(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Times documentary history of the war"

DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 
OF THE WAR 



VOL. X 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 
OF THE WAR 



VOLUME X 



OVERSEAS PART 2 




LONDON 

PRINTING HOUSE SQUARE 
1919 






Ttr 

v. 1 



PREFACE 

THE first of the volumes in the Overseas Division of The Times 
DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF THE WAR related exclusively to 
Cariada, and covered the period between the outbreak of the 
Great War and the departure for England, at the end of 
September 1914, of the First Canadian Contingent. In this, 
the second volume of the series, the activities during the 
same period of Newfoundland, Australia, and New Zealand 
are exhibited, but some documents similar to those included 
in the Canadian volume have been omitted. In the case of 
Newfoundland the important Report of the Governor, dated 
March 31, 1915, dealing with events between August 12, 
1914, and the end of March, 1915, has been included. 

In an Appendix will be found the Report of the Com- 
mittee of Imperial Defence upon a General Scheme of Defence 
for Australia, published in August, 1906 ; Lord Kitchener's 
Memorandum on the Defence of Australia of February 12, 
1910 ; the Memorandum by the Australian Chief of the General 
Staff and of the Commonwealth Section of the Imperial 
General Staff of July 8, 1910 ; the greater part of the Reports, 
dated respectively April 24, 1914, and June 4, 1914, of Sir 
Ian Hamilton on the Military Forces of Australia and New 
Zealand ; and lastly, part of Admiral Sir Reginald Hender- 
son's Recommendations of March i, 1911, in regard to the 
Naval Forces of Australia. By perusing these, and the 
documents relating to Australia anjd New Zealand, included 
in other volumes of the Documentary History, the reader 
will be able properly to appreciate the gigantic efforts made 
by Australia and New Zealand after the outbreak of the war. 
The Report of the Committee of Imperial Defence, also, 



vi PREFACE 

lucidly explains the British Naval Strategy in 1906, while 
the Memorandum of Lord Kitchener and the Reports of 
Sir Ian Hamilton are of peculiar interest because of the 
distinguished part played by their authors after hostilities 
had commenced. 



AUTHORITIES QUOTED 

A. . < * ; * 'Correspondence regarding the Naval and 

Military Assistance afforded to His Majesty's 
Government by His Majesty's Oversea 
Dominions/ 1914. [Cd. 7607.] 

B. . . . ' Correspondence relating to Gifts of Foodstuffs 

and other Supplies to His Majesty's Govern- 
ment from the Oversea Dominions and 
Colonies,' 1914. [Cd. 7608.] 

' Correspondence regarding Gifts from the Over- 
sea Dominions and Colonies/ 1914. [Cd. 

7646.] 



OVERSEAS 2. b vii 



CONTENTS 

NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR : 

PAGE 

MEMBERS OF SIR EDWARD MORRIS'S GOVERNMENT i 

CORRESPONDENCE WITH His MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT . . 2 

PROCLAMATIONS . . . .-.-..... . . . . 8 

PROCEEDINGS IN NEWFOUNDLAND LEGISLATURE ... 12 

OTHER SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, AND PUBLIC NOTICES . . 33 

REPORT OF THE NEWFOUNDLAND PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION . . 56 

AUSTRALIA: 

MEMBERS OF MR. COOK'S GOVERNMENT AND OF MR. FISHER'S 

GOVERNMENT 82 

CORRESPONDENCE WITH His MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT . . 83 

PROCLAMATIONS, ORDERS IN COUNCIL, AND PUBLIC NOTICES . 94 

SPEECHES AND STATEMENTS . 102 

AUSTRALIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE ..... 152 

NEW ZEALAND : 

MEMBERS OF MR. MASSEY'S GOVERNMENT .... 173 

CORRESPONDENCE WITH His MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT . . 174 
PROCLAMATIONS AND ORDERS IN COUNCIL . . . .181 

PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT .... 190 

OTHER SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, AND PUBLIC NOTICES . . 256 

NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE ..... 263 

APPENDIX 287 

INDEX . 493 



NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR 



GOVERNOR AND COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF : 

SIR WALTER EDWARD DAVIDSON, K.C.M.G., 

appointed October 1912 



THE MINISTRY 

AT THE OUTBREAK OF WAR 

Prime Minister, without Portfolio . Rt. Hon. SIR EDWARD P. MORRIS, 

P.C., K.C.M.G., K.C., LL.D. 1 

Colonial Secretary .... Hon. J. R. BENNETT. 

Minister of Justice . . . Hon. RICHARD A. SQUIRES, K.C. 

Minister of Finance and Customs . Hon. M. P. CASHIN. 

Minister of Agriculture and Mines . Hon. S. D. BLANDFORD. 

Leader of the Legislative Council . Hon. R. K. BISHOP. 

Without Portfolio . . . . Hon. C. H. EMERSON, K.C. 

Without Portfolio . . Hon. M. P. GIBBS, K.C. 

Without Portfolio . . . Hon. J. C. CROSBIE. 

NOT IN THE CABINET 

Minister of Public Works . . Mr. WILLIAM WOODFORD. 
Minister of Marine and Fisheries . Mr. A. W. PICCOTT. 

1 Now Lord Morris. 



OVERSEAS 2. 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH HIS MAJESTY'S 
GOVERNMENT 

NAVAL AND MILITARY ASSISTANCE OF 
NEWFOUNDLAND * 

No. i 

The Governor-General of Newfoundland, Sir W. E. Davidson, 
K.C.M.G., to the Rt. Hon. Lewis Harcourt, M.P., Secretary 
of State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) St. John's, Augusts, 1914. 

Authority is desired by my Ministers to enlist special men . 
service abroad by land and by sea. 

Ministers undertake to raise force of Naval Reserve by the 
3ist of October to thousand efficient available naval service 
abroad for one year, and are willing to meet all local expenses. 

Several hundred efficient local brigade training officers for 
enlistment for land service abroad. 

Five hundred could, I believe, be enlisted within one month. 

Propose to induce serviceable men between eighteen and 
thirty-six years enlist ; training home defence wherever corps 
instruction available. Material for further draft would be 
formed by these. DAVIDSON. 

No. 2 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor 
of Newfoundland 

(Cablegram.) London, August 8, 1914. 

St. John's Please inform your Ministers that the Dominions Royal 
Daily Commission will conclude its inquiry in the Canadian Maritime 
10/14. ^ Provinces, and then suspend its sittings. 

HARCOURT. 

1 [For convenience of reference the communications have been numbered.] 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH NEWFOUNDLAND 

No. 3 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor of 
Newfoundland 

(Cablegram.) London, August g, 1914. 

With reference to your telegram of 8th August, 1 His A. 
Majesty's Government gladly avail themselves of offer of your [See 
Government to raise troops for land service abroad. As P- 5 6 -] 
regards Naval Reserve, I will telegraph later. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 4 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor of 
Newfoundland 

(Cablegram.) London, August 12, 1914. 

Press Bureau has been established which will be responsible St. John's 
for the issue of official war news to the Press. We have Daily 
ascertained that Press agencies propose to supply Newfound- New , s > Au S- 
land Press with all news of importance or general interest. I4 ' I4 ' 
Any additional news which concerns your Government or is 
likely to affect their plans will, of course, be telegraphed to you 
by me. HARCOURT. 

No. 5 

The Governor of Newfoundland to the Secretary of State 
for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) St. John's, August 13, 1914. 

Am desired by the [Newfoundland] Board of Trade to St. John's 
telegraph as follows : Daily 

Information received that cod fish in casks, shipped from News, Aug. 
here via Liverpool through bill of lading to Spain, has been 22 ' I ^* 
stopped at Liverpool by Proclamation prohibiting export of 
food supplies. Does it mean that exportation of Newfoundland 
cod fish to Spain, Portugal, Italy, Brazil, and other neutral 
places will be prohibited, or does it mean that export food 
supplies via Great Britain prohibited ? If former is case, 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Colony will have no means of paying for food supplies from 
Canada and the United States, or articles manufactured by 
Great Britain. There is a large shipment awaiting Digby for 
Spain vid Liverpool. Of great importance in interests of 
trade that transhipment be allowed at once. Hitherto New- 
foundland cod fish has not been consumed in Great Britain 
to any extent, and, as it is perishable article, could not be 
held for any length of time. DAVIDSON. 

No. 6 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor of 
Newfoundland. 

(Cablegram.) London, August 14, 1914. 

A. My telegram gth August. 1 Lords Commissioners of Ad- 

miralty accept with gratitude offer of your Government to 
raise force of Naval Reserve to 1000. It has been already 
arranged to utilise part of reserve to complete H.M.S. Niobe, 
and additional numbers will be valuable for later requirements. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 7 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor of 

Newfoundland 

London, August 16 (circa), 1914. 

St. John's The accompanying message is a reply to one sent [August 
Daily ^ by His Excellency the Governor at the request of the 
p r i me Minister on behalf of the Board of Trade, who were 
anxious to know if the arrangements made by the British 
Government in relation to War Risk insurance, whereby the 
British Government guaranteed eighty per cent., applied to 
Colonial ships : 

' With reference to your telegram of the I4th August, 
Board of Trade states that a number of Colonial registered 
vessels have been already entered in one or other of the three 
approved associations, and it is therefore possible that New- 
foundland steamships referred to in your telegram have not 
applied to all three associations. If owners fail to obtain 

1 [No. 3.] 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH NEWFOUNDLAND 

admission to all three and particulars are furnished to the 
Board of Trade, the Board will institute inquiries to see if a 
solution can be found/ HARCOURT. 

No. 8 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor of 
Newfoundland 

(Cablegram.) London, August 21, 1914. 

With reference to your telegram ; Royal Naval Reserve Report of 
men not immediately required should be allowed to return Sir 
home. [HARCOURT.] 

No. 9 1915* p. 9- 

The Governor of Newfoundland to the Secretary of State 
for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) St. Johns, August 21, 1914. 

Newfoundland Regiment. Ministers desire to state A - 
Government of Newfoundland will meet total cost of con- 
tingent 500 men. They purpose leaving end September. 

DAVIDSON. 

No. 10 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor of 
Newfoundland 

(Cablegram.) London, August 21, 1914. 

With reference to your telegram of August 13, prohibition St. John's 
of exportation of fish from this country is now withdrawn. Daily 
No objection to exportation of Newfoundland fish to neutral News, 
countries. HARCOURT. 22 ' I 

No. ii 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor of 

Newfoundland 

(Cablegram.) London, August 24, 1914. 

Your telegram 2ist August. His Majesty's Government 
much appreciate offer of your Government to pay total cost of 
Newfoundland contingent, and desire that their thanks may 
be conveyed to your Ministers. HARCOURT. 

5 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

No. 12 

The Governor of Newfoundland to the Secretary of State for 

the Colonies 

Government House, 
St. John's, September 5, 1914. 

SIR, I have the honour to report that H.M.S. Niobe, 
Captain R. G. Corbett, has arrived this day at St. John's, and 
has completed her complement by embarking 100 men of the 
Newfoundland Royal Naval Reserve in terms of your 
telegraphic instructions (No. 13) of the 6th ult. 

I inspected the men before embarkation, and am of the 
opinion that I have never seen a finer body of seamen. They 
are all unmarried men, who tendered their services when 
volunteers were called for. H.M.S. Niobe left this evening. 

2. When the mobilisation order issued on August 2, some 
380 men reported themselves for duty on H.M.S. Calypso, 
Lieutenant-Commander A. MacDermott. A force of 35 men, 
in command of a warrant officer, was sent to take charge of the 
wireless station at Cape Race, and a body of 30 men was sent 
under the command of Mr. Carter, retired Lieutenant, R.N., 
who happens to be living on the west coasc, to take charge of 
the wireless station at Cape Ray. 

3. In compliance with telegraphic war series instructions 
from the Admiralty (Telegrams Nos.46 and 50 of 22-23 August), 
the remaining reservists were granted leave of absence to 
return to their homes at the public expense, with the exception 
of the draft required for H.M.S. Niobe and a reserve of 50 
retained on board H.M.S. Calypso, against possible eventu- 
alities. The order of the Admiralty was executed with 
promptitude, more especially because the fishing season is 
busy and the men can earn money in their fishing centres. 

4. The actual strength of the reservists on the roll of 
efficients was 565 at the date of mobilisation. Those who 
were unable to obey the order forthwith were employed on 
the Labrador Fishery and on deep sea voyages. Telegraphic 
communication with the Labrador coast is suspended, the 
wireless stations having been closed in terms of the censorship 
regulations, and has not yet been reopened. 

5. The offer made by my Ministers (contained in my 



. 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH NEWFOUNDLAND 

telegram of the 8th ult., and accepted by the Admiralty No. 31 
of the I4th idem), to raise the number of the Royal Naval 
Reservists from 600 to 1000 by October 31, has not yet been 
acted upon, because the fishermen of the northern outports, 
on whom we chiefly rely, have not yet returned from their 
fishing voyages. As the fishing season is unusually late, it is 
not unlikely that the recruiting of the full number may be 
correspondingly delayed. I have the honour to be, Sir, 
Your- obedient servant 

(Signed) [Sir] W. E. DAVIDSON. 
The Right Hon. Lewis Harcourt, M.P., 
etc., etc., etc. 

No. 13 

The Governor of Newfoundland to the Secretary of State 
for the Colonies 

St. Johns, September 9, 1914. 
My Ministers desire me to convey to His Majesty the St. John's 
grateful thanks of all in Newfoundland for the gracious 
message received last night. 1 Newfoundland is loyal to the 
core to King and Empire in this just quarrel. DAVIDSON. 

1 [See Overseas, i, pp. 3-5.] 



[AUf 



PROCLAMATIONS 

August 3, 1914. 

St. John's GEORGE THE FIFTH, by the Grace of God, of the United 
Daily Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the British 

News, Aug. Dominions beyond the Seas, King, Defender of the 
3> X 4' Faith, Emperor of India. 

W. E. DAVIDSON, Governor (L.S.). 

To all to whom these presents shall come, greeting : 
His Britannic Majesty's Government find themselves under 
the necessity of availing themselves of the power reserved 
under Article 8 of the International Telegraph Convention and 
Article 17 of the International Radio-Telegraph Convention to 
suspend the transmission of telegrams and radio-telegrams 
to and from or in transit through the United Kingdom, and 
to and from or in transit through all British Possessions and 
all British Protectorates whatsoever, save and except such 
telegrams and radio-telegrams as are on the service of His 
Majesty's Government or of the Government of any British 
Possession or Protectorate. 

With a view, however, to minimise inconvenience to the 
public, His Britannic Majesty's Government will, until further 
notice, and as an act of grace, permit the transmission of such 
telegrams and radio-telegrams in plain language as foreign 
governments or the public choose to send, provided that such 
telegrams and radio-telegrams are written in English or French 
and on the understanding that they are accepted at the sender's 
risk and subject to censorship by the British authorities ; 
that is that they may be stopped, delayed or otherwise dealt 
with in all respects at the discretion of those authorities and 
without notice to the senders ; and that no claims in respect of 
them, whether for the reimbursement of the sums paid for 
transmission or otherwise, will be considered by His Majesty's 
Government in any circumstances whatever. It is, moreover, 
essential that such telegrams and radio-telegrams should bear 
the sender's name at the end of the text, otherwise they are 
8 



NEWFOUNDLAND PROCLAMATIONS 

liable to be stopped until the name is notified by paid telegram. 
Registered abbreviated addresses will not be accepted, either 
as addresses or as the names of senders. 

Note. The term ' telegram ' is applied to radio-telegraph 
messages sent from shore to shore as well as to those sent by 
cable or land line. 

The term ' radio-telegram ' is used to denote messages 
exchanged between ships and the shore. 

Given under the Great Seal of Our Island of Newfoundland. 
Witness Our Trusty and Well-Beloved Sir Walter 
Edward Davidson, Knight Commander of the Most 
Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George, 
Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and over Our 
said Island of Newfoundland and its Dependencies, at 
St. John's, in Our said Island, this third day of August, 
A.D. 1914, and in the fourth year of Our Reign. 
By His Excellency's command. 

JOHN R. BENNETT, Colonial Secretary. 

August 5, 1914. 
PROCLAMATION. 

His Excellency, the Governor in Council, has been pleased St. John's 
to direct that the following Order in Council of His Majesty, Daily 
the King in Council, with reference to the application to this Ne s > Au S- 
Colony of the procedure respecting the treatment of neutral *' 
and enemy merchant ships in time of war, shall come into 
effect on the date hereof. 

JOHN R. BENNETT, Colonial Secretary. 

[The Order in Council will be found in Naval, i, pp. 20-4.] 

August 22, 1914. 

PROCLAMATION 

YOUR KING AND COUNTRY NEED You. 
Will You Answer Your Country's Call? 

At this very moment the Empire is engaged in the greatest St. John's 
war in the history of the world. Daily 

In this crisis your country calls on her young men to rally New t s ^ Ag- 
round her flag and enlist in the ranks of her army. 

9 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

If every patriotic young man answers her call, Great 
Britain and the Empire will emerge stronger and more united 
than ever. 

Newfoundland responds to theHomeland's call and promises 
to enlist, equip and despatch to England the first Newfound- 
land regiment of 500 strong. We want to send our best, and 
we believe that Britain's Oldest Colony will gain greater 
honour and glory for her Name. 

If -you are between nineteen and thirty-five years old, will 
you answer your country's call ? If you will, then go to the 
nearest magistrate and enrol your name for service in the 
fighting line. If you live in St. John's, go to the C.L.B. 1 
Armoury and enter your name at the Central Recruiting 
Office, on any evening between 8 P.M. and 10 P.M. 

Tickets to St. John's will be provided by the magistrate 
free of cost. 

The terms of enlistment are : To serve abroad for the 
duration of the war, but not exceeding one year. It is in- 
tended the men shall leave within one month of their enrol- 
ment, and that in the meantime they shall receive a course of 
instruction and training in St. John's. 

A complete outfit will be provided. 

Each private will receive pay at the rate of $1.00 per day 
and free rations, from the date of enrolment to the date of 
return, a portion of which will be paid to dependants left 
behind, or it will be allowed to accumulate for their personal 
benefit until termination of service. 

Volunteers from outports will be given free passage to 
St. John's. 

Any applicant for service, forwarded by the proper 
authorities and not accepted after arrival at headquarters, 
will be provided with a free passage and maintenance back 
to his home. 

September 29, 1914. 
PROCLAMATION 

Report of WHEREAS the British Empire is now at War with Germany 

Sir W. E. and Austria ; and Whereas, after consultation with the Heads 
* the var * ous Religious Denominations in this Colony, I deem 
p 42. ^ m eet and proper, and in keeping with the desire of our 

1 [Church Lads' Brigade.] 
10 



NEWFOUNDLAND PROCLAMATIONS 

people, that a special date be set apart as a day of Universal 
Prayer and Supplication to Almighty God for the protection 
of the British Empire and the success of the British Arms and 
Allied Forces, and for the blessings of an honourable and 
lasting Peace ; 

And Whereas I have ascertained from the Heads of the 
various Religious Denominations in this Colony that Sunday, 
the Eighteenth day of October next, would be a convenient 
day for such public prayers : 

Wherefore, I, the Governor, do hereby appoint and direct 
that Sunday, the Eighteenth day of October next, be observed 
throughout this Colony as a day of Universal Prayer and 
Supplication to Almighty God for the protection of the British 
Empire and for the success of the British Arms and Allied 
Forces, and for the blessings of an honourable and lasting 
Peace : 

And Whereas notice of this appointment may not be 
received in some of the remote settlements of the Colony before 
the said Eighteenth day of October ; 

Therefore I do further direct that in such cases such public 
devotions be observed on some other convenient day as early as 
possible after the receipt of this Proclamation as the various 
Clergy having jurisdiction in these remote settlements may 
respectively appoint. 



ii 



[SE] 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEWFOUNDLAND 
LEGISLATURE 

September 2, 1914. 
SPEECH FROM THE THRONE 

Mr. President and Honourable Gentlemen of the Legis- 
lative Council ; 

Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen of the Honourable House of 
Assembly : 

You are called together to-day under circumstances of 
unparalleled character. The European war, in which the 
Mother Country found herself compelled to engage, has 
occasioned such conditions that all the Overseas Dominions 
have felt it a pride and a privilege to tender her moral and 
material support. My Ministers promptly made undertak- 
ings on behalf of this Colony, for which you will be invited 
to provide. Other measures designed to cope with exceptional 
circumstances which may arise during the course of the war, 
will be submitted to your consideration. 



DEBATE ON ADDRESS IN LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL 

HON. EDGAR BOWRING rose to move the appointment of a 
Committee to draft an Address in reply. He approached the 
task with a full sense of the solemnity of the occasion. The 
session was an unusual one, the result of the present war, which 
it could not be too strongly emphasised had not been brought 
about by Britain until all possibilities of peace had been 
exhausted. That right was on our side the world admitted. 
Success must come, but to achieve it would call for great and 
mighty effort. Our patriotism was real, and demanded that 
a full share of support be given to the Mother Country, at least 
proportionate to that offered by the large dominions. Here 

12 



NEWFOUNDLAND LEGISLATURE 

we had enjoyed immunity from all war troubles. Few, if any, 
had ever seen a shot fired in anger. To Great Britain we owed 
our freedom. She had taken upon herself the burden of our 
protection, and even now the trade routes were safe. 

After reading an article from the Daily Telegraph, Mr. 
Bowring referred to the recent successful naval battle near 
Heligoland, the news of which had sent a thrill through all. 
The security which we enjoy had been the principal factor in 
the Colony's prosperity. Now the opportunity offered to 
make some small return. To give it was both a duty and a 
privilege ; to deny it would be a crowning disgrace. He 
rejoiced to know how rapidly volunteers were pouring in. St. 
John's alone was providing sufficient for the first contingent. 
The value of the brigades had been amply proven. Up to 
September 2, 688 had volunteered. Of these 174 were from 
the Catholic Cadet Corps, 130 from the Church Lads' Brigade, 
73 Methodist Guards, 47 Highlanders, 18 Frontiersmen, and 
54 had seen some service elsewhere. 

Reference was made to the splendid unanimity that had 
characterised other Parliaments, and some burning words of 
Sir Wilfrid Laurier and Donald Sutherland were quoted. The 
whole Empire was at one in its determination to for ever crush 
' the Imperial butcher who claims to have his licence from 
Almighty God/ 

A comparison was made of Newfoundland's proposals and 
those of other Dominions, and the proposed legislation was 
briefly reviewed. . . . 

HON. SAMUEL MILLEY seconded the motion, preceding his 
remarks with a welcome to the proposer, who was occupying 
his seat in the Council for the first time for many years. All 
were moved deeply by the conditions which now surrounded 
the Mother Country and the Empire, and words failed him to 
express the profound emotion that animated the breasts of 
Britons everywhere. He had been in London when the war 
broke out. It was impossible adequately to describe the 
conditions there between August 3 and 8. There was no sign 
of popular panic, but the financial situation beggared descrip- 
tion. Mr. Milley expressed his assurance that the legislature 
would gladly endorse all measures dealing with war expendi- 
tures. It was a matter of just pride that whole-hearted 
sympathy and support had come from all parts of the Empire 

13 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

and that unity was the dominant note. The four days' session 
of the Dominion Parliament was a proof of the genuineness of 
its loyalty. We can and we will send such help as it is in our 
power to give. Already 700 had volunteered, and he was sure 
that the people would be proud to undertake the expenses in 
connection with the first Newfoundland volunteer regiment in 
its fight for King and Country. No doubt we were called upon 
to pass through a period of strain and anxiety, but so long as 
Britain ruled the waves markets would be found. Prices 
must advance, but that was inevitable. Germany's beet crop 
supplied England, and that was lost now, and those who reaped 
it were under arms. Many English firms could no longer 
supply us, as they were compelled to hold their goods for 
the Imperial authorities. . . . Mr. Milley concluded a stirring 
peroration with the words ' Our Empire will, for she must, 
emerge victorious from the present contest/ 



DEBATE ON THE ADDRESS IN THE HOUSE OF 

ASSEMBLY 




MR. J . M. KENT, K.C. (Leader of the Opposition) : Mr. Speaker, 
before proceeding to deal with the subject which has brought 
us here this afternoon, I should like to extend my congratula- 
tions in no formal way, to the proposer and seconder of the 
address. We have heard both gentlemen on former occasions 
in this House, but never, I think, to such advantage as this 
afternoon. They have struck the true note which actuates the 
whole Empire, and which, I am sure, is entertained by every 
member of this House this afternoon the note of patriotism 
and the determination to stand shoulder to shoulder to meet 
the foreign foe which has made an uncalled-for attack upon the 
Empire of which we form a part. 

This extraordinary session, Mr. Speaker, has been rendered 
necessary by the general European war in which the British 
Empire has been forced to participate, not willingly, not until 
every effort within human power had been made to preserve 
the peace amongst nations, but at the last moment in order to 
vindicate its national honour, to maintain its treaty obligations 
and to preserve that trust between nation and nation without 
14 



NEWFOUNDLAND LEGISLATURE 

which the very foundations of civilisation would crumble and 
disappear, and the nations of the world again rush to that 
savagery and chaos from which centuries of civilisation have 
been -drawing them. 

The conditions produced by this war are such that they 
could not be anticipated ; some questions have arisen for 
which no precedent can be found ; and in order to solve these 
problems the responsible legislatures in every part of the 
Empire have been called together. Many questions arose 
with which it was urgently necessary that the Government 
should deal promptly and at once, and it was desirable to call 
the Legislature together at the earliest opportunity so that the 
necessary legislative sanction should be obtained. That has 
been done, and we are here to-day in order to sanction those 
measures and to provide that legislative authority without 
which their validity might be questioned, and also to pass such 
measures as may be necessary to make valid the acts which 
the Government may deem necessary to promulgate in order 
to carry out the undertakings which they have made. 

This, Sir, is not a time when we should think of Party 
differences. This is a time when our land calls for the united 
action of every one. In every country there are Party 
differences and political differences, but at a time like this 
these differences must stand aside, and all, whether they 
occupy seats on the Government side, or the Opposition side, 
must unite in order to bring forth the best results that can 
possibly be obtained from our deliberations in this House. 
And, Sir, speaking on behalf of those who sit on this side of the 
House, I want to say to the Government that, so long as 
hostilities continue, so long as the Empire is engaged with a 
foreign foe, you will find no criticism, no opposition from this 
side of the House. On the contrary, Sir, you find us ready in 
every direction, and by every means in our power, to assist in 
passing all measures that may be deemed necessary in the 
interests of the country and the Empire. 

The present situation, as I have said, Mr. Speaker, is un- 
precedented. It is unprecedented in many ways. But I think, 
Sir, that the characteristic which stands out most is the unity 
which it has evoked throughout the whole Empire ; and I am 
sure that there has been no sorer disappointment to the 
Emperor of Germany, and the military faction by which he is 

15 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

advised, than to find the different sections of the Empire come 
together as one man, sinking all their differences and standing 
shoulder to shoulder determined that no foe should strike at 
the great principles for which the British Empire has always 
stood and stands to-day. They thought they saw the Empire 
divided ; they thought they saw in the Homeland a division 
between Nationalists and Ulsterites, which must of necessity 
weaken the Empire ; but at the first sound of alarm these 
different sections came together, and gave to the enemy an 
illustration of what they might expect throughout the Empire. 
They thought they saw, Sir, throughout the larger Dominions, 
a growing desire for independence ; they saw discussions in 
Canada as to whether, when England was at war, Canada was 
at war, and they saw similar discussions in Australia and New 
Zealand ; but now they have found that these questions were 
purely academic, and that at the first sound of danger they 
vanished, and to-day one of the greatest surprises to those who 
stand opposed to the British Empire is the manner in which all 
sections stand together in the determination to fight this fight 
to a finish. 

After all, Mr. Speaker, the issues that are involved in this 
war don't affect the nations immediately concerned alone. 
They are broad issues. They are issues which, as I have said, 
go to the very foundation upon which civilisation is built. 
They include the right of the smaller nations to live in in- 
dependence just as much as the largest empire. Every 
nation has the right to independence, and every nation has the 
right to expect that other nations will maintain their pledged 
honour and their treaty obligations. At first it appeared that 
the exertions of the British Foreign Minister, Sir Edward Grey, 
were going to be successful in limiting the area of hostilities, 
but he was thwarted in this by the lust of conquest which 
filled the ruling powers of Germany. Belgium, a small nation, 
had its integrity guaranteed by the three great Powers of 
Europe, one of which was Germany, but instead of maintaining 
that integrity she was the first to violate it ; and, Sir, she 
made proposals to the Mother Country which any country 
should have been ashamed to make. She asked England to 
stand by and see the integrity of Belgium violated in spite of 
her plighted word. Sir Edward Grey and the British people 
rejected this unworthy proposal, but it was only at the last 
16 



NEWFOUNDLAND LEGISLATURE 

moment, when every hope of peace had been removed, that 
the Empire found itself embroiled in this fight. Now that we 
are in it, it behoves every part of the Empire to do all in its 
power so that we may come out so thoroughly victorious that 
when the war is over there will be no possibility of those 
principles of independence and freedom and democracy for 
which the fight is waged, ever being questioned again. 

We in this country are doing what is in our power to help 
the Motherland in her fight. The Government has under- 
taken to send forward 500 volunteers, and any person who has 
watched, during the last week or so, the manner in which our 
young men have come forward to enlist themselves must 
indeed feel proud of the city and country in which he lives. 
And the same spirit, Sir, actuates every other portion of the 
Empire. Take up the papers from England, from Ireland, 
from Scotland, from Canada, from Australia, from New Zealand 
and even from South Africa, against whom we were so lately 
arrayed in arms, and you will find the same spirit prevailing 
amongst the young men, and you will also find that the men 
who themselves are unable to go forward because of age or 
infirmity, are offering their sons to participate in the fight. 
We have here in this Legislature to-day men whose sons are 
volunteering to go to the front. I have on my right a gentle- 
man, Mr. Clift, the hon. member for Twillingate, who has 
two sons volunteering ; I see across from me the Prime 
Minister, whose stepson is going forward. And the Colonial 
Secretary has a son going forward. I don't know if there are 
any others in the House, but this is an example of the spirit 
which actuates all our young men of all classes. They are 
determined to see this thing through, and to give all the 
assistance in their power to the Motherland in the trials which 
are confronting her. 

There are other problems arising out of the war in which 
patriotism can be shown, just as by volunteering for the front. 
We will all have to face trials and troubles here. We will 
probably have hard times I hope not, but if the war is pro- 
longed we will have to prepare for it. Therefore, those upon 
whom the conduct of the business of this community falls, 
will have to take their share in helping along the people of the 
country in the trials that are before them. Men doing business 
in this country ought to be satisfied with a fair profit upon 

OVERSEAS 2. B 17 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

food-stuffs. It is unfair to the people of the country, unfair 
to the Empire it is treason, Sir, on the part of the man who 
takes advantage of the present critical position to extort from 
the people unfair profits. I don't say that there are any men 
of that class I don't know of any myself ; but I have heard 
talk along this line. I hope that this talk is not true, and if 
there are any who have heretofore, unthinkingly, made profits 
of this kind, I hope they will have the patriotism and the 
courage to come forward now and give these unlawful profits 
to the assistance of the cause in which we are all concerned. It 
is, I think, the desire of us all to encourage and help our 
neighbour as much as possible at this time. At present we 
don't see the real troubles and difficulties of war, but if it is 
prolonged, if it should go on for a year or more, then we will 
begin to realise what it means to have the Empire at war, its 
trade tied up, its young men out fighting the battles of Empire, 
and its whole business more or less interfered with. That has 
been the experience of war everywhere, and the gigantic nature 
of this war will only magnify that experience ; and therefore it 
behoves us to take courage from one another, and to maintain 
the spirit of those who may weaken in the face of those diffi- 
culties. One of the best ways of doing that is to act together 
and to consult together as to the best means of meeting those 
difficulties. . . . 

I do not intend, Mr. Speaker, to detain the House any 
longer. In conclusion I would like to say that we on this side 
of the House will do our part in everything that will lend itself 
towards the maintaining of the country, and the assisting of 
the Mother Country in the trials that now confront her. I am 
sure, Sir, that when the war is over, and victory has ultimately 
crowned the efforts of Great Britain and her Allies, that those 
principles for which she has fought the principle of honour 
among nations, the principle of mutual trust and confidence 
amongst nations, the principle of democracy (to explain what I 
mean by democracy I may contrast it with the autocratic rule 
which prevails in Germany), will be determined once and for all, 
and that the world throughout will have Government of the 
people, by the people, and for the people, and that such a 
system as prevails in Germany at the present time will be 
looked upon as an historical curiosity which lasted beyond its 
time. 
18 



NEWFOUNDLAND LEGISLATURE 

RT. HON. SIR E. P. MORRIS (Prime Minister) : Mr. Speaker, 
I desire in the first place to associate myself with the words of 
congratulation so very justly and appropriately conferred by 
my learned friend, the Leader of the Opposition, on the 
gentlemen who proposed and seconded the Address in reply 
to the Speech from the Throne this afternoon. In addition to 
congratulating them, I feel that I should tender to him, on my 
own behalf and on behalf of my friends on this side of the 
House, our united congratulations upon the splendid effort 
that he has just made an effort worthy of a great occasion. 
He has lifted himself and his associates this afternoon on to a 
very high plane. I congratulate him, and I feel certain that 
the future historian will devote a page to the principles which 
the Opposition in this Legislature have been actuated with on 
this opening day. And yet it is not altogether a surprise to 
me. I do not wish to speak of it in any exaggerated terms, 
feeling that I might be misunderstood, and that any persons 
might think that I did not expect such an act from the gentle- 
men who sit on the other side of the House. From my 
acquaintance with them, from my knowledge of them, I should 
never have contemplated any other action than that which 
they have shown here this evening. 

It is almost impossible on an occasion like this, not to say 
something in relation to the awe-inspiring position in which 
we find ourselves. Not alone here but all over the British 
Empire, and indeed all over the world, we are confronted with 
a spectacle the seriousness of which we have not yet been able 
to realise, and the consequences of which are so far-reaching 
that not one of us not even the principal actors in the great 
tragedy which is being enacted in Europe to-day can esti- 
mate them. We have no idea of measuring them ; we have 
no idea of where this war is going to end or how long it is going 
to last. The most we can do, Mr. Speaker, is to make a plain 
comment on the various phases of it as far as may lie in our 
power, to play our part. 

You have been told here this evening in very eloquent 
terms, by all the speakers who have preceded me, something 
of the causes of the great conflict in which the Empire is 
engaged, and with which we ourselves will shortly be personally 
and physically connected. You don't require from me any 
further explanation of the causes of the war. The Prime 

19 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Minister of England on more than one occasion has pointed 
out that no country ever went into a war for which there is 
greater moral justification, and every impartial country and 
every impartial individual has given the same verdict ; and 
the verdict of posterity as well as ours must be that if we did 
not go into this war we could not have continued to hold up 
our heads. The Leader of the Opposition has told you that 
we have been drawn into this war in defence of our treaty 
obligations. It would have been very easy indeed for us to 
have kept out of it if we had been prepared to break our 
solemn pledges. We were bound to protect the neutrality of 
the small kingdom of Belgium, and we owed certain obligations 
to our Allies, the French. At the very last moment we were 
tempted by the German representatives to betray that trust ; 
to permit them to go through Belgian territory. Any one who 
has read the White Book, any one who has read the momentous 
correspondence that took place between Sir Edward Grey, 
the British Foreign Minister, and the German representative, 
between the 2oth July and the 4th August, when war was 
declared, can come to no other conclusions than that from the 
very start Germany was determined to pick a quarrel. This 
was not news to some, because they have been satisfied for 
years that the intention of the Germans from the very start 
was to pick a quarrel, and the only regret to-day is that those 
who foresaw and pointed out that danger those who re- 
cognised that Germany was not building Dreadnought after 
Dreadnought and arming her people to the teeth for fun 
were not listened to. It was done in pursuit of a well-thought- 
out and definite policy, and to-day we are face to face with the 
result. To bring their plans to a head they weVe prepared to 
shipwreck the honesty and integrity of a whole Empire. 

The last words that the German Chancellor said to our 
representative in Berlin were : t It is hardly worth our while 
to fall out over a bit of paper ' ; and the reply of our repre- 
sentative was : ' Yes, it is only a bit of paper, but England's 
name is on it/ So that it is some consolation to us to know 
and to feel that this is a justifiable war ; that it is a war in 
defence of right and justice ; and that no matter how it may 
terminate we will have in that respect nothing to regret. 

My learned friend, the Leader of the Opposition, has 
referred to the united character of the British Empire to-day. 
20 



NEWFOUNDLAND LEGISLATURE 

The ranks have closed up in every land. We have an illustra- 
tion- of it here to-day, where we find the Opposition vying 
with the Government in a united effort to show an unbroken 
front. And I want to say that my learned friend did not wait 
until to-day. Days ago this proffered help and assistance was 
given by him to the Government, not alone for himself but 
for the gentlemen who sit behind him. And the moral effect of 
an act of this kind, not alone here but in every other part of the 
Empire in Canada, in Australia, in New Zealand, and else- 
where will be considerable. It will show the world, it will let 
the nations know and feel that there is no division in our ranks 
in the presence of the enemy. It is well that the German 
Emperor and those who are behind him should know that, as 
has been stated before, ' They who would reckon with England 
must reckon with England's sons/ The British Empire 
consists of an aggregation of States far flung dominions 
all over the world States in every sea and in every land and 
every continent and on every hemisphere but, although 
separated, brotherhood and kinship have annihilated space. 

We are met here to-day in extraordinary session of this 
Legislature in order that we may vote funds for those whom 
we are sending away to participate in this war, and in order 
that we may pass some necessary measures for the conduct of 
public affairs, for the protection of trade and all the other 
matters which may be necessary from time to time in order to 
lessen to some extent the trials and troubles and inconveniences 
and losses which are certain to follow from this war. We are 
only now beginning to realise that we are part of a great 
Empire. We have gone on for a. hundred years and taken 
everything as a matter of fact. We have enjoyed all the 
advantages and blessings and privileges of being part of the 
British Empire, and up to the present we have not been 
called upon for a dollar to help build a battleship or drill a 
soldier. We have been glad and gratified to claim the pro- 
tection of the British flag, to take advantage of British consuls 
and agents all over the world to assist in extending our trade. 
Now a blow has been struck at the whole Empire, and we 
realise to-day at least that of an Empire of 500,000,000 souls 
nearly one-third of the whole human race its entire defence 
has to be borne by 45,000,000 of people in the British Isles. 
We are at last beginning to awaken to a sense of our respon- 

21 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

sibilities. We begin to realise that if we are a part of a great 
Empire, an Empire that stands for civilisation, for civil liberty, 
for religious liberty, for everything that is dear and sacred to a 
Briton, there are corresponding responsibilities which have to 
be faced or else our Empire cannot live. Any one who has 
read history must know that all the great Empires Rome, 
Greece, Carthage, Egypt, Babylon have all fallen because 
they ceased to recognise their obligations. We cannot get 
away from obligations. Let us try to figure what would 
happen to every part of the Empire if by any accident which 
I don't think possible we should lose in this war. Civilisa- 
tion, our rights and liberties, all the freedom which we prize so 
much in this country and all over the Empire, would disap- 
pear. As my learned friend the Leader of the Opposition 
has told you, we would have to begin all over again. For that 
reason, Mr. Speaker, we are availing now of the very earliest 
opportunity to contribute our small share to* the defence 
of the Empire. There is no danger as far as England is con- 
cerned. There can be no invasion of England as long as our 
Navy remains over water. Our trade routes are free and open, 
and in that way there is no danger and no risk as far as we are 
concerned, but great danger may come to our Allies. Danger 
may come to France, danger may come to Russia, and it is for 
that reason that the whole British Empire to-day is uniting 
with the Motherland in sending men to the front to fill the gaps 
created by those who have already fallen. I am delighted 
beyond measure that our people are responding all over the 
country so splendidly in this matter. My only regret is that 
they are not better^ equipped that they have not had years of 
training to meet the men who have been trained for years and 
years. My learned friend has told you that this is a war 
between democracy and autocracy, and he is perfectly right, 
not in the ordinary acceptation of the words, but in this 
acceptation, that Democracy will come out of this war and 
ask Why are we suffering in this manner ? Why have we 
lost our sons ? Why have our homes been pillaged ? Why 
have our towns been burnt ? Why has our trade been 
ruined ? Why have we allowed half a dozen families to 
accomplish this ? And the whole world will rise up and say : 
This must not happen again. It would not happen to-day if 
we had an Army and a Navy adequate to meet every possible 
22 



NEWFOUNDLAND LEGISLATURE 

combination, and if we were able to say : Here we are, and we 
can stand against any possible combination that may be 
formed. When I have put this position to friends over in the 
old land during the last half a dozen years, I have been asked, 
Where is the money to come from ? There is no question 
about the money. All the money that can possibly be required 
is there. I said this to one man only last June (I was down 
in Chelsea outside London talking on this very question of 
Imperial Defence at a public meeting where there were nearly 
5000 people). I said our Navy is our national insurance, and 
the question is, Have we enough insurance on ? No man has a 
right to have a house unless he can keep it insured, because it 
may be gone when he gets home. The same thing applies to a 
nation, and we have no right to own the British Empire unless 
we keep it insured, and the only way to insure it is to have an 
Army and a Navy capable of meeting any possible com- 
bination. This friend of mine said to me, Where are you 
going to get the money ? Do you know that Lloyd George 
has just presented a Budget for 206,000,000, and that we are 
at the end of our taxation ? I said : Yes, I am aware of that ; I 
am aware that you spent 200,000,000 last year on your entire 
public service, but you also spent 180,000,000 on liquor, 
nearly half that amount on tobacco, and no one knows what 
you spent on golf and theatres and everything else. That 
was my reply. Well, now it is a case of getting down to defend 
the Empire. What we want now is for every man, woman, and 
child in Newfoundland to try and realise our obligation. Don't 
let any one think or feel that he is doing any great thing when 
he gives a small donation. He is only giving that which he is 
bound to give, and which he or those who went before him 
ought to have been giving for at least a hundred years. 

Now, Mr. Speaker, I want to thank my friends on the other 
side again for their very generous offer of co-operation as far as 
the measures that we propose to introduce this session are 
concerned. We recognise, of course, what their duties are as 
members of the Opposition ; we recognise their obligations, 
and we feel sure that the country will appreciate the work 
which they have commenced here to-day. 

Now, I think, I ought to refer briefly to two or three 
matters that are likely to come before the House, and for 
which the Legislature has been specially called together. 

23 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

In the first place, we propose to introduce an Act for the 
creation of a brigade or a volunteer corps. That will be a very 
short Act, and at the same time sufficiently comprehensive to 
deal with the present emergency. We are not in a position to 
state to the House just what the exact cost of this corps will be, 
but $250,000 will probably be the outside figure for all their 
expenses from the time of leaving here till they come back in 
seven or eight months. We are making provision on the 
assumption that they will be away for that period. I hope for 
the sake of all concerned that the war will be over before they 
ever leave here. I also hope, however, that if the war is pro- 
longed, we may be able to find additional recruits to offer for 
service in the event of their being required. We are giving the 
500 that will be leaving here" in a month or so the very best 
equipment. We are not sparing any money upon them. We 
are giving them the best guns, the best ammunition that can be 
procured, and the best outfit in the way of clothes; so that those 
interested in them may not have any regrets in that respect. 
That is all we can do. ... 

There are two or three Bills that will be introduced in 
relation to what I may term purely commercial matters, 
arising out of the war. As you know, in England at the out- 
break of the war, the British Government immediately, without 
any legislative authority, proclaimed by proclamation a 
moratorium. This provides for a delay in the payment of 
debts under certain contracts. They found it necessary to do 
that because of their wonderfully complex monetary system. 
Then when the House of Commons met, they brought in a 
Bill ratifying what they had done without previous legislation. 
Now in Canada, the other day, they took power, if occasion 
should arise, to proclaim a moratorium, but that will be a last 
resort, because a moratorium cannot be proclaimed for in- 
dividuals it must be done for the whole country, and a very 
serious condition of affairs would arise before we could resort 
to that. However, conditions may arise which would make it 
necessary, and we are going to take power so as to be able to 
deal with the matter. 

Another Bill is that referred to by the Leader of the 
Opposition in relation to the price of food. 

In England they have passed a Bill to prevent excessive 
charges being put on food-stuffs, and we are introducing that 
24 



NEWFOUNDLAND LEGISLATURE 

Bill here, so that, hereafter, if it is found that excessive prices 
are charged, the Government will be able to interfere and 
prevent it as much as possible. I may say, with my learned 
friend the Leader of the Opposition, that I have heard it stated 
that excessive prices are being charged. No concrete cases 
have been put before me, however, where prices have risen in 
this town except in proportion to the prices as they have gone 
up in the countries where the goods are purchased. There is 
no reason whatever why flour should be dearer in St. John's 
to-day than it is in Canada plus the cost of freight to bring it 
here. In other words, nothing would justify raising prices 
merely because we are in a state of war. We cannot, of course, 
get away from the natural commercial increase that takes 
place. In other words, if flour goes up in the States and 
Canada, we have to put it up here ; but if flour goes up half a 
dollar in Canada where it is purchased, then it must go up that 
amount here. If, however, it is found that in addition to that 
half dollar another twenty cents or forty cents is added, and 
that the war is being taken advantage of to take money out of 
the pockets of the poor, then we propose to deal with that. 

One other Act will be introduced which will probably be 
entitled War Measures, giving the Government certain powers 
in relation to any extraordinary circumstances that may arise. 
The details of that Bill will be of a character, I trust, which will 
commend themselves to the House. 

Now, Mr. Speaker, I don't know that I need delay the 
House any longer. The other Bills that is the Loan Bill to 
provide the cost of the volunteer movement, and also the 
legislation in relation to the tariff will probably be prepared 
within a day or two. It is an unfortunate thing that we should 
have to ask the House to increase the tariff in relation to some 
articles, but it is necessary that we should find revenue to carry 
on the Government in abnormal times such as the present. The 
public bills have to be paid ; our interest has to be met ; and 
we are now face to face with a position that will mean that 
within the next twelve months or up to the end of the next 
fiscal year on June 3oth, we shall probably have a very large 
deficit owing to the war. This is one of those accidents that it 
is impossible to provide against, and we shall have to put on a 
tariff that will enable us to collect sufficient money to pay our 
way during the year. I hope, however, that matters may 

25 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

look brighter as we go along, and that the taxation which will 
now be put on will be removed perhaps quicker than many of 
us anticipate. This taxation will be put on merely to deal 
with shortage in revenue and not to provide for any increased 
expenditure, except it be the increase in relation to the loan 
which we will submit to the House. 

September 4, 1914. 
DEBATE IN THE HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY 

SIR E. P. MORRIS (Prime Minister) introduced a new Bill 
dealing with the exportation of timber. The Bill was the 
result of considerable inquiries from the United Kingdom for 
colliery pitwood, which was in great demand there, and the 
supply of which from Norway was greatly hampered by the 
war conditions which exist in the North Sea. The Premier 
read one message which had been received by 'Hon. Edgar 
Bowring from Mr. Lorimer, one of the Imperial Com- 
missioners recently here, and intimated that Hon. John 
Harvey and others had received similar requests. The 
message to Mr. Bowring was as follows : 

Glasgow, September 3, 1914. 
To HON. EDGAR BOWRING, St. John's. 

Colliery pitwood most urgently wanted, z\ inch diameter 
thin end upwards. Great Britain must have supplies from 
December onwards. What can you do ? Wire me and 
President of Board of Trade. 

LORIMER, c/o Dubs, Glasgow. 

The Premier pointed out that it had been the settled policy 
of all Governments not to permit the exportation of pulp wood, 
but in the present case, in view of the emergent need in the Old 
Country and also of our people during the coming winter, the 
Government had decided to grant a licence for one year for the 
exportation of pulp wood, the licence not to extend beyond 
December 31, 1915 the licensee to pay an export duty of 
$i per cord and the Governor in Council reserving the right 
to prescribe the rate of wages to be paid men employed. 

MR. J. M. KENT, on behalf of the Opposition, from patriotic 
motives, consented to the Bill, but only on the understanding 
26 



NEWFOUNDLAND LEGISLATURE 

that it would not be enforced for more than one year. Sub- 
sequently it was agreed that the date of cutting should not be 
later than June i of next year, and the fine for a breach of the 
Act that is, exporting without (paying) licence and without 
paying duty was increased to $5000. The Opposition asked 
for the Committee stage to be deferred until to-day, as they had 
not had time to go thoroughly into the Bill. This was agreed 
to, and the Bill received only the first and second readings. 

HON. M. P. CASTIN (Minister of Finance and Customs) 
introduced the Bill for the raising of $250,000 to~ provide for the 
equipment, etc., of the volunteer force. This, he said, was the 
first war loan the Colony had ever been called upon to raise. 
Few thought when the House met early in the year that in a 
few months' time it would be summoned in war session. But 
the Empire had unexpectedly found itself at war, and, after 
considering how best it could help, the Government had offered 
a contingent of 500 men. This Bill was to pay the expenses 
of the contingent. This amount of $250,000 was a small con- 
tribution for us to make in return for the protection and help 
that had been accorded us since Newfoundland became a part 
of the Empire. The Minister referred to the spirit of loyalty 
that was to be found throughout the Colony, and paid a tribute 
to the city lads who so willingly and spontaneously responded to 
the call for volunteers. He also referred to the Outports, ex- 
pressing his confidence and belief that the same spirit wa's to be 
found there, but most of the young men were under agreement 
at the fishery and away from home, and were thus not in a 
position to respond so quickly. In addition there were not the 
brigades to draw from, but he was confident if further drafts 
were necessary the Outports would nobly respond. With 
regard to the loan, the Minister said it was not the intention to 
put the debentures on the market at once, but a temporary 
loan would be obtained from the local banks. 

MR. COAKER expressed his desire to facilitate the Govern- 
ment as far as possible in their war measures ; also expressed 
his loyalty, and explained his position in refusing to act on the 
Committee because he believed the meetings held were being 
used by the Government for party purposes. He congratu- 
lated St. John's on the splendid response to the call for 
volunteers, and concurred with the Minister of Finance that 
the Outports were loyal and would do their duty. 

27 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [SEI 

SIR E. P. MORRIS pointed out that there was an entire 
misapprehension with regard to the meetings for the pro- 
motion of the volunteer movement, that the Government were 
not behind them whatever, that they were public, and that he 
(the Premier) was not even on the Committee until appointed 
by the Nominating Committee, when every other member of the 
House was included. 

MR. F. J. MORRIS expressed his confidence in the spirit of 
enthusiastic loyalty which pervades the Outports. As a 
member of one of the Committees he knew what was taking 
place there, and of the response that was sure to come to the 
call of the country when the young men got home from the 
fishery. He realised, of course, that they were more fitted for 
the Naval Reserves, which branch of the service they would 
probably volunteer for. 

DR. LLOYD delivered a most patriotic speech on our obliga- 
tions and responsibilities. He believed a great many people 
yet failed to realise fully our obligations of Empire. The 
measure of our giving should be the measure of our obligations. 
He was glad something was being done to bear our share in the 
burden of Empire, was proud of the many who were offering for 
our contingent, and agreed with previous speakers that the 
Outports would do their share. Our fishermen were more 
suited for the Naval Reserve, but unfortunately they are not 
wanted on the sea the fighting is not being done there ; on 
the sea Britain is supreme. Her victory there has almost been 
a silent one, but it is effective. We did not feel the full effect 
of the war here, we were away from its devastating forces, but 
who paid for our peacefulness ? Ours was a gigantic debt to the 
Empire for what had been done for us during the past hundred 
years. In money it represented $70 a head simply for the 
building or making the Empire ; for keeping it up our share 
was $9. In men, if we were doing in proportion to what 
England is doing, our contingent to go forward should be 
5000 instead of 500. These figures he quoted only to show 
just what our obligations were, and what we should try to 
measure up to. He would gladly give his support to the Bill, 
and if more were asked for the same purpose would gladly 
assent to it. 

The Loan Bill then passed its various stages, and the time 
being 6.30 the Speaker left the chair till 8 o'clock. 
28 



NEWFOUNDLAND LEGISLATURE 

Resuming, at the last-named hour, the first business, the 
'War Budget/ was delivered by the Minister of Finance. 

MR. KENT said the statement of the Mfnister was of an 
extraordinary character, prepared to meet an extraordinary 
situation. He defined the position of the Opposition as 
continually opposed to the financial policy of the Government. 
This opposition was on record, and he believed their opinions 
had been duly amplified and justified. At the present time the 
Opposition were prepared to assist the Government in all 
matters directly due to the war. He would not admit, 
however, that all the conditions referred to by the Minister 
were due entirely to the war. He believed the Colony had 
been over-spending and was left without normal reserves. But 
he would not stop now to distinguish them. This was not 
the session for that when the House meets early in the 
coming year there would be ample opportunity for criticism. 
He would not dispute that war affected the trade conditions. 
That was patent to everybody, and so long as the war existed 
this must continue. The Belle Isle tax was also a source of 
revenue that was purely affected by the war. But there was 
another side to the statement, and he hoped that in their 
expenditure the Government would be strictly economical 
and that every department would be searched for retrench- 
ment. He hoped the extra taxation which was necessary to 
meet present contingencies would be removed as quickly as 
possible. 

SIR E. P. MORRIS replied to one or two points made by the 
Leader of the Opposition. He desired to put himself on record 
as stating that all obligations undertaken by the Opposition 
had been more than lived up to, and they had been very 
generous in their dealing with the Government. Referring to 
Mr. Kent's statement that the Opposition continuously con- 
demned the financial policy of the Government, he said that 
he was still ready, and when the time came would be fully 
prepared, to defend the Government's policy. The public 
accounts had been thoroughly ventilated, and he was prepared 
to justify every expenditure. The affairs of the Colony were 
conducted now on as sound commercial and economical 
principles as by any previous Government. Every year 
except last, there had been surpluses from a tariff for which 
this Government was in no way responsible but which had 

29 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

been introduced by a previous administration. Last year, in 
accordance with a pledge to the country, the duty was taken 
off certain articles of food, but despite that he had no doubt 
if conditions had continued normal another surplus would 
have been obtained. Unfortunately, the great money strin- 
gency which was felt all over the world had its effect here, and 
as a result there was no development ; indeed retrench- 
ment in some of the large enterprises took place. The Govern- 
ment had spent large sums of money, it was true, but the 
revenues justified the expenditure and the country demanded 
it. All the money had gone in giving new and better ser- 
vices to the country lighthouses, schoolhouses, better roads, 
marine works, education, etc. indeed, the Government had 
to do what should have been done fifty years before. He, 
however, believed that things were not nearly so bad as some 
people liked to picture them. Our people had large invest- 
ments and prepared for the rainy day, and he locked forward 
to an early return of prosperous times. The fishery might be 
considered a normal one, and when the difficulties of exchange 
which now presented themselves were obviated, he believed 
there would be good markets for our fish and the high price 
would to some extent make up for the shortage. He saw no 
reason to despair. He believed that a very great develop- 
ment would take place here when conditions became normal. 
The Government is even now considering a huge contract with 
a company which wishes to use our great lime properties for 
fertiliser purposes. He would not continue the discussion any 
further, however, as there would be opportunity to defend the 
Government's polity during the regular session next year. 

MR. COAKER associated himself with the position taken by 
Mr. Kent, and asked for retrenchment in the Civil Service. 
Revenue was necessary to meet our obligations, and if his party 
had been in power, he said, they would have to do the same 
thing. 

September 7, 1914. 
PROROGATION 

Assent was given by the Governor of Newfoundland in His 
Majesty's name to the following Bills : 

i. An Act respecting Inquiries into Matters of Public 
Importance. 
30 



NEWFOUNDLAND LEGISLATURE 

2. An Act to enable the Governor-in- Council during the 
existence of a State of War, to take possession of food-stuffs 
unreasonably withheld. 

3. An Act respecting the Provision of Wireless Telegraphy 
on Steamers engaged in the Trade of the Colony. 

4. An Act to confer certain powers upon the Governor-in- 
Council. 

5. An Act respecting a Volunteer Force in this Colony. 

6. An Act respecting the Exportation of Timber. 

7. An Act to authorise the Governor-in- Council to raise a 
Temporary Loan in certain cases. 

8. An Act for raising a sum of Money by Loan for the 
maintenance and equipment of a Volunteer Force. 

9. An Act to increase the Revenue by the imposition of 
certain duties on the Estates of Deceased Persons. 

10. An Act further to amend the Revenue Act 1905. 

11. An Act to conserve the Commercial and Financial 
Interests of the Colony. 

12. An Act respecting Stamp Duties. 

SPEECH FROM THE THRONE 

Mr. President and Honourable Gentlemen of the Legis- 
lative Council : 

Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen of the Honourable House of 
Assembly : 

I thank you for the speedy and eifective manner in which 
you have dealt with the various matters submitted to you. I 
earnestly trust the duration of the war may be so brief as to 
render it unnecessary to invoke the aid of some of these wise 
measures, though they have been all framed with a view to 
stabilitate the country and the Empire of which we are a part. 
It has been a special gratification to me to observe the splendid 
unanimity existing among your members. The example thus 
set cannot but be of great value, not alone for our own people 
in the period of trial which confronts us, but to the whole 
Empire, as further evidence of the unity of the British 
Dominions. 

Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen of the Hon. House of Assembly : 

I thank you for the appropriations you have made, not 
alone to cover our defence contribution, but for the maintenance 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [SE 

of the Public Service, as the impairment of the provision 
previously assured is so seriously threatened by the war. 

Mr. President and Honourable Gentlemen of the Legislative 
Council : 

Mr. Speaker and Gentlemen of the Honourable House of 
Assembly : 

In relieving you from further attendance upon a session 
which, though short, must at this season have greatly in- 
convenienced many of you, I fervently trust that Divine 
Providence may ever guide you and all upon whom rests the 
responsibility of directing the affairs of our Empire and en- 
suring the peace and happiness of those who dwell therein. I 
further hope that before we meet again victory will crown the 
arms of Great Britain and her Allies. 



OTHER SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, AND 
PUBLIC NOTICES 

July 31, 1914. 

Yesterday afternoon Mr. George M. Barr received the St. John's 
accompanying message from his Liverpool agents : ^ atl y 

' Stop buying lobsters ; developments justify now. If war Al ^ s ' x I4 
is declared, Germany and all other European powers will be 
involved. Not possible to insure, blockade and development 
of affairs will cause complete stoppage of trade. Insure 
against war risks all your fish shipments. Telegraph particulars 
of goods on passage to Continent. Discontinue shipping till 
insurance has been effected on shipments. Await instructions 
before proceeding further. German bankers have withdrawn 
banking facilities owing to the existing conditions. Germany 
and Russia are principal markets and war now looked on as 
inevitable. Impossible to carry shipment into North Sea ports 
or to obtain banking facilities. Outlook for lobster trade very 
bad/ 

August 2, 1914. 

NOTICE TO ROYAL NAVAL RESERVE 

Early yesterday morning, Commander MacDermott of St. John's 
H.M.S. Calypso was apprised that the Admiralty had issued D <*My 
an order calling the Royal Naval Reserves to active duty, and News, ^ 
was instructed to put the order in force here forthwith. . . . 

The order posted about the city, and as issued by the 
Admiralty, reads as follows : 

Special Admiralty Order Mobilisation of Royal Naval 
Reserve Men called out for service in the Royal Navy. 

His Majesty the King having issued his proclamation 
ordering and directing that Royal Naval Volunteers (commonly 
known as the Royal Naval Reserve) under the Royal Naval 
Reserve Act 1859, or so many or such part of them as the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty may direct, be called into 

OVERSEAS 2. C 33 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

active service. Notice is hereby given that the men in the 
Newfoundland Royal Naval Reserve are required to report 
themselves in person forthwith on board His Majesty's ship 
Calypso. 

Men at sea, or for other unavoidable cause unable to attend 
as above, must report themselves as soon as possible on board 
His Majesty's ship Calypso. Men are to appear in uniform 
and bring their certificates R.N. 2 and any necessaries with 
them. Reasonable expenses incurred in travelling to the 
rendezvous will be allowed. Men serving in the Royal Navy 
for a period of naval training will continue in active service. 
Any man failing to report without delay in compliance with 
this order will be liable to arrest as a deserter. 

By command of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

NOTICE TO FRENCH RESERVISTS 

St, John's General mobilisation of the French Army and Navy com- 
Daily menced yesterday, and at the request of the French Consul, 
A**' '14 ^' Suzor, we take this opportunity to inform French residents 
or fishermen in Newfoundland, that every available reserve 
man must report himself to his home quarters, according to 
the instructions of his military papers. Full information and 
passage money, if required, will be provided at once by the 
French Consulate in St. John's. So far as Newfoundland is 
concerned, this call to the colours will affect few, as the number 
of French subjects engaged in the fisheries is small ; but 
similar instructions have gone to St. Pierre, and are being 
spread abroad on the Grand Banks. Almost every man of the 
French banking fleet belongs to the Naval Reserve of the 
Republic, and the issuing of this order will involve the virtual 
abandonment of the French fishery for 1914. Newfoundlanders 
will wish the fishing fleet bon voyage and good fortune. 

August 4, 1914. 

MESSAGE OF SIR E. P. MORRIS, PRIME 
MINISTER 

St John's /I%0 ^ IR HuGH GRAHAM, Montreal Star, Montreal. 
Daily Newfoundland is one with the whole Empire to-night. 

News, Aug. Naval Reserves are coming in from all quarters of the country, 

4> '14- 34 



NEWFOUNDLAND OTHER SPEECHES, ETC. 

and are ready to go on board Britain's Dreadnoughts to 
fight the battles of the Empire, and we are one with the 
British Government in the position they have taken to- 
night. No part of the Empire is more loyal to the flag than 
the oldest and most loyal portion of Britain's Dominions, 
Newfoundland. E. P. MORRIS. 



NOTICE TO LEGION OF FRONTIERSMEN 

All members of the above corps will report for duty, if St. John's 
required, and give present address not later than Tuesday, ?*(y 
4th August (to-day) at 8 P.M. Special drill. #*!; Aug ' 

E. W. VERB HOLLOWAY, Lieutenant Q.M., 
Secretary. 

August 5, 1914. 

An official announcement from His Excellency the Governor, St. John's 
received last night, states that war has been declared; the Dail y 
customary proclamation will be issued this morning. News, Aug. 

LETTER FROM FRENCH CONSUL, CONCERNING 
FRENCH NAVAL RESERVISTS 

Editor, f St. Johns Daily News.' 

DEAR SIR, I read in some papers of this capital an St. John's 
announcement that ' the French Consul has received a message Dafy 
advising him that orders have been sent from Paris not to A^ze>s, Aug. 
proceed with the mobilisation of the French Naval Reserves/ 

Although it is true that for obvious reasons the fisher- 
men actually on the banks have been left free of their move- 
ments, I need hardly say that this special and very limited 
order has nothing to do with the general mobilisation of 
Naval Reserves, which are responding to the call in the 
noblest manner. 

Moreover, judging by the reports from St. Pierre, and by 
the attitude of the French Reserves at present in St. John's, 
it will now be, even for the fishermen on the banks, a matter of 
voluntary instead of compulsory service. Very sincerely, 

P. SUZOR, French Consul. 

St. Johns, August 5, 1914. 

35 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



WARNING FROM LLOYD'S 

St. John's Lloyd's Agents here, Bowring Bros., Ltd., have received 
Daily the following message from Lloyd's, London : 
News, Aug. 'Notify British shipping Admiralty advise all ships to 
' I4 ' abandon regular tracks and advise other British ships/ 

NOTICE OF GENERAL AMNESTY TO FRENCH 
DESERTERS 

August 10, 1914. 

St. Johns A general amnesty for all acts anterior to the 2nd of August 
Daily 1914 is granted to all deserters of the French Army and Navy, 
News, Aug. as we u as O f merchant vessels, that have reported or will 
ri> I4 ' report voluntarily to this Consulate before the i5th of Septem- 
ber 1914. 

Besides passage money for the reserves, this Consulate 
will provide the financial aid that may be necessary for the 
support of the families of reserve men. 

P. SUZOR, 

French Consul for Newfoundland 
and Dependencies. 

SPEECH OF SIR E. P. MORRIS, PRIME 
MINISTER 

ibid. Sir E. P. Morris pointed out that the object of the meeting, 

[in the Council Chamber], which was merely preliminary, was 
to arrange for a public meeting to be held on Wednesday 
night in the Church Lads' Brigade Armoury, to be presided 
over by His Excellency the Governor. He pointed out that 
England was now in a state of war, fighting with France and 
Russia against Germany and Austria; that in the struggle 
was involved the existence of the British Empire of 500,000,000 
people, and that less than one-tenth of that number were 
paying the cost of the whole defence of the Empire. Also that 
the trade disorganisation and other evil effects which must 
flow from the war, creating national and individual damage, 
will be minimised to a very large extent by the ready con- 
36 



NEWFOUNDLAND OTHER SPEECHES, ETC. 

tribution which can be given His Majesty's Government in 
bringing about victory. 

The Prime Minister felt satisfied that, as far as trade and 
commerce were concerned, in a very short time there would be 
a decisive naval battle in favour of England, which would 
confine the theatre of war to the Continent and [Germany] 
would then in no way harass the trade, as the British Navy 
would be able to patrol, with perfect safety, the trade routes 
of the Empire ; that already we were contributing to the 
defence of the Empire by our Naval Reserves, which had now 
been in existence about twenty years, but that further aid was 
necessary. He read correspondence which had taken place 
between the Governor and the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, and he proposed that a public meeting should be 
held on Wednesday next in order to give the citizens them- 
selves an opportunity of dealing with the matter, and at which 
meeting a citizens' defence association or volunteer corps could 
be formally established. 

August 12, 1914. 

FORMATION OF PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION OF 
NEWFOUNDLAND 

SPEECHES OF THE GOVERNOR OF NEWFOUNDLAND, THE 
PRIME MINISTER, THE FRENCH CONSUL, AND OTHERS, 
AT THE CHURCH LADS' BRIGADE ARMOURY, ST. JOHN'S 

The Prime Minister briefly stated the object of the meeting, St. John' 
and requested that His Excellency take the chair. The Dail y 
Governor did so, and thanked the gathering for the reception Ncw t s > 
accorded him. He stated the present question was the most I3 ' 
momentous one in the history of our country. England had 
been forced into war by Germany, but she would take up the 
challenge and give her war with full and overwhelming measure 
and show that we are Britons of the old stamp. The German 
people, he believed, did not want to fight, but were driven into 
it by a military clique, and when she sues for peace, as un- 
doubtedly she will, the people will demand a democratic 
government. They have been forced to duty with but little 
heart. Their Government is a curse to the world, and has 
allowed the people no voice in such issues as the present. The 
mailed fist has been raised by imitators, but really unworthy 

37 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

followers of the great Bismarck who are swollen with vanity. 
Bismarck took care to attack weaker people in his footpad 
business, but his successors now have met their match, their 
bluff has been called. We have to arm in self-defence. 
Germany's dream was to seize the north of France, later dis- 
tribute it among her little friends as she thought fit, garrison 
England, and make Britons her subjects. From recent 
despatches we learn that the military leaders of Germany 
proposed to be in Brussels by August 5, but they have been 
disappointed. The splendid pluck of the Belgians has dis- 
posed otherwise. It behoves all Britishers to aid the Mother 
Country in speedily settling the trouble, so that the world may 
again progress peaceably, and Newfoundland should do her 
part. If we do not, then, good-bye to our claim of the oldest 
and most loyal Colony. ' In my telegram to the Home 
Government/ continued His Excellency, ' I stated we were 
poor in money and rich in men ; men who are accustomed to 
meet all difficulties without wavering. I pledged myself that 
Newfoundland would furnish 500 men, but I hope the number 
will be 5000. The struggle may be desperate, but we will win 
" hands down " and I hope our folks will get in the front so 
they may have a chance to uphold our reputation/ He then 
called upon Lieutenant-Colonel Rendell, of the Church Lads' 
Brigade, to move the first resolution. 

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL RENDELL had no doubt of the 
patriotic sentiments throughout the island, and believed there 
would be no difficulty in forming such a body as called for. 
Our lads, through their drilling in the armouries and their 
sports, were in splendid condition to go to the front. Dif- 
ferences as to athletics must be laid aside, and all should now 
join in upholding the prestige of the Empire. The Church 
Lads' Brigade armoury and equipment he then offered for the 
use of the proposed force as long as needed, after which he 
proposed the following resolution : 

' Whereas, in common with every other portion of the 
British Empire, Newfoundland is anxious to assist in every 
possible way in the justifiable war in which the Empire, of 
which we are proud to be a part, is now engaged : And whereas 
this Colony, through His Excellency the Governor, has offered 
several hundred efficient trained men for enlistment for service 
abroad in the present war : And whereas it is desirable that 
38 



NEWFOUNDLAND OTHER SPEECHES, ETC. 

steps should be taken to provide for the enlistment of these 
men, as well as their equipment and maintenance : Be it 
therefore resolved that a Committee of twenty-five citizens, 
with power to add to their numbers, be appointed to take such 
steps as may be deemed necessary for enlisting and equipping 
these men, and in this respect to act in conjunction with the 
Government of the Colony and His Excellency the Governor, 
and that the magistrates in the outports be asked to take 
similar steps. Be it further resolved that the appointment 
of this Committee be left in the hands of His Excellency the 
Governor/ 

HON. R. A. SQUIRES, in seconding the motion in place of 
Maj or Hutchings of the Methodist Guards, who was unavoidably 
absent, referred to the enthusiasm of that body, and of their 
commander. As a Colony, he said, we are indebted to the 
Governor for his interest in this movement. This meeting was 
a direct result of his personal efforts, and he believed all would 
carry the resolution enthusiastically. It was a shame that 
one tenth of Britain should be called upon to defend the 
Empire. It was now up to us to play our part and show more 
than lip loyalty by personal sacrifice if necessary. He had 
received a message from a northern town that ten of the men 
there had been called to the reserves. As they joined ship 
for here they were cheered by the whole population, and no 
regret at their leaving was expressed because they left to fight 
for the Empire. That 's the true spirit. We are not fighting 
for self-aggrandisement, but because of the insults heaped upon 
us by a nation aiming at the destruction of England's power 
at sea. This is a war of defence, not of offence, and we have 
to hold the supremacy of 'the seas. He then asked that all 
join in fighting for the Empire in the war which had been 
thrust on her, and hoped the resolution would be passed. 

CAPTAIN WAKEFIELD supported the motion, stating the 
Empire was now fighting for her existence. Canada is sending 
volunteers : ' where are we to come in ? ' Referring to the 
Frontiersmen, which he represented, he believed at least 150 
of them were ready to fight as soon as they got the word. The 
services of some were lost through their joining the Naval 
Reserve, but they could not fight in two forces. He estimated 
it would take $30,000 to send 200 men to England and make 
some provision for their families. He thought Newfoundland 

39 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

would fully prove her devotion as ever to the Motherland. His 
Excellency then put the resolution, referring in praiseworthy 
terms to the proposer, seconder, and supporter, and it was 
passed amid deafening applause. 

MAJOR CARTY stated the C.C.C. 1 would stand shoulder to 
shoulder with the other brigades in the fight, sinking whatever 
differences may exist between them, and offered the use of the 
Armoury and the services of the C.C.C. officers as trainers for 
the new force. He then proposed the resolution given below. 

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL PATERSON, in a brief address, referred 
to the situation, and said all should act on Nelson's famous 
signal, ' England expects that every man this day will do his 
duty/ 

DR. MACPHERSON, on behalf of the St. John's Ambulance 
Brigade Overseas, said he had pledges from enough of the local 
divisions to fully bear our portion of treatment of the injured 
at home or abroad. 

His Excellency then read the following resolution proposed 
by Major Carty : 'Whereas, in common with every other 
portion of the British Empire, Newfoundland is anxious to 
assist in every possible way in the justifiable war in which the 
Empire, of which we are proud to be a part, is now engaged : 
And whereas this Colony, through His Excellency the Governor, 
has offered to recruit serviceable men between eighteen and 
thirty-six years of age to enrol themselves in training for home 
defence, wherever corps instructors are available : And 
whereas it is desirable that steps should be taken to provide 
for the enlistment of these men as well as their equipment and 
maintenance : Be it resolved that .the Committee provided for 
in the former resolution be empowered to take such steps as 
may be deemed necessary for enlisting and equipping these 
men ; and also, in this respect, to act in conjunction with the 
Government of the Colony and His Excellency the Governor/ 

RIGHT HON. SIR E. P. MORRIS followed, and pointed out 
that the meeting had been called to endorse what the Govern- 
ment had already decided on. As soon as war was declared 
they had pledged the assistance of Newfoundland, and we now 
had the opportunity of earning in the future the claim that we 
had stood by Britain when needed. The Naval Reserve had 
been formed and carried on under great financial difficulties, 

1 [Catholic Cadet Corps.] 
40 



NEWFOUNDLAND OTHER SPEECHES, ETC. 

but when despotism represented by Germany is overthrown, we 
can claim a share in the victory. This war, as His Excellency 
stated, was provoked, not by the common people but by a 
despot, and England was now engaged to defend herself. It is 
dreadful to consider the consequences if we lose, but we cannot 
lose. We have the ships, men, and money, and the assistance 
of France and Russia, the latter being the only country which 
in 1812 withstood the advance of Napoleon. After this war 
Britain will see to it that nothing similar will take place in the 
future. We have to rely on friends here for money to send 
men to the front, but every resource will be called on for the 
purpose. He hoped all would become recruiting officers, and 
later be able to congratulate ourselves on the great victory. 

M. SUZOR, the French Consul, who was present, was 
introduced to the gathering by His Excellency, and received 
a tremendous ovation. It was hoped the band would have 
been able to play the ' Marseillaise ' in his honour, but failing 
that, the audience started to sing it. Unfortunately it was 
not well known, but what was lost in words or tune was made 
up in vigour and enthusiasm. At the request of M. Suzor, 
His Excellency thanked the gathering for the reception 
accorded him, and took advantage of the opportunity to pay 
a glowing tribute to the great French Army. 

August 14, 1914. 

INTERVIEW OF THE EDITOR OF ST. JOHN'S 
DAILY NEWS WITH THE PRIME MINISTER 

As far as the commercial position of this country being St. John's 
at present seriously affected by the war now in progress is Daily 
concerned, nothing has yet happened to create alarm. It is News, Aug. 
essentially a time when people should keep their heads and I5> I4 ' 
make haste slowly, at the same time doing everything possible 
to ease the situation in the interests of all. 

Since the outbreak of the war I have been in daily touch 
and communication with the managers of our banks and the 
members of the trade who move the produce of the country. 
I am daily advised as to what is* being done in London, New 
York, Montreal, and other places. Only last Wednesday I 
had a long interview with the President of the Board of Trade, 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Mr. J. S. Munn, and on Thursday with a deputation of the 
Board of Trade, consisting of the President of the Board of 
Trade, Mr. Munn, ex-President Mr. W. G. Gosling, Messrs. 
Charles P. Ayre and John Browning, at which conference all 
the questions now outstanding were discussed. On last 
Sunday I arranged for a meeting, presided over by the Minister 
of Finance and Customs, Hon. M. P. Cashiri, at which were 
present the bank managers, as well as the Hon. John Harvey, 
Hon. John Harris, and Hon. R. K. Bishop. I have also had 
the advantage of discussing the situation with the Hon. Edgar 
Bowring, Hon. A. F. Goodridge, Hon. John Anderson, Mr. A. E. 
Hickman, Mr. Hawes, and others. Up to the present time, 
however, no recommendation or no suggestion has been made 
to justify the Government in adopting any extraordinary 
measures. 

In England, at the outbreak of the war, the Government 
authorised the postponement of the payment of bills of ex- 
change for one month. This is generally known as a 
moratorium. In Canada no such moratorium has been pro- 
claimed. The Government in Canada, however, have taken 
power to declare a moratorium if circumstances should arise 
hereafter to justify it, but so far it has not been pro- 
claimed. They have, however, permitted banks in Canada to 
make payment in bank notes instead of gold, and have declared 
the notes of the Canadian banks legal tender. 

I learn, also, to-day, that arrangements have been made by 
the British Government to facilitate the financing of the 
Anglo-North American commerce. What the extent of this is 
I am unable to say at present, but it is in some way connected 
with the transfer of gold, due by the United States since the 
outbreak of war, for exchange in England, and which is now 
being sent to Ottawa. 

If, at any time, a feeling of unrest or disquiet should arise, 
the Government are ready to adopt any reasonable measures 
on the lines of the action taken by the British and Canadian 
Governments to ease the financial situation in this country ; 
and I have so informed the trade, the individual members of 
the trade, the Board of Trade, and the bank managers of this 
city. 

The matter of supreme importance for Newfoundland 
to-day, however, is the purchase and sale of our fishery 
42 



NEWFOUNDLAND OTHER SPEECHES, ETC. 

produce. Cod-fishing is our currency, and every obstacle in 
the way of fullest realisation by our people of their harvest 
of the sea must be removed, and to aid in this the Government 
will assist the trade by every facility at their disposal to prevent 
any reduction in the price of fish. Up to the present time the 
matter has not become acute, but the Government are carefully 
watching the situation, and are in touch with the banks and 
the business men who purchase and move our fish, and we are 
prepared to put into effect any measure tending in any way to 
improve the situation which the consensus of opinion considers 
to be desirable. 

As I have already said at the beginning, it is a time when 
we must all keep our heads and work together, and, by keeping 
calm and working in the common cause, I anticipate that 
ultimately we will come out all right. The situation is not of 
our own making ; it has been produced by causes in the making 
of which we have had no say, and their evil effects will only be 
minimised and lessened by co-operation and trust in one 
another. The man who acts the part of the alarmist, the 
person who tightens the strings of commerce, is no friend of 
Newfoundland to-day. If ever there was a time in our history 
when we have to be generous and lenient in business trans- 
actions, and when party prejudice should be buried for the 
general interest, that time has now arrived. Even at the risk 
of this statement being misrepresented, I would point out that 
in the Mother Country, Government and Opposition, the 
Nationalist and Ulsterite have combined together for the 
general wellbeing. In Canada the Leader of the Opposition, 
Sir Wilfrid Laurier, has publicly proclaimed his intention of 
supporting the Borden Government in everything it does in 
this crisis. What the Government of Newfoundland has done 
thus far has been for the purpose of showing that this, the 
oldest Colony of the Empire, is in complete concord with the 
Mother Country and the Overseas Dominions, and if the 
Government's course is made the subject of partisan criticism 
they can only leave it to the people of the country to be the 
judges in the matter, and go on in the course they have 
pursued, and with the confidence that the loyal and patriotic 
people of Newfoundland will endorse their action. 



43 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

August 18, 1914. 

THE PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION : MEETING 
AND REPORTS 

St. John's The second meeting of the Patriotic Committee was held 
Daily in the Church Lads 7 Brigade Armoury last night, His 
yews, Aug. Excellency the Governor taking the chair at 8.10 o'clock. 

The following report was presented by the Nominating 

Committee : 

TO HIS EXCELLENCY SIR WALTER E. DAVIDSON, K.C.M.G., 
CHAIRMAN OF THE PATRIOTIC COMMITTEE 

May it please your Excellency, The Sub-Committee 
appointed to nominate additional members to serve on the 
Patriotic Committee respectfully beg to report : 

(1) Your Sub-committee are of opinion that the Patriotic 
Committee should, as far as possible, be general and repre- 
sentative of all interests in the community : to that end we 
append hereto a list of the names of those gentlemen whom 
we would nominate as additional members. This list is not, 
however, by any means complete, and we beg to be permitted 
to propose some further names at a subsequent meeting. 

(2) Your Sub-committee have nominated only those who 
are resident in St. John's, but we are of opinion that branches 
should also be established in the various electoral districts, 
and that such branches should be called after the name of the 
district in which they are respectively situated. 

(3) We are of opinion that the various magistrates through- 
out the island should be requested to call meetings at their 
several centres for this purpose ; and if this suggestion meet 
with the approval of your Excellency and the Committee we 
are prepared as a Sub-committee to communicate with the 
magistrates and co-operate with them in the work of organisa- 
tion. 

Dated at St. John's, this i8th day of August 1914. 

Respectfuly submitted. 
J. A. CLIFT. F. J. MORRIS. W. J. ELLIS. 

Appended to the report, which was received and adopted, 
was a list of some 250 names, comprising those of the Premier, 
44 



NEWFOUNDLAND OTHER SPEECHES, ETC. 

ex-Premier, members of the Legislature, the City Commissioner, 
city clergymen, officers of societies and unions, and citizens. 

The report of the Finance Committee was then presented 
by the Hon. Edgar Bowring, and read by the Hon. Secretary, 
Dr. Burke, as follows : * 

The Finance Committee appointed by the Patriotic 
Committee of Newfoundland beg to report that, having held 
two meetings, they recommend the following for approval : 

(1) That funds for the recruiting, training, equipment, 
transport, and pay of the proposed Newfoundland Regiment 
be provided by the Government until the force be handed over 
to the British Government. 

(2) That in support of any obligations assumed by the 
Government, the Patriotic Committee undertake to raise, by 
voluntary contributions, a fund which may be set aside for the 
purpose of assisting the families of those at the front (both 
soldiers and sailors), or for any other object or purpose in 
connection with the movement. 

(3) That Volunteers forwarded by the proper authorities 
from the outports be given free passage to St. John's. 

(4) That any applicant for service forwarded by the proper 
authorities but not accepted at headquarters, be given free 
passage back to his home. 

(5) That the question of insurance against death or injury 
should be taken into consideration. 

The report was discussed section by section, amongst the 
speakers being Sir Joseph Outerbridge, Messrs. John Harvey, 
John Browning, P. T. McGrath, and Captain M'Kay. Sir 
Joseph urged that provision should be made for the families 
of the Naval Reservists, and asked that the Finance Com- 
mittee should take this matter under consideration. This 
will be done. 

Hon. J. R. Bennett, convener of the Proclamation Com- 
mittee, said that the Committee was not yet in a position to 
give a final report. 

Major Franklin, for the Recruiting Committee, presented an 
interim report, and said that the Committee would await the 
issuing of the proclamation before finalising their report. 

Both the Nominating and the Recruiting Committees asked 
for franking privileges. 

45 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Mr. Herbert Outerbridge stated that the Equipment 
Committee was not yet ready to report. 

Mr. W. H. Rennie handed in the report of the Musketry 
Committee, which was approved. He asked for authority for 
certain necessary expenditures. Permission was given. 

Hon. E. R. Bowring, W. D. Reid, and J. C. Crosbie have 
offered free transportation on their steamboat and railway 
lines for Volunteers. 

Meeting adjourned at 9.35 until to-morrow, Thursday, 
at 8 o'clock. 

August 20, 1914. 

St. John's The Patriotic Committee, to the number of about one 

Daily hundred, met pursuant to adjournment, at the Church Lads' 

News, Aug. B r ig a( i e Armoury last night, His Excellency the Governor 

presiding. Seated at the Governor's right was Sir Joseph 

Outerbridge, and at the end of the table were the Prime 

Minister, Sir Edward Morris, and the Leader of the Opposition, 

Mr. Kent. . . . The Government's offer was confirmed by the 

following letters from the Colonial Secretary : 

Department Colonial Secretary, 

August 20, 1914. 

SIR, I have the honour to inform you that the Executive 
Government have decided to pay for the equipment, trans- 
portation, and other expenses in connection with the New- 
foundland Regiment, and also to pay the men composing the 
same, who go to the front, the sum of $i per day. The Govern- 
ment have decided not to ask the British Government to 
contribute anything towards the cost of this regiment while 
on service. I have the honour to be, Sir, your obedient 
servant, . . . 

JOHN R. BENNETT, Colonial Secretary. 
HON. E. R. BOWRING, Chairman Finance Committee, 
Patriotic Committee. 

Department Colonial Secretary, 

August 20, 1914. 

SIR, Referring to my letter addressed to you this after- 
noon, I would add, that payment of the amounts required in 
46 



NEWFOUNDLAND OTHER SPEECHES, ETC. 

connection with the expense and maintenance of the Newfound- 
land Regiment will be made by the Government to the Finance 
Committee from time to time as required, the administration 
of the said fund being in the hands of the Finance Committee, 
subject to the audit of the Auditor-General for the Colony. . . . 
JOHN R. BENNETT, Colonial Secretary. 

HON. E. R. BOWRING, Chairman Finance Committee, 
Patriotic Committee. 



Before the meeting concluded, His Excellency read the 
following despatch which he was sending to the Secretary of 
State for the Colonies, which he hoped would meet with 
approval : 

' SECRETARY OF STATE, London. 

' With reference to my telegram of August 8, Newfound- 
land Regiment, my Ministers desire me to state that the 
Newfoundland Government will meet the full cost of the 
contingent of 500 men. This contingent will leave at the end 
of September. It is my earnest request that they may be 
sent to the Guards Depot and attached to the Foot Guards. 
The rank and file are specially selected men, hardy and handy, 
enduring and disciplined, and crack shots. The officers 
with local ranks of captains, lieutenants, and sub-lieutenants 
hope to be granted substantive rank for the period of 
the war/ 

He also referred to the latest news from the front, which 
he thought was not too good, suggesting that the Germans, 
finding themselves unable to penetrate through Luxemburg on 
the south of Belgium, had made a big turning movement 
north of Brussels, where the resistance was not so great, the 
French apparently anticipating that their invasion would take 
place through Alsace-Lorraine. He anticipated that the first 
blow of the war would fall on the British Expeditionary Force, 
numbering about 120,000, who might probably be compelled 
to fall back on other defences, because of the weight of numbers 
against them. He thought, therefore, we might be prepared 
to learn of some reverses at first. 

The meeting then adjourned sine die. 

47 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

August 22, 

APPEAL FOR SUBSCRIPTIONS TO PATRIOTIC 

FUND i 

p. 64.] 

TO THE PEOPLE OF NEWFOUNDLAND 

St. John's FELLOW COUNTRYMEN, The Mother Country has been 

Daily compelled to go to war to preserve, among other things, the 

News, Aug. rights and liberties which we all enjoy as citizens of the 

29> I4> Empire. Newfoundland, in common with the other Overseas 

Dominions, has pledged itself to assist the Mother Country 

with material help in the present extremity. 

This is to take the form of an increase of the Naval Reserve 
from 600 to 1000 men, and the raising of a regiment of 500 
men for land service abroad, and the Colony has further under- 
taken to assume the full cost of this contingent of 500 men 
during the course of the war. 

It is our duty and privilege, as loyal and patriotic citizens 
of the Empire, to voluntarily assist in supporting this move- 
ment and to raise a fund for that purpose. This Patriotic 
Fund will be applied primarily in making provision for the 
dependent relatives of those who undertake to fight the battles 
of the country and the Empire by land and sea, and afterwards 
to such other objects connected therewith as may be deemed 
desirable. 

The need is great, and, in the confident expectation that 
this appeal will evoke a prompt and generous response, we 
respectfully but strongly urge all who can to give as liberally 
as possible towards this most deserving object. 

The undersigned, on. behalf of the Patriotic Committee 
appointed to undertake the organisation and despatching of 
this Regiment, appeal for subscriptions towards this Fund. 
Contributions may be sent to the nearest Magistrate, to the 
branches of any of the Banks doing business in the Colony, or to 
the Treasurer, J. S. Munn, Esq., and they will be gratefully 
acknowledged. 

[SiR] W. E. DAVIDSON, Governor. 
[SiR] E. P. MORRIS, Prime Minister. 
J. M. KENT, Leader of the Opposition. 
E. R. BOWRING, Chairman Finance Committee. 
48 



NEWFOUNDLAND OTHER SPEECHES, ETC. 

August 25, 1914. 

NOTICE TO APPLICANTS FOR COMMISSIONS 
IN FIRST NEWFOUNDLAND REGIMENT 

Applicants for commissions in the ist Newfoundland St. John's 
Regiment will apply by letter to His Excellency the Governor Daily 
through the Recruiting Committee. In the application fuU ^*' Augi 
particulars of age and record of any service in His Majesty's 
Forces or Brigades should be stated. Applicants should state 
in their letter whether they volunteer for foreign or for home 
service. 

[Sm] W. E. DAVIDSON, 
Governor. 

NOTICE TO MOTOR CAR AND MOTOR CYCLE 

OWNERS 

As there will be considerable work of all kinds to be done St. John's 
before the contingent for Foreign Service can be ready for Daily 
embarkation, I would be obliged if all owners of motor cars and News, Aug. 
motor cycles, who are willing to help the training camp in 25 ' I4 * 
orderly and other work, will send in their names to the A.D.C. 
Government House ; they will then be notified of days and 
hours during which they will be useful for duty. 

[Sm] W. E. DAVIDSON, 
Governor. 

August 31, 1914. 

WOMEN'S PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION MEETING : 
SPEECHES OF LADY DAVIDSON AND THE 
GOVERNOR 

LADY DAVIDSON : Friends, let me first say how very glad St. John's 
I am to welcome you all here to-day, and to see how many have Daily 
responded to my appeal an appeal which I verily believe was *?' , 
not necessary ; for I am convinced that it was only a call that ep ' *' I4 ' 
was required, and you were all waiting ready to respond. I 
felt sure that there were many wishing to work or do something 
for our brave soldiers and sailors, who are risking their very 

OVERSEAS 2. D 49 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

lives for us, and who yet do not know the best ways of helping, 
or what the needs of those at the front might be. That this is 
a unique time, when we are required to make personal sacrifices 
such as we have never thought or dreamt of before, there can 
be no doubt. It is the best we can offer those who are enduring 
daily hardships and giving their health and their strength for 
our beloved Empire. In the Mother Country, the Queen and 
Queen Alexandra have sent out urgent appeals that all women 
should help to their utmost and in every way that is possible. 
The Queen herself is the organiser of a large working guild ; she 
started it when she was Princess of Wales, and in November 
of each year, when all the presidents throughout England have 
to collect and send in their country contributions to St. James' 
Palace, where the Queen has her collecting and distributing 
centre, she goes there daily herself and inspects the articles 
sent in, supervising their unpacking and arranging and organis- 
ing their distribution. I have been told by one of her Ladies- 
in- Waiting, that the Queen knows quite well, and remembers, 
which districts send in good and which bad contributions, and 
occasionally she requests that such and such president should 
be told that the contribution from her district is not up to the 
mark. My mother is a president of a Surrey district, and when 
I was at home we all had to help, when her contributions came 
in, to arrange and repack them generally about 1000 articles, 
and she would get fussed, and worried as to whether her con- 
tribution to Q.M.N.G. was up to the mark. I am glad to say 
she never had any adverse criticism. Now the Queen has 
asked the presidents of this Guild to send in double the quantity 
and to bear in mind that a large quantity of articles are now 
required for the sick and wounded. We have received an 
appeal from the St. John Ambulance Association, asking for 
things for the sick and wounded, and they send a list of the 
things required, which comprise shirts, cotton and flannel, 
not flannelette, bed jackets, pyjama sleeping suits, pillows, 
pillow slips and old linen, not old clothes. Now I feel sure we 
women in Newfoundland can help in this way with our work, 
as well as in other ways, and we shall do so best and most 
effectively if we join together and co-operate. To do this I 
consider that we shall do best to organise ourselves into an 
association. If all those who are here this afternoon will join 
this association, and will enter their names and addresses and 
50 



NEWFOUNDLAND OTHER SPEECHES, ETC. 

the class of work they will do either sewing or knitting, or both 
in the book that will be handed round at the close of this 
meeting, it will help matters very considerably, and it will thus 
enable us to judge to a certain degree how much work we shall 
be able to undertake and arrange to provide materials accord- 
ingly. Later on, there will be our own Newfoundland regiment 
to think of and to provide for ; the least they can do with will be 
two pairs of socks apiece per quarter that is eight pairs of 
socks apiece a year and about six shirts. This means 4000 
pairs of socks alone. I read a letter from Mrs. Harcourt, wife 
of the Secretary of State for the Colonies, in which she says 
that arrangements have been made between the Colonial 
Office, the Victoria League, and the War Office that contribu- 
tions of necessary articles sent from the Colonies for their own 
contingents will be received by the Victoria League, and 
forwarded by them through the War Office to the desired 
Colonial contingent at the front. I feel sure this will ease the 
minds of relatives and friends of our splendid little corps going 
from here, and it will also, I feel sure, serve as an impetus to 
the relations and friends here to provide the necessary articles, 
which we ought to have ready to send off in the early months of 
next year. Now I feel sure that many are thinking, How are 
we going to provide the materials required ? Well, of course, 
that is a consideration. I certainly hope that all who can will 
send in their contributions to those who will be appointed 
to receive donations. We want them both large and small ; 
and, please take note, nothing is too small if you cannot 
afford to give more. . . . Then, as the St. John Ambulance 
Association points out, there is other work for women to-day. 
Those qualified as nurses should volunteer, and their places be 
filled during their absence gratis by either married nurses 
who have husbands and families whom they cannot leave, but 
who can give half a day's work every day in the week, or by 
retired nurses who have ties here which prevent them from 
going themselves. Then all those who can should take 
advantage of the St. John Ambulance Association classes, 
and train and fit themselves to be of use. They have only to 
send in their names and classes would soon be arranged. My 
sister started training by attending the St. John Ambulance 
Association First- Aid Class ; she continued through the whole 
course as required, and when I was at home last April she was 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

finishing her training in residence at the Charing Cross Hospital 
she had to attend on duty six operations before she got her 
qualification. I heard from her last mail that she was leaving 
the very next morning, viz. August I2th, with nineteen other 
nurses, for the front their first destination being Brussels, 
from which place they would be despatched to where they were 
required. All the best kind of men either have volunteered, 
or, if they only realised how desperate the situation was, 
would volunteer, and I feel sure will still do so, and it is the 
duty of us women to cheer them on and encourage them to go. 
I do feel this so very strongly. I am a soldier's daughter, a 
soldier's sister, besides having many other relations and a very 
great number of friends in the Army, and have spent the greater 
part of my life among soldiers, and I do feel the call to arms 
very strongly, and the call comes to us women just as much to 
do our duty, and there are many ways in which we can and 
should answer it. I will not keep you any longer now. I 
know perfectly well how every woman in Newfoundland is 
going to help, and we will all do our best. We in Newfound- 
land are all true Britishers through and through, dogged and 
resolute and if we start a job we see it through, so let us to 
work. I will now ask the Governor to give us a short address 
on the cost of the war and how it may affect Newfoundland. 

SIR W. E. DAVIDSON, in opening, read a very inspiring letter 
from a young woman now in the States, offering her services, 
in place of those of her aged father residing at Clarke's Beach. 
She said she had had experience in nursing, and could do many 
things impossible to the father in raising the flag of old England 
to victory. She was young, strong and healthy, and would 
take his place. Continuing, His Excellency said we will win ; 
chiefly because as freemen we will never be slaves. The one 
idea of this war was to subjugate Britain and take away the 
wealth of her Empire. On August 4th, the Kaiser said, 
' Now we will strike for the supremacy of the world,' and 
about the same time his Chancellor stated ' necessity knows 
no law/ meaning that they had been forced into conflict- 
simply hypocrisy. The Germans claim they can beat France, 
but that remains to be seen. The Russians will be felt later at 
the finish of the war, which will be probably the last. No 
soldiers will ever again consent to being driven into combat 
as the Germans are at present at the mouth of guns. They 
52 



NEWFOUNDLAND OTHER SPEECHES, ETC. 

have a large Army on active service, and others, artisans of all 
classes, preparing to furnish supplies. The naval war, His 
Excellency said, goes well enough and we will win ; that will 
be mainly British. It was possible a few ships had escaped 
from the North Sea during darkness, but these will be hunted 
down. Britain has been on the alert, and two ships to 
Germany's one were sent to watch them when they visited 
the Mediterranean, Mexican, and other centres, the past year. 
At present, we have six British warships practically in speaking 
distance of St. John's, any one of which can take on two of the 
Germans. The seizure of ports may not be impossible, but he 
had no doubt the first clasp would be given our regiment for its 
relief and the second for the taking of Berlin. He then spoke 
of the Indian and Irish support. Canada, he believed, would 
put forward 200,000 men, while Australia and South Africa, 
our recent enemy, would come forward with larger contingents 
than expected. He then pointed out the terrible things which 
would befall us should the Germans win ; the officialdom, 
conscription, and degradations forced upon us, the latter being 
that we would not be looked upon as soldiers, and would be 
asked to pay only a stipulated sum while they would find the 
' fighters ' elsewhere. This idea has been promulgated by 
leading German military men and writers against Britain. 
We here will send 500 and may be 2500 to the defence of the 
Motherland. St. John's alone has furnished the required 
number 500, but when the people now at the fisheries realised 
the crisis fully, they will rally to the colours. The Governor 
closed by stating that the objection of some to the training 
of pur regiment on Sundays had been withdrawn, when it was 
pointed out that we should lose no opportunity to prepare, and 
that it would be better in defence of the Empire to shoot than 
to be shot. 

The following resolutions were then moved by Lady Morris, 
seconded by Lady Horwood, supported by Mrs. W. G. Gosling, 
and put and adopted : ' Resolved that we do hereby form 
ourselves into the " Patriotic Association of the Women of 
Newfoundland," whose object shall be by our work and by all 
means in our power, to help our men in the defence of the 
British Empire, and that all women here present shall sub- 
scribe their names as members of the Patriotic League of the 
Women of Newfoundland/ 

53 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Mrs. Clift moved, Mrs. V. P. Burke seconded, and Mrs. 
C. P. Ayre supported the accompanying resolution, which was 
also adopted : ' Resolved that the Patriotic Association of the 
Women of Newfoundland does hereby consent to the nomina- 
tion of the following persons to be on the general committee, 
with power to add to their number and to form special com- 
mittees for various purposes/ 

September 9, 1914. 

PRIME MINISTER'S VISIT TO THE CAMP 
AT PLEASANTVILLE 

The Prime Minister spent the afternoon at Pleasantville 
yesterday, and made a complete inspection of all and every one 
of its departments. Accompanied by Hon. Mr. Emerson, 
Sir Edward met the Commandant, Major Franklin, at head- 
quarters at 4 P.M., and under his guidance made a complete 
examination of the commissariat, the tents where the men live, 
and particularly the way in which their health is looked after. 

A representative of the Daily News saw the Prime Minister 
on his return to town, and learned from him that everything 
at headquarters was proceeding favourably. 

' I was agreeably surprised/ said the Premier, ' at the 
thoroughness with which everything is being done. I was 
anxious to learn for myself that there was no serious com- 
plaint from the Volunteers particularly as to the water 
supply, sanitary matters, their hospital, the food, their bed 
clothing, the cooking, the clothes they are being supplied with, 
and their general surroundings, and on the whole, I must say 
that, as far as a layman can judge of such matters, every 
department seemed to me to be well supplied and well in hand. 
The privates all appeared happy and pleased with their treat- 
ment, and the officers, understanding that nothing but the 
best is to be served, are seeing that those furnishing the food 
and clothes are living up to their contracts. So far everything 
furnished is of the best. There will be, of course, complaints 
from time to time, but these will be adjusted as they arise, 
and each day will witness improvement in every department. 

' The main work, learning to shoot straight, is being 
attended to, and the drill and marches, and exercises taken 
54 



4] 



NEWFOUNDLAND OTHER SPEECHES, ETC. 

regularly, and the fine bracing air will very soon tell on the 
whole company, and all will realise the moral and physical 
advantages of the training. I was in converse with a great 
many of our young soldiers, and all are imbued with the 
splendid spirit of loyalty to King and Country, and are anxious 
only to take part in defence of the Empire. A month from 
now will show a wonderful improvement, but there must be no 
haste ; the work they are embarking on is the most serious 
they will ever be called on to perform, and it is only just that 
every opportunity should be given them to properly equip 
themselves for their task/ 



55 



NEWFOUNDLAND PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION 

REPORT of His Excellency Sir W. E. DAVIDSON, K.C.M.G., 
Governor, Chairman of the Patriotic Association of 
Newfoundland, March 3ist, 1915 

HONOURABLE MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL : 
MEMBERS OF THE HONOURABLE HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY: 

I have the honour, in my capacity as Chairman of the 
Patriotic Association of Newfoundland, to lay before the 
Legislature a Report covering the course of the whole 
1 Volunteer ' movement from its inception on August I2th, 
1914, to the end of March 1915. 

2. Notification was received on the night of August 4th 
that war had been forced upon Great Britain by Germany. 
The Government, having taken counsel as to the duty of the 
Colony in this supreme crisis in the history of our race, 
authorised on the 8th idem the despatch to the Secretary of 
State of a telegram in these terms : 

'* Ministers desire authority to enlist special men for 
service abroad, by land and sea. Ministers undertake to 
raise the force of Naval Reservists by October 3ist to 
1000 efficient men available for Naval Service abroad 
for one year, and are willing to meet all local expenses. 

' Several hundred- men with efficient local Brigade 

training offer themselves for enlistment for land service 

abroad. Believe that 500 could be enlisted within one 

month. Propose to induce serviceable men between 

eighteen and thirty-six years to enrol themselves in 

training for home defence wherever corps instructors are 

available. These would form material for further drafts/ 

The Secretary of State, on the gth idem, responded to the 

offer of Ministers in terms of the following telegram : 

' Referring to your telegram of August 8th, His Majesty's 
Government gladly avail themselves of offer of your 
56 



NEWFOUNDLAND PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION 

Government to raise troops for land service abroad. Will 
telegraph later as to Naval Reserve/ 
The acceptance of the Government's offer by the Lords 
Commissioners of Admiralty was received on August I4th, [See p. 4.] 
and the action taken thereon is reviewed under paragraphs 
ii to 15 of this report. 

LAND FORCES 

3. Immediately on the receipt of the acceptance by His 
Majesty's Government of the Colony's offer to raise troops 
for the defence of the Empire, steps were taken to con- 
vene a public meeting at which should be taken into con- 
sideration the question of enlisting citizens for land service 
abroad and also for the establishment of a Corps for home 
defence. 

The public meeting was held at the Armoury of the Church 
Lads' Brigade on August i2th, the Governor being in the 
Chair. . . . [See pp. 

4. The Patriotic Committee, having been nominated by 37-4 1 -] 
the Governor in terms of the first resolution of the public 
meeting, met for the first time on August i6th in order to give 
effect to the policy of the Government as endorsed at the 
public meeting on August I2th. At this meeting the Governor 
was invited to join the Committee and was appointed Chairman, 
Sir Joseph Outerbridge was elected Vice-Chairman, and Dr. 
Vincent Burke Honorary Secretary. At subsequent meetings 
the chair received the support of the Prime Minister (Sir E. P. 
Morris), the Leader of the Opposition (Mr. J. M. Kent, K.C.), 
and the Chief- Justice. 

As soon as it was appreciated that the action of the Govern- 
ment would be given the general support of the pepple, the 
Committee was designated the ' Patriotic Association of 
Newfoundland/ and its membership was enlarged as became 
the importance of an organisation which embraced every 
town and settlement in the Colony. The important duty of 
enlarging the membership of the Association was assigned to 
the Nomination Committee, which was composed of Mr. J. A. 
Clift, K.C., M.H.A.,* Mr. W. J. Ellis, ex-Mayor of St. John's, 
and Mr. F. J. Morris, K.C., M.H.A. These gentlemen carried 

* [Member of the House of Assembly.] 

57 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

through their difficult and onerous duties with consummate 
tact and skill. 

5. At the first session of the Association (August i6th) it 
was decided that its immediate duty was to enlist, equip, and 
despatch a Newfoundland Contingent, 500 strong, for service 
abroad. With this object committees were nominated for 
the following purposes : (i) To draft a Proclamation calling 
for Volunteers ; (2) To enlarge the membership of the Associa- 
tion as to cause it to be thoroughly representative ; (3) To 
organise recruiting and to train Volunteers in military duties ; 
(4) To examine Volunteers as to their physical fitness for 
active service ; (5) To provide for their equipment ; (6) To 
instruct them in musketry ; (7) To devise methods to finance 
the movement and to control expenditure. 

Of these committees, the chief burden both in work and in 
responsibility has fallen on the Finance Committee, of which 
the Hon. Edgar Bowring was the first chairman, being suc- 
ceeded when other public duties called him to England by the 
Hon. M. P. Cashin, and on the Reserve Force Committee, of 
which Sir Joseph Outerbridge has been chairman, being 
replaced during a temporary absence from the Colony by Mr. 
J. A. Clift, K.C., M.H.A. 

[See pp. 6. At its second meeting (August I7th [sic]) the Associa- 

46-70 tion adopted the recommendations from the Finance Com- 
mittee, and it is on the lines of these recommendations 
that the monetary charges incurred in raising the First New- 
foundland Regiment have been met. . . . 

7. The Newfoundland Government had originally offered 
to defray the whole cost of a. contingent of 500 men ; but the 
Imperial Government, on the motion of the Army Council, 
undertook (telegram No.. 189 of November 7th) to defray out 
of Army funds the cost of rations and maintenance and the 
supply of equipment for the contingent from the date of 
arrival in the United Kingdom. The Governor was authorised 
by Ministers to convey their cordial thanks for this generous 
offer, which they appreciated and accepted. Accordingly, the 
charges which fall upon the general revenue of Newfoundland 
are limited to the expenditure within the Colony and to the 
cost of the transport of the troops by sea to the United 
Kingdom, together with the pay of the men on active service 
and any pensions or allowances which may hereafter be 
58 



NEWFOUNDLAND PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION 

approved by the Legislature. This division of expenditure 
not only simplifies the system of accounts but also enables the 
Finance Committee to estimate with some degree of precision 
the initial and running expenses to be defrayed by the Colony 
out of the War Budget. These expenses are set out in detail 
in the Report of the Finance Committee which is hereto 
appended. (Annexure No. 2. 1 ) To put the figures briefly, l [Pp. 
the expenditure incurred until the igth of March in raising the 6 7-7-l 
land forces (the strength of which has risen to a present total 
of 1273 officers and men) is about $320,000 ; which sum 
includes the cost of the original outfit, of preliminary training, 
and of sea transport. The running expenses of the First 
Newfoundland Regiment, reckoned at 1000 officers and men, 
are estimated at a yearly total of $600,000, or $600.00 per 
man. (See Annexure No. 2.) 

The scale of pay of all ranks, based on that fixed for the 
land forces of the Dominion of Canada, is set out in Annexure 
No. 3. (See Annexure No. 3. 2 ) 2 [P. 71.] 

8. His Majesty's Government, recognising the advantage 
which the United Kingdom possesses in being able to raise 
funds on the London market at the cheapest rate, has further 
undertaken to make advances to the Dominions overseas to 
cover military expenditure in terms of Treasury Minute of 
November iyth, 1914 (recorded in Annexure No. 4 3 ). The 3 [Pp.7i-3-] 
sum allotted to the Colony of Newfoundland (telegram No. 

246 of December 24th) under this Minute which has received 
the approval of the Imperial Government is 200,000, which 
may be drawn whenever required by this Government, and of 
which 100,000 has been transferred to the credit of the 
Colonial Government on March 27 th. (See Annexure No. 4.) 

9. The original offer of a land contingent of 500 men has 
developed into the provision of a much larger force than was 
originally contemplated, at the outbreak of war. 

The original contingent, numbering 540 of all ranks, was 
immediately raised, and, after six weeks in camp at Quidi Vidi, 
left St. John's on October 5th. After undergoing further 
training on Salisbury Plains and at Fort George near Inverness, 
this First Contingent has now gone into garrison at Edinburgh 
Castle. In November the Army Council intimated that, after 
experience during three months of war, reinforcements should 
be available to replace casualties, and that in the case of 

59 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

infantry the reserve should amount to fifty per cent, when 
troops take the field ; and the Secretary of State on behalf of 
the Army Council inquired if the Government could supply the 
necessary quota, and, if so, when the first reinforcements would 
be available. The question being referred to the Association, 
it was decided on November 30th, with the approval of the 
Government, which had through the action of His Majesty's 
Government been relieved of the cost of the maintenance of 
the contingent, to reopen enlistment for foreign service. 

The response to the second call to arms exceeded all antici- 
pation, and it soon became clear that, while maintaining a very 
high standard of physical fitness, the number of Volunteers 
offering would far exceed the 250 men immediately required. 
It was then decided, in order to obviate the grave disadvantages 
under which our contingent laboured of not being a complete 
unit, to accept recruits so as to raise the contingent to the 
strength of a complete battalion of 1080 officers and men, 
together with at all events one reserve company of 250 
officers and men. 

The Reports of the Reserve Force Committee and of the 
Musketry Instruction Committee, containing a great deal of 
interesting matter succinctly put, appear in Annexures Nos. 
1 [Pp-73-5-J 5 l and 6. 2 (See Annexures Nos. 5 and 6.) 

10. It must afford to the people of Newfoundland legitimate 

[Not re- pride to know from the subjoined telegram (No. 213 of Nov. 

here] 2 7^) now f ul ly tne assistance which the Colony has been able 

to render is recognised in the Motherland. The Secretary of 

State telegraphs : 

' I am about to lay before Parliament further correspon- 
dence regarding the magnificent gifts which have so far 
been offered from the various parts of the Empire, and 
before doing so I desire on behalf of His Majesty's Govern- 
ment again to express their deep gratitude to all who have 
so generously and in such diverse ways both publicly and 
privately contributed to the requirements of His Majesty's 
Government and their Allies for purposes of alleviating the 
distress caused by the war and bringing it to a successful 
issue/ 

In closing this section of the Report, it is appropriate to 
record the terms in which the Government recorded its 
appreciation of the financial aid proffered by His Majesty's 
60 



NEWFOUNDLAND PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION 

Government. The Governor was authorised to telegraph as 

follows : 

' My Ministers desire to express to you their deep 
appreciation of the offer conveyed in your telegram of 
24th December, which affords them welcome facilities in 
meeting their current war expenditure. They desire 
further to express the keen wish of all in Newfoundland 
in such little measure as is possible to perform their duty 
to the Empire/ 

SEA FORCES 

ii. In response to the Government's offer of August 8th 
(vide paragraph 2) to raise the force of Newfoundland Royal 
Naval Reservists to 1000 men available for Naval Service 
abroad for one year, the Lords Commissioners of Admiralty 
intimated their acceptance on August I4th in the following 
telegram (No. 31) from the Secretary of State for the Colonies : 

' Referring to my telegram gth August, Lords Commis- [See P- 4-] 
sioners of Admiralty accept with gratitude offer of your 
Government to raise force of Naval Reservists to 1000. 
It has been already arranged to utilise part of Reserve to 
complete H.M.S. Niobe, and additional numbers will be 
valuable for later requirements/ 

The Naval authorities had promptly taken the steps 
necessary to safeguard this Colony and its trade rou-tes from 
all danger of attack, and had called out the Naval Reservists [See p. 33.] 
(August 2nd), making arrangements (August 6th) whereby 
the commission of H.M.S. Niobe should be completed by 
drafts from our Naval Reservists. 

The Admiralty mobilisation being completed, the Lords 
Commissioners were in a position to modify their telegram 
(No. 31) of August I4th, by a telegram (No. 46) of August 2ist 
to this effect : 

' With reference to your telegram ; Royal Naval [See p. 5.] 
Reserve men not immediately required should be allowed 
to return home/ 

In consequence of this order the officer commanding 
H.M.S. Calypso was in a position to grant leave of absence on 
full pay to the Reservists to return to their own homes. The 
number of Reservists on the roll at the date of the declaration 

61 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

of war was 535, of whom a considerable proportion was 
employed on long sea voyages, or at the Labrador fishery, with 
which telegraphic communication had been suspended. All 
those within call had promptly responded to the summons. 
The men appreciated the consideration shown to them in their 
being permitted to return to their homes and complete the 
details of the fishing voyage ; but the concession led to a 
temporary check on the volunteering movement, as the seamen 
naturally assumed that the Admiralty had no immediate need 
of their services and that they could in consequence close up 
their business for the autumn. 

On September 6th, H.M.S. Niobe embarked 100 New- 
foundland Reservists at St. John's. 

On the 3ist October, the Admiralty issued a fresh summons 
to the Newfoundland Naval Reserve, whereupon this Associa- 
tion formed a special committee to organise the spread of 
information to the out-harbours all along the coast, in order 
to stimulate recruiting. A great many public men and 
leaders among the community volunteered, at much incon- 
venience to themselves, to form parties under the general 
direction of the Hon. W. C. Job, Mr. A. W. Piccott, M.H.A., 
and Mr. F. J. Morris, K.C., M.H.A., to spread knowledge of the 
gravity of the crisis to the towns and villages in remoter parts. 
In this work all the friendly and benevolent societies co- 
operated, special mention being due to the Society of United 
Fishermen, under the presidency of Mr. J. A. Gift, K.C., 
M.H.A. 

13. The response has been satisfactory, and 989 Naval 
Reservists are now serving His Majesty afloat on active 
service. Of this 505 belonged to the list of five years' Re- 
servists and 484 are new Volunteers for one year. The 
available force has in fact been doubled. 

The number of recruits who presented themselves for entry 
was 817, of whom one-third (271) were rejected by the Naval 
Medical Officer ; defective vision and defective teeth being 
the principal causes of rejection. Lieutenant-Commander A. 
MacDermott reports that the class of men recruited has been 
thoroughly satisfactory ; and that the conduct of the men 
has been uniformly excellent throughout. From the 3ist 
December last there has not been a single case of misconduct 
or breach of discipline reported. Lieutenant-Commander 
62 



NEWFOUNDLAND PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION 

MacDermott adds : ' This I consider a remarkable record and 
reflecting the greatest credit not only on the men themselves, 
but also on the officers and petty officers under my command/ 
The Right Honourable the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies (on behalf of the Lords Commissioners of Admiralty) 
having inquired (by despatch No. 98 of the 2nd March) 
whether the Government of Newfoundland would agree to the 
present establishment of 1000 Royal Naval Reserve men being 
exceeded, the Government has by Executive Council resolution 
authorised the continuation of recruiting for the Royal Naval 
Reserve so long as Volunteers offer themselves for active 
service. The Minute from Committee of Council, dated 
March 29th, on which the decision of the Government to con- 
tinue the enlistment of both sailors and soldiers as long as the 
King has need of them, is subjoined in full. It is a declaration 
of which the Colony has the right to feel proud : 

Prime Minister's Office, 
St. John's, Newfoundland, ^oth March 1915. 

His Excellency the Governor : 

At a meeting of Committee of Council last evening, 
I brought before them the despatch from the Right Hon. 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies of date 2nd of 
March, in which he desired to know, on behalf of the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty, whether the Newfound- 
land Government would agree to the present establish- 
ment of 1000 Royal Naval Reserve men being exceeded, 
with a view to the replacement of any losses that may be 
sustained by the force. 

Concurrently with this matter the question as to 
whether further recruiting of volunteer soldiers for the 
front should be encouraged also came up for discussion, 
and Ministers were unanimous in the opinion that, as 
regards Naval Reservists and Volunteers for the Army, 
the recruiting of both should continue for the duration of 
the war or until such a time as His Majesty's Government 
would be of the opinion that no further contribution was 
required from this country. 

Ministers were pleased to notice the recognition by 
His Majesty's Government of the services of our men. 

(Signed) E. P. MORRIS, Prime Minister. 

63 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

14. The financial agreement entered into with the Admiralty 
when the Naval Reserve was first established limited the 
pecuniary liability of this Government to the payment of a 
sum of 3000 sterling per annum. That agreement still holds 
good ; and the financial liability involved in an increase in the 
number of Reservists is met by His Majesty's Government. 

15. The death roll among Newfoundlanders who are 
serving in His Majesty's Navy has been very severe : so far, 
61 men have perished. When H.M.S. Viknor foundered on 
January 3Oth with all hands, there were 25 Newfoundlanders 
aboard. On February 25th H.M.S. Clan MacNaughton went 
down, carrying among her ship's complement 22 Newfound- 
landers. On 1 7th March the loss of H.M.S. Bayano involved 
the end of eleven more. In addition to these deaths on active 
service, three more men have died in hospital, one at Chatham, 
one at Plymouth, and one in St. John's. 

The land forces have been less unfortunate, only two 
deaths having occurred, one at Fort George and the other at 
Edinburgh. 

GENERAL 

[See pp. 16. By Proclamation under the hand of the Governor, 

lo-n.j Sunday, October i8th, was set apart as a day of Universal 
Prayer and Supplication to Almighty God for the protection 
of the British Empire and for the success of the British Arms 
and Allied Forces. The form of Proclamation appears in 
Anneocure 7. 

[See p. 48.] 17. Patriotic Fund. This Fund was launched in terms of 
the appeal (issued August 22nd) to be applied primarily in 
making provision for the dependent relatives of those who 
should undertake to fight the battles of the country and the 
Empire by land and sea and afterwards to such other objects 
connected therewith as may be deemed desirable. . . . 

The response to this appeal has placed the Committee 
nominated to the control of the Fund in possession of donations 
which amounted on March igth to nearly $88,000, out of which 
grants have been awarded in aid of ninety-two claimants to 
the value of $500 monthly. The original Chairman of the 
Committee was the Hon. Edgar Bowring, to whose initiative 
it was mainly due. In the unavoidable absence from the 
Colony of Mr. Bowring, the Hon. M. P. Cashin (Minister of 
64 



NEWFOUNDLAND PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION 

Finance) has since presided, and the Hon. Secretary through- 
out has been the Hon. P. T. McGrath. Mr. J. S. Munn has 
undertaken the onerous duties of Treasurer to both the 
Finance Committee of the Patriotic Association and the 
Patriotic Fund. 

The Trustees of the Patriotic Fund which is the designa- 
tion suggested by the Patriotic Association have formulated 
the subjoined statement amplifying the terms contained in 
the original appeal which was adopted by the Patriotic 
Association in general meeting on the 2Qth instant : 

1. To augment, if possible, the resources of the families 
of Volunteers and Reservists who have gone on active 
service, where such families are unable to adequately 
maintain themselves without such aid. 

2. To assist, if possible, men invalided from active 
service, until they can secure employment or until the 
State makes provision for them by pension or otherwise. 

3. To assist, if possible, widows and other dependants of 
those who lose their lives while on active service, until they 
become the beneficiaries under Legislative enactment. 

4. To afford help, if possible, in such cases as do not 
come within the scope of the Legislative enactment, but 
which have a moral claim upon the generosity of the 
public. 

The Patriotic Association would view with satisfaction the 
incorporation of the Patriotic Fund by Act of the Legislature in 
terms similar to those contained in a Bill 1 before the Dominion * [See 
Parliament for the incorporation of the Canadian Patriotic Overseas, i t 
Fund. At the present time, the work is falling on those pp * 22 5-9-J 
citizens who were nominated by the Patriotic Association in 
August last, and it appears desirable that legislation should be 
passed empowering these citizens to administer this Fund, 
which has reached a considerable sum (nearly $100,000) and 
may be doubled if the war continues for a lengthened period. 
It is felt to be hardly fair to cast upon them the work of in- 
vestigating each claim for assistance as it arises. They would, 
no doubt, be prepared to carry out the general administration 
of the Fund if the clerical labour were handed over to one or 
other of the public departments. 

The last Report of the Trustees to the Patriotic Association, 

OVERSEAS 2. E 65 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



dated the igth instant and adopted by the Patriotic Association 
[Pp. 76-8.] on the 2gth idem, appears in Annexure No. 8. 1 

18. It is not possible to make a record of the gifts which 
have been showered upon our Volunteers by the universal 
sympathy of those who, whether they be Newfoundlanders 
born or otherwise associated with the Colony, have helped in 
this loyal movement. Among the largest benefactors may be 
mentioned Lord Northcliffe and Lord Rothermere and the 
Anglo-Newfoundland Development Company of Grand Falls ; 
the house of Bowring and the house of Reid, and all the other 
old names so closely allied with the fortunes of Newfoundland. 
There is hardly a house or family in the Colony which has not 
given of its best, its sons, to uphold the honour and high 
traditions of its hardy people ; and other gifts count less than 
the offering of the lives of its bravest men. 

19. While the men of Newfoundland have endeavoured to 
the best of their resources to perform their duty by their King 
and the British Empire, the women have also shown patriotism 
of the highest quality. An organisation has been formed under 
the name of the Patriotic Association of the Women of New- 

[See pp. f oundland, 2 which, in its 151 branches established in every group 
49 et seq.] o f homes in the Colony, has worked with admirable unity and 
industry to alleviate the misery and hardship arising from the 
war. 

A brief epitome of the work done by the W.P. A. as recorded 
inAnnexure g, 3 represents very inadequately one side only of 
the self-denying courage shown by the women of the Loyal 
Colony, for they have with brave hearts sent their sons and 
their husbands and brothers to offer their lives for our just 
cause. (See Annexure No. 9.) 

Respectfully submitted. 

[Sm] W. E. DAVIDSON, 
Chairman of the Patriotic Association 

of Newfoundland. 
March 315^, 1915. 



[Pp. 

78-81.] 



ANNEXURES 

1. REPORT OF THE INAUGURATION MEETING, AUGUST I2TH, 1914. 

2. REPORT OF THE FINANCE COMMITTEE, MARCH IQTH, 1915. 

3. SCALE OF PAY OF THE NEWFOUNDLAND REGIMENT. 
66 



NEWFOUNDLAND PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION 

4. TREASURY MINUTE, NOVEMBER 17x11, 1914. 

5. REPORT OF THE RESERVE FORCE COMMITTEE. 

6. REPORT OF THE MUSKETRY INSTRUCTION COMMITTEE. 

7. PROCLAMATION FOR UNIVERSAL PRAYER AND SUPPLICATION, 

OCTOBER i8TH, 1914. 

8. REPORT OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE PATRIOTIC FUND, MARCH 



9. ABSTRACT OF WORK PERFORMED BY THE WOMEN'S PATRIOTIC 
ASSOCIATION. 



ANNEXURE No. i 
[See pp. 37-4I-] 



ANNEXURE No. 2 

REPORT OF FINANCE COMMITTEE OF THE PATRIOTIC 
ASSOCIATION 

St. John's, N.F., March 30^, 1915. 
To the Newfoundland Patriotic Association : 

YOUR EXCELLENCY AND GENTLEMEN, The Finance Committee as 
originally named on August I2th consisted of Hons. E. R. Bowring, 
M. P. Cashin, J. R. Bennett, John Harris, Geo. Knowling, J. D. Ryan, 
John Harvey, M. G. Winter, Messrs. C. P. Ayre, D. Baird, John Brown- 
ing, V. P. Burke, W. J. Ellis, W. B. Grieve, J. M. Kent, A. McPherson, 
and W. D. Reid. 

The Committee organised on August i8th, and appointed Hon. E. R. 
Bowring as Chairman ; and subsequently chose Hon. M. P. Cashin as 
Vice-Chairman, while Hon. P. T. McGrath was added to the Committee 
to act as Hon. Secretary and Mr. J. S. Munn to act as Hon. Treasurer, 
and, later, Mr. H. A. Timewell was included, on taking over the Hon. 
Pay mastership in this Colony, and subsequently, Capt. A. Montgomerie 
was likewise added when he was appointed Deputy Paymaster on Capt. 
Timewell proceeding to England. 

The branch in St. John's of G. N. Read, Son and Watson, chartered 
accountants of London, kindly undertook, free of cost, the performance 
of the clerical work incidental to the Treasurership ; and the parent 
house of that firm in London undertook to do the auditing work in con- 
nection with the Regiment's accounts oversea, without charge. 

Hon. E. R. Bowring stated at the opening session that the Govern- 
ment would meet the Committee that afternoon and discuss the nature 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

of its work, the principal features of which were set out to be, according 
to a preliminary draft report by a sub-committee : 

(1) That funds for the recruiting, training, equipment, transport 
and pay of the proposed Newfoundland Regiment be provided 
by the Government until the force be handed over to the 
British Government. 

(2) That in support of any obligations assumed by the Govern- 
ment, the Patriotic Committee undertake to raise, by voluntary 
subscriptions, a fund which may be set aside for the purpose 
of assisting the families of those at the front, or for any other 
object or purpose in connection with the movement. 

(3) That the question of insurance against death or injury should 
be taken into consideration. 

The Prime Minister, on behalf of the Government, at the conference 
which the Committee had with the Executive Council, concurred in his 
representation, and stated that the Government's intention was to 
entrust the Finance Committee with the disbursing of the necessary 
funds which the Government would provide for the raising and main- 
taining of the Regiment. 

On August 20th the Finance Committee further reported : 

(a) That in their opinion the Canadian precedent already estab- 
lished be adhered to, and that the regimental pay be fixed at 
$1.00 a day from time of enrolment. 

(b) That arrangements be made whereby such portions of the pay 
of the men who wish to make provision for their families shall 
be available in this Colony ; and it was suggested that forty 
cents a day be paid the men at the front and that sixty cents 
be retained for the use of their families or dependants, or to 
accumulate for their own benefit. 

(c) That a communication had been received from the Govern- 
ment intimating that the Executive Council had decided to 
provide for the equipment, transportation, and other expenses 
in connection with "the Newfoundland Regiment, and also to 
pay the men composing the same, who go to the front, the 
sum of $1.00 per day ; that the Government had decided not 
to ask the British Government to contribute anything towards 
the cost of the Regiment while on service ; and that payment 
of the amounts required in connection with the expenses and 
maintenance of the Newfoundland Regiment would be made 
by the Government to the Finance Committee from time to 
time, as required, the administration of the said funds being 
in the hands of the Finance Committee subject to audit of 
the Auditor-General of this Colony. 

Accordingly, in pursuance of the duty thus entrusted to it, the 
68 



NEWFOUNDLAND PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION 

Committee undertook the task of administering the funds provided by 
the Government for the financing of the Colony's military enterprise in 
the present war and between that time and March igth, or the day 
before the Third Contingent left for foreign service, obtained by re- 
quisitions from the Treasury, the sum of $310,000, which it has dis- 
bursed as follows : 



Statement of Disbursements on behalf of the First Newfoundland 

Regiment 

PAY 

First Contingent, including all Allotments . $53,756.98 

Reserve Force 40,108.35 

Remittance to Paymaster hi England pre- 
sumed to be for pay of officers and men . 102,427.00 

$196,289.33 

EQUIPMENT 

First Contingent $39,304.11 

Reserve Force . . . . . 19,300.13 

$58,604.24 

TRANSPORTATION 

First Contingent $23,244.98 

Reserve Force (first 250 only) . . . 9,716.30 

$32,961.28 

CAMP EQUIPMENT AND FOOD 

First Contingent Equipment . . . $3,129.33 
Food 6,648.72 

$9,778-05 

MISCELLANEOUS 

First Contingent $4,580.97 

Reserve Force ..... 4,401.25 

$8,892.22 



$306,615.12 

Leaving a balance on hand at this date to 
March i9th, of ....... 3,384.88 

These figures do not include obligations estimated at about $10,000 
for the conveyance of the Third Contingent from here to England vid 
steamers Stephano and Orduna. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

COST OF REGIMENT 

An instruction from the Patriotic Association on November igth, 
1914, to the Finance Committee, to prepare estimates of the cost of the 
maintenance of the First Newfoundland Regiment, both as regards the 
contingent actually raised and at the front, and of the Reserve Force, 
was considered, and the officers (Messrs. Cashin, Munn and McGrath), 
and the Deputy Paymaster (Captain Montgomerie) were appointed to 
revise the figures of the cost, in the light of the undertaking by the 
British Government to provide for the maintenance and equipment of 
our men while oversea previously notified to the Colony. The sub- 
committee has dealt with the subject, and reported that the cost of the 
training, local equipment, transport, and pay, for a year, may be set 
down, roundly, at $600,000 for a battalion of 1000 men, and propor- 
tionately for smaller contingents. 

This, in other words, means that every Volunteer enlisted and sent 
forward will cost the Colony $600 for the first year, as follows : 

Pay (365 days at $1.10) ...'.. $401.50 
Board while training here (say 60 days at 50 cents) 30.00 
Equipment provided at St. John's . . . 50.00 
Transport to England . . . . . 40.00 
Incidentals (including proportion of cost of instruc- 
tion, officering, administration, etc.), say . . 78.50 



$600.00 

PENSIONS 

Another instruction from the Patriotic Association of November 
1 9th, 1914, to the Finance Committee, was that it consider the question 
of pensions, and accordingly a sub-committee consisting of Hon. J. 
Harvey (Convener), Mr. J. M. Kent, Mr. W. J. Ellis, the Secretary (Mr. 
McGrath), and the Deputy Paymaster (Capt. Montgomerie), were 
appointed to consider this matter. The Committee has given such 
consideration to the subject' as has been possible with very meagre 
information available, as the details of the proposed Canadian enact- 
ment in this direction, to be submitted to the present session of the 
Dominion Parliament, have not yet been tabled. The sub-committee, 
therefore, asked leave to postpone a definite report on the matter 
until it is further advised; and, in view of the matter involving the 
Government's participation, asked that Hon. M. P. Cashin, the Minister 
of Finance and Customs, be added to the Committee. 
Respectfully submitted. 

M. P. CASHIN, Vice-Chair man. 

J. S. MUNN, Hon. Treasurer. 

P. T. McGRATH, Hon. Secretary. 
70 



NEWFOUNDLAND PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION 

ANNEXURE No. 3 

REPORT TO THE LEGISLATURE re REGIMENTAL RATES ALL ARMS 

Pay. Field Allowance. 

Colonel $6.00 $1.50 

Lieut.-Colonel . . . . 5.00 1.25 

Majors . % . . . . . . 4.00 i.oo 

Captains ...... 3.00 75 

Lieutenants . . . . . .2.00 60 

Adjutants, in addition to pay of Rank . 50 

Paymasters 3.00 75 

Quartermasters ". . . . . 3.00 75 

Warrant Officers 2.00 30 

Quartermaster-Sergeants . . .1.80 20 

Pay Sergeants 1.50 20 

Orderly Room Clerks . . 1.50 20 
Squadron, Battery, or Company Sergeant- 

Major 1.60 20 

Squadron, Battery, or Co. Quartermaster- 
Sergeant 1.50 20 

Colour-Sergeant or Staff Sergeant . , 1.60 20 

Sergeants 1.35 15 

Corporals i.io 10 

Bombardiers or 2nd Corporals . . 1.05 10 
Trumpeters, Buglers, and Drummers . i.oo 10 
Privates, Gunners, Drivers, Sappers, Bat- 
men, Cooks, etc. . . . . .1.00 10 

NOTE. Commissioned Officers also receive 53. 6d. ($1.32) a day as 
an allowance towards their mess account. 



ANNEXURE No. 4 

REPORT TO LEGISLATURE re ADVANCES TO His MAJESTY'S 
SELF-GOVERNING DOMINIONS 

(Treasury Minute dated the I7th November 1914, relating to 
Advances to His Majesty's Self-Governing Dominions.) 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer calls the attention of the Board 
to the arrangements which have been made with the Governments of 
certain of the Dominions with a view to avoiding the disadvantages of 
the separate flotation by each Dominion of the loans required to meet 
the heavy expenditure entailed by the present crisis. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

So far as they can be estimated at present, the amounts required 
are : 

Dominion of Canada ..... 12,000,000 

Commonwealth of Australia . . . 18,000,000 

Dominion of New Zealand .... 5,250,000 

Union of South Africa ..... 7,000,000 

It is proposed that the sums required by the Dominion Governments 
from time to time should be advanced to them out of the proceeds of any 
general war loan or loans which may be raised by His Majesty's Govern- 
ment, i.e. of any loan raised otherwise than by short-term securities, 
such as the six or twelve months Treasury Bills by which the cost of the 
war has hitherto been provided for. 

The object of these advances is to provide funds to meet the Naval 
and Military expenditure incurred by the Dominions and other charges 
directly due to the crisis. They are not intended to be applied to 
financing development services. 

The sums advanced are to be applied primarily to meet the obliga- 
tions of the Dominions in the United Kingdom in respect of debt services 
and purchases in the English market, thus setting free (in so far as these 
obligations represent expenditure not arising out of the crisis) a corre- 
sponding sum in the Dominions for local war expenditure. Save in 
very exceptional circumstances (e.g., where separate naval or military 
operations are being carried on by the Dominion itself), no part of the 
advances is to be used for cash remittances from the United Kingdom. 

The money will be lent to the four Dominions named at the rate of 
interest at which His Majesty's Government itself will have borrowed, 
the discount on any interest-bearing securities issued at a discount being 
added to the capital of the debt. The amounts paid over to 
the Dominions from time to time in respect of the advances will be 
charged to the Vote of Credit. 

The debts due to His Majesty's Government from each of the 
Dominions will be paid off out of public issues of stock or securities to 
be made at such times as may be agreed upon as suitable between the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Dominion Government. 

If at the time of repayment the securities out of the proceeds of 
which the original advance was made stand at a discount, a corre- 
sponding abatement, and if they stand at a premium a corresponding 
increase, will be made in the amount repayable. 

Pending the issue of a general war loan, arrangements have been 
made where necessary for the Bank of England to make temporary 
advances to the Dominions in anticipation of the loan upon the under- 
standing that such temporary advances (which will be included in the 
totals specified above) will be repaid by the Treasury to the Bank of 
72 



NEWFOUNDLAND PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION 

England on behalf of the Dominions concerned so soon as the proceeds 
of the first general war loan are available. 

My Lords approve. 

Let directions be given accordingly and let a copy of this Minute be 
transmitted through the Colonial Office to the Governments of the 
Dominions concerned. 

NOTE. The sum subsequently assigned to the Colony of Newfound- 
land is 200,000. W. E. D. 



ANNEXURE No. 5 
REPORT TO LEGISLATURE OF RESERVE FORCE COMMITTEE 

Furnished on March iSth, 1915 

At a meeting of the Patriotic Association held on the 23rd October 
1914, the Reserve Force Committee was appointed, consisting of : 
E. Ayre, Esq. ; J. A. Clift, Esq., K.C. ; C. O'Neil Conroy, Esq., K.C. ; 
W. J. Higgins, Esq. ; C. H. Hutchings, Esq., K.C. ; J. J. MacKay, Esq.; 
C. MacPherson, Esq., M.D. ; A. G. Montgomerie, Esq. ; L. Patterson, 
Esq., M.D. ; R. G. Rendell, Esq. ; W. H. Rennie, Esq. ; Dr. V. P. 
Burke, Secretary ; Sir Joseph Outerbridge, Chairman ; with power to 
add to their numbers. 

The first meeting was called by the Governor, and was held in the 
Board of Trade Rooms, Water Street, St. John's, on the 26th of October 
1914. 

The duty of this Committee, as first defined, was to raise a force of 
250 men to act as a Reserve in support of the 500 men offered by the 
Colony and known as the First Newfoundland Regiment. Subsequently 
the scope of the operations of the Committee was extended to cover the 
enlisting, up to 1330 men, so as to form a full battalion of 1080 strong, 
with one company of 250 of reserve, all to be available abroad for active 
service. 

The Chairmen of all the sub-committees of the Patriotic Association 
were added to the Reserve Force Committee, and that Committee was 
constituted an Executive Committee with full powers to make all 
necessary arrangements for the enlistment, training, equipping, and 
transport of the contingents. In addition to the above names the 
Committee now included : Hon. J. R. Bennett ; Hon. M. P. Cashin ; 
A. J. Harvey, Esq. ; J. W. N. Johnstone, Esq. ; F. J. Morris, Esq., K.C. ; 
J. W. Morris, Esq. ; H. A. Outerbridge, Esq. ; W. D. Reid, Esq. 

A Proclamation was issued calling for Volunteers, and a Recruiting 
Office was opened in the C.L.B. Armoury. The work of enlisting 
Volunteers was carried out exactly on the lines adopted in the case of 
those who had already gone to the front. It was arranged that, as 

73 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

soon as Volunteers were enlisted and had passed the Medical Examina- 
tion, they should be sworn in, and come under pay at the same rate as 
the First Contingent, with the exception that, as weather conditions 
made it impossible to establish a Field Camp, an allowance should be 
given for board and lodging while here at St. John's. 

EQUIPMENT 

In view of the fact that Members of the Reserve Force were obliged 
to take their training here and also to make the passage to England, 
under weather conditions more or less severe, it was found necessary to 
have the uniforms and general equipments in the way of clothing 
provided for the use of the men. It was understood that the rifles 
and all the field outfit would be supplied by the War Authorities in 
England. 

INSTRUCTION 

Arrangements were made for the training of the recruits in drill and 
musketry. At first the Commanding Officers of the different Brigades 
arranged for the training of recruits under Brigade officers at night in 
the different Armouries (C.L.B., C.C.C., N.H.), free of charge, and these 
officers devoted much of their time and attention to the subject. It 
being found necessary to drill the men during the day, paid instructors 
were provided to assist in the work of training. Meanwhile, as soon as 
the day unit was formed, regular officers who had volunteered for 
service were appointed and these also took charge of the training. 

The Musketry Committee had shelters erected over the firing points 
of the rifle range at the South Side Hill, and they and the members of 
the Rifle Association were assiduous in giving instruction to the recruits 
in shooting out of doors. In addition to the training given at the rifle 
range, instruction was also given in miniature rifle shooting at the C.C.C. 
and N.H. Armouries. 

Mr. W. D. Reid most generously presented the Regiment with two 
Colt Automatic quick-firing guns, instruction in the use of which was 
furnished by an expert brought here especially for that purpose from 
Canada by Mr. Reid. Mr. Reid also placed the services of Mr. John 
Moore and Mr. John. Baxter at the disposal of the Committee, the 
former acting as Drill Instructor and the latter as Musketry Instructor, 
free of expense to the Committee. 

OFFICERS' COMMISSION 

An advertisement was inserted in the daily papers requesting appli- 
cations from any young men who desired to become officers in the 
Regiment. The qualifications of all applicants for commissions were 
74 



NEWFOUNDLAND PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION 

very carefully considered by a specially appointed Committee before 
suggesting names to His Excellency the Governor. 



ENLISTMENT 

Up to the end of February 1224 men had volunteered for the Reserve 
Force, and of these 834 came from the city of St. John's. Altogether 
650 passed the medical examination, and 556 were sworn in for active 
service. 

TRANSPORT 

On February 5th, 243 men (being the third company of the battalion) 
embarked on the s.s. Dominion and arrived safely in Liverpool on 
February i6th. Owing to ice conditions the s.s. Dominion was unable 
to enter the harbour at St. John's, and the contingent was taken out to 
the s.s. Dominion by the s.s. Neptune, which ship was very generously 
placed at the disposal of the Committee by Messrs. Job Bros, and Co., 
Ltd. The Newfoundland Steam Screw Tug Co. also placed their boats 
at the disposal of the Committee free of charge. The Third Company 
was placed for transport duty under the charge of Captain Montgomerie. 

Arrangements are in progress for the forwarding of the Third Con- 
tingent, viz. : the Fourth Company, which consists of about 252 men. 

The Fifth or Reserve Company is now in course of formation. 

The Committee recommended that five officers should be brought 
from England, two to accompany the next contingent and three to 
assist in the training here and to accompany the last contingent. This 
recommendation has been adopted, and the officers are expected to 
arrive shortly. 

Up to the end of February fifteen (15) meetings of the Reserve 
Force Committee were held, and there were numerous meetings of the 
various sub-committees. 

[SiR] JOSEPH OUTERBRIDGE, Chairman. 
VINCENT P. BURKE, Hon. Secretary. 



ANNEXURE No. 6 

[Not reproduced here.] 

ANNEXURE No. 7 

[See pp. IO-IL] 

75 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

ANNEXURE No. 8 
REPORT OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE PATRIOTIC FUND 

St. John's, N.F., March iqth, 1915. 
To the Newfoundland Patriotic Association : 

YOUR EXCELLENCY AND GENTLEMEN, The Trustees of the Patriotic 
Fund, to use the term suggested by your Excellency at the last meeting, 
are the same as compose the Finance Committee of this Association ; 
but their work in the former capacity is independent altogether of that 
performed by them in the latter relation, and the moneys of the Patriotic 
Fund are deposited in and its business is done with a different bank. 

The idea of a Patriotic Fund may be said to have grown out of a 
recommendation included in the first report of the Finance Committee 
to the Patriotic Association on August i8th, namely : 

' That in support of any obligations assumed by the Government, 
the Patriotic Committee undertake to raise, by voluntary contributions, 
a fund which may be set aside for the purpose of assisting the families 
of those at the front, or for any other object or purpose in connection 
with the movement/ 

On August 2ist the question of raising a Fund by public subscrip- 
tions in aid of the movement was discussed, and it was resolved that an 
appeal for funds be made, ' to carry out the objects for which this 
Committee was appointed/ and that such appeal should be addressed 
to the general public in accordance with the terms of an announcement 
to be drafted by a sub-committee appointed for the purpose. 

On August 22nd a draft appeal was reported by the Committee and 
considered, together with a letter from your Excellency. . . . 

The draft appeal was approved for submission to the General 
Association, which endorsed it, and it was then published and circulated 
in various ways throughout the Colony. 

The Patriotic Fund having been launched, the various banks doing 
business in this city were interviewed with regard to the securing of the 
best terms possible for the moneys which would be collected thereunder, 
and ultimately, the Royal Bank offering the best terms, it was decided 
to place the amounts subscribed for the fund on deposit with this Bank. 

The text of the appeal to the public on behalf of the Patriotic Fund 
is as follows : [See p. 48.] 

At the last meeting of the Patriotic Association it was agreed to refer 
to the Finance Committee the matter of amplifying the statement of the 
obj ects of the Patriotic Fund as originally set out. The Committee, after 
consideration of this matter, beg to report the following as a suggested 
form for such amplification : 

I. To augment, if possible, the resources of the families of Volunteers 
76 



NEWFOUNDLAND PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION 

and Reservists who have gone on active service, where such families are 
unable to adequately maintain themselves without such aid. 

2. To assist, if possible, men invalided from active service until they 
can secure employment or until the State makes provision for them by 
pension or otherwise. 

3. To assist, if possible, widows and other dependants of those who 
lose their lives while on active service, until they become the bene- 
ficiaries of Legislative enactment. 

4. To afford help, if possible, in such cases as do not come within 
the scope of the Legislative enactment, but which have a moral claim 
upon the generosity of the public. 

The following is a statement of the Newfoundland Patriotic Fund to 
March igth : 

RECEIPTS 

Donations $87,799.76 

Interest from Royal Bank of Canada . . 1,369.90 



Total receipts $89,169.66 

EXPENDITURE 

Expenses I49-5O 

Payments to relatives of dependants on 
Members of the Royal Naval Reserve, and 
First Newfoundland Regiment . . 1,456.00 

$1,605.5 



Balance in hand $87,564.16 

The total number of claims considered has been 92, of which 76 have 
been allowed and help given to the claimants, 60 of whom are in receipt 
of monthly grants, totalling $501.00, or an average per person of $6.35 
per month. 

Of these 20 are dependants of Regimental Volunteers and 56 are 
dependants of Naval Reservists. 

The smaller pay received by the Reservists and their consequent 
inability to make proportionately adequate provision for their de- 
pendants, accounts, in part, for the larger number in the Naval category. 

In some of these cases the relief afforded has been of such a character 
that a revision of the allotments will be made at the end of April, with 
possibly a reduction of the amounts in some instances and the terminat- 
ing of the grants in others, but on the other hand, as the numbers who 
enlist for active service grow and the other resources of the families 
become diminished, other cases will probably be arising. 

77 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

In this connection it may be of interest to state that the following 
are the numbers and amounts of those who made allotments to their 
families out of their pay : 

First Contingent Out of 540 men, 370 made allotments totalling 
$6,858.75 per month. 

Second Contingent Out of 245 men, 207 made allotments totalling 



Third Contingent Out of 240 men, 237 made allotments totalling 

$3,955-35. 

Steps have been taken, by means of circulars addressed to Clergy- 
men, Magistrates, or other representative citizens, to ascertain the 
circumstances of those families who lost members by the Naval disasters 
thus far, or by deaths in the Naval hospitals ; and those cases are being 
dealt with, according to their merits, as the necessary information is 
secured. 

Respectfully submitted. 

M. CASHIN, Vice Chairman. 

J. S. MUNN, Hon. Treasurer. 

P. T. McGRATH, Hon. Secretary. 



ANNEXURE No. 9 

REPORT OF THE PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION OF THE WOMEN OF 
NEWFOUNDLAND 

On the last day of August 1914, a general meeting was called at the 
British Hall, at which all the women of St. John's who were willing and 
anxious to do their bit of work to help their country were invited to 
attend. A large meeting was not anticipated, but when many hundreds 
of women responded to the call it was manifest that the women of 
Newfoundland were not going to be backward in lending a hand where 
it was needed. To quote the account in the Daily News the next 
morning : ' If the attendance at yesterday's meeting convened by 
Lady Davidson be any criterion of the willingness of Newfoundland 
Women to assist in aiding Britain in the present crisis by providing for 
our soldiers at the front, then such assistance is assured ; for, long 
before the appointed hour, the hall was thronged/ At this meeting 
nearly 700 women, in every station of life, signed their names as willing 
workers. 

2. The Patriotic Association of the Women of Newfoundland being 
thus successfully launched, a general Committee was nominated as well 
as an Executive, and it was arranged that Government House should 
be the headquarters of the Association. On the following morning, 
September ist, a meeting was held at Government House and a Finance 
78 



NEWFOUNDLAND PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION 

Committee was elected, and it was decided not to make any systematic 
house-to-house collection but only to appeal through the Press for 
funds. This was done, and in the first week $423 were voluntarily sent 
in. A Buying Committee was also elected, and the stores in the city 
visited, and in a very short while every yard of suitable flannel was 
bought up throughout the city by the Association for the making up 
into shirts. It was also decided to purchase all knitting yarn from the 
two local Wool Mills that near Clarke's Beach and the one in Alexander 
Street as the Association was anxious to spend as much as possible of 
the funds in buying materials locally. The Association received 
assistance on every side .and from every quarter the Newfoundland 
Clothing Factory and the Royal Stores both offering to cut out our 
material for us free of charge. It was decided to work in connection 
with the St. John Ambulance Association they being willing to be our 
agents in London buying the necessary materials for us, and receiving 
and warehousing our garments and arranging for their distribution 
where necessary. The Order of St. John works in concert with the 
Red Cross Society and with the Queen Mary Needlework Guild. A 
notice was sent to all the Magistrates and wives of the Clergy throughout 
the Colony inviting them to form Branches, and to work in concert with 
the centre at St. John's, and the response was astonishing. At the end 
of the first month the sum subscribed in St. John's was $4,298, and 58 
Outport Branches had been formed, and it became hard work to keep 
pace in answering the numerous inquiries for instructions as to work 
patterns and materials. It was also at this time decided to place 
collecting boxes all over the city to collect money for the supplying 
of materials for the service of the Hospital Branch of the St. John 
Association, i.e. for making dressings, etc., bandages for the wounded. 
These were generously supplied by the Horwood Lumber Company, 
Limited, and by Mr. George Davey and some lads of the C.L.B., who 
made them in their spare time, to all of whom warm thanks are due as 
these boxes were the channel through which a substantial sum of money 
was collected for this special purpose. 

3. All expenses of postage and transport in the Colony have been 
defrayed by the Government (through the Postmaster-General), by the 
Reid Newfoundland Company (both by rail and by sea), by the Messrs. 
Bowring Bros, and the Newfoundland Produce Co. Ltd. (by steamer), 
The Furness Withy Steamship Company and the Allan Line Steamship 
Company most generously conveying all cases of garments from St. 
John's to Liverpool free of charge, and at Liverpool defraying all 
expenses for clearing, etc., Messrs. Job Bros, warehousing and forward- 
ing the same to the St. John Ambulance Warehouse in London. The 
first shipment was despatched on November 2nd on the s.s. Tabasco 
consisting of 18 cases, which included contributions from twenty-eight 
branches. 

79 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

4. Working parties were in progress four afternoons a week at 
Government House besides many working bees at the private houses 
of ladies throughout the city. The workers at Government House 
consisted of about 550 regular attendants, and the routine settled down 
as follows : On Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays work is in 
progress in the drawing-room and ballroom, supervised by the work 
directors. On Saturdays the young girls came and worked for the 
Belgian refugee children. The hearty thanks of the Association are 
due to Mrs. M. F. Smythe and to the Singer Company for so kindly 
lending a number of excellent sewing machines free of charge. While 
sewing is in progress in the workrooms a committee of lady ' cutters 
out ' are at work in the billiard-room. These ladies have got through 
an immense amount of work, cutting out all the shirts and night shirts 
that have gone forward after November 2nd. All work done during the 
week is examined on Wednesdays by the examining Committee, and tied 
up into bundles of ten. Under the direction of their Convener, with 
the willing assistance of a number of the young ladies of St. John's, 
these garments are all packed on Thursdays ; the cases and casks which 
are provided are nailed down and addressed on Fridays, and despatched 
to the wharf on Saturdays. 

5. Two important branches run independently on parallel lines 
under the same central executive control, viz. : (a) A branch for assist- 
ing the Belgian Refugees, (b) A branch for visiting and keeping in 
friendly touch with the parents or near relatives of our Volunteers and 
Naval Reservists, who had left their home at the call to arms. The 
Belgian Branch has fallen into two divisions, viz. : The W. P. A. 
Belgian Refugee Branch, and the Alliance Fran9aise Belgian Fund. 

6. The visiting Committee is admirably directed and has proved a 
real success. The visits, which are purely of a friendly nature, have 
been much appreciated, and have done good to both the visitors and 
the visited by drawing more closely the common bonds of sympathy 
which appeal in unison to all the women of Newfoundland in this great 
affair of our race. 

7. The clerical work in the office has been particularly heavy, at one 
time as many as thirty-five letters a day arriving, all of which required 
attention and immediate answers, and the Hon. Secretary had to seek 
assistance in an assistant Hon. Secretary. 

8. At the time of writing this report, the Association has 151 
branches, and has sent forward five shipments as follows : 

Socks 17,843 

Flannel Shirts 2,833 

Pillow Slips . . . . . . . 1,839 

Mitts (pairs) 1,760 

Handkerchiefs ...... 1614 

80 



! 



NEWFOUNDLAND PATRIOTIC ASSOCIATION 



Mufflers .... 

Night Shirts . 

Housewives 

Cholera Belts . 

Pillows .... 

Pyjamas 

Balaclava Helmets . 

Surgical Socks 

Bed Jackets 

Bed Socks 

Sheets .... 
Shipments from Hospital Committee : 

Bandages (various kinds) . 

Dressings for 6472 patients. 
Besides various other things for Hospital use. 



1130 
842 
791 
727 
677 

357 

143 

125 

64 

24 

8 



OVERSEAS 2. 



8l 



[A 



COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA 



GOVERNOR-GENERAL AND COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF : 
RIGHT HON. SIR R. C. MUNRO-FERGUSON, G.C.M.G. 

THE MINISTRY 

FORMED JUNE 24, IQI3 



Prime Minister and Minister for 
Home Affairs .... 

Treasurer ..... 

Attorney-General .... 

External Affairs .... 

Postmaster-General 

Minister of Defence 

Minister of Trade and Customs 

Vice-President of the Executive 

Council . . . 
Honorary Ministers . . 

High Commissioner for Australia in 
London .... 



Hon. J. COOK. 

Rt. Hon. SIR JOHN FORREST, P.C., 

G.C.M.G. 

Hon. W. H. IRVINE; K.C. 
Hon. P. M. GLYNN, K.C. 
Hon. A. WYNNE. 
Senator the Hon. E. D. MILLEN. 
Hon. L. E. GROOM. 

Senator the Hon. J. H. McCALL. 
Senator the Hon. J. S. CLEMONS and 

the Hon. W. H. KELLY. 
Rt. Hon. SIR GEORGE HOUSTON REID, 

P.C., K.C., G.C.M.G. 



THE MINISTRY 

FORMED SEPTEMBER 17, 1914. 



Prime Minister and Treasurer 
Attorney-General 
External Affairs . 
Home Affairs .... 
Postmaster-General 
Minister of Defence 
Minister of Trade and Customs 
Vice-President of the Executive 
Council ..... 
Honorary Members 

High Commissioner for Australia in 
London ..... 
82 



Rt. Hon. A. FISHER, P.C. 

Hon. W. M. HUGHES. 

Hon. HUGH MAHON. 

Hon. W. O. ARCHIBALD. 

Hon. W. G. SPENCE. 

Senator the Hon. G. F. PEARCE. 

Hon. F. G. TUDOR. 

Senator the Hon. A. GARDINER. 
Senator the Hon. E. J. RUSSELL, and 

the Hon. J. A. JENSEN. 
Rt. Hon. SIR GEORGE HOUSTON REID, 

P.C., K.C., G.C.M.G. 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH HIS MAJESTY'S 
GOVERNMENT 

NAVAL AND MILITARY ASSISTANCE OF AUSTRALIA 

No. i 

The Governor-General of Australia to the Secretary of 
State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 6.20 P.M., August 3, 1914. 

In the event of war Commonwealth of Australia prepared A. 
to place vessels of Australian Navy under control of British 
Admiralty when desired. Further prepared to despatch 
expeditionary force 20,000 men of any suggested composition 
to any destination desired by Home Government. Force to 
be at complete disposal Home Government. Cost of despatch 
and maintenance would be borne by this Government. Aus- 
tralian Press notified accordingly. FERGUSON. 

No. 2 
The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor-General 

(Cablegram.) London, 1.45 P.M., August 4, 1914. 

I think your Ministers would be wise, in view of their A. 
generous offer, although there seems to be no immediate 
necessity for any request on our part for an expeditionary 
force from Australia, to take the necessary administrative 
steps by which they would be enabled without delay, in case 
it should hereafter be required, to provide such a force. 

HARCOURT. 
No. 3 
The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 5.47 P.M., August 5, 1914. 

With reference to your telegram of 4th August, 1 prepara- A, 
tion here would be greatly facilitated if the desired composi- 

1 No/2. 

83 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

tion, divisional or otherwise, of expeditionary force is 
indicated. FERGUSON. 

No. 4 
The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor-General 

(Cablegram.) London, 7.30 P.M., August 6, 1914. 

A. His Majesty's Government gratefully accept offer of your 
Ministers to send force of 20,000 men to this country, and 
would be glad if it could be despatched as soon as possible. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 5 
The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor-General 

(Cablegram.) London, 12.33 P.M., August 7, 1914. 

A. With reference to my telegram of 6th August, 1 it is sug- 
gested by the Army Council that the following would be a 
suitable composition of the expeditionary force : 

i Field Artillery Brigade. 

1 Light Horse Brigade. 

2 Infantry Brigades. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 6 
The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 11.4 A.M., August 8, 1914. 

A. Your telegram of 7th August ; 2 we fully expected 20,000 
men to go, and have begun organising division on that basis 
on Home Regular Army establishments, with three brigades 
of four-gun batteries, but without howitzer brigade and heavy 
battery. We are also organising Light Horse Brigade on 
Australian establishments, namely, 2226 personnel and 2315 
horses. Do you concur or still wish your proposal adopted ? 
We anticipate men embarking in four to six weeks. We 
should be glad of a reply as soon as possible. 

FERGUSON. 

1 No. 4. 2 No . 5> 

84 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH AUSTRALIA 

No. 7 
The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor-General 

(Cablegram.) London, 4.5 P.M., August 9, 1914. 

With reference to your telegram 8th August, 1 His Majesty's A. 
Government will be glad to avail themselves, in place of force 
suggested in my telegram yth August 2 of the offer of your 
Government of one division and of one Light Horse Brigade. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 8 
The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 6.50 A.M., August n, 1914. 

Order issued loth August transferring all vessels of Com- A. 
monwealth naval forces and all officers and seamen to King's 
naval forces. Such transfer to continue in force until Pro- 
clamation is issued declaring that war no longer exists. 

FERGUSON. 

No. 9 
The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 11.35 A - M -> August u, 1914. 

Arrangements being made for despatch of expeditionary A. 
force to England in accordance with your telegram of gth 
August. 3 FERGUSON. 

No. 10 
The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 3.28 P.M., September 3, 1914. 

Commonwealth Government is arranging for the despatch A. 
early in November of another Infantry Brigade and a Light 
Horse Brigade, total 6383, with 2386 horses, and 181 vehicles. 
These are in addition to the first expeditionary force of 20,000, 
with reinforcements from time to time. 

FERGUSON. 

1 No. 6. 2 No 5. 3 NO. 7> 

85 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

No. ii 
The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor-General 

(Cablegram.) London, 6.26 P.M., September 3, 1914. 

A. Your telegram 3rd September. 1 His Majesty's Govern- 
ment have learned with much gratification of generous 

.. measure of further assistance which Commonwealth will 
afford the Empire. HARCOURT. 

GIFTS OF FOOD-STUFFS AND OTHER SUPPLIES 
FROM AUSTRALIA 

No. i 
The Governor-General to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 6.10 A.M., August 28, 1914. 

B. Messrs. Cullen and Wallace, Fairfield Vineyard, Ruther- 
glen, Victoria, offer 1000 gallons port wine for sick wounded 
soldiers in hospitals delivered free port Melbourne. 

R. M. FERGUSON. 

No. 2 
The Agent-General for Queensland to Colonial Office 

Queensland Government Office, 409 and 410 Strand, 

London, W.C., September 2, 1914. 

Queem- SIR, I am pleased to advise you that I am in receipt of 
land. telegraphic information from my Government to the effect 
that by the s.s. Morayshire, which sailed from Brisbane on 
the 27th ultimo, a shipment of food-stuffs has been consigned 
to me, which is to be placed at the disposal of the British 
Government. These goods are a present from Queensland 
to the motherland, and include : 

5,600 Ibs. butter, 
16,220 Ibs. bacon, 

550 cases of compressed and rounds beef, 
9,600 Ibs. condensed milk, 
2 tons arrowroot. 

1 No. 10. 
86 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH AUSTRALIA 

These goods, the Government advise, are considered 
suitable for army purposes. 

In addition to the goods above listed, the shipment also 
includes 50 cases of condensed milk, ' contributed for the 
benefit of children of the Empire/ The purpose for which 
this particular item is intended will doubtless be more fully 
explained by letter. 

I understand from the cabled advice that these goods 
have been collected by the Brisbane Newspaper Company, 
Limited, in whose papers the proposal was presumably given 
publicity. 

I shall have pleasure in communicating with you again 
on receipt of particulars by mail from Queensland. I have, 
etc., T. B. ROBINSON, 

Agent-General. 

No. 3 
Colonial Office to the Agent-General for Queensland 

Downing Street, September 4, 1914. 

SIR, I am directed by Mr. Secretary Harcourt to acknow- Queens- 
ledge the receipt of your letter of the 2nd instant, 1 giving land - 
particulars of a consignment of food-stuffs shipped from B * 
Brisbane by the s.s. Morayshire, which has been collected by 
the Brisbane Newspaper Company, Limited, as a present 
from Queensland to this country. 

2. I am to thank you for this information, and to ask you 
that you will be good enough to convey to the donors by tele- 
graph an expression of the grateful thanks of His Majesty's 
Government for this gift. I am, etc., 

HENRY LAMBERT, 
for Under-Secretary of State. 

No. 4 
The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor-General 

(Cablegram.) London, 3.20 P.M., September 9, 1914. 

Your telegram of 28th August. 2 Army Council gratefully Victoria, 
accept Messrs. Cullen and Wallace's generous gift of wine, B. 

1 No. 2. 2 No. i. 

87 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

which should be forwarded to Officer-in-Charge, Supply 
Reserve Depot, Woolwich. HARCOURT. 

No. 5 
The Agent-General for Queensland to Colonial Office 

Queensland Government Offices, 409 and 410 Strand, 

London, W.C., September 9, 1914. 

Queens- SIR, I have the honour to inform you that I am in receipt 
land. O f a cablegram from my Government intimating that the 
Patriotic Committee, Brisbane, purposes shipping, about the 
end of the month, frozen meat to the value of 10,000. 

The Committee invites suggestions as to what further 
commodities are most needed, and asks that, in the event of 
tinned meats being required, the size of the tins be furnished. 
The message adds that at least a further sum- of 10,000 is 
available. I have, etc., T. B. ROBINSON, 

A gent- General. 

ENCLOSURE IN No. 5 

(Cablegram received 8th September 1914, dated Brisbane, 

8th September 1914) 

' Patriotic Committee purpose shipping if freight available 
about end of month frozen meat to the value of 10,000. 
Committee invites suggestions as to what further commodities 
most needed. If tinned meat, give size of tins. At least a 
further sum of 10,000 available/ 

CHIEF-SECRETARY, Brisbane. 

No. 6 
Colonial Office to the Agent-General for Queensland 

Downing Street, September n, 1914. 

Queens- SIR, I am directed by Mr. Secretary Harcourt to acknow- 

land. ledge the receipt of your letter of the gth instant, and to state 

that he has learnt with much pleasure that His Majesty's 

Government are to be presented by the Patriotic Committee, 

Brisbane, with food-stuffs to the value of at least 20,000. 

2. Mr. Harcourt will be obliged if you will request your 
Government to inform the Committee that His Majesty's 
88 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH AUSTRALIA 

Government gratefully accept this generous and welcome 
gift, and highly appreciate the sentiments of affectionate 
regard for the mother country which animate the citizens 
of Brisbane. 

3. Mr. Harcourt would propose, if you consider that such 
an arrangement would be acceptable to the Committee, that 
the frozen meat and the other commodities to be sent should 
be devoted to the relief of distress in this country. Pending 
the receipt of your reply on this point, he will defer making 
inquiries as to the commodities to the purchase of which it is 
considered that the second 10,000 might most usefully be 
devoted. I am, etc., H. W. JUST. 

No. 7 
The High Commissioner for Australia to Colonial Office 

High Commissioner's Offices, 
72 Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W., 

September 14, 1914. 

SIR, I am directed by the High Commissioner to state, C. 
for the information of the Secretary of State, that we have 
received the following cablegram from the Department of 
External Affairs : 

' One ton butter was shipped to London Office, Western 
District Co-operative Produce Company, which has been 
instructed to hand over to you. Butter has been given 
by Mrs. Hindson and family, Colac, for presentation to 
Imperial Government for use of wounded British soldiers. 
Take necessary action on arrival/ 

2. Sir George Reid has much pleasure in forwarding this 
communication for the information of the Secretary of State 
for War, and asks that we may be favoured as early as possible 
with the wishes of the War Office as to delivery. I am, etc., 

R. MUIRHEAD COLLINS. 

No. 8 
Colonial Office to the High Commissioner for Australia 

Downing Street, September 17, 1914. 

SIR, I am directed by Mr. Secretary Harcourt to request C. 
you to inform the High Commissioner that the Army Council 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [SEP 

gratefully accept the gift of one ton of butter presented by 
Mrs. Hindson and family, Colac, and that they would be glad 
if a suitable acknowledgment could be sent to her. 

2. The Army Council add that the butter should be 
consigned to the Officer-in-Charge, Supply Reserve Depot, 
Deptford Cattle Market, and that on receipt it will be distri- 
buted to the hospitals in which wounded soldiers from the 
front are being treated. I am, etc., 

HENRY LAMBERT, 
for the Under-Secretary of State. 



No. 9 
The Agent-General for Queensland to Colonial Office 

Queensland Government Offices, 409 and 410 Strand, 

London, W.C., September 21, 1914. 

Queens- SIR, I have the honour to inform you that I have received 
land. telegraphic information from my Government to the effect 
c - that the s.s. Port Albany, which sailed from Brisbane on the 
gth instant, carries a consignment of food-stuffs valued at 
6200 as a gift to the Imperial Government. This is the second 
shipment of goods collected by the Brisbane Newspaper Com- 
pany, Limited, and includes : 

23,000 Ibs. bacon, 
68 cwts. butter, 

i ton cheese, 

1,500 cases of boiled beef, 
40 cases of dripping, 
700 dozen tinned pineapples, 
6,000 Ibs. cornflour, 

40 dozen tins pineapple jam, 
3,500 Ibs. honey, 

6J tons golden syrup, 
21 cwts. flour, 
220 dozen tins corned beef, 

280 dozen tins assorted meat products, 
24,000 Ibs. condensed milk. 

I have, etc., 

T. B. ROBINSON, Agent-General. 
90 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH AUSTRALIA 

No. 10 
Colonial Office to the Agent-General for Queensland 

Downing Street, September 25, 1914. 

SIR, I am directed by Mr. Secretary Harcourt to acknow- Queens- 
ledge the receipt of your letter of the 2ist instant, 1 notifying lan ^- 
the shipment from Brisbane of a further consignment of food- 
stuffs collected by the Brisbane Newspaper Company, Limited, 
as a gift to the Imperial Government. 

2. Mr. Harcourt has learnt of this further gift with much 
pleasure, and will be obliged if you will inform the Company 
that it is gratefully accepted by His Majesty's Government. 

3. I am to inquire whether you are in a position to say 
whether the donors would approve of this gift being devoted 
to the relief of distress, or would prefer that it should be used 
for military purposes. I am, etc., 

HENRY LAMBERT, 
for the Under-Secretary of State. 

No. ii 
The Agent-General for Queensland to Colonial Office 

Queensland Government Offices, 409 and 410 Strand, 

London, W.C., September 28, 1914. 

SIR, I have the honour to inform you that I have received Queens- 
telegraphic communication from my Government to the effect land. 
that the s.s. Anchises carries a consignment of food-stuffs ~' 
valued at 1950 for Imperial purposes. This is the third ship- 
ment of food-stuffs collected by the Brisbane Newspaper 
Company, Limited, and consists of : 

1,600 dozen tins of various meat, 
1,500 Ibs. corned meat, 
10,060 Ibs. condensed milk, 

5 cwt. golden syrup, 

374 dozen tins of jam and preserved pineapples, 
14,400 tins of condensed milk for the babies of 
Great Britain. 

I have, etc., 
T. B. ROBINSON, Agent-General. 

1 [No. 9.] 

91 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

No. 12 
Colonial Office to the Agent-General for Queensland 

Downing Street, October i, 1914. 

Queens- SIR, I am directed by Mr. Secretary Harcourt to acknow- 
land. ledge the receipt of your letter of the 28th ultimo, 1 notifying 
the shipment of a further consignment of food-stuffs collected 
by the Brisbane Newspaper Company, Limited, for presenta- 
tion to His Majesty's Government. 

2. I am to state that His Majesty's Government gratefully 
accept this further welcome gift from the readers of the Bris- 
bane Courier, and I am at the same time to ask that the inquiry 
made in the third paragraph of the letter from this Depart- 
ment of the 25th September 2 may be regarded as applying to 
this gift also. I am, etc., HENRY LAMBERT, 

for the Under-Secretary of State. 

No. 13 
The Agent-General for Queensland to Colonial Office 

Queensland Government Offices, 409 and 410 Strand, 

London, W.C., October i, 1914. 

Queens- SIR, I have the honour, by direction of the Agent-General, 
land, to enclose, for the information of the Right Honourable the 
** Secretary of State, a copy of a telegram which was despatched 
to the Chief-Secretary, Brisbane, relative to the presentation 
of food-stuffs to His Majesty's Government by the Patriotic 
Committee, Brisbane, and also a copy of a telegram in reply 
thereto, received under yesterday's date. The latter com- 
munication notifies, as you will perceive, the acceptance by 
the Committee of the proposal of Mr. Harcourt set out in 
paragraph 3 of your letter of the nth ultimo. 3 I have, etc., 

P. J. DILLON, Secretary. 

ENCLOSURE i IN No. 13 
(Cablegram sent to Chief-Secretary, Brisbane) 

September 12, 1914. 

Referring to your telegram of 8th, Mr. Harcourt wishes me 
to request you to inform the Committee that His Majesty's 

1 [No. ii.] 2 [No. 10.] 3 No. 6. 

92 






CORRESPONDENCE WITH AUSTRALIA 

Government gratefully accept this generous and welcome gift 
and highly appreciate the sentiments of affectionate regard 
for the Mother Country which animate the citizens of Brisbane. 
Mr. Harcourt would propose, if you consider that such an 
arrangement would be acceptable to the Committee, that the 
frozen meat and the other commodities to be sent should be 
devoted to the relief of distress in this country. Pending the 
receipt of your reply on this point, he will defer making in- 
quiries as to the commodities to the purchase of which it is 
considered that the second 10,000 might most usefully be 
devoted. AGENT-GENERAL, London. 

ENCLOSURE 2 IN No. 13 
(Cablegram received by the Agent- General) 

September 30, 1914. 

Referring to your telegram of I2th September. Committee 
approve of Mr. Harcourt 's proposal or any other arrange- 
ments approved by you. Suggestions appreciated. 

CHIEF-SECRETARY, Brisbane. 



93 



PROCLAMATIONS, ORDERS IN COUNCIL, 
AND PUBLIC NOTICES 



August 3, 1914. 



PROCLAMATION 
DANGER OF WAR 



BY 



His EXCELLENCY THE RIGHT HONOURABLE SIR 
RONALD CRAUFURD MUNRO- FERGUSON, a Member 
of His Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, 
Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order 
of Saint Michael and Saint George, Governor-General 
and Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of 
Australia. 1 

WHEREAS by the Defence Act, 1903-1912, it is enacted that 
the expression ' time of war ' used in that Act means any time 
during which a state of war actually exists, and includes the 
time between the issue of a Proclamation of the existence of 
war or of danger thereof, and the issue of a Proclamation de- 
claring that the war or danger thereof, declared in the prior 
Proclamation, no longer exists : 

Now, therefore, I, Sir Ronald Craufurd Munro-Ferguson, 
the Governor-General aforesaid, acting with the advice of the 
Federal Executive Council, do hereby proclaim the existence 
of the danger of a war. 

Given under my Hand and the Seal of the Commonwealth, 
at Melbourne, this third day of August, in the year of 
our Lord One thousand nine hundred and fourteen, and 
in the fifth year of His Majesty's reign. 

By His Excellency's Command, 

E. D. MILLEN, 
Minister of State for Defence. 



94 



God save the King ! 
1 [The formal parts of subsequent Proclamations are omitted.] 



AUSTRALIAN PROCLAMATIONS, ETC, 



PROCLAMATION 
CALLING OUT OF CITIZEN FORCES 

WHEREAS by the Defence Act, 1903-1912, it is amongst Australia 
other things enacted that the Governor-General may, in time Common- 
of war, by Proclamation, call out the Citizen Forces, or any 
part thereof, for active service, and that the Proclamation 
shall state the reason for calling out the Forces : 

And Whereas, by a Proclamation dated the third day of 
August 1914, the Governor-General has proclaimed that a 
danger of state of war exists, and it is, in the opinion of the 
Governor-General, essential in the interests of the Common- 
wealth that some part of the Citizen Forces should be called 
out for active service : 

Now, therefore, I, Sir Ronald Craufurd Munro-Ferguson, 
in exercise of the power conferred by the said Act, do by this 
my Proclamation call out such part of the Citizen Forces as 
are required to fulfil the precautionary measures laid down 
in Defence Schemes. 



ESTABLISHMENT OF CENSORSHIP OF CABLE 
AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS 

His Excellency the Governor-General, acting with the ibid. 
advice of the Federal Executive Council, has been pleased to 
approve of the establishment of censorship of all cable and 
wireless telegraph communications throughout the Common- 
wealth, being proclaimed as from five o'clock P.M. of 3rd 
August. ... E. D. MILLEN, 

Minister of State for Defence. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 

EXAMINATION SERVICE ESTABLISHED FOR MERCANTILE 

TRAFFIC 

I, Sir Ronald Craufurd Munro-Ferguson, the Governor- ibid. 
General, acting with the advice of the Federal Executive 
Council, do hereby direct that the Examination Service for 

95 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Australia 
Common- 
wealth 
Gazette. 



ibid. 



the control of mercantile traffic shall be established at the 
ports set forth in the Schedule hereto from the third day of 
August 1914, and that all merchant ships entering the said 
ports on and after that date shall be subject to examination 
in accordance with the Examination Service for the control 
of mercantile traffic. 

THE SCHEDULE 

Sydney (including Port Jackson). 

Melbourne (including Port Phillip). 

Brisbane. 

Port Adelaide. 

Fremantle. 

Hobart. 

Thursday Island. 

Newcastle. 

[Proclamations with regard to ' days of grace ' for enemy 
merchant ships were issued on August 5 and 6. Proclama- 
tions forbidding the export of specified arms, explosives, and 
military ancj naval stores were issued on August 6 and 10.] 



August 6, 1914. 



PROCLAMATION 



CALLING OUT OF CITIZEN FORCES 

I, Sir Ronald Craufurd Munro-Ferguson, do by this my 
Proclamation call out for active service such part of the 
Citizen Forces as may be notified by their Commanding 
Officer or by the District Commandant that their services 
are required. 

August 10, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

TRANSFER OF NAVAL FORCES TO IMPERIAL GOVERNMENT 

I, Sir Ronald Craufurd Munro-Ferguson, the Governor- 
General, acting with the advice of the Federal Executive 
Council, do hereby order that from and after the publication 
of this Order all the vessels of the Commonwealth Naval 
Forces, and all the officers and seamen of those vessels, shall 
96 



AUSTRALIAN PROCLAMATIONS, ETC. 

be transferred to the King's Naval Forces, and that such 
transfer shall continue in force until the issue of a Proclama- 
tion declaring that the war no longer exists. 



PROCLAMATION 
GERMAN SUBJECTS TO REPORT THEMSELVES 

I, Sir Ronald Craufurd Munro-Ferguson, the Governor- Australia 
General, acting with the advice of the Federal Executive Common- 
Council, do hereby call upon all persons who are subjects of 
the German Empire, and who are resident in the Common- 
wealth, to forthwith report themselves to the officer of police 
nearest to the place in which such persons reside, and to 
supply to such officer particulars as to their names, places of 
residence, and occupations or businesses, and such other 
matters as such police officer thinks fit to require : 

And I do further call upon all such persons immediately 
before changing their place of residence to notify to the 
nearest officer of police their intention so to change their 
place of residence, and forthwith upon arrival at their fresh 
place of residence to notify such arrival to the officer of police 
nearest to such fresh place of residence. 

[A similar Proclamation with regard to Austro-Hungarian 
subjects was issued on August 13.] 

August 15, 1914. 

a MILITARY FORCES OF THE COMMONWEALTH 
AUSTRALIAN IMPERIAL FORCE 

Department of Defence, 
Melbourne, August 15, 1914. 

His Excellency the Governor-General, acting with the ibid. 
advice of the Federal Executive Council, has been pleased to 
approve of a Military Force being formed of persons who 
voluntarily agree to serve beyond the limits of the Common- 
wealth, to be designated the ' AUSTRALIAN IMPERIAL FORCE,' 
consisting of One Division, one Light Horse Brigade ; that 
Brigadier-General W. T. Bridges, C.M.G., Inspector-General, 

OVERSEAS 2. G 97 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



[Al 



be appointed to organise and command the Force ; that the 
under-mentioned be appointed to be Officers of the Force : 



Rank. 


Name. 


Corps. 


Present Appointment. 


Colonel . . 


Ryan, C. S., V.D. 


Army Medical Corps 


Principal Medical Officer 


Colonel 


Hobbs TIT 




3rd Military District. 
Commanding 22nd In- 




VD . . . 




fantry Brigade. 


Colonel . 


Sellheim, V. C. M., 


Administrative and 


Adj utant-General . 



Lieut.-Colonel 
Lieut. -Colonel 
Major . 
Major . 
Major . 
Captain 
Captain 

Hon. Lt.-Col. 

Hon. Captain . 
Warrant Officer 



C.B. 
Patterson, W. G. 

Forsyth, J. K. . 
Austin, J. G. 

White, C. B. B. . 

Glasfurd, D. J. . 
Marsh, J. T. 

Foster, W. J. . 

Thomas, T. J. . 

Griffiths, T. 
Maycock, W. C. 



Instructional Staff 

Administrative and 
Instructional Staff 

Administrative and 
Instructional Staff 

Army Ordnance De- 
partment 

Royal Australian 
Garrison Artillery 

Argyll and Suther- 
land Highlanders 

Army Service Corps 

Administrative and 
Instructional Staff 



Army Service Corps 



Staff Officer to Inspector- 
General. 

Quartermaster-General 
(temporary) . 

Director of Ordnance 
Services. 

Director of Military 
Operations. 

Director of Military 
Training. 

Director of Supply and 
Transport. 

General Staff Officer, 
Grade III., Head- 
quarters. 

Officer-in-Charge Admin- 
istration, Royal Mili- 
tary College. 

Secretary, Military 
Board. 

Quartermaster-General's 
Department, Head- 
quarters. 



[Warrant Officer Maycock is granted the rank of Lieutenant whilst employed 
with the Australian Imperial Force.] 

And that the under-mentioned officers be appointed to com- 
mand brigades as shown hereunder of the Australian Imperial 
Force : 



Brigade. 


Rank and Name. 


Corps. 


Present Appointment. 


ist Infantry 
Brigade 
2nd Infantry 
Brigade 
3rd Infantry 
Brigade 


Lieut.-Colonel Mac- 
Laurin, H. M. 
Colonel McCay, The 
Hon. J. W., V.D. 
Lieut.-Colonel Sinclair- 
MacLagan, E. G., 
D.S.O. 


26th Infantry 
Regiment 
Unattached List 

Yorkshire Regi- 
ment 


Commanding 26th In- 
fantry. 

Director of Drill, Royal 
Military College. 



98 



E. D. MlLLEN, 

Minister of State for Defence. 



I 






4 ] AUSTRALIAN PROCLAMATIONS, ETC. 

[Proclamations forbidding the export of wheat and flour, 
of meat and of sugar, were issued on September 7, 8, 9, and 
23.] 

September 17, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

POWERS OF GENERAL OFFICER COMMANDING AUSTRALIAN 

IMPERIAL FORCE 

I, Sir Ronald Craufurd Munro-Ferguson, do hereby order Australia 
that, subject to such arrangements as may be made by His Common- 
Majesty's Secretary of State for War while the Australian ealt h 
Imperial Force is in England, and to the Orders and Regula- 
tions issued by the Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial 
Forces while abroad, the General Officer Commanding the 
Australian Imperial Force shall have and may exercise any 
or all of the following powers in relation to such Force, that 
is to say : 

(a) The power within the authorised establishment to 

change, vary, or group units in such manner as he 
considers expedient from time to time ; 

(b) The power to transfer officers and men when necessary 

from one corps or unit to another, and to detail 
them for any duty in any place which he considers 
expedient from time to time ; 

(c) The power to appoint and promote subject to confir- 

mation officers who, in his opinion, are suitable 
and. qualified to fill vacancies in the authorised 
establishment ; 

(d) The power to remove officers and men who are unfit 

by reason of wounds, sickness, or other causes, 
and to arrange with the High Commissioner in 
London for their return to Australia ; 

(e) The power to detail to units the personnel of first and 

other reinforcements in order to make good wast- 
age due to any cause ; and to delegate such power 
if necessary ; and 

(/) The power to employ, discharge, attach, or remove 
civilian personnel required from time to time. 

99 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Australia 
.Common- 
wealth 
Gazette. 



ibid. 



September 23, 1914. 
PROCLAMATION 
PROHIBITION OF EXPORTATION OF MARES 

I, Sir Arthur Lyulph Stanley, duly appointed, and acting 
as the Deputy of the Governor-General in accordance with 
the provisions of the Constitution, acting with the advice of 
the Federal Executive Council, do hereby prohibit the exporta- 
tion of mares from the Commonwealth unless the consent in 
writing of the Minister of State for Trade and Customs has 
first been obtained. 

[A Press Censorship was established by Order in Council, 
dated September 24.] 

September 30, 1914. 
PROCLAMATION 
PROHIBITING IMPORTATION OF THE HINDUSTAN 'GHADR' 

WHEREAS it is desirable to prohibit the importation into 
the Commonwealth of any copy in any language of a paper 
called the Ghadr (Mutiny), or Hindustan Ghadr, published at 
San Francisco, United States of America : 

Now therefore I, Sir Ronald Craufurd Munro-Ferguson, 
the Governor-General aforesaid, acting with the advice of the 
Federal Executive Council, do hereby prohibit the importation 
into the Commonwealth of any copy in any language of a 
paper called the Ghadr (Mutiny), or Hindustan Ghadr, pub- 
lished at San Francisco, United States of America. 



ORDER IN COUNCIL 
WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY 

ibid. I, Sir Ronald Craufurd Munro-Ferguson, the Governor- 

General, acting with the advice of the Federal Executive 
Council, do hereby order as follows : 

i. That the Officer in Command of the Military Forces in 
any Military District or any officer acting under his authority 
may take possession of any wireless telegraphs in the Military 
District in which he exercises his command. 
100 



AUSTRALIAN PROCLAMATIONS, ETC. 

2. That the Lieutenant-Governor of Papua, or any other 
officer acting under his authority, may take possession of 
any wireless telegraph in such Territory. 

3. That any officer or person acting under the authority 
of this Order may require the owner of any wireless telegraph 
station or plant, whether for transmitting and receiving, or 
for transmitting or for receiving, and whether on land or on 
any ship, to dismantle such station or plant, and to place such 
parts of the apparatus used thereon or therewith as he may 
require in the custody of some officer of the Commonwealth, 
and may also require such owner to take down any mast and 
-aerial wires used in connection with such station or plant. 

4. That in the event of the owner of any wireless telegraph 
station or plant on land or on any ship failing to comply with 
any requirement under the preceding paragraph, the officer 
or person acting under the authority of this Order may dis- 
mantle such station or plant, and take down any mast, and 
remove or sever any aerial wires used in connection with such 
station or plant, and may place any parts of the apparatus 
used in connection with such station or plant in such place 
of safety as he may think fit. 



101 



SPEECHES AND STATEMENTS 

July 27, 1914. 
AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MOBILISATION ORDER 

ANNOUNCEMENT 

Sydney A partial mobilisation has been ordered inAustria-Hungary. 

Morning Those subject to military duty who have to return to the 
Herald, monarchy for this purpose will be notified by notice to call to 
arms (einberufungskarten). 

Their travelling expenses will be refunded. 
Those called who do not possess the necessary means for 
the voyage will have to apply personally at the I. and R. 
Austro-Hungarian Consulate-General, 24 Castlereagh Street, 
Sydney, producing their respective call to arms. 

To all the others called their travelling expenses will be 
refunded subsequently, according to the existing compensation 
rates. 

An amnesty has been granted to all deserters, and to all 
those who have presented themselves for military examina- 
tion, provided they return to the monarchy at once, whether 
they have been called in or not. 

FREYESLEBEN, I. and R. Consul-General. 

Sydney, July 27, 1914. 

July 30, 1914. 

SPEECH OF THE AUSTRALIAN PRIME MINISTER 
(MR. COOK) AT HORSHAM 

Melbourne ' Whatever happens, Australia is a part of the Empire 

Argus, ^ right to the full. Remember that when the Empire is at war, 

July3i,'i4. so i s Australia at war. That being so, you will see how 

grave is the situation. So far as the defences go here and 

now in Australia, I want to make it quite clear that all our 

102 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

resources in Australia are in the Empire and for the Empire, 
and for the preservation and the security of the Empire/ 

July 31, 1914. 

SPEECH OF LEADER OF FEDERAL LABOUR PARTY 
(MR. FISHER) AT COLAC 

' Turn your eyes to the European situation, and give the Melbourne 
kindest feelings towards the Mother Country at this time. . . . Argus, ^ 
Should the worst happen after everything has been done that J u y31 ' I4< 
honour will permit, Australians will stand beside our own to 
help and defend her to our last man and our last shilling/ 

SPEECHES OF GOVERNOR AND PREMIER OF NEW 
SOUTH WALES, AT THE SYDNEY CHAMBER OF 
COMMERCE 

SIR GERALD STRICKLAND : The greatest ally of commerce Sydney 
is undoubtedly peace ; and the Abjective of the leaders and Morning 
the statesmen of the greatest of commercial nations to-day ^ ^^ 
is undoubtedly to ensure peace peace on business lines, and J y3 
for business purposes. The Empire is to be congratulated that 
there is at the head of the Foreign Office in England to-day, 
a great statesman, Sir Edward Grey, who before he came to the 
Foreign Office was earning, as manager of a large business 
concern, a salary at least equal to that he receives as Foreign 
Secretary. That will show we are fortunate in the training 
and qualifications of the most important man to-day on 
the face of the whole earth. We have to thank the wise 
experience to which accidents have been turned. The 
accidents of financial difficulties half a generation ago have 
given us a magnificent collection of patriotic, experienced, and 
trusted men as managers and chairmen of our banks ; and, 
perhaps, never was the banking position so full of solidity as 
it is to-day in the face of so important a crisis. If the trouble 
is short, it will hurt nobody ; if it is long, it will hurt Australia 
less than anybody else. The control of paper money in 
Australia is in the hands of one authority. It is a very great 
standby if the worst becomes very bad. There is something 
in connection with commerce which is even more valuable 

103 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

than gold and that is financial integrity. It is the secret 
of British success in trade. That integrity, and that loyalty 
to allies as well as competitors, have made the Anglo-Saxon 
race great ; but that integrity, so precious in peace, is more 
valuable in war. 

MR. HOLMAN : I feel like Sir Gerald Strickland, how greatly 
changed the position of Government, of commerce, and of 
public affairs has been during the last week. We know not 
what the day or the hour may bring forth. The last hours 
have brought forth great happenings, fraught, possibly, with 
great evils to mankind at large, and to Australians in par- 
ticular. I venture to say and I believe Sir Gerald will 
assent to this proposition that the day has not yet arrived 
for us to abandon hope, firstly, for the confining of the struggle 
now going on in Europe to comparatively small dimensions, 
and secondly, for its speedy and happy termination. I am 
an optimist, possibly a foolish one, but I do believe in the 
progressive determination of humanity to diminish, and so 
far as possible, abolish the horrors and miseries of war. I have 
a deep-rooted confidence in the sound sense of Western 
Europe ; I believe the Governments there will go to very 
great lengths before they see the world plunged into the 
atrocities of the general struggle which is being forecasted 
in certain directions. I appeal to the Sydney Chamber of 
Commerce to exercise its influence to prevent the spread of 
any bellicose spirit, and urge all Australians to sink political 
and sectional difference in this time of crisis, for the good of 
Australia. 



STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

Sydney The MINISTER OF DEFENCE (SENATOR MILLEN) yesterday 

Morning W as shown the cable message regarding Canada's readiness to 
Herald, sen( j ^ o ^ 000 troops to assist Great Britain. He was asked 
' how Australia stood in this respect. 

' If the necessity arose/ he said, ' I am quite convinced 
that Australia would recognise that she was not merely a 
fair-weather partner of the Empire, but a component member 
in all circumstances. Australia's loyalty and willingness to co- 
operate have been very conspicuously in evidence on previous 
104 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

occasions, and there is no reason to suppose that any other 
attitude is likely to be manifested should any future emergency 
arise/ 

August i, 1914. 

SPEECH OF AUSTRALIAN ATTORNEY-GENERAL 

AT SYDNEY 

SIR WILLIAM IRVINE : If ever there was a time when the Sydney 
Australian people should be united it is the present. The 
world is on the brink of one of the greatest convulsions of 
modern times. We hope still that Britain that grand old 
country from which we have sprung will not be drawn into 
the present terrible conflict ; but I am confident that the 
people of Australia, no matter what be their political colour, 
desire to convey to those statesmen who have the control of 
the affairs of the Empire the assurance that, whatever course 
they may adopt in the present grave crisis, they will have 
behind them our patriotic and loyal support. They may be 
assured of this, the Australian people will unite to place their 
resources, both of men and money, at the disposal of the 
statesmen of the Mother Country. 

August 2, 1914. 

STATEMENT OF LEADER OF FEDERAL LABOUR 

PARTY 

Melbourne, Sunday. 

Speaking with an evidently deep sense of responsibility, ibid. 
Mr. Fisher made the following statement : 

' In a state of affairs like this there are no parties. The 
safety and welfare of our country, and all near and dear to 
us is our first consideration. Mr. Cook knows my views/ 

STATEMENT OF MR. W. M. HUGHES 

Whatever needs to be done to defend the interests of the Melbourne 
Commonwealth and of the Empire must be done. War is a Argus, 
dreadful an awful thing. This war is a crime against civilisa- Au &- 3> I 4- 
tion, but our hands at least are free from guilt in the matter. 
If, as unhappily appears to be now the case, Britain is involved 
and war is upon us, then we must face it and do our part in 

105 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

a fashion worthy of the traditions and spirit of our race, and 
do what has to be done with inflexible resolution and purpose, 
and we must face it unitedly. For this, indeed, is the occasion 
when none shall be for the Party, but all be for the State. 

August 3, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF PREMIER OF NEW SOUTH WALES 

Sydney Cabinet was summoned to consider the position generally 

Sun, in consequence of the war ; first to consider the general 

Aug. 4, '14. problem of defence, and secondly the special matter of the 
effects of the present crisis upon the financial situation. 

As the first matter that of defence is entirely in the 
hands of the Federal Government, all that we have done is to 
communicate with the Prime Minister offering our unreserved 
co-operation in any measures judged to be necessary for the 
national safety at this moment. 

In that matter we considered ourselves to be ordinary 
citizens wielding considerable authority, and we propose to 
exercise that, if called upon, in any way which in the judgment 
of those responsible will conduce to the efficiency of the 
national powers. 

STATEMENT BY VICTORIAN PREMIER 

Melbourne ' As State Ministers we are satisfied that the Federal Execu- 

Argus, ^ tive will do its duty in the present situation. The State 

Aug. 4, '14. Government is prepared to co-operate with the Federal 

Government in every way possible,' declared the Premier 

(Sir Alexander Peacock), at the close of yesterday's meeting 

of the State Cabinet. 

'While we discussed routine business to-day/ said the 
Premier, ' we could not but consider the greater question 
which is paramount in everybody's mind just now, and give 
thought to the difficulties looming ahead. We know that the 
Federal Ministry met this afternoon. We are satisfied that 
the Prime Minister (Mr. Cook) and his colleagues will do 
everything that is necessary to show the people of the Mother 
Country, and her enemies too, that, so far as this part of the 
Empire is concerned, Australia will act promptly and de- 
106 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

cisively. Australia recognises her responsibilities to the 
Empire. 

' I as Premier, and my colleagues as State Ministers, were 
pleased and grateful when we learned of the note struck by 
Mr. Fisher and Mr. Hughes, that this was the time when all 
parties should combine and show to the world that we are a 
united people. With these sentiments we entirely agree. 
There may be differences in our political opinions, but there 
are no differences in our views concerning our duty to the 
British Empire, and particularly to this part of it, which has 
received so much help and such kindly consideration from the 
motherland. We are satisfied the Federal Executive will do 
its duty. We, on our part, will give a full and complete co- 
operation, and we are sure the other State Governments of 
Australia will do the same/ 



NOTIFICATION BY GERMAN CONSUL-GENERAL 

The IMPERIAL GERMAN CONSUL-GENERAL, HERR KILIANI, Sydney 
yesterday issued the following notification : Morning 

' The mobilisation has been ordered in Germany. All A * *' , 
Germans subject to military duty according to the pre- 
scription in their military passports, have to return and to 
present themselves at the Bezirkskommando in the first 
German port reached/ 

August 4, 1914. 

SPEECHES IN NEW SOUTH WALES 
LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 

MR. WADE: I desire to ask the Premier, can he give the .New South 
House any information with regard to the European crisis, Wales 
and whether it is a fact that England is involved in the war ? 

MR. HOLMAN : No. I regret to say that I have no more 
information than is available to hon. members generally 
through the Press. Any opinions which the Government 
may have formed are almost entirely speculative, as are the 
opinions of hon. members themselves. I may say that I 
was in communication with the Federal Government this 
afternoon at quite a recent hour, but no information was 

107 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

forthcoming then. I should like to say, however, that if 
any definite information does reach me, I think I should not 
be exceeding my duty, as head of the Government, if I 
promised that the Leader of the Opposition would be made 
aware of it at once. In view of the general gravity of the 
situation, my colleagues have met and taken such steps as 
suggested themselves as desirable. But we have no more 
information I say it once again than is generally available 
to hon. members on both sides through the public Press. . . . 

MR. WADE : Perhaps I might be allowed to say a few 
words in the form of a statement rather than a question at 
this particular juncture. I want to say, on behalf of my 
party, that we appreciate to the fullest the unparalleled 
gravity of the present situation in Europe and reflected in 
Australia. This is an occasion when war seems to be almost 
unavoidable, in which the Empire will be involved, and it 
is an occasion when we, in Opposition, feel that under those 
conditions party divisions should be sunk, in view of the 
larger issues entirely overshadowing them. Anything we can 
do under those conditions to strengthen the hands of the 
Government in voicing the sentiments of the Empire, or in 
helping them to maintain financial confidence and stability, 
the Premier can be assured of our readiness to do. 

MR. HOLMAN : I need not assure the hon. member and 
the House on behalf of my colleagues that we entirely appreci- 
ate the spirit of the remarks he has just made, and We shall 
not hesitate to avail ourselves of the offer of assistance which 
the hon. member has given us. 

[Members rising in their places, sang the National Anthem 
and ' Rule, Britannia/ and gave three cheers for the King.] 

MR. D. STOREY : In .view of the unsettled condition of 
Europe, and the probability of the Empire being involved in 
war, I would suggest to the Premier that it would be unwise 
to go on with any business to-night, and that we should 
therefore adjourn. 

MR. WADE : Might I put the matter to the Premier by 
way of indorsement ? I am sure that I can say with official 
indorsement that the general temper of the House is un- 
settled owing to the unfortunate crisis which has arisen, and 
that it is the desire of hon. members that we should adjourn 
till to-morrow. 
108 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

MR. McGowEN : I quite agree with hon. members who say 
that the temper of the House is unsettled, but, at the same 
time, I would point out that we have not received any definite 
information that the Empire is at war. In view of the generous 
offer made by the Leader of the Opposition, I think we might 
very well leave it to the good sense of the Cabinet not to 
bring forward public business unless it is absolutely necessary. 

MR. HOLMAN : ... After having consulted the hon. 
member for Macquarie, in whose name the first business for 
to-night stands, I may say that I am perfectly willing, if it 
is the general desire of hon. members, to adjourn at once, 
and to allow the night for the consideration of the new 
position that has arisen. At the same time, I would submit 
that, whilst naturally and necessarily the plunging of the 
Empire into a state of war will have a deeply unsettling 
effect on the public mind, and upon the minds of public men 
like ourselves who represent the public, nevertheless the 
preparations for war, and the arrangements for war, are not 
our essential business, and I believe we shall contribute most 
effectively to the safety of the whole Commonwealth I speak 
not merely of the Commonwealth of Australia, but of the 
commonwealth of the English race and the Empire if in 
troublous times like this we calmly and resolutely continue 
to discharge our duties. We should take it upon ourselves 
to set an example to the general community by refusing to 
be perturbed or panic-stricken, and by going deliberately 
and rationally about our affairs, confiding, as we all do, in 
the ultimate strength of the nation and the success 'of the 
cause in which our nation's arms are engaged. I may 
mention that I have just been informed that one of the 
leading newspapers has received a cablegram of the gravest 
possible description, intimating that the Imperial authorities 
have ordered the general mobilisation of the British Army 
for to-night, presumably owing to the declaration of war by 
Great Britain. Under the circumstances, I think I shall be 
expressing the . sentiments of hon. members generally if I 
move the adjournment. I move : 

That this House do now adjourn. 
Question resolved in the affirmative. 

109 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



SPEECHES IN VICTORIAN LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL 

Victoria The HON. W. L. BAILLIEU (Honorary Minister) : I intend 

Hansard, to move that the House, at its rising, adjourn until Tuesday 
next ; but, before doing so, it will be appropriate for me to 
read an announcement which has been made in another 
place. The statement, which was made by the Premier, is 
as follows : [See below, p. in.] 

I understand from my colleague, the Minister of Mines, 
that in another place the Premier moved, and the Leader of 
the Opposition (Mr. Elmslie) seconded, a motion for the 
adjournmeht of the Legislative Assembly for a week. This 
is not an occasion for a lengthy speech, and all I desire to say 
is that I feel that the present is a time for the display of cool- 
ness. It is possible that calm consideration in another part 
of the world may yet be able to avert the terrible disaster that 
seems to be looming over us. It is not easy to fully realise 
the stupendous consequences to the world and the Empire 
which will result from a war, but if we find ourselves forced 
into a conflict, I think we will know how to do our duty. 
The HON. A. A. AUSTIN. To the British Empire. 
The HON. W. L. BAILLIEU : To the British Empire, of 
which we form a part. It is idle for a certain section of the 
community to say that we do not want war. No one wants 
war, with all its evil consequences ; but if, by the decree of 
those in high places, we find ourselves involved in war, we will 
behave like Englishmen. My thoughts fly particularly to the 
working classes, who will be most seriously affected by hos- 
tilities ; but if we keep our heads cool in this continent of 
Australia, we may be able to lessen the consequences of a 
great conflict, and prevent them from being as severely felt 
as they would be by those who were closer to the theatre of 
operations. It certainly will be the duty, and, I am sure, it 
will be the earnest desire, of all those who are employers, 
whether as public bodies or as individuals, to carry on work 
as far as they possibly can, so that the evils of the conflict may 
be reduced to a minimum. I move : 

That the House, at its rising, adjourn until this day 
week. 

V. 

The motion was agreed to. 
no 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 



SPEECHES IN VICTORIAN LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 

SIR ALEXANDER PEACOCK (Premier) : The circumstances Victoria 
in which we meet to-day are known to all of us. There is no Hansard. 
need to emphasise the existence of such a crisis as the civilised 
world has probably never seen before. The Government feel, 
and they are sure that all honourable members share the 
sentiment, that neither our minds nor our inclinations are in 
a condition for the discharge of ordinary legislative duties. 
The issues are so grave, and the considerations so momentous, 
that it is impossible to compose our minds for the minor 
matters of politics and legislation. I have had a consultation 
with the Leader of the Opposition in regard to the step I 
propose to take ; and I think honourable members generally 
will agree that it is appropriate to adjourn until this day 
week. I beg to move, therefore 

That the House, at its rising, adjourn until this day 
week. 

MR. ELMSLIE : On behalf of this (the Opposition) side of 
the House, I have to say that we are quite in accord with the 
sentiments expressed, and the proposal made by the Premier 
for the adjournment of the House. I therefore second the 
motion. 

The motion was agreed to. 

SPEECHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIAN LEGISLATIVE 

COUNCIL 

The HON. A. W. STYLES : It is not my intention to-day to South 
speak at any great length, nor do I wish at this critical juncture Australia 
even to take the opportunity afforded me to criticise the 
Governor's Speech, as presented to this Council a few days 
ago. It seems to me that the international crisis makes it 
necessary, for the time being, at any rate, to facilitate the 
Government in any desire they may have to prepare for this 
great emergency. I do not, neither do any members of my 
party, desire to put any obstacle in the way of the Govern- 
ment whatever, or to hinder or harass them at this particular 
time. Never before, I suppose, in the history of the people 
of this Commonwealth, have they been so deeply moved as 

in 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

they have been by the importance of the great issue which is 
now before us, and it is because we recognise how closely we 
may be drawn into warfare to help the motherland and her 
glorious empire at this particular time, that we can say to 
the Government that we shall support the adoption of the 
Address in Reply to the Governor's Speech, and enable them 
to go on as speedily as they desire with the business which 
must exercise the minds of the Government of the country. 
We know that there are issues at work to-day which are likely 
to bring about a tremendous amount of unemployment within 
our area. Broken Hill, Port Pirie, and in fact every one of 
our mining towns, and not they alone, but every commercial 
and industrial interest, will feel the shock of this big warfare. 
Rumour has already come to this Council that England has 
declared war against Germany, and this I regret exceedingly, 
but while 

The HON. A. R. ADDISON : It is Germany's fault. 

The HON. A. W. STYLES : I do not want to go into the 
merits and demerits of the position at this juncture, but there 
is one thing which we desire, and for which we should strive, 
and that is the peace of the world. I am proud to find that 
the British Government have been using every endeavour 
to prevent warfare, and because we realise the importance of 
the situation, we are not at this juncture going to do other 
than facilitate the Government in their desire to push on with 
the necessary work essential at the present time. The Govern- 
ment may be assured of this that in such a crisis as the present 
they will have the hearty co-operation of every member of 
this side of the House, who, although active political opponents, 
in time of warfare are prepared to stand shoulder to shoulder 
with the Government supporters in doing the best not only 
for the Commonwealth, and in particular for South Australia, 
but for the whole of the Empire and the British race. 

The HON. E. LUCAS : Pursuant to a conversation which I 
had with the Hon. Mr. Styles prior to the meeting of this 
House, I desire to adopt the action which he has already taken, 
namely, to forego my right to speak on the Address in Reply. 
It appears that the affairs of the Empire at the moment so 
completely overshadow our State concerns that it would ill 
become this Chamber to have a lengthy debate upon matters 
that, after all, are of minor importance. I am sure that the 

112 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

feeling throughout the civilised world to-day, particularly 
throughout the Empire of which we form a portion, is of the 
keenest tension. It is one of the most anxious times the 
nation has ever experienced. There is not the slightest doubt 
that the Mother Country and the British Ministry have gone 
as far as they could in the endeavour to secure international 
peace. Unfortunately, however, the cablegrams which ar- 
rived to-day are of a most portentous character, and if the 
latest report be true, the whole world will have cause to regret 
the blaze which began over a comparatively trivial matter in 
the Balkans. If that report is correct, I feel convinced that 
the course entered upon by the Mother Country has been 
adopted only from a keen sense of her obligations to the other 
Powers, and of her duty to the British Empire itself. Our 
country is not aggressive in regard to warfare, and I hope the 
time will never come when she will adopt such an attitude, 
but, when it conies to carrying out treaty obligations, she has 
a solemn duty to perform. To-day it may be true, as in the 
past, that 

Not once or twice in our fair island-story, 
The path of duty was the way to glory. 

It may be hard and difficult, and nearly always it involves 
personal and national sacrifices, but in the end it invariably 
has proved the very best course that could possibly be adopted. 
I cordially support the adoption of the Address in Reply, and 
I sincerely trust that although this State, in common with 
every other part of the Empire, will have to suffer in her 
commercial and personal relationships, and that although this 
war promises to be one of the greatest that have shaken the 
world, peace, and peace with honour, may be speedily brought 
about. 

The CHIEF-SECRETARY l : I appreciate very deeply the 
remarks made by honourable members, and the expression 
)f their desire to help the Government in this time of crisis. 
~ r e are faced by the most awful catastrophe that has ever 
>efallen the world in its history. The Government recognises 
the difficulty that will be before them in a very short time. 
~ r e are already faced by some aspects of it in the cessation 
)f some of our industries in this State, and in the State im- 

1 [Hon. J. G. Bice.] 

)VERSEAS 2. H 113 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

mediately adjoining, which affects the work of our people and 
the earning capacity of the Government to such a large degree. 
I am sure that the action of the party leaders in this House 
is an exceedingly wise one. Important as our own affairs 
and concerns are, they fall into insignificance in face of the 
momentous trouble now threatening us. I appreciate highly 
the action taken, and with a view to show that the Government 
are realising their obligation to the Empire and the Common- 
wealth, I will read a telegram which we sent this morning to 
the Prime Minister : ' My Government wish to express keen 
satisfaction at the action taken by your Government in 
offering navy and men to the Motherland. This State will 
heartily co-operate with the Federal Government for the 
good of the Empire/ 

I purpose asking members to come to-morrow in view of 
any contingency that may arise, not that there will be much 
business to do, but in case of anything arising that will require 
our assistance and deliberations. I again express the hope 
that anything and everything we can do will be done to 
minimise the trouble, feeling assured that whatever may befall 
us will be met with that calm dignity which has always 
characterised the British nation in victory or defeat. 

Motion carried. 



South 

Australia 

Hansard. 



SPEECHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIAN HOUSE OF 

ASSEMBLY 

THE INTERNATIONAL CRISIS 

MR. VAUGHAN : By leave of the House I desire to say that 
in view of the international crisis that has arisen, and the 
necessity for Parliament setting an example to our people of 
an undivided front at this juncture, I have decided, with the 
unanimous approval of my party, and I might say, of those 
outside as well as inside the House and I believe it will be 
in accordance with the feeling of the people generally, and of 
all parties to ask leave to withdraw the amendment which I 
moved to the Address in Reply. Further, I desire to say it 
is the intention of members on this side of the House, in order 
to facilitate public business, to refrain from further discussing 
the Address in Reply. I desire to assure the Premier that 
114 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

anything that members of this side can do to assist the Govern- 
ment at the present juncture, will be freely done in order to 
secure the safety of this State. At a time like this we all 
realise and appreciate the fact that none are for the party, 
but all are for the State. 

The TREASURER (HoN. A. H. PEAKE) : I will deal with the 
proposal to which the honourable member has referred when 
I am speaking a little later on. 

MR. MCDONALD : Has the attention of the Premier been 
drawn to the proposal by the Leader of the Federal Parlia- 
ment in the event of England being drawn into the inter- 
national struggle ? 

The TREASURER : Yes, my attention was called to the 
proposal made by the Prime Minister, and I sent this telegram 
to him this morning : ' My Government wishes to express 
keen satisfaction at the action taken by your Government in 
offering navy and men to the Motherland. This State will 
heartily co-operate with the Federal Government for the 
good of the Empire/ 

ADDRESS IN REPLY 

The TREASURER (HoN. A. H. PEAKE) : . . . During the South 
last few days events of world- wide significance and concern Australia 
have been hurried on with hurricane rapidity, and the develop- Hansard. 
ments that have taken place have such close relationship to 
our State and national life as to alter the whole course of 
thought and action. We have been caught by the outer edge 
of a tremendous maelstrom in which the great nations of the 
world have become deeply involved. They have been clutched 
so suddenly and so fiercely as to excite our greatest amaze- 
ment and awe. It is as if the world in which we exist has 
lurched, leaving us for the moment in a stupor as to what has 
really happened, and filled with apprehension as to what the 
next eccentric motion of the planet may be. People may well 
be asking with feelings of dismay as to where solid ground 
may be discovered when they see the strong and powerful 
empires of Europe rocking with war and commotions. We can 
but earnestly pray that Great Britain may be steered in safety 
through the tempest, and that her power and influence may 
be so directed as to bring the blessings of tranquillity and 

115 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Sydney 
Morning 
Herald, 
Aug. 5, '14. 



peace to the distracted nations. Whatever may betide the 
Mother Country, whether in peace or war, we shall stand or 
fall with her. . . . We do not desire to raise any false alarm, 
nor to bring about anything in the nature of a panic. But 
it is undoubtedly our duty to state that difficulties of great 
gravity confront us, and that all the wisdom and courage of 
Parliament and our people will be required to cope with them. , 
... If it should be found necessary to ask for power which 
would not be sought in other than extraordinary circum- 
stances, the Government will not scruple to do so, having full 
confidence in the patriotism of both Parliament and people. 
There is another matter to which I would like to refer. We 
are a mixed community, and our country has been pioneered 
and developed by men of different nationalities, and it is by 
their assistance to our efforts that this State has done so well 
as we all know it has done. In such a time as this there is, 
unfortunately, a danger that racial animosities 'may be awak- 
ened. That is to be deprecated, and it will be deprecated 
by every right-feeling man in the community. I hope that 
it will be borne in mind that we are all fellow-citizens, and 
that the loyalty of South Australians, no matter from what 
stock they may have come, is thorough and undoubted. 

SPEECH OF THE LEADER OF OPPOSITION IN NEW 

SOUTH WALES 

MR. WADE : So far as one can see, there is an obligation on 
the part of England to join in as well. What does this mean 
to Australia ? We rely upon the primary products for the 
chief source of wealth, and until the supremacy of the sea is 
determined there will naturally be a very serious interference 
with our trade and commerce, and on the issue of the first 
great naval battle will depend the future not only of Aus- 
tralia, but of the British Empire. Situated as we are in the 
outlying portions of the British Empire, with a vast shore to 
protect, with immense possibilities of wealth stored up in 
the soil, and with a mere handful of people for the purpose of 
defence, we realise, with all its intensity, how important it is 
to maintain the supremacy of the old country. On the 
narrowest grounds of self-interest we are impelled to support 
the nation which has given us the privileges we are now en- 
116 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

joying, but there is a far higher motive promoted by the sense * 
of common kinship, common interest, and common sentiment, 
to respond with one voice, to the appeal of the old country for 
the Empire in the hour of trial. Under such conditions 
England's quarrel is, and must be, our quarrel ; her success 
is our success ; if she is defeated there is a gloomy prospect for 
Australia. War is at all times horrible, and with the per- 
fection of death-dealing weapons it becomes more devastating. 
The possibilities of desolation, ruin, and bloodshed consequent 
upon the present crisis are incalculable. It is a fight to the 
death, and England wants, not only the actual physical 
numbers of her sons throughout the Empire, but the moral 
effect of the united Overseas Dominions. Perhaps Germany 
never thought that Russia would refuse her ultimatum, 
perhaps she never considered that the British Dominions 
would rise as one man to offer assistance in the hour of need. 
It is such crises as this that bring home to every man's mind 
the immensity of the British Empire, and every young Aus- 
tralian should be thrilled with pride in offering a helping hand 
to the Mother Country. 

August 5, 1914. 
SPEECHES IN NEW SOUTH WALES LEGISLATIVE 

COUNCIL 
DECLARATION OF WAR BY. GREAT BRITAIN 

The HON. F. FLOWERS : I am desired to announce, with New South 
the consent of the Premier, that the legislation we forecasted Wales 
a few weeks ago at the opening of Parliament will stand post- 
poned for some little time, in view of the very serious nature 
of the information we have received in connection with the 
declaration of war by Great Britain, to which we are proud to 
belong. We feel that it would be folly to adjourn to any 
definite period, in view of the probability that legislation of an 
urgent character may be required for the protection of our 
commerce. I propose that the House shall adjourn, and meet 
again at the usual hour to-morrow. The Government have 
done everything to play a loyal and faithful part to our great 
Empire by assisting her in this very trying period in offering 
to the Commonwealth Government the whole of the resources 
of the State, the Commonwealth, on its part, having offered the 

117 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

whole of its resources to Great Britain. Words are altogether 
inadequate to describe one's feelings in connection with a 
crisis of this character a crisis which, I think, is unparalleled 
in the history of the British people. It is a matter of great 
satisfaction, however, that right throughout the Empire there 
has not been one false note. All parties stand united. No 
matter what our differences may be, nor how strong our 
party prejudices, the solidarity which has been evidenced from 
one end of the Empire to the other is magnificent. I feel there 
is no need for us to express any sentiments on this occasion. 
We have done all that we could be expected to do. Every 
shilling we possess, every ounce of our determination and 
energy, are at the disposal of Great Britain in the defence of 
the great Empire to which we belong. I am delighted to 
think that the statement of the Premier in the other Chamber 
was received with such satisfaction. The Opposition and the 
Government stand together as one, although the cleavage of 
party politics is great. In this House there is no strong party 
spirit, and we can only add the expression of our determina- 
tion to stand by Great Britain in her trouble. We express the 
earnest hope that she will come out of it triumphant, and that 
the issue will be to the advantage of civilisation from one end 
of the earth to the other. I move- 
That this House do now adjourn. 

The HON J. GARLAND : I am sure that we welcome the 
words which the Vice- President of the Executive Council has 
used. Every one of us here agrees with what the Government 
has done, and we are all proud of it. We now recognise no 
party. We are all for the Empire. Party lines have been 
blotted out ; and from now till the end of the war we are 
Australians, who are doing our best to bear our share of the 
Empire's mighty burden. 

Question resolved in the affirmative. 

SPEECHES OF PREMIER AND LEADER OF OPPOSI- 
TION IN NEW SOUTH WALES LEGISLATIVE 
ASSEMBLY 

New South MR. HOLMAN : I desire to inform the House that to-day 
Wales as hon. members are no doubt aware, from the information 
Hansard. 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

published in the Press a special 'intimation has been received 
by his Excellency the Governor to the effect that war has 
definitely broken out between Great Britain and Germany. 
. . . We have offered unreservedly to place the whole of the 
resources of the Government of this State at the command of 
the Commonwealth authorities, who are charged under our 
Constitution with the responsibility of arranging for the 
effective defence of the nation, and I think I may say that we 
have received from the Prime Minister a cordial acceptance of 
our offer, and an assurance that in the immediate future 
certain requisitions will be made upon us. I propose to 
invite the cordial co-operation of all hon. members in main- 
taining the public well-being, and in co-operating as far as we 
are called upon in securing the public safety. I can only 
beg hon. members generally to realise that whilst these are 
stirring and difficult times, there is, so far as we can see at 
present, no occasion for hysteria or panic. But I invite hon. 
members on both sides of the House to unite with the Ministry 
in expressing a loyal and resolute determination to remain 
united in front of the common danger and in opposition to 
the common enemy. 

MR. WADE : The announcement made by the Premier 
can scarcely have come as a surprise to hon. members, as it 
seemed inevitable in view of the developments in Europe 
within the last few days that the Mother Country would be- 
come embroiled in war. At the same time, although the 
announcement was not unexpected, its gravity cannot be 
overestimated, and I am sure that I voice the feelings of not 
only hon. members but the. public outside when I say that 
the Premier's announcement will be received with satisfaction 
everywhere. Primarily the responsibility for rendering assist- 
ance to the Motherland in a concrete form rests upon the 
Commonwealth Government. But there are many functions 
and spheres of action over which the Federal authorities have 
no jurisdiction, and in respect to which the State can be of the 
utmost assistance indirectly as well as directly in helping a 
united Empire to establish concrete factors for meeting and 
alleviating difficulties which must crop up under these novel 
circumstances. In this State much good may be done as the 
result of the moral effect of a Parliament united on one 
question and for one purpose only, namely, that of preserving 

119 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

the nation's weal, and advancing the best interests of this 
portion of His Majesty's dominions. We are confronted with 
a period of trial involving sacrifices on the part of every section 
of the community. We have taken our own part as politicians 
by sinking all party issues and lines of party cleavage, but we 
cannot close our eyes to the fact that with the declaration of 
war the means of transport must at all events for some time 
be crippled, and the volume of trade and industry, which has 
reached large dimensions in the Commonwealth of recent 
years, must, for the time being, be brought, more or less, to a 
standstill. That inevitably involves a curtailment of profits, 
a shrinkage in the volume of business, and a curtailment in 
the channels of employment. I, therefore, say that one and 
all should be prepared for some sort of sacrifice in the near 
future, and I only hope and trust that every section of New 
South Wales will be prepared to share the sacrifices with each 
other. I might throw out a suggestion of an entirely friendly 
nature ; if it is inevitable that hands must be shortened 
owing to the reduction in business and trade, let that be done 
as softly as possible without any indication or suggestion of 
panic, and avoiding all conduct which may lead to the creation 
of any unpleasantness, soreness, and even class feeling. If 
these things must take place, let us hope, trust, and pray that 
it will be for a short time only, and we will watch with anxious 
eyes the announcement from across the seas that England is 
once again mistress of the seas. With that proud announce- 
ment we may look forward to the restoration of the ordinary 
channels of trade and commerce, and as far as is possible 
under those conditions a revival of the full volume of employ- 
ment within our borders. But let me make this request to 
those who are employers of labour or who are purveyors of 
goods not to seize the opportunity for their own benefit of 
making undue profits at the expense of the community. I 
say that because I have noticed with some apprehension, in 
the Press during the last day or two, indications of a rise in 
the prices of commodities. If our prospects and our forecasts 
are correct, there may be a reduction in employment, but no 
curtailment of the volume of supplies, and on all economical 
grounds there should be no reason for an increase in prices to 
the people of New South Wales. If, through the ordinary 
development of trade opportunities, increased prices are 

120 



; 4 ] AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

realised for goods from oversea, there can be no fair ground for 
imposing penalties on the consumers here who are the victims 
of suffering and hardship for which they are not responsible, 
and which, in the common interests, and as patriots of the 
great Empire, we ought, as far as possible, to share in common. 
Let us at this crisis be calm and cool, and act with a clear 
conscience. 



SPEECHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIAN LEGISLATIVE 

COUNCIL 

ADDRESS IN REPLY 

The PRESIDENT : I beg to inform hon. members that, 
accompanied by the mover and seconder, and other members 
of the Council, I waited upon his Excellency the Governor, 
and received the following reply to the Address from the 
Council : 

THE HONOURABLE THE PRESIDENT AND HONOURABLE 
MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL 

In thanking you for the Address in Reply to my Speech at 
the opening of the present session of Parliament, I accept with 
satisfaction the assurances that you will give every consideration 
to the measures which will be laid before you. I pray that, with 
God's help, South Australia may be guided safely through the 
crisis into which our Empire has been drawn, and that His 
blessing may rest both upon the people of this land during the 
days of trial ahead and upon your efforts to preserve the well- 
being of this State. [SIR] H. L. GALWAY, Governor. 

August 5, 1914. 

THE INTERNATIONAL CRISIS 

The HON A. W. STYLES : I ask the Chief-Secretary, as 
Leader of the Council, whether he has any statement to make 
with reference to public affairs, and in particular to the present 
European crisis ? 

The CHIEF-SECRETARY (HoN. J. G. BICE) : For the infor- 
mation of hon. members, I have to bring under their notice 

121 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

a minute which the Premier has received from his Excellency 
the Governor. It reads : 

I have just received the following telegram from the Governor- 
General of the Commonwealth : ' War has broken out between 
Great Britain and Germany/ I would suggest that you announce 
the news in the House this afternoon. I feel confident that the 
grand spirit of patriotism and brotherhood which binds together 
the peoples of the many component parts of the British Empire 
will carry our country triumphantly through the great ordeal, 
and make that Empire stronger and more confident than ever. 
(Signed) [SiR] H. L. GALWAY, Governor. 

GOVERNMENT HOUSE, 
August 5, 1914. 

LETTER OF GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF AUSTRALIA 
TO THE MAYOR OF NEWCASTLE 

Sydney MR. MAYOR, I very much regret that, being unable to 

Mornmg leave Melbourne during the present crisis, I am obliged to 
postpone my visit to Newcastle, and to forego, for the present 
at any rate, your kind hospitality. 

I had been looking forward with lively interest to visiting 
the Newcastle of the Pacific, the namesake of the greatest 
coal exporting port in the North Sea, but the outbreak of 
war in Europe has diverted our thoughts to other channels. 

We all realise that, though the immediate cause of war is 
remote from our interests, its consequences may be vital 
to the Empire, threatening, as it does, the position of the two 
great friendly Powers whose understanding with us has, till 
now, secured the peace of the world, and given to the Empire 
that security which is essential to her prosperity. The British 
Government has the unanimous support of all parties and of 
all classes, and we are confident that Great Britain has only 
intervened to avert a situation gravely menacing to the 
interests and stability of the whole Empire. 

From every one of the Dominions has come tidings of the 
same steadfast unanimity, of the same firm resolution to defend 
our common cause. Here in Australia the action of the 
Government, the attitude of the Opposition, the loyal co- 
operation of the States, testify that the same spirit animates 
her people. 

122 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC, 

This enables the Commonwealth to take prompt and 
effective action for the defence of our shores. Australia speaks 
with one voice, and stands shoulder to shoulder with the other 
Dominions in defence of the Empire. 

(Signed) [SiR] R. M. FERGUSON, Governor-General. 

SPEECH OF THE MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

MR. E. D. MILLEN : Much as we deplore the ravages and Melbourne 
waste of war, Australia applauds the decision of the Imperial 
Government. Any other course would have been received 
with undoubted disappointment. In the midst of the gloomy 
international firmament there is one bright star. United, 
enthusiastic, almost passionate is the desire of the Dominions 
to rally to the support of the Motherland in this her hour of 
trial, and to unite with her in the preservation of the common 
traditions and the joint inheritance. Because Australia is 
proceeding with the development of a strong and vigorous 
nationhood within the Empire, she appreciates the noble 
stand taken by Great Britain on behalf of the smaller nation- 
alities, struggling to remain free, which have appealed not 
in vain for the protection of the might and power of the great 
liberty-loving Empire, of which the Commonwealth forms 
part, and she joins with the statesmen of the Mother Country 
in protesting against the unprovoked aggression against the 
friends of Great Britain, and the attempted domination by 
one power of the destinies of the whole world. This is a fight 
for freedom, and no more inspiring battle-cry could be given 
in this momentous struggle than that of ' Empire/ which has 
been built up on the basis of freedom. Here in Australia we 
are blessed with sunny skies and natural resources such as 
few parts of the Empire possess, but we shall be the more 
ready to make all the sacrifices of life and money which may 
be demanded. Speaking as Defence Minister of the Common- 
wealth, I can confidently state that Australia is ready aye 
ready ! 

SPEECH OF PREMIER OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA 
IN LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 

MR. SCADDAN (The Premier) said : I received this morning western 
from the Prime Minister, the following telegram : ' Official Mail, 

123 Aug. 7, '14. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

information has been received that war has broken out with 
Germany. (Signed) JOSEPH COOK/ I immediately called 
into my office Ministers representing the Executive Council 
and the Leader of the Opposition. I recognised the fact that 
the trying circumstances of the day made it one in which no 
thought could be given to any matters from a party point of 
view. I therefore asked the Leader of the Opposition to join 
with us in the consideration of those various matters which 
may, and no doubt will, require our quick and urgent atten- 
tion in the near future. I recognise further that this crisis in 
which we have been plunged is probably the most critical in 
the history of the Empire, and that the time has passed when 
we can look upon the issues that confront us with party eyes. 
I think I may say that so far as Western Australia is con- 
cerned, and the rest of the British Dominions generally, we 
will not only be loyal, but will do our part in maintaining the 
integrity of the British Empire. So far as Western Australia 
is concerned and I can speak only from the point of view 
as head of the Government I recognise that we can do but 
little to assist the Motherland at this critical juncture. But 
there are many things which can be done, and will at the same 
time be of assistance. These we can do by thoroughly pro- 
tecting our own interests in the direction of preventing, if 
possible, anything in the nature of a panic. This, I urge, 
should be done. I urge, too, that the people should place 
absolute reliance in those who are entrusted with the govern- 
ment of the State for the time being, just as we, as an Execu- 
tive, are prepared to place implicit faith in those at the 
metropolis of the Empire, and who will be responsible for the 
proper conduct of the war. No person abhors war more than 
I do. I regret, and we all regret, the critical position which 
has arisen, but now we are faced with it every one will, I think, 
join with me in expressing the hope that the Empire of which 
we form a part will emerge from the struggle eminently suc- 
cessful. There is the common and devout hope also that the 
war will be attended with as little suffering and loss of life 
as possible. I do not know that I can say a great deal more. 
In circumstances such as those which have arisen, it will be 
recognised that there will be very many problems which the 
Executive will be called upon to deal with during the next 
few weeks or months ; on some occasions we will probably 
124 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

have to act spontaneously. Possibly our actions sometimes 
may not be thoroughly understood at the moment, and we 
may be subjected to severe criticism, but all I ask at the 
present juncture is that this House, and through it the public, 
will accept from me, and also, I think, from the Leader of the 
Opposition, an assurance that our one desire is to protect the 
interests of our people as a whole. That we can do by acting 
calmly, after full consideration of the matters which come 
before us, and also by showing the public that, with proper 
confidence reposed in those at the head of affairs, we are likely 
to avoid what might otherwise be a calamity. The question 
of the defence of Australia as part of the Empire is one con- 
trolled by the Commonwealth, but there are other matters 
which require some consideration. It is a matter not merely 
of military defence, for there is the position of those who, 
through misfortune, will find themselves out of employment. 
If unemployment does arise, I hope that it will be as light as 
possible ; so far as we as an Executive are concerned, we 
propose to try to obviate any undue hardships being placed 
upon the citizens. Unless things remain normal, we hope, by 
mere adjourning the House until to-morrow, to take action 
which we trust will receive the endorsement of all members 
of the House, and which will prevent anything being done to 
our detriment as a State and as portion of the Empire. On 
Monday last I telegraphed to the Prime Minister on behalf 
of the Executive Council, informing him that we are at his 
call at any moment, and are prepared to set aside every other 
consideration to do as the Executive consider necessary. In 
conclusion I can only hope that the outcome of this terrible 
war it will probably be the worst war known in history 
will at least tend to adjust some of the differences which un- 
fortunately exist, and will have the effect also of lesser de- 
mands being made upon the people to provide armaments 
for one Christian nation against another. May it also tend to 
bring about a better feeling. In closing, I can only express 
the hoge that the Empire will come out of the struggle with 
glory and honour to herself, and to all concerned. 



125 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

SPEECH OF MAYOR OF BRISBANE AT QUEENSLAND 
VOLUNTEERS' MEETING IN BRISBANE 

Brisbane To the quiet and intent assembly the Mayor [Alderman 

Daily Mail. C. M. Jenkinson] explained that as the Chief Magistrate of the 
Aug. 6, '14. c jj-y kg considered it his duty to do all in his power to aid the 
State and the Mother Country in emergency; he had been 
greatly heartened in that respect, because since the first 
announcement the registration of volunteers had been of a 
magnitude that was positively soul-stirring. Even now 
Queensland could throw in its full force to aid the Home Land. 
In addition he had during the day received numerous tele- 
grams from all parts of the State, intimating that every 
available eligible man would be placed at the disposal of the 
military authorities. The time had not yet arrived when 
Queenslanders should lose their heads. The wise nation 
always took the precaution to be prepared for any emergency. 
That was why the movement had been instituted. He 
thought that he could see his way clear to ask all who were 
willing to volunteer to register at the Town Hall after the 
meeting, or on the morrow. If they had not had a great deal 
of military training, they would get it now. Under such 
circumstances it was only natural and reasonable that all 
Britishers should be somewhat excited, but they had to be 
ready so that, when the crucial critical moment came, victory 
would be theirs. (A voice: 'We're all ready/) The thin 
red line of kinship with those at home made it imperative 
that, when called, Australians all would defend their homes, 
territory, women and children. In any case, concluded the 
Mayor, you will all conduct yourselves in a manner befitting 
the stock from which you have sprung. 

SPEECH OF THE ACTING PREMIER OF TASMANIA 

Hobart The ACTING PREMIER (HON. J. E. OGDEN) OF TASMANIA 

Town made the following statement yesterday : ' The Government 
Auc 6 '14' has cabled to tne Kin through the Governor an expression 

of loyalty of the people of Tasmania, pledging themselves to 

do all in our power to assist the Empire during the present 

crisis/ 

Mr. Ogden also wired the Prime Minister (Right Hon. 

126 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

Joseph Cook), stating that the Tasmanian Government was 
prepared to co-operate with the military authorities, and to 
render every assistance in its power. 

August 6, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF AUSTRALIAN PRIME MINISTER 

MR. COOK : The whole of the State Governments have Sydney 
notified their full co-operation with the Commonwealth Morning 
Government to render every assistance in their power, and ?* r *^', 
generally unreservedly to place all their resources at the ug ' 7 ' 
service of the Commonwealth and the Mother Country. The 
Government of Victoria has further offered the use of the 
police stables at the rear of the barracks, together with the 
large drill hall connected with the police depot, for military 
purposes, and the Government of New South Wales has drawn 
attention to the State bakery, where, if necessary, rations of 
bread could be prepared. The Lord Mayors of Sydney and 
Melbourne have communicated on behalf of their respective 
Councils, offering all the facilities those cities can give. The 
executive of the Motor Traders' Association of New South 
Wales has unanimously carried a resolution expressing its 
unswerving loyalty to the British Empire, and places at the 
disposal of the Government all the resources of the Associa- 
tion. The Commonwealth Government greatly appreciates 
the spirit which prompts all these splendid and patriotic 
offers. We have just to sit tight now and see the thing through. 
Whatever the difficulty and whatever the cost, we must be 
steadfast in our determination. Our resources are great, and 
the British spirit is not dead. We owe it to those who have 
gone before to preserve the great fabric of British freedom, and 
hand it on to our children. Our ancestral home is the reposi- 
tory of great liberties, great traditions, and great piety, and 
on our very lives we must cherish them. Our duty is quite 
clear, namely, to gird up our loins, and remember that we are 
Britons. 

SPEECH OF THE VICTORIAN PREMIER AT THE 
TOWN HALL, MELBOURNE 

SIR ALEXANDER PEACOCK moved : ' That this meeting Melbourne 
expresses its deepest sorrow at the terrible outbreak of war Argus, 

127 Au e- 7, '14- 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

among the European nations ; its fullest admiration and 
appreciation of the efforts of the British Government in the 
cause of peace, and regrets that their efforts were not crowned 
with success/ He spoke as one of many millions in the great 
British Empire. When those in the far-off dependencies 
thought of the wonderful efforts made by their forefathers 
to build up the Empire, and for the peace of the world, they 
must recognise that tremendous sacrifices had been endured. 
Soldiers and sailors of the present generation recognised the 
responsibility of making good the work of the generations 
which had preceded them. What a fine thing it was that 
Federation had become an accomplished fact ! Now Aus- 
tralians were speaking with one voice to deal with their com- 
mon interests, and not with six voices. This was no time to 
talk about State and Federal politics. All were united now. 
No matter what position in public or private life no matter 
whether wealthy or otherwise all were now together. They 
had to hang together and, if needs be, they would die together. 
What was the right of talking about State rights when all 
their rights were in jeopardy the rights of the States, the 
Commonwealth and the Empire ? When he and his colleagues, 
with the full concurrence of the Leader of the Opposition (Mr. 
Elmslie) offered to place at the disposal of the Prime Minister 
all that the State had, he felt sure that the people would 
respond and endorse the action. Was it not a grand thing 
to know that not only the Parliament of Victoria, but the 
Parliaments of all the States, had acted similarly by placing 
all the resources of their States at the disposal of the Prime 
Minister to help him and his colleagues in this trying situation ? 
The people trusted the Prime Minister to do the right thing. 
They asked no question,, but they would follow, no matter 
what political party they had assisted previously. As Trea- 
surer of the State, he must inform them that the Ministry 
had great responsibilities in a time like this, but he thought 
he knew the people of Victoria and of Australia, and he felt 
they would be prepared to stand behind the Government. 
Mr. Elmslie had given hearty co-operation, and had been in 
consultation with him daily. At a time like this the financial 
stability of the country must be the first consideration, and 
he and his colleagues were prepared to lead the way in main- 
taining credit and public employment. 
128 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 



STATEMENT OF PREMIER OF TASMANIA 

HON. JOHN EARLE : During my visit to the west coast, Hobart 
I had an opportunity of realising what the effect of the present Town 
war might be. At Rosebery I was met by a number of men ^**v p ? st > 
who appealed to the Government, through the Premier, for ug ' 7 ' J 
relief in the way of employment, the mines having closed, and 
there being no other industry in the district. There was 
every indication of absolute want in the near future. I desire 
to impress on the people of the State the wisdom of serious 
consideration of the present crisis. Our people are rather 
prone, under certain circumstances, to allow the feeling of 
patriotism to carry them away to an excessive demonstration, 
and to neglect the more serious question of industries. The 
real demonstration of patriotism by the people of Australia 
at the present time, would be a stolid determination to carry 
on the industries in which they are engaged. If the war is 
going to be a protracted struggle, which we all hope it will not 
be, it will not be by flag-flapping or singing patriotic songs 
that we will be useful to the Empire. It will be by an industri- 
ous following of their trades and callings that our people will 
be placed in a position to assist the Mother Country in bearing 
the brunt of battle. I therefore hope that particularly the 
agriculturists of our State will not waste time seeking enlist- 
ment in the army, or consider their reluctance to enlist as a 
demonstration of disloyalty, but will stick to the plough, where 
they will be able to show the Empire the most useful side of 
patriotism. 

August 10, 1914. 

SPEECHES OF AUSTRALIAN PRIME MINISTER 
AND LEADER OF OPPOSITION 

MR. COOK, responding for the Commonwealth, said that Melbourne 
over the festivities hung the shadow of war. For the first 
time in our history we were faced with a war which threatened 
our own individual existence. He wondered whether we 
realised the fact that we were at war with this great nation 
of Europe as much as Great Britain was at war. The Empire 
was at war, and therefore we were at war. Were we not 

OVERSEAS 2. I I2Q 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

fortunate in having our warfare at such a distance from 
Australia ; but we must not imagine for one moment that 
we were out of it. It was a pride and honour to Australia 
that behind us and about us were forces which were helping 
us to maintain the supremacy of the Empire the land we 
lived in and loved. The fact that the war was so far away 
ought not to help us to lose sight of the fact that it was a war 
to the death, and that we were in it if necessary. In Australia 
for a century and a quarter, never a shot had been fired. The 
hoisting of a flag had been sufficient through all those years, 
and now for the first time the tocsin of war had sounded. 
Around our coasts were prowling somewhere a few of those 
German gunboats ; but he hoped they were not going to do 
much damage. He believed they would not ; but the menace 
was there. There was a quiet confidence in Australia that 
showed that we would be able to protect our own shores, and 
may be have something to say to the foe that- was prowling 
about in this predatory fashion. It seemed inevitable that 
this intentional blood-letting should occur, and he was not 
sure that the outbreak of war did not come to many people, 
in the Old Country in particular, as a relief, for he would even 
believe that the result of it would be to stop that mad race of 
armaments that had been going on for so long, and which 
could only issue in one way, and that was the way in which 
it had come about. We were in it, and we had to see it 
through right to the end. It was his first experience of war, 
and when he told them that for a week now he had been living 
either at his office or in bed, they would see what it meant to 
gather up the ends of things, and see them through. In 
Australia we had had no experience to guide us in these matters, 
but he believed we would win through with credit. One thing 
which was going to sustain us in the hour of trial was the 
wonderful fortitude and patience of the people. The spirit 
of the British race was not dead yet. He never realised that 
it was so much alive in all its purity and integrity, and in all 
its grim determination to face these issues, until this week ; 
but it was with pleasure that he was able to announce that 
Australia had got men and money too. Last week the 
Ministry had been paying the money out. His colleague, the 
war lord of the Treasury, had been spending the money with 
confidence, and he would continue to spend as much as would 
130 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

minister to the self-respect and resources of the Common- 
wealth. It would be a good deal, he knew, but Australia 
would expect the Ministry to do whatever was necessary to 
see this country, with the rest of the Empire, through to a 
successful conclusion. Meantime there were lots of things 
to do, for the war was the most righteous war that had been 
seen for many generations. We were fighting that we might 
keep our word, that we might honour our contract. There 
never was a war wherein the moral forces were more prompting 
and stronger than in this. To his way of thinking, there were 
worse things for a people than to be assailed in a good cause. 
If we knew anything of the British race, and the freedom it 
had inherited and would cherish, the war would go on until 
Great Britain had restored to those smaller principalities the 
freedom she claimed for herself the right to their own 
national and independent existence and freedom and Great 
Britain would emerge from the war with greater influence in 
the councils of the world than she had ever had. We were not 
going to fail. We would not fail until our resources were 
exhausted, and that would not be for a very long time. In 
the meantime we had to carry the burden, and vie with one 
another how we could render help to the Mother Country. 
Our blood ties and our associations with the Motherland made 
that imperative. A Torrens title had been given us to do 
what we pleased with this country. We had slept, and eaten, 
and grown rich while the great fleets of the Empire had pro- 
tected us. Now that these fleets were called away, it was up 
to us not only to protect our own country, but to rally to the 
help of the Empire, and preserve it for the rest of the world. 
One of the duties of the country, perhaps the most important 
one, was to keep the wheels of industry going round. The 
Ministry intends to keep the wheels of industry turning, and 
the working men of Australia might be sure of this, that the 
Ministry would take care that they were not going to be thrown 
into poverty and destitution. Australia had its trade to keep 
going, and he would appeal to those gentlemen engaged in the 
trading operations of the country. The sea was open, as Sir 
Arthur Stanley had said, so one need not be alarmed. Business 
men should go on as usual, and if it cost a little more the people 
of Australia would not begrudge to pay it in order that trade 
might go forward at its full volume. While Australia main- 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

tained its own trade she was maintaining the working men of 
Great Britain at the same time. . . . They would stand to- 
gether in every effort that was necessary to maintain the 
integrity of the land, to strengthen the fighting resources of 
the Empire, to take whatever obligation was laid upon them 
in the crisis that had come upon us. Above all, we must 
remember that we had a vigilant enemy to watch. Perhaps 
the best-organised power in the world was the German Empire, 
and we were at war with it. There were the German warships 
and our islands in the Pacific to watch. We had a great deal 
to do out here besides going to the Mother Country. He hoped 
the people would stand up to this burden, and back the 
Ministry with its money, and send men to the defence of the 
Empire over the seas. We had to sit tight and see the thing 
through, and if we made up 'our minds as Britishers, then he 
did not apprehend any serious results from the war, notwith- 
standing the calamities predicted. 

' Britain, myriad voices call ! 
Sons, be welded one and all 
Into one Imperial whole ; 
One with Britain heart and soul ; 
One life, one flag, one fleet, one throne, 
Britons, hold your own/ 

MR. FISHER, in replying, said that deeds were the order 
of the day. Australia should be united and determined to 
assist the Empire, so that out of those sad events some good 
might come. This affair might have come upon us a few years 
ago, and we would not have been ready in the Pacific. The 
war that was being waged was a disgrace to civilisation, and 
the outcome of it would be to greatly reduce the destructive 
effects of war. Australia's financial institutions were sound, 
and the people should join together to minimise the injury 
and distress that might ensue. 



Sydney 
Morning 
Herald, ^ 
ug.n, 14. 



SPEECH OF ACTING MINISTER FOR HOME AFFAIRS 

MR. W. H. KELLY : The history of Prussian bureaucracy 
i s one of the most sinister things of modern times. The first 
use o - j.] le wea p On it forged was directed against poor def ence- 
jggg Denmark from which it wrested two of her fairest pro- 
vinces. Having sharpened its weapon in this ignoble way, 
132 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

it was next tried on Austria, from whom the hegemony of the 
German people was wrested. Satisfied now that its blood- 
stained weapon was efficient, the quarrel was engineered with 
France, and France, in her turn, was drenched in blood, that 
Prussian bureaucracy might become German autocracy. 
The only big obstacle now to the universal dominance of 
Prussian swashbucklerism lay in England, and unceasingly 
they prepared to destroy us. ' To the Day ' was the toast of 
the rapidly-created and secretly-built German navy. To the 
day of destruction of Britain's dominion of the seas, which, 
while securing Britain and her colonies from the envy of the 
world, had been used impartially for the advancement of the 
world's shipping and the peace of the world's ocean highways. 
These dominions are now threatened, and the Commonwealth 
Government, believing that it reads aright Australia's duty 
to her race, has rallied to the support of the old land. 

9 

August u, 1914 
SPEECHES IN VICTORIAN LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL 

The HON. W. L. BAILLIEU (Honorary Minister) : . . . Victoria 
I am sure that the gravity of the position has been borne in Hansard. 
on us all. First of all, there is the enormous loss of life that 
will inevitably ensue. Happily our own country is not at 
the seat of the conflict, but its brave men are going there. 
We at this end of the world really know very little of war. 
For the first time in our history we are feeling the effects of it 
in trade, and that probably causes us to contemplate the whole 
business a little more seriously, and to more properly realise 
what is going on. It is inappropriate in a way for a member 
to speak in a personal sense, but I have been so much in the 
vortex of things, and so highly affected, that the overhanging 
cloud appears a very heavy one. * One realises more forcibly, 
perhaps, than one ever thought one could, how dependent we 
are in Australia on what we produce, and of what little value 
it is to us unless we have facilities of trade with the world. 
For the first time we realise what it is to have an Empire 
Navy policing the waters of the world in order that trade may 
be free, and free to all nations. That is what Great Britain's 
object has always been. Here until now we have never felt 
what it might be to have even restrictions of trade. I confess 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

quite openly now to a feeling that the dislocation of trade is 
going to be very heavy. Yet I think in the ordinary way I am 
as optimistic as most men connected with business and the 
affairs of the world. But I realise the enormous dislocation 
of trade which threatens to affect big masses of people, by 
reason of their inability to exchange their products for cash. 
I believe the position is being met, as far as it possibly can, 
by the people who are governing this work, to the best of their 
ability, but they can only do it by aid from institutions. I 
believe that the desire of the institutions is to give that aid. 
. . . This is not the time, of course, to inquire why we are in 
the war, and who is responsible. We have all made up our 
minds about that. When a house is on fire, you do not inquire 
who is responsible ; you want to put the fire out. We have 
now only to look for remedies, and each of us in this State 
can do his part. I want to emphasise this : that the Govern- 
ment will, to the best of its ability, and with all its strength, 
do everything it can to keep all kinds of employment going. 
Some would say, ' You might wait until you have greater 
evidence that there will be a call upon you/ I hope that the 
call will not come, and that I am a mistaken prophet ; but I 
cannot but see plainly the signs, and what they all mean. If 
we meet the position courageously, and keep our heads cool, 
I think we shall come through the trouble better than any 
other part of the world. That is our good fortune ; it is the 
bad fortune of those in other parts that they will be worse 
placed. One thinks of the terrible carnage of blood. We 
have the fact that the troops in the field number more than 
double the population of Australia, and that they have to be 
fed. One asks how this stupendous work is going to be per- 
formed, and whether the war will not be blocked in conse- 
quence of the inability of those taking part in it to discharge 
this obligation. One thinks that it will. When I think of 
Germany ' running amuck ' well, the sooner it completes 
the business, the better for mankind. At least, there will be 
some good, if we come to the certainty that it will be the end 
of ah 1 great wars. The mastery of the seas will determine 
the boundaries and the conditions of settlement, just as has 
been the case before ; and Great Britain will never see the 
blood which is being spilt without determining, if human 
ability can determine it, that such a thing shall not occur 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

again, at least not in our time, and not in our children's time. 
I only hope that I have been taking a more pessimistic view 
than I am justified in doing, but I move the adjournment of 
the House for the reasons I have stated. I feel, however, 
that it would not be right to restrict hon. members in the 
expression of the views they may choose to utter. 

The HON. W. S. MANIFOLD stated that, on behalf of his 
brother members, he desired to thank Mr. Baillieu for the 
spirited address he had given, and for the wise and well-con- 
sidered sentiments he had given utterance to. For his part, 
he (Mr. Manifold) wished earnestly that the Government 
could see their way to follow the example set by the British 
Parliament, in dropping for the time being all contentious 
matters that had been before Parliament. He admitted, of 
course, that the matters .which had been before the British 
Parliament were enormously more anxious and more serious 
than anything that had come before our Parliament ; but, 
still, this was a small community ; and in small communities 
smaller matters were apt to assume very great importance. 
He thought it would be a great pity if, in order to carry out 
pledges or promises made by the Government in the past, 
they should continue to endeavour, when the attention of 
hon. members was directed to this terrible war in Europe, 
to pass some of the contentious Bills now on the list. There 
was not one of them that would not do just as well in six months' 
time. . . . With regard to the war, it was known that certain 
good came out of evil. He thought it was the most magnifi- 
cent spectacle that could possibly have been seen the way 
in which, in Great Britain, all the strong feelings in connec- 
tion with the Home Rule question had been dropped. It was 
a splendid spectacle to see the Nationalists and the Ulster 
men standing shoulder to shoulder to support the Empire 
and the grand old flag. It must have been a terrible awaken- 
ing to the German Emperor, who, no doubt, thought of England 
as a house divided against itself, with the trouble in Ireland, 
and two parties ready to fly at each other's throats, and 
plunge the Empire in civil war. Instead of that being the 
case, both parties had dropped all their differences, and had 
come together as brothers in support of the Empire. Not- 
withstanding all the talk of late years of trouble in India, it 
was also a magnificent spectacle to see the way in which the 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Indian Princes were coming forward and offering their men 
and money to fight for the Empire. Altogether, this war, 
terrible as it would be, would, he was quite sure, cause the 
Empire and all its varying outlying parts to be more united 
than ever it had been in the past. In Canada, the citizens of 
French extraction were seen to be just as loyal as the British- 
born citizens. Even in our own Commonwealth here, we 
found that all party differences had been sunk, and the 
Opposition in both the Commonwealth Parliament and the 
State Parliaments were seen to be earnestly supporting the 
Government. It was a most splendid issue to come from this 
terrible infliction of war. He was quite sure that, as a united 
nation, Great Britain would emerge from the war with honour, 
and, when peace did come, it would be a peace which would 
last for many years. 

SPEECHES IN VICTORIAN LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 

Victoria SiR ALEXANDER PEACOCK (Premier) : On the day when 

Hansard. ^ House last met and adjourned, the situation was so grave, 
there was such a complete absence of news, and the danger 
of this part of the Empire taking any step not in accordance 
with the rest of the Empire was so imminent, that I was im- 
pressed with the necessity for complete . silence on the part 
of the Parliament of Victoria. I am still impressed with the 
fact that this is an occasion on which there must be no divid- 
ing lines in a sovereign Parliament of the Dominions. The 
Leader of the Opposition, whose loyal help I desire at this 
opportunity to gratefully acknowledge, agrees with me that, 
whatever our differing opinions may be on matters affecting 
the State of Victoria, there cannot be, and must not be, any 
divided counsels on matters affecting the British Empire. 
We wish, in this Parliament of Victoria, to show a unity which 
is definite and definitely expressed. To that end I have been 
careful to keep the Leader of the Opposition informed as to 
every step which I have thought it wise to take, so that not 
the Ministerial side only, but the whole of the members, should 
act in unison. I have also thought it my duty to put myself 
in continuous communication with the Prime Minister of the 
Commonwealth to advise him where he desired advice, and 
to support him where he needed support. I am pleased to 
136 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

say that the Prime Minister has received all offers of help in a 
very proper spirit. I feel satisfied that in this great Imperial 
crisis the Prime Minister and his colleagues are devoting 
themselves to their work in a true Imperial spirit. Honourable 
members will recognise that it is not possible for me to give 
in detail the conversations which I have had with the Prime 
Minister. The House must remember that the Empire is at 
war. It is a war which the Imperial authorities have not 
sought, and which they did their best to avoid, if it could be 
avoided, with honour. I am prepared to speak for the Parlia- 
ment of Victoria, and to say that we have a complete trust 
that the Imperial authorities have acted in such a way as to 
carry the Empire into the war with honour, and also as com- 
plete a trust that they will carry it through the war and out 
of it with as great honour. The House will, I am sure, accept 
the position in which the whole Empire is placed, and not 
desire information which the Imperial authorities do not 
think it wise to give. The serious position which is ahead of 
the Empire is the possible dislocation of its trade and com- 
merce. The cost of the war must be enormous it is already 
enormous and the cost of the war, whether it be long or 
short, can only be met by sustaining the trade and commerce 
of every part of the Empire. For this purpose, as well as for 
the defence of the coasts of Great Britain, our great Navy has 
been called into being. Trade and commerce is the very 
life-blood of the little island in the North Sea which is the 
centre of the widely-scattered British Empire. We can do 
much to keep the furnaces, the looms, and the factories in 
the United Kingdom and Ireland busy. So long as they are 
kept busy within the heart of the Empire, so long will the 
people there be able to bear the great strain upon the Imperial 
resources. Broadly speaking, the policy of this Government, 
and, I am glad to say, the policy of the Commonwealth 
Government, and that of the other States, is to keep the wheels 
of industry within Australia moving. The magnificent policy 
of the Imperial Government, which takes the risks of war in 
oversea shipping, is one which helps us to do our part. Aus- 
tralia has a vast oversea trade, the greater part of which 
reaches the United Kingdom, and almost the whole of which 
reaches some part of the Empire. The Prime Minister has 
been able to announce to the people of the Commonwealth 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

that the seaway is open. So far, the Imperial Navy has 
already gained a great, even though it may be a bloodless, 
victory. One of the essential duties of that Navy is to main- 
tain the open seaway. The open seaway is essential to Aus- 
tralia's trade. We have still got that open seaway, and 
behind it the insurance of war risks by the Imperial Govern- 
ment. That being so, there is reason for confidence at this 
time. It is a time for traders to push forward their trade 
rather than to reduce it, because the risks are so small. The 
Empire wants our men and our ships, and we are sending 
them. We are satisfied that none of them will fail the Mother 
Country in her hour of need. But the Empire wants more 
than our ships, and more than our men it wants our trade. 
Therefore, I say that the work of the Parliament of Victoria 
in this little corner of the Empire is to keep our industries 
and our trade moving. I realise that at this juncture the 
Government must keep an open ear to the requests of the 
captains of finance, and the captains of industry, for now there 
is no question of difference between capital and labour we 
are all under the cloud of the same menace. The ears of the 
Government are open to receive the requests of masters and 
of workmen. Members, perhaps, will feel that I am speaking 
in broad terms. It is quite true that I am ; but, finally, I 
wish to say this : that the work of the Government at this 
time is not to proceed with any party questions, whether they 
be small or great, but to devote all its energies to maintaining 
the financial stability of this State and the employment of 
its people. Every way to do this will be fully tested, and 
every effort made to accomplish what, I think, is the one 
important duty laid upon this section of the governing forces 
of the Empire. To enable us to accomplish these objects, a 
1 [See p. Conference x has been called by the Prime Minister, and is now 
*43-] sitting. I had to leave it for a short time, and I explained to 
the members of the Conference that I had to attend here. 
The Conference is attended by representatives of the Com- 
monwealth Government in the persons of the Prime Minister, 
the Attorney-General, and the Minister of Defence, also by 
the Leader of the Opposition, Mr. Fisher, and the ex- Attorney 
General, Mr. Hughes. It is also attended by the Premiers 
of all the States except the Premier of Western Australia, Mr. 
Scaddan, who could not possibly be here, but whose views have 
138 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

been made known to the Conference by means of confidential 
communications. The Conference, we hope, will be able to 
finish its business in time to enable me to announce to the 
House to-morrow afternoon the result of our deliberations. 
In order that I may be able to attend the Conference, I 
propose to move that the House adjourn until to-morrow. 
Honourable members will, of course, understand that it is 
impossible for me to make any communication at this stage. 
I can understand the anxiety of honourable members at this 
critical time, but we have to trust one another completely. 
I am satisfied, from what I have seen during the past few days, 
that the present crisis has been the cause of anxiety to all of 
us. The manner in which the people have cast aside all party 
considerations, and have shown their willingness and anxiety 
to do their part in assisting those in authority, will be remem- 
bered by me as long as life shall last. I am glad to be able 
to acknowledge the friendly assistance received from members 
on all sides, and especially from the Leader of the Opposition, 
whom I have acquainted with the leading points requiring 
consideration. I now move 

That the House do now adjourn. 

MR. McLEOD : I realise that, on an important occasion like 
this, discussion on the motion for the adjournment of the House 
would be altogether out of place ; but there are one or two 
suggestions I would like to make to the Government. I feel 
sure that every one of us is seised of the vast importance of 
the crisis that is facing the British Empire to-day, and, whilst 
we are not afraid, whilst the stirring memories of a thousand 
years of the glorious history of the British Empire give us the 
utmost confidence, we cannot help feeling that we have another 
reason for confidence, and that is the magnificent offers of 
help to the Mother Country that have been made from all 
the Dominions of the Empire. In Ireland the question of 
Home Rule is dead for the time being. In South Africa, 
which has but recently emerged from a struggle with Great 
Britain, the people espouse the cause of the Old Country. In 
India, where agitation had been going on, that agitation has 
been dropped. All the Dominions are showing their desire 
to do all they possibly can to aid the Mother Country. No 
matter what any Government may do in regard to food sup- 

139 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

plies and keeping the wheels of industry going, there is no 
doubt that there is going to be a good deal of hardship and 
suffering. I have a suggestion to make. We have observed 
that not only have the Dominions offered practical help in the 
shape of men and money, but Canada has made a splendid 
offer in connection with food. The Canadian Government 
propose to supply the Motherland with 1,000,000 bags of flour, 
which will be most welcome to the poor in the Old Country, 
who, in spite of all that may be done, will be suffering hardship 
and privation. I do not see why we should not supplement 
that offer, and I would suggest to the Premier that he bring 
that proposal before the Conference. Why should we not 
offer to supply a considerably quantity of frozen and preserved 
food to the Mother Country ? That would be a welcome 
donation, and one that would be applied to the relief of those 
whom we all have at heart families deprived of their bread- 
winners by this unfortunate war. There is another suggestion 
I have to make. We are sending a number of men to the Old 
Country. Possibly they are to fight, and possibly they are 
not to fight ; but I think one of the most graceful and proper 
things that could be done would be for the Government to 
undertake to insure all those men before they leave our shores, 
so that they may feel, when they leave here, that if they are 
killed in war, or die through ill-health, ample provision has 
been made for those whom they will leave behind them. 
I make these suggestions in the open House, so that if honour- 
able members differ from me they may have an opportunity 
of expressing their ideas. 

MR. MACKEY : I trust that the Government will give 
sympathetic consideration to the suggestion of the honourable 
member for Daylesford that contributions of food should be 
sent to the Old Country. I think that the people of this 
State will unanimously endorse a proposition of that kind. 
The suggestion, if carried out and I hope it will be carried 
out would be carried out in a substantial form. It would 
be a very handsome donation indeed. The honourable 
member's second suggestion was also most admirable. He 
proposes that the soldiers leaving these shores should be 
insured, so that in the event of their being killed, those that 
they leave behind may be amply safeguarded ; or, in the 
140 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

event of their being injured, so that the bread-winner himself 
and those dependent on him should not be reduced to a posi- 
tion of abject poverty. I trust the Government will take up 
those suggestions and carry them out in a manner befitting 
the great State of Victoria. There is another matter I wish 
to mention. I have just returned from a visit to the country, 
and in my district I am sure the same thing applies through- 
out the State there is the greatest anxiety on the part of the 
people to get the earliest reliable war news. I trust that 
some arrangements can be made by the State Government 
with the Commonwealth Government to have authentic 
news sent from time to time to every telegraph office and post- 
office in Victoria, to be posted up there. It means a very great 
deal to the people of Victoria to know how things are going 
with the Empire of which they form a part. They are eager 
they are bursting to get the earliest information regarding 
the war, not on account of idle curiosity, but on account of a 
most laudable anxiety to know how things are going at the 
other end of the world with this great Empire. I suggest 
that the earliest information should be sent from time to time 
to every place where there is a telegraph office, or a post office. 
I am sure that if that were done, it would meet with general 
approval throughout the whole of the country districts. 

MR. BOWSER : I understand that the Commonwealth 
Government have already communicated with Sir George 
Reid, and asked him to see the British Government with the 
view of having sent to Australia a daily bulletin of authentic 
news. It does not, however, seem to be in accordance with 
the ideas of the Admiralty or the British Government that this 
bulletin should be issued, because, so far, there has been no 
result of the application by Sir George Reid. I think that 
before making any proposal in the direction indicated, it 
would be well to ascertain how far it would be wise to publish 
information which has been already refused transmission. 
I can quite understand the anxiety of the people in Australia 
to hear the first and most authentic news of the results of the 
operations in Europe : but I think we can safely leave this 
matter to those special correspondents whose duty it is to 
forward cable messages to the London daily papers, and to 
the press of Australia. I think we can be quite safe in relying 

141 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

upon them. I desire to cordially support the excellent pro- 
posal made by the honourable member for Daylesford, be- 
cause, although we are willingly sending 20,000 men to Great 
Britain, and putting the Fleet at the disposal of the Admiralty, 
we are not making very large contributions to the Empire at 
this time, when we remember the great size of Australia and 
the wealth of its people. The prosperity we now enjoy is 
largely the consequence of the peace and safety maintained 
by the Fleet and the Army of the Mother Country. The 
Fleet and the Army have been supported, to a very large 
extent, by the working classes in the Old Country for all these 
years, and I think we may very well make the effort which 
has been suggested by the honourable member for Daylesford. 
We are in a position to do so equally with the Dominion of 
Canada, and I hope the Premier will be able to convince the 
Conference that the step suggested is one which Australia 
should take. 

August 12, 1914. 
NOTIFICATION OF FRENCH CONSUL-GENERAL 

Sydney The CONSUL-GENERAL FOR FRANCE yesterday issued the 

Morning following notification : 

e '14 ' ^ French citizens liable to service in France are required 
to return to their regiments at the earliest possible date. The 
mobilisation applies to all reservists up to 48 years of age, 
excepting those who were aged 45 years on August 7, 1913, 
and who are exempted from further military service. 

' All delays obtained for the accomplishment of military 
duties (sursis d' incorporation) are cancelled. An amnesty 
will be granted to all those who, up to the 2nd inst., were 
deserters or defaulters from the army or navy, providing they 
call and submit at the French Consulate-General on or before 
September 4 next. 

' Reservists who cannot pay their passage home will be 
furnished with a ticket for the first mailboat of the Messageries 
Maritimes leaving for France. Those who have served or 
liable to serve, in New Caledonia, are to return to Noumea if 
they were born in the years 1889 to 1893 inclusively. All 
other New Caledonian reservists are for the present not called 
upon. Tickets for the first boat leaving for Noumea will also 
142 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

be supplied to those returning to New Caledonia who have 
not the means to pay their passage/ 

August 13, 1914. 
RESOLUTION OF SYRIAN RESIDENTS 

A deputation of Syrian residents introduced by the Mayor Sydney 
of Redfern (Alderman Leitch) waited upon the Lord Mayor Morning 
yesterday, and stated that they had held a meeting, at which ^14 '15 
the following resolutions had been unanimously carried : 

' That we, the Syrian residents in New South Wales, while 
regretting the calamitous state of war now raging in Europe, 
fully recognise that Great Britain is justly and righteously 
championing the cause of freedom and humanity, and that her 
efforts in such cause and her attitude in this colossal war have 
our heartiest sympathy and support. 

' That we, as resident citizens of this great Commonwealth, 
enjoying the fruits of justice, freedom, and protection, and who 
have learned to love, esteem and honour the land and the flag 
that shelters us, feel in duty bound, and as a grateful acknow- 
ledgment to the nation's ideals and noble motives, beg to 
offer every available man amongst us, and to pledge ourselves 
to assist the authorities with men and money, and every 
possible way in our means and power/ 

Messrs. Saliely, Aboud, and other Syrian speakers informed 
the Lord Mayor that they would contribute to his fund. 

August 14, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF AUSTRALIAN PRIME MINISTER 

Melbourne, Friday. 

The PRIME MINISTER (MR. COOK) this evening made the Sydney 
following statement regarding the Conference just concluded, Morning 
at which the Commonwealth Ministry, the Federal Opposition, ^ *' , 
and the State Governments were represented : 

' The Conference has been marked by the greatest cordiality 
and cohesion, and members approached every question with 
open minds and impartial judgment. The assembled State 
representatives at once agreed to support in every way the 
efforts of the Commonwealth during the war, as did the 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

members of the Federal Opposition present. Apart from this, 
the main purpose of the Conference has been to reduce the 
amount of unemployment which is bound to follow upon a 
great calamity like the present war. The questions with 
which it had to deal are of the greatest importance, to the 
community, calling immediately for settlement. It is be- 
lieved that a satisfactory settlement of the more urgent 
matters has been arrived at. Naturally, finance was the main 
difficulty, since it is upon this basis that all industrial and com- 
mercial operations in a civilised community depend, and it 
was to a satisfactory settlement of finance, therefore, that the 
leaders of the Conference were mainly directed. Special 
financial difficulties arose in two distinct ways. There is, first, 
the temporary shutting off of supplies of capital obtained 
from investors abroad ; and there is, secondly, the temporary 
dislocation of many industries arising from the loss of markets 
and the consequent loss of earning power. Both of these call 
for judicious application of the existing resources of the Com- 
monwealth, and a spreading of its current credit over the 
areas of need so created. Fortunately the crisis meets us at 
a moment of exceptional prosperity and financial strength. 
The successful harvests and industrial operations of the past 
few years have left a great accumulation of wealth behind 
them. 

' Australia, as a whole, was never in a stronger financial 
position than she is now. Her position as to gold and other 
resources has been closely examined by the Conference, which 
has been aided by the Treasury experts of both Commonwealth 
and State Governments, and by representatives of the trading 
banks. We are unanimous in thinking that if the situation 
is faced with collective -effort, its difficulties can be overcome. 
The question presented was obviously of the largest and most 
vital importance, and presented difficulties of no ordinary 
kind, but the Conference, realising that a settlement was 
imperative, did not shrink from dealing with it. 

' After exhaustive discussion, it has made arrangements 
which it is satisfied will amply cope with the situation. The 
States all have large loan obligations in the shape of public 
works and developmental undertakings. It was decided to 
do everything possible to avoid the dislocation of industry 
involved in the stoppage or curtailment of these expenditures. 
144 






AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

' The conclusion arrived at by the Conference will allow, 
we believe, with adequate care, Federal and State public works 
to be maintained uninterruptedly. Arrangements were made 
which will enable these to be maintained at their full current 
volume. As regards commercial and industrial operations 
generally, it was recognised that the special circumstances 
demanded special treatment. 

' Credit must be maintained, and as this would involve an 
undue strain upon the normal basis upon which credit rests, 
arrangements have been made to place the credit of the Com- 
monwealth and States behind the banks, if and when neces- 
sary, and upon such terms as will permit the encouragement 
of employment. By these means employment, both public 
and private, can be maintained, and the effects of the crisis 
reduced to a minimum. 

' Arrangements have also been made for safeguarding the 
interests of the general community in regard to food supplies 
during war time. In conclusion, one thing should be made 
clear. 

' At present there is no serious trouble. The banks as a 
whole were never in a. sounder condition, and have never had 
anything like the available resources of the present moment. 
If special difficulties can be met as they arise, there need be 
no general ground for apprehension as to the financial stability 
of the nation/ 

August 23, 1914. 

SPEECH OF PREMIER OF NEW SOUTH WALES AT 

ALBURY 

MR. HOLMAN [at Albury] said that under the modern Sydney 
Hohenzollern system Germany had become the growing menace Morning 
and terror of Europe. They in the British Empire were a free ?" ' , 
people, with the right of free institutions, and to govern for the 
freedom and happiness of the people. An Australian by 
adoption, he was proud of the privilege. He valued the boon 
of freedom conferred by their British institutions and British 
policy. The freedom-loving French people had for many 
years been struggling against the Jack Boot aristocracy, and 
had nobly upheld the national traditions. Although they 
sunk under the domination of Napoleon for some time, they 

OVERSEAS 2. K 145 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

time and again emerged triumphantly from oppression, and 
had to-day established themselves in a position that was an 
example to the world. On the one hand, they had arrayed the 
forces of tyranny, reaction and aggression ; on the other hand, 
the free people of the Republic of France, and the free people 
of England, under a free King. The failure of the cause of the 
Allies would not only mean the breaking down of the Empire, 
but the fabric of liberty upon which the Empire stood. This 
was a fight between liberty and tyranny. It was unthinkable 
that they could stay their hands while an inoffensive people 
like the Belgians were made the chopping-block for the 
ferocity of the invader. France might be the hereditary foe 
of the Jack Boot regime, but the industrious, peace-loving 
Belgians had always gone the even tenor of their way under 
the sense of the supposed security guaranteed them by the 
Powers, including the present invader, in 1831. Just because 
Belgium stood upon the elemental right conferred by that 
treaty, she was subjected to the pestilential horrors of an 
unjust war. His heart went out to the Belgians in their 
sufferings under the heel of the oppressor, and he was pleased 
that his Government had voted 1000 towards the relief of 
distress in that country. Never in the history of humanity 
was it so necessary for the forces that stood for liberty to stand 
shoulder to shoulder to defeat the purpose of a tyrannous, 
unscrupulous oppressor. They should stand united and deter- 
mined to exhaust every resource so that in the interests of 
humanity the arms of England and her Allies would eventually 
be victorious. 

MANIFESTO OF LEADER AND SECRETARY OF 
FEDERAL PARLIAMENTARY LABOUR PARTY 

Sydney ... As regards the attitude of Labour towards war, that 

Morning is easily stated : We deplore war. We believe war to be a 

Herald, ^ crime against civilisation and against humanity. But to 

Aug.24, 14. d e pi ore an( j t o denounce war is not to abolish it. War is one 

of the greatest realities of life, and it must be faced. Our 

interests and our very existence are bound up with those of 

the Empire. In time of war, half measures are worse than 

none. If returned with a majority, we shall pursue with the 

utmost vigour and determination every course necessary for 

146 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

the defence of the Commonwealth and the Empire in any and 
every contingency. Regarding as we do such a policy as 
the first duty of Government at this juncture, the electors 
may give their support to the Labour party with the utmost 
confidence. And this we say, further, that, whatever be the 
verdict of the people, we shall not waver from the position 
taken up by Mr. Fisher on behalf of our party, viz., that in 
this hour of peril there are no parties, so far as defence of the 
Commonwealth and Empire are concerned, and that the 
Opposition will co-operate with the Government and stand 
behind them as one man. The position, then, is that if the 
electors give us a majority we shall expect Mr. Cook and his 
supporters to stand behind us. On the other hand, if Mr. Cook 
has a majority, we shall stand behind him in all things necessary 
for the defence of the Commonwealth and the Empire. That 
is the position, and our attitude towards it. It remains for 
the electors to choose between the two parties. This being so, 
we desire to direct the electors' attention to some facts of first 
importance, and directly bearing upon the present position of 
the Commonwealth and the war. To-day the Empire from its 
heart to the most distant outposts is in arms. War is upon 
us ! War which many declared impossible, but which, had 
it found us unprepared, would inevitably have destroyed us. 
But it had been foreseen, and its outbreak found us calm. 
It had been prepared for, and we face its consequences with 
confidence and courage. . . . ANDREW FISHER, DAVID 
WATKINS (Secretary). 

August 25, 1914. 

SPEECH OF MR. W. M. HUGHES AT PETERSHAM 

TOWN HALL 

Dealing with the war, Mr. Hughes said no more. bias- Sydney 
phemous statement was ever made by man than that of the Morning 
Kaiser in claiming that he acted under Divine guidance in Herald, ^ 
declaring war. This was the last war into which the people Au S- 26 ' J 
would be swept without having an opportunity of saying a 
word for or against. He did not condemn Britain or Australia 
for the part they had played, but applauded it they had no 
alternative. We had to fight in our own defence, and the war, 
so far as our part was concerned, was an eminently just one. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

September i, 1914. 
SPEECH OF AUSTRALIAN PRIME MINISTER 

Sydney MR. COOK : I am glad to be here to-night, gladder than 

Morning you can imagine. I feel for just one night let out of school, 
Herald, an( j a verv h arc i school it has been for the last month, per- 
^ep . 2, 14. j la p S h aT( j er than any of you will ever be able to imagine. I 
had just concluded a week of meetings as good and as enthusi- 
astic as any I ever addressed anywhere in my life, when a 
telegram from his Excellency called me to Melbourne. What 
that telegram was you may readily guess. It had reference 
to this terrible war which has just broken out. Since then I 
have had to remain in Melbourne working night and day to 
gather up the ends which had been scattered by this war. . . . 
Had Parliament been in existence, I tell you we should have 
tried to carry on with it, no matter what the difficulties might 
have been ; but I say, frankly, better work has been done 
without Parliament. I should not be honest if I said anything 
else. Parliament was shut up because it was unworkable. 
You did not want Parliament about when they had a job like 
this on. ... You and I ought to thank God on bended knees 
every night that the people of this country did take heed of 
the advice I gave them four years ago that they did offer 
a Dreadnought, and that the Dreadnought is here to-day 
called the Australia. The only trouble about the Australia 
is that she is a little lonely. I would like to get another to 
keep her company. . . . There have been some German boats 
about here, and if the Australia had not been here, I don't 
know what would have happened. Your commerce would 
have been destroyed, your cities probably sacked, and you owe 
your immunity from the depredations of those German boats 
to the celebrated Australia. . . . Why are we at war ? We 
are at war on behalf of the territorial integrity of little Belgium 
yonder, to keep our pledged word. I read of the great big 
powerful nation flinging itself upon the smaller one, blowing 
up those beautiful fanes of theirs, and sacking their cities 
without any provocation, and when they get the little fellow 
down, they say, ' You don't get up unless you pay enough to 
ruin you for life/ These are some of the horrors of war. We 
were entitled to come to the help of Belgium, and play our 
148 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

part in enabling Great Britain to observe her treaties. This 
country has shown that the mighty British Empire values 
its reputation more dearly than a comfortable peace. We 
are at war with a great military autocracy. The Empire 
Australia is fighting for its life. We are fighting for the 
freest, brightest, and best land on earth. Whilst there is a 
man in Australia willing to go to the war in the Empire's 
defence, he would go with my blessing and assistance. War 
is costly, and has to be paid for. Factories have to be kept 
going, the credit of the country has to be maintained, panic 
averted, unemployment prevented, and the enemy watched. 
It is a tremendous obligation we are learning through this 
war. It shows us the danger of many of the quack nostrums 
advocated in the time of peace. ... I would like to ask you 
this, Why is Germany running over into France the way that 
she is ? The answer is that she was better prepared than the 
Allies. She had her men and guns ready on the border, and 
she simply poured them in over the border in overwhelming 
numbers. The German Armies may invest Paris, but the 
war will not be over then. We have seen the value of striking 
quickly. I am learning lessons myself in this respect. Our 
Army here is on a peace basis, and it takes time to organise 
20,000 men and send them over the sea to the great theatre 
of operations. I am learning the lesson that Australia must 
be more prepared than she is. I wish we had another Australia. 
The one we have is all right, and I do not want you to get 
anything else into your heads. I do not know where the 
German ships are. If they have gone where we think they 
have gone, they have gone for a good reason. . . . 

September 5, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF MR. B. R. WISE, K.C., AT SYDNEY 

Long before the war broke out I was of opinion that war Sydney 
between the British Empire and Germany was inevitable. Morning 
I have for years held the opinion that the real enemy of Aus- Herald, > 
tralia was not Japan, but Germany. Suppose we lose. That p 7> I4 ' 
can only be when the British fleet is destroyed. Then we in 
Australia would be compelled to submit to the most crushing 
terms that Germany would offer. That would be the end of 
everything for us as a nation. When every hostile fleet had 

149 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

disappeared, Germany could land as many settlers here as she 
wished. She would certainly go to Port Darwin, for she wants 
tropical possessions, and it would be hopeless for us to contend 
against a German army of, say, 200,000 men, and Germany 
could land that number of men in five or six years. I have 
always thought that Germany looked upon Australia as their 
prize in a war with the British Empire. Australia is the only 
white man's continent open to them, and ever since President 
Cleveland and Mr. Olney of the United States warned the 
German Emperor in the middle of the Nineties that America 
would not tolerate a German colony in Brazil, the eyes of 
Germany, when seeking new territory, have been turned to- 
wards Australia. That is why I have always said that Ger- 
many, and not Japan, was Australia's danger. If we win, we 
will get everything back many times, and thereby assist to 
build up a big nation ; but if we lose Australia, she will cease 
to exist, except on the map. 

September 14, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF PREMIER OF NEW SOUTH WALES 

Sydney The STATE PREMIER yesterday expressed satisfaction at 

Morning the successes of the Allies' arms in France : 
Herald, ' It is a striking illustration of the extraordinary recupera- 

1014 I5 ' t ^ ve P owers * France and the stubborn resistance to degeneracy 
of Great Britain. According to certain critics, England has 
long been a nation of half-witted poltroons, governed by a 
handful of treacherous scoundrels ; the Fleet had been utterly 
neglected, the Army hopelessly demoralised, the whole nation 
centred upon improved industrial and social conditions, and 
the martial virtues of' our forefathers dissipated and lost. 
This is not an over-statement of the picture given by many 
self-styled patriots in the journals and magazines of the last 
few years. The test which has now come proves every one 
of these judgments to be wrong. The race is as virile as ever. 
Our soldiers prove the possession in the highest degree of 
soldierlike qualities, and our Navy is easily supreme. And 
behind the striking units of the community there is a general 
spirit of national response and of patriotic resolution just as 
strong as in the most heroic days. The position of France is, 
if anything, even more remarkable. The readiness with which 
150 



AUSTRALIA SPEECHES, ETC. 

she faced the war speaks volumes for the spirit of the nation, 
and the great measure of military success which has attended 
her in the heroic operations of the last few weeks shows how 
completely her national powers have been restored. It is far 
too early yet to discuss what is to be done when victory is 
finally accomplished. Germany is a mighty power, and her 
resources are not exhausted by a single defeat, no matter on 
how gigantic a scale. At the same time, there are historical 
reasons for believing that her powers of resistance, as dis- 
tinguished from those of attack, are comparatively small, and 
will probably be smaller to-day than in more primitive times/ 

September 16, 1914. 

CABLEGRAM FROM MAYOR OF NOUMEA, NEW CALE- 
DONIA, TO PREMIER OF NEW SOUTH WALES 

' In transmitting to you the following address of the town Sydney 
of Noumea, I would associate the entire population of New Morning 
Caledonia and its dependencies in its expression of gratitude 
of the inhabitants of the capital of the colony. I beg to renew 
personally my warm thanks, and to express in my turn my 
most sincere felicitations/ 

The address referred to reads as follows : ' To Mr. Holman, 
Premier, Sydney, We were aware that you had retained 
the kindest recollection of our Colony, but in remitting to us 
each day the news of the war you have conferred* upon us a 
valued favour, for which I have to express to you, in the name 
of the population of Noumea, our deep gratitude. I have to 
say to you how much we are touched by your sympathy and 
solicitude at a moment when the soldiers of our two nations, 
so strictly allied, are sacrificing themselves upon the same 
fields of battle, struggling, with united glory, for the reali- 
sation of the same ideal, and when the entire union of our 
countries merges them in each other. We rejoice in the 
sincere friendship that you show us, and thank you for it 
from the bottom of our hearts. LEYRAUD, Mayor of Noumea.' 



151 



NAVAL AND MILITARY: AUSTRALIAN 
EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

July 31, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

Sydney The MINISTER OF DEFENCE (SENATOR MlLLEN) stated last 

Morning night that it had been decided that the Australia, Encounter, 

Herald^ an( j Melbourne should be called to Sydney, and they are due 

' to arrive about noon to-day. He said : ' The decision to 

shorten the cruise of the Australian Fleet on the Queensland 

coast, and bring some of the vessels to Sydney earlier than 

was intended, is merely a precautionary measure. The vessels 

will at once take in coal and stores here, so as to be in readiness 

for any developments. At the same time, I wish to emphasise 

the fact that what is being done is simply in the nature of 

precautionary preparation.' 

August 2, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

Sydney SENATOR MILLEN stated yesterday the circumstances under 

Morning which a small mobilisation of Australian troops had now 
Herald, ^ become necessary. 

ug. 3, 14- < Without wishing to add in any way to the anxiety natur- 
ally occasioned in Australia by the gravity of the European 
position/ he said, ' it has been felt necessary to take certain 
precautionary measures, as provided in the scheme of defence, 
previously arranged, on the advice, and with the concurrence, 
of the Imperial authorities. These precautionary measures 
are well in hand. They include the placing of guards at cable 
and other stations, and bringing the garrisons of forts up to 
effective strength. As far as possible these demands have 
been met from the permanent force, but it is necessary to 
supplement these to a very slight extent by the citizen forces. 
152 



AUSTRALIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

Tor this reason, steps are being taken to call upon a limited 
number of our citizen forces for the duty indicated. About 
1000 in all will be required ; of those 300 will be allotted for 
the duties indicated, and some 700 will be called together for 
the purpose of completing the defence of Thursday Island. 
A further precautionary measure has been decided upon, 
namely, the establishment of what is known as the examina- 
tion service. This consists of examining vessels seeking to 
enter the defended ports of Australia, namely : Sydney, 
Melbourne, Adelaide, Hobart, Newcastle, Brisbane, and 
Thursday Island/ 

August 3, 1914. 

STATEMENTS OF AUSTRALIAN PRIME MINISTER 
AND MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

MR. COOK : The Government has decided in the event of Sydney 
war to place the Australian vessels under the control of the Morning 
British Admiralty. We have also decided, in the event of ?"****, 
war, to offer to the Imperial Government an expeditionary 1 ug ' 4 ' 
force of 20,000 men of any suggested composition to any 
destination desired by the Home Government, and the cost and 
despatch and maintenance will be borne by the Commonwealth 
Government. 

In reply to an inquiry, the MINISTER OF DEFENCE (SENATOR 
MILLEN) stated that the force for service beyond the Common- 
wealth would not be drawn from the ordinary citizen army, 
as the Defence Act specifically lays it down that ' members 
of the defence forces who are members of the military forces 
shall not be required, unless they voluntarily agree to do so, 
to serve beyond the limits of the Commonwealth, and those 
of any territory under the authority of the Commonwealth.' 
The Minister was not prepared to indicate in any way what 
arm -of the service would be represented or any of the details 
associated with its establishment. He dismissed inquiries 
by the suggestion that 'It was much too early -to be talking 
about those phases just yet/ 

The Prime Minister stated the text of the resolution come 
to by the Cabinet had been communicated by cable to the 
Imperial authorities. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

August g, 1914. 
STATEMENTS OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

Sydney The MINISTER OF DEFENCE (SENATOR MlLLEN) made 

Morning an important statement to-night that the Government had 
Herald, decided to organise a small mixed naval and military force for 
service within or without Australia. Applications for enrol- 
ment will be received at once by district naval officers and 
State Commandants. This force is quite distinct from that 
being organised for service in Great Britain. Details are now 
being worked out, and the Minister anticipates being able to 
furnish them to-morrow. 

Melbourne The MINISTER OF DEFENCE (MR. MILLEN) yesterday made 
Argus, ^ t]^ following statement : ' Consequent upon the proclama- 
Aug.io, 14. ^ on re g ar( jing German shipping, a considerable number of 
German ships have been detained by the Customs authorities 
at various ports in the Commonwealth. Reports, furnished 
daily to the Military Board by the district commandants, 
indicate that the mobilisation and concentration of citizen 
force troops for duty at defended ports have been carried out 
in a satisfactory manner, bearing in mind that the Australian 
military organisation is in its infancy. The rapidity with 
which it has been shown that units are able to assemblers 
regarded as a satisfactory augury for future progress in 
mobilisation arrangements. The response by the troops to 
the order calling upon their services has been met whole- 
heartedly, and shows a military spirit in accord with the tra- 
ditions of the British race. The Defence department is full 
of praise for the manner in which other Government depart- 
ments have co-operated with it in meeting military require- 
ments, and the department desires also to pay its tribute to 
the public for its attitude/ 



MESSAGE FROM LORD KITCHENER 

Sydney The following cable message was received by the Prime 

Morning Minister to-day from the High Commissioner in London 
Herald, ^ (Sir George Reid) : 

' The Secretary of State for War (Lord Kitchener) desires 



AUSTRALIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

me to convey his grateful and special thanks for the splendid 
help promised by Australia, and hopes and believes that 
everything will be done promptly and well. He highly appreci- 
ates the way in which his scheme has been carried out. He 
knows the Australian soldier, and knows that he will give a 
good account of himself. His final words were " Roll up, 
roll up/' 

August 10, 1914. 

EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 
DEFENCE MINISTER'S ANNOUNCEMENT 

The MINISTER OF DEFENCE (MR. E. D. MILLEN) made the Melbourne 
folio wing explanation with regard to the force late last night: Argus, ^ 
The expeditionary force will be composed of Aug.ii, 14. 

i Light Horse Brigade, 
i Division. 

The former will be of the establishment set forth in Aus- 
tralian War Establishment, 1912 ; the division will comprise 
the units laid down in British War Establishments, 1914 (but 
with three field artillery brigades only), but the establishments 
of units will be those details in Australian War Establishments, 
1912. 

Commandants will immediately publish the fact that 
volunteers are required, and take steps to enrol the names of 
officers and other ranks of all arms willing to volunteer. 

The troops will be raised on a territorial basis, in order to 
associate definite areas, and the military units now existing 
in such areas with the several battalions, squadrons, batteries, 
etc. In this way each unit will represent a State, and a distinct 
locality, and the troops in that locality. Officers and men will 
thus bring with them, representative as they will be of definite 
districts, and of troops belonging to such districts, all the 
cohesion, feeling of comradeship, and local association which 
are such valuable elements in promoting the highest standard 
of discipline in the field and of gallantry before the enemy. 

If possible, at least one-half of the rank and file should be 
men now in their twentieth year, or upwards, who are serving 
with the colours, and the remainder should be trained men, 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

especially enlisted, who have served in the militia, in the 
Imperial forces, or have had war service. Preference will 
be given to men who have served within the last five 
years. 

Officers and men of Light Horse units should be informed 
that, if in possession of suitable horses, these should be made 
available. Horses of requisite standard, and passed by the 
staff officer for veterinary services, will be purchased on the 
valuation of an approved board. 

The assistance and hearty co-operation of commanding 
officers should be obtained in securing volunteers, in order 
that a definite connection may be established between their 
units and those of the Expeditionary Force. 

Single men will be preferred. 

The period of service will be for the duration of the war, 
and a further period of four months thereafter, or until law- 
fully discharged from such service. 

The rates of pay will be : For privates, 53. per diem 
within Australia ; 6s. per diem when abroad. Rations in 
each case. Of the above pay, is. will be held as deferred pay 
in each case. 

Officers nominated to command infantry brigades will, 
upon appointment, proceed to respective military districts, 
and assist commandants in the organisation and training of 
their units. 

Light Horse and Infantry Brigade commanders will 
nominate their own staff and regimental and battalion com- 
manders ; regimental and battalion commanders will in their 
turn nominate their own staffs and subordinate commanders. 
Nomination will be submitted through district commandants 
to central headquarters. . 

For other arms and departments, commandants will 
submit the names of officers volunteering, together with their 
recommendation as to appointment. 

A proportion of cadets from the first class at Duntroon will 
be allotted to units subsequently. 

The names of officers, warrant and non-commissioned 
officers of the permanent forces who volunteer will be tele- 
graphed daily to central headquarters. 

Commandants will submit in writing their recommenda- 
tions or opinion as to the fitness of individuals. 
156 



AUSTRALIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

Warrant and non-commissioned officers of the Instructional 
Staff will be allotted to units on the following basis : 

Infantry Battalions and Light Horse Regiments each 
i regimental sergeant-major, i regimental quarter- 
master-sergeant, i sergeant machine-gun section, 
i sergeant signalling section. 
Other units. i permanent warrant or non-commissioned 

officer will be allotted to each other unit. 
Field Artillery. i battery 'sergeant-major per battery. 
Commandants will forthwith select and prepare places of 
concentration, convenient to probable places of embarkation. 
When orders are issued for assembly and attestation of 
quotas, commandants will be responsible for these arrange- 
ments, and for the command and administration of troops 
when concentrated. 

Forms of attestation and instructions regarding records 
will be issued subsequently. 

Instructions regarding the equipment of quotas will be 
given later. 

Colonel J. W. McCay, who was deputy chief censor, is to be 
one of the brigadiers. 

Members of the Expeditionary Force will have the privilege 
of voting in connection with the coming elections as absentees. 

August 12, 1914. 
PARTICULARS OF EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

The complete Expeditionary Force will be constituted Melbourne 
as follows : Argus, 

Aug.12/14, 

Unit. Personnel. Horses. Guns. 

Light Horse Brigade 

Headquarters . . ; 34 26 

3 Regiments . . ^ - 1,608 1689 6 

Field Artillery Battery . ;4 162 173 4 

Ammunition Column . ' r ^ 100 118 

Signal troop .... 43 45 

Train . . . . 150 158 

Field Ambulance 120 106 



Total 2,226 2315 10 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Unit. Personnel. Horses. Guns. 

Division 

Headquarters ... 80 54 .. 

3 Infantry Brigades . . 12,351 768 24 

2 Light Horse Squadrons . 321 334 
Headquarters Divisional Artil- 
lery 22 20 

3 Field Artillery Brigades . 2,178 2112 36 
Ammunition Column . . 607 734 
Headquarters Divisional En- 
gineers .... 12 8 

2 Field Companies . . 412 114 
Signal Company . . . 163 80 
Divisional Train . . . 645 638 

3 Field Ambulances . . 762 300 



Total 17,553 -5162 60 
Grand Total 19,779 7477 70 



There will be 221 other officers and men employed in 
various capacities. 

State Quotas 

Victoria will, according to present arrangements, provide 
the largest proportion of the force, and at least one brigade 
of infantry in addition to Light Horse, Field Artillery, and 
departmental troops, will be drawn from this State, Colonel 
J. W. McCay, formerly Deputy Chief Censor, being in command 
of the dismounted men. In pursuance of Mr. E. D. Millen's 
wish, the recruiting will be as scattered as is conveniently 
possible, the idea being that every portion of each State should 
have its special interest in the expedition. There is a proposal 
that the units raised should be considered as second battalions 
of existing regiments, so that the war honours might later on 
be associated with them. Thus men volunteering in Ballarat 
would be sworn in as members of the second battalions either 
of the 7Oth (Ballarat) Infantry, or of the yist Infantry (Ballarat 
Rifles), and so on throughout the Commonwealth. The State 
quotas in round numbers will be as follows : 
158 



AUSTRALIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

State. Men. 

Queensland . . . 2380 

New South Wales . . 6420 

Victoria .... 7430 

South Australia . . 1770 

West Australia . 840 

Tasmania . . . 1070 

The units will be self-contained in every particular, so that 
there will be no necessity to add to the equipment when abroad. 
Tents are not to be taken, however. 



STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

One of the greatest difficulties in equipping the Expedition- Sydney 
ary Force is that of providing the large number of horses re- Morning 
quired. The difficulty arises not from any shortage of horses Herald, t 
in Australia, but from the necessity of procuring them in the ug ' 13 ' I 
very limited time that is available. It is absolutely essential 
that the expedition should start at the earliest possible moment, 
and every effort is being made to hurry forward all the inci- 
dental arrangements. Remembering with much gratification 
the splendid assistance horse-owners lent the department 
during the South African War, I venture to appeal to them 
again with every confidence to assist in the present crisis by 
making gifts of horses suitable for military purposes. The 
kind most urgently needed are gunners and draught horses. 

* 

August 28, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

It is only natural that there should be a very general and Sydney 
strong desire for information as to the movements of the vessels Morning 
of the Australian Fleet, and more particularly in relation to Herald, 
the Pacific. Au S- 2 9> J 4- 

I fully recognise this desire, and at the very earliest oppor- 
tunity will make available all the information which can be 
published without detriment. 

It must be, and I am sure it is, recognised that there are 
good and sound reasons why the movements of our ships and 
the duty upon which they may be from time to time engaged 

159 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

should not be made public. It has to be remembered that, 
though cables and wireless are under official control, letters and 
newspapers still pass outwards quite freely, unless directed 
to the countries with which we are at war. Apart from this 
there is always the possibility that other channels of com- 
munication with the outside world may be in existence. This 
is always a possibility to guard against. 

There is not only no desire to withhold any news that can 
fairly be published, but I repeat the assurance previously 
given that any news reaching the Government will be made 
public at the earliest moment, bearing in mind the precautions 
previously outlined. 

So far as regards the Australian Fleet, though it has been 
anything but idle, there is little to relate. An Expeditionary 
Force has left these shores, and another has started from New 
Zealand for operations within the Pacific, and it has been part 
of the duty of the fleet to act in co-operation with these. The 
New Zealand expedition reached Noumea, and subsequently 
left under a strong convoy, which included both British and 
French vessels. 

Further news may be expected regarding this force very 
soon, and there is every reason to anticipate that it will be 
of an entirely satisfactory character ; but a longer period will 
in all probability elapse before news need be looked for re- 
garding the movements of the Australian expedition. 

Meanwhile, it will be reassuring to know, especially in view 
of the reckless and entirely unfounded rumours that have 
been in circulation, that all is well with both the fleet and the 
expeditions. 

August 30, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF AUSTRALIAN PRIME MINISTER 

Sydney The struggle in which we are involved together with the 

Morning res t o f the Empire promises to be of considerable duration. 

Au i 'IA ^ ur na ti na l existence is at stake, and we must be prepared to 

take up our own share of the burden without flinching from the 

sacrifices that may be involved. We have nearly completed 

the arrangements for the despatch of the Expeditionary Force 

of 20,000 men to join the British forces now in the field. Our 

effort must not cease with the despatch of this force. The 

1 60 



AUSTRALIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

Minister for War, Lord Kitchener, is enrolling volunteers to 
form further drafts to supplement the force at the present 
moment fighting for us in France with aU the determination 
and self-sacrifice which in the past have characterised the 
British soldiers. We shall fail in our duty unless we follow in 
the same lines. With this object, the Government proposes to 
call for the additional volunteers. All the existing machinery 
will be maintained for the efficient training, and, if necessity 
still exists, for the despatch at a later date of further expedi- 
tionary forces. We feel sure that the appeals to the patriotism 
of our citizens will not fail in this great international crisis. 
Details of the arrangements necessary to carry out the scheme 
will be stated later by the Minister of Defence. 

STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

With reference to the Imperial Reservists resident in Sydney 
Australia, the Minister of Defence points out that these men Morning 
are members of the British Army, and are under an obligation Herald, ^ 
which they are loyally and readily observing. The pay to Au ^ I} I 4- 
which they are entitled, according to army rates, is only is. 7d. 
per day, with a slight increase in the case of married men. 
Although these men are not part of the Australian Expedi- 
tionary Forces, and the Government is under no legal obliga- 
tion regarding them, yet it has been decided to supplement 
their British pay to the extent necessary to bring it up to that 
adopted for the Australian force. In other words, Imperial 
Reservists will be placed upon exactly the same footing as 
members of the Australian force. The Government takes 
the view that, although serving in the British Army, the men 
are residents in Australia. It proposes, therefore, to extend 
to them corresponding treatment both as to pay and pension. 

September 3, 1914. 
STATEMENTS OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

The MINISTER OF DEFENCE (MR. MILLEN) stated with Sydney 
regard to the provision being made for the dependants of those Morning 
members of the Expeditionary Force who might fall, or for those ?*. 
who may be incapacitated during the war, that a mass of detail p 4 ' T 
was being worked out to ensure the scheme being as complete 

OVERSEAS 2.. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

as possible. The main feature, the basis of the scheme, as it 
affected the large majority, viz., the rank and file, had, how- 
ever, been settled. It provided for an annuity of 50 per 
annum to the widow of any man who lost his life on service, 
with an addition of 12, los. per annum for every child up 
to the age of 16 for boys and 18 for girls. In the case of 
total incapacity, the annuity for a single man would be 75 
per annum. Married men would receive the sum also, but 
in addition there would be an annual allowance of 30 for their 
wives, and 12, los. in respect of each child. The scale of 
allowance in respect of partial incapacity would be graduated 
according to the nature and degree of incapacitation, a prin- 
ciple adopted in the Workmen's Compensation Acts. Allow- 
ances for those of higher rank other than privates and other 
details were under reference to the Commonwealth Statistician, 
and it was anticipated that the whole matter would be decided 
in a few days. 

Sydney The MINISTER OF DEFENCE (MR. MILLEN) to-day made 

Morning available the details regarding the additional troops proposed 
Herald, ^ to be raised for despatch in connection with the present war. 
sept. 4, 14. j] ie enro } men t hitherto proceeding for the main Expedition- 
ary Force will continue, and any men enlisting over and above 
the numbers required for that force will be included in the 
new contingents, 

MESSAGE FROM GENERAL BRIDGES TO SIR JOHN 

FRENCH 

ibid. To-day the officer commanding the Australian Imperial 

Expeditionary Force (General Bridges) sent the following to 
Sir John French : ' All ranks Commonwealth military forces 
congratulate Army and Navy on their splendid achievements. 
Australian Expeditionary Force eagerly look forward to join- 
ing their comrades in the field/ 

LORD KITCHENER'S MESSAGE TO BRITISH 
EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

ibid. The MINISTER OF DEFENCE (MR. MILLEN) to-day received 

a full copy of the message handed to each member of the 



AUSTRALIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

British Expeditionary Force on its embarkation by Lord 
Kitchener. The Minister is having the message printed for 
distribution amongst the Australian units when they leave 
for the front. 

September 4, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

The MINISTER OF DEFENCE this evening made a statement Sydney 
summarising the steps taken in Australia in connection with Morning 
the war, in which he says : 'When the first indication that the **" ' I4 
Empire might be engaged in war reached the Commonwealth, 
I expressed the belief that Australia would prove no fair- 
weather partner in the then impending conflict. 

' What has been done since, with the clear endorsement of 
the whole of Australia, has amply justified that anticipation. 
Australia rejoices at the splendid spirit displayed by the people 
of the old land, and at the patriotic efforts which are being 
made by Canada, New Zealand, and other parts of the Empire. 
She wishes the rest of the Empire to know that in this momen- 
tous struggle for liberty and national honour, the vigour of her 
manhood, the bounties of her soil, the resources of her economic 
organisation, have been, and will be, freely offered to help to 
maintain the glory and greatness of the Empire ; and to 
battle for the righteous cause and freedom in which it is now 
engaged. We have already assumed responsibilities which 
have not yet fallen upon any other Dominion. 

' Quite apart from the steps which we thought it necessary 
to take in order to preserve the integrity of Australia itself, 
and to protect her people from economic disaster, our task 
from the larger Imperial point of view has been a double one 
to defend the flag in these outer seas, and to rally to the 
Motherland at the decisive point of conflict. Our geographical 
position has given us the privilege as well as the responsibility 
of assisting to safeguard Imperial interests, possessions, and 
shipping in the southern seas. Our fleet is now acting under 
the directions of the Admiralty, and includes the most powerful 
war vessel possessed by any of the belligerents, with the 
exception of Japan, in the Pacific. The events which have 
occurred since the commencement of the war provide an 
abundant justification not only for the Australian naval policy 

163 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

generally, but also for the retention in the Pacific by the 
Commonwealth Government of the capital ship of her fleet 
unit. 

In the sudden emergency which arose, the presence of His 
Majesty's ship Australia, supported by the other vessels of the 
Australian Navy will, even if not a single shot is fired, have 
amply repaid all that Australia has in money and personal 
effort spent upon them. The fact that the first stage in the 
removal of German power in the Pacific has already been taken 
affords ample proofs that the forces of the British Dominions 
in the Pacific are no mere playthings. The partial mobilisa- 
tion of several thousands of the Citizen soldiers was completed 
in a rapid and efficient manner, which was a gratifying test, 
not only of the compulsory military service system upon which 
Australia embarked only four years ago, but also of the loyal 
and ready response of the members of the forces to the obliga- 
tions imposed upon them. 

The response to the call for volunteers for an Imperial 
Expeditionary Force of 20,000 men was immediate and 
enthusiastic. The men are now in camp, and, although organi- 
sation for the force had to be created ad hoc, the arrangements 
are well in hand, and .the departure of the force may be ex- 
pected at an early date. The war is probably destined to be 
a long one. We have accordingly taken steps to secure the 
enrolment of further volunteers, both for the purpose of 
replenishing wastage in the first force, and with a view to 
sending the further contingents if necessary. Australia does 
not propose to lag behind amongst the units of the Empire 
in the sacrifices which must be made to secure a victory. The 
war is not yet over, and greater efforts may be needed than 
have yet been necessary. But we may confidently claim 
that Australia has already contributed in no small measure to 
the common obligations which she owes to the Commonwealth 
and herself. 

There is, however, added to all she is doing an enthusiasm 
for, and a love of, Empire which will endure when the material 
aid now preferred has served its purpose in assisting to a com- 
plete and decisive victory. 



164 



AUSTRALIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

September 7 (circ.) 
AUSTRALIAN MESSAGES TO THE FORCES 

(Press Bureau Statement) 

The Government and people of Western Australia have Times, 
telegraphed expressing their intense admiration of the gallant Sept. 8, '14. 
manner in which the British troops have acquitted themselves. 
' Their splendid valour/ the telegram concludes, ' has made us 
still prouder of the grand old flag/ 

The Army Council, in reply, have expressed their sincere 
thanks for this cordial message, and have declared that the 
Army hopes soon to welcome its Australian comrades, of whose 
gallant co-operation in South Africa it retains vivid and grate- 
ful memories. 

The Governor- General of the Commonwealth of Australia 
has telegraphed as follows to the Colonial Office : ' All ranks 
of the Commonwealth Defence Forces congratulate the Army 
and Navy on their splendid achievements. Australia's Expe- 
ditionary Force eagerly looks forward to joining its comrades 
in the field/ 

The Army Council have returned a message thanking the 
Commonwealth Forces for their congratulations and assuring 
them that the Army awaits the arrival of its Australian 
comrades in confident anticipation of their loyal and gallant 
support. 

September 8, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF THE MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

Melbourne, Tuesday. 

With the approval of the Federal Executive Council, a Sydney 
provisional regulation under the Defence Act was circulated Morning 
to-night, authorising the military authorities in certain cir- Herald, ^ 
cumstances to seize vehicles, horses, mules, bullocks, aerial be P t -9> I 4- 
machines, boats, etc., in the event of their not being obtainable 
in the ordinary way of business. In explaining the new regula- 
tion, the Minister of Defence (Mr. Millen) said to-night that 
the regulation had been prepared only as a precaution. There 
are certain things [said the Minister] which it is necessary to 
obtain in connection with the equipment of the contingent 
now being organised, and I regret to say that in certain rare 

165 



Sydney 
Morning 
Herald, 
Sept. 14, 
1914. 



* [See 
Naval, i, 
pp. 226-9.] 

Sydney 
Morning 
Herald, 
Sept. 14, 
1914. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

instances an effort is being made to ask unduly high prices. 
This regulation has been drafted to enable us to protect the 
interest of the public with regard to these articles and others 
which may be required under the circumstances indicated. 

The Minister went on to say that as a result of the regula- 
tion, the department would be able to take possession of the 
war materials required, and settle for them afterwards at a 
price to be arranged by a departmental board. 

September 13, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

SENATOR MILLEN, THE MINISTER OF DEFENCE, stated 
yesterday that the first of the units, the formation of which 
is in progress, will comprise approximately 355 officers. It is 
not anticipated that the full number of suitable officers in the 
existing establishments will find themselves able to leave their 
employment and volunteer for foreign service. A few addi- 
tional officers will be forthcoming, it is expected, from those 
who have held commissions previously in any military force 
of the Dominions ; for the remainder, it is proposed to give 
commissions to those who enrol as private soldiers in the 
general enlistment for foreign service. The examination will 
be on the competitive practical lines laid down in the Act, 
and will, it is thought, bring out a considerable number of 
smart young men fit for the lower commissioned ranks. 

CAPTURE OF NEW BRITAIN 1 

STATEMENT OF AUSTRALIAN PRIME MINISTER DESIGNATE 

. (MR. FISHER) 

I desire to express my appreciation of the work of the 
leader of the expedition and the men of all ranks, and my 
gratification at the success of their operations in this, the first, 
action within the Australian sphere of influence. 

At the same time I greatly regret that the operations have 
resulted in the loss of gallant officers and men, who have, 
unfortunately, fallen on the field of honour. Their bravery 
and self-sacrifice for their country will ever be remembered by 
those whom they have served so well. They have given 
everything in the service of their country. 
166 " 



AUSTRALIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

September 14, 1914. 

TELEGRAMS BETWEEN MINISTER OF DEFENCE 
AND REAR-ADMIRAL PATEY 

MR. MILLEN has received a wireless message from Admiral Sydney 
Patey, stating that the British flag was hoisted at Rabaul in Morning 
New Britain, the headquarters of German New Guinea, and ^T*' 
saluted at half-past three on Sunday afternoon, and the pro- I ^ ' I5 ' 
clamation of occupation read. 

After he received the information, Mr. Millen sent the 
following message to Admiral Sir George Patey : ' Hearty 
congratulations to yourself and all concerned in the successful 
operations at Rabaul.' 

September 15, 1914. 

NAVAL OPERATIONS : STATEMENT OF MINISTER 

OF DEFENCE 

It is in fact possible in a general way to satisfy the natural Sydney 
desire of Australia to know in what manner the Australian Morning 
Navy has been engaged since the declaration of war. Im- Herald, 
mediately on the outbreak of war, the Australian fleet unit, J " I ' 
complete for active service in every detail, left Sydney, acting 
in co-operation with the China squadron. Search for the 
enemy's cruisers has been prosecuted, and the enemy's wire- 
less stations in the Pacific have been put out of action. The 
operations also included the covering of the New Zealand 
expedition for the seizure and occupation of Samoa, 1 an opera- l [See 
tion which the steps taken by the Australian fleet assisted to Naval, i, 
render safe. In attending first to the requirements of our PP- I 35-6oJ 
sister Dominion of New Zealand, Australia showed a dis- 
interestedness that will certainly be appreciated by that 
Dominion. Our plans were so well assured that they could not 
suffer by delay until the New Zealand expedition was made 
secure. Later, as is already known, the operations of the 
fleet included the capture and occupation of Simpsonshafen, 
the headquarters of the enemy's Government of the German 
possessions in New Guinea, New Britain, and the Bismarck 
Archipelago, operations that will still call for some detached 

167 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

work before being complete. In addition to this, there have 
been all the measures necessary for the safeguarding of our 
trade routes and commerce, which must of necessity have 
every attention paid them. It can thus be seen that the very 
extensive operations on which we have been engaged over 
such considerable distances, have imposed a task upon the 
Royal Australian Navy of no mean proportions, involving as 
it did long-sustained energy of action. That this task has 
been borne in the way that it has been is due to the fine 
leading of the Rear- Admiral Commanding, and the spirit and 
enthusiasm of all under his command. Although our losses 
have been small and the wish naturally arises that we might 
have been spared them at the same time there is cause for 
congratulation that the accomplishment of so much has been 
attained at such a small sacrifice of life. 



Sydney 
Morning 
Herald, 
Sept. 19, 
1914. 



iSee 

Appendix, 
PP. 332- 
357-1 . 



September 18, 1914. 

MEMORANDUM OF RETIRING MINISTER OF 

DEFENCE 

The retiring MINISTER OF DEFENCE, SENATOR MILLEN, 
on vacating his office this month, issued the following 
memorandum : 

My term as Minister, though short, has been memorable, 
in that, for the first time, that which has been prepared in 
peace is being tested by the realities of war. Only in this way 
can the value of the work performed in peace be thoroughly 
tested. It would be foolish to pretend that Australian defence 
organisation was equal to the strain suddenly thrown upon it. 
It was not, nor would it -have been reasonable to expect it to 
be. The adoption of the present system was too recent, its 
development too imperfect to allow of this. Its erection was 
too recent to permit of the complete training of the personnel or 
the development of the organisation. Under Lord Kitchener's 
scheme * eight years were allowed for the building of the army, 
less than half of which period had elapsed. The process of 
building it up was in itself a heavy strain upon the departmental 
organisation ; further, it was designed as an army for home 
service only, thus adding considerably to the difficulty when 
it became necessary to provide contingents for service abroad. 
168 






AUSTRALIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

For home service, units were in existence, and were -more or 
less equipped and available at short notice to take up their 
allotted duties, but no such units existed for service abroad. 
These had to be suddenly formed, officers allotted, clothing, 
equipment, and supplies furnished. In view of these facts, 
it would have been unreasonable to expect that, when the 
sudden outbreak of war occurred, the unusual strain could be 
met and sustained with entire success. 

It is no discredit to either army or department to say this. 
What is to the credit of both is that they have met as they 
have done a demand which invariably tests the old and 
established organisations of highly trained armies throughout 
the world. I cannot too warmly commend the splendid way 
in which the majority of those connected with the depart- 
ment naval, military and civil responded to the -appeal thus 
made upon them, and by a display of zeal and energy doing 
much to overcome the difficulties created by the sudden 
emergency. The result, which, in view of the facts I have 
set out, must be regarded as gratifying, is largely due to this 
individual effort. 

Apart from the enrolment and equipment of the expedi- 
tionary forces, the war has, by rendering partial local mobilisa- 
tion necessary, provided a sure test of the spirit and reliability 
of the citizen forces. The result is highly gratifying. With 
cheerful alacrity the men responded to the call, and in a most 
soldierly manner settled down to the duty allotted them. 

The task thrown upon the department by the war was : 
(i) Mobilisation of the forces (about 10,000) for local defence, 
including the transport of 1000 men, fully equipped, from 
Townsville to Thursday Island ; (2) raising, equipping, and 
despatching a combined naval and military expedition to 
co-operate with the fleet in certain Pacific Island operations ; 
(3) organising and equipping an Expeditionary Force of 20,000 
men to embark for Europe ; (4) raising the additional units 
being enrolled, and procuring the extensive transport plant 
(both mechanical and horse) requisite to the equipment of the 
line of communication unit. 

On the naval side corresponding responsibility was in- 
volved in maintaining regular supplies of coal, oil, and stores 
to the fleet, and in providing and fitting up the transports for 
the expeditionary forces. At the same time the ordinary 

169 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

training of the citizen forces was maintained. Had any break 
been permitted, the value of much of the earlier work would 
have been lost, and the future efficiency impaired for many 
years. It would certainly have relieved the department 
very materially if this had been suspended, but the ultimate 
result would, I am convinced, have so seriously disturbed the 
defence scheme, that I had no hesitation in deciding as to its 
uninterrupted continuance. 

The training of the citizen army is proceeding steadily. 
The experience gained, limited though it is, has already dis- 
closed certain mistakes and weaknesses, and pointed to the 
necessity for certain changes ; but these are in regard to details, 
such as improved rifle training, readjustment of training areas, 
better utilisation of the time now given to training facilities for 
the training of officers of all grades, etc. None of these touch 
the principles upon which the Commonwealth defence scheme is 
founded, though they still have an important bearing upon 
its success or otherwise. As opportunity presents itself, these 
matters should be attended to. 

A more drastic change, however, is called for in connection 

with the business portion of the departmental responsibilities. 

1 [See General Sir Ian Hamilton 1 has dealt exhaustively with this 

Appendix, matter, and it is only necessary for me to add that, had the 

PP- 417- Government remained in office, it was intended to give effect 

to his recommendations, and, by thorough reorganisation, 

secure at the same time efficiency and economy. 

I have already referred to the difficulty of organising a 
force for service abroad, the Commonwealth military forces 
being designed solely for service in Australia. In the light of 
the South African War, and the present one, it appears almost 
certain, however, that when the Empire is at war Australia 
will desire to actively participate. It would be of immense 
advantage, therefore, if, without enrolling special units for such 
service, the organisation and equipment were provided in 
advance, leaving the personnel to be furnished by voluntary 
enlistment, as at present. This would mean the avoidance of 
very much of the delay which is inevitable under the present 
system. Nor need it involve any undue expenditure, as the 
equipment could, to a considerable extent, be drawn from the 
reserves, which must, in course of time, be built up in connec- 
tion with the Commonwealth military forces. These reserves 
170 



AUSTRALIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

thus temporarily depleted, could subsequently be made up. 
There is, however, in this connection a liability to err in the 
direction of building up unnecessary reserves of those things 
which can be obtained from supplies readily available in 
the country. 

For the purpose here indicated, supplies might well be 
divided into two classes, viz. those which are exclusively of 
military use, and those which are also used by the citizen 
population. The former should be held in requisite quantities, 
but as the latter can be obtained at call, it should be quite 
sufficient if the organisation were in existence for collecting 
them when required. 



September 19, 1914. 

LOSS OF AUSTRALIAN SUBMARINE A.E 1 : STATE- 
MENTS OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE, AND OF 
PRIME MINISTER 

The MINISTER OF DEFENCE announced to-day that the Sydney 

Australian submarine A.E 1, with 35 officers and men, has been Morning 

lost. She was last seen on September 14, returning from a ???*' 

patrol. Other ships have made a search, but nothing has been / 
found. Admiral Patey reports that no enemy were in the 

vicinity at the time. The loss is attributed to accident. 1 * [See 

Supplementing the statement by the Minister, the follow- 
ing has been issued by the Naval Board : 

' It is with the deepest regret that we have to report the 
loss at sea, with all hands, of the Australian submarine A.E 1. 
She was last seen on September 14, returning from patrol 
duty. The weather was fine, the sea smooth, and no enemy 
was in the vicinity. It was thought that she must have 
sighted an enemy and given chase, but the result of a thorough 
search has now caused this hope to be abandoned. 

' The water in the vicinity, of the place in which she was 
last seen is very deep, and there is no hope of locating the 
wreck if she has sunk there. We may be thankful that the 
water is deep, as the hull of the vessel would be unable to 
stand the pressure and death would be mercifully sudden. 

' The A.E 1 was in charge of the officers and men, for the 

171 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



[SEIj 



most part, of the crew who brought her out from England. In 
that long voyage they showed their thorough efficiency. The 
Navy has to mourn the loss of good comrades, and many homes 
will also mourn to-day. Although our men did not fall by 
the hand of the enemy, they fell on active service, and in 
defence of their Empire. Their names will be enshrined with 
those of heroes/ 

In making his statement SENATOR PEARCE said :- 

' The Government deeply deplores this disaster, and 
extends its sincere sympathy with. the wives and families of 
those -on board. The only gleam of consolation is that the 
loss is not due to any action of the enemy, but the officers and 
men have just as truly given their services to the Empire as 
if they had been killed in action/ 

The PRIME MINISTER, MR. FISHER, made the following 
statement : 

' The indications are that they have died in the service of 
their country, owing to the risks and dangers of seafaring life. 
As far as we know, they were not in action. If the worst has 
happened, I desire with the people of the Commonwealth to 
express my sincere sympathy with the relatives and friends 
of those who have lost their lives in the service of their 
country. No enemies are known to be in the vicinity. You 
can also say that I think it advisable to keep the people 
notified of matters of the kind, so that their minds may be free 
from apprehension of news of any disasters being withheld/ 



172 



NEW ZEALAND 



MEMBERS OF THE GOVERNMENT of the RIGHT HONOUR- 
ABLE W. F. MASSEY, P.C., at the opening of the War. 



Right Hon. W. F. 
MASSEY, P.C. 



Prime Minister, Minister of Lands, Minister of Agri- 
culture, Minister of Labour, Minister of In- 
dustries and Commerce, Commissioner of State 
Forests, Minister in Charge of Land for Settle- 
ments, Valuation, and Scenery Preservation 
Departments 

Minister of Finance, Minister of Defence, Minister Hon. J. ALLEN. 
of Education, Minister in Charge of Land and 
Income Tax Department, and State-guaranteed 
Advances Office 



Minister of Railways and Native Minister 



Hon.W.H.HERRiES. 
Hon. W. FRASER. - 



Minister of Public Works, Roads, and Bridges, 
Minister of Mines, and Minister in Charge of 
Public Buildings and Domains 

Attorney-General, Minister of Justice, Minister of Hon. A. L. HERDMAN. 
Stamp Duties, Minister in Charge of Police, 
Prisons, Crown Law (including Drafting), and 
Public Trust Departments 



Hon. F. H. D. BELL, 
K.C. 



Minister of Internal Affairs, Minister of Immigra- 
tion, and Minister in Charge of Audit Office, 
Registrar-General, High Commissioner, Museum, 
and Laboratory Departments 

Postmaster-General and Minister of Telegraphs, Hon. R. H. RHODES. 
Minister of Public Health, Minister in Charge of 
Hospitals and Charitable Aid, Mental Hospitals, 
and Tourist and Health Resorts Departments 

Minister of Customs, Minister of Marine, Minister Hon. F. M. B. FISHER. 
in Charge of Inspection of Machinery, Advertis- 
ing, Printing and Stationery, Legislative, State 
Fire Insurance, Life and Accident Insurance, 
Electoral, National Provident Fund, Friendly 
Societies, and Pensions Departments 

Member of the Executive Council representing the Hon. DR. POMARE. 
Native Race, and in Charge of Maori Councils, 
Cook and other Islands Administration 

173 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH HIS MAJESTY'S 

GOVERNMENT 

No. i 

The Governor of New Zealand 1 to the Secretary of State for the 

Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 4.40 P.M., July 31, 1914. 

A. With great enthusiasm, and with the acclamation of all 
parties in Parliament to-night, the Prime Minister made a 
declaration, which was seconded by Sir Joseph 'Ward, to the 
effect that, if necessity unfortunately arose, New Zealand was 
prepared to send her utmost quota of help in support of the 
Empire. I am desired to convey these sentiments to His 
Majesty the King and to the Imperial Government. I will 
telegraph both utterances later. LIVERPOOL. 

No. 2 
The Governor to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 9.40 A.M., July 31, 1914. 

A. Please inform me at the earliest possible moment when 
we should bring into operation Section 19 New Zealand Naval 
Defence Act. LIVERPOOL. 

No. 3 
The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor 

(Cablegram.) London, 2.25 P.M., August i, 1914. 

A. I have laid your report 2 of the proceedings in the New 
Zealand Parliament before the King, who received it with 
great pleasure, and I am commanded by His Majesty to convey 
to you his high appreciation of this further manifestation of 
the staunch loyalty of the Dominion. HARCOURT. 



[The Earl of Liverpool, K.C.M.G.] 



2 See No. i. 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH NEW ZEALAND 

No. 4 
The Governor to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 4.24 P.M., August i, 1914. 

Following is repetition of speech delivered by Prime A. 
Minister, House of Representatives, last night I : i [See 

' As far as it is possible to judge from information received P- 1 9-] 
there is no occasion for serious alarm, but under existing cir- 
cumstances we have to prepare for possibilities and, should 
occasion arise, and it may, Government of New Zealand will 
ask Parliament and people of New Zealand to do their duty by 
offering the services of Expeditionary Force to the Imperial 
Government. I have no fear of volunteers not being forth- 
coming. I may say that an understanding has been arrived 
at with regard to number and constitution of a force which 
would fit in with Imperial requirements. I would like to 
add that as far as Britain's domestic troubles are concerned, 
I .trust that settlement will be arrived at which will enable 
citizens of the Empire to stand together as one man. Just 
one word more with regard to Canada's offer as reported in 
this evening's paper. My opinion of it may be summed up 
in three words : " Well done, Canada." 

All Members of Parliament at this juncture simultaneously 
rose applauding, and sang the National Anthem with great 
enthusiasm. 

Ward 2 then followed, saying : 2 pi r j 

' I should like to be permitted to add to what has been said Ward.] 
that I heard the statement of Prime Minister with the utmost 
satisfaction. I sincerely hope there may be no occasion for 
any portion of the Empire to have to co-operate with the Old 
Country, but the time appears to be fraught with a certain 
amount of danger to the world at large. I trust that wise 
counsels of the leading men in different parts of the world will 
be able to provide against a widespread war. I want to say, 
on behalf of this side of the House, that whatever may be 
necessary in the way of sending an Expeditionary Force, we 
will co-operate cordially with the Government in assisting 
them in maintaining the interests of this portion of the Empire 
and the Empire as a whole.' LIVERPOOL. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

No. 5 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor 
(Cablegram.) London, 12.37 p - M -> August 2, 1914. 

A. .With reference to your telegram of the 3ist July, 1 as to 
New Zealand Naval Defence Act, the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty will be glad if you will arrange with Ministers 
for issue at once of Proclamation under Section 19 (2). Please 
say in issuing Proclamation that you do so because ' in your 
opinion it is in the interests of Great Britain/ 

HARCOURT. 

No. 6 

The Governor to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 
(Cablegram.) Received 2.30 P.M., August 2, 1914. 

A. My Premier is anxious to ascertain whether' circumstances 
warrant New Zealand Government in calling immediately for 
the names of the volunteers to compose an Expeditionary 
Force, which would not, however, mobilise until the New 
Zealand Parliament has agreed and the Imperial Parliament so 
desires. Prime Minister desires that a reply may be sent so 
as to enable sanction of Parliament to be obtained immedi- 
ately. LIVERPOOL. 

No. 7 

The Governor to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 
(Cablegram.) Received 10.1 A.M., August 3, 1914. 

A. With reference to your telegram of the 2nd August, 2 New 
[Seep.iSi.] Zealand Naval Defence Act. Proclamation has been issued. 1 

LIVERPOOL. 

No. 8 

The Governor to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 
(Cablegram.) Received 5.45 A.M., August 4, 1914. 

A. In view of urgency and seriousness of the situation, Prime 
Minister desires to call at once for names of volunteers from the 
Citizen Army for service in Expeditionary Force, so that, in 

1 No. 2. 2 No. 5. 

176 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH NEW ZEALAND 

view of your possible request for us to mobilise, no delay will 
ensue. My Government consider this measure absolutely 
essential for the purpose of avoiding any delay. Please reply 
immediately by telegraph so that Ministers may obtain 
sanction of Parliament. LIVERPOOL. 

No. 9 
The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor 

(Cablegram.) London, 1.45 P.M., August 4, 1914. 

Your telegram 2nd August. 1 I think your Ministers would A. 
be wise, in view of their generous offer, although there seems 
to be no immediate necessity for any request on our part for 
an Expeditionary Force from New Zealand, to take all legis- 
lative and other steps by which they would be enabled with- 
out delay, in case it should hereafter be required, to provide 
such a force. HARCOURT. 

No. 10 
The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor 

(Cablegram.)- London, 12.20 P.M., August 6, 1914. 

Your telegram 4th August. 2 His Majesty's Government A. 
cordially thank the Government of New Zealand for the 
support to the Empire which they propose to send, and they 
accept the generous offer made. His Majesty's Government 
would be glad to know as soon as possible the details of the 
units which your Government propose to send. One Mounted 
Rifles Brigade, one Field Artillery Brigade, and one Infantry 
Brigade, with supply columns in proportion, would be a suit- 
able composition. HARCOURT. 

No. ii 

The Governor to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 
(Cablegram.) Received 3.17 P.M., August 7, 1914. 

My Government gladly accede to your request in your A. 
telegram of 6th August, 3 and will be prepared to send an Ex- 
peditionary Force as desired. LIVERPOOL. 

1 No. 6. 2 N0j 8> 3 No I0 

OVERSEAS 2. M 177 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

No. 12 
The Governor to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 10.56 A.M., August n, 1914. 

A. My Government propose, subject to approval of Parlia- 
ment, to assume all financial responsibility in connection with 
the New Zealand Expeditionary Force, including the cost of 
mobilisation, payment abroad, and, except as regards in- 
demnity for chartered transports, of transport also. 

LIVERPOOL. 

No. 13 
The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor 

(Cablegram.) London, 4.45 P.M., August n, 1914. 

A. Your telegram nth August. 1 Please convey to your 
Ministers cordial appreciation of His Majesty's Government 
for their generous action in assuming, subject to Parliamen- 
tary approval, financial responsibility for Expeditionary Force. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 14 
The Governor to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 2.6 P.M., September 3, 1914. 

A. ^rd September. The Maoris in New Zealand are most 
anxious to volunteer for war service, and my Prime Minister 
hopes that His Majesty's Government will agree to their doing 
so. If so, my Prime Minister will place the matter before 
Cabinet with a view to settling the numbers and the training 
necessary. LIVERPOOL. 

No. 15 
The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor 

(Cablegram.) London, 11.25 A - M -> September 6, 1914. 

A- Your telegram 3rd September. 2 Army Council would gladly 
accept contingent not exceeding 200 for service in Egypt. 

HARCOURT. 



1 No. 12. 2 No. 14. 

178 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH NEW ZEALAND 

GIFTS OF SUPPLIES FROM NEW ZEALAND 

No. i 
The Governor to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 7.55 A.M., August 15, 1914. 

1 5th August. Contingent ask whether, on arrival of C. 
Expeditionary Force at destination in England or elsewhere, 
Army Council would supply it with two complete military 
portable field X-ray apparatus, with all necessary accessories, 
at expense of New Zealand people. State probable cost in 
your reply. LIVERPOOL. 

No. 2 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor 

(Cablegram.) London, 4.40 P.M., August 19, 1914. 

Your telegram of I5th August. Army Council will be C. 
glad to secure, in about five weeks' time, two complete X-ray 
apparatus at estimated cost of 410. HARCOURT. 

No. 3 
The Minister of Defence, New Zealand, to War Office 

(Cablegram.) Received September 24, 1914. 

23rd September 1914. The Bleriot monoplane Britannia C. 
will be sent from here with reinforcements, if the Army Council 
wish it. All information about the machine can be supplied 
by the High Commissioner. 

No. 4 
War Office to the Minister of Defence, New Zealand 

(Cablegram.) September 24, 1914. 

With reference to your telegram of 23rd. We accept witH C. 
pleasure the Bleriot monoplane Britannia. It should be 
despatched to the Royal Flying Corps at Brooklands Aero- 
drome on its arrival in England. 

179 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



No. 5 
The Governor to the Secretary of State for the Colonies 

(Cablegram.) Received 3.30 A.M., September 29, 1914. 

C. Following to be transmitted to Her Majesty the Queen : 

' In addition to my fund to provide comforts for New 
Zealand troops, I am about to receive gifts of socks and belts 
in response to Your Majesty's appeal for the troops in the 
field. May I respectfully ask to be informed by telegram to- 
day whether belts which you mention are cholera belts, and 
if knitted, woven, and flannel would all be acceptable ? 
ANNETTE LIVERPOOL/ LIVERPOOL. 

No. 6 
The Private Secretary to the Queen to the Colonial Office 

(Telegram.) Received 3.15 P.M., September 29, 1914. 

C. The Queen will be much obliged if Mr. Harcourt will kindly 

telegraph to Lady Liverpool as follows : ' The Queen is most 

grateful for kind offer of woven cholera belts/ 

E. W. WELLINGTON, 
Royal Pavilion, Aldershot. 

No. 7 
The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor 

(Cablegram.) London, 4.35 P.M., September 29, 1914. 

C. Your telegram of 2gth September. The Queen is mosl 
grateful for kind offer of woven cholera belts. 

HARCOURT. 

No. 8 

The Secretary of State for the Colonies to the Governor 
(Cablegram.) London, 5.30 P.M., September 30, 1914. 

C. My telegram 2gth September. The Queen desires wovei 
only, not flannel, cholera belts. HARCOURT. 



180 



PROCLAMATIONS AND ORDERS IN COUNCIL 

August 3, 1914. 
PROCLAMATIONS 

RESERVE NAVAL VOLUNTEERS TO BE CALLED INTO ACTUAL 

SERVICE 

WHEREAS, by section four of the Royal Naval Reserves New 
(Volunteer) Act, 1859, ^ * s enacted that it shall be lawful for Zealand 
His Majesty on such occasions as he shall think fit (the occa- Gazette. 
sion being first communicated to Parliament if Parliament 
be sitting, or declared in Council and notified by Proclama- 
tion if Parliament be not sitting or in being) to order and direct 
that the Volunteers under that Act, or so many or such part 
of them as His Majesty may deem necessary, shall be called 
into actual service : 

And Whereas, by the Royal Naval Reserve Volunteer Act, 
1896, as amended by the Royal Naval Reserve Volunteer Act, 
1902, it is enacted that the power under the said Act of 1859 
to raise and pay Volunteers may be exercised outside the 
British Islands in respect of British subjects : 

And Whereas by the Naval Reserve Mobilisation Act, 
1900, it is enacted that when His Majesty, in pursuance of 
section four of the first-above-recited Act, orders and directs 
that Volunteers under that Act shall be called into actual 
service, His Majesty may authorise the Admiralty to give 
and, when given, to revoke or vary such directions as may 
seem necessary or proper for calling out all or any of the said 
Volunteers as the occasion may require : 

And Whereas a force of Reserve Naval Volunteers has been 
raised outside the British Islands from British subjects in 
the Commonwealth of Australia and in the Dominion of New 
Zealand : 

And Whereas His Majesty has declared in Council and 

181 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

notified by Proclamation that, owing to the state of public 
affairs, and the demands upon His Naval Forces for the pro- 
tection of the Empire, an occasion has arisen for ordering and 
directing as in the said first-mentioned Act is provided : 

It is hereby notified that His Majesty has been pleased to 
order and direct that the said Reserve Naval Volunteers 
shall be called into actual service, and to authorise the Admir- 
alty to give and, when given, to revoke or vary such directions 
as may seem necessary or proper for calling out all or any of 
the said Reserve Naval Volunteers as the occasion may require. 
Given under the hand of His Excellency the Right 
Honourable Arthur William de Brito Savile, Earl of 
Liverpool, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Dis- 
tinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, 
Member of the Royal Victorian Order, Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief in and over His Majesty's 
Dominion of New Zealand and its Dependencies ; 
and issued under the Seal of the said Dominion, at 
the Government House at Wellington, this third 
day of August, in the year of our Lord One thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen. 

J. ALLEN, 

Minister of Defence. 
God save the King. 

All Reserve Naval Volunteers are to report themselves 
forthwith to the Registrar of the Royal Naval Reserve at 
the Marine Department, Wellington. 

DECLARING H.M.S. ' PHILOMEL ' AND NEW ZEALAND NAVAL 
FORCES TO PASS UNDER CONTROL OF GOVERNMENT OF 
GREAT BRITAIN. 

New WHEREAS, by section nineteen of the Naval Defence Act, 

Zealand 1913, it is enacted that when, in the opinion of the Governor, 
it is expedient in the interests of Great Britain so to do, the 
Governor may by Proclamation declare that the ships, vessels, 
or boats acquired under that Act for Naval defence, or for 
services auxiliary thereto, and the New Zealand Naval Forces, 
shall pass and remain under the control and be at the disposi- 
tion of the Government of Great Britain for such time as he 
fixes by such Proclamation : And Whereas His Majesty's 
182 



NEW ZEALAND PROCLAMATIONS, ETC. 

ship Philomel has been acquired under the said Act for Naval 
defence under the said Act by way of transfer from His 
Majesty's Navy : And Whereas in the opinion of the Governor 
it is now expedient in the interests of Great Britain that a 
Proclamation should, in pursuance of the said enactment, be 
issued in respect of the said ship and in respect of the New 
Zealand Naval Forces : 

Now, therefore, I, Arthur William de Brito Savile, Earl of 
Liverpool, the Governor of the Dominion of New Zealand, in 
pursuance of the powers and authorities conferred upon me 
by section nineteen of the Naval Defence Act, 1913, and of all 
other powers and authorities enabling me in that behalf, do 
hereby declare that His Majesty's ship Philomel and the whole 
of the New Zealand Naval Forces shall, on the making of this 
Proclamation, pass under the control, and be at the disposition 
of the Government of Great Britain, and shall remain under 
such control and disposition for one calendar month from the 
date of this Proclamation. 1 1 [See 

Naval, i, 
p. 66.] 
August 4, 1914. 

PROCLAMATION 

PART OF THE TERRITORIAL FORCE CALLED OUT FOR 
ACTIVE SERVICE 

WHEREAS, by section seventy-one of the Defence Amend- New 
ment Act, 1912, it is enacted that the Governor may by Pro- Zealand 
clamation call out the Territorial Force, or any part thereof, Gazette. 
for active service : And Whereas the New Zealand Garrison 
Artillery is part of the said Territorial Force : And Whereas 
circumstances have now arisen which make it necessary so to 
call out that part of the Territorial Force for active service : 

Now, therefore, I, Arthur William de Brito Savile, Earl of 
Liverpool, the Governor of the Dominion of New Zealand, in 
pursuance of the powers and authorities conferred upon me by 
section seventy-one of the Defence Amendment Act, 1912, 
and of all other powers and authorities enabling me in that 
behalf, do hereby call out for active service that part of the 
Territorial Force known as the New Zealand Garrison Artillery. 

J. ALLEN, 
Minister of Defence. 

183 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY- OVERSEAS 

[Regulations giving power to close telegraph stations and 
prohibit telegraph messages in time of war were issued by 
Order in Council, authorised in the New' Zealand Gazette of 
August 3. Orders in Council prohibiting the export of coal and 
certain specified goods were published in the New Zealand 
Gazette of August 4, 7, 8, 10 and 13. Proclamations declaring 
notes of certain banks to be legal tender were published in the 
New Zealand Gazette of August 5 and September 4. An Order 
in Council for the ' granting of Days of Grace/ in the case of 
enemy merchant ships, was published in the New Zealand 
Gazette of August 6. Proclamations notifying that British 
subjects contributing to a loan raised on behalf of the German 
Empire, or contracting with the German Government, would 
be guilty of High Treason, and setting forth Law and Policy 
with regard to Trading with the enemy, were published in 
the New Zealand Gazette of August 7, 1914.] 

August 8, 1914. 
PROCLAMATION 

ARMY RESERVE (REGULAR AND SPECIAL RESERVISTS) 

New WHEREAS His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased 

Zealand to direct by Proclamation that the Army Reserve be called out 

Gazette. on permanent service, all men belonging to the Special Reserve 

now resident in the Dominion of New Zealand are hereby 

required to report themselves without delay to the nearest 

Defence Office. 

J. ALLEN, 
Minister of Defence. 

August 17, 1914. 
PROCLAMATION 

FURTHER PARTS OF THE TERRITORIAL FORCE CALLED OUT 

FOR ACTIVE SERVICE 

ibid. I, Arthur William de Brito Savile, Earl of Liverpool, the 

Governor of the Dominion of New Zealand, do hereby call out 
for active service the following parts of the Territorial Force, 
namely : 

No. i Troop, ' A ' Squadron, 3rd (Auckland) Regiment. 

184 



NEW ZEALAND PROCLAMATIONS, ETC. 

No. i Platoon, ' A ' Company, i5th (North Auckland) 

Regiment. 

' A ' Company, 5th (Wellington) Regiment. 
No. i Platoon ' A ' Company, 8th (Southland) Regiment. 
' J ' Company, I3th (North Canterbury and Westland) 
Regiment, less members actually engaged in coal- 
mining. 

J. ALLEN, 
Minister of Defence. 



August 19, 1914. 
PROCLAMATION 

RIGHTS OF GERMANS AND AUSTRIANS RESIDENT IN NEW 

ZEALAND 

WHEREAS His Majesty is now at war with the German New 
Emperor, and with the Emperor of Austria and King of Zealand 
Hungary: And Whereas certain subjects of the German 
Emperor and of the Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary 
are now peaceably resident in the Dominion of New Zealand, 
and it is desirable to extend to them the protection of the laws 
of the said Dominion : 

Now, therefore, I, Arthur William de Brito Savile, Earl of 
Liverpool, the Governor of the Dominion of New Zealand, 
acting by and with the advice and consent of the Executive 
Council of the said Dominion, do hereby proclaim and declare 
that all subjects of the German Emperor or of the Emperor of 
Austria and King of Hungary, being now peaceably resident 
within the said Dominion are, and at all time since the com- 
mencement of the present state of war have been, within the 
peace and protection of His Majesty in the same manner as if 
they were the subjects of His Majesty, and that they may sue 
and plead accordingly in all Courts of Justice within the said 
Dominion in respect of all contracts, rights, injuries, and other 
causes or matters whatsoever, saving always the prerogative 
right of His Majesty in time of war to do with such persons as 
aforesaid, and with all other His Majesty's enemies, in all 
respects according to his good pleasure. 

J. ALLEN, 
Minister of Defence. 

185 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

[The appointment of a Commission to inquire into food 
prices and supplies was announced in the New Zealand Gazette 
of August 31, and an Order in Council fixing the maximum 
price of wheat and flour in that of September 29, 1914.] 

September 4, 1914. 
ORDER IN COUNCIL 

REGULATIONS UNDER THE EXPEDITIONARY FORCES VOTING 

ACT, 1914. 

At the Government House at Wellington. 
In pursuance and exercise of the power and authority 
conferred on him by the Expeditionary Forces Voting Act, 
1914 (hereinafter referred to as ' the said Act '), His Excellency 
the Governor of the Dominion of New Zealand, acting by and 
with the advice and consent of the Executive Council of the 
said Dominion, doth hereby make the following regulations 
for the purpose of the said Act : 

REGULATIONS 

Preparation of Rolls 

1. The Chief Electoral Officer shall cause to be prepared 
from the several military rolls of the members of any Expedi- 
tionary Force such electoral rolls as may be required for the 
purposes of the election or poll to be held or taken under the 
said Act. 

2. The name of every person whose name appears on any 
of the said military rolls shall be entered on the appropriate 
electoral roll, and no name shall be entered on the electoral 
roll that does not appear on any of the military rolls. 

3. Every person whose name appears on any such electoral 
roll shall, on application in that behalf to the Electoral Officer 
as hereinafter provided, be entitled to vote under the said 
Act. 

4. Any person who has been accepted for service with any 
Expeditionary Force, but whose name does not appear on 
any such electoral roll as aforesaid, shall be entitled to vote 
under the said Act, on producing to the Electoral Officer a 
certificate signed by any officer of the Expeditionary Force 
to the effect that he is a member of that force. Every such 
186 



NEW ZEALAND PROCLAMATIONS, ETC. 

certificate shall be attached by the Electoral Officer to his 
copy of the electoral roll, and shall be forwarded to the Chief 
Electoral Officer at the close of the poll. 

Dates of Polls, etc. 

5. The Chief Electoral Officer shall appoint such times and 
places as he thinks fit for the purpose of holding the election 
and poll under the said Act. 

Conduct of Polls, etc. 

6. Every person entitled to vote under the said 4 ct shall, 
on personal application to the Electoral Officer appointed for 
the taking of the poll at any place, be entitled, on satisfying 
the Electoral Officer that he is a member of an Expeditionary 
Force, to receive a ballot-paper for the election of a member 
of the House of Representatives and a voting-paper for each 
of the issues to be submitted at the licensing poll. 

7. On giving to the voter the ballot-paper and voting- 
papers as aforesaid, the Electoral Officer or one of his assistants 
shall draw a line through the name of the voter on the roll as 
an indication that the voter has received the said ballot-paper 
and voting-papers, and shall mark the ballot-paper and voting- 
papers, and the counterfoils thereof, in the same manner so 
far as practicable as in the case of ordinary elections or polls. 

8. Every person receiving a ballot-paper and voting-papers 
as aforesaid shall, before leaving the place where the same 
have been handed to him, record his vote thereon in the 
manner required by law, and, after folding the same so that 
the contents cannot be seen, shall proceed as directed by the 
said Act. 

9. All envelopes containing ballot-papers or voting-papers 
shall in the presence of the voter be placed by the Electoral 
Officer in a ballot-box provided for the purpose. 

10. The said ballot-box shall not be opened until the close 
of the poll on each day on which a poll is taken. 

11. On the close of the poll on each day the Electoral 
Officer shall open the ballot-box, and, taking out all the en- 
velopes contained therein, shall make them into a parcel, and, 
after sealing the parcel, shall forward it by registered post to 
the Chief Electoral Officer at Wellington. 

187 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Scrutineers 

12. (i) For the purposes of the voting under the said Act 
in connection with the licensing poll scrutineers may be 
appointed as follows : 

(a) One scrutineer for each polling-place may be ap- 

pointed on behalf of persons in favour of the issue 
that licences be granted ; 

(b) One scrutineer for each polling-place may be ap- 

pointed on behalf of persons in favour of the issue 
that licences be not granted. 

(2) Scrutineers under paragraph (a) may be appointed 
by the National Council of New Zealand, and scrutineers 
under paragraph (b) may be appointed by the Executive of 
the New Zealand Alliance. 

(3) All scrutineers appointed under this regulation shall 
before acting be required to make the same declaration as if 
they had been appointed as scrutineers under the Licensing 
Act, 1908. 

September 29, 1914. 

PROHIBITION OF PUBLICATION OF INFORMATION CONCERNING 
MILITARY AND NAVAL OPERATIONS 

WHEREAS for the successful conduct of certain military and 
naval operations now being undertaken on behalf of His 
Majesty, it is in the highest degree expedient that secrecy 
should be observed with respect thereto : And Whereas His 
Majesty's Government has requested the New Zealand 
Government to take all necessary measures for securing such 
secrecy : 

Now, therefore, notice is hereby given to all loyal subjects 
of His Majesty and to all other persons resident in New 
Zealand, and more especially to all proprietors, editors, and 
publishers of newspapers, and to all printers, that all such 
persons are hereby strictly charged and enjoined not to print, 
publish, or otherwise make known, without the express per- 
mission of the Minister of Defence, any information or state- 
ments concerning any of the matters following, that is to say : 

(a) The names, destinations, situation, route, arrival, 
departure, or movements of any transports carry- 
ing or about to carry, the troops of the New 

188 



914] NEW ZEALAND PROCLAMATIONS, ETC. 

Zealand Military Forces, or any other matters 
relative to those transports. 

(b) The names, destinations, situation, route, arrival, 

departure, or movements of any ships employed 
or about to be employed, to convoy or accompany 
any such transports, or any other matters relative 
to those ships. 

(c) Any others matters relative to military or naval 

operations as to which secrecy is enjoined by any 
notice hereafter published in the New Zealand 
Gazette by the Minister of Defence. 

And although for ready and willing obedience to this order 
full reliance is placed on the loyalty of all His Majesty's sub- 
jects, nevertheless notice is hereby given to all persons that 
any disobedience will be dealt with by the military authorities 
in their absolute - discretion as a serious offence against the 
public interest and the safety of this Dominion. 

J. ALLEN, 
Minister of Defence. 



189 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND 
PARLIAMENT 

July 31, 1914. 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
WAR IN EUROPE : NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

New MR. G. M. THOMSON (Dunedin, North) : I wish to ask the 

Zealand Prime Minister, without notice, whether in view of the present 

Hansard. verv ser i otis situation in Europe, the Government will offer 

the services of an Expeditionary Force to the Mother Country 

in the event of her requiring it ? 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : In reply 
to the honourable gentleman, I would like to say that, so 
far as it is possible to judge from the information that has 
reached us, there is no occasion for serious alarm ; but under 
such circumstances as now exist, we have to prepare for 
possibilities, and if the occasion arises and it may the 
[Cf.p.i75.] Government of New Zealand will ask Parliament and the 
people of New Zealand to do their duty by offering the services 
of an Expeditionary Force to the Imperial Government. I 
have no fear of volunteers not being forthcoming. I may say 
that an understanding has been arrived at with regard to the 
numbers and constitution of a force which will fit in with 
Imperial requirements, and I would just like to add that, so 
far as Britain's domestic troubles are concerned, I trust that 
a settlement will be arrived at which will enable the citizens 
of the Empire to stand together as one man. Just one word 
more with regard to Canada's offer, which is reported in 
this evening's paper my opinion of it may be summed up in 
three words, ' Well done, Canada/ 

[Honourable members then rose, and sang the National 
Anthem.] 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Oppo- 
sition) : I would like to be permitted to say, on behalf of this 
190 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

side, that I heard the statement of the Prime Minister with the 
utmost satisfaction, and I sincerely hope that there will be no 
occasion for any portion of the Empire to co-operate with the 
Old Country at a time which appears to be fraught with a 
certain amount of danger to the world at large. I trust that 
the wise counsels of men in the different nations of the world 
may be able to prevent the possibility of a widespread war. 
I want to say further on behalf of this side that whatever it 
may be necessary to do in the matter of sending away an 
Expeditionary Force which, I am sure, would readily be 
forthcoming to help the Mother Country, we will heartily 
co-operate with the Government of the day in assisting in 
this way, or otherwise, to defend the interests of this portion 
of the Empire, and of the Empire as a whole. 

August 4, 1914. 
WAR NEWS 

MR. REED (Bay of Islands) : I wish to ask the Prime New 
Minister a question without previous notice : Whether he will Zetl 
direct that telegrams giving the daily war news be despatched Hamard - 
to all country post-offices. The Government of the day 
despatched such messages to those offices during the Boer 
War, and I have received a number of requests from my 
electorate asking that the same course may be followed during 
the present war in Europe. 

The HON. MR. R. H. RHODES (Postmaster-General) : In 
reply, I may inform the honourable member and the House 
generally that I have already issued instructions to the effect 
that in all those country districts where newspapers are not 
published, or where daily newspapers do not circulate on the 
day of publication, the same rule is to be observed as was 
followed during the South African War namely, that the 
most important items of war news are to be telegraphed and 
posted up outside the post and telegraph offices concerned. I 
understand from the Press Association that they will under- 
take to issue slips or bulletins in places where there are 
newspapers. On Sunday last I made arrangements which 
enabled the war news of that day to be sent to all the telegraph 
offices that were open. I have this morning issued instruc- 
tions in accordance with the statement I have just made in 
reply to the honourable member for Bay of Islands. 

191 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

SIR W. C. BUCHANAN (Wairarapa) asked that the informa- 
tion should be sent also to small newspapers which were not 
connected with the Press Association. 

The HON. MR. R. H. RHODES : I cannot interfere with 
the Press Association. All I can do is to publish the news at 
the post-offices. 

MR. McCoMBS (Lyttelton) asked if news coming into New 
Zealand was being censored, and why ? 

The HON. MR. R. H. RHODES : The Prime Minister will 
reply to that question. 

WAR IN EUROPE : MINISTERIAL STATEMENT 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : I think, 
Mr. Speaker, at this stage, and on behalf of the Government, 
I should give the House some information with regard to the 
precautionary measures which have been taken during the 
last few days, and which are being taken now in this country, 
on account of the outbreak of war in Europe. I would like 
to say that these measures have been taken either under 
Imperial instructions, under the recommendation of the 
Imperial authorities, or in accordance with Imperial regula- 
tions. With some of them honourable members are already 
acquainted, but I propose to refer to them seriatim. I have 
no doubt honourable members will have noticed that the Naval 
Reservists in this country have been called out and ordered to 
join their ships. Some of these Reservists are New Zealanders 
who have been trained in the Australasian Squadron, some of 
them are men who have served in the Imperial Navy and are 
now serving in the merchant shipping trading to New Zealand. 
These men have been called out, and are joining the warships 
in these waters by instructions from the Imperial Government. 
Reference has already been made to the censorship. It is 
true a system of censorship has been established in this country, 
particularly with reference to cablegrams passing into and out 
of New Zealand ; and let me say that the censorship has been 
established by the New Zealand Government, acting under 
direction from the Imperial authorities. Then, an examina- 
tion service has been established. It has been found neces- 
sary to examine all the vessels trading into the four principal 
ports of this country. No vessel will be allowed to enter the 
ports of Auckland, Wellington, Lyttelton, or Otago without 
192 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

being examined. It will not be necessary, perhaps, for the 
officers or men of the examining vessels to board every ship ; 
if they are satisfied that the ship entering the port is not 
hostile, and that its entrance into the port will not be in any 
way detrimental to the interests of the country, in all proba- 
bility any such vessel would only be delayed for a few moments. 
Within the last day or two H.M.S. Philomel, which had been 
handed over to this Dominion to be used as a training-ship, 
has been handed back to the Imperial authorities. We did 
this in accordance with the Act of last session, and on the 
recommendation of the Imperial authorities. The Philomel 
is now an ordinary warship, under the control of the senior 
officer in New Zealand waters. There is one precaution which 
has been taken which up to the present has not been made 
public the Garrison Artillery have been called out, and the 
forts will be fully manned day and night. I do not know that 
it will be necessary to go further than this for some time to 
come ; possibly it will not be necessary to go further at all. 
It will be noticed that in another Dominion of the Empire 
vessels are only allowed to enter a harbour during the day. 
We do not think it is necessary at present to go as far as that, 
but we do think it is necessary to take precautionary measures 
in case of trouble from outside. Then, during the last few 
days some rather important cablegrams have passed between 
the Government of New Zealand and the Imperial Government, 
:hrough His Excellency the Governor. Honourable members 
will recognise that many of these telegrams most of them, 
in fact are confidential, and it is impossible for me to disclose 
"teir contents. I am sure that honourable members will not 
expect me to do so. There are, however, one or two that are 
not only interesting, but important. The first is a cable 
message from the Secretary of State for the Colonies to the 
Governor, and I am reading it at the request of His Excellency, 
and with the permission of the Imperial authorities. Here I 
may say that His Excellency is working with his Ministers in 
the most whole-hearted way, and doing everything that is 
possible for any one in his position to do. The message is as 
follows : 

' Your telegram of 3ist July : I have laid before the King your 
report of the proceedings in the New Zealand Parliament. His 
Majesty received it with much pleasure, and I have been commanded 

OVERSEAS 2. N 193 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS | 

by His Majesty to convey to you his high appreciation of this further 
manifestation of the staunch loyalty of the Dominion. 

' HARCOURT.' 

Then there is this further telegram : 

' His Majesty's Government have received with deep gratitude the 
announcement of readiness of your Ministers to call volunteers to an 
Expeditionary Force, but no condition has yet arisen which would 
make this step necessary at present. ' HARCOURT/ 

I want to call attention to these words, ' at present/ be- 
cause it is quite possible that the Imperial authorities may 
change this decision in the very near future. I cannot go 
further than that at the moment. I would like to say that 
some preliminary arrangements have been made for calling 
for volunteers for an Expeditionary Force should it be required. 
No actual steps will be taken to ask for men until a cablegram 
has been received from the Imperial authorities, and until 
Parliament has been advised and has signified its approval. 
That is all the information I am able to give at the moment. 
While I am speaking on this very important matter I 
should like to express my appreciation of the fact that in 
New Zealand particularly and not only in New Zealand, 
but also in every part of the British dominions Imperial 
considerations are looked upon as being above and beyond 
party. We may have our party differences, and we may 
indulge in party warfare, but when a crisis comes along such 
as we are experiencing at present, it is not a question of what 
is best for the party, but it is a question of what is best for the 
Empire as a whole. There is no necessity, Mr. Speaker, 
though the position is undoubtedly a serious one, for anything 
in the way of a panic. There is no necessity for anything in 
the nature of what is sometimes called jingoism ; but I would 
like to say I honestly believe that the people of New Zealand, 
the Parliament of New Zealand, and the Government of 
New Zealand know their duty, and they will do their duty 
under any circumstances that may arise. I am confident 
that the people of this country, and the Parliament, and the 
Government will do their duty calmly and quietly, but firmly 
and determinedly. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Opposi- 
tion) : Mr. Speaker, speaking with a full sense of the responsi- 
194 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

bility that attaches to the holder of the office of Leader of the 
Opposition, I wish to say that I fully recognise that the position 
as it stands at present is one of the gravest that has occurred 
in connection with the history of the world. Although Great 
Britain has not been in any way a party to the rupture that 
has unhappily occurred between the great Continental Powers, 
the fact remains that her position is so great that it seems to 
me to be next to impossible though I hope to the contrary 
for her to remain a silent onlooker. Whether that will turn 
out to be so or not, we cannot but feel a sense of great satis- 
faction in the knowledge that England possesses statesmen 
full of wisdom and experience, who will be backed by a race 
whose courage whenever called upon to face danger and 
difficulties has never failed. We have had experience al- 
ready of the marvellous unity that arises at a juncture when 
the position of the Empire is in any way threatened. Nothing 
could be finer in the expression of this trait in the British 
character than the rapidity with which the gaping wound 
that a week ago presented such an ugly appearance, and which 
seemed incapable of being healed, has been closed up. The 
dissensions were so wide that it seemed impossible to avoid a 
rupture between members of our own race within the British 
Isles. Yet the moment there was a sign of danger on the 
horizon from beyond the shores of the Motherland, the internal 
troubles almost instantaneously ceased ; and, more than that, 
the contending factions, who had been strengthening them- 
selves to attack each other, simultaneously extended the hand 
of brotherhood to the British Government and to each other, 
both offering to take up arms in unison for the protection of 
Empire interests common to them all. I would like to say 
I feel equally proud of both the Ulstermen and the Nationalists, 
who so splendidly sank their strong differences. They have 
shown a fine example of loyalty to the whole world. But this 
has always been the experience of Britain in the past, and such 
actions redound to the honour of our fellow-countrymen and 
to the glory of the Empire. Indeed, it is such actions that 
make for the prestige and the power of the British race, and 
which have helped to make Great Britain and the Empire 
what they are. Then we look afield to the outlying portions 
of the Empire. Canada has acted magnificently, Australia 
equally so ; and New Zealand has, through the Prime Minister, 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

already indicated its willingness to assist, and has in the past 
ever been ready to make every sacrifice to help keep the bonds 
of Empire intact, and to preserve unsullied the great traditions 
of the Motherland. There need be no question in the minds 
of any one in the present crisis, either here or abroad, as to 
our unity of action. The Opposition party of which I am the 
leader will co-operate in every way with the Government of 
the day in any action it may be necessary to take to preserve 
the integrity of the Empire. I want to say that, as far as this 
side of the House is concerned, honourable members most 
cordially concur in the arrangements the Prime Minister has 
announced as having been made, and will co-operate with 
him and his Government in the present crisis in the general 
interests of the whole world. 

August 5, 1914. 
LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL 
WAR : NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

New The HON. MR. BELL (Minister of Internal Affairs) : 

Zealand M r Speaker, honourable gentlemen who have attended in 

Hansard. ano ther place and, before that, at the great meeting which 

His Excellency addressed, have already heard the telegrams 

received relating to the declaration of war. I propose to read 

them here in order that they may be recorded in the Journals 

of the Council. The telegram of the 5th August 1914, from 

His Majesty, is as follows : 

' I desire to express to my people of the Overseas Dominions with 
what appreciation and pride I have received the messages from their 
respective Governments during the last few days. These spontaneous 
assurances of their fullest support recall to me the generous self- 
sacrificing help given by them in the past to the Mother Country. I 
shall be strengthened in the discharge of the great responsibilities 
which rest upon me by the confident belief that in this time of trial 
my Empire will stand united, calm, resolute, trusting in God. 

1 GEORGE, R.I/ 

The reply of His Excellency to His Majesty, sent on the 
same day, was : 

' New Zealand desires me to acknowledge Your Majesty's gracious 
message, and to say that, come good or ill, she, in company with the 
196 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

Dominions and other dependencies of the Crown, is prepared to make 
any sacrifice to maintain her heritage and her birthright. 

' LIVERPOOL, Governor.' 

Later on the same day, His Excellency received the follow- 
ing telegram from the Secretary of State : ' War has broken 
out with Germany/ I move, 'That these telegrams be 
recorded in the Journals of the Council/ 

Motion agreed to. 

The HON. MR. BELL : I ask the Council to join with 
another place in passing the following resolution, which I ask 
leave to move without notice : ' That, in view of the fact 
that Great Britain has become involved in war with Germany, 
this Council approves of the necessary steps being taken by 
the New Zealand Government to have in readiness an 
Expeditionary Force/ 

I think honourable members are aware that an Expedition- 
ary Force was offered, and that the Government have been 
informed that at the present an Expeditionary Force is not 
demanded ; but since that we have received a further message 
stating that His Majesty's Government and the Empire 
trust that the Government and people of New Zealand will 
be in readiness if their services are called for. The purpose 
of this resolution is to enable the Expeditionary Force to be 
mobilised and volunteers called for. 

Motion agreed to. 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

WAR : MESSAGE FROM THE KING 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : Before I 
go further, Mr. Speaker, I desire to move, ' That the message 
from His Majesty the King, which was read by His Excellency 
the Governor, be recorded in the Journals of the House/ The 
message is as follows : [See above.] 

NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : Sir, the 
resolution which I propose to move is as follows : ' That, in 
view of the fact that Great Britain has become involved in 
war with Germany, this House approves of the necessary 

197 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

steps being taken by the New Zealand Government to have 
in readiness an Expeditionary Force/ It will be recollected, 
Mr. Speaker, that when I was dealing with this subject yester- 
day, I quoted the message from the Imperial authorities to the 
New Zealand Government, in which they express the opinion 
that the Expeditionary Force which had been offered, subject 
to the approval of Parliament, by the Government of New 
Zealand to the Imperial Government is not required at present. 
I called attention to the significance of these two words, ' at 
present/ and said they suggested that our men might be 
required at some not-far-distant date. I do not say that we 
have arrived at this stage yet, and I do not say that it will 
come, but we have to be prepared. To-day the following 
message was received by His Excellency the Governor : 

' Though there seems to be no immediate necessity for any request 
on our part for an Expeditionary Force from New Zealand, I think 
that your Ministers would be wise, in view of their generous offer, to 
take all legislative and other steps by which they would be enabled 
without delay to provide (for) such a force in case it should hereafter 
be required. ' HARCOURT.' 

I feel, Sir, that a great responsibility rests upon the Govern- 
ment, and rests upon myself, in moving this motion, but we 
have our duty to do to the country and to the Empire ; and it 
is quite possible I will not go to the length of saying probable 
but it is quite possible that such an Expeditionary Force, 
as that suggested here, will be required by the Imperial 
Government. So far no definite steps have been taken with 
regard to the selection of such a force ; but what we propose 
to do is this and here I would like to say that the motion 
required very little elaboration and very little explanation, and 
I expect it will receive the approval of every member of the 
House. I may say that I am of opinion, as I expressed myself 
yesterday, that this is the time for action, not a time for words. 
What we propose to do is to mobilise a part of the Territorials 
I cannot say exactly how many, bat probably some seven or 
eight thousand. We shall ask them to volunteer for service 
either in this country or abroad. The volunteers will clearly 
understand that their services may be required perhaps in 
India, perhaps in Egypt, perhaps on the Continent of Europe ; 
but it may be that the services of an Expeditionary Force 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

from this country will be required to take the place of Regulars 
in some other part of the Empire that is, to do garrison duty : 
that is my opinion, at the present time. But if the men are 
required at the front, I am certain they will go, and that they 
will give as good an account of themselves there as our men 
did during the dark days of the South African War. With 
regard to numbers, my experience during the last two days 
convinces me that there will not be the slightest difficulty 
in obtaining any number we may require. I have had scores 
of letters and telegrams from men willing and anxious to volun- 
teer their services for any place where they may be required, 
and the experience of the Defence Minister has been the same. 
So far as the Native race is concerned, the Maoris are fighters 
to a man, and I could to-morrow, if I wanted, secure thousands 
of young fellows of the Native race who are anxious to fight for 
the country and the Empire, either here or anywhere else. 
In saying that, I am aware that the Imperial regulations may 
prevent any members of the Maori race from taking service 
abroad. I am afraid that is the case, but there is no reason 
why their services should not be utilised in the country of their 
birth. I do not think it is necessary, Mr. Speaker, to say more 
in support of the motion. I feel certain the motion will com- 
mend itself to every member of the House I feel certain it 
will be agreed to unanimously. As I said when speaking from 
the steps of the old Parliamentary Buildings, we have arrived 
at a very serious crisis not only in the history of this country, 
but in the history of the Empire. We are all anxious for peace. 
We all detest war ; but we do not want peace unconditionally. 
We do not want peace at any price ; we want peace with 
honour ; and I hope and believe that the war which has just 
broken out will not last long, and I hope and believe that 
within a comparatively few months to say weeks would be 
too much to expect within a very few months the Imperial 
authorities will be able to announce to us that peace with 
honour has come for the British Empire. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Opposi- 
tion) : Sir, this is a time when there is no room for division of 
opinion. It is in times of stress and difficulty when a practical 
oif er of assistance, even though it may not be required, is valued ; 
and this will be valued not only on account of the prowess of 
the men who may be required to go, but from the moral effect 

199 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

it will have in every portion of the world that realises that, 
widely scattered as is the Empire we belong to, yet we stand 
as one when there is danger about. It is a time when those 
sentiments so truly expressed by the Monarch of the Empire 
to his subjects to-day are fully recognised by us, and that it is 
only by solidarity, by union in spirit and in deed, that we can 
hope to make our influence thoroughly felt. As far as I am 
concerned, whatever arrangements the Government decide to 
make in connection with the despatch of an expeditionary 
force will receive my loyal and hearty support, as I am quite 
certain it will of every other member of the Opposition party. 
I recognise that any force sent from this country is quite 
voluntary. I realise that an Expeditionary Force is one which 
is made up by free will from those who are willing to join that 
force to go abroad, or, as the Prime Minister has said, to fill 
the ranks here of a portion of the present Territorials who may 
be despatched to other parts of the Empire. I * also recognise 
that, whatever be the result of the war, we do not want to 
manifest or encourage a jingoistic spirit. We are not anxious 
to participate in war, but we w^nt to do all in our power to 
maintain the prestige and honour of the country to which we 
are all proud to belong. We are in dead earnest, and our sole 
desire is to be of real service to the Empire. I heartily support 
the motion which the Prime Minister had moved. 
Motion agreed to. 

August 6, 1914. 
PROTECTION OF COAL SUPPLIES 

New MR. COLVIN (Buller) : I should like to ask the Hon. the 

Zealand Minister of Defence, without notice, whether the authorities 

Hansard, have taken steps to carefully safeguard the coal supplies on 

the west coast of the South Island. This is not a parochial 

thing it is a matter of paramount importance to the Dominion 

as a whole ; and in the interests of the Admiralty as well, it is 

necessary that such steps as I suggest should be taken. 

The HON. MR. ALLEN (Minister of Defence) : I am very 
pleased indeed to inform the honourable gentleman that 
adequate protection has been afforded for the coal-supplies 
on the west coast. I do not want to go into details, nor would 
it be wise for me to do so, but I may say the Garrison Artillery 
* 200 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

are mobilised on the West Coast, and the Officer Commanding 
the Forces is thoroughly satisfied that the West Coast supplies 
are safe. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT BY THE MINISTER OF FINANCE 
(HoN. J. ALLEN) 

NAVAL EXPENDITURE 

Some final payments bring the cost of the battleship New 
Zealand, presented to the Imperial Navy to 1,706,341, against 
which there is now a sinking fund in the hands of the Public 
Trustee amounting to 173,449. 

In accordance with the provisions of the Naval Defence 
Act, 1913, a transfer to the New Zealand Naval Forces of 
H.M.S. Philomel was accepted on the I5th July last. Captain 
Hall-Thompson of the Royal Navy was appointed by the 
Admiralty to command and to act as adviser to the New 
Zealand Government on naval matters. The Philomel will 
be used as a sea-going ship for the training of personnel, which, 
in case of war or outbreak of hostilities, will pass by section 
19 of the Naval Defence Act under the control of the Govern- 
ment of Great Britain. 

The preparation of the necessary regulations for the enrol- 
ment of men to undergo training will take some time, but much 
has already been done, and it is expected that the scheme will 
be in full operation shortly. Regulations are also in course of 
preparation for the establishment of the New Zealand Royal 
Naval Reserve. 

In view of a Naval Conference being held in 1915, the 
Government considers it advisable to await the decision of the 
Conference before submitting any further proposals to Parlia- 
ment. 

DEFENCE 

From the annual Defence Report, which has already been 
submitted for the consideration of honourable members, it 
will be seen that the scheme of universal training adopted 
by this Dominion is proving far more satisfactory than 
was anticipated, even by its most sanguine advocates. An 
excellent feeling generally prevails throughout the Force, and 
the rapid growth of the regimental spirit has produced a good- 

2OI 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

fellowship between all ranks, the undoubted tendency of which 
is to establish a better understanding between individuals, and 
a resultant improvement in their civil relations. 

The present system, based as it is on the fundamental 
principle that it is the duty of every citizen to take his share in 
the defence of his country, does not press on any one section 
of the community, but touches all classes, and every effort 
is made to carry it out with the minimum of inconvenience 
to both the employer and the employed. The Government 
has pleasure in acknowledging the ready support accorded by 
employers and the cheerful acceptance by the men of the 
citizen army of their responsibilities in connection with the 
scheme. 

The importance of possessing a force trained, officered, and 
fit to take the field on an emergency cannot be overestimated. 
In New Zealand we have not been slow to recognise that soldiers 
cannot be made efficient, and units cannot be properly organ- 
ised without concerted training, nor can it be expected that 
these results are attainable without the assistance of qualified 
officers and non-commissioned officers who, owing to their 
past training, are possessed of the necessary practical experi- 
ence to enable them to act as instructors to our citizen 
force. 

The visit paid by the Inspector-General of the Overseas 

Forces with his expert staff will, I am confident, prove of the 

1 [See greatest value, and Sir Ian Hamilton's able report, 1 following 

Appendix, ^is complete inspection of the various units, will help us very 

pp. 460- materially in the introduction of further improvements and 

economies. 

Annual Training Camps 

The percentage of attendance at the divisional camps 
recently held throughout the Dominion was exceptionally good, 
and an excellent opportunity was afforded of testing the organi- 
sation of the higher branches of the service, and the cohesion 
of the different units. 

The satisfactory results of these camps, despite the dis- 
advantage of bad weather, are a striking tribute to the success 
attained by the General Officer Commanding, and his staff, 
in the training of the officers, non-commissioned officers, and 
men of the Territorial Force. 

202 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

Finance 

The expenditure out of revenue on account of defence 
amounted to 488,570, or 25,177 less than the estimated 
requirements, and showing a saving of 16,697 on the expendi- 
ture of the previous year. Steps have already been taken 
to reorganise what may be termed the Civil administrative 
side of the Defence Department on the lines advocated by the 
Inspector-General of the Overseas Forces. 

Rifle Clubs 

During the past year several concessions have been granted 
to the members of Rifle Clubs, the majority of whom are able- 
bodied citizens with some previous military training, who 
should prove a valuable additional line of defence when acting 
in support of the Territorial Force. 

Senior Cadets 

The Government is extremely gratified at the enthusiasm 
and efficiency displayed by the junior branch of the service, 
upon which it is recognised the future success of the Territorial 
Force to a very large extent depends. The moral and physical 
advantages of the training and discipline to which the Senior 
Cadets are subjected are already apparent. I would par- 
ticularly direct attention to the special references to the Cadets 
contained in the Inspector-General's report. 

The Statement I have just read was in print before the 
Empire became involved in war with all its terrible conse- 
quences, and honourable members will know that under the 
circumstances the estimates of revenue and expenditure may 
require to be amended. 

The people of this Dominion may, and no doubt will, have 
to make sacrifices ; but these, I feel sure, will be willingly 
accepted in the grave crisis which means so much to the 
Mother Country and the Dominions. 

Every New Zealander looks forward to the future with 
anxiety, it may be, but with the calm assurance that every- 
thing which it is possible to do is being done, and with the 
hope that when the war comes to-an end lasting peace will be 
secured. 

Our banks are in an exceptionally strong position, but to 
make them still more secure, and to allay any possible feeling 

203 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

of unrest, banknotes were yesterday by Proclamation made 
legal tender. 

The Government desires most earnestly to impress upon 
our merchants and traders, both wholesale and retail, and 
distributors, how cruel it will be to attempt by any rise in 
prices of food-stuffs to reap advantage out of the present 
trouble, and how patriotic those people will be considered who 
even at some sacrifice retain the level of prices of food-stuffs 
in existence before this crisis eventuated. 

I have every confidence that this warning is unnecessary, 
but the public may rest assured of this : that the Government 
has for some days past had under consideration the necessity 
for active steps to prevent a rise in the price of food-stuffs, and 
if it is found that legislation is necessary Parliament will be 
asked to pass that legislation, and to make it retrospective 
if need be. 

In conclusion, may I express the earnest hope that the next 
Financial Statement may record once again a prosperous year 
with the balance on the right side. 

Finally, may the Almighty Giver of all that is good pro- 
tect our King, his Representatives and Councillors, wherever 
they may be ; may He guide them in their deliberations ; may 
His protecting arm be over all our people, and especially over 
the soldiers and sailors who are called upon at this time to 
make, it may be, the supreme sacrifice for King and Empire. 

August 7, 1914. 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

New The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY : . . . Just a word now with 

Zealand regard to the Expeditionary Force. I am in a position to say 
Hansard. now ^^ m a ]j probability the services of the Expeditionary 
Force will be required. I am not able to say what their 
probable destination may be, but we know sufficient of the 
mind of the Imperial authorities to warrant us going on with 
the necessary preparations for their equipment and shipment 
from this country. As I have said before, there are quite a 
number of communications coming to us which are confidential, 
but I think it my duty to take the House into our confidence 
as far as possible. 

The HON. MR. NGATA (Eastern Maori District) : May I be 
204 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

permitted to ask a question with regard to the right honour- 
able gentleman's last statement ? The right honourable 
gentleman has received various offers from the Native tribes 
from the North and the South Island, and the natives every- 
where are waiting for word from the Government as to what 
extent their services may be availed of during the present 
crisis. One is given to understand that the Imperial regula- 
tions prevent the use of natives right at the front during this 
war, but whether these regulations prevent the use of Maoris, 
say, in India, or Egypt, or any station nearer to this Dominion, 
is left in doubt ; that is quite apart, of course, from the use 
the Government may make of Maoris within the Dominion 
I am speaking of overseas service. Naturally, the Maoris 
are keener about that than about service within the Dominion. 
Of course, if their services cannot be availed of outside, they 
will be content to serve inside. And, Sir, the offers of their 
services are alternate, for overseas as well as for within the 
Dominion. But I think the Government, if they have con- 
sidered the matter, should make known throughout the 
Dominion by the medium of the Press to what extent the 
offers of contingents made by the Maoris may be availed of. 
The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : The ques- 
tion of whether the services of men of the native race who 
may volunteer for active service abroad may be availed of 
depends not upon the New Zealand Government, but upon 
the Imperial authorities, and in consequence I am not able at 
the moment to answer the question of the member for the 
Eastern Maori District. I think I am right in saying that on 
one occasion the services of a number of Indian troops were 
availed of for active service abroad I believe they were sent 
to Malta. I do not know whether the regulations are different 
to-day or not. But, apart from whether the services of the 
Maori race would be accepted by the Imperial Government, 
if circumstances should require it in their own country, the 
New Zealand Government will be glad to accept them. 

THE WAR : NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : Sir, 

before we go on with other business I would like to say that, 

as honourable members will understand, it is quite impossible 

for me to disclose the details of the business which Cabinet 

205 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

was suddenly called upon to transact ; but in order to prevent 
any anxiety or alarm, I will say that the news we had to deal 
with was good rather than otherwise. There is one statement 
that I want to make : It is now certain that the Expeditionary 
Force will be required that is certain. I cannot say any- 
thing about the destination of the Expeditionary Force, or give 
any details in connection therewith. I want, however, to 
make this suggestion : We shall require a fairly large number 
of horses, probably three thousand or more. Part of the 
horses will be required for mounted infantry, and part for 
artillery purposes, and in connection therewith the suggestion 
I want to make is this, and I know that I am not making it in 
vain : If there are patriotic citizens and we have thousands 
of them throughout New Zealand if there are patriotic 
citizens who own horses suitable for mounted infantry and 
artillery purposes, and who are willing to hand them over to 
us, the Government will be glad to receive them as soon as 
possible. I may say that we have received offers from a 
number of people I am not able to say how many people 
but I can say that so far, in the aggregate, we have received 
offers of from two to three hundred horses. We shall require 
a great deal more than that number probably we shall 
require three thousand horses and if any citizen has horses 
he wants to give to the Empire or the Government, we shall be 
very glad to take charge of them. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Opposi- 
tion) : Sir, I am glad to hear from the right honourable 
gentleman that good news has been received. I quite re- 
cognise that such information whatever the exact nature 
of the news may be can only be given out by the Prime 
Minister, at his discretion, at the proper juncture, and then 
only if it is not confidential. But it is quite reassuring to the 
whole of us that there has been good news. Before sitting 
down, I want to endorse the sentiments expressed by the 
Prime Minister namely, that those who own horses through- 
out the country will display that fine sense of patriotism so 
characteristic of New Zealand citizens in the past. I do not 
believe that the horse-owners of New Zealand, when the 
affairs of the Empire are at stake, will do anything to take 
advantage of a situation such as this, but, on the contrary, 
they will act generously. I feel equally certain, now that an 
206 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

Expeditionary Force has been called for, that they will be 
forthcoming voluntarily in large numbers, and go willingly 
wherever they are required, and will do their duty courageously. 
MR. HUNTER (Waipawa) : Sir, as a New Zealander and as 
a horse-owner, and having been identified with the breeding 
of horses for a great many years, I may claim, perhaps, to 
express the belief that owners will respond to the call made by 
the Prime Minister. I am sure there will be a ready and 
willing response. Speaking for myself as an owner and breeder, 
I am prepared to find twenty horses if required. 

August 8, 1914. 
DONATIONS TO WAR FUND 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : Sir, before New 
the House adjourns, I desire to say that, although I have Zealand 
not got a full list of those offering horses in fact, I can only Hansard. 
give the House the names of a very few of them still, honour- 
able members will be interested in knowing that offers are 
coming in very freely indeed both in respect to cash and 
horses horses for the Expeditionary Force, and cash for the 
Defence Fund. Within the last few minutes many telegrams 
have been placed in my hands which, I may say, I have not 
yet read. 1 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Opposi- 
tion) : I should like to add my words of proud acknowledg- 
ment to what the Prime Minister has stated in respect to the 
donors of horses and money who have come forward in the 
present crisis. It shows clearly, to my mind, what I and 
every one of us have believed hitherto of New Zealanders 
that in times of stress and trouble every class in this country 
will do what it can to help. The fine way in which these 
people have set an example will, I am sure, be worthily 
followed all over this Dominion. I take this opportunity of 
. expressing for myself, and on behalf of those associated with 
me on this side of the House, our warm acknowledgments and 
appreciation of the splendid response made by those named by 
the Prime Minister. 

1 [The names of these and subsequent contributors will be found in the 
New Zealand Hansard ; they are omitted here.] 

207 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

THE WAR 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : Before 
we go on, Sir, I should like to say a word or two about the 
trouble in Europe, and the present position there. I have been 
in contact with the public to some extent this afternoon. I 
have learnt there is an impression in Wellington that news 
comes to the Government which we have not given out to the 
Press. That is not the case at all. It may seem very extra- 
ordinary to members and to the public when I tell them this : 
that no news in the ordinary sense of the word comes to the 
Government. I have done my best to get news at the earliest 
possible moment, and to a certain extent I have failed. I 
have cabled to the High Commissioner to send me news of 
any important event which occurs, and I have got his replies, 
but the news sent to me by the courtesy of the Press Associa- 
tion has always been in advance of the news sent to me by the 
High Commissioner. I am not blaming the High Commis- 
sioner, because what has occurred in this respect I believe is 
owing to the censorship at both ends, and I have not the 
slightest doubt that the High Commissioner's cables are 
delayed in that way. A rather important item of news has 
come to me this evening, through the Press Association, and 
I propose to give it to the House : 

' Officially announced that Norway has notified France that she 
will defend her neutrality despite German threats. Holland has 
declared war against Germany.' 

There is also a suggestion that the Government are not 
taking the Leader of the Opposition into its confidence as it 
ought to do, and I want to clear this up. The Government 
have got to cope with an exceedingly difficult position. We 
are to a certain extent in the confidence of the Imperial 
authorities, though we are only in the confidence of the Im- 
perial authorities so far as New Zealand and the defence of the 
Pacific are concerned. We act on the advice and on the re- ' 
commendation, and sometimes on the instructions, of the 
Imperial authorities. Of course their advice, or recom- 
mendation, or instruction always come to us through His 
Excellency the Governor, who meets the members of the 
Cabinet daily. One instance will give honourable members 
208 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

an idea of what is occurring. On several occasions the direct 
instructions received through His Excellency the Governor 
have been not to take any one into his confidence except the 
Prime Minister, and on other occasions not to take any one 
into his confidence except the Defence Minister and the Prime 
Minister. That is no reflection upon our colleagues not the 
very slightest. If the Hon. the Minister of Railways, or the 
Hon. the Minister of Public Works, or any other member of 
the Government, happened to be Prime Minister, the instruc- 
tions would be exactly the same as they are at the present 
moment. I want members to understand that we have been 
specially instructed, with respect to all information that 
comes to us from the Imperial authorities, to be as secret as 
the grave ; and I have got to comply with the instructions 
we have received, because I know, and the Defence Minister 
and other members of the Cabinet know, that sometimes the 
lives of hundreds of men may depend on these instructions 
being kept secret. I mention that to clear away what appears 
to be a misconception. So far as the right honourable the 
Leader of the Opposition is concerned, I want to say that no 
discourtesy has been intended by me nor by any member of 
the Cabinet towards the right honourable gentleman. I have 
sent for him on several occasions, and have communicated 
with him, and on at least one occasion the Governor was 
present and listened to the communication I made, and which 
he had given me. On every occasion I have given to him 
what it has been possible to give, and whenever it is possible 
I shall be glad to consult with him ; and I may say here that 
I fully appreciate the courtesy the right honourable gentleman 
has shown to the Ministry. But if the Leader of the Opposi- 
tion were in my position, he could not have done any more 

to me than I have done towards him When I was 

speaking in the forenoon, I mentioned that matters were very 
satisfactory in regard to the Defence Fund and offers of sup- 
port. Sin.ce then I have received several other telegrams, 
which I intend to give a sample of. ... 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Opposi- 
tion) : May I be permitted to say that the statement which 
the Prime Minister has just made regarding the contributions 
of men and money makes one's heart beat with gladness, and 
makes one feel proud of being a New Zealander. I do not 

OVERSEAS 2. O 2OQ 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

think there can be anything more reassuring than the spon- 
taneous way in which the people of this country are offering 
to do all they can to help the Empire in a great emergency. 
It is a practical assurance of the loyalty of the people of this 
country, though we all know that tangible evidence is not 
necessary in this respect, because we know it exists. I want 
to add my words of commendation to those of the Prime 
Minister in acknowledgment of the response of the people. 
May I add a word in regard to his personal reference to my- 
self, and I want to assure him that in reference to his not con- 
sulting me, or otherwise, I have not complained to any one 
inside the House or outside of it. I do not expect the Prime 
Minister or his colleagues to disclose to me, either as a member 
of the House, or as Leader of the Opposition, information 
concerning any of the events that are going on. That is a 
matter entirely for the Prime Minister's own wishes. That 
will not influence my course of action one way or the other at 
this grave juncture in the Empire's affairs. My only desire 
is to do what the Prime Minister is doing my desire is to 
do in a humble way my duty to the Empire at a time when I 
think personal and party matters should be completely sunk 
to do all in my power to help. I have no personal feeling 
of any kind. I may, however, mention here which may 
account for what the Prime Minister has referred to that a 
number of members have come to me and asked me whether 
before the official announcement was made by the Governor, 
I had received any intimation from the Government in regard 
to England having commenced war with Germany, and I 
replied that I had not, but I did not reply complainingly. I 
did not hear of it until just going on the steps in front of the 
Parliamentary Buildings,, when I heard the Governor announce 
it. I have nothing in the shape of what might be termed 
peevishness about any matter at the present juncture. I am 
indifferent about personal courtesies, whether they are ex- 
tended to me or not in regard to anything that may or may not 
be done, so long as all are animated with the desire to do 
everything possible, and to the best of our ability to help our 
Empire in this time of great emergency. I subordinate 
everything else to that. 

MR. RUSSELL (Avon) : There is one remark I want to refer 
to that was made by the Prime Minister in the address he gave 

2IO 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

to the House just now, and I wish to do so with every modera- 
tion. I refer to the desirability if I may so put it of the 
right honourable the Leader of the Opposition being associated 
with the Government as closely as the Government can see 
their way to associate him in the presence of this great crisis 
in the history of our Empire. Sir, we have seen it stated 
I do not know how far it is authoritative that the Home 
Government have associated at least, so it is reported Mr. 
Bonar Law, and the Leader of the Opposition, Lord Lansdowne, 
with themselves. We have seen in Australia- I think it is so 
stated in the cables this morning that Mr. Fisher, the Leader 
of the Opposition there, has been associated with the Govern- 
ment. And we have also seen that in New South Wales a 
similar position has taken place in connection with the associ- 
ation of Mr. Wade with the Holman Government. What we 
are asking for is nothing more than the Government are able 
to give. We do not suggest that in any way the Leader of 
the Opposition should be associated with the Government 
any closer than the Government feel themselves able to do 
so ; but we would point out to the Government that the 
Leader of the Opposition has had a very large experience of 
public affairs in England. He is undoubtedly more in touch 
with Imperial matters than any other member of Parliament, 
on account of his repeated presence in England, and we feel 
that his advice and counsel at the present time may be of 
assistance, and it is only from that point of view that we who 
belong to the rank and file of the Opposition suggest that if 
in any way the Government are able to do so they should 
associate the Leader of the party on this side with themselves 
in connection with matters that are taking place at the present 
time. 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY : Just one word in reply to 
the honourable member for Avon. What he suggests has been 
done ; but, of course, even the Leader of the Opposition 
knows perfectly well that I cannot possibly ask him, or any 
one else who is not a Cabinet Minister, to attend in conference 
at the Cabinet meetings. It has never been done, and, as a 
matter of fact, it cannot be done. But in every other way I 
shall be glad to take the Leader of the Opposition into my 
confidence. I have done so already. ... 

DR. RANGIHIROA (Northern Maori District) : I would like 

211 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

to ask that the Government should take some steps to inform 
the residents of Nine Island that war has been declared. 
That island belongs to New Zealand, and the communication 
is by means of a sailing vessel, which takes three weeks each 
way for the voyage. Their principal trade is in copra, which 
six weeks ago was selling at a high price. Since then the 
bottom has dropped out of the market, and the residents 
should, if possible, be advised of the position. There is also 
the question of food supplies. 

The HON. DR. POMARE (Minister in Charge of Cook Islands 
Administration) : The Government will take the first oppor- 
tunity of notifying the outlying islands of the position. 

THE WAR 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : His 
Excellency the Governor, Mr. Speaker, has asked me to read 
to the House a summary of the speech which has just been 
delivered by the Prime Minister in the House of Commons 
in proposing a vote of a hundred millions. 1 . . . 

I move that this document be printed, and be entered in 
the Journals of the House. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Opposi- 
tion) : I would not like the opportunity to pass without saying 
that I think the weighty words expressed at this juncture by 
the Prime Minister of England, in the House of Commons, 
strike a chord of sympathetic attachment to every Britisher 
in every part of the world. There can be no doubt, Mr. 
Speaker, that Mr. Asquith in that important statement which 
he delivered in the House of Commons at a time of a great 
crisis in the affairs of our widespread Empire recognised what 
we all realise that there was no other honourable course 
under the circumstances for England to pursue ; and his 
statements regarding that overmastering Power to which he 
refers Germany are, unfortunately, too true. We realise 
that the disturbing element for the. last fifteen years in con- 
nection with the peace of the whole world has been Germany ; 
and we recognise out in these seas that the country which has 
been responsible for the everlasting building of ships of war 
has been Germany, and that that building has been going on 

1 [The speech will be found in Diplomatic, 2, pp. 421-31.] 
212 






PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

for a set purpose, and has forced the policy of the British 
Government and other Governments to carry out a huge 
building programme. And when we find that the responsible 
head of the British people in England I am not referring to 
the crowned head, who is outside the arena of politics making 
a statement of the important and far-reaching nature that has 
been read to us to-night, which shows why Great Britain has 
taken the course indicated by Mr. Asquith, then I say there is 
no part of the Empire that will not endorse the decision and 
action of the British Government. When we find that the 
request made to the House of Commons for 100,000,000 was 
passed without adverse criticism, it shows unquestionably 
that the heart of the Empire is united, and so is every part of 
the Empire. The five hundred thousand men asked for in 
the British Isles will also be readily provided ; then, when it 
is realised that we have, in common with other portions of the 
Empire, spontaneously risen to the occasion, as shown by the 
fact that all have at once spontaneously agreed to send as 
many men as they can provide for the defence of the Empire, 
we can, in the truest sense of the term, in this remote part of the 
British possessions, endorse every word in that memorable 
speech of the British Prime Minister which has been read to 
us to-night a speech which was delivered by Mr. Asquith on 
what is undoubtedly the greatest historic occasion in modern 
history, if not, indeed, in the history of the world. 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : Before 
I proceed to read one or two other cablegrams I have received, 
I wish to say that I agree thoroughly with the opinion just 
expressed by the Leader of the Opposition. I appreciate the 
fact, and I am quite sure every citizen of New Zealand will 
appreciate the fact, that the Government of Great Britain 
have risen to the occasion, and have put forward to the world 
that they consider that the honour of the Empire and of its 
citizens take priority over every other consideration. There 
was one point that pleased me in the speech of Mr. Asquith, 
when he referred to the fact that the Dominions of the Empire 
had come forward and spontaneously offered to assist the 
Empire in the time of trouble. I do not want to indulge in 
any boasting, because this is not the time, but I am very 
strongly of opinion at the present moment that the first con- 
tingent to be despatched to the assistance of the Empire 

213 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

from any part of the world will be despatched from New 
Zealand. 

Motion agreed to. 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : I desire, 
before the House adjourns, to read a telegram from Mr. H. 
Morrison, that came to hand while I was in charge of the 
Bill. It is dated from Masterton : 

'About fifty horses and 4000 to purchase horses voted at 
Masterton meeting this afternoon/ 

Masterton is doing well. There is another telegram on the 
same lines from Cambridge, stating that two hundred well- 
mounted men from the Waikato district would be ready to 
serve wherever required. The Press Association has been 
good enough to forward to me the following message, which 
has come to New Zealand through them : 

'The British Fleet got into touch with the German North Sea 
Fleet south of the Dogger Bank. After the engagement the British 
Fleet was seen chasing the Germans towards Holland/ 

ADJOURNMENT : WAR INTELLIGENCE 

On the question, That the House do now adjourn. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Opposi- 
tion : Sir, one never desires to gloat over intelligence of 
the kind we have just received, but we are all intensely anxious 
that our enemy should be beaten, and that our own forces, 
and those of the countries we are allied to should triumph. 
Unfortunately, we are not perfectly sure that the information 
we are receiving by cable from time to time is authentic. I 
wish it were possible for some means to be found whereby 
authoritative information could be conveyed to the Governor 
or the Government, and such as is not confidential communi- 
cated to the people of our country. We go to bed one night 
in the full belief that the battleship Goeben has been taken by 
the French. We wake in the morning, and we are told that 
she is proceeding full speed past Gibraltar ; and another day 
we are informed that she is taking refuge in Messina. The 
matter of authentic information is of so much importance 
that I do wish it was possible for the authorities in England 
to arrange for absolutely reliable information, however brief, 
to be supplied to the Governor or the Government from an 
214 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

authoritative source. I know that the London and New 
Zealand Press Association are doing their best, and I am not 
in any way, at a time of unexampled difficulty, reflecting upon 
them ; but, like other institutions, they are suffering from the 
censorship, and also from the difficulty of knowing accurately 
what is taking place, and doubtless are not at present getting 
the information to send through which they desire. 

Ther RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : I 
cannot guarantee that the information I have just conveyed 
to the House is authentic. I can only say that I have done 
my best to get for the people of New Zealand authentic and 
definite information of what is going on at the seat of war. 
I am sorry to acknowledge that up to the present I have to a 
certain extent failed. I intend, however, to try to get infor- 
mation from another source. The trouble is that the usual 
methods of communication are blocked, chiefly by the censor- 
ship which has been established, and also to a certain extent 
by the tremendous number of cables that are passing to and 
fro. However, I hope to make better arrangements for the 
transmission of news to New Zealand in the course of the 
next few days. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD : I think, Mr. Speaker, 
it will be as difficult at present for the High Commissioner 
in London to get the information we are anxious to have as it 
is for the Press Association, and I do not think any fault 
should be found with that officer, who would, I am sure, do 
all in his power. I think the information at present can only 
be obtained through one channel, and I believe the least delay 
will be occasioned by that channel being made use of. A 
little later on the same difficulties as exist at the start of the 
war will not be experienced. 

Motion agreed to. 

August 10, 1914. 
THE WAR : NEW ZEALAND'S OFFER OF TROOPS 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : Before New 
we go on to the ordinary business, I desire to read a telegram Zealand 
which reached me yesterday from the High Commissioner, a Hansard. 
copy of which, as a matter of fact, I gave to the Press last 
night, and which appeared in this morning's papers, but which 

215 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

I read for the purpose of placing it on record, and because I 
want to say something in connection with it : 

' At the invitation of Lord Kitchener I saw him this morning at the 
War Office. He said, " I desire you to tender my sincere thanks and 
appreciation to the Government and people of New Zealand for their 
prompt, generous, and valuable offer of material help. ' ' Lord Kitchener 
especially values the type of men New Zealand can send. He knows 
their valour and devotion. He will see that all care will be .taken of 
New Zealand's brave sons, and he feels that they will show a continu- 
ance of same resource and courage in the field which they displayed in 
South Africa. Then the Dominion's honour would be safe in their 
hands. He wished me to send that message to the Government and 
people of New Zealand/ 

I move that the message I have just read be recorded in 
the Journals of the House. 
Motion agreed to. 

THE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : I want 
to follow that up by making a statement. I have been given 
to understand that an idea obtains in certain quarters in some 
districts in New Zealand to the effect that our men are not 
going to the front, but that they are simply going to be used 
for garrison duty, and will not serve as regular troops. I am 
in a position to say that such is not the case. The New 
Zealand Expeditionary Forces go to Europe, and in all 
probability will call at an English port for orders. What I 
am saying now applies generally, because it must be under- 
stood that directly the Force leaves New Zealand, they are 
Imperial troops in every sense of the word, and under Imperial 
authority. I cannot speak for every company, but I am glad 
to think, and I know the men will be glad to hear, that within 
a few weeks after leaving New Zealand they will find them- 
selves at the front, and probably in the fighting line. In 
addition to that, I may add that General Godley will go in 
command of the Expeditionary Force. I think that is all I 
can say upon that matter. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Opposi- 
tion) : I want to say, in the first place, that I am sure that the 
message of Lord Kitchener will be appreciated by every man 
and woman in this country. There will be a feeling of great 
216 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

confidence in connection with the men who are going away to 
know that they are to be under the control of an officer who 
has had such a distinguished record as Lord Kitchener. And 
that message which has come to the Prime Minister from the 
High Commissioner gives expression to the opinion of the High 
Commissioner, which, I think, also will be endorsed by every 
member of Parliament, and by every well-wisher in this 
country. We all know of Lord Kitchener's wonderful career, 
and we know of the great knowledge he has regarding New 
Zealand. He has been through New Zealand, and has been 
in close touch with it for many years. He had a brother and 
a sister in this country, and he knows the people of the country 
well. And when he speaks of the calibre of the men of this 
country he does so with a personal knowledge and experience, 
as a great soldier who has had opportunity of judging men of 
almost every qualification. I think it is one of the gratifying 
phases in connection with the present crisis that a man of 
such distinguished parts and with such a magnificent record 
as Lord Kitchener should be the recognised executive con- 
troller of the Army at the time of so grave a crisis. 

August ii, 1914. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Opposi- New 
tion) : There is a statement which I think I ought to make Zealand 
public, and which will be of interest to members. This is a Hansard - 
copy of a telegram addressed to Mr. Gordon Coates, M.P., 
Wellington, from Mr. John Totich, representing the Slavonians 
of Northern Wairoa : 

' Kindly make it known to your Government that three hundred 
Dalmatians and Croatians in this district are all of Slavonian nation- 
ality, and majority British subjects, and as such we have already re- 
nounced our political and hereditary rights in Austria by refusing to 
go to join their colours. We, as Slavonian race, are bitter against 
Germanic principles. We have always sympathised with our brother 
Serbians and Russians, therefore as such we consider ourselves to 
be your Government's faithful ally, friends and sympathisers, ready to 
join the British colours to fight our common foe. We pray that your 
Government may not consider us as Austrians, and, as such, treat us 
as political enemies.' 

It is very interesting, after what has taken place, to find 
that our friends in the North, the Dalmatian and Croatian 

217 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

gum-diggers, are ready to stand side by side with us against 
a nation that they consider to be the common enemy. I wish, 
further, to intimate that the Government have decided, with 
the consent and approval of Parliament, to assume all financial 
responsibility in connection with the Expeditionary Force, 
including the mobilisation expenses, equipment, pay, and 
maintenance abroad. 

August 12, 1914. 
THE WAR : LADY ISLINGTON'S OFFER 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : . . . 
I should like to read a communication which came to me to- 
day from the High Commissioner. It is as follows : 

' Lady Islington has offered her London house as hospital New 
Zealand soldiers if should be required. Also willing, to take leading 
part in connection therewith, and hospital work connected with New 
Zealanders that may be undertaken in England. Her action has con- 
currence British Government/ 

I need hardly say that I will take care that the communi- 
cation I have just read is acknowledged, and that Lady Isling- 
ton is thanked by the Government on behalf of the people 
and the Parliament of New Zealand. . . . 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Opposi- 
tion) : Sir, I want to say with what pleasure I heard the state- 
ment conveyed by the High Commissioner as to the offer of 
Lady Islington. I am sure there is not a person in the country 
but will recognise that Lady Islington, who was well and favour- 
ably known in this Dominion as the wife of the then Governor, 
has done a very fine thing indeed in placing her home in Lon- 
don as a hospital at the disposal of New Zealanders who may 
unfortunately find themselves in a condition requiring hospital 
treatment. It is the deed of a gentlewoman, and one that 
we can very highly appreciate in New Zealand. I wish, so 
far as this side of the House is concerned, to add my words of 
recognition to those expressed by the Prime Minister. I also 
want to say that it comes as a very singular coincidence in 
connection with the history of the family to find that Lord 
Islington who was Governor of this Dominion for so long, and 
carried out his duties with great ability, and to the satisfac- 
tion of all our citizens according to an announcement in the 
218 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

cables to-night, has been admitted to the Administration of 
the British Government, and has been made Under-Secretary 
of State for the Colonies. To my mind, that is a very high 
compliment to Lord Islington, and I am perfectly certain it is 
a source of great satisfaction in this country to find that a 
former Governor, who was a man of the people, and at the 
same time a man who maintained the dignity of his high 
position in a way to command the respect of all classes, and 
who carried out his duties here in a very thorough manner, 
has been called to the counsels of the State, and given an im- 
portant position. I say it is a source of general satisfaction 
to the people of this Dominion, and it is gratifying to find that 
Lord and Lady Islington are before us in New Zealand in 
connection with the thoughtful and generous action of the one 
and the appointment to the Ministry of the other in the Old 
Country. 



August 13, 1914. 
THE WAR : WAR DECLARED WITH AUSTRIA 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : His New 
Excellency the Governor has asked me to read the following Zealand 
telegram to the House : Hansard. 

' War has broken out with Austria-Hungary/ 

This news, of course, was not altogether unexpected. The 
necessary Proclamation will be issued to-night. While on the 
subject, I may say, with regard to the troops who are on board 
the steamers now in Wellington Harbour, that a great many 
inquiries have been made to me to-day as to when the vessels 
will sail. The only information I can give is that the troops 
are now under the control of the Imperial authorities, and they 
will not sail until the Imperial authorities give the word. I 
do not know when the word will be given. It is quite impos- 
sible for me to say. In the meantime we have complied with 
the instructions of the Imperial Government in placing the 
men on the two ships which will convey them to their destina- 
tion. Personally, I do not think the ships will sail to-morrow. 
That is all I can say at the moment, and, in saying that, it 
will be understood that I am simply expressing my own opinion. 

219 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

TRANSMISSION OF WAR NEWS 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : I think 
I have been able to make what appear to be fairly satisfactory 
arrangements for the transmission of war news. I have been 
in correspondence by cable with the High Commissioner, from 
whom I have received to-day the following cable : 

' Reliable war-news messages : The Commonwealth of Australia 
have placed a staff of four men to secure news. They will give us 
duplicates. These will be sent numbered consecutively, and divided 
into two classes, " official " and " reliable/' ' 

Like ourselves, apparently, the Government of the Com- 
monwealth has had some difficulty in securing reliable war 
news, and so they have arranged for their own staff to look 
after the news and transmit it to Australia. We shall be able, 
under this arrangement, to secure duplicates of the news 
forwarded to the Commonwealth. I may further say that I 
have also, through the courtesy of the Press Association, 
made arrangements for all important items of news each 
afternoon, so that the information can be given to the House. 

August 14, 1914. 
LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL 
THE WAR : NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

^ ew The HON. MR. BELL (Minister of Internal Affairs) : Before 

Hansard. as king you to leave the chair till the ringing of the bell, I 
propose to formally state to the Council what took place this 
afternoon. Up to two o'clock to-day, the Government had 
no immediate instruction from the Imperial authorities, and 
we had no reason to believe that the departure of the advance 
guard of the expedition would be immediate. We were 
informed at that hour this afternoon, and then we took steps 
so far as possible to assemble the troops. They were immedi- 
ately sent to the Basin Reserve, where the Governor, the 
Prime Minister, the Leader of the Opposition, the Minister of 
Defence, and the Mayor of Wellington addressed them. 
Honourable gentlemen in ordinary course would have had 
notice of the intended review of the men, but the circumstance 
that from the Cabinet-room the troops were ordered to be 

220 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

assembled at the Basin Reserve almost immediately after 
we received the instruction made that impossible. I cannot 
say anything as to the destination of the expedition, nor can 
I say more than the Prime Minister said in another place this 
evening that we have every reason to believe that within 
reasonable limit of risk the expedition will be safeguarded and 
escorted. 

The HON. MR. JONES : Do you know when they go ? 

The HON. MR. BELL : The honourable gentleman will not 
see them in Wellington Harbour, I think, again. The fare- 
well to the first fourteen hundred men was said to-day. ' God 
save the King ! ' 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

DR. A. K. NEWMAN (Wellington, East) asked the Minister 
of Defence if half-castes who were otherwise eligible would be 
allowed to volunteer for service with the Expeditionary Force. 

The HON. MR. ALLEN (Minister of Defence) said if they 
were Territorials, he did not see that there was anything to 
prevent them. He thought he had seen some half-castes in 
the ranks of those who had left that day. 

THE WAR : DEPARTURE OF THE NEW ZEALAND 
EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : At this 
stage I think I should say a word with regard to the very 
important event that took place this afternoon the sending- 
away of the first section of the New Zealand Expeditionary 
Force. I might tell honourable members that at half-past 
two o'clock P.M. to-day I had not the very slightest idea that 
the ships would be able to sail for a week. The indications 
all pointed in the direction of their remaining here for several 
days ; but the order came very suddenly, and I am bound to 
say that it was responded to very promptly. We felt that we 
should give the public of Wellington an opportunity of giving 
the men as good a send-off as possible under the circumstances, 
and so we arranged that they were to be taken from the ships 
and marched to the Basin Reserve, and I am glad to say that 

221 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

many thousands of Wellington people turned out to give them 
the send-off they undoubtedly deserved. I would like to 
relieve any anxiety that may be felt by relatives and friends, 
and the public generally because we are all anxious about the 
safety of our soldiers and I want to say that all possible 
precautions have been taken for the safety of the men and the 
ships by the Imperial Government and the New Zealand 
Government. Honourable members will understand that at 
a time like this I cannot go into details ; it is impossible for me 
to do so. They will understand in a few weeks, when we hear 
of what has taken place, why it is not possible for me to say 
anything more now. I say that, while I admit that it is 
impossible during war-time to avoid risks. Let me say, too, 
that I think the members and the citizens of New Zealand who 
saw the men in the Basin Reserve to-day, and then on board 
the ships, must have felt as I did proud of the men, proud of 
their courage, and proud of their physique, and, above all, 
of their willingness to serve their country in a very difficult 
crisis. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Opposi- 
tion) : Sir, I agree with what the Prime Minister said about 
the despatch of the troops to-day. I think nothing could be 
more satisfactory than the manner in which they went, and 
nothing could be more gratifying than to see what a fine body 
of men were despatched from this country. In their turn, I 
believe, wherever they go they will give a good account of 
themselves, and uphold the best traditions of their country, 
and add further to the fine previous record of the New 
Zealanders for bravery and distinction. So long as men of 
that sort are ready to respond to their country's call, we have 
every reason to be proud ; in fact, the only complaint we hear 
is from men who want to go and who cannot get in. It gives 
an indication of the numerous body of men there are left in 
the Dominion who are willing to serve their country in the 
field of Empire wherever the necessity arises. . . . 

August 26, 1914. 
ENFRANCHISEMENT OF EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

New The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Opposi- 

Zealand tion) : I want to refer to a very important matter, because 
Hansard. 

222 



i 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

I think this is an opportune time to do so. I feel that upon an 
occasion such as this is we ought not to adjourn without dis- 
cussing the question of the enfranchisement of the Expedition- 
ary Forces. 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY : I will be able to make a 
statement on Tuesday, I hope. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD : I am very glad to hear 
the Prime Minister say so ; but, personally, I want to make my 
own view clear. I think the men going away from this country 
to fight for the Empire should by legislation be enabled to 
record their vote at both the parliamentary and the licensing 
elections. It does not really matter, from the point of view 
that I hold regarding the enfranchising of these men, whether 
the elections are held this year or next year ; that is not the 
point. There will in all probability be a number of men who 
will not be back in this country when the general election 
takes place men who are going away for a noble purpose, 
although a regrettable one and it does seem to me that there 
should be full provision made for those men exercising their 
vote. 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY : How do you suggest it 
can be done ? 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD : I am going to suggest 
two ways in which I think it can easily be done. I do not 
think there ought to be any doubt in the minds of those men 
who are going away in regard to the exercise of their votes, 
both for the parliamentary and the licensing questions. In 
the first place, it seems to me that there must be, in an abnor- 
mal state of affairs as exists at present, some abnormal pro- 
vision made to enable the absent men I have referred to 
recording their votes. There ought to be an electoral branch 
reated in every camp, with a Returning Officer for those 
mps ; and by Order in Council provision should be made 
just as at an ordinary election for those men to exercise their 
otes the vote should be given not for an individual standing 
or election on either side in politics, but the vote should be 
iven for a party. It can be done. 

An HON. MEMBER : What about the independents ? 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD : There could be provision 
made for independents, but I think that would complicate it 
to some extent. 

223 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

An HON. MEMBER : Supposing there are two candidates 
of the same party. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD : Then in such a case 
the leader of the Reform party or the leader of the Liberal 
party could declare who is the candidate for that party, and 
the one so declared by the leader would be the one for 
whom the vote should be recorded. In the schedule of a 
Bill provision could be made for votes being recorded in 
the way I have indicated. There are not many inde- 
pendents, and I am certain the Labour party will recognise 
that it would be difficult to make provision for that party 
unless the system of the transferable vote were adopted ; and 
if such a system were introduced it would complicate matters 
to a very great extent, and might prevent the passage of the 
Bill, and so deprive a large number of men of their right to 
vote. It seems to me that considering we are sending away 
from this country possibly ten thousand men; or more later 
on, that some provision could be made without any difficulty, 
to ensure that any man who wished could exercise his vote for 
the selected nominee or candidate of the respective parties. 
This little country has done marvellously well in sending 
away the advance party and getting ready the main Expedi- 
tionary Force. It is not a desirable thing to take a still larger 
number of men than we can spare from the ordinary walks of 
life, excepting under great necessity, in addition to the num- 
ber this country is already sending, but the suggestion I am 
making as to allowing these men who have already gone, and 
are still to go to have their votes recorded, should be seriously 
considered. Then the men of the Expeditionary Force before 
going away could record their votes for their party ; and the 
Electoral Officers appointed could be attached to the respective 
camps, and they would prepare the roll and ensure that only 
those of age were entitled to vote. And there ought to be 
provision that those who would come of age upon the date of 
the election would also be enabled to record their votes. Their 
names would be sent by the camp Returning Officer to a Chief 
Electoral Officer who would, within a week of the general 
election, send them under seal to the Returning Officer in 
the respective districts. There could be no such thing as 
anybody abusing the system, as those men, whatever their 
views might be I am not talking from a party standpoint, 
224 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

as the system would be just as fair for the Government as for 
the Opposition party should undeniably have the right to 
exercise the franchise. They have already asked for the 
privilege, and the mere fact that there is a great emergency 
now, and that they are going away to assist the Empire, is no 
reason why the Parliament of this country should not in its 
wisdom be able to supply a practical system to enable the 
members of our Expeditionary Forces to record their votes, 
although they cannot know the candidates who are going to be 
put forward, or the declared party nominees in the event of 
there being more than one candidate in the field, as no doubt 
in some cases there will be. I admit that the suggestion means 
the opening-up of new ground, but we have done that before in 
this country frequently, and I dare say it will be done again. 
In the event of this system being brought into law, there can 
be no suggestion as to its workableness, and so I suggest to 
the Prime Minister that is one way of doing it. It is not the 
only way. Another system would be by providing proxies. 

MR. HUICK : A power of attorney ? 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD : By providing for the 
ten thousand men a system of proxies would, I admit, be a big 
job, and I am satisfied it could be done, though I think it is not 
so good a system as the one I have suggested ; but I think 
that the man who wants to record his vote in any portion of 
this country, and who will be away from the country at the 
date of the general election, should have the privilege in some 
practical form. We should do all in our power to ensure that 
the same secrecy which is looked for by any voter in the 
country now should be applied in the case of these men. The 
objection to a proxy system is that the man must send his vote 
to somebody else, and request him to record it for a particular 
candidate, but under a proxy his vote would be known to 
somebody else. 

An HON. MEMBER : Under a system of proxies the man 
who held the power of proxy could appropriate the whole 
of the hundred votes for himself if he chose to become a 
candidate. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G, WARD : It is open to that objec- 
tion, I recognise. I believe voting by proxy is not the best 
way, but is rather an objectionable method. Scores of the 
men who are going away in the Expeditionary Force are in 

OVERSEAS 2. P 225 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

employment, and the great majority of them would desire 
to preserve from the knowledge of their employers not from 
any improper motive or from any fear the direction in which 
their votes would be cast, so that the proxy system or the 
method of power of attorney would be objectionable. But 
the details of a scheme could be provided so as to meet any 
exigency that might arise. The idea would be only a matter 
of common justice to the volunteers, and it would give them 
the consolation of knowing that they would have the privilege, 
which they value, of being able to vote on both the political 
and the licensing issues. I commend to the attention of the 
Right Hon. the Prime Minister the necessity of seeing that 
their electoral rights should be preserved to them. 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY : I have said that we have 
it under consideration, and that I will make a statement 
regarding it on Tuesday. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD : Well, this is my only 
opportunity of bringing the question forward. I am not 
raising it from any party standpoint. I suppose there are 
men on all sides of politics in the Expeditionary Force, and 
when we are sending them away to distant places, it is only 
right that they should have the same advantages as citizens, 
in the election of the rulers of their country, as if they remained 
in New Zealand. Why, Sir, we give such privileges to the 
absentee voter. An elector can go away and take an absentee 
voter's permit, or if he is a seaman, he can exercise his vote 
while away. All that is done without any difficulty. 

The HON. MR. FRASER : For a particular person, though. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD : What difference does 
it make ? Take the case of the Minister of Public Works, or 
the Prime Minister, or any other man you like. What does 
the absence of a name signify ? If an Oppositionist is stand- 
ing against either of those gentlemen, what does it matter 
about the absence of a name if power is given by legislation 
for a man to vote for his party, and for the candidate accepted 
in respect of the electorate by the leader of his party by the 
leader of either party ? That would be a great deal better 
than not being able to vote at all. Surely it is incomparably 
better to make a safe provision enabling the elector to vote 
for the candidate that the leader of the party selects in the 
event of there being more than one candidate on a given side 
226 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

in the electorate. That would, if we provide for it by legisla- 
tion, be as good as if the voter knew that Mr. Massey or Mr. 
Eraser individually were the candidate. There can be only 
an odd exception here and there where the principle would not 
apply with full effect and extend over every electorate, thus 
creating a system of voting for the members of the Expedition- 
ary Force. What I have suggested is to overcome a difficulty 
in connection with these ten thousand men, or whatever the 
number may be, to exercise their right of voting at the next 
general election and the licensing polls. I believe that 'we, 
as a Parliament, ought to rise to the occasion and establish 
a precedent to enable this large body of men, who have 
voluntarily offered to go out to defend the Empire, to exercise 
the full privileges of citizenship which they enjoy at the 
moment. In doing this every necessary precaution could be 
taken to prevent abuses. Personally, I will most heartily 
support a proposal to give those men the right to vote upon 
the parliamentary issues and upon the licensing issue. They 
are entitled to it, and it can be done. I recognise it can only 
be done if the Government take it up, because we on this side 
of the House at this juncture would not attempt to raise a 
party issue or make it a party issue. We want to see these 
men treated rightly and fairly, and the Parliament alone can 
do it. Members on this side of the House will give every 
assistance to enable it to be done. I am perfectly certain 
that a vast majority of the people of this country, upon all 
sides of politics, are anxious that these men should have that 
which they have petitioned this House for already, because 
we know that petitions have been presented praying that the 
privilege should be extended to them before they leave our 
shores. I should feel very much happier if before this House 
rises I could have some assurance that these men, some of 
whom may never return and we sincerely hope they will all 
return would be given the privilege they desire. In con- 
sidering thisr matter, all minor matters should be sunk, and 
any suggestion that it should not be done because of the 
absence of a name is not, I think, a sufficient reason for debar- 
ring these men from exercising the undeniable right they have 
to say who should be their representatives in Parliament. 



227 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

August 28, 1914. 
NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

New The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : Before 

Zealand proceeding to the orders of the day, His Excellency the 
ansar . Governor requested me to read to the House the following 
extract from a communication from him to myself : 

' His Excellency earnestly hopes that when the time arrives for the 
embarkation of the Expeditionary Force for Europe, no questions will 
be asked or suggested as to the route, not that His Excellency does not 
desire to give all portions of news which will be of interest to the people 
of New Zealand, but because it is vitally important to keep all move- 
ments of the Force as secret as possible, so that the risk of the news 
finding its way to the enemy's hands should be reduced to a minimum, 
in order that no step shall be left unturned to prevent any chance 
happening which would endanger the lives of the expedition. 

' In the same way His Excellency would suggest that it is inadvis- 
able to give particulars of any steps which either this Dominion or any 
other dependency of the Crown is taking to defend itself. 

' His Excellency feels certain he will not have to appeal in vain to 
the people and public Press of these Islands, as throughout this crisis 
they have manifested in such a marked degree a desire to assist every 
one to the utmost of their power. At the same time the Governor feels 
it right to make these representations through his Prime Minister, as 
rumours have been circulated regarding the advance party of the 
Expeditionary Force which were entirely incorrect. As so late as half- 
past eight o'clock A.M., of the 27th August, he was assured that every- 
thing was well with the Force. 

' His Excellency desires it to be known that he will at all^ times 
facilitate the circulation of any interesting news which can with safety 
be communicated to both the people and Press/ 

I hardly think this communication requires any explana- 
tion, and I am quite sure Parliament, and the public, and the 
Press will see the wisdom of complying with the request just 
made by His Excellency the Governor. 

September i, 1914. 
THE WAR : MAORI VOLUNTEERS 

ibid. MR. G. M. THOMSON (Dunedin, North) : I desire to ask 

the Prime Minister the following question without notice : 
Whether, in view of the employment by the British Govern- 
228 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

ment of Indian troops in the present war in Europe, the New 
Zealand Government is prepared to accept the military services 
of those of His Majesty's Maori subjects who are desirous of 
volunteering ? 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) : In reply 
to the question asked by the member for Dunedin North, I 
would like to say that I have a great deal of sympathy with 
the suggestion of the honourable member. There has always 
been a sort of understanding that coloured races were not to 
be employed in any European war. But now we have the 
precedent of Indians being taken to Europe for the purpose 
of taking part in the present war ; and we have to remember 
that, so far as the Maoris are concerned, they are free citizens 
of the Empire they are supposed to share with us all the 
privileges and benefits of British citizenship ; and, while that 
is supposed to be the case, I do not see why the Maoris should 
not have the privilege of fighting for the Empire if there is a 
crisis in the Empire's affairs. That is my own opinion. I 
will be very glad indeed to represent to His Excellency the 
Governor the suggestion made by the member for Dunedin 
North. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Opposi- 
tion) : I wish to take the opportunity of saying that, now the 
British Government are sending Indian troops and have 
publicly announced it, it appears to me that the relaxation 
of the understanding that existed prior to that event against 
native races in any part of the Empire taking part in wars 
might also very well be relaxed as far as this country is con- 
cerned. Subject to the consent of the Imperial Government, 
whom I understood the Prime Minister to say he would con- 
sult about the matter before taking action, and to their 
agreeing, I believe the great majority of the people of this 
country would, in the circumstances, be favourable to the 
Maoris, who have been so distinguished in the past as a fine 
fighting force, joining in the defence of the Empire as a whole. 

The HON. MR. NGATA (Eastern Maori District) : May I 
say a few words on this matter with the indulgence of the 
House ? There is undoubtedly a demand and a desire on 
the part of the Maori people to stand shoulder to shoulder with 
their pakeha fellow-subjects in the present war ; but so 
practical a man as the present Minister of Defence must know 

229 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

that the bulk of the Maori population live in the areas that 
are exempt from training, and, although the Maoris are enthusi- 
astic to come forward and take their due share in the pro- 
ceedings now taking place in Europe, undoubtedly there is a 
greater need in their case for training than in the case of the 
pakehas who are offering. I would make the suggestion to 
the Minister, if the offers which have been made are accepted 
by the Imperial Government, that steps be taken immediately 
to have concentration camps formed in some of the Maori 
districts, where the Maori volunteers may be trained. I 
venture the opinion that in regard to some of the minor 
requirements of a soldier the Maori is naturally well equipped. 
He is a natural scout, and in the matter of commissariat he 
is unsurpassed in this country ; and if it comes to roughing 
it and campaigning, I should say from my reading that, in 
regard to at least fifty per cent, of the requirements of the 
soldier, he is very well equipped. All he wants is training in 
the field, an understanding of the words of command and of 
the necessary evolutions, and, above all, the steadiness which 
seems to be the characteristic of that noble army now under 
the command of General French operating in France. The 
Arawas offer a contingent of three hundred ; the Wairoa 
natives offer another contingent. Both come of warlike 
stock. I have no doubt that as soon as the Maoris under- 
stand that their services will be accepted and it seems that 
the services of every British subject are required at this 
moment then the offers that will be made to the Government 
will be sufficient, I think, to fill one troopship. 

September 8, 1914. 
WIRELESS STATIONS 

New MR. WITTY (Riccarton) asked the Postmaster-General, 

Zealand without previous notice, whether in the case of a breakdown 

Hansard. on both ocean-cable routes to New Zealand, or the serious 

blockage of the Eastern route through the interruption of the 

Pacific route, any arrangements could be made for relieving 

the pressure by erecting wireless stations for the transmission 

of messages, especially Press news, and whether he had made 

any arrangements of this kind with other countries. 

The HON. MR. R. H. RHODES (Postmaster - General) 
230 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

replied that the Government thought it inadvisable to make 
public at present what means of communication New Zealand 
had with other countries, but he would be glad to give the 
honourable member any private information he could on the 
subject. He did not wish to withhold information, but it was 
inadvisable to give any at present. 

MR. WITTY : It is important to the public. 

The HON. MR. R. H. RHODES said that no doubt it was 
highly important to the public ; but, still, it was not desirable 
to publish the information. 

IN COMMITTEE. CLASS X. : DEFENCE DEPARTMENT 

Adjutant-General's Branch, 194,998. 

MR. MACDONALD (Bay of Plenty) desired to know if any- 
thing had been done for the acquisition of a rifle range at 
Gisborne, a matter that had been held up for a year. 

The HON. MR. BUDDO (Kaiapoi) asked if anything had been 
done respecting a rifle range at North Rangiora. 

THE HON. MR. ALLEN (Minister of Defence) replied that 
the matter of the acquisition of rifle ranges came under the 
Public Works Department, the present estimates relating 
only to the maintenance of existing rifle ranges. As to the 
Gisborne range, an attempt had been made to acquire it, 
unsuccessfully, and they were going to take it under the Public 
Works Act. 

MR. DICKSON (Parnell) asked if other British officers would 
be brought out to take the place of those now returning to 
Europe. For instance, there was the position of the head of 
the artillery, recently held by Colonel Heard, whose time 
had expired. He submitted that the New Zealanders had 
now had sufficient training to enable them to take the place 
of some of the British officers, and he hoped they would be 
promoted in preference to bringing in other British officers. 

MR. MACDONALD (Bay of Plenty) suggested that notice 
should be given to the Public Works Department to immedi- 
ately act in the matter of acquiring land for the Gisborne 
Rifle Range, in order that the matter might be finally settled. 
Many capable and energetic men were desirous of assisting 
in the defence of the country, but they were feeling discouraged 
over the delay that had taken place regarding this range. 

231 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY- OVERSEAS 

The HON. MR. ALLEN stated that the Public Works De- 
partment had already been instructed to give the necessary 
notice in connection with the land wanted for the Gisborne 
Rifle Range. As to rifle ranges generally, a great deal of 
activity had been displayed by the Government during the 
last twelve months in acquiring ranges in all parts of the 
country. With regard to replacing the officers who had come 
from England, wherever it was possible the Department was 
filling their places with New Zealanders ; but he did not wish 
to lead the House to think that that course could be followed 
in all cases. Colonel Heard had gone home, and his place 
had been taken by Colonel Braithwaite ; that officer was now 
going away with the Force to Europe, and his place would be 
filled by Lieut. -Colonel Gibbon from home. Colonel Robin, 
who was a New Zealand officer, would be placed in command 
when General Godley went away ; and, if possible, every 
position that required to be filled would be filled by New 
Zealand officers. In order to make up the establishment, it 
was proposed to draw from the New Zealand officers in New 
Zealand to fill up the ranks of the Territorial officers, in order 
to keep the work going, as soon as the troops went away. 

Mr. RUSSELL (Avon) asked who was to be in charge of the 
Defence Department as its permanent head when General 
Godley left for the front. He was only expressing a personal 
opinion, but he regretted that at a time like this General 
Godley was leaving New Zealand. His first duty as officer 
commanding was the defence of this country ; and whilst it was 
a fine thing that Sir Alexander should lead the New Zealand 
Expeditionary Force, yet if a crisis were to take place, the 
people of this country would much prefer that General Godley 
should be here rather than at the other end of the world. 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY: Which is better for the 
Empire ? 

MR. RUSSELL said that in the end it might be much better 
that we should have the ablest and best commander possible 
here. He would also like to ask whether, in view of the present 
position, it was not wise to extend the scope of our training. 
A large number of men not in the Forces at present had been 
drilled, and great numbers of them would be only too happy 
to assist in local defence and undergo whatever training was 
necessary. Not very long ago the Prime Minister stated that 
232 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

if the necessity arose we were prepared to send our last man 
and expend our last shilling, and that sentiment was echoed 
by all the people of the country, and it must be evident, if the 
country was to send away large numbers of its trained men, 
it might be desirable for our own protection to draw upon the 
older men in the community. There were tens of thousands 
of men like himself, who had been Volunteers in their younger 
days, who were prepared to do their best if the necessity arose. 
If the Prime Minister was prepared to extend his scheme of 
training, and was willing to accept volunteers from all parts 
of the Dominion, who were prepared to do their drill, then if 
the necessity arose, we could allow our younger men to go in 
still larger numbers to the defence of the Empire at the seat 
of war, and it would be a very fine scheme. 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY said there were tens of 
thousands to-day doing their drill as members of rifle clubs 
and reservists. 

MR. RUSSELL agreed that this was the case with the rifle 
clubs. He would ask if the Minister of Defence would arrange 
for the wholesale establishment throughout the country of 
miniature rifle ranges, where the settlers to whom he had 
referred might be able to practise with the Morris tube, and 
on the miniature rifle range, so that if the necessity arose we 
should have a large body of men who could take their part in 
the defence of the Dominion, and at the same time set free 
the younger men to go to the front in the service of the Empire. 
The patriotic feeling was so strong that any call upon the older 
men to take part in drill would be promptly and largely 
responded to, and this would ease the hands of the Government 
if they wished to send away further contingents of our young 
men. It seemed to him that the war was going to be a long 
one, and if that were the case Britain would be calling on her 
oversea possessions for more and more contingents, and we 
ought therefore to be prepared for that emergency and also 
for the defence of the Dominion. 

MR. GLOVER (Auckland Central) said this was no mere 
boxing contest in which the Mother Country was engaged. 
The gloves were off, and it behoved New Zealand to give all 
the assistance it possibly could. He believed the Defence 
Minister would be found equal to the responsibility which this 
emergency imposed upon him. 

233 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

The HON. MR. BUDDO (Kaiapoi) said, in reference to the 
Rangiora Rifle Range, that something required to be done in 
regard to its maintenance. There had been correspondence 
with the Government about it, and an answer had been received 
that there was no money available to put it in order. He 
thought this was bad policy. Most of the Territorials in that 
district belonged to the town, and it was necessary, if they 
were to be able to keep up their rifle practice, that there should 
be an available range near the town. It was not only the rifle 
club that was interested, but the matter affected also the 
Senior Cadets and the Territorials, and he hoped the Govern- 
ment would have the necessary work carried out on the range 
before the autumn manoeuvres. 

MR. HANAN (Invercargill) said, though it may be necessary 
to despatch other contingents, he hoped the Minister would 
not overlook the need for fostering our products and seeing 
that the food supply furnished by New Zealand was kept up. 
The question of the export of food-stuffs was not receiving 
sufficient attention. He hoped when considering the sending 
away of other contingents, the Minister would have in view the 
desirability of keeping our young men here to assist as far as 
possible the increase of our products and the furnishing of 
food-stuffs to Great Britain. This point had been stressed at 
home by the Prime Minister. A matter he would like to have 
some information on was in regard to fortification as to what 
the views of the Minister were in regard to properly fortifying 
the ports of Otago and Southland. At present they were 
not guarded as some experts thought they should be. He did 
not know what was the policy. He understood it was not 
considered necessary, in the opinion of some experts, that these 
places should be fortified. Opinions upon the matter differed. 
He would like to know the Minister's opinion with regard to 
that question. Was it considered necessary to fortify only 
Auckland and Wellington ? He understood that some of the 
big guns were being taken out of New Zealand. That was a 
matter in regard to which differences of opinion might exist. 
From the point of view of the defence of New Zealand, he was 
inclined to think that our big guns should remain here. As 
to the camps, it seemed to him that in future the country 
should not go in the direction of concentrating large numbers of 
volunteers or Territorials in a few camps, as had been done 
234 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

recently. It seemed to him to be unreasonable to bring men 
all the way from the West Coast to Canterbury, or from 
Southland to Otago, and it caused great expense and incon- 
venience to the men. Much better work would be done if 
the men were not concentrated in a few camps. 

The HON. MR. ALLEN (Minister of Defence) said he would 
reply first to the question as to the sending of another 
contingent. The member for Avon was desirous of sending 
away another contingent, and the member for Invercargill 
gave the House a warning note that the country ought to 
consider the productions of New Zealand in carrying on their 
industries. Both of these were absolute needs, and what the 
House had to do was to consider the work to be carried out in 
New Zealand, and what were the needs of the Empire how 
far we could supply those needs and at the same time carry 
on the industries of the country so as to produce as much 
food-stuffs as possible. The Government had had both of these 
questions before them almost every day, and they were very 
carefully considering both the necessity of sending away 
further assistance to the Empire in its need, and also carefully 
considering the question of producing further food-stuffs. 
The Prime Minister had already asked the people of the country 
to plant more wheat ; and he understood that a great deal 
more land was being cultivated for the growing of more wheat, 
and he hoped sufficient labour would be found to win that 
crop when it ripened. With regard to the sending away of a 
further contingent, the Government were prepared to fulfil 
their arrangement with the War Office, that arrangement being 
that they were to send away an Expeditionary Force of the 
size now mobilised and ready to send from our shores. 

MR. HANAN : If required. 

The HON. MR. ALLEN : ' If required/ And the Mother 
Country had said it was required and very urgently indeed. 
The Government received a cablegram a few days ago, stating 
that more men were wanted, and he had no doubt the House 
would agree to that if they were asked to authorise it. In 
regard to the sending away of guns, he might state that it had 
been decided to send away additional i8-pounders, making 
twelve i8-pounders instead of six i8-pounders. That left 
New Zealand with perhaps it would be better not to say how 
many, but it left New Zealand quite ample, in his opinion, and 

235 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

in the opinion of the officer commanding, for all needs and 
requirements of New Zealand and, in fact, more than ample. 
In addition to that, they had not only the i8-pounders left in 
New Zealand, but there was the howitzer battery as well ; 
and there were also the i5-pounders, except the few that had 
been sent to Samoa. There was sufficient ammunition for all 
these arms. The country could well spare the battery in 
question. He thought that after this explanation the honour- 
able member for Invercargill would be satisfied that the Gov- 
ernment were not unmindful of the defence of the Dominion. 
He would now answer the question in respect to the fortifica- 
tions in the four chief harbours. He believed that the forti- 
fications and defence were ample for the requirements at the 
present time. Both Wellington and Auckland were well 
defended so well defended that he would like to be in the 
battery in Auckland when either the Scharnhorst or Gneisenau 
came and attempted to enter. He would thoroughly enjoy 
the evening's sport, and so would the gunners. In Otago and 
Lyttelton the defences were not perhaps so strong as in 
Wellington or in Auckland ; but they were ample for all their 
needs. The Otago Harbour was exceedingly difficult to enter 
indeed, there was advice to say that the Otago Harbour 
was so difficult to enter that probably no hostile ship of war 
would ever venture to go there ; and, further, there was an 
excellent body of men manning the defences there some of 
the best in New Zealand. Then, with regard to the question 
asked by the honourable member for Avon, in respect to the 
General Officer Commanding, the time of this officer was not 
up in New Zealand till thirteen months from now, and although 
he was leaving for the front, he was under engagement to come 
back to New Zealand after the war was over, should it termin- 
ate before the expiry of his time and he hoped that would 
be so. The honourable member wished to know whether we 
thought it right to allow Sir A. J. Godley to leave New Zealand 
at this juncture whether we thought it right to send our most 
experienced officer away from the country in charge of this 
Expeditionary Force. His reply was that they would have 
been lacking in their duty to the Expeditionary Force itself, 
as well as to the Mother Country, if they did not send the best 
man they had available. It should be remembered that the 
lives of eight thousand men were in the hands of the General 
236 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

Officer Commanding. It would have been a gross dereliction 
of duty on their part if through not sending their best a single 
life had been unnecessarily sacrificed. That was one reason ; 
and yet there was almost a stronger reason namely, that it 
was a duty they owed to the Mother Country in this time of 
trial to send the best they had of everything they had. The 
position of the Pacific was such that they could afford to send 
the best. The Dominion was absolutely secure and safe 
within its own shores. Might he say to honourable members, 
with respect to the General Officer Commanding, that he had 
experience of him now for two years or more as Minister of 
Defence, and he could only add to the general opinion of the 
House in saying how much they valued the- services rendered 
by Sir A. J. Godley to this country. The Dominion's training 
scheme well justified itself, and the mobilisation to meet the 
present crisis more than justified it. He was only sorry the 
scheme was not in operation for ten years instead of four. 
The honourable member asked if he was going to replace 
General Godley, and the reply was that, he was not leaving 
for thirteen months. 

MR. RUSSELL : I mean during his absence at the front. 

The HON. MR. ALLEN stated that a New Zealand officer 
would take General Godley's place while he was away. Colonel 
Robin would act as Quartermaster- General and also as General 
Officer Commanding, and he would have the assistance of 
an experienced Imperial officer, Lieut.-Colonel Gibbon, who 
would prove to be an extremely valuable officer. He could 
now say from his own experience that the office lately filled 
by Colonels Heard and Braithwaite would be well filled by 
Lieut.-Colonel Gibbon. 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) moved, 
' That progress be reported/ He wished to intimate that His 
Excellency the Governor had received, through the Secretary 
of State for the Colonies, a message from His Majesty the 
King, which he desired to deliver in person to the members of 
Parliament and the people of New Zealand. He would ask 
honourable members to adjourn for a few minutes in order 
that His Excellency .might deliver the message from the 
steps of Parliament Buildings. 

Progress reported. 

237 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

THE WAR : MESSAGE FROM THE KING 

MR. SPEAKER left the chair for a few minutes while the 
Governor read the message in question from the steps of the 
Building, which message, and also the reply thereto of His 
Excellency the Governor, was subsequently, on the motion 
of the Prime Minister, ordered to be recorded in the Journals 
of the House. [The message from the King was as in 
Overseas, i, pp. 3-5.] The following was the Governor's reply 
to the Secretary of State for the Colonies : 

' With reference to your telegram of the 8th September, would be 
glad if you would transmit the following message to His Majesty the 
King. Begins : " New Zealand desires me to thank Your Majesty 
for your gracious message, which I have personally communicated. 
The people of the Dominion consider it their privilege to be connected 
with everything which affects the welfare of the British Empire, and 
are proud to be associated with the United Kingdom and all the de- 
pendencies of the Crown in the present tremendous issue, which must 
be carried to a satisfactory conclusion whatever may be the cost. To 
this end the people of New Zealand are prepared to make any sacrifice 
that may be required of them. LIVERPOOL." 

THE WAR 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY : Before going on with the 
other business, I would like to read to honourable members 
an official war telegram which by a coincidence has just come 
through, and I am quite sure honourable members will be 
pleased to hear it. It is official : 

' The general position continues satisfactory. The Allies have gained 
ground on their left along the line of Ourcq and Petit Morin. The 
British have here driven the enemy back ten miles. Fighting has been 
in progress further to the right along the line of Montmirail Le Petit 
Sompuit, neither side gaining any advantage. Farther to the right 
the enemy have been pressed back in the direction of Reims. In the 
vicinity of Luneville an attempt of the Germans to advance was 
repulsed. Pressure against the enemy continues all along the Allies' 
front. The British Force has been engaged all day. The enemy 
opposed to it, after a stubborn resistance, retired, and is now crossing 
to north Marne. The Fifth French Army advanced with equal success. 
There are reports of many captures. The Sixth French Army on 
Ourcq has been heavily engaged. Here also the enemy have been 
driven back. The Germans have suffered severely along the line of 

238 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

advance; everywhere it was resolutely pushed home. The British 
again sustained severe casualties, but the number is small in relation 
to the nature of the fighting/ 

I think, Mr. Speaker, I may say we put up with the ad- 
verse news which has been coming to us for the last few days 
very well indeed, and we are, of course, correspondingly 
delighted now that the tide has turned, and that good news 
is continually arriving. 

SUPPLY 
IN COMMITTEE. CLASS X. : DEFENCE DEPARTMENT 

Adjutant-General's Branch, 194,998. 

The HON. MR. ALLEN (Minister of Defence) did not 
know whether the announcement made by His Excellency 
from the King would help them in dealing with the present 
difficulty, but he took it that the announcement meant that 
they were called upon to assist the Empire to their utmost, 
and no doubt they would do it. With regard to reinforce- 
ments for the Territorial Force, the arrangement made with 
the War Office was that they should be reinforced to keep them 
up to their full strength during the whole time of the war. 
That will mean the sending in four or six weeks' time of a 
number equal to twenty per cent, of the main body, and 
after that a monthly contingent equal to five per cent. That, 
he believed, the Government and Parliament were willing to 
send, and he thought they would have no difficulty in finding 
the men. The matter of another contingent was a matter 
for further consideration, and he did not that night propose 
to make any statement about it. Already steps had been 
taken to fill up the ranks of the Territorials owing to the 
Expeditionary Force. Immediately the first contingent went 
away the Fifth Regiment, which was the Wellington regiment, 
immediately took steps to make up its numbers. They had 
been recruited largely from the General Training Section, 
which had not yet entered into the scheme of Territorial train- 
ing. The ranks of the Fifth Regiment had been pretty well 
filled up again out of the General Training Section and out 
of men who had served in the old Volunteer Force ; especially 
had this been so respecting officers. The country owed a debt 
to old Volunteer officers who had come forward and again 

239 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

j oined the ranks, making up the Territorial Forces. He desired 
also to allude to the very patriotic offers coming from all over 
the country, and from all sorts of organisations throughout 
New Zealand. It was especially gratifying as these offers 
were so numerous and so spontaneous. The rifle clubs in 
many places, if not throughout New Zealand, were drilling 
under their own officers, and getting what assistance they 
could from the Staff ; so that they were equipping themselves 
for the defence of the country if required. Then, the offers 
from the Legion of Frontiersmen were very numerous. As a 
matter of fact, they were so numerous that rifles could not be 
found for all, unless the weapons were taken from the Senior 
Cadets, and they did not want to do that. The Legion of 
Frontiersmen from all over New Zealand were offering, and 
were offering to find their own horses and equipment. While 
they were only too glad to receive these offers, they could only 
afford at the present time to send a certain number from New 
Zealand. Offers from the members of the National Reserve 
continued to come in in large numbers, and these men were also 
anxious to do what they could in the service of New Zealand 
and of the Empire. Heaps of letters from men offering their 
services were daily received, and it was suggested that these 
men should either join existing rifle clubs, or start new ones, 
and, so far as they could, the men were encouraged to equip 
themselves for home defence if necessary. It was under 
consideration whether they should not increase the age up to 
which men should be allowed to go away on active service. 
The present age-limit was from twenty to thirty-five, and it 
had been suggested that the age should be raised to forty or 
forty-five years ; there were many Legion of Frontiersmen 
who were willing to go, and who would go away if the age were 
thus increased. He wished to say in regard to miniature rifle 
ranges, referred to by the honourable member for Avon, that 
many of them had been established all over New Zealand, and 
he did not know that more were required at the present time. 
If they were, they would be established. As to the rifle 
range at Rangiora, referred to by the honourable member for 
Kaiapoi, they were, so far as they possibly could, out of the 
parliamentary grant, repairing rifle ranges all over New Zea- 
land. Last year no less than eighty rifle ranges had been 
repaired out of the Consolidated Fund. The Rangiora Rifle 
240 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

Range would be repaired this year, he hoped, in time for the 
annual manoeuvres. 

MR. WILFORD (Hutt) said there was no doubt whatever 
that every New Zealander was loyal to the Empire, and was 
willing to make whatever sacrifices were necessary. It was 
one of the significant qualities of the New Zealander, and it 
was a common thing in the Empire, that the children of the 
parent State were unanimous in doing everything they could 
to assist the Mother Country when she required it. Whether 
the war was long or short, they must all be ready to under- 
stand that they were not in anything like as bad a position 
as they might be later on, and therefore it was the clear duty 
of the people to husband their resources for many months to 
come. They must realise that the possibility of a short settle- 
ment of the war had practically been wiped away by the new 
agreement 1 that had been entered into by the Allies. He just J [See Dip- 
wished to say also to the Minister to be very careful to see that lomatic, 2, 
the New Zealand Expeditionary Force, when it left the shores pp * 506-7.] 
of this country, was properly convoyed, and stated that he 
could not give any credence to the report that the first Force 
had only boats of the Psyche class for their convoy. He did 
not believe that statement, though it was so reported in the 
newspapers. 

MR. FORBES (Hurunui) asked if the Government intended 
to take into consideration the matter of encouraging the 
breeding of remounts for war purposes. Of late years the 
horse-breeding industry had been going down gradually, and 
the ideal horse was few in numbers as compared with the 
numbers of some years ago. It seemed to him that as far as 
modern warfare was concerned, the horse would enter as 
largely into it as into the warfare at any time during the 
past. 

MR. COAXES (Kaipara) agreed with the honourable member 
for Hurunui. The Government should notice what a dearth 
of horses there was in New Zealand. He went through the 
camp at Auckland certainly before the horses had been 
selected and was surprised to see the poor class of horse 
not the type that was required. There were some mares 
going away that ought not to be allowed to go away, and should 
be detained by the Government, because they were the type 
that was required for breeding. The Boer War taught this 

OVERSEAS 2. Q 24! 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

country a lesson, and they had never overtaken the loss sus- 
tained by sending many of the best mares. 

MR. COLVIN (Buller) asked if the Government had under 
consideration the protection of the coal-ports of Westport and 
Greymouth. It was possible for an enemy to shell Denniston 
from a distance of six miles at sea. He understood that 
military officers considered that Westport could be protected 
by quick-firing guns placed on trucks on Cape Foulwind 
Railway, about Carter's Junction. That, at any rate, would 
give some security to the people. He endorsed what had been 
said by the member for Hurunui and the member for Kaipara 
as to the poor quality of some of the horses that had gone 
from the Dominion with the troopers. The Government 
should encourage the farmers to breed a better class of horses. 

SIR W. C. BUCHANAN (Wairarapa) considered there was 
one point of the highest importance in regard to the urgent 
need of good horses, and that was the rejection by the officers 
of the Defence Department of some of the available horses 
simply because they happened to be somewhat over ten or 
twelve years of age. He did not think there were many men 
in New Zealand who had had much more experience in the 
use of horses than he himself had, and he asserted without 
hesitation that a good many had been rejected on that score 
that ought not to have been rejected. He had made repre- 
sentations on this point to the Minister, and had also inter- 
viewed the Chief Veterinarian, apparently without result. 
Competent judges who had seen a great many of the horses 
had all agreed with what he had stated to the Minister on this 
point, and he therefore hoped when further horses were 
required the point he had mentioned would be given effect to, 
because it would be a great misfortune if we sent away horses 
that were not of the very best we could furnish. 

MR. MYERS (Auckland East) had recently visited the camp 
in Auckland, and, apropos of the question of remounts for the 
Expeditionary Force, he would like to heartily congratulate 
the officer who was responsible for the selection of the horses. 
After inspecting them, he had no hesitation in saying they 
were a very fine lot indeed, and reflected the highest credit 
on the officer in charge of this part of the equipment. He felt 
sure these horses would do yeoman service for the corps that 
was to use them on the other side of the world. 
242 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

MR. BUICK (Palmerston) claimed to have some slight 
knowledge of the horse ; and, having been through the camp 
at Awapuni, and having seen the horses there, he could say 
that a finer class of horse he had never examined, and the 
country might be proud of them. If an old horse, even up to 
twelve or fifteen years of age, was well trained, he would stand 
a great deal of knocking about. It was a mistake to send away 
mares that were capable of breeding the kind of horses that 
this country wanted. Geldings could best be spared. 

The HON. MR. ALLEN said, in regard to the question of the 
convoy, that matter was not in the hands of the military 
authorities, but was a question for the Admiralty. No troops 
had left or would leave New Zealand except on the Admiralty's 
assurance that the convoy was sufficient. Evidence showed 
that the first contingent was sufficiently convoyed. In regard 
to the question of remounts, in the early stages a good many 
gift horses were not up to the required standard, but these 
had been weeded out and sold. The officer commanding 
reported that now they were a serviceable lot, and many were 
better than they looked. The General informed him that all 
the horses were fairly good. He had been astonished to find 
so little difficulty in securing the artillery and draught horses. 
It might be necessary in the future for the Government to 
consider whether it might not be well to encourage the breed- 
ing of horses for artillery and mounted-rifle purposes. In 
regard to Westport, the Government had taken the advice of 
the Overseas Defence Committee, and had carried out their 
instructions. They thought the present provision for the 
defence of Westport was sufficient. 

MR. COLVIN (Buller) said that in some quarters it was con- 
sidered that it would be better if the quick-firing guns were 
put on the rails on the South Spit, and that a branch line of 
railway should run to the terraces from Cape Foulwind Rail- 
way. That would cost very little. He would like to know 
the opinion of the Minister in regard to the guns there. 

The HON. MR. ALLEN said that the guns at Westport were 
most suitable for the purpose, and they were mobile. He 
could assure the honourable member that not only had the 
Overseas Defence Committee advised that Westport was 
amply defended, but his own advisers were also of that 
opinion. 

243 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

MR. COLVIN said it was the opinion of many persons, 
military and others, that the guns should be placed in the 
position he had referred to. It would cost only some 250 
to 350 to construct the branch line of railway he had referred 
to. ' 

The HON. MR. ALLEN replied that an officer had been sent 
down especially to report upon the defence of Westport 
within the last month. 

MR. G. M. THOMSON (Dunedin North) said he desired to 
draw attention to the provision being made on the troopships 
for the sleeping accommodation of the troops. He thought 
that the question of fresh air would become a serious problem, 
as the 'tween decks was filled with close bunks, which it would 
be difficult to ventilate. Had proper medical advice been 
taken on the question ? He doubted if exercise on the deck 
would compensate for the poor ventilation below. 

The HON. MR. ALLEN replied that that question had been 
fully considered, and there was no doubt that no troopships 
had ever gone out from any part of the British dominions so 
well provided for as the troopships now leaving. 

MR. MACDONALD (Bay of Plenty) was glad to hear the 
Minister was inquiring into the advisability of raising the age 
when selecting men for the front. Some of the best men in 
the Dominion were anxious to go, and they were barred by the 
present age-limit. When such men could be obtained it was 
inadvisable to select so many men under the age of twenty 
years. He knew of a case where a man sent his two sons, 
and although he was nearly fifty, he was anxious to go him- 
self ; but he was, of course, barred by the age-limit. This 
went to show the universal patriotism throughout the country. 
In regard to horse-breeding, sufficient attention had not been 
given to this subject during the last ten years, and there was 
marked deterioration, although many of the horses were of 
excellent quality. There was no country in the world more 
suitable for horse-breeding than New Zealand. The country 
was in need of more high-class stud horses suitable for breed- 
ing remounts and horses for military purposes. A veterin- 
arian or other expert should be appointed to select mares of 
the right class. A good sound horse eight or nine years old 
would in many cases be better than a young horse. The 
horses now going away were a very good lot indeed, but 
244 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

another thousand or fifteen hundred would be difficult to 
obtain. He suggested that some reasonable assistance should 
be given to encourage the breeding of reliable troop and 
artillery horses, and that instructions should be issued to 
farmers as to the exact class required. 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) mentioned 
that he had only had the opportunity of seeing, the Addington 
Camp and the horses there. He had also heard some of the 
adverse criticism levelled against the class of horses being 
purchased ; but he would remind honourable members that 
this was the ' off ' season of the year for horses, which were now 
looking their worst. After they had been handled for a few 
weeks, however, they would be very different animals. He had 
bred horses all the time he had been engaged in farming, and 
in his opinion those he saw at the Canterbury Camp were a 
particularly good class, and suitable for the purpose they had 
been purchased for. He had not had the opportunity of 
seeing the other camps, but believed his remarks would apply 
to the horses selected there. He had expected that the 
Government would have had a great deal more difficulty in 
securing the horses they wanted, and he agreed that they 
had to look ahead in this respect, and do more than hitherto 
in respect to breeding horses for remounts and artillery pur- 
poses. There was not the number of suitable horses in the 
country there was before the Boer War ; and they might have 
to institute the system adopted in Britain, where by means of 
what was called ' King's Plates ' the breeding of stud horses 
suitable for remounts and artillery was subsidised by the State. 
There was no country in the world more suitable for the 
breeding of horses than New Zealand, as had been proved by 
the performances of the horses raised in the past. A sugges- 
tion had been made that the profits from the totalisator might 
be applied to the purpose, and it was a good one. It might 
have to be considered in the near future. The Empire would 
come through the present trouble in time, but it would not 
be the last of the kind they would be engaged in. So they had 
to look ahead ; and the nation that was ready would be the 
one that would most likely be victorious. With regard to the 
age of horses, a very serious mistake was sometimes made. 
Some people got the idea that a three-year-old was just the 
horse that was wanted to stand work. It was absolute non- 
245 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

sense. For hard work he would sooner have a twelve-year- 
old, even though it was a screw, than a three-year-old. That 
fact they had to recognise. In his opinion, it would be a huge 
mistake to take three-year-olds for the war. On the trip home 
it must be expected that a proportion of the horses would be 
lost, and it would be found that it would be the younger 
horses that would go. It was the same with the men. Any 
country might be proud of the class of men who were going 
to Europe from New Zealand, but he would like to see the age 
increased. He would like to see more seasoned men going 
than were going at the present time ; and when more were 
sent to keep up the strength of the Expeditionary Force, 
they ought to be careful to see that more seasoned men were 
selected than was the case with the men of the first contingent 
and with the other Force which would go in a few days. He 
was not speaking in any disparagement of the men ; he was 
proud that such a class of men could be produced in New 
Zealand ; but it would be, in his opinion, an advantage if 
there were a larger proportion of seasoned men in the Force 
than they had at present. 

MR. WITTY (Riccarton) said that the age of many of the 
men in the first Expeditionary Force was too young, and it 
was with pleasure he heard that the age was likely to be 
extended. At Christchurch a number of the horses that first 
went into the lines were not fit, but they had been weeded out. 
The fault did not lie in the selection ; horses had been pre- 
sented which were found to be not suitable. He was sure 
every one would be pleased that there was a prospect of 
General Godley coming back to New Zealand. He was the 
right man in the right place ; through his tact and good 
nature he had done a great deal to break down the prejudice 
against military training. He would like to see 3000 or 4000 
voted for rifle-shooting prizes. Last year 1000 was voted, 
and 488 spent. Then this year the grant for shooting 
prizes for Territorials only had been dropped out altogether. 
Last year 800 was voted for the purpose, and only 174 
expended. He suggested that all that was possible should be 
done to encourage our men to make themselves efficient in 
shooting. Complaint was made by the cadets in his district 
that very often they attended drill and found no officer in 
attendance. This was disappointing to the lads ; besides 
246 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

which the officer should attend if only for the sake of example. 
He had forwarded one or two letters to the Minister of Defence, 
with regard to the desirability of holding Territorial drills in 
the evening, but had received no answer. It was annoying 
and disappointing to men to be taken away from their work, 
and find that, after the loss of their time, there was no drill. 
Again, he would like to know what was being done towards 
tree-planting for the proper sheltering of the camping-place 
at the Waimakariri River bed. Then, with regard to the 
supply of rations and forage, he thought that tenders ought 
always to.be invited when the quantity required exceeded 5 
in value. That would give every one a chance to compete ; 
besides which the Department would obtain its supplies more 
cheaply than under present conditions. 

The HON. MR. BUDDO (Kaiapoi) was pleased to note that 
the Prime Minister had expressed pleasure at the serviceable 
quality of the horses provided for the Expeditionary Force. 
They could not, however, ignore the prospect that the next 
contingent would not be so well mounted, because it would be 
necessary to take older horses and less suitable mounts. He 
thought it would be a good thing to revise the Gaming Act, 
and give totalisator permits only to those clubs that cut out 
all the short-distance races, such as half-mile flutters and races 
of such distances that required little but speed to win ; and 
he would be glad to see more permits given to the hunt clubs 
and those other clubs which recognised the importance of a 
serviceable horse. He heartily approved of sending more 
men to the front ; but, in his opinion, the age-limit should be 
raised a little. They all knew that Lord Roberts had borne 
testimony to the fact that the very young man could not keep 
up with the older men on the march to Kabul from Kandahar. 

MR. HARRIS (Waitemata) said he had received many com- 
plaints of the laxity of the Defence Department in the payment 
of accounts for hire of halls, rooms, and so on. When accounts 
were sent in, it seemed that they were absolutely ignored for 
periods of from six to twelve months. He hoped instructions 
would be issued that accounts be paid when due. His remarks 
applied particularly to the Auckland District. 

MR. McCALLUM (Wairau) wished again to congratulate 
General Godley on the excellent manner in which he had con- 
tinued the management of his branch of the Defence Depart- 

247 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

ment, and particularly of the Territorial system which he had 
inaugurated. He had proved himself the right man in the 
right place, and he, amongst others, would deeply regret to 
think he was not to return to the Dominion. It was a matter 
for regret that camps had in the past been held in the winter. 
Much of the illness and inconvenience that arose could be 
prevented by holding the camps at a more favourable season 
of the year. This he hoped would be taken into consideration 
by the General, and that, if possible, camps would be held 
earlier. Provision, he thought, should be made for the widows 
and families of deceased officers. One officer who had done 
good work Sergeant-Major Reid had been stricken down 
while doing his duty, and, he believed, because of his constant 
application to the discharge of his duties. This officer's 
widow and children had now a very small pittance, and he 
would be pleased if the Minister could see his way to put some- 
thing on the estimates for the widow and children of this 
very worthy officer. Reference had been made to the youth- 
fulness of the men who were going to the front, and he thought 
that the age of those who were to serve at the front should be 
raised. In his opinion, the minimum age should be twenty- 
three or twenty-four years. 

MR. MYERS (Auckland East) asked whether, having regard 
to the fact that General Sir Ian Hamilton, Inspector-General 
of the Overseas Forces, had recommended that the training 
of the troops and the administrative and financial departments 
of our defence scheme should be separated, the Minister had 
any intention of carrying out that suggestion. There could be 
little doubt that this would be in the interest of the officers, 
who should be relieved in some instances of the financial 
responsibility now resting- upon them. It would make for the 
increased efficiency of the Force if this recommendation were 
given effect to. 

MR. ATMORE (Nelson) said he believed a separation allow- 
ance was made to the wives of officers who left on active 
service, and he would like to know whether the same provision 
was made in the case of sergeant-majors' wives. If it was 
necessary in one case, it seemed to him that it must be neces- 
sary in the other. 

The HON. MR. ALLEN, in reply to the honourable member 
for Riccarton, said that the votes here with regard to rifle 
248 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

shooting were in addition to the ordinary musketry training, 
which was in another vote. They had on the estimates 
700 more than had been expended last year on rifle shooting. 
This was for the rifle clubs and rifle shooting, the Territorial 
musketry training being in another vote. In regard to certain 
drills taking place, and no officers turning up for them, while 
that had been true in the early days of the training, he did not 
think it was taking place now. He wished to say, however, 
that if any specific cases of this kind were sent to him, he should 
be very glad to inquire into them. The camping-ground in 
Canterbury was being planted. Tenders had been called for 
rations. He did not know whether public tenders hard 
been advertised in all cases, but prices had been asked for. 
He wanted to give the Defence authorities the very highest 
credit for the way in which the camps had been conducted, 
and for the decreased expenditure. He wished to say that if 
the camps in connection with the inspection of Sir Ian Hamilton 
had been conducted under the old plan of the Volunteer 
system, when the men were allowed 2s. per diem per head for 
rations, and is. 6d. per diem for forage, the camps would have 
cost the Dominion 7694 more than they actually did for 
rations, forage, and fuel. They had saved that upon the old 
system. He had a summary showing the decreased cost for 
rations and forage since last year, and that was very largely 
due to the organisation of the Army Service Corps and the 
very great care that had been exercised in regard to the camps. 
The average cost of rations for the year 1913 had been is. 6d. 
per head, and of forage is. 2d. per head. That had been 
reduced this year to is. 4.3d. for rations, and io.3d. for forage 
per head. The cost of these camps had been under the esti- 
mate by over 18,000. He thought they had done extremely 
well in regard to these camps. There were some instances of 
the dilatory paying of accounts. The honourable member for 
Waitemata had alluded to one. That account had been 
brought before him over and over again. But the Depart- 
ment was not altogether to blame ; they could not get an 
answer from the secretary of the hall to certain questions put 
to him, and until they could get a satisfactory answer they 
were not able to deal with the account. With regard to the 
widows of deceased soldiers, if they were on service, they were 
provided for by the Act of 1909, and if they were not on service, 

249 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

they were provided for by the Superannuation Act. He ad- 
mitted, with the honourable gentleman, that the provision 
made for widows both in the Public Service and in the Educa- 
tion service was not as high as it ought to be. Of course, 
these things became heavy charges on the Dominion, and if 
the allowance to widows was to be increased, the expenditure 
would be very considerable. However, the matter would be 
taken into consideration when the question of superannuations 
was before the Cabinet. With regard to General Sir Ian 
Hamilton's report, as far as the reorganisation of the adminis- 
trative department was concerned, the proposed scheme was 
already in existence, and when fully officered with trained 
men, there would be even more saving than had already been 
effected. 

September 16, 1914. 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 
THE WAR : MAORI CONTINGENT 

New MR. COATES (Kaipara) said he had received a letter from a 

Zealand Native friend of his, asking whether the Government intended 
Hansard. ^ o ma k e use o f an y Native volunteers for expeditionary pur- 
poses. The writer represented about sixty members of a 
squadron of which he (Mr. Coates) at one time had command. 
He would like to know whether the Minister was prepared 
to make a statement as to whether their services would be 
accepted. Personally, he hoped their services would be 
availed of. 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSE Y (Prime Minister), in reply, 
stated that the matter had been before the Government for 
some few days. They had communicated, through His 
Excellency the Governor, with the Imperial Government, 
offering the services of a number of Natives for service at the 
front or elsewhere, as the authorities might determine. The 
reply received was to the effect that the Imperial Government 
was willing to accept the services of two hundred Natives for 
service in Egypt. That, however, was followed by another 
suggestion from the New Zealand Government to the Imperial 
Government, which he could not refer to at the present moment. 
The arrangements were now in the hands of the Minister of 
250 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

Defence, and he had no doubt but that presently the Natives 
would be asked for volunteers for the purpose of the required 
contingent for Egypt. 

The HON. MR. NGATA (Eastern Maori District) said he 
wished to ask a further question in reference to the matter 
brought up by the honourable member for Kaipara. He 
wanted to ask the Prime Minister whether the Government 
would take any step to allot a quota of the Native force to 
be despatched to Egypt to each of the Maori districts, so as 
to make the force as representative a one as possible. He had 
mentioned the matter to one or two Native representatives 
in the House, and he thought it was the general desire that 
the force should be a representative one. 

The RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY (Prime Minister) said this 
matter had been under the consideration of the Government, 
and they intended to make the force as representative as 
possible. The position at the present time was that the 
matter had been referred to a sub-committee of Cabinet, con- 
sisting of the Minister of Defence and the Hon. Dr. Pomare, 
as representing the Native race. He was anxious that the force 
should go, and that it should be as representative as possible, 
because he was quite certain it would lead to much bigger 
things in the perhaps not distant future. He was equally 
confident that the natives would do us credit wherever the 
Imperial Government chose to send them. He had already 
intimated that he had made another suggestion to the Imperial 
Government, about which he might have something to say 
within the next few days. 

SUMMER CLOTHING FOR SAMOAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

MR. ESCOTT (Pahiatua) asked the Minister of Defence if 
any provision had been made to provide the Expeditionary 
Force who remained at Samoa with summer clothing. As 
honourable members knew, the climate of Samoa was warm 
and dry, and even if the provision was made to supply summer 
clothing, the troops would find it very trying, so it would be 
very unwise to keep them clothed in winter khaki. 

The HON. MR. ALLEN (Minister of Defence) said : Yes, 
provision had been made, and the clothes would go away by 
boat this week. 

251 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

. September 17, 1914. 
THE WAR : EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

THE RIGHT HON. MR. MASSEY : . . . The Government 
have found it necessary, acting along with the Australian 
Government, to ask the newspapers of this country to refrain 
from reporting anything with regard to the proposed move- 
ment of the Expeditionary Force, or matters connected there- 
with. Honourable members will understand that I cannot 
possibly go into details regarding this question ; it is not 
possible to do so ; and I do not think I should be asked to do 
so. What I am doing now is this I have reason to believe 
that the editors of newspapers will loyally comply with the 
request that is made by the Government, and which is sup- 
ported by the naval authorities and the General Officer Com- 
manding the Expeditionary Force I want to ask members 
of the House to also comply with the request I have made to 
newspapers just in the same way as has been made to them ; 
and I believe it will be respected by them. I know that 
honourable members will not ask me to go further than that. 
If there were no reason for making the request, it would not 
have been made by the Australian Government any more than 
now it is being made here by the New Zealand Government. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Opposi- 
tion) : I want to treat upon one or two points referred to by 
the right honourable gentleman. I agree with him as to not 
only the expediency, but the necessity for regarding every- 
thing in connection with the movements of the Expeditionary 
Force as quite confidential. I think that will be accepted 
generally by people all over the country, and that the Press 
will cheerfully conform with the request made by the Prime 
Minister. ... 

September 23, 1914. 
ADJOURNMENT : DEPARTURE OF EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD (Leader of the Opposi- 
tion) said there was a rumour current in the lobbies that it 
was proposed at the close of to-day's business to adjourn until 
Tuesday next, and he thought if that course was contemplated, 
members were entitled to know of it. He wished to ask the 
acting Leader of the House if that was intended. 
252 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

The HON. MR. ALLEN (Minister of Defence) said: Yes. 
As the right honourable gentleman knew, to-morrow after- 
noon there was to be an official send-off to the Wellington 
contingent of the Expeditionary Force at Newtown Park at 
half-past two o'clock. That did not mean that the troops 
were going to sail to-morrow or the next day, and it would be 
obviously wrong for him to say when they were going to sail, 
in view of the fact that they did not want the date of sailing 
to be known until the troops had departed. He did not 
think it was desirable in the circumstances that the House 
should sit on Friday, and therefore it was proposed to adjourn 
from this evening until half-past two o'clock on Tuesday. 

The RIGHT HON. SIR J. G. WARD asked if there was any 
reason why the House should not meet on Friday. 

The HON. MR. ALLEN thought it would be better for the 
right honourable gentleman not to press for the reason.- 

September 30, 1914. 
LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL 

LORD ROBERTS 

The HON. MR. BELL (Minister of Internal Affairs) : New 
I desire to move, without notice, a motion relating to Lord Zealand 
Roberts, who is Colonel-in-Chief of His Majesty's Forces from 
the Dominion, and whose birthday, I am informed by the Hon. 
Colonel Baillie, is to-day. I propose, with the leave of the 
Council, to move, ' That the Legislative Council of New 
Zealand, on the occasion of the eighty-second anniversary 
of the birth of Earl Roberts, Colonel-in-Chief of the Forces 
of His Majesty's Possessions beyond the Seas, desires to 
recognise the splendid service which His Lordship has rendered 
to the Empire in the past, and to express its hope that he may 
be spared for many years to come to command the New 
Zealand soldiers, who are proud to have the privilege of 
serving under him/ My honourable friend asks me to say a 
word or two in moving it. I have tried to express in the 
motion I have proposed to the Council what I felt was the 
sentiment of my fellow-members here. I did not intend to 
add a word to the motion, but I may be allowed to say that 
the recent experience of the Empire has shown how wise has 

253 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

been the advice Lord Roberts offered recently to us all, and 
I am sure that is more in our minds to-day than even the 
memory of the great services which began when he was a 
subaltern at Delhi, where he won the Victoria Cross, and ended 
in the active command of our Forces in South Africa. We 
cannot but all of us know in our own inmost minds all 
Englishmen how right he had proved himself to be, and 
how valued his services in the command with which we are all 
honoured will be. 

The HON. COLONEL BAILLIE : I rise to second the resolu- 
tion of my honourable friend. He has expressed in a very few 
words the honour which we feel in the passing of this resolu- 
tion. Lord Roberts' name has been a household word with 
the Army and the nation for more than half a century ever 
since 1857, at all events, when Delhi was besieged, and he took 
a part in that siege. His first appearance, I think, was as 
aide-de-camp to his father, Sir Abraham Roberts, under 
whom I served in the Punjab in 1850 and 1851. I was 
Adjutant of my regiment, the 24th, and his father inspected 
that regiment. I do not think Lord Roberts was with his 
father on that occasion, although he was his aide-de-camp 
about that time, because in 1851 Lord Roberts was a young 
man of about nineteen. He entered the service as a subal- 
tern in the Bengal Artillery, having been educated at Addis- 
combe, which was at that time the military school and depot 
of the East India Company's service. He has been constantly 
before us for many years, especially in the South African 
campaign, where many of our officers served under him 
Colonel Chaytor, Colonel Newall, and many other gentlemen 
who distinguished themselves in the contingents that went 
from this Dominion. Lord Roberts foreshadowed all that 
has taken place since the ist August. He reminded the 
British public that we should be prepared. He said from time 
to time, ' You do not know when an emergency will come, when 
you will want a second line of defence/ Of course, the first 
line of defence is the Navy, and the second the Imperial Army ; 
but there are the Territorials. He pointed out in connection 
with the training of these that three months was not sufficient 
to make a soldier. It took three years in my day to make a 
soldier, and then he had much to learn. At the present day, 
when the art of war is so fully studied, and we have long-range 
254 



PROCEEDINGS IN NEW ZEALAND PARLIAMENT 

guns and rifles, it is almost impossible to approach within a 
couple of thousand yards of the enemy without being killed, 
whereas in my day at a thousand yards you would advance 
on the enemy with the bayonet and settle the question at 
once. The reports of General Godley and Sir Ian Hamilton 
regarding our men are very satisfactory, but unless they are 
well trained in the use of the bayonet, and above all in the use 
of the rifle, and are expert shots, they are only a drag upon the 
hands of the General in command : when he wants them they 
are not efficient . I was out at Trentham this year at the 
shooting, and saw some of my old comrades who had been 
present with me at almost every camping-ground in New 
Zealand for shooting, and Colonel Collins lamented the very 
small number of Territorials who were present. I do not know 
that I need say more. Lord Roberts is, I believe, in very good 
health. I had a message from him the other day by a gentle- 
man who had seen him, and in the newspapers of, I think, the 
7th August, he was reported as being present with Mr. Asquith, 
Lord Kitchener, Lord Haldane, and General French. It 
shows what faith the Government have in his advice when 
he brings his counsel to their assistance. I beg to second the 
resolution. 

Motion agreed to. 



255 



OTHER SPEECHES, STATEMENTS, AND 
PUBLIC NOTICES 

July 28, 1914. 

PRIME MINISTER AT THE AGRICULTURAL 
CONFERENCE 

Wellington. 

Passing reference to the situation in the Near East was 
made by the Prime Minister in the opening Agricultural 
Conference to-day. After referring in general terms to the 
bright prospects ahead of New Zealand, Mr. Massey said that 
as far as he was able to judge, there was only one trouble, 
and it might prove to be a very serious one. He referred to 
the war cloud that threatened in the Northern hemisphere. 

When the war started, there was no telling where it would 
stop. If the great Empire to which we belonged happened to 
become involved, he was quite sure the different parts of the 
Empire would stand together as they had done in past years. 

July 30, 1914. 
CROATIAN RESERVISTS AT NEW PLYMOUTH 

A meeting of Croatians this afternoon passed a resolution 
condemning the action of the Austrian Consul in summoning 
Croatian reservists to be ready to defend Austria. They 
claim that they are not Austrian subjects by free will, but 
at the point of the bayonet x and declare they are now subject 
to the Union Jack, under which they can get justice and 
freedom. 

August 3, 1914. 
MAORIS' OFFER OF SERVICES 

The following telegram was received by the Prime Minister 
this evening from leading members of the Arawa tribe at 
Rotorua : ' We of the Arawas, as our forefathers before us, 
256 



NEW ZEALAND OTHER SPEECHES, ETC. 

offer our services to our King and Country in whatever cause 
and whenever you see fit to call us. Our fervent prayer is, 
God save the King/ 

August 4, 1914. 

SPEECH OF PRIME MINISTER AT WELLINGTON 

There were patriotic demonstrations in the streets to-night. New 
Crowds gathered about the newspaper offices, where the latest 
bulletins were displayed and cheered loudly. They sang 
' Rule Britannia/ the National Anthem, and other patriotic 
songs. 

Mr. Massey made a short speech, which was freely inter- 
spersed with ringing cheers. After thanking the young men 
for coming to Parliament House, Mr. Massey reminded them 
that this was not a time for talking, but for acting. (A Voice : 
' We 're there/) ' Yes, I know, and New Zealand will be there/ 
He went on to say that so far there had been no official state- 
ment that there had been a declaration of war, or that a state 
of war existed as between Britain and Germany. ' I need 
only say, however/ he continued, ' that I do not think that 
you will have long to wait before there is a declaration of war. 
I am only expressing my personal opinion. I am not speaking 
officially/ Continuing, Mr. Massey said : ' If war is declared, 
I have no doubt as to the result. I do not want to indulge in 
jingoism, but I have absolute confidence in the Empire to 
which we belong. So far as New Zealand is concerned, it may 
be my duty, as head of the Government, within the next few 
days, to ask New Zealanders to do their duty, not only in 
protecting our own Dominion, but also in protecting the Empire 
as a whole. I am sure that if New Zealanders are asked to go 
to assist the Empire, they will go, and that they will not ask 
any questions. When it is all over, I am certain that the 
Union Jack will still be on top/ 

The spokesman of the deputation then thanked Mr. Massey 
for his speech, and said that, as this was a non-political matter 
and a national affair, they would respectfully beg that the 
Leader of the Opposition should address them also. 

Mr. Massey, after making an inquiry, and ascertaining 
that Sir Joseph Ward was not in the building, said : ' I am 
sorry that Sir Joseph Ward is not here, but that is not his fault. 
You must take the will for the deed. So far as the present 

OVERSEAS 2. R 257 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



New 
Zealand 
Herald, 
August 6, 
1914. 



crisis is concerned, there is no party. We are all Imperialists. 
We are one. Sir Joseph Ward, I may tell you, is standing 
shoulder to shoulder with the Government in the present 
crisis, in the interests of the Empire/ 

Loud cheers were given for Sir Joseph Ward, followed by 
the singing of ' Rule Britannia/ 

Having heard Mr. Massey, the crowd went along to Sir 
Joseph Ward's hotel, and cheered and shouted and sang until 
he appeared on a balcony. Sir Joseph delivered a brief 
patriotic speech, to the accompaniment of cheers. When he 
bade them good-night, they cheered again and again, and 
sang ' God save the King/ afterwards moving off to the tune 
of patriotic songs. 

August 5, 1914. 
ANNOUNCEMENT OF WAR 

' War has broken out with Germany/ was the text of a 
cablegram from Mr. Lewis Harcourt, Secretary of State for 
the Colonies, which was read by His Excellency the Governor, 
the Earl of Liverpool, to a large crowd assembled at Parlia- 
ment House this afternoon. His Excellency was attended by 
the Prime Minister and the members of his Cabinet. Prior 
to the reading of the announcement of the war, His Excellency 
stated that he had received the following message from His 
Majesty the King : 

' I desire to express to my people of the Oversea Dominions- 
with what appreciation and pride I have received the messages 
from their respective Governments during the last few days. 
These spontaneous assurances of their support recall to me the 
generous sacrifice and help given by them in the past to the 
Mother Country. I shall be strengthened in the discharge 
of the great responsibilities which rest upon me by the con- 
fident belief that in this time of trial my Empire will stand 
united, calm, resolute, trusting in God. 

1 (Signed) GEORGE R.I/ . 

To this His Excellency stated he had sent the following 
reply : ' New Zealand desires me to acknowledge your Majesty's 
gracious message, and to say that, come good or ill, she, in 
company with the Dominions and other dependencies of the 
258 



NEW ZEALAND OTHER SPEECHES, ETC. 

Crown, is prepared to make any sacrifice to maintain her 
heritage and her birthright. 

' (Signed) LIVERPOOL, Governor. 9 

SPEECHES OF PRIME MINISTER AND LEADER OF 
OPPOSITION AT PARLIAMENT HOUSE 

The crowd was addressed by the Prime Minister, the RIGHT New 
HON. W. F. MASSEY, who said : ' After the very startling Zealand 
announcement which has been made by His Excellency, H erald > 
I trust that we are all of the one way of thinking, that the 
British people and the Empire are to-day face to. face with 
the most serious crisis ever experienced in the history of the 
Empire. We are confident, however, that we shall come through 
successfully. We must take notice of the very earnest advice 
contained in the last announcement of the message from His 
Majesty the King. We must stand together, calm, united, 
resolute, trusting in God ; and I am glad to say that not only 
in New Zealand does this feeling of confidence exist, but it 
obtains throughout every part of the Empire. The whole 
British people are able to-day to present a united front to our 
enemies/ 

'We have done our duty on every occasion in the past 
when the Empire required assistance, and we will do our duty 
on the present occasion in a whole-hearted manner. That we 
will be called upon to make sacrifices goes without saying, 
but I am confident that those sacrifices will be made, individu- 
ally and collectively, willingly and in a manner in accord with 
the highest traditions of our race and the Empire to which 
we belong. We must do everything possible to protect our 
country, and at the same time to assist the Empire. We have 
done all that mortal man can do, the rest must be left to the 
Higher Power, " Him who watches over Israel and slumbers 
not nor sleeps/' My advice at this most trying moment is to 
keep cool, stand fast, do your duty to New Zealand and the 
Empire/ 

' We will do that/ replied many voices in the crowd. 
' I am sure you will/ answered the Prime Minister earnestly. 

SIR JOSEPH WARD : ' I want to say I believe firmly that 
out of evil good will arise. Every one recognises the horrors 
of war, but the time arrives in the affairs of nations, as of 

259 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

individuals, when they must fight in defence of their honour 
and for their existence, when the blessings of peace have to be 
foregone, and all grief that sacrifice of human life entails has 
to be borne with fortitude and resignation. The loss of 
treasure will be stupendous, but that is a secondary considera- 
tion. The British Empire is entering upon the greatest crisis 
in her history. Her rulers have done nothing to provoke or 
precipitate the war ; on the contrary, they have done all that 
is humanly possible to avert it. It was impossible, in my 
opinion, for Great Britain to stand aside and to let powerful 
friendly nations go on without her taking part. To have done 
so would have been an act of cowardice, a thing unknown to 
Britishers. People in all parts of the Empire, at this grave 
juncture, will stand united, with undoubted courage and in- 
flexible determination. They will leave nothing undone to 
defeat the enemy, which I earnestly pray, under the guidance 
of Divine Providence may soon be brought about, 'and that the 
outcome of the unprecedented struggle may ensure lasting 
peace throughout centuries to come/ 

' My motto is " For King and Country/' and it will be 
fervently breathed by loyal people of this Dominion, as it 
will be throughout our widely scattered Empire. May God 
bless and protect the British forces on land and sea, and make 
them victorious, is my earnest prayer/ 



New 
Zealand 
Herald, 
August 6, 
1914. 



SPEECHES OF MAYOR OF AUCKLAND 

' The bolt has fallen/ remarked the Mayor of Auckland 
yesterday, when the news of Great Britain's declaration was 
announced. ' There must be no panic, because there is no 
necessity for alarm. In my humble view it is a good thing 
that the war has come. The German menace has been almost 
a nightmare to the British people, and this is the most favour- 
able opportunity that our nation could have found to smash 
the German Fleet, and ensure Britannic peace for the next 
quarter of a century. 

' That we are all going to suffer loss is evident. We must 
make up our minds to that. On the other hand, if Britain 
comes out victorious, as we all pray that she may, the result 
will be such a tremendous increase of business and trade for 
producing countries like New Zealand that we shall soon 
260 



NEW ZEALAND OTHER SPEECHES, ETC. 

recoup our losses. For the present we must be content to 
lose some of our capital. . . . 

' We must all make some sacrifice, but there is the satis- 
faction of knowing that if Great Britain comes out on top, 
there will be ample work and employment for everybody/ 

August 6, 1914. 

There was an enthusiastic scene at the meeting of the City New 
Council last evening, culminating in the singing of the National Zealand 
Anthem and ' Rule Britannia/ and enthusiastic cheering for Herald, 
the King. 

When the Council assembled, the Mayor, Mr. C. J. Parr, 
C.M.G., made reference to the European crisis. ' Since the 
Council met a fortnight ago/ said the Mayor, 'the greatest 
war known to the world has broken out. Little we thought 
two weeks ago that the whole civilised world would be plunged 
into the most fearful struggle known to man, and that the 
British Empire would be drawn into the struggle. One 
satisfactory feature is that every part of the Empire stands 
absolutely solid. 

' Our nation has a great history/ continued the Mayor. 
' We have inherited great traditions from the lives and 
examples of the Empire's great men. We all pray that we 
may live up to those traditions of the past, that we still will 
not be craven-hearted, but will do our duty faithfully and 
steadfastly, as did Nelson one hundred years ago, and also 
men before him. If we go into the struggle in that spirit, 
there will only be one result, and that will be to establish our 
Empire for the next fifty years in permanent peace. I feel 
it will come well from us, as representing the City of Auckland, 
to express our feelings and those of the citizens in regard to 
the present crisis/ 

The Mayor then moved the following resolution : ' The 
City Council of Auckland begs leave to give an assurance to 
His Excellency the Governor and the Government of the 
earnest loyalty to the Crown and Empire of the citizens of 
Auckland, who are resolved to aid our Government in every 
possible manner in the great world crisis that has arisen/ 

Mr. John Court, Deputy-Mayor, in seconding the motion, 
said it behoved the city to offer its earnest support, not only 

261 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

to the Government, but also to the whole of the British 
Empire. 

The motion was carried amidst applause. 

The Mayor then called upon those present to sing the 
National Anthem. The Anthem was sung with great enthusi- 
asm. Then followed the stirring strains of ' Rule Britannia/ 
and enthusiastic cheers were given for the King. 

September 18, 1914. 
CONFERENCE OF MAORIS 

A representative conference of the Ngatiwhatua, Te 
Uriohau, Terarowa, Aupouri, and Ngapuhi tribes was held 
in Auckland in connection with raising money for the patriotic 
funds and other phases of the European crisis. 

It was decided to make an immediate canvass amongst 
the members of the respective tribes for the purpose of aug- 
menting the patriotic funds, and that all money collected 
should be forwarded through the committee in charge of the 
Tiriti-o-Waitangi executive to the proper quarter. 

It was also resolved that a petition be prepared for pre- 
sentation to the Minister of Defence, the Hon. James Allen, 
placing their views before him in connection with military 
matters, and asking that they be placed on an equal footing 
with their pakeha brethren. The Natives are prepared and 
anxious to receive instruction to enable them to qualify 
themselves for service at home or abroad. This petition 
is now in course of preparation, and will be forwarded to the 
Minister at an early date. 



262 



DESPATCH OF NEW ZEALAND 
EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

July 31, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF COMMANDANT OF THE FORCES 

The Commandant of the Forces, General Sir Alexander New 
Godley, issued a statement to-night to the effect that there is Zealand 
no present intention to call for volunteers for a possible ex- Herald, 
peditionary force, but in the event of these being required later, ^^ If 
it is understood that volunteers will be taken only from those 
now serving in the territorial force and its reserves. 

All applications from volunteers would be dealt with 
locally, and would have to be made by those wishing to volun- 
teer through their squadron, battery, and company officers to 
the regimental commanders, who would forward them on to 
district headquarters. No applications would be dealt with 
at the Minister's office, or at the headquarters of the depart- 
ment in Wellington. Applications should not be made until 
further notice. They will be called for later should they be 
required. 

August 5, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

The Minister of Defence, the Hon. James Allen, made a New 
brief statement this evening on the subject of military measures Zealand 
now in train. ' We are not going to mobilise the whole of the Herald, 
territorial force/ he said, ' although we should be justified in s 
doing so, as war is declared, but I do not think that it is neces- 
sary at present. We are going to mobilise a certain number 
who would be prepared to go outside if we wanted them to. 
They will be mobilised in the four districts/ The Minister 
added that approximately 8000 men would be called out. 
They would be assembled at once at a suitable spot in each 
military district, and training would proceed all the time. In 

263 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

the event of an expeditionary force being organised, if the 
Territorials offering were not sufficient, members of the 
reserve, and men who had seen service before, would be called 
upon. ' Very likely/ remarked Mr. Allen, ' we may want 
some of those who have seen service before, but we must give 
our Territorials their chance. As far as human foresight can 
judge, we are making every preparation. I am at work now 
upon the cost of the whole thing, and I hope that if we have 
to send any troops away, the whole thing will be thoroughly 
and completely organised in every detail/ 

As to the nature of the projected force, the Minister said 
that it would be of mixed composition, but he declined to go 
into details. 



New 
Zealand 
Herald, 
August 6, 
1914. 



STATEMENT BY COMMANDANT OF FORCES 

Interviewed to-night, General Sir Alexander Godley, 
General Officer Commanding the New Zealand Forces, stated 
what steps ^were being taken to defend the Dominion in the 
event of a "German raid. f The full strength of the Garrison 
Artillery/ he said, ' has been called out and mobilised. The 
men are now in the forts. Volunteers from the coast defence 
infantry are being called out to protect vulnerable points. 
The proportion of Territorial forces which the Government 
considers necessary for defensive purposes at this juncture 
has been called out as a volunteer force/ 

Referring to the force that is being called for, he said that 
men would be accepted only on the understanding that they 
volunteered for service abroad, and will be prepared to be 
utilised for that purpose should their services be required later 
on. Men must volunteer "for the arm of the service to which 
they now belong, or have belonged. 

' All candidates must be recommended by the officer 
commanding the Territorial Force. They should apply to 
their squadron battery, or company commanding officer. 
If they are not serving in the Territorial Force, they should 
apply to the local Defence Office, or to the nearest Territorial 
commanding officer. Other offers of assistance should be 
communicated direct to the officer commanding the district. 

' The question of horses/ continued the General, ' is one 
in which some difficulty was experienced in connection with 
264 



NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

the contingents sent to the South African War. Some were 
privately owned, and complications thus ensued. At the 
present stage of the partial mobilisation which has been 
ordered, men will bring their own horses, which will remain 
their property, but if there is at any time any question of these 
volunteers now being mobilised leaving New Zealand, it must 
be understood every horse used, in the event of horses going 
abroad, will be the absolute property of the Government, to be 
used as the Government chooses. The Government will be 
very glad to receive gifts of horses for the service of those who 
might leave New Zealand. Horses not presented will be paid 
for by the Government. Numerous inquiries have been made 
as to the direction in which help and assistance to the Govern- 
ment can best be given in the event of a New Zealand force 
going abroad. The following gifts will be most suitable : 
Riding, half-draught, or three-quarter draught horses, motor- 
bicycles, ordinary bicycles, motor-cars, saddlery, draught 
harness, grooming kits, blankets, stout serviceable boots of 
regulation pattern, strong leather braces and belts, canvas 
shoes, underclothing, socks, flannel shirts, Cardigan vests, 
towels, handkerchiefs, hold-alls, shaving outfits, bootlaces, 
hair brushes and combs, soap, clasp knives with lanyards, and 
field glasses/ 

August 6, 1914. 

STATEMENTS OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE AND 
COMMANDANT OF FORCES 

The arrangements for the organisation and despatch of the New 
proposed Expeditionary Force are stated by the Minister of Zealand 
Defence, the Hon. James Allen, to be in a very forward state. 
' We are in an extremely good position in regard to equipment/ 
he said to-day. ' There are only a few things that were 
lacking prior to the outbreak of war. These include the small 
arms ammunition carts, which have been ordered, and are 
now being constructed. This is not a large expenditure, 
and it would have to be met in any case/ 

The constitution of the force was explained by General 
Sir A. J. Godley, Commandant of the Defence Forces, in a 
statement to-day. ' At each of the four district headquarters/ 
said General Godley, ' a regiment of mounted rifles and a 

265 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

battalion of infantry are being mobilised. In each case the 
existing regiment of mounted rifles and infantry will each 
furnish a complete squadron. 

' It must be understood/ said the General, ' that the 
system now adopted is entirely based on the existing regi- 
mental peace organisation, and is on an entirely different 
footing from that which was adopted for the contingents which 
were despatched at the time of the South African War. 
Volunteers now will be taken primarily from those serving in 
the ranks of the Territorial Forces, or from those who have 
served in the Territorial Forces, and subsequently from others 
not in the Territorial Force, who have previous military 
experience, and are between the ages of 20 and 35 years. 

' In no case, whether the volunteer belongs to the Terri- 
torial Forces or not, will any one be taken under the age of 
20 years. Those under the age of 20 years now serving in the 
Territorial Forces are not eligible. All volunteers who do 
not belong to the Territorial Forces will be enlisted into an 
existing peace unit of the Territorial Forces, and will join the 
squadron or the company, as the case may be, which is fur- 
nished from the existing peace regiment. The squadrons and 
companies furnished in this way will wear the badges and 
numbers of the existing peace regiments. 

' The selection, enrolment, medical examination, and 
attestation of all volunteers should be done locally at regi- 
mental headquarters. As the essence of the system is that 
the enrolment shall be decentralised, and that each regiment 
supplies its quota either from its own ranks, or as regards 
other categories by special enlistments from its own geo- 
graphical area, the regiment is responsible for the selection. 
Group officers should assist regimental officers and adjutants 
in this geographical selection. There should be primarily 
a partial regimental mobilisation at regimental headquarters 
of the quota of men furnished by each regiment, and these will 
be drafted in batches to the district concentration centres. 
Regimental authorities should not be in too great a hurry to 
fill up from the first men offering, as good men from the back 
blocks may take time to arrive. All records of all these 
volunteers will be kept by the existing group officers/ 

The General stated that mobilisation has commenced. 
The names have now been called for. These men are being 
266 



NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

called out primarily as a partial mobilisation of the forces 
for the defence of the country, but no man will be taken except 
on the understanding that he is willing, and definitely volun- 
teers to serve abroad. That should be plainly understood. 
Each mounted squadron will comprise 150 men, and each 
company of infantry 350 men/ 

Each of the four military districts Auckland, Wellington, 
Canterbury, and Otago is to supply one regiment of mounted 
rifles and one battalion of infantry, each mounted regiment 
comprising three squadrons, and each infantry regiment four 
companies. Each district will be called upon to supply 
450 mounted men and 1000 infantry, or 1450 men under these 
two arms of the service. These quotas in mounted rifles and 
infantry will bring the strength of the Expeditionary Force 
up to 5800. 

It was announced in the House that the total force would 
probably comprise 7000 or 8000 men. This accordingly will 
leave the balance to be made up in the supply of the battery, 
medical, and ambulance services, and of . an army service 
corps. 

August 10, 1914. 

STATEMENT OF COMMANDANT OF FORCES 

The following official statement was made to-day by New 
General Sir Alexander Godley, Officer Commanding the New Zealand 
Zealand Defence Forces, in regard to a statement that has Herald, 
been made to the effect that an undue proportion of Imperial 1 l1 ' 

officers are being sent with the Expeditionary Force, and that 
New Zealand officers who have undoubted claims are being 
excluded from appointments. 

' There are 13 Imperial officers going with the Expedi- 
tionary Force, including myself, if I am allowed to go, and my 
personal aide-de-camp, who is a New Zealander, and who is 
unpaid. Of the remaining eleven, two are New Zealanders. 
Against this, the services of all New Zealand officers now at 
home have been asked for by the War Office, and have been 
placed at the disposal of the Home Government by the New 
Zealand Government. They are : General Da vies, Colonel 
Smyth, Major Richardson, Major Gardiner, Captain Chesney, 
Captain Smythe, Captain Melville, and Lieutenants Davies, 
Turner, and Burns a total of ten/ 

267 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

August 14, 1914. 

DEPARTURE OF ADVANCE GUARD ; SPEECHES OF 
GOVERNOR AND PRIME MINISTER 

Nw A cablegram was received by His Excellency the Governor 

z * ala nd> this afternoon, which made it necessary that the departure 

August I*} ^ ^ e advance guard of New Zealand's Expeditionary Force 

1914. ' should not be delayed. It was at once arranged that an 

official farewell should take place. Addressing the force 

drawn up before him, the Governor said : 

1 Officers, Non-commissioned Officers, and Men of the 
Expeditionary Force : It is very little over an hour and a 
half since I received a telegram, saying that you have got to 
leave the shores of New Zealand as soon as possible. We have 
received orders from home that the enterprise on which you 
are going is one of great and urgent and Imperial necessity, 
and I am not going to make a long speech to you. But we 
felt we could not let you go from the shores of New Zealand 
without wishing you God-speed. We know that the honour 
of the Empire and its Dominion will be upheld by every single 
man in this force. We know that you, in common with every 
one of our fellow-subjects, are determined to do their best to 
show that there is only one Empire one great Empire in 
this war, and that we are not going to be trodden on or dic- 
tated to by some one else who wants to set up such a supremacy 
as would make it absolutely impossible for any other nation 
in the world to exist. Leave-takings are always unpleasant. 
I have gone through them myself. I am not going to bid you 
good-bye, but wish you au revoir, and a speedy and successful 
issue to your expedition. We shall look forward with the 
greatest interest to all your doings. We shall watch over them. 
In conclusion, I have nothing better to say than " God bless 
you all." 

In the course of a stirring speech, the Prime Minister said 
that the men would be the first to leave the shores of an 
Overseas Dominion to come to the assistance of the Mother 
Country in her hour of need. 



268 



NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

August 17, 1914. 
STATEMENT OF COMMANDANT OF FORCES 

General Sir Alexander Godley, who arrived in Auckland New 
yesterday afternoon, stated that he was well pleased with the Zealand 
type of volunteer in the advance guard of the Expeditionary 
Force. Some, he said, might have been on the young side, 
but these were the exception rather than the rule. The greatest 
care, he added, was being exercised in preventing any one from 
obtaining a position in the force by means of a false declaration 
of age. 

The composition of the Expeditionary Force, General 
Godley pointed out, did not seem to be generally understood. 
Each mounted rifle or infantry regiment of the Territorial 
Force furnished one squadron or company. The squadrons 
from the 3rd Auckland, 4th Waikato, and nth North Auckland 
Mounted Rifles, together constitute the Auckland Mounted 
Rifles Regiment. In the same way the companies from the 
3rd Auckland, 6th Hauraki, I5th North Auckland, and i6th 
Waikato Regiments form the Auckland Infantry Regiment. 
The same system applies to the forces from the other military 
centres. ' The great merit of this organisation/ continued the 
General, ' is that each Territorial regiment will be represented 
at the front by about a quarter of its men, these men being 
the pick of the regiment/ 

General Godley statad emphatically that the departure 
of the Expeditionary Force will not leave New Zealand inade- 
quately protected. There would, he said, be over 20,000 
Territorials left in the country, organised as they were before 
the departure of the Expeditionary Force. This force of 
8000 men equals about a quarter of the present Territorial 
Force, but their places would be filled by men from the general 
training section, and by volunteers and reserves. ' I shall 
have far more chance of seeing some fighting by going away 
than by stopping in New Zealand/ he added. 

In conclusion, General Godley said that he was sorry to 
think that this would be his last visit to Auckland for some 
time perhaps. * I have always received much kindness at 
the hands of the people of Auckland, and I hope to come back 
again to see them. In the meantime, you may be sure that 

269 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

I will look after the Auckland boys, who, I know, will give a 
good account of themselves/ 



New 
Zealand 
Herald, 
August 18, 
1914. 



New 
Zealand 
Herald, 
August 20, 
1914. 



STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

'I would like/ said the Minister of Defence to-day, 'to 
express my appreciation of the manner in which the advance 
guard of the Expeditionary Force was mobilised and sent 
away. As a matter of fact, they were mobilised some days 
before they were able to go, but that was not our fault. We 
had them ready, and in an exceptionally short time. It is 
undoubtedly to the credit of the Defence Department that 
the force was so quickly mobilised, and it is a full exposition 
of the perfection of the defence scheme that we had the men 
ready to go at such short notice. 

' It is also to the credit of the women of New Zealand that 
they provided the troops with so many luxuries and neces- 
saries. They worked day and night to achieve that end, and 
they are to be highly congratulated. I consider that the 
whole operation is a full justification of our system of terri- 
torial defence. 

August 19, 1914. 

STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

A general statement regarding the carrying on of the 
defence scheme, while the Expeditionary Force is abroad, 
was made to-day by the Hon. James Allen, Minister of 
Defence. 

' I do not think it will be necessary to call out any more 
Territorials/ said Mr. Allen. ' Indeed, I hope we shall be 
able to allow some of those already mobilised to go back to 
their homes and to their work. It all depends on circumstances, 
but I should like to let as many as possible go as soon as I can. 
The ordinary work of the defence scheme will be carried on as 
usual, for a sufficient staff of officers will remain here for that 
purpose. Officers commanding districts will be appointed to 
replace those going away. 

' All the country wants to be trained now, but I cannot 
afford to do it. It is very patriotic for so many to offer their 
services, and I value their action very highly. The rifle club 
270 



NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

men have acted exactly as I expected they would act. I knew 
that when we wanted them, they would come forward. 

' I do not know that there will be any training at home for 
our Expeditionary Force/ added the Minister. ' I have not 
any official communication on the subject, and, as far as we 
know, they are going to the front/ 

August 24, 1914. 

ADDRESS TO COMMANDANT OF FORCES 
AT PALMERSTON CAMP 

The Expeditionary Force was inspected at the camp to- New 
day by General Sir Alexander Godley, in the presence of a large 



number of people. The General, addressing the troops, said : August 
1 1 wish to tell you how very satisfied I am with the inspection. I9I4> 
I do not think anybody can want to see a finer body of men, 
or men more likely to do credit to their country. Remember 
that you represent the regiments of the Wellington Military . 
District, many of which were formed in olden times as volun- 
teer regiments, and many in the Maori wars, especially those 
from the Taranaki district and the King Country. I hope 
that you will all remember that in your hands is the honour of 
those New Zealand regiments. 

' The artillery has been selected from all over the Dominion, 
and I have no hesitation in saying that it is the finest body of 
men I have ever seen in my life, in any part of the world. 
The Engineers came from all over the Dominion, and the same 
with the Medical Corps and Army Service Corps, and all of 
them worthily represent their sections. I wish to say to all 
of you men that you are going to represent your country, and 
your particular regiments, in a way that it should be every 
soldier's ambition to do. Remember that whatever your act 
or will may be, however anxious you may be to see active 
service, and however hard you are working, it is of no use 
unless you realise that it must be done with discipline. By 
discipline I mean the very best kind of discipline ; not the 
discipline which makes a man act through fear of punishment, 
or the discipline of the martinet of the Germany army, but 
something very much higher than that the discipline which 
actuates the conscientious soldier. 

1 Remember every one of you that you are not only 

271 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

soldiers, but also comrades. You know perfectly well that 
unless you work together, and realise the value of leadership, 
you will be of no good. By your performances on board the 
troopship, by the way in which you will arrive in England, 
will New Zealand not only be judging you personally, but also 
your regiment. You will find yourselves beside regiments 
of the British Regular Army with great traditions, traditions 
which have reached a pitch of excellence that is impossible 
to be reached by any other army in the world. There is no 
reason why the men of New Zealand should not be able and 
competent to take their places beside the men of the British 
Army. When they do, they will find a high standard of 
personal appearance and esprit de corps, cleanliness, sobriety, 
and temperance in every way, and on these points I trust and 
believe you will not be found wanting. 

' You will find the army discipline irksome. You do not 
go on active service expecting anything but hardship. I am 
perfectly certain that the men of Wellington, Hawke's Bay, 
Taranaki, and Manawatu will bear their fair share of the 
hardships that come along. We are all grateful, the military 
authorities and the Government, too, for the patriotic spirit 
shown not only by the volunteers, but also by the citizens. 
I wish you bon voyage and God-speed, and remember that the 
whole of New Zealand will be watching you, arid they will 
expect to see something more than the ordinary from the 
men who are here. If I am any judge, and I ought to be 
after thirty years' soldiering, I think the men whom I now see 
before me will be well able to take their place in the ranks of 
the British Army when they reach home.' 

August 31, 1914. 

CAPTURE OF SAMOA : STATEMENTS OF MINISTER 
OF DEFENCE AND PRIME MINISTER 

N ew Wellington, Monday. 

Zealand According to the advice received by His Excellency the 

Herald, Governor, Apia was surrendered at 10 A.M. on August 29 
Sept. i, (Western time). 1 As time in Samoa is later than New Zealand 
1 ["See time, the surrender occurred, according to the New Zealand 
Naval, i, time, at 10.30 A.M. on Sunday. 

pp. 135-60.] Mr. Allen remarked that the ultimate disposition of the 
272 



NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

island was a matter for decision by the Imperial authorities, 
but New Zealand might have something to say about it. ' We 
have simply done our duty as part of the Empire, in carrying 
out the task allotted to us/ he added, ' and now our duty is to 
hold Samoa for the Imperial Government. It is impossible 
to say how long the New Zealand Force will be required to 
stay there.' 

' It must be very satisfactory to the whole of the people of 
New Zealand/ said the Prime Minister this evening, ' that we 
have been able to take possession of the island with so very 
little trouble. Apart altogether from the area, which is 
approximately 1000 square miles, and the fertility of the 
Mand, Samoa is of very great strategical importance to both 
New Zealand and Australia. There is already a very powerful 
wireless station some distance inland from Apia, probably the 
most powerful in the Pacific, and we have reason to believe 
that it is still intact, though we have secured it much more 
easily than we expected. We have to hold Samoa/ Mr. Massey 
added. ' A strong force will be required to garrison the 
island for some considerable time to come. A further reason 
for gratification is that not only was the New Zealand force 
the first contingent of British troops to proceed overseas to its 
allotted task, but it is also the first to secure German territory 
for the Imperial Crown/ 

September 2, 1914. 

MESSAGE FROM CAPTAIN OF H.M.S.- NEW ZEALAND 

The following telegram has been received from Captain New 
Halsey, commander of H.M.S. New Zealand, dated London, Zealand 
September 2 : Herald, 

' All on board the New Zealand congratulate Dominion 
on their action in Samoa. 

' Please inform women of New Zealand that their ensign 
flew on board during the action after Heligoland/ 1 



p. 122.] 

September 6, 1914. New 
SPEECH OF PRIME MINISTER AT CHRISTCHURCH z ^ ala ^ 

Herald,, 

A ' send-off ' to the Canterbury section of the Expeditionary Sept. 7, 
Force at King Edward Barracks on Saturday night, took the I 9 I 4- 

OVERSEAS 2. S 273 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

form of a smoking concert. Members of the force attended 
in large numbers, and there were many ladies present. The 
Mayor presided and the Prime Minister, the Right Hon. W. F. 
Massey, the Leader of the Opposition, Sir Joseph Ward, and 
many leading citizens were present. 

Mr. Massey received a great reception on rising to speak. 
In the course of an eloquent and patriotic speech, he said : 
' I want to remind you of the bloodless victory of the first 
section of the Expeditionary Force. Do not imagine they ran 
no risk, and that there was no danger. From what we know, 
they ran a very serious risk, and we want to give credit where 
it is due. If it had not been for the assistance of the Aus- 
tralian Government and Navy, and the Navy of one of our 
Allies, the first section would never have been allowed to reach 
Samoa. Some day the history of what has taken place may 
be written, and then you will understand what I am telling 
you. 

' I want you to remember this. The first soldiers of the 
Empire to haul down the German flag and replace it with 
the British flag were your fellow-soldiers and fellow-citizens. 
It is a good omen an omen that will prove to be right. I am 
certain of this. Though we are going to have reverses and 
successes, I have not the slightest doubt of the ultimate result/ 

September 8, 1914. 
SPEECH OF PRIME MINISTER AT WELLINGTON 

New A large Parliamentary party, at the invitation of the 

Zealand Shipping Companies, paid a visit to-day to the troopships 
Herald, now j n p or t. The party included the Premier, the Minister 
9 * of Defence, Sir Joseph Ward, and the Speaker of the House, 
and they were accompanied by General Sir Alexander Godley, 
Colonel Robin, Mr. Luke, Mayor of Wellington, and Bishop 
Sprott. 

Mr. Massey proposed the toast of their hosts, the Shipping 
Companies. Mr. Massey said he had no doubt that the men 
were anxious to get to the front. Many of them were sorry 
they were not there now, co-operating with the British and 
French soldiers on the frontiers. They would not, however, 
be too late to share in the campaign. He referred to the 
tactics of the Germans, an instance of which he gave in the 
274 



NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

cutting of the Pacific cable, which, no doubt, was done by a 
German ship sailing under French colours. That was one of 
the scores Britain had to wipe off when the day of reckoning 
came. The sinking of the Kaipara was another. There was 
no reason to be discouraged. The war would not come to an 
end with the investment of Paris, and would not end even with 
the downfall of Paris. The war would not end till the Allies 
reached Berlin, and when he referred to the Allies, he did not 
merely mean Russians, but British, French, and Belgians as 
well. He even mentioned his hope that some New Zealanders 
would be there too. 

September 12, 1914. 

MESSAGE FROM LORD KITCHENER AND STATEMENT 
OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

The Minister of Defence, the Honourable James Allen, New 
inspected the troops at Tahuna Park yesterday morning. In Zealand 
the course of an address the Minister read the following mes- Herald, 
age from Earl Kitchener, Commander-in-Chief of the British P ' I4 ' 
Forces : 

' I congratulate New Zealand on the contingent about to 
sail. I feel sure its members will receive a hearty welcome 
here, and that undoubted success will be theirs. I am proud 
that their Colonel-in-Chief is Lord Roberts. I learn with 
much gratification that the contingent from New Zealand is 
about to embark. (Signed) KITCHENER/ 

In the course of an interview, Mr. Allen said the raising, 
organising, maintaining and returning, of the Expeditionary 
Force would be undertaken by the New Zealand Government. 
The Home Government would not even have to provide rations 
in England. Steps were being taken for organising immedi- 
ately reinforcements amounting to twenty per cent, of the 
Expeditionary Force. The force was. sure to go to Europe, and 
not to India for garrisoning purposes. 

Mr. Allen said he did not at present purpose to inaugurate 
a war tax. The public had been so generous that to do so at 
present would be unfair. A war tax would probably come, for 
there was the payment of war expenses to be considered. The . 
cash subscribed to the Empire Defence Fund was close on 

275 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

100,000, and local bodies, etc., must have in hand close on 
another 100,000. In addition the donations would amount 
to a value of anything from 50,000 to 100,000. All this was 
helping to equip the men, and was providing for all sorts of 
contingencies, and there was no reason why the Government 
should put on a war tax when the people had been so generous. 
The only object of levying such a tax at present would be to 
get at the man who was not contributing anything, but he 
would have to be left alone for the present. 

The delay in the departure of the force was not due to 
unpreparedness. ' We were ready/ said the Minister, ' to send 
them away ten days or a fortnight ago, but we have to wait 
until the Admiralty gives the word/ 

September 19, 1914. 
ADDRESS OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

New The Expeditionary Force encamped at Epsom was reviewed 

Zealand on Saturday morning by the Minister of Defence, the Hon. J. 
oL^fl'n, Allen, at Alexandra Park, in the presence of a large number of 

oCpt. 2O, . . 

1914. civilians. 

In the course of a stirring address to the soldiers, the 
Minister intimated that he had seen practically all the New 
Zealand troops who were going away to the front. 

' I desire/ said the Minister, ' to say to you, and to the 
public of New Zealand, as Minister of Defence, that I have 
been highly gratified with what I have seen. I am proud to 
know that such a splendid body of officers, non-commissioned 
officers, and men is going away to represent New Zealand at 
this country's and the Empire's call. You are going to do a 
great duty for the Empire and for your country. I hope you 
will read in the papers what British statesmen have to say 
about the war. This is a righteous and a holy war on our part, 
and we look to you to assist the Mother Country to help a 
weaker nation a nation* weak in numbers, but strong in 
heroic valour. 

'I know/ continued the Minister, 'that you must feel 
that you are going to do a right and proper duty. There are 
many remaining behind who would like to be in your shoes, 
and regret that they cannot go with you. I should like to 
be with you myself. Those who remain behind have a duty 
276 



NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

as well as those who are going away. We give you the assur- 
ance that we will look after this fair country while you are 
away. Our duty is to see that we carry on the industries of 
this country, and to keep the place smiling and happy, so that 
those who go away may return to happy homes when the war 
is over. 

' We are looking to you/ continued the Minister, ' to 
uphold the name of New Zealand and New Zealanders. Always 
remember that, though you belong to the Anglo-Saxon race, 
and are Britishers in one sense, yet in a nearer and dearer sense 
to us, you belong to your country, New Zealand. Even the 
Imperial officers who go with you we look upon, for the time 
being, as New Zealanders, and it is the fair name of New Zea- 
land that you carry with you. We look to you to add to that 
fair name when you meet with Britishers and Allies, and we look 
to you to show them by your conduct what New Zealanders, 
in the best sense of the word, can be. We look to you when 
you meet your enemies to let them realise what it is to meet 
New Zealanders. I am firm in the confidence/ proceeded Mr. 
Allen, * that you will add to the traditions of this country and 
those of the British race generally. As yet, New Zealand is 
young in history and in traditions. In the making of tradi- 
tions greater opportunities came to the soldier than to the 
civilian, for a country never failed to recognise the sacrifices 
the soldier makes for home and country. You are going away 
to win honour and glory, and to add to the traditions of your 
country, and in after years our children will read with pride 
of the officers and men of the Expeditionary Force in the hour 
of trial in the history of our race/ 

Proceeding, the Minister said that New Zealand had ful- 
filled to the utmost the bargain made with the Mother Country 
in regard to the equipping of the Expeditionary Force. * We 
have/ he said, ' recognised our duty to do even more than we 
promised. We are, therefore, sending you away more fully 
equipped than we had first contemplated. We have doubled 
the 1 8-pound batteries, and are sending away a full brigade 
of artillery. We are sending away more Maxims than we had 
at first intended, and we are sending with you the best of our 
officers, for we are fully assured that we should not entrust 
the lives of from 8000 to 10,000 of our men to any but the 
best of officers/ 

277 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Proceeding, the Minister said that when the time came 
when daring, dash and courage were required, the troops would 
not fail, and he expressed the hope that should the occasion 
demand they would show mercy to the enemy, and respect 
the people they conquered. ' You will then come back to us 
with clean and honourable records, knowing that you have 
laid the foundation of traditions that would guide New Zealand 
in the future. You go at full strength/ added Mr. Allen, 
' and we have promised to keep you up to full strength. If 
necessary, however, we will increase that strength/ 

'There are/ went on the Minister, 'awaiting you now in 
England 250 New Zealanders, who have been training to join 
your ranks. I am glad that they have not forgotten New 
Zealand. I hope you will take the message to them that I 
am proud of them, and that New Zealand is proud of them. 
We are certain that, with the others, they will do their duty 
on the battle-field when they get there/ 

The Minister intimated that a printed message had been 
prepared for the troops containing Earl Kitchener's advice 
to the British soldiers, and special messages from Earl Roberts, 
and from himself, as Minister of Defence. 

In concluding his address, the Minister said that, although 
they were going away not quite so perfectly equipped, perhaps, 
as the Government would have desired, yet the best possible 
had been done, and he hoped the troops would carry away 
pleasing recollections of what the women of New Zealand 
had done for them. The country was grateful to the women 
for their valued help in equipping the troops. 

Finally, the Minister said he wanted to remind the men that 
they carried the rifle as a, weapon of defence and offence. He 
hoped they would recognise what that meant, and that they 
would take care of their rifles as they would of themselves. 
' We want you to arrive in Britain as fit as you can be, and 
when you use the rifle at the front, let every bullet find its billet. ' 

Every one was proud of the British non-commissioned 
officer, and to the non-coms, of the Expeditionary Force he 
expressed the hope that they would also win a great reputa- 
tion. To the officers he entrusted the care of the whole of the 
troops. ' Take care of them better than you would of your- 
selves. We trust to you to lead them as true New Zealanders, 
and every one will be glad to welcome you back, proud of the 

278 



NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

fact that you stood the test alongside the best of the armies 
in Europe, and gallantly held your own/ 

The Mayor called for three cheers for the Minister for his 
stirring address, and these were heartily given by the assembled 
troops and civilians. 

September 20, 1914. 

MESSAGES OF LORDS ROBERTS AND KITCHENER 
AND STATEMENT OF MINISTER OF DEFENCE 

After reviewing the Auckland section of the Expeditionary New 
force at Epsom, the Minister of Defence, the Hon. James Allen, 
announced that the Defence Department was distributing 
leaflets containing the full text of Earl Kitchener's message to 
the British troops, together with messages from Lord Roberts 
and the New Zealand Minister of Defence. 

The message of Field-Marshal Earl Roberts, who is Colonel- 
in-Chief of the New Zealand Army, is as follows : ' I con- 
gratulate New Zealand on the contingent which is about to 
sail, and feel sure that they will meet with a hearty welcome 
here, and that unbounded success will be theirs. I am proud 
to be their Colonel-in-Chief/ 

The following message, also contained in the leaflet, is 
from Earl Kitchener : 'I learn with much gratification that 
the contingent from New Zealand is about to embark, and can 
assure it a very hearty welcome from all here/ 

The Hon. J. Allen's message is as follows : ' Remember 
that you will hold the Dominion's honour in your keeping? 
Remember that both the friends you meet and the enemies 
you fight will form their opinions of New Zealanders from you, 
therefore see that you are brave as you are honourable, and 
modest and courteous as you are brave/ 

The New Zealand troops are urged to keep Earl Kitchener's 
last words to the troops on leaving England, 1 and the messages i See 
of welcome from Earl Kitchener and Earl Roberts always with Military, i, 
them. PP- 18, 19-] 

September 23, 1914. 
SPEECHES OF MAYOR OF AUCKLAND AND PRIME New 

MINISTER AT AUCKLAND Zealand 

MR. C. J. PARR : ' May I say a word for Auckland, because 
you are Aucklanders, and the citizens, I am sure, would wish 

279 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

me to give you their good wishes ? ' said the Mayor, Mr. 
C. J. Parr, addressing the troops. * You are going to fight for 
a great cause. The issue is civilisation itself. Is the world 
to go back to barbarism, vandalism and savagery, and is the 
clock to be put back four hundred years ? That is the issue. 
I am not over-stating the case a jot. Let us think of Lou vain 
and Rheims, Old World cities, with their beautiful cathedrals 
levelled to the dust. Think of the treacherous mines sown on 
the high seas without regard to the laws of war and humanity. 
Let us not forget the hundreds of women and children 
slaughtered by savage soldiery. German culture will never 
find an excuse for violating poor little Belgium. You soldiers 
will know how to exact a penalty for these outrages against 
humanity. Drive home your attack wherever you are, and 
let all resolve to die rather than to submit. Every bullet, 
every bayonet, must find its mark, because until Prussian 
militarism is smashed, the world will know no peace or freedom. 

' Look after your health above all things. Keep fit. 
Remember that you have to depend upon your health and 
your gun, and look after both. Obey orders to the letter. 
Show the world that discipline is not the weak point of the 
New Zealand soldier. Commit no excesses, and remember 
that you have New Zealand's fair fame in your keeping. 

' I know that you will fight as brave men should, for no 
New Zealander will ever show the white feather. You must 
show the British and the world that you can play the game. 
Believe me, you boys are making history. You are going to 
help write the greatest page that has ever been written in the 
world's great drama. This war is the greatest conflict known 
to men, and in a hundred years from' now it will be counted 
the highest honour that a man can claim that he came from 
stock that fought in the great world war of 1914 in the cause 
of priceless freedom. 

' Auckland takes farewell of you to-day, and prays that 
the Almighty may, in His wisdom, ever be with you and shield 
you in the great struggle upon which you now enter. We shall 
know how to welcome you home after the conflict is over, 
when, as we pray, you come back to us with success, honour, 
and glory writ across your banners/ 

MR. MASSEY : ' In this weather I. do not propose to address 
you at any length. I consider it my duty, as well as my 
280 



NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

privilege, on behalf of the Dominion, to join with the Auck- 
land citizens in saying farewell to the Auckland section of the 
Expeditionary Force. New Zealand may be only a small 
country, with a comparatively small population, but New 
Zealand is not an unimportant part of the British Empire. 
In this crisis, the most serious ever experienced in the history 
of Britain, New Zealand has made up its mind to do its duty 
to the Empire, just as the Empire is doing its duty to civilisa- 
tion and to humanity by protecting the weaker nations of the 
world against tyranny. 

' In a short time from now there will leave our shores for 
the scenes of war the very pick of our male population 
young New Zealanders who will proceed to the other side of 
the world, to meet Britain's enemies in battle in countries 
where, centuries ago, the ancestors of our New Zealanders 
held their own on many a stubbornly-contested field. That 
you will do as well as your forefathers, I have not the very 
least doubt. That you will do your country credit, wherever 
you are, I feel sure. 

' I have no doubt that by and by you will find yourselves 
with English, Scotch, and Irish troops, and with men represent- 
ing other nations and other Dominions of the British Empire, 
and with the men who, during the last few weeks, have flung 
back the enemy from the very gates of Paris every one of 
them willing to risk his life for his country and for humanity. 
You will find men there from the burning plains of India, from 
the snows of Canada, from the great Australian bush, from 
the wide veldt of South Africa, as well as your fellows from 
these islands of New Zealand. 

' You will see what the world has never seen before men 
of almost every clime, language, race and creed, bound together 
by one idea, one belief that within the British Empire, and 
under the British flag, there is more justice, morality, and free- 
dom than has been granted by any other nation to its own 
people, or to peoples within its gates. In consequence of that 
belief, scores of millions of men have made up their minds to 
keep the Empire intact, to resist tyranny and oppression to 
the uttermost, and to keep flying the flag that has braved a 
thousand years the battle and the breeze the emblem of 
truth and right and justice, and everything that makes for 
the betterment of humanity. 

281 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

' You will encounter many hardships/ continued the 
Prime Minister, ' not only on the scene of operations, but on 
the way thereto. But remember that you are enjoying the 
privilege of making history. In the ages to come millions 
of people will read with interest of the great events that are 
taking place to-day, and I hope that they will also read of 
how the New Zealanders distinguished themselves. You will 
have the privilege of striking hard for right and truth and 
against tyranny, and we know that that privilege is safe in 
your hands. 

' On behalf of the people of the Dominion, I endorse what 
the Mayor has said to you. We commend you to the protec- 
tion of Him without whose knowledge not even a sparrow 
can fall to the ground. I hope that this cruel war will soon 
come to an end but it must be peace with honour, or no peace 
at all. I hope that in the not far-distant future we will 
have the pleasure of welcoming you back home 'again. On 
behalf of the people of New Zealand, I wish you God-speed. 
May God bless you ! ' 

Cheers for the Prime Minister and for the troops, heartily 
given at the call of the Mayor, concluded the proceedings, and 
the troops formed up and left the domain on their march 
through the city. 

September 24, 1914. 

ADDRESSES OF THE GOVERNOR, PRIME MINISTER, 
AND LEADER OF OPPOSITION AT WELLINGTON 

The official farewell to the Wellington section of the main 
Expeditionary Force took place this afternoon in Newtown 
Park. 

The GOVERNOR, addressing the men, said : ' This great 
assembly which you see around you to-day has come to wish 
you " God- speed/' England is wanting all her sons to-day, and 
this young Dominion is sending home to the Mother Country 
her best. It has been a great pleasure, nay, I will say an 
honour, to inspect the men here to-day, and I do not think 
anybody will fear as to the future. You are indeed the very 
pick of the manhood of this Dominion, and I know you will 
give a good account of yourselves whenever you are called 
upon to do so. There is a tinge of sadness in my heart to-day, 
282 



NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

and it is because I alone of all the reserve of officers in this 
Dominion, am unable to allow my name to be called in the roll 
of my old regiment. I can assure you all here, whether you 
be on parade, or you be spectators, that I shall do my best to 
serve your interests to the best of my power, as long as I am 
in the Dominion. No Government has ever faced war with a 
light heart ; but if ever a Government had a righteous cause, 
if ever an Empire had a righteous cause, it is the Empire we 
have the honour to belong to. It has been oft repeated 
since the war began, that we would soon be signing peace, but 
peace will not be declared until we have made a right end of 
this war. We have been forced into it by an unrighteous foe, 
desirous to rule the world, and we have determined that as 
we have put our hands to the plough, we shall not look 
backwards/ 

The PRIME MINISTER said : ' Not for the first time in 
recent years has the Empire seen fit to call upon younger 
nations for men who can ride and shoot. From every corner 
of the world the sons of the Dominions are rushing to assist 
the old mother. New Zealand is sending of its best, and in 
all probability, within a very few months, New Zealand will 
have 10,000 representatives at the scene of operations. I am 
very proud of those who are going away, on account of their 
physique and soldierly bearing, and their willingness to serve 
their country and Empire under any circumstances. I want 
to give you two words of advice. In the case of many of you, 
your mothers are still left. When you go to the other side of 
the world, never do anything of which your mothers would not 
approve. If you take that advice in the spirit in which it 
is given, you will never have reason to regret it. Just one 
other word, and it is this : Citizen soldiers, let me advise you 
to stand fast to the honour of the Empire, stand fast for the 
glory of the Flag, stand fast for the credit of your Empire, 
stand fast for the traditions of the Imperial race to which you 
belong. And now I can only hope that the Providence that 
has watched over and guided and guarded the destinies of 
the Empire, will watch over you, protect your footsteps, and 
in His own good time bring you back to your own land and to 
the friends you are leaving behind/ 

SIR JOSEPH WARD said : ' It is only a little over seven 
weeks since this unparalleled war began. During that time 

283 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

there have been deeds done by the British that have added 
to the brightness of the pages of British history, and have 
enhanced the glory of the British Empire. Talk about the 
suggestion of the decadence of the British Empire! Read 
only one or two of the incidents that have taken place during 
the last week or two, and any idea of the kind ought to be 
dissipated for ever. We may be only fighting in defence of a 
bit of shattered bunting, but we are fighting in defence of 
what that means to the humblest of the people in all the 
British territory. It means the suppression of that German 
Imperialism which aimed at dominating the civilised world. 
For that reason the men going forward are willing to fight or 
die in defence of the honour of the Empire, and there are 
men who are ready to follow them/ 

September 25, 1914. 
STATEMENTS re EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

New The following statement was issued to-day in regard to 

Zealand New Zealand Expeditionary Force : 

Sept. 26, ' His Excellency the Governor received advice from the 

1914. Imperial Government early this morning that the New Zealand 

Expeditionary Force will not sail from the Dominion for some 
little time. The Governor is anxious, for obvious reasons, 
to take the people into his confidence in this matter at the 
earliest possible moment. He would earnestly request them 
not to make this the subject of comment, as the delay is solely 
caused by the exigencies of the service when such extensive 
operations are everywhere in progress, and applies, as well, 
to other Expeditionary Forces of the Overseas Dominions/ 

The Hon. James Allen, Minister of Defence, informed a 
Herald representative this evening that the horses would be 
brought ashore from the ships, and also a sufficient number of 
men to take charge of them, and that two camps would be 
established in the neighbourhood of Wellington, one of them 
at Trentham. The dismounted men would not go into camp. 
They would sleep and mess on the ships, but would come 
ashore probably every day for training and exercise. 

The Auckland transports, said Mr. Allen, had left Auckland, 
but had been recalled. They would not come to Wellington, 
284 



NEW ZEALAND EXPEDITIONARY FORCE 

but the same arrangements would be followed in Auckland. 
The mounted men would go into camp. 

The Prime Minister made a brief statement regarding the 
postponement when asked to do so this evening. * There need 
be no uneasiness on the part of the public so far as our trans- 
ports are concerned/ said Mr. Massey. ' The postponement of 
the date of sailing has been made under direct instructions 
from the Imperial authorities, and I have reason to believe 
they are similar to the instructions which have been issued 
to some of the other Dominions of the Empire. The people 
of New Zealand may be quite satisfied that a strong escort 
has been arranged to accompany the transports/ 

It is understood that the reason for the postponement had 
nothing to do with the safety or otherwise of our own seas, 
and that there is no reason to fear that they are any less safe 
than they have been since the outbreak of war. 

September 28, 1914. 

MAORI CONTINGENT : STATEMENT BY HON. 
DR. M. POMARE 

A contingent of 500 Maoris is being organised for service New 
in the war. Of this number 250 are to proceed to Egypt, and Zealand 
250 will be sent to Samoa for garrison duty. Herald, 

Interviewed yesterday, prior to his departure for the South, Sept. 2 9> 
the Hon. Dr. M. Pomare, member of the Executive represent- 
ing the native race, informed a Herald representative that more 
applications for enrolment in the force are being received than 
can possibly be dealt with. The organisation of the Maori 
volunteers has been left to Dr. Pomare, and the other Native 
members of the House. Each member of this committee is 
organising his own district. It is intended to constitute the 
force as follows : 

East Coast Natives . . 180 

West . .180 

North . 100 

South . ,40 

Every tribe and all parts of the Dominion will be 
represented. 

The entire Maori contingent will go into camp at Auckland 

285 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [SEPT. 19 

on about October 7 next, probably on a site at Avondale. 
Amongst the volunteers are several who held commissions in 
the South African War, and in all probability the officers of 
the contingent will be selected from these. The natives will 
be equipped as infantry, and steps are to be taken to make 
them as efficient as possible. Those Maoris who are members 
of the Territorials, and who join the first Expeditionary Force, 
will not be interfered with. 

' The Maoris of the Dominion have expressed, as with 
one voice, unswerving loyalty to the British Throne/ said Dr. 
Pomare. ' They have expressed this loyalty with no uncer- 
tain sound. They recognise that the British cause is their 
cause, the British King is their King, and that the God of the 
British is the God of the Maoris too. In this they are abso- 
lutely one. This spirit has been expressed to me/ concluded 
Dr. Pomare, ' in hundreds of letters/ 



286 



APPENDIX 

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF IMPERIAL 
DEFENCE UPON A GENERAL SCHEME OF 
DEFENCE FOR AUSTRALIA 

Presented by command ; ordered by the Senate to be printed, 
i$th August 1906 

AUSTRALIA 

GENERAL SCHEME OF DEFENCE 

IN the following Memorandum it is proposed 

(i.) To review briefly the broad strategic principles on which any 
measures for the local defence of Australia must of necessity be based ; 

(ii.) To examine the requirements of a detailed scheme for the 
' defence of the ports of the Commonwealth, framed in the light of 
present and future naval developments, as far as can be judged, and 
adapted to any attacking forces which may be reasonably expected ' ; 

(in.) To consider ' the general organisation of the military forces, 
and peace and war establishments ' ; and 

(iv.) To discuss the question of ' local naval defence for ports, 
harbours, and coastal trade/ and its bearing on the ' development 
of the maritime resources of the Commonwealth/ 

2. The general principle that war preparations should be governed Scale of war 
by the reasonable probabilities of the next few years rather than by P re P aratlons - 
remoter possibilities is beyond question ; but its application must be 
separately considered in regard to the provision of material and the 
organisation of personnel. 

Experience has shown that there is no finality in the matter of war 
material, and that on an average little more than a decade elapses 
between successive rearmaments, whether of infantry, field artillery, or 
coast defences. It is therefore inadvisable that expenditure should 
exceed the requirements of the near future, especially in the case 
of such costly elements of defence as coast batteries. Should future 
naval developments tend to reduce the importance of the fixed defences 
much wasted expenditure will thus be avoided. If, on the other 

287 



Maintenance 
of naval 
superiority. 



Probable 
course of 
naval war. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

hand, improvements in these defences should become desirable a few 
years hence, the money saved now by restricting expenditure to guns 
of moderate calibre will be available then for the purchase of new 
guns with the latest improvements. The mere size of the guns is 
no adequate criterion of efficiency in the defences of a port, and the 
provision of unnecessarily heavy artillery may retard necessary revi- 
sions in the future by increasing the cost of each rearmament. It is 
consequently neither necessary nor advisable to anticipate more 
than the requirements of the near future when considering the pro- 
vision of war material, and especially of coast artillery armaments. 

On the other hand, the national armies, on which must depend 
in the last resort the issue of wars for national existence, cannot be 
brought into being without long and careful preparation in peace 
even though time for development after the outbreak of war may 
be guaranteed to them by the influence of sea power. The organisa- 
tion of the active military forces maintained by the Commonwealth 
must consequently be designed not only to furnish the garrison troops 
which suffice under present conditions for local defence 'in Australia, 
but also to provide a certain number of field troops, organised in units 
of all arms with the necessary departmental services, and grouped 
in brigade formations, which will serve as the training school and 
model for the field forces that may be required in the future. At 
the same time it is necessary to extend opportunities of elementary 
military instruction in various forms to as large a proportion as pos- 
sible of the population with a view to rendering military training 
as universal as circumstances may for the time being permit. 

I. STRATEGICAL CONSIDERATIONS 

3. The primary condition of the security of all British territory 
and trade in war is the maintenance of superiority at sea over the 
naval forces of any combination of Powers likely to be formed against 
us. The traditional role of the navy is to seek out all the ships of 
the enemy wherever they may be, and either bring them to action 
or mask them if they remain in port. This policy of active offence 
against the enemy's naval forces as opposed to one of local naval 
defence of our own coasts is still, as it has always been, the only pos- 
sible way of giving effective protection to the shipping and maritime 
commerce in every sea on which the economic life of the widely dis- 
persed members of the Empire depends. 

4. The enormous advantages accruing to the belligerent who 
succeeds in establishing sea supremacy over his opponent are now 
well understood, and it is to be expected that any naval Power hoping 
to inflict serious injury upon us will, on the outbreak of war, attempt 
288 



APPENDIX 

to neutralise our naval superiority and, if possible, to wrest from us 
the command of the sea. This object can only be attained as the 
result of great battles in which the main fleets of the contending 
Powers are concentrated for the decisive encounters. Arrangements 
for this concentration must be made in time of peace, and the normal 
distribution of our battle fleets must be governed by the dispositions 
of the foreign fleets which for the time being are regarded as their 
most formidable rivals. 

With a view to impairing our measures of concentration in war, 
and inducing us to weaken our main fleets, the enemy may endeavour 
to create a widespread feeling of insecurity and alarm throughout 
the Empire by utilising such classes of vessels as are unfitted for 
taking part in the decisive actions in raiding our sea-borne trade and 
threatening distant portions of the Empire. Although in them- 
selves such raiding operations will be only of secondary importance, 
as the ultimate issue of the war must depend on the result of the 
fleet actions, it will be necessary to take a vigorous offensive against 
all such outlying raiding vessels in order to prevent the disturbance 
of trade and demoralisation which might be caused by their depre- 
dations. 

5. It is the constant policy of the Admiralty to keep our squadrons Protection of 
on distant stations sufficiently strong to protect our trade from attack floatm s trade - 
by the foreign squadrons normally stationed in those seas. It is, 
of course, possible that in war-time an enemy might send out addi- 
tional cruisers to attack our Colonial trade, but in this case our superi- 
ority in vessels of this class and our greater facilities of ports would 
enable us to despatch a preponderating force in pursuit. 

The distribution at any moment of foreign navies, and of all merchant 
vessels likely to be employed as armed auxiliaries, is known in time 
of peace. During the period of strained relations every effort will 
be made to keep the ships of the prospective enemy under observa- 
tion. The great increase in the rapidity and certainty of transmission 
of intelligence consequent on the development of submarine cables 
and wireless telegraphy, have combined to add enormously to the 
difficulties of raiding operations depending for their success on tactics 
of evasion. 

When the presence of a commerce raider in the Eastern seas is re- 
ported, it will be desirable to bring her to action without delay, and if 
possible before she can reach our own territorial waters. This points 
to the necessity of concerted action not only for direct pursuit, but 
also with a view to intercepting her at obligatory points of passage, 
and off hostile or even neutral ports at which she is likely to call. It 
is for this reason that under the Naval Agreement of 1903 the cruisers 
on the Australian Station are not necessarily confined in war to the 

OVERSEAS 2. T 289 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Naval limita- 
tions on 
attacks on 
Australian 
littoral. 



waters of that Station, while it is recognised that they will not be 
the only force used there should the necessity arise for a larger force. 
The object of making the naval Commander-in-Chief on the China 
Station responsible for the strategical distribution of the cruisers on 
the China, Australian, and East Indies Stations is simply to ensure 
that all the ships of the enemy in these seas may be dealt with at 
the earliest possible moment wherever they may be found. Closely 
concerted offensive action by powerful sea-going ships will afford the 
only effective protection to Australian floating trade, whether on the 
high seas or in local waters. 

6. Having regard to our present naval strength and dispositions, 
it follows from the above considerations that attacks on floating trade 
in distant seas will offer to an enemy but slight prospect of any but 
very transitory successes. Similar considerations impose even greater 
restrictions on the possible forms of attack on the Australian littoral. 

In considering this subject it is necessary to draw a clear dis- 
tinction between hasty raids, dependent for success on surprise and 
rapidity of execution rather than on the number of troops employed, 
and larger operations aiming at a prolonged or permanent occupa- 
tion of Australian territory. The oversea conveyance from a distant 
base of operations of a military expedition strong enough for the 
latter purpose, and its continued supply with munitions of war when 
landed, would only be possible to a Power which was mistress of 
the seas and was able to destroy or mask all the hostile ships that 
might at any time be in a position to interrupt the communications 
of the expeditionary force. No such expedition has ever been carried 
to a successful conclusion unless this condition has been fulfilled, and 
some of the greatest military disasters recorded in history have resulted 
from failure to secure or retain the assured sea command which is 
essential for the prosecution of an oversea campaign. It is evident 
that so long as British naval strength is calculated and maintained 
on the basis of securing command of the sea as against all probable 
enemies, and protecting the maritime communications of the Empire 
against disturbance, the attacks upon the Australian littoral against 
which land defence is required will be limited to raids hastily carried 
out by single vessels or small squadrons which have temporarily 
evaded our naval forces. 

Assuming it to be the object of the raiding vessels to avoid capture 
by our cruisers for as long a period as possible, while inflicting the 
maximum of injury on our commerce, their best course would be 
to remain in open waters, rather than to approach our coasts and 
commercial ports, where their presence would be quickly reported 
to our own ships, which, especially in Australian waters, will have a 
great advantage over them in respect of information. In the absence, 
290 



APPENDIX 

however, of suitable measures of defence on land, commerce raiders 
might be induced to raid a port if the advantages to be gained thereby 
appeared to outweigh the risks involved in the disclosure of their 
position. 

II. MEASURES OF LOCAL DEFENCE 

7. The defensive measures required on land to provide against Measures 
attacks by raiding cruisers acting under these limitations come within 
certain clearly denned categories. land. 

From the point of view of the protection of sea-borne commerce it 
is necessary to provide a certain number of fortified harbours of refuge, 
where merchant shipping can, in case of need, seek protection from 
capture or molestation, and remain in safety until commerce raiders, 
reported in neighbouring waters, have been dealt with by His Majesty's 
ships, or compelled to withdraw from shortage of coal. In some few 
cases favourably situated harbours may have to be defended with 
this special strategical object in view, but in most cases it will be 
possible to utilise as harbours of refuge great commercial ports where 
fixed defences would in any case be provided for other reasons. Fixed 
defences are required at a commercial port if such resources as naval 
stores, graving docks, or extensive plants of coaling machinery, which 
are of essential value to our warships and mercantile marine, are 
collected within such a limited and exposed space that they might be 
seriously damaged by the gun-fire of raiding cruisers if no defences 
existed. The function of the fixed defences will be to keep the enemy's 
cruisers at a sufficient distance from the objects protected. 

Raids on other commercial ports would gain for an enemy no 
advantage that he could not derive from attacking shipping on the 
high seas, and the inducements to bombard would be outweighed by 
the knowledge that attack would reveal the position of the raiding 
vessels, and by considerations of ammunition supply. A bombard- 
ment could inflict no substantial injury without an expenditure of 
ammunition which must be regarded as prohibitive when no object 
of strategic importance is involved. There is therefore no likelihood 
that an undefended town would be subjected to bombardment as an 
alternative to the payment of an indemnity even were it not the case 
that any wanton damage inflicted on such a place would inevitably 
provoke reprisals which must fall heavily on the weaker maritime 
Power. 

At cable landing places, a small infantry defence is required to 
prevent damage to the shore ends of the cables by boats' crews land- 
ing from a raiding vessel. The measure of protection required is 
evidently only that which will involve such risk of loss to the attackers 
as will deter them from an enterprise which, even if successful, will 
cause only a temporary interruption to the particular cable attacked, 

291 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Selection of 
Australian 
ports in need 
of defence. 



while communication by other alternative cable routes, of which 
there are now several, would still remain open. 

In the future, the security of wireless telegraphy stations will have 
to be considered, but in most cases it should be possible to erect the 
installations in such positions that the necessity for special measures 
of defence will be obviated. 

8. The application of these principles to Australian ports points 
to the retention of fixed defences at Fremantle, Port Adelaide, Port 
Phillip (Melbourne), Sydney, Newcastle, Brisbane, Normanby Sound 
(Torres Strait), and Hobart. 

No other fortified ports are required as strategic harbours of refuge 
for merchant shipping, nor do any other commercial ports in Australia 
at present possess concentrated resources, either ashore or afloat, 
to such an extent as to justify the provision of defensive works at the 
present time. It is impossible to provide against every conceivable 
attack, or to enter upon war with the certainty of incurring no losses, 
and it is wiser to confine expenditure on local defence to protecting 
objectives of real strategic value than to attempt to extend protection 
to an indefinite number of places where the shipping and resources, 
though of local importance, are not essential to the general mainten- 
ance of maritime trade. 

The supersession of Albany by Fremantle calls for some explana- 
tion. When King George's Sound was selected in 1882 as a mercantile 
strategic harbour of refuge in the neighbourhood of the great trade 
route which rounds Cape Leeuwin, to be fortified and garrisoned at 
the joint expense of the Australian Colonies, it was the only harbour 
in the south-west of Australia. This is no longer the case. From 
the point of view of position with reference to the trade route there 
is little to choose between King George's Sound and Fremantle, and 
as only one harbour of refuge is required in these waters, the selec- 
tion should be governed by such considerations as the course of trade 
in peace and the facilities for "shipping in regard to coaling and other 
marine resources. In these respects the balance of advantage has 
completely turned in favour of Fremantle, which, owing to its greatly 
improved harbour facilities, has now become the port of call for the 
various lines of mail steamers. Albany is, therefore, no longer required 
as a strategic harbour of refuge, and it does not fulfil the other condi- 
tions necessitating fixed defences. 

Normanby Sound (Torres Strait) is the harbour of refuge now 
usually referred to as Thursday Island, where the guns for its pro- 
tection are mounted. The resiting of the defences to meet modern 
requirements is discussed elsewhere. 



g. In order to arrive at just conclusions in regard to the standards 



292 



APPENDIX 

of defence to be adopted at Australian defended ports, it is necessary scaieofpro- 
to form as clear an idea as possible of the character of the vessels babl< : raidin s 

,., 111 , i j -i i attack on 

which may reasonably be expected to engage in raiding attacks m Australian 
Australian waters, and of the strength of the landing parties which ports< 
might be disembarked. 

As already stated, a powerful enemy is likely at the outset of war 
to use every endeavour to cripple our sea power, for which purpose all 
his armoured cruisers as well as his battleships will be required. Even 
when his battleships have been reduced to inactivity, there will still 
remain more urgent and suitable strategic tasks for those of his cruisers 
which are armoured, than attacks on distant defended ports. The 
experience of the recent Russo-Japanese war confirms the evidence 
afforded by the Spanish- American war of 1898 as to the improbability 
of any such employment of this important type of warship, which 
costs almost, if not quite, as much as a battleship, and takes as long 
to build. Thus in 1898 when Admiral Cervera's squadron was de- 
spatched across the Atlantic, there was never the slightest intention 
on the part of the Spanish naval authorities to attack the coast towns 
of the United States. Again, the role of the powerful squadron of 
armoured cruisers which was based on Vladivostock throughout 
1904 was to interrupt the lines of communication of the expeditionary 
armies, and their feverish movements and eventual fate illustrate 
the precarious situation of the cruisers of a Power inferior at sea, 
even when acting from a near and secure base. It is worthy of notice 
also that the attacks on the Japanese transports would have been 
more serious if the Russian cruisers could have dispersed, but the 
strong probability of being destroyed singly if met by the Japanese 
cruiser squadron compelled them to keep together, and so to sacrifice 
the principle of ubiquity which has been considered the most formid- 
able characteristic of cruiser raids. The recent changes in the dis- 
tribution of the Royal Navy, which have aimed at disposing our 
forces in peace in the manner most likely to prove effective in war, 
have involved the formation of powerful squadrons of armoured 
cruisers. These changes, and the large number of modern vessels 
of this type of which this country is now possessed, have an important 
bearing on the question of the limitations attaching to the action of 
an enemy's armoured cruisers. 

On the whole, it may now safely be assumed that the exigencies 
of modern naval warfare will, in all reasonable probability, compel an 
enemy to reserve his armoured cruisers for the more important strategi- 
cal operations such as working with his battle fleets, operating against 
our detached squadrons, protecting his own commerce, and, in short, 
operating against other warships, and not against land defences. 
The employment of armoured cruisers, as of battleships, in Australian 
waters is not a contingency which in the light of present and future 

293 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

naval developments, as far as can how be judged, need reasonably 
be expected. 

If raiding attacks on Australian ports are attempted, the classes 
of vessels employed will, therefore, in all probability be those which 
are of small value for the major operations of naval warfare, such as 
unarmoured cruisers or armed merchant auxiliaries. 

The number of vessels which may be expected to operate together 
must be small, since the main hope of success will lie in suddenness of 
execution and in ability to elude observation and avoid opposition 
by even an inferior naval force while the operations are in progress. 
The assumption on which Australian armaments have hitherto gene- 
rally been based is that the number may be limited to a maximum of 
three or four, and nothing has occurred in recent naval warfare to 
give ground for supposing that this is other than a liberal estimate. 

The number of men that three or four cruisers could disembark 
for a raid depends upon the following considerations. If only the 
normal complements are borne, it is estimated that the total number 
available would usually not exceed five hundred men. It is not unlikely, 
however, that raiders despatched to so great a distance from their 
base as Australia would carry numbers surplus to the complement in 
order to replace casualties and wastage, and these would be available 
to reinforce the landing party. An enemy willing to incur the very 
serious danger of losing his ships entailed by operations in these distant 
seas might not hesitate to risk a few hundred additional men in the 
enterprise, and although it may reasonably be assumed that the 
raiders would not hamper themselves by the presence of unarmed 
transports, and that every vessel must form a fighting unit, the em- 
barkation of a limited number of troops in the cruisers for the express 
purpose of raids on ports cannot be excluded from the range of possible 
contingencies. On the other hand, it is clear that the necessity for 
keeping the ships at all times ready to fight an action, and the great 
importance of carrying large supplies of coal and ammunition, would 
militate against overcrowding the decks of the three or four unarmed 
vessels postulated. 

For purposes of calculation, therefore, it may be assumed that 
the landing parties disembarked for a raid on an Australian port 
might reach a total of 1000 men at the outside. The strength and 
disposition of the force required to meet this attack will vary at different 
ports, according to the topographical conditions. 

IO . In determining the standard of the gun defences required at 
at Austral^ " Australian ports, it is necessary to bear in mind that a most powerful 
ports. deterrent to attack in these remote waters will be the probability of 

sustaining injury affecting the fighting efficiency or seaworthiness of 
the ships at a distance from any place where repairs could be effected. 
294 



APPENDIX 

The nearest foreign ports which at present possess the qualifications 
of naval bases are more than 4000 miles distant from the chief Australian 
ports. At such a distance from bases of repair and refitting and depots 
of ammunition and stores, the consequences of even partial disable- 
ment would be extremely serious, while considerations of ammuni- 
tion supply will preclude an enemy from attempting to effect his 
object by a long-range bombardment. In considering this question 
of long-range fire it is necessary to avoid fallacious applications of 
the experience of recent naval actions. A ship at sea at a range of 
10,000 yards or more constitutes a distinct target admitting of accuracy 
of aim and correction of sighting by observation of the effects of fire. 
The case is widely different if the target is a dock, or a ship lying in 
a harbour, which may not be clearly distinguishable from seaward, 
or even exposed to view at all. Failing the means of careful observa- 
tion of the effects of fire, no serious damage could be expected from 
firing the limited amount of ammunition available, and the attacking 
vessels would have to approach to a distance measured not by the 
theoretical extreme range of their guns, but by the possibility of 
correcting their fire by observation. Here they would be exposed to 
great risk of disablement, especially if the enemy's targets were a 
long distance in rear of the coast defences. 

It follows from these considerations, and from the nature of pro- 
bable attack discussed in paragraph 9, that the type of gun selected 
for the defence of Australian ports should have great rapidity of fire 
and accuracy, with as large shell power as is obtainable without sacri- 
fice of these essentials, but that it is unnecessary and inadvisable to 
seek after very long range and high power of penetrating armour 
protection. These latter qualities are not required, and could not be 
obtained without increasing calibre ; and as calibre increases, handi- 
ness and speed of fire are lost, and the cost of guns, mountings, and 
emplacements rises rapidly. The chief defects of the armaments of 
Australian ports in the past have been want of homogeneity, and 
deficiencies in the accessories on which the value of modern guns is 
mainly dependent. By restricting the guns in future to a single 
and moderate calibre, and ensuring the completeness of their equip- 
ment, the Commonwealth Government will secure economy, efficiency, 
and simplicity, both in armaments and in arrangements for ammuni- 
tion supply. For the armaments of those of the Imperial defended 
ports, abroad as well as at home, where the attack to be provided 
against is of the same nature as that to which the ports of Australia 
are liable, the 6-inch gun of the latest pattern is accepted, with the 
approval of the Committee of Imperial Defence, as the weapon which 
best fulfils requirements. This gun has a rate of fire of six rounds 
per minute, and a range at 10 deg. elevation of 9050 yards, as com- 
pared with a rate of fire of only three rounds a minute and a range 

295 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

at 10 deg. elevation of 11,700 yards for the 7 '5-inch gun, the next 
higher calibre. It has not been considered that the increase of range 
and armour penetration compensates for the great loss of rapidity, 
and this calibre has not been introduced into the Imperial land service 
in which there is now no gun intermediate between the 9 '2-inch, 
which is mounted where the power to attack armour is considered 
essential, and the 6-inch, which is used where the most likely enemy 
will be unarmoured vessels. 

It is not necessary to provide light armament against attacks by 
torpedo craft on merchant vessels lying in harbour. To sink such 
vessels without at least warning and examination would not be a 
legitimate operation of modern warfare, and the difficulty of distin- 
guishing neutral ships would be a serious consideration. It may, 
moreover, be assumed that the mere destruction of a few merchant- 
men would not be considered a sufficient inducement for such an 
employment of torpedo craft, whose proper role is the attack of war- 
ships. His Majesty's ships are at all times prepared to defend them- 
selves against attack by carried torpedo-boats, and in Australian ports 
they are secure from attack by sea-going torpedo craft by reason of 
the distance of all possible hostile torpedo flotilla bases. Boom 
defences are not necessary or advisable for enclosing portions of 
Australian harbours, but the actual dock and lock gates, where they 
exist, should be protected by any suitable contrivance which will 
prevent injury by a Whitehead torpedo, or by the application of 
explosive charges in any other form. 

Electric lights will be required at most ports to aid the gun defences. 

Submarine mine-fields at present exist at some of the Australian 
ports, but this form of defence is being discontinued at all ports in 
Imperial charge as a result of the consideration by the Committee of 
Imperial Defence of the general policy of submarine mining in relation 
to coast defence. The adoption of the same course has recently been 
recommended to the Governments of Canada and New Zealand, and 
is now recommended in the case of Australian ports. The submarine 
mining service has always been a very technical one, and in the past 
it has been possible to draw on the experience of a numerous personnel 
employed at many defended ports for the highly qualified experi- 
mental and administrative staffs, which have been indispensable 
for its direction. But even with the very complete system of instruc- 
tional manuals and circulars issued from army headquarters, it has been 
found difficult to secure uniform efficiency at outlying ports to which 
the central inspection and control did not fully extend. It is scarcely 
necessary to point out the disastrous effect on maritime trade that 
would be produced in time of w,ar by any untrustworthiness, or even 
suspicion of untrustworthiness, of the submarine mining defences of 
ports frequented by our shipping. Nothing but the highest degree 
296 



APPENDIX 

of efficiency would suffice, and all experience goes to show that this 
could not be maintained at a small number of isolated ports, even 
with selected personnel of high individual capacity. It is therefore 
recommended that this form of defence should be discontinued in 
Australia. 

11. Detailed projects for the revision of the gun defences and Detailed pro- 
electric lights at each Australian defended port, and for the provision i e r C mamens ast 
of necessary accessories, together with directions to guide the pre- and garrisons, 
paration of artillery and engineer manning tables for the works, and 
estimates of the infantry garrisons required for the defended ports 

and outlying cable landing places, have been printed in 'a separate 
secret Memorandum. 

III. ORGANISATION OF THE MILITARY FORCE* 

12. The military forces of the Commonwealth are correctly divided Field and 
into two categories, viz., field units brigaded in a field force organisa- 

tion, and garrison troops allotted for the defence of particular localities. 
Under the existing organisation the garrison troops are subdivided 
into two portions, called the ' district reserves ' and the ' garrisons for 
forts/ There appears to be no strategical justification for this arrange- 
ment, and it is recommended that, after provision has been made 
for the actual garrisons of the defended ports and for the detach- 
ments guarding outlying cable stations, all other units of Militia and 
Volunteers should be included in the field force organisation. 

13. It is very desirable that the garrisons of defended ports, and Organisation 
those allotted to cable landing places, should, wherever practicable, " 

be raised locally, in order that the coast artillery and engineers may 
be constantly trained at the guns and electric lights they will man in 
war, and that the mobile portion of the garrison may be thoroughly 
acquainted with the local topography. 

It will not be possible to bring up troops from a distance in time 
to prevent a rapidly executed raiding attack, and the garrison allotted 
for the protection of each defended port must be capable of repelling 
the attack without external aid. 

14. The principle governing the maintenance of field troops has Purpose of 
already been discussed in paragraph 2. A field force organisation in 
Australia provides a school of training in field units and higher forma- 
tions, as extinguished from sedentary garrison service, and is a neces- 
sary factor in a complete system of national military training, especially 

in a country where no regular troops are maintained. In Australia it 
has been wisely decide^ to proceed from a basis of cadet training, 

297 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

through training according to arm in the military unit, to combined 
training when brigaded in the higher formation. This system will 
diffuse among an increasing proportion of the population the know- 
ledge and discipline which distinguish an army from an armed mob. 
Each unit and brigade will serve not only as a training school, but 
also as a pattern to be multiplied indefinitely in case of necessity. The 
peace unit should be the nucleus round which the materials for war 
expansion would be formed under a system of territorialisation, which 
will enlist to the full local effort and interest. A sound foundation 
will thus be laid in time of peace for the development of the national 
resources to meet a national crisis. The influence of sea power may 
prolong the period available after the outbreak of a great war for the 
expansion and training of land forces, and may transfer the scene of 
the decisive land battles to foreign soil, but it cannot by itself decide 
the issue of a war for national existence, which must in the last resort 
depend on the action of fully developed citizen forces. The main 
object of a field force organisation of part of the Militia in Australia 
is to supply the basis for expansion in case of grave national emergency. 

Brigade 15. The system of organising the field units into brigades of light 

organisation, horse and infantry appears to be well adapted to the circumstances 
of the Commonwealth. At present there are nine of these brigades, 
six of light horse and three of infantry. The proportion of mounted 
to dismounted riflemen has the advantage of giving scope for the 
special qualifications for mounted service which have been so con- 
spicuously displayed by Australians. In the allotment of units to 
the brigades every effort has rightly been made to form a complete 
brigade from units belonging to a single military district. Six of the 
present brigades are thus formed, but the remaining three brigades 
are made up of units drawn from two or more military districts, and 
can -only be regarded as formations on paper. Having regard to diffi- 
culties of intercommunication, it seems unlikely that the brigadier 
would ever have an opportunity of training his brigade as such. More- 
over, the organisation of units from two or more districts into one 
brigade might easily lead to a dual responsibility with its attendant 
drawbacks. It is true that this paper organisation of scattered units 
into brigades of the normal Australian pattern has the advantage of 
maintaining a uniform proportion between the different fighting arms 
and the very important but less popular departmental services, but 
there is no reason why this principle should be lost sight of so long 
as the brigades formed entirely in single districts remain as models 
of the fighting formations adopted by the Commonwealth. It is very 
desirable that the ultimate goal of organising and training all field 
units in normal brigades confined to their own districts should be 
kept in view. Until that object is attainec^it is recommended that 
298 



APPENDIX 

the field units surplus to the district brigade or brigades in the larger 
districts should be affiliated to one or other of the district brigades, 
and that the field units in each of the smaller districts should be grouped 
and trained together as a mixed force if they are insufficient to form 
a complete district brigade of normal composition. 

1 6. As regards peace and war establishments, the arrangements at Peace_and war 
present in force have the grave defect that half of the war establish- 
ment of the light horse and infantry, and an even larger proportion 
of the artillery personnel, are to be introduced into the ranks for the 
first time on mobilisation. Such an arrangement is to be deprecated 
in any military force, and especially so where, as in the case of the 
Commonwealth Militia, the amount of military training is exceed- 
ingly limited. It is recognised, however, that the objections to such 
a course are, to some extent, diminished by the arrangement under 
which officers and non-commissioned officers are maintained in peace 
on practically a war establishment, and it is no doubt the case that 
in the country corps commanding officers might, owing to sparsity 
of population, find it exceedingly difficult to keep in touch with all 
portions of their units, if these were maintained in peace at a strength 
equal to war establishment. 

Nevertheless, it should be possible to increase considerably the 
efficiency of units on mobilisation without introducing drastic changes 
into the existing organisation. Every opportunity should be taken 
of increasing the peace establishments of units already allotted to 
brigades, instead of creating new cadres, and the troops which now 
form the ' district reserves/ if not required to complete the garrisons 
recommended elsewhere for defended ports, should be absorbed into 
the brigade organisation. The men introduced on mobilisation to 
raise units from peace to war establishment, instead of being drawn 
entirely and indiscriminately from the rifle clubs, should be drawn 
from two classes, viz. (i) men who within three years previous to 
mobilisation have completed the third consecutive training in the 
active Militia or Volunteers, and (2) members of rifle clubs classified 
at the time as ' marksmen/ Lastly, it must be pointed out that 
the present annual period in camp, which alone offers any opportunity 
of a systematic training with the other arms, is very short, and should, 
if possible, be extended to at least ten days. 

The field battery is the unit in which an increase of peace estab- 
lishment is most required. Unless the gun detachments are thor- 
oughly efficient at their drill, and the gun layers and fuse setters 
absolutely trustworthy, it is impossible for the most expert command- 
ing officer to obtain effective results. Efficiency can only be attained 
if the battery is regularly drilled with full detachments, and this 
fact points to the desirability of raising batteries in towns rather 

299 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

than in the country districts. It is recommended that batteries 
should throughout be limited to four guns ; this is better fitted to 
the conditions of the Australian Militia than a six-gun organisation, 
and is well adapted to the Q.F. equipment now being introduced. 

No force can keep the field without an ammunition column, but 
it appears that so far no arrangements have been made for supplying 
these essential units on mobilisation. Under Australian conditions, 
it is unnecessary to maintain the requisite personnel in peace, but the 
ammunition wagons with limbers and spare gun carriages should be 
provided in peace as ' mobilisation equipment.' The locally avail- 
able equivalents of such vehicles as general service wagons and forage 
carts may, in the case of these as of all other field units, be left to be 
procured on mobilisation. Suitable arrangements must be worked 
out for providing the requisite officers, non-commissioned officers, 
men, and horses, for these columns on mobilisation. The personnel 
of all ranks should, as far as possible, be composed of officers and 
men who have previously served in the artillery, and will thus be 
qualified to fill casualties in the ranks of the batteries. ' This require- 
ment affords an additional reason for a considerable increase in the 
peace establishment of a field battery. 

Under present arrangements a brigade of light horse contains one 
six-gun battery, and a brigade of infantry three four-gun batteries, 
two of which are armed with the i8-pr. Q.F. gun, while the third is 
to be armed in one case with guns of position, and in another with 
howitzers. In the case of the infantry brigade this gives a smaller 
proportion of guns to rifles than is normal in modern armies. In a 
British army corps the average is somewhat over 5 guns per 1000 
rifles, heavy guns being provided in the proportion of i, and 
howitzers in the proportion of 1*5, to every 10 of the horse and 
field guns. It is, however, considered far more important that the 
existing Australian batteries should be given larger peace establish- 
ments than that any immediate effort should be made to increase 
the proportion of guns to rifles. 

The shortage of peace as compared with war establishment can, 
in the case of the light horse, be remedied by adopting for war the 
establishment of the home Imperial Yeomanry. A regiment of 
Australian Light Horse on the present peace establishment of 296 
all ranks would then be raised in war to 476 instead of to 583. 

Two machine-guns should form part of the equipment of each 
regiment of light horse and battalion of infantry. 

Rifle clubs. 17. With regard to rifle clubs, which form part of the military 

system of the Commonwealth, it is believed that much good would 
result from a system of affiliating each club to a neighbouring Militia 
unit. These clubs are of value in affording facilities to acquire pro- 
300 



APPENDIX 

ficiency in the use of the rifle to men who for one reason or another 
cannot belong to a Militia unit. It must, however, be remembered 
that the drill and discipline which can alone turn rifle shooting to 
good account on the battle-field cannot be acquired from member- 
ship in a rifle club, which can never be looked upon as an effective 
substitute for the military training afforded by service in the Militia. 
If the rifle clubs are affiliated to Militia units and administered under 
the supervision of the officers commanding these units, such a measure 
should tend to more economical and effective administration as regards 
rifle ranges, and to the simplification of arrangements on mobilisation, 
while promoting a spirit of comradeship and mutual interest between 
the two branches. If, as has been suggested above, a ' reserve ' is 
formed of ex-militia-men undertaking to join their units on mobilisa- 
tion should the occasion arise within two years of their completing 
their training in the active Militia, one condition of service in the 
reserve should be membership during that period in the rifle club 
affiliated to their unit, so that their proficiency with the rifle may 
be maintained. 

18. The recommendations made above respecting the organisa- Summary of 

tion of the military forces may be summarised as follows : [fons m aTto da 

(1) Garrisons to be recruited locally as far as possible. S mSiSy n 

(2) The only organised brigades retained to be those which are, forces. 

or can be, formed exclusively from units in a single military 
district. Other units either to be attached for administra- 
tion and training to brigades in their own districts, or, in 
the less populous districts, to be administered and trained 
as mixed forces. 

(3) Units now classed as ' district reserves ' to be absorbed into 

the field units. 

(4) A Militia reserve to be formed to provide, together with marks- 

men from the rifle clubs, the additional personnel required 
on mobilisation to raise units from peace to war estab- 
lishment. 

(5) The peace establishment of units, especially in the case of 

artillery, to be gradually raised. 

(6) The annual training camp to be extended to ten days. 

(7) Provision to be made for ammunition columns. 

(8) The war establishment of a regiment of light horse to be 

reduced to 476 all ranks. 

(9) Each regiment of light horse and battalion of infantry to be 

equipped with two machine-guns. 
(10) Rifle clubs to be affiliated to Militia units. 



301 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

IV. LOCAL NAVAL DEFENCE 

Local naval 19. The subject of the provision of local naval defence for ports, 

harbours, and coastal trade is discussed in a Memorandum (Common- 
wealth Parliamentary Paper No. 66 of 1905) by Captain Creswell, 
Director of Naval Forces, which is forwarded for the information of 
the Committee of Imperial Defence, who are requested to consider 
these matters, as the sentiment in favour of the development of the 
maritime resources of Australia is one which, in the opinion of the 
Commonwealth Government, deserves and will repay encouragement. 
Captain CreswelTs proposals contemplate the provision of a separate 
Navy for the Commonwealth, comprising : 

3 Cruiser destroyers, 1 
1 6 Torpedo-boat destroyers, 
15 Torpedo-boats (ist and 2nd class), 

the acquisition of this force to be extended over a period of seven 
years, at a cost which he estimates at 2,300,000 for construction and 
maintenance of vessels alone. 

As regards personnel, he estimates that an addition of 456 will 
be needed to the permanent forces, and 466 to the naval militia. 

The role of this Navy is described as follows : 

' This will provide a defence not designed as a force for action 
against hostile fleets or squadrons, which is the province of the Imperial 
fleet, but as a line necessary to us within the defence line of the Imperial 
fleet a purely defensive line, that will give security to our naval 
bases, populous centres, principal ports, and commerce.' 

These proposals appear to be based upon an imperfect conception 
of the requirements of naval strategy at the present day, and of the 
proper application of naval force. 

The services which, it is claimed, will be rendered by the proposed 
destroyers are to contribute to the security of defended ports and to 
the protection of floating trade. 

Having regard to the nature of the attack to which Australian 
ports are liable (considered in paragraphs 6 to 10), the benefits to be 
rendered to the coast defence by destroyers appear altogether incom- 
mensurate with the expenditure that would be entailed by their main- 
tenance. The Australian ports have already been provided with 
works and armaments, and the comparatively inexpensive revision 
now recommended will bring them up to modern requirements. The 
deterrent effect exercised by these defences, manned by vigilant 
local forces, may confidently be expected to exclude raiding cruisers 

1 It is not clear what type of vessel is indicated by this designation. It is pre- 
sumed that it represents a new class of warship of the destroyer type with increased 
tonnage and coal endurance. 

302 



APPENDIX 

from the harbours of the Commonwealth by night as well as by day, 
while the defence against the landings possible from such cruisers 
can, with equal safety and economy of force, be entrusted to small 
infantry garrisons. 

The protection of Australian floating trade, whether on the high 
seas or in local waters, demands for its effective accomplishment, 
as explained in paragraphs 3 to 5, the closely concerted action of 
powerful sea-going ships. Localised vessels of the destroyer type 
could play no effective part in securing this object. 

There is therefore no strategical justification from either point of 
view for the creation at great expense of a local force of destroyers 
a type of vessel designed for totally different uses. If in the future 
strategical conditions should ever so far alter as to necessitate the 
provision of warships of this type in Australian waters, it would 
devolve upon the Admiralty to provide them as part of their general 
responsibility for the strategical distribution of the naval forces of 
the Empire. Should this necessity arise, it will no doubt be advan- 
tageous that these vessels should be manned by Australians trained 
in sea-going fleets under the Naval Agreement. At present, however, 
no such strategical necessity exists, or threatens. 

It may be added that the employment of a naval force as ' a purely 
defensive line ' is a misapplication of maritime power opposed to every 
sound principle of naval strategy. To act deliberately on the defensive, 
and to organise naval forces with this object in view, is to adopt 
voluntarily the policy which is of necessity forced upon the weaker 
naval Power. Australia need not be reduced to assuming such a 
role so long as she is a member of an Empire which is the strongest 
naval Power in the world, and which extends naval protection not 
only* to the homeland and to the most distant of the King's dominions 
beyond the seas, but also to all commerce sailing under the British 
flag. 

The policy of devoting the entire naval forces of the Empire to 
seeking out and destroying the ships of the enemy wherever they may 
be is that which will best ensure not only the safety of floating trade, 
but also the immunity from attack of coast towns and harbours, 
and, if this policy is to be properly and efficiently carried out, the 
Royal Navy must be one and undivided. Unity of training and 
unity of command can alone ensure that thorough co-operation which 
is essential. A separate Australian Navy could not find in any effec- 
tive organisation of the naval forces of the Empire a role commen- 
surate with the cost of its creation and maintenance or worthy of the 
aptitude for sea service of the inhabitants of the island-continent. 
The existing Australian floating defences, consisting entirely of obsolete 
vessels, were originally provided mainly with a view to co-operation 
in local defence, and, although their value for this purpose was never 

303 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

great, the Colonial Defence Committee have hitherto hesitated to 
recommend the extinction of the local naval forces, which afforded 
the only means of satisfying the inclination of Australians for service 
afloat, and of giving some effect to the desire in Australia to make 
some contribution in men as well as money to the naval strength of 
the Empire. The natural and legitimate aspiration in Australia to 
furnish a distinctively Australian element to the sea power of the 
Empire will find a satisfactory realisation in increasing degree when 
the scheme, still in its infancy, initiated by the Naval Agreement of 
1903, has had time to take full effect. The preamble of the Agreement 
recognises, on the one hand, the necessity of a single Navy, and, on 
the other, the advantages which will be derived from developing 
the sea power of Australia. Article 5 provides for the manning by 
Australians of a certain number of ships ; Article 6 secures that, in 
the future, there will be a steady supply of officers of Australian birth, 
who will be able to rise to the highest posts in the Royal Navy ; and 
Article 7 establishes a branch of the Royal Naval Reserve in Australia. 
In the future it may be expected that an increasing number of ships, 
specially manned and officered by Australians, will be included in 
the fleets and squadrons of the Royal Navy. This will, in time of 
peace, ensure wide opportunities of training, and, by the healthy spirit 
of emulation induced, will enhance the fighting value of the units 
to a degree unattainable in a small Navy ; while, in the event of war, 
these ships will represent Australia, and enable her to take a more 
worthy share in the operations than if her naval activity were con- 
fined to guarding against problematical attacks on her coasts. 



304 



MEMORANDUM BY THE CHIEF OF THE GENERAL 
STAFF AND OF THE COMMONWEALTH SECTION 
OF THE IMPERIAL GENERAL STAFF, IST JULY 
1909 TO 30TH JUNE 1910. 

Headquarters, Melbourne, 8th July, 1910. 

The following is a resume of the work of the General Staff and the 
Commonwealth Section of the Imperial General Staff (ist July 1909 
3Oth June 1910), with a review of the principles upon which it has 
been based. 

i. The need for a General Staff ' selected from the Forces of the 
Empire as a whole ' was affirmed by the Imperial Conference which 
met in London, in 1907 the duties in time of peace being defined as 
follows : 

' To study Military Science in all its branches ; to collect and dis- 
seminate to the various Governments military information and 
intelligence ; to undertake the preparation of schemes of defence 
on a common principle, and (without in the least interfering 
with questions connected with command and administration), 
at the request of the respective Governments, to advise as to 
the training, education, and war organisation of the Military 
Forces of the Crown in every part of the Empire/ 

Consequent on this Conference, I was sent, in August 1908, to 
the War Office to ' confer with the General Staff as to the way of 
making an immediate beginning for the formation of an Australian 
Section of the Imperial General Staff.' 

Definite proposals to give effect to the resolutions of the Confer- 
ence were drawn up by the Chief of the General Staff, General Sir 
William Nicholson, G.C.B., in a memorandum, dated 7th December 
1908. 

This memorandum stated that ' the General Staff must be an 
entity throughout the Empire, and to make it so all its members 
ought to be uniformly trained in principles and practice in one school, 
under one head.' 

While suggesting ' that each self-governing Dominion should 
arrange as soon as possible to prepare and send a suitable number of 

OVERSEAS 2. U 305 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

officers to undergo a Staff College Course at Camberley, or Quetta, 
or at the local Staff Colleges, which it is hoped may soon be estab- 
lished,' the necessity for the immediate creation oi an Imperial General 
Staff was admitted, in view of the contemplated expansion on new 
principles of the Military Forces of certain oversea Dominions, and 
the present means and how best to use them to bring such a Staff 
into being, were considered. 

The draft proposals contained in this memorandum formed the 
basis for consideration and discussion at the War Office by the General 
Staff and Oversea Delegates, and finally certain broad principles and 
duties for the Imperial General Staff were defined and agreed to. 
The local application of these principles was left to the respective 
Governments. 

Subsequently, and after consultation with the War Office autho- 
rities, Officers of the General Staff, General Officers Commanding in 
the United Kingdom, and also full inquiry into the system and the 
actual working of the General Staff, both in commands and at 
manoeuvres, proposals were drawn up by me with regard to the forma- 
tion of a Commonwealth Section of the Imperial General Staff. These 
proposals, with a few minor alterations, were concurred in by the Chief 
of the General Staff at the War Office. 

After return to Australia, I was appointed Chief of the General 
Staff, and also Chief of the Commonwealth Section, Imperial General 
Staff, from ist July 1909. 

ALLOTMENT OF DUTIES OF STAFF 

Duties of staff 2. Approval was then given to my proposals, the Department 
approved. was or g a nised, and duties (M.O. 320/1909), based on the accepted 
principles, approved : 

COMMONWEALTH SECTION OF THE IMPERIAL GENERAL STAFF 

At Headquarters 
Chief of the Commonwealth Section Imperial General Staff 

Organisation for war. Plans of concentration for war. Intelli- 
gence concerning the Commonwealth. Preparation and main- 
tenance of Defence Scheme. 

Training and instruction. Supervision and inspection of training 
at camps, manoeuvres, etc. Education and examination for 
promotion of officers. Recommendation for appointment to 
and promotion of officers of Commonwealth Section of Imperial 
General Staff. 

Field operations and promulgation of operation orders. Schemes 
306 



APPENDIX 

for manoeuvres and staff rides. Drill books and training manuals. 
General Staff libraries. Preparation of maps. 
Advice upon raising and disbanding of units. Censorship in time 
of war. 

Director of Defence Organisation 

Organisation and plans of concentration for war. Defence schemes 
for the Commonwealth. Strategical and tactical reconnais- 
sances. 

Director of Military Training 

Training and instruction of all arms. Education and examina- 
tion for promotion of officers. Arrangement of classes of in- 
struction. Conduct of examination of officers for Staff College, " 
and for appointment to Permanent Forces. 

Schemes for manoeuvres and staff rides. Drill books and train- 
ing manuals. 

Advice upon the acquisition of training grounds and ranges. 

Advice upon the allotment of funds for training and manoeuvres. 

Director of Intelligence 

Intelligence. Preparation and issue of maps. Headquarters 
Library. 

In Districts 

Officers of the Commonwealth Section of the Imperial General 
Staff will, under the respective Commandants, carry out the 
duties in Districts corresponding to those laid down for the 
Commonwealth Section of the Imperial General Staff at Head- 
quarters. 

SUB-CONFERENCE ON MILITARY DEFENCE. LONDON, IQOQ 

3. The recommendations of the Sub-Conference on Military Defence, Recommenda- 
London, dated loth August 1909, supplementing the proposals of conferenctT 
1908, in regard to the work of local sections of the Imperial General ioth August 
Staff, were received just prior to my departure to Port Darwin to I909 ' 
meet Field-Marshal Lord Kitchener. They had practically, however, 
already been embodied in the work carried out by the Commonwealth 
Section of the Imperial General Staff. 

The organisation of the Commonwealth section as recommended 
by the Conference, divided the Directorate of Military Training into 
two branches (a) Training, and (6) Staff Duties. 

Local experience and the expansion of the work in the section had 
proved that the duties of this branch were too much for one officer 
to carry out. 

307 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

The Conference also recommended that the designation of the 
' Defence Organisation ' Directorate be changed to that of ' Operations.' 

The necessary amendments to give effect to the above recommenda- 
tions were therefore submitted. (Cor. 1804/2/92.) 

OFFICE ACCOMMODATION 

office accom- 4. Owing to the office accommodation at Headquarters being 
Gcnera?st f aff. ^ u % utilised, some difficulty was found in obtaining suitable offices 
for the General Staff, and in order to overcome this, I vacated the 
quarters occupied by me, which are occupied by the General Staff, 
and are in the same building as the remainder of the Headquarter 
Offices. 

APPOINTMENTS TO STAFF 

Personnel of 5. (i.) Chief of the General Staff and Chief of the Commonwealth 

Section, Imperial General Staff (Major-General J. C. 
Hoad, C.M.G. 
Director of Defence Organisation. (This position has not 

been filled, vide (iii.) ). 

Director of Military Training (Major F. A. Wilson, D.S.O., 
an Imperial exchange officer replacing Captain C. B. B. 
White, Commonwealth Forces, who is attached to the War 
Office as General Staff Officer, 3rd grade). 
Director of Intelligence (Colonel the Hon. J. W. M'Cay., V.D., 
who is also the Officer Commanding the Australian Intel- 
ligence Corps). 

Owing to the development of the work of the General Staff, the 
services of additional officers were urgently required, and the under- 
mentioned officers were temporarily detailed from ist April 1910 : 
Captain (Tempy. Major) J. E. Robertson, R.A.A., to assist 

the Director of Military Training. 

Captain (Hon. Major) F. J. Hayter, Administrative and 
Instructional Staff, to assist the Director of Defence 
Organisation. 

Their appointments as 3rd Grade General Staff Officers, from ist 
July 1910, have now been approved by the Minister. 

(ii.) It is not proposed for the present to appoint General Staff 
Officers to Districts. 

Director of (iii.) There has been unexpected delay in making the appointment 

Organisation. of Director of Defence Organisation and, consequently, much work 
has had to stand over. It is understood that it has been decided to 
appoint Lieut.-Colonel J. G. Legge temporarily to this position, in 
addition to his duties as Quartermaster-General ; it being thought 
advisable, in view of the work of organisation which falls to the General 
308 



APPENDIX 

Staff in connection with the introduction of universal service, also 
the division of the Commonwealth into military areas and the framing 
of Regulations, that an officer with an intimate knowledge of local 
conditions should be appointed. 

The initial work in connection with the detail on which the Defence 
Bill of 1909 was based and, for the last six months, the preliminary 
work of organisation in anticipation of any action that may be taken 
on Lord Kitchener's recommendations, has been done by Colonel 
Legge. This has entailed most arduous and continuous work. 

COUNCIL OF DEFENCE 

6. The powers and functions of the Council of Defence are denned Council of 

oc fallsvnTc Defence. No 

as I0110WS . meetings held. 

C.M.R. i. ' The Council of Defence inquires into, discusses, 
and records opinions upon matters submitted to it by the 
Minister affecting 

(a) The general policy of the Naval and Military Defence 

of the Commonwealth. 

(b) Measures necessary for the defence of the Common- 

wealth in time of war. 

(c) The total expenditure on defence and its distribution/ 

No meetings of this Council were held whilst I was Inspector- 
General (from ist January 1907 to 3oth June 1909), and a meeting 
has not been held since my appointment as Chief of the General Staff. 

/ 

DEFENCE SCHEMES 

7. (i.) For the first time since the inauguration of the Common- Preparation 
wealth, the District Defence Schemes were brought to such a state of Defence 11 
of completion as admitted of their being printed and forwarded in Schemes. 
December last to the War Office for remarks. 

The schemes, although yet incomplete in some detail, form a basis 
for elaboration, and are sufficiently complete to permit details con- 
nected with the mobilisation of personnel and materiel being worked 
out. The compilation of mobilisation orders for personnel (Adjutant- 
General's Branch), and also materiel (Quartermaster-General's Branch) 
is now almost completed. 

The procedure with regard to the method of dealing with the 
schemes has also been laid down, and District Defence Committees 
appointed in all States. 

C.M. Standing Order 4 provides : 

' District Commandants will revise annually the schemes for 
the defence of the fortresses or defended ports under their 

309 



Tables of 
Organisation. 



Changes of 
Organisation. 



R.A.A. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

command, and will render to the Military Board on ist January 
a report that this has been done, together with copies of their 
revised schemes, and this report shall be submitted for the 
consideration of the Military Board/ 

Now that the schemes are in print, this order should be strictly 
adhered to in future. 

(ii.) A Committee has been appointed, consisting of a represen- 
tative from the Commonwealth Naval Forces, the General Staff, and 
the Postal Department, to discuss details and draft proposals of a 
scheme for utilisation of existing telegraph lines for military purposes 
during war, and also distribution of postal matter. 

ORGANISATION 

8. (i.) A new edition of the Tables of Organisation and Distribu- 
tion of the Commonwealth Military Forces, superseding the Tables* 
issued in 1909, was published in February 1910. 

(ii.) Changes in organisation of the under-mentioned units have 
been approved : 

New South Wales. ist, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 6th A.L.H. Regi- 
ments. 

Victoria. 8th A.L.H. Regiment. 

Queensland. I3th and I5th A.L.H. Regiments, ist Batt. Wide 
Bay Infantry Regiment. 

Western Australia. i8th A.L.H. Regiment. 

Tasmania. I2th A.L.H. Regiment, Tasmanian Rangers. 

And the following new units have been raised : 

No. 6 L.H. Transport and Supply Column,, A. A.S.C., South Australia. 
No. 4 Electric Coy., C. of A.E., Western Australia. 

REORGANISATION OF THE ARTILLERY 

9. (i.) Proposals for the reorganisation of the Royal Australian 
Artillery have been approved. Lt. -Colonel R. Wallace, R.A.A., in 
addition to his duties as Chief of Ordnance, has been appointed Officer 
Commanding Royal Australian Artillery for the Commonwealth. The 
appointment was much needed. There were really six separate 
commands in the Regiment, i.e., one in each State, and there was 
no guarantee that the administration and the interior economy of 
the Regiment were uniform throughout ; in fact, questions raised 
from time to time have shown that they were not so. The principal 
duties of the O.C., R.A.A., are to be those of co-ordination of admini- 
stration, training, and inspection ; and following on this, he should 
be in a position to judge the capabilities of the personnel as a whole, 
310 



APPENDIX 

and make recommendations, etc., which will be in the best interests 
of the Service and of the Regiment in particular. 

(ii.) Investigation of the Manning Tables of the Defended Ports Re-aiiotment 
of the Commonwealth disclosed the fact that the Australian Garrison oftheA - G - A - 
Artillery in Victoria might be reduced by at least two hundred all ranks, 
and that sufficient personnel would still remain for the approved 
number of reliefs for the service armament. 

Recruiting was therefore suspended, and early in June the Corps 
was 101 below establishment. It may be expected that the dis- 
charges for non-effectiveness will still further reduce the strength. 

It was at first proposed that the saving thus effected should be 
utilised towards defraying the cost of two batteries of Australian Field 
Artillery (i8-pr. Q.F. guns). These two batteries were to be allotted 
one to the ist Infantry Brigade, N.S.W., and the other to the 2nd 
Infantry Brigade, Victoria, to take place of the 5" B.L. Howitzer 
and 4*7" Q.F. batteries which were to be included in the ' unallotted 
units/ 

The proposal was approved, but, in the meantime, the alteration Formation of 
of Section 32 of the Defence^Acts 1903-4 to the extent of permitting 
the formation of Permanent Field Artillery Batteries necessitated a Batteries, 
reconsideration of the subject. 

(iii.) I then recommended the establishment of two Permanent 
Field Batteries in lieu of the tw r o Militia Batteries, and the absorp- 
tion therein of the existing R.A.A. Instructional Cadres in New 
South Wales and Victoria. 

Approval has been granted for provision to be included in the draft 
Estimates for these two Batteries which, if formed, will greatly assist 
in increasing the efficiency of the Militia Field Artillery Batteries, 
by providing better facilities for all ranks to learn their work, and 
furnishing a standard. 



TRAINING BRANCH 

10. I desire to record my high appreciation of the valuable work 
performed by Major F. A. Wilson, D.S.O., who during the past twelve 
months has devoted himself unsparingly, not only to the successful 
performance of the special duties appertaining to his appointment 
of ' Director of Military Training/ but to the general work of the 
Staff, which has been handicapped by the position of ' Director of 
Defence Organisation ' remaining unfilled. 

MILITARY EDUCATION OF OFFICERS 

11. The need for Officers trained as General Staff Officers is urgent. Training 
With a view to meeting the proposal contained in memorandum 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Appointment 
of ' Relieving 
Officers ' 
recommended. 



Exchange 
officers and 
officers abroad 
for training 
and instruction 
(Appendix I.). 



dated War Office, 7th December 1908, that ' each self-governing 
Dominion should arrange as soon as possible to prepare and send a 
suitable number of officers to undergo a Staff College Course at Cam- 
berley or Quetta/ arrangements were made for two officers of the 
Australian Permanent Forces to present themselves for examination 
in October 1909, for entrance this year to the Staff College, Camberley, 
England. Both failed to reach the prescribed standard, but special 
permission was granted for one of these to enter for the course at 
Camberley, and for the other at Quetta, India. 

The examination for entrance next year to Camberley commenced 
on the 28th ultimo, and the nomination of two Australian officers has 
been approved. It has, however, been decided that before entrance 
to the College all officers must pass the qualifying examination. If 
successful, it is proposed that one should be sent to Camberley and 
the other to Quetta, the Indian Government having notified that 
nomination and examination for Camberley will be accepted for 
Quetta. The Staff College Course covers a period of two years. 

12. As a certain number of permanent officers will lie absent from 
Australia every year qualifying at. the Staff Colleges (Camberley and 
Quetta), or undergoing special courses of instruction, and, as such 
officers will not be replaced by officers from abroad, I have recom- 
mended the establishment of permanent officers be increased to allow 
a percentage of officers, who in such cases will be available locally, to 
act as ' Relieving ' officers. 

13. The policy of exchange of officers with the British, Indian, 
and Canadian Forces is being continued. 

I wish to again record the opinion that if in future senior officers 
of the same rank were exchanged, and these officers were to perform 
the specific duties of the officers whom they temporarily replace in 
either England, India, Australia, or Canada, much more benefit would 
accrue to the Service. 

In pursuance of the policy of sending selected officers of the Citizen 
Forces abroad for training, five officers proceeded to India in October 
last, and have now returned to Australia and resumed duty with 
their Corps. 

All officers abroad for training or instruction furnish a monthly 
report, from which extracts on questions of general interest are sent 
to Districts for information. 



Examination 
of officers of 



promotion. 



EXAMINATIONS FOR PROMOTION OF OFFICERS OF PERMANENT FORCES 

APPENDIX II 

14. Arrangements have been made with the War Office for officers 
of the Commonwealth Permanent Forces to undergo the same examina- 
312 



APPENDIX 

tion for promotion as officers of the British and Canadian Forces. 
The papers are set and marked at the War Office, a common standard 
of professional attainments being thus secured. The examinations 
under this arrangement are held in December and May of each year. 
The first examination was held in December last, and it is gratifying 
to note that in forwarding the results the following remarks were con- 
tained in the covering despatches : 

War Office Despatch, 9.3.1910 

' I am able to inform you that, with the exception of the substitution 
of certain questions in the papers in Military Law, the whole examination, 
as regards standard of marking, etc., has been carried out in exactly the same 
manner as that for officers of the Regular Forces examined at the same 
time. 

' Under these circumstances, and especially considering that this is the 
first examination held under the present system, the Army Council desires 
to congratulate the majority of the officers concerned on the general results, 
which compares satisfactorily with that of the Regular Forces examined in 
England. Out of the seventeen officers examined, only two failed to pass 
in the subjects taken up by them/ 

Secretary of State for the Colonies' Despatch, 11.3.1910 

' Your Ministers will, no doubt, observe with satisfaction that, in the 
opinion of the Army Council, the work done by the Australian officers com- 
pares satisfactorily with that of the officers of the Regular Forces in England.' 

EXAMINATION OF OFFICERS OF THE CITIZEN FORCES 

15. (i.) As the Brigades, Regiments and Battalions of the Field Examination 
Force are commanded by officers of the Citizen Forces, the standard cute^Forces. 
of the examination of the tactical fitness to command of these officers 
(examination for promotion to the rank of Lieut. -Colonel) has been 
made the same as that for officers of the Permanent Forces. 

(ii.) Prior to February last the papers for the examination of officers Examinations 
of the Citizen Forces for confirmation of first appointment and for j^^e 
promotion had been set, printed, and marked locally in each District ofc.G.s. 
by District Boards. The system was unsatisfactory, as it did not 
ensure a uniform standard throughout the Commonwealth, and in- 
volved much unnecessary work. To remedy this, arrangements were 
made for the papers to be set and marked by a Central Board, and 
for the examinations for all officers of the Commonwealth Forces to 
be arranged and conducted from the office of the Chief of the General 
Staff. 

The examinations take place half-yearly, in February and August, 
and the first examination under this arrangement was held in February 
last. A Central Board with representatives from the Districts set 

313 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

and marked the papers and also arranged as to method of conduct- 
ing the practical tests in the States so as to secure uniformity. 

General criticism on the candidates' answers to examination papers 
were forwarded to Commandants. 

(iii.) In isolated country districts where it is impracticable without 
expense and inconvenience to arrange for an officer to supervise the 
theoretical examination of a candidate, the adoption of the principle 
that arrangements may be made for a Justice of the Peace, Bank 
Manager, or Clergyman to do so has been approved. 

(iv.) The general standard of military education in Australia, 
although greatly improved during the past few years, is still, in my 
opinion, below what is necessary. 

Knowledge is the keystone of efficiency, and to bring military 
instruction within reasonable reach of officers of the Citizen Forces is 
one of the problems which is engaging the earnest attention of the 
Staff. 

Bearing in mind that the time Citizen Officers are able to devote 
to military study is limited by their civil avocations, it is' satisfactory 
to note that most commendable zeal is exhibited and many sacrifices 
made by these officers to take advantage of the instruction arranged 
for them. I consider, however, that there is room for improvement 
in systematising the instruction as now carried out. This is shown 
by the results of the last examination. (See Appendix III.) 

COURSES OF INSTRUCTION 

16. (i.) Reports of all courses of instruction, showing programme 
of work, number attending, examination papers set at conclusion of 
course, and results of examination, forwarded from Districts to Head- 
quarters, have been reviewed by the Staff. 

(ii.) The Standing Orders in regard to ' Courses of Instruction ' have 
been revised, and the Courses are now classified generally as follows : 

(a) ' Refresher Courses ' for officers of and above the rank of 

Major, Staff and specially selected officers. 

(4 whole days continuously minimum, 30 hours.) 

(b) ' Schools of Instruction ' for officers, warrant and non- 

commissioned officers and men. 

(10 days continuously minimum, 70 hours.) 

(c) ' Classes of Instruction ' for officers, warrant and non-com- 

missioned officers unable to attend a School of Instruc- 
tion. 

(For those who cannot give up 10 whole days continu- 
ously.) 

Instruction carried out during the hours of early morning, 
afternoon, or evening, convenient to members attending. 
314 



APPENDIX 

At the conclusion of ' Schools of Instruction ' certificates are issued, 
which are accepted, as prescribed by C.M.R. io6A, in lieu of examina- 
tion for promotion in certain subjects. 

TRAINING AREAS 

17. Suitable Training Grounds in each State are much needed. Acquisition 
Consequent on closer settlement and increased population, it is apparent 

that the acquisition of these areas will become each year more difficult 
and costly. 

Arrangements are practically complete for acquiring an area of 
about 120,000 acres at Liverpool, New South Wales, 30 miles from 
Sydney, between the main Southern and South Coast railway lines. 

Negotiations are proceeding with the Government of the State 
of Queensland regarding an area of about 23,000 acres at Beerburrum, 
about 31 miles north of Brisbane, on the North Coast Railway, and 
with the Government of the State of Western Australia, in regard 
to an area of about 45,000 acres at Tammin, about no miles east 
of Perth by rail. 

Several localities have been reported upon in Victoria, South 
Australia, and Tasmania, but no extensive area has yet been decided 
on in these States. 

TRAINING AND MANCEUVRES 

18. (i.) The troops in the various camps of training arranged for campsof 
Lord Kitchener's inspection were seen under the most unfavourable Trainin - 
conditions, in regard to the unsuitable time of the year the middle of 
summer the period of training, and, to some extent, muster. From 

July to December of each year attention is largely concentrated on 
recruiting in order to fill the places of those found ' inefficient ' during 
the preceding year and those discharged for other reasons, and special 
attention is also given to the annual Musketry Course, while the first 
three months of the year (January to March) are largely devoted to 
preparatory training for the camps which are generally held at Easter. 

A similar practice is adopted in England where the ' winter train- 
ing ' is carried out, followed by brigade and divisional training, and 
Staff tours, in order to prepare the troops for the manoeuvres which 
are usually held in August and September. 

Were the troops in England to be taken out for manoeuvres in the 
middle of winter, the results could not be expected to be as satisfactory 
as they are under the present system. 

The troops in camp had, unfortunately, been able to do little ' pre- 
liminary ' field training, and, consequently, were unable to do them- 
selves justice. In future years it is desirable that the annual camps 
should be held at the conclusion of company and battalion training. 

315 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

The most noticeable deficiencies in training at the recent camps 
were 

(a) Generally a breakdown of Communication throughout the 

Forces, due chiefly to the absence of trained Regimental 
Signallers and the failure of officers to recognise the import- 
ance, especially in timbered country, of maintaining lateral 
communication with the units on either flank. 

(b) Failure on the part of superior commanders to make proper 

use of their reserves. 

(c) In some cases the employment of Light Horse in action was 

faulty. The principle which should guide Light Horse 
in the attack is that it should engage the enemy by fire, 
while making the utmost use of its mobility. Any attack 
undertaken should be pressed with vigour and, where the 
presence of large numbers of horses precludes formations 
in depth and gradual building up of the firing line, the 
mobility of Light Horse must be employed to gain superi- 
ority of fire. 

Neglect of this principle led to long advances on foot, sur- 
render of mobility, and great exposure of horses. 

Reconnaissance in enclosed country generally led to great 
distribution of force and consequent weakness. 

Reconnaissance by means of officers' patrols, while keeping 
the main body concentrated on one road, does not appear 
to have been sufficiently studied. 

(d) Failure of Artillery Commanders to keep in touch with the pro- 

gress of the fight, and a general disinclination to approach 
to ' effective ' and ' close ' ranges. 

Although in certain cases artillery is forced to open fire at 
' distant ' and ' long ' ranges, they should, whenever covered 
approaches are available, be brought up to ' effective ' 
range before opening fire. 

(e) Lack of inter-communication in the Infantry was noticed on 

several occasions. Battalions and companies lost their 
direction, and in heavy timber became separated. The 
gradual building up of the firing line and employment of 
reserves was in few cases correctly carried out. 
Company officers did not appear always to have their men 
in hand, probably due to the absence of ' preliminary 
training/ 

(ii.) Generally speaking there was a tendency to attempt, at the 
first, schemes which were too elaborate, instead of proceeding from 
the simpler exercises to more advanced work. 

Further, the exercises should be fully criticised from day to day, 
316 



APPENDIX 

the whole training culminating as- far as possible in a final test of 
efficiency. 

(iii.) Undoubtedly much good would result from an alteration to 
the Regulations making attendance at Camp compulsory for eight 
days. This should, in my opinion, be the minimum period for which 
troops are concentrated for continuous training. It has been recom- 
mended that pay for eight days should be ' ear-marked ' for Camp 
only, and* that ' casual ' parades at which pay can be earned should 
be limited ; and also that night parades for pay be much reduced. 
This should result in increased attendances at the main parades of 
Regiments and Corps. 

STAFF TOURS AND REGIMENTAL EXERCISES 

19. (i.) A Staff Tour, at which the Commandants of New South Headquarters 
Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, and Tasmania, with StaffTours - 
the Senior Officers of their Staffs, will attend, has been arranged to 

take place this month. 

The organisation of the troops is to be taken as laid down in the 
Tables of Organisation, and the special object of the Tour is to prac- 
tise the arrangements necessary for the concentration of troops, 
the provision of transport, supply and maintenance in the field, and 
the organisation of lines of communication. 

The Tour will be about the border of New South Wales and Victoria, 
in the vicinity of Albury. 

(ii.) Staff Tours were held in New South Wales and Queensland. StaffTours. 
The work done has been reviewed by the Staff. 

(iii.) Regimental exercises are a most valuable adjunct to training, Regimental 
and a sum of money has been placed on the Estimates for 1910-11, Exercises - 
with the object of extending such training. 

TRAINING MANUALS 

20. (i.) The Training Manuals of the Army are adopted for all Training 
arms of the Australian Forces, with the exception of the Light Horse, Manuals - 
for which no suitable manual is published by the War Office, there 
being no corresponding ' arm ' in the British Forces. The manual 

for the Australian Light Horse is compiled locally. 

A revision of this manual was necessitated by changes in the 
Imperial manuals, and this work was entrusted to a Committee of 
which the C.G.S. was president. The revised manual was issued in 
January last. 

(ii.) Approval has been given for the free issue of the Training Free issue of 
Manuals of the respective arms to each officer and non-commissioned Manuals - 
officer of and above the rank of sergeant in the Commonwealth Military 
Forces. 

317 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Revised 
Syllabi issued, 



Local 

Educational 
Examinations 
accepted by 
Army Council. 



SYLLABI OF EXAMINATIONS * 

21. Amendments to the syllabi of the various ' Arms/ consequent 
on the ' Field Service Regulations ' superseding the ' Combined Train- 
ing,' and revised syllabi for thejfollowing examinations have been 
issued : 

(i.) Promotion of officers to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. 

(ii.) First appointment and transfer to, and confirmation of 
probationary appointments in Permanent Forces. 

(iii.) Syllabus for the examination for first appointment and 
promotion of officers of the Citizen Forces up to the 
rank of Major for all ' arms,' and to the rank of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel in the A.A.M.C. and A.A.V.C. 

The last-mentioned Syllabus, in addition to the main object of aiming 
to provide a professional examination, which will be a better test of 
an officer's fitness for promotion than the syllabi which it superseded, 
embodies in one publication information concerning all ' arms ' which 
has hitherto been published in separate pamphlets, corrects many 
anomalies which had existed in the different pamphlets, and makes 
the general standard more uniform. 

ACCEPTANCE OF LOCAL EDUCATIONAL EXAMINATION BY THE 

WAR OFFICE 

22. The Army Council have recently had under consideration the 
general question of accepting certain local examinations in the Domi- 
nions as a test of a ' fair general education ' in lieu of * Leaving Certi- 
ficate ' for Army purposes or an ' Army Qualifying Certificate,' which 
is required for an officer of the Colonial Military Forces who is a candi- 
date for a commission in the Regular Army on the nomination of the 
Governor-General. 

The Army Council suggested that the Commonwealth section of 
the Imperial General Staff would be able to advise as to local sub- 
stitutes for ' leaving ' or ' qualifying ' certificates, and recommenda- 
tions have been approved by the Minister and transmitted to the 
War Office for consideration. 



Military 
College. 



Headquarters 
Library, 



AUSTRALIAN MILITARY COLLEGE 

23. Upon the recommendation of the Military Board, a sum was 
readily placed on the 1909-10 Estimates towards the establishment 
of a much needed Australian Military College. 

MILITARY LIBRARIES 

24. (i.) The Headquarters Library has been kept up to date by 
the addition of the latest manuals and books of military study. It 



APPENDIX 

now comprises a valuable collection ; all regulations and manuals 
therein are amended from time to time. The need for a printed 
catalogue was much felt, and this has now been compiled and issued. 

(ii.) Although the formation of District Headquarters Libraries District 
was authorised in 1907 and an annual amount provided for the pur- 
chase of books in each State, recent inquiries show that in one State 
a Library had not yet been instituted, and that in other States the 
fullest use was not made thereof. Instructions have been issued to 
rectify this. The books in these libraries are now available for use 
by all officers and non-commissioned officers of the Forces without 
expense. 

MILITARY MAGAZINE 

25. In connection with the proposed publication and free circu- Military 
lation of a monthly official military magazine, permission has been Ma g azine - 
obtained from various English and American Service Magazines to 
reprint in the Commonwealth Military Magazine such articles or 
extracts as may be desired. 



INTELLIGENCE BRANCH 

26. (i.) Monthly Intelligence Diaries are exchanged with India, 
South Africa, Canada, and New Zealand. Other information is also 
periodically received from and forwarded to the various sections of 
the Imperial General Staff, which tends to ensure uniformity of work. 

(ii.) The work of the Intelligence Branch in Districts is being 
carried out, under the Director of Intelligence, by the Australian 
Intelligence Corps, which has a total establishment of 74 officers and 
a present strength of 60. The formation of the Corps was authorised 
in December 1907, and the scope of its work was outlined and the 
establishment fixed in February 1908. The selection of Officers 
Commanding in Districts and the appointment of the majority of the 
officers was completed during 1908. During 1909, a special eight (8) 
day School of Instruction was held by the Officer Commanding the 
Corps, who is also Director of Intelligence, and the- Corps' work began 
systematically. The work is sectionised and special work allotted 
to each officer. 

The officers of the Corps have been selected because their civil 
occupations have made them specialists in some department of the 
work, e.g., surveyors and draughtsmen, for topography ; actuaries 
and library experts, for records ; railway officials and controllers of 
road carrying, etc., for transport ; and men with literary training, 
for compilation of hand-books. 

(iii.) The peace work of the Corps is divided into the following four 

319 



Intelligence 
Diaries. 



History and 
Organisation 
of Intelligence 
Corps. 



Distribution 
of Work. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Permanent 

Survey 

Section. 



Work being 
done. 



Maps. 



Railways. 



Break-of- 

gauge 

schemes. 



sections, and all officers are required to be proficient in Section III. 
and at least one other section : 

I. Commonwealth information, which specifically includes, 
inter alia, all questions of transport by road, rail, and water. 
II. Information relating to Countries beyond the Common- 
wealth. 

III. Topography. 

IV. Library and records. 

(iv.) There is a permanent section for survey purposes attached 
to the Intelligence Corps. The -personnel consists of 

1 Surveyor. 

2 Draughtsmen. 

4 N.C.O.'s of the Ordnance Survey Branch of the Royal 
Engineers. 

It is proposed that the Surveyor should be first attached to the 
Royal Australian Engineers for six months, and then sent abroad for 
further instruction in military topographical work. It is considered 
that local men should be attached to the Military Survey Section, 
and trained to subsequently replace the N.C.O.'s of the Royal Engineers 
now under engagement with the Department. 

Owing to the proposed large increases in defence expenditure in 
other directions, it was, however, decided that this question must 
remain in abeyance for the present. 

(v.) The following work is being done or^being actually arranged 
by the Corps which, considering its recent establishment, is highly 
satisfactory, reflecting credit on the Officer Commanding (Colonel 
M'Cay) and members of the Corps : 

(a) The Survey Section is engaged in the compilation of con- 

toured maps of selected areas in each district. The first 
area in each case is near the capital city, and forms part 
of the general scheme for the preparation ultimately of 
contoured maps" for parts of the Commonwealth which 
are considered as probable theatres of operations. 

(b) Collection of military data on which description of standard 

trains for units of all arms mobilised on War Establish- 
ments are being agreed on between the Corps and the 
Railway Departments in each State. This is practically 
complete in Victoria. 

(c) Preparation of plans at break-of-gauge stations and chief 

railway centres. Preparation of complete schemes for 
transhipping units and brigades at break-of-gauge stations 
for which schemes data are now being collected. 

(d) Preparation of complete railway train and time tables for 
320 



APPENDIX 



assembling and mobilisation of units from their actual 
locality on both Peace and War strengths at appointed 
places of assembly on mobilisation, together with alter- 
native schemes for moving troops in various directions 
more probably required in war ; data are now practically 
ready. 

(e) Collection and recording of Australian information of 
military value, especially auxiliary transport and supply 
data and statistics. 

(/) Collection and recording of foreign information of military 
value, especially in the Pacific, which latter is allotted 
mainly to New South Wales and Queensland District 
Commands ; other foreign information is to be under- 
taken direct by Corps' Headquarters. This is not yet 
much developed. 

(g) Preparation of a Military Handbook of each State. The 
draft of Chapter I. is ready in three States, and in pre- 
paration in the other three. 

(h) As to classification, indexing, and storing information, a 
tentative scheme was in partial operation for nine months 
and was reconsidered and revised at Easter, along with 
the question of systematically taking out of the records 
information, of which the value is exhausted except for 
historical purposes. 

(i) Road and water transport data collected and reports fur- 
nished to Quartermaster-General, on which current road 
transport experiments and schemes are founded. Further 
collection of information and inauguration of a register 
is to proceed this year with a view to ensuring requisi- 
tioned transport being specifically secured and allotted 
to all units. Water transport, harbour and coastal, is 
being undertaken this year. 

(j) Topographical and other information and executive duties 
asked for from time to time by District Commandants for 
Peace training purposes. 

(k) Monthly intelligence diaries. 

(/) Annual central school of instruction in addition to ordinary 
school for promotion, etc., and annual conference from 
all States to assist in procuring uniformity of method, 
classification, etc. Also the leading service journals, 
general and of each arm, of England, France, Germany, 
and the United States are taken. A certain number of 
these are specially assigned to each District Command, 
which in turn allots each of its journals to a special officer, 



Mobilisation 
and Move- 
ment Train 
Tables. 



Local 
Information. 



Foreign 
Information. 



Handbook. 



Record. 



Road and 

Water 

Transport. 



Incidental. 



Diary. 
Instruction. 



OVERSEAS 2. 



321 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Services of 
Officer needed 
in London. 



Imperial 
Horse- 
breeding 
Stations and 
Remount 
Depots in 
Australia. 



who reports on his journal, and specially as to any articles 
particularly useful. These appear in the Corps Intelli- 
gence Diary, with instructions as to reading them, 
(vi.) It is now intended without delay to have compiled, repro- 
duced, and kept in the office of the Intelligence Branch of the Depart- 
ment of the General Staff, so much of the information at present 
available in the District Intelligence offices as may affect the general 
considerations of the Defence of Australia as a whole, as distinct from 
particular considerations within each District. 

ATTACHMENT OF MILITARY OFFICER TO COMMONWEALTH STAFF, 

LONDON 

27. The need of the services in London of an officer with technical 
qualifications and a thorough^ knowledge of Australian requirements 
and of our armament and equipment has been much felt. This officer, 
in addition to following the progress made with the supply and manu- 
facture of our warlike stores, inspecting them, and seeing to their 
despatch complete in every detail, is required there to keep in touch 
with the latest developments, and to be able to anticipate and imme- 
diately advise the Department in connection therewith. (Correspond- 
ence 1890/1/54.) 

I recommended the attachment of an Australian Artillery or 
Engineer officer, and feel assured that the appointment of Major P. N. 
Buckley, R.A.E., to the position will be a material assistance to the 
Department. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF IMPERIAL HORSE-BREEDING STATIONS AND 
DEPOTS IN THE COMMONWEALTH 

28. The Imperial authorities apparently have under consideration 
the question of the establishment of Horse-breeding Stations and 
Remount Depots outside the United Kingdom, and it is trusted that 
the recommendation already submitted by me may be given effect 
to, that the special suitability of Australia for this purpose should be 
fully represented, and that the fullest information on the subject 
should be compiled and forwarded to the War Office. 

During the five years 1904 to 1908, Australia exported 66,982 
horses, or an average of 13,396 per annum. 

The establishment of such stations and depots would give a great 
impetus to the horse-breeding industry, and ensure attention being 
paid to the breeding of gun horses, which I am informed on good 
authority, has been neglected during the past few years in favour of 
the ' Draught/ ' Cob/ and ' Pony ' classes, which have been found 
more profitable. 

Further horses will be required for the Permanent Field Artillery 
322 



APPENDIX 

and for the Militia Batteries and probably for other Departments, 
such as the Postal Department. 

SOUTH AFRICAN RECORDS 

29. The importance of having complete lists of officers, N.C.O.'s, South African 
and men of the Australian Contingents sent to South Africa for the War records. 
purpose of reference for all time, and also as a matter of historical 

record was apparent. 

During the last three or four years I have had such lists compiled, 
but at present they are only in manuscript. As the permanency of 
such records is of some importance, it was recommended that they 
be printed, and the Minister approved of a sum of money being placed 
on the Estimates for the purpose. Copies of such lists could be made 
available to the various States and for issue to public libraries. 

VISIT OF FIELD-MARSHAL LORD KITCHENER 
APPENDIX IV 

30. (i.) In anticipation of the visit of Field-Marshal Lord Kitchener, information 
the Staff devoted special attention to the collection, preparation, and 
compilation of data, in a concise form, concerning Australia and 
Australian defence, and also to the compilation of special maps. The 

work was completed in this office prior to the arrival of Colonel G. M. 
Kirkpatrick, and was taken to Port Darwin. 

(ii.) I was deputed by the Government to meet Lord Kitchener . 
at Port Darwin, and accompanied him throughout the tour of inspec- 
tion in the Commonwealth. 

(iii.) Memoranda on Lord Kitchener's memoranda on the defence 
of Australia formed the subject of a separate communication to the 
Minister. 

DUTY OUTSIDE THE STATE BY THE C.G.S. Particulars of 

travelling by 

APPENDIX V C.G.S. in 

States. 

31. Appended are particulars of visits to States. Appendix v. 

PENSIONS OR RETIRING ALLOWANCES 

32. For many years I have strongly advocated the introduction Pensions 
of a scheme which would ensure adequate provision for members of allowances 
the Forces on retirement. advocated. 

In pre-Federation days, the absence of such provision greatly mili- 
tated against the efficiency of the Permanent Services. To ensure 
efficiency, permanent officers must be both physically and mentally 
fit, and the age for retirement from active work may therefore be 
expected to be earlier in the military service. 

323 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



The large expansion of the Citizen Forces within the next few 
years, and the adoption of the proposed area system, will throw great 
responsibility on and require the highest qualifications in the Australian 
permanent officer. The best brains must be attracted to the service, 
and an officer will be required to devote his greatest effort, not only 
to the special work allotted him, but to generally keeping himself 
up-to-date in military science. 

To do this he must be relieved of an anxiety as to provision for the 
future and the dread of the ' black ' letter day when he must stand 
aside for younger and more virile men. 

SUBJECTS ON WHICH ACTION HAS NOT BEEN COMPLETED 

Outstanding 33. It is desired to invite attention to important questions which 

have emanated from this office since the ist July last, for consideration. 
Information concerning these questions will be found in files : 

Secret 1888/1/16 

79/ I 4/*2 

Confidential ..... 1997/5/55 

Defence ..... 1 844/1 /- 

I894/5/- 

J. C. HOAD, 

Chief of the General Staff and the Commonwealth 
Section, Imperial General Staff. 

APPENDIX I 

OFFICERS OF THE COMMONWEALTH MILITARY FORCES SENT ABROAD 
BY THE COMMONWEALTH ON SPECIAL DUTY OR FOR INSTRUCTION 
SINCE THE TAKING OVER OF DEFENCE BY COMMONWEALTH 
GOVERNMENT (IST MARCH 1901). 

(Names are arranged alphabetically.) 

PERMANENT OFFICERS 





Date of 






Rank and Name. 


Regiment or 
Corps. 




Place. 


Duty. 


Departure. 


Return. 


Brigadier-General W. T. 


Headquarters ! IQ. 1.06 


2.1.07 


England, 


Defence Policy (Committee 


Bridges, C.M.G. 


Staff 






Switzer- 


of Imperial Defence) and 










land, and 


Report on Swiss Military 










Canada 


System. 


. 


" 


26.5.09 


30-5-10 


England . 


Commonwealth Represen- 
tative attached to General 












Staff at War Offic.-. 


Major j. H. Bruche 


A. & I. Staff . 


25.1 10 







Exchange Officer, replaced 












by Major W. E. Manser, 












Royal Engineers. 


Major S. E. Christian . ^ f j 


R.A.A. . 


14.9 07 


18.12.08 





Exchange Officer, replaced 












by Major H. G. Sandi- 












lands, R.F.A. 


Major W. A. Cox^n . ,.j 


i > 


9.11.07 


6.2. 10 


1 1 


Ordnance College Course, 










etc. 



324 



igio] 



APPENDIX 

PERMANENT OFFICERS continued. 



Rank and Name. 


Regiment or 
Corps. 


Date of 


Place. 


Duty. 


Departure. 


Return. 


Major H. W. Dangar . 


R A.A. . 


T7 II 03 


.6.O? 


England . 


For instruction. 


Major C. H. Foott 


R.A.E. . 


19.11.07 


i*wp 

4.2.09 






Major J. K. Forsyth . 


A. & I. Staff . 


14.9 9 




India 


Exchange Officer replaced 
by Major F. A. Maxwell, 
V. C. , D. S. O. , i8th Bengal 












Lancers, Indian Army. 


Captain O. R. Griffiths 


R.A.A. . 


4.9.07 


6. 10.08 


Canada . 


Exchange Officer, replaced 












by Lieut. J. J. MacBrien, 












R.C. Dragoons, 


Lieut. F. F. Harrison . 




IO. I.IO 




India 


Staff College, Quetta. 


Major F. B. Heritage . 


A. & I. Staff . 


6.8.07 


2.11.08 


England . 


For instruction. 


Major-General J. C. Hoad, 
C.M.G. 


Headquarters 
Staff 


28.3.04 


1.12.04 


Japan and 
Manchuria 


Russo - Japanese War, 
Commonwealth Military 












Attach^ with Japanese 












Army. 






0.8.08 

" * 


20.4.09 


England, 


Formation of Common- 


' 








Ireland, 


wealth Section Imperial 










U.S.A., 


General Staff and to at- 










and 


tend Manoeuvres, etc. 










Canada 




Captain J. H. Hurst . 


R.A.A. . 


18.8.08 


21. 2. 10 


England . 


For Gunnery, Staff Course, 












Woolwich. 


Lieut. P. S. Long-Innes 




30.4.06 


1 


Canada . 


Exchange Officer, replaced 












by Lieut. E. Clairmonte, 












R.C.A. 


Lieut. -Col. G. G. H. Irving . 


A. & I. Staff . 


9-5-05 


2I.2.O6 


England 


For instruction. 










and India 




Major A. P. Luscombe 


M 


21.7.06 


29.7.07 


,, 


Exchange Officer, replaced 
by Major C. V. Mainwar- 












ing, Sgth Punjabis. 


Lieut. H. D. K. Macartney . 


R.A.A. . 


21.7.08 


... 


England . 


First as exchange Officer, 












replaced by Captain G. 












H. Reid, A.S.C. (Im- 












perial), then joined Staff 












College, Camberley, 












January 1910. 


Captain W. Mailer 


A. & I. Staff . 


18.8.08 


21. 2.10 


ii 


For special instruction in 












Artillery. 


2 Major J. C. O'Brien . 





27.10.08 


13.12.09 


India 


Exchange Officer, replaced 












by Captain H. C. 












McWatters, 22nd Pun- 












jabis. 


Major F. W. Osborne . 


R.A.A. . 


17.11.03 


.6.05 


England . 


For instruction. 


Colonel J. W. Parnell . 


R.A.E. . 


25.7.04 


.9.05 


ii 


ii ii 


Major W. G. Patterson 


A. & I. Staff . 


3-7-06 


24.7.07 


England 


ii ii 










and India 




Major P. W. G. Pinnock 


ii 


II. 1. 10 


... 


Canada . 


Exchange Officer, replaced 












by Captain C. H. Hill, 












Royal Canadian Regi- 












ment. 


Captain W. St. L. Robertson 


ii 


6.8.07 


I5.I0.08 


India and 


Exchange Officer, replaced 










England 


by Captain G. R. D. 
Churchill, igth Punjabis. 


Lieut. -Col. V. C. M. Sell-" 


ii 


11.7.06 


29.7.07 


M 


Exchange Officer, replaced 


heim, C.B. 










by Major E. C. Haag, 












i8th Hussars. 


Captain C. B. B. White, p.s.c. 


R.A.A. . 


28.11.05 


Feb. '03 


England . 


Staff College Course, Cam- 












berley. 






I5..9.o8 






G.S. Officer, 3rd Grade, 










" 


War Office, replaced by 












Major F. Wilson, who 












perform duties of D. M. T. 



Resigned and remained in Canada. 



* Since resigned. 



325 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



[J" 



OFFICERS CITIZEN FORCES. 



Rank and Name 


Regiment or 


Date of 


Plar* 






Corps. 


Departure. 


Return. 






Captain E. A. D. Brockman 
Captain M. H. Cruickshank . 


nth A. I. Regt. 
Derwent Regt. 


7.9.08 
12.10.09 


11.5.09 
18.4.10 


India 


For instruction. 


Major M. T. Kirby, D.S.O. . 
Captain E. C. Oldham . 


A.F.A. (Vic.) 
iothA.1. Regt. 


3-9-08 
14.10.09 


1 0.1. 10 

14.5.10 













Major R. St. J. Pearce . 


A.F.A. 


9.10.09 


18.4.10 








t 






(N.S.W.) 
















Major F. H. Russel . 


A.F.A. (Q'ld.) 


5.9.08 


28.4.09 












Colonel J. F. Flewell Smith, 
V.D. 


Q'ld. Inf. Bde. 


16.10.09 


25:4.10' 














Major E. L. Tilney 


ist A.I. Regt. 


5.9.08 


28.4.09 












Captain H. A. F. Wilkinson . 


W.A.I. Regt.' 


18.10.09 











. 





APPENDIX II 

EXAMINATION IN CONNECTION WITH APPOINTMENT AND PROMOTION, 
ETC., OF OFFICERS OF THE PERMANENT FORCES FROM 1ST JULY 1909. 



Examinations. 


Date. 


Number 
of Can- 
didates. 


Number 
Passed. 


Number 
Failed. 




1909 








I. Officers of R.AA. and R.A.E. for confirmation 


loth to 1 4th 


3 


2 


I 


of probationary appointments. 
2. Officers of R.AA. and R.A.E. for confirmation 


August 
1 6th to 1 8th 


8 


7 


I 


of probationary appointments. 


November 








3. Promotion to rank of Lieut.-Colonel, Per- 


8th November 


8 


2 


6 


manent Forces. 










4. Promotion of Officers of the Permanent Forces 


6th to loth 


17 


15 


2 


up to the rank of Major. 


December 










1910 








5. Officers of R. A. A. and R.A.E. for confirmation 


nth April . 


7 


- 5 


2 


of probationary appointment 










6. Transfer as or promotion to Lieutenant, and 


4th to 6th 


18 


2 


16 


for appointment to First Commissions in 


April 








A. and I. Staff Educational Qualifying 










Examination. 










7. Promotion to the rank of Lieut.-Colonel, Per- 


1 8th April . 


6 


4 


2 


manent Forces. 










8. Promotion of Officers of the Permanent Forces 


1 6th to 20th 


8 1 


. .. 


... 


up to rank of Major. 


May 








9. Transfer as or promotion to Lieutenant, and 


6th to 9th 


17 


9 


8 


for appointment to First Commissions in 


June 








A. and I. Staff Military Competitive 










Examination. 










10. Entrance to Staff College, Camberley . 


28th June to 


2 1 


... 


... 




7th July 








Totals *v : i 




84 


46 


38 






Wf 







326 



1 Not included in total, as results are not yet available. 



APPENDIX 



HALF-YEARLY EXAMINATION OF MILITIA AND VOLUNTEER OFFICERS FOR CONFIRMATION OF FIRST APPOINTMENT 
AND FOR PROMOTION, FEBRUARY 1910. 


pa>{j^ sjadEd JB}O 


CO 0) M O IOVO t^ 
ON u-) co M c^ Tf o 

M N H W OO 


PECENTAGE OF FAILURES. 


|l 


00 >O ON tx T}- 10 


o 


1 Only two candidates examined. 


paijBjj IBJOJ, 


** ON LO (N oo t> >'! 

10 CO N >O IH ON 

HI 


passed JE3OJ, 


M 01 H VO 


Number of Candidates for each Subject. 


rgj 


'VW& 


j W H 


passed 




oja 'sjuaui 
quiy ppt^ 

oja 
'^uatudinbg 
jBuo'saaj 

-IUB3JO 


pi!M :;;;;; ' ; 


wm 


H ' : M 


| ; H j H 0) 


T ass M 


: :* : N vo 


1 


Artillery. 


: ; 1 8 ; ; 


8 


saspaaxg 


passBj | \ 10 co oo 


Xtuouoog 
jouajuj 
pus sapnQ; 
auijdibsiQ 


p.jrej 







passEj 


; IO CO ; 00 


.o,,.,^ 


paijBj M : M co M H oo 


"J V O O 00 OO t^. 

E.S *O<N COIOH : 

W 

I 


CO 


passBj ^ N oo M vo oo w 


jjodsuBJj, 


pajiBj ::::: 


passBj : H j j | co 


Xjddng 


paiiBj : : : : ; 


passBj : o w | : co 


SuijjBuSig 


'P'U B J : : : I : H 1 M 


t> 
1 


a^siftfr 


CO 

>o 


passes M f ; | vo 


Suiutjv 
auuBiuqng 


paj IB>! j : : : : : | : 


pass Bd I H : : : | M 


Duioajg 


P 3 II^ 1 : : : : : |_J 


passtrj | H M H | : | co 


Tactics. 


^ !? 


CO 


saijtiQ 


pajiBj | : M H ^ : | o 


passty : co H : H <+ | ON 


^ffi^ 


'P a l! B d : : : N : 1 M 


passed 


i ; ; ; i i 

" M H i "H"| Ix" 


in j a 


pajrej 


pass d | H M vo co H | ^ 


V 

rt 




1 

1 


8m 


pajiBj i o\ co co tx H co 




passB d 


ON W <O *O LOvO 1 d 




' Su]p % 


^paijBj )_ON^ INJ-^^M j M 


New South Wales 
Victoria 
Queensland 
South Australia 
Western Australia 
Tasmania . 


SOtJOBJ, 


pajiB^ oo ONO COM | c^ 


passed | c7 " M" 2 ^ | 


,uaS 


pajrej \o oo o <M 10 i oo 


passed 


tx xo t>. ONOO 00 
vO 00 Tf OJ M rf 
W 


TST5o J x 


|j-*a&| g 


i 


l''il ; 

fcoS'flSl H 

3 5 % 1 

^>cB^H 



327 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [JL 



APPENDIX IV 

ALPHABETICAL INDEX TO DOCUMENTS, ETC., FROM THE COM- 
MONWEALTH SECTION, IMPERIAL GENERAL STAFF, FOR 
FIELD-MARSHAL LORD KITCHENER 

ACTS, ETC. 

Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act. 

Defence Acts 1903-4, Regulations and Standing Orders Commonwealth 

Military Forces. 

Defence Bill 1909 as introduced into the House of Representatives. 
Defence Bill 1909 as introduced into Senate with amendments by 

House of Representatives. 
Defence Bill 1909 Memorandum on. 
Speech of Minister of Defence on Defence Bill 1909. 
Debates from Hansard on Defence Bill 1909. 

ARMAMENT 

Field Artillery Armament. 
Classification Armament Fixed Defences. 
Armament of Fixed Defences. 

CADETS 

Regulations and Standing Orders Commonwealth Military Cadet Corps. 
Establishment and Strength. 

COAST DEFENCES 

Revision of Coast Defences Memorandum by Colonial Defence Com- 
mittee, May 1906. 

Report of local Committee on C.D.C., May 1906. 
Memorandum by Chief of the General Staff, Australia, re Armament. 
Particulars re Defences of Townsville, Thursday and Goode Islands. 

DEFENCE SCHEMES 

Report of Committee Imperial Defence upon General Scheme for 

Defence of Australia. 
District Defence Scheme for all States. 

ESTABLISHMENTS 

Summary of States, showing Establishments and Strengths. 
Statement showing increased personnel 1909-10. 
War and Peace 1909. 

FACTORIES 

Small Arms Precis in connection with tenders for machinery. 

Small Arms Precis action taken in regard to construction of buildings. 

FINANCE 

Estimate of Expenditure 1909-10. 

Schedule showing allotment of Funds for Military purposes. ; 

Schedule showing increases on Estimates 1909-10. 

328 



gio] APPENDIX 

FORCES LISTS 

Commonwealth Military Forces. 
Commonwealth Military Forces Regimental. 
Commonwealth Military Cadet Corps. 

GENERAL STAFF 

Precis of steps taken re Formation of Commonwealth Section Imperial 

General Staff. 

Notes by C.G.S., Australia, on Military System of Australia. 
Cost of the Office of C.G.S. 

HORSE-BREEDING IN AUSTRALIA. 

INSPECTOR-GENERAL 

Memorandum by C.G.S., re Appointment of. 

INTELLIGENCE CORPS 
History and Work of. 

MAPS 

Distribution of Commonwealth Military Units. 

Distribution of Commonwealth Military Cadet Units. 

Distribution of Rifle Clubs. 

Australia, showing diagrams of Defended Ports. 

Australia, showing places visited by Inspector-General during year 1907. 

Geological Maps. 

MOBILISATION 
Notes on. 

MUSKETRY 

Instruction for Commonwealth Military Forces. 

MEDICAL SERVICES 

Standing Orders for A.A.M.C. Services. 

NORTHERN TERRITORY 

Bill for acceptance of Northern Territory by Commonwealth Govern- 
ment. 

Memorandum prepared by Minister in connection with Bill. 

Correspondence between Commonwealth and South Australian Govern- 
ments re Taking over Territory. 

Reports of Government Resident, 1907 and 1908. 
ORGANISATION 

Organisation of the Commonwealth Military Forces. 

Numbers required to complete existing organisation to Peace Estab- 
lishment. 

Notes by C.G.S., Australia, on Military System of Australia. 
PARLIAMENTARY 

List of Members of Commonwealth Parliament House of Represen- 
tatives and Senate. 

Debates on Defence Bill 1909. 

329 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [ju 

POPULATION 

Estimated Population of Australia, 3ist December 1908. 
Estimated Population of Australia, 3Oth June 1909, and distribution 
on age basis. 

PREFERENTIAL TRADE 

Memorandum by Minister of Customs. 

Report of Proceedings of Deputation 7th Congress of Chambers of 
Commerce to Minister of Customs. 

RAILWAYS 

Particulars of the State Railways, with Maps. 
Transcontinental Railway (projected), North to South. 
Transcontinental Railway (projected), East to West. 

RESERVE FORCES 

Commonwealth Military Regulations. 
Medical Reserve, A.A.M.C., Standing Orders. 

RIFLE CLUBS^- 

Regulations governing. 
Strength. 

REPORTS 

Inspector-General Commonwealth Military Forces, 1905-6-7. 
Military Board 1905-6. 
Secretary for Defence, 1906. 

Memorandum on Australian Military Defence and its progress since 
Federation. 

STAFFS 

District and Instructional by States. 

District Staff Officers, showing Ages, Ranks, and Qualifications. 

Instructional Staff Officers, showing Ages, Ranks, etc. 

STATISTICAL 

Commonwealth Year-Book of Australia, 1901-8 

TELEGRAPHY 

Wireless Report of Conference, 1907. 

TRANSPORT 

Organisation of Wheeled Transport. 

WATER SUPPLY 

Particulars of in Capital Cities. 

Water Conservation and Irrigation. 

Report State Rivers and Water Supply Commission, Victoria. 



330 



9io] 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX V 

RETURN OF TRAVELLING ON DUTY BY CHIEF OF THE GENERAL STAFF 
BEYOND THE STATE OF VICTORIA FROM IST JULY 1909. 



State, etc. 


From 


To 


Duty. 


New South Wales . 
Tasmania 


1.7.09 
26.7.09 
15.10.09 
5.3.10 
12.11.09 


6.7.09 
3.8.0 9 
20.10.09 
11.3.10 
20.11.09 


Defence Scheme. 
Committee Revision of Light Horse Manual. 
National Rifle Association Meeting. 
Confer with Minister. 
Inspection of Troops. 



LORD KITCHENER'S TOUR. 


New South Wales . 


3.12.09 


6. 1 2.09 


^ 


Queensland 


6.12.09 


... 


\En route to meet Lord Kitchener at Port Darwin. 


Thursday Island 


14.12.09 


16.12.09 


J 


Northern Territory 








S.A., Port Darwin 
Thursday Island 


20.12.09 
25.12.09 


21.12.09 
26.12.09 




Queensland 


29.12.09 


4.1.10 


(Townsville, 29.12.09. 
i Brisbane, 1/4.1.10. 








Newcastle, 5.1.10. 


New South Wales . 


5.1.10 


I2.I.IO 


Liverpool/ ^ ( 








Lithgow 1 








Bathurst J IC 


South Australia 


20. 1. 10 


... 










fFremantle, 24.1.10. 


Western Australia . 


24.I.IO 


27.I.IO 


\ Perth, 24.1.10. 








iTammin, 25/26.1.10. 


South Australia 


3I.I.IO 


3.2.10 


Adelaide. 








TBurnie, 5.2.10. 


Tasmania 


5.2.10 


1. 2.10 


JHobart, 5/7.2.10. 








I Ross, 7/8.2.10. 



331 



MEMORANDUM ON THE DEFENCE OF AUSTRALIA 
by FIELD-MARSHAL VISCOUNT KITCHENER OF KHARTOUM, 
G.C.B., O.M., G.C.SL, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., Etc. 

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS 

I. In compliance with the invitation of the Commonwealth Govern- 
ment to visit and inspect the existing military forces and system in 
Australia, and subsequently to give them the benefit of my experience 
and advice regarding the development of their latest scheme of defence, 
I reached Port Darwin on the 2ist December, and have since visited 
military camps in every State. 

II. The Minister of Defence kindly arranged for the assembly of 
troops in these camps on dates to meet my convenience, and although 
the season was perhaps exceptionally trying and not the most suitable 
for both the men and their employers, good musters were everywhere 
obtained. 

III. My best thanks are due for the facilities afforded me on all 
occasions to see the troops and fixed defences, as well as for the assist- 
ance given me by General Hoad and all the senior Australian officers 
in my study of the existing military system and local conditions in 
this country. 

IV. Having had considerable experience of Australians working hi 
the field during the South African war, I was not surprised to find 
what excellent material existed amongst the young manhood of 
Australia from whom the defenders of their country must come. I 
noticed in the camps the great keenness displayed by all ranks in 
rendering themselves proficient, and in applying the military knowledge 
they had acquired to the practical conditions of work on the manoeuvre 
ground. 

V. In these days, however, excellent fighting material and the 
greatest zeal, though indispensable adjuncts, are not of themselves 
sufficient to enable a force to take the field against thoroughly trained 
regular troops with any chance of success. 

VI. I do not intend to criticise in any detail what I saw in the 
various camps of exercise, but a great part of my suggestions for the 
training and organisation of the Australian Citizen Forces, in Part I. 
of this Paper, have been devised to meet the principal defects I 
332 



APPENDIX 

observed, and to enable these camps of exercise in the future to be 
really instructional, as well as a thorough test of the work done during 
the year in their home training. 

VII. Success in any technical career can only be achieved after a 
thorough elementary grounding, and this is, perhaps, more marked 
in the military than in any other profession. The ABC must be care- 
fully studied and practised so as to understand how to learn properly, 
as well as how to teach. It is only by correcting mistakes on the 
spot, and clearly explaining their nature and results, as well as how 
they should be avoided, that practical instruction can be given in camps 
both to officers and men. 

VIII. The training I saw in the camps indicated that there was a 
distinct tendency to go too fast, and to neglect essential preliminaries 
of training for more advanced studies which the troops engaged were 
not capable of carrying out properly. 

IX. The conclusion I have come to is, shortly, that the present forces 
are inadequate in numbers, training, organisation, and munitions of 
war, to defend Australia from the dangers that are due to the present 
conditions that prevail in the country, as well as to its isolated position. 

X. The danger of want of population and consequent ineffective 
occupation in many parts of the country is, in my opinion, a most 
serious existing condition in Australia, as it may greatly imperil the 
stability of the present state of affairs in the Commonwealth. I feel, 
however, that this is so well known and recognised that I need not 
emphasise it further. 

XL I would also mention that railway construction has, while 
developing the country, resulted in lines that would appear to be more 
favourable to an enemy invading Australia than to the defence of the 
country. Different gauges in most of the States isolate each system, 
and the want of systematic interior connection makes the present lines 
running inland of little use for defence, though possibly of considerable 
value to an enemy who would have temporary command of the sea. 

XII. The new Defence Act will give sufficient numbers to defend 
the country effectively if the force provided under it is efficiently 
trained, organised, and equipped. It must, however, be distinctly 
recognised that a National Force maintained at a high standard of 
efficiency can only be produced by the work of years, and that such 
work must be steady and continuous ; any divergence from the 
policy decided on may, and probably will, lead to chaos and useless 
expenditure of money. 

XIII. If plans and essential preparations have been deferred until 
an emergency arises, it will then be found too late to act, because the 
strain of passing from peace to war will entirely absorb the energies 
of all engaged, even when every possible contingency has been foreseen. 

333 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

XIV. Before putting these recommendations forward, I have 
carefully considered their financial aspect, and the burden that will 
thereby be thrown on the country for its defence. The annual cost 
when the force would be in full working order, after passing through the 
less costly transition period, works out to practically the same as the 
total sum contemplated under the Defence Bill, viz., 1,742,000. 

XV. I have divided my subject into 

Part I. Recommendations. 
Part II. Transition Period. 
Part III. Fixed Defences, which is confidential. 1 

XVI. In concluding these introductory remarks, I sincerely hope 
that the organisation I have proposed in Part I. may meet the require- 
ments of Australia in forming an efficient National Force for the 
defence of the country ; and I shall always take the greatest interest 
in the future of the National Forces of Australia, and hope to be able 
to give the Commonwealth Government at any time such further 
assistance as may be in my power. 

KITCHENER, F.M. 
MELBOURNE, i2th February 1910. 



PART I. RECOMMENDATIONS 

STRATEGICAL CONSIDERATIONS 

1. It is an axiom held by the British Government that the Empire's 
existence depends primarily upon the maintenance of adequate and 
efficient naval forces. As long as this condition is fulfilled, and as 
long as British superiority at sea is assured, then it is an accepted 
principle that no British Dominion can be successfully and permanently 
conquered by an organised invasion from oversea. 

2. But in applying this principle to Australasia considerations of 
time and space cannot be disregarded. The conduct of a great war 
depends upon the calculated and proper combination of naval, military, 
and diplomatic forces ; and it is quite conceivable that in the future, 
as in the past, national considerations may require the concentration 
of British naval forces in one or other theatre of operations. It follows 
that, in seas remote from such a concentration, the British Naval 
Forces may find themselves for the moment inferior in force to an 
actual, or potential, enemy. In such a situation, although our ultimate 
superiority at sea might not be a matter of doubt, some time might 
elapse before our command of the sea was definitely assured in all 

Printed separately. 

334 



APPENDIX 

waters. It, therefore, becomes the duty of all self-governing Dominions 
to provide a military force adequate, not only to deal promptly with 
any attempt at invasion, but also to ensure local safety and public 
confidence until our superiority at sea has been decisively and compre- 
hensively asserted. For this reason it has recently been agreed that 
the Home Forces of the United Kingdom should be so organised as to 
compel an enemy contemplating an invasion to make the attempt on 
such a scale as to be unable to evade our naval forces. The same 
arguments apply to Australasia, and its land forces should be calculated 
and organised on this basis. 

STRENGTH REQUIRED 

3. In estimating the strength of the land forces necessary to meet 
this requirement, three principal factors should be considered 

(a) The great ocean distances which lie between Australia and 

the territory of any possible enemies. 

(b) The armed strength and power of transportation over sea 

of any conceivably hostile nation. 

(c) The vast extent, and railway communication, of the 

Australian Continent, which covers an area of 2,948,366 
square miles, and possesses a coastline of 12,210 miles ; 
as contrasted with the smallness of its population, 
4,275,000 souls, of whom 1,295,000 are males of a fighting 
age. 

4. Consideration of these factors leads me to estimate the land 
forges required at 80,000 fighting troops. Of these numbers, half 
would be required to secure the larger cities and defended ports from 
attack, and so to maintain the public confidence and national credit, 
while the other half would be free to operate as a mobile striking force 
anywhere in Australia. 

5. But the best defence is generally by taking the offensive, and 
there should therefore be no difference in the enrolment, organisation, 
and equipment of any unit. 

ORGANISATION OF FORCE 

6. The Defence Bill 1909, which has just been passed by the Common- 
wealth Parliament, gives effect to the principle that every citizen should 
be trained to defend his country, and I therefore propose to base the 
following advice as to the manner in which the force of 80,000 fighting 
men should be enrolled, organised, and trained on the principle 
embodied in that Act, which is designed to call into existence a National 
Citizen Force. 

335 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

7. In my opinion, the forces should be organised as 

21 brigades of 4 battalions each 84 battalions of infantry. 
28 regiments of light horse. 
49 four-gun field batteries, and 
7 four-gun heavy and howitzer batteries, the whole totalling 

224 guns. 
7 communication companies and 14 field companies of 

engineers. 
Departmental troops to be provided in proportion. 

8. The peace and war establishments of units are given in detail in 
Tables V. and VI., but the rank and file may be summarised as 

Rank and File. 
Peace. War. 

Battalion ...... 750 1001 

Regiment oi light horse .... 350 470 

Battery ........ 130 146 

9. The peace establishment would be found from the 80,000 trained 
soldiers, and the augmentation to war establishment will be provided 
by the addition of the recruits and the 25-26-year men. 

10. In this connection I wish to explain that, while taking the 
Defence Acts 1903-1909 as the basis of my proposals, I have departed 
from the training periods therein prescribed, because 

(a) While the cadet training is valuable as a preparation, it 

cannot, in my opinion, replace recruit training, which is a 
necessary preliminary to the production of an efficient 
and trained citizen soldier. For this reason I class the 
1 8-1 9-year men as recniits, over and above the peace 
establishment of 80,000 men, but liable to be put in the 
ranks in war. 

(b) Soldiers to be efficient should be exercised in camp annually, 

otherwise the men lose the incentive to home training, 
the habit of working in units, of moving and living in 
numbers, and of ready obedience to orders. 

11. For this reason I advise that camp training in time of peace 
should be extended, and I consider that, having regard to the natural 
military aptitude of the Australian, favoured by the conditions of his 
civil life, the training should consist of six clear days annually, i.e. from 
a Monday to a Saturday inclusive, in addition to all home training. 

12. I am of opinion that, if fully utilised under thoroughly com- 
petent officers, this training will meet requirements up to the 25th year. 
In the 25th-26th year a muster parade would suffice. 

13. The training required by law, over and above home training, 
would then stand 



336 



then stand 
For junior cadets, 12 to 14 years 120 hours. 



APPENDIX 



For senior cadets, 14 to 18 years equivalent to 16 days. 
Recruit training, 18 to 19 years 16 days, 8 of which to be in 

camp. 
Trained soldiers, 19 to 20 years 16 days, 8 of which to be in 

camp. 
20-21 

21-22 

22-23 /-years 6 days in camp. 

23-24 

24-25 

25-26 years Muster parade jmly. 

RESERVES 

14. After which they will be, for the period mentioned in clause 60 
of the Act, available as reservists. 

15. On this basis the yearly quotas enrolled in the Citizen Force 
would be 

TABLE I. YEARLY QUOTAS ENROLLED IN THE CITIZEN ARMY 



Years. 


Infantry. 


Light 
Horse. 


Artillery. 


Total. 


Engineers 
and Depart- 
ments. 


18-19 


12,500 


1,950 


1,450 


I5,90O 


1,175 


19-20 
2O-2I 
21-22 
22-23 

23-24 
24-25 . 


11,800 

11,200 

10,700 
10,200 
9,800 
9,300 


1,850 
1,750 
1,650 
1, 600 
1,500 
1,450 


1,370 
I,32O 
1,240 
1,190 
1,130 
1,050 


I5,O2O 
14,270 

13,590 
12,990 

12,430 

11,800 


1,125 
1,075 
I,O25 

975 
925 
875 


Total, 19-25 


63,000 


9,800 


7300 


80,100 


6,000 


25-26 


9,200 


8o,IOO 
1,400 


I,OOO 


n, 600 


850 



NOTE. In the above table an annual wastage of 5 per cent, is 
allowed for mortality, medical unfitness, absence, and other casualties. 

PRINCIPLES REGARDING ENROLMENT 

16. The first and imperative principle for the enrolment and 
maintenance of these 80,000 men as an efficient Citizen Force is that the 
% nation as a whole should take a pride in its defenders, insist upon the 
organisation being real and designed for war purposes only, and 

OVERSEAS 2*. Y 337 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

provide the means for properly educating, training, and equipping 
their officers and men. 

17. Unless these requirements be met, no military system can be 
devised which will be other than an illusion and a source of waste of 
public funds. 

18. The second principle for a successful Citizen Force is a comple- 
ment of the first. The force must be an integral portion of the national 
life. The citizen should be brought up from boyhood to look forward 
to the day when he will be enrolled as fit to defend his country ; and he 
should be accustomed to practise those habits of self-denial, of devotion 
to and emulation in the execution of his duty, of reticence, and of 
prompt obedience to lawful authority, which are essential to the 
formation of patriotic and efficient citizen soldiers. 

19. These considerations show how completely a Citizen Force should 
be kept outside party politics. Political feeling in an army is always a 
serious drawback to efficiency, and may become a danger to the State. 

20. Recruits should be drawn impartially from all portions of the 
country, and from the whole of the community ; and upon the manner 
in which the reciprocal obligations of the nation to the force and of the 
citizen soldier to the nation are brought home to the cities, towns, and 
shires will depend the value of the armed strength of Australia. 

REGISTRATION AND EXEMPTIONS 

21. The application of these principles entails a complete and 
thorough registration of the youths of the country, and the adoption 
of a system whereby those moving from one part of the country to 
another will be traced and required to continue their training. 

22. The question of exemptions will also arise, and in this there are, 
I think, two broad guiding factors 

(a) That the welfare of the family should not be prejudiced. 

(b) That the State should get the best men available. 

Factor (a) points to the exemption of those who are the sole or main 
support of their family, such as the only or eldest son of a widow, or 
of a man who is himself incapable of earning a livelihood for those 
dependent on him. 

23. Factor (b) demands the exclusion from the Citizen Force of all 
criminals, and should restrict the selection of annual quotas to those 
males who are physically the fittest of their year, and therefore the most 
eligible for the honour of serving their country. This question will, 
no doubt, as necessity arises, be fully considered by the Government. 

THE DIVISION OF THE COUNTRY INTO ' AREAS ' 

24. In my judgment, the only way to satisfactorily organise and 
train a Citizen Force of the nature about to be created in Australia is 

338 



APPENDIX 

v 

to divide the country into areas from which the National Force will be 
drawn. Each area should be designed to provide a definite proportion 
of a fighting unit, and should be in charge of a thoroughly trained 
permanent instructional officer assisted by one or two non-commissioned 
officers. 

25. By this means a trained officer will be supplied to live per- 
manently amongst a definite number of the Citizen Forces whose 
military proficiency will entirely depend on his efforts to assist them in 
home training, as well as in maintaining the military spirit of self- 
denial and esprit de corps amongst not only those who are under training 
but also the whole community. He will thus be readily available on 
all occasions to assist both officers and men in his area in their endeavour 
to render themselves efficient defenders of their country ; and when 
the unit that he has trained joins its battalion, and the battalion its 
brigade, each will vie with the other, and in this way promote a healthy 
spirit of emulation and competition in the force which will foster and 
encourage true and real efficiency. The estimation of the good services 
of these officers themselves will depend upon the comparison between 
the units provided by the various areas. 

26. Ten areas should form one group under the supervision of a 
superior instructional officer, who becomes the brigade major in time 
of war. Similarly, each unit would then have a permanent instructional 
officer as adjutant the remainder taking charge of the depots left to 
supply the wastage of the field force from reservists. 

27. It is obvious that the extent of the ' area ' which can be satis- 
factorily trained by an instructional officer will depend upon the density 
of the population, and, therefore, upon the time taken for the officer 
to reach the places where the soldiers assemble for home training as 
opportunity offers. It is also necessary to fix the relation of the 
' area ' to the unit of the force, and for this purpose I have taken the 
infantry battalion as the standard to govern all estimates. 

28. After consideration of these principles I have come to the 
conclusion that in the cities two, and in the country three, ' areas ' 
should be allowed per battalion of infantry, with a due proportion of 
other arms. 

29. In this connection may I repeat that the whole success of the 
Citizen Force depends upon the thoroughness and amount of the home 
training under the area officer. 

30. A project (Table II.) l based on the information now available, 
has been prepared, showing the division of Australia into 215 areas. 
It is merely an example of what might be done, and on further investi- 
gation variations will probably be necessary. To these there is no 
objection, provided there is no departure from the guiding principle 



1 [Table II. and the accompanying map have been omitted.] 



339 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

that the ' area ' produces its definite quota of the force, and is the sole 
charge of one permanent officer. 

THE PERMANENT INSTRUCTIONAL OFFICER IN CHARGE OF THE AREA 

31. The duties of the officer in charge of an area would include : 

(a) The inspection of the junior cadets training in the schools. 

(b) The organisation and training of the senior cadets. 

(c) The enrolment, equipment, and training of the adult from 

eighteen to nineteen years of age. 

(d) The equipment, organisation, and training of the trained 

soldier from nineteen to twenty-five years of age. 

(e) The supervision of the registration of all male inhabitants 

under clause 142 of the Act. 

(/) The maintenance of lists of males twenty-five to twenty-six 
years of age who have just completed their training. 

(g) Communication to other areas of all changes of residence of 
men under training, with particulars of their military 
proficiency. 

(h) Information regarding the numbers, residence, and classi- 
fication of the reserve men in the areas, and the organisa- 
tion and maintenance of rifle clubs. 

(*) A thorough acquaintance with the inhabitants of his area. 

32. In all these matters, except registration and enrolment, he 
would be assisted by the officers of the Citizen Forces of the area. 

33. Detailed instructions for the guidance of area officers should be 
drawn up, and should, amongst other things, require a monthly state- 
ment from each area of the progress made in registration, enrolment, 
organisation, equipment, and home training of the Citizen Forces under 
his charge. 

34. The essential importance of these duties to the nation will make 
the area officer the keystone of the Citizen Force, whose organisation 
and fitness for war will chiefly depend upon the education and training 
received in the ' area/ 

35. Under this system, it is evident that the responsibilities of the 
area officer will make it a national necessity that he should be a 
carefully-selected man, thoroughly grounded and trained in his profes- 
sion, and scientifically educated. No social considerations, no influence, 
nothing but efficiency should be allowed to affect the selection and 
promotion of these officers. Their work should be judged by results 
alone. 

36. The selection and education of suitable men for these instruc- 
tional duties will thus be the foundation of a proficient Citizen Force. 
They should be taken young, given a complete military education 
calculated to make them good leaders, strict disciplinarians, and 

340 



APPENDIX 

thoroughly competent officers brought up to realise that their career 
depends upon their ability to do their duty and on that alone. 

37. In the United States of America, the Military College of West 
Point sets an example of a severe and thoroughly military training 
imposed by a Democratic Government, and I should advise that 
Australia can only expect to produce officers of the type required by 
the establishment of a Military College similar in ideals, if not altogether 
in practice for that will vary with national characteristics to West 
Point. 

38. Hitherto it would have been difficult to find employment for 
the graduates of such a primary military educational establishment, 
but I have carefully examined this point, and find that now it has been 
decided to create a National Force, there will be ample posts to be 
filled by the graduates of a Military College. 

39. The area officer should have reasonable prospects of promotion, 
and there must be systematic supervision of his work ; for these reasons 
I have already advised that over every ten areas a supervising officer 
be appointed, who would, in war time, become the staff officer of the 
infantry brigade drawn from his group. In addition, as now, district 
staffs will be required in the six military districts of the Common- 
wealth, officers will be wanted for the Central administration and for 
the permanent troops. 



FORMATION OF A STAFF CORPS 

40. My recommendation is that a Staff Corps be formed to provide 
the officers for all these requirements, areas, district and headquarters 
staffs, and permanent troops. 

41. This Staff Corps should be entirely drawn from the Military 
College, and its members should further be sent abroad to study, and 
be attached to, the other land forces of the British Empire, so that an 
officer of this Staff Corps would be the equal, if not superior, in military 
education to the officers of any army in the world. 

42. The proposed organisation contemplates the formation of 215 
areas, which are required to produce a fighting force of 80,000 men. 
The officers in charge of each of these areas may be of the rank of 
captain or lieutenant. In addition, 22 majors will be required, one 
to supervise every ten areas. The six district staffs require 25 officers, 
mostly of field rank ; headquarters will absorb 12 ; the Military 
College 8 ; and the permanent forces (on the present scale) 48. 

43. To allow for officers being absent in other British Dominions, 
on attachment to or studying other armies, at staff colleges, on leave, 
etc., 6 per cent, of subalterns, captains, and majors should be added. 
In this way an establishment of 350 officers for the Staff Corps is 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



reached, and their distribution by ranks and duties is shown in 
Table III. below : 

TABLE III. DISTRIBUTION BY RANKS AND DUTIES OF STAFF 
CORPS OFFICERS 





c/5 


| 


1 


,| 


x 




Duty. 


.2 


& 


o 

'oT 


ll 





Total. 




$ 


3 


* 


3<3 


o 

CJ 




Area Officers for 




! 








215 areas . ... 


151 


64 


. . 


. . 


215 


In charge of 10 areas . 




. . 


22 




. . 


22 


Permanent Forces . 


28 


ii 


5 


3 


I 


4 8 


District Staff for 6 districts 


. . 


6 


10 


6 


3 25 


Central Administration at Head- 












quarters .... 
Military College 


I 


i 
4 


6 

i 


3 

i 


2 

I 


12 
8 


Spare for sick, on special courses 








. j 




attached to other armies 


IO 


4 


6 


.. 


20 


Total .... 


190 


90 


50 


13 7 350 



44. If men of the right stamp are to be attracted to the corps, the 
pay of each rank must be good ; and in this connection it must be 
remembered that the circumstances of an officer's services prevent, 
and rightly so, his participation in commercial ventures. For the 
Staff Corps to be successful, its officers rilust concentrate all their 
energies on their profession, and their pay should, therefore, be sufficient 
not only for their keep while serving, but also to ensure to them a 
competence when retired. 

45. In view of these conditions, I recommend rates of pay shown 
in Table IV., with the proviso that in each rank a compulsory deduc- 
tion should be made, sufficient fo assure an adequate provision for 
maintenance on retirement. 

TABLE IV. PROPOSED PAY OF THE STAFF CORPS OFFICERS 



Establishment. 



Ranks. 


Number. 




Colonel ...... 
Lieutenant-Colonels 
Majors . *i -t^ 
Captains ^ ; . y 
Subalterns ^ . . * 


7 
13 
50 
9 
190 




800 to 900 
700 to 800 
550 to 650 
375 to 450 
250 to 350 



342 



APPENDIX 



THE MILITARY COLLEGE 

46. I have shown that 350 officers are required for the Staff Corps, 
and I shall no\v discuss the organisation of a Military College to maintain 
that corps. 

47. Taking 20 years as the average service of an officer, it appears 
that after the Staff Corps is up to establishment the yearly output 
required from the college will be about 18 cadets. The minimum 
length of course required to efficiently ground a cadet in his profession 
is three years. 

48. As has already been pointed out, strict selection should be 
enforced from the moment a boy becomes a cadet. To allow for the 
necessary process of elimination, and also for those boys who may 
show proficiency for some other branch of the Public Service, I advise 
that thirty cadets be the annual entry ; adding ten per cent, to this 
number for casualties, and the figure 33x3 = 99, say 100, cadets is 
reached as the establishment of the college. 

49. The age of entry should be not less than 17 nor more than 19. 

50. I consider that the method of entry into the college should be 
as follows : 

Candidates should be selected from the most capable of the senior 
cadets, each area officer submitting the name of his best cadet to the 
major in charge of ten areas, who will then examine these ten* cadets 
and forward five names through the district headquarters, who will 
state their recommendations, if any, to the central administration. 
The latter will then select from the names received double the number 
required, and will refer the ultimate selection from these last to an 
authority to be determined by Government. This authority might be 
a Board of Examiners, or the Inspector-General, or the Commandant 
of the College. 

51. A cadet having joined the college, his parents should pay 80 
per annum for board, lodging, books, clothing, equipment, and instruc- 
tion ; except in the case of a cadet obtaining a scholarship, of which 
there should be twenty for the whole college. 

52. Until the Staff Corps is up to establishment, the full output 
from the college will be required ; once that stage is passed, or in the 
case of a student showing proficiency for a career other than a military 
one, he might be excused from military service on the following con- 
dition : that he serves and is efficient as an officer in the National Force 
for twelve years, and attends training, as may be laid down, and that 
during these twelve years he will perform any special military duty 
required of him at any time by the Central Administration. 

53. During the course, the cadet must be kept under strict 
discipline, and taught to keep himself physically and mentally fit. 

343 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Any cadet unlikely to make an efficient officer, or lacking in the 
personality necessary to influence and command men, should be 
removed. 

54. On the completion of his course at the college, the cadet should 
be given his commission, and sent either to India for a winter training, 
i.e. October to April, or to the United Kingdom for a summer training, 
i.e. April to October, as an attached officer to a British regiment. 
On return, he should do one year's duty under the best instructional 
officer available in an area, in order to learn how best to conduct 
registration and to promote home training in the area. He should then 
be fully capable to take over charge of an area. 

55. It will be evident that the Director of such a college must be a 
man of exceptional qualifications, well educated, and accustomed to 
do his duty fearlessly and thoroughly. He should be supplied with 
two assistant directors and an adjutant of similar qualifications to 
himself, and a staff of professors to teach the curriculum, which should 
be based on that of West Point. From the estimates at the end of this 
part it will be seen that the establishment and cost of such a college, 
when in full working order, will be 15,050. 

56. Any political interference with the management of such 
institution, in which disciplinary training forms an important part, 
and the efficiency of which is so essential to the defence of Australia, 
should be strictly avoided. 

THE CITIZEN OFFICER 

57. While the Staff Corps will provide the trained instructor, the 
leadership of units of the Citizen Force will depend on the citizen 
officer, and it is therefore all important that he should be of the most 
promising material available, chosen young and selected solely for his 
capacity for leadership and military knowledge, and devotion to duty. 
Every opportunity must be taken to educate him in the spare moments 
of his civil business, and accordingly means of instruction should be 
available at or near his home. " 

58. Once selected, the welfare of the force requires that officers 
should serve more continuously and for longer periods than their men, 
and in this way repay the nation for the trust reposed in them. 

59. A consideration of these requirements leads to the conclusion 
that 

(a) The citizen officer should be appointed as early as possible 
in his military career, so that he may, at the most receptive 
time of his life, study his duties as an officer, and develop 
his qualifications for imparting instruction and leadership 
of men. 

344 



APPENDIX 

(b) It should be understood that the acceptance of a com- 
mission entails a liability to serve as an officer for at least 
twelve years, but such a liability would not interfere 
with free movement from place to place in Australia ; 
nor with resignation should the Governor-General be 
pleased to accept it ; nor, subject to the exigencies of the 
service, with the privilege of leave on private affairs to 
visit countries outside Australia. 



APPOINTMENT 

60. I agree with the principle laid down in the Defence Act, that in 
Citizen Forces all promotions should be from the ranks ; but, in order 
to get young officers, I advise that for this purpose service in the ranks 
of senior cadets should count. The ordinary procedure to be followed 
in the appointment of an officer would then generally be 

61. The area officer would nominate suitable senior cadets as sub- 
lieutenants in the Cadet Corps ; such rank to carry no pay nor command 
outside the cadets. During the first year of their adult training these 
sub-lieutenants should be on probation as lieutenants in the Citizen 
Forces. When approved by the Battalion commander, and after 
passing the necessary tests, their names would be submitted, through 
the usual channels, for commissions. 

62. As regards (b), the commission would then be granted on the 
declaration of the officer that he is willing to serve for twelve years. 
Under this system it is estimated that an officer would obtain his first 
commission between the ages of 18 and 20, would reach the rank of 
captain about 26, and of major about 30 or 32, i.e. when his twelve 
years' service is about to expire. Above the rank of major no obligation 
to serve should be necessary ; zealous officers would remain in order 
to command their battalions or regiments, and subsequently brigades. 

63. A citizen officer elected to any Parliament should be at once 
seconded. 

INSTRUCTION 

64. The instruction of a citizen officer will be in the first instance 
afforded to him at or near his home by the instructional officer, who will 
take special care that the officers of his unit are thoroughly taught in all 
the regimental work of the unit to which they belong. In addition to 
this instruction, special courses for technical subjects should be arranged 
by the district staffs, and the proficiency attained by the officer going 
through any of these courses be specially noted in his favour. More- 
over, as these officers will doubtless have their evenings free for study, 
an excellent means for bringing the whole force together and of giving 

345 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

instruction in military subjects would be the free circulation of a 
military magazine which should be edited by and published under the 
direction of the Headquarters Staff. The same agency should under- 
take a system of correspondence which has proved to be of value in 
India, whereby answers are given to questions on military subjects, 
papers are set, duly corrected and returned, strategical and tactical 
problems are explained, discussed, and corrected. 

65. During the training period of his arm, 16 or 24 days, as the case 
may be, the citizen officer should receive good emoluments, and I 
advise that the pay of a subaltern for this period should be increased 
to i per diem, the other ranks being raised in proportion. The rates 
for each rank would then be 

i s. d. 
Subaltern . . . . . . .100 

Captain . . . . . . i 10 o 

Major . . . . . . .200 

Lieutenant-Colonel . . . . . 2 10 o 

Colonel . . . . . . .300 

66. No pay should be allowed for attendance at schools of instruc- 
tion, but bonuses sufficient to cover expenses should be granted to 
those officers who pass through the courses satisfactorily and attain the 
standard of qualification. 

THE CITIZEN SOLDIER 

67. The Australian citizen soldier experiences much of military 
value in the everyday conditions of his civil life. He is generally a 
good rider, active, lithe, and intelligent. As a cadet he is taught to 
shoot, and learns the rudiments of drill, and, passing through his 
recruit adult training, he joins the force as an efficient soldier. Much 
will undoubtedly depend on the amount of training that, through self- 
denial and devotion to his duty, the citizen soldier performs at or near 
his home, and, if this is done, in my opinion he will be able to subse- 
quently maintain his efficiency as a soldier under the training that has 
been proposed in this paper. 

68. Throughout the period of service, the citizen soldier must 
remember that he is discharging a duty to his country, and that the 
pay he receives is not a wage, but an allowance to assist him in the 
discharge of his duty. I therefore think that the rates of pay laid 
down in the Act are adequate, and as, under my proposals, training 
will continue after the twentieth year, I consider that the pay of a 
soldier in all subsequent years should be at the rate laid down for the 
19-20 year, namely, 45. per diem. 

346 



APPENDIX 



CITIZEN NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

69. When, however, a citizen soldier is selected for and is ready 
to assume the responsibilities of a non-commissioned officer, the case is 
different. He is doing more than his country absolutely requires, and 
he should, therefore, receive higher rates of pay up to 8s. a day for a 
sergeant. 

70. The selection and training of the non-commissioned officer will 
be primarily the work of the citizen officer. Promising non-commis- 
sioned officers should be sent to schools for further technical training 
on the same conditions as the citizen officer ; they should be encouraged 
to extend their services, and are, of course, eligible for commissions. 

THE ESTABLISHMENT AND ORGANISATION OF UNITS 

71. The establishments of the Regular Army have hitherto been the 
standard for Australia, and this principle should be observed in the 
formation of the Citizen Forces. 

72. In its application, however, local conditions may require slight 
variations. For instance, bandsmen are not necessary for a Citizen 
Force, drummers and buglers will supply all that is necessary ; the 
details left at the base need not be so many. 

BATTALION OF INFANTRY 

73. I should, therefore, recommend that the combatant war 
establishment of a battalion of citizen infantry be fixed at 29 officers 
and 1001 other ranks, organised as follows : 

TABLE V. ESTABLISHMENT OF A BATTALION OF INFANTRY 





Officers. 


Warrant 
and 
N.C.O's. 


Drummers 
and 
Buglers. 


Rank and 
File. 


Headquarters . 


4 


9 




18 


M.G. Section . 


I 


I 


. . 


15 


8 Companies . 


24 


40 


16 


880 


Details to be left in areas . 




4 





18 




29 


54 


16 


93i 






IOOI 



74. In working out the details it must be remembered that in the 
ranks will be found tradesmen of all kinds, such as shoemakers, tailors, 
and pioneers. 

347 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



[FI 



75. The establishment of 29 officers should be maintained in peace 
and war ; that of Ihe other ranks will vary as follows : 

Peace establishment . . . V . 750 

Recruits ........ 143 

25-26-year trained men ..... 108 



War establishment 



1001 



REGIMENT OF LIGHT HORSE 
76. Similarly a regiment of light horse would be organised in 

TABLE VI. ESTABLISHMENT OF A REGIMENT OF LIGHT HORSE 





Officers. 


Warrant 
and 
N.C.O's. 


Trumpeters. 


Rank and 
File. 


Headquarters . 


4 


12 





15 


M.G. Section 


i 


I 


. . 


II 


4 Squadrons 


24 


60 


8 


356 


Left in areas 




3 


.. 


4 




29 


76 


8 


386 






470 



which should be reached as follows : 

Peace establishment . 
Recruits .... 
25-26-year men 

War establishment 



350 
70 

5Q 
47 



BATTERY OF ARTILLERY 

77. The battery would, of course, vary slightly with the nature of 
the gun ; but for the four-gun i8-pr. battery the present war estab- 
lishment of 5 officers and 146 other ranks seems suitable. 

The battery would then reach its war strength as follows : 

Peace establishment . . . . . .130 

Recruits 16 



146 

Leaving ten recruits and eighteen 25-26-year men per battery (i.e., a 

total of 1568) to form the nucleus of ammunition columns. 

348 



APPENDIX 



TRAINING 

78. The training of the citizen soldier may be divided into two 
parts the home training, which will take place all the year round in 
the vicinity of the men's homes under the Staff Corps or the citizen 
officers of the area ; and the camp training, which will be annually 
held in the neighbourhood, and will generally consist of a brigade of 
infantry with a proportion of other arms. In order to sustain the 
interest of the force, the instruction given should be of a progressive 
nature. The soldier should annually be taught the proper practical 
methods of carrying out some new exercise as well as being tested in 
what he has learnt before. Thus a fresh exercise would be studied 
every year in the area, and practically tested at the camp. When this 
has been done, the exercise to be studied during the next year should be 
initiated and explained. 

79. This method of training naturally necessitates a systematised 
arrangement by which each soldier is gradually taught on the ground 
how to carry out all the duties of his arm. 

80. For battalion and regimental training, the assembly of the 
quotas from two or three areas becomes necessary, and this home 
training can be done at week ends. In ordinary years there will be 
no necessity to go beyond brigade training, which requires the assembly 
of quotas from ten areas. The selection of the time and place for 
these annual camps will be the work of the brigade major, who should 
consult the convenience of employers and of the men. 

81. Every year, three or more brigades should be Selected for 
concentration so as to practise commanders, staffs, and railways in 
dealing with large bodies of troops. These concentrations should be 
specially arranged for by the Government on the advice of the Military 
Board. 

82. Training should consist of all that is essential to good marching, 
accurate controlled shooting, and the combination of all arms in attack 
and defence. 

83. Throughout, the principles contained in the manuals of the 
Regular Army should be followed, but they must be applied with 
intelligence and with due regard to the local conditions of personnel, 
ground, and composition of the force. Land will be required to 
properly and satisfactorily carry out this work, and in the selection of 
its site two often conflicting conditions must be reconciled one that it 
should be close to cities in order that units and brigades will lose no 
time on the road, and the other that it should be large enough for 
manoeuvres. The Act gives power to manoeuvre over country at will, 
but where central large training grounds can be established in each 
State, there are many advantages in now doing so before the population 

349 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

thickens and all ground is taken up. Such localities would be used for 
the annual trainings, and where possible might be made available 
for the breeding of artillery horses. 

MOBILISATION 

84. Thoroughly thought-out and practical plans for mobilisation 
and concentration are required before the Citizen Force can be con- 
sidered prepared for war. 

85. Preparation for mobilisation is primarily the work of the 
General Staff, who recommend the lines to be followed and advise 
where, and in what quantities, the munitions for war of the various 
units should be stored. Concentration can only be satisfactorily 
effected when the railway and military authorities are in the closest 
touch and work in absolute harmony. To secure this co-operation, I 
advise that a War Railway Council be formed, as is the case in the 
United Kingdom, composed of the Chief Railway Commissioner from 
each State, under the presidency of the Quartermaster-General of the 
Citizen Forces, and with an officer of the Headquarters Staff as 
Secretary. 

DISTRICT STAFFS 

86. It only remains to consider the staff organisation suitable to 
administer, control, and inspect the Citizen Force. 

87. The organisation of military districts with their commandants 
and staffs should continue ; but District Commandants should be made 
to decide all questions which are within their powers. In no other 
way can decentralisation be efficiently carried out, and it is preferable 
to run the risk of an occasional mistake rather than to encourage 
unnecessary dependence on Headquarters. 



HEADQUARTERS STAFF 

88. Accepting the Military Board system as I find it in Australia, 
I consider that its work requires careful allotment, as no subject, other 
than a matter of military policy, should be laid before the Board if 
solely in the department of one member who has power to deal with it. 
It should seldom be necessary to refer such questions as details of dress, 
saluting stations, loans of camp equipment, sick leave, dates of rifle 
matches, forms to be used for requisition, claims covered by regulation, 
etc., to the Board. The Military members of the Board should remem- 
ber that on their advice on military subjects the administration of 
the forces greatly depends, and should therefore give their opinions 
on strictly military grounds, avoiding all political influences, and be 
350 



APPENDIX 

prepared to maintain their view under all circumstances. They will 
thus by their carefully considered advice afford great assistance to 
the Minister of Defence. 

89. Consultative members should not, in my opinion, be added 
to the Board. 



DEPARTMENT OF INSPECTOR-GENERAL 

90. The recommendations contained in this part of my paper, and 
based on the Defence Act of 1909, will require constant and careful 
supervision to get the best results. 

91. Factories of war material are projected, contracts for harness, 
clothing, etc., will be placed locally, and independent inspection of 
their methods and products will be essential to good and economical 
administration. 

92. For these reasons I recommend that the appointment of 
Inspector-General be continued, and that he be supplied with a staff 
adequate to carry out the duties of the Department, and that he should 
be directly under the Minister. 

93. The duties of the Department would be 

(a) The examination of the state of preparedness for war of 

the Citizen Force. 
(6) The inspection of camps. 

(c) The examination of the results attained by the systems of 

classification, enrolment, registration, organisation, and 
training of the cadets, the permanent and Citizen Forces 
and their transport. 

(d) The periodical examination of explosives, guns, and all 

warlike stores on Commonwealth charge, and the inspec- 
tion of all factories and contract supplies. 

(e) Such further inquiries as the Minister might direct. 

94. Under the conditions which exist in Australia it would appear to 
me advisable that the Inspector-General should be appointed President 
of the Board dealing with the promotion of officers above the rank of 
major, and should advise on the qualifications of field officers for 
appointment to the command of battalions, regiments, brigades, and 
districts. 

95. It would seem sufficient to provide at first for 

(a) One Inspector-General, who, with an assistant, would be 

responsible for the department and for the inspection of 
the state of preparation for war, the troops, and systems. 

(b) One Inspector of warlike stores, factories, and contracts. 

(c) Such clerical staff as is required. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



ESTIMATED MILITARY BUDGET 

96. However suitable these recommendations may be to the 
requirements of the country, a great deal must depend on the burden 
which they will impose upon its financial resources. I have, therefore, 
calculated what the annual cost of the Citizen Force would be when 
all the proposals have reached fruition and would be in full working 
order. Naturally, during the transition period the cost of the force 
would be less than this forecast, but it must be remembered that a 
considerable amount of non-recurring expenditure in the shape of guns 
and munitions of war should be obtained during this transition period, 
the upkeep of which has been fully allowed for in my estimate. 



THE STAFF CORPS 

97. The Staff Corps, composed of 350 officers at the rates of pay 
that I have suggested, amounts to a total annual cost of 142,000. 
There will be, in addition, the cost of the permanent services, and the 
400 warrant officers and non-commissioned officers required in the 
areas. These under the new rates will amount to 234,000, making a 
total of 376,000. 

THE CITIZEN FORCE 

98. The pay of the new Citizen Force has been estimated on the 
training periods proposed in my paper, and is calculated as follows : 

TABLE VII. PAY OF NEW CITIZEN TROOPS 



Rank. 


Artillery and Engineers. 


Other Arms. 


ist Year. 2nd Year. 


Each of 
following 
Years. 


ist Year. 


2nd Year. 


Each of 
following 
Years. 


Days. 


Rate. Days. ' Rate. 


Days. 


Rate. Days. 


Rate. 


Days. ! Rate. 


Days. 


Rate. 


Under Sergt. 
Sergeants 


17 


s.d. l s.d. 
3 o 17 40 


13 
25 

25 
25 
25 
25 
25 


S.d. 

4 o 
8 o 

20 

30 o 
40 o 
50 o 
60 o 


8 


s.d. 

3 o 


s.d. 

840 


6 

16 
16 
16 
16 

$ 

16 


s,d. 

4 o 
8 o 
20 o 
30 o 
40 o 
50 o 
60 o 


Lieutenants . 











Captains 






Majors 




Lieut.-Colonel . . 
Colonels / v j .. 





352 



iio] 



APPENDIX 

99. Although the number of days in camp decreases after the 
second compulsory year, officers and sergeants have to attend the full 
number in order to train first and second year men. 

The training of the new citizen troops will thus cost 

Pay and horse allowance .... 276,000 

Rations during continuous training . . 38,000 

Forage during continuous training . . 15,000 

Transport of troops . . . . . 78,000 

Clothing, service pattern only . . . 100,000 

Horse hire and local transport . , . 25,000 

Miscellaneous ...... 15,000 



Total 



THE MILITARY COLLEGE 

100. I would estimate the cost of the proposed Military College 
to be 

TABLE VIII. MILITARY COLLEGE 
Estimated cost for 100 Cadets, of whom 20 hold free scholarships. 

Military Staff 

Personnel 

i Director Brigadier-General ..... 1,200 

(Responsible for 
(a) Science of war, military history, 
tactics ; and . . . 1,000 
(b) Organisation, military law, and 
administration . . . 700 

4 Instructors, at 500 each 2,000 

(a) Garrison Artillery. 

(b) Field Artillery. 

(c) Military engineering, topography, and civil 

surveying. 

(d) Light Horse and Infantry. 

1 Adjutant and Quartermaster (also instructor in signalling) 400 

5 Staff Sergeant Instructors 1,000 

2 Military Clerks 350 

Civil Staff 

6 Lecturers at 500 each 3,000 

(a) Mathematics. 

(b) Modern languages (two) 

OVERSEAS 2. Z 353 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

(c) General history and English. 

(d) Chemistry, mineralogy, geology, and physical 

science. 

(e) Drawing (including mechanical). 



Fees for lectures in special subjects, hygiene, veterinary, etc. 200 

Maintenance of apparatus, books, and materials . . 900 

Fees to local practitioners for medical attendance . . 200 

Incidentals, postage, telegrams, etc. . . . . 500 

Uniforms for Cadets (free) ...... 600 

Travelling expenses of officers and families, and double pay 

to prevent lapse in duties (average i per year) . . 900 
Ammunition (gun and S.A.) for practice . . . 1,000 
Catering and domestic services, at 50 per cadet . . 5,000 
Pay of i farrier at 200, 5 stablemen at 150, and main- 
tenance of 50 horses at 30, etc. . . . . 2,500 



27 21,450 

Deduct payment of 80 per annum by 80 cadets, 20 

holding free scholarships ..... 6,400 



(The first cost of land, buildings, furniture, and horses, etc., is not 
included.) 

INSTRUCTIONAL GRANT. 

101. For the instruction of the citizen officer outside the Military 
College, I have allowed 4000, made up of : 

The free circulation of a military magazine one 

number per month would cost annually up to . 1,200 

One clerk 200 

Postage, prizes for problems and essays and incidentals 300 
Cost of materials, other publications, and articles from 

outside sources ..... (say) 300 

Total 



In addition 

Staff for special courses for Citizen Officers 



354 




feo] ' APPENDIX 

SUMMARY. 

102. The other items of the estimate work out at almost the same 
as that estimated in the fourth year of the Government scheme, except 
that, with increased training, more gun and small-arm ammunition 
will be required, and I have therefore added 44,000 to that estimate. 

103. By estimating 100,000 for miscellaneous a margin of safety 
has, I think, been allowed. 

104. The total cost can thus be summarised at 1,884,000, as below. 

TABLE IX. SUMMARY OF ANNUAL COST IN SEVENTH YEAR OF 
PROPOSED SCHEME 

Estimated Cost in 
Seventh Year of 
Proposed Scheme. 



Staff Corps . 142,000 

Permanent Services ...... 234,000 

New Citizen Troops. 

Pay, allowances and camp expenditure . . 547,000 
New Military College ..... 15,000 
Home instruction of the citizen officer . . 4,000 

Compulsory Cadet Training. 

Junior and senior organisations, including all 
stores required 161,000 

Reserves. 
Members of rifle clubs, etc 126,000 

Fixed Defences. 

Material only, construction of works being pro- 
vided from the ' New Works ' vote . . 40,000 

Mobile Armament. 

Field artillery and machine-guns, with vehicles, 

harness, and all stores 60,000 

Small arms ....... 85,000 

Ammunition gun and S.A. . . . . 136,000 

. General equipment . . ^ 84,000 

New works and buildings, rent, repair, and main- 
tenance . 150,000 

Miscellaneous ....... 100,000 



Total . /;;:' ..... 1,884,000 

355 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



PART II. THE TRANSITION PERIOD 

105. If the system I have recommended in Part I. is accepted by 
the Commonwealth Government, a period of transition must elapse 
before it comes into complete working order, during which much 
may be done to make or mar the scheme. 

106. It would, therefore, be of great importance that the working 
out of the details during this time should be placed in charge of one or 
more officers who thoroughly understand the scope and the spirit of 
the system for the land defence of Australia which I have proposed. 

107. It will be easily realised that proposals may be made which 
would prejudice in the future the efficient working of the new organisa- 
tion, though in themselves momentarily expedient. I think it is, 
therefore, essential that all schemes should be tested in the light of 
their utility to the full-grown Citizen Force, and, when found wanting 
in that respect, should only be given effect to as purely temporary 
measures, to be discontinued as soon as the development of the new 
Citizen Force allows. 

AREAS 

108. A great deal of preparatory work may be done in the areas 
where registration will give the most suitable limits and organisation, 
and in which the young men should be got together in their respective 
classes with as little delay as possible. 

109. I would, therefore, recommend that the post of area officers 
should be temporarily filled by the most suitable available Militia 
and Volunteer officers, as well as by the existing permanent instructional 
staff. As regards the former, areas convenient to their civil avocations 
might be chosen, and an adequate salary given for the work. By the 
efficient performance of their duties they will obtain valuable experi- 
ence, which will doubtless qualify them for the future command of 
battalions, regiments, and brigades. 

no. The process of merging the existing units into the National 
Citizen Force will be gradual, and I should advise that the designations 
and historical associations of the present regiments should be con- 
tinued under the new system, in which each regiment should have 
a territorial title as well as a number. In this way the esprit de corps 
of the Militia and Volunteers would be transmitted to the new Citizen 
Force. 

OFFICERS 

in. I do not consider that any of the officers now serving should 
be transferred to the Staff Corps, which ought to be entirely formed 
from the graduates of the Military College, but in order to enable the 
356 



APPENDIX 

* 

officers appointed to areas during the transition period to give instruc- 
tion to the new force, I would put such officers, when necessary, through 
a short course in the duties of an area officer. For this purpose I have 
put in the estimates funds sufficient to provide additional instructors. 

WARRANT AND NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS 

112. Australia now maintains 229 instructional staff, warrant, and 
non-commissioned officers ; eventually about 400 will be required. 

113. During the transition stage, the existing warrant and non- 
commissioned officers should be distributed throughout the areas and 
supplemented by the most suitable appointments that can be made. 

114. If these proposals are. thoroughly carried out, the completely 
trained Staff Corps officer will find his area mapped out, the registration 
complete, the various classes from junior cadets upwards formed, and 
he should thus take over a going concern, only requiring the guidance 
which he, by reason of his thorough military grounding, can give to 
raise each quota of the National Force to the high standard of efficiency 
which, I hope, the people of Australia will always demand of their 
military forces. 

[Lord Kitchener, after inspecting the New Zealand Military Forces, 
advised that the New Zealand Army should be remodelled and developed 
on the same lines as the Australian.] 



357 



THE NAVAL FORCES OF THE COMMONWEALTH. 
RECOMMENDATIONS by ADMIRAL SIR REGINALD 
HENDERSON, K.C.B., 1911 

Melbourne, ist March 1911. 

SIR, In accordance with the request made to me by the Common- 
wealth Government, I have the honour to forward herewith, for the 
consideration of that Government, my recommendations in regard 
to the general administration, organisation, distribution, etc., of the 
Naval Forces of the Commonwealth. 

2. In your letter of nth August 1910, you stated, on behalf 
of the Government, that ' the main points on which we wish to have 
the benefit of your experience are 

' (a) the best position for the Central Naval Base, and the works 

necessary to make it effective ; 
' (b) the positions for secondary bases for the service of a Fleet, 

and what we should, in your opinion, do to make them 

of best service in any naval operations. 

We shall be also glad of your views as to the location and char- 
acter of the training schools for preparing personnel for our Naval 
Service, to include both officers and men and all branches of the 
Service ; and on any other naval matters upon which you may care 
to express an opinion/ 

In subsequent conversation with you I learnt that, as far as prac- 
ticable, all action necessary in the first stage of the development of 
the Commonwealth Fleet was being deferred until the receipt of my 
recommendations, and that it was the desire of the Government 
that I should embody in my report my views as regards all the measures 
to be taken, both forthwith and in the future, in the formation of 
the Fleet. 

3. I have not, therefore, restricted my recommendations to any 
special points, but have tendered advice on all the steps which, in 
my opinion, should be taken. 

4. In order to gain full knowledge of Australian conditions and 
resources, more especially in regard to its harbours and their suitability 
for Naval Bases, I have visited the following harbours : 

358 



APPENDIX 



Western Australia 

Fremantle (including Cockburn Sound). 

Bunbury. 

Albany. 

South Australia 

Port Adelaide (including Largs Bay, etc.). 
Port Lincoln. 
Wallaroo. 
Port Victor. 

Northern Territory 
Port Darwin. 

Queensland 

Thursday Island. 

Cooktown. 

Cairns. 

Townsville. 

Rockhampton (including Keppel Bay). 

Gladstone (Port Curtis). 

Maryborough. 

Brisbane (including More ton Bay). 

New South Wales 

Port Stephens. 

Newcastle (and Lake Macquarie). 

Broken Bay. 

Sydney (Port Jackson). 

Botany Bay. 

Wollongong. 

Port Kembla. 

Jervis Bay. 

St. George's Basin and Sussex Inlet. 

Twofold Bay. 

Tasmania 

Launceston and River Tamar. 

Devonport. 

Burnie. 

Hobart 

D'Entrecasteaux Channel. 

359 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY- OVERSEAS [M, 

Tasmania 
Huon River. 
Port Esperance. 
Port Arthur. 
Norfolk Bay. 
Frederick Henry Bay. 

Victoria 

Port Western. 

Port Phillip generally (including Port Melbourne, Williams- 

town, Geelong, Corio Bay). 
Portland. 

5. I have also fully considered from charts, plans, and reports, the 
following harbours, which I had not opportunities of visiting : 

Western Australia 

Broome. 

Cone Bay (King Sound). 

Wyndham. 

Papua 
Port Moresby. 

Queensland 
Bowen (Port Denison). 

New South Wales 
Kiama. 

6. Although Ihave confined my attention as regards the question 
of Naval Bases to the ports of the Commonwealth and its dependencies 
(this being the scope of my present service), yet it has been necessary 
for me, when reviewing the whole naval situation in the South Pacific, 
to give consideration to the positions of New Zealand, Fiji, and other 
portions of the empire in the Pacific ; and my proposals will admit 
of any future naval developments in New Zealand and the Pacific 
Islands being readily fitted into one complete scheme. 

7. I desire to express my high appreciation of the courtesy shown, 
and the assistance rendered to me by their Excellencies the Governors 
of the respective States, the Resident of the Northern Territory, the 
360 



APPENDIX 

State Governments and their officers, the local authorities at all the 
places which I have visited, and by the Australian people generally. 
By their aid I have been enabled to carry out my investigations 
under most favourable conditions. 

8. All the arrangements for my tour were made by Captain Creswell, 
C.M.G., Director of the Commonwealth Naval Forces, assisted by 
Staff-Paymaster A. M. Treacy, C.N.S., both of whom accompanied 
me. I have to thank these officers for the most satisfactory and 
efficient manner in which all these arrangements were carried out. 

9. In establishing a fleet of her own and developing her own naval 
resources, Australia is taking a large share in the inauguration of an 
Imperial movement which must result in strengthening the sea power 
of the Empire. I wish, however, to emphasise especially the fact 
that, although the Government may propose and guide, and although 
the naval administration may organise and foster, the naval develop- 
ment of the Commonwealth, yet the ultimate success of this develop- 
ment rests, and must continue to rest, with the Australian people ; 
upon their sincere and whole-hearted support and co-operation depends 
the efficiency of their fleet. Moreover, it will be to the personnel of 
that fleet that, the people will entrust the guardianship of their homes. 

I have full confidence that the people of this great country will 
show that they retain those maritime instincts which are the proud 
heritage of our race, and that they are determined to support their 
Government in having an ideal naval force imbued with the naval 
traditions of our past, thoroughly efficient in every respect ; a force 
to which every officer and man will be proud to belong. 

10. In conclusion, I would express the hope that my recommenda- 
tions will assist and facilitate the Government in the furthering of 
their wise naval policy. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

REG. HENDERSON, Admiral (retired). 
The Hon. the Minister of State for Defence. 



INTRODUCTORY 

Australia heretofore has trusted to the Mother Country for her 
protection, which has depended on the command of the sea, or in 
other words, upon sea power, and this sea power has enabled Australians 
to remain undisturbed in their magnificent country, and allowed them 
to arrive at their present condition of great prosperity. Australia has 
now determined to take her share of the defence of her own territory, 
and it is certain that it must still rest on the sea power of the Empire. 

361 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

2. Once the command of the sea is lost by the Empire, no local 
system of defence, naval or military, could secure Australia's auto- 
nomy, and she would be the prey of the strongest maritime power. 

3. Any nation that threatens or attacks the sea power of the Empire 
must be an enemy of Australia and of the whole Empire. 

4. Unity of purpose in this matter with regard to all parts of the 
Empire will give great strength to the sea power of the Empire, and, 
too, unity of control in war of all the naval forces of the Empire is of 
paramount importance. 

5. The primary object of an Australian Navy, therefore, should 
be the immediate support of the rest of the Empire's naval forces in 
their determination to retain the command of the sea. 

6. The geographical position of Australia, its immense coastline, 
sparsely populated districts, large shipping and coasting trade, and 
over-sea communications, require that the secondary object should 
be the protection of ports and shipping from raids and incursions by 
hostile ships and cruisers. 

7. Field-Marshal Viscount Kitchener of Khartoum has well set 
forth the strategic position of Australia in his Memorandum on the 
Defence of Australia, in which he says : 

c It is an axiom held by the British Government that the Empire's 
existence depends primarily upon the maintenance of adequate 
and efficient naval forces. As long as this condition is fulfilled, 
and as long as British superiority at sea is assured, then it is an 
accepted principle that no British Dominion can be successfully 
and permanently conquered by an organised invasion from over- 
sea. 

' 2. But, in applying this principle to Australia, considerations 
of time and space cannot be disregarded. The conduct of a great 
war depends upon the calculated and proper combination of naval, 
military, and diplomatic forces, and it is quite conceivable that, 
in the future, as in the past, national considerations may require 
the concentration of British naval forces in one or other theatre 
of operations. It follows that, in seas remote from such a con- 
centration, the British naval forces may find themselves for the 
moment inferior in force to an actual, or potential, enemy. In 
such a situation, although our ultimate superiority at sea might 
not be a matter of doubt, some time might elapse before our com- 
mand of the sea was definitely assured in all waters. It therefore 
becomes the duty of all Self-Governing Dominions to provide a 
military force adequate, not only to deal promptly with any attempt 
at invasion, but also to ensure local safety and public confidence 
until our superiority at sea has been decisively and comprehensively 
asserted. For this reason it has been agreed that the Home 
362 



APPENDIX 

Forces of the United Kingdom should be so organised as to compel 
an enemy contemplating an invasion to make the attempt on 
such a scale as to be unable to evade our naval forces. The same 
arguments apply to Australia, and its land forces should be calcu- 
lated and organised on this basis/ 

8. The military policy of the Commonwealth is thus based on 
two assumptions : 

(a) That the sea supremacy of the Empire will be maintained, 

though some period may elapse after the outbreak of hos- 
tilities before the command of the sea becomes effective. 

(b) That the naval forces in Australian waters will be of sufficient 

strength to preclude an enemy who attempts invasion on a 
large scale from evading them during such a period. 

9. The Commonwealth Naval Forces will, therefore, be required 
to share in attaining (a) to fulfil (b), and also to render protection on 
the high seas to merchant shipping, upon which the commerce, and 
therefore the prosperity, of Australia depend ; and it is, with these 
requirements in view, that I make the following recommendations. 

STRENGTH OF THE COMMONWEALTH FLEET 

10. In the first instance it is necessary to find some basis on which 
to determine the strength of the fleet that should be maintained by 
the Commonwealth. 

11. Being girt by the sea, and having no inland frontiers to protect, 
Australia is compelled to regard the sea itself as her first and natural 
line of defence. If Australia were an independent nation the sea 
power required by her to render her immune from aggression would 
be determined by the sea power of her possible enemy or enemies ; 
her existence in a state of independence could only be assured by 
the maintenance of an Australian Naval Force equal to, if not greater 
than, that of the possible enemy. The enormous cost of modern 
navies, coupled with the present comparatively small population of 
the Commonwealth, place the contemplation of such an Australian 
Fleet beyond the bounds of practical politics, and outside the purview 
of my report. 

12. Australia cannot, therefore, at the present time do more than 
undertake her share of the burden now borne, almost entirely, by the 
Mother Country: as the provision of adequate Naval Defence is 
essential to every Australian who desires to preserve his nationality, 
it would seem just to assess such share in proportion to population. 

13. Population might be taken as a basis also because war affects 
all the members of a nation, not only the Government and its armed 

363 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

forces ; because it is on each individual that the duty of defending 
his country should, and would in the last resource, fall ; because the 
strength of a nation must to a great extent, more especially where 
universal service obtains, depend upon its population ; and, finally, 
because it is the people by their votes, where all are equal, who decide 
the policy of their Government. 

14. The population of the United Kingdom may be taken as 
approximately 45 millions, the population of the Commonwealth 
as 4J millions, a proportion of 10 to i. In 1910 the United Kingdom 
voted approximately 40,000,000 for naval purposes for the current 
year ; on this basis Australia's annual naval provision would be 
4,000,000 now, increasing in later years proportionately to population. 

15. Australia's over-sea commerce, which is the life-blood of her 
prosperity and wealth, should also furnish a measure of her share 
in the benefits, and of the obligations, arising from the maintenance 
of the sea power on which such commerce depends for its very 
existence. 

16. For the year 1909, the total value of the exports and imports ' 
of the United Kingdom and Australia are recorded as follows, 
approximately : 



United Kingdom .... 1,094,000,000 

Australia Oversea . 116,000,000 
Inter-State (sea-traffic) 46,000,000 

162,000,000 

17. On the basis of oversea trade Australia's share would thus 
be approximately n per cent., and on the total sea trade 15 per cent, 
of the naval expenditure of the Mother Country. 

18. I have thought it reasonable, therefore, to frame my proposals 
on the assumption that Australia desires to possess, as early as prac- 
ticable, a fleet whose annual cost approximates to this proportion, 
increasing gradually as the population and wealth of the Common- 
wealth grow. For this expenditure I am recommending the provi- 
sion of a Fleet which should fulfil the requirements laid down in para- 
graph 9. 

19. In order to obtain the necessary efficiency with the minimum 
cost, continuity of policy is essential, and the development of the 
Commonwealth Naval Forces must proceed on definite lines with a 
definite goal in view, so that each step taken will advance the com- 
pletion of the whole, and the development must be regulated by her 
resources both in population and in wealth. 

20. During the period of naval development the Commonwealth 
will have the advantage of benefiting by the experience of the British 
364 



APPENDIX 

Navy, and of obtaining from that Navy such personnel and materiel 
as she may require. 

21. The first step towards the development of a Commonwealth 
Navy has already been decided upon, namely, the building of the 
' Fleet Unit/ which comprises 

One armoured cruiser, 
Three protected cruisers, 
Six torpedo-boat destroyers, 
Three submarines. 

22. The mere possession of ships does not make a navy, though to 
a great extent the number and size of the vessels do regulate the 
provisions which are essential for its maintenance, of which provi- 
sions the following are the most important : 

A. CONTROL AND ADMINISTRATION 

Selection and appointment of a Naval Board which, by the reputa- 
tion and qualifications of its members, will command not only the 
confidence of the Commonwealth, but will possess also the confidence, 
loyal sympathy, and support of the Navy it administrates. 

B. PERSONNEL 

Adoption of such conditions of service in the Commonwealth Navy 
as will compare favourably with the conditions of employment on 
shore in Australia, and, under a system of pensions for long service, 
State insurance, or annuities, attract suitable men to devote the best 
part of their lives to the naval profession. 

C. TRAINING 

Adoption of definite and thorough systems of training which will 
secure to the Commonwealth an efficient naval personnel. 

D. NAVAL BASES 

Protection of selected naval bases. 

Complete equipment of principal naval bases and selected sub- 
bases with all necessary plant and accessories essential to the main- 
tenance of modern war vessels, 

E. COMMUNICATIONS AND INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS 

Organisation of a complete and efficient system of communications 
and intelligence. 

365 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



F. NAVAL RESERVES 

Regulation of the entry, training, etc., of the naval reserve officers 
and men. 

G. STORES 

Efficient arrangements for the supply, and immediate readiness, 
of all naval stores and requirements. 

23. All these provisions must be organised and developed con- 
currently with the building of the vessels, but it is necessary to empha- 
sise the fact that, while a modern war vessel can be built within two 
years of her being ordered, the personnel require a period of training 
varying at the earliest from nine years and a half for a lieutenant to 
six years for a petty officer and two years for an able seaman, before 
each is fitted to take his place in such a vessel. 

24. As regards the provision of ammunition, ordnance, shipbuild- 
ing, materiel, and naval stores, etc., generally, I am of opinion that it 
will be an advantage to the Commonwealth, either by the establish- 
ment of Government workshops, or by encouraging private enter- 
prise, to build up the plant and power necessary to accomplish the 
whole of the manufacture of these, but that the progressive advance- 
ment should be slow and gradual with small beginning and ever- 
increasing accomplishment until all the requisites of a ship of war, 
including the largest guns, can be manufactured in Australia. 

25. The determining factors which have guided me in my recom- 
mendations as to the composition and distribution of the Fleet (to be 
maintained on the above financial basis) are 



Primarily 

The future Imperial responsibilities in the Pacific and their attendant 
obligations, as far as can be foreseen from the probable political situa- 
tion, in conjunction with similar Imperial responsibilities and obliga- 
tions in other parts of the world. 



Secondarily 

(a) The local naval needs of the Commonwealth hi Australian 
waters. 

(b) The possible assumption by the Commonwealth of responsi- 
bility for the peace patrol duties of the South Pacific generally. 

366 



9ii] APPENDIX 

26. I have divided my recommendations into three parts, com- 
prising 

PART I. THE COMPLETED FLEET (the goal to be attained). 

PART II. THE INITIAL STAGE REQUIREMENTS OF THE FLEET 
UNIT AND FIRST SEVEN YEARS (the foundation). 

PART III. SUCCESSIVE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT (culminat- 
ing in the completed fleet). 

APPENDICES, as shown in the list on page 391, those noted as 
confidential being printed separately. 



PART I. THE COMPLETED FLEET 

1. The completed Fleet to be composed as follows : 

8 armoured cruisers, 
10 protected cruisers, 
1 8 destroyers, 
12 submarines, 

3 depot ships for flotillas, 

i fleet repair ship. 

52 

2. This fleet would when fully manned require a personnel of 
approximately 15,000 officers and men, divided as follows : 

Commissioned officers 

Executive and engineer ..... 461 

Medical ........ 54 

Accountant ....... 63 

Subordinate officers 

Executive ....... 96 

Accountant n 

Warrant officers 

Executive ....... 201 

Engineer ....... 43 

Accountant ....... 6 

Petty officers and men 

Seamen ........ 5,865 

Stokers ........ 5,290 



Carry forward, . 12,090 

367 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



Brought forward, 
Artisans ....... 

Miscellaneous (including both officers and men) 

Total 

Under training and on passage 

Grand Total , 



12,090 
591 



13,832 

1,012 
14,844 



3. The Fleet to be divided into two Divisions as follows :- 



EASTERN DIVISION. 



Number. 



i/upa ui vessel. 


In Full 
Commission. 


With Reduced 
Crew. 


Total. 


Armoured cruiser .... 


3 


j 


4 


Protected cruiser .... 


3 


2 


5 


Torpedo-boat destroyer 


8 


4 


12 


Submarine 


3 




3 


Depot ship for torpedo-boat destroyers 


2 




2 


Fleet repair ship .... 










Total .... 


; 
19 


7 


26 



WESTERN DIVISION. 



368 



Armoured cruiser .... 


3 


I 


4 


Protected cruiser .... 


3 


2 


5 


Torpedo-boat destroyer 


4 


2 


6 


Submarine 


9 


. . 


9 


Depot ship for torpedo-boat destroyers 


i 




i 


Fleet repair ship .... 


i 





i 


Total .... 


21 


5 


26 


Grand Total of both Divisions . 


4 


12 


52 


! 





APPENDIX 



4. The Divisions to be divided into squadrons and flotillas, and 
the peace distribution to be as follows : 



Squadron or Flotilla. 


. Composition. 


Principal Base. 


Sub- Bases. 




EASTERN DIVISION. 




First Main Squadron 


4 armoured cruisers Sydney. 
(i with reduced j 
crew). 


Thursday Island. 


First Cruiser Squadron 


5 protected cruisers 
(2 with reduced 
crew). 


Sydney . 


Thursday Island. 


First Destroyer Flotilla . 


6 destroyers (2 with 
reduced crew). 


Brisbane 


Thursday Island. 
Townsville. 




i depot ship. 






Second Destroyer Flotilla 


6 destroyers (2 with 
reduced crew). 


Port Western 


River Tamar. 
Hobart. 




i depot ship. 




Port Lincoln. 


First Submarine Flotilla . 


3 submarines . 


Port Stephens 


Sydney. 
Brisbane. 




WESTERN DIVISION. 




Second Main Squadron . 


4 armoured cruisers 
(i with reduced 
crew). 


Fremantle 


Port Darwin. 
Port Western. 




i fleet repair ship. 






Second Cruiser Squadron . 


5 protected cruisers 
(2 with reduced 
crew). 


Fremantle . 


Port Darwin. 
Port Western. 


Third Destroyer Flotilla . 


6 destroyers (2 with 
reduced crew). 


Fremantle . 


Albany. 
Cone Bay. 




i depot ship. 




Port Darwin. 


Second Submarine Flotilla 
Third Submarine Flotilla . 
Fourth Submarine Flotilla 


3 submarines . 
3 submarines . 
3 submarines . 


Port Western 
Port Lincoln 
Fremantle . 


River Tamar. 
Hobart. 
Port Lincoln. 
River Tamar. 
Hobart. 
Port Western. 
Albany. 
Cone Bay. 
Port Darwin. 



OVERSEAS 2. 



2 A 



369 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



5. For purposes of recruiting, Australia should be divided into 
two recruiting areas, eastern and western, to man the Eastern and 
Western Divisions respectively. 



Area. 


Main Recruiting 
Centre. 


Sub-Centre. 


States included. 


State. 


Population 
in Millions. 


Eastern . 


Sydney . 


Brisbane 

Newcastle 


Queensland . 
New South Wales . 
Total . 


0'57 
1-62 


2-19 


Western . 


Melbourne 


Adelaide 
Hobart 
Fremantle 


Tasmania . 
Victoria 
South Australia 
Western Australia . 
Total . 


o'i8 
1-30 
0-41 
0-27 


2'l6 



6. Naval depots and schools to be established at 

Sydney Naval depot : gunnery, signal, wireless telegraphy, 

and cookery schools. 
Port Western Naval depot : torpedo school. 

7. The following list contains the names of the places affected by 
the above proposals, in geographical order, from Thursday Island to 
Port Darwin, vid the south, showing for what purpose each will be 
required : 



Thursday Island 
Townsville 
Brisbane . 

Port Stephens . 

Newcastle 

Sydney 



Fleet secondary base ; destroyer base. 

Destroyer sub-base. 

Destroyer base ; submarine sub-base ; 
recruiting sub-centre. 

Submarine base. 

Recruiting sub-centre. 

Fleet primary base ; naval depot ; 
gunnery, signal, wireless telegraphy 
and cookery schools ; main re- 
cruiting centre (naval college and 
boys' training ship will also be at 
Sydney). 



370 



APPENDIX 

Hobart ... . . Destroyer sub-base ; submarine sub- 
base. 

Beauty Point (River Tamar) Destroyer sub-base ; submarine sub- 
base. 

Melbourne (or its vicinity) . Main recruiting centre. 

Port Western . . . Destroyer base ; submarine base ; 

naval depot ; torpedo school. 

Adelaide .... Recruiting sub-centre. 

Port Lincoln . . . Submarine base ; destroyer sub-base. 

Albany .... Destroyer sub-base ; submarine sub- 
base. 

Fremantle . . . Fleet primary base ; destroyer base ; 

submarine base ; recruiting centre. 

Cone Bay (or other port on 

N.W. coast . . . Destroyer sub-base ; submarine sub- 
base. 

Port Darwin . . . Fleet secondary base ; destroyer sub- 
base ; submarine sub-base. 

NOTE. See Appendix F as to which of these places will be used also as 
headquarters for training of Naval Reserves. 

8. Though I have divided the proposed fleet into two Divisions 
(each of which should be under the command of an Admiral or Com- 
modore), and have allocated certain bases and sub-bases to the squadron 
and flotillas of each Division, it is not intended that their sphere of 
employment should be restricted to the vicinity of the ports so named ; 
in order to give all officers and men the opportunity of gaining acquaint- 
ance with the whole of the waters of Australia, ships of the two Divi- 
sions should be interchanged from time to time, and at least once a 
year the two Divisions should meet for fleet tactics and exercises under 
the Senior Admiral, and for manoeuvres, in which one Division would 
be opposed to the other. 

9. Excellent centres for such purpose in the summer time are 
Hobart and its vicinity, Jervis Bay, and Port Lincoln ; in the winter 
time ships should work on the Northern Coast. 

10. Port Western is a very good harbour, and until Cockburn Sound 
(Fremantle), which is far more important from a strategical point of view, 
is ready, this port should be utilised by the Western Division as one 
of its principal anchorages, and as a place where ships should be able 
to replenish with coal or oil fuel. 

11. Port Stephens is also a very good harbour. My proposals only 
suggest its use as a submarine base for the present, but it should be 
surveyed and examined thoroughly, and land reserved, with a view 
to possible requirements of future naval expansion. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

12. The Second Destroyer Flotilla, which is based on Port Western, 
could easily be utilised in time of war for service with the main fleet 
or elsewhere, as might be required ; and in peace time it should be 
exchanged at times with other destroyer flotillas, which are employed 
under more trying conditions of climate, etc. 

13. Cone Bay (King Sound) is suggested as the destroyer sub-base, 
which is required on the North-West Coast, though I have not visited 
it myself. I am informed that it is better protected in bad weather 
than Broome, but as surveying is now being carried out in that part 
of the coast, I suggest that this information should be confirmed, and 
it may be that a more suitable harbour than either could be selected. 

14. In connection with my recommendations as to Port Darwin 
and also Fremantle, I desire to express, from a naval point of view, 
the urgent necessity of establishing railway communication between 
those places and the centres of population, manufactures, and resources 
which are required for the maintenance of a fleet. 

15. I have not made any special proposals as regards fleet auxiliaries 
required for the services of the Fleet, as I consider * that there are 
sufficient suitable merchant ships available in Australian waters to 
meet the needs in time of war. The necessary preparatory arrange- 
ments should, however, be completed in peace time, so that prompt 
action can be taken in war. 

16. The above gives the general outline of the goal to be attained ; 
in Parts II. and III. and in the Appendices further details of the re- 
quirements are embodied, with proposals as to how, and by what steps, 
they should be reached. Complete proposals as to wireless telegraph 
stations are contained in Appendix E. 



PART II. THE INITIAL STAGE (1911-1918). 
I. THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE FLEET UNIT. 

II. THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE HARBOUR TRAINING ESTABLISH- 
MENTS. 

III. THE ADDITIONS TO THE FLEET UNIT TO BE EFFECTED BY 1918 

AND THEIR REQUIREMENTS. 

The preparatory measures which should be taken in hand forth- 
with are those necessary to meet the requirements of the fleet unit on 
its arrival in Australia. The actual vessels of which the fleet unit is 
to be composed have been decided on, viz. : 

i Armoured cruiser, 

3 Protected cruisers, 

6 Torpedo-boat destroyers, 

3 Submarines. 
372 



APPENDIX 

2. The further measures to be taken may be divided under the 
same headings as shown in the introductory remarks, paragraph 22. 

A. CONTROL AND ADMINISTRATION 

3. A Naval Board should be constituted without delay, on the 
lines laid down in Appendix A. 

B. PERSONNEL 

4. Appendix B 1 contains detailed information as to entry, training, * [Omitted 
etc., of the personnel required. here.] 

5. It is recommended that the requirements of the Commonwealth 
completed Fleet should be divided over four eras, consisting respec- 
tively of 

First Era 7 years 



Second Era 5 years 
Third Era 5 years 
Fourth Era 5 years , 



Total, 22 years. 



6. These fixed eras are suggested only as a convenient guide to a 
procedure by which the recommendations embodied in this report 
can be carried out gradually, and by which the growth of the Fleet 
in size and number of vessels can proceed concurrently, as far as 
practicable, with the entry and education of the personnel that it 
will require. 

7. The total period of 22 years is taken as the maximum required ; 
the higher ranks of officers cannot be obtained in a shorter period, 
and a period of 22 years is also convenient because it is the length of 
service, from the age of 18, which continuous service men in the 
mother Navy are required to complete to be eligible for pension, and 
is the period which is recommended for adoption for ' long service ' 
in the Commonwealth Fleet. 

8. Should the Commonwealth desire to hasten the completion of 
their Fleet and its requirements, it would be easy to do so, as regards 
the provision of the lower ranks and ratings required, by a propor- 
tionate increase in the numbers to be entered annually, but provision 
of the higher grades could not be accelerated appreciably. 

9. It is specially recommended that the first era should cover 
seven years, as this longer era will give the Commonwealth time and 
opportunity for devoting her energies to providing and equipping the 
necessary harbour establishments, naval bases, etc., as well as to 
putting the recruiting system on a sound basis. 

Moreover, the requirements of personnel for the fleet unit with 
those for the various harbour establishments (which must be estab- 
lished in the initial stage) and the small additional requirements of 

373 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

the vessels proposed to be added to the fleet unit during the first 
era will, together, be greater than those of the subsequent shorter 
eras. 

10. The total numbers of ranks and ratings that will be required 
in the first eras are : 

(a) Personnel required for manning the fleet unit . 2501 

(b) Personnel required for manning harbour establish- 

ments and for administration . . . 1137 

(c) Personnel required for manning the additions to 

the fleet unit to be made by 1918 (viz., 6 torpedo- 
boat destroyers, 3 submarines, i depot ship) . 746 



Total, 1623. 



Total ...... 4384 

I. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS OF THE FLEET UNIT 

NOTE. The proposals as to obtaining ranks and ratings from the Mother 
Country are made subject to the concurrence of the Admiralty. 

11. Of the 2501 required for the Fleet unit the following ranks and 
ratings cannot be provided by Australia in the two years available, 
and must, therefore, be obtained from the Mother Country, under 
the agreement made at the Imperial Conference of 1909 : 

Commissioned officers ... 98 
Subordinate officers . . .12 
Warrant officers .... 34 
Chief petty and other petty officers 406 
Leading ratings .... 305 
Other ratings .... 768 

The balance, 878, should be provided by the Commonwealth by 
the time the vessels of the Fleet unit arrive in Australia. 

12. As regards the 144 officers required from the Mother Country, 
it is recommended that, as far as compatible with efficient manning 
of the vessels, they be selected by the Admiralty from Australians 
and from volunteers for service in Australia 

(a) They should be lent for three years' service in the Australian 

Fleet, counting their service as service in the mother Fleet, 
on their return to that Fleet. 

(b) Those who volunteer on the expiration of their three years' 

service, for transfer to ' the Commonwealth service, and are 
recommended, to be allowed to do so if required by the 
Commonwealth and if the Admiralty concur. 

(c) Officers so lent to draw Australian rates of pay and allowances 

while in the Commonwealth Naval Service, but not to receive 
any naval pay from the Mother Country during such time. 

374 



APPENDIX 

(d) The Commonwealth to provide passages to England for officers 
returning to the mother Fleet after three years' service, and 
to continue officers on full pay up to the date of arrival in 
England and completion of ' Foreign Service ' leave accord- 
ing to usual scale. 

13. The 1479 ratings required from the Mother Country should, 
as far as practicable, be selected from Australians and from volunteers 
for service in Australia. They should be obtained as follows : 

(a) 816 ratings to be recruited, if available, in the United Kingdom 

from (i.) ratings who have completed time for pension in 
the mother Navy and left the active service, provided that 
not more than two years have elapsed since their discharge 
to pension ; such men should be entered into the Common- 
wealth service for a term of engagement of five years ; and 
from (ii.) ratings in the Royal Fleet Reserve who have com- 
pleted not less than seven years, and not more than twelve 
years' service in the mother Navy before their transfer 
to the Reserve, provided that not more than two years have 
elapsed since their transfer ; such men should be entered 
into the Commonwealth service for a term of engagement 
of either five or seven years. 

NOTE. These men would not be part of the active service personnel of the 
mother Navy, and could, therefore, be more easily spared. The adopt jon of 
this proposal as to recruiting in the United Kingdom will allow time during 
which Australia can recruit and train her own men, and it will, during such 
period, provide the Commonwealth temporarily with reliable and efficient ratings. 
At the end of their Australian engagements these ratings could be re-engaged 
for further short periods, if found desirable, or others could be similarly recruited 
in their places, until sufficient ratings recruited in Australia were available to 
fill their vacancies. Such of these ratings as hold non-substantive ratings (i.e., 
special gunnery or torpedo qualifications) should go through a short re-qualifying 
course in one of the Home training establishments prior to their embarkation in 
the vessels of the fleet unit, so that their knowledge may be brought up to date. 

I would suggest that these men should, on engagement, be given the option 
of having either a free passage home on completion of their engagement or 
' assisted passages ' to Australia for their wives and families at the time of 
engagement. 

(b) 103 ratings (officers' stewards and cooks) should be recruited 

in the United Kingdom for non-continuous service, being 
entered as required for vessels of the Fleet unit ; they should 
be replaced subsequently by Australians as convenient, 
being provided by the Commonwealth with passages back 
to the United Kingdom if they wish to return. 

(c) 560 ratings should be lent from the active service personnel 

of the mother Navy for periods of three years. These 

375 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

ratings would be drafted by the Admiralty as required, 
and should draw Australian rates of pay and allowances 
while in the Commonwealth Naval Service. 

NOTE. Should the numbers available from source (a) not prove adequate, 
it would be necessary to increase the number required to be lent under (c) . 

14. The number of ranks and ratings to be recruited in Australia 
for the Fleet unit is 878. 

15. It is recommended that the ratings in the Commonwealth 
Navy eventually should be composed approximately as follows : 

Three-fourths of total number to be engaged for ' continuous 

service ' (viz., engagement for twelve years from the age of 

eighteen, with the option of re-engaging for a further ten years). 

One-fourth of total number to be engaged for ' short service ' 

(viz., engagement for seven or five years). 

If the first ' short service ' engagement can be fixed at seven years 
instead of five, the building up of the Commonwealth's Australian- 
recruited personnel will be greatly facilitated. A greater proportion 
would be inclined to re-engage after seven years than after five (i.e., 
re-engage to complete the ' long-service ' period of 12 years), and 
the growth of the Commonwealth Fleet Reserve (see Appendix F), 
which Reserve will not be needed in the early stages of the Common- 
wealth Navy, would be retarded. 

16. Officers of all branches of the Commonwealth Navy, except 
medical officers, chaplains, and naval instructors, should be entered 
under similar condition to those obtaining in the mother Navy. (See 
Appendix B.) 

17. Ratings of all branches, except certain artisan ratings, officers' 
stewards, and cooks, bandsmen, and sick berth ratings, should be 
entered under similar conditions to those obtaining in the mother 
Navy (see Appendix B), except that, as recommended in paragraph 
15, a term of seven years is proposed instead of a term of five years 
for the first engagement for ' short service ' men. 

1 8. It is not recommended that a corps of Royal Marines should 
be established in Australia, as the introduction of Royal Marines 
does not appear to be necessary in the initiation, of a new Navy. Their 
places in the complements of vessels will be filled by additional sea- 
man ratings. 

19. I am of opinion that the duties and work of seaman and stoker 
ratings should be assimilated and combined, and recommend that 
this course be pursued with all continuous service seaman and stoker 
entrants until the time arrives for a selection to be made from them 
of men to qualify for gunnery and torpedo ratings. Men who qualified 
in such ratings would then be appropriated permanently to the sea- 
man branch ; the remainder should and could continue to fulfil both 
376 



APPENDIX 

duties until they attain a ' leading rating/ when they should be allocated 
as leading seamen or leading stokers, and remain in their respective 
branches permanently. Men should be given the advantage of choos- 
ing between the two branches when compatible with the require- 
ments of the service. 

20. In view of the substitution of seamen for marines in ships' 
complements, the duties of officers' stewards will have to be per- 
formed by some other ratings ; a proportionate increase in the number 
of officers' stewards, 2nd and 3rd class, is therefore recommended ; 
having regard to the fact that such substitution will, to a small extent, 
affect the fighting efficiency of the personnel as a whole, it is recom- 
mended that all officers' steward ratings, 2nd and 3rd class (who 
will be non-continuous service men), should be given a training similar 
to that required for the old rating of ' trained man ' in the mother 
Navy, and no steward entered in the 3rd class should be eligible for 
advancement to the 2nd class unless he has been so trained. 

21. As regards the chief petty officer rating of electrician now 
existing in the mother Navy, it is considered that the amalgamation 
of this rating with that of the armourer branch would be advantageous. 
It is therefore recommended that the rating of electrician should 
not be introduced into the Commonwealth Navy, but that additional 
armourer's crews should be entered, certain of whom (on attaining 
the rating of armourer's mate) would be trained specially in the torpedo 
school in electrical and torpedo work. A torpedo branch of the 
armourer ratings would thus be constituted in which men would 
advance, similarly to those who remained in the gunnery branch, 
to the rating of chief armourer. The total complements of ships 
would not be altered by this proposal, but armourers for torpedo 
work (of various grades of rank) would replace the electricians. 

22. Thus, on the assumptions that the proposals will meet with 
the concurrence of the Admiralty, and that the ratings to be obtained 
from the United Kingdom will be available, the immediate measures 
to be taken by the Commonwealth for the provision of the 878 ranks 
and ratings required for the vessels of the Fleet unit are as follows : 

NOTE. Though tabulated consecutively, these measures" should be under- 
taken concurrently. 

(a) Formulate the conditions of service and give them every possible 

publicity. 

(b) Establish and open recruiting centres, and develop recruiting, 

as shown in Appendix C. 1 1 [Omitted 

(c) Acquire the Sobraon as a training ship for boys, and, as here.] 

soon as she is ready, recruit 100 boys between the ages of 
15^ and i6, and train them so that they may be available 
to join the vessels of the Fleet unit on its arrival in Australia. 

377 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

(d) Erect barracks and naval college at Sydney. 

(e) Erect barracks at Port Western. 

(/) Arrange for the transfer to the Commonwealth service of such 
Australians now belonging to the Imperial service and serving 
in certain of H.M. ships on the Australian Station and else- 
where as volunteer for transfer ; for those who volunteer 
for such transfer to remain in the ships in which they are 
now serving until required by the Commonwealth ; for such 
volunteers for transfer to be invited to effect a re-engage- 
ment for service of five or seven years in the Commonwealth 
Navy. Such transferees as are recommended and qualified 
for promotion should be advanced to the ' leading rating ' 
of their respective grades and should be sent to the United 
Kingdom to qualify in non-substantive ratings, etc., pre- 
parative to embarking in the vessels built in the United 
Kingdom for Australia. The cost of men so transferred 
and cost of subsequent training to be borne by the Common- 
wealth from ist July 1911. 

(g) All recruiting in Australia hitherto performed by the Imperial 
naval authorities for service in the Imperial Navy to cease 
forthwith, and such recruiting to be taken over at once by 
the Commonwealth. 

(h) The vessels of the Imperial Navy now employed in training 
Australasians to continue recruiting and training for the 
Commonwealth Navy ; men so recruited to be available 
for service in any Commonwealth vessels as required by the 
Commonwealth, their cost from date of entry being borne 
by the Commonwealth. 

(i) Pending the arrival of the Fleet unit in Australia, and the 
construction of the above-mentioned barracks, temporary 
arrangements to be made for the accommodation and pre- 
liminary training of certain artificer, artisan, and other 
ratings in the naval barracks at Garden Island and in the 
depot ship Penguin, where they might be examined as to 
fitness by the naval authorities and employed as assistants 
to the existing staff of that establishment, the cost being 
borne by the Commonwealth. 

23. Of the 878 ranks and ratings to be provided by the Common- 
wealth for the unit : 

143 should be entered for continuous service, viz. : 



378 



Officers 
2 assistant clerks (accountant branch subordinate officers). 



9ii] APPENDIX 

Ratings Engagement for Twelve Years 

25 engine-room artificers (chief petty officers). 

5 electricians (dependent on continuance of rating ; if rating 

be discontinued, enter 5 additional armourer's crews). 

6 shipwrights (leading rating). 

2 blacksmith's mates (leading rating). 
6 armourer's crew (or n as above). A.B. rating. 
5 second cook's mates or cook's mates. A.B. rating. 
88 seaman boys from Sobraon (of whom 14, if trained in time, 

should be signal boys and 7 buglers). 
2 boy writers (accountant branch). 

2 ship's steward boys (accountant branch). 

143 

And 735 ranks and ratings should be entered for non-continuous 
service (viz., 7 or 5 years ; 7 years preferred as regards ratings) 

Officers 

9 surgeons (see Appendix B). 
4 chaplains (see Appendix B). 

Ratings 

i chief bandmaster (chief petty officer) . 

4 sick berth stewards (medical branch), petty officer. 

4 plumber's mates (artisan branch). Leading rating. 

4 painter's, second class (artisan branch). Leading rating, 
i band corporal. Leading rating. 

i second sick berth steward (medical branch). Leading rating. 
464 able seamen or ordinary seamen, to be recruited or obtained 

by transfer from Imperial ships as above. 
200 stokers to be recruited or obtained by transfer from Imperial 

ships as above. 
10 carpenter's crews (artisan branch). 

3 cooper's crews (artisan branch). 

5 sick berth attendants (medical branch). 
22 bandsmen. 

3 ship's musicians. (Note. This is a leading rating in the 
mother Navy.) 

735 

379 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



[]VL 



II. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS OF HARBOUR ESTABLISHMENTS 

24. The personnel required for the several harbour establishments, 
etc., amounts to a total of 1137 ranks and ratings, distributed as 
follows : 





Details. 


Ranks and Ratings. 


Total. 


I. Cadets' Training College, Sydney . 


128 


128 


2. Naval Barracks, Sydney 
(a) Gunnery School 
(b) Signal School . 


259 ' 
42 

10 


1 Attached to the 
I Naval Barracks, 




(c) Wireless Telegraph School . 


7 


Sydney . . 321 


(d) Cookery School . 


3 






3. Training ship Sobraon, Sydney 


99 


.... 


8 9 


4. Personnel now allotted to H.M.S. 









Penguin for Dockyard duties 








at Garden Island 


185 


.... 


185 








733 


5. Fremantle 


10 


. * 


10 


6. Naval Barracks, Port Western 
(a) Torpedo School . 
(b) Destroyer base and sub- 
marine base . 


240 
42 

10 


Attached to the 
Naval Barracks, 
Port Western . 


292 


. 7. Thursday Island .... 


9 






8. Brisbane 


14 






9. Port Stephens . . . . n 






10. Port Lincoln .... n 






ii. Beauty Point (River Tamar) . 6 






12. Townsville 9 




Tf2 


13. Albany . . . . .10 


.... 


JLW 


14. Cone Bay (or other port on N.W. ! 






Coast) 


6 






15. Hobart 


ii 






16. Port Darwin .... 


9 






17. Board of Administration 


6 







Grand Total 


H37 


.... 


H37 




1 


1 



25. The personnel (128) proposed for the Cadets' Training College 
is considered sufficient to undertake the training of 120 naval cadets 
at one time ; this complement does not include the professional staff. 
380 



APPENDIX 

It is considered that an annual entry of 30 naval cadets will be 
sufficient to meet and maintain the number of officers of the military 
branch (566) required for the completed Fleet. 

26. At an annual entry of 30 and at the rate of wastage experi- 
enced in the mother Navy, the Commonwealth should possess approxi- 
mately 

(a) In 9^ years 

6 lieutenants, 

6 sub-lieutenants, 
24 acting sub-lieutenants, 
76 midshipmen, 

27 naval cadets in training ship at sea, 
114 naval cadets in the college. 

253 



(b) At the end of the twelfth year 46 lieutenants, 23 sub-lieutenants, 

and remaining ranks as at (a) Total, 310. 

(c) At the end of the 22nd year as a possible maximum 

26 commanders, 
214 lieutenants, 

23 sub-lieutenants, 

24 acting sub-lieutenants, 
76 midshipmen, 

27 naval cadets in training ship at sea, 
114 naval cadets in college, 

making in all a total of 504 officers of the military branch. 

27. The Naval Barracks at Sydney, which include gunnery school, 
signal school, wireless telegraphy school, and cookery school, should 
be capable of accommodating a personnel of 2000 ranks and ratings, 
including the proposed complement (see paragraph 24) of 321 ranks 
and ratings. This complement is considered to be sufficient to carry 
out the entry and preliminary training of the personnel required for 
the Eastern Division of the Fleet, and for the qualifications and re- 
qualification of the lower gunnery ratings, lower signal ratings, lower 
wireless telegraphy ratings, and lower cook ratings, required by the 
completed Fleet. 

28. The personnel proposed for the complement of the training 
ship Sobraon (99 ranks and ratings) is considered to be sufficient to 
undertake the training of approximately 300 boys at one time. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

It is recommended that the entry of boys be effected as follows : 



.Year. 

1911-12 
1912-13 
1913-14 

1914-15 

1915-16 
1916-17 
1917-18 



Entries. 



100 

150, plus wastage on first year's entry. 

200, plus wastage on first and second years' 

entries. 
250, plus wastage on first, second, and third 

years' entries. 
300 
300 
300 



Calculating the foregoing entrants to waste at approximately 4 
per cent, per annum, and allowing for the following allocation of each 
year's entry to the signal and wireless telegraph branches 



Year. 


Signal Branch. 


Wireless Telegraph 
Branch. 


1911-12 


14 


6 


1912-13 


20 


6 


19*3-14 


20 


6 


I9 1 4-i5 


20 


6 


1915-16 


25 


6 


1916-17 


25 


6 


1917-18 - ' 


25 


6 



it is anticipated that by the end of 1918 (end of first era), there should 
be from this source approximately 1460 ratings in the Fleet, compris- 
ing 1289 seamen or stokers, 134 signal ratings, 37 wireless telegraph 
ratings, graded respectively as follows : 



Seaman or stoker 



Signal branch . 



Wireless telegraph branch 



63 leading ratings, 449 able seamen 
or stokers, 249 ordinary seamen, 
2 59 boys at sea, 269 boys in 
Sobraon. 

ii leading ratings, 51 signalmen, 23 
ordinary signalmen, 24 signal 
boys, 25 boys in Sobraon. 
5 leading ratings, 15 telegraphists, 
5 ordinary telegraphists, 6 wire- 
less telegraph boys, 6 boys in 
Sobraon. 



382 



APPENDIX 

29. DOCKYARD PERSONNEL. The personnel (185 ranks and ratings) 
now allowed and borne in the complement of H.M.S. Penguin for 
working the dockyard establishment at Garden Island are provided 
by the mother Navy. It is considered that this number of ranks and 
ratings should be retained in their existing positions until such time 
as the dockyard establishment at Cockatoo Island is taken over by 
the Commonwealth as a naval dockyard, when a revision. of the com- 
plement will be necessary ; it is considered that it should then be 
practicable to reduce the complement of Garden Island to a very 
small number. 

30. FREMANTLE. Of the personnel (10) proposed for Fremantle 
it is considered that two only need be appointed at present, viz., one 
commander or senior lieutenant and one petty officer gunner's mate. 

31. PORT WESTERN. The naval barracks at Port Western, which 
include the torpedo school and destroyer base and submarine base, 
should be capable of accommodating a personnel of 2000 ranks and 
ratings, including the proposed complement of 292 ranks and ratings 
(see paragraph 24). This complement is considered to be sufficient 
to undertake the entry and preliminary training of the personnel 
required by the Western Division of the Fleet and for the qualifica- 
tion and re-qualification of the lower torpedo ratings required by the 
completed Fleet. 

32. THURSDAY ISLAND. The personnel (9) proposed for Thursday 
Island is not required to be appropriated immediately. It is, how- 
ever, desirable that, as soon as work is commenced on this base, a 
commander or senior lieutenant should be appointed, the balance of 
the complement being completed as required. 

33. BRISBANE. Brisbane being a destroyer base which will be 
in early use by a flotilla, it is desirable that half the total complement 
proposed (14) be appointed by the time the Fleet unit arrives in 
Australia, viz. : 

i commander or senior lieutenant, 

i warrant officer (torpedo gunner), 

i seaman petty officer (gunner's mate), 

i engineer commander or senior engineer lieutenant, 

i stoker petty officer, 

i stoker, 

i leading signalman. 

34. PORT STEPHENS. Port Stephens being the first submarine 
base to be developed, it is desirable that the following ranks and 
ratings be appointed before the Fleet unit arrives in Australia : 

i lieutenant, 

i seaman petty officer (torpedo gunner's mate), 
and the balance of the complement proposed (n) as soon as required. 

383 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

35. PORT LINCOLN. The complement (n) proposed for Port 
Lincoln will not be required at present. A warrant officer should be 
appointed as soon as work is commenced on this submarine base. 

36. BEAUTY POINT (RIVER TAMAR). The complement (6) pro- 
posed for Beauty Point will not be required at present. 

37. TOWNSVILLE. This port is a sub-base for the flotilla based 
on Brisbane ; of the complement proposed (9) i warrant officer and 
i seaman petty officer (torpedo gunner's mate) should be appro- 
priated before the Fleet unit reaches Australia, and the balance of 
the complement as required. 

38. ALBANY. The complement (10) proposed for Albany will not 
be required at present. 

39. CONE BAY (OR OTHER PORT ON THE N.W. COAST). The com- 
plement (6) proposed for Cone Bay will not be required at present. 

40. HOBART. Of the complement (u) proposed for Hobart, i 
lieutenant and i seaman petty officer (gunner's mate) should be 
appointed by the time the Fleet unit reaches Australia. 

41. PORT DARWIN. The complement (9) allowed' to Port Darwin 
will not be required for the present. 

42. Thus of the total personnel (1137 ranks and ratings) required 
to form the complements of all harbour establishments, etc. : 

(a) Those allocated to the respective barracks and the training 

college and the Sobraon will have to be provided as soon 
as they can be accommodated in their respective estab- 
lishments. 

(b) Ranks and ratings required for H.M.S. Penguin and Garden 

Island are already there and should be maintained (see 
paragraph 29). 

(c) The ranks and ratings required for the other ports named 

will have to be supplied as these places are developed. 

43. To provide for these requirements (1137) it is recommended 
that 

(a) 522 ranks and ratings to be lent by the active service of the 

mother Navy. 

(b) 223 ratings be entered for five or seven years from the pen- 

sioners and Royal Fleet Reserve men in the United 
Kingdom. 

(c) 21 7 ranks and ratings be supplied by the Commonwealth 

Permanent Naval Forces. 

(d) 175 ranks and ratings be supplied by the Commonwealth, 

being entered for non-continuous service. 

Of (a) 185 ranks and ratings are already at Sydney ; (c) 89 ranks 
and ratings are not required at present, and should be otherwise 
utilised in the interim. 
384 



APPENDIX 

44. In addition to the above needs, it will be necessary to provide 
certain tenders for sea-going instruction with special reduced crews, 
when the gunnery and torpedo schools are in full work, and an attendant 
vessel for the first submarine flotilla on arrival. 



III. ADDITIONS TO UNIT TO BE EFFECTED BY 1918 

45. The following additional vessels should be provided between 
1913 and 1918 : 

i depot vessel . \ f 1914 

1 



3 submarines . . , , , , 

3 torpedo-boat destroyers . to be ready by end of 
3 torpedo-boat destroyers . J 1918 



46. The addition of these vessels involves the addition of 746 
ranks and ratings to the personnel. Subject to the progress of recruit- 
ing, they should be provided as follows : 

337 ranks and ratings to be lent from the active service personnel 

of the mother Navy. 
205 ratings to be entered for five or seven years from pensioners 

and Royal Fleet Reserve men in the United Kingdom. 
49 continuous service ratings to be provided in the Common- 

wealth. 
155 non-continuous service ranks and ratings to be provided 

in the Commonwealth. 

746 



DEPOT VESSEL FOR DESTROYERS 

47. It is very desirable that the depot vessel should be provided 
as soon as practicable for service with the torpedo-boat destroyers. 
She should be of about 5000 tons displacement, and be smooth-sided, 
without sponsons or other obstructions, so that destroyers can lie 
alongside her ; she should be capable of steaming at least 15 knots 
and be armed sufficiently to be able to beat off the attack of any 
armed mercantile cruiser. 

It is recommended that her armament should consist of two 6-inch 
guns and two 4-inch guns ; the former to be pivot-mounted with 
light shields, one on the forecastle and the other on the poop ; the 
latter to be mounted one on each side, and to be of the same pattern 
as those mounted in the destroyers. 

The depot ship should carry also four good searchlights and a 
good power- worked derrick capable of lifting five tons. 

OVERSEAS 2. 2 B 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

She should have turbine engines and consume oil fuel, of which 
she should be able to stow at least 1000 tons. 

She should be fitted with a powerful distilling plant, a good wire- 
less telegraph installation, also with air compressors and an ice machine. 

She should stow not less than 24 spare torpedoes for the flotilla, 
and have a small workshop capable of carrying out minor repairs to 
the flotilla and to torpedoes. 

Good accommodation, including large mess deck, spare cabins, 
bath rooms, and a roomy sick bay, is desirable. 

C. TRAINING OF PERSONNEL 

48. Details as to the several systems of training recommended 
are contained in Appendix B. 

D. NAVAL BASES AND SUB-BASES 

49. The work to be done at the several naval bases and sub-bases 
enumerated in Part I. is shown in complete form in Appendix D. 

E. COMMUNICATIONS AND INTELLIGENCE 

50. Appendix E contains details of the scheme as recommended. 
The following steps should be taken in 1911-13 : 

Erect wireless stations at 
Sydney (two stations). 
Fremantle, 



Island, Medium-power stations. 
Port Western, 

These stations to be erected as soon as possible ; the remainder of 
those named in Appendix E to be erected subsequently, but as soon 
as possible. The cost to be met by Post Office votes. 

Visual signal stations should be established as necessary to com- 
plete the scheme laid down in confidential Appendix H. 

F. NAVAL RESERVES 

51. The scheme for Naval Reserves is contained in Appendix F. 

The enrolment in 1911 of cadets under the Defence Act of 1909 
necessitates immediate action as regards those who will be required 
for naval service as the Naval Reserve. 

The transfer of the Australian portion of the Imperial Royal 
Naval Reserve from the Imperial authorities to the Commonwealth 
in 1912 or 1913 also renders necessary certain measures in the next 
two years. 

A headquarters administration staff should be appointed forth- 
with, consisting of 

Director of Naval Reserves (captain). 
386 



APPENDIX 

Assistant to director (commander). 

Secretary to director (an accountant officer). 

Clerical staff (say, three clerks). 

District commandants and staffs should be appointed at the places 
named in Appendix F. 

The number of cadets and men to be enrolled in each year are 
shown in Appendix F. 

G. STORES 

52. A statement as to the reserves of stores to be provided for the 
maintenance of the Fleet unit is contained in Appendix G. 



PART III. SUCCESSIVE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT, 
CULMINATING IN THE COMPLETED FLEET (1918-1933) 

The measures to be taken subsequent to those given in Part II. 
in order to reach the final requirements outlined in Part I. are recom- 
mended to be taken in hand as follows : 

(A). PROVISION OF ADDITIONAL SHIPS 

2. The ships required to complete and maintain the Fleet should 
be provided as follows. This does not include the provision of vessels 
to replace others as they become worn-out (see paragraph G) : 



Era. 
(See paragraph 5, Part II.) 


Year. 


Ships to be provided 


Armoured 
Cruiser. 


Protected 
Cruiser. 


Torpedo- 
Boat 
Destroyer. 


Sub- 
marine. 


Depot 
Ship. 


Fleet 
Repair 
Ship. 


Total at end of First Era . 
Second Era, 1918-1923. . -j 
Total at end of Second Era 
Third Era, 1923-1928 . 
Total at end of Third Era . 


7th year 


I 


3 


12 


6 


I 


... 


8th year 
9th 
roth 
nth 
1 2th 


I 
I 


I 

2 


6 


... 





... 


... 


... 


I 


... 


... 


6 


... 


... 




3 


6 


18 


12 


3 


... 


1 3th year 
1 4th 
1 5th 
i6th 
1 7th 


i 

i 
i 


2 


... 


... 


I 






























i 


... 


6 


8 


18 


12 


3 


I 



387 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



[M 



Era. 

(See paragraph 5, Part II.) 


Year. 


Ships to be provided continued. 


Armoured 
Cruiser. 


Protected 
Cruiser. 


Torpedo- 
Boat 
Destroyer. 


Sub- 
marine. 


e .P 0t /epalr 
Shl P" Ship. 


Fourth Era, 1928-1933 . . \ 

Total at end of Fourth Era 
(complete Fleet) 


1 8th year 
I9th 

20th 
2ISt 

22nd 


I 


2 




... 







8 


10 


18 


12 


3 i 



(B.) PROVISION OF ADDITIONAL PERSONNEL 
Second Era 

3. The increase to be made to the Fleet in the Second Era (1918- 
1923) involves the provision by the end of 1923 of 3860 additional 
ranks and ratings consisting of 

163 Commissioned officers (all branches). 
26 Subordinate officers (all branches). 
57 Warrant officers (all branches). 
716 Chief and other petty officers (all branches). 
509 Leading ratings (all branches) . 
2253 Seamen, stokers, and others. 
136 Boys. 



4. Subject to the progress of the recruiting, it is proposed that 
the above numbers be provided as follows : 





Active 


Pensioners 
and 


Commonwealth. 






Reserves, 








Navy. 


United 
Kingdom. 


Continuous 
Service. 


Non-continuous 
Service. 


Commissioned officers 


66 




70 


27 


Subordinate officers . 


m 


t 


26 




Warrant officers 


17 


. . 


10 


. . 


Chief and other petty officers 


IOO 


295 300 


21 


Leading ratings . 


IOO 


loo 284 


25 


Seamen, stokers, etc. . 


. . 


1413 


840 


Seamen, boys, etc. 





136 







313 


395 2239 


. 913 



388 






II] 



APPENDIX 



Third Era 

5. The increase to be made to the Fleet (see paragraph 2) in the 
Third Era (1923-1928) involves the provision by the end of 1928 of 
3574 additional ranks and ratings, consisting of 

119 Commissioned officers (all branches). 

40 Subordinate officers (all branches). 

56 Warrant officers (all branches). 
607 Chief and petty officers (all branches). 
471 Leading ratings (all branches). 
2127 Seamen, stokers, etc. 
154 Seamen, boys, etc. 



3574 



6. Subject to the progress of the recruiting, it is proposed to pro- 
vide the above numbers as follows : 





Active 


Pensioners 
and 


Commonwealth. 




Mother 

Navy. 


Reserves, 
United 
Kingdom. 


Continuous 
Service. 


Non-continuous 
Service. 


Commissioned officers 


!_ 




94 


25 


Subordinate officers . 


. , 


. . 


40 




Warrant officers 


. t 


. . 


56 


m 


Chief and other petty officers 


, . 


. . 


586 


21 


Leading ratings . 


. . 


. . 


441 


30 


Seamen, stokers, etc. . 


, 


. . 


1307 


820 


Seamen, boys, etc. 







154 




Totals 







2678 


896 



1 NOTE. By the end of 1928 there should be a considerable number of Australian 
commissioned officers, and though they may not be senior enough to fill all vacancies 
in the complements, they will be able to effect the reliefs of officers of the mother 
Navy who have been previously lent to the Commonwealth and who are employed in 
the vessels added in the former periods. 



389 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



[M 



Fourth Era 

7. The increase to be made to the Fleet (see paragraph 2) in the 
Fourth Era (1928-1933) involves the provision by the end of 1933 
of 2424 additional ranks and ratings, consisting of 

78 Commissioned officers 

26 Subordinate officers 

34 Warrant officers r All branches. 

390 Chief and petty officers 
318 Leading ratings 
1466 Seamen, stokers, etc. 
112 Seamen, boys, etc. 

2424 

8. Subject to the progress of the recruiting, it is proposed to pro- 
vide the above numbers as follows : 






Active 
Service, 
Mother 

Navy. 


Pensioners 
and 
Reserves, 
United 
Kingdom. 


Commonwealth. 


Continuous 
Service. 


Non-continuous 
Service. 


Commissioned officers 
Subordinate officers . 
Warrant officers 
Chief and other petty officers 
Leading ratings . 
Seamen, stokers, etc. . 
Seamen, boys, etc. 


l 





60 
26 

34 
378 
300 
906 

112 


18 

12 

18 

560 







1816 608 



1 NOTE. By the end of 1933 the Commonwealth Navy should be in a position to 
effect the relief of all but the higher ranks of officers and some few chief and petty 
officers, etc., who have been lent by the mother Navy from time to time. 

(C). TRAINING OF PERSONNEL 

(D.) NAVAL BASES AND SUB-BASES, ETC. 

9. The training of personnel, the work on the naval bases and sub- 
bases, and provision of the other requirements of the completed Fleet 
should be proceeded with as shown in the Appendices. 

390 



APPENDIX 



APPENDICES 



A. CONTROL AND ADMINISTRATION .... 

B. PERSONNEL : ENTRY, TRAINING, AND EMOLUMENTS 

C. RECRUITING . . . 

D. NAVAL BASES AND SUB-BASES, AND THEIR REQUIREMENTS 

E. COMMUNICATIONS, ETC. (INCLUDING WIRELESS TELEGRAPH 

STATIONS) ...... 

F. NAVAL RESERVES ...... 

G. FINANCIAL ESTIMATE ..... 
H. (Confidential) VISUAL SIGNAL STATIONS . . \ 
J. (Confidential) FIXED DEFENCES . . . . ' 
K. (Confidential) MINING, ETC , . . . j 

L. (Confidential) COMPLEMENTS OF SHIPS AND ESTABLISH-] 
MENTS . . I 



Omitted 
Omitted 
396 

405 
409 
412 

Printed 
separately. 

Not printed. 
In original 
MS. only. 



APPENDIX A 

CONTROL AND ADMINISTRATION 
PROPOSALS AND GENERAL REMARKS 

Introductory Remarks 

Under the Naval Forces Act of 1910 power is taken to constitute 
a Naval Board with such functions ' as may be prescribed.' 

Under the Regulations and Standing Orders for the Naval Forces 
of the Commonwealth at present in force ' the Naval Board shall, 
subject to the control of the Minister, be charged with the adminis- 
tration of ' all matters relating to the naval forces/ and ' the members 
of the Board shall severally exercise such powers and perform such 
duties as are from time to time assigned to them by the Minister.' 

The Board does not, however, appear to have any executive autho- 
rity or control over the naval forces. The regulations as to the 
government of the forces are, ' the director and every member of the 
naval forces permanently employed shall faithfully and diligently 
employ the whole of their time in the service of the Commonwealth, 
and shall in all things obey the orders and directions of the Government.' 
' All orders and directions of the Government with respect to the 

39 1 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

administration of the forces shall be communicated by the Board, 
and commandants will issue the necessary orders to give effect to 
them.' 

The control of the naval forces, under present conditions, is, there- 
fore, exercised by the Government (i.e., the Minister of Defence) 
through the Naval Board, but the Naval Board has .no powers of 
its own, and is merely a mouthpiece. 

In considering the question of the control of a service such as the 
Navy, there are two points to be met : 

(a) The system must admit of complete parliamentary control 

and responsibility ; but as far as possible such control 
should in practice be restricted to matters of policy and 
finance, and the power of Parliament to interfere in matters 
of detail in the government and administration of the Navy 
should be reserved for very exceptional circumstances. 

(b) The controlling authority should be such as will have the 

full confidence of the officers and men of the service, 
whose careers are entrusted to it, and should contain 
naval officers whose sole interest would be to maintain 
the Navy in an efficient state by providing for all its 
needs. The enormous value to the Naval Service of 
obtaining and retaining the confidence and loyal support 
of the personnel to its governing body cannot be too much 
emphasised. 

In the Mother Country these two requirements are met by the 
appointment of a Board of Admiralty on which there are two political 
members and four senior officers of reputation ; this Board is respon- 
sible as a whole for the government of the Navy, and is appointed, 
and acts, as a single authority. 

I recognise that there is great difference between the conditions 
as regards the naval forces in the Mother Country and the Common- 
wealth ; in the former both the Navy and the Board of Admiralty 
have been established for a -long period, and have stood the test of 
time and experience ; in the latter both the Navy and its controlling 
authority have to be created, and must necessarily be experimental. 
Nevertheless, I consider that a Board constituted on the lines of the 
Board of Admiralty, and having responsibility as a whole, would 
meet the requirements of the Commonwealth better, and would be 
well qualified to foster and develop the Australian Fleet. It is essen- 
tial, too, that the controlling authority in Australia should have and 
retain the full and complete confidence of the Admiralty. 

Ministers are here to-day and gone to-morrow ; their responsi- 
bility ends with their tenure of office, whereas the Navy is a living 
and growing organism, the creation of years, for which continuity 
392 



APPENDIX 

of policy is essential. It should not be within the power of the Govern- 
ment of the day, for financial or any other reasons, to take steps 
which may have disastrous effect at a future date on the safety of 
the Commonwealth unless such steps are carried out with the full 
knowledge and approval of the people of Australia, who would have 
to bear the consequences ; a Board on which senior officers of the 
Navy sit is not likely to suffer any such steps to be taken without 
protest. 

In further development of this proposal, I consider that the annual 
estimates of expenditure as framed by the Board should be signed 
by each member of the Board, and be subject to alteration by Parlia- 
ment alone. 

I have dealt rather fully with this matter, as I view it as being 
of paramount importance to the well-being of the Commonwealth 
naval development, and I cannot too strongly express my hope that 
the Navy will be kept outside party politics. ' It must be distinctly 
recognised that a national force maintained at a high standard of 
efficiency can only be produced by the work of years, and that such 
work must be steady and continuous ; any divergence from the policy 
decided on may, and probably will, lead to chaos and useless expendi- 
ture of money.' (Lord Kitchener in his Memorandum on the Defence 
of Australia.) 

RECOMMENDATIONS AS TO THE CONSTITUTION OF THE NAVAL BOARD 

The Board recommended is as follows : 

(1) The Minister of State for Defence (or for the Navy, should 

a separate naval department be created later). 

(2) First Naval Member (to be a senior officer of the Common- 

wealth Navy not below the rank of captain). 

(3) Second Naval Member (to be a senior officer of the Imperial 

Navy not below the rank of captain). 

(4) Third Naval Member (to be a senior officer of the Common- 

wealth or Imperial Navy not below the rank of captain). 

(5) Finance and Civil Member (to be a member of Parliament 

of the Senate when the Minister is in the House of Repre- 
sentatives and vice versa, or as an alternative this member 
might be a senior naval accountant officer or a civilian 
accountant) . 

With a permanent Secretary of the Board. 

I also recommend that this Board should have a naval represen- 
tative (at the outset a captain in the Imperial Navy should be selected) 
in London, to be attached to the staff of the High Commissioner, to 

393 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

be accommodated with an office in the Admiralty building, and to 
be allowed personal access to the members of the Admiralty Board, 
and to the various Admiralty Departments ; this officer to be the 
channel of communication between the Commonwealth Naval Board 
(whom he would represent, and from whom he would receive instruc- 
tions) and the Home Board of Admiralty. This officer would, in fact, 
represent the Commonwealth Naval Board in the same way that the 
High Commissioner represents the Commonwealth Government, 
and he would be under the orders of and receive the support when 
necessary of the High Commissioner. He could be most useful in 
maintaining uniformity between the two Boards, and in ensuring 
harmonious action when both Boards had to act in concert, and in 
watching generally over the naval interests of Australia. This posi- 
tion should be held later by an officer of the Commonwealth Navy. 

The selection of an Imperial officer for 2nd naval member is recom- 
mended because the Commonwealth Fleet is, and must continue for 
a very considerable time to be, dependent to a great extent on the 
personnel of the Imperial Navy, and it is desirable that such officers 
and men should know that they are represented by one of their own 
officers on the Board under which they will be serving. 

The Naval Board should act as a whole, its orders being issued 
under the signature of its Secretary, but for matters of routine it 
would be convenient to allocate to each member certain special spheres 
of supervision, e.g. : 

(1) The Minister. President of the Board and general supervision ; 

represent department in Parliament ; to be referred to by 
the member of the Board concerned on all questions of 
policy and important matters ; to represent to the Governor 
in Council all senior appointments, commands, etc. 

(2) First Naval Member. War preparations, naval intelligence, 

naval ordnance, fleet exercises, manoeuvres, gunnery and 
torpedo exercises, . etc., naval works, advise as to senior 
appointments. 

(3) Second Naval Member. Personnel and reserves, discipline, 

stores, victualling, medical. 

(4) Third Naval Member. Construction and engineering of ships, 

repairs, control of naval dockyards and bases. 

(5) Finance and Civil Member. Finance, contracts, legal questions. 
Permanent Secretary (does not vote as a member of the Board). 

Charge of the clerical staff, and responsible for the clerical 
staff, and responsible for the clerical duties of the depart- 
ment ; responsible for safe custody of confidential books 
and documents ; signs Board Orders ' by order of the Naval 
Board/ 

394 



APPENDIX 

In the case of the Board of Admiralty, under the Admiralty Act, 
1832, ' any two Commissioners may exercise and execute ' all the 
legal powers of the Admiralty (e.g., issue of Court-martial warrants, 
disciplinary orders, etc.), and it would probably be convenient to 
obtain such legal powers for any two members of the Naval Board. 

Under the Naval Board there would be various administrative 
departments, who would be responsible to the Board as a whole, but 
for general work would, as a rule, deal with the particular member 
concerned with the work of the Department. 

The following departmental heads would be required : 

Accountant-General (Examination of accounts, preparation of 
estimates, etc.) 

Director of Naval Construction and Dockyards (Preparation 
of plans of ships, supervision of their construction, deal with 
repairs and alterations to vessels, advise on dockyard require- 
ments and administration.) 

Director of Works (Preparation of plans for docks, buildings 
generally, supervision of their construction, repairs, and 
alterations, etc.) 

Director of Stores, Victualling, and of naval contracts (Purchase 
and supply of naval and victualling stores.) 

Director of Naval Ordnance (Gunnery and torpedo matters, 
including purchase and supply of material.) 

The naval and clerical staff that would be required to assist the 
above may be taken approximately as 

i commander as private secretary to Minister. 

i commander as assistant to ist naval member and as President 

of Intelligence Committee. 

i clerk as private secretary to ist naval member, 
i clerk as private secretary to 2nd naval member, 
i clerk as private secretary to 3rd naval member, 
i clerk as private secretary to finance member. 
20 clerks for secretary's and other departments. 

I would add that I consider it essential to the efficiency of the 
department that the control of its staff should rest in the department, 
and that the Commonwealth Public Service Commissioner should have 
no authority over any of them such as he now possesses. 

Similarly, I consider that the system under which certain expendi- 
ture on naval buildings is controlled by the department of Home 
Affairs is unsound ; all such work should be under the naval department. 

I have not touched upon the legal difficulties that may arise as 

395 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

regards the control of the Commonwealth ships and their crews when 
outside Australian waters, as I understand that this matter will be 
discussed in England during 1911. 



APPENDIX B 



ENTRY, TRAINING, AND EMOLUMENTS OF PERSONNEL. 

APPENDIX C 

RECRUITING 

[These Appendices are omitted here.] 



APPENDIX D 
NAVAL BASES AND SUB-BASES 

(A) COMPLETE REQUIREMENTS 

(B) ORDER IN WHICH WORKS SHOULD BE TAKEN IN HAND 

(NOTE. A complete list of the bases and sub-bases is given in 
paragraph 7 of Part I.) 

(A) COMPLETE REQUIREMENTS 
I. FLEET PRIMARY BASES 

SYDNEY : FREMANTLE 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. The general requirements of these 
Fleet primary bases are : 

(a) Docks capable of receiving the largest vessels when in an 
injured condition. 

(6) Workshops capable of effecting any repairs to, or replace- 
ments required in, hull machinery, fittings, or armament 
of all types of vessel ; to include facilities for lifting out 
and replacing the heaviest weights, such as guns, gun- 
mountings and machinery. 

(c) Provision of the necessary equipment and supplies for re- 
plenishment of all naval ordnance, naval stores (including 
coal and oil) and provisions. 

396 



i] APPENDIX 

(d) Easy and safe communication with the manufactories of 

shipbuilding material, ordnance, and ammunition. 

(e) Facilities for the rapid coaling of ships. 

(/) Necessary equipment for testing chain cables. 
(g) Safe storage for reserves of ammunition and explosives. 
(h) Moorings and wharfage for ships under repair or in reserve. 
(i) Satisfactory arrangements for reception and treatment of 
the sick and wounded. 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS. The following are special requirements 
at the places named : 

SYDNEY 

(a) The necessary alterations to be made to the large dock on 

Cockatoo Island and its approaches so as to render it 
available for the largest vessels in the fleet. 

(It is desirable that Messrs. Mort & Co. should be 

encouraged to improve their Woolwich dock in the 

same way.) 

(b) Sheers, or a crane capable of lifting the heaviest weights 

(say, 100 tons), to be placed on Cockatoo Island. 

(c) Cockatoo Island Dockyard to become a naval dockyard 

for the building of warships and for effecting warships' 
repairs. 

(d) Garden Island to be transformed gradually into a storage 

ground for naval ordnance (guns and gun-mountings) and 
naval stores generally ; a workshop might be retained 
on Garden Island, with some of the existing plant, so 
as to enable a ship's artificers to use it for carrying out 
minor repairs without recourse to dockyard (i.e., Cockatoo 
Island) assistance. 

(e) The storage of ammunition and explosives to be transferred 

from Spectacle Island to some other convenient position 

(not yet definitely selected) ; Spectacle Island to be 

connected (eventually) to Cockatoo Island and form 

part of the naval dockyard. 
(/) Victualling stores to be kept in the building now used for 

that purpose. 
The following are also required at Sydney for the training, 

etc., of the personnel of the fleet : 
(g) College for training of naval cadets (site on Middle Head 

recommended) . 
(h) Boys' training ship to be moored in Rose Bay (acquisition 

of New South Wales' training ship Sobraon recommended ; 

the Royal Naval recreation ground in Rose Bay to be 

397 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

utilised as a drill and recreation ground for the boys, 
and any future reclamation land in Rose Bay to be re- 
served as a naval recreation ground. 
(i) Naval barracks, including : 

Gunnery schools, 

Signal schools, 

Wireless telegraphy schools, 

Cookery schools, 

to be erected on the mainland on a site selected. 



FREMANTLE 

(a) SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS. The harbour of Cockburn Sound, 
including Owen's Anchorage and Jervoise Bay, to be examined thor- 
oughly as soon as possible by experts, with a view to locating the 
site of the future naval dockyard. The site should include space for 
graving docks, building ships, workshops, storehouses, and all plant, 
etc., for the building of ships and for the repairs and maintenance of 
a fleet. It appeared to me that a site in the vicinity of Jervoise Bay 
was best suited for naval dockyard requirements. A channel for 
deep-draught ships would have to be dredged through the Parmelia 
and Success Banks, and slight dredging would be required in other 
places. It would probably also be necessary that a short breakwater 
should be thrown out from Woodman's Point. 

I understand that plans and estimates have been framed for carry- 
ing out of a great part of this dredging, and I am sure that it will 
prove of the greatest benefit not only to the navy but also to merchant 
shipping and commercial interests, as it would greatly relieve the 
pressure on Fremantle Harbour for shipping accommodation which 
the future must inevitably bring. 

In the interim the needs of the Fleet will be met by : 

ist. The completion of the dock now building at Fremantle 
and of the repair and refitting shops proposed to be 
attached thereto at as early a date as possible. 

2nd. The temporary provision of a base for six destroyers and 
three submarines in the Swan River. 

3rd. The dredging of the channel, so that large vessels can 
find a safe anchorage in Cockburn Sound. 

4th. The provision of adequate reserves of coal and oil fuel, etc. 

(b) A large area of land should be reserved for naval purposes, 
so as to allow of considerable future expansion. 

(c) A site to be selected for storage of ammunition and explosives, 

398 



APPENDIX 
II. FLEET SECONDARY BASES 

THURSDAY ISLAND, PORT DARWIN 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. The general requirements of these 
Fleet secondary bases are : 

(a) A good sheltered anchorage or moorings for a large Fleet. 

(b) Satisfactory arrangements for storing stocks of coal, oil 

fuel, lubricating oil, etc. 

(c) Facilities for rapid coaling. 

THURSDAY ISLAND 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS. Thursday Island has a very important 
strategical position at the entrance to the Torres Strait and at the 
head of the Barrier Passage, in which passage torpedo-boat destroyers 
could act with great advantage : 

(a) Bertie Bay (Goode Island) appears to be harbour best suited 

for use as the base, and it should be surveyed thoroughly 
and examined with a view to enlarging the anchorage and 
space available for large ships, and also to giving a safe 
and secure anchorage for torpedo-boat destroyers. 

(b) This will also be a base for torpedo-boat destroyers, and should 

have all the requirements laid down under III., including 
an iron floating dock and a workshop adequate to carry out 
destroyers' repairs. 

PORT DARWIN 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS. Port Darwin is a good harbour, and 
occupies a very important strategical position. It should develop 
gradually into as important a base as, say, Hong Kong, possessing 
docks (either floating or graving) capable of receiving the largest ships 
and machine shops, etc., adequate for carrying out any repairs to 
warships. 

Later, at Port Darwin there should also be maintained reserves 
of coal, oil, and naval stores and provisions. 

Owing to the lack of proper land communications and of popula- 
tion, no steps can be recommended to be taken at Port Darwin at 
present ; but when the north to south transcontinental railway line 
is completed, Port Darwin's position will be valuable, and measures 
should then be put in hand to make it a useful naval base. 

In the interim it should be utilised by the Fleet as an anchorage, 
the Fleet providing for its protection as a base if required in war time. 

A thorough survey and examination of the harbour should be 

399 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

undertaken forthwith, and sites for docks, dockyard, etc., allocated 
and reserved for future developments. (See also V. as to its require- 
ments as a destroyer sub-base.) 

III. DESTROYER BASES 

THURSDAY ISLAND, BRISBANE, PORT WESTERN, FREMANTLE 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. The general requirements of these 
destroyer bases are 

(a) A graving dock or floating dock or slip capable of receiving 

a destroyer, and possessing facilities for rapid docking, 
cleaning, and undocking. Special cradles must be pro- 
vided in the case of slips for destroyers. 

(b) Workshops adequate to deal with destroyers' repairs. 

(c) Wharfage accommodation for six boats (two deep) (or a 

hulk suitable for this purpose), with facilities for adjusting 
gyroscopes. ,.> 

(d) Adequate reserves of oil fuel, lubricating oil, and boiler water, 

with facilities for rapid handling. 

(e) Reserve stocks of the following : 

Bottom composition. 
Spare propellers. 

Plates suitable for small repairs or temporary repairs to 
a badly damaged destroyer. 

THURSDAY ISLAND 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS. (See remarks under II., as a secondary 
Fleet base.) 

BRISBANE 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS. Requirements are already provided ; 
necessary local arrangements should be made as to supplies of stores 
required, repairs, docking, etc. 

PORT WESTERN 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS. The dock accommodation at or near 
Melbourne should be utilised for destroyers, and so render provision 
of a dock at Port Western unnecessary. 

In addition to its use as a destroyer base, and also (see IV.) as a 
submarine base, Port Western will be the training centre for the 
Western Fleet, for which purpose the following will be required : 

(a) Naval barracks, including torpedo school, to be erected on the 
foreshore between Sandy Point and Stony Point. (The 
necessary land should be reserved now.) 
400 



APPENDIX 

(b) A land-locked range for the adjustment of repaired or new 
torpedoes. 

Also, as a temporary measure until Fremantle is completed to 
Fleet requirements, adequate supplies of coal, oil, fuel, etc., must be 
maintained to meet the needs of the Western Fleet. (See paragraph 
10 of Part I.) 

FREMANTLE 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS. (See remarks under I., as a primary 
Fleet base.) 

IV. SUBMARINE BASES 

PORT STEPHENS, PORT WESTERN, PORT LINCOLN, FREMANTLE 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. The general requirements of these 
submarine bases are 

(a) A graving dock, floating dock, or slip, capable of receiving 

one submarine at a time, possessing facilities for rapid 
docking, cleaning, and undocking. 

(b) Small workshops. 

(c) Enclosed wharfage accommodation for four boats, with 

facilities for adjusting gyroscopes. If desirable a suit- 
able hulk might be used, but the structure must not be 
coppered. 

Good sleeping and other accommodation is required 
for all officers and men either on shore or in the hulk. 

(d) Storage for adequate reserves of oil fuel. 

PORT STEPHENS 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS. Suitable site to be selected and neces- 
sary land reserved. 

Land should also be reserved for further expansion, in case required, 
on the south side of Salamander Bay. 

PORT WESTERN 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS. (See remarks under III. as a destroyer 

PORT LINCOLN 
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS : 

(a) As a temporary measure the slips on the Adelaide River 

should be utilised. 

(b) Port Lincoln Harbour should be examined with a view to 

determining the most suitable position for a submarine base 
(and destroyer sub-base, see V.). 

OVERSEAS 2. 2 C 4OI 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

(c) Land to be reserved for the erection of the establishments 
that will be required eventually, and also a site selected 
for a small graving dock, floating dock or slip. (A floating 
dock would be the most suitable.) 

(See also V. , as to its requirements as a destroyer sub-base. 

FREMANTLE 

(See remarks under I. as a primary Fleet base.) 
V. DESTROYER SUB-BASES 

TOVVNSVILLE, HOBART, BEAUTY POINT (RIVER TAMAR), PORT LINCOLN, 

ALBANY, CONE BAY (or other port on N.W. Coast), PORT DARWIN. 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. The general requirements of these 
destroyer sub-bases are 

(a) Wharfage accommodation, or smooth water anchorage, for 

six destroyers. 

(b) Adequate reserve of oil fuel, lubricating oil, and boiler water. 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS. Each harbour to be examined and site 
selected. (See also II. as to Port Darwin, and IV. as to Port Lincoln.) 



VI. SUBMARINE SUB-BASES 

BRISBANE, HOBART, BEAUTY POINT (RIVER TAMAR), ALBANY, CONE BAY 

(or other port on N.W. Coast), PORT DARWIN 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. The general requirements of these 
submarine sub-bases are the same as those of the submarine bases 
(see IV.), with the exception of the docking and repairing facilities. 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS. None (but see III. as regards Brisbane, 
II. as regards Port Darwin, V. as regards Hobart, Beauty Point, 
Albany, and Cone Bay). 

VII. GENERAL 

Generally it is desirable that the health and comfort of the men 
should be cared for by the provision of suitable recreation grounds 
and canteens at the principal naval ports, this matter being of the 
greatest importance in the case of the crews of submarine boats, who, 
whilst in their boats, lead a life of considerable discomfort due to the 
cramped space available. 

402 



APPENDIX 

(B) ORDER IN WHICH THE WORKS SHOULD BE TAKEN 

IN HAND 

First Stage 

SYDNEY 

(a) Effect necessary alterations to the Sutherland Dock (Cockatoo 
Island) and its approaches to make it suitable for a modern armoured 
cruiser. 

(b) Provide sheers and necessary appliances on Cockatoo Island 
for lifting the largest guns and weights (say 100 tons). 

(c) Build the naval college for cadets. 

(d) Acquire site for, and build, the naval barracks and schools 
(gunnery, signal, wireless telegraphy, and cookery schools). 

(e) Acquire the training ship Sobraon, prepare her for training 
boys, acquire necessary land for boys' drill, recreation, etc. 

(/) Establish a new store for ammunition and explosives in antici- 
pation of these stores being removed from Spectacle Island ; full and 
adequate provision should be made for modern ammunition. 

FREMANTLE 

(a) Proceed with, and complete, the construction of the dock 
and of the repair shops and machinery, including sheers, etc., con- 
nected therewith. 

(b) Undertake thorough survey of Cockburn Sound and the sur- 
rounding land ; reserve necessary land ; dredge out channel so as 
to make the anchorage suitable for a fleet of large vessels. 

(c) Make arrangements for storage of coal, oil, fuel, etc. 

(d) Establish temporary destroyer and submarine bases in the 
Swan River. 

PORT WESTERN 

(a) Acquire site for, and build, naval barracks, including torpedo 
school. 

(b) Survey land, and reserve portions required. 

(c) Obtain the requisite legal powers to close parts of the harbour 
for the purposes of Whitehead torpedo practice and adjustment. 

(d) Establish the destroyer and submarine bases. 

THURSDAY ISLAND 

(a) Survey and examine thoroughly Bertie Bay. 

(b) Establish the destroyer base. 

(c) Provide a small floating dock, and workshops capable of dealing 
with one destroyer. 

403 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [w 

BRISBANE 

Establish destroyer base. 



PORT STEPHENS 



(a) Survey and examine thoroughly the harbour and reserve land 
on south side of Salamander Bay. 

(b) Establish submarine base. 

(c) Provide floating dock and workshops. 

GENERAL 

All the above works should be put in hand as early as possible, 
and should be proceeded with, as far as circumstances will admit, 
simultaneously, so as to be completed by the time that the Fleet unit 
arrives in Australia. 

Second Stage 

PORT LINCOLN 

(a) Examine thoroughly the harbour and surrounding land. 

(b) Establish destroyer and submarine bases. 

(c) Reserve land as requisite. 

BEAUTY POINT (RIVER TAMAR) 

Acquire necessary land and establish destroyer and submarine 
sub-bases. 

TOWNSVILLE 

Establish destroyer sub-base. 

Third Stage 

ALBANY "j 

CONE BAY (or other port on I Establish destroyer and submarine 
N.W. coast) j sub-bases. 

HOBART J 

PORT DARWIN 

It is useless to establish works at this important place until the 
transcontinental railway is completed. On the completion of the 
railway, Port Darwin should be developed into a Fleet secondary base 
as the Commonwealth Fleet grows. 

Subsequent Years 

(As the Fleet increases.) 
404 



ni] APPENDIX 

FRE MANTLE 

Development as a Fleet primary base to be completed. 

PORT WESTERN 

Provide works for repairing and readjusting torpedoes. 

GENERAL 

Also establish at Hobart or at such place as may be found desirable 

(a) College for sub-lieutenants. 

(b) Navigation School. 

(c) ' War College ' for senior officers. 



APPENDIX E 

COMMUNICATIONS AND INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM 

The Fleet will rely for its communications and for its ' Intelligence ' 
system upon 

(a) Its own methods of inter-communication between ships of 

the Fleet ; 

(b) Wireless telegraph stations on shore ; 

(c) Visual signal stations on shore ; 

(d) Land telegraph lines and cables ; 

(e) Communication by wireless telegraphy or by visual signalling 

with merchant ships ; 
(/) Special naval intelligence centres. 

(a) Inter-communication between War Ships 

2. This will be attained by training the necessary personnel (see 
Appendix B) in wireless telegraphy and visual signalling, and supplying 
the ships with the requisite apparatus. 

(b) Wireless Telegraph Stations on Shore 

3. The complete scheme of wireless telegraph stations considered 
necessary for Australia, from a naval point of view, comprises 

(a) A system of high-power stations. These stations are required 
primarily to transmit messages from the central authority 
to the Fleets at sea when the latter are within the effective 
range of these stations, and, secondarily, to inter-communi- 
cate between themselves as an alternative means to the 

405 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



land lines or cables. Such stations are, however, not suit- 
able for the purpose of /wfer-communication with ships or 
small-power stations. 

(b) A system of medium-power stations. These stations are 
required for the normal ship-to-shore communication pur- 
poses of the Fleet. Many of these stations will be able to 
do a large amount of ordinary commercial working, and 
should be encouraged to do so. 

4. Three high-power stations will eventually be required. They 
should be capable of sending a message to a first-class ship at any 
hour of the day or night at a distance of 1350 miles oversea, and of 
inter-communication between themselves. These stations should be 
situated in the neighbourhood of Sydney, Port Darwin, and Perth. 
Owing to the great range and power of these stations the exact posi- 
tion of the sites should be determined more with reference to technical 
suitability and possibility of defence from marauders than to their 
geographical situation. 

5. Of these three stations, the one in the neighbourhood of Sydney 
is required now ; the station near Perth will be required when the 
Western Division of the Fleet approaches completion and Fremantle 
becomes an important naval port. 

The Port Darwin station will not be required until the develop- 
ments of British Wireless Telegraphy render it desirable. 

6. Thirteen medium-power stations will be required eventually at 
or near the following places : 



Thursday Island. 

Port Moresby. 

Townsville. 
*Brisbane. 

Port Stephens. 



*Sydney. 
*Port Western. 

Port Lincoln. 

Hobart. 

Beauty Point. 



*Fremantle. 
Cone Bay (or other port 

on N.W. coast). 
Port Darwin. 



7. Of these stations Port Western will be able to do the commercial 
work for Melbourne, Port Stephens will be able to do the commercial 
work for Newcastle, Port Lincoln will be able to do the commercial 
work for Adelaide. 

8. At the places (Sydney, Fremantle, Port Darwin) where two 
stations, one high-power and one medium-power, are required, the 
stations should not be within 5 miles of one another. 

9. The medium-power stations should be capable of communicat- 
ing with a first-class ship at a distance of 500 miles oversea at any 
hour of the day or night, on any selected wave-length|between 600 
and 2200 metres. 

10. The stations marked * are required as soon as possible ; th< 
406 



APPENDIX 

remainder should be completed concurrently with the naval estab- 
lishments which are required at the places (see Appendix D). 

11. All wireless telegraph stations should be under the direct 
control of the Postmaster-General, and he should take the necessary 
steps to restrict all non-naval traffic at any time that the naval autho- 
rities may desire it. 

12. Should the Postmaster-General be unable for any reason to 
undertake to establish and maintain a wireless telegraph service in 
all respects suited to the requirements of a modern 'navy, it will be 
necessary for the naval authorities to establish and maintain stations 
of its own, and to formulate its own system, with all the attendant 
disadvantages of duplication and divided control. This matter of 
wireless telegraphy, involving the whole subject of rapid and distant 
communication, is of the highest importance in the distribution and 
disposition of fleets. 

13. It is of the highest importance that all wireless telegraph 
stations should be efficiently connected with the land line telegraphic 
system of the country, and arrangements must be made to place these 
connecting lines at the disposal of the naval authorities in times of 
national emergency. 

14. Each of the wireless telegraph stations mentioned should have 
a private telegraph line direct to the nearest centre of local intelli- 
gence (see Confidential Appendix H), and should also be connected 
to the general telegraphic system of the country. Arrangements 
should be made to ' switch through ' such post offices as are not kept 
open continuously so as to ensure an unbroken day and night com- 
munication between the wireless telegraph station and headquarters. 

15. The stations at Port Western, Port Stephens, and Port Lincoln 
should also have private and direct lines in the central Post Offices of 
Melbourne (or Port Melbourne), Newcastle, and Adelaide respectively 
so as to enable commercial messages for those ports to be dealt with 
rapidly. 

16. Though telephone instruments are useful for ordinary purposes, 
telegraph instruments are necessary for the transmission of coded 
messages, and such messages constitute the bulk of naval work. The 
private lines referred to in paragraphs 14 and 15 should be fitted with 
both types of instruments (telephone and telegraph). 

17. Appended below is an outline scheme of a wireless telegraph 
service which has been drawn up with a view to meeting the diffi- 
culties which, as experience in European waters has shown, are likely 
to arise when wireless telegraph traffic becomes an important factor. 

(c) Visual Signal Stations on Shore 

An elaborate system of visual signal stations is not now of such 
vital importance as it was before the developments of wireless tele- 

407 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

graphy, which have so greatly extended the range of communica- 
tions. A properly equipped and controlled system of visual signal 
stations may be of great value, both as a system for reporting the 
movements of hostile or foreign shipping, and as a channel of com- 
munication between a central authority and friendly shipping. 

The existing system of commercial signal stations should be organised 
and consolidated so as to comply with the scheme laid down in the 
Confidential Appendix H. In the future, as development progresses, 
other stations will be required, and the scheme laid down must from 
time to time be reorganised to suit the changing conditions of mercan- 
tile traffic and the probable war requirements of the Navy. 

As time goes on all men at these signal stations should be required 
to become sufficiently expert in all forms of marine signalling to com- 
municate readily with passing merchant ships or with men-of-war, 
and also to become expert telegraphists. 

(d) Land Telegraph Lines and Cables 

Arrangements should be made by the Postmaster-General for 
' priority ' to be given to naval messages in time of emergency or war. 

(e) Communication with Merchant Ships 

Every effort should be made to encourage signalling, whether by 
wireless telegraphy or by visual methods, between British merchant 
ships and the vessels of the Fleet, and also visual signalling between 
British merchant ships and shore stations, as merchant ships will be 
able in time of emergency or war to furnish most valuable information. 

(f) Special Naval Intelligence Centres 

These centres should be established as necessary (see Confidential 
Appendix H). 

NAVAL INTELLIGENCE COMMITTEE AND GENERAL ORGANISATION 
(See Confidential Appendix H). 

ORGANISATION OF A WIRELESS TELEGRAPH BRANCH OF 
THE GENERAL POST OFFICE 

[Not reproduced here.} 



408 



)ii] APPENDIX 

APPENDIX F 
NAVAL RESERVES 
There are four different classes of Naval Reserves in Australia : 

I. The Australasian Branch of the Imperial Royal Naval 
Reserve, at present controlled by the Commander-in- 
Chief of the Australian Squadron. This consists of the 
following numbers, and will (except the New Zealand 
portion of this Reserve) be taken over by the Common- 
wealth Government on the arrival of the Fleet unit : 

Total Numbers on 
3ist December 1910, 

exclusive of 
Rank or Rating New Zealand portion. 



Lieutenant . . . . 4 

Sub-Lieutenant ..... 6 
Qualified seaman ..... 23 

Seaman 203 

Qualified stoker . . . . .25 
Stoker 156 



Total . . .417 

The officers serve till the age of 45, and are required to 
perform 28 days' drill per annum. 

The men engage for five years at a time (not allowed 
to enrol after age of 54), and are required to perform 
Seamen 28 days' drill per annum. 
Stokers 21 days in first year. 

14 days in subsequent years. 

The officers are recruited from the Mercantile Marine 
officers as for the Home R.N.R. 
The men are recruited 

Qualified seamen and qualified stokers from men who 
have served as Australasians in Imperial ships 
for at least three years. 

Seamen and stokers from the Mercantile Marine, 
fishing craft, etc. 

II. The Commonwealth Naval Militia (to be called Naval 
Reserve under the Naval Defence Act, 1910), entered 
from civil occupation for 3 years' service, being required 
to drill for 21 days each year. 

III. The Commonwealth Naval Volunteers, entered for volun- 
tary service, composed wholly of cadets. 

409 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

IV. The persons who are liable under the Defence Act to be 
trained in the junior or senior cadets or in the Citizen 
Forces, and who are allotted to the Naval Forces. 

And there will also be a fifth class, viz. : 

Those men who have completed 5, 7, or 12 years' service in the 
Commonwealth Navy and have transferred to the Reserve 
(the ' Fleet Reserve '). 

It is recommended that no further entries be made into the Australian 
portion of I., and that men now serving therein should 'on completion 
of their current engagement be discharged, but given the opportunity, if 
under the age of 35, of re-enrolling in the Commonwealth Naval Reserve 
for five years under the conditions to be laid down for that Reserve. 

It is recommended that officers under I. should be transferred to 
the Commonwealth Naval Reserve under the conditions to be laid 
down for that Reserve. 

It is recommended that no further entries be made to the Naval 
Militia, and that officers and men therein should be transferred, if 
they are willing, to the Naval Volunteer Reserve under the conditions 
to be laid down for that force. 

It is recommended that no cadets be entered into the Naval 
Volunteer Reserve in future except those enrolled under the Defence 
Act and allotted to the Naval Forces ; Naval Volunteer cadets now 
serving to whom the Defence Act may apply should be retained in 
the Naval Forces. All such cadets should continue with the Naval 
Volunteers for the remainder of their period of service under the 
Defence Act. 

Persons liable for service under the Defence Act and allotted to 
the Naval Forces, whether as cadets or later, should come under the 
conditions to be laid down for the Naval Volunteer Reserve, and 
should be encouraged to remain in that Reserve after the period of 
their obligatory service in the Citizen Forces expires. 

Men transferred to the Reserve after a period of at least five years 
in the Regular Forces should be entered into the Fleet Reserve under 
the conditions to be laid down for that Reserve. 

It is recommended that the strength of the Reserve personnel to 
be attained eventually should, at first, be fixed on a basis of about 
30 per cent, of the total number there will be in the active service 
when the Fleet is completed, i.e. an eventual total Reserve of about 
5000. 

Of this number it is probable that from 2000 to 3000 will be pro- 
vided from those who have served in the Fleet (i.e., from the Fleet 
Reserve) : the remainder should be provided by men who are in their 
second year or subsequent service (i.e., age of 19 and above) under 
the Defence Act (Naval Volunteer Reserve). 
410 



APPENDIX 



The number of cadets to be allotted for naval service on ist July 
1911 should be based on the requirements of ist July 1916, say 2000, 
to be obtained as follows, allowing for wastage : 
ist year senior cadets . . . 8ool 
2nd year senior cadets . 750 imate i 

3rd year senior cadets . . . 700 
4th year senior cadets . . . 650; 

The number of officers, R.N.R., to be entered should not exceed 
100 sub-lieutenants and lieutenants. 

The number of officers, R.N.V.R., should be regulated according 
to the number of men in the R.N.V.R. at any time, observing that 
as a general rule such officers would not be professionally qualified to 
replace active service officers afloat though available for shore and 
harbour service. 

It is recommended that the conditions of service and training of 
the reserve forces should be on the lines of those in force for corre- 
sponding reserves in the United Kingdom, amended as necessary to 
meet Australian conditions. Officers and men who may be detailed 
for special harbour or shore service in time of war should be trained 
in such duties in peace time in lieu of, or in addition to, the ordinary 
courses laid down. 

Administrative Staff 

The following Headquarters Staff should be appointed forthwith : 
Director of Naval Reserves (a captain). 
Assistant to director (a commander). 
Secretary (a naval accountant officer). 
Clerical staff (say, three clerks). 

And ' district commandants ' at the following places, of such 
ranks as may be found desirable : 



Thursday Island. 
Townsville. 
Brisbane. 
Port Stephens. 
Sydney. 



Port Melbourne. Albany. 
Hobart. Fremantle. 

River Tamar. Cone Bay. 

Port Adelaide. Port Darwin. 

Port Lincoln. 
These officers would also perform the following duties : 

(a) Take charge of all naval establishments (except at Sydney 

and Fremantle, or other port where an officer is specially 
appointed for charge of naval establishments). 

(b) Act as recruiting officer for the area allotted to the port. 

(c) Act as naval harbour master. 

(d) Act as intelligence centre officer. 

These ' district commandants ' should be provided with such 
instructional petty officers and staff as may be necessary. 

411 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [a 

APPENDIX G 

FINANCIAL ESTIMATE 

The following estimate of cost must be regarded as a very rough 
approximation ; it has not been possible with the data, and in the 
time available, to furnish an accurate statement of the probable cost 
of the completed Fleet, etc. 

2. In calculating the cost of the personnel an average expenditure 
per head of 150 per annum (about 8s. 3d. per diem) has been taken 
as the basis, on the assumption that the average scales of pay attached 
to Appendix B are adopted, and that the proportions of the various 
ranks and ratings to one and another remain constant. This sum 
of 150 per annum includes ' active pay/ ' deferred pay,' allowance 
for uniform or clothing, and cost of rations. 

3. The expenditure on the Naval Forces may be divided into ' non- 
recurring ' and ' recurring ' charges. 

I. NON-RECURRING CHARGES 

4. The non-recurring charges are 

(a) The initial expenditure on the construction of ships until 
the Fleet is completed, i.e. : 

Ships. Estimated Initial Cost. 



The Fleet unit ..... 3,500,000 

7 armoured cruisers .... 14,000,000 

7 protected cruisers .... 3,150,000 

12 torpedo-boat destroyers . . . 1,080,000 

9 submarines ...... 810,000 

3 depot ships ..... 600,000 

i Fleet repair ship ..... 150,000 

Total 23,290,000 



Of which there has already been expended in 

1909 to 1911 ..... 910,000 

Of which there has already been voted for ex- 
penditure in 1911-1913 (Act No. 18, 1910) 2,590,000 

3,500,000 



Leaving a balance to be provided in 1913-1933 (20 

years) of ...... 19,790,000 

i.e., an average, per annum, of . . . 989,590 
412 



APPENDIX 

(b) The initial naval expenditure on dockyards, naval barracks 

and schools, naval bases and sub-bases, etc. (See Appendix 
D.) These are designated naval ' works.' 

It is not practicable to furnish in this report any estimate as to 
the cost of the ' works ' recommended, and they should be taken in 
hand (in the order shown in Appendix D) as money is available ; 
in some cases there should be some revenue returnable for the benefits 
accruing to commercial interests. 

It is desirable, however, that the ' works ' should be carried out 
as early as possible, and the accompanying financial table shows 
approximately what money would be available annually for this 
purpose. 

(c) The initial expenditure on establishing Reserves of stores 

(including coal, oil, ammunition, guns, gun-mountings, 
torpedoes, etc.), exclusive of the annual expenditure on 
the stores used by the Fleet. 

It is estimated that the reserves of stores that would be necessary 
for the completed Fleet would be 

Item. Approximate Cost. 



f, 

Coal (36,000 tons) ..... 30,000 

Oil (20,000 tons) ..... 60,000 
2 years' supply of permanent sea stores . ) 

2 consumable sea stores . / say ' 5 ' oc 

2 ,, repair stores . . . 180,000 

Reserve of guns 



ammunition 



Total . . . 2,000,000 



The stores to be provided as reserves for the Fleet unit would cost 
about 600,000, and the remainder should be provided gradually at 
an average annual cost of 70,000 per annum. 

NOTE. Arrangements should be made with the Admiralty for the Common- 
wealth to take over from them all suitable naval stores there may be at Sydney 
when the Fleet unit arrives. 



413 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

II. RECURRING CHARGES 
5. The recurring charges are 

(a) Annual allowance for the depreciation of ships (i.e., for their 
replacement when worn out). As soon as the Fleet is com- 
pleted, the non-recurrent charges for the construction of 
ships will cease, and the construction of vessels, as neces- 
sary to replace others worn out, will be defrayed from the 
annual depreciation allowance. 

For this purpose it is considered that ships will require re- 
placement as follows : 



Description of Vessel. 


Approximate. 


Period for which 
Serviceable. 


Value of Annual 
Depreciation. 


Armoured cruiser 
Protected cruiser 
Torpedo-boat destroy 
Submarine 
Depot ship 
Fleet repair ship 


fer 







Years. 
20 

20 

15 
15 

20 
20 


, 
100,000 
22,500 
6,000 
6,000 

10,000 

7,500 



On that basis, the value of the annual depreciation of the com- 
pleted fleet would be 1,242,500, and after 1933 such sum would be 
required as an annual average for construction of new vessels to replace 
those worn out. 

During the four eras in which this fleet is being completed, this 
sum should include the cost of construction of new vessels (an annual 
average of 989,500, see paragraph 4 (a) above), and thus there would 
be an annual balance of 253,000 available for expenditure on replace- 
ment of worn-out vessels. In 20 years this would amount to 75,060,000, 
and would provide the ' replacement ' vessels that would probably be 
required during these 20 years, viz. : 



Vessels to be Replaced. 




Era. 


Cost. 


6 Torpedo-boat destroyers 
3 Submarines . 


I 


3rd - 


540,000 
270,000 


3 Submarines . 


) 




270,000 


6 Torpedo-boat destroyers 
3 Protected cruisers . 


I 


4th 


540,000 
1,350,000 


i Armoured cruiser . 


J 


, 


2,000,000 


Total 




... 


4,970,000 



414 



APPENDIX 

(b) Annual cost of personnel, at 150 per head (including cost of 
administration staff) : 



Number of personnel in 1912-13, say, 3444, cost 516,000 

1932-33, 14,844, cost . 2,226,600 



i.e., an increase in 20 years of 11,400, cost . 1,710,600 
An average increase per annum of 570, cost . 85,530 

(c) Annual cost of maintenance of ships in commission (repairs, 
sea stores, fuel, naval ordnance, stores, etc.), at the follow- 
ing rates per annum : 



Ship (in full 
Commission) . 



Annual Cost of 
Maintenance. 



Armoured cruiser 100,000 

Protected cruiser . . . . . . 25,000 

Torpedo-boat destroyer . ... 12,000 

Submarine ........ 5,ooo 

Depot ship . . 12,000 

Fleet repair ship 12,000 

Thus, the maintenance of Elect unit (1913-14) would be 262,000 

completed fleet (1933-34) 

would be ... 1,226,000* 

* A deduction of 40 per cent, being made in the annual cost of ships ' with 
reduced crews.' (See paragraph 4, Part I.) 

(d) Annual cost of maintenance of dockyards, buildings, training 

establishments, etc. (i.e., of ' Naval Works '). 

This cannot be estimated for the same reasons as those given 
above (paragraph 4) (b) ; the expenditure should be met out of the 
balance available for * Works.' 

(e) Cost of naval reserves. 

On a basis of an eventual total reserve of 5000 ranks and ratings 
it is considered that 100,000 per annum would cover all expenditure 
necessary, varying from 1912-13, say, 20,000, to 1932-33, 100,000, 
at an average increase per annum of 4,000. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

FINANCIAL TABLE 
6. The following table embodies the preceding estimates : 







' Non-recurring' Charges. 


Recurring Charges. 




Balance 












available 


Era. 


Year. 


Construction. 

Building of 
Ships. 


Stores 

Establish- 
ment of 
Reserves 
of Stores. 


Construction. 

Depreciation 
Fund for 
Replacement 
of Ships. 


Persoi 
(Number.) 


vnel. 
Cost. 


Cost of 
Main- 
tenance 
of Ships 
in the 
Fleet. 


Cost of 
Naval 
Reserves. 


Total. 


for 

Expendi- 
ture on 
'Works' 
if, say 
,3, 000,000 1 
is voted 
Annually. 






1,000 


1,000 


1,000 




1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 




1911-12 


1,295* 


50 




(670) 


100 


36 


10 


1,491 


1,509 




1912-13 


1,295* 


300 


... 


(3,444) 


5 J 6 


200 


20 


2-33 1 


669 




1913-14 


989 


220 


253 


(4,014) 


6ox 


262 


24 


2-349 


651 


ISt J 


1914-15 


989 


120 


253 


(4,684) 


686 


274 


28 


2,350 


650 




1915-16 


989 


120 


253 


(5,154) 


771 


2 74 


32 


2,439 






1916-17 


989 


70 


253 


(6,724) 


856 


289 


36 


2,493 


57 




1917-18 


989 


70 


353 


(6,294) 


941 


320 


. 40 


2,613 


387 


( 


1918-19 


989 


70 


253 


(6,864) 


,026 


351 


44 


2,733 


Ii2 6 7 f 




1919-20 


989 


70 


2 53 


(7,434) 


,111 


4 I8 


48 


2,889 


i.iii 


2 ndX 


1920-21 


989 


70 


253 


(8,004) 


,196 


518 


52 


3,078 


922 


1 


1921-22 
1922-23 


989 
989 


70 

70 


253 
353 


(8,674) 
(9,144) 


,281 
,366 


545 
645 





3,194 
3,383 


806 
617 


f 


1923-24 


989 


70 


253 


(9,714) 


,45i 


725 


64 


3,552 


948f 


1 


1924-25 


989 


70 


253 


(10,284) 


,536 


737 


68 


3,653 


847 




1925-26 


989 


70 


253 


(10,864) 


,621 


797 


72 


3,802 


698 


1 


1926-27 


989 


70 


253 


(11,424) 


,706 


897 


76 


3-991 


509 


I 


1927-28 


989 


70 


253 


(11,994) 


,791 


997 


80 


4,180 


320 




1928-29 


989 


70 


253 


(12,660) 


,876 


,027 


84 


4,299 


70if 




1929-30 


989 


70 


353 


(13,130) 


,961 


,027 


88 


4,388 


612 




1930-31 


989 


70 


253 


(13,700) 


2,046 


,127 


92 


4-577 


423 




1931-32 


989. 


70 


253 


(14,270) 


2,131 


,127 


96 


4,666 


334 




1932-33 


989 


70 


253 


(14,844) 


2,226 


,186 


IOO 


4,824 


176 






22,370^ 


2,000 


5,060 












J5 225 




1933-34 


















216 




... 


1,242 


(14,844) 


2,226 


1,226 


100 


4,794 



* Already voted (Act No. 18 of 1910), but may be divided differently between the two years, 
f If 3,000,000 is voted in ist Era; 4,000,000 in 2nd Era; 4, 500,000 in 3rd Era; 5,000,000 ii 
4th Era. 

,910,000 has already been provided in 1910-11. 



416 



APPENDIX 



REPORT ON AN INSPECTION OF THE MILI- 
TARY FORCES OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF 
AUSTRALIA by GENERAL SIR IAN HAMILTON, G.C.B., 
D.S.O., General Officer Commander - in - Chief , Medi- 
terranean, and Inspector-General of the Oversea Forces. 

(Presented by Command ; ordered to be printed, zoth May 1914.) 



From the Inspector -General of the Oversea Forces, to the Honourable 
the Minister of Defence, Commonwealth of Australia 

Hobart, zqth April 1914. 

SIR, I have the honour to forward herewith my Report upon the 
inspection I have carried out at the request of the Australian Govern- 
ment. A separate and secret document, dealing with the fixed defences 
of Australian ports, will follow in due course. 

I landed in Western Australia on 3rd February last, and am to-day 
leaving Australian territory for New Zealand. During these eleven 
weeks I have visited the State capitals, most of the larger towns, as well 
as many country districts and training camps. By rail alone some 7660 
miles have been travelled and, on horseback and in motors, a con- 
scientious endeavour has been made to break all previous records. In 
one way or another no less than 149 Militia units, some 52,000 Senior 
Cadets, and a number of Rifle Clubs have been passed in review by 
me. All factories employed in turning out war material and uniforms 
have also been visited. With the exception of Thursday Island, the 
armament, scheme of defence, and personnel of every defended port has, 
with its garrison and armament, been inspected, and, in addition, it 
has been my privilege to investigate what is being done at Duntroon, 
as well as at the Gunnery and Musketry Schools. Last, but not least, 
I saw, and, having seen, shall ever treasure in my memory, the wonder- 
ful exhibition of physical training given on the Melbourne Cricket 
Ground by some 7000 boys and girls of the local schools. Never did 
Australia seem to me to be more clearly pledging the future generations 
to high ideals of citizenship than on that great occasion. If only I can 
convey to our British schoolmasters and schoolmistresses one tithe of 
the meaning of that sight, their hearts will be touched, and they will 

OVERSEAS 2. 2 D 417 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

insist upon being given similar opportunity of brightening the lives of 
the little ones entrusted by the State to their charge. 

To one and all with whom I have been brought in contact, both 
officially and socially, I desire to express my own deepest thanks, and 
also the gratitude of my staff, for the extraordinary kindness extended 
to us everywhere. Our tour through Australia has been just one long 
holiday jaunt with the holiday part cut out. 

I am greatly indebted to District Commandants and their staffs for 
the constant support they have given me ; my thanks also are due to all 
at Army Headquarters for the trouble they have taken in elucidating 
for me many matters connected with the military institutions of 
Australia. To the Adjutant-General in particular, and to those work- 
ing under him, I trust I may be allowed to express my special thanks 
for the infinite pains they have taken in elaborating the scheme of 
1 [Omitted territorial reorganisation referred to in Chapters IV. to VI. 1 of my 
here.] Report. 

Most of all, I have to thank you, Sir, for your invariable kindness, 
and for the sage advice I have received from you where constitutional 
problems were involved. Whatever merits my views on the subject of 
decentralisation may possess, I feel I could never have carried them to 
their logical conclusion without your sympathetic assistance. 
I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient Servant, 

IAN HAMILTON, General, 
Inspector-General of the Oversea Forces. 

I. EXPLANATORY 

PROBLEM OF AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE 

i. The potential strength of a State resides in its patriotism, its 
population, and its purse. The actual strength of a State consists in 
the aggregate striking power of its armies and its fleets which should, 
in war time, be as interdependent as the forefinger and thumb of a 
human hand. 

In the United Kingdom the Secretary of State for War and the 
First Lord of the Admiralty are each members of the Cabinet, and each 
separately responsible to Parliament. Hence debates wherein defenders 
are weighed against invaders as though submarines had not yet been 
invented, and fleet against fleet as though Greater Britain had not 
practical monopoly of the defended ports of the world. 

Here, in Australia, where one Minister accepts the whole responsi- 
bility for defence, it should be easier than in the Old Country to readjust 
from time to time the balance between naval and military expenditure 
in due and scientific proportion. Only no amount of balancing will 
show a balance credit if the account has been overdrawn, and this lea<" 
418 



APPENDIX 

me straight to my point that, apart from new expenditure on the Navy, 
the Australian Army will ultimately cost just about twice as much as 
was originally anticipated. 



FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS OF PARAMOUNT IMPORTANCE 

2. Twice as much ! Through all my inspections I have carried 
about with me this cast-iron fact as a shield against incessant showers 
of missives urging expenditure large immediate, and under every 
conceivable head. More professional instructors, more remounts, more 
wagons, more and better drill halls, more storehouses, more training 
grounds, more ranges, more aeroplanes. Powerful advocates stand 
behind each of these claims and, without question, every single one of 
them is in itself desirable ; but they cannot be thus insulated by any 
responsible soldier or statesman. Before any group can be dealt with 
by such a man he must, or, at least, he certainly should, tabulate the 
entire list and make an estimate of the aggregate cost. The figure 
would stagger Australia, and would show more clearly than pages of 
written argument the dangers, for some time to come, of sanctioning 
expenditure under fresh heads unless a corresponding economy can be 
booked in a parallel column. 1 



DANGERS OF Too GREAT HASTE 

3. The building up of the Australian Army cannot be rushed except 
at the risk of a reaction. Haste, in this case, must be the enemy to 
speed. 

Much of the existing outlay is for initial purposes only, e.g., pro- 
vision of guns, rifles, and equipment, inauguration of factories for the 
output of clothing and warlike stores, erection of storehouses, barracks, 
and works required under the scheme of universal training, etc., etc. 
Such expenditure will lapse to a large extent in a few years' time, but, 
until that time arrives, efforts should be entirely concentrated upon 
maintaining a high standard of war efficiency amongst the personnel 
and upon providing war essentials and essentials only in the way of 
materiel. The one fatal thing will be to lower standards of training for 
the sake of maintaining mere numbers, 2 or, to stint instruction for the 
purpose of stocking any class of warlike stores and equipment which 
could, at a pinch, be commandeered in Australia itself. 

1 A table attached as Appendix A shows what the progress in expenditure has been 
during the past ten years. 

8 To save money on the men's musketry or training facilities is to throw dust into 
the eyes of the State ; to save money by reducing numbers under severer medical tests 
is to deal fairly and squarely with the State. 

419 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



THE AUSTRALIAN MILITIA 

4. The Commonwealth has definitely adopted the Militia principle 
as a means of raising its military forces. This implies, or should imply, 
the abandonment of all idea of maintaining permanent troops, save in 
so far as they may be considered an indispensable adjunct to the Militia. 
Everything outside the Militia the Regular Force, for example, the 
Rifle Clubs and the Cadets are essentially of military interest and 
value only in so far as they affect the well-being of Australia's real war 
instrument her Militia Army. 

Prominently though the Regular Force may stand out in peace, its 
role in war must, in the nature of things, be limited. It is not, and 
cannot be, numerous ; bullets and disease will, on service, too soon 
take a heavy toll of it, and there are headquarters and territorial duties 
it must undertake in war as well as in peace. As regards war, then it is 
a Militia Army, led mainly by militiamen, with which I am called on to 
deal, and I shall assume throughout this Report that the existence 
in peace of every Regular officer, non-commissioned officer and man has 
to be justified on the ground, either that he is necessary to the well-being 
of the Militia, or that the work he is doing could not be performed by a 
Militiaman. 

CHARACTER OF A NATIONAL MILITIA 

5. Throughout my inspection I have consistently kept four guiding 
principles in view so much so that the whole of this Report is but a 
series of reflections from them as observed at different angles. 

The first is that an effective National Militia must, in war, express 
the life of the nation in its widest sense. The mere enrolment in units 
of a certain number of trainees is not enough. Nothing less than the 
war organisation of the whole resources of the nation will suffice. 

This does not imply that every able-bodied man is to be trained, 
clothed, and paid by the State. As a principle it is compatible with an 
actual reduction in the numbers of the trainees. But it does imply that 
every man of military age, whether he is a trainee or not, should know 
what he would be expected to do, if ever Australia were invaded. 

The history of the old Greek and Roman republics, and the state of 
affairs that obtains to-day in countries like Switzerland, are sufficient 
proof that a national organisation for war is, without too exhausting an 
effort, an attainable ideal. An enemy contemplating an attack on 
Australia must be taught to realise that he will find there a true nation- 
in-arrris, every national resource having been organised beforehand for 
the purpose of defence. 



420 



APPENDIX 

No ROOM FOR A PEACE SYSTEM 

6. The second principle is that, in a Militia Army, the system 
obtaining in peace must, as nearly as possible, coincide with the system 
definitely accepted for war. In such a force there is no room for a peace 
system that is divorced from war requirements. Even in a professional 
standing Army an avowed peace system, though it may be inevitable, 
is yet purely objectionable. It breeds a host of ideas each of which is 
wholly inapplicable to war and is only sloughed off with extremest 
difficulty after mobilisation. Also, it tends to promote men to high 
places who, by the very fact of their being experts in a peace system, 
have become painfully .unfitted to adapt their minds to the large and 
unprecedented issues of war. 

Therefore, during peace the Militiaman's service should be organised 
under war conditions. This maximum applies not merely to the train- 
ing of the troops in the field, but to the system of supply ; to the Army 
forms and books in use ; to the method of correspondence ; to the 
procedure followed in paying the troops ; to the registration in record 
offices of information affecting 4:he individual soldier ; and, indeed, to 
each and every detail of military procedure. Regulations which have 
to be changed on mobilisation are blots on a Militia organisation. The 
soldier who starts on a campaign by having to unlearn has been badly 
handicapped by his Government. 

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A MILITIA AND A REGULAR ARMY 

7. The third principle is that a Militia and a Regular Army are 
essentially different entities. They are intended for different purposes 
and their problems of organisation cannot but have separate solutions. 
For instance, a Regular Army, with world-wide duties to perform, must 
aim at rendering itself self-contained. In peace and in war it must be 
prepared to act far from the civilian resources of the home country, and 
it requires therefore engineers skilled in railway work, in building 
operations, in drainage schemes, and in similar work of a highly technical 
nature. It may equally be necessary to maintain one or more corps of 
skilled artificers, who can set up and run and repair intricate machinery 
on the spot. 

But, as an integral portion, in peace, of a Militia destined to act, in 
war, in its own country, such expensive and highly technical personnel 
is superfluous. Only unoriginal minds minds unable to extricate 
themselves from the regular military tradition could think of saddling 
a home defence Militia with a full outfit of the cut-and-dried adjuncts 
devised to enable an Expeditionary Force or an Army of Occupation to 
function in foreign and inhospitable lands. In a Militia the technical 
resources of the country itself, properly organised, should suffice both in 
peace and in war. 

421 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Here, then, is my third principle : Much of the expenditure in 
peace, which is inevitable for a Regular Overseas Army, can, in the case 
of a Militia, be avoided without unduly impairing war efficiency, pro- 
vided always that national resources have been adequately organised. 
I deal with this matter more fully later on in a chapter headed ' National 
Organisation for War/ 

SPECIALISATION MOST NECESSARY FOR A MILITIA 

8. The fourth principle is that, even when the same theory applies 
to a Regular and a Militia system, it may be very much more vital to the 
one form of service than to the other. Thus, recently, it has come to be 
recognised in the Old Country that there is a fundamental distinction, 
both in peace and in war, between the command of an army and its 
administration, and that, more and more under modern conditions, the 
training of the commander and of the military administrator must take 
place in separate compartments. Now a rigid application of this 
distinction is much more necessary in a Militia than in a Regular force. 
An optimist, were he a bad one, might permit himself to hope for 
wonders from the Regular officer who devotes his whole life to his pro- 
fession. He might, for instance, expect to find in the one and same in- 
dividual a talent for training and leading men in the open field combined 
with an inclination to sit glued to an office chair grappling with the 
intricacies and chicaneries of business and finance. But where is the 
Militia officer who can hope to find time or scope to develop himself in'to 
a double-barrelled genius of this Napoleonic type ? The thing is not, 
humanly speaking, possible, and so it becomes essential that steps 
should be taken in peace to form in Australia a specialised business 
department whose personnel shall, from the outset, devote themselves 
to purely administrative work. I hope, therefore, that the business 
men of Australia will support and encourage the new department, not 
only by accepting commissions in it as Militia officers, but also by re- 
cognising that the part the administrative officer plays in war is fully 
as vital and as patriotic as that played by his brother in arms, the fighter. 

THE Swiss EXAMPLE 

9. Later on I refer several times to Switzerland. The fact is, I 
specially prepared myself for my Australian tour by attending the 
Swiss manoeuvres privately, and by availing myself to the utmost of 
the advice and experience of the higher officers of that famous bulwark 
of freedom, the Swiss Army. I did this, out of a very brief period of 
leave, because I. hoped the Antipodes might ultimately get some value 
from such a visit, and because I knew that not only had the problem of 
home defence, pure and simple, engaged the serious attention of the 
422 



APPENDIX 

brave Helvetian democracy for many generations, but that the 
Australian scheme of training had, in its early days, been shaped to 
some degree on their model. 

The Swiss Army as it exists to-day, resolutely denying right of way 
to two of the greatest powers on earth, is indeed a model from which no 
nation adopting a Militia principle need be ashamed to borrow. Not 
merely its training, but its organisation as well, has been tuned up to as 
high a pitch as the Militia principle can be expected to stand. 1 

THE PERIOD OF TRANSITION 

10. In conclusion, I feel bound to express my feeling of admiration 
for the loyalty and goodwill which have smoothed the path of the 
transition of the Australian Military Forces from the old order of things 
to the new. Since the ist July 1912, the elaboration of the new scheme 
has thrown a vast volume of work on all concerned. Headquarters and 
district staffs, the administrative services, the officers and men of the 
permanent units, and all members of the Administrative and In- 
structional Staff have responded nobly to the call made on them. 
Without unceasing and self-sacrificing efforts on their part, the present 
stage of development could not possibly have been reached in so short 
a time. 

Equally at least equally are the thanks of their fellow-citizens 
due to the officers, non-commissioned officers, and men of the old Militia 
who have stuck to the colours during the past two years. In spite of 
much that was most discouraging, such as changes in regimental 
numbers, uniforms and badges, and the inevitable loss of cherished 
traditions, they have for two years past continued doing splendid work 
for the country. Only by the loyal support and co-operation of these 
men has the Defence Department been enabled to carry out successfully 
the reorganisation of the Australian Forces. To them, above all other, 
is due the present sound and growing system of universal military train- 
ing in Australia. 



II. THE MILITARY INSTITUTIONS OF AUSTRALIA 
HEADQUARTERS ORGANISATION 

IT. The Minister of State for Defence is responsible to Parliament 
for both the Navy and the Army of the Commonwealth. On matters 

1 The Swiss system is an extremely economical one. For a good deal less than 
^2,000,000 per annum 90,000 officers and men get an annual training, and a field army 
of over 200,000 officers and men, with 250,000 more for reserve units and auxiliary 
services, can be mobilised for war. The men of course receive practically no pay when 
out for training. Certain other items of heavy expenditure, which are inevitable in 
Australia, are also non-existent in Switzerland. 

423 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

connected with naval and military policy and expenditure he is advised 
by a Council of Defence, consisting of : 

Himself, as President, 

The Treasurer, 

2 Naval Officers, 

2 Military Officers, 

The Consulting Military Engineer, 

with the Permanent Head of the Defence Department as Secretary. 

The Military Forces of Australia are controlled and administered by 
a Military Board, which consists of the following members : 

The Minister of State for Defence (President), 

The Chief of the General Staff, 

The Adjutant-General, 

The Quartermaster-General, 

The Chief of Ordnance, 

The Finance Member, 

with a Secretary from the office of the Permanent Heacl of the Defence 
Department. 

The distribution of duties among the members of the Board is de- 
tailed in Appendix B. 

There is also an Inspector-General of the Military Forces whose 
business it is to review, and to report to the Minister, the practical 
results of the policy of the Government as administered by the Military 
Board. 

TERRITORIAL ORGANISATION 

12. The Commonwealth is divided into six Military Districts (Ap- 
pendix C), each under a District Commandant, assisted by a District 
Staff. The boundaries of the Districts are, practically, coterminous 
with the six political State boundaries. 

The basis of the territorial system is the battalion area, which 
provides a battalion of Senior Cadets, and will eventually provide a 
battalion of Infantry, as well as its quota .for other arms Light Horse, 
Field Artillery, and Garrison Artillery. 

Four battalion areas are grouped to form a brigade area, which 
eventually will furnish an Infantry brigade, one company of Engineers, 
one of Army Service Corps, and a Field Ambulance. 

For purposes of territorial administration and for the training of 
Senior Cadets, each battalion area is subdivided into two or three 
training areas, each administered by an Area Officer. There are in all 
215 training areas. Area Officers are at present temporary appoint- 
ments. Eventually permanent officers will be appointed as they 
become available from the Royal Military College. In each battalion 
424 



APPENDIX 

area, one of the permanent Area Officers will then act as Adjutant of the 
Militia battalion. 

A permanent Area Brigade-Major supervises the work of the Area 
Officers within a brigade area. When Infantry brigades are complete, 
the Area Brigade-Major will also be the Brigade-Major of the Infantry 
brigade. 

LIABILITY TO SERVE IN TIME OF WAR 

13. Under section 59 of the Defence Act all male inhabitants of 
Australia l between the ages of 18 and 60, who have resided therein 
for six months and are British subjects, shall, in time of war, be liable 
to serve in the Citizen Forces, and under section 60 (3) such persons 
may be called upon to enlist in sequence in five classes according to 
age, and whether married or single, etc. 



LIABILITY FOR SERVICE ABROAD 

14. ' Members of the Defence Force who are members of the Military 
Forces shall not be required, unless they voluntarily agree to do so, to 
serve beyond the limits of the Commonwealth, and those of any Terri- 
tory under the authority of the Commonwealth/ Defence Act, Section 

49- 

SCHEME OF TRAINING 

15. Training under the Act is prescribed as follows : 



Rank. 


Age. 


Service. 


Training. 


Junior Cadets . . - . 


12-14 years 


2 years 


Annually : 90 hours. 


Senior Cadets . 


14-18 


4 M 


Annually : 4 whole-day, 12 








half-day, and 24 night 








drills (quarter days). 2 


Citizen Forces (Militia) 


18-26 


8 


Annually : In first 7 years, 








drills equivalent to 16 









whole days, of which at 








least 8 must be in camp. 3 



CONDITIONS OF ENROLMENT IN CITIZEN FORCES 

16. Contingent on the necessities of the service, the wishes of in- 
dividuals are considered in allotment to arms. Only specially selected 

1 Subject to certain exemptions. 

2 Variations are permissible, provided the total remains the same. 

3 Artillery and Engineers (as well as those allotted to the Naval Forces) must train 
for twenty-five days annually, of which seventeen days must be in camp. In the eighth 
year Militia are required only to attend a registration or muster parade. 

425 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [AP 

men are accepted for service with Artillery, Engineers, Army Service 
Corps, and Army Medical Corps. No cases have occurred where there 
has been an insufficiency of candidates for service with these special 
corps. 

Service in the Light Horse is voluntary. The recruit provides his 
own horse. 

In other arms voluntary enlistment ceased on 3Oth June 1912, but 
all those serving on that date were permitted to continue their service 
until the expiry of their period of enlistment, non-commissioned officers 
being given the privilege of re-enlisting for further periods. 

The rates of pay for the Citizen Forces are given in Appendix D. 



WAR ORGANISATION (1919-20) 

17. By present arrangements the peace organisation of the Aus- 
tralian Army is to be developed to provide in 1919-20 a war organi- 
sation for a field army, for garrison troops, and for district columns, 
amounting to 

8 Light Horse Brigades. 
6 Divisions. 1 

2 Mixed Forces (in 5th and 6th Districts). 

1 Infantry Brigade. 

UNITS STILL TO BE FORMED 

1 8. The units which have yet to be formed in order to complete the 
above war organisation are as follows : (See Appendix E for detail.) 

6 Light Horse Regiments. 

4 Divisional Squadrons. 

25 Batteries Field Artillery (i8-pr.). 2 

5 Batteries Field Artillery (Howitzer). 
34 Ammunition Columns. 

6J Field Companies. 

2 Signal Troops. 

2 Divisional Signal Companies. 

2 Wireless Companies. 

33 Infantry Battalions. 

16 Companies A.S.C. 

2 Light Horse Field Ambulances. 

9 Field Ambulances. 

1 Present proposals provide for only two Field Artillery brigades of four-gun 
batteries, and one four-gun howitzer battery and ammunition column per division. 
- Includes three permanent batteries for Light Horse brigades. 

426 



APPENDIX 

NUMBERS REQUIRED, 1919-20 

19. In round numbers the war requirements in 1919-20 will be : 

4500 officers. 
130,500 other ranks. 



135,000 Total. 

NUMBERS AVAILABLE, 1919-20 

20. To meet requirements there will be available 
Permanent 1 

380 officers ; 
2800 other ranks ; 

Militia 2 

4000 officers ; 
86,000 trained soldiers ; 

12,500 trained soldiers in their 25th-26th year ; 
17,000 recruits in their first year of service ; 

a total of 4380 officers and 118,300 other ranks. The war deficit will, 
therefore, be 120 officers and 12,200 other ranks, of whom nearly 7000 
are to be specially enlisted as drivers and for other duties in the Army 
Service Corps and Army Medical Corps. 

The deficiency in officers can be made good from the Unattached 
List and Reserve of Officers List. The net deficiency in other ranks 
(about 22,000 if recruits are excluded) must be met by the allotment of 
members of Rifle Clubs and by the enlistment of men who have pre- 
viously served. 

RESERVE SERVICE VOLUNTARY 

21. From 1920-21 onwards a quota of approximately 12,500 trained 
men will annually complete their service with the colours, but the 
Defence Act only provides for their voluntary enrolment in the Reserve 
Forces (Section 42) on completion of their period of compulsory service. 

HORSES AND MECHANICAL TRANSPORT 

22. Approximately 24,000 riding and 25,000 draught and pack 
horses will be required to provide for war establishment in the year 

1 This establishment includes Headquarters and District staffs, many of whom may 
not be available for the field army or for garrisons. Also includes personnel of six per- 
manent batteries of Field Artillery, as well as the permanent Garrison Artillery and 
Engineers for defended ports. 

2 In estimating the numbers available in 1919-20, an annual wastage of 5 per cent, 
has been allowed for mortality, medical unfitness, and other casualties. 

427 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



1919-20. Some 560 riding horses and 1120 draught horses are available 
in peace with permanent units and in remount depots. 

In Australia there are about 2,250,000 horses, and of these 20 per 
cent, (or 450,000) may be regarded as suitable for military purposes. 
Section 67 of the Defence Act provides that any horses can be impressed 
by officers authorised by the regulations. 

A scheme for the registration of horses is at present being formulated. 

ARMS, AMMUNITION, CLOTHING, STORES, ETC. 

23. It is the definite policy of the Commonwealth Government to 
equip fully the forces as they are gradually and annually augmented, 
until they attain their full strength in 1920. Thus in a given year, 
there are available for use the various articles in possession of the troops 
and those held ready for issue to the new quota of troops on the ist 
July annually, plus such additional articles as for various reasons are 
held in stock. 

Since the inception of universal training, the Department has 
expended nearly 1,000,000 on the provision of new equipment for 
troops (not including armament, ammunition, equipment for fixed 
defence, etc.). 

INSTRUCTION OF THE MILITIA 

24. The Active Militia is instructed by the following professional 
staff : 





Establishment 1913-14. 


Strength on 28-2-1914. 




Officers. 


Other Ranks. 


Officers. 


Other Ranks. 


Field Artillery 


5 


24 


3 


22 


Garrison Artillery . 




II 


II 


Engineers . 




J 9 


. . 


15 


Light Horse \ '. 










Infantry 
Senior Cadets ) 


.79 1 


560 


79 ' 


47 8 


Army Service Corps 


5 2 


12 


2 


II 


Army Medical Corps 




15 




15 


Total . 


89 


641 


8 4 


552 



1 Also perform duties as Brigade Majors of Light Horse and Infantry brigades 
and brigade areas or as permanent Adjutants of Light Horse regiments and Infantry 
battalions. 

2 Also performs duties as Assistant Directors of Transport and Supply. 

428 



APPENDIX 

Militia officers and non-commissioned officers are instructed at 
schools and classes of instruction for the various arms, held under the 
direction of the General Staff from time to time in each District, at 
convenient centres. Those attending are granted subsistence and, in 
addition, quarters or tentage. 



COLLEGES, TECHNICAL SCHOOLS, ETC. 

25. From 1916 onwards the Royal Military College at Duntroon will 
produce some thirty graduates annually who will be commissioned in 
the Permanent Forces. 

Musketry is taught at the Randwick Musketry School, and musketry 
classes are regularly conducted in each District. A School of Gunnery 
is established at Sydney for the instruction of officers and non-com- 
missioned officers of the Permanent and Militia Garrison Artillery. 
Signalling instruction is provided by means of periodical schools held 
in each District. Field Artillery schools for Militia officers and non- 
commissioned officers are conducted in connection with the practice 
camps of the permanent batteries. 

United Service Institutions exist, or shortly will exist, at the 
capital of each State. They are subsidised by the Defence Department. 
Lectures are given and war games are held at these institutions during 
the winter months. 

NUMBERS TRAINED 

26. The following figures show the strength of the Permanent and 
Militia Forces during the past ten years : 



Year. 


Strength of Permanent 
Forces on 3ist December. 


Strength of Active Citizen 
Forces on 3ist December. 


1904 


1096 


18,524 


1905 


1098 


*9>595 


1906 


1116 


20,245 


1907 - - - 


1119 


20,170 


1908 


1201 


21,936 


1909 


1262 


22,141 


1910 *455 


21,877 


1911 . . . 1727 


21,960 


1912 . . . 1998 


33,955 l 


I9 J 3 


2468 


45,9*5 * 


i 





1 Includes 16,211 liable for service under universal training obligation. 

2 Includes 33,601 liable for service under universal training obligation. 



429 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

SENIOR CADETS 

27. The present Senior Cadet organisation came into force on ist 
July 1911. 

There are at present 92 Senior Cadet battalions, comprising 922 
companies with a membership of 2285 officers (of whom 1066 are liable 
for training) and 86,899 Senior Cadets. Courses for training Senior 
Cadets officers and non-commissioned officers are held periodically at 
various training centres and are well attended, 800 officers and 877 
non-commissioned officers having undergone a course since ist July 
1911. 

Senior Cadet officers are also permitted to attend the Militia Infantry 
schools and to present themselves for the Militia Infantry officer's 
examination, those who qualify being granted a Militia officer's com- 
mission on the Unattached List of the Military Forces. Up to date, 
50 Senior Cadet officers have so qualified and have been granted com- 
missions on the Unattached List. 

The Senior Cadets are not required to attend camp.' 

The estimated expenditure on account of Senior Cadets for the 
year 1913-14 is 140,000. 

JUNIOR CADETS 

28. The number of boys born in the years 1900 and 1901 who have 
been medically examined is 50,510, and of these 49,291 were declared 
fit to undergo training. Training is compulsory in all schools except 
those situated in districts declared exempt. The number of the 
schools carrying out the training on 3ist December 1913 was 8044, 
with a total of 55,850 Junior Cadets in training. 

One hundred and sixty-nine courses of instruction for teachers were 
held by the Defence Department between ist October 1911 and 3 ist 
December 1913, and 4103 male and female school teachers qualified. 

The estimated expenditure on Junior Cadet training for the current 
year is 26,814. Further details concerning the physical training of 
boys and girls are given in Appendix F. 

RIFLE CLUBS 

29. Rifle Clubs constitute the only reserve for the Militia Forces. 
Every person accepted as a member is attested in the Reserve Forces. 
Members do no military training, but there is a certain proportion of 
old soldiers, Regulars or Militia, amongst them, and I have noticed that, 
when being assembled for inspection or to be addressed, they show 
themselves capable of performing the more elementary military move- 
ments. Altogether, there are 1133 Rifle Clubs, with a membership of 

430 



APPENDIX 

47,500, organised in 64 Rifle Club Unions. The Unions of each State 
are formed into a District Rifle Association, and the Commonwealth 
Council of Rifle Associations acts as an advisory board to the Minister 
when required. Clubs are entitled to Government rifles on loan, and 
230 rounds of ammunition (or 250 rounds of miniature ammunition) 
for each member annually. 

Of the 28,540 members who are fit for active service, 19,700 are 
allotted on mobilisation to units. (See Appendix G.) 

Grants not exceeding 150 are allowed towards the construction 
and maintenance of a rifle range for each club. 

The total cost of Rifle Associations and Clubs for the year 1913-14 
is estimated at 132,000. 

[Chapters III.-VII. omitted here.] 

VIII. THE ARMY TO-DAY 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MILITIA 

99. The best assets of the Australian land forces, at their present 
stage of development, are to be found in the natural soldierlike spirit ; 
in the intelligence, and in the wiry, athletic frames of the bulk of the 
rank and file. Their limitations are those inherent in every Militia 
aye, even the far-famed Militia of Switzerland. 

Patriotism, keenness, study and careful instruction, strain and 
struggle upon the heels of practical experience and habits of discipline, 
but rarely quite catch them up. For these, in a Regular Army, are the 
product of years of continuous service, and until a Militia has been called 
out for service and has been some time in the field, it will always, for 
this reason, lack self-confidence when faced by professional soldiers. 

It is well to emphasise these immutable principles at the start, for 
they bring all my remarks into proper perspective and should act as a 
steadier to those who affect to despise their potential enemies an 
attitude only one degree less bad than the present-day English habit 
of despising, or affecting to despise, their own defenders. 

Admitting that the Australian Army of to-day is necessarily short 
of practical experience and is never embodied long enough for discipline 
to become a second nature, what are the substitutes ? Theory must 
do what it can to take the place of practice in the field, and where 
discipline cannot be absorbed as a habit it can at least be cordially 
acquiesced in as a right and reasonable rule of military conduct. 

TRAINING 

100. In the preceding paragraph I have put into the shape of advice 
what is actually taking place in the majority, perhaps certainly in a 
large number of Australian Militia units. In such corps all ranks 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

have done their very best by close study of the books of regulation, to 
prepare themselves to take full advantage of their brief period of 
practice training in camp. Often, the outpost sentry is word perfect 
in reeling off the duties he has to perform ; the section leader in a 
defensive position sees to it that his men are well under cover and have 
a good field of fire ; the subalterns have clear and generally sound 
theories as to the functions of scouts, supports, and reserves ; their 
seniors have educated themselves into an examination proof grip of 
the tactical principles governing the use of advanced and rear guards, 
flank attack, covering fire, etc., etc., etc. All this is admirable, and it is 
only when theory has to be translated on to the ground that the lack 
of the ounce of practice begins to betray the lightness of the ton of 
theory. 

101. The sentry is so eager to see the enemy that he neglects to 
conceal himself, thus giving away the outpost positions ; the com- 
mander of the picquet puts four times more sentry groups out than are 
necessary to do the work ; the section leader forgets to get in touch with 
troops on his flanks and is ignorant of their whereabouts '; the advanced 
guard commander passes down a valley without crowning the heights ; 
the commander of a support makes his men lie down in the open 50 
yards behind the fighting line, and encourages the comrades to whom 
he has brought assistance by shooting them through the head. 

102. The foregoing transcript, taken from my diary, of some 
failings to make theory correspond with practice is not as serious as 
it might appear. 

First, the bullet is the finest and cleverest instructor in the world, 
and would straighten out many of these little errors in a flash. 
Analysed, it will be found that they are failures in the power of realis- 
ing the unreal. Failures, that is to say, of the imagination. The best 
cure for these is a leaden pill in a nickel envelope. 

Secondly, Territorials and Militiamen all over the world do precisely 
the same sort of things, and he who believes that Regulars themselves 
are altogether exempt takes them at their own valuation. 

But the bullet charges high fees for its lessons, and two black 
strangers cannot make one white Australian. 

103. A great deal can be done to strengthen the practical side of 
training in Australia by levelling up the higher criticism brought to 
bear upon camp training. A non-commissioned officer is rarely 
capable of giving higher tactical instruction. He should confine 
himself mainly to teaching cadets and recruits. For the kind of work 
I am considering, an officer a highly educated one at that a man 
whose views have been widened by travel and by manoeuvre working 
with the three arms combined, would be able to do a very great deal 
of good. The Duntroon graduate should, in due course, produce the 
very type, especially if he is encouraged to see something of the great 
432 



APPENDIX 

outside military world. Such a man once appointed should be left 
free to devote himself mainly to the higher instruction of the Militia 
officers and non-commissioned officers, who must themselves be the 
instructors of their men. The strong point of the Army is in its men 
men at the same time intelligent and biddable. The weak point of 
the Army lies in the comparatively small number of its officers who are 
capable of giving good instruction. This will come in time it is coming 
all the time but there is the weakest spot of to-day. 

104. Once the mass of the officers gain sufficient experience and 
self-confidence to enable them to speak as true commanders and guides 
to their men, the secret of creating some spirit of true discipline in a 
modern, democratic Army will have been solved. From the General 
Staff at Headquarters through district commandants and brigade- 
majors, through battalion commanders and permanent adjutants, 
through company officers down to the men in the ranks, the current 
of progressive thought will flow in a sustained and systematic stream. 1 

105. Turning to the syllabus along which the Army is being 
trained this year, 2 I think it is in all respects well adapted to its objects. 
As to the execution thereof, I have one comment, of universal applica- 
tion, to make. It is necessary that much of the training should be 
elementary, especially this year and next year. But officers engaged 
in instructing their men must bear in mind that elementary work 
means work simplified not work twisted out of its true shape into 
something unpractical. Strip the problem down to its skeleton 
leave, if it must be, only the backbone but let that backbone at 
least retain its own vital marrow. Suppose the recruit is being given 
an object lesson in outpost work, and is shown a picquet, its support, 
its group of sentries, a patrol, a detached post, and an examining party. 
This would be too much for him to take in all at once, so the idea has 
to be simplified. Take away everything except the picquet and one 
sentry ; point out where the main body is supposed to be reposing, 
and the dullest recruit will probably grasp the general principle under- 
lying the service of security. 

106. But in carrying out this simplification be careful to let that 
specimen picquet be placed where a picquet might be placed on service, 
and let the sentry be posted where a reasonable picquet commander 
might feel the need of a sentry. If, on the plea of the lesson being 
' only elementary/ the picquet would be visible to the enemy whilst 
the sentry is placed down in a hole from whence he cannot see 100 
yards, why then, instead of being elementary, the instruction has 
merely been detrimental. The recruit will remember having seen 
that sentry wasted upon a hollow long after he has forgotten all the 
wise explanations of his tutor. I have been driven to make these 

1 Vide my prop'osals in Section V. [not reproduced here]. 

2 Memorandum of Training, 1913-14. 

OVERSEAS 2. 2E 433 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

observations owing to the frequency with which it has seemed to me 
to be assumed that it did not matter how unreal an object lesson might 
be, provided it was to be served up to beginners. 

DISCIPLINE 

1 [So num- I27- 1 I freely confess that my recollections of South Africa, coupled 
bered in with the assurances of numerous Australian friends, had caused me 
original.] to feel sceptical regarding the quality of the discipline I should find 

regulating the ranks of the Army. But, if I came here prepared to 

ban, I can only say now I was mistaken. 

128. The Australian soldier is very amenable to discipline. That 
a contrary impression should be so prevalent is due to the following 
facts : 

(1) There are not yet competent commanders enough to go 

round. 

(2) Manifestations of any feeling, but more especially of 

feelings of respect, are discountenanced under the 
unwritten Australian code of conduct. 

(3) The private soldier does not clearly understand that what 

an officer is, is one thing, and that what he stands 
for is another, and, militarily speaking, the significant 
thing. 

129. So long as the commander knows his job and realises accurately 
his relation to the lads entrusted to him by their parent, the State, for 
instruction, there is no cause for misgivings as to Australian discipline. 
I believe, indeed, that with a little trouble the men could be brought 
a step further and made to understand that, even when they have good, 
practical reasons for believing that they are as clever and as competent 
as their officer, still, they are bound by patriotism, and by regard for 
the honour of the regiment, to salute him and obey him, with as much 
respect as if he was Marlborough and Wellington combined. 

130. Materialistic misconception of the significance of a military 
salute is prevalent only because the ethics of military psychology have 
not hitherto attracted the attention of the Australian intellect. An 
officer giving a command is not expressing his own wishes he is for 
the nonce acting as the mouthpiece of the State conveying to other 
servants of the State temporarily entrusted to his charge, the supreme 
will of the people. 

131. Conversely, a private soldier does not salute his officer because 
he likes him, or because he, the private soldier, is in any way an inferior 
being, but-because he sees passing before him the personification of the 
Sovereign State, which, in this case, has decreed that it is to be re- 
cognised by a formal salutation. The personality of the officer has no 
more to do with the matter than the personality of a corpse has effect 
434 



914] APPENDIX 

on the crowd who respectfully doff their hats as the procession winds 
past them. 

132. I trust then that officers and men will by degrees learn to be 
more punctilious on this point of the salute, which, small though it 
may seem, yet is liable to give rise to false impressions, not only amongst 
outsiders, but also in the heart of the Army. As to the essential, 
namely, the readiness of the Australian soldier to obey, and follow a 
leader who knows his business on that score the military authorities 
may be quite reassured. 

MUSKETRY 

133. Every one is agreed upon the importance to an Army of a 
high standard of musketry. Men may be able to ride well, to march 
long distances, to manoeuvre rapidly ; all these accomplishments may 
only serve as a means of escaping from the enemy unless they are able 
to do credit to the wonderful modern magazine rifle they carry. 

Consciousness of being a marksman is a great moral support in 
battle. The soldier who doubts whether he can hit the advancing 
foeman is twice as likely to run away as the soldier who knows he can 
break a bottle at a hundred yards three shots out of four. 

In a Militia force, progressive training and economy of time are 
essential, and both these desiderata will be best served by giving the 
young idea a thoroughly sound grounding in musketry. From the 
moment a senior cadet first handles a rifle, the serious business of his 
musketry training should be steadily kept in view. 

134. At present the musketry instruction of the Senior Cadets can 
hardly be said to hit the bull's-eye plumb centre. They are being 
taught to shoot with a weapon quite different from that which is in 
the hands of the Militia. Trigger-pressing, aiming, adjustment of 
sights, and the action of the rifle, all have to be re-learnt on transfer. 
The want of trained instructors shows up the more clearly at musketry 
than in any other branch of training. The Commandant of the School 
of Musketry reports that, in many instances, Senior Cadet musketry is 
worse than useless owing to the mistaken notion that it is more im- 
portant to show a good percentage of cadets as having fired range 
practices than a smaller number effectively trained. Thus do faulty 
trigger-pressing and 'gun shyness tend to become chronic. More 
miniature ranges and more instructional stores are badly wanted for 
cadets, but here, as I have said earlier in my Report, impatience must 
wait upon money. 

135. I am sorry to have to report that, judging by the results of the 
annual course of musketry for last year, the standard of musketry can 

~" only be classed as third-rate. 1 Especially is this the case in the Infantry, 

1 I do not use this word in any technical sense, but merely to denote my personal 
opinion as to the actual standard compared with what it might be. 

435 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

where too large a percentage are shown as ' not exercised/ Also, 
many officers in charge of machine-gun sections are not qualified to 
handle these weapons, although, in the hands of untrained men, 
machine-guns are apt to be a two-edged weapon. 

Nature has done her best for the Australian in this matter of 
shooting. She has fitted him out with a keen vision, long limbs, and 
just the right sort of shooter's nerve, tense, but controlled. Whence 
then these disappointing results ? 

The chief causes appear to me to be 

(a) Lack of sufficient range accommodation, particularly in 

metropolitan areas. 

(b) A tendency to rush men through their range practices 

before they have completed their preliminary training. 

(c) The want of qualified instructors and instructional stores. 

136. Subject to what I have already said as to funds, there are 
certainly few, if any, shortcomings of the Australian military machine 
upon which money would be better spent than these bearing on 
musketry. I summarise the remedies as briefly as I can 

(a) Supervision over musketry throughout the Common- 

wealth to be strengthened. 

(b) The School of Musketry to be made capable of instructing, 

in time, the whole of the instructional staffs as well as 
all machine-gun officers. 

(c) Citizen officers and non-commissioned officers to be 

encouraged to qualify themselves to train their men. 

(d) Senior Cadet musketry to be systematised on progressive 

lines. 

137. Speaking as ex-Commandant of Hythe Musketry School, I 
feel confident I am not suggesting extravagance when I submit that the 
staff of the excellent School of Musketry at Randwick needs some 
strengthening. The Commandant should be enabled to devote a part 
of his attention to supervising the musketry of the Army as a whole, 
and an officer should be appointed as chief instructor, who could take 
his place at the school whenever he might be absent on inspection work. 
For five years I had to inspect the whole of the musketry in India, and 
I am perfectly certain that any officer who conscientiously carries out 
work of this nature will have scant leisure to devote to the details of 
school work. Further, in each District there should be at least one 
officer who is capable of holding the local courses of musketry instruction 
for Militia officers and non-commissioned officers. 

138. The importance of increasing full as well as miniature range 
accommodation is so obvious that I do not here press the point. Neither 
miniature ranges nor ammunition used on them would cost very much, 

436 



APPENDIX 

whereas the instruction imparted is of great value. Men thoroughly 
trained on a miniature range have surprisingly little to learn on the 
open ranges. 

139. The system of cadet musketry should be revised, Until the 
last year of cadet service practice should be confined to shooting with 
the miniature rifle, and, as funds admit, it will be found of great ad- 
vantage if, in all essentials, such as trigger-pressing, sights, etc., these 
miniature rifles are similar to the service weapon. In Great Britain, 
in Canada, and in the United States of America, cadets are normally 
instructed to shoot with the miniature of the service weapon they will 
use in later years. In the last year of Senior Cadet service, those who 
have passed the standards in grouping with the miniature rifle might 
be permitted to fire a recruits' course of musketry with the service 
weapon. 

LIGHT HORSE 

140. The Light Horse are the most typically Australian of any of 
the Commonwealth troops. Physically the men seem to have been 
built by nature to fulfil a cavalry commander's ideal ; all ranks are 
exceedingly keen ; they ride boldly and well, and are clever and quick 
at getting about the country. In fact, a large proportion of the 
recruits join with half the trade of a mounted soldier at their fingers' 
ends. 

Although lamentation over the deterioration of the waler is a stand- 
ing dish at all reunions of officers belonging to mounted corps, the 
horses are actually of a sound and suitable stamp. Some of them are 
on the light side, but, as a rule, they are not wanting in quality. With 
one exception, all Brigadiers and Commanding Officers I spoke to on 
the subject seemed well satisfied with the new saddles. 

141. Cohesion, control, and horse-mastership are the qualities which 
the Light Horse inevitably lack. I say inevitably, because, with the 
short time available for training, it would be too much to expect of 
any men that they should develop high standards of steadiness or 
revolutionise their preconceived notions of the way to work a horse. 
But, admitting all this, there is still ample scope for improvement even 
under existing conditions, and, what is more, I am convinced that it 
will gradually come about. The reason for my conviction is that it 
was the lack of that very cohesion and of the art of sparing horses which 
was recognised by all of us as the weak spot of the Australian con- 
tingents in South Africa. But the Light Horse have made good 
progress since those days, and the improvement is steadily going on all 
the time. 

142. With only moderate cohesion, a small body, such as a squadron 
or even a regiment, may march and manoeuvre ; without good cohesion, 

437 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

any larger body of Light Horse will soon find itself in disarray and 
confusion. In the old days the Australian contingents used up their 
horses as if each man had only to go out on the veldt and round up, or 
select from some friendly corps, another. To-day a Light Horse 
regiment would make its mounts last twice the time ; in the near 
future I believe they will really come to understand the priceless value 
of a good and fit charger in peace or war. 

143. The remedies are in the hands of the officers, particularly 
the junior officers. The men must look more to the troop leaders, 
whether in movement or in the firing line, and as the young officers 
improve in knowledge, so they will gain power and grip over their men. 
This will give improved discipline, from which follows the closer 
cohesion that is required. Individually the men move quickly ; it is 
rapidity of collected manoeuvre of troops, squadrons, and regiments 
towards some common objective that must now be superimposed upon 
that good foundation. The same as regards stable management. 
Officers must make an earnest study of this subject, and must see to it 
that whether in camp or in the field their men are constantly thinking 
of their horses. 

144. To give point to the foregoing remarks I may as well give an 
example. The most instructive of my inspections of Light Horse took 
place early one morning when my official visit was supposed to be over 
and when I was believed to be, and had meant to be, miles away from 
the training ground. 

However, it was my fortune, so it happened, to motor past a Light 
Horse encampment on a fine summer's morning about half an hour 
after the force had started work upon a tactical scheme. First, I met 
the leading squadrons working along in very good style towards the 
enemy's position. Behind them were several squadrons making up 
lost distance, moving towards the front somewhat rapidly, without 
much order, covering the whole width of the road, and in depth taking 
up at least four or five times the proper distance. Next came a squadron 
which had evidently started late, moving on either side of the road at a 
gallop. Last of all, as I passed the camp itself, single horsemen were 
still issuing from the gates of the paddock, most of them at full gallop, 
in a desperate hurry to join their comrades at the front. 

145. Here was lack of camp discipline and precision, and want of 
care of horse-flesh. Most of these men had not fallen in on parade, and 
their squadron had moved on without them. This was irregular, and 
although no reflection on the fighting value of the individuals, yet a 
reflection, certainly, on the war value of the unit. Much depends upon 
Q good start and perfect steadiness in getting away from camp. The 
impression made in the camp follows the horseman into the field. As 
to the horses, all owners in this horse-loving land will understand that 
438 



APPENDIX 

only imperative necessity can justify a long day's work being com- 
menced at a furious pace. 

146. To improve troop and squadron control, field days, where a 
force as large as a whole brigade is in action, should be exceptional, 
and the work should be confined, for the present, mainly to squadron 
training. I have several times heard of the idea of combined camps 
for the three arms mooted by senior officers, but whilst these would 
afford valuable experiences for commanders and staffs, from the point 
of view of the units I would prefer for some years to come, and until 
there are trainees of long service in the ranks, if an occasional training 
could be given to one unit at a time. The whole of the instructional 
staff of the brigade can then be employed with each regiment in turn. 

147. In reconnaissance more use should be made of patrols, and the 
best men should be sent out. Protective patrols generally worked 
intelligently and well, though on several occasions, not being boldly 
enough pushed out, they could not have given the main body sufficient 
warning of an attack to allow it to extricate itself in time from a low 
and difficult position. But as regards the individual savvy and 
quickness of all ranks I have nothing but praise. 

148. Ground scouting gains an added importance in the country 
over which I have seen the Light Horse working ; much time can be 
saved in movement, if early intimation is given of the gates and pass- 
ways in the paddock fences. 

On one or two occasions I found the officers weak in map-reading, 
and a compass would have been helpful. 

149. In message writing, Field Service Regulations lay down places 
for the address, number, date, place sent from, etc. ; this may seem a 
trivial matter, in reality it is important. While a reconnaissance is 
going on, the staff of a mounted brigade receives a large number of 
messages ; if these are not written in proper form, valuable time is 
wasted in hunting out where the information comes from, and so on. 
Moreover, the writer is less likely to forget details when there is a place 
laid down for each one. A patrol that collects information and does 
not transmit it is useless. 

150. Recruited as they are, a large proportion of the men of the 
Light Horse are able to shoe their own horses. Both in camp and on 
mobilisation men should have shoes in their shoe pockets ready fitted 
for their horses. 

151. The Light Horse have no barrack squares, but possess instead 
the whole of their native land, a magnificent training ground, to work 
over ; the officers should make all possible use of it to teach object 
lessons ; in the stress of war, men will remember what they have seen 
better than what they have been told. 

152. I have made certain criticisms on the Light Horse. I do not 

439 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

wish to leave the subject without again expressing my high appreciation 
of their value to-day, and the confidence I feel as to their future. An 
invader would necessarily be very weak in the cavalry arm, and the 
Light Horse would have the time of their lives with his communica- 
tions and with his scouting and foraging parties. When battle was 
joined they would also play their part, for I can assure the Common- 
wealth that they possess to-day a formidable arm in their Light Horse 
the sort of men any Commander would like to have at his back in 
war. 

FIELD ARTILLERY 

153. In the earlier days of the home Territorials, the most common 
and, on the platform, most effective form of attack upon the force, 
took the shape of sarcasms levelled at the Field Artillery units. How, 
it was asked by the indignant orator, could a highly technical arm, an 
arm that had always remained a mystery even to himself, be mastered 
by mere citizens ? Well, the thing has been done, at least to the 
extent that the Field Artillery are now cited by the supporters and not 
by the depreciators of the Territorials. 

154. So here in the Commonwealth, the facts being that, first, 
there is no mystery about artillery ; secondly, that a special type of 
recruit and a very excellent type is always attracted by that arm 
of the service from which Napoleon arose to power. 

The Field Artillery furnish a first-class example of the willing, eager 
spirit that pervades the Commonwealth to-day. Although a longer 
period of training is required than in the Infantry, there is not the 
smallest difficulty in getting trainees to apply to join. The authorities 
have, indeed, to pick and choose their men from the numbers pressing 
forward to undertake the more arduous duty. Having once elected 
for the Artillery, the trainees play the game handsomely and give 
their time generously, with both hands, to the State. Throughout 
the year they continue to put in voluntary attendances at training 
drills, amounting, in many .cases, to quite a large number, and I am 
glad, indeed, to be able to report that all this keenness finds reflection 
in the work of the batteries in the field. 

155. Some of the instruction now being given is of the highest order, 
and the technical training of the firing battery is in safe hands. I have 
seen a considerable amount of successful practice at simple targets, 
and, also, naturally, some which showed very clearly the need of longer 
training and greater experience. 

The following hints may be of some service to the officers : 
Time spent in reconnaissance is seldom wasted ; this principle 
and a ready imagination will carry a battery commander far on the 
road to victory. Want of imagination want of power to borrow the 
enemy's point of view is a downhill attribute. Example : On one 
440 



APPENDIX 

occasion a battery trotted into action under cover raising, as it went, a 
high column of dust which must have given a hostile battery all the 
information it required ; a little thought and the battery would have 
walked up and opened fire without any indication to the enemy of its 
position. 

156. Here, per contra, is a favourable note from my diary : ' At 
. . . camp, the battery staff, even in highly-trained batteries apt to 
move anyhow, pressed forward smartly as a compact, cohesive body 
and kept well under cover till it was wanted.' 

Some of the junior officers naturally show their lack of experience 
every now and then. Thus, an occasion rises to my mind when the 
battery leader, relying on the tracking powers of the second trumpeter, 
led the battery into the thickest part of a thick wood, instead of to the 
position selected by the battery commander. 

157. The horses are generally suitable, and one or two of the 
batteries I saw were very well mounted indeed. 

The driving in many cases was capital it was even surprising. 
The Australian driver, though he may come from a town district, when 
he is brought under good instruction, develops a fine confidence and 
dash in a remarkably short time. Necessity is the mother of progress 
as well as of invention. Paddocks studded thick with stumps of big 
trees force the men to drive well or to take very bad spills. 

Most of the batteries I have seen at continuous training possess good 
standards of camp discipline and stable management, points that will 
tell strongly in their favour in war. 

158. I have spoken hitherto of the better-trained units that have 
been inspected. I have seen others attempting work beyond their 
present powers batteries that should have been employed learning 
the very rudiments of their work. Two of these batteries are not yet 
ready for war. That is to say, they are not yet capable of moving 
smartly off the road to take up a position and open fire therefrom. 

159. As the words * ready for war ' used in the preceding paragraph 
may give rise to some misapprehension, I must clearly explain that I 
do not by that phrase mean to imply that even the efficient batteries 
of the Commonwealth Field Artillery are yet, collectively, trained up 
to the level required of the artillery of an Army working in masses 
together in the field. They have not had time yet, or opportunity, 
to practise that higher control and power of combination outside the 
battery, without which there can be no real fire co-operation. 

160. Then, again, there is the problem of handling that great mass 
of ammunition supply which lies behind the guns in action. Even 
within the batteries themselves this problem has hardly been attacked ; 
I have only seen batteries working with their firing battery wagons, 
the first line wagons have not been in action. Whether higher training 

441 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

of this sort can ever satisfactorily be carried through in the present 
period of training is questionable. If not, then it must simply be 
recognised that although the batteries may be * ready for war ' as they 
stand, the Field Artillery as a whole will not be fit for handling in the 
mass during a pitched battle until they have been embodied and have 
worked together for a further period of at least several weeks. 

GARRISON ARTILLERY 

161. I have inspected the bulk of the Garrison Artillery, both 
Permanent and Militia, on their manning parades, and at work on the 
guns. 

The Royal Australian Garrison Artillery are men of fine physique ; 
they are very steady on parade and smart at their gun drill. A few 
of them struck me as being rather on the old side for work requiring 
vigour and force. In time of stress efficiency might suffer in con- 
sequence. I refer to this matter later on (paragraph 184) under the 
head of Pensions. 

162. The soldiers of the Militia Garrison Artillery aYe also a well 
set up, athletic lot of young fellows, very keen indeed, and quite up 
to the work required of them. 

The only practice over a sea range that I saw was carried out by a 
Militia unit. The drill was smart, and the rate of fire and effect would 
have been creditable to any troops. 

163. I noticed a small deficiency in equipment ; the lack of canvas 
shoes for work with the modern gun mountings ; without them the 
danger of slipping is considerable. They are now in use in the Imperial 
service. 

ENGINEERS 

164. The Engineers of all ranks are conspicuous for the intelligent 
capacity with which they tackle their business. 

There is cause here for gratification none for surprise. The 
officers are architects or civil engineers ; the rank and file are specially 
selected from the trades cognate to the work they have to perform as 
soldiers. 

Hence, even with the short period of military training available, 
the higher technical work of running searchlights, with their engines 
and dynamos, is carried on with perfect ease by the citizen soldiers of 
Australia. They have nothing to learn here, so far as I can see, from 
any regular instructor. 

If only some arrangement could be made for ensuring that the 
searchlight sections of the Militia could be available during the short 
but dangerous precautionary period which may precede mobilisation, 
I see no reason for retaining electric light Engineers on a permanent 
442 



APPENDIX 

basis. The Garrison Artillery might act as caretakers of the search- 
lights and their engines. 

165. When the submarines actually en route from England arrive, 
submarine mining, now in the hands of the Engineers, will, I presume, 
be either abolished, or handed over to the Navy, as has been done 
elsewhere. I assume also that ' works ' will continue to be carried out 
by the Department for Home Affairs. Under a Militia system there 
cannot be room for two Works Departments in the same country. 

In these circumstances, then, there would appear to be little or no 
scope for the employment of a permanent Engineer Corps upon any of 
the duties referred to in the two previous paragraphs. 

166. Besides searchlight work, the Engineer Militia has to deal with 
pioneer work of all kinds in the field, as well as with communication 
service. Here specialised military knowledge is essential, and more 
technical instruction is wanted than is now available. Good value 
would be obtained if pioneer schools were established in central positions 
to which the officers and non-commissioned officers of Engineer units 
could be sent for instruction. Pioneer classes for other arms might 
also be usefully held from time to time at these schools. The ad- 
vantage a permanent school possesses is that instruments, equipment, 
and models can be maintained there which the travelling instructor 
lacks. A couple of permanent instructors with half a dozen permanent 
assistants should suffice for the needs of each school. 

INFANTRY 

167. I have now seen the greater portion of the Australian Infantry 
four brigades and several single battalions at manoeuvre camps, the 
remainder on ceremonial parades. 

I wish very much I could transplant 10,000 of these young soldiers 
to Salisbury Plain. They would do the croakers good and make them 
less frightened of other nations, who have no overseas children getting 
ready to lend them a hand. 

168. Most of the officers are keen and resourceful. I was particularly 
struck by the clear and capable manner in which captains gave their 
story at my conferences, or when called upon to explain a situation in 
the field. On the other hand, a proportion of the senior officers, even 
of the commanding officers, do not possess the nerve or calm essential 
to any one occupying positions so responsible. I have not concerned 
myself with personal detail, not conceiving it my duty to report on 
individuals, and from this attitude I shall not depart. But I state my 
broad impression so that the responsible Australian authority may 
know where there is scope for his vigilance. 

169. The majority of the non-commissioned officers and men are 
still very young, but they are full of intelligence and grit. On at least 

443 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS [AH 

two occasions I have seen brigades tested severely, once by heat and 
heavy marching, the other time by floods and mud. In each case the 
men made light of their trying experiences, treating them as an excellent 
joke. 

170. In my general remarks at the commencement of this chapter 
I referred to the distinction between an elementary lesson and an unreal 
lesson. With the Infantry, whose training is not varied and enlivened 
either by the horse, as in the Cavalry and Artillery, or by technical 
work, as in the Engineers, Army Service Corps, or Medical Services, 
it is specially important to bear in mind another distinction, namely, 
that which exists between elementary work and dull work. 

171. I will give an instance. On one occasion all companies were 
ordered out to practise advanced guards. I supervised several of the 
exercises. The captain explained the situation, apportioned the 
responsibility, and told off his officers and men to their respective 
tasks. Then the company moved off. From that moment there 
was little more to be learnt and therefore little more interest, provided 
only distances were maintained. The company marched on and on, 
preceded and flanked by scouts, first the vanguard, then the main 
guard and nothing happened. There was no enemy ; there was no 
contretemps. Why ? Because it had been arranged that the work on 
that day was to be elementary. 

172. Well, but I maintain that even in the elementary stages better 
value might be got of one of those afternoons in camp which are so 
priceless because so few. Suppose that instead of all companies doing 
advanced guards, one company formed outposts, and that an advanced 
guard company from a distance of two miles were marched in such a 
direction that it must strike that outpost ? The scouts of the subaltern 
commanding the vanguard detect the outpost sentry, or do not detect 
him and are fired on by the outpost. They report to the vanguard 
commander, who has to push forward and occupy as good a fire position 
as he can and send back a written report to his captain commanding 
the main guard. The captain, in his turn, must determine what to do, 
and issue orders. Again, the outpost commander is warned by his 
sentry, and brings his picquet into fighting position, at the same time 
writing a report to the commander of the main force. 

173. It may be said that the young officers have never practised 
writing such reports, and that the rank and file are not yet trained 
enough to take up a fire position. Some sort of a report the officers 
will perforce write, and as to the troops, in such small numbers they 
will get there somehow. Every one will make mistakes of course, 
but, then, I say, let them make mistakes. The more the better, from 
an instructor's point of view, for he, like the literary critic, lives upon 
the errors of others. 

444 



I 



APPENDIX 

Not only would more be learnt by the scheme I have suggested than 
by practising for several hours the mechanism of a movement that can 
be learnt in ten minutes, but every one would be interested, and a 
power of stimulating interest is the hall-mark of a good teacher. 

174. I trust this little example of mine will not be twisted into a 
theory that soldiers should begin to run before they can walk. Not at 
all. Only, under the particular conditions obtaining in the Australian 
Army, it is well that a long drill should, at the end, get into touch, even 
faultily, and for a few minutes, with the reality for which it is meant 
to be a preparation. 

ARMY SERVICE CORPS 

175. The Army Service Corps have always distinguished themselves 
on my parades by their excellent turn-out and bearing. I have made 
it my business to examine as closely as time would admit into their 
work in the camps, work upon which the well-being and content of 
the rest of the troops closely hinge. A suitable selection in trades 
makes it easy for them to fall into their various tasks. 

But I consider that on certain occasions too much demand has 
been made on their strength, and a slight increase to their establish- 
ment of trainees appears to me advisable. Also, it would be well if 
the companies, with their transport, could be brought into camp the 
day before the rest of the troops. Some hire of transport would thus 
be saved, and the depots could be got into working order to meet the 
first rush. 

When moving on roads, march discipline assumes great importance ; 
a column of transport must either keep to the left half of the road or 
arrangements for clearing the road rapidly from the rear must be 
practised as a matter of drill. 

Altogether, this is a highly satisfactory and efficient branch of the 
Commonwealth service. 

ARMY MEDICAL CORPS 

176. The system of attaching the field units of the Army Medical 
Corps to combatant units during the periods of continuous training is 
much to be commended as being excellent training for war. 

In every camp inspected, I have visited the hospital tents ; the 
beds were, fortunately, for the most part empty ; the rare occupants 
that I found were receiving every care and attention. 

The drivers of the ambulance wagons are efficient ; all ranks take 
the keenest professional pride in their duties, and the turn-out and 
general appearance on ceremonial parades have struck me favourably. 



445 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



AVIATION 

177. The Flying School was visited at a fortunate moment, one of 
the new B.E. machines had been finished the night before, and was 
ready to take the air. 

The situation of the school is ideal ; it is well away from inter- 
ference by the public ; it has a sea front ; there is nothing on the 
land side to break up the wind ; and there is good landing ground 
everywhere for many miles. The new sheds and workshops are 
progressing well, and are conveniently placed, with plenty of room 
for eventual expansion. The two instructors are fine steady fliers, 
and, more important still, have great experience in teaching. 

178. The equipment consists of a Bristol instructional machine, 
two B.E.'s, and two Deperdussin monoplanes. The Bristol machine, 
with 50 H. P. Gnome engine, is the type on which the majority of British 
pilots have taken their brevets, and is a good machine for the purpose. 
The B.E.'s are of the usual Government type, and were in part con- 
structed by the Bristol Company. The rudder posts are not sufficiently 
rigid, and it is proposed to braze on two fins set at 90, which will 
probably remedy the defect. The petrol gauge is not visible to the 
pilot when a passenger is carried ; this should be remedied. The 
present tanks only hold enough petrol for about one and a half hours' 
flying, but this need not interfere with the utility of the machines for 
instructional purposes. The machine that was ready had been very 
well trued up ; although the engine had not been tuned to its normal 
revolutions, the machine flew very steadily with a passenger in a some- 
what bumpy condition of the air. 

The two Deperdussin machines with 35 H.P. Anzani engines will be 
useful for ground work to accustom learners to the controls and to 
sitting behind their wings ; it would be dangerous to allow them off 
the ground at any rate, pupils should on no account be permitted to 
make a turn in the air with them. 

179. For the present, it 'is proposed to teach in each year a limited 
number of officers of the Permanent and Militia Forces and a limited 
number of mechanics. 

A beginning has been made with military aviation in Australia, 
and the Government have decided to continue, I venture, with much 
respect, to submit that in so deciding they have been well advised. 
True, the aeroplane is a new arm, and there are heavy calls being 
made on the Commonwealth purse to keep the older arms in the van 
of progress. But, although from this point of view it might seem 
prudent to hold back in the matter of flying, on the other hand 
Australia should just as much aim at being ultimate mistress of her 
own air as she is of her own land and sea. Therefore, the sooner she 
446 



APPENDIX 

makes a beginning at being self-contained in the matter of flying, the 
better. 

Proceeding on this assumption, it is necessary for me to point out 
that, unless certain equipment is added, the money already spent, and 
the money about to be spent, in running expenses of the school will, 
to a great extent, be wasted. With only one instructional machine, 
it is inevitable that the pupils will be retained in expensive idleness at 
frequent and, often, for long intervals. Nor do I think it altogether 
safe to send pupils straight from the 50 H.P. instructional machine to 
the fast B.E. Also, it may very likely come to be considered necessary 
in the near future that seaplanes should be provided as an adjunct to 
the Navy. But flying is not learnt on seaplanes but on aeroplanes. 

1 80. I therefore recommend the provision of two additional 
machines for instruction, say Bristol biplanes, with 80 H.P. engines ; 
these would provide intermediate instruction in preparation for the 
fast work. They could, I believe, be obtained at a first cost of under 
2000. Then, again, the governing factor with regard to the B.E. 
machines will be the Renault engines, and unless a spare engine is 
provided both machines will often be out of action at the same time. 
In the alternative, two Maurice Farmans might be substituted for the 
80 H.P. Bristols, at a rather larger cost ; this would give two more 
Renault engines, which would be interchangeable with the engines of 
the B.E. machines. 

The two sheds and repair shop now building, with the aeroplane 
tent already in use, should give sufficient accommodation for the extra 
machines recommended. 



THE ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE 

181. I inspected Duntroon on 3oth and 3ist March, bringing to 
bear upon my task recollections of West Point in the States, and of 
two visits to Kingston, Canada, not to speak of Sandhurst or of con- 
tinental military colleges. Duntroon has been at work for three years, 
and the good that has already been accomplished reflects the highest 
credit on the Commandant and his staff. 

The aim of the collegiate authorities has been to form character 
through a thorough system of discipline, and in this I firmly believe 
eminent success has been achieved. Indeed, a happier-looking, 
smarter, keener lot of boys it would be impossible to imagine. 

182. The Commandant reported favourably on the work done in 
study ; I myself was able to form a clear opinion on the field work. 
Battalion drill was excellently carried out under the orders of senior 
cadets ; the boys handled their arms brilliantly. .The senior cadets 
had been given a thorough grounding in practical Light Horse, Field 

447 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Artillery, and Engineer work, which will stand them in good stead in 
whatever branch they may serve. 

The system of interior economy appeared to function smoothly, 
and the boys' rooms were a model of neatness and good order. I 
approve entirely of the arrangements for the pay and equipment, 
which are a direct incentive to a modest, unostentatious style of living. 

183. The framing of a complete curriculum for the four years' 
course is rendered a little difficult by lack of explicit and authoritative 
rulings as to how the young officers are to be employed on leaving the 
college. . If my proposals for the organisation of a business department 
are adopted, the number of cadets passing through Duntroon may have 
to be curtailed. In any event, fewer officers will be required than was 
anticipated (see Appendix H), and this fact must, to some extent, 
affect the output from the college. 

184. I earnestly hope that Lord Kitchener's proposal to attach 
young officers for a time to units of the Imperial Forces will be carried 
through. Keeping in view the problems that face Australia in the 
eastern seas, I would suggest that India offers unique opportunities 
for these young officers to imbibe the spirit and principles of the British 
troops with whom they may some day stand shoulder to shoulder, and, 
generally, to study the characteristics of Asiatics. 

PENSIONS FOR THE PERMANENT FORCE 

185. Pensions are things which lie out on a sort of Tom Tidier 's 
ground midway between military organisation and State policy. It 
is optional to me, therefore, to pass on and look the other way, or to 
run on to the debatable territory and perhaps get caught. One good 
excuse and three fair reasons impel me to adventure upon the latter 
course of action : 

(1) Lord Kitchener referred to pensions in his report (para. 44). 

(2) The shadow of the indigent veteran has dogged my 

footsteps throughout my tour. 

(3) The first cadets from Duntroon are graduating and it 

may discourage them, on the outset of their career, if 
they see old officers who have done distinguished 
service reduced to taking junior clerkships in order 
to save their families from destitution. 

(4) Wherever regulations are pitiless there is a tendency for 

the divine emotion of pity to reassert itself in some 
irregular and, therefore, harmful way. An old officer 
or non-commissioned officer comes to the end of his 
tether. It is patent to all the Army that his useful 
sphere of service has already been exceeded, but no one 
wants to see him, on that account, struggling with 
448 



APPENDIX 

starvation. What happens ? The tender heart of 
authority is touched. The time-expired veteran is 
extended. Thereby work suffers, and hope deferred 
makes sick the hearts of dozens of anxious juniors. 

The Canadian Government has recently instituted a contributory 
pension scheme for its officers, which is, I was given to understand, 
working admirably. 

THE GOVERNMENT FACTORIES 

1 86. Every superintendent went out of his way to show me as 
much as possible during my visits to the factories under the control 
of the Department of Defence. But, in default of a staff of experts, 
I am not competent to submit any detailed analysis, and I merely 
comment on a few points that came within my notice. 

The good conditions under which the employes work is a credit 
to the Commonwealth Government, who here set a fine standard, not 
only before private employers, but also to other older and wealthier 
governments. 

187. Though no expert, I have carefully inspected on previous 
occasions the Birmingham Small Arms, Enfield, and the Ross Rifle 
Factory at Quebec. Lithgow is equipped with thoroughly modern 
machinery, such as magnetic chucks and, what seemed to me, a par- 
ticularly effective rifling machine. I noticed that the oil employed 
in the furnaces allows of nice adjustments in temperature. 

1 88. The sooner Australia stands on its own legs in the production 
of munitions of war the better. The experiments now being made at 
the Small Arms Factory at Lithgow in the direction of replacing con- 
tinental walnut by Queensland maple in the manufacture of stocks, 
are so much to the good. The cost per rifle must also be viewed from 
this standpoint of a self-contained Australia. Even if this cost remains 
permanently higher than the normal price at home, a rifle stands on 
a different platform from dry goods or machinery. Only, the State 
must see to it that advantage is not taken of a department being a 
close borough to make the price too high. 

189. I think myself it might be well if an independent expert from 
the home factories were invited to come over every few years to visit 
the Lithgow works. Whilst I was at Quebec a talented expert had come 
out from England to examine. He locked the stable door ; but already, 
alas, a very expensive horse had found its way down the long lane to 
which there is no turning. 

190. Taking into account the conditions of labour, the cost of 
locally-produced acetone, and the fact that the machinery has only 
recently been installed, I consider that the price at which cordite is 
produced at Maribyrnong compares favourably with home prices. 

OVERSEAS 2. 2 F 449 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

Whenever the proposed manufacture of gun cordite is commenced, 
the cleaning of the cotton will have to be carried out on a higher and 
more expensive scale. 

Lead linings to the boiling vats are being tried at Waltham Abbey 
with good results, and I would recommend that a similar experiment 
should be tried in Australia. 

191. Army clothing is a favourite topic of complaint all the world 
over. During my inspections I have heard a few growls about the 
uniforms supplied to the Citizen Forces, but certainly it is smart and 
serviceable. Most of the representations made to me concerned the 
cadets, and were to the effect that lighter material should be issued 
for summer wear, as the boys found the present heavy shirts, breeches, 
and putties very trying in the hot weather. I merely echo these re- 
marks for what the authorities may consider them to be worth. 

192. The Harness Factory obtains that independent government 
examination of its products which I have recommended for the other 
establishments. 

The Commonwealth pattern girth, which I saw in the making, I 
consider a capital type of article. 



IX. CONCLUSION 

193. Of all the misrepresentations bandied to and fro on the subject 
of the Territorial Forces of the Old Country, the most gross and palpable 
has always seemed to me to be embodied in the statement that these 
citizen soldiers would not be ready to fight until six months after a 
declaration of war. If Englishmen and Scotchmen had really fallen 
so far away behind the standards of former generations, then, obviously, 
no amount of expenditure in money or service would suffice to prolong 
the existence of so wretched a race of beings. Actually, the Territorial 
Forces of the United Kingdom are not only ready, but burning, to 
fight the moment an enemy will oblige them by landing on British 
shores. But however monstrous an aspersion may be, if it lives on, 
it will usually be found that it can lay claim to being some sort of distant 
poor relation to the truth, the truth in this case being that they would 
fight less effectively to-morrow than after six months' embodiment. 

194. So also with Australia's Army of to-day, and it is my object in 
these last lines to state how far they would be ready did the occasion 
rise now at once to hold their own against disciplined troops from 
regions washed by the Pacific. 

The whole of the Regulars, and three-fourths of the actual serving 
Militia, are sufficiently trained to take part in a modern battle suppos- 
ing the occasion to arise the day after to-morrow. With two weeks' 
warning, the remaining fourth of the Militia, plus some 20,000 of the 
450 



APPENDIX 

flower of the Rifle Clubs, would be available as reinforcements. Were 
the Australian Forces then defeated, the defence of the country would 
resolve itself into a guerilla problem, where at once it passes beyond the 
reckonings of recognised military service. 

195. I have said that three-fourths of the actual serving Militia 
may be relied upon to fight against any force of invaders in the open 
field, and, certainly, to kill a good number of them. By this I mean 
to say that a large proportion of the Australian Forces have not only 
the willing spirit but also the technical instruction and discipline to 
enable one man to handle them during a concentration as well as in 
action. But now the further question arises, How would they fare upon 
the battle-field ? My own opinion is that, giving all due weight to the 
moral factor (i.e., that the men would be defending a country well worth 
defending and would be very angry) ; giving, I say, due weight to this 
factor, and to the advantage they would possess in knowing how to 
work over their own peculiar paddocks and bush, they would need 
to be in a majority of at least two to one to fight a pitched battle with 
picked Regular troops from overseas on equal terms. Comparative 
lack of discipline and cohesion showing up strongly where large forces 
were involved these are my reasons for allowing so large a margin of 
superiority to the invading forces. 

196. Every one will form his own opinion upon my estimate. At 
best it is but a paper estimate and open to a hundred qualifications and 
suppositions. Still it is an attempt to convey an opinion, and the only 
difference between my opinion and the opinion of those who may 
hereafter traverse it is that I am paid to give my views, and also that 
not many Europeans have been privileged to inspect as I have the 
native troops of India, the United States' Regulars, the Japanese 
Army, the French, German, and Russian detachments in Asia, and the 
reformed Chinese troops. 

197. Finally, no one can have studied this Report without under- 
standing that each year, between now and 1919-20, the units of the 
Australian Army should improve in efficiency at the rate of something 
certainly not less than 10 per cent, per annum. 

IAN HAMILTON, General, 
Inspector-General of the Oversea Forces. 



45i 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



[APF 



APPENDICES 

APPENDIX A 
STATEMENT SHOWING AMOUNTS EXPENDED ON DEFENCE FOR 

EACH OF THE LAST TEN YEARS 





Naval. 


Military. 










Total 


Year 










i 


Defence 


1 CdJL 


Cost of 


Other 




Cost of 


Other 




Expendi- 




Mainten- 


Expendi- 


Total. 


Mainten- 


Expendi- 


Total. 


ture. 




ance. 


ture. 1 




ance. 


ture. 8 








i 


i 





i 


i 


4 


i 


1904-5 


47,991 


I5L55I 


199,542 


510,512 


223,007 


733>5 J 9 


933,o6l 


1905-6 


46,180 


205,688 


251,868 


520,37 


197,765 


718,135 


970,003 


1906-7 


5L725 


204,151 


255,876 


558,734 


220,505 


779,239 


1,035,115 


1907-8 


56,449 


454,897 


5H,346 


602,094 


221,065 


823,159 


1,334,505 


1908-9 


60,653 


207,452 


268,105 


654,014 


128,361 


782,375 


1,050,480 


1909-10 


64,468 


265,643 


330,111 


897,264 


308,417 


1,205,681 


1,535,792 


1910-11 


103,753 


1,371,250 


1,475,003 


1,045,226. 


488,476 


1,533,702 


3,008,705 


1911-12 


264,295 


1,385,095 


1,649,390 


1,446,872 


983,777 


2,430,649 


4,080,039 


1912-13 


633,305 


1,027,273 


1,660,578 


1,608,115 


1,062,805 


2,670,920 


4,331,498 


1913-14 


902,453 


1,528,965 


2,431,418 


1,910,262 


1,405,173 


3,315,435 


5,746,853 s 


(Estim 


ated) 















1 Includes expenditure on Naval Works, Buildings, Sites, Rents, and Repairs ; 
Arms, Equipment, etc., Construction of Fleet; Payment under Naval Agreement Act. 

* Includes expenditure, on Buildings, Sites, etc., Rent, Repairs, etc., Rifle Ranges, 
Military Stores ; Interest on transferred properties ; Miscellaneous. 

3 Estimated that a saving of 500,000 will be effected on this sum. 



452 



>*4] 



APPENDIX 



PQ 



H 3 
J *- 

< ri 



PQ 
XI 



PH 
PH 




llf!* a 

s-flS* 

-P-IH g ?'2 

s 
Iff 1 jf 

H 




"O C ^g!. 

o) .t3 be 

"8 g "1 ? 

".2T3-G M 

|3.a||: 



T3 

S-8 



JH-IIK 

l-sl8^.S|^ 

llllliillil 



I rQ +J 1) t/) .J^ 

Slsg d i 

Issgg- 2 

g-'3|g ^^ 
fi.ag'-I^J S 

Ili m* 

S^-s = " 
^o 5 i^<5 



^s ti si tsil^^d a S ^S gli^.-S 

| a>.g^3 | s Maw S i! * 1 > 

llli^i^illlll 1 ^ c ^ 

^-Sg 1 ' 3 ^ rt8aM rt iJT-S '1 'S 8 'I 
S 5 f l Srf 8 'i.rflSe^lg P S 



6 Hff !jl :".tl*lll 

M . r^'H'l:tv 

Ihill^lfli^llilii 

5 g g i 215 ^.s I I s S-S'a 8: 



g?.ll14i 5 S l l^f4l8ii 
lltllM^ll'LIIcill 



5.3 



iir 



111*11 



^ S -- c 
rfJ MH fi t* C - 

o o.o 'Sic S o 

- - ? j 8 a . - 

M 0!_ O 

B"c 



1 



I* 

y 




2=38 

in 

o s 



-J flj 

t5 d O 



4-> r. I C ' ' W ' G 

fiOoesc r oco 

Ig all s '! 

-gus^ S S g^ -^ M C^ 

.s^^ s S^-^^.s^ 

O^ rt &- Mg g S W 




453 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



[APR 



APPENDIX C 



Military District. 


Number of 
Brigade Areas. 


Number of 
1 Battalion Areas. 


Number of 
Training Areas. 


ISt .... 


3 


12 


31 


2nd 


8 


32 


72 


3 rd .... 


7 


29 


65 


4th .... 


2 


9 


23 


5 th .... 


I 


6 


15 


6th . 


I 


4 


II 


Total 


22 


92 l 


217 



1 Proposed to form only twenty -eight battalions before 1920. 



APPENDIX D 
RATES OF PAY FOR CITIZEN FORCES 





Artillery and Engineers 


Other Arms 




25 days per annum. 


1 6 days per annum. 


T?anlr 








x\.anK. 


Rate per 
whole day. 


Amount per 
annum. 


Rate i 
whole c 


>er 
lay. 


Amount 
per annum. 




s. d. 


f s d 

M 


t, s - 


d. 


s. d. 


Colonel or Brigadier 


250 


56 5 o 


2 5 





36 o o 


Lieutenant-Colonel 


i 17 6 


46 17 6 i 17 


6 


30 o o 


Major . 


I 10 


37 10 o i 10 





24 o o 


Captain .... 


126 


28 2 6 


I 2 


6 


18 o o 


Lieutenant, 2nd Lieutenant . 


o 15 o 


18 15 o o 15 





12 


Regimental Sergeant-Major . 


O 12 O 


15 O O O 12 


o 


9 12 o 


Company Sergeant-Major 


II 


13 15 o o ii 





8 16 o 


Sergeant . 


10 


12 IO O 


O IO 


o 


800 


Corporal .... 


090 


ii 5 o 


o 9 





74 


Private .... 


040 


500 


o 4 





34 


Recruits .... 


030 


3 15 o 


o 3 





280 



Half day parades shall be paid for at one-half and night drills at 
one-quarter of the above rates. 

454 



APPENDIX 

HORSE ALLOWANCE 

Officers and Soldiers of Light Horse Units shall be granted Horse 
Allowance at the rate of 55. per diem for each mounted parade attended 
provided that the total amount paid to an Officer or Soldier in any one 
year shall not exceed 4. 

Payment of Horse Allowance to be made at times of payment of 
Militia Pay, i.e. : 

(a) In Camp of Continuous Training, or on return from Camp, 

at discretion of Commandant. 
(6) In the month of June of each financial year. 



APPENDIX E 

TABLE SHOWING THE UNITS YET TO BE FORMED TO COMPLETE 
DIVISIONS, LIGHT HORSE BRIGADES, AND OTHER FIELD FORMA- 
TIONS BY 1919-1920, BUT EXCLUDING ADMINISTRATION UNITS 

FOR LINES OF COMMUNICATION : 



Units, etc., required to complete. 


Military District. 


ISt. 


2nd. 


3rd. 


4 th. 


5th. 


6th. 


Total. 


Divisional Headquarters 
Light Horse 
Light Horse Brigade Head- 
quarters . . . . 
Light Horse Regiments . 
Divisional Squadrons 
Field Artillery- 
Divisional Artillery Headquarters 
Field Artillery Brigade Head- 
quarters .... 
Field Batteries 
iS-pr. 1 
Howitzer . 
Ammunition Columns 
Light Horse Brigade 
Field Artillery Brigade . 
Field Artillery (Howitzer) Battery 
Divisional .... 
Engineers 
Divisional Engineers Head- 
quarters .... 
Field Companies 

Signal Troops. 
1 Includes thre 














6 

2 

6 
4 

6 
9 

25 
5 

8 

14 
6 
6 

6 

6* 

2 

455 





I 

3 

i 


I 

3 
i 


2 








I 

3 

I 

i 

2 
I 


2 

8 

i 

3 
4 

2 


3 

10 

2 

3 
5 

2 


I 

* 

I 

I 
I 
I 


I 

, 

I 


I 
I 

I 














Two 
Half 
Coys. 

e perm 


2 

I 

anent 


2 

I 

batteri 


i 

es. 


\ 


* 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



APPENDIX E continued. 



Units, etc., required to complete. 



Divisional Signal Companies 

Wireless Companies 
Infantry 

Infantry Brigade Headquarters 

Battalions .... 
Army Service Corps 

Companies (Light Horse Brigades) 

Headquarter Companies . 

Companies .... 
Army Medical Corps 

Light Horse Field Ambulances 

Field Ambulances . 



Military District. 

















ISt. 


and. 


3rd. 


4 th. 


5th. 


6th. 


Total. 




I 


I 








2' 




I 


I 









2 


2 


4 


3 


I 


. . 


. , 


10 


5 


12 


ii 


4 


I 




33 




i 


i 


.. 






2 


i 


2 


2 


i 


. 


. . 


6 


i 


4 


3 









8 
















. . 


i 


i 


. . 


. 


. . 


2 


i 


4 


3 


i 







9 



APPENDIX F 
PHYSICAL TRAINING OF BOYS AND GIRLS 

All boys of the ages of twelve and thirteen years, who are medically 
fit, are liable to undergo Junior Cadet Training, which embraces Phy- 
sical Training (to be carried out on each school day for not less than 
fifteen minutes), Elementary Marching Drill, and the attainment of a 
certain standard of efficiency in not less than one of the following 
subjects : 

(a) Miniature Rifle Shooting ; 

(b) Swimming ; 

(c) Running in organised games ; 

(d) First Aid. 

The training of Junior Cadets is carried out by the School Teachers, 
but boys not in attendance at schools are trained by the Military Staff. 
The latter are very few, as most of the States now provide for com- 
pulsory attendance at school up to the age of fourteen. The training 
is inspected annually, and an allowance of 2s. 6d. per effective Junior 
Cadet is made to Head Teachers of Schools to defray cost of providing 
equipment, etc. 

Fifteen instructors have been appointed by the Defence Depart- 
men : for the instruction of teachers. These instructors conduct courses 
456 



APPENDIX 



of instruction for teachers, and issue certificates as 'Instructors of J unior 
Cadet Training ' to those who qualify. In addition, they visit the 
schools periodically for instructional purposes. The expenses of 
teachers attending schools of instruction are defrayed by the Defence 
Department. 

Although the Defence Department is only responsible for the 
instruction of those teachers who train Junior Cadets, the Education 
Departments of the several States, being desirous of extending the 
scheme of Physical Training to their school girls, unanimously asked 
for a course of instruction to be arranged for their women teachers. 
A special course of instruction was held accordingly during three weeks 
in 1913, at which twenty- two women teachers from the several States 
attended. In addition to Physical Training, attention was given to 
Anatomy and First Aid, and special medical lecturers were employed 
in connection with these subjects. Certificates of competency were 
awarded to twenty of the teachers in attendance. Several of these 
teachers have since been employed by the State Departments as 
' Specialists ' solely for the instruction of women teachers and school 
girls in Physical Training. 



APPENDIX G 

APPROVED ALLOTMENT OF MEMBERS OF RIFLE CLUBS ON 
MOBILISATION, 1913-1914 























Balance 








Sixty per 














of 








cent, of 


Total 


T<-\to1 


Total 




Total 


Percent- 


i Column 


Mili- 
tary 
Dis- 


Num- 
ber of 
Rifle 


Total 
Strength 
of Rifle 


strength 
of Clubs 
estimated 


Number 
allotted 
to 


lotai 
number 
allotted 


allotted 
to 
A.S.C. 


Allotted 
to 
Cable 


allot- 
ment to 
Units and 


age of 
Column 4 
allotted 


4 avail- 
j able for 
future 


trict. 


Clubs. 


Clubs. 


fit for 
active 


Light 
Horse. 


to 
Infantry. 


and 
A.M.C. 


Guards. 


Cable 
Guards. 


to 

Units. 


allot- 
ments 








service. 














to 






















Units. 


(i) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


(10) 


(") 


TSt 


216 


9,098 


5.459 


610 


3,105 


142 


67 


3,924 


7*1-8 


1535 


2nd 


303 


14,099 


8,460 


760 


3,748 


Nil 


Nil 


4,508 


53'2 


3952 


3rd 


325 


15.321 


9,193 


922 


5,28o 


1274 


Nil 


7,476 


8i'3 


1717 


4th 


119 


4,906 


2.944 


38i 


1,191 


Nil 


Nil 


1,572 


53'4 


1372 


5th 


124 


2.37 1 


1,422 


1 66 


997 


Nil 


25 


1,188 


83-5 


234 


6th 


46 


1,770 


1,062 


128 


771 


79 


25 


1,003 


94'4 


59 


Total 


1133 


47.565 


28,540 


2967 


15,092 


1495 


117 


19,671 


68-9 


8869 



457 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



[APR 



APPENDIX H 

ADMINISTRATIVE AND INSTRUCTIONAL STAFF FOR MILITIA UNITS 
AND TERRITORIAL AREAS 





Proposed by 
Lord Kitchener. 


Present 
Establishment. 


Ultimate 
strength on 
present lines. 


Ultimate strength 
under proposals 
in Section IV. 


Military Unit or Area. 












Officers. 


Other 
ranks. 


Officers. 


Other 
ranks. 


Officers. 


Other 
ranks. 


Officers. 


Other 
ranks. 


Light Horse Brigades 




>! 


6 


6 


8 


8 


8 


8 


Infantry Brigades and 




s_ 

ho '5 














Brigade Areas . 


22 


>**/ 5/3 
CO | * 


24 


35 


24 


44 


24 


24 


LightHorseRegiments 




' m * Q 
Cv ^ 
{fi W 


13 


69 


28 


90 


28 


90 (a) 


Field Artillery . . 






5 


24 


14 


50 


M 


50 (b) 


Garrison Artillery 




IH ^3 




n 




II 




ii 


Engineers 


. . 


A^ W 


. . 


19 


. . 


21 


. . 


21 (C) 


Infantry Battalions . 


. . 


E^'-g 


20 


178 


88 


352 


88 


88 


Army Service Corps 


. . 


isfd 




12 


. . 


*22 




22 


Army Medical Corps 


. . 


j S-'s 




15 


. . 


22 




22 


Battalion Areas . 


. . 


* d 






. . 




88 (d) 


. . 


Training Areas . 


215 


g| 


218 


266 


127 


300 




500 (<?) 








(Temp.) 




(Permt.) 








Spare, for Special 




O "^ ^-^ 














Courses attached to 




h4 rt d 














otner Armies or Sick 


12 




"(/) 





12 


12 


12 


12 


Total . . 


249 


400 


80 


635 


301 


932 


262 


848 








(Permt.) 




(Permt.) 














218 


















(Temp.) 


















Total, 298 












Estimated Expendi- 


No estimate 


188,000 


283,000 


253,400* 


ture at Current 


framed by 








Rates. 


Lord Kitch- 










ener. Ex- 










penditure at 










current rates 










would amount 










to 160,000. 









Estimated Officer's average 320. N.C.O.'s average 200. 

* Includes an allowance of 50 per annum for clerical assistance in each Area Office. 
(a) 26 regiments at 3 each and 12 divisional squadrons at i each; (b) 14 Field Artillery 
brigades at 3 each and 8 batteries at i each; (c) 14 field companies at i each and 7 for 
8 signal troops and 7 divisional signal companies ; (d) For a long time to come these will be 
temporary appointments ; (e) Averages 8 for country battalion areas and 4 for city battalion 
areas ; (/) Includes 3 attached to other armies. 

458 



1914] 



APPENDIX 



ALLOCATION TO AREAS 



ist District 
2nd 
3rd 
4th 
5th 
6th 



< 


Country. 




City. 




7 




5 




8 




24 




7 




22 




6 




3 




3 




3 




2 




2 



33 x 8 = 264. 59x4 = 236. Total, 500. 



459 



REPORT BY THE INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF THE 
OVERSEA FORCES ON THE MILITARY FORCES 
OF NEW ZEALAND 

Presented to both Houses of the General Assembly by command 
of His Excellency 

The INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF THE OVERSEAS FORCES to the 

Honourable the MINISTER OF DEFENCE, NEW ZEALAND. 

Wellington, New Zealand, qth June 1914, 

SIR, I have the honour to submit herewith my Report on the 
Military Forces of New Zealand ; and, although it is not customary in 
official correspondence to ask for indulgence, the present exceptional 
circumstances warrant me, I think, in doing so. The whole of the 
report has been, of necessity, written up and cast into its present form 
during the past six days. As you are aware, I personally had not a 
spare moment during my actual inspections, and I would give a great 
deal to be able to put in another week's work in restating my views in 
terms which might be considered more conventional. Unfortunately, 
once I start in the New Zealand Company's liner Ruahine there is no 
possibility of my posting a letter until I reach London. Such a delay 
would, I understand, be inconvenient, and therefore I submit my 
attempt with all the imperfections of haste only too legibly imprinted 
upon it. 

In the course of my tour I have inspected every unit of the Terri- 
torial Force, and I have seen members of every company of Cadets 
in the Dominion. According to parade-states the Territorials in- 
spected by me, together with the Permanent troops, numbered 18,807, 
and I have seen 17,868 Cadets on parade, a total of 36,675, or 70 per 
cent, of the Defence Forces. I have also visited the works and forti- 
fications at the principal harbours, and at three of the four defended 
ports I have been present during practice with the heavy guns. 

I regret that time has not admitted of my advising you on the 
subjects of the coast defences and coast-defence schemes. This con- 
fidential report will be written, D.V., during the voyage, and will be 
posted to you from London. 
460 



APPENDIX 

To those people by whose hospitality I and my staff have benefited, 
and to many others who have helped to make my visit one of the most 
enjoyable episodes of my life, I owe my most grateful thanks. I carry 
away with me wonderful memories of this beautiful country and of the 
overflowing kindness of its inhabitants. 

My thanks are also due to the General Officer Commanding the 
Forces, to the Headquarters Staff, and to the District Commanders, 
who have done so much to make my path smooth during my progress 
through the Islands. 

Lastly, I have to thank you, Sir, and the Government you represent 
for much personal kindness received and for the admirable arrangements 
under which my inspection has been carried out. That what I have 
been able to do in consequence during the past five weeks, and that the 
recommendations I have ventured to put forward in my report, may 
prove of some lasting value to the military forces of New Zealand is the 
earnest hope of Your obedient Servant, 

IAN HAMILTON, General, 
Inspector -General of the Oversea Forces. 



I. MILITARY INSTITUTIONS OF NEW ZEALAND 

HEADQUARTERS ORGANISATION 

1. The Minister of Defence is responsible to Parliament both for 
the Navy and the Army of New Zealand. 

The General Officer Commanding the New Zealand Forces is the 
responsible adviser of the Minister, and, under him, controls the 
Military Forces. He is assisted by the following heads of depart- 
ments : 

The Chief of the General Staff ; 

The Adjutant-General to the Forces ; 

The Quartermaster-General to the Forces ; 

The Director of Ordnance ; 

The Director of Accounts. 

The distribution of duties amongst the Staff at Headquarters is 
shown in Appendix I. 

TERRITORIAL ORGANISATION 

2. The Dominion of New Zealand is divided into four military 
districts, each under a Permanent District Commander assisted by a 
Staff, as shown in Appendix II. 

461 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

There are two districts in each Island, their boundaries correspond- 
ing generally with those of the four land districts viz., 
Auckland, 
Wellington, 
Canterbury, and 
Otago. 

Each district is divided into four or five ' area groups 'or ' areas/ 
each commanded by a Permanent officer. 1 An area as a rule furnishes 
a complete Infantry regiment (of one battalion) , as well as other units, 
or portions of units, and Cadets. 

An area is divided into two or, as a rule, more sub-areas, each in 
charge of a Permanent non-commissioned officer. 



UNIT ORGANISATION 

3. The organisation and establishments of units, are, speaking 
generally, the same in peace as in war. They are composed of Terri- 
torial officers and men. There are no units composed wholly of Per- 
manent men. A slight mixture of the Permanent element is permitted 
in Territorial units as follows : 

(a) Each battalion of Infantry and regiment of Mounted Rifles 

has a Permanent adjutant, sergeant-major, and quarter- 
master-sergeant. 

(b) Each Field Artillery brigade has an adjutant, a battery 

sergeant-major, a battery quartermaster-sergeant, a 
farrier-sergeant, and a saddler-quartermaster-sergeant. 
In addition, each battery has a Permanent cadre of two 
non-commissioned officers and eight men (gunners and 
drivers) and twelve horses. This personnel belongs to 
the Royal New Zealand Artillery. 

(c) Each fort has a small cadre of Permanent Garrison Artillery. 

These cadres supply the assistant instructors, specialists, 
district gunners, etc., necessary when the forts are 
manned for service practice or instruction. These also 
belong to the Royal New Zealand Artillery. 



LIABILITY TO SERVE IN TIME OF WAR 
4. Under Section 27 (i), Defence Act, 1909, all male inhabitants of 

1 Organisation has now reached a stage when a group of areas formed under the 
Kitchener scheme has become in itself an administrative area. I recommend, 
therefore, the ' area group ' being termed the ' area ' in future, any subdivisions of it 
being ' sub-areas.' I have used these expressions throughout my report. 

462 



APPENDIX 

New Zealand between the ages of seventeen and fifty-five, not exempted, 
are liable to serve in the Militia. Under Section 28 (i), Defence Act, 
1909, the whole or any part of the Militia may be called out in time 
of war by Proclamation, and, when so called out, becomes a part of the 
Defence Forces. In so far as all males between the ages of seventeen 
and fifty-five can be called upon to serve in the Militia, all military 
bodies in New Zealand whose members are between the above-mentioned 
ages (e.g. Territorial Force, Reserve, General Training Section, and 
Rifle Clubs) would be included in the term ' Militia.' 

Separate provision exists under Section 71 (i) of the Defence 
Amendment Act, 1912, for calling out the Territorial Force or any part 
thereof for active service without having recourse to Section 28 (i) of 
the Defence Act, 1909, above referred to. 



LIABILITY FOR SERVICE ABROAD 

5. Under Section 26 (i), Defence Act, 1901, members of the Terri- 
torial Force may volunteer for special service outside New Zealand. 



CONDITIONS OF SERVICE 
6. Liability for service is as follows : 

Senior Cadets fourteen (or date of leaving school) to seven- 
teen inclusive : four years in all. 

Territorial Force eighteen to twenty-four inclusive : seven 
years in all. 

Territorial Force Reserve twenty-five to twenty-nine inclu- 
sive : five years in all. 

In posting men to units the wishes of individuals are considered as 
far as possible. 

Rates of pay are shown in Appendix III. All ranks in the Terri- 
torial Force draw pay for nine days only in each year. 

Men passed fit for service but not required for the Territorial Force 
are posted to a General Training Section. They are liable to be trans- 
ferred to the Territorial Force up to thirty years of age. 



463 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYOVERSEAS 



SCHEME OF TRAINING 
7. Training under the Act is prescribed as follows : 



Designation. 



Age. 



Service. 



Prescribed Training each Year. 



Senior Cadets . From 14 to 18 



4 years 



Territorial Force 



General Training 
Section 



Reserve (including 
men of General 
Training Section 
after 25) 



From 1 8 to 25 7 years 



From 1 8 to 25 



From 25 to 30 



7 years 



5 years 



(a) Fifty drills of one hour's 

duration, or thirty-four 
drills of one and a half 
hours' duration. 

(b) Six half-day parades of 

three hours' duration. 

(c) Course of musketry. 

(a) Thirty drills of one and 

a half hours' duration, 
twenty of which are to 
be outdoor parades. 

(b) Twelve half -day parades of 

not less than three hours' 
duration, or six whole- 
day parades of not less 
than six hours' duration. 

(c) Seven day straining in camp 

(exclusive of days of ar- 
rival and departure). 

(d) Prescribed course of mus- 

ketry (a) and (b). 

(a) Eighteen drills of one and 

a half hours' duration. 

(b) Prescribed course of mus- 

ketry. 

Two half-day parades or their 
equivalent. 



The period of the annual camp for rural units is eleven days (ex- 
clusive of the days of arrival and departure) in lieu of the equivalent 
of the four extra days i.e. twenty drills. 

Physical training forms an important item in the syllabus of training, 
especially in the case of Senior Cadets. Boys under the age of fourteen 
receive physical training at school under arrangements made by the 
Education Department. 

464 



APPENDIX 

WAR ORGANISATION 

8. The military forces of New Zealand are organised for war into a 
field army and its reserves, coast defence troops, and lines -of -communi- 
cation troops. The field army is organised into two Mounted Rifle 
brigades (one in each Island) and two divisions (one in each Island). 

The composition and detail of the above are given in Appendix IV. 
Certain Headquarters units and divisional ammunition columns will 
have to be formed on mobilisation. Otherwise, all units required for 
the war organisation are already raised. 

NUMBERS REQUIRED 

9. In round numbers the requirements of the War organisation 
are : 

Officers. Other Ranks 

Field Army . . . . . 1144 29,551 

Coast Defence troops .... 147 4,168 
Lines of communication, district staffs, etc. 

(about) . . . . . . 200 3,ooo 

1491 36,719 

NUMBERS AVAILABLE 

10. In 1915 the Territorial Force will have reached 30,000, the 
Peace establishment fixed by Parliament. After 1915 the Reserve 
will commence to fill. 

When the existing scheme is in full working order it is estimated 
that the total numbers available will be as follows : 

Territorial Force (including about 4000 recruits) . 30,000 

Territorial Force Reserve 20,000 

General Training Section under twenty-five . . 21,000 

General Training Section Reserve .... 14,000 

85,000 
Railway battalions and Post and Telegraph Corps . 4,000 



89,000 

In the establishment provision has been made in addition for 112 
officers, 211 instructors (warrant and non-commissioned officers), 303 
non-commissioned officers and men of the Royal New Zealand Artillery 
(a total of 626), and 81 civilians, to be maintained on a permanent 
footing as part of the Defence Forces. (See Appendix V.) 

OVERSEAS 2. 2 G 465 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



HORSES 

11. Approximately 8369 riding-horses, 9239 draught, and 1029 
pack animals will be required on mobilisation. There are some 400,000 
horses in New Zealand, of which about 40,000 are fit for riding purposes 
and 10,000 for draught and gun work. A list of suitable vehicles with 
horses is kept in each district. They may be taken under requisition. 

MECHANICAL TRANSPORT 

12. Motor-cars and motor-lorries exist in the Dominion as follows : 
4066 motor-cars of various sorts, 136 motor-lorries, and 397 steam 
traction-engines. 

A Motor Reserve Corps is organised as a part of the Territorial 
Force. It numbers 74, each officer providing a car when required. 

ARMAMENT 

13. The Field Artillery is completely equipped with modern i8-pr. 
field guns and 4*5 in. howitzers. The latest type of gun has been 
ordered for the mountain battery. 

The Infantry is armed with the Lee-Enfield rifle. Sufficient rifles 
and carbines exist to arm the Territorial Forces and its reserves. With 
few exceptions the Cadets are armed with the same rifle as the Citizen 
Forces. 

Mounted Rifle regiments and Infantry battalions are equipped with 
machine guns and pack transport for the same. 

AMMUNITION 

14. The reserve of gun ammunition is complete for coast-defence 
guns in accordance with the recommendations of the Oversea Defence 
Committee. For field guns the reserve will shortly be complete. 

There is a sufficient war reserve of small-arm ammunition for the 
field army. Small-arm ammunition is manufactured by the Colonial 
Ammunition Company, which has its works near Auckland. The 
factory is capable of doubling its present output in an emergency. 

CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT 

15. The Territorial Force is clothed throughout in khaki serge of 
service pattern, manufactured in the Dominion. Each Territorial 
soldier receives, on joining, one complete suit, a greatcoat, a hat, and 
a cap ; no boots are issued. A reserve of clothing to meet the yearly 
quota of recruits is kept in store. The clothing contractors are pre- 
466 



APPENDIX 

pared to increase their output tenfold in emergency. The Territorial 
Infantry are equipped with the web field service equipment ; Mounted 
units use the bandolier leather equipment. Each individual in the 
Mounted Rifles supplies his own saddlery ; there is no uniformity in 
pattern. 

The Cadets' uniform consists of blouse and shorts of khaki serge 
with khaki hat and puttee stockings. They have a waist-belt and 
pouch. 

INSTRUCTION 

16. The number of Permanent officers and non-commissioned officers 
who are available for instructional duties is shown generally in Appen- 
dix V. 

A Headquarters Staff exercise is held annually for the benefit of 
senior officers, and a District Staff ride is held in each district annually. 
Musketry instruction is imparted by four expert instructors in musketry, 
one in each district. 

Officers' clubs are instituted in all the principal and many of the 
minor training centres. These exist mainly for instructional purposes. 
Lectures are given and war games held. 

MISCELLANEOUS MILITARY INSTITUTIONS 

17. (a) Rifle Clubs, being part of the New Zealand Military Forces, 
are governed by the Military Regulations. They are 204 in number. 

Membership of a club is limited to fifteen as -a minimum and one 
hundred as a maximum, consisting of (i.) Ordinary members, (ii.) 
honorary members, (iii.) General Training Section attached. 

Ordinary members must not be more than fifty-five years of age, 
and are liable to serve as a secondary reserve in the Territorial Force. 
They must carry out the musketry course laid down. The General 
Training Section can do the training prescribed (para. 7) with the 
nearest Rifle Club. 

Rifles and spare parts are obtained from the Defence Department 
on very favourable terms. 

Each active member of a club is entitled to 150 rounds of ammuni- 
tion, and 200 rounds more are obtainable at reduced rates. 

Members are carried free of cost on Government railways to and 
from rifle practice, and to approved rifle meetings up to 100 miles 
distance. 

The cost of existing Rifle Clubs is approximately 20,000 per 
annum. 

(b) On the 3ist March 1914 there were 25,659 Senior Cadets, 
organised into 348 companies under Senior Cadet officers. The 

467 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 

organisation,' administration, and training of all Senior Cadet com- 
panies is supervised by the Area Commander in whose area the company 
is situated. 

Excluding any expenses connected with their instruction, the cost 
of the Senior Cadets is approximately 21,000 per annum. 

(c) A National Reserve is in course of formation. Its membership 
is voluntary, and includes all who are no longer liable for service in 
time of peace and who have served in a naval, military, quasi-military, 
or police capacity, or who belong to any organisation e.g. the St. 
John Ambulance Association which could render useful service in 
time of war. No uniform is worn. 

(d) In time of war the Public Health Department undertakes to 
receive the sick and wounded in the general hospitals. An Army 
Nursing Service is in process of formation, the Matron-in-Chief being 
the Assistant Inspector-General of the Public Health Department. 
It will consist of qualified nurses.willing to undertake the nursing of the 
sick in time of war in hospitals and under control of the Medical Officers 
of the New Zealand Medical Corps. 

(e) The Dominion Rifle Association exists for the encouragement 
of rifle shooting in the Dominion. It receives an annual grant from 
the Government. 

NUMBERS TRAINED 

1 8. The following figures show the strength of the military forces 
during the past ten years. Prior to 1911 there was no compulsory 
training. 





Strength of Permanent 




Year. 


Forces (including 
N.Z. Staff Corps, 
R.N.Z.A., and Per- 


Strength of Volunteer or 
Territorial Force. 




manent Staff) . 




1905 . 


395 


I3,49 2 


1906 


386 


13,306 


1907 


379 


12,704 


1908 


36i 


12,474 


1909 . 


325 


14,058 


1910 


314 


14,249 


I9II 


427 


Transition period (no 






record) . 


1912 


500 


22,614 


1913 . 


557 


23,804 


1914 . 


578 


25,902 



468 



APPENDIX 

NOTE. The establishment is shown in paragraph 10 and Appendix 
V. as 626 : the actual strength appears, therefore, to be 48 less than 
establishment. The apparent shortage is made up as follows : 

Imperial officers on temporary loan (not included in above table) 18 
Imperial non-commissioned officers on temporary loan (not included 
in above table) ........ 18 

Under establishment : Officers . . .5 

,, Permanent Staff ..... 5 

R.N.Z.A. . .2 

Total 48 



Cadets numbering 26 (not included in the above table) are under- 
going training at Duntroon, and eight of these will be available in 1916 
for service in the Dominion. 

19. The amount expended by the New Zealand Government on 
naval and military defence for each of the last ten financial years is as 
follows : 





Naval. 




Military. 








Battle-cruiser. 












Year. 


Contribu- 
tion to the 
Admiralty 


Contri- 
bution 
paid out 


Interest 
and 
Sinking 
Fund 
paid out 


Total 
Naval 
Expen- 
diture. 


Paid out 
of Con- 
solidated 
Fund. 


Paid 
out of 
Public 
Works 
Fund. 


Total 
Military 
Expen- 
diture. 


Total 
Defence 
Expendi- 
ture. 






of Loan. 


of Con- 


















solidated 


















Fund. 






































1904-5 


40,000 




... 


40,000 


188,254 


49,103 


237,357 


277,357 


1905-6 


40,000 


... 


. .. 


40,000 


159,459 


36,869 


196,328 


236,228 


1906-7 


40,000 






40,000 


152,765 


16,415 


169,180 


209,180 


1907-8 


40,000 






40,000 


176,426 


21,153 


197,579 


237,579 


1908-9 


40,000 


... 




40,000 


195,685 


18,063 


213,748 


253,748 


1909-10 


100,000 




... 


100,000 


190,346 


io,349 


200,695 


300,695 


I9IO-II 


100,000 


489,289 


8,904 


598,193 


205,269 


8,936 


214,205 


812,398 


I9II-I2 


100,000 


605,711 


91,687 


797,398 


401,870 


11,581 


413,451 


1,210,849 


1912-13 


100,000 


525,000 


103,102 


728,102 


505,267 


24,129 


529,396 


1,257,498 


1913-14 


50,000* 


69,035 


126,995 


246,030 


488,569 


30,725 


519,294 


765,324 



* The balance of the 100,000 due for the year 1913-14 was, at the request of the Admiralty, 
not paid until after the sist March 1914. 

N.B. The total cost, up to the early part of June 1914, of the battle-cruiser was 1,698,035 ; 
the annual payments of interest and sinking fund will cease in approximately sixteen years' 

469 



time. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OVERSEAS 



II. MAIN FEATURES OF THE EXISTING SCHEME 

THE INFLUENCE OF PEACE 

20. All military institutions should be built so as to be as peace- 
proof as possible : if they are to stand the strain of war it is essential 
that they should offer no foothold to the steady sapping and mining of 
politics. Under modern conditions the aspirant to public service can 
only get there by being in the majority, and that majority are attracted 
by things which catch the eye, but are repelled by any technicality. 
A mass of inadequately trained men may impress an electorate very 
favourably ; it is difficult, nay, almost hopeless, to enthuse them by 
the purchase of rifle ranges. Forts reassure the city during perilous 
times, but once the danger has passed it is discovered that big guns 
break window-panes. Then in due course the practice is discontinued, 
and the guns, though they may appear unchanged, have lost the best 
part of their value namely, the skill and self-confidenck of the men 
who stand behind them. Let peace only endure and these same sort 
of sentiments extend at last to the personnel. A cautious administrator 
appeals to the representatives of the people more than a leader of 
character and boldness. So at last we reach the final stage when great 
commands are given to ' good peace Generals/ Military institutions 
have then become a name, an illusion. Actually they will have ceased 
to exist. 

STUDY OF WAR-CONDITIONS ESSENTIAL 

21. Such are the lessons of experience, and they teach us that the 
foundations of the military institutions of a country should be so well 
and truly laid upon the rock of reality that the upper stories of the build- 
ing shall offer the maximum resistance to the disintegrating forces, 
which are certain, as time goes on, to try persistently to undermine 
them. The moment war-conditions are lost sight of, the mind of the 
nation will begin to suffer from dangerous illusions. Especially is this 
the case where the form taken by defence is that of a national Militia. 
Here there is no room for peace commanders, peace soldiers, or peace 
systems. The time devoted to training is so limited and students of 
war are so few that all classes, civilians are well as militiamen, are 
bound to quit the rails of efficiency the moment the system practised 
in peace ceases to be a war system pure and simple. 

RESPONSIBILITY OF THE SOLDIER 

22. Hence it comes that a weighty burden of responsibility must 
ever rest upon the shoulders of the military chief or chiefs charged with 
470 



APPENDIX 

the direction of the affairs of a citizen army. The position demands 
some of the intuitions of statesmanship, as well as a competent grasp 
of the true meanings of war. There must be quickness to comprehend 
the limitations imposed by political and social factors ; temper and 
self-restraint to enable parleys to be conducted with the faddist and 
the miser. For lack of such quickness and such temper brave soldiers 
pitchforked suddenly into high places in the counsels of a democracy 
may in less than no time undo all the hard work of their predecessors. 
Theoretically the blunt soldier asks for perfection and accepts nothing 
less. Actually he gets just as much as he can, by his own pertinacity 
and enthusiasm, coax from the pockets of his employers. 

NATURE OF TEST APPLIED 

23. Passing from principles to particulars, I conceive it to be my 
primary duty to the Government of New Zealand to report on the success 
or otherwise attained by the military authorities of the Dominion in 
producing in peace a machine which has in all respects its exact analogue 
in war. Therefore I shall proceed to apply the war test to everything 
connected with the Citizen Forces their organisation, their administra- 
tion, the Territorial arrangements, the daily routine of office-work, 
as well as the supremely important question of training and instruction. 
My comparatively brief sojourn in New Zealand has at least had this 
advantage it has involved the simultaneous embodiment of every 
military unit in the country, and has enabled me to inspect large bodies 
of Cadets drawn together from wide areas at the very identical time 
when the whole of the Citizen Forces were actually under arms in camp. 
The possibility of making the same permanent instructional Staff march 
across the inspectional stage with the Cadets one day and with the 
troops the next was absolutely precluded. Accordingly the military 
machine in New Zealand has been subjected to a severer trial than that 
of any portion of the Empire ever inspected by me. The elements 
themselves seem to have leagued themselves with me in adding some 
of the genuine discomforts of war to my mimic campaigns. The town- 
bred lads especially must have often thought wi