
when domiciliary visits are made. All rooms must be 
thrown open on the summons. All opposition will be 
severely punished. 

(4) From 9 A.M. on September 7 I shall permit the houses 
of Beyne, Hensay, Grivegnee, and Bois de Breux to be 
occupied by their former inmates, as long as no formal pro- 
hibition to stay in them has been pronounced to the aforesaid 

(5) In order that it may be certain that no abuse is made 
of this permission, the Burgomasters of Beyne, Hensay, and 
Grivegnee must draw up at once a list of persons who will 
be kept as hostages, changed every twenty-four hours, in Fort 
Fleron. The first list to be drawn up for the hours 6 P.M. 
September 6 to 6 P.M. September 7. The lives of these 
hostages are at stake if the population of the above-named 
communes does not keep quiet under all circumstances. 

During the night it is strictly forbidden to make any 
signals with lights. Bicycles may be used only between 
7 A.M. and 5 P.M. (German time). 

(6) I shall select, outside the lists given me, persons who 
from noon on one day to noon on the next have to stay as 
hostages. If the relieving hostage does not appear punctually, 
the first hostage will be detained for another twenty-four 
hours in the fort. After a second twenty-four hours he may 
be shot if his substitute does not appear. 

(7) In the first class among hostages will be placed the 
priests, the burgomasters, and the members of the adminis- 
tration of the communes. 

(8) I require that all civilians moving about in my sphere 
of command, and especially those of Beyne, Hensay, Bois de 
Breux, and Grivegnee, shall show respect to German officers 
by taking off their hats, and bringing their hands to their 
heads in a military salute. In case of doubt whether- an 
officer is in question, any German soldier should be saluted. 


Any one failing in this must expect a German soldier to exact 
respect from him by any method. 

(9) German soldiers may search carts, bundles, etc., be- 
longing to the inhabitants of the district. All disobedience 
will be severely punished. 

(10) Any one who knows that a greater quantity than 
100 litres of petrol, benzine, benzol, or similar liquors is 
stored in any place in the above-named communes, and fails 
to give notice to the Military Commandant, when there is 
no doubt about the place or the quantity, incurs the penalty 
of death. Only quantities above 100 litres are in question. 

(n) Any person not obeying without delay the order 
' Hold up your hands ' is liable to be put to death. 

(12) The ingress into the Chateau des Bruyeres and its 
avenues is forbidden, on pain of death, from dusk to dawn (at 
present from 6 P.M. to 6 A.M. German time) to all save soldiers 
of the German Army. 

(13) During the day the Chateau may be entered only 
by the north-west gate where the guard is, and only by 
persons with tickets. All assembly in the neighbourhood of 
the guard-house is forbidden, in the interest of the population. 

(14) Any one who circulates false news which might injure 
the moral of the German troops, and also any one who in any 
way tries to take measures injurious to the German Army, 
is held suspect and may be shot on the spot. 

(15) While by the above directions the inhabitants of the 
region round Fort B. III. are menaced with severe penalties 
if they break these rules in any manner, these same inhabitants 
may, if they conduct themselves peaceably, count on benevo- 
lent protection and succour on all occasions when they may 
be wronged. 

(16) A requisition for a fixed quantity of cattle will be 
made daily between 10 and 12, and 2 and 3, at the Chateau 
des Bruyeres at the office of the cattle-commission. 

(17) Any one who under the aegis of the emblem of the 
Swiss Convention harms or tries to harm the German Army 
will be hanged on discovery. 

(Signed) DIECKMANN, Major and Commandant. 
(Correct Copy VICTOR HODEIGE, Burgomaster.) 

GRIVEGNEE, 8/9/1914. 


German War Levies 

Times, The following are the ' war contributions ' demanded 

Sept. 8, '14 by Germany from France and Belgium : 

Brussels ...... 8,000,000 

Liege 2,000,000 

Lou vain ... . . . . 4,000 

Province of Brabant .... 18,000,000 

Lille . . . . . 280,000 

Amiens ...... 40,000 

(and 100,000 cigars) 

Roubaix and Tourcoing . . . 40,000 

Lens ...... 28,000 

Armentieres ..... 20,000 

Total . . . . . 28,412,000 

Notice as to Belgian Flags in Brussels 

G. W. P. The population of Brussels, fully aware of its own interests, 

has in general up to the present observed order and quiet 
since the entry of German troops. I have therefore not yet 
prohibited the display of Belgian flags, which might be 
interpreted as a provocation to the German troops which are 
residing in or passing through Brussels. In order that our 
troops should not be led into taking matters into their own 
hands, I now request the proprietors of houses to withdraw 
Belgian flags. 

The military government has no intention of offending the 
feelings or the dignity of the inhabitants by taking these 
steps, which are solely taken in order to protect the citizens 
from harm. VON LUETTWITZ, 

General and Governor. 
BRUSSELS, Sept. 16, 1914. 

Army Order by the Archduke Friedrich of Austria 


K. V. t The situation of the Germans and Austrians is favourable. 

Oct. '14 The Russian offensive is beginning to break down. We with 


the German troops shall beat again the enemy already beaten 
at Krasnik, Zomozea, Insterburg, and Tannenburg. The 
German main army has without hindrance penetrated deeply 
into France, where a new great victory is imminent. 

In the Balkan theatre of war we are fighting on the enemy's 
territory and the Serbian resistance is beginning to weaken. 
Internal dissatisfaction, insurrections, and lack of food 
threaten our enemy in the rear, while the Dual Monarchy and 
Germany are united and full of confidence of fighting out to 
the end this war which has been forced upon us. 

This is the truth about the situation. This proclamation 
must be made known to all officers and men in their respective 
mother tongues. 


Proclamation of Lieutenant-General von Morgen on entrance 
of the German Army into the Kingdom of Poland 


The Russian Army of Narev has been destroyed. More 
than a hundred thousand soldiers, with the two generals in 
command of the I3th and i5th Corps, and three hundred 
heavy guns, have been captured. The army of Wilno, under 
the command of General Rennenkampf, is retiring in an 
easterly direction. The Austrian armies are approaching 
from Galicia in a victorious march. The French and ,the 
English have been utterly defeated. Belgium remains under 
German administration. I have come at the head of my 
Corps as the forerunner of further German forces ; I have 
come as your friend. Rise up, and, together with me, drive 
away the Russian barbarians harassing you in your beautiful 
country, which has now to recover its political and religious 
liberty. Such is the will of my powerful and gracious Sove- 
reign. My forces have been recommended to treat you as 
friends and to pay for all that you supply to us. I expect 
from you and from your chivalrous character, that you will 
receive us as your best friends, allied with you. 


September 17, 1914. 



Appeal to the Citizens of Brussels 


G. W. P. During the absence of Burgomaster Max the conduct of 

communal business and maintenance of order will be in the 
hands of the Aldermanic Body. 

In the interests of the city we make an earnest appeal to 
our citizens to be calm and collected. We count on the 
assistance of every one to maintain public tranquillity. 

BRUSSELS, Sept. 27. 

Proclamation by General Baeseler to the People of Antwerp, 

October 10 


Times, The German Army has entered your city as conquerors. 

Get 12/14 No citizen of the State will be harmed, and your property 

will be spared, if you refrain from hostile acts. 

All refractory conduct will be punished according to the 

laws of war, and may lead to the demolition of your beautiful 


Order to the Fourth German Army by Duke Albrecht of 
Wurtemberg, in command 


October 21, 1914. 

B. des A. t The infantry has fought in all the engagements and battles 

Nov. 12-14, of the campaign with exemplary valour. The great successes 

>J 4 of the army, especially in the early part of the campaign, are 

due to the excellence of the attacks by the infantry. No fire 

of the enemy was too violent for it, no position too strong. 

Its valour and dash, on all occasions, have won brilliant 


I am confident that the new army which has just been 
raised will be animated by the same spirit as that which now 
faces the enemy. We can conquer only by attacking, and it 


is only by violent attacks that we can annihilate the 

From my experience of this campaign I can affirm without 
any exaggeration that our infantry is much superior to that 
of the enemy, and, to the glory of this arm, I can emphasise the 
fact, hitherto unexampled, that down to the present time the 
French and the English have been unable to resist a single 
attack. All the Franco-British attacks, without exception, 
have been brilliantly repulsed by our infantry. 

Our successes have, of course, been purchased by losses. 
No victory can be won without losses. Nevertheless, every 
means should be adopted to avoid useless losses. In several 
cases our losses were useless. The reasons for this are as 
follows : reconnaissances of the enemy's position and occu- 
pation were not always made ; attacks were often made by 
swarms of skirmishers too densely massed, and without await- 
ing the results of artillery fire ; support by units near the 
fighting has often been lacking ; often, too, the attacks have 
been only frontal. 

These faults must be avoided ; to that end the following 
directions are to be observed : 

1. Searching reconnaissance of the enemy, in front and 
on the flank. 

2. Thin lines of skirmishers, reinforced gradually during the 
course of the engagement. 

3. Constant use of the shovel, to entrench whenever this is 
possible. Fortification of the points captured from the enemy. 

4. The attack cannot be pushed forward until our artillery 
has effectively cannonaded the enemy, but then the success 
gained by our artillery must be turned to account with the 
utmost energy. 

5. Constant touch of the command and the fighting line 
with the artillery by means of the telephone. Only by this 
means will the artillery be able to assist our infantry oppor- 
tunely and at the desired spot. 

6. With every frontal attack there should be combined an 
outflanking movement. 

7. The enemy's supporting points must be battered by 
the artillery, and when possible by the heavy artillery. Only 
after good results have been obtained from the artillery fire 


can the infantry attack be launched. This attack must in all 
cases be of an outflanking character. 

8. The simultaneous advance of all the columns is a 
fundamental condition of success; for some to remain 
stationary when the neighbouring columns are advancing 
must lead to a check. 

9. The French are past masters in organising the defence 
of woods and villages, and defend themselves there with 
tenacity. It is a fixed principle that the supporting points 
cannot be attacked until the action of our heavy artillery 
on them has produced a proper effect. 

10. Prisoners declare that our infantry is very difficult to 
recognise in the country, but it has sometimes happened that 
our lines of skirmishers have been detected. The cause of this 
is to be found in the buckles of the tent cords upon the tunics, 
in glittering polished pouches and shining leggings. The 
troops are to be specially warned on these points, and will 
avoid them for their own safety. 


Army Order promulgated on October 26 by the 
Crown Prince of Bavaria 


Times, For many days the VII., XIII., XIV., and XIX. Corps, 

Nov. 27/14 the I. Bav. R. Corps, the Bav. Cav. Div., the I., II., and 
IV. Cavalry Corps, and the nth Landwehr Infantry Brigade 
have fought day and night in very difficult conditions with the 
greatest fearlessness and with extraordinary dash. They have 
captured from the enemy a large number of strongly fortified 
positions, they have caused him heavy loss, and have taken 
numerous prisoners. The Cavalry have shown that, fighting 
with their carbines, they have no fear of the enemy's en- 
trenched positions, and they have gained a series of successes 
in this fighting which is in its nature so foreign to that to 
which they are trained. They have in this manner rendered 
the highest service on one part of the battlefield. 

I desire to express to the troops my warmest thanks and 
my highest appreciation for their splendid behaviour and 
their wonderful endurance, and I will not fail to bring these 


matters to the notice of His Majesty the Emperor and of the 
heads of their respective States. 

Soldiers ! The eyes of the whole world are now directed 
upon you. You must not now lose your energy in the fight 
with our most hated foe, you must finally break his pride. He 
is already tired out. Already many officers and men have 
voluntarily surrendered. But the greatest and decisive 'battle 
remains still before you. 

You must sustain it even to the end. The enemy must 
be crushed. 

You will persevere, you will not let him escape your fangs. 

We must conquer, we will conquer, we shall conquer. 

Crown Prince of Bavaria. 

The Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria, Commander of the 

Sixth German Army, to his Troops 

We have now the good fortune to have the English at last Times, 
before us, the troops of that people whose envy for years has Oct. 29, '14 
worked to surround us with a ring of enemies in order to 
strangle us. We have them especially to thank for this bloody 
war. Therefore when dealing with this enemy exact requital 
for their hostile malice, for so many heavy sacrifices. Show 
them that it is by no means so easy to wipe off the Germans 
from the world's history. Show them this by German strokes 
of a very special kind. Here is the enemy who stands most of 
all in the way of the restoration of peace. RUPPRECHT. 

Proclamation by Field-Marshal von der Goltz to the 
People of Brussels 

I hereby inform the people of Brussels that the arrival of Times, 
troops from France is imminent. Our Army is retracing its steps Nov - *>,' 14 
for reasons of humanity and in order to prevent the develop- 
ment in its ranks of an epidemic of cholera which is at present 
raging in the French Army. I call upon the population to 
furnish with good grace all the requirements which will be 
demanded of it. 



The German Emperor's address to the Grenadier Regiment 
Prinz Karl von Preussen 

Times, ^ I rejoice to be able to greet, behind the battle line in the 

Nov. 6, '14 enemy's country, one of the best of my regiments from the 
Mark. In numerous battles Frederick the Great always 
threw in men from the Mark at decisive points. You, too, in 
this campaign have wound new laurels round your standards. 
As King of Prussia and Margrave of Brandenburg, I ex- 
press my fullest recognition and satisfaction to the Grenadier 
Regiment Prinz Karl von Preussen as representing the 3rd 
Army Corps. I am convinced that, if this campaign demands 
it, you will add new pages of glory to the history of your 
regiment. When the war is finished we shall meet again. 
In all circumstances the enemy will be beaten. 

Speech by the German Emperor to his Officers in Belgium 

GENTLEMEN, Date not stated. 

Times, I have heard with great satisfaction how brave the cavalry 

Nov. 10, '14 has shown itself in this war. Tasks such as I could never have 
dreamt of have fallen to the cavalry. Perhaps it is my fault. 
At exercises of mounted troops in peace time I had not fore- 
seen what they must accomplish now. The cavalry has fought 
with bayonet and spade, and General von Marwitz has told 
me that the infantry willingly and proudly fought and charged 
with the cavalry. 

I observe with pleasure that the soldiers only very un- 
willingly left the trenches to rest. I hope, however, that the 
cavalry will have yet another opportunity to use the lance, 
if with the help of God, Who has already lent us so much 
success, the enemy is by good fortune surrounded. I thank 
you, gentlemen. 

The German Emperor to the Grand Duke of Oldenburg 


Times, ^ Your Royal Highness has greatly rejoiced me by con- 

Nov.2i,'i4 f erring on me the Frederick Augustus Cross. I thank you 


most heartily for this war distinction. I shall, wear it in 
honour of the brave Oldenburgers, who on every occasion 
have performed excellently. 

I remain, with sentiments of unalterable esteem and 
friendship for your Royal Highness, your well disposed 
cousin and brother. WILHELM j R 

HEADQUARTERS, November iSth. 

Manifesto by the Sultan of Turkey to his Army and Fleet 

As a result of the declaration of war between the Great K. V., 
Powers you were called under the colours to defend if neces- Nov - ' J 4 
sary the rights and the existence of our Government and our 
land against enemies seeking for an opportunity to inflict 
unjust and unexpected attacks on them. Whilst we thus lived 
in armed neutrality, the Russian Fleet, which had entered 
the Black Sea to lay mines in the Bosphorus, suddenly opened 
fire on a portion of our Fleet which was at manoeuvres ; while 
we waited for Russia to make amends for this attack, so 
contrary to the law of nations, this State, as well as her Allies 
France and England, broke off relations with our Govern- 
ment, and withdrew their Ambassadors. Without delay the 
Russian Army invaded our easterly frontier, whilst the com- 
bined English and French Fleets bombarded the Dardanelles 
and English ships bombarded Akaba. In consequence of these 
treacherous acts of war following each other, we were com- 
pelled to break the peace which we had always desired, and 
to take up arms in conjunction with Germany and Austria- 
Hungary for the defence of our legal rights. For the last 
three hundred years Russia has done heavy damage to our 
country, and has endeavoured either by war or by every ^ 
kind of craft and intrigue to suppress every effort we have 
made for the improvement of our national strength and great- 
ness. Russia, England, and France, who hold millions of 
Mussulmans under their tyrannical sway, have never ceased 
to encourage aspersions on our exalted Caliphate to whom 
these Mussulmans are bound by religion and feeling. They 
are the instigators and the cause of all misfortunes and troubles 
that come upon us. Through the great Holy War which we 
undertake to-day, we will with God's help put an end to the 



attacks directed on the one hand against the glory of our 
Caliphate, and on the other hand against the rights of our 
Empire. The first blows which, by the help of God and the 
support of the Prophet, our fleet in the Black Sea and our 
brave army in the Dardanelles, at Akaba and on the borders 
of the Caucasus, have dealt on the enemy have strengthened 
our conviction that our conflict in this cause of right will be 
crowned with victory. The fact that the territory and the 
armies of our foes lie to-day in the firm grasp of our Allies 
strengthens my conviction. 

My heroic soldiers ! Never flinch from firmness and en- 
durance in this Holy War opened now on the enemies who 
wish to attack our holy religion and our dear Fatherland. 
Hurl yourselves like lions on the foe, because both our Empire 
and also the lives and precious existence of three hundred 
millions of Mussulmans, whom I summon by a holy decree to 
a Holy War, depend on your victories. The wishes and 
prayers of three hundred million innocent and oppressed 
believers, who both in mosques and in the Kaaba turn 
to the Lord of the World, accompany you. Soldiers, my 
children ! The duty which now rests on you is such as 
until now no other army of the world has had to perform. 
Show, whilst you carry out this duty, 'that you are worthy 
followers of those Ottoman armies who once made the whole 
world tremble, in order that the enemy may never again 
dare to disturb our holy territory and to invade the sacred 
earth of Hedjaz, which cradles the divine Kaaba and the 
grave of the Prophet. Show the enemy in clear fashion that 
there is an Ottoman army and fleet who know how to defy 
death for their Sovereign, and defend their religion, their 
Fatherland, and their military reputation by their arms, that 
right and justice is on our side, wrong and injustice on the 
enemy's side. Without any doubt the blessing of the Al- 
mighty and the spiritual support of the Prophet will help and 
protect us in our destruction of the foe. I am convinced that 
we shall emerge from this Holy War both glorious and mighty. 
Do not forget that you enter into this war as brothers in arms 
of two of the most important and mightiest armies of the 
world. May the martyrs amongst you bring another happy 
victory to the martyrs who have gone before ; may the sword 
of those who survive be sharp. MEHMED RESCHAD. 



Army Order by Field-Marshal von Hindenburg, at Thorn, 

November 27 

' In the course of severe fighting lasting several days Times, 
my troops have brought to a standstill the offensive of a Nov. 30, '14 
numerically superior Russian Army/ [The Army Order 
reproduces a telegram from the Kaiser, in which the latter, 
after congratulating the commander on his new success and 
that of his troops, thanks him for protecting the eastern 
frontier. The Kaiser adds that he cannot better express his 
thanks than by promoting the General to the rank of Field- 

The Army Order continues : ' I am proud at having 
reached the highest military rank at the head of such troops. 
Your fighting spirit and perseverance have in a marvellous 
manner inflicted the greatest losses on the enemy. Over 
60,000 prisoners, 150 guns, and about 200 machine-guns have 
fallen into our hands, but the enemy is not yet annihilated. 
Therefore, forward, with God for King and Fatherland, till 
the last Russian lies beaten at our feet. Hurrah ! ' 

Notice as to Power of the Military Governor in Belgium 


Repealing the Law of August 4, 1914, respecting the G. W. P. 
delegation of powers in case of invasion of territory, and 
regulating the exercise of powers which belong to the pro- 
vincial Governors and the King of the Belgians, by virtue of 
the Laws on the administration of provinces and communes. 

Article i. The Law of August 4, 1914, relating to the dele- 
gation of powers in case of invasion of territory, is repealed. 

Article 2. All the powers belonging to provincial Governors 
by virtue of the Laws for the administration of provinces 
and communes, are exercised by the military Governors of 
the German Empire. The Presidents of the Civil Govern- 
ments under the jurisdiction of the Governors deal in their 
name with current business of provincial administration 
and provide for the business and presidency of permanent 
committees. The powers belonging to the King of the 
Belgians are exercised by me by virtue of my office of 
Imperial Governor-General. 



. Article 3. Resolutions made since the coming in force of 
the above-mentioned Law of August 4, 1914, by permanent 
committees, provincial councils and communal councils, 
must be approved by the authorities mentioned in Article 2 
in the same manner as these decisions would have had to be 
approved by provincial Governors or by the King, in order 
to be valid. VON BISSING, General, 

Governor-General in Belgium. 
BRUSSELS, Dec. 3, 1914. 

The German Emperor to General von Mackensen, 

Commander of Cavalry 
(Telegraphic.) December i. 

Times, Thanks to your able leadership, the operations carried 

Dec. 2, '14 out by the Ninth Army have been crowned with success, and 
your splendid service will stand out in the annals of war and 
go down in history as an example of courage, endurance, and 
bravery. Your splendid troops have my personal Royal 
thanks, which I express by decorating you with the service 
Order of ' Pour le M&ite/ which shall be sent on to you. God 
be with you and with our flag. WILHELM REX. 

In reply the General informed the Kaiser that he had 
made known the contents of His Majesty's telegram to his 
troops, and he added his own happiness at having the honour 
to command such fine men and receive such an acknow- 
ledgment as the ' Pour le Merite ' Order. 

Speech of the German Emperor on December 3 to a Deputation 
from the Army in Poland under General von Woyrsch 

Times, ^ Convey to your comrades, all of whom I cannot visit 

Dec. 10, '14 m the trenches, my thanks and those of your Fatherland for 
their heroic conduct and the perseverance displayed for three 
months against the superior Russian forces. We say at home 
that every man fighting in the east is a hero. You have the 
honour of fighting shoulder to shoulder with the Army of the 
Emperor Francis Joseph, my friend and beloved cousin, for 
a just cause, freedom, and the existence of national rights 
and a future long peace. 


Even should the war last long, we must allow the enemy 
no rest. We shall continue to fight successfully as hitherto, 
for Heaven is on our side. With God's help, we shall win a 
long peace, for our nerves are stronger than those of the 
enemy. When you return to your positions, convey to your 
comrades my heartiest greetings. Tell them that, although 
I must go again to the west, my thoughts will always be with 
you and my eyes on you, as if I stood behind you. 

Army Order issued by a German Divisional Staff Headquarters 
on the Eastern Front 


His Majesty the Kaiser and King has had the graciousness Times, 
to pass some time to-day in our midst and to greet repre- Dec. 7, '14 
sentatives of the division selected from the officers and men 
distinguished with the Iron Cross. 

His Majesty has charged me to inform you that he greatly 
regretted to be unable to see you all, as your duty detained 
you in the trenches. Your Kaiser and King says he came 
to thank you for what you have achieved for months past 
against an enemy far outnumbering you, and to bring you 
greetings from your comrades in the western theatre of war 
who thank you for defending our home here while they have 
victoriously carried the German colours so far into hostile 
countries. Your Kaiser thanks you. 

Our Kaiser knows that we shall continue to do our duty. 
He shall not be mistaken in us. VON JACOBI, 

General qf Infantry. 

Proclamation of the Commander -in-Chief of the German 
Armies to the Inhabitants of the Town of Lodz 


The Russian forces have withdrawn from your town ; Lodz Pol. Doc. 
is in German hands. The German Commandant assures the 
inhabitants of mild and kind treatment, but only on condition 
that no armed rising occurs. It is further ordered that the 
inhabitants shall instantly give up all the Russian soldiers in 
hiding, those in uniform as well as those in civilian dress ; and 



also give up to the German Command all arms and equipment 
belonging to the military, otherwise they will be subjected to 
severe punishment ! 

Russian soldiers ! Give yourselves up as prisoners, and 
assemble in the southern outskirts of the town of Zgierz. 
We will treat you well, we will feed you well, just as we treat 
your 250,000 colleagues who are faring very well in German 
prison camps. Whoever does not answer this summons will 

December 7, 1914. 

The German Emperor to his Troops at Headquarters 

on Christmas Day, 1914 

Times, Standing here in arms of defence, we are assembled to 

Dec. 29, '14 celebrate this Holy Festival which we are accustomed to 
celebrate in peace at home. Our thoughts go back to ours 
at home, whom we thank for the gifts which we see to-day so 
richly spread on these tables. God permitted the enemy to 
compel us to celebrate this festival here. We are attacked. 
We defend ourselves. God grant that out of the hard struggle 
a rich victory may arise for us and for our country. We 
stand on hostile soil, the point of our sword turned to the 
enemy, our heart turned to God. We say as once the Great 
Prince said : ' to the dust with all the enemies of Germany.' 

Army Qrder by the Crown Prince of Bavaria issued 
during December 

Times, For many weeks past the ist Bavarian Army Corps has 

Dec. 29, '14 been advancing slowly, but in an unbroken movement of 

attack, against the strong positions of the enemy to the east 

and north-east of Arras. 

Trench after trench of the enemy has been taken, and all 

the enemy's counter-attacks have been repulsed with heavy 

losses to the foe. Hundreds of prisoners have been taken. 
All this has taken place under the heaviest fire of the 

enemy's artillery, while up to the present it has not been 

possible to bring against them an equal force. 



According to news received by me, the conduct of the 
corps has made a deep impression on the enemy. I therefore 
thank this Army Corps and express my praise of the deeds 
of sacrifice performed by it, holding it forth as an example 
to all sections of the Army in the future. 

The German Emperor to his Army and Navy 

After five long, heavy, hotly contested months, we enter K. V. 
upon a new year. 

Brilliant victories have been won ; great results arise from 
them. The German armies stand fast everywhere on enemy's 
country. Repeated attempts of the adversary to overrun 
German territory with their forces have been shattered. 

In all seas my ships have covered themselves with glory ; 
their crews have learnt that they not only fight victoriously, 
but that, when overcome by superior force, they can die a 
hero's death. Behind the army and the fleet stand the 
German people in unexampled confidence, ready to give their 
best for the holy hearths of home, which we protect against 
all eventualities. Much has happened in the last year, but 
still the enemy is not overthrown. Still new hosts roll up 
against our armies and those of our true Allies. But their 
numbers do not frighten us. Although there are strenuous 
times in front of us, nevertheless we look forward into the 
future with sure confidence. After God's wise direction, I trust 
in the incomparable bravery of the army and navy, and I 
know that I am one with the German people. Therefore, 
forward in the New Year, towards new deeds, and new 
victories, for the beloved Fatherland. 


December 31, 1914. 




jth September 1914. 

L. G,, MY LORD, I have the honour to report the proceedings 

Sept. 9, '14 of the Field Force under my command up to the time of 
rendering this despatch. 

i. The transport of the troops from England both by 
sea and by rail was effected in the best order and without a 
check. Each unit arrived at its destination in this country 
well within the scheduled time. 

The concentration was practically complete on the evening 
of Friday, the 2ist ultimo, and I was able to make disposi- 
tions to move the Force during Saturday, the 22nd, to posi- 
tions I considered most favourable from which to commence 
operations which the French Commander-in-Chief, General 
Joffre, requested me to undertake in pursuance of his plans 
in prosecution of the campaign. 

The line taken up extended along the line of the canal 
from Conde on the west, through Mons and Binche on the 
east. This line was taken up as follows : 

From Cond6 to Mons inclusive was assigned to the 2nd 
Corps, and to the right of the 2nd Corps from Mons the 
ist Corps was posted. The 5th Cavalry Brigade was placed 
at Binche. 

In the absence of my 3rd Army Corps I desired to keep 
the Cavalry Division as much as possible as a reserve to act 
on my outer flank, or move in support of any threatened 
part of the line. The forward reconnaissance was entrusted 
to Brigadier-General Sir Philip Chetwode with the 5th 
Cavalry Brigade, but I directed General Allenby to send 
forward a few squadrons to assist in this work. 


During the 22nd and 23rd these advanced squadrons did 
some excellent work, some of them penetrating as far as 
Soignies, and several encounters took place in which our 
troops showed to great advantage. 

2. At 6 A.M. on 23rd August I assembled the Com- 
manders of the ist and 2nd Corps and Cavalry Division 
at a point close to the position, and explained the general 
situation of the Allies, and what I understood to be General 
Joffre's plan. I discussed with them at some length the 
immediate situation in front of us. 

From information I received from French Headquarters I 
understood that little more than one, or at most two, of the 
enemy's Army Corps, with perhaps one Cavalry Division, 
were in front of my position ; and I was aware of no attempted 
outflanking movement by the enemy. I was confirmed in this 
opinion by the fact that my patrols encountered no undue 
opposition in their reconnoitring operations. The observation 
of my aeroplanes seemed also to bear out this estimate. 

About 3 P.M. on Sunday, the 23rd, reports began coming 
in to the effect that the enemy was commencing an attack on 
the Mons line, apparently in some strength, but that the right 
of the position from Mons and Bray was being particularly 

The Commander of the ist Corps had pushed his flank 
back to some high ground south of Bray, and the 5th Cavalry 
Brigade evacuated Binche, moving slightly south : the 
enemy thereupon occupied Binche. 

The right of the 3rd Division, under General Hamilton, 
was at Mons, which formed a somewhat dangerous salient ; 
and I directed the Commander of the 2nd Corps to be 
careful not to keep the troops on this salient too long, but 
if threatened seriously, to draw back the centre behind Mons. 
This was done before dark. In the meantime, about 5 P.M., 
I received a most unexpected message from General Joffre by 
telegraph, telling me that at least three German Corps, viz., 
a reserve corps, the 4th Corps and the gth Corps, were 
moving on my position in front, and that the 2nd Corps 
was engaged in a turning movement from the direction of 
Tournai. He also informed me that the two reserve French 
Divisions and the 5th French Army on my right were retiring, 
the Germans having on the previous day gained possession 
MILITARY i. i 353 


of the passages of the Sambre between Charleroi and 

3. In view of the possibility of my being driven from the 
Mons position, I had previously ordered a position in rear to 
be reconnoitred. This position rested on the fortress of 
Maubeuge on the right and extended west to Jenlain, south- 
east of Valenciennes, on the left. The position was reported 
difficult to hold, because standing crops and buildings made 
the siting of trenches very difficult and limited the field of 
fire in many important localities. It nevertheless afforded a 
few good artillery positions. 

When the news of the retirement of the French and the 
heavy German threatening on my front reached me, I endea- 
voured to confirm it by aeroplane reconnaissance ; and as a 
result of this I determined to effect a retirement to the 
Maubeuge position at daybreak on the 24th. 

A certain amount of fighting continued along the whole 
line throughout the night, and at daybreak on the 24th the 
2nd Division from the neighbourhood of Harmignies made a 
powerful demonstration as if to retake Binche. This was 
supported by the artillery of both the ist and 2nd Divisions, 
whilst the ist Division took up a supporting position in the 
neighbourhood of Peissant. Under cover of this demon- 
stration the 2nd Corps retired on the line Dour-Quarouble- 
Frameries. The 3rd Division on the right of the Corps 
suffered considerable loss in this operation from the enemy, 
who had retaken Mons. 

The 2nd Corps halted on this line, where they partially 
entrenched themselves, enabling Sir Douglas Haig with the 
ist Corps gradually to withdraw to the new position ; and 
he effected this without much further loss, reaching the line 
Bavai-Maubeuge about 7 P.M. Towards midday the enemy 
appeared to be directing his principal effort against our left. 

I had previously ordered General Allenby with the Cavalry 
to act vigorously in advance of my left front and endeavour 
to take the pressure off. 

About 7.30 A.M. General Allenby received a message from 
Sir Charles Fergusson, commanding 5th Division, saying that 
he was very hard pressed and in urgent need of support. On 
receipt of this message General Allenby drew in the Cavalry 
and endeavoured to bring direct support to the 5th Division, 


During the course of this operation General De Lisle, of 
the 2nd Cavalry Brigade, thought he saw a good opportunity 
to paralyse the further advance of the enemy's infantry by 
making a mounted attack on his flank. He formed up and 
advanced for this purpose, but was held up by wire about five 
hundred yards from his objective, and the Qth Lancers and 
i8th Hussars suffered severely in the retirement of the Brigade. 

The igth Infantry Brigade, which had been guarding the 
Line of Communications, was brought up by rail to Valen- 
ciennes on the 22nd and 23rd. On the morning of the 24th 
they were moved out to a position south of Quarouble to 
support the left flank of the 2nd Corps. 

With the assistance of the Cavalry, Sir Horace Smith- 
Dorrien was enabled to effect his retreat to a new position ; 
although, having two corps of the enemy on his front and one 
threatening his flank, he suffered great losses in doing so. 

At nightfall the position was occupied by the 2nd Corps 
to the west of Bavai, the ist Corps to the right. The right 
was protected by the Fortress of Maubeuge, the left by the 
igth Brigade in position between Jenlain and Bry, and the 
Cavalry on the outer flank. 

4. The French were still retiring, and I had no support 
except such as was afforded by the fortress of Maubeuge ; 
and the determined attempts of the enemy to get round my 
left flank assured me that it was his intention to hem me 
against that place and surround me. I felt that not a moment 
must be lost in retiring to another position. 

I had every reason to believe that the enemy's forces were 
somewhat exhausted, and I knew that they had suffered heavy 
losses. I hoped, therefore, that his pursuit would not be too 
vigorous to prevent me effecting my object. 

The operation, however, was full of danger and difficulty, 
not only owing to the very superior force in my front, but 
also to the exhaustion of the troops. 

The retirement was recommenced in the early morning of 
the 25th to a position in the neighbourhood of Le Cateau, and 
rearguards were ordered to be clear of the Maubeuge-Bavai- 
Eth Road by 5.30 A.M. 

Two Cavalry Brigades, with the Divisional Cavalry of the 
2nd Corps, covered the movement of the 2nd Corps. The 
remainder of the Cavalry Division with the igth Brigade, 



the whole under the command of General Allenby, covered 
the west flank. 

The 4th Division commenced its detrainment at Le 
Cateau on Sunday, the 23rd, and by the morning of the 25th 
eleven battalions and a Brigade of Artillery with Divisional 
Staff were available for service. 

I ordered General Snow to move out to take up a position 
with his right south of Solesmes, his left resting on the Cambrai- 
Le Cateau Road south of La Chaprie. In this position the 
Division rendered great help to the effective retirement of the 
2nd and ist Corps to the new position. 

Although the troops had been ordered to occupy the 
Cambrai-Le Cateau-Landrecies position, and the ground had, 
during the 25th, been partially prepared and entrenched, I 
had grave doubts owing to the information I received as to 
the accumulating strength of the enemy against me as to the 
wisdom of standing there to fight. 

Having regard to the continued retirement of the French 
on my right, my exposed left flank, the tendency of the 
enemy's western corps (II.) to envelop me, and, more than all, 
the exhausted condition of the troops, I determined to make 
a great effort to continue the retreat till I could put some 
substantial obstacle, such as the Somme or the Oise, between 
my troops and the enemy, and afford the former some oppor- 
tunity of rest and re-organisation. Orders were therefore 
sent to the Corps Commanders to continue their retreat as 
soon as they possibly could towards the general line Vermand- 
St. Quentin-Ribemont. 

The Cavalry, under General Allenby, were ordered to 
cover the retirement. 

Throughout the 25th and far into the evening, the ist 
Corps continued its march on Landrecies, following the road 
along the eastern border of the Foret De Mormal, and arrived 
at Landrecies about 10 o'clock. I had intended that the 
Corps should come farther west so as to fill up the gap between 
Le Cateau and Landrecies, but the men were exhausted and 
could not get further in without rest. 

The enemy, however, would not allow them this rest, and 
about 9.30 P.M. a report was received that the 4th Guards 
Brigade in Landrecies was heavily attacked by troops of 
the gth German Army Corps who were coming through the 

Railways Canals*" forts a j 



forest on the north of the town. This brigade fought most 
gallantly and caused the enemy to suffer tremendous loss in 
issuing from the forest into the narrow streets of the town. 
The loss has been estimated from reliable sources at from seven 
hundred to one thousand. At the same time information 
reached me from Sir Douglas Haig that his ist Division was 
also heavily engaged south and east of Maroilles. I sent 
urgent messages to the Commander of the two French Reserve 
Divisions on my right to come up to the assistance of the ist 
Corps, which they eventually did. Partly owing to this 
assistance, but mainly to the skilful manner in which Sir 
Douglas Haig extricated his Corps from an exceptionally 
difficult position in the darkness of the night, they were able 
at dawn to resume their march south towards Wassigny on 

By about 6 P.M. the 2nd Corps had got into position 
with their right on Le Cateau, their left in the neigh- 
bourhood of Caudry, and the line of defence was continued 
thence by the 4th Division towards Seranvillers, the left 
being thrown back. 

During the fighting on the 24th and 25th the Cavalry 
became a good deal scattered, but by the early morning of the 
26th General Allenby had succeeded in concentrating two 
brigades to the south of Cambrai. 

The 4th Division was placed under the orders of the General 
Officer Commanding the 2nd Army Corps. 

On the 24th the French Cavalry Corps, consisting of three 
Divisions, under General' Sordet, had been in billets north of 
Avesnes. On my way back from Bavai, which was my 
poste de commandement during the fighting of the 23rd 
and 24th, I visited General Sordet, and earnestly requested 
his co-operation and support. He promised to obtain sanction 
from his Army Commander to act on my left flank, but said 
that his horses were too tired to move before the next day. 
Although he rendered me valuable assistance later on in the 
course of the retirement, he was unable, for the reasons given, 
to afford me any support on the most critical day of all, 
viz., the 26th. 

At daybreak it became apparent that the enemy was 
throwing the bulk of his strength against the left of the 
position occupied by the 2nd Corps and the 4th Division. 


At this time the guns of four German Army Corps were in 
position against them, and Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien reported 
to me that he judged it impossible to continue his retirement 
at daybreak (as ordered) in face of such an attack. 

I sent him orders to use his utmost endeavours to break 
off the action and retire at the earliest possible moment, as it 
was impossible for me to send him any support, the ist Corps 
being at the moment incapable of movement. 

The French Cavalry Corps, under General Sordet, was 
coming up on our left rear early in the morning, and I sent 
an urgent message to him to do his utmost to come up and 
support the retirement of my left flank ; but, owing to the 
fatigue of his horses he found himself unable to intervene in 
any way. 

There had been no time to entrench the position properly, 
but the troops showed a magnificent front to the terrible fire 
which confronted them. 

The Artillery, although outmatched by at least four to 
one, made a splendid fight, and inflicted heavy losses on their 

At length it became apparent that, if complete annihila- 
tion was to be avoided, a retirement must be attempted ; 
and the order was given to commence it about 3.30 P.M. The 
movement was covered with the most devoted intrepidity 
and determination by the Artillery, which had itself suffered 
heavily, and the fine work done by the Cavalry in the further 
retreat from the position assisted materially in the final 
completion of this most difficult and dangerous operation. 

Fortunately the enemy had himself suffered too heavily 
to engage in an energetic pursuit. 

I cannot close the brief account of this glorious stand 
of the British troops without putting on record my deep 
appreciation of the valuable services rendered by General 
Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien. 

I say without hesitation that the saving of the left wing 
of the Army under my command on the morning of the 26th 
August could never have been accomplished unless a com- 
mander of rare and unusual coolness, intrepidity, and deter- 
mination had been present to personally conduct the operations. 

The retreat was continued far into the night of the 26th 
and through the 27th and 28th, on which date the troops 


halted on the line Noyon - Chauny - La Fere, having then 
thrown off the Weight of the enemy's pursuit. 

On the 27th and 28th I was much indebted to General 
Sordet and the French Cavalry Division which he commands, 
for materially assisting my retirement and successfully 
driving back some of the enemy on Cambrai. 

General D'Amade also, with the 6ist and 62nd French 
Reserve Divisions, moved down from the neighbourhood of 
Arras on the enemy's right flank and took much pressure off 
the rear of the British Forces. 

This closes the period covering the heavy fighting which 
commenced at Mons on Sunday afternoon, 23rd August, 
and which really constituted a four days' battle. 

At this point, therefore, I propose to close the present 

I deeply deplore the very serious losses which the British 
Forces have suffered in this great battle ; but they were 
inevitable in view of the fact that the British Army only 
two days after a concentration by rail was called upon to 
withstand a vigorous attack of five German Army Corps. 

It is impossible for me to speak too highly of the skill 
evinced by the two General Officers commanding Army 
Corps ; the self-sacrificing and devoted exertions of their 
Staffs ; the direction of the troops by Divisional, Brigade, 
and Regimental Leaders ; the command of the smaller units 
by their officers ; and the magnificent fighting spirit dis- 
played by non-commissioned officers and men. 

I wish particularly to bring to your Lordship's notice the 
admirable work done by the Royal Flying Corps under Sir David 
Henderson. Their skill, energy, and perseverance have been 
beyond all praise. They have furnished me with the most com- 
plete and accurate information, which has been of incalculable 
value in the conduct of the operations. Fired at constantly 
both by friend and foe, and not hesitating to fly in every kind 
of weather, they have remained undaunted throughout. 

Further, by actually fighting in the air, they have suc- 
ceeded in destroying five of the enemy's machines. 

I wish to acknowledge with deep gratitude the incalculable 
assistance I received from the General and Personal Staffs 
at Headquarters during this trying period. 

Lieutenant-General Sir Archibald ]\Jurray, Chief of the 



General Staff ; Major-General Wilson, Sub-Chief of the 
General Staff ; and all under them have worked day and 
night unceasingly with the utmost skill, self-sacrifice, and 
devotion ; and the same acknowledgment is due by me to 
Brigadier-General Hon. W. Lambton, my Military Secretary, 
and the Personal Staff. 

In such operations as I have described, the work of the 
Quartermaster-General is of an extremely onerous nature. 
Major-General Sir William Robertson has met what appeared 
to be almost insuperable difficulties with his characteristic 
energy, skill, and determination ; and it is largely owing to 
his exertions that the hardships and sufferings of the troops 
inseparable from such operations were not much greater. 

Major-General Sir Nevil Macready, the Adjutant-General, 
has also been confronted with most onerous and difficult 
tasks in connection with disciplinary arrangements and the 
preparation of casualty lists. He has been indefatigable in 
his exertions to meet the difficult situations which arose. 

I have not yet been able to complete the list of officers 
whose names I desire to bring to your Lordship's notice for 
services rendered during the period under review* and, as 
I understand it is of importance that this despatch should no 
longer be delayed, I propose to forward this list, separately, 
as soon as I can. I have the honour to be, your Lordship's 
most obedient servant, 

( Signed) J. D. P. FRENCH, Field-Marshal, 

British Forces in the Field. 



ijth September 1.914. 

L.G., MY LORD, In continuation of my despatch of 7th 

Oct. 19, '14 September, I have the honour to report the further progress 
of the operations of the Forces under my command from 
28th August. 

On that evening the retirement of the Force was followed 
closely by two of the enemy's cavalry columns, moving south- 
east from St. Quentin.. 


The retreat in this part of the field was being covered by 
the 3rd and 5th Cavalry Brigades. South of the Somme 
General Gough, with the 3rd Cavalry Brigade, threw back the 
Uhlans of the Guard with considerable loss. 

General Chetwode, with the 5th Cavalry Brigade, encoun- 
tered the eastern column near Cerizy, moving south. The 
Brigade attacked and routed the column, the leading German 
regiment suffering very severe casualties and being almost 
broken up. 

The 7th French Army Corps was now in course of being 
railed up from the south to the east of Amiens. On the zgth 
it nearly completed its detrainment, and the French 6th Army 
got into position on my left, its right resting on Roye. 

The 5th French Army was behind the line of the Oise 
between La Fere and Guise. 

The pursuit of the enemy was very vigorous ; some five 
or six German corps were on the Somme, facing the 5th 
Army on the Oise. At least two corps were advancing 
towards my front, and were crossing the Somme east and 
west of Ham. Three or four more German corps were oppos- 
ing the 6th French Army on my left. 

This was the situation at i o'clock on the zgth, when I 
received a visit from General J off re at my Headquarters. 

I strongly represented my position to the French Com- 
mander-in-Chief , who was most kind, cordial, and sympathetic, 
as he has always been. He told me that he had directed 
the 5th French Army on the Oise to move forward and attack 
the Germans on the Somme, with a view to checking pursuit. 
He also told me of the formation of the 6th French Army 
on my left flank, composed of the yth Army Corps, four 
Reserve Divisions, and Sordet's Corps of Cavalry. 

I finally arranged with General J off re to effect a further 
short retirement towards the line Compiegne-Soissons, pro- 
mising him, however, to do my utmost to keep always within 
a day's march of him. 

In pursuance of this" arrangement the British Forces 
retired to a position a few miles north of the line Compidgne- 
Soissons on the zgth. 

The right flank of the German Army was now reaching 
a point which appeared seriously to endanger my line of 
communications with Havre. I had already evacuated 



Amiens, into which place a German reserve division was 
reported to have moved. 

Orders were given to change the base to St. Nazaire, and 
establish an advance base at Le Mans.. This operation was 
well carried out by the Inspector-General of Communications. 

In spite of a severe defeat inflicted upon the Guard loth 
and Guard Reserve Corps of the German Army by the ist 
and 3rd French Corps on the right of the 5th Army, it was not 
part of General Joffre's plan to pursue this advantage, and a 
general retirement on to the line of the Marne was ordered, 
to which the French Forces in the more eastern theatre were 
directed to conform. 

A new Army (the Qth) had been formed from three corps 
in the south by General J off re, and moved into the space 
between the right of the 5th and left of the 4th Armies. 

Whilst closely adhering to his strategic conception to 
draw the enemy on at all points until a favourable situation 
was created from which to assume the offensive, General 
Joffre found it necessary to modify from day to day the 
methods by which he sought to attain this object, owing to 
the development of the enemy's plans and changes in the 
general situation. 

In conformity with the movements of the French Forces, 
my retirement continued practically from day to day. 
Although we were not severely pressed by the enemy, rear- 
guard actions took place continually. 

On the ist September, when retiring from the thickly 
wooded country to the south of CompiSgne, the ist Cavalry 
Brigade was overtaken by some German cavalry. They 
momentarily lost a Horse Artillery battery, and several 
officers and men were killed and wounded. With the help, 
however, of some detachments from the 3rd Corps operating 
on their left, they not only recovered their own guns but 
succeeded in capturing twelve of the enemy's. 

Similarly, to the eastward, the ist Corps, retiring south, 
also got into some very difficult forest country, and a some- 
what severe rearguard action ensued at Villers-Cotterets, in 
which the 4th Guards Brigade suffered considerably. 

On 3rd September the British Forces were in position 
south of the Marne between Lagny and Signy-Signets. Up 
to this time I had been requested by General Joffre to defend 


the passages of the river as long as possible, and to blow up 
the bridges in my front. After I had made the necessary 
dispositions, and the destruction of the bridges had been 
effected, I was asked by the French Commander-in-Chief to 
continue my retirement to a point some twelve miles in rear 
of the position I then occupied, with a view to taking up a 
second position behind the Seine. This retirement was duly 
carried out. In the meantime the enemy had thrown bridges 
and crossed the Marne in considerable force, and was threaten- 
ing the Allies all along the line of the British Forces and the 
5th and gth French Armies. Consequently several small 
outpost actions took place. 

On Saturday, 5th September, I met the French Com- 
mander-in-Chief at his request, and he informed me of his 
intention to take the offensive forthwith, as he considered 
conditions were very favourable to success. 

General Joffre announced to me his intention of wheeling 
up the left flank of the 6th Army, pivoting on the Marne and 
directing it to move on the Ourcq ; cross and attack the flank 
of the ist German Army, which was then moving in a south- 
easterly direction east of that river. 

He requested me to effect a change of front to my right 
my left resting on the Marne and my right on the 5th Army 
to fill the gap between that army and the 6th. I was then 
to advance against the enemy in my front and join in the 
general offensive movement. 

These combined movements practically commenced on 
Sunday, 6th September, at sunrise ; and on that day it may 
be said that a great battle opened on a front extending from 
Ermenonville, which was just in front of the left flank of the 
6th French Army, through Lizy on the Marne, Mauperthuis, 
which was about the British centre, Courtecon, which was the 
left of the 5th French Army, to Esternay and Charleville, the 
left of the gth Army under General Foch, and so along the 
front of the gth, 4th, and 3rd French Armies to a point north 
of the fortress of Verdun. " 

This battle, in so far as the 6th French Army, the British 
Army, the 5th French Army, and the Qth French Army 
were concerned, may be said to have concluded on the 
evening of loth September, by which time the Germans had 
been driven back to the line Soissons-Reims, with a loss of 


thousands of prisoners, many guns, and enormous masses 
of transport. 

About the 3rd September the enemy appears to have 
changed his plans and to have determined to stop his advance 
south direct upon Paris ; for on the 4th September air recon- 
naissances showed that his main columns were moving in a 
'south-easterly direction generally east of a line drawn through 
Nanteuil and Lizy on the Ourcq. 

On the 5th September several of these columns were 
observed to have crossed the Marne ; whilst German troops, 
which were observed moving south-east up the left bank of 
the Ourcq on the 4th, were now reported to be halted and 
facing that river. Heads of the enemy's columns were seen 
crossing at Changis, La Ferte, Nogent, Chateau-Thierry, and 

Considerable German columns of all arms were seen to be 
converging on Montmirail, whilst before sunset large bivouacs 
of the enemy were located in the neighbourhood of Coulom- 
miers, south of Rebais, La Ferte-Gaucher, and Dagny. 

I should conceive it to have been about noon on the 6th 
September, after the British Forces had changed their front 
to the right and occupied the line Jouy-le-Chatel-Fare- 
moutiers-Villeneuve-le-Comte, and the advance of the 6th 
French Army north of the Marne towards the Ourcq became 
apparent, that the enemy realised the powerful threat that 
was being made against the flank of his columns moving south- 
east, and began the great retreat which opened the battle 
above referred to. 

On the evening of the 6th September, therefore, the 
fronts and positions of the opposing armies were roughly as 
follows : 


6th French Army. Right on the Marne at Meaux, 1 left 
towards Betz. 

British Forces. On the line Dagny-Coulommiers-Maison. 

$th French Army. At Courtecon, right on Esternay. 

Conneau's Cavalry Corps. Between the right of the 
British and the left of the French 5th Army. 

1 [The spelling in the despatch has been changed, where necessary, to 
correspond with the Staff maps.] 




4th Reserve and 2nd Corps. East of the Ourcq and facing 
that river. 

Qth Cavalry Division. West of Crecy. 

2nd Cavalry Division. North of Coulommiers. 

4th Corps. Rebais. 

$rd and jib, Corps. South-west of Montmirail. 

All these troops constituted the ist German Army, which 
was directed against the French 6th Army on the Ourcq, and 
the British Forces, and the left of the 5th French Army south 
of the Marne. 

The 2nd German Army (IX., X., X.R., and Guard) was 
moving against the centre and right of the 5th French Army 
and the gth French Army. 

On the yth September both the 5th and 6th French 
Armies were heavily engaged on our flank. The 2nd and 4th 
Reserve German Corps on the Ourcq vigorously opposed the 
advance of the French towards that river, but did not prevent 
the 6th Army from gaining some headway, the Germans them- 
selves suffering serious losses. The French 5th Army threw the 
enemy back to the line of the Petit Morin river after inflicting 
severe losses upon them, especially about Montceaux, which 
was carried at the point of the bayonet. 

The enemy retreated before our advance, covered by his 
2nd and gth and Guard Cavalry Divisions, which suffered 

Our Cavalry acted with great vigour, especially General 
De Lisle's Brigade with the gth Lancers and i8th Hussars. 

On the 8th September the enemy continued his retreat 
northward, and our Army was successfully engaged during 
the day with strong rearguards of all arms on the Petit Morin 
river, thereby materially assisting the progress of the French 
Armies on our right and left, against whom the enemy was 
making his greatest efforts. On both sides the enemy was 
thrown back with very heavy loss. The ist Army Corps 
encountered stubborn resistance at La Trtoire (north of 
Rebais). The enemy occupied a strong position with infantry 
and guns on the northern bank of the Petit Morin river ; they 
were dislodged with considerable loss. Several machine-guns 


and many prisoners were captured, and upwards of two 
hundred German dead were left on the ground. 

The forcing of the Petit Morin at this point was much 
assisted by the Cavalry and the ist Division, which crossed 
higher up the stream. 

Later in the day a counter attack by the enemy was well 
repulsed by the ist Army Corps, a great many prisoners and 
some guns again falling into our hands. 

On this day (8th September) the 2nd Army Corps encoun- 
tered considerable opposition, but drove back the enemy at 
all points with great loss, making considerable captures. 

The 3rd Army Corps also drove back considerable bodies of 
the enemy's infantry and made some captures. 

On the gth September the ist and 2nd Army Corps 
forced the passage of the Marne and advanced some miles 
to the north of it. The 3rd Corps encountered considerable 
opposition, as the bridge at La Ferte was destroyed and 
the enemy held the town on the opposite bank in some 
strength, and thence persistently obstructed the construc- 
tion of a bridge ; so the passage was not effected until 
after nightfall. 

During the day's pursuit the enemy suffered heavy loss 
in killed and wounded, some hundreds of prisoners feU into 
our hands, and a battery of eight machine-guns was captured 
by the 2nd Division. 

On this day the 6th French Army was heavily engaged 
west of the river Ourcq. The enemy had largely increased 
his force opposing them ; and very heavy fighting ensued, 
in which the French were successful throughout. 

The left of the 5th French Army reached the neighbourhood 
of Chateau-Thierry after the most severe fighting, having 
driven the enemy completely north of the river with great 

The fighting of this Army in the neighbourhood of Mont- 
mirail was very severe. 

The advance was resumed at daybreak on the loth up to the 
line of the Ourcq, opposed by strong rearguards of all arms. 
The ist and 2nd Corps, assisted by the Cavalry Division on 
the right, the 3rd and 5th Cavalry Brigades on the left, drove 
the enemy northwards. Thirteen guns, seven machine-guns, 
about two thousand prisoners, and quantities of transport 

MILITARY I. 2 A 369 


fell into our hands. The enemy left many dead on the 
field. On this day the French 5th and 6th Armies had 
little opposition. 

As the ist and 2nd German Armies were now in full retreat, 
this evening marks the end of the battle which practically 
commenced on the morning of the 6th instant ; and it is at 
this point in the operations that I am concluding the present 

Although I deeply regret to have had to report heavy 
losses in killed and wounded throughout these operations, I 
do not think they have been excessive in view of the magnitude 
of the great fight, the outlines of which I have only been able 
very briefly to describe, and the demoralisation and loss in 
killed and wounded which are known to have been caused to 
the enemy by the vigour and severity of the pursuit. 

In concluding this despatch I must call your Lordship's 
special attention to the fact that from Sunday, 23rd August, 
up to the present date (lyth September), from Mons back 
almost to the Seine, and from the Seine to the Aisne, the Army 
under my command has been ceaselessly engaged without one 
single day's halt or rest of any kind. 

Since the date to which in this despatch I have limited 
my report of the operations, a great battle on the Aisne has 
been proceeding. A full report of this battle will be made 
in an early further despatch. 

It will, however, be of interest to say here that, in spite 
of a very determined resistance on the part of the enemy, 
who is holding in strength and great tenacity a position 
peculiarly favourable to defence, the battle which commenced 
on the evening of the I2th instant has, so far, forced the 
enemy back from his first position, secured the passage of the 
river, and inflicted great loss upon him, including the capture 
of over two thousand prisoners and several guns. I have 
the honour to be, your Lordship's most obedient servant, 
(Signed) J. D. P. FRENCH, Field-Marshal, 

Commanding-in- Chief, 
The British Forces in the Field. 





8th October 1914. 

MY LORD, I have the honour to report the operations in . Q m> 
which the British Forces in France have been engaged since Oct. 19, '14 
the evening of the loth September. 

i. In the early morning of the nth the further pursuit 
of the enemy was commenced ; and the three Corps crossed 
the Ourcq practically unopposed, the Cavalry reaching the 
line of the Aisne river, the 3rd and 5th Brigades south of 
Soissons, the ist, 2nd, and 4th on the high ground at Cou- 
vrelles and Cerseuil. 

On the afternoon of the I2th, from the opposition encoun- 
tered by the 6th French Army to the west of Soissons, by the 
3rd Corps south-east of that place, by the 2nd Corps south 
of Missy and Vailly, and certain indications all along the line, 
I formed the opinion that the enemy had, for the moment 
at any rate, arrested his retreat and was preparing to dispute 
the passage of the Aisne with some vigour. 

South of Soissons the Germans were holding Mont de 
Paris against the attack of the right of the French 6th Army 
when the 3rd Corps reached the neighbourhood of Buzancy, 
south-east of that place. With the assistance of the Artillery 
of the 3rd Corps, the French drove them back across the river 
at Soissons, where they destroyed the bridges. . 

The heavy artillery fire which was visible for several miles 
in a westerly direction in the valley of the Aisne showed that 
the 6th French Army was meeting with strong opposition 
all along the line. 

On this day the Cavalry under General Allenby reached 
the neighbourhood of Braine and did good work in clearing 
the town and the high ground beyond it of strong hostile 
detachments. The Queen's Bays are particularly mentioned 
by the General, as having assisted greatly in the success of 
this operation. They were well supported by the 3rd Divi- 
sion, which on this night bivouacked at Brenelle, south of 
the river. 


The 5th Division approached Missy, but were unable to 
make headway. 

The ist Army Corps reached the neighbourhood of' 
Vauxcere without much opposition. 

In this manner the Battle of the Aisne commenced. 

2. The Aisne Valley runs generally east and west, and 
consists of a flat-bottomed depression of width varying from 
half a mile to two miles, down which the river follows a winding 
course to the west at some points near the southern slopes of 
the valley and at others near the northern. The high ground 
both on the north and south of the river is approximately 
400 feet above the bottom of the valley and is very similar in 
character, as are both slopes of the valley itself, which are 
broken into numerous rounded spurs and re-entrants. The 
most prominent of the former are the Chivres spur on the right 
bank and Sermoise spur on the left. Near the latter place the 
general plateau on the south is divided by a subsidiary valley 
of much the same character, down which the small river 
Vesle flows to the main stream near Sermoise. The slopes of 
the plateau overlooking the Aisne on the north and south are 
of varying steepness, and are covered with numerous patches 
of wood, which also stretch upwards and backwards over the 
edge on to the top of the high ground. There are several 
villages and small towns dotted about in the valley itself and 
along its sides, the chief of which is the town of Soissons. 

The Aisne is a sluggish stream of some 170 feet in breadth, 
but, being 15 feet deep in the centre, it is unfordable. Be- 
tween Soissons on the west and Villers on the east (the part 
of the river. attacked and secured by the British Forces) there 
are eleven road bridges across it. On the north bank a 
narrow-gauge railway runs from Soissons to Vailly, where it 
crosses the river and continues eastward along the south bank. 
From Soissons to Sermoise a double line of railway runs along 
the south bank, turning at the latter place up the Vesle Valley 
towards Bazoches. 

The position held by the enemy is a very strong one, 
either for a delaying action or for a defensive battle. One of 
its chief military characteristics is that from the high ground 
on neither side can the top of the plateau on the other side be 
seen except for small stretches. This is chiefly due to the 
woods on the edges of the slopes. Another important point 


is that all the bridges are under either direct or high-angle 
artillery fire. 

The tract of country above described, which lies north of 
the Aisne, is well adapted to concealment, and was so skilfully 
turned to account by the enemy as to render it impossible to 
judge the real nature of his opposition to our passage of the 
river, or to accurately gauge his strength ; but I have every 
reason to conclude that strong rearguards of at least three 
army corps were holding the passages on the early morning 
of the 13th. 

3. On that morning I ordered the British Forces to 
advance and make good the Aisne. 

The ist Corps and the Cavalry advanced on the river. 
The ist Division was directed on Chamouille via the canal 
bridge at Bourg, and the 2nd Division on Courtecon and 
Presles via Pont-Arcy and on the canal to the north of Braye 
via Chavonne. On the right the Cavalry and ist Division 
met with slight opposition, and found a passage by means of 
the canal which crosses the river by an aqueduct. The 
Division was therefore able to press on, supported by the 
Cavalry Division on its outer flank, driving back the enemy 
in front of it. 

On the left the leading troops of the 2nd Division reached 
the river by 9 o'clock. The 5th Infantry Brigade were 
only enabled to cross, in single file and under considerable shell 
fire, by means of the broken girder of the bridge, which was 
not entirely submerged in the river. The construction of a 
pontoon bridge was at once undertaken, and was completed 
by 5 o'clock in the afternoon. 

On the extreme left the 4th Guards Brigade met with severe 
opposition at Chavonne, and it was only late in the afternoon 
that it was able to establish a foothold on the northern bank 
of the river by ferrying one battalion across ,in boats. 

By nightfall the ist Division occupied the area Moulins- 
Paissy-Geny, with posts in the village of Vendresse. 

The 2nd Division bivouacked as a whole on the southern 
bank of the river, leaving only the 5th Brigade on the north 
bank to establish a bridgehead. 

The 2nd Corps found all the bridges in front of them 
destroyed, except that of Conde, which was in possession of 
the enemy, and remained so until the end of the battle. 



In the approach to Missy, where the 5th Division eventu- 
ally crossed, there is some open ground which was swept by 
heavy fire from the opposite bank. The I3th Brigade was, 
therefore, unable to advance; but the I4th, which was 
directed to the east of Venizel at a less exposed point, was 
rafted across, and by night established itself with its left at 
St. Marguerite. They were followed by the I5th Brigade ; 
and later on both the I4th and I5th supported the 4th 
Division on their left in repelling a heavy counter-attack on 
the 3rd Corps. 

On the morning of the I3th the 3rd Corps found the 
enemy had established himself in strength on the Vregny 
Plateau. The road bridge at Venizel was repaired during the 
morning, and a reconnaissance was made with a view to 
throwing a pontoon bridge at Soissons. 

The I2th Infantry Brigade crossed at Venizel, and was 
assembled at Bucy-le-Long by i P.M., but the bridge was so 
far damaged that artillery could only be man-handled across 
it. Meanwhile the construction of a bridge was commenced 
close to the road bridge at Venizel. 

At 2 P.M. the I2th Infantry Brigade attacked in the 
direction of Chivres and Vregny with the object of securing 
the high ground east of Chivres, as a necessary preliminary to 
a farther advance northwards. This attack made good 
progress, but at 5.30 P.M. the enemy's artillery and machine- 
gun fire from the direction of Vregny became so severe that no 
further advance could be made. The positions reached were 
held till dark. 

The pontoon bridge at Venizel was completed at 5.30 P.M., 
when the loth Infantry Brigade crossed the river and moved 
to Bucy-le-Long. 

The igth Infantry Brigade moved to Billy-sur-Aisne, and 
before dark all the artillery of the Division had crossed the 
river, with the exception of the Heavy Battery and one 
Brigade of Field Artillery. 

During the night the positions gained by the I2th Infantry 
Brigade to the east of the stream running through Chivres 
were handed over to the 5th Division. 

The section of the Bridging Train allotted to the 3rd 
Corps began to arrive in the neighbourhood of Soissons late 
in the afternoon, when an attempt to throw a heavy pontoon 


bridge at Soissons had to be abandoned, owing to the fire 
of the enemy's heavy howitzers. 

In the evening the enemy retired at all points and 
entrenched himself on the high ground about two miles north 
of the river along which runs the Chemin-des-Dames. Detach- 
ments of Infantry, however, strongly entrenched in com- 
manding points down slopes of the various spurs, were left 
in front of all three corps with powerful artillery in support 
of them. 

During the night of the I3th, and on the I4th and follow- 
ing days, the Field Companies were incessantly at work night 
and day. Eight pontoon bridges and one footbridge were 
thrown across the river under generally very heavy artillery 
fire, which was incessantly kept up on to most of the cross- 
ings after completion. Three of the road bridges, i.e., Venizel, 
Missy, and Vailly, and the railway bridge east of Vailly were 
temporarily repaired so as to take foot traffic, and the Villers 
Bridge made fit to carry weights up to six tons. 

Preparations were also made for the repair of the Missy, 
Vailly, and Bourg Bridges so as to take mechanical transport. 

The weather was very wet and added to the difficulties 
by cutting up the already indifferent approaches, entailing a 
large amount of work to repair and improve. 

The operations of the Field Companies during this most 
trying time are worthy of the best traditions of the Royal 

4. On the evening of the I4th it was still impossible to 
decide whether the enemy was only making a temporary 
halt, covered by rearguards, or whether he intended to stand 
and defend the position. 

With a view to clearing up the situation, I ordered a 
general advance. 

The action of the ist Corps on this day, under the direc- 
tion and command of Sir Douglas Haig, was of so skilful, bold, 
and decisive a character that he gained positions which alone 
have enabled me to maintain my position for more than 
three weeks of very severe fighting on the north bank of the 

The Corps was directed to cross the line Moulins-Moussy 
by 7 A.M. 

On the right the General Officer Commanding the ist 



Division directed the 2nd Infantry Brigade (which was in 
billets and bivouacked about Moulins), and the 25th Artillery 
Brigade (less one battery), under General Bulfin, to move 
forward before daybreak, in order to protect the advance of 
the Division sent up the valley to Vendresse. An officers' 
patrol sent out by this Brigade reported a considerable force 
of the enemy near the factory north of Troyon, and the 
Brigadier accordingly directed two regiments (the King's 
Royal Rifles and the Royal Sussex Regiment) to move at 
3 A.M. The Northamptonshire Regiment was ordered to 
move at 4 A.M. to occupy the spur east of Troyon. The 
remaining regiment of the Brigade (the Loyal North Lancashire 
Regiment) moved at 5.30 A.M. to the village of Vendresse. 
The factory was found to be held in considerable strength 
by the enemy, and the Brigadier ordered the Loyal North 
Lancashire Regiment to support the King's Royal Rifles and 
the Sussex Regiment. Even with this support the force was 
unable to make headway, and on the arrival of the ist Brigade 
the Coldstream Guards were moved up to support the right 
of the leading Brigade (the 2nd), while the remainder of the 
ist Brigade supported its left. 

About noon the situation was, roughly, that the whole of 
these two brigades were extended along a line running east 
and west, north of the line Troyon and south of the Chemin- 
des-Dames. A party of the Loyal North Lancashire Regi- 
ment had seized and were holding the factory. The enemy 
held a line of entrenchments north and east of the factory 
in considerable strength, and every effort to advance against 
this line was driven back by heavy shell and machine-gun 
fire. The morning was wet and a heavy mist hung over the 
hills, so that the 25th Artillery Brigade and the Divisional 
Artillery were unable to render effective support to the 
advanced troops until about 9 o'clock. 

By 10 o'clock the 3rd Infantry Brigade had reached a 
point one mile south of Vendresse, and from there it was 
ordered to continue the line of the ist Brigade and to connect 
with and help the right of the 2nd Division. A strong hostile 
column was found to be advancing, and by a vigorous counter 
stroke with two of his battalions the Brigadier checked the 
advance of this column and relieved the pressure on the 2nd 
Division. From this period until late in the afternoon, the 


fighting consisted of a series of attacks and counter-attacks. 
The counter strokes by the enemy were delivered at first 
with great vigour, but later on they decreased in strength, 
and all were driven off with heavy loss. 

On the left the 6th Infantry Brigade had been ordered 
to cross the river and to pass through the line held during 
the preceding night by the 5th Infantry Brigade and occupy 
the Courtecon Ridge, whilst a detached force, consisting of 
the 4th Guards Brigade and the 36th Brigade, Royal Field 
Artillery, under Brigadier-General Perceval, were ordered to 
proceed to a point east of the village of Ostel. 

The 6th Infantry Brigade crossed the river at Pont-Arcy, 
moved up the valley towards Braye, and at 9 A.M. had reached 
the line Tilleul-La Bovelle. On this line they came under 
heavy artillery and rifle fire, and were unable to advance 
until supported by the 34th Brigade, Royal Field Artillery, 
and the 44th Howitzer Brigade and the Heavy Artillery. 

The 4th Guards Brigade crossed the river at 10 A.M. and 
met with very heavy opposition. It had to pass through 
dense woods ; field artillery support was difficult to obtain ; 
but one section of a field battery pushed up to and within the 
firing line. At i P.M. the left of the Brigade was south of the 
Ostel Bridge. 

At this period of the action the enemy obtained a footing 
between the ist and 2nd Corps, and threatened to cut the 
communications of the latter. 

Sir Douglas Haig was very hardly pressed and had no 
reserve in hand. I placed the Cavalry Division at his disposal, 
part of which he skilfully used to prolong and secure the left 
flank of the Guards Brigade. Some heavy fighting ensued, 
which resulted in the enemy being driven back with heavy loss. 

About 4 o'clock the weakening of the counter-attacks by 
the enemy and other indications tended to show that his 
resistance was decreasing, and a general advance was ordered 
by the Army Corps Commander. Although meeting with 
considerable opposition, and coming under very heavy artillery 
and rifle fire, the position of the corps at the end of the day's 
operations extended from the Chemin-des-Dames on the right, 
through Chivy, to La Cour de Soupir, with the ist Cavalry 
Brigade extending to the Chavonne-Soissons Road. 

On the right the corps was in close touch with the French 



Moroccan troops of the i8th Corps, which were entrenched in 
echelon to its right rear. During the night they entrenched 
this position. 

Throughout the Battle of the Aisne this advanced and 
commanding position was maintained, and I cannot speak 
too highly of the valuable services rendered by Sir Douglas 
Haig and the Army Corps under his command. Day after 
day and night after night the enemy's infantry has been 
hurled against him in violent counter-attack, which has never 
on any one occasion succeeded, whilst the trenches all over 
his position have been under continuous heavy artillery fire. 

The operations of the ist Corps on this day resulted in the 
capture of several hundred prisoners, some field-pieces and 

The casualties were very severe, one brigade alone losing 
three of its four Colonels. 

The 3rd Division commenced a further advance and had 
nearly reached the plateau of Aizy when they were driven back 
by a powerful counter-attack supported by heavy artillery. 
The Division, however, fell back in the best order, and finally 
entrenched itself about a mile north of Vailly Bridge, effectively 
covering the passage. 

The 4th and 5th Divisions were unable fo do more than 
maintain their ground. 

5. On the morning of the 15 th, after close examination of 
the position, it became clear to me that the enemy was making 
a determined stand ; and this view was confirmed by reports 
which reached me from the French Armies fighting on my right 
and left, which clearly showed that a strongly entrenched line 
of defence was being taken up from the north of Compiegne, 
eastward and south-eastward, along the whole valley of the 
Aisne up to and beyond Reims. 

A few days previously the fortress of Maubeuge fell, and 
a considerable quantity of siege artillery was brought down 
from that place to strengthen the enemy's position in front of 

During the I5th shells fell in our position which have been 
judged by experts to be thrown by eight-inch siege guns with 
a range of 10,000 yards. Throughout the whole course of the 
battle our troops have suffered very heavily from this fire, 
although its effect latterly was largely mitigated by more 


efficient and thorough entrenching, the necessity for which I 
impressed strongly upon Army Corps Commanders. In order 
to assist them in this work, all villages within the area of our 
occupation were searched for heavy entrenching tools, a large 
number of which were collected. 

In view of the peculiar formation of the ground on the 
north side of the river between Missy and Soissons, and its 
extraordinary adaptability to a force on the defensive, the 
5th Division found it impossible to maintain its position on 
the southern edge of the Chivres Plateau, as the enemy in 
possession of the village of Vregny to the west was able to 
bring a flank fire to bear upon it. The Division had, therefore, 
to retire to a line the left of which was the village of Marguerite, 
and thence ran by the north edge of Missy back to the river 
to the east of that place. 

With great skill and tenacity Sir Charles Fergusson main- 
tained this position throughout the whole battle, although his 
trenches were necessarily on lower ground than that occupied 
by the enemy on the southern edge of the plateau, which was 
only four hundred yards away. 

General Hamilton with the 3rd Division vigorously 
attacked to the north, and regained all the ground he had lost 
on the I5th, which throughout the battle has formed a most 
powerful and effective bridgehead. 

6. On the i6th the 6th Division came up into line. 

It had been my intention to direct the ist Corps to attack 
and seize the enemy's position on the Chemin-des-Dames, 
supporting it with this new reinforcement. I hoped from 
the position thus gained to bring effective fire to bear across 
the front of the 3rd Division, which, by securing the advance 
of the latter, would also take the pressure off the 5th Division 
and the 3rd Corps. 

But any further advance of the ist Corps would have 
dangerously exposed my right flank. And, further, I learned 
from the French Commander-in-Chief that he was strongly 
reinforcing the 6th French Army on my left, with the intention 
of bringing up the Allied left to attack the enemy's flank 
and thus compel his retirement. I therefore sent the 6th 
Division to join the 3rd Corps, with orders to keep it on 
the south side of the river, as it might be available in 
general reserve. 


On the i7th, i8th, and igth the whole of our line was 
heavily bombarded, and the ist Corps was constantly and 
heavily engaged. On the afternoon of the i7th the right 
flank of the ist Division was seriously threatened. A counter- 
attack was made by the Northamptonshire Regiment in 
combination with the Queen's, and one battalion of the 
Divisional Reserve was moved up in support. The North- 
amptonshire Regiment, under cover of mist, crept up to within 
a hundred yards of the enemy's trenches and charged with 
the bayonet, driving them out of the trenches and up the hill. 
A very strong force of hostile infantry was then disclosed on 
the crest line. This new line was enfiladed by part of the 
Queen's and the King's Royal Rifles, which wheeled to 
their left on the extreme right of our infantry line, and 
were supported by a squadron of cavalry on their outer 
flank. The enemy's attack was ultimately driven back with 
heavy loss. 

On the i8th, during the night, the Gloucestershire Regi- 
ment advanced from their position near Chivy, filled in the 
enemy's trenches, and captured two maxim guns. 

On the extreme right the Queen's were heavily attacked, 
but the enemy was repulsed with great loss. About mid- 
night the attack was renewed on the ist Division, supported 
by artillery fire, but was again repulsed. 

Shortly after midnight an attack was made on the left of 
the 2nd Division with considerable force, which was also 
thrown back. 

At about i P.M. on the igth the 2nd Division drove back 
a heavy infantry attack strongly supported by artillery fire. 
At dusk the attack was renewed and again repulsed. 

On the i8th I discussed with the General Officer Com- 
manding the 2nd Army Corps and his Divisional Com- 
manders the possibility of driving the enemy out of Conde, 
which lay between his two Divisions, and seizing the bridge 
which has remained throughout in his possession. 

As, however, I found that the bridge was closely com- 
manded from all points on the south side, and that satis- 
factory arrangements were made to prevent any issue from 
it by the enemy by day or night, I decided that it was not 
necessary to incur the losses which an attack would entail, 
as, in view of the position of the 2nd and 3rd Corps, the 



enemy could make no use of Cond6, and would be automatically 
forced out of it by any advance which might become possible 
for us. 

7. On this day information reached me from General 
Joffre that he had found it necessary to make a new plan, 
and to attack and envelop the German right flank. 

It was now evident to me that the battle in which we had 
been engaged since the I2th instant must last some days 
longer, until the effect of this new flank movement could 
be felt and a way opened to drive the enemy from his 

It thus became essential to establish some system of 
regular relief in the trenches, and I have used the infantry 
of the 6th Division for this purpose with good results. The 
relieved brigades were brought back alternately south of the 
river, and, with the artillery of the 6th Division, formed a 
general reserve on which I could rely in case of necessity. 

The Cavalry has rendered most efficient and ready help 
in the trenches, and have done all they possibly could to 
lighten the arduous and trying task which has of necessity 
fallen to the lot of the Infantry. 

On the evening of the igth and throughout the 20th, the 
enemy again commenced to show considerable activity. On 
the former night a severe counter-attack on the 3rd Division 
was repulsed with considerable loss, and from early on Sunday 
morning various hostile attempts were made on the trenches 
of the ist Division. During the day the enemy suffered 
another severe repulse in front of the 2nd Division, losing 
heavily in the attempt. In the course of the afternoon the 
enemy made desperate attempts against the trenches all along 
the front of the ist Corps, but with similar results. 

After dark the enemy again attacked the 2nd Division, 
only to be again driven back. 

Our losses on these two days were considerable, but the 
number, as obtained, of the enemy's killed and wounded 
vastly exceeded them. 

As the troops of the ist Army Corps were much exhausted 
by this continual fighting, I reinforced Sir Douglas Haig 
with a brigade from the reserve, and called upon the ist 
Cavalry Division to assist them. 

On the night of the 2ist another violent counter- 


attack was repulsed by the 3rd Division, the enemy losing 

On the 23rd the four six-inch howitzer batteries, which I 
had asked to be sent from home, arrived. Two batteries 
were handed over to the 2nd Corps and two to the ist Corps. 
They were brought into action on the 24th with very good 

Our experiences in this campaign seem to point to the 
employment of more heavy guns of a larger calibre in great 
battles which last for several days, during which time power- 
ful entrenching work on both sides can be carried out. 

These batteries were used with considerable effect on the 
24th and the following days. 

8. On the 23rd the action of General de Castelnau's Army 
on the Allied left developed considerably, and apparently 
withdrew considerable forces of the enemy away from the 
centre and east. I am not aware whether it was due to this 
cause or not, but until the 26th it appeared as though the 
enemy's opposition in our front was weakening. On that 
day, however, a very marked renewal of activity commenced. 
A constant and vigorous artillery bombardment was main- 
tained all day, and the Germans in front of the ist Division 
were observed to be ' sapping ' up to our lines and trying 
to establish new trenches. Renewed counter-attacks were 
delivered and beaten off during the course of the day, and in 
the afternoon a well-timed attack by the ist Division stopped 
the enemy's entrenching work. 

During the night of 27th-28th the enemy again made the 
most determined attempts to capture the trenches of the ist 
Division, but without the slightest success. 

Similar attacks were reported during these three days all 
along the line of the Allied front, and it is certain that the 
enemy then made one last great effort to establish ascend- 
ancy. He was, however, unsuccessful everywhere, and is 
reported to have suffered heavy losses. The same futile 
attempts were made all along our front up to the evening of 
the 28th, when they died away, and have not since been 

On former occasions I have brought to your Lordship's 
notice the valuable services performed during this campaign 
by the Royal Artillery. 



Throughout the Battle of the Aisne they have displayed 
the same skill, endurance, and tenacity, and I deeply appreciate 
the work they have done. 

Sir David Henderson and the Royal Flying Corps under 
his command have again proved their incalculable value. 
Great strides have been made in the development of the use 
of aircraft in the tactical sphere by establishing effective 
communication between aircraft and units in action. 

It is difficult to describe adequately and accurately the 
great strain to which officers and men were subjected almost 
every hour of the day and night throughout this battle. 

I have described above the severe character of the artillery 
fire which was directed from morning till night, not only upon 
the trenches, but over the whole surface of the ground occupied 
by our Forces. It was not until a few days before the position 
was evacuated that the heavy guns were removed and the 
fire slackened. Attack and counter-attack occurred at all 
hours of the night and day throughout the whole position, 
demanding extreme vigilance, and permitting only a minimum 
of rest. 

The fact that between the I2th September to the date of 
this despatch the total numbers of killed, wounded, and 
missing reached the figures amounting to 361 officers and 
12,980 men, proves the severity of the struggle. 

The tax on the endurance of the troops was further 
increased by the heavy rain and cold which prevailed for 
some ten or twelve days of this trying time. 

The Battle of the Aisne has once more demonstrated the 
splendid spirit, gallantry, and devotion which animates the 
officers and men of His Majesty's Forces. 

With reference to the last paragraph of my despatch of 
7th September, I append the names of officers, non-com- 
missioned officers and men brought forward for special 
mention by Army Corps Commanders and heads of depart- 
ments for services rendered from the commencement of the 
campaign up to the present date. 

I entirely agree with these recommendations, and beg to 
submit them for your Lordship's consideration. 

I further wish to bring forward the names of the following 
officers who have rendered valuable service : General Sir 
Horace Smith-Dorrien and Lieutenant-General Sir Douglas 


Haig (commanding 2nd and ist Corps respectively) I have 
already mentioned in the present and former despatches for 
particularly marked and distinguished service in critical 

Since the commencement of the campaign they have 
carried out all my orders and instructions with the utmost 

Lieutenant-General W. P. Pulteney took over the com- 
mand of the 3rd Corps just before the commencement of the 
Battle of the Marne. Throughout the subsequent operations 
he showed himself to be a most capable commander in the 
field, and has rendered very valuable services. 

Major-General E. H. H. Allenby and Major-General H. 
de la P. Gough have proved themselves to be Cavalry leaders 
of a high order, and I am deeply indebted to them. The un- 
doubted moral superiority which our Cavalry has obtained 
over that of the enemy has been due to the skill with which 
they have turned to the best account the qualities inherent 
in the splendid troops they command. 

In my despatch of 7th September I mentioned the name 
of Brigadier-General Sir David Henderson and his valuable 
work in command of the Royal Flying Corps ; and I have once 
more to express my deep appreciation of the help he has since 
rendered me. 

Lieutenant-General Sir Archibald Murray has continued to 
render me invaluable help as Chief of the Staff ; and in his 
arduous and responsible duties he has been ably assisted by 
Major-General Henry Wilson, Sub-Chief. 

Lieutenant-General Sir Nevil Macready and Lieutenant- 
General Sir Witti am Robertson have continued to perform 
excellent service as Adjutant-General and Quartermaster- 
General respectively. 

The Director of Army Signals, Lieutenant-Colonel J. S. 
Fowler, has materially assisted the operations by the skill 
and energy which he has displayed in the working of the 
important department over which he presides. 

My Military Secretary, Brigadier-General the Hon. W. 
Lambton, has performed his arduous and difficult duties with 
much zeal and great efficiency. 

I am anxious also to bring to your Lordship's notice the 
following names of officers of my Personal Staff, who through- 

MILITARY I. 2 B 385 


out these arduous operations have shown untiring zeal and 
energy in the performance of their duties : 


Lieutenant-Colonel Stanley Barry. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Lord Brooke. 
Major Fitzgerald Watt. 

Captain the Hon. F. E. Guest. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Brindsley Fitzgerald. 

Major His Royal Highness Prince Arthur of Connaught, 
K.G., joined my Staff as Aide-de-Camp on the I4th 

His Royal Highnesses intimate knowledge of languages 
enabled me to employ him with great advantage on confidential 
missions of some importance, and his services have proved 
of considerable value. 

I cannot close this despatch without informing your Lord- 
ship of the valuable services rendered by the Chief of the 
French Military Mission at my Headquarters, Colonel Victor 
Huguet, of the French Artillery. He has displayed tact and 
judgment of a high order in many difficult situations, and has 
rendered conspicuous service to the Allied cause. I have the 
honour to be, your Lordship's most obedient servant, 

(Signed) J. D. P. FRENCH, Field-Marshal, 

The British Army in the Field. 






Amy, Captain A. C., M.D. 

Asser, Colonel J. J. 

Atkins, Lieutenant-Colonel A. R. C. 

Babington, Major M. H. 

Barefoot, Lieutenant-Colonel G. H. 

Bartholomew, Major W. H. 

Beveridge, Lieutenant - Colonel 

W. W. O., D.S.O., M.B. 

Bird, Chaplain (ist Class) J. T. 

Bourke, Major E. A. 

Bowdler, Major B. W. B. 

Boyce, Colonel W. G. B., D.S.O. 

Bradley, Chaplain (3rd Class) P. 

Bunbury, Colonel V. T., C.B., 

Burke, Major B. B. 

Butler, Colonel E. R. C., F.R.C.V.S. 

Carter, Colonel E. E., C.M.G., M.V.O. 

Cavendish, Colonel A. E. J., C.M.G. 

Childs, Major (temporary Lieutenant- 
Colonel) B. E. W. 

Clark, Lieutenant-Colonel S. F., 

Cox, Captain E. W. 

Cummins, Major S. L., M.D. 

Davies, Captain W. E. 

Dawkins, Colonel C. T., C.M.G. 

Dawnay, Major Hon. H., D.S.O. 

Deedes, Major C. P., D.S.O. 

Evans, Major C. 

Fell, Major M. H. G. 

Ford, Lieutenant-Colonel R., D.S.O. 

Forrest, Major J. V., M.B. . 

Fowke, Brigadier-General G. H. 

Fowler, Lieutenant-Colonel (tem- 
porary Colonel) J. S., D.S.O. 

Fox, Chaplain (4th Class) H. W. 

Gallic, Major J. S. 

Gilpin, Brigadier-General F. C. A., 

Godfrey-Faussett, Major (temporary . G., 
Lieutenant-Colonel) E. G. Oct. 19, 

Goldsmith, Captain H. D. 

Graham, Major-General E. R. C., C.B. 

Gwynne, Chaplain (4th Class) L. H. 

Hammond, Captain F. D. 

Hare, Major R. W., D.S.O. 

Harper, Colonel G. M., D.S.O. 

Henniker, Major A. M. 

Hervey-Bathurst, Bart., Captain Sir 
F. E. W. 

Hildyard, Major H. C. T. 

Ironside, Captain (now Major) W. E. 
ack, Major E. M. 
ames, Major M. R. de B. 
ebb, Major G. D., D.S.O. 
ohnson, Major R. M. 
ohnson, Brevet Major H. C., D.S.O. 

Keatinge, Chaplain (ist Class) W. 

Kerr, Colonel F. W., D.S.O. 

King, Brigadier-General Sir C. W., 

Kirke, Major W. M. St. G. 

Lee, Captain R. T. 

Lindsay, Major-General W. F. L., 
C.B., D.S.O. 

Loch, Lieutenant-Colonel Lord E. D., 
M.V.O., D.S.O. 

Low, Captain N. 

Lynden-Bell, Colonel E. H. L., M.B. 

Lyon, Major F.', D.S.O. 

McCarthy, Principal Matron Miss 
E. M. 

Macdonogh, Colonel G. M. W. 

M'Naught, Major J. G., M.D. 

Macpherson, Chaplain (ist Class) 
E. G. F. 

Marrable, Lieutenant-Colonel (tem- 
porary Colonel) A. G. 

Mathew, Colonel C. M., C.B., D.S.O. 




Maxwell, Lieutenant G. A. P. 
Miller, Colonel A. D., D.S.O. 
Moore, Brigadier - General J., 


Moore, Major G. A., M.D. 
Myles, Major C. D., M.B. 
Nicholson, Captain O. H. L., D.S.O. 
O'Connor, Captain P. B. 
O'Donnell, Colonel T. J., D.S.O. 
Ommanney, Captain R. 
Otway, Captain A. L., M.B. 
Parry-Evans, Chaplain (3rd Class) 

J. D. S. 

Pegg, Chaplain (4th Class) W. H. F. 
Percival, Captain (temporary Major) 

H. F. P., D.S.O. 
Radcliffe, Major P. P. de B. 
Rawson, Lieutenant G. G. 
Robb, Major-General (temporary 

Lieutenant-General) Sir F. S., 

K.C.V.O., C.B. 
Russell, Lieutenant-Colonel J. J., 

Sandbach, Brigadier-General A. E., 

C.B., D.S.O. 
Shea, Lieutenant-Colonel J. S. M., 


Smith, Brevet Colonel F., D.S.O. 
Steel, Major E. B., M.B. 
Stuart, Brigadier-General A. M. 
Symons, Major F. A., M.B. 
Thomson, Colonel A. G., C.B. 
Tuckey, Chaplain (ist Class) J. G. W. 
Turner, Major E. V. 
Wake, Major H., D.S.O. 
Wanless-O'Gowan, Colonel R. 
Waring, Major A. H. 
Watkins, Chaplain (3rd Class) O. S. 
Webb, Major A. L. A. 
Westcott, Colonel S., C.M.G. 
Wilson, Lieutenant-Colonel F. M. 
Woodhouse, Surgeon-General T. P. 
Woodroffe, Captain C. R. 
Yeoman, Chaplain (3rd Class) A. R. 

Acland Troyte, Captain G. J. 
Allfrey, Captain H. I. R. 
Anderson, Lieutenant-Colonel N. G., 


Anley, Major B. D. L. G., D.S.O. 
Anstey, Captain E. C. 
Armstrong, Lieutenant W. M. 
Baird, Captain H. B. D. 
Baker, Major J. 

Barrow, Lieutenant-Colonel G. de S. 
Bartholomew, Captain A. W. 
Bell-Irving, Lieutenant W. O. 
Bingham, Brigadier-General Hon. 

C. E., C.V.O., C.B. 
Blake, Captain W. A. 
Blake, Lieutenant St. J. L. O'B. A. ff. 
Bowly, Captain W. A. T. 
Boyd, Captain G. F., D.S.O. 
Boyle, Colonel R. C. 
Briggs, Brigadier-General C. J., C.B. 
Brind, Captain J. E. S. 
Brooke, Lieutenant G. F. H. 
Brooks, Lieutenant W. T. 
Bulfin, Brigadier-General E. S., 

C.V.O., C.B. 

Burnett Hitchcock, Captain B. F. 
Bush, Major H. S. 
Butler, Major Hon. L. J. P. 
Cameron, Lieutenant-Colonel A. R. 
Cameron, Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 

N. J. G. 

Cawley, Major J. S. 
Charteris, Captain J. 
Chenevix-Trench, Captain F. M. 
Chetwode, Brigadier-General Sir P. 

W., Bart, D.S.O. 
Chopping, Major A. 
Clarke, Major T. E. 
Conway-Gordon, Lieutenant-Colonel 


Cooke, Major B. H. H. 
Corkran, Major C. E. 
Cornwall, Lieutenant J. H. M. 
Cory, Major G. N., D.S.O. 
Cotgrave, Captain T. S. 
Cree, Lieutenant-Colonel G. 
Currie, Captain R. A. M. 
Cuthbert, Brigadier-General G. J., 


Dalton, Lieutenant-Colonel C. 
Daniell, Major F. E. LL. 
Davidson, Major J. H., D.S.O. 
Davies, Captain C. M. 


Davies, Brigadier-General R. H., C.B. 

Delano-Osborne, Captain O. H. 

De Lisle, Brigadier-General H. de B., 

C.B., D.S.O. 

Dillon, Captain E. FitzG. 
Poran, Brigadier-General B. J. C., 


Dorling, Captain F. H. 
Du Cane, Brigadier-General J. P., C.B. 
Dunlop, Captain F. P. 
Dunsterville, Colonel A. B. 
Durand, Major H. M. 
Dyer, Captain G. N. 
Edmonds, Colonel J. E., C.B. 
Egerton, Lieutenant C. C. 
Fanshawe, Colonel R., D.S.O. 
Farmar, Major G. J. 
Fergusson, Major-General Sir C., 

Bart., C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O. 
Fitzpatrick, Captain E. R. 
Forestier- Walker, Brigadier-General 

G. T., A.D.C. 

Frankland, Captain T. H. C. 
Gathorne-Hardy, Lieutenant-Colonel 

Hon. J. F. 

Giffard, Lieutenant R. 
Gilkison, Captain D. S. 
Gill, Captain G. H. 
Gleichen, Brigadier-General A. E. W., 

Count, K.C.V.O., C.B., C.M.G., 

Glubb, Brigadier-General F. M., 

C.B., D.S.O. 

Gordon, Major (local Lieutenant- 
Colonel) A. F., D.S.O. 
Gordon, Captain A. R. G. 
Gordon, Colonel Hon. F., D.S.O. 
Gort, Captain Viscount J. S. S. P. V., 

Gough, Brigadier-General J. E., V.C., 


Graham, Lieutenant Lord D. M. 
Haking, Brigadier-General R. C. B., 

Haldane, Brigadier-General J. A. L., 

C.B., D.S.O. 
Hambro, Major P. O. 
Hamilton, Major-General H. I. W., 

C.V.O., C.B., D.S.O. 

Hamilton-Grace, Captain R. S. 

Harter, Lieutenant J. F. 

Headlam, Brigadier-General J. E. W., 

C.B., D.S.O. 

Hickie, Brigadier-General W. B., C.B. 
Hickson, Colonel S., M.B. 
Hildyard, Captain R. J. T. 
Hinde, Major A. 
Hobbs, Brigadier-General P. E. F., 


Home, Lieutenant-Colonel A. F. 
Hore Ruthven, Major Hon. W. P. 

(Master of Ruthven), D.S.O. 
Home, Brigadier-General H. S., C.B. 
Howard, Captain H. C. 
Howard- Vyse, Captain R. G. H. 
Hunter-Weston, Brigadier-General 

A. G., C.B., D.S.O. 
Hutchison, Major R. 
Jackson, Captain L. C., C.M.G. 
Jenkinson, Captain J. B. 
Jeudwine, Colonel H. S. 
Kearsley, Major R. H. 
Landon, Brigadier-General H. J. S., 


Lefroy, Captain B. P., D.S.O. 
Leggett, Captain E. H. G. 
Lomax, Major-General S. H. 
Ludlow, Colonel E. R. O. 
M'Cracken, Brigadier-General F. W. 

N., C.B., D.S.O. 
Mackworth, Captain F. J. A. 
Malcolm, Lieutenant-Colonel N., 


Marker, Colonel R. J., D.S.O. 
Maude, Colonel F. S., C.M.G., D.S.O. 
Maurice, Lieutenant-Colonel F. B. 
Maxwell-Scott, Captain W. J. 
Milne, Brigadier-General G. F., C.B., 


Monro, Major-General C. C., C.B. 
Montgomery, Lieutenant-Colonel A. 


Moulton-Barrett, Captain A. L. 
Newbigging, Major W. P. E., D.S.O. 
Osborne, Captain R. H. 
Oxley, Colonel R. S. 
Paige, Lieutenant D. 
Paley, Major G. 



Palmer, Captain W. L. 

Penrose, Lieutenant J. 

Perceval, Lieutenant C. P. W. 

Perceval, Brigadier-General E. M., 

Percival, Major (temporary Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel) A. J.-B., D.S.O. 

Porter, Colonel R., M.B. 

Price-Davies, Captain L. A. E., V.C., 

Ready, Major F. R, D.S.O. 

Reid, Captain W. R. 

Rice, Brigadier-General S. R., C.B. 

Rolt, Brigadier-General S. P., C.B. 

Romer, Lieutenant-Colonel C. F. 

Ryan, Major E. 

Rycroft, Colonel W. H., C.B. 

Sargent, Colonel H. N., I}.S.O. 

Sawyer, Lieutenant-Colonel H. T. 

Sawyer, Colonel R. H. S. (M.B., 

Schreiber, Lieutenant-Colonel A. L., 

Scott-Kern Brigadier-General R., 
C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O. 

Shaw, Brigadier-General F. C., 


Smallman, Major A. B. (M.D.). 
Snow, Major-General T. D'O., 


Stevens, Captain R. W. M. 
Stratton, Major F. C. 
Street, Major H. E. 
Studd, Major H. W., D.S.O. 
Tailyour, Major G. H. F. 
Tandy, Captain E. N. 
Tapley, Captain J. J. B. 
Taylor, Lieutenant-Colonel F. P. S. 
Vaughan, Colonel J., D.S.O. 
Weatherby, Captain J. T. 
Weir, Major G. A. 
West, Second Lieutenant R. R. F. 
Wethered, Captain J. T. 
Willan, Lieutenant R. H. 
Wilson, Brigadier-General H. F. M., 

Wing, Brigadier-General F. D. V., 


Wroughton, Major J. B. 
Young, Major J. M. 


Lieutenant K. P. Atkinson, Royal 

Field Artillery. 

Captain R. A. Boger, Royal Engineers. 
Lieutenant I. M. Bonham-Carter, 

Northumberland Fusiliers. 
Captain U. J. D. Bourke, Oxford and 

Bucks Light Infantry. 
Captain A. B. Burdett, York and 

Lancaster Regiment. 
Brevet Major C. J. Burke, Royal 

Irish Regiment. 
Lieutenant (temporary Captain) G. I. 

Carmichael, Royal Field Artillery. 
Lieutenant A. Christie, Royal Field 

Lieutenant E. L. Conran, 2nd County 

of London Yeomanry. 
Captain G. W. P. Dawes, Royal 

Berkshire Regiment. 
Lieutenant L. Dawes, Middlesex 



Captain E. W. Furse, Royal Field 

Lieutenant H. D. Harvey-Kelly, 

Royal Irish Regiment. 
Captain H. C. Jackson, Bedford 

Lieutenant P. B. Joubert de la 

Ferte", Royal Field Artillery. 
Lieutenant D. S. Lewis, Royal 

Brevet Major C. A. H. Longcroft, 

Welsh Regiment. 
Lieutenant W. H. C. Mansfield, 

Shropshire Light Infantry.' 
Lieutenant G. W. Mapplebeck, 4th 

Liverpool Regiment, Royal Flying 


Lieutenant W. G. S. Mitchell, High- 
land Light Infantry. 
Lieutenant M. W. Noel, Liverpool 



Lieutenant C. E. C. Rabagliati, York- 
shire Light Infantry. 

Brevet Major G. H. Raleigh, Essex 

Brevet Major J. M. Salmond, Royal 
Lancaster Regiment. 

Lieutenant R. G. D. Small, Leinster 

Lieutenant (temporary Captain) A. 
H. L. Soames, 3rd Hussars. 

Second Lieutenant N. C. Spratt, 
Royal Flying Corps (S.R.). 

Brevet Major (temporary Lieutenant- 
Colonel) F. H. Sykes. 

Captain F. F. Waldron, igth Hussars. 

Second Lieutenant C. W. Wilson, 
Royal Flying Corps (S.R.) 




Major Viscount H. W. Crichton, 

M.V.O., D.S.O., Royal Horse 

Captain T. C. Gurney, 2nd Life 

Lieutenant A. L. E. Smith, ist Life 

Lieutenant D. E. Wallace, 2nd Life 



Lieutenant-Colonel H. W. Wilber- 


Major G. H. A. Ing. 
Captain E. S. Chance. 
Lieutenant C. N. Champion de 


Lieutenant C. A. Heydeman. 
Lieutenant A. J. R. Lamb. 


Lieutenant-Colonel R. L. Mullens. 
Major G. T. M. Bridges, D.S.O. (now 

Major C. F. Hunter. 
Captain C. B. Hornby. 
Captain R. K. M'Gillycuddy. 
Lieutenant H. L. Jones, I3th Hussars 



Lieutenant-Colonel G. K. Ansell. 
Captain E. W. S. Balfour. 
Lieutenant V. D. S. Williams. 

Major W. G. Home. 
Captain M. N. Kennard. 
Lieutenant R. M. Barnsley. 
Lieutenant W. T. Gill. 


Lieutenant-Colonel C. B. Bulkeley- 


Major A. Lawson. 
Captain W. Long, D.S.O. 
Captain W. M'C. Duguid-M'Combie. 
Lieutenant G. F. A. Pigot-Moodie. 
Lieutenant J. G. Crabbe. 
Second Lieutenant G. J. R. Cooper. 
Second Lieutenant E. R. F. 

Lieutenant and Quartermaster D. 



Lieutenant-Colonel A. A. Kennedy. 
Captain F. J. Du Pre. 
Lieutenant C. F. Clarke. 


Major P. Howell. 

Captain J. K. Gatacre, Indian 

Army (attached). 
Lieutenant K. C. North. 
Lieutenant J. R. V. Sherston, 

Indian Army (attached). 
Lieutenant L. H. Cripps (Special 






Lieutenant-Colonel A. Parker. 
Major J. B. Jardine, D.S.O. 
Lieutenant B. W. Robinson. 
Lieutenant Hon. H. C. Alexander. 
Second Lieutenant W. H. Coulter. 
Lieutenant T. de Burgh, Indian 

Army (attached). 
Lieutenant Owen Gough, Indian 

Army (attached). 


Lieutenant-Colonel D. G. M. 


Captain D. K. L. Lucas-Tooth. 
Captain F. O. Grenfell. 
Captain L. W. De V. Sadleir- 

Jackson, D.S.O. 
Lieutenant R. L. Benson. 


Lieutenant-Colonel T. T. Pitman. 
Lieutenant Hon. C. H. G. Mulhol- 

Lieutenant J. S. Ainsworth. 


Lieutenant-Colonel M. L. MacEwen. 
Major C. J. Eccles. 
Major C. L. K. Campbell. 
Captain A. Neave. 
Lieutenant E. H. L. Beddington. 
Lieutenant E. R. Nash. 
Lieutenant J. L. Cheyne. 
Lieutenant R. A. J. Beech. 
Lieutenant C. E. H. Tempest-Hicks. 
Lieutenant D. R. Cross. 
Lieutenant R. G. R. Davies. 
Lieutenant Lord H. W. Holmpatrick 

Second Lieutenant L. C. Rams- 

Second Lieutenant Lord J. Wode- 

house (attached). 

Lieutenant G. W. Gore-Langton. 

Major A. W. Parsons. 


Lieutenant-Colonel F. Wormald. 
Major E. Crawley. 
Major C. Fane, D.S.O. 
Captain and Adjutant C. 


Lieutenant D. C. H. Richardson. 
Lieutenant H. A. T. Brand. 
Lieutenant B. G. Nicholas. 


Lieutenant-Colonel G. T. G. Edwards. 
Major A. C. Little. 
Major M. E. Richardson. 
Captain C. G. Mangles. 
Lieutenant D. S. Peploe. 
Lieutenant and Quartermaster W. 


Major F. C. Pilkington. 
Captain Hon. W. A. Nugent. 
Captain A. Courage. 
Captain C. Nelson. 
Lieutenant Hon.^E. C. Hardinge. 
Lieutenant F. A. Nicolson. 
Second Lieutenant G. H. Straker. 


Major A. W. J. C., Viscount Mas- 

sereene and Ferrard, D.S.O. 
Lieutenant R. A. West. 

Major I. W. Burns-Lindow. 




Birch, Lieutenant Colonel J. F. N. 
Bradbury, Captain E. K. 
Burne, Lieutenant A. H. 
Campbell, Lieutenant J. D. 
Dendy, Lieutenant M. H. 
Forman, Major A. B. 
Gillson, Major G. 
Gough, Lieutenant J. B. 
Jelf, Captain W. W. 
Mundy, Lieutenant L. F. H. 
Palmer, Lieutenant R. L. 
St. Clair, Lieutenant G. J. P. 
Sclater-Booth, Major Hon. W. D., 

' L ' Battery. 
Sanderson, Captain R. H. 
Seligman, Major H. S. 
Stanham, Captain H. S. 
Walwyn, Lieutenant C. L. T. 


Browne, Captain E. W. 
Colville, Captain J. R. 
Granet, Lieutenant G. E. A. 
Stockdale, Lieutenant-Colonel H. E. 


Lieutenant-Colonel E. J. Duffus. 
Major F. A. Wilson, D.S.O. 
Captain D. Reynolds. 

Second Lieutenant E. G. Earle. 



Lieutenant-Colonel C. M. Ross- 
Johnson, D.S.O. 
Lieutenant A. Dawson. 


Lieutenant-Colonel C. F. Stevens. 
Major C. N. B. Ballard. 
Captain A. B. Higgon. 


Lieutenant-Colonel A. T. Butler. 
Major S. F. Metcalfe. 
Captain E. S. Allsup. 
Lieutenant E. L. B. Anderson. 
Lieutenant D. Hill. 
Lieutenant J. C. Forsyth. 


Lieutenant-Colonel W. Gillman, 


Major W. Ellershaw. 
Lieutenant G. E, W. Franklyn. 


Lieutenant-Colonel C. Cunliffe-Owen. 
Major G. H. W. Nicholson. 
Major H. N. Packard. 
Captain T. C. Sinclair. 


Lieutenant-Colonel W. H. Onslow 
Major E. W. Alexander. 
Captain G. Masters. 
Captain F. L. Congreve. 
Lieutenant C. O'D. Preston. 
Second Lieutenant H. E. Chapman. 
Lieutenant L. E. O. Davidson. 
Second Lieutenant R. Staveley. 


Lieutenant-Colonel E. C. Cameron. 
Major G. H. Sanders. 
Captain A. G. Gillman. 
Lieutenant A. R. Rainy. 
Second Lieutenant R. W. MacLeod. 





Major H. G. Lloyd. 


Lieutenant-Colonel W. C. Staveley. 
Major L. T. Ashworth. 
Captain A. E. Newland. 
Captain H. K. Sadler. 


Lieutenant-Colonel M. J. Mac- 


Major H. E. Vallentin. 
Major C. H. Liveing. 
Captain C. A. Mortimore. 
Second Lieutenant C. H. Rogers. 


Lieutenant-Colonel H. G. Sandi- 


Major H. T. Wynter. 
Major H. J. A. Mackey, M.V.O. 
Lieutenant E. J. M. Robertson. 
Lieutenant J. E. L. Carke. 
Second-Lieutenant H. W v Huggins. 
Second Lieutenant A. A. M. 



Major and Brevet Lieutenant- 
Colonel C. G. Stewart, D.S.O. 
Lieutenant D. R. Macdonald. 
Lieutenant A. L. P. Griffith. 
Second Lieutenant P. E. Inchbald. 


Lieutenant-Colonel R. J. G. Elking- 


Major E. W. S. Brooke. 
Major C. St. M. Ingham. 


Captain R. A. Anstruther. 
Captain E. L. Ellington. 


Lieutenant D. D. Rose. 


Lieutenant-Colonel G. H. Geddes. 
Major T. Bruce. 
Captain H. L. Nevill, D.S.O. 
Lieutenant P. S. Myburgh. 


Major E. B. Macnaghten. 
Captain F. W. Robinson. 
Captain R. Longstaff. 


Lieutenant-Colonel D. Arbuthnot. 
Lieutenant J. P. Knight. 


Captain and Adjutant H. Comes. 
Captain G. M. A. Gregory. 
Lieutenant E. White, Royal Army 
Medical Corps (attached). 

Franks, Brevet-Colonel G. McK. 


Major C. F. Phipps. 
Captain J. B. Walker. 


Major C. De Sausmarez, D.S.O. 
Captain Sir F. N. Elphinstone- 
Dalrymple, Bart. 



Bald, Captain P. R. 
Bond, Lieutenant R. L. 
Bowman-Manifold, Major M. G. E., 

Boys, Lieutenant-Colonel R. H. H., 


Day, Captain H. E. 
Dobbie, Captain W. G. S, 
Doherty Howell, Captain R. V. 
Evans, Captain G. F. 
Flint, Lieutenant R. B. 
Gandy, Captain H. G. 
Grasett, Lieutenant A. E. 
Hildebrand, Major A. B. R. 
Howard, Major F. G., M.V.O. 
Johnston, Captain W. H. 
Jordan, Captain P. O. L., ist Field 


Martel, Lieutenant G. Le Q. 
Martin, Lieutenant C. G. 

Nation, Captain J. J. H. 
Naylor, Lieutenant R. F. B. 
Parker, Lieutenant C. L. Y. 
Pennycuick, Lieutenant J. A. C. 
Powell, Captain R. M., Royal 

Garrison Artillery (attached). 
Prickett, Captain C. H. 
Pritchard, Major H. L., D.S.O. 
Russell-Brown, Major C. 
Sandys, Major E. S. 
Singer, Major C. W. 
Smyth, Lieutenant G. B. F. 
Tulloch, Colonel J. A. S. 
Walker, Major G. 
Watson, Lieutenant J. 
Webber, Captain N. W. 
White, Captain J. R. 
Wilson, Lieutenant-Colonel C. S. 
Wright, Lieutenant R. G. 
Wright, Captain T. 



Captain A. B. R. R. Gosselin. 
Lieutenant Hon. W. A. Cecil. 
Lieutenant R. W. G. Welby. 


Lieutenant-Colonel J. Ponsonby, 


Captain W. St. A. Warde-Aldam. 
Lieutenant and Adjutant G. A. 


Lieutenant J. C. Wynne Finch. 
Second Lieutenant M. B. Smith. 


Lieutenant-Colonel C. E. Pereira. 
Major R. A. Markham. 

Captain F. Hardy. 

Captain G. B. S. Follett, M.V.O. 


Lieutenant-Colonel G. P. T. Feilding, 


Major T. G. Matheson. 
Captain A. G. Tritton. 
Lieutenant and Adjutant A. F. 

Second Lieutenant C. M. Cottrell- 

Lieutenant J. L. Huggan, M.B., 

Royal Army Medical Corps 

Second Lieutenant C. S. Jackson. 

Lieutenant-Colonel H. C. Lowther, 

C.V.O., C.M.G., D.S.O. 
Captain and Adjutant A. A. L. 

Stephen, D.S.O. 





Lieutenant-Colonel Hon. G. H. 


Major H. F. Crichton. 
Lieutenant Hon. H. W. Gough. 
Lieutenant H. J. S. Shields, M.B., 

Royal Army Medical Corps 



Lieutenant-Colonel H. M'Micking, 


Major F. J. Duncan, D.S.O. 
Captain C. L. Price, D.S.O. 
Captain R. P. Morrison. 
Lieutenant G. E. Hall. 
Lieutenant M. Henderson. 


Lieutenant-Colonel D. Warren. 
Captain C. F. Watson, D.S.O. 
Captain R. G. Clarke. 
Captain F. C. Longbourne. 


Major R. G. Parker. 
Captain C. W. Grover. 
Captain W. A. T. B. Somerville. 
Lieutenant T. J. Uzielli. 
Captain H. Clutterbuck. 
Lieutenant L. S. Woodgate. 


Lieutenant-Colonel H. S. Ainslie. 
Major C. Yatman, D.S.O. 
Captain H. S. Toppin. 
Captain W. N. Herbert. 
Lieutenant G. O. Sloper. 
Second Lieutenant E. F. Boyd. 
Captain M. Leckie, Royal Army 
Medical Corps (attached). 



Major A. J. Poole. 
Major W. C. Christie. 
Captain C. F. Burnard. 
Captain E. V. M. Shelley. 


Lieutenant-Colonel N. R. M'Mahon, 


Major T. R. Mallock, D.S.O. 
Captain L. F. Ashburner, M.V.O., 


Captain L. W. Le M. Carey. 
Captain H. C. Forster. 
Lieutenant F. W. A. Steele. 
Lieutenant M. J. Dease. 
Lieutenant G. O'D. F. Thomas- 



Lieutenant-Colonel W. S. Banna- 

Captain J. H. S. Batten. 

Captain P. Hudson. 

Lieutenant D. G. H. H. Scott- 


Lieutenant-Colonel C. R. Ballard. 
Major H. R. Done. 
Captain C. E. Luard, D.S.O. 
Lieutenant G. C. Lyle. 
Captain T. R. Bowlby. 


Major C. Toogood, D.S.O. 
Captain F. W. Greatwood. 
Captain H. C. W. Hoskyns. 
Captain R. E. Drake. 
Lieutenant C. C. Holmes. 
Captain G. A. Kempthorne, Royal 
Army Medical Corps (attached). 



Lieutenant-Colonel C. 

A. H. Brett, 


Major C. B. Prowse. 
Captain L. A. Jones-Mortimer. 
Captain W. Watson. 
Second Lieutenant H. Lane. 


Lieutenant-Colonel C. R. J. Griffith, 


Captain R. J. M'Cloughin. 
Lieutenant C. E. G. Shearman. 
Lieutenant A. G. Corah (Cyclist 



Lieutenant-Colonel St. John A. Cox. 
Major E. H. E. Daniell, D.S.O. 
Lieutenant F. H. L. Rushton. 


Captain A. H. Spooner. 
Major C. J. Griffin. 
Captain J. E. S. Woodman. 
Lieutenant J. K. C. Cross. 
Second Lieutenant G. F. Page. 


Lieutenant-Colonel W. D. Smith. 

Major A. M. H. Forbes. 

Captain G. C. Briggs. 

Captain J. D. Tulh's. 

Captain H. G. B. Miller. 

Captain T. B. Traill. 

Lieutenant B. H. Badham. 

Lieutenant C. J. Lyon. 

Second Lieutenant E. L. L. Anderson. 

Lieutenant-Colonel D. C. Boger. 
Captain J. L. Shore. 
Captain W. S. Rich. 
Lieutenant W. G. R. Elliot. 


Lieutenant-Colonel H. E. B. Leach. 
Major W. L. Lawrence. 
Captain W. O. Prichard. 
Lieutenant C. J. Paterson. 
Lieutenant J. C. Coker. 


Lieutenant-Colonel C. M. Stephen- 

Major A. E. Haig. 

Major E. S. D'E. Coke. 

Captain G. W. Smith. 

Lieutenant J. R. Hamilton- 

Captain T. S. Riddell- Webster. 


Major C. A. Wilding. 
Captain G. M. Ponsonby. 
Captain E. R. Lloyd. 
Lieutenant H. C. Thompson. 
Lieutenant I. F. R. Miller (Special 


Lieutenant-Colonel A. C. Lovett. 
Captain A. H. Radice. 
Second Lieutenant W. F. Watkins 
(Special Reserve). 





Lieutenant-Colonel C. B. West- 

Lieutenant C. Deakin. 


Major W. R. Chichester. 
Captain C. V. Beresford. 
Captain L. C. Dorman. 
Lieutenant S. A. Gabb. 
Second Lieutenant S. A. Goldsmid. 

Major E. N. Townsend. 
Major K. A. Macleod. 
Captain C. O. Denman-Jubb. 
Captain J. C. Burnett (O.C. Cyclist 

Second Lieutenant H. K. O'Kelly 

(Special Reserve). 


Major E. W. B. Green. 
Captain C. E. Bond, D.S.O. 
Lieutenant V. E. C. Dashwood. 


Lieutenant-Colonel L. 
Marchant, D.S.O. 

St. G. Le 


Lieutenant-Colonel J. R. Longley. 
Major H. S. Tew. 
Captain E. M. Woulfe Flanagan. 
Captain Hon. A. R. Hewitt. 
Captain M. J. Minogue. 
Captain F. A. Bowring. 


Lieutenant-Colonel M. N. Turner. 
Major T. H. F. Price. 
Major J. H. T. Cornish Bowden. 
Captain C. B. Woodham. 
Lieutenant A. N. Acland. 
Lieutenant A. J. S. Hammans. 


Lieutenant-Colonel J. A. C. Gibbs. 

Major P. B. Strafford. 



Brevet-Colonel S. C. F. Jackson, 


Captain Hon. L. C. W. Palk. 
Captain P. M. Connellan. 
Lieutenant B. B. von B. im Thurn. 


Lieutenant-Colonel C. S. Davidson. 
Captain M. B. Savage. 


Lieutenant-Colonel L. J. Bols, D.S.O. 
Captain H. S. Williams. 
Lieutenant C. H. Woodhouse. 
Lieutenant C. F. M. Margetts. 


Captain W. B. Ritchie. 
Lieutenant L. A. Clemens. 
Lieutenant B. V. Fulcher. 
Lieutenant S. T. Boast (Quarter- 



Lieutenant-Colonel C. B. Morland. 
Captain W. H. Ferrar. 
Captain C. R. Berkeley, D.S.O. 
Lieutenant C. A. S. Carleton. 
Lieutenant G. D. Melville. 


Major J. T. C. Murray. 
Captain Hon. M. C. A. Dnimmond. 
Lieutenant G. B. Rowan-Hamilton. 
Lieutenant R. C. Anderson. 


Lieutenant-Colonel H. R. Davies. 
Captain G. Blewitt. 


Lieutenant-Colonel F. G. Anley. 
Major G. M. Tufnell. 
Captain L. O. W. Jones. 
Lieutenant G. C. Binsteed. 


Major A. Burrows. 
Captain L. T. Allason. 
Lieutenant E. J. W. Spread. 
Lieutenant J. G. W. Hyndson. 


Lieutenant-Colonel E. O. Smith. 
Lieutenant G. St. G. Robinson. 
Lieutenant E. J. Needham. 
Second Lieutenant L. H. B. Burlton. 


Lieutenant-Colonel M. D. Graham. 
Captain L. H. Birt. 
Lieutenant C. St. Q. O. Fullbrook- 


Lieutenant-Colonel A. Martyn. 
Major M. P. Buckle, D.S.O. 
Captain R. M. G. Tulloch. 
Lieutenant G. B. Legard. 


Lieutenant-Colonel R. C. Bond, 


Major C. A. L. Yate. 
Major H. E. Trevor. 
Major C. E. Heathcote. 
Captain J. E. Simpson. 
Lieutenant W. d'E. Williams. 
Lieutenant C. E. D. King. 


Lieutenant-Colonel B. E. Ward. 
Major R. J. Ross. 
Lieutenant W. W. Jefferd. 


Lieutenant-Colonel C. P. A. Hull. 
Major H. W. E. Finch. 
Captain G. Oliver. 
Lieutenant L. F. Sloane-Stanley. 


Lieutenant-Colonel E. Northey. 
Lieutenant H. H. Prince Maurice 

V.D. of Battenberg, K.C.V.O. 
Captain F. G. Willan. 
Lieutenant A. L. Bonham Carter. 
Second Lieutenant H. W. Butler 

(Special Reserve). 
Second -Lieutenant A. H. Wilkie 

(Special Reserve). 




Second Lieutenant T. N. Hone. 
Captain H. S. Ranken, M.B., Royal 
Army Medical Corps (attached). 


Lieutenant - Colonel E. Pearce- 


Major L. F. Philips. 
Major H. C. Warre, D.S.O. 
Major R. G. Jelf. 
Captain W. A. I. Kay. 
Lieutenant R. J. H. Purcell. 
Lieutenant J. H. S. Dimmer. 
Second Lieutenant O. H. C. Balfour. 


Lieutenant-Colonel A. W. Hasted 
Lieutenant T. H. Wand-Tetley. 
Captain W. I. Gordon (Quarter- 


Lieutenant-Colonel F. H. Neish. 


Lieutenant D. Cameron. 

Second Lieutenant R. N. Stewart. 


Lieutenant-Colonel W. D. Bird, 


Major C. R. Spedding, D.S.O. 
Captain C. L. Master. 
Captain C. M. L. Becher. 
Captain H. R. Goodman. 
Lieutenant S. S. Dillon. 
Lieutenant V. L. S. Cowley. 
Lieutenant A. N. Whitfield. 
Captain S. E. Lewis, M.B., Royal 

Army Medical Corps (attached). 


Lieutenant-Colonel H. L. James. 
Captain F. S. Nisbet. 
Captain H. Knox. 
Lieutenant J. H. L. Reade. 
Lieutenant J. S. Harper. 


Lieutenant-Colonel A. A. Wolfe- 

Lieutenant A. P. D. Telfer-Smollett. 

Lieutenant Sir A. C. Gibson Craig, 


Second Lieutenant W. H. Liesching. 


Lieutenant R. I. Thomas. 

Second Lieutenant R. L. Spreckley. 


Captain H. H. G. Hyslop. 
Lieutenant R. M. G. Aytoun. 
Second Lieutenant Ian MacA. 


Lieutenant - Colonel Sir Evelyn R. 

Bradford, Bart. 


Lieutenant T. J. Leahy. 
Lieutenant R. F. H. Massy- Westropp. 



Major S. H. Rickman. 
Major G. N. Salmon. 
Captain Hon. F. R. D. Prittie. 
Captain G. J. Brownlow. 

Captain Hon. R. G. G. Morgan- 
Grenville (Master of Kinloss). 

Captain H. L. Riley. 

Lieutenant G. V. Campbell (Special 


Bearne, Captain L. C. 

Cracroft, Major H. 

Dickey, Captain O. B. R. 

Gillespie, Lieutenant-Colonel E. C. F. 

Harding, Captain G. 

Herklots, Captain A. 

Jackson, Captain R. R. B. 

Johnson, Major T. P. 

Langmaid, Second Lieutenant 

C. W. R. 
Lecky, Major J. G. 

Longmore, Lieutenant-Colonel J. C. G. 
Master, Lieutenant-Colonel A. G. 
Martin, Second Lieutenant C. J. 
Northen, Major A. 
Pery-Knox-Gore, Captain A. F. G. 
Stokes, Captain H. W. P. 
Taylor, Lieutenant-Colonel E. F. 
Toynbee, Captain G. E. 
Tudor, Lieutenant C. L. St. J. 
Young, Captain G. M. 


Beddingfield, Lieutenant H., M.B. 
Birrell, Major E. T. F., M.B. 
Bourdillon, Lieutenant L. G. 
Butler, Major S. G. 
Caddell, Captain E. D., M.B. 
Cowey, Major R. V. 
Dolbey, Lieutenant R. V., F.R.C.S. 
Ensor, Major H., M.B., D.S.O. 
Fielding, Major T. E., M.B. 
Foster, Major R. L. V., M.B. 
Goodwin, Major T. H. J. C., D.S.O. 
Grech, Major J. 
Hairsine, Lieutenant O. (Special 


Helm, Lieutenant C. 
Hinge, Major H. A. 
Hopkins, Lieutenant H. L. (Civil 


Howells, Lieutenant W. M., M.B. 
Lathbury, Captain E. B. 

Lloyd, Major L. N., D.S.O. 

M'Entire, Captain J. T., M.B. 

Mitchell, Lieutenant-Colonel L. A., 

Morgan, Lieutenant-Colonel J. C. 

Murphy, Captain J. F., M.B. (Special 

Nimmo, Captain W. C. (attached 
ist Battalion, Loyal North Lanca- 
shire Regiment). 

O'Brien-Butler, Captain C. P. 
(attached 5th Lancers). 

Osburn, Captain A. C. 

Preston, Lieutenant R. A., M.B. 

Profeit, Major C. W., M.B. 

Sampson, Captain F. C., M.B. 

Stewart, Captain H., M.B. 

Ware, Captain' G. W. W., M.B. 

Wyler, Lieutenant E. J., M.D. (Civil 


Macauley, Captain W. I. 
Oliver, Captain E. S. 
Pawlett, Captain F. W. (T.F.). 


Smith, Lieutenant-Colonel W. D. 
Wadley, Captain E. J. 





Rev. Monsignor F. Bickerstaffe-Drew, Rev. E. G. F. Macpherson, Church 

Roman Catholic. of England. 

Rev. J. M. Connor, Presbyterian. Rev. H. C. Meeke, Presbyterian. 

Rev. T. S. Goudge, Church of Rev. O. S. Watkins, Wesleyan. 

England. Rev. A. R. Yeoman, M.A., Chaplain 

Rev. W. Keatinge, Roman Catholic. to the Forces, Presbyterian. 

[Also a large number of non-commissioned officers and men.] 


2Qth November 1914. 


L. G., i.I have the honour to submit a further despatch recount- 

Nov.29/i4 ing the operations of the Field Force under my command 
throughout the battle of Ypres-Armentieres. 

Early in October a study of the general situation strongly 
impressed me with the necessity of bringing the greatest 
possible force to bear in support of the northern flank of the 
Allies, in order to effectively outflank the enemy and compel 
him to evacuate his positions. 

At the same time the position on the Aisne, as described 
in the concluding paragraphs of my last despatch, appeared 
to me to warrant a withdrawal of the British Forces from the 
positions they then held. 

The enemy had been weakened by continual abortive and 
futile attacks, whilst the fortification of the position had been 
much improved. 

I represented these views to General Joffre, who fully 

Arrangements for withdrawal and relief having been made 
by the French General Staff, the operation commenced on 
the 3rd October ; and the 2nd Cavalry Division, under 
General Gough, marched for Compidgne en route for the new 

The Army Corps followed in succession at intervals of a 
few days, and the move was completed on the igth October, 


when the ist Corps, under Sir Douglas Haig, completed its 
detrainment at St. Omer. 

That this delicate operation was carried out so success- 
fully is in great measure due to the excellent feeling which 
exists between the French and British Armies ; and I am 
deeply indebted to the Commander-in-Chief and the French 
General Staff for their cordial and most effective co-operation. 

As General Foch was appointed by the Commander-in- 
Chief to supervise the operations of all the French troops 
north of Noyon, I visited his Headquarters at Doullens on 
8th October, and arranged joint plans of operations as 
follows : 

The 2nd Corps to arrive on the line Aire-Be*thune on 
the nth October, to connect with the right of the French 
loth Army and, pivoting on its left, to attack in flank 
the enemy who were opposing the loth French Corps 
in front. 

The Cavalry to move on the northern flank of the 
2nd Corps and support its attack until the 3rd Corps, 
which was to detrain at St. Omer on the I2th, should 
come up. They were then to clear the front and act on 
the northern flank of the 3rd Corps in a similar manner, 
pending the arrival of the ist Corps from the Aisne. 

The 3rd Cavalry Division and 7th Division, under Sir 
Henry Rawlinson, which were then operating in support 
of the Belgian Army and assisting its withdrawal from 
Antwerp, to be ordered to co-operate as soon as circum- 
stances would allow. 

In the event of these movements so far overcoming the 
resistance of the enemy as to enable a forward movement 
to be made, all the Allied Forces to march in an easterly 
direction. The road running from Bethune to Lille was 
to be the dividing line between the British and French 
Forces, the right of the British Army being directed on 

2. The great battle, which is mainly the subject of this 
despatch, may be said to have commenced on nth October, 
on which date the 2nd Cavalry Division, under General 
Gough, first came into contact with the enemy's cavalry, who 



were holding some woods to the north of the B6thune-Aire 
Canal. These were cleared of the enemy by our cavalry, 
which then joined hands with the Divisional Cavalry of the 
6th Division in the neighbourhood of Hazebrouck. On the 
same day the right of the 2nd Cavalry Division connected with 
the left of the 2nd Corps, which was moving in a north- 
easterly direction after crossing the above-mentioned canal. 

By the nth October Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien had reached 
the line of the canal between Aire and B6thune. I directed 
him to continue his march on the I2th, bringing up his left in 
the direction of Merville. Then he was to move east to the 
line Laventie-Lorgies, which would bring him on the imme- 
diate left of the French Army and threaten the German flank. 

On the I2th this movement was commenced. The 5th 
Division connected up with the left of the French Army 
north of Annequin. They moved to the attack of the Germans, 
who were engaged at this point with the French ; but the 
enemy once more extended his right in some strength to meet 
the threat against his flank. The 3rd Division, having 
crossed the canal, deployed on the left of the 5th ; and the 
whole 2nd Corps again advanced to the attack, but were 
unable to make much headway owing to the difficult character 
of the ground upon which they were operating, which was 
similar to that usually found in manufacturing districts, and 
was covered with mining works, factories, buildings, etc. 
The ground throughout this country is remarkably flat, 
rendering effective artillery support very difficult. 

Before nightfall, however, they had made some advance, 
and had successfully driven back hostile counter-attacks with 
great loss to the enemy and destruction of some of his machine- 

On and after the I3th October the object of the General 
Officer Commanding the 2nd Corps was to wheel to his right, 
pivoting on Givenchy to get astride the La Bassee-Lille Road 
in the neighbourhood of Fournes, so as to threaten the right 
flank and rear of the enemy's position on the high ground 
south of La Bassee. 

This position of La Bassee has throughout the battle defied 
all attempts at capture, either by the French or the British. 

On this day Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien could make but 
little progress. He particularly mentions the fine fighting of 


the Dorsets, whose Commanding Officer, Major Roper, was 
killed. They suffered no less than 400 casualties, 130 of them 
being killed, but maintained all day their hold on Pont Fixe. 
He also refers to the gallantry of the Artillery. 

The fighting of the 2nd Corps continued throughout the 
I4th in the same direction. On this day the Army suffered a 
great loss, in that the Commander of the 3rd Division, General 
Hubert Hamilton, was killed. 

On the I5th the 3rd Division fought splendidly, crossing 
the dykes, with which this country is intersected, with planks ; 
and driving the enemy from one entrenched position to 
another in loop-holed villages, till at night they pushed the 
Germans off the Estaires-La Bassee Road, and establishing 
themselves on the line Pont du Hem-Croix Barbee. 

On the i6th the move was continued until the left flank 
of the Corps was in front of the village of Aubers, which was 
strongly held. This village was captured on the I7th by the 
gth Infantry Brigade ; and at dark on the same day the 
Lincolns and Royal Fusiliers carried the village of Herlies at 
the point of the bayonet after a fine attack, the Brigade being 
handled with great dash by Brigadier-General Shaw. 

At this'time, to the best of our information, the 2nd Corps 
were believed to be opposed by the 2nd, 4th, 7th, and gth 
German Cavalry Divisions, supported by several battalions 
of Jaegers and a part of the I4th German Corps. 

On the i8th powerful counter-attacks were made by the 
enemy all along the front of the 2nd Corps, and were most 
gallantly repulsed ; but only slight progress could be made. 

From the igth to the 3ist October the 2nd Corps carried on 
a most gallant fight in defence of their position against very 
superior numbers, the enemy having been reinforced during 
that time by at least one Division of the 7th Corps, a brigade 
of the 3rd Corps, and the whole of the I4th Corps, which had 
moved north from in front of the French 2ist' Corps. 

On the igth the Royal Irish Regiment, under Major 
Daniell, stormed and carried the village of Le Pilly, which 
they held and entrenched. On the 2oth, however, they were 
cut off and surrounded, suffering heavy losses. 

On the morning of the 22nd the enemy made a very 
determined attack on the 5th Division, who were driven out 
of the village of Violaines, but they were sharply counter- 



attacked by the Worcesters and Manchesters, and prevented 
from coming on. 

The left of the 2nd Corps being now somewhat exposed, 
Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien withdrew the line during the night 
to a position he had previously prepared, running generally 
from the eastern side of Givenchy, east of Neuve Chapelle to 

On the 24th October the Lahore Division of the Indian 
Army Corps, under Major-General Watkis, having arrived, I 
sent them to the neighbourhood of Locon to support the 2nd 

Very early on this morning the enemy commenced a heavy 
attack, but, owing to the skilful manner in which the artillery 
was handled and the targets presented by the enemy's infantry 
as it approached, they were unable to come to close quarters. 
Towards the evening a heavy attack developed against the 
7th Brigade, which was repulsed, with very heavy loss to the 
enemy, by the Wiltshires and the Royal West Rents. Later, 
a determined attack on the i8th Infantry Brigade drove the 
Gordon Highlanders out of their trenches, which were retaken 
by the Middlesex Regiment, gallantly led by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Hull. 

The 8th Infantry Brigade (which had come into line on 
the left of the 2nd Corps) was also heavily attacked, but the 
enemy was driven off. 

In both these cases the Germans lost very heavily, and left 
large numbers of dead and prisoners behind them. 

The 2nd Corps was now becoming exhausted, owing to the 
constant reinforcements of the enemy, the length of line 
which it had to defend, and the enormous losses which it had 

3. By the evening of the nth October the 3rd Corps 
had practically completed its detrainment at St. Omer, and 
was moved east to Hazebrouck, where the Corps remained 
throughout the I2th. 

On the morning of the I3th the advanced guard of the 
Corps, consisting of the igth Infantry Brigade and a Brigade 
of Field Artillery, occupied the position of the line Strazeele 
Station-Caestre-St. Sylvestre. 

On this day I directed General Pulteney to move towards 
the line ArmentiSres-Wytschaete ; warning him, however, that 


should the 2nd Corps require his aid he must be prepared 
to move south-east to support it. 

A French Cavalry Corps under General Conneau was 
operating between the 2nd and 3rd Corps. 

The 4th German Cavalry Corps, supported by some 
Jaeger battalions, was known to be occupying the position 
in the neighbourhood of Meteren ; and they were believed 
to be further supported by the advanced guard of another 
German Army Corps. 

In pursuance of his orders, General Pulteney proceeded to 
attack the enemy in his front. 

The rain and fog which prevailed prevented full advantage 
being derived from our much superior artillery. The country 
was very much enclosed, and rendered difficult by heavy rain. 

The enemy were, however, routed, and the position taken 
at dark, several prisoners being captured. 

During the night the 3rd Corps made good the attacked 
position and entrenched it. 

As Bailleul was known to be occupied by the enemy, 
arrangements were made during the night to attack it ; but 
reconnaissances sent out on the morning of the I4th showed 
that they had withdrawn, and the town was taken by our 
troops at 10 A.M. on that day, many wounded Germans being 
found and taken in it. 

The Corps then occupied the line St. Jans Cappel-Bailleul. 

On the morning of the i5th the 3rd Corps were ordered 
to make good the line of the Lys from Armentie'res to Sailly, 
which, in the face of considerable opposition and very foggy 
weather, they succeeded in doing, the 6th Division at Sailly- 
Bac St. Maur and the 4th Division at Nieppe. 

The enemy in its front having retired, the 3rd Corps on 
the night of the I7th occupied the line Bois Grenier-Le Gheir. 

On the i8th the enemy were holding a line from Radinghem 
on the south, through Perenchies and Frelinghien on the 
north, whence the German troops which were opposing the 
Cavalry Corps occupied the east bank of the river as far as 

On this day I directed the 3rd Corps to move down the 
valley of the Lys and endeavour to assist the Cavalry Corps 
in making good its position on the right bank. To do this 
it was necessary first to drive the enemy eastward towards 



Lille. A vigorous offensive in the direction of Lille was 
assumed, but the enemy was found to have been considerably 
reinforced, and but little progress was made. 

The situation of the 3rd Corps on the night of the i8th 
was as follows : 

The 6th Division was holding the line Radinghem-La 
Vallee-Ennetieres - Capinghem - Premesques - Railway Line 
three hundred yards east of Halte. The 4th Division were 
holding the line from L'Epinette to the river at a point 
four hundred yards south of Frelinghien, and thence to a 
point half a mile south-east of Le Gheir. The Corps 
Reserve was at Armenti&res Station, with right and left 
flanks of Corps in close touch with French Cavalry and 
the Cavalry Corps. 

Since the advance from Bailleul the enemy's forces in 
front of the Cavalry and 3rd Corps had been strongly 
reinforced, and on the night of the I7th they were 
opposed by three or four divisions of the enemy's cavalry, 
the igth Saxon Corps, and at least one division of the yth 
Corps. Reinforcements for the enemy were known to be 
coming up from the direction of Lille. 

4. Following the movements completed on the nth 
October, the 2nd Cavalry Division pushed the enemy back 
through Fletre and Le Coq de Faille, and took Mont des Cats, 
Just before dark, after stiff fighting. 

On the I4th the ist Cavalry Division joined up, and the 
whole Cavalry Corps under General Allenby, moving north, 
secured the high ground above Berthen, overcoming con- 
siderable opposition. 

With a view to a further advance east, I ordered General 
Allenby, on the I5th, to reconnoitre the line of the river Lys, 
and endeavour to secure the passages on the opposite bank, 
pending the arrival of the 3rd and 4th Corps. 

During the I5th and i6th this reconnaissance was most 
skilfully and energetically carried out in the face of great 
opposition, especially along the lower line of the river. 

These operations were continued throughout the lyth, 
i8th, and igth ; but, although valuable information was 
gained, and strong forces of the enemy held in check, the 


Cavalry Corps was unable to secure passages or to establish 
a permanent footing on the eastern bank of the river. 

5. At this point in the history of the operations under 
report, it is necessary that I should return to the co-opera- 
tion of the forces operating in the neighbourhood of Ghent 
and Antwerp under Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Rawlin- 
son, as the action of his force about this period exercised, in 
my opinion, a great influence on the course of the subsequent 

This force, consisting of the 3rd Cavalry Division, under 
Major-General the Hon. Julian Byng, and the 7th Division, 
under Major-General Capper, was placed under my orders 
by telegraphic instructions from your Lordship. 

On receipt of these instructions I directed Sir Henry 
Rawlinson to continue his operations in covering and protect- 
ing the withdrawal of the Belgian Army, and subsequently 
to form the left column in the eastward advance of the British 
Forces. These withdrawal operations were concluded about 
the i6th October, on which date the yth Division was posted 
to the east of Ypres on a line extending from Zandvoorde 
through Gheluvelt to Zonnebeke. The 3rd Cavalry Division 
was on its left towards Langemarck and Poelcappelle. 

In this position Sir Henry Rawlinson was supported by the 
87th French Territorial Division in Ypres and Vlamertinghe, 
and by the 8gth French Territorial Division at Poperinghe. 

On the night of the i6th I informed Sir Henry Rawlinson 
of the operations which were in progress by the Cavalry Corps 
and the 3rd Corps, and ordered him to conform to those 
movements in an easterly direction, keeping an eye always to 
any threat which might be made against him from the north- 

A very difficult task was allotted to Sir Henry Rawlinson 
and his command. Owing to the importance of keeping 
possession of all the ground towards the north which we 
already held, it was necessary for him to operate on a very 
wide front, and, until the arrival of the ist Corps in the 
northern theatre which I expected about the 20th I had 
no troops available with which to support or reinforce 

Although on this extended front he had eventually to 
encounter very superior forces, his troops, both Cavalry and 



Infantry, fought with the utmost gallantry, and rendered 
very signal service. 

On the I7th four French Cavalry Divisions deployed on 
the left of the 3rd Cavalry Division, and drove back advanced 
parties of the enemy beyond the Foret d'Houthulst. 

As described above, instructions for a vigorous attempt 
to establish the British Forces east of the Lys were given on 
the night of the iyth to the 2nd, 3rd, and Cavalry Corps. 

I considered, however, that the possession of Menin con- 
stituted a very important point of passage, and would much 
facilitate the advance of the rest of the Army. So I directed 
the General Officer Commanding the 4th Corps to advance 
the 7th Division upon Menin, and endeavour to seize that 
crossing on the morning of the i8th. 

The left of the 7th Division was to be supported by the 
3rd Cavalry Brigade, and farther north by the French Cavalry 
in the neighbourhood of Roulers. 

Sir Henry Rawlinson represented to me that large hostile 
forces were advancing upon him from the east and north-east, 
and that his left flank was severely threatened. 

I was aware of the threats from that direction, but hoped 
that at this particular time there was no greater force coming 
from the north-east than could be held off by the combined 
efforts of the French and British Cavalry, and the Territorial 
troops supporting them until the passage at Menin could be 
seized and the ist Corps brought up in support. 

Sir Henry Rawlinson probably exercised a wise judgment 
in not committing his troops to this attack in their somewhat 
weakened condition; but the result was that the enemy's con- 
tinued possession of the passage at Menin certainly facilitated 
his rapid reinforcement of his troops, and thus rendered any 
further advance impracticable. 

On the morning of the 20th October the 7th Division and 
3rd Cavalry Division had retired to their old position, extend- 
ing from Zandvoorde through Kruiseik and Gheluvelt to 

6. On the igth October the ist Corps, coming from the 
Aisne, had completed its detrainment and was concentrated 
between St. Omer and Hazebrouck. 

A question of vital importance now arose for decision. 

I knew that the enemy were by this time in greatly 


superior strength on the Lys, and that the 2nd, 3rd, Cavalry 
and 4th Corps were holding a much wider front than their 
numbers and strength warranted. 

Taking these facts alone into consideration, it would have 
appeared wise to throw the ist Corps in to strengthen the line ; 
but this would have left the country north and east of Ypres 
and the Ypres Canal open to a wide turning movement by the 
3rd Reserve Corps and at least one Landwehr Division which 
I knew to be operating in that region. I was also aware that 
the enemy was bringing large reinforcements up from the 
east which could only be opposed for several days by two 
or three French Cavalry Divisions, some French Territorial 
troops, and the Belgian Army. 

After the hard fighting it had undergone, the Belgian Army 
was in no condition to withstand, unsupported, such an attack; 
and unless some substantial resistance could be offered to this 
threatened turning movement, the Allied flank must be turned 
and the Channel Ports laid bare to the enemy. 

I judged that a successful movement of this kind would 
be fraught with such disastrous consequences that the risk 
of operating on so extended a front must be undertaken ; 
and I directed Sir Douglas Haig to move with the ist Corps 
to the north of Ypres. 

From the best information at my disposal, I judged at this 
time that the considerable reinforcements which the enemy 
had undoubtedly brought up during the i6th, I7th, and i8th 
had been directed principally on the line of the Lys and against 
the 2nd Corps at La Bassee ; and that Sir Douglas Haig would 
probably not be opposed north of Ypres by much more than 
the 3rd Reserve Corps, which I knew to have suffered con- 
siderably in its previous operations, and perhaps one or two 
Landwehr Divisions. 

At a personal interview with Sir Douglas Haig on the 
evening of the igth October I communicated the above infor- 
mation to him, and instructed him to advance with the ist 
Corps through Ypres to Thourout. The object he was to have 
in view was to be the capture of Bruges, and subsequently, if 
possible, to drive the enemy towards Ghent. In case of an 
unforeseen situation arising, or the enemy proving to be 
stronger than anticipated, he was to decide, after passing 
Ypres, according to the situation, whether to attack the enemy 



lying to the north or the hostile forces advancing from the 
east : I had arranged for the French Cavalry to operate on 
the left of the ist Corps and the 3rd Cavalry Division, under 
General Byng, on its right. 

The Belgian Army were rendering what assistance they 
could by entrenching themselves on the Ypres Canal and the 
Yser River ; and the troops, although in the last stage of 
exhaustion, gallantly maintained their positions, buoyed up 
with the hope of substantial British and French support. 

I fully realised the difficult task which lay before us, and 
the onerous role which the British Army was called upon to 

That success has been attained, and all the enemy's 
desperate attempts to break through our line frustrated, is 
due entirely to the marvellous fighting power and the in- 
domitable courage and tenacity of officers, non-commissioned 
officers, and men. 

No more arduous task has ever been assigned to British 
soldiers ; and in all their splendid history there is no instance 
of their having answered so magnificently to the desperate 
calls which of necessity were made upon them. 

Having given these orders to Sir Douglas Haig, I enjoined 
a defensive role upon the 2nd and 3rd and Cavalry Corps, 
in view of the supefiority of force which had accumulated in 
their front. As regards the 4th Corps, I directed Sir Henry 
Rawlinson to endeavour to conform generally to the move- 
ments of the ist Corps. 

On the 20th October they reached the line from Elverdinghe 
to the cross-roads one and a half miles north-west of 

On the 2ist the Corps was ordered to attack and take the 
line Poelcappelle-Passchendaele. 

Sir Henry Rawlinson's Command was moving on the right 
of the ist Corps, and French troops, consisting of Cavalry 
and Territorials, moved on their left under the orders of 
General Bidon. 

The advance was somewhat delayed owing to the roads 
being blocked ; but the attack progressed favourably in face 
of severe opposition, often necessitating the use of the bayonet. 

Hearing of heavy attacks being made upon the 7th 
Division and the 2nd Cavalry Division on his right, Sir 


Douglas Haig ordered his reserve to be halted on the north- 
eastern outskirts of Ypres. 

Although threatened by a hostile movement from the 
Foret d'Houthulst, our advance was successful until about 
2 o'clock in the afternoon, when the French Cavalry Corps 
received orders to retire west of the canal. 

Owing to this and the demands made on him by the 4th 
Corps, Sir Douglas Haig was unable to advance beyond the 
line Zonnebeke-St. Julien-Langemarck-Bixschoote. 

As there was reported to be congestion with French troops 
at Ypres, I went there on the evening of the 2ist and met Sir 
Douglas Haig and Sir Henry Rawlinson. With them I inter- 
viewed General De Mitry, Commanding the French Cavalry, 
and General Bidon, Commanding the French Territorial 

They promised me that the town would at once be cleared 
of the troops, and that the French Territorials would imme- 
diately move out and cover the left of the flank of the ist 

I discussed the situation with the General Officers Com- 
manding the ist and 4th Army Corps, and told them that, 
in view of the unexpected reinforcements -coming up of the 
enemy, it would probably be impossible to carry out the 
original role assigned to them. But I informed them that 
I had that day interviewed the French Commander-in-Chief, 
General Joffre, who told me that he was bringing up the Qth 
French Army Corps to Ypres, that more French troops would 
follow later, and that he intended in conjunction with the 
Belgian troops to drive the Germans east. General Joffre 
said that he would be unable to commence this movement 
before the 24th ; and I directed the General Officers Com- 
manding the ist and 4th Corps to strengthen their positions 
as much as possible and be prepared to hold their ground for 
two or three days, until the French offensive movement on 
the north could develop. 

It now became clear to me that the utmost we could *do 
to ward off any attempts of the enemy to turn our flank to 
the north, or to break in from the eastward, was to maintain 
our present very extended front, and to hold fast our posi- 
tions until French reinforcements could arrive from the south. 

During the 22nd the necessity of sending support to the 


4th Corps on his right somewhat hampered the General 
Officer Commanding the ist Corps ; but a series of attacks 
all along his front had been driven back during the day with 
heavy loss to the enemy. Late in the evening the enemy 
succeeded in penetrating a portion of the line held by the 
Cameron Highlanders north of Pilkem. 

At 6 A.M. on the morning of the 23rd a counter-attack to 
recover the lost trenches was made by the Queen's Regiment, 
the Northamptons, and the King's Royal Rifles, under Major- 
General Bulfin. The attack was very strongly opposed and 
the bayonet had to be used. After severe fighting during 
most of the day, the attack was brilliantly successful, and 
over six hundred prisoners were taken. 

On the same day an attack was made on the 3rd Infantry 
Brigade. The enemy advanced with great determination, 
but with little skill, and consequently the loss inflicted on 
him was exceedingly heavy ; some fifteen hundred dead were 
seen in the neighbourhood of Langemarck. Correspondence 
found subsequently on a captured German officer stated that 
the effectives of this attacking Corps were reduced to 25 
per cent, in the course of the day's fighting. 

In the evening of this day a division of the French gth 
Army Corps came up into line and took over the portion of 
the line held by the 2nd Division, which, on the 24th, took 
up the ground occupied by the 7th Division from Poezelhoek 
to the Becelaere-Passchendaele Road. 

On the 24th and 25th October repeated attacks by the 
enemy were brilliantly repulsed. 

On the night of the 24th-25th the ist Division was re- 
lieved by French Territorial troops and concentrated about 

During the 25th the 2nd Division, with the 7th on its 
right and the French Qth Corps on its left, made good progress 
towards the north-east, capturing some guns and prisoners. 

On the 27th October I went to the Headquarters of the 
ist Corps at Hooge to personally investigate the condition 
of the 7th Division. 

Owing to constant marching and fighting, ever since its 
hasty disembarkation, in aid of the Antwerp garrison, this 
division had suffered great losses, and was becoming very 
weak. I therefore decided temporarily to break up the 4th 





Corps and place the 7th Division with the ist Corps under 
the command of Sir Douglas Haig. 

The 3rd Cavalry Division was similarly detailed for 
service with the ist Corps. 

I directed the 4th Corps Commander to proceed with his 
Staff to England, to watch and supervise the mobilisation 
of his 8th Division, which was then proceeding. 

On receipt of orders, in accordance with the above arrange- 
ment, Sir Douglas Haig redistributed the line held by the 
ist Corps as follows : 

(a) yth Division from the Chateau east of Zandvoorde 

to the Menin Road. 

(b) ist Division from the Menin Road to a point immedi- 

ately west of Reutel Village. 

(c) 2nd Division to near Moorslede-Zonnebeke Road. 

On the early morning of the 2Qth October a heavy attack 
developed against the centre of the line held by the ist 
Corps, the principal point of attack being the cross-roads one 
mile east of Gheluvelt. After severe fighting nearly the 
whole of the Corps being employed in counter-attack the 
enemy began to give way at about 2 P.M. ; and by dark the 
Kruiseik Hill had been recaptured and the ist Brigade had 
re-established most of the line north of the Menin Road. 

Shortly after daylight on the 30th another attack began 
to develop in the direction of Zandvoorde, supported by 
heavy artillery fire. In face of this attack the 3rd Cavalry 
Division had to withdraw to the Klein Zillebeke Ridge. This 
withdrawal involved the right of the 7th Division. 

Sir Douglas Haig describes the position at this period as 
serious, the Germans being in possession of Zandvoorde 

Subsequent investigation showed that the enemy had been 
reinforced at this point by the whole German active I5th 

The General Officer Commanding ist Corps ordered the 
line Gheluvelt to the "corner of the canal to be held at all costs. 
When this line was taken up the 2nd Brigade was ordered to 
concentrate in rear of the ist Division and the 4th Brigade 
line. One battalion was placed in reserve in the woods one 
mile south of Hooge. 


Further precautions were taken at night to protect this 
flank, and the gth French Corps sent three battalions and one 
Cavalry Brigade to assist. 

The ist Corps' communications through Ypres were 
threatened by the advance of the Germans towards the canal ; 
so orders were issued for every effort to be made to secure the 
line then held, and, when this had been thoroughly done, to 
resume the offensive. 

An order taken from a prisoner who had been captured on 
this day purported to emanate from the German General, 
Von Deimling, and said that the I5th German Corps, together 
with the 2nd Bavarian and I3th Corps, were entrusted with 
the task of breaking through the line to Ypres ; and that the 
Emperor himself considered the success of this attack to be 
one of vital importance to the successful issue of the war. 

Perhaps the most important arid decisive attack (except 
that of the Prussian Guard on isth November) made against 
the ist Corps during the whole of its arduous experiences in 
the neighbourhood of Ypres took place on the 3ist October. 

General Moussy, who commanded the detachment which 
had been sent by the French gth Corps on the previous day 
to assist Sir Douglas Haig on the right of the ist Corps, moved 
to the attack early in the morning, but was brought to a 
complete standstill, and could make no further progress. 

After several attacks and counter-attacks during the 
course of the morning along the Menin- Ypres Road, south-east 
of Gheluvelt, an attack against that place developed in great 
force, and the line of the ist Division was broken. On the 
south the yth Division and General Bulfin's detachment were 
being heavily shelled. The retirement of the ist Division 
exposed the left of the 7th Division, and owing to this the 
Royal Scots Fusiliers, who remained in the trenches, were cut 
off and surrounded. A strong infantry attack was developed 
against the right of the 7th Division at 1.30 P.M. 

Shortly after this the Headquarters of the ist and 2nd 
Divisions were shelled. The General Officer Commanding 
ist Division was wounded, three Staff Officers of the ist 
Division and three of the 2nd Division were killed. The 
General Officer Commanding the 2nd Division also received 
a severe shaking, and was unconscious for a short time. 
General Landon assumed command of the ist Division. 

MILITARY I. 2 D 417 


On receiving a report about 2.30 P.M. from General Lomax 
that the ist Division had moved back and that the enemy 
was coming on in strength, the General Officer Commanding 
the ist Corps issued orders that the line, Frezenberg-West- 
hoek-bend of the main road-Klein Zillebeke-bend of canal, 
was to be held at all costs. 

The ist Division rallied on the line of the woods east of 
the bend of the road, the German advance by the road being 
checked by enfilade fire from the north. 

The attack against the right of the 7th Division forced the 
22nd Brigade to retire, thus exposing the left of the 2nd 
Brigade. The General Officer Commanding the 7th Division 
used his reserve, already posted on his flank, to restore the line ; 
but, in the meantime, the 2nd Brigade, finding their left flank 
exposed, had been forced to withdraw. The right of the 
7th Division thus advanced as the left of the 2nd Brigade 
went back, with the result that the right of the 7th Division 
was exposed, but managed to hold on to its old trenches till 

Meantime, on the Menin Road, a counter-attack delivered 
by the left of the ist Division and the right of the 2nd Division 
against the right flank of the German line was completely 
successful, and by 2.30 P.M. Gheluvelt had been retaken with 
the bayonet, the 2nd Worcestershire Regiment being to the 
fore in this, admirably supported by the 42nd Brigade, Royal 
Field Artillery. The left of the 7th Division, profiting by 
their capture of Gheluvelt, advanced almost to its original 
line ; and connection between the ist and 7th Divisions was 
re-established. The recapture of Gheluvelt released the 6th 
Cavalry Brigade, till then held in support of the ist Division. 
Two regiments of this brigade were sent at once to clear the 
woods to the south-east, and close the gap in the line between 
the 7th Division and 2nd Brigade. They advanced with 
much dash, partly mounted and partly dismounted ; and, 
surprising the enemy in the woods, succeeded in killing large 
numbers and materially helped to restore the line. About 
5 P.M. the French Cavalry Brigade also came up to the cross- 
roads just east of Hooge, and at once sent forward a dis- 
mounted detachment to support our 7th Cavalry Brigade. 

Throughout the day the extreme right and left of the 
ist Corps' line held fast, the left being only slightly engaged, 


while the right was heavily shelled and subjected to slight 
infantry attacks. In the evening the enemy were steadily 
driven back from the woods on the front of the 7th Division 
and 2nd Brigade ; and by 10 P.M. the line as held in the 
morning had practically been reoccupied. 

During the night touch was restored between the right 
of the 7th Division and left of the 2nd Brigade, and the 
Cavalry were withdrawn into reserve, the services of the 
French Cavalry being dispensed with. 

As a result of the day's fighting, eight hundred and seventy 
wounded were evacuated. 

I was present with Sir Douglas Haig at Hooge between 2 
and 3 o'clock on this day, when the ist Division were retiring. 
I regard it as the most critical moment in the whole of this 
great battle. The rally of the ist Division, and the recapture 
of the village of Gheluvelt at such a time, was fraught with 
momentous consequences. If any one unit can be singled out 
for especial praise it is the Worcesters. 

7. In the meantime the centre of my line, occupied by the 
3rd and Cavalry Corps, was being heavily pressed by the 
enemy in ever-increasing force. 

On the 20th October advanced posts of the I2th Brigade 
of the 4th Division, 3rd Corps, were forced to retire, and at 
dusk it was evident that the Germans were likely to make a 
determined attack. This ended in the occupation of Le 
Gheir by the enemy. 

As the position of the Cavalry at St. Yves was thus 
endangered, a counter-attack was decided upon and planned 
by General Hunter- Weston and Lieutenant-Colonel Anley. 
This proved entirely successful, the Germans being driven 
back with great loss and the abandoned trenches reoccupied. 
Two hundred prisoners were- taken, and about forty of our 
prisoners released. 

In these operations the staunchness of the King's Own 
Regiment and the Lancashire Fusiliers was most commend- 
able. These two battalions were very well handled by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Butler of the Lancashire Fusiliers. 

I am anxious to bring to special notice the excellent work 
done throughout this battle by the 3rd Corps under General 
Pulteney's command. Their position in the right central 
part of my line was of the utmost importance to the general 



success of the operations. Besides the very undue length 
of front which the Corps was called upon to cover (some 12 
or 13 miles), the position presented many weak spots, and 
was also astride of the river Lys, the right bank of which 
from Frelinghien downwards was strongly held by the enemy. 
It was impossible to provide adequate reserves, and the 
constant work in the trenches tried the endurance of officers 
and men to the utmost. That the Corps was invariably 
successful in repulsing the constant attacks, sometimes in 
great strength, made against them by day and by night is 
due entirely to the skilful manner in which the Corps was 
disposed by its Commander, who has told me of the able 
assistance he has received throughout from his Staff, and 
the ability and resource displayed by Divisional, Brigade, 
and Regimental leaders in using the ground and the means 
of defence at their disposal to the very best advantage. 

The courage, tenacity, endurance, and cheerfulness of the 
men in such unparalleled circumstances are beyond all 

During the 22nd, 23rd, and 24th October frequent 
attacks were made along the whole line of the 3rd Corps, 
and especially against the i6th Infantry Brigade ; but on 
all occasions the enemy was thrown back with loss. 

During the night of the 25th October the Leicestershire 
Regiment were forced from their trenches by shells blowing 
in the pits they were in ; and after investigation by the 
General Officers Commanding the i6th and i8th Infantry 
Brigades, it was decided to throw back the line temporarily in 
this neighbourhood. 

On the evening of the 2gth October the enemy made a 
sharp attack on Le Gheir, and on the line to the north of it, 
but were repulsed. 

About midnight a very heavy attack developed against 
the igth Infantry Brigade south of Croix Marechal. A 
portion of the trenches of the Middlesex Regiment was gained 
by the enemy and held by him for some hours till recaptured 
with the assistance of the detachment from the Argyll and 
Sutherland Highlanders from Brigade Reserve. The enemy 
in the trenches were all bayoneted or captured. Later in- 
formation from prisoners showed that there were twelve 
battalions opposite the igth Brigade. Over two hundred 


dead Germans were left lying in front of the 'Brigade's trenches, 
and forty prisoners were taken. 

On the evening of the 3oth the line of the nth Infantry 
Brigade in the neighbourhood of St. Yves was broken. A 
counter-attack carried out by Major Prowse with the Somerset 
Light Infantry restored the situation. For his services on 
this occasion this officer was recommended for special reward. 

On the 3ist October it became necessary for the 4th 
Division to take over the extreme right of the ist Cavalry 
Division's trenches, although this measure necessitated a still 
further extension of the line held by the 3rd Corps. 

8. On 20th October, while engaged in the attempt to 
force the line of the river Lys, the Cavalry Corps was attacked 
from the south and east. In the evening the ist Cavalry 
Division held the line St. Yves-Messines : the 2nd Cavalry- 
Division from Messines through Garde Dieu along the Wambeek 
to Hputhem and Kortewilde. 

At 4 P.M. on the 2ist October a heavy attack was made 
on the 2nd Cavalry Division, which was compelled to fall back 
to the line Messines-gth kilo stone on the Warneton-Oosttaverne 

On the 22nd I directed the 7th Indian Infantry Brigade, 
less one battalion, to proceed to Wulverghem in support of 
the Cavalry Corps. General Allenby sent two battalions to 
Wytschaete and Voormezeele to be placed under the orders 
of General Gough, Commanding the 2nd Cavalry Division. 

On the 23rd, 24th, and 25th several attacks were directed 
against the Cavalry Corps and repulsed with loss to the enemy. 

On the 26th October I directed General Allenby to 
endeavour to regain a more forward line, moving in conjunc- 
tion with the 7th Division. But the latter being apparently 
quite unable to take the offensive, the attempt had to be 

On 3oth October heavy infantry attacks, supported by 
powerful artillery fire, developed against the 2nd and 3rd 
Cavalry Divisions, especially against the trenches about 
Hollebeke held by the 3rd Cavalry Brigade. At 1.30 P.M. 
this Brigade was forced to retire, and the 2nd Cavalry Brigade, 
less one regiment, was moved across from the ist Cavalry 
Division to a point between Oosttaverne and St. Eloi in 
support of the 2nd Cavalry Division. 



The ist Cavalry Division in the neighbourhood of Messines 
was also threatened by a heavy infantry column. 

General Allenby still retained the two Indian Battalions 
of the 7th Indian Brigade, although they were in a somewhat 
exhausted condition. 

After a close survey of the positions and consultations 
with the General Officer Commanding the Cavalry Corps, I 
directed four battalions of the 2nd Corps, which had lately 
been relieved from the trenches by the Indian Corps, to move 
to Neuve Eglise under General Shaw, in support of General 

The London Scottish Territorial Battalion was also sent 
to Neuve Eglise. 

It now fell to the lot of the Cavalry Corps, which had been* 
much weakened by constant fighting, to oppose the advance 
of two nearly fresh German Army Corps for a period of over 
forty-eight hours, pending the arrival of a French reinforce- 
ment. Their action was completely successful. I propose to 
send shortly a more detailed account of the operation. 

After the critical situation in front of the Cavalry Corps, 
which was ended by the arrival of the head of the French 
1 6th Army Corps, the 2nd Cavalry Division was relieved by 
General Conneau's French Cavalry Corps and concentrated in 
the neighbourhood of Bailleul. 

The ist Cavalry Division continued to hold the line of 
trenches east of Wulverghem. 

From that time to the date of this despatch the Cavalry 
Divisions have relieved one another at intervals, and have 
supported by their artillery the attacks made by the French 
throughout that period on Hollebeke, Wy tschaete, and Messines. 

The 3rd Corps in its position on the right of the Cavalry 
Corps continued throughout the same period to repel constant 
attacks against its front, and suffered severely from the enemy's 
heavy artillery fire. 

The artillery of the 4th Division constantly assisted the 
French in their attacks. 

The General Officer Commanding 3rd Corps brings specially 
to my notice the excellent behaviour of the East Lancashire 
Regiment, the Hampshire Regiment, and the Somersetshire 
Light Infantry in these latter operations ; and the skilful 
manner in which they were handled by General Hunter- 


Weston, Lieutenant-Colonel Butler, and the Battalion 

9. The Lahore Division arrived in its concentration area 
in rear of the 2nd Corps on the igth and 20th October. 

I have already referred to the excellent work performed by 
the battalions of this Division which were supporting the 
Cavalry. The remainder of the Division, from the 25th October 
onwards, were heavily engaged in assisting the 7th Brigade 
of the 2nd Corps in fighting round Neuve Chapelle. Another 
brigade took over some ground previously held by the French 
ist Cavalry Corps, and did excellent service. 

On the 28th October especially the 47th Sikhs and the 
20th and 2ist Companies of the 3rd Sappers and Miners 
distinguished themselves by their gallant conduct in the 
attack on Neuve Chapelle, losing heavily in officers and men. 

After the arrival of the Meerut Division at Corps Head- 
quarters, the Indian Army Corps took over the line previously 
held by the 2nd Corps, which was then partially drawn 
back into reserve. Two and a half brigades of British In- 
fantry and a large part of the Artillery of the 2nd Corps 
still remained to assist the Indian Corps in defence of this 
line. Two and a half battalions of these brigades were returned 
to the 2nd Corps when the Ferozepore Brigade joined the 
Indian Corps after its support of the Cavalry farther north. 

The Secunderabad Cavalry Brigade arrived in the area 
during the i&t and 2nd November, and the Jodhpur Lancers 
came about the same time. These were all temporarily 
attached to the Indian Corps. 

Up to the date of the present despatch the line held by the 
Indian Corps has been subjected to constant bombardment 
by the enemy's heavy artillery, followed up by infantry attacks. 

On two occasions these attacks were severe. 

On the 13th October the 8th Gurkha Rifles of the Bareilly 
Brigade were driven from their trenches, and on 2nd November 
a serious attack was developed against a portion of the line 
west of Neuve Chapelle. On this occasion the line was to 
some extent pierced, and was consequently slightly bent back. 

The situation was prevented from becoming serious by the 
excellent leadership displayed by Colonel None, of the 2nd 
Gurkha Rifles. 

Since their arrival in this country, and their occupation 



of the line allotted to them, I have been much impressed by the 
initiative and resource displayed by the Indian troops. Some 
of the ruses they have employed to deceive the enemy have 
been attended with the best results, and have doubtless kept 
superior forces in front of them at bay. 

The Corps of Indian Sappers and Miners have long enjoyed 
a high reputation for skill and resource. Without going into 
detail, I can confidently jassert that throughout their work in 
this campaign they have* fully justified that reputation. 

The General Officer Commanding the Indian Army Corps 
describes the conduct and bearing of these troops in strange 
and new surroundings to have been highly satisfactory, and I 
am enabled, from my own observation, to fully corroborate his 

Honorary Major-General H.H. Sir Pratap Singh Bahadur, 
G.C.S.I., G.C.V.O., K.C.B., A.D.C., Maharaja-Regent of 
Jodhpur ; Honorary Lieutenant H.H. the Maharaja of 
Jodhpur ; Honorary Colonel H.H. Sir Ganga Singh Bahadur, 
G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., A.D.C., Maharaja of Bikanir ; Honorary 
Major H.H. Sir Madan Singh Bahadur, K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., 
Maharaja-Dhiraj of Kishengarh ; Honorary Captain the 
Honourable Malik Umar Hayat Khan, C.I.E., M.V.O., Tiwana ; 
Honorary Lieutenant Raj -Kumar Hira Singh of Panna ; 
Honorary Lieutenant Maharaj -Kumar Hitendra Narayan of 
Cooch Behar ; Lieutenant Malik Mumtaz Mahomed Khan, 
Native Indian Land Forces ; Resaldar Khwaja Mahomed 
Khan Bahadur, Queen Victoria's Own Corps of Guides ; 
Honorary Captain Shah Mirza Beg, are serving with the 
Indian contingents. 

10. Whilst the whole of the line has continued to be 
heavily pressed, the enemy's principal efforts since the ist 
November have been concentrated upon breaking through the 
line held by the ist British and gth French Corps, and thus 
gaining possession of the town of Ypres. 

From the 2nd November onwards the 27th, the I5th and 
parts of the Bavarian i3th and 2nd German Corps, besides other 
troops, were all directed against this northern line. 

About the loth instant, after several units of these Corps 
had been completely shattered in futile attacks, a division of 
the Prussian Guard, which had been operating in the neigh- 
bourhood of Arras, was moved up to this area with great 


speed and secrecy. Documents found on dead officers prove 
that the Guard had received the Emperor's special commands 
to break through and succeed where their comrades of the 
line had failed. 

They took a leading part in the vigorous attacks made 
against the centre on the nth and I2th ; but, like their com- 
rades, were repulsed with enormous loss. 

Throughout this trying period Sir Douglas Haig, ably 
assisted by his Divisional and Brigade Commanders, held the 
line with marvellous tenacity and undaunted courage. 

Words fail me to express the admiration I feel for their 
conduct, or my sense of the incalculable services they ren- 
dered. I venture to predict that their deeds during these 
days of stress and trial will furnish some of the most brilliant 
chapters which will be found in the military history of our 

The ist Corps was brilliantly supported by the 3rd Cavalry 
Division under General Byng. Sir Douglas Haig has con- 
stantly brought this officer's eminent services to my notice. 
His troops were repeatedly called upon to restore the situa- 
tion at critical points, and to fill gaps in the line caused by 
the tremendous losses which occurred. 

Both Corps and Cavalry Division Commanders particu- 
larly bring to my notice the name of Brigadier-General 
Kavanagh, Commanding the 7th Cavalry Brigade, not only 
for his skill but his personal bravery and dash. This was 
particularly noticeable when the 7th Cavalry Brigade was 
brought up to support the French troops when the latter were 
driven back near the village of Klein Zillebeke on the night 
of the 7th November. On this occasion I regret to say 
Colonel Gordon Wilson, Commanding the Royal Horse Guards, 
and Major the Hon. Hugh Dawnay, Commanding the 2nd 
Life Guards, were killed. 

In these two officers the" Army has lost valuable Cavalry 

Another officer whose name was particularly mentioned 
to me was that of Brigadier-General FitzClarence, V.C., 
Commanding the ist Guards Brigade. He was, unfortu- 
nately, killed in the night attack of the nth November. His 
loss will be severely felt. 

The ist Corps Commander informs me that on many 



occasions Brigadier-General the Earl of Cavan, Commanding 
the 4th Guards Brigade, was conspicuous for the skill, cool- 
ness, and courage with which he led his troops, and for the 
successful manner in which he dealt with many critical 

I have more than once during this campaign brought 
forward the name of Major-General Bulfin to your Lordship's 
notice. Up to the evening of the 2nd November, when he 
was somewhat severely wounded, his services continued to 
be of great value. 

On the 5th November I despatched eleven battalions of 
the 2nd Corps, all considerably reduced in strength, to 
relieve the infantry of the 7th Division, which was then 
brought back into general reserve. 

Three more battalions of the same Corps, the London 
Scottish and Hertfordshire Battalions of Territorials, and the 
Somersetshire and Leicestershire Regiments of Yeomanry, 
were subsequently sent to reinforce the troops fighting to the 
east of Ypres. 

General Byng in the case of the Yeomanry Cavalry Regi- 
ments, and Sir Douglas in that of the Territorial Battalions, 
speak in high terms of their conduct in the field and of the 
value of their support. 

The battalions of the 2nd Corps took a conspicuous 
part in repulsing the heavy attacks delivered against this 
part of the line. I was obliged to despatch them immediately 
after their trying experiences in the southern part of the line 
and when they had had a very insufficient period of rest ; 
and, although they gallantly maintained these northern posi- 
tions until relieved by the French, they were reduced to a 
condition of extreme exhaustion. 

The work performed by the Royal Flying Corps has con- 
tinued to prove of the utmost value to the success of the 

I do not consider it advisable in this despatch to go into 
any detail as regards the duties assigned to the Corps and 
the nature of their work, but almost every day new methods 
for employing them, both strategically and tactically, are 
discovered and put into practice. 

The development of their use and employment has indeed 
been quite extraordinary, and I feel sure that no effort should 


be spared to increase their numbers and perfect their equip- 
ment and efficiency. 

In the period covered by this despatch, Territorial Troops 
have been used for the first time in the Army under my 

The units actually engaged have been the Northumber- 
land, Northamptonshire, North Somerset, Leicestershire, and 
Oxfordshire Regiments of Yeomanry Cavalry ; and the 
London Scottish, Hertfordshire, Honourable Artillery Com- 
pany, and the Queen's Westminster Battalions of Territorial 

The conduct and bearing of these units under fire, and the 
efficient manner in which they carried out the various duties 
assigned to them, have imbued me with the highest hope as 
to the value and help of Territorial Troops generally. 

Units which I have mentioned above, other than these, 
as having been also engaged, have by their conduct fully 
justified these hopes. 

Regiments and battalions as they arrive come into a 
temporary camp of instruction, which is formed at Head- 
quarters, where they are closely inspected, their equipment 
examined, so far as possible perfected, and such instruction 
as can be given to them in the brief time available in the use 
of machine-guns, etc., is imparted. 

Several units have now been sent up to the front besides 
those I have already named, but have not yet been engaged. 

I am anxious in this despatch to bring to your Lordship's 
special notice the splendid work which has been done through- 
out the campaign by the Cyclists of the Signal Corps. 

Carrying despatches and messages at all hours of the day 
and night in every kind of weather, and often traversing bad 
roads blocked with transport, they have been conspicuously 
successful in maintaining an extraordinary degree of efficiency 
in the service of communications. 

Many casualties have occurred in their ranks, but no 
amount of difficulty or danger has ever checked the energy 
and ardour which has distinguished their Corps throughout 
the operations. 

ii. As I close this despatch there are signs in evidence that 
we are possibly in the last stages of the battle of Ypres- 



For several days past the enemy's artillery fire has con- 
siderably slackened, and infantry attack has practically 

In remarking upon the general military situation of the 
Allies as it appears to me at the present moment, it does not 
seem to be clearly understood that the operations in which we 
have been engaged embrace nearly all the Continent of Central 
Europe from east to west. The combined French, Belgian, 
and British Armies in the west, and the Russian Army in the 
east, are opposed to the united forces of Germany and Austria 
acting as a combined army between us. 

Our enemies elected at the commencement of the war to 
throw the weight of their forces against the armies in the west, 
and to detach only a comparatively weak force, composed of 
very few first-line troops and several corps of the second and 
third lines, to stem the Russian advance till the Western 
Forces could be completely defeated and overwhelmed. 

Their strength enabled them from the outset to throw 
greatly superior forces against us in the west. This precluded 
the possibility of our taking a vigorous offensive, except when 
the miscalculations and mistakes made by their commanders 
opened up special opportunities for a successful attack and 

The battle of the Marne was an example of this, as was also 
our advance from St. Omer and Hazebrouck to the line of the 
Lys at the commencement of this battle. The role which our 
armies in the west have consequently been called upon to 
fulfil has been to occupy strong defensive positions, holding 
the ground gained, and inviting the enemy's attack ; to throw 
these attacks back, causing the enemy heavy losses in his 
retreat, and following him up with powerful and successful 
counter-attacks to complete his discomfiture. 

The value and significance of the role fulfilled since the 
commencement of hostilities by the Allied Forces in the west 
lies in the fact that at the moment when the Eastern Provinces 
of Germany are in imminent danger of being overrun by the 
numerous and powerful armies of Russia, nearly the whole of 
the active army of Germany is tied down to a line of trenches 
extending from the fortress of Verdun on the Alsatian 
frontier round to the sea at Nieuport, east of Dunkirk (a 
distance of 260 miles), where they are held, much reduced in 


numbers and moral by the successful action of our troops in 
the west. 

I cannot speak too highly of the valuable services rendered 
by the Royal Artillery throughout the battle. 

In spite of the fact that the enemy has brought up guns 
in support of his attacks of great range and shell power, ours 
have succeeded throughout in preventing the enemy from 
establishing anything in the nature of an artillery superiority. 
The skill, courage, and energy displayed by their commanders 
have been very marked. 

The General Officer Commanding 3rd Corps, who had 
special means of judging, makes mention of the splendid work 
performed by a number of young Artillery officers, who in the 
most gallant manner pressed forward in the vicinity of the 
firing line in order that their guns may be able to shoot at the 
right targets at the right moment. 

The Royal Engineers have, as usual, been indefatigable 
in their efforts to assist the infantry in field fortification and 
trench work. 

I deeply regret the heavy casualties which we have suffered; 
but the nature of the fighting has been very desperate, and 
we have been assailed by vastly superior numbers. I have 
every reason to know that throughout the course of the 
battle we have placed at least three times as many of the 
enemy hors de combat, in dead, wounded, and prisoners. 

Throughout these operations General Foch has strained 
his resources to the utmost to afford me all the support he 
could ; and an expression of my warm gratitude is also due 
to General D'Urbal, Commanding the 8th French Army on 
my left, and General Maud'huy, Commanding the loth French 
Army on my right. 

I have many recommendations to bring to your Lordship's 
notice for gallant and distinguished service performed by 
officers and men in the period under report. These will be 
submitted shortly, as soon as they can be collected. I have 
the honour to be, your Lordship's most obedient servant, 

J. D. P. FRENCH, Field-Mar slid, 

Commanding-in- Chief, 
The British Army in the Field. 



Announcement by the Secretary of the Admiralty on 
October n, 1914 

Times, I n response to an appeal by the Belgian Government, a 

Oct. 12, '14 Marine Brigade and two Naval Brigades, together with some 
heavy naval guns, manned by a detachment of the Royal 
Navy, the whole under the command of General Paris, R.M.A., 
were sent by His Majesty's Government to participate in the 
defence of Antwerp during the last week of the attack. 

Up till the night of Monday last, October 5th, the Belgian 
Army and the Marine Brigade successfully defended the line 
of the Nethe river. But early on Tuesday morning the 
Belgian forces on the right of the Marines were forced by a 
heavy German attack, covered by very powerful artillery, 
to retire, and in consequence the whole of the defence was 
withdrawn to the inner line of forts, the intervals between 
which had been strongly fortified. The ground which had 
been lost enabled the enemy to plant his batteries to bombard 
the city. The inner line of defences was maintained during 
Wednesday and Thursday while the city endured a ruthless 
bombardment. The behaviour of the Royal Marines and 
Naval Brigades in the trenches and in the field was praise- 
worthy in a high degree and remarkable in units so newly 
formed, and, owing to the protection of the entrenchments, 
the losses, in spite of the severity of the fire, are probably 
less than 300 out of a total force of 8000. The defence 
could have been maintained for a longer period, but not 
long enough to allow of adequate forces being sent for their 
relief without prejudice to the main strategic situation. 

The enemy also began on Thursday to press strongly 
on the line of communication near Lokeren. The Belgian 
forces defending this point fought with great determination 
but were gradually pressed back by numbers. In these 
circumstances the Belgian and British military authorities in 
Antwerp decided to evacuate the city. The British offered 
to cover the retreat, but General de Guise desired that they 
should leave before the last Division of the Belgian Army. 


After a long night march to St. Gilles the three Naval 
Brigades entrained. Two out of the three have arrived 
safely at Ostend, but owing to circumstances which are not 
yet fully known the greater part of the ist Naval Brigade 
was cut off by the German attack north of Lokeren, and 
2000 officers and men entered Dutch territory in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hulst and laid down their arms, in accord- 
ance with the laws of neutrality. The retreat of the Belgian 
Army has been successfully accomplished. The naval 
armoured trains and heavy guns were all brought away. 

The naval aviation park having completed the attack on 
Diisseldorf and Cologne already reported, has returned safely 
to the base protected by its armoured cars. The retreat 
from Ghent onwards of the Naval Division and of the Belgian 
Army was covered by strong British reinforcements. 

Vast numbers of the non-combatant population of Antwerp, 
men, women, and children, are streaming in flight in scores 
of thousands westwards from the ruined and burning city. 



The FIRST LORD welcomes the Royal Naval Division home Times, 
on its return from active service. Officers and men of all ct - 12 > >]C 4 
ranks and ratings have acquitted themselves admirably, and 
have thoroughly justified the confidence reposed in them. 
The loss of a portion of the ist Brigade through a mistake 
in no way reflects upon the quality or character of the Division. 
The Brigade of Royal Marines throughout the operations 
sustained fully by their firmness, discipline, and courage 
the traditions of the corps. It is not necessary to say more 
than this. The Naval Brigades bore themselves admirably 
under the artillery fire of the enemy ; and it is to be regretted 
that no opportunities of closer contact with his infantry were 
afforded them. 

The despatch of the Naval Brigades to Antwerp has inter- 
rupted for a time the progress of their instruction and train- 
ing. They were chosen because the need for them was 


urgent and bitter ; because mobile troops could not be spared 
for fortress duties ; because they were the nearest and could 
be embarked the quickest ; and because their training, 
although incomplete, was as far advanced as that of a large 
portion, not only of the forces defending Antwerp, but of the 
enemy forces attacking. 

The Naval Division was sent to Antwerp not as an isolated 
incident, but as part of a large operation for the relief of the 
city. Other and more powerful considerations prevented 
this from being carried through. The defence of the inner . 
lines of Antwerp could have been maintained for some days ; 
and the Naval Division only withdrew when ordered to do 
so in obedience to the general strategic situation, and not on 
account of any attack or pressure by the enemy. The pro- 
longation of the defence due to the arrival of the Division 
enabled the ships in the harbour to be rendered useless and 
many steps of importance to be taken. 

It is too early now to judge what effect the delaying, 
even for five or six days, of at least 60,000 Germans before 
Antwerp may have had upon the fortunes of the general 
battle to the southward. It was certainly powerful and 
helpful. Apart from the military experiences, which have 
been invaluable, the Division have been the witnesses of 
the ruthlessness of the German foe towards a small and 
innocent State. These facts should inspire all ranks to fit 
themselves in the shortest possible time for further service 
in the field, not merely as fortress, but as mobile units. 

The Belgian people will never forget that the men of 
the Royal Navy and Royal Marines were with them in their 
darkest hour of misery, as, please God, they may also be with 
them when Belgium is restored to her own by the armies of 
the Allies. 

ADMIRALTY, $th December 1914. 

L. G., The following despatch has been received from Field- 

Dec. 5, '14 Marshal Sir J. D. P. French, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., 
covering a despatch from Major-General A. Paris, C.B., R.M.A., 
relating to the operations round Antwerp from the 3rd to the 
gth October. 



From Sir J. D. P. French, Field-Marshal, Commanding-in- 
Chief, to the Secretary of the Admiralty. 

In forwarding this report to the Army Council at the request 
of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, I have to state 
that, from a comprehensive review of all the circumstances, 
the force of Marines and Naval Brigades which assisted in the 
defence of Antwerp was handled by General Paris with great 
skill and boldness. 

Although the results did not include the actual saving of 
the fortress, the action of the force under General Paris cer- 
tainly delayed the enemy for a considerable time, and assisted 
the Belgian Army to be withdrawn in a condition to enable 
it to reorganise and refit, and regain its value as a fighting 
force. The destruction of war material and ammunition 
which, but for the intervention of this force, would have 
proved of great value to the enemy was thus able to be 
carried out. 

The assistance which the Belgian Army has rendered 
throughout the subsequent course of the operations on the 
canal and the Yser river has been a valuable asset to the 
allied cause, and such help must be regarded as an outcome 
of the intervention of General Paris's force. I am further of 
opinion that the moral effect produced on the minds of the 
Belgian Army by this necessarily desperate attempt to bring 
them succour, before it was too late, has been of great value 
to their use and efficiency as a fighting force. 

J. D. P. FRENCH, Field-Marshal, 

From the Secretary of the Admiralty to Field-Marshal Sir J. D. 
P. French, Commanding-in-Chief. (Enclosure in No. i.) 

ADMIRALTY, 2nd November 1914. 

SIR, I am commanded by My Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty to transmit herewith a despatch from Major- 
General Paris, reporting the proceedings of the Division round 
Antwerp from the 3rd to gth October, with a view to its being 
considered by you and forwarded to the Army Council with 
your survey of the operations as a whole. I am, etc., 


MILITARY I. 2 E 433 


From Major-General A. Paris, C.B., Commanding Royal 
Naval Division, to the Secretary of the Admiralty. (Sub- 
Enclosure in No. i.) 

3ist October 1914. 

Regarding the operations round Antwerp from 3rd to 
gth October, I have the honour to report as follows : 

The Brigade (2200 all ranks) reached Antwerp during the 
night 3rd-4th October, and early on the 4th occupied, with 
the 7th Belgian Regiment, the trenches facing Lierre, with 
advanced post on the river Nethe, relieving some exhausted 
Belgian troops. 

The outer forts on this front had already fallen, and bom- 
bardment of the trenches was in progress. This increased in 
violence during the night and early morning of 5th October, 
when the advanced posts were driven in and the enemy 
effected a crossing of the river, which was not under fire from 
the trenches. 

About midday the 7th Belgian Regiment was forced to 
retire, thus exposing my right flank. A vigorous counter- 
attack, gallantly led by Colonel Tierchon, 2nd Chasseurs, 
assisted by our aeroplanes, restored the position late in the 

Unfortunately, an attempt made by the Belgian troops 
during the night (5th-6th October) to drive the enemy across 
the river failed, and resulted in the evacuation of practically 
the whole of the Belgian trenches. 

The few troops now capable of another counter-attack 
were unable to make any impression, and the position of the 
Marine Brigade became untenable. 

The bombardment, too, was very violent, but the retire- 
ment of the Brigade was well carried out, and soon after 
midday (6th October) an intermediate position, which had 
been hastily prepared, was occupied. 

The two other Naval Brigades reached Antwerp during the 
night 5th-6th October. The ist Brigade moved out in the 
afternoon of 5th to assist the withdrawal to the main 2nd 
Line of Defence. 

The retirement was carried out during the night 6th-7th 
October, without opposition, and the Naval Division occupied 
the intervals between the forts on the 2nd Line of Defence, 


The bombardment of the town, forts, and trenches began 
at midnight 7th-8th October, and continued with increasing 
intensity until the evacuation of the fortress. 

As the water-supply had been cut, no attempt could be 
made to subdue the flames, and soon a hundred houses were 
burning. Fortunately, there was no wind, or the whole town 
and bridges must have been destroyed. 

During the day (8th October) it appeared evident that 
the Belgian Army could not hold the forts any longer. About 
5.30 P.M. I considered that if the Naval Division was to avoid 
disaster an immediate retirement under cover of darkness 
was necessary. General De Guise, the Belgian Commander, 
was in complete agreement. He was most chivalrous and 
gallant, insisting on giving orders that the roads and bridges 
were to be cleared for the passage of the British troops. 

The retirement began about 7.30 P.M., and was carried 
out under very difficult conditions. 

The enemy were reported in force (a Division plus a 
Reserve Brigade) on our immediate line of retreat, rendering 
necessary a detour of fifteen miles to the north. 

All the roads were crowded with Belgian troops, refugees, 
herds of cattle, and all kinds of vehicles, making inter-com- 
munication a practical impossibility. Partly for these reasons, 
partly on account of fatigue, and partly from at present 
unexplained causes, large numbers of the ist Naval Brigade 
became detached, and I regret to say are either prisoners or 
interned in Holland. 

Marching all night (Sth-gth October), one battalion of 
ist Brigade, the 2nd Brigade, and Royal Marine Brigade, less 
one battalion, entrained at St. Gillies Waes and effected their 
retreat without further incident. 

The Battalion (Royal Marine Brigade) Rear (juard of the 
whole force also entrained late in the afternoon, together with 
many hundreds of refugees, but at Morbeke the line was cut, 
the engine derailed, and the enemy opened fire. 

There was considerable confusion. It was dark, and the 
agitation of the refugees made it difficult to pass any orders. 
However, the battalion behaved admirably, and succeeded in 
fighting its way through, but with a loss in missing of more 
than half its number. They then marched another ten miles 
to Selzaate and entrained there. 



Colonel Seely and Colonel Bridges were not part of my 
command, but they rendered most skilful and helpful services 
during the evacuation. 

The casualties are approximately 

ist Naval Brigade and 2nd Naval Brigade, 5 killed, 
64 wounded, 2040 missing. 

Royal Marine Brigade, 23 killed, 103 wounded, 388 

In conclusion, I would call your attention to the good 
services rendered by the following officers during the opera- 
tions : 


Lieut.-Colonel A. H. Ollivant, R.A. 
Major Richardson, N.Z. Staff Corps. 
Fleet Surgeon E. J. Finch, R.N. 

ist Brigade 

Lieutenant G. G. Grant, R.N.V.R. 
Sub-Lieutenant C. O. F. Modin, R.N.V.R. 

2nd Brigade 

Commodore O. Backhouse, R.N., Commanding Brigade. 
Captain W. L. Maxwell, Brigade Major. 
Sub-Lieutenant H. C. Hedderwick, R.N.V.R. 

Royal Marine Brigade 

Lieut.-Colonel C. M'N. Parsons, R.M.L.I., in command 

most of the time. 

Major A. H. French, R.M.L.I., loth Battalion. 
Lieutenant D. J. Gowney, R.M.L.I., loth Battalion. 

[Also the names of several petty officers and men of the 
Naval prigade and Royal Marine Brigade.] 
I have the honour to be, Sir, your obedient servant, 

A. PARIS, Major-General, 
General Officer Commanding-in-Chief. 




His Majesty the King has sent the following message to Times, 
Sir John French : Nov. 11/14 

The splendid pluck, spirit, and endurance shown by 
my troops in the desperate fighting which has continued for 
so many days against vastly superior forces fills me with 

I am confident in the final result of their noble efforts 
under your able command. GEORGE R.I. 

Sir John French replied as follows : 

Your Majesty's most gracious message has been re- 
ceived by the officers and men of your Majesty's Army in 
France with feelings of the deepest gratitude and pride. 
We beg to be allowed to express to your Majesty our most 
faithful devotion and our unalterable determination to 
uphold the high traditions of your Majesty's Army, and 
to carry the campaign through to a victorious end. 



By Field-Marshal Sir John French, G.C.B., G.C.V.O., 
K.C.M.G., Commander-in-Chief, British Army in the Field. 

ijth September 1914. 

Once more I have to express my deep appreciation of the Times, 
splendid behaviour of officers, non-commissioned officers, and Se Pt- 18/14 
men of the Army under my command throughout the great 
Battle of the Aisne, which has been in progress since the 
evening of the I2th inst. The Battle of the Marne, which 
lasted from the morning of the 6th to the evening of the loth, 
had hardly ended in the precipitate flight of the enemy, when 
we were brought face to face with a position of extraordinary 



strength, carefully entrenched and prepared for defence by 
an Army and a Staff which are thorough adepts in such work. 

Throughout the I3th and I4th that position was most 
gallantly attacked by the British Forces, and the passage of 
the Aisne effected. This is the third day the troops have been 
gallantly holding the position they have gained against the 
most desperate counter-attacks and a hail of heavy artillery. 

I am unable to find adequate words in which to express 
the admiration I feel for their magnificent conduct. 

The French Armies on our right and left are making good 
progress, and I feel sure that we have only to hold on with 
tenacity to the ground we have won for a very short time longer, 
when the Allies will be again in fuh 1 pursuit of a beaten enemy. 

The self-sacrificing devotion and splendid spirit of the 
British Army in France will carry all before it. 

(Signed) J. D. P. FRENCH, Field-Marshal, 

The British Army in the Field. 


Times, I wish to express to the 2nd Cavalry Brigade my extreme 

Sept. 29/14 pride and satisfaction with their conduct in the severe engage- 
ment at Audregnies on Monday, 24th August 1914. The 
fight was necessary to save the 5th Infantry Division from 
an organised counter-attack during the retirement, and the 
object was achieved by the gallant and steady conduct of my 
Brigade. Major-General Sir Charles Fergusson, O.C. 5th In- 
fantry Division, thanked me personally for saving his division, 
adding that but for the 2nd Cavalry Brigade his division 
would have been destroyed to the last man. I especially wish 
to commend the fine cavalry spirit of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade 
in daring to charge entrenched infantry to save labouring 
troops, and that of the 4th Dragoon Guards in the effective 
support given without hesitation or any thought of danger. 
I intend to bring to the notice of higher authorities how 
greatly I esteem the devotion of my Brigade. 

Brigade-Major, for Brigadier. 



The following messages were issued by the India Office Times, 
at midnight, October 2, 1914 : Oct 3, '14 

His Majesty the King-Emperor has been graciously pleased 
to send the message of which the following is a translation, 
to the Indian troops of the Expeditionary Force from India : 

Officers, Non-commissioned Officers, and Men, I look to 
all my Indian soldiers to uphold the izzat of the British Raj 
against an aggressive and relentless enemy. 

I know with what readiness my brave and loyal Indian 
soldiers are prepared to fulfil this sacred trust on the field of 
battle, shoulder to shoulder with their comrades from all 
parts of the Empire. 

Rest assured that you will always be in my thoughts and 

I bid you go forward to add fresh lustre to the glorious 
achievements and noble traditions of courage and chivalry of 
my Indian Army, whose honour and fame are in your hands. 

His Majesty the King-Emperor has been graciously pleased 
to send the following message to the British troops of the 
Expeditionary Force from India : 

Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers, and Men, you have 
been recalled from service in India, together with your com-, 
rades from that country, to fight for the safety and honour 
of My Empire. 

Belgium, whose country we are pledged to defend, has 
been devastated, and France has been invaded by the same 
powerful foe. 

I have implicit confidence in you, My soldiers. Duty is 
your watchword, and I know your duty will be nobly done. 

I shall follow your every movement with deepest interest 
and mark with eager satisfaction your daily progress ; indeed, 
your welfare will never be absent from My thoughts. 

I pray God to bless you and guard you and bring you 
back victorious. 





Times, We have all read with pride the gracious message of His 

Nov. 11/14 Majesty the King-Emperor to his troops from India. 

On the eve of going into the field to join our British 
comrades, who have covered themselves with glory in this 
great war, it is our firm resolve to prove ourselves worthy of 
the honour which has been conferred on us as representatives 
of the Army of India. 

In a few days we shall be fighting as has never been our 
good fortune to fight before, and against enemies who have a 
long history. 

But is their history as long as yours ? You are the de- 
scendants of men who have been mighty rulers and great 
warriors for many centuries. You will never forget this. 
You will recall the glories of your race. Hindu and Moham- 
medan will be fighting side by side with British soldiers and 
our gallant French Allies. You will be helping to make 
history. You will be the first Indian soldiers of the King- 
Emperor who will have the honour of showing in Europe that 
the sons of India have lost none of their ancient martial 
instincts and are worthy of the confidence reposed in them. 

In battle you will remember that your religions enjoin on 
you that to give your life doing your duty is your highest 

The eyes of your co-religionists and your fellow-countrymen 
are on you. From the Himalayan Mountains, the banks of 
the Ganges and Indus, and the plains of Hindustan, they are 
eagerly waiting for the news of how their brethren conduct 
themselves when they meet the foe. From mosques and 
temples their prayers are ascending to the God of all, and you 
will answer their hopes by the proofs of your valour. 

You will fight for your King-Emperor and your faith, so 
that history will record the doings of India's sons, and your 
children will proudly tell of the deeds of their fathers. 

JAMES WILLCOCKS, Lieutenant-General, 

Commg. Indian Army Corps. 
CAMP, ioth October 1914. 





To the ist Division, 2nd Division, 3rd Division, ist Cavalry 
Division, and 3rd Cavalry Division (Lord Cavan). 

G. 983, izth November 1914. 

The Commander-in-Chief has asked me to convey to the Times, 
troops under my command his congratulations and thanks for Nov. 30, '14 
the splendid resistance to the German attack yesterday. This 
attack was delivered by some fifteen fresh battalions of the 
German Guard Corps which had been specially brought up to 
carry out the task in which so many other corps had failed, 
viz., to crush the British and force a way through to Ypres. 

Since its arrival in this neighbourhood the ist Corps, 
assisted by the 3rd Cavalry Division, 7th Division, and troops 
from the 2nd Corps, has met and defeated the 23rd, 26th, and 
27th German Reserve Corps, the I3th Active Corps, and finally 
a strong force from the Guard Corps. 

It is doubtful whether the annals of the British Army 
contain any finer record than this. 

DOUGLAS HAIG, Lieutenant-General, 
Commanding ist Army Corps. 



In forwarding the attached order by G.O.C. ist Corps, I Times, 

desire to place on record my own high appreciation of the I^e; 16/14 
endurance and fine soldierly qualities exhibited by all ranks 
of the 7th Division from the time of their landing in Belgium. 
You have been called to take a conspicuous part in one of the 
severest struggles in the history of the war, and you have had 
the honour and distinction of contributing in no small measure 
to the success of our arms and the defeat of the enemy's plans. 
The task which fell to your share inevitably involved 
heavy losses, but you have at any rate the satisfaction of 



knowing that the losses you have inflicted upon the enemy 
have been far heavier. 

The 7th Division have gained for themselves a reputation 
for stubborn valour and endurance in defence, and I am 
certain that you will only add to your laurels when the oppor- 
tunity of advancing to the attack is given you. 



Dec. 16/14 HON. J. H. G. BYNG, C.B., M.V.O., COMMANDING THE 

In circulating the short diary of the operations in which 
the Division has taken part, I wish to take the opportunity of 
conveying to all ranks my gratitude and admiration for their 
conduct. With little or no experience of trench work, ex- 
posed to every vagary of weather, and under a persistent 
and concentrated shelling, the regimental officers, N.C.O/s, 
and men have undertaken this most arduous and demoralising 
work with a keenness and courage which I place on record 
with the greatest pride. 

With the exception of 30th October, when the Zandvoorde 
trenches, held by the Household Cavalry, and the Chateau of 
Hollebeke, held by a squadron of the Royal Dragoons, were 
attacked by a German Army Corps, no trench has been lost 
and no ground evacuated. On eight occasions Brigades were 
sent in support of the line which had been partially penetrated, 
and on nearly every occasion either I or one of the Brigadiers 
have received the thanks and congratulations of the Com- 
mander of that zone of defence for the gallant behaviour of 
our troops. 

The 6th Cavalry Brigade may well be proud of their action 
at St. Pieter on igth October ; Kruiseik, 26th October ; 
Chateau de Hollebeke, 30th October ; Hooge Woods, 3ist 
October ; and the Zillebeke trenches on I7th November ; 
while the actions of the 7th Cavalry Brigade at Oostnieuw- 
kerke, i6th October ; Moorslede, igth October ; Zonnebeke, 
2ist October; Zandvoorde, 26th October; Zandvoorde 
trenches, 30th October ; Veldhoek. 2nd November : Klein 
Zillebeke, 6th November, have been the subject of official 
recognition and well-merited praise. 


Each Regiment, Battery, R.E., and Signal Squadron and 
Administrative and Medical Service has more than main- 
tained its historic reputation, and during the last six weeks 
has added to the renown of the British soldier as a magnificent 
fighter, and it is with the utmost confidence in their steadfast 
courage that I contemplate a continuance of the campaign 
until our enemy receives his final overthrow. 

(Signed) J. BYNG, Major-General, 

Commanding $rd Cavalry Division. 
23rd November 1914. 


Oct. 6. After mobilising at Ludgershall Camp the divi- Times, 
sion was railed to Southampton, and sailed on 6th October for D ec - J 6, '14 
Ostend and Zeebrugge, where it disembarked early on the 
8th, and came under the orders of the 4th Corps. 

Oct. 9. On the gth the division concentrated at Bruges, 
marching from there to Thourout (6th Cavalry Brigade) and 
Ruddervoorde (yth Cavalry Brigade) on the following day. 

Oct. ii. On the nth Divisional Headquarters, which had 
stayed in Oostcamp on the previous night, moved to Thourout. 
The armoured motors, which had joined the Division on the 
previous day, succeeded in drawing first blood, capturing two 
officers and five men in the direction of Ypres. 

Oct. 12. On the I2th Headquarters moved to Rpulers, the 
6th Cavalry Brigade to the line Oostnieuwkerke-Roulers, and 
the yth Cavalry Brigade to Rumbeke-Iseghem. 

Oct. 13. The enemy were reported to have fought an 
action near Hazebrouck and to be retiring towards Bailleul, 
and our 2nd Cavalry Division to have captured a place some 
ten miles south-west of Ypres. Accordingly, on the I3th, 
the division reconnoitred towards Ypres and Menin with 
patrols towards Comines and Wervicq, but no signs of the 
enemy were found, and after a long day, during which many 
of the troops must have done at least fifty miles, the division 
withdrew to the line Dadizeele-Iseghem, the yth Infantry 
Division having in the meantime moved to Roulers. 

Oct. 14. Considerable hostile forces, believed to be in 
the I2th Corps, were reported to be moving from the vicinity 
of Bailleul towards Wervicq and Menin. In consequence of 



this the division, followed by the 7th Infantry Division, was 
ordered to move on Ypres and to reconnoitre to the south- 
west. This necessitated a very early start. The division 
reached Ypres at 9 A.M., and the 6th Cavalry Brigade, which 
formed the advanced guard, moved on toward the line La 
Clytte-Lindenhoek. Shortly after leaving Ypres this Brigade, 
assisted by rifle and revolver fire from everybody in Ypres, 
succeeded in bringing down a Taube aeroplane. Its pilot and 
observer escaped into some woods, but were captured later 
on in the day. The advance guard, assisted by the armed 
motors, pushed on towards Neuve Eglise, and succeeded in 
killing or capturing a considerable number of the enemy 
during the day, but no formed bodies were met with, though 
heavy firing was heard from the direction of Bailleul. At 
dusk the division moved into billets at Kemmel (yth Cavalry 
Brigade) and Wytschaete (remainder of the Division) in touch 
with the 2nd Cavalry Division, with whom communication 
had been established during the day. 

Oct. 16. No movement took place on the I5th, but on 
the following day the division, with the yth Cavalry Brigade 
as advance guard, moved via Ypres and Wieltje to the line 
Bixschoote-Poelcappelle. The enemy were reported in con- 
siderable numbers in the Foret d'Houthulst and Oostnieuw- 
kerke, and a patrol of the 2nd Life Guards was obliged to 
withdraw from Staden. Intermittent fighting took place 
during the afternoon, and at dusk French troops, having 
relieved the 7th Cavalry Brigade, the Division moved into 
billets at Passchendaele (7th Cavalry Brigade), Nieuwemolen 
(6th Cavalry Brigade), and Zonnebeke (Divisional Troops). 
The 7th Cavalry Brigade are known to have accounted for 
some ten or twelve killed during the day, and it is probable 
that considerably more were wounded. 

Oct. 19. Our outposts remained on the line Westroose- 
beke (in touch with the French) Moorslede-Droogenbroodhoek 
(in touch with our 7th Infantry Division) until the igth, when 
the division was ordered to operate towards the Roulers- 
Menin Road in order to cover the left flank of the 7th Infantry 
Division in a projected attack against Menin. By 10 A.M. 
the 7th Cavalry Brigade was in touch with considerable bodies 
of the enemy advancing from Roulers, and had to fall back 
some three-quarters of a mile to a stronger position. 'K' 


Battery, R.H.A., which had been attached to the Brigade, 
came into action north of Moorslede, and was able to give 
the brigade great assistance during a most resolute defence 
against considerably greater numbers. Meanwhile the 6th 
Cavalry Brigade, ably supported by * C ' Battery, which had 
been posted to the division on the previous day, advanced 
from St. Pieter, and after a brisk little action captured 
Ledeghem and Rolleghemcappelle. The enemy continued to 
press on from Roulers in large numbers, and it was found 
necessary to withdraw the 7th Cavalry Brigade to the high 
ground east of Moorslede. As this would leave the 6th 
Cavalry Brigade somewhat isolated, and the advance of con- 
siderable hostile forces was reported from Courtrai, the 6th 
Cavalry Brigade was ordered to fall back gradually on Moors- 
lede, and thence to withdraw to billets at Poelcappelle. The 
7th Cavalry Brigade, having covered the withdrawal of the 
6th Cavalry Brigade, eventually retired under a heavy shell 
fire to Zonnebeke, where it went into billets, the French taking 
over Passchendaele. Considering the amount of opposition en- 
countered during the day against largely superior numbers, our 
casualties were small, whilst there is no doubt that the enemy 
suffered very severely at our hands. This smallness was largely 
due to the skilful manner in which each Brigade was withdrawn. 
Oct. 20. The following morning the Division took up a 
defensive position in support of the French on the left of the 
7th Division on the line Passchendaele- Westroosebeke. Desul- 
tory firing commenced soon after 8 A.M., and was succeeded 
by an artillery duel until noon. The Germans were reported 
to be advancing in large numbers, but the situation remained 
perfectly satisfactory until the French troops were ordered 
to withdraw, thus exposing our flanks and obliging the divi- 
sion to swing back its left to the line Poelcappelle-St. Julien- 
Zonnebeke. Later in the afternoon Poelcappelle was sub- 
jected to a heavy shell fire, which caused the French to with- 
draw and obliged us to fall back still farther to Langemarck. 
During the evening (zist Oct.) the 4th Guards Brigade arrived 

and took over our line, and the moved early next morning 

to the vicinity of Hooge. Shortly after arriving there it was 
reported that the 7th Infantry Division was being very heavily 
attacked in Zonnebeke, and the 7th Cavalry Brigade had to 
be sent to its assistance. This support enabled the 22nd 



Infantry Brigade to maintain its position on the outskirts of 
the village, where its left flank had been seriously endangered. 
About 1.30 P.M. news was received that the 2nd Cavalry Divi- 
sion was having a bad time, and that a gap had occurred on 
its left in the vicinity of Zandvoorde- The 6th Cavalry 
Brigade hurried off to fill this, and occupied the two canal 
crossings north of Hollebeke. Later in the evening, on a 
further readjustment of the line, this brigade moved a little 
to its left and occupied the line Zandvoorde to the canal by 
the Chateau de Hollebeke, the 7th Cavalry Brigade billeting 
at Voormezeele and St. Eloi. 

Oct. 22. On the 22nd the yth Cavalry Brigade moved 
to Klein Zillebeke, and for the next few days little change 
occurred in the situation, one Brigade occupying the Zand- 
voorde trenches and the other Brigade being held in reserve 
at Klein Zillebeke, the trenches being more or less severely 
shelled each day, with occasional infantry attacks as well. 
Snipers also caused considerable annoyance. 

Oct. 26. During the afternoon of the 26th the 7th Cavalry 
Brigade, which was in reserve on that day, was ordered to 
demonstrate towards Kruiseik with the idea of relieving the 
pressure against the right flank of the 7th Division, which 
was causing the 20th Infantry Brigade to withdraw. This 
operation was most smartly carried out by the Royal Horse 
Guards under Colonel Wilson (since killed in action). The 
conduct of Captain Lord Innes-Ker's squadron, which formed 
the advance guard, was in particular brought to the notice 
of the General Officer Commanding. Trooper Nevin was 
subsequently awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal for 
his gallantry in this action. 

Oct. 27. On the 27th, owing to the reorganisation of the 
7th Division on our left (which was placed under the orders 
of the ist Corps from this date), it was found necessary to 
extend our line slightly to the north-east. 

Oct. 29. On the 2Qth the 7th Division attacked on the 
front Kruiseik crossroads south-east of Gheluvelt to endeavour 
to regain some trenches which had been lost the previous day. 
The 6th Cavalry Brigade supported the right flank of this 
attack most ably, and in turn was assisted by covering fire 
from the 7th Cavalry Brigade trenches. The enemy, who 
were found to be part of the 24th Army Corps from Lille, 

X ^S^oree^^ 

- ^Ma-o^ -x. iM>- fl ji& ' \ 

Scale oF Miles. 




appeared to have suffered heavy casualties during the above 

Oct. 30. On the 30th a terrific artillery fire was opened 
against the Zandvoorde ridge. The 7th Cavalry Brigade 
held on most gallantly for some time, but many of the trenches 
having been completely blown in, it was eventually found 
necessary to withdraw it through the 6th (which had occupied 
the reserve trenches) to Klein Zillebeke. At about the same 
time the Cavalry Corps Commander moved the Greys and 
the 3rd and 4th Hussars up to the same place as a reserve. 
The enemy continued to press his attack, a large number of 
guns being brought into action against us, and the 6th Cavalry 
Brigade deserve congratulating on their stubborn defence, 
in which they were assisted by the Greys and the 3rd 
Hussars on their left, and by the 4th Hussars on the right. 
Little change took place in the situation, and at dusk 
our line was taken over by the 4th Infantry Brigade 
(Lord Cavan). 

Oct. 31. Soon after 8 A.M. the division concentrated in 
the vicinity of Hooge, where it formed a mobile reserve to 
the ist Corps, under whose orders it had been placed. Zille- 
beke, where our Headquarters had been since the 22nd, came 
in for a heavy shelling before our transport had succeeded in 
clearing it. During this and the subsequent days the enemy 
succeeded in reducing it almost to ruins. Shortly after 9 A.M. 
a report from the Cavalry Corps that it was being heavily 
attacked caused the 7th Cavalry Brigade to be sent off to its 
assistance, and it remained until nightfall holding the line 
south of the canal near Hollebeke, in conjunction with the 
4th Hussars, when (leaving two squadrons in the trenches) 
it withdrew to Verbranden Molen. Meanwhile, a most deter- 
mined attack had been made against Gheluvelt, and portions 
of our infantry had been forced to retire. The 6th Cavalry 
Brigade accordingly occupied a line along the Veldhoek Road, 
ready to move up in support if necessary. Later in the after- 
noon it was found possible to withdraw this brigade, and 
employ it in assisting our infantry to clear the woods south 
of Hooge, where strong parties of the enemy had succeeded 
in penetrating. Dismounting under cover of the wood, the 
Brigade advanced rapidly, and had a short but most success- 
ful engagement, and drove the enemy back. A considerable 


number of Germans were killed and wounded, and only dark- 
ness prevented a more decisive success. From reports re- 
ceived from Army Headquarters, the general result of the 
day's operations was most satisfactory. The troops opposed 
to us would appear to be drawn from the 15th Corps, 2nd 
Bavarian Army Corps, and the 26th Division, whilst the 
cavalry originally operating against Zandvoorde had been 
replaced by infantry. 

Nov. i. On ist November the enemy resumed their 
attack against our line, and it was found necessary to send 
the 6th Cavalry Brigade to support the 2nd Infantry Brigade 
(General Bulfin) south of Hooge, the 7th subsequently moving 
up to Lord Cavan's support and prolonging the line up to 
Klein Zillebeke. The fight gradually died down, and both 
Brigades were able to withdraw to the neighbourhood of 
Hooge for the night. 

Nov. 2. The situation on the 2nd remained unchanged, 
and the attack against our line was resumed. About 1.30 P.M. 
the 7th Cavalry Brigade galloped up under a brisk shell fire 
to support a threatened attack near Veldhoek, but neither 
Brigade became seriously engaged, and at dusk they were 
withdrawn to Hooge and the farms south of it. During the 
next few days the situation continued to improve, and but 
little of material interest occurred. On the night of the 5th- 
6th, the 6th Cavalry Brigade took over part of the trenches 
from the 3rd Infantry Brigade, which had had a rough time 
during the preceding few days. 

Nov. 6. All went well until the afternoon of the 6th, when 
news was received that the French on Lord Cavan's right 
(between Klein Zillebeke and the canal) were falling back. 
The 7th Cavalry Brigade at once hurried up in support, 
General Kavanagh deployed the ist and 2nd Life Guards 
north of the Zillebeke-Klein Zillebeke Road, with the Blues 
in reserve behind the centre. His advance encouraged the 
French to resume the offensive, and all went well until near 
Klein Zillebeke, when the Brigade was halted to allow the 
French to reoccupy their trenches along the road running 
north-east from that place through the woods. Suddenly 
the French returned at a run, reporting an advance of the 
Germans in strength. General Kavanagh doubled a couple 
of squadrons across the road to endeavour to stem the rush, 

MILITARY I. 2 F 449 


and suffered a certain number of casualties in so doing. Con- 
siderable confusion ensued, and there was a mele*e of English, 
French, and Germans. The 7th Cavalry Brigade was obliged 
to retire some 150 yards to the reserve trenches before it 
could extricate itself. It occupied these trenches and pro- 
tected Lord Cavan's right until he was able, with the assist- 
ance of the 22nd Infantry Brigade, to re-establish his line, 
the ist Life Guards not being relieved until about 2 A.M. Lord 
Cavan reported that the Brigade had behaved in a most 
gallant manner, and that its prompt and vigorous action had 
saved what threatened to be a very critical situation. Both 
Sir John French and Sir Douglas Haig thanked General 
Kavanagh for the way in which the operation had been carried 
out. Our casualties were severe, amongst others, the com- 
manding officers of the 2nd Life Guards (Colonel H. Dawnay) 
and that of the Blues (Colonel Wilson) were both killed while 
leading their regiments, their gallantry being subsequently 
brought to the notice of the General Officer Commanding. 
It is satisfactory to know that the German casualties were 
very severe. 

Nov. 7. Lord Cavan, again assisted by the 7th Cavalry 
Brigade, counter-attacked the Germans at 5.30 A.M. the 
following day, and captured three machine-guns, but was 
unable to hold on to the forward line of trenches. From 8th 
November the 3rd Cavalry Division took over the right 
section of Lord Cavan's trenches with 500 rifles, and also 
furnished for him a local reserve of 300 rifles, who bivouacked 
in support trenches near his Headquarters. These men were 
all under his command. During the next few nights the 3rd 
Field Squadron, R.E., put in some excellent work improving 
and strengthening the trenches, and by day assisted the men 
to improvise shelters with hurdles, etc. 

Nov. ii. Little of interest occurred until the nth, when the 
line was heavily attacked by fresh troops, amongst whom were 
portions of the Guards Corps. With the exception of .a small 
portion of the line near the Polygon Wood, no ground was lost, 
and all attacks were beaten back with heavy loss to the enemy. 
The behaviour of our troops in this attack was recognised by 
the Commander-in-Chief in a complimentary telegram. 

Nov. 13. During the next few days there was little 
change in the situation, the enemy contenting themselves 


with shelling our trenches and the ground in rear. They had 
apparently been informed of the bivouac of the 6th Cavalry 
Brigade, for a sudden shrapnel fire on this area on the I3th 
resulted in 68 casualties amongst the horses ; luckily, only 
two or three men were hit. The arrival of the North Somerset 
and Leicestershire Yeomanry now permitted of arrangements 
being made whereby the Brigade not on duty could obtain 
more rest and all horses kept in a safer area. The Brigade 
on duty was normally to find 800 rifles for the trenches and 
Lord Cavan's reserve, and 400 as a corps reserve, accom- 
modated as far as possible in dug-outs in the railway cutting 
near Hooge. The other Brigade was to be kept as a mobile 
reserve, if possible west of Ypres. On the I5th, however, in 
order to. assist certain infantry units, which were reduced to 
skeleton battalions, the 6th Cavalry Brigade was obliged to 
take over an extra section of the trenches and find 1200 rifles. 
The corps reserve had therefore to be found by the 7th Cavalry 

Nov. 17. On the I7th our trenches were very heavily 
shelled, those occupied by the 3rd Dragoon Guards suffering 
in particular. The bombardment was succeeded by two 
distinct infantry attacks, the first at i P.M. and the second at 
4 P.M. Although the enemy succeeded in getting within a 
few yards of our trenches they were everywhere beaten back 
with heavy losses. The excellent conduct of the 6th Cavalry 
Brigade, and especially of the North Somerset Yeomanry, who 
were new to the game, called forth a congratulatory telegram 
from Sir Douglas Haig. On the night of the I7th the 7th 
Cavalry Brigade took over the trenches, which were again 
heavily shelled on the iSth-igth. 

Nov. 20. On the 2oth Headquarters, most of the divi- 
sional troops, and the 6th Cavalry Brigade, moved back 
to the vicinity of Hazebrouck, the remainder of the Division 
following on the 2ist, after handing over the trenches to the 

General Staff, ^rd Cavalry Division. 

HAZEBROUCK, 22nd November 1914. 




Times, The following account of the King's visit to his Army is 

Dec. 7, '14 given in the Court Circular : 

During the King's visit to his Army in the Field His 
Majesty was able to see practically all the -Troops except 
those actually in the trenches. 

The King visited the Headquarters of all the Army Corps 
and Divisional Commanders, and inspected the different 
Departments at the General Headquarters. 

His Majesty visited many of the Base Hospitals, Receiv- 
ing Hospitals, and Field Hospitals. 

The King was visited by the President of the French 
Republic and Monsieur Viviani, the Prime Minister of France, 
and also by General Joifre, Generalissimo of the Allied Forces. 

His Majesty received Gen. Foch and other French Generals, 
whose Commands are specially associated with the British 

The King visited the King and Queen of the Belgians, 
and conferred upon His Majesty the Order of the Garter. 

His Majesty conferred the Order of Merit upon Field- 
Marshal Sir John French. 

Colonel the Maharaja of Bikaner and Major-General Maha- 
raja Sir Pertab Singh, Regent of Jodhpur, Aides-de-Camp to 
the King, were in attendance upon His Majesty during the 

While in France the King conferred the Victoria Cross, 
Distinguished Service Orders, and Distinguished Conduct 
Medals upon a number of Officers, Non-Commissioned 
Officers, and Men. 



D^Ts 'i l am V6ry glad to have been able to see my Army in the 


I much wished to do so in order to gain a slight experience 
of the life you are leading. 

I wish I could have spoken to you all, to express my 
admiration of the splendid manner in which you have fought 
and are still fighting against a powerful and relentless 

By your discipline, pluck, and endurance, inspired by 
the indomitable regimental spirit, you have not only upheld 
the tradition of the British Army, but added fresh lustre to 
its history. 

I was particularly impressed by your soldierly, healthy, 
cheerful appearance. 

I cannot share in your trials, dangers, and successes ; but 
I can assure you of the proud confidence and gratitude of 
myself and of your fellow-countrymen. 

We follow you in our daily thoughts on your certain road 
to victory. GEORGE R.I. 

December 5, 1914, 
General Headquarters. 



This Brigade had very hard fighting and suffered especially Times, 
severe losses. It speaks highly for the soldierly spirit of Dec. 24, 
this Brigade that at the end of three weeks' continuous 
fighting, and very weak in officers and men, it was able to 
make a gallant and successful counter-attack against the 
enemy at a critical moment, retaking the enemy's trenches 
and capturing machine-guns. The Brigade at the close of the 
fighting before Ypres had only the brigadier-general, four com- 
batant regimental officers, and a little over 700 other ranks 
left. It thus fought itself to a standstill. 

1 [Major-General Sir Thompson Capper, K.C.B., D.S.O. He died of wounds 
September 27, 1915.] 




Sir John French recently paid the following tribute to the 
Cameron Highlanders : 

Times, ' Here in the trenches you have borne the burden and heat 

Jan. 14, '15 O f ^e day. The Cameron Highlanders are a regiment that I 
claim to have a particular interest in, as they formed the 
guard for my headquarters in the early days of the war. I 
could not help noticing what a magnificent body of men they 
were, and it was with a sore heart I subsequently heard of 
your losses. But I am sure if you are again called on you 
will respond in the same splendid spirit you have already 




His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to L.G., 
approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the under- Nov. 16/14 
mentioned Officers, Non-commissioned Officers and Men for 
their conspicuous bravery whilst serving with the Expedition- 
ary Force : 






Francis Octavus 

Douglas Reynolds 

Theodore Wright 

Corps, etc. 

9th Lancers . 

37th Battery, 
Royal Field 

Royal Engin- 

Action for which commended. 

For gallantry in action 
against unbroken infantry 
at Audregnies, Belgium,on 
24th August 1914, and for 
gallant conduct in assist- 
ing to save the guns of the 
iigth Battery, Royal Field 
Artillery, near Doubon, the 
same day. 

At Le Cateau, on 26th Aug- 
ust, he took up two teams 
and limbered up two guns 
under heavy Artillery and 
Infantry fire, and though 
the enemy was within 100 
yards he got one gun away 
safely. At Pisseloup, on 
9th September, he recon- 
noitred at close range, dis- 
covered a battery which 
was holding up the ad- 
vance, and silenced it. He 
was severely wounded i5th 
September 1914. 

Gallantry at Mons on 23rd 
August in attempting to 
connect up the lead to de- 
molish a bridge under 
heavy fire ; although 
wounded in the head he 
made a second attempt. 




Corps, etc. 

Action for which commended. 


Maurice James 

4th Battalion, 
The Royal 


Harry Sherwood 

Royal Army 
Medical Corps 

Battery Ser- 

George Thomas 

(Regtl. No. 12343) 
(Now 2nd Lieut.) 

L ' Battery, 
Royal Horse 


David Nelson . 
(Regtl. No. 34419) 
(Now 2nd Lieut.) 

L ' Battery, 
Royal Horse 


At Vailly, on i4th Sep- 
tember, he assisted the 
passage of 5th Cavalry 
Brigade over the pontoon 
bridge, and was mortally 
wounded whilst assisting 
wounded men into shelter. 

Though two or three times 
badly wounded he con- 
tinued to control the fire of 
his machine-guns -at Mons 
on 23rd August until all 
his men were shot. He 
died of his wounds. 

For tending wounded in the 
trenches under rifle and 
shrapnel fire at Haut- 
vesnes on igth September, 
and on 20th September 
continuing to attend to 
wounded after his thigh and 
leg had been, shattered. 

(He has since died of his 

For continuing to serve a 
gun until all the ammuni- 
tion was expended after 
all officers were killed or 
wounded, in spite of a 
concentrated fire from 
guns and machine-guns at 
a range of 600 yards, at 
Nery, on ist September. 

Helping to bring the guns 
into action under heavy 
fire at Nery on ist Sep- 
tember, and while severely 
wounded remaining with 
them until all the ammuni- 
tion was expended al- 
though he had been 
ordered to retire to cover. 




Corporal . 





Charles Ernest 

(Regtl. No. 7368) 

Charles Alfred 

(Regtl. No. 3976) 

John Henry 
Stephen Dim- 


William Fuller . 
(Regtl. No. 7753) 

Corps, etc. 

i5th Hussars 

57th Field Com- 
pany, Royal 

2nd Battalion, 
The King's 
Royal Rifle 

2nd Battalion, 
The Welsh 

Action for which commended. 

At Harmignies on 23rd 
August volunteered to cut 
wire under fire which en- 
abled his squadron to 
escape. At Dammartin 
he carried a man out of 
action. On 3rd Septem- 
ber, when under maxim 
fire, he extricated a ser- 
geant whose horse had 
been shot, and by opening 
fire for three minutes en- 
abled the sergeant to get 
away safely. 

For great gallantry at Jen- 
appes on 23rd August in 
working for i J hours under 
heavy fire in full view of 
the enemy, and in success- 
fully firing charges for the' 
demolition of a bridge. 

This officer served his L. G., 
machine-gun during the Nov. 19/14 
attack on the I2th Novem- 
ber at Klein Zillebeke 
until he had been shot 
five times three times 
by shrapnel and twice by 
bullets, and continued at 
his post until his gun was 

For conspicuous gallantry L.G., 
on I4th September, near Nov. 23, '14 
Chivy on the Aisne, by 
advancing about 100 yards 
to pick up Captain Hag- 
gard, who was mortally 
wounded, and carrying 
him back to cover under 
very heavy rifle and 
machine-gun fire. 




L.G., Private 

Nov. 25, '14 








Sidney ,. Frank 

(Regtl. No. 13814) 

Job Henry 
Charles Drain 

(Regtl. No. 

Frederick Luke 

(Regtl. No. 

Charles Allix 
Lavington Yate 

Frederick Wil- 
liam Holmes 
(Regtl. No. 9376) 

Edward Kinder 
Bradbury (de- 

Corps, etc. 

4th Battalion, 
The Royal 
Fusiliers (City 
of London 

37th Battery, 
Royal Field 

2nd Battalion, 
The King's 
Own (York- 
shire Light 

2nd Battalion, 
The King's 
Own (York- 
shire Light 

L ' Battery, 
Royal Horse 

Action for which commended. 

For coolness and gallantry 
in fighting his machine-gun 
under a hot fire for two 
hours after he had been 
wounded at Mons on 23rd 

At Le Cateau on 26th 
August, as volunteers, 
helping to save guns under 
fire from hostile infantry 
who were 100 yards away. 

Commanded one of the two 
Companies that remained 
to the end in the trenches 
at Le Cateau on 26th 
August, and, when all 
other officers were killed 
or wounded and ammuni- 
tion exhausted, led his 
nineteen survivors against 
the enemy in a charge in 
which he was severely 
wounded. He was picked 
up by the enemy and has 
subsequently died as a 
prisoner of war. 

At Le Cateau on 26th August 
carried a wounded man 
out of the trenches under 
heavy fire, and later as- 
sisted to drive a gun out 
of action by taking the 
place of a driver who had 
been wounded. 

For gallantry and ability 
in organising the defence 
of ' L ' Battery against 
heavy odds at Nery on 
ist September 




Captain . 





William Henry 

Ernest George 

(Now Sergeant) 
(Regtl. No. 42617) 

George Wilson . 
(Regtl. No. 9553) 

Darwan Sing 

(Regtl. No. 1909) 

Corps, etc. 

Royal En- 

ii3th Battery, 
Royal Field 

2nd Battalion, 
The Highland 
Light In- 

ist Battalion, 
39th Garhwal 

Action for which commended. 

At Missy on I4th September, 
under a heavy fire all day 
until 7 P.M., worked with 
his own hand two rafts 
bringing back wounded 
and returning with am- 
munition, thus enabling 
advanced Brigade to 
maintain its position 
across the river. 

For conspicuous gallantry 

on i5th September, near 

Vendresse, when his Bat- 
tery was in action under a 

heavy shell fire, in that, 

although twice wounded, 

he persisted on each occa- 
sion in returning to lay his 

gun after his wound had 

been dressed. 
For most conspicuous gal- L. G. t 

lantry on the I4th of Sep- Dec. 5, '14 

tember, near Verneuil, in 

attacking ahostile machine 

gun, accompanied by only 

one man. When the latter 

was killed, he went on 

alone, shot the officer and 

six men working the gun, 

which he captured. 

For great gallantry on the L.G., 
night of the 23rd-24th Dec. 7/14 
November, near Festu- 
bert, France, when the 
regiment was engaged in 
retaking and clearing the 
enemy out of our trenches, 
and, although wounded in 
two places in the head, 
and also in the arm, being 
one of the first to push 
round each successive tra- 
verse, in the face of severe 
fire from bombs and rifles 
at the closest range. 





Dec. 9, ' 





(Regtl. No. 4050) 


(Regtl. No. 8581) 

Frederick Wil- 
liam Dobson 
(Regtl. No. 6840) 

Corps, etc. 

i29th Duke of 
Own Baluchis 

ist Battalion, 
The East 

2nd Battalion, 

Action for which commended. 

On 3ist October 1914, at 
Hollebeke, Belgium, the 
British officer in charge of 
the detachment having 
been wounded, and the 
other gun put out of action 
by a shell, Sepoy Khu- 
dadad, though himself 
wounded, remained work- 
ing his gun until all the 
other five men of the gun 
detachment had been 

For conspicuous gallantry 
near Le Gheir on the night 
of the ist-2nd November, 
when, after his Officer, 
Platoon Sergeant, and Sec- 
tion Commander had been 
struck down, he took com- 
mand, and, with great 
presence of mind and cool- 
ness, succeeded in holding 
the position. Drummer 
Bent had previously dis- 
tinguished himself on two 
occasions, 22nd and 24th 
October, by bringing up 
ammunition under a heavy 
shell and rifle fire, and 
again on the 3rd Novem- 
ber, when he brought into 
cover s6me wounded men 
who were lying exposed in 
the open. 

For conspicuous gallantry 
at Chavanne (Aisne) on 
the 28th September, in 
bringing into cover on two 
occasions, under heavy fire, 
wounded men who were 
lying exposed in the 





James Leach 

John Hogan 
(Regtl. No. 9016) 



Walter Lorrain 

Corps, etc. 

Thomas Edward 

(Regtl. No. 7079) 

2nd Battalion, 
The High- 
land Light 

2nd Battalion, 
The Man- 
chester Regi- 

ist Battalion, 
The Duke of 
Light In- 

Action for which commended. 

For conspicuous gallantry L. G., 
near Becelaere on the nth Dec. 12, '14 
November, in clearing the 
enemy out of a portion of 
our trenches which they 
had succeeded in occupy- 
ing. Heading the charge, 
he bayoneted several of 
the enemy, and thereby 
relieved a dangerous situ- 
ation. As a result of Lieu- 
tenant Brodie's prompti- 
tude, 80 of the enemy 
were killed, and 51 taken 

For conspicuous bravery L. G., 
near Festubert on 29th Dec. 22/14 
October, when, after their 
trench had been taken by 
the Germans, and after 
two attempts at recapture 
had failed, they volun- 
tarily decided, on the after- 
noon of the same day, to 
recover the trench them- 
selves, and, working from 
traverse to traverse at 
close quarters with great 
bravery, they gradually 
succeeded in regaining 
possession, killing eight 
of the enemy, wounding 
two, and making sixteen 

For conspicuous bravery on L. G., 
the 20th November, near Jan. n, '15 
Wulverghem, when he 
attended to the wounded 
under very heavy shell 
and rifle fire, and rescued 
men from the trenches in 
which they had been 
buried by the blowing in 
of the parapets by the fire 
of the enemy's heavy 




(Official Translation) 

The Contracting Parties agree to abstain from the use of bullets 
which expand or flatten easily in the human body, such as bullets 
with a hard envelope which does not entirely cover, the core, or is 
pierced with incisions. 

The present Declaration is only binding for the Contracting Powers 
in the case of a war between two or more of them. 

It shall cease to be binding from the time when, in a war between 
the Contracting Powers, one of the belligerents is joined by a non- 
Contracting Power. 

The present Declaration shall be ratified as soon as possible. 

The ratifications shall be deposited at The Hague. 

A proems-verbal shall be drawn up on the receipt of each ratifica- 
tion, a copy of which, duly certified, shall be sent through the diplo- 
matic channel to all the Contracting Powers. 

The non-Signatory Powers may accede to the present Declaration. 
For this purpose they must make their accession known to the Con- 
tracting Powers by means of a written notification addressed to the 
Netherland Government, and by it communicated to all the other 
Contracting Powers. 

In the event of one of the High Contracting Parties denouncing 
the present Declaration, such denunciation shall not take effect until 
a year after the notification made in writing to the Netherland 
Government, and forthwith communicated by it to all the other Con- 
tracting Powers. 

This denunciation shall only affect the notifying Power. 

[This Declaration was signed by (among other Powers) Belgium, 
France, Greece, Montenegro, Rumania, Russia, Turkey, and Bulgaria. 

It was acceded to by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy on 
September 4, 1900 ; by Japan on October 6, 1900 ; by Serbia on 
May n, 1901 ; by Luxemburg on July 12, 1901 ; and by Great 
Britain on August 30, 1907.] 





(Official Translation) 

The Contracting Powers agree to abstain from the use of projec- 
tiles the object of which * is the diffusion of asphyxiating or deleteri- 
ous gases. 

The present Declaration is only binding, etc. [As in preceding 

[This Declaration was signed by (among other Powers) Belgium, 
France, Greece, Montenegro, Rumania, Russia, Turkey, and Bulgaria. 

It was acceded to by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy on 
September 4, 1900 ; by Japan on October 6, 1900 ; by Serbia on 
May n, 1901; by Luxemburg on July 12, 1901; and by Great 
Britain on August 30, 1907.] 





(Official Translation) 
CHAPTER I. -The Wounded and Sick. 


Officers and soldiers, and other persons officially attached to 
armies, shall be respected and taken care of when wounded or sick, 

1 [The English translation is inexact : it should read, c the sole object of which,' 
etc. The authoritative French text is as follows : ' Les Puissances Contractantes 
s'interdisent 1'emploi de projectiles qui ont pour but unique de rdpandre des gaz 
asphyxiants ou deleteres.'J 



by the belligerent in whose power they may be, without distinction 
of nationality. 

Nevertheless, a belligerent who is compelled to abandon sick or 
wounded to the enemy shall, as far as military exigencies permit, 
leave with them a portion of his medical personnel and material to 
contribute to the care of them. 


Except as regards the treatment to be provided for them in virtue 
of the preceding Article, the wounded and sick of an army who fall 
into the hands of the enemy are prisoners of war, and the general 
provisions of international law concerning prisoners are applicable 
to them. 

Belligerents are, however, free to arrange with one another such 
exceptions and mitigations with reference to sick and wounded 
prisoners as they may judge expedient ; in particular they will be at 
liberty to agree 

To restore to one another the wounded left on the field after a 
battle ; 

To repatriate any wounded and sick whom they do not wish 
to retain as prisoners, after rendering them fit for removal or after 
recovery ; 

To hand over to a neutral State, with the latter' s consent, the 
enemy's wounded and sick, to be interned by the neutral State until 
the end of hostilities. 


After each engagement the Commander in possession of the field 
shall take measures to search for the wounded, and to ensure protec- 
tion against pillage and maltreatment both for the wounded and for 
the dead. 

He shall arrange that a careful examination of the bodies is made 
before the dead are buried or cremated. 


As early as possible each belligerent shall send to the authorities 
of the country or army to which they belong the military identifica- 
tion marks or tokens found on the dead, and a nominal roll of the 
wounded or sick who have been collected by him. 

The belligerents shall keep each other mutually informed of any 
internments and changes, as well as of admissions into hospital and 
deaths among the wounded and sick in their hands. They shall 
collect all the articles of personal use, valuables, letters, etc., which 


are found on the field of battle or left by the wounded or sick who 
have died in the medical establishments or units, in order that such 
objects may be transmitted to the persons interested by the autho- 
rities of their own country. 


The competent military authority may appeal to the charitable 
zeal of the inhabitants to collect and take care of, under his direction, 
the wounded or sick of armies, granting to those who respond to the 
appeal special protection and certain immunities. 

CHAPTER II. Medical Units and Establishments. 

Mobile medical units (that is to say, those which are intended to 
accompany armies into the field) and the fixed establishments of the 
medical service shall be respected and protected by the belligerents. 


The protection to which medical units and establishments are 
entitled ceases if they are made use of to commit acts harmful to the 


The following facts are not considered to be of a nature to deprive 
a medical unit or establishment of the protection guaranteed by 
Article 6 : 

(1) That the personnel of the unit or of the establishment is armed, 
and that it uses its arms for its own defence or for that of the sick and 
wounded under its charge. 

(2) That in default of armed orderlies the unit or establishment is 
guarded by a piquet or by sentinels furnished with an authority in due 

(3) That weapons and cartridges taken from the wounded and not 
yet handed over to the proper department are found in the unit or 

CHAPTER III. Personnel. 

The personnel engaged exclusively in the collection, transport, and 
treatment of the wounded and the sick, as well as in the administration 



of medical units and establishments, and the Chaplains attached to 
armies, shall be respected and protected under all circumstances. If 
they fall into the hands of the enemy they shall not be treated as 
prisoners of war. 

These provisions apply to the guard of medical units and establish- 
ments under the circumstances indicated in Article 8 (2). 


The personnel of Voluntary Aid Societies, duly recognised and 
authorised by their Government, who may be employed in the medical 
units and establishments of armies, is placed on the same footing as the 
personnel referred to in the preceding Article, provided always that the 
first-mentioned personnel shall be subject to military law and regu- 

Each State shall notify to the other, either in time of peace or at 
the commencement of or during the course of hostilities, but in every 
case before actually employing them, the names of the Societies which 
it has authorised, under its responsibility, to render assistance to the 
regular medical service of its armies. 


A recognised Society of a neutral country can only afford the 
assistance of its medical personnel and units to a belligerent with 
the previous consent of its own Government and the authorisation of 
the belligerent concerned. 

A belligerent who accepts such assistance is bound to notify the 
fact to his adversary before making any use of it. 


The persons designated in Articles 9, 10, and n, after they have 
fallen into the hands of the enemy, shall continue to carry on their 
duties under his direction. 

When their assistance is no longer indispensable, they shall be 
sent back to their army or to their country, at such time and by such 
route as may be compatible with military exigencies. 

They shall then take with them such effects, instruments, arms, and 
horses as are their private property. 


The enemy shall secure to the persons mentioned in Article 9, 
while in his hands, the same allowances and the same pay as are granted 
to the persons holding the same rank in his own army. 


CHAPTER IV. Material. 

If mobile medical units fall into the hands of the enemy they shall 
retain their material, including their teams, irrespectively of the means 
of transport and the drivers employed. 

Nevertheless, the competent military authority shall be free to use 
the material for the treatment of the wounded and sick. It shall be 
restored under the conditions laid down for the medical personnel, and 
so far as possible at the same time. 


The buildings and material of fixed establishments remain subject 
to the laws of war, but may not be diverted from their purpose so long 
as they are necessary for the wounded and the sick. 

Nevertheless, the Commanders of troops in the field may dispose of 
them, in case of urgent military necessity, provided they make previous 
arrangements for the welfare of the wounded and sick who are found 


The material of Voluntary Aid Societies which are admitted to the 
privileges of the Convention, under the conditions laid down therein, 
is considered private property, and, as such, to be respected under all 
circumstances, saving only the right of requisition recognised for 
belligerents in accordance with the laws and customs of war. 

CHAPTER V. Convoys of Evacuation. 

Convoys of evacuation shall be treated like mobile medical units, 
subject to the following special provisions : 

(1) A belligerent intercepting a convoy may break it up if military 
exigencies demand, provided he takes charge of the sick and wounded 
who are in it. 

(2) In this case, the obligation to send back the medical personnel, 
provided for in Article 12, shall be extended to the whole of the military 
personnel detailed for the transport or the protection of the convoy, 
and furnished with an authority in due form to that effect. 

The obligation to restore the medical material, provided for in 
Article 14, shall apply to railway trains, and boats used in internal 
navigation, which are specially arranged for evacuations, as well as to 



the material belonging to the medical service for fitting up ordinary 
vehicles, trains, and boats. 

Military vehicles, other than those of the medical service, may be 
captured with their teams. 

The civilian personnel and the various means of transport obtained 
by requisition, including railway material and boats used for convoys, 
shall be subject to the general rules of international law. 

CHAPTER VI. The Distinctive Emblem. 

As a compliment to Switzerland, the heraldic emblem of the red 
cross on a white ground, formed by reversing the Federal colours, is 
retained as the emblem and distinctive sign of the medical service of 


With the permission of the competent military authority this 
emblem shall be shown on the flags and armlets (brassards), as well as 
on all the material belonging to the Medical Service. 


The personnel protected in pursuance of Articles 9 (paragraph i), 
10, and ii shall wear, fixed to the left arm, an armlet (brassard) with 
a red cross on a white ground, delivered and stamped by the competent 
military authority, and accompanied by a certificate of identity in the 
case of persons who are attached to the medical service of armies, but 
who have not a military uniform. 


The distinctive flag of the Convention shall only be hoisted over 
those medical units and establishments which are entitled to be re- 
spected under the Convention, and with the consent of the military 
authorities. It must be accompanied by the national flag of the 
belligerent to whom the unit or establishment belongs. 

Nevertheless, medical units which have fallen into the hands of the 
enemy, so long as they are in that situation, shall not fly any other flag 
than that of the Red Cross. 


The medical units belonging to neutral countries, which may be 
authorised to afford their services under the conditions laid down in 



Article n, shall fly, along with the flag of the Convention, the national 
flag of the belligerent to whose army they are attached. 

The provisions of the second paragraph of the preceding Article are 
applicable to them. 


The emblem of the red cross on a white ground, and the words ' Red 
Cross ' or ' Geneva Cross/ shall not be used, either in time of peace 
or in time of war, except to protect or to indicate the medical units 
and establishments and the personnel and material protected by the 

CHAPTER VII. Application and Carrying out of the Convention. 


The provisions of the present Convention are only binding upon the 
Contracting Powers in the case of war between two or more of them. 
These provisions shall cease to be binding from the moment when one 
of the belligerent Powers is not a party to the Convention. 


The Commanders-in-Chief of belligerent armies shall arrange the 
details for carrying out the preceding Articles, as well as for cases not 
provided for, in accordance with the instructions of their respective 
Governments and in conformity with the general principles of the 
present Convention. 


The Signatory Governments will take the necessary measures to 
instruct their troops, especially the personnel protected, in the pro- 
visions of the present Convention, and to bring them to the notice of 
the civil population. 

CHAPTER VIII. Prevention of Abuses and Infractions. 

The Signatory Governments, in countries the legislation of which 
is not at present adequate for the purpose, undertake to adopt or to 
propose to their legislative bodies such measures as may be necessary 
to prevent at all times the employment of the emblem or the name of 
Red Cross or Geneva Cross by private individuals or by Societies other 



than those which are entitled to do so under the present Convention, 
and in particular for commercial purposes as a trade-mark or trading 

The prohibition of the employment of the emblem or the names in 
question shall come into operation from the date fixed by each legisla- 
ture, and at the latest five years after the present Convention comes into 
force. From that date it shall no longer be lawful to adopt a trade- 
mark or trading mark contrary to this prohibition. 


The Signatory Governments also undertake to adopt, or to propose 
to their legislative bodies, should their military law be insufficient for 
the purpose, the measures necessary for the repression in time of war 
of individual acts of pillage and maltreatment of the wounded and sick 
of armies, as well as for the punishment, as an unlawful employment 
of military insignia, of the improper use of the Red Cross flag and 
armlet (brassard) by officers and soldiers or private individuals not 
protected by the present Convention. 

They shall communicate to one another, through the Swiss Federal 
Council, the provisions relative to these measures of repression at the 
latest within five years from the ratification of the present Convention. 

General Provisions. 

The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible. The 
ratifications shall bfe deposited at Berne. 

When each ratification is deposited a prods-verbal shall be drawn 
up, and a copy thereof certified as correct shall be forwarded through 
the diplomatic channel to all the Contracting Powers. 


The present Convention shall come into force for each Power six 
months after the date of the deposit of its ratification. 

ARTICLE 31. ^ 

The present Convention, duly ratified, shall replace the Conven- 
tion of the 22nd August 1864, in relations between the Contracting 
States. The Convention of 1864 remains in force between such of the 
parties who signed it who may not likewise ratify the present Conven- 




The present 'Convent! on may be signed until the 3ist December 
next by the Powers represented at the Conference which was opened 
at Geneva on the nth June 1906, as also by the Powers, not repre- 
sented at that Conference, which signed the Convention of 1864. 

Such of the aforesaid Powers as shall not have signed the present 
Convention by the 3ist December 1906, shall remain free to accede to 
it subsequently. They shall notify their accession by means of a 
written communication addressed to the Swiss Federal Council, and 
communicated by the latter to all the Contracting Powers. 

Other Powers may apply to accede in the same manner, but their 
request shall only take effect if within a period of one year from the 
notification of it to the Federal Council no objection to it reaches the 
Council from any of the Contracting Powers. 


Each of the Contracting Powers shall be at liberty to denounce the 
present Convention. The denunciation shall not take effect until one 
year after the written notification of it has reached the Swiss Federal 
Council. The Council shall immediately communicate the notifica- 
tion to all the other Contracting Parties. 

The denunciation shall only affect the Power which has notified it. 

[The following, among other Powers, signed the Convention : Great 
Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, 
Italy, Japan, Luxemburg, Montenegro, Rumania, Russia, and Serbia. 

Turkey acceded to the Convention on August 24, 1907, with the 
substitution of the emblem of the Red Crescent, instead of the Red 
Cross, for the protection of her own ambulances.] 



(Official Translation) 


The Contracting Powers recognise that hostilities between them 
must not commence without a previous and explicit warning, in the 

1 [This Convention is referred to as No. III. of the Instruments signed at the 
Second Peace Conference at The Hague.] 



form of either a declaration of war, giving reasons, or an ultimatum 
with a conditional declaration of war. 


The existence of a state of war must be notified to the neutral 
Powers without delay, and shall not be held to affect them until after 
the receipt of a notification, which may, however, be given by telegraph. 
Nevertheless, neutral Powers may not rely on the absence of notifica- 
tion if it be established beyond doubt that they were in fact aware of 
the existence of a state of war. 


Article I of the present Convention shall take effect in case of war 
between two or more of the Contracting Powers. 

Article 2 applies as between a belligerent Power which is a party to 
the Convention and neutral Powers which are also parties to the Con- 

[The remaining Articles are the same as Articles 5/09 of the 
Convention that follows.] 

[The following, among other Powers, signed this Convention : 
Great Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Bulgaria, 
France, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxemburg, Montenegro, Rumania, 
Russia, Serbia, and Turkey. It was ratified by Great Britain, Germany, 
Austria-Hungary, Belgium, France, Japan, Luxemburg, Rumania, and 



(Official Translation) 


The Contracting Powers shall issue instructions to their armed 
land forces which shall be in conformity with the Regulations respect- 
* [See ing the Laws and Customs of War on Land, annexed to the present 

p. 474] Convention. 2 


The provisions contained in the Regulations referred to in Article i, 
as well as in the present Convention, do not apply except between 

1 [This Convention is referred to as No. IV. of the Instruments signed at the 
Second Peace Conference at The Hague.] 


Contracting Powers, and then only if all the belligerents are parties to 
the Convention. 


A belligerent party which violates the provisions of the said Regu- 
lations shall, if the case demands, be liable to pay compensation. It 
shall be responsible for all acts committed by persons forming part 
of its armed forces. 


The present Convention, duly ratified, shall replace, as between 
the Contracting Powers, the Convention of the 2Qth July 1899, respect- 
ing the Laws and Customs of War on Land. 

The Convention of 1899 remains in force as between the Powers 
which signed it, but which do not ratify the present Convention. 


The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible. 

The ratifications shall be deposited at The Hague. 

The first deposit of ratifications shall be recorded in a Protocol 
signed by the Representatives of the Powers which take part therein 
and by the Netherland Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

The subsequent deposits of ratifications shall be made by means 
of a written notification, addressed to the Netherland Government 
and accompanied by the instrument of ratification. 

A duly certified copy of the Protocol relating to the first deposit 
of ratifications, of the notifications mentioned in the preceding para- 
graph, and of the instruments of ratification, shall be immediately 
sent by the Netherland Government, through the diplomatic channel, 
to the Powers invited to the Second Peace Conference, as well as to 
the other Powers which have acceded to the Convention. The said 
Government shall, in the cases contemplated in the preceding para- 
graph, inform them at the same time of the date on which it received 
the notification. 


Non-Signatory Powers may accede to the present Convention. 

A Power which desires to accede notifies its intention in writing to 
the Netherland Government, forwarding to it the act of accession, 
which shall be deposited in the archives of the said Government. 

The said Government shall immediately forward to all the other 
Powers a duly certified copy of the notification as well as of the act 
of accession, mentioning the date on which it received the notifi- 




The present Convention shall take effect, in the case of the Powers 
which were parties to the first deposit of ratifications, sixty days after 
the date of the Protocol recording such deposit, and, in the case of the 
Powers which shall ratify subsequently or which shall accede, sixty 
days after the notification of their ratification or of their accession 
has been received by the Netherland Government. 


In the event of one of the Contracting Powers wishing to denounce 
the present Convention, the denunciation shall be notified in writing 
to the Netherland Government, which shall immediately communicate 
a duly certified copy of the notification to all the other Powers, inform- 
ing them of the date on which it was received. 

The denunciation shall only operate in respect of the denouncing 
Power, and only on the expiry of one year after the notification has 
reached the Netherland Government. 


A register kept by the Netherland Ministry for Foreign Affairs shall 
record the date of the deposit of ratifications effected in virtue of 
Article 5, paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the date on which the noti- 
fications of accession (Article 6, paragraph 2) or of denunciation 
(Article 8, paragraph i) have been received. 

Each Contracting Power is entitled to have access to this register 
and to be supplied with duly certified extracts from it. 

Done at The Hague, the i8th October 1907, in a single original, 
which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Netherland Govern- 
ment, and of which duly certified copies shall be sent, through the 
diplomatic channel, to the Powers invited to the Second Peace 


CHAPTER I. The Status of Belligerent. 


The laws, rights, and duties of war apply not only to the army, 
but also to militia and volunteer corps fulfilling all the following 
conditions : 


(1) They must be commanded by a person responsible for his 
subordinates ; 

(2) They must have a fixed distinctive sign recognisable at a 
distance ; 

(3) They must carry arms openly ; and 

(4) They must conduct their operations in accordance with the 
laws and customs of war. 

In countries where militia or volunteer corps constitute the army, 
or form part of it, they are included under the denomination ' army.' 


The inhabitants of a territory not under occupation, who, on the 
approach of the enemy, spontaneously take up arms to resist the 
invading troops without having had time to organise themselves in 
accordance with Article i, shall be regarded as belligerents if they 
carry arms openly and if they respect the laws and customs of war. 


The armed forces of the belligerents may consist of combatants 
and non-combatants. In the case of capture by the enemy, both have 
the right to be treated as prisoners of war. 

CHAPTER II. Prisoners of War. 

Prisoners of war are in the power of the hostile Government, but 
not of the individuals or corps who capture them. 

They must be humanely treated. 

All their personal belongings, except arms, horses, and military 
papers, remain their property. 


Prisoners of war may be interned in a town, fortress, camp, or 
other place, and are bound not to go beyond certain fixed limits ; 
but they cannot be placed in confinement except' as an indispensable 
measure of safety, and only while the circumstances which necessitate 
the measure continue to exist. 


The State may employ the labour of prisoners of war, other than 
officers, according to their rank and capacity. The work shall not be 
excessive and shall have no connection with the operations of the war. 



Prisoners may be authorised to work for the public service, for 
private persons, or on their own account. 

Work done for the State is paid for at rates proportional to the 
work of a similar kind executed by soldiers of the national army, or, 
if there are no such rates in force, at rates proportional to the work 

When the work is for other branches of the public service or for 
private persons, the conditions are settled in agreement with the 
military authorities. 

The wages of the prisoners shall go towards improving their posi- 
tion, and the balance shall be paid them on their release, deductions 
on account of the cost of maintenance excepted. 


The Government into whose hands prisoners of war have fallen is 
charged with their maintenance. 

In default of special agreement between the belligerents, prisoners 
of war shall be treated as regards rations, quarters, and clothing on 
the same footing as the troops of the Government which captured 


Prisoners of war shall be subject to the laws, regulations, and 
orders in force in the army of the State in the power of which they 
are. Any act of insubordination justifies the adoption towards them 
of such measures of severity as may be considered necessary. 

Escaped prisoners who are retaken before being able to rejoin 
their own army, or. before leaving the territory occupied by the army 
which captured them, are liable to disciplinary punishment. 

Prisoners who, after succeeding in escaping, are again taken 
prisoners, are not liable to any punishment on account of their previous 


Every prisoner of war is bound to give, if questioned on the subject, 
his true name and rank, and if he infringes this rule, he is liable to 
have the advantages given to prisoners of his class curtailed. 


Prisoners of war may be set at liberty on parole if the laws of their 
country allow it, and, in such cases, they are bound, on their personal 
honour, scrupulously to fulfil, both towards their own Government 
and the Government by which they were made prisoners, the engage- 
ments they may have contracted. 

In such cases their own Government is bound neither to require of 
nor accept from them any service incompatible with the parole given. 



A prisoner of war cannot be compelled to accept his liberty on 
parole ; similarly the hostile Government is not obliged to accede to 
the request of a prisoner to be set at liberty on parole. 


Prisoners of war liberated on parole and recaptured bearing arms 
against the Government to which they had pledged their honour, or 
against the allies of that Government, forfeit their right to be treated 
as prisoners of war, and may be put on trial before the Courts. 


Individuals following an army without directly belonging to it, 
such as newspaper correspondents or reporters, sutlers or contractors, 
who fall into the enemy's hands and whom the latter thinks it ex- 
pedient to detain, are entitled to be treated as prisoners of war, pro- 
vided they are in possession of a certificate from the military authorities 
of the army which they were accompanying. 


A bureau for information relative to .prisoners of war is instituted 
at the commencement of hostilities in each of the belligerent States, 
and, when necessary, in neutral countries which have received bel- 
ligerents on their territory. The business of this bureau is to reply to 
all inquiries about the prisoners, to receive from the various services 
concerned full information respecting internments and transfers, 
releases on parole, exchanges, escapes, admissions into hospital, deaths, 
as well as all other information necessary to enable it to make out and 
keep up to date an individual return for each prisoner of war. The 
bureau must state in this return the regimental number, name and 
surname, age, place of origin, rank, unit, wounds, date and place of 
capture, internment, wounding, and death, as well as any observa- 
tions of a special character. The individual return shall be sent to the 
Government of the other belligerent after the conclusion of peace. 

It is also the business of the information bureau to gather and keep 
together all personal effects, valuables, letters, etc'., found on the field 
of battle or left by prisoners who have been released on parole, or 
exchanged, or who have escaped, or died in hospitals or ambulances, 
and to forward them to those concerned. 


Societies for the relief of prisoners of war, if properly constituted in 
accordance with the laws of their country and with the object of serving 



as the channel for charitable effort, shall receive from the belligerents, 
for themselves and their duly accredited agents, every facility for 
the efficient performance of their humane task within the bounds im- 
posed by military exigencies and administrative regulations. Repre- 
sentatives of these societies, when furnished with a personal permit 
by the military authorities, may, on giving an undertaking in writing 
to comply with all measures of order and police which they may have 
to issue, be admitted to the places of internment for the purpose of 
distributing relief, as also to the halting-places of repatriated prisoners. 


Information bureaux enjoy the privilege of free carriage. Letters, 
money orders, and valuables, as well as postal parcels, intended for 
prisoners of war, or despatched by them, shall be exempt from all postal 
charges in the countries of origin and destination, as well as in the 
countries they pass through. 

Presents and relief in kind for prisoners of war shall be admitted 
free of all import or other duties, as well as any payment for carriage 
by State railways. 


Officers taken prisoners shall receive the same rate of pay as officers 
of corresponding rank in the country where they are detained ; the 
amount shall be refunded by their own Government. 


Prisoners of war shall enjoy complete liberty in the exercise of their 
religion, including attendance at the services of their own Church, on 
the sole condition that they comply with the police regulations issued 
by the military authorities. 


The wills of prisoners of war are received or drawn up in the same 
way as for soldiers of the national army. 

The same rules shall be followed as regards documents concerning 
the certification of the death and also as to the burials of prisoners of 
war, due regard being paid to their grade and rank. 


After the conclusion of peace, the repatriation of prisoners of war 
shall be carried out as quickly as possible. 


CHAPTER III. The Sick and Wounded. 

The obligations of belligerents with regard to the sick and wounded 
are governed by the Geneva Convention. 


CHAPTER I. Means of Injuring the Enemy, Sieges, and Bombardments. 


Belligerents have not got an unlimited right as to the choice of means 
of injuring the enemy. 


In addition to the prohibitions provided by special Conventions, it 
is particularly forbidden : 

(a) To employ poison or poisoned weapons ; 

(b) To kill or wound by treachery individuals belonging to the 
hostile nation or army ; 

(c) To kill or wound an enemy who, having laid down his arms, or 
no longer having means of defence, has surrendered at discretion ; 

(d) To declare that no quarter will be given ; 

(e) To employ arms, projectiles, or material calculated to cause 
unnecessary suffering ; 

(/) To make improper use of a flag of truce, of the national flag, or 
of the military insignia and uniform of the enemy, as well as of the 
distinctive signs of the Geneva Convention ; 

(g) To destroy or seize enemy property, unless such destruction 
or seizure be imperatively demanded by the necessities of war ; 

(h) To declare abolished, suspended, or inadmissible the right of 
the subjects of the hostile party to institute legal proceedings. 

A belligerent is likewise forbidden to compel the subjects of the 
hostile party to take part in the operations of war directed against their 
own country, even if they were in the service of the belligerent before 
the commencement of the war. 


Ruses of war and the employment of measures necessary for 
obtaining information about the enemy and the country are considered 




The attack or bombardment, by^ny means whatever, of unde- 
fended towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings, is forbidden. 


The officer in command of an attacking force must do all in his 
power to warn the authorities before commencing a bombardment, 
except in cases of assault. 


In sieges and bombardments all necessary steps must be taken to 
spare, as far as possible, buildings dedicated to public worship, art, 
science, or charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospitals, and 
places where the sick and wounded are collected, provided they are 
not being used at the time for military purposes. 

It is the duty of the besieged to indicate such buildings or places 
by distinctive and visible signs, which shall be notified to the enemy 


The giving over to pillage of a town or place, even when taken by 
assault, is forbidden. 


A person can only be considered a spy when, acting clandestinely 
or on false pretences, he obtains or endeavours to obtain information 
in the zone of operations of a belligerent, with the intention of com- 
municating it to the hostile party. 

Accordingly, soldiers not wearing a disguise who have penetrated 
into the zone of operations of the hostile army, for the purpose of 
obtaining information, are not considered spies. Similarly, the follow- 
ing are not considered spies : Soldiers and civilians entrusted with the 
delivery of despatches intended either for their own army or for the 
enemy's army, and carrying out their mission openly. To this class 
likewise belong persons sent in balloons for the purpose of carrying 
despatches and, generally, of maintaining communications between 
the different parts of an army or a territory. 


A spy taken in the act shall not be punished without previous trial. 



A spy who, after rejoining the army to which he belongs, is sub- 
sequently captured by the enemy, is treated as a prisoner of war, and 
incurs no responsibility for his previous acts as a spy. 

CHAPTER III. Flags of Truce. 

A person is regarded as bearing a flag of truce who has been author- 
ised by one of the belligerents to enter into communication with the 
other, and who presents himself under a white flag. He is entitled to 
inviolability, as also the trumpeter, bugler or drummer, the flag-bearer, 
and the interpreter who might accompany him. 


The commander to whom a flag of truce is sent is not obliged in 
every case to receive it. 

He may take all steps necessary in order to prevent the envoy 
from taking advantage of his mission to obtain information. 

In case of abuse, he has the right temporarily to detain the envoy. 


The envoy loses his rights of inviolability if it is proved in a positive 
and incontestable manner that he has taken advantage of his privi- 
leged position to provoke or commit an act of treachery. 

CHAPTER IV. Capitulations. 

Capitulations agreed upon between the contracting parties must 
take into account the rules of military honour. 

Once settled, they must be scrupulously observed by both parties. 

CHAPTER V. Armistices. 

An armistice suspends military operations by mutual agreement 
between the belligerent parties. If its duration is not denned, the 
belligerent parties may resume operations at any time, provided always 
that the enemy is warned within the time agreed upon, in accordance 
with the terms of the armistice. 




An armistice may be general or local. The first suspends the entire 
military operations of the belligerent States ; the second between 
certain portions of the belligerent armies only and within a fixed zone. 


An armistice must be notified officially and in good time to the 
competent authorities and to the troops. Hostilities are suspended 
immediately after the notification, or at the time fixed. 


It rests with the contracting parties to settle, in the terms of the 
armistice, the relations which may be allowed in the theatre of war 
with, and between, the civil populations. 


Any serious violation of the armistice by one of the parties gives 
the other party the right of denouncing it, and even, in cases of urgency, 
of recommencing hostilities immediately. 


A violation of the terms of the armistice by individuals acting on 
their own initiative only entitles the injured party to demand the 
punishment of the offenders, and, if there is occasion for it, compen- 
sation for the losses sustained. 



Territory is considered occupied when actually placed under the 
authority of the hostile army. 

The occupation extends only to the territory where such authority 
has been established and is in a position to assert itself. 


The authority of the power of the State having passed de facto into 
the hands of the occupant, the latter shall do all in his power to restore, 
and ensure, as far as possible, public order and safety, respecting at 
the same time, unless absolutely prevented, the laws in force in the 




A belligerent is forbidden to compel the inhabitants of territory 
occupied by it to furnish information about the army of the other 
belligerent, or about its means of defence. 


It is forbidden to force the inhabitants of occupied territory to 
swear allegiance to the hostile Power. 


Family honour and rights, individual life, and private property, 
as well as religious convictions and worship, must be respected. 
Private property may not be confiscated. 

Pillage is expressly forbidden. 


If, in the territory occupied, the occupant collects the taxes, dues, 
and tolls payable to the State, he shall do so, as far as is possible, in 
accordance with the legal basis and assessment in force at the time, 
and shall in consequence be bound to defray the expenses of the ad- 
ministration of the occupied territory to the same extent as the national 
Government had been so bound. 


If, in addition to the taxes mentioned in the above Article, the 
occupant levies other money contributions in the occupied territory, 
they shall only be applied to the needs of the army or of the adminis- 
tration of the territory in question. 


No collective penalty, pecuniary or otherwise, shall be inflicted 
upon the population on account of the acts of individuals for which it 
cannot be regarded as collectively responsible. 


No contribution shall be collected except under a written order, 
and on the responsibility of a General in command. 

The collection of the said contribution shall only be effected in 



accordance, as far as is possible, with the legal basis and assessment 
of taxes in force at the time. 

For every contribution a receipt shall be given to the contributories. 


Requisitions in kind and services shall not be demanded from local 
authorities or inhabitants except for the needs of the army of occupation. 
They shall be in proportion to the resources of the country, and of such 
a nature as not to involve the inhabitants in the obligation of taking 
part in military operations against their own country. 

Such requisitions and services shall only be demanded on the 
authority of the Commander in the locality occupied. 

Contributions in kind shall as far as possible be paid for in ready 
money ; if not, a receipt shall be given, and the payment of the 
amount due shall be made as soon as possible. 


An army of occupation shall only take possession of cash, funds, 
and realisable securities which are strictly the property of the State, 
depots of arms, means of transport, stores and supplies, and, generally, 
all movable property belonging to the State which may be used for 
military operations. 

Except in cases governed by naval law, all appliances adapted for 
the transmission of news, or for the transport of persons or goods, 
whether on land, at sea, or in the air, depots of arms, and in general, 
all kinds of war material may be seized, even if they belong to private 
individuals, but they must be restored at the conclusion of peace, and 
indemnities must be paid for them. 


Submarine cables connecting an occupied territory with a neutral 
territory shall not be seized or destroyed except in the case of absolute 
necessity. They also must be restored at the conclusion of peace, and 
indemnities paid for them. 


The occupying State shall be regarded only as administrator and 
usufructuary of public buildings, landed property, forests, and agri- 
cultural undertakings belonging to the hostile State, and situated in 
the occupied country. It must safeguard the capital of such properties, 
and administer them in accordance with the rules of usufruct. 



The property of local authorities, as well as that of institutions 
dedicated to public worship, charity, education, and to science and art, 
even when State property, shall be treated as private property. 

Any seizure or destruction of, or wilful damage to, institutions of 
this character, historic monuments and works of science and art, is 
forbidden, and should be made the subject of legal proceedings. 

[The following, among other Powers, signed this Convention : 
Great Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Bulgaria, 
France, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxemburg, Montenegro, Rumania, 
Russia, Serbia, and Turkey. It was ratified by Great Britain, 
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, France, Japan, Luxemburg, 
Rumania, and Russia. 

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Montenegro, and Russia signed 
under reservations as to Article 44 of the annexed Regulations. Turkey 
signed under reservation of Article 3 of the Convention.] 



(Official Translation) 

The Contracting Powers agree to prohibit, for a period extending 
to the close of the Third Peace Conference, the discharge of pro- 
jectiles and explosives from balloons or by other new methods of 
a similar nature. 

The present Declaration is only binding on the Contracting 
Powers in case of war between two or more of them. 

It shall cease to be binding from the moment when, in a war 
between the Contracting Powers, one of the belligerents is joined by 
a non-Contracting Power. 

1 [This Declaration was not signed by France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Rumania, 
or Russia. 

It was signed, among others, by Austria- Hungary, Belgium, Bulgaria, Great 
Britain, Portugal, and Turkey.] 



Acland, F. D., M.P., reply to question in 

the House re dum-dum bullets, 203, 204. 
Aerial Navigation : 

British attack on Diisseldorf, 262. 

Declaration signed at The Hague, 1907, 
prohibiting discharge of projectiles 
and explosives from balloons, 485. 

French official note on, 261-2. 

Order by the Secretary of State, i . 
Agram, see under Austria-Hungary. 
Aisne, see under France. 
Aitken, Col. (temp. Brig.-Gen.) A. E., 

appointed temporary Major-General, 92 . 
Akaba, English bombardment, Sultan on, 

Albert, King of the Belgians : 

Congratulations from King George, 
Aug. 10, and reply, 296. 

Decoration by the Tsar with Cross of 
Knight of the Military Order of St. 
George, 303. 

Exchange of telegrams with King 
George after the battle of the Marne, 

Message from Gen. Joffre, 297. 

Message from King George after Zeppe- 
lin raid on Antwerp, 299-300. 

Messages to and from President Poin- 
care, 295-6, 301-2, 304. 

Proclamations to Army, 264-5, 267-8. 

Visited by the King, and Order of the 

Garter conferred on, 452. 
Albrecht, Duke of Wurtemberg, see 

Alderson, Ma j. -Gen. E. A. H., C.B. : 

Appointed Division Commander, 86. 

Appointed Lieutenant-General, 92. 
Alexander, Commander-in-Chief, H.R.H. 
Grown Prince of Serbia : 

Army Order to the Serbian Army, 

Exchange of telegrams with Presi- 
dent Poincare after the battle of the 
Marne, 302. 

Order for Dec. 17. 291-2. 

Alexander, Gommander-in-Chief, H.R.H. 
Crown Prince of Serbia (continued] : 

Orders of the Day, 288, 289-91. 

Proclamation, 282-4. 

Telegrams of congratulation to, on 

Serbian successes, and replies, 309-10. 

Alphonso, King of Spain, telegram from 

M. Poincare on death of Prince Maurice 

of Battenberg, 30*7-8. 
Algeria, proclamation of state of siege, 

Allenby, Maj.-Gen. E. H. H., G.B. : 

Appointed Army Corps Commander 
and temporary Lieutenant-General, 
86, 93. 

Mentioned for valuable services, 385. 

Operations under, 352, 354, 355-6, 358, 

371, 408, 421, 422. 
Alsace, proclamation to people of, by ( 

General Joffre, 246. 
D'Amade, General, assistance of British, 


Amiens, see under France. 
Anley, Lieut.-Col. F. G., operations under, 


Antwerp, see under Belgium. 
Armentieres, see under France. ^ 
von Armin, General Sixt, proclamation to 

the people of Brussels, 328. 
Asphyxiating Gases, declaration respect- 
ing, signed at The Hague, July 29, 1899. 

Asquith, Rt. Hon. H. H., M.P., P.O. : 

Replies to questions in the House : 
German atrocities, 148. 
Press Bureau, 146-7. 
Speeches : 

Debate on the address, 161-6. 

on supplementary Vote of credit for 

.225,000,000, Nov. 16. 167-80. 
on Vote of credit on supplementary 

army estimates, Aug. 6. 142-5. 
proposing Vote for additional 500,000 

men, Sept. 10. 149-54- 
Statement of British casualties, 166. 



Aubers, see under France. 
Audregnies, see under Belgium. 
Augagneur, M., French Minister of 

Marine, 306. 

Angus to vo, see under Poland. 
Austria-Hungary : 

Agram, introduction of martial law, 313. 
American attitude towards, Mr. Bryan 

on, 210. 
Army : 

General mobilisation Order, 315-16. 
Partial mobilisation, 313. 
Proclamation by the Emperor to, 

Proclamation to the Polish nation, 

Army Order, by Archduke Friedrich, 

Declaration of war on Russia, Russian 

Imperial manifesto on, 270-1. 
French declaration after declaration of 

war by, 1 1 . 
Government, Note Verbale in the 

matter of the Polish Legions, 214-15. 
Maria Theresa, Military Order of : 

Grand Cross, conferred on German 
Emperor, 325. 

Cross of Commander of, awarded to 
, General von Moltke, 325. 

Navy, proclamation by the Emperor to, 

Proclamation of the Grand Duke 

Nicholas to the peoples of, 275-6. 
State of war between Great Britain and, 

declaration, n. 
Autry, see under France. 

Babington, Col. (Hon. Maj.-Gen.) J. M., 
C.B., C.M.G., appointed Division Com- 
mander, and temporary Major-General, 

Backhouse, Commodore 0., mentioned in 
despatches, 436. 

Baeseler, Gen., proclamation to the people 
of Antwerp, 340. 

Bailleul, see under France. 

Baker, Harold Trevor, Member of the 
Army Council, 86. 

Baron, see under France. 

Barry, Lieut.-Col. Stanley, mentioned in 
despatches, 386. 

Battenberg : 

Princess Henry of, telegram from M. 
Poincar6 on death of Prince Maurice, 


Battenberg (continued) : 

Prince Maurice of, death, telegrams 

from M. Poincar6 to King George, 

Princess Henry of Battenberg, and 

the King of Spain, 307-8. 

Basra, capture of, references to, in House 

of Lords, 128, 131. 

Bavaria, Rupprecht, Crown Prince of : 325 
Army Orders, 342-3, 350-1. 
To his troops, 343. 
Bayer, , Commandant of Brussels, notice 

as to passes, 334. 

Beckett, Col. (Hon. Brig.-Gen.) C. E., C.B., 
appointed Division Commander, and 
temporary Brigadier-General, 88. 
Belfield, Lieut.-Gen. Sir H. E., K.C.B., 
D.S.O., appointed Director of Prisoners 
of War, 90. 

Belfort, see under France. 
Belgium : 
Antwerp : 

alleged Destruction of German pro- 
perty and ill-treatment of women 
and children by mob, 320. 
Evacuation, 430-1, 434-5. 
Operations of Marine and Naval 
Brigades round, Oct. 3 to 9 : 
Address issued by the First Lord 
of the Admiralty to the Naval 
Brigade after the fall of Antwerp, 

Admiralty announcement, 430-1. 
Despatch from Sir J. D. P. French, 

Despatch from Major-General A. 

Paris, C.B., 434-6. 
Questions by Mr. Bonar Law, 

Responsibility for, Mr. Asquith on, 

Proclamation by General Baeseler to 

people of, 340. 
Zeppelin attack, telegram from King 

George to King Albert, 299-300. 
Army : 

Proclamations to, by King Albert, 

264-5, 267-8. 

Testimony to, by Lord Curzon, 130. 
Testimony to, by Lord Kitchener, 

101, 126, 199. 
Audregnies, fighting at, 438. 
Beyne, German manifesto to inhabi- 
tants, 335-7. 
Binche : 

British demonstration against, 354. 


Belgium (continued) : 
Binche (continued) : 

British evacuation and German 

occupation, 353. 
Bois de Breux, German manifesto to 

inhabitants, 335-7. 
Brussels : 

Aldermanic Body, appeal to citizens, 


Commandant, see Bayer. 

French Consul at, see Lahure, Baron. 

French soldiers in, before declara- 
tion of war, denial of assertions, 

German Military Governor, see von 

Luettwitz, General : 
German notices : 
Belgian flags, 338. 
Passes, 334. 

Sale and distribution of news- 
papers, 334-5- 
German war levy, 338. 
Notices, German prohibition of pub- 
lication of, without special per- 
mission, 333. 

Order to the 4th German Army 
from, by Duke Albrecht of Wur- 
temberg, 340-2. 

Proclamations to the people of : 
von Armin, General Sixt, 328. 
Max, Burgomaster, 333. 
von der Goltz, Field-Marshal, 343. 
Chamber, message from Russian Duma, 


Civil population, alleged warfare by, 
German warning to Belgian Govern- 
ment, 320. 
Convention with, German offer and 

reply, 326. 

Erquelines, French armed troops at, 
July 24 : 

Belgian denial, 228-31. 
French denial, 232-3. 
Fleron, German manifesto to inhabit- 
ants, Sep. 8. 335-7. 
French response to appeal for aid, 
messages between King of the Bel- 
gians and President Poincare, 296. 
Frontier, French troops ordered not to 
approach within 2 kilos., Aug. 2. 

Germans in, calling up of, during July, 

German Governor-General, see von 

Bissing, General. 

Belgium (continued] : 

German Military Governor in, notice 

as to power of, 347-8. 
German ultimatum to, 225-6. 
Gheluvelt, fighting at, 416, 417, 418, 

419, 448. 
Government : 

Protest against German use of dum- 
dum bullets, 21 1 -i 2. 

Removal to Havre, 266-7, 34-7- 
Grivegnee, Commune of, Gejrman mani- 
festo to inhabitants, 335-7. 
Guerilla warfare, protest by German 

Emperor to President Wilson, 201 ; 

reply, 204-5. 

Hensay, German manifesto to inhabit- 
ants, 335-7. 

Hollebeke, fighting near, 421. 
Hooge, fighting near, 448, 449. 
Klein Zillebeke, fighting at, 425, 446, 

448, 449-5. 

Kruiseik, fighting at, 446. 
Kruiseik Hill recaptured, 416. 
Ledeghem, captured by British, 445. 
Le Gheir : 

Fighting at, 419, 420. 

German occupation, 419. 
Liege : 

Civilians, alleged warfare by, 320. 

Fall and occupation of, 265-6. 

French Consul at, see de la Barriere, 
M. Pallu. 

French soldiers at, end of July, and 
before Aug. 4, German accusations 
and French denial, 233-4. 

German war levy, 338. 

Interchange of notes between Ger- 
many and Belgium after capture 
of, 326. 

Legion of Honour conferred on, 295-6. 

Proclamation by Governor of, Aug. 4. 


Loan to, 169. 
Louvain : 

Destruction of, German Emperor on, 

German war levy, 338. 
Menin road, fighting on, 417, 418. 
Minister for Foreign Affairs, see Da- 

vignon, M. 
Minister of Justice, see Carton de 

Wiart, M. 

Minister at Berlin, see Beyens, Baron. 
Minister in Serbia, see de Velle, M. 




Belgium (continued) : 

Minister for War, see de Broqueville, 


Mons, British retreat from, 354-61 . 
Moorslede, fighting near, 445. 
Namur, alleged presence of French 

soldiers at, before Aug. 6, denial, 

Neutrality of : 

French and British plan to violate, 
Belgian and French denials, 239- 
French violations of, denials, 228-30, 

230-1, 232-8. 
German violation : 
Chancellor on, 229. 
Mr. Churchill on, 194-5. 
alleged Violation by French military 

aviators, 224 ; denial, 226. 
Ostend, migration of Government from, 

to Havre, 266-7, 34-7- 
Pilkem, fighting near, 414. 
Proclamation to the Belgian people by 

General von Emmich, 321-2. 
Rolleghemcappelle, captured by British, 


St. Yves, fighting near, 421. 
Soignies, British advanced squadrons at, 


Thielt, French aerial attack, 262. 

Veldhoek, fighting near, 449. 

Ypres, fighting at and near, 413, 417, 
424-5, 444. 

Ypres-Armentieres, battle of, 402-29. 

Zandvoorde, fighting at and near, 416, 
442, 446, 448. 

Zonnebeke, fighting at, 445. 
Belgrade (Belgrad), see under Serbia. 
von Below, Herr, interview with Baron 

van der Elst, Aug. 2. 229. 
Bent, Drummer S. J., award of Victoria 

Cross to, 460. 

von Bernhardi, General, denial of allega- 
tions by, of French and British plan to 

violate Belgian territory, 239-41. 
von Bethmann Hollweg, Dr., German 

Imperial Chancellor, accusations against 

British of using dum-dum bullets, 

Beyens, Baron, Belgian Minister at 

Berlin, interview with Herr von Jagow, 

Aug. 3. 229. 

Beyne, see under Belgium. 
Bidon, General, Commanding French 

Territorial Divisions, 413. 

Bikaner, Hon. Col. H.H. Sir Ganga Singh 
Bahadur, Maharaja of, G.G.S.I., 
G.C.I.E., A.D.C. : 

in Attendance on the King during visit 

to France, 452. 
Serving in France, 424. 
Binche, see under Belgium. 
Bisley, see under Great Britain. 
von Biasing, General, Governor-General 
in Belgium, notice as to powers of the 
military governor in Belgium, Dec. 3. 

Bobrinski, Count J., Military Governor- 
General of Eastern Galicia : 
Administrative order of, 278-9. 
Declaration in regard to appeal of 
Commander-in-Chief to the Poles, 

Speech, in the Viceroy's Palace, in reply 
to speech of President of Lemburg, 

Bois de Breux, see under Belgium. 
Boshkovitch, M., Serbian Minister in 
London, semi-official statement re opera- 
tions in Serbia, 288-9. 
Botha, General, message from Lord 

Kitchener, 19. 
Brabant, Province of, German war levy, 

Bradbury, Captain E. K., award of 

Victoria Cross to, 458. 
Braine, see under France. 
Bowater, T. Vansittart, Lord Mayor of 

London, notice to the citizens of 

London, 14. 

Bridges, Lieut.-Col. G. T. M., D.S.O., valu- 
able services during evacuation of 

Antwerp, 436. 
British Expeditionary Force : 

Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, 420. 

25th Artillery Brigade, 376. 

Blues, 449. 

Cameron Highlanders, 414, 454. 

Cavalry, work in the trenches, 382. 

ist Cavalry Brigade, 364, 371. 

2nd Cavalry Brigade, 355, 371 ; message 
from O.C., 438. 

3rd Cavalry Brigade, 363, 369, 371. 

4th Cavalry Brigade, 371. 

5th Cavalry Brigade, 35 2 '3> 363, 369. 

6th Cavalry Brigade, 418, 445, 446, 448, 

449, 45*- 

7th Cavalry Brigade, 425, 444, 445, 446, 
448, 449, 450, 451. 


British Expeditionary Force (continued) : 
ist Cavalry Division, 382, 408, 421, 422, 

2nd Cavalry Division, 402, 403-4, 408, 

412, 421, 422, 444, 446. 
3rd Cavalry Division, 403, 409, 410, 412, 
416, 421,425, 441, 450: 
Narrative of events, Oct. 6. to Nov. 

20. 443-51. 

Special Orders of the Day issued by 
Maj. -General the Hon. J. H. G. 
Byng, C.B., M.V.O., Nov. 23. 


6th Cavalry Division, 404. 
Coldstream Guards, 376. 
ist Corps, 353, 364, 369, 372, 373, 375, 

377> 378, 380, 383, 403, 410-1 1, 413-14, 

416, 417, 418. 
2nd Corps, 352, 354, 355, 358, 369, 377, 

381, 383, 403, 404, 405, 406. 
3rd Corps, 352, 364, 369, 371, 374, 406, 

407-8, 419-20. 

4th Corps, 410, 412, 413-14, 415. 
Cyclists of Signal Corps, testimony to 

work of, 427. 

Disembarkation in France, 245-6. 
7th Division, 409-10, 412, 418, 419: 

Order issued to, by Lieut.-Gen. 

Rawlinson, Nov. 23. 441-2. 
Dorset Regiment, 405. 
4th Dragoon Guards, 438. 
East Lancashire Regiment, 422-3. 
Gloucestershire Regiment, 381. 
Gordon Highlanders, 406. 
Greys, 448. 
4th Guards Brigade, 35 6 > 364* 373. 377 


Hampshire Regiment, 422-3. 
Headquarters, exchange of telegrams 

between President Poincare and King 

George after visit to, 303. 
Hertfordshire Territorial Battalion, 426, 


Honourable Artillery Company, 427. 
44th Howitzer Brigade, 377. 
3rd Hussars, 448. 
4th Hussars, 448. 
1 8th Hussars, 355, 368. 
Infantry, position, Mr. Asquith on, 


2nd Infantry Brigade, 376, 449. 
3rd Infantry Brigade, 414. 
4th Infantry Brigade, 448. 
5th Infantry Brigade, 373, 377. 
6th Infantry Brigade, 377. 

British Expeditionary Force (continued) : 
7th Infantry Brigade, 445, 449. 
8th Infantry Brigade, 406. 
9th Infantry Brigade, 405. 
nth Infantry Brigade, 421. 
1 2th Infantry Brigade, 374. 
1 6th Infantry Brigade, 420. 
1 8th Infantry Brigade, 406, 420. 
I9th Infantry Brigade, 355, 355-6, 374, 

406, 420. 

20 th Infantry Brigade, 446. 
22nd Infantry Brigade, 445-6, 450, 453. 
King's Own Regiment, 419. 
King's Royal Rifles, 376, 381, 414. 
Lord Kitchener's Instructions, 18-19. 
Lancashire Fusiliers, 419. 
9th Lancers, 355, 368. 
Leicestershire Regiment, 420. 
Leicestershire Yeomanry, 426, 427, 451. 
ist and 2nd Life Guards, 449. 
Lincolnshire Regiment, 405. 
London Scottish Territorial Battalion, 

422, 426, 427. 

Loyal North Lancashire Regiment, 376. 
Manchester Regiment, 406. 
Message from the King, 18. 
Middlesex Regiment, 406, 420. 
Northamptonshire Regiment, 376, 381, 

North Somerset Yeomanry, 426, 427, 

Northumberland Territorial Regiment, 


Operations : 
Information re : 
Mr. Asquith on, 164-6, 174-5. 
Lord Curzon on, 109-11, 131-2 ; 
reply by Marquess of Crewe, 116. 
Mr. Bonar Law on, 159-61. 
Statement by Lord Kitchener on 

position re, 128. 
to August 28. 352-62. 
Aug. 28 to Sept. 10. 362-70. 
Sept. 11-28. 371-86. 
Oct. i to Nov. 20. 402-29. 
Oxfordshire Yeomanry, 427. 
Queen's Bays, 371. 
Queen's Regiment, 381, 414. 
Queen's Westminster Battalion, T.F., 

Royal Artillery, testimony to, 3 8 3'4 

Royal Engineers : 

3rd Field Squadron, 450. 
Testimony to, 429. 



British*Expeditionary Force (continued) : 
34th Brigade R.F.A., 377. 
36th Brigade R.F.A., 377. 
42nd Brigade R.F.A., 418. 
Royal Flying Corps, testimony to work 

of, 361, 384. 
Royal Fusiliers, 405. 
Royal Irish Regiment, 405. 
Royal Scots Fusiliers, 417. 
Royal Sussex Regiment, 376. 
Royal West Kents, 406. 
Somerset Light Infantry, 421, 422-3. 
Territorials, testimony to, 427. 
Testimony to, by Lord Kitchener, 198, 


Thanks from General Joffre, 299, 300. 
Transport to France, 97, 352. 
Transport of, Mr. Asquith on, 151. 
Wiltshire Regiment, 406. 
Worcester Regiment, 406, 418, 419. 
Brodie, Lt. W. L., award of Victoria Cross 

to, 461. 
Brooke, Lieut.-Col. Lord, mentioned in 

despatches, 386. 
de Broqueville, Bar