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Full text of "The Times documentary history of the war"

Ctmes 

DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 
OF THE WAR 

VOL. XI 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 
OF THE WAR 



VOLUME XI 



NAVAL PART 4 




LONDON 
PRINTING HOUSE SQUARE 

1920 






v.ll 



PREFATORY NOTE 

THE abbreviation J.R.U.S.I. refers to certain extracts from 
the very useful and well-informed articles, entitled ' The 
War: its Naval Side/ which appeared periodically during 
the war in the Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. 
The Editor of the Naval Section of the DOCUMENTARY 
HISTORY has to thank the Council of that Institution for 
their courtesy in allowing such extracts to be made from 
these articles as may suit the purpose of that Section. The 
significance of all other abbreviations used in this volume 
has already been explained in earlier volumes of the Naval 
Section. 



CONTENTS 

PACK 

MARCH 1915 i 

APRIL 1915 . . . . . . . . . . 308 

INDEX . . . . . . . .... 505 

MAPS 
GALLIPOLI AND THE DARDANELLES . . . . . .114 

AREA OF JAPANESE NAVAL ACTIVITIES . . . . . . 275 



vii 



MARCH 1915 

THE KING VISITS THE GRAND FLEET 

The following announcement appears in yesterday's Court Times, 
Circular : March 

The King, attended by Commander Sir Charles Cust, I ^ 1 ^* 
Bart., R.N., and Vice- Admiral Sir Colin Keppel, arrived at 
the Palace early this morning, on his return from a visit to a 
portion of the Grand Fleet. 



The King has sent the following message to Admiral Sir Times, 
John Jellicoe on return from his visit to His Majesty's March 4, 
Fleet :- I 9 I 5- 

' I much appreciate the kind message you sent me. It has 
given me great pleasure and satisfaction to have been able 
to visit a portion of the Grand Fleet under your Command. 
I have been on board representative ships of all classes, and 
am much impressed by the state of their efficiency and the 
splendid spirit which animates both officers and men. I 
have not the slightest doubt that my Navy will uphold its 
great traditions/ 

[The message of Admiral Jellicoe to which the foregoing is a reply 
was not published at the time, and it has been ascertained by inquiry 
at the Admiralty that no record of it has been preserved in that 
Department.] 

ADMIRAL OF THE FLEET SIR A. K. WILSON 

House of Commons, March i, 1915- 

MR. NIELD asked if Admiral of the Fleet Sir Arthur Knyvet Hansard. 
Wilson now holds any appointment, or occupies any and, if 
so, what position at the Admiralty ; and is he empowered to 

NAVAL 4 A I 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

exercise authority over the Admirals of the Navy now in 
command at sea ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Sir Arthur Wilson is, I am glad to say, 
closely associated with the Board in an advisory capacity. 

ROYAL NAVAL RESERVE (BONUS) 

House of Commons, March i, 1915. 

MR. SHIRLEY BENN asked what bonus, if any, the Royal 
Naval Reserve men are entitled to receive on the completion 
of their term of service ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : In ordinary circumstances the gratuity 
paid to Royal Naval Reserve men on completion of twenty 
years' service is 50. If, however, the question relates to war 
service, I may add that while serving during hostilities Royal 
Naval Reserve men are credited with a war retainer of i 
a month, one-half of which must be banked for their benefit 
after their discharge. If a man is discharged before com- 
pleting ten months' war service, he receives a minimum sum 
of 5 in respect of that portion of the retainer which is banked 
for him. If he is retained for more than twelve months he 
receives, in addition to his war retainer, thirty days' pay on 
discharge. During war service a man, if invalided, becomes 
entitled to the pension or gratuity applicable to active service 
men. 

OSBORNE COLLEGE (SICKNESS) 

LORD C. BERESFORD asked whether sickness is still rampant 
at Osborne College ; what is the number of cadets that are at 
present on the sick list, and the nature, if any, of the different 
illnesses ; and what steps the Admiralty are taking for moving 
the cadets to more healthy surroundings ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The number of cases on the sick list 
at Osborne on Saturday was 136, namely, influenza, 106 ; 
measles, 12 ; conjunctivitis, 10 ; pneumonia, 5 ; mumps, 2 ; 
tonsilitis, i. Steps have been taken, pending the rearrange- 
ment of the College, to transfer the cadets of one extra term 
to Dartmouth, where extra accommodation is available and 
more is about to be constructed. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : Can the right hon. gentleman see 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

his way to get this place evacuated ? The cadets have been 
ill ever since they have been in the place. It was hastily 
done up, and there is a great deal of consternation among the 
parents. 

DR. MACNAMARA : I think the Noble Lord knows that 
Osborne has been under our consideration for some considerable 
time past. For the moment we are keeping five terms there 
instead of six, which will assist in some degree. 



MR. ASQUITH AND MR. BONAR LAW ON THE 
GERMAN SUBMARINE BLOCKADE 

MR. ASQUITH : . . . I should, for a few moments, like to ibid. 
call the attention of the Committee to one or two aspects of 
the war which of late have come prominently into view. I 
will refer first to the operations which are now in progress 
in the Dardanelles. It is a good rule of war to concentrate 
your forces on the main theatre, and not to dissipate them in 
disconnected and sporadic adventures, however promising 
they may appear to be. That consideration, I need hardly 
say, has not been lost sight of in the counsels of the Allies. 
There has been, and there will be, no denudation or impair- 
ment of the forces which are at work in Flanders, and both 
the French and ourselves will continue to give them the fullest 
and, we believe, the most effective support. 

Nor what is'equally important has there, for the purpose 
of these operations, been any weakening of the Grand Fleet. 
The enterprise which is now going on, and so far has gone on in 
a manner which reflects, as the House will agree, the highest 
credit on all concerned, was carefully considered and conceived 
with very distinct and definite objects political, strategic, 
and economical. Some of these objects are so obvious as not 
to need statement, and others are of such a character that 
it is perhaps better for the moment not to state them. But I 
should like to advert for a moment, without any attempt 
to forecast the future, to two features in this matter. The 
first is, that it once more indicates and illustrates the close 
co-operation of the Allies in this case the French and our- 
selves in the new theatre, and under somewhat dissimilar 
conditions to those which have hitherto prevailed. We 

3 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

welcome the presence of the splendid contingent from the 
French Navy that our Allies have supplied, and which is 
sharing to the full in both the hazards and the glories of 
the enterprise. 

The other point on which, I think, it is worth dwelling for 
a moment is that this operation shows in a very significant 
way the copiousness and the variety of our own Naval resources. 
In order to illustrate that remark, take the names of the ships 
which have been actually mentioned in the despatches we have 
published the Queen Elizabeth, the first ship to be com- 
missioned of the newest type of what are called super- 
' Dreadnoughts/ with guns of a power and a range never 
hitherto known in naval warfare. Side by side with her is 
the Agamemnon, the immediate predecessor of the Dread- 
nought, and in association with them are the Triumph, Corn- 
wallis, Irresistible, Vengeance, and Albion, representing, I 
think I am right in saying, three or four different types of the 
older pre-' Dreadnought ' battleships, which have been so 
foolishly and so prematurely regarded in some quarters as 
obsolete or negligible, all bringing to bear the power of their 
formidable 12-in. guns on the fortifications with magnificent 
accuracy and with deadly effect. ^When, as I have said, these 
proceedings are being conducted," so far as the Navy is con- 
cerned, without subtraction of any sort or kind from the 
strength or effectiveness of the Grand Fleet, I think a word of 
congratulation is due to the Admiralty for the way in which 
it has utilised its resources. 

I pass from that to another new factor in these military and 
naval operations- the so-called German blockade of our coast. 
I shall have to use some very plain language. I may, perhaps, 
preface what I have to say by the observation that it does not 
come upon us as a surprise. This war began on the part of 
Germany with the cynical repudiation of a solemn treaty on 
the avowed ground that, when a nation's interests require it, 
right and good faith must give way to force. The war has been 
carried on on their part with a systematic not an impulsive 
or a casual but a systematic violation of all the conventions 
and practices by which international agreement had sought to 
mitigate and regularise the clash of arms. She has now 
I will not say reached the climax, for we do not know what may 
yet be to come but she has taken a further step, without any 
4 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

precedent in history, by mobilising and organising, not on the 
surface, but under the surface of the sea, a campaign of piracy 
and pillage. Are we can we and here I address myself for 
the moment to the neutral countries of the world are we to sit 
quiet, or can we sit quiet, as though we were still under the very 
protection of the restraining rules and the humanising usages 
of civilised war ? We think we cannot. The enemy, borrow- 
ing what I may, perhaps, call for this purpose a neutral flag 
from the vocabulary of diplomacy, describes this newly 
adopted measure by a grotesque and puerile perversion of 
language as a blockade. What is a blockade ? A blockade 
consists in sealing up the war ports of a belligerent against 
sea-borne traffic, by encircling their coast with an impenetrable 
ring of ships of war. Where are these ships of war ? Where is 
the German Navy ? 

An HON. MEMBER : In the Kiel Canal. 

MR. ASQUITH : What has become of those gigantic battle- 
ships and cruisers on which so many millions of money have 
been spent, and in which such vast hopes and ambitions have 
been invested ? I think, if my memory serves me, they have 
only twice during the course of these seven months been seen 
upon the open sea. Their object in both cases was the same 
murder, civilian outrage, and the wholesale destruction of 
property in undefended seaside towns, and on each occasion 
when they caught sight of the approach of a British force they 
showed a clean pair of heels, and they hurried back at the top 
of their speed to the safe seclusion of their mine-fields and their 
closely guarded forts. 

LORD ROBERT CECIL : Not all. 

MR. ASQUITH : Some had misadventures on the way. The 
plain truth is, the German Fleet is not blockading, cannot 
blockade, and never will blockade our coasts. I propose now 
to read to the Committee the Statement which has been 
prepared by His Majesty's Government, and which will be 
public property to-morrow, which declares, I hope in 
sufficiently plain and unmistakable terms, the view which we 
take, not only of our rights, but of our duties. It is not very 
long, and I think I had better read it textually. 

' Germany has declared that the English Channel, the 

north and west coasts of France, and the waters round the 

British Isles are a " war area/' and has officially notified 

5 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

that " all enemy ships found in that area will be destroyed, 
and that neutral vessels may be exposed to danger/' This 
is in effect a claim to torpedo at sight, without regard to the 
safety of the crew or passengers, any merchant vessel under 
any flag. As it is not in the power of the German Admiralty 
to maintain any surface craft in these waters, this attack 
can only be delivered by submarine agency. The law and 
custom of nations in regard to attacks on commerce have 
always presumed that the first duty of the captor of a 
merchant vessel is to bring it before a Prize Court, where it 
may be tried, where the regularity of the capture may be 
challenged, and where neutrals may recover their cargoes. 
The sinking of prizes is in itself a questionable act, to be 
resorted to only in extraordinary circumstances and" after 
provision has been made for the safety of all the crew or 
passengers (if there are passengers on board). The 
responsibility for discriminating between neutral and 
enemy vessels, and between neutral and enemy cargo, 
obviously rests with the attacking ship, whose duty it is 
to verify the status and character of the vessel and cargo, 
and to preserve all papers before sinking or even capturing 
it. So also is the humane duty of providing for the safety, 
of the crews of merchant vessels, whether neutral or enemy, 
an obligation upon every belligerent. It is upon this basis 
that all previous discussions of the law for regulating 
warfare at sea have proceeded. 

' A German submarine, however, fulfils none of these 
obligations. She enjoys no local command of the waters 
in which she operates. She does not take her captures 
within the jurisdiction of a Prize Court. She carries no 
prize crew which she can put on board a prize. She uses 
no effective means of discriminating between a neutral 
and an enemy vessel. She does not receive on board for 
safety the crew of the vessel she sinks. Her methods of 
warfare are therefore entirely outside the scope of any of 
the international instruments regulating operations against 
commerce in time of war. The German declaration sub- 
stitutes indiscriminate destruction for regulated capture. 

' Germany is adopting these methods against peaceful 
traders and non-combatant crews with the avowed object 
of preventing commodities of all kinds (including food for 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the civil population) from reaching or leaving the British 
Isles or Northern France. Her opponents are, therefore, 
driven to frame retaliatory measures in order in their 
turn to prevent commodities of any kind from reaching 
or leaving Germany. These measures will, however, be 
enforced by the British and French Governments without 
risk to neutral ships or to neutral or non-combatant life, 
and in strict observance of the .dictates of humanity. 

' The British and French Governments will therefore hold 
themselves free to detain and take into port ships carrying 
goods of presumed enemy destination, ownership, or origin. 
It is not intended to confiscate such vessels or cargoes 
unless they would otherwise be liable to condemnation. 

' The treatment of vessels and cargoes which have sailed 
before this date will not be affected/ 

That, Sir, is our reply. I may say, before I comment upon it, 
that the suggestion which I see is put forward from a German 
quarter that we have rejected some proposal or suggestion 
made to the two Powers by the United States Government, 
I do not say anything more than it is quite untrue. On the 
contrary, all we have said to the United States so far is, that 
we are taking it into careful consideration in consultation with 
our Allies. Now, the Committee will have observed, from the 
statement I have just read out of the retaliatory measures we 
propose to adopt, the words ' blockade ' and ' contraband/ 
and other technical terms of international law, do not occur, 
and advisedly so. In dealing with an opponent who has 
openly repudiated all the principles, both of law and of 
humanity, we are not going to allow our efforts to be strangled 
in a network of juridical niceties. We do not intend to put 
into operation any measures which we do not think to be 
effective, and I need not say we shall carefully avoid any 
measures which violate the rules either of humanity or of 
honesty. Subject to those two conditions, I say to our enemy 
I say it on behalf of the Government, and I hope on behalf 
of the House of Commons that under existing conditions 
there is no form of economic pressure to which we do not 
consider ourselves entitled to resort. If, as a consequence, 
neutrals suffer inconvenience and loss of trade we regret it, 
but we beg them to remember that this phase of the war was 
not initiated by us. We do not propose either to assassinate 

7 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

*> 

their seamen or to destroy their goods, but what we are doing 
we do solely in self-defence. If, again, as is possible, hardship 
is caused to the civil and non-combatant population of the 
enemy by the cutting off of supplies, we are not doing more in 
this respect than was done in the days when Germany still 
acknowledged the authority of the law of nations, sanctioned 
by the first and the greatest of her Chancellors, and practised 
by the expressed declarations of his successor. We are quite 
prepared to submit to the arbitrament of neutral opinion in this 
war in the circumstances in which we have been placed. We 
have been moderate and restrained, and we have abstained 
from things which we were provoked and tempted to do, and 
we have adopted the policy which recommends itself to reason, 
common sense, and to justice. 

This new aspect of the war only serves to illustrate and to 
emphasise the truth that the gravity and the magnitude of the 
task we have undertaken does not diminish, but increases, as 
the months go by. The call for men to join our fighting forces, 
which is our primary need, has been and is being nobly re- 
sponded to here at home and throughout the Empire. That 
call, we say with all plainness and directness, was never more 
urgent or more imperious than to-day, for this is a war not 
only of men, but of material. Take only one illustration. The 
expenditure upon ammunition on both sides has been on a 
scale and at a rate which is not only without precedent, but is 
far in excess of any expert forecast. At such a time patriotism 
has cast a heavy burden on the shoulders of all who are en- 
gaged in trades or manufactures which, directly or indirectly, 
minister to the equipment of our forces. It is a burden, let me 
add, which falls, or ought to fall, with even weight on both 
employers and employed. Differences as to remuneration or 
as to profit, or as to hours and conditions of labour, which in 
ordinary times might well justify a temporary cessation of 
work, should no longer be allowed to do so. The first duty 
of all concerned is to go on producing with might and main 
what the safety of the State requires, and, if this is done, I 
can say with perfect confidence the Government on its part 
will ensure a prompt and equitable settlement of disputed 
points, and, in cases of proved necessity, will give, on behalf 
of the State, such help as is in their power. 

Sailors and soldiers, employers and workmen in the in- 
8 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

dustrial world are all at this moment partners and co-operators 
in one great enterprise. The men in the shipyards and the 
engineering shops, the workers in the textile factories, the 
miner who sends the coal to the surface, the dockyard labourer 
who helps to load and unload the ships, and those who em- 
ploy and organise and supervise their labour, are one and all 
rendering to their country a service as vital and as indispensable 
as the gallant men who line the trenches in Flanders or in 
France, or who are bombarding fortresses in the Dardanelles. 
I hear sometimes whispers, hardly more than whispers, of 
possible terms of peace. Peace is the greatest of all human 
blessings, but this is not the time to talk of peace. Those 
who talk of peace, however excellent their intentions, are, in 
my judgment, victims, I will not say of wanton, but of grievous 
self-delusion in the stress and tumult of the tempest which 
is shaking the foundations of the earth. The time to talk of 
peace is when the great tasks in .which we and our Allies em- 
barked on this long and stormy voyage, are within sight of 
accomplishment. Speaking at the Guildhall at the Lord 
Mayor's banquet last November, I used this language, which 
has since been repeated almost in the same terms by the Prime 
Minister of France, and which, I believe, represents the settled 
sentiment and purpose of the country. I said : 

'We shall never sheath the sword, which we have not lightly 
drawn, until Belgium recovers in full measure all, and more than all, 
she has sacrificed ; until France is adequately secured against the 
menace of aggression ; until the rights of the smaller nationalities of 
Europe are placed upon an unassailable foundation, and until the 
military domination of Prussia is wholly and finally destroyed/ 

What I said early in November, now, after four months, I 
repeat to-day. We have not relaxed, nor shall we relax, in 
the pursuit of every one and all of the aims which I have 
described. These are great purposes, and to achieve them we 
must draw upon all our resources, both material and spiritual. 
On the one side, the material side, the demand presented in 
these votes is for men, for money, for the fullest equipment 
for the purposes of war. On the other side, which I have 
called the spiritual side, the appeal is to those ancient, inbred 
qualities of our race which have never failed us in times of 
stress, qualities of self-mastery, self-sacrifice, patience, tena- 

9 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

city, willingness to bear one another's burdens, a unity which 
springs from the dominating sense of a common duty, un- 
failing faith, inflexible resolve. 

MR. BONAR LAW : . . . There is only one other subject on 
which I wish to address the House, and that is what the 
right hon. gentleman has said as to the intentions of our 
Government and of our Allies in regard to what the Germans 
have called the ' English blockade/ but what he has called 
by its true name, ' a campaign of piracy and murder/ It is 
not the time for, and we have long passed the stage of, fight- 
ing Germany with our tongue. There is no object in pointing 
out their atrocities. We have had enough of that, and the 
world realises it. What we have got to do now is to show 
them that their atrocities are in vain, and that we will use 
every weapon in our hands to bring to an end this horrible 
war. In times of peace we have heard plenty, and here in 
the House of Commons there has been a great deal said and 
written, about securing peace, and, even what seemed more 
practicable, about making rules to mitigate the horrors of 
war. What happened ? War comes, and one of the belli- 
gerents ignores utterly from the first every one of the rules, 
even those which they had accented, which are to mitigate 
these horrors of war. As the Prime Minister said, they 
began by the violation of Belgium. They continued by in- 
flicting on the civil population of Belgium horrors which not 
only are a disgrace to humanity, but which were clearly 
forbidden by the recognised rules of war. They seized private 
property ; they fired on hospital ships ; and they strewed 
mines in the open sea, all contrary to every recognised rule 
of war. 

If these international rules are to be of any use how are 
they to be I will not say enforced but to have any sanction ? 
From what quarter can it come ? It must come, if it comes 
at all, from neutral States. What have we found ? Against 
any one of these violations of international law not a single 
protest was lodged by any neutral Power. I do not say that 
in condemnation of neutral Powers. That is not my busi- 
ness. What is .the lesson we must draw from it ? It is surely 
that if these rules are disregarded by one of the belligerents and 
no attempt even is made to enforce them, it is folly, and 
criminal folly, for another belligerent to allow its hands to 
10 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

be tied. I do not mean by that that we are to imitate them 
in methods of inhumanity and brutality, but I do say that 
we are entitled and we are bound to bring to bear our full 
power without regard to those juridical niceties of which the 
Prime Minister has spoken. 

The use of sea power has always, been attended with this 
danger, which does not apply to military operations on land ; 
that it is contrary to the interests and therefore irritates 
neutral countries. Our fathers, in a struggle not more deadly 
than this, faced that danger, and on account of it they never 
for a moment gave up a single one of the rights which sea 
power gives. Throughout this war pressure by sea has been 
greater than ever before. I may say, also, that never before 
has that power been exercised with such a keen regard, not 
only for the rights, but for the interests and the suscepti- 
bilities of neutrals. From the beginning that has been so ; 
but now we are at the parting of the ways. We are face to 
face with a position where one Power, after starting a cam- 
paign of piracy, actually proposes to use that method as a 
lever by which to compel us to abandon recognised rights 
which sea power gives us. The thing is impossible. It could 
not be considered by any Government, and as I understand 
what the Prime Minister has said it is exactly what I hoped 
he would say, and what I intended to suggest that this country 
ought to say it is that nothing of any kind will be allowed 
to go in or come out of Germany, the entrance or exit of 
which it is in our power to prevent. That, as I understand 
it, is the declaration. We owe it to ourselves ; we owe it 
to the men who on land and sea are risking and giving up 
their lives for us ; we owe it to our Allies, to France, for 
instance, for which nation it is not enough to be sure that 
we are going to win ultimately, but which is exposing every 
day the flower of its people to death and for whom the issue 
is a quick end to this war ; we owe it to our people ; we owe 
it to our Allies, and in taking that course the Government 
will have, not the support of the House of Commons only, 
but it will have the support to the end, of the whole 
of the people of this country when they determine that 
no power which is in their hands will be left unused 
to bring at the earliest moment this terrible conflict to 
an end. 

n 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



MERCHANT SEAMEN AND WAR RISKS 

The Board of Trade are establishing a simple and inex- 
pensive insurance system for covering the personal effects of 
masters, officers, and seamen of merchant ships against war 
risks, which will come in" force at all the principal ports next 
Wednesday [March 3]. 

On and after that date any master, officer, or seaman of 
a British merchant ship who wishes to insure his personal 
effects against war risks can obtain at the Mercantile Marine 
Office at any of the principal ports a Certificate of Insurance 
valid for six months. 

A leaflet giving full particulars can be obtained at the 
Mercantile Marine Office at any of the principal ports. 

THE DARDANELLES AND SMYRNA 

The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 
announcement : 

The operations in the Dardanelles are again delayed by 
unfavourable weather. 

A strong north-easterly gate is blowing, with rain and 
mist, which would render long-range fire and aeroplane 
observation difficult. 



The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 
announcement : 

The operations in the Dardanelles were resumed at eleven 
o'clock last Monday morning (March i), when His Majesty's 
ships Triumph, Ocean, and Albion entered the Straits and 
attacked Fort No. 8 and the batteries at White Cliff. The 
fire was returned by the forts and also by field guns and 
howitzers. 

An air reconnaissance made by naval seaplanes in the 
evening reported that several new gun positions had been 
prepared by the enemy, but that no guns had been erected 
in them. 

The seaplanes also located a line of surface mines. During 
Monday night a force of mine-sweepers, covered by destroyers, 

12 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

swept within a mile and a half of Cape Kephez, and their 
work, which was carried out under fire, is reported to have 
been excellent. 

The casualties sustained during the day were slight, and 
amounted to only six wounded. 

Four of the French battleships operated off Bulair, and 
bombarded the batteries and the communications. 

The operations at the entrance to the Straits already 
reported have resulted in the destruction of nineteen guns 
ranging from 6 inches to n inches ; eleven guns below 
6 inches ; four Nordenfeldt guns ; and two searchlights. The 
magazines of Forts Nos. 6 and 3 were also demolished. 

A further report received states that yesterday (Tuesday) 
the Canopus, Swiftsure, and Cornwallis engaged Fort No. 8. 
A heavy fire was opened on them by Fort No. 9, together 
with field batteries and howitzers. Fort No. 9 was damaged 
and ceased firing at 4.50 P.M. The battleships withdrew at 
5.30 P.M., and although all three ships were hit, the only 
casualty was one man slightly wounded. Seaplane recon- 
naissance was impossible on account of the weather. Mine- 
sweeping operations continued throughout the night. The 
attack progresses. 

The Russian cruiser Askold has joined the Allied Fleet off 
the Dardanelles. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty regrets to announce that 
the following casualties occurred in His Majesty's ship Albion 
during the attack on the Dardanelles Forts on the ist instant : 

OFFICER 
Wounded. Mr. Alfred W. Barber, Boatswain, R.N. 

MEN 

Wounded. Bennetts, James Ninnif, Seaman R.N.R., 
O.N. 3104 C. ; Kirby, John, Petty Officer, O.N. Dev/i468g8 
(R.F.R. A.3934) ; Lock, William John, Leading Seaman 
(C.G.), O.N. Po/i52282 ; Skedgell, Albert George, Petty 
Officer, O.N. Dev/i88766. 



(Official.} 

Paris, March 3. 

The bombardment of the Dardanelles was continued 
yesterday. A French division under Rear- Admiral Guepratte 

13 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

operated in the Gulf of Saros, with the forts and the Bulair 
lines as its objective. The Suffren effectively bombarded the 
Sultan Fort. The Gaulois set fire to the barracks of Fort 
Napoleon. The garrisons evacuated the works. The Bouvet 
seriously damaged the bridge over the river Kavak. 

Renter. 

Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : To-day the enemy fleet continued 
firing on the battery Sedd-el-Bahr at fairly long intervals. 
Enemy attempts to land reconnoitring parties at separate 
points were frustrated. Finally five enemy armoured ships, 
which had been firing at some of our other batteries without 
effect, were hit by seven shells fired from them and compelled 
to retire. 

Constantinople, March 3. 

The enemy fleet yesterday bombarded for three hours the 
Dardanelles unsuccessfully, and was forced to retreat by the 
active fire of our batteries. At the same time an enemy 
fleet consisting of four French cruisers and a number of 
torpedo-boats unsuccessfully bombarded our position in the 
Gulf of Saros ; our aviators successfully bombarded the 
enemy's vessels. 

Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : Yesterday a part of the enemy fleet 
bombarded a few of our batteries for half an hour at the 
entrance of the Dardanelles, without results. 

In regard to yesterday's bombardment of the Dardanelles, 
it is further announced that the enemy fleet fired over 600 
shells without achieving any result. The shells from the 
Turkish battery carried away the after-mast of one of the 
ships flying the Vice- Admiral's flag, and repeatedly hit enemy 
ships. The night before last enemy torpedo-boats attempted 
to penetrate into the Straits, but were compelled by the 
batteries to retire. According to a private wire from the 
' Milli ' Agency one torpedo-boat was sunk. 



The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 
announcement : 

The attack upon the fortresses of the Dardanelles was 
14 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

continued yesterday. The Admiral has not yet reported the 
results obtained within the Straits. 

Outside His Majesty's ship Dublin demolished an observa- 
tion station on the Gallipoli Peninsula, and His Majesty's 
ship Sapphire bombarded guns and troops at various points 
in the Gulf of Adramyti. 

Six modern field guns near Fort B have been destroyed, 
bringing the total number of guns demolished up to forty. 

French battleships have bombarded the Bulair Forts and 
wrecked the Kavak bridge. 



The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following Times, 
announcement : March 8, 

Further reports have now been received from Vice- Admiral 
Garden on the operations of March 3 and subsequent days. 

No action was possible on the 3rd till 2 P.M., when, 
although the weather was still unfavourable, Irresistible, 
Albion, Prince George, and Triumph resumed the attack on 
Fort Dardanos (E) and the concealed guns in its neighbour- 
hood. These were less active than before, and were dealt 
with by the ships with more certainty. A useful seaplane 
reconnaissance located several encampments and two per- 
manent batteries. 

On March 4 the weather became fine, and the sweeping 
and bombarding operations within the Straits continued 
steadily. Meanwhile demolition parties, covered by detach- 
ments of the Marine Brigade of the Royal Naval Division, 
were landed at Kum Kale and Sedd-el-Bahr to continue the 
clearance of the ground at the entrance to the Straits. The 
party at Sedd-el-Bahr discovered and destroyed four Norden- 
feldts. Some skirmishing ensued on both banks, and the 
enemy were found to be holding the villages in force. 

On this day, also, farther down the coast, Sapphire silenced 
a battery of field guns north of Dikili in the Gulf of Adramyti, 
and the defences of Besika were shelled by Prince George. 

The following casualties were sustained on the 4th : 
nineteen killed, three missing, twenty-five wounded. 

On March 5 the attack was begun by indirect fire from 
Queen Elizabeth upon the defences at the Narrows. This 
attack was supported in dealing with howitzers by Inflexible 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

and Prince George. Fire was confined to forts Rumilieh 
Medjidieh Tabia, Hamidieh II. Tabia, and Namazieh (marked 

l [See on the Admiralty Map 1 J, L, and T), which are armed as 

P- "40 follows : 

J. 2 ii in. L. 2 14 in. T. I n in. 

4 9.4 in. i 10.2 in. 

5 34 in. ii 9.4 in. 

3 8.2 in. 

3 5-9 in - 
Queen Elizabeth fired twenty-nine rounds with satisfactory 

results. The magazine in Fort L, which is an important 
fort armed with the best and heaviest guns, blew up. The 
other two forts were damaged. The fire of the Inflexible 
and Prince George was observed from inside the Dardanelles 
by Irresistible, Canopus, Cornwallis, and Albion. Although 
these vessels were much fired at by concealed guns, they 
were not hit. 

Sapphire again fired on troops in the neighbourhood of 
the Gulf of Adramyti, and destroyed a military station at 
Tuzburna. 

On March 5 also the Commander-in-Chief East Indies, 
Vice- Admiral Sir Richard Peirs^e, arrived with a squadron of 
battleships and cruisers off Smyrna. A methodical bombard- 
ment of Fort Yenikale was carried out during the afternoon 
for two hours in favourable conditions of weather. Thirty- 
two hits were secured, inflicting considerable damage on the 
fort, and there were two heavy explosions, apparently of 
' magazines. Euryalus, which flew the flag of the Vice- 
Admiral, shot with remarkable accuracy from her after 
9.2-in. guns. Fire was not returned. 

The bombardment at closer range has now begun, the 
weather conditions being good. The reduction of the Smyrna 
defences is a necessary incident in the main operation. 



Times, The Secretary to the Admiralty is authorised to make 

March 9, the following announcement : 

I 9 I 5- The operations against the Dardanelles are progressing, 

favoured by fine weather. 

Vice- Admiral Garden reports that on the 6th of March 

Queen Elizabeth, supported by Agamemnon and Ocean, began 

16 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to attack forts Hamidieh I. Tabia and Hamidieh III. 
(marked on the Admiralty Map U and V), by indirect fire 
across the Gallipoli Peninsula, firing at 21,000 yards. These 
forts are armed as follows : 

U 2 14-111. guns. V 2 14-in. guns. 

7 9.4-in. guns. i 9.4-in. gun. 

i 8.2-in. gun. 
4 5-9-in. guns. 

Queen Elizabeth was replied to by howitzers and field guns, 
and three shells from field guns struck her without causing 
any damage. Meanwhile inside the Straits Vengeance, Albion, 
Majestic, Prince George, and the French battleship Suffren 
fired on Suandere and Mount Dardanos batteries (marked F 
and E on the Admiralty map), and were fired on by a number 
of concealed guns. Fort Rumilieh Medjidieh Tabia (marked J 
on Admiralty map), which had been attacked on the previous 
day, opened fire and was engaged and hit by 12-in. shells. 
The majority of the ships inside were struck by shells, but 
there was no serious damage and no casualties. 

On the yth of March, the weather continuing calm and 
fine, four French battleships (Gaulois, Charlemagne, Bouvet, 
and Suffren) entered the Straits to cover the direct bombard- 
ment of the defences of the Narrows by Agamemnon and 
Lord Nelson. The French ships engaged Mount Dardanos 
battery and various concealed guns, silencing the former. 
Agamemnon and Lord Nelson then advanced, and engaged the 
forts at the Narrows at 14,000 to 12,000 yards by direct fire. 
Forts Rumilieh Medjidieh Tabia (J) and Hamidieh I. Tabia (U) 
replied. Both were silenced after heavy bombardment. 
Explosions occurred in both forts. Fort L has not fired since 
the explosion on the 5th. Gaulois, Agamemnon, and Lord 
Nelson were struck three times each ; damage not serious. 
Lord Nelson had three men slightly wounded. 

While these operations were in progress the Dublin con- 
tinued to watch the Bulair Isthmus. She was fired at by 
4-in. guns and struck three or four times. 

Owing to the importance of locating the concealed guns 
the seaplanes have had to fly very low on occasions. On 
the 4th instant a seaplane (pilot Flight-Lieutenant Garnett, 
observer Lieutenant-Commander Williamson) became un- 

NAVAL 4 B 17 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

stable and nose-dived into the sea, both officers being injured. 
Flight-Lieutenant Douglas, reconnoitring at close quarters in 
another seaplane, was wounded, but managed to return 
safely. On the 5th, seaplane No. 172 (pilot Flight-Lieutenant 
Bromet, with Lieutenant Brown) was hit no fewer than 
twenty-eight times, and seaplane No. 7 (pilot Flight-Lieu- 
tenant Kershaw, with Petty Officer Merchant) eight times in 
locating concealed positions. The Ark Royal is equipped 
with every appliance necessary for the repair and maintenance 
of the numerous aircraft she carries. 



The Secretary of the Admiralty also makes the following 
announcement : 

The Commander-in-Chief, East Indies, Sir Richard Peirse, 
has made a further report on his operations before Smyrna, 
from which it appears that, having bombarded Fort Yeni- 
kale on the 5th and severely damaged it, he proceeded on 
the morning of the 6th to sweep his way in through the mine- 
fields until he drew the fire of several subsidiary batteries, 
one containing four 6-in. guns near Paleo Tabia Point, another 
five approximate 4.7-in. guns 150 feet up the hillside, and 
three field guns in earthworks at Chiflik Guardhouse. There 
were also several smaller guns concealed along the shore to 
the eastward. These were engaged by the ships at from 
7000 to 8000 yards. 

The batteries replied vigorously, but after one hour's fire 
on each were silenced. In the afternoon the ships steamed 
into closer range and engaged Paleo Tabia battery and other 
batteries on the hill. Fire was continued until all were 
silenced. Eiiryalus and one of the battleships were each hit 
by 6-in. projectiles, and the mine-sweepers were hit by frag- 
ments of shell that burst near. 

Our casualties were slight. The operations are continuing. 



Paris, March 5. 

An official communique issued by the Ministry of Marine 
states that the battleships continued methodically yesterday 
their operations in the Dardanelles. 
18 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Despite a violent north-westerly wind, numerous trawlers 
kept up the work of dragging from the entrance of the Straits 
to Soun Shalbac and Bannessu points. The observation 
stations at Gaba Tepe (outside the Straits, on the northern 
coast) were destroyed by the fire from a cruiser, and the 
Turkish batteries were shelled. 

The French cruiser D* Entrecasteaux demolished the sema- 
phore lighthouse at Arsoun. The battleship Jaureguiberry 
destroyed the Turkish oil depot at Said (near Gaba Tepe). 



On March 5, three ironclads, stationed in the Gulf of C.O., 
Saros, bombarded by indirect fire across the peninsula of March 13, 
Gallipoli the Turkish forts on the point of Kilid-Bahr which, 
on the European side of the Straits, command the Narrows 
between that point and the point of Chanak. The fire was 
controlled by four ironclads stationed at the entrance of the 
Dardanelles. The effects of this bombardment were very 
satisfactory. The magazine of one of the forts blew up. 
No vessel was struck. On the 6th, the ironclad Queen 
Elizabeth, stationed in the Gulf of Saros, bombarded by in- 
direct fire the two great works on the Asiatic side which 
defend the passage in the neighbourhood of Chanak, Fort 
Hamidieh I. Tabia, and Fort Hamidieh III. Sultanieh. At 
the same time ironclads entering the Straits carried on 
the direct bombardment of the works of Dardanos on the 
Asiatic side and of Suandere on the European side. On 
the 7th the French ironclads Suffren, Gaulois, Charlemagne, 
and Bouvet, and the British ironclads Agamemnon and Lord 
Nelson entered the Straits. While the British ironclads 
bombarded at long range the forts of the Narrows between 
Chanak and Kilid-Bahr, the French ironclads covered them 
by firing at the batteries of Dardanos and Suandere and at 
concealed guns, which were silenced. The Fort Rumilieh 
Medjidieh Tabia on the European side, and the Fort 
Hamidieh I. Tabia on the Asiatic side replied to the British 
ironclads, but were also silenced. On the 8th the Queen 
Elizabeth, supported by four ironclads, entered the Dardanelles 
and bombarded the Fort Rumelieh Medjidieh Tabia, to the 
south of the point Kilid-Bahr, with her 15-in. guns. The 
operations were hampered by bad weather. 

19 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Paris, March 6. 

A communiqub issued by the Ministry of War says : 
In view of the situation at the Dardanelles, and in order 
to be prepared for any eventuality, the Government has 
decided to concentrate an expeditionary force in Northern 
Africa. The troops will be ready to embark the moment 
the signal is given, and will be despatched to any point where 
their presence may be required by circumstances. 



Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : Yesterday two enemy armoured 
ships and a cruiser bombarded the forts on the coast of 
Smyrna during three hours, without any success whatever. 
To-day at eight o'clock one French and three English war- 
ships, followed by five large mine-sweepers, again shelled 
the forts of Smyrna for an hour and a half. Seven shots 
from our batteries hit the enemy armoured ship which had 
first opened fire. A mine-sweeper was sunk. During to-day's 
and yesterday's bombardment we had four killed and seven 
wounded in all. Yesterday and to-day the enemy fleet did 
not attempt any serious action against the Straits of the 
Dardanelles. It is confirmed that the enemy aeroplane 
which fell into the sea had been damaged by the fire of our 
batteries. 

Amsterdam, March 9. 

A telegram from Berlin says that an official communi 
issued by the Turkish Main Headquarters yesterday says : 

On Sunday three hostile armoured ships intermittently 
bombarded without result for three hours at long range the 
forts at Smyrna and afterwards retired. This morning the 
ships continued for an hour an unsuccessful fire. Both 
bombardments did no damage and caused no losses. 

In the afternoon four British warships intermittently 
bombarded our batteries on the Dardanelles outside the range 
of our batteries. The warships, without attaining success, 
retired to Tenedos. The hostile cruiser in the Gulf of Saros 
which bombarded the regions of Karab and Bulair was hit 
in the bridge by two shells. 



20 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : No change of importance has taken K.V., 
place in the general situation. This afternoon six enemy March;, 
armoured ships bombarded our batteries in the Straits of X 9i5. 
the Dardanelles. Our batteries replied with success. 



Constantinople. 

The special correspondent of Wolff's Telegraph Bureau ibid. 
telegraphs from the Dardanelles : Yesterday's development 
of the artillery action in the outer Dardanelles shows clearly 
that on the English side it is realised more and more that 
it will be difficult to obtain results without enormous sacri- 
fices. I watched yesterday's bombardment at Dardanos 
from the immediate proximity. Two cruisers, which 'kept 
constantly changing their positions, dropped shells in the 
neighbourhood of the village and into the sea, but not into 
the Turkish battery, which replied and scored three hits 
without itself suffering the loss of a single man. In conse- 
quence of this, the English fired to-day from a greater dis- 
tance, from which can be gathered that they are more anxious 
to spare themselves than to strive for success. The Turkish 
officers and men are filled with a confident spirit. 



Constantinople. 

The following additional details concerning to-day's bom- ibid. 
bardment are reported by Headquarters. The enemy fleet 
was reinforced by the English ships Majestic and Irresistible, 
but a French armoured cruiser was put out of action and an 
English armoured cruiser damaged by the fire of our batteries. 
In consequence of our bombardment the enemy ships retired 
at 3.15 and ceased firing. Our batteries did not suffer any 
damage whatever. 

Amsterdam, March 6. 

According to a Constantinople telegram the latest official Times, 
communique on the operations in the Dardanelles is as March 8, 
follows : 1915- 

Yesterday evening an enemy fleet, under a strong fire, 
attempted to land troops at some points on the coast near 

21 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Kum Kale, out of range of our artillery. At first we let the 
enemy proceed, but later replied to their fire. Sixty enemy 
soldiers who disembarked near Sedd-el-Bahr, fled to their 
boats and retreated, leaving behind twenty dead and wounded. 
Four hundred enemy soldiers who came ashore near Kum 
Kale were driven away, losing some eighty dead and wounded. 
We lost six men killed and twenty-five wounded in the two 
fights. Two airmen who flew across the Gulf of Saros fell 
into the sea, and their seaplane disappeared in the water. 
In the other theatres of war there is nothing important to 
report. 



Main Headquarters, Berlin, March 8. 

The special correspondent of the Lokalanzeiger at the 
Dardanelles, telegraphing on the bombardment at ten o'clock 
in the morning, states that five large warships appeared in 
the Straits at high speed, and that they commenced the 
bombardment without following any special plan. 

The English fire about sixty shells at one battery every 
hour, and scarcely a shot finds it mark. The heaviest Turkish 
guns on both sides of the Straits 'have not once replied to 
this waste of powder by the English. The English have less 
luck in their attempts to land troops, and wherever they 
appear they are driven back to the water with important 
losses. The feeling of the people here is splendid. Up to 
now at least 5000 shells of the heaviest calibre have been 
fired by the enemy. The results obtained are only the 
destruction of two ancient works at the entrance to the 
Straits, which were defended by old guns. The forts proper 
of the Dardanelles are quite intact. 



Constantinople . 

The special correspondent of Wolff's Telegraph Bureau 
telegraphs from the Dardanelles : Saturday (March 6) brought 
a fresh development of the conflict ; fire was opened in the 
usual manner from a great distance against the batteries of 
Dardanos as well as against Fort Medjidieh, which replied 
and scored some hits notwithstanding the distance. Soon 
after the beginning of the action an English Dreadnought 

22 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

joined in the action by firing indirectly from the Bay of Saros 
over the hills of the point on the European side. The corre- 
spondent notices from his point of observation, situated within 
the fighting area of Fort Hamidieh, that the shells dropped 
partly on the European shore, partly into the water, where 
they burst. In the afternoon some stray shots passed over 
Fort Hamidieh and dropped in a field, where they sent up 
huge columns of earth. The Turkish batteries replied to 
the fire with a few well-aimed shots, and forced the English 
ship to retire. In the evening a shell splinter pierced the 
roof of an empty house without causing injury to anybody. 
In the village of Tchanak Kale the population is perfectly 
calm. 



Constantinople, March 9. 

Headquarters reports: To-day three enemy ironclads K.D., 
bombarded intermittently and without result our infantry March 9, 
positions near Fort Sedd-el-Bahr. Enemy mine-sweepers, 
which tried to approach our mine-fields under cover of a fog, 
were driven off by our batteries. 



REGULATIONS FOR TRAVELLERS TO HOLLAND 

Persons desiring to travel to Flushing or Rotterdam, via Times, 
Folkestone or Tilbury, on and after Monday, March 8, are March 2, 
reminded that they must first obtain a permit from the I 9 I 5- 
Home Office. Applications for permits may be made in 
person on and after Thursday, March 4, at the Permit Office, 
Downing Street, S.W. Applications must be made at least 
three days before the date of sailing. Permits will be issued 
with as little delay as possible, but the Office cannot guarantee 
their issue in any definite time in cases where inquiry is 
necessary. 

All applicants will be required to produce their passports, 
with their photographs attached and their certificates of 
registration, if any, and must furnish the names and addresses 
of two British subjects to whom reference can be made. 

23 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

They must also produce satisfactory evidence as to the object 
of their journey. Employes of firms, or persons acting on 
behalf of firms or other persons, must, in addition, produce 
certificates from their employers as to the nature of the 
business on which they are proceeding abroad. In the case 
of persons living at a distance from London a preliminary 
application may be made in writing. 



NAVAL PRIZE BOUNTY 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 2nd day of March 



Present, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

L.G., WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a Memorial 

March 2, from the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the 
I 9 I 5- Admiralty, dated the igth day of February 1915, in the 

words following, viz. : 

' i. Whereas by the Naval Prize Act, 1864, it is enacted 
that if Your Majesty is pleased in relation to any war 
to declare, by Proclamation or Order in Council, Your 
intention to grant Prize Bounty to the Officers and 
crews of Your Majesty's Ships of War, then such of the 
Officers and crews of Your Majesty's Ships of War as are 
actually present at the taking or destroying of any armed 
Ship of any of Your Majesty's enemies shall be entitled 
to have distributed among them as Prize Bounty a sum 
calculated at the rate of 5 for each person on board the 
enemy's Ship at the beginning of the engagement : 

1 2. And whereas a state of war exists between Your 
Majesty and the German Empire, the Dual Monarchy of 
Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire : 

' 3. We beg humbly to submit that Your Majesty may 
now be graciously pleased, by Your Order in Council, to 
declare Your intention to grant Prize Bounty to the 
Officers and crews of Your Majesty's Ships of War. 

' 4. We further beg humbly to submit that Prize 

Bounty as ascertained under the provisions of the Naval 

Prize Act, 1864, should be paid by the Lords Commis- 

sioners of Your Majesty's Treasury into the account of 

24 



;] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Your Majesty's Paymaster-General at the Bank of England 
for distribution under our direction among the Officers and 
crews of Your Majesty's Ships of War entitled thereto in 
the shares in that behalf to be specified hereafter by Your 
Order in Council. 

' The Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Trea- 
sury have signified their concurrence in this proposal/ 

His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy 
Council, to make a Declaration in the terms mentioned, and 
to approve of what is thereinafter proposed. And the Right 
Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty are 
to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 



EMERGENCY ENGINEERING DUTIES 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 2nd day of March, ibid. 



Present, 

The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 
WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a Memorial 
from the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty, dated the 2ist day of February 1915, in the words 
following, viz. : 

' Whereas by Section 3 of the Naval and Marine Pay 
and Pensions Act, 1865, it is enacted, inter alia, that all 
pay, pensions, or other allowances in the nature thereof, 
payable in respect of services in Your Majesty's Naval or 
Marine Force to a person being or having been an Officer, 
Seaman, or Marine therein, shall be paid in such manner, 
and subject to such restrictions, conditions, and pro- 
visions, as are from time to time directed by Order in 
Council : 

' And whereas by Order in Council, bearing date the 
8th day of August 1911, Your Majesty was pleased to 
sanction the payment of allowances to Officers actually 
borne for the performance of Engineering Duties, subject 
to their having passed certain courses in Engineering : 

' And whereas these courses have been suspended during 
the present state of hostilities, and it is therefore neces- 

25 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

sary to make provision for the performance of Engineer- 
ing Duties by Officers who may not have passed the 
specified courses, but who should nevertheless be eligible 
to receive the authorised allowances : 

' We beg leave humbly to recommend that Your 
Majesty may be graciously pleased, by Your Order in 
Council, to sanction the payment during the period of 
hostilities of the allowances authorised for the perform- 
ance of Engineering Duties to such Officers, subject to 
such conditions as regards practical training as we may 
deem necessary. 

1 The Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Treasury 
have signified their concurrence in this proposal/ 

His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy 
Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And the 
Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
are to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 



DENTAL SURGEONS IN R.N.V.R. 

v 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 2nd day of March 
19*5. 

Present, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a Memorial 
from the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty, dated the 25th day of February 1915, in the 
words following, viz. : 

' Whereas by section 3 of the Naval and Marine Pay 
and Pensions Act, 1865, it is enacted, inter alia, that all 
pay, pensions, or other allowances in the nature thereof, 
payable in respect of services in Your Majesty's Naval or 
Marine Force to a person being or having been an Officer, 
Seaman, or Marine therein, shall be paid in such manner, 
and subject to such restrictions, conditions, and provi- 
sions, as are from time to time directed by Order in 
Council : 

' And whereas by the Naval Forces Act, 1903, it is 
26 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

enacted that the Admiralty shall have power to raise and 
maintain a force to be called the Royal Naval Volunteer 
Reserve, and that any Volunteer enrolled under this Act, 
when serving for training afloat or called out for actual 
service, shall be deemed to be serving in Your Majesty's 
Naval or Marine Force within the meaning of the Naval 
and Marine Pay and Pensions Act, 1865 : 

' And whereas we deem it expedient, under the 
authority conferred on us by the said Naval Forces Act, 
1903, to establish temporarily a rank of Royal Naval 
Volunteer Reserve Officer to be entitled Dental Surgeon : 

1 We beg leave humbly to recommend that Your 
Majesty may be graciously pleased, by Your Order in 
Council, to sanction the establishment temporarily of this 
rank accordingly, under the regulations set forth in the 
accompanying Schedule. 

'The Lords Commissioners of. Your Majesty's Trea- 
sury have signified their concurrence in these proposals. 



SCHEDULE 

' REGULATIONS FOR THE ENTRY OF DENTAL SURGEONS 
FOR TEMPORARY SERVICE IN THE ROYAL NAVAL 
VOLUNTEER RESERVE. 

' i. Relative Rank . To be that of Surgeon R.N.V.R. 

' 2. Pay . . . To be at the rate of i a day. 

'3. Widows' Pensions, etc. Compensation for injury and 

Pensions and Allowances to 
widows, children, etc., to be 
on the same scale, and pay- 
able under the same condi- 
tions, as those applicable to 
Surgeons R.N.V.R/ 

His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy 
Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And the 
Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
are to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 



27 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



ANTIVARI BOMBARDED 

Sir J. Roper Parkington, Consul-General for Montenegro, 
has received the following official telegram from Cettinje : 

' Yesterday at three o'clock in the morning, five Austrian 
warships entered the port of Antivari and bombarded both 
town and port. Some valuable stores were burnt, and the 
Royal yacht, which was at anchor, was sunk. One civilian 
was killed and several wounded/ 



THE ORDER OF THE BATH 

House of Lords, March 2, 1915. 

LORD LATYMER rose to ask His Majesty's Government 
whether they would be willing to approach His Majesty the 
King with a view to the amendment of the Statutes governing 
the appointment to the First Class of the Order of the Bath 
so as to admit thereto officers of the Royal Marines. 

The noble Lord said : My Lords, on a recent occasion 
(November 24, 1914) 1 1 drew attention to the disabilities and 
disadvantages under which the Royal Marines labour in 
comparison with His Majesty's other Forces, and I then 
mentioned that one of those disadvantages was that Marine 
officers are debarred from obtaining the highest class of the 
Order of the Bath namely, the G.C.B. On that occasion I 
alluded to only a few of the disabilities under which the 
Marines labour. I shall have, I hope, later on, when the 
present stress and strain is over, some other opportunity of 
bringing to the notice of the House these manifest disabilities 
and disadvantages. When I brought forward my request for 
the appointment of a Committee to inquire into these matters, 
I was asked to postpone the Motion, and in accordance with 
that docility with which we are affected on this side of the 
House I gave way. But, as I say, I hope on another occasion 
to bring the matter forward again, and to press successfully 
the Motion for the appointment of a Committee of Inquiry. 

But to-day I propose to deal with one particular point 
only namely, the exclusion of Royal Marine officers from 
any chance of ever obtaining the highest class of the Order 
of the Bath. It seems, on the face of it, an incredible thing 
28 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

that this should be so. I do not know what possible reasons 
can be adduced for the exclusion. The Royal Marines, as 
we know, is one of the finest bodies of men that we possess. 
They are, I believe, the only Infantrymen in the world who 
are also Artillerymen. They won Gibraltar for us, and they 
may, for all I know, at this moment be winning Constanti- 
nople. Yet Marine officers are excluded from admission to 
the First Class of the Order of the Bath. Why ? I shall 
be curious to hear the answer. I think every noble Lord 
who heard the reply of the Government which was given to 
me on the former occasion was satisfied that it was very 
inadequate. In fact, the noble Lord who replied took no 
notice at all of what I had said about the highest class of 
the Order of the Bath. He did not answer that point in 
any way. He afterwards had the courtesy, however, to send 
me a statement upon the matter, the first paragraph of which 
reads as follows : ' From the terms of the accompanying 
Statute it would appear that officers of the Royal Marines 
are excluded from appointment to the First Class, or Knights 
Grand Cross, of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath/ 
If there ever was a time when our troops of all kinds ought 
to be encouraged in every possible way, it is the present. 
And although this may not seem a very great matter, we 
must remember that all officers whether in the Navy, the 
Army, or the Marines are most sensitive on such points. 
What affects Marine officers is not that they cannot obtain 
this honour, but the slur which is cast upon them by being 
excluded from it. I therefore urge that the Government 
should give their attention to this small matter, the putting 
right of which would, I venture to say from my knowledge 
of many officers in the Marines, encourage them immensely. 

I do not know what the reasons, if any, are why this 
extraordinary omission from the Statute came to be made. 
It certainly cannot be alleged that it is due to inadvertence, 
because at the time of the late Queen's Jubilee a special 
Statute was passed enabling one particular Marine officer to 
be made a G.C.B. I venture to say that that exception 
proves that the rule ought not to exist. For if there was an 
officer of the Royal Marines who was worthy to have the 
G.C.B. in 1887, there certainly must be cases of other officers 
similarly entitled to the honour. As I have said, the 

29 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

exclusion of Marine officers was not the result of inadvertence. 
There must be some extraordinary reason for it a reason 
very much wrapped up, low down, and difficult to get at. 
As a small encouragement to this worthy body of men, who 
have gone all over the world and always done their duty 
wherever they may have been, I ask His Majesty's Govern- 
ment to approach His Majesty with a view to the Statutes 
in question being amended so as to admit officers of the Royal 
Marines to be appointed to the First Class of the Order of 
the Bath. 

EARL BEAUCHAMP : My Lords, my noble friend who 
generally attends to Admiralty affairs in your Lordships' 
House is unfortunately laid up by the prevailing illness and 
unable to attend, but on his behalf I have pleasure in replying 
to the noble Lord's question. It appears that under the 
Statutes which govern the Order of the Bath, General officers 
of the Royal Marines are not eligible for the Grand Cross ; 
and as was said by the noble Lord just now, when an appoint- 
ment was made in 1887 a special Statute was passed for the 
purpose. That special Statute, however, applied to the 
particular individual and was not made of general application. 
The explanation is that until now General officers of the 
Royal Marines have had, generally speaking, no military 
command open to them ; it is only recently that they have 
been considered with Generals of the Army in the selection 
to certain commands, and there is one Royal Marine officer 
now in command in Sierra Leone. The fact that on the 
last occasion the noble Lord met with no satisfaction on this 
point is, I am afraid, due to my noble friend who "replied not 
knowing that this question was going to be raised. He 
therefore had no information at his disposal without making 
inquiries into the subject. As it is, His Majesty's Government 
have no reason to be anything but obliged to the noble Lord 
for having drawn this apparent anomaly to their attention, 
and I can assure him that this matter will be considered, 
together with a whole lot of difficult questions of a similar 
kind. 

The EARL OF SELBORNE : My Lords, I am glad that Lord 
Latymer has brought this matter forward, and it was with 
pleasure that I listened to the reply of the noble Earl on 
behalf of His Majesty's Government. It was obvious that 
30 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

when once attention was drawn to this extraordinary anomaly 
no one in authority would attempt to defend it. It is a 
commonplace with all of us what a valuable corps the Royal 
Marines are, and that they, and they alone, of the King's 
Forces should be debarred, in the persons of their senior 
officers, from receiving the highest reward of the Order of 
the Bath was certainly an anomaly which could not be 
upheld. I was glad also to gather from what the noble Earl 
said that there are other questions in connection with the 
Royal Marines which are going to be considered by the 
Board of Admiralty. 

The officers of the Royal Marines are in a position of 
quite extraordinary difficulty. After a life spent in valuable 
service at sea and on land, and just as the Marine officer 
rises to the top of his profession so are all avenues of employ- 
ment closed to him. It was for that reason that the Board 
of Admiralty over which I had the honour to preside, when 
the new scheme of naval training was brought in fourteen 
years ago, settled that entry to the Royal Marines should be 
the same as that of officers of the Navy through Osborne 
and Dartmouth. By that means, and by that means alone, 
the Board of Admiralty at that time thought that officers of 
the Royal Marines could be delivered from that professional 
cul-de-sac in which they always found themselves just as 
they arrived at the height of their experience and power ; 
because the Army naturally did not consider itself responsible 
for finding employment for the senior officers of the Marines, 
and the only employment for those senior officers which the 
Navy had to offer were commands of a naval character for 
which Royal Marine officers had not been trained. Therefore 
it was that we hoped, by this common entry of all officers 
of all branches serving in the King's ships, we should be 
able to give an open career to the principal and most able 
officers of Marines just as to the principal and most able 
officers of the Navy. 

Circumstances over which the Board of Admiralty had no 
control have, however, rather interrupted our intentions, 
because the expansion of the Navy has been so great that all 
officers who were educated at Osborne and Dartmouth have 
necessarily been taken for the Navy and none have been 
left for the Marines. Therefore entry for the Marines from 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

outside had again to be allowed in order that the ranks of 
the officers of the Marines might be filled. I am glad, however, 
that His Majesty's Government are going to look into this 
whole question of officers of the Royal Marines, and that 
they have given us a practical pledge that they will, at a 
time which seems good to them, approach His Majesty with 
a view to throwing the highest honour of the Order of the 
Bath open to officers of the Royal Marines as well as to 
officers of the Navy and the Army. 



OPERATIONS IN THE PERSIAN GULF 

Constantinople, March 9. 

KD., Headquarters reports as follows: As the English were 

March 9, attempting a fresh advance along the river Karun in Irak 
I 9 I 5- they suffered a fresh reverse. Three battalions of English 

infantry with two quick-firing field guns and two mountain 
guns, a machine-gun section, and one squadron, attempted 
on March 3 to attack our positions in the neighbourhood of 
Ahvaz. After our troops and volunteers had undertaken a 
counter-attack, and the enemy had lost four hundred killed 
and wounded and left a large number of prisoners in our 
hands, he fled through the river in disorder towards his ships, 
which were moored to the southward of Berder and Nassrie. 
Among the dead are an English major and four other officers. 
Our booty consists of three guns with all their gear and 
munitions, five hundred rifles, two hundred horses, and a 
great quantity of medical stores. Our losses are insignificant. 



NOTICES TO MARINERS 
(No. 149 of the year 1915) 

NORTH SEA 
Caution with regard to Mined Areas 

Former Notice (No. 1706 of 1914) hereby cancelled. 

L.G., Caution. Mariners are again warned that a system of 

March 5, mine-fields has been established by H.M. Government upon 
I 9 I 5- a considerable scale. 

32 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

All vessels are strongly advised to obtain a London Trinity 
House pilot when navigating between Great Yarmouth and 
the English Channel. 

It is dangerous for ships to cross the area between the 
parallels of 51 15' and 51 40' North latitude and the meridians 
of i 35' and 3 oo' East longitude. 

The Southern limit of the area in the North Sea which 
has been rendered dangerous by the enemy's mines is now, 
so far as is known at present, the parallel of 51 54' North 
latitude. 

Remarks. Although these limits are assigned to the 
danger areas, it must not be supposed that navigation is 
necessarily safe in any part of the southern waters of the 
North Sea. 

Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

By Command of their Lordships, 

J. F. PARRY, Hydrogmpher. 

Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, yd March 1915. 

[NOTE. The following is the Notice to Mariners cancelled above, 
together with the previous Notice which it cancels in its turn : 

NOTICE TO MARINERS 
(No. 1706 of the year 1914) 

NORTH SEA 
Caution with regard to Mined Areas 

Former Notice (No. 1626 of 1914) hereby cancelled 

Caution. A system of mine-fields has been established by H.M. L.G., 
Government, and is being developed upon a considerable scale. Nov. 6, 

It is dangerous henceforth for ships to cross the area between the 1914- 
parallels of 51 15' and 51 40' North latitude and the meridians of 
i 35' and 3 oo' East longitude. 

The Southern limit of the area in the North Sea which has been 
rendered dangerous by the enemy's mines is now, so far as is known at 
present, the parallel of 51 54' North latitude and not as stated in the 
former Notice ; this extension is owing to the enemy's mines having 
drifted from their positions. 

Remarks. Although these limits are assigned to the dangerous 
NAVAL 40 33 



L.G., 

Oct. 13, 
1914. 



L.G., 

March 5, 

igzs- 

1 [See 
Naval 3, 
p. 24.] 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

areas, it must not be supposed that navigation is necessarily safe in any 
part of the southern waters of the North Sea. 

Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
By Command of their Lordships, 

J. F. PARRY, Hydrographcr. 

Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, $rd November 1914. 

NOTICE TO MARINERS 
(No. 1626 of the year 1914) 

NORTH SEA 
Caution with regard to Mined Areas 

In confirmation of the Public Notice, which has already been issued 
to the Press, the following information is now promulgated. 

Caution. H.M. Government have authorised a mine-laying policy 
in certain areas, and a system of mine-fields has been established and 
is being developed upon a considerable scale. 

It is dangerous henceforth for ships to cross the area between the 
parallels of 51 15' and 51 40' North latitude and the meridians of 
i 35' and 3 oo' East longitude. 

The Southern limit of the area in the North Sea in which mines have 
been laid by the enemy is, so far asjs known at present, the fifty-second 
parallel of North latitude. 

Remarks. Although these limits are assigned to the danger areas, 
it must not be supposed that navigation is necessarily safe in any part 
of the southern waters of the North Sea. 

Authority. Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
By Command of their Lordships, 

J. F. PARRY, Hydrographer. 

Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, qth October 1914.] 



(No. 154 of the year 1915) 

UNITED KINGDOM 
Pilotage Stations established at certain Ports on account of 

Defensive Mine- fields 

Former Notice (No. 16 of 1915 x ) hereby cancelled 
With reference to the extension of the system of Mine 
defence, notice is hereby given that Pilotage is now com- 
pulsory at the following ports for all vessels (including fishing 
34 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

vessels) which have a draught of over eight feet, and that it 
is highly dangerous for any vessel to enter or leave such 
ports without a pilot. Fishing and other small vessels having 
a draught of over eight feet are to assemble at the Pilotage 
stations, and will be conducted into and out of port in groups. 

(1) FIRTH OF FORTH. All incoming vessels are only per- 
mitted to enter the Firth of Forth during daylight hours ; 
they are to pass between the Isle of May and Anstruther 
Wester, thence they must steer a direct course for Kinghorn 
Ness. On approaching Inchkeith, the Pilot vessel in the 
North channel is to be closed, and a pilot embarked. 

Vessels are warned that they should on no account pass 
to the southward of a line joining the north point of the 
Isle of May and Kinghorn Ness, until in the longitude of 3 W., 
when course may be shaped for the centre of North channel. 

Outward bound vessels should steer to pass the longitude 
of 3 W. in latitude 56 06' 30" N., then shape course to pass 
between Anstruther Wester and the Isle of May. 

The above orders apply to vessels proceeding to any port in 
the Firth of Forth, whether to the eastward of Inchkeith or not. 

(2) MORAY FIRTH. All vessels bound to Cromarty or 
Inverness must call for a pilot at Wick or Burghead. 

Outgoing vessels are to discharge their pilots at one or 
the other of these places. 

It is dangerous for any vessel to be under way to the 
south-westward of a line joining Findhorn and Tarbat Ness 
without a pilot. 

(3) SCAPA FLOW. All entrances are dangerous. 

Examination services have been established in the en- 
trances to Hoxa and Hoy sounds : vessels wishing to enter 
must communicate with the Examination vessel and follow 
the instructions received from her very carefully. 

The only vessels permitted to enter Hoy Sound from the 
westward are those bound for Stromness : vessels cannot 
enter Scapa Flow from Stromness. 

Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

By Command of their Lordships, 

J. F. PARRY, Hydrographer. 
Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, qth March 1915. 

--- 35 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ADMIRALTY CONTRACT (GERMAN DRAFTSMAN) 

House of Commons, March 3, 1915. 

Hansard. SIR WILLIAM BULL asked the First Lord of the Admiralty 

. whether he is aware that a firm of constructional engineers 
under contract with the Government have in their employ 
a German draftsman whose services they are still retaining ; 
that this man has been employed on drawings and plans of 
an existing East Coast aerial station ; that, after having 
been removed from the works, he still continued to do his 
work for the firm from his private house : and that this 
man communicates with his friends in Germany through a 
neutral country ; and what action it is proposed to take ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The firm referred to had a draftsman 
on their staff a German subject. We made inquiry into 
the matter, insisting that none but natural born British 
subjects should be employed on our work. We were in- 
formed by the firm that they were no longer employing the 
man in their office, but that they had given him work, which 
had no connection with the Admiralty or any other Govern- 
ment Department, at his own home. I understand that the 
man is no longer in the employment of the firm in any capacity 
whatever. 

ENGINEER-LIEUTENANTS (PAY) 

ibid. LORD CHARLES BERESFORD asked the First Lord of the 

Admiralty whether engineer-lieutenants under the old scheme 
receive only us. a day, while lieutenants (E) under the new 
scheme receive us. a day and an additional 45. a day specialisa- 
tion pay ; and, if so, whether he will take steps to redress 
this inequality ? 

DR. MACNAMARA: The answer to the first part of the 
question is in the affirmative as regards the initial rates only. 
It is not proposed to alter the existing scales. 

ROYAL NAVAL RESERVE 

ibid. LORD C. BERESFORD asked why engineer officers of the 

Royal Naval Reserve have not been called up for service in 
the Royal Navy during the present war ? 
36 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

DR. MACNAMARA : The necessity for calling out com- 
missioned engineer officers of the Royal Naval Reserve has 
not yet arisen. As the noble Lord is probably aware, a certain 
number are employed in merchant ships taken up. 

H.M.S. CLAN MACNAUGHTON 



MR. FALLE asked if His Majesty's ship Clan Macnaughton ibid. 
was surveyed after her guns were put aboard ; and, if so, 
was she passed and by what authority ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The Clan Macnaughton, a nearly new 
vessel of the Clan Line, classed by the British Corporation 
Registry, was fitted out for His Majesty's service at Tilbury 
under the supervision of naval, constructive, and engineering 
officers deputed to act for that purpose. The armament 
placed in the vessel was light in comparison with her size, 
and all necessary stiffening to take it was fitted. Investiga- 
tions as to the loading and the stability of the vessel were 
made at the Admiralty, and instructions were issued to the 
commanding officer of the ship. The Admiralty are satisfied 
that the vessel was in good condition and seaworthy, and 
that she possessed ample stability. 

STOKER RATINGS 

SIR CLEMENT KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of ibid. 
the Admiralty whether he can see his way to grant warrant 
rank to stoker ratings instead of requiring these ratings to 
seek promotion for their services as mechanicians ? 

DR. MACNAMARA: The Admiralty do not see their way 
to the adoption of the hon. member's suggestion. As is 
indicated by the terms of his question, opportunities for 
promotion to warrant rank already exist. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE : Has the right hon. gentleman 
read the statements made by Admiral Beatty and Admiral 
Sturdee in their despatches, 1 published to-day, and does he 1 [See 
not consider, in view of these statements, that some recogni- Naval 2 
tion ought to be made of the stokers ? an 

DR. MACNAMARA : As to the fine work done by the stokers ^ I24 
the Admiralty are entirely aware of it. 

SIR C. Ki&LOCH-CooKE : I asked whether there would 
be some recognition of their work ? 

37 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ROYAL DOCKYARDS 

House of Commons, March 3, 1915. 

Hansard. SIR CLEMENT KiNLOCH-CooKE asked the First Lord of 

the Admiralty whether it is proposed to make any conces- 
sion to the masons and bricklayers employed in the Royal 
dockyards ; and, if not, will he say why these trades were 
overlooked in the recent concessions announced ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The case of bricklayers and masons 
was considered with those of the other classes of employes, 
but, having regard to all the circumstances, it was not con- 
sidered that any further increase in the rates for this class 
was warranted at present. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE : Is the right hon. gentleman 
aware that the masons and bricklayers do not know of this ? 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE asked whether the same conces- 
sions will be conceded to men of all trades working in His 
Majesty's gun- wharves as have been given to men employed 
in His Majesty's dockyards ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The concessions granted in the replies 
to the 1914 petitions to tradesmen in His Majesty's dock- 
yards will be conceded to corresponding grades in naval 
ordnance establishments, including the gun-wharves. 

SOLDIERS AND SAILORS (SEPARATION 
ALLOWANCES) 

ibid. SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the 

Admiralty whether he is aware of the hardships that follow 
the non-granting of separation allowances to the wives of 
men who have reached warrant rank in the Royal Navy ; 
and whether he can see his way to give the same privileges 
in this respect to warrant officers, Royal Navy, as is now 
given to men who have reached that rank in the Royal 
Marines ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : This matter is under consideration 
by the Select Committee. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE : Is the right hon. gentleman 
aware that he gave me the same answer some months ago ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I do not think it could be the same 
some months ago. We made representations to the Select 
38 



5] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Committee, and I issued a memorandum which included that 
point. 

MERCHANT SERVICE (INSURANCE AGAINST 
WAR RISKS) 

MR. PETO asked the President of the Board of Trade ibid. 
whether he will state the terms on which masters, officers, 
and seamen in the British merchant service are to be enabled 
to insure their eifects against war risks ; and whether life 
policies will be granted at the same rate of premium per cent. ? 

The PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF TRADE (MR. RUNCI- 
MAN) : A certificate of insurance covering the personal effects 
of masters, officers, and seamen against war risks can be 
obtained at the Mercantile Marine Office at any of the prin- 
cipal ports in the United Kingdom. The insurance is for 
an amount limited to a maximum, ranging from 100 for the 
eifects of a master to 5 for the effects of a seaman, subject 
to proof of loss, and is valid for six months. The premium 
is at present at the rate of 2 per cent, for six months. I am 
sending the hon. member a copy of a handbill which gives 
full details of the scheme. The Government have decided 
to pay compensation on the scale applicable to officers and men 
employed in Fleet auxiliaries in the case of any British master, 
officer, or seaman on a British merchant ship who is killed 
or injured by mines, torpedoes, or other hostile operations. 
This scheme, which is in effect a free life insurance, will date 
back to the beginning of the war. 

H.M.S. NIGER (CASUALTIES) 

House of Commons, March 4, 1915. 

MR. PETO asked the First Lord of the Admiralty what was Hansard. 
the number of casualties in connection with the sinking by 
torpedo of His Majesty's ship Niger, guardship at the Downs, 
and by whose orders this vessel maintained a stationary 
position ; and when it is intended to hold a court of inquiry 
into the loss of this vessel ? 

The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE ADMIRALTY 
(DR. MACNAMARA) : The casualties were fourteen lost and 
three wounded, of whom one died subsequently. My right 

39 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

hon. friend cannot discuss the conduct of naval operations. 
A court of inquiry has been held, and he has no statement to 
make. 

ROYAL MARINES 

House of Commons, March 4, 1915. 

Hansard. SIR CLEMENT KiNLOCH-CooKE asked what is the position 

of men serving in the Royal Marines who have completed 
their time for pension during the period of hostilities and are 
serving on in their regiment ; and will pensions be paid from 
the date when their period of service expired or only from the 
date of final discharge at the end of the war ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Marines whose period of service expires 
while they are serving on a foreign station may, at the dis- 
cretion of the Commanding Officer on the station under the 
Royal Marines Act, 1847, be detained for a period of two years. 
During the continuance of the present war it is open to the 
Admiralty under the Royal Marines Act, 1914, to retain also 
for a similar period the services of those Marines whose period 
of engagement expires while they are serving at home. No 
awards of Long Service pensions can be made until the men are 
discharged, but applications for the award of Good Conduct 
Medal or Good Conduct Gratuity earned by service will be 
considered. The further service will be taken into account 
when the pensions are awarded at the close of the -war, and 
pensions earned by service up to the date of completing time 
for pension will be regarded as secured except in cases of con- 
viction for mutiny or felony or of dismissal from the Service 
with disgrace. 

H.M.S. VIKNOR AND CLAN MACNAUGHTON 

ibid. LORD CHARLES BERESFORD asked whether, since the loss 

of His Majesty's ships Viknor and Clan Macnaughton, there 
is a doubt as to the seaworthiness of similar ships being 
employed as armed cruisers, notably when the bunkers 
become empty ; whether the Admiralty can see their way 
to give these ships more ballast, there being no cargo ; and 
whether mounting guns on the upper deck under these cir- 
cumstances renders this class of ship top-heavy ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : In the case of each vessel taken up 
40 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

and fitted as an armed merchant cruiser, the most careful 
attention has been paid to the loading and stability of the 
vessel. Actual stability tests have been carried out in all 
necessary cases, and instructions have been issued to the 
commanding officers of the vessels as to the extent to which 
they might be loaded and the precautions to be observed in 
working out the coal. In cases in which investigations 
showed it to be necessary, ballast was added, and in all cases, 
having regard to these instructions, the Admiralty are 
satisfied as to the lading of the vessels and as to their stability 
in all conditions of lading. The armaments carried by the 
ships are very light in comparison with the size of the vessels, 
and the weights added in this respect were fully taken into 
account when their stability was investigated and the in- 
structions issued. None of the vessels when taken over were 
new, and all of them had been employed on their merchant 
cruises. The mounting of the guns has not rendered the 
vessels top-heavy, and no further ballast for stability pur- 
poses is necessary. 

MR. HINDS asked how many lifeboats and what other life- 
saving apparatus the S.S. Clan Macnaughton carried ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The Clan Macnaughton carried six life- 
boats as well as four other boats, the total carrying capacity 
of which was sufficient for all on board. She was further 
supplied with a large number of lifebelts, and two liferafts, 
each capable of supporting fifty men. 

ROYAL NAVAL RESERVES 

MR. GOLDSTONE asked the Parliamentary Secretary to the 
Admiralty how many men belonging to the engineering staff 
of the Royal Naval Reserve are now engaged on board His 
Majesty's ships ; whether the supply is sufficient to meet the 
present requirements of the Navy ; and whether he is aware 
of the dissatisfaction in this branch of the Service with exist- 
ing rates of pay and prospects of promotion ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I do not think that it would be desirable 
to give detailed information as to the numbers of the Royal 
Naval Reserve engine-room staff employed in His Majesty's 
ships. Entries of men continue to be made in this branch, 
and the supply is sufficient to meet present requirements. I 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

am not aware that the facts are as suggested in the concluding 
part of my hon. friend's question. 

HIS MAJESTY'S TRAWLERS 

House of Commons, March 4, 1915. 

Hansard. MR. CLOUGH asked whether the Secretary to the Admiralty 

can see his way to advance the pay of the coxswains of His 
Majesty's trawlers to 35. 6d. per day and i per month war 
retainer so as to place them on the same scale of pay as the 
A.B. Trawler Reserve ; and whether he can arrange for them 
to obtain their food from the Service at Service prices ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The retainer paid to the Royal Naval 
Reservist is given in respect of his liability to be called up 
from civil life on mobilisation, and unless he elects to allot 
half of it to his dependants it is set aside for payment to him 
on resuming his civil occupation. It is therefore not appro- 
priate to the conditions under which naval ratings of the 
general Service are engaged. When employed in trawlers the 
latter are eligible to receive the allowance recently conceded 
of is. 3d. a day (chief petty officer and petty officer) or is. a 
day (A.B. and leading ratings) hard lying money in addition to 
their substantive, non-substantive, and badge pay All men 
of whatever class serving in trawlers receive a victualling 
allowance of is. 5d. a day. As regards the last sentence of my 
hon. friend's question, I understand that arrangements of the 
nature indicated are already made so far as is practicable. 

MINED VESSELS (COMPENSATION TO 
DEPENDANTS) 

ibid. MR. TICKLER asked if the Secretary to the Admiralty can 

recommend the payment of compensation to the wives and 
children of skippers and mates who have lost their lives 
through their vessels being blown up with mines since the war 
began, as the Government has already expressed their inten- 
tion to pay such compensation from the i8th February 1915 ? 
MR. RUNCIMAN : It is the intention that the scheme for 
the payment of compensation in the event of death or injury 
in the case of masters, officers, and seamen on British merchant 
ships, which was announced on the igth February, should be 
42 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

retrospective and date back to the beginning of the war. The 
question whether the scheme should be extended to fishing 
vessels is now being considered. 

INTERNMENT OF PRISONERS (LIBERATION OF 

SHIPS) 

MR. WATT asked the Under-Secretary of State for War ibid. 
whether any of the nine vessels x chartered and utilised for 1 [See 
the internment of prisoners has yet been freed ; and, if not, Naval 3, 
on what dates it is anticipated that all will be liberated and P- 39J 
the money saved to the country ? 

The UNDER-SECRETARY OF STATE FOR WAR (MR. TEN- 
NANT) : Two of these ships have been liberated. It is 
anticipated that more will be set free by the end of April, 
and the remainder from time to time as other accommodation 
becomes available. 

MR. PETO : What is the monthly cost to the country 
of using these ships ? 

MR. TENNANT : Obviously I cannot answer that without 
notice. 

INTERNED STEAMERS (FREIGHT CHARGES) 

MR. NEVILLE asked the President of the Board of Trade ibid. 
what is the highest freight per ton of coal charged for the 
use of any of the interned steamers lately made available for 
the coastal trade ; x and what is the average freight per ton * [See 
charged for such interned steamers as compared with the Naval 3, 
average freight per ton charged for the use of similar steamers ^ ? 9 ' 
other than the interned steamers ? 

MR. RUNCIMAN : From the Tyne to London the highest 
freight paid in the case of an interned steamer was 135., 
which was is. 6d. to 2s. 6d. below rates on outside steamers. 
The present rate on interned steamers is I2s., and on outside 
steamers 145. 6d. to 155. 6d. The average rate to London 
during February was 135. 6d. for outside steamers and 
los. lod. for interned steamers. 

MR. NEVILLE asked the President of the Board of Trade 
how many of the gentlemen who form the committee which 
regulates the freights to be charged for the use of the interned 

43 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

steamers in the coastal trade are representatives of ship- 
owners, distributing merchants, and consumers, respectively ? 
MR. RUNCIMAN : The methods by which freights are 
charged for the use of the interned steamers in the coasting 
trade are regulated by the Government. 

ARMY ACT AMENDMENT BILL 

House of Commons, March 4, 1915. 
As amended, considered. 

The following Section shall be inserted in the Army Act 
after Section 184 : 

NEW CLAUSE. (Relations between Military and Naval Forces 

Acting Together) 

1840. (i) Where an officer or petty officer in the Navy 
is a member of a body of His Majesty's naval forces acting 
with or is attached to any body of His Majesty's military 
forces under such conditions as may be prescribed by regula- 
tions made by the Admiralty and Arrrty Council, then, for the 
purposes of command and discipline and for the purposes 
of the provisions of this Act relating to superior officers, 
he shall, in relation to such body of His Majesty's military 
forces as aforesaid, be treated and have all such powers 
(other than powers of punishment) as if he were a military 
officer or non-commissioned officer as the case may be. 

(2) Where any officer or soldier is a member of a body 
of His Majesty's military forces acting with or is attached 
to any body of His Majesty's naval forces under such condi- 
tions as may be so prescribed as aforesaid, then, for the 
purposes of command and discipline and for the purposes 
of the provisions of this Act relating to superior officers, 
the officers and petty officers of such naval body shall, in 
relation to him, be treated and have all such powers (other 
than powers of punishment) as if they were military officers 
or non-commissioned officers. 

(3) The relative rank of naval and military officers, 
petty officers, and non-commissioned officers shall, for the 
purposes of this section, be such as is provided by the 
King's Regulations and Admiralty Instructions for the 
time being in force. 

Proposed clause brought up, and read the first time. 
44 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Motion made, and Question proposed, ' That the clause 
be read a second time/ 

The UNDER-SECRETARYOF STATE FOR WAR (MR. TENNANT) : 
The object of this amendment is to provide for the mutual 
relations between naval and military forces acting together 
and to confer reciprocal powers of command upon military 
officers or non-commissioned officers and naval officers and 
petty officers over a naval force and military force respectively, 
when such forces are acting together. At present two such 
forces acting in the same place have no defined relation to one 
another, and a deadlock might ensue from the absence of any 
definite designation of any officer as the officer in command 
of all the forces. A military force is, of course, subject to the 
Army Act, and a naval force to the Naval Discipline Act, and 
at present a naval officer has no power of command or dis- 
cipline over soldiers acting with or attached to a naval force, 
and similarly a military officer has no power of command or 
discipline over naval ratings acting with or attached to a 
military force. 

The amendment is devised to meet this difficulty, and a 
corresponding amendment to the Naval Discipline Act is being 
made by the Admiralty in a Naval Discipline Bill x which has * [See 
recently been introduced. As regards carrying out discipline, P- 66.] 
the intention is to confer only the power of arrest, the military 
or naval offenders being dealt with under the Army Act or 
Naval Discipline Act respectively, for trial and punishment. 
The relative rank, for purposes of precedence of naval and 
military officers, petty officers, and non-commissioned officers 
is provided in the King's Regulations and Admiralty Instruc- 
tions. The effect of the provision is therefore to bring about" 
temporarily and within definite limits a coalescence of the two 
forces. The provision only applies to joint operations on land, 
and must be brought into force by a Joint Order specially 
made by the Admiralty and Army Council for the purpose. 
The relations between two forces (military and naval) when 
the military are embarked on board ship is already provided 
for under Section 88 of the Naval Discipline Act and an Order 
in Council made thereunder. 
Question put, and agreed to. 

Clause read a second time and added to the Bill. 
Bill read the third time, and passed. 

45 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



SUBMARINE SHELLED BY FRENCH WARSHIP 

Paris, March 5. 

Times, The following official statement was issued here this 

March 6, evening : 

I 9 I 5- A warship belonging to the flotilla of the second French 

light squadron yesterday fired upon a German submarine of 
the U-2 type in the Channel. The submarine was hit by 
three shells before it dived and disappeared without leaving 
any trace. Renter. 

ZEPPELIN DAMAGED 

Amsterdam, March 5. 

ibid. According to reliable information received here Zeppelin 

L 8 was seriously damaged yesterday when descending at 
Tirlemont, and had to be dismantled for repairs. Renter. 



Amsterdam, March 6. 

Times, A Brussels telegram states that advices of yesterday's date 

March 8, from Berlin say : 

I 9 I 5- A Zeppelin yesterday, while returning from a successful 

reconnoitring flight, got among some trees while landing in 
the darkness, and suffered not inconsiderable damage, so that 
it appeared advisable to dismantle the airship. This was 
executed with the utmost speed by men of the airship column. 
The airship will be remounted in Germany. Renter. 



Amsterdam, March 8. 

Times, The correspondent of the Telegraaf at Tirlemont has sent 

March 9, the following details of the recent accident to Zeppelin L 8, 
I 9 I 5- which came down at Tirlemont and had to be dismantled for 

repairs : 

At ii o'clock on Thursday evening two Zeppelins appeared 
above Tirlemont. The motors of one of them were evidently 
out of order, as sharp explosions could be heard coming from 
the airship. 

At 3 o'clock in the morning L 8 was about to land on a 
46 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

field in the village of Wommerson. It was flying low and its 
cars smashed off the tops of seven poplars a few metres above 
the ground. One of the cars was wrenched off, and was 
buried deep in the clayey soil. The airship was smashed right 
in half, and, as the ballonets at both ends were still intact, 
the dirigible assumed the shape of a capital V. 

The correspondent further learned that seventeen of the 
crew of forty-two were killed, and were buried the same 
morning near the place where the airship landed. The 
machinery of the Zeppelin was completely destroyed, and the 
dirigible was dismantled on the spot. Her silk covering and 
the aluminium framework were at once sent to Germany. 
The correspondent adds that it will be utterly impossible to 
repair L 8. Reuter. 

Paris, March 14. 

It is reported from Belgian sources that the Zeppelin Times, 
which was brought down on March 4 in the neighbourhood of March 
Tirlemont was not, as stated by the Germans, wrecked by a 
gale, but by an aeroplane attack made by two French machines 
and two English. The crew numbered forty-one, of whom 
nine were found dead and twenty-nine injured. Twelve of the 
latter died the following day. The debris of the airship were 
loaded on twenty-two lorries and taken to Germany. 

The Journal reports that seven aeroplanes flew over 
Poperinghe yesterday afternoon and dropped ten bombs. 
There were ten victims, military and civil. 



M. AUGAGNEUR AND THE FRENCH FLEET 

The French Minister of Marine, M. Augagneur, in the Times, 
course of a conversation with the Paris correspondent of the March 5, 
United Press of America, which is published as a copyright I 9 I 5- 
message by the Exchange Telegraph Company, said : 

Not another ship shall reach Germany if we can help it, 
and I think we can. We have observed from the start all the 
rules of civilised warfare. Germany has broken all, putting 
herself on the same plane as savages. Well, we will starve 
her out. People say that Germany has secretly built many 

47 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

large submarines, but I know better. I know within two or 
three exactly how many she has, and neither England nor 
France is in the least frightened. Germany may sink a ship 
now and then that is inevitable but, in the ultimate end, 
what good will it do her ? The outcome of the war will not 
be changed one single iota. The threat to torpedo merchant- 
men is of the same brand as the threats to destroy London 
and Paris with Zeppelins. What if Zeppelins actually visited 
Paris or London ? They might kill one, two, or even three 
hundred non-combatants, but what of it ? The achievement 
would merely add to their record of savagery, but the final 
result would, in no way, be affected. 

Our Mediterranean Fleet is waiting for the enemy to pick 
up courage enough to show itself. That is its principal duty ; 
but, since the beginning of the war, our ships have been 
promenading up and down the Mediterranean, sometimes 
challenging the enemy at his very door, but each time he sees 
us coming he turns tail and flees. We have also done much 
work in keeping the sea open for the transport of troops from 
Algeria and of British troops from Suez east of Gibraltar. 
Our sailors are in the pink of condition and spoiling for a 
chance to meet the enemy. ^ We would not ask for anything 
better than that the Ausfrians should give battle at the 
entrance to the Dardanelles. That is what we have been 
trying to bring about since the war started. 

As to the advance on Constantinople, we shall not give 
up until the city falls. We do not expect to open the Dar- 
danelles without an effort, but we shafl. get through in good 
time. Just how long that will be I cannot say, because it 
depends on many things. The hardest work will be from the 
middle of the Dardanelles to the Sea of Marmora. Once 
through there, which is merely a question of time, there will 
remain comparatively little to accomplish. 

GERMAN SUBMARINE SUNK IN CHANNEL 

Times, The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 

March 6, announcement :- 

1915. 

Yesterday afternoon the German submarine U 8 was sank 

in the Channel off Dover by destroyers. The officers and 
men were taken prisoners. 

48 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following Times, 
announcement : March 9, 

A report has now been received from Rear-Admiral the I915 
Hon. Horace Hood on the sinking of the German submarine 
U 8 off Dover at 5 P.M. on the 4th of March. 

From this it appears that the submarine was finally 
destroyed by the destroyers Gurkha and Maori. Other 
destroyers which took part in the hunt were Viking, Nubian, 
Mohawk, Falcon, Kangaroo, Cossack, Leven, Fawn, Syren, 
and Ure. 

The operations were directed by the officer commanding 
the flotilla, Captain C. D. Johnson, and were marked by skill 
and promptitude. 



German wireless news, issued from Berlin on Saturday Times, 
(March 6) states : March 8, 

With regard to the loss of the submarine U 8, the papers 
remark that the destruction of one U-boat after a three weeks' 
U-boat war cannot be called an important triumph for the 
English. 



ANOTHER STEAMER TORPEDOED 

March 8. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty regrets to announce that P.B. 
the S.S. Bengrove, 2389 tons, owned by Messrs. Joseph Hoult 
and Co., Liverpool, with a cargo of coal from Barry, was 
sunk probably by torpedo from submarine off Ilfracombe at 
2 P.M. on Sunday (March 7). 

The crew of thirty-three were all saved. They took to 
their boats and were picked up by the S.S. Paignton, and 
landed at Ilfracombe. 



RUSSIAN OPERATIONS IN BLACK SEA 

Naval General Staff, Petrograd, March 8. 

On 7th March our fleet bombarded Zunguldak, Kozlu, Times, 
and Kilimli, destroying all structures and plant for the output March 9, 
and shipment of coal. 
NAVAL 4 D 49 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The bombardment was followed by a terrific explosion 
and fire. Four batteries were silenced. Eight steamers and 
a large sailing vessel were destroyed. Our casualties were 
three wounded. 



Constantinople. 

K.V., Headquarters reports : Whilst the light division of our 

March 9, fleet was occupied the day before yesterday, in carrying on a 
I 9 I 5 reconnoitring expedition on the Russian coast, the Russian 

fleet bombarded the harbours of Kilimli, Zunguldak, Kozlu, 
and Eregli. In Zunguldak the French hospital and fifteen 
houses in the French quarter were destroyed, the Greek vessel 
Takssiara was sunk in the harbour. An enemy torpedo- 
boat, which attempted to approach the harbour, was hit by 
the fire of our batteries and withdrew. In Eregli fifty old 
wooden houses in the Greek quarter were set on fire by shell 
fire. The manager of a Russian navigation company, who is 
of Greek nationality, was wounded, and his two children 
and his wife were killed. An Italian vessel and the ship 
Neva were taken by the Russians, also the vessels Heibeli Ada 
and Pressia, and sunk in the harbour ; the crews were saved. 
As a result of the bombardfhent of these four places, which 
lasted six hours, seven persons were slightly wounded among 
the soldiers and inhabitants. 

PILOTS (COMPENSATION) 

House of Commons, March 8, 1915. 

Hansard. MR. JOYCE asked the President of the Board of Trade under 

what conditions of compensation pilots are placed who, in 
the performance of their duties, are either killed or injured by 
mines, torpedoes, or other hostile operations during the war ; 
and is he aware that in several cases up to the present time 
pilots have been on board of ships that have been either mined 
or torpedoed ? 

MR. RUNCIMAN : Compensation in accordance with the 
scale laid down for officers and men on Fleet auxiliaries would 
be payable in respect of British pilots on British merchant 
ships who are killed or injured by mines, torpedoes, or other 
hostile operations during the war. 
50 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

MR. JOYCE : Does not the right hon. gentleman know that 
the pilots have to go on board neutral ships as well as British 
ships, and, in the event of such neutral ships being mined or 
torpedoed, and injury thus caused to the pilot, may I ask 
whether any compensation would be given ? 

MR. RUNCIMAN : I will consider that point sympathetically. 
There are difficulties about those on board neutral vessels, 
but if neutral vessels are performing services to us we ought 
obviously to treat those who pilot them as we treat those on 
our own vessels. 

Mr. JOYCE : Is the right hon. gentleman not aware that 
pilots are placed in a very peculiar position, as they have to 
give their services to every ship that comes along ? 

ROYAL NAVAL RESERVE 

MR. PETO asked the First Lord of the Admiralty whether, ibid. 
in the case of those officers on the permanent list of the Royal 
Naval Reserve who prior to the war had seen no naval service, 
their present time in active service will count as qualifying for 
the annual retainer ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The answer is in the affirmative. 

MINE SWEEPING (TRAWLERS) 

MR. TICKLER asked the Secretary to the Admiralty (i) if he ibid. 
is aware that several of the owners of steam trawlers whose 
vessels have been requisitioned for mine sweeping have refused 
to sign their charters, as the hiring amounts offered are in- 
sufficient to adequately recompense them for the loss of their 
services and the owners have never received payment for their 
hire nor anything for the stores ; whether he will cause inquiry 
to be made into this state of affairs ; and (2) whether he is 
aware that the owners of the fishing vessels at the various ports 
have readily placed their vessels at the disposal of the Admiralty 
for mine-sweeping and other purposes, and that the terms for 
hiring the trawlers have not in all cases been satisfactory to 
the owners ; will he state how, if the vessels are lost, the 
amount to be paid is calculated ; if, upon the return of the 
vessels to their owners in a damaged condition, the Admiralty 
will pay the costs of the necessary repairs to enable them to be 
used for their original purpose of fishing ; and will the autho- 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

rities promptly settle the agreed amounts for such repairs and 
renewals ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : As regards rates of hire, in all cases in 
which claims have been rendered payment has been made at 
the Admiralty rates of hire. I understand that there have 
been cases where owners would not render claims on this basis 
fearing they might thereby prejudice their application for 
reconsideration. They have been asked to forward claims 
upon which payment would be made to them without pre- 
judice to any representations which they might hereafter wish 
to make. As regards payment for stores, these have in point 
of fact been passed in nearly all cases. As regards vessels 
lost, the amounts payable have been fixed on the basis of the 
value of the hull and outfit, and the machinery and boilers, as 
ascertained by Lloyd's Register of Shipping, with a depre- 
ciation on the residual value for each complete year of the 
vessel's age. The terms of the charter party provide that 
the vessel, her outfit and machinery shall, at the cost of the 
Admiralty, be handed back to the owners in the same condition 
as when they were taken up, ordinary wear and tear alone 
excepted. I am aware that some objection has been taken to 
the rate of hire and to the amounts to be paid in the event of 
loss. Arrangements will be made to give trawler owners an 
early opportunity of stating their views. 

SHORTAGE OF CARGO SHIPS 

House of Commons, March 8, 1915. 

Hansard. SIR JOHN LONSDALE asked the Prime Minister whether, 

having regard to the existing deficiency in the number of 
ships available for the purposes of British commerce, the 
Government will adopt measures, and if necessary obtain 
legislative power, to prevent British ships from carrying 
cargoes of foodstuffs and other materials to any ports in 
Europe except those of the United Kingdom or the Allied 
Powers unless by special permits from the Board of Trade, 
such permits to be issued only in cases where satisfactory 
guarantees are forthcoming that the goods carried to neutral 
ports are not destined for and will not reach enemy countries ? 
MR. RUNCIMAN : My right hon. friend has asked me to 
answer this question. I do not think that the adoption of 
52 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the particular measures suggested in the question would 
produce a satisfactory result, but the hon. baronet may rest 
assured that all practicable steps are taken and will be taken 
to prevent goods destined for enemy countries being carried 
in British ships. 

COURTS-MARTIAL (ROYAL NAVY) 

COMMANDER BELLAIRS asked the First Lord of the Admiralty ibid. 
whether he will state the name and class of the fifteen ships 
which were lost in twenty-five years of the last century, 1 and i [See 
in the case of which there were survivors, but no court-martial Naval 3, 
was held ; and if he will state the date of the loss in each case, P- 358.] 
together with the information as to whether the ships were 
wrecked, sunk, burned, or captured ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : The ships whose names are included in the 
following list are mentioned in the return of ships lost other- 
wise than in action from 1815 to 1840, dated 4th August 1891. 
An exhaustive search made in the Record Office has failed to 
disclose the minutes of any court-martial in their cases : 



Ships. 


Date when Lost. 


Sylph Sloop 


January I7th, 1815 . 


Wrecked. 


Dominica 


Schooner 




August I5th, 1815 


Wrecked. 


Comus 


p 




November 4th, 1816 . 


Wrecked. 


Bermuda 


Sloop 




March, 1821 


Foundered. 


Confiance 


Sloop 




April 2ist, 1822 


Totally lost. 


Arab 


Sloop 




December I2th, 1823 


Wrecked. 


Delight 


Sloop 




February 23rd, 1824 


Lost in cyclone. 


Partridge 


Sloop 




November 27th, 1825 


Stranded. 


f Algerine 


Sloop 




January Qth, 1826 . 


Upset in squall. 


f Redwing 


Sloop 




1827 (date unknown) 


Supposed foundered. 


Acorn 


Sloop . 




April I4th, 1828 





Contest 


Gunboat 




April I4th, 1828 


; 


Success 


Frigate . 




November 29th, 1829 


Wrecked. 


* Kangaroo 


Surv. schooner 




December i8th, 1829 


Wrecked. 


* Wolf 


Sloop 




March loth, 1830 


Wrecked. 


f Recruit 


Brig . 




1832 (date unknown) 


Totally lost. 


f Calypso 


Packet . 




1833 (date unknown) 


Supposed foundered. 


* Pike . 


Schooner 




1836 





f Pincher 


Schooner 




March 6th, 1838 


Capsized. 


Rapid 


Brig . 




April I2th, 1838 


Wrecked. 


f Briseis 


Packet . 




1838 (date unknown) 


Totally lost. 


Tribune Sloop 


November 28th, 1839 


Wrecked. 



53 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

None of the above vessels were captured. Those marked f are 
noted as ' known to have capsized or have never been heard 
of/ In the case of those marked * the column in the return 
headed ' Result of Court of Inquiry or of Court-martial ' 
contains a statement of a finding. This is consistent with 
there having been a court-martial of which the minutes have 
been lost, or with there having been, as suggested in the return, 
a Court of Inquiry, but no court-martial. In the remaining 
cases mentioned in the above list there is no reason for sup- 
posing that there were no survivors. In the case of all the 
other ships mentioned in the return dated 4th August 1891, 
minutes of a court-martial were found. 

ADMIRALTY COMMUNIQUES 

House of Commons, March 8, 1915. 

Hansard. LORD C. BERESFORD asked the First Lord of the Admiralty 

if arrangements will be made whereby Admiralty communiques 
should be issued much earlier in the day, when possible, than 
is at present the case, as, in consequence of the method of 
publication now adopted, evening newspaper readers are 
heavily handicapped ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The time at which it is possible to com- 
municate news to the Press depends upon a large variety of 
circumstances, including the time of receipt, the degree of 
pressure of work in the Department, the necessity of awaiting 
verification, and so on. It would be a mistake to suppose 
that the times at which information is given out are decided 
upon with a view to the convenience of any particular class of 
paper. 

COASTGUARD RATINGS 

ibid. COMMANDER BELLAIRS asked the First Lord of the 

Admiralty whether promotion among the men in the Coast- 
guard has been suspended since the list of promotions was 
issued last August ; whether in other branches of the Navy 
the promotions have been accelerated by the war ; and, if so, 
whether he can see his way to mitigate the hardship inflicted 
on deserving men who have passed their examinations for 
promotion ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Promotion amongst the Coastguard 
54 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ratings serving ashore has been suspended since the begin- 
ing of the war in the interests of those who are serving afloat, 
in order that those on shore should not be promoted over 
the heads of those who, without any option, have been em- 
barked, and are thus outside the Coastguard organisations 
and are serving under the Regulations for active service 
ratings in the Fleet. Any acceleration occasioned by the 
war in the advancement of ratings in the Fleet, applies tem- 
porarily to the majority of the Coastguard who are serving 
afloat ; but at the end of the war, Coastguard ratings advanced 
in the Fleet will, on returning to the Coastguard service, 
revert to their Coastguard rates, and the large number of 
vacancies caused by the discharge of men retained beyond 
the age limit, and of men wishing to take their pension, will 
be filled by promotions from the Coastguard as a whole. 

SOLDIERS AND SAILORS (PENSIONS AND 
ALLOWANCES) 

SIR CHARLES NICHOLSON asked the First Lord of the ibid. 
Admiralty if his attention has been called to the fact that 
widows of men who had declared an allotment in their favour 
and who died while serving in His Majesty's ships between 
the 4th August and 2ist September, are receiving pensions 
only from the date of widowhood, whereas other widows are 
receiving allotment plus separation allowance for six months 
before drawing their pensions, the position of the earlier 
widows being therefore considerably worse than that of 
those whose husbands were lost on and after the 22nd Sep- 
tember ; and whether steps will be taken to treat both classes 
equally ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The question is under the considera- 
tion of the Select Committee. 

SIR CHARLES NICHOLSON asked the First Lord of the 
Admiralty if he will give further consideration to the cases 
of the widows of men lost in His Majesty's ship Good Hope, 
who had not the same opportunities as other men of making 
out allotments ; is he aware that a number of these men were 
Reservists, who went off suddenly without having time to 
make adequate provision for their wives ; and whether, in 
these circumstances, arrangements will be made immediately 

55 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to pay arrears of pay to dependants and to consider their 
cases further in view of the fact that many widows have 
drawn no money at all from the Admiralty from the 2nd 
August until a few weeks since, when they received a small 
portion of their pensions ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The matter is under the consideration 
of the Select Committee. 

NAVAL DISCIPLINE BILL 

House of Commons, March 8, 1915. 
Order for Second Reading read. 

Motion made, and Question proposed, ' That the Bill be 
now read a second time/ 

SIR F. BANBURY : I think we ought to have some explana- 
tion of this Bill. The Government, no doubt, have some 
reason for bringing it in, but it does seem to me a rather 
extraordinary time to introduce a Bill which deals with the 
discipline of the Navy. I was under the impression that 
the discipline of the Navy was all that could be desired. If 
it is not, and if it is necessary to amend the Naval Discipline 
Bill, surely something of this^sort ought to have been done 
before the war began. I am v glad that the right hon. gentle- 
man (Mr. G. Lambert) is in his place, because it will give 
me the opportunity of obtaining from him some of the reasons 
why this Bill is introduced. I remember once we were told 
that what the House of Commons suffered from was that we 
had the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to 
rule the night. It is now daytime, and I do not know why 
we have not had the greater light to explain the Bill. But 
I will ask the lesser light, if he will stay for a moment, a few 
questions. I want to know why it is necessary to bring in 
a Bill of this sort at the present moment, whether it is wise 
to alter the discipline of the Navy during the war, and how 
it is that in Clause i the penalty of death is done away with. 
As I read the Bill, if there is a mutiny on the ship the death 
penalty could not be inflicted. It is possible I have misread 
the Bill, but, if I have not, it might be amended in Com- 
mittee. It is a serious thing to alter the rules of discipline 
in the Navy at the present time, and I think we ought to 
have an explanation from the Government. 
56 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

LORD C. BERESFORD : I should like to ask one or two 
questions about this Bill. I do not think there is anything 
much in it except for the First Clause, which says : 

' A sentence of death shall not be passed on a person 
subject to the Naval Discipline Act for striking, or with 
any weapon attempting to strike, or drawing or lifting 
up any weapon against, his superior officer, and accord- 
ingly for Section 16 of that Act the following section shall 
be substituted.' 

The clause further says : 

' Every person subject to this Act who shall strike or 
attempt to strike, or draw or lift up any weapon against, 
or use or attempt to use any violence against, his superior 
officer, whether or not such superior officer is in the execu- 
tion of his office, shall be punished with penal servitude 
or such other punishment as is hereinafter mentioned/ 

If that threatening attitude of a junior officer to his superior 
be accompanied by mutiny, I imagine that the Naval Disci- 
pline Act holds as it was, and that the penalty of death 
would still be enforced. But a man may lose his temper and 
strike, or attempt to strike, an officer or a senior petty officer. 
The death penalty for such an offence would be outrageous, 
but if that action be accompanied by mutiny which we 
should all agree is the greatest possible offence you can have 
on a ship the whole sentiment of the Service would be 
averse to having the penalty of death abrogated. I should, 
therefore, like a clear exposition of the clause. 

The ATTORNEY -GENERAL (Sm J. SIMON) : The noble 
Lord will appreciate that my right hon. friend the Parlia- 
mentary Secretary to the Admiralty (Dr. Macnamara) prefers 
to explain the clauses of this Bill, and I do not want to take 
upon myself that which he is prepared to do. Clause i, if 
my recollection serves me rightly, provides that the penalty 
pf death shall not attach to the offence of striking, or raising 
a weapon for the purpose of striking. The phraseology is 
familiar to those who know the Naval Code. As long as 
there is the possibility of the penalty of death attaching to 
an offence against naval discipline, it can only be dealt with 
by the machinery of court-martial. It is quite impossible 
for the officer commanding a ship to exercise disciplinary 

57 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

punishment, or deal summarily with an offence which in- 
volves that possible consequence. Of course, in a very grave 
case, such as that of striking, which was directly associated 
with mutiny, of course, a court-martial would be inevitable, 
because mutiny is a more serious offence than striking. On 
the other hand, if it be only some explicable, or mistaken, 
action, then it is better not to make a court-martial, with 
all its formalities, an absolute necessity, but to deal with 
the offence summarily. That is the object of the clause. 
I think the noble Lord will see that the clause, while it 
maintains the traditions of good discipline in the Navy, on 
the other hand adds considerably to the machinery which 
he knows so well. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : I understand exactly what the right 
hon. and learned gentleman has said, and I think he sees my 
point also. This ought to be put in the clause, as you may 
have a very great amount of confusion at a moment of ex- 
treme urgency and some lamentable occurrence, such as 
mutiny through irritation, in which the penalty of death ought 
never to be relaxed. It would appear that, under this clause, 
under all circumstances the penalty for mutiny would be penal 
servitude and not death. Jt should be made more clear, 
unless indeed the Government are of opinion that the penalty 
of death should be done away with altogether. 

SIR J. SIMON : Oh, no. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : Then it should be made more clear 
in the clause. 

THE PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE ADMIRALTY 
(DR. MACNAMARA) : The House will see that the Bill proposes 
certain amendments of naval law which are recognised as 
necessary and expedient as a result of war conditions. We 
propose to take the opportunity afforded by this amending 
Bill to make some further alterations, not necessarily the 
result of war conditions, but which appear to be desirable as 
a result of experience. I will state quite broadly the principles 
on which we are altering the Act of 1866, and I will take care 
to answer the question put by the noble Lord as to how far 
the death penalty is relaxed. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : When ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Now. Under Section 16 of the Act of 
1866, the maximum penalty for striking, or with any weapon 
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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

attempting to strike or drawing or lifting up any weapon 
against a superior officer in the execution of his office, is death. 
As the noble Lord knows, that section deals with certain 
other offences which are punishable with regard to the maxi- 
mum sentence by penal servitude. The maximum penalty for 
attempting to strike otherwise than with a weapon, or for 
using or attempting to use violence against, an officer being in 
the execution of his office is penal servitude. The maximum 
penalty for striking or attempting to strike, or drawing or 
lifting any weapon against, or using or attempting to use 
violence against a superior officer, not being in the execution 
of his office, is penal servitude. All this is provided for in 
Section 16 of the Act of 1866. We propose to substitute 
the following for Section 16 : 

' Every person subject to this Act who shall strike or 
attempt to strike, or draw or lift up any weapon against, 
or use or attempt to use any violence against, his superior 
officer, whether or not such superior officer is in the execu- 
tion of his office, shall be punished with penal servitude 
or such other punishment as is hereinafter mentioned/ 

The broad effect is that penal servitude will be the maximum 
penalty in all cases contemplated by Section 16, and the death 
penalty disappears. It has this other aspect to which I will 
call attention : Death no longer being the maximum penalty, 
it is open to the commanding officer to deal with the case 
summarily, if in his judgment the circumstances justify, and 
to award, as he can do under his proper authority, to three 
months' imprisonment or detention. Of course, he can also 
apply for a court-martial if he thinks the circumstances justify 
it. The noble Lord will know that the gravity of striking cases 
varies very considerably. The offence sometimes arises between 
men very nearly related in rank who fall out on some small 
point of difference of opinion and dispute. We desire to have 
the power of discrimination as to the method of trial. We 
desire to place it in the discretion of the commanding officer 
to deal with such cases by summary jurisdiction ; otherwise, 
of course, there must be a court-martial, and in any case the 
maximum penalty is to be penal servitude. I gather the 
noble Lord wants to know whether the death penalty will still 
remain in any other part of the Naval Discipline Act, 1866. 

59 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Certainly it will remain as the maximum penalty for mutiny 
or incitement to mutiny, for spying, for treacherously aiding 
the enemy, for misconduct in the presence of the enemy, and 
for desertion of post in the presence of the enemy. I think these 
are all, but I am not quite sure, and, at any rate, in those cases 
the death penalty will remain, as these offences are not affected 
by this clause. I think I have made the object of this First 
Clause perfectly clear, that in those cases mentioned, where the 
death penalty has been the maximum penalty, it will no longer 
be so, but penal servitude will be the maximum penalty for 
all purposes arising under Section 16 now to be amended by 
Clause i of this Bill. 

As regards Clause 2 of the Bill, I wish to point out that, 
under the existing law, the punishment for absence without 
leave is limited to ten weeks' imprisonment or detention. 
Undoubtedly that is sufficient in time of peace, but absence 
without leave in time of war is a much more serious offence 
indeed, it is almost as serious as desertion and therefore, in 
Clause 2, we propose to amend Section 23 of the original Act 
so as to make it possible, where it seems desirable, to impose a 
maximum penalty of two years' imprisonment in war time 
only. 

Section 46 of the original Act sets out a number of places 
other than those on the high seas in which men of the Fleet 
may be assembled, and it enacts that all offences committed 
in such places may be tried and punished under the Naval 
Discipline Act, whether they are offences against common law 
or against naval law. Clause 3 of this Bill adds to the list of 
such places, the addition being necessary as a result of modern 
developments in the work of the Fleet. The precise alteration 
proposed is that we shall add to the list of places mentioned in 
Section 46 of the original Act these words 

' or in any other premises held by or on behalf of the 
Crown for naval or military purposes, or in any canteen 
or other place frequented by seamen which may be pre- 
scribed by the Admiralty/ 

Then we propose an addition to Section 46, to cover a situation 
concerning which there has been some doubt the taking 
into custody, trial and punishment, by naval law, for an 
offence against naval discipline, of a person after he has 
60 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

actually left the Service. We propose to extend this proviso 
by adding these words : 

' That, except in cases of offences of mutiny or desertion, 
proceedings under the Naval Discipline Act must be in- 
stituted within three months after the person affected has 
ceased to be a member of the Service/ 

We adopt this provision from Sub-section (i), Section 158, 
of the Army Act. Section 56 of the original Act sets forth the 
authorities having power to try offences, and it enacts that the 
power vested by the section in an officer commanding a ship 
may under certain circumstances devolve on others who may 
be in command for the time being of detached parties. We 
propose to amend Section 56 to cover all possible cases not 
fully provided for in the original Act where devolution of 
authority now appears necessary, and consequently we shall 
amend Section 50, which sets forth the persons having power 
to arrest offenders. These particular proposals are the 
explanation of the necessity for Clauses 5 and 7 of the proposed 
Bill. I come to the next point. Under the Act of 1866 there 
are cases where imprisonment may be accompanied by subse- 
quent dismissal from the Service, and there are cases where 
imprisonment cannot be so accompanied. We propose to 
add to Sub-section (7) of Section 53 of the original Act, which 
reads, ' the punishment of imprisonment may be inflicted for 
any term not exceeding two years/ these words 

' and may be accompanied with a sentence of dismissal 

from His Majesty's Service/ 

Clause 6 therefore gives discretion in every case to accompany 
imprisonment with dismissal. Take, for instance, a charge 
of embezzlement. It is not now necessarily punishable by 
dismissal from the Service. I think I am right in saying you 
cannot accompany the punishment of two years' imprison- 
ment for embezzlement with dismissal. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : Except by court-martial. 

DR. MACNAMARA : I am speaking of the punishment of 
two years' imprisonment. We say that in every case there 
shall be discretion to say that a sentence of imprisonment not 
exceeding two years may be accompanied with a sentence of 
dismissal from His Majesty's Service. That is the justification 
for Clause 6. 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

MR. CHAMBERLAIN : Does that mean that a man may be 
dismissed without a court-martial on a sentence inflicted by a 
commanding officer ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Yes, up to two years. 

MR. CHAMBERLAIN : Over two years or under two years ? 
Is any officer to have power to sentence a man to two years' 
imprisonment and to accompany that sentence with an order 
of dismissal from the Service without a court-martial ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I think the summary jurisdiction of 
an officer only goes up to three months' imprisonment, but 
if a Court awards two years' imprisonment then we propose 
it shall be in its discretion to accompany it with a sentence 
of dismissal. 

MR. CHAMBERLAIN : You are now speaking of a court- 
martial ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Yes. 

MR. CHAMBERLAIN : Then this applies only to sentences 
by court-martial ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I think so, as at the present time the 
summary jurisdiction does not go beyond three months. 
But a court-martial may award up to two years' imprison- 
ment for particular offences. It may not say now that the 
men shall be dismissed from the Service, but we think it 
desirable that in future it should have that power. I come 
next to Clause 8. Here we have the necessity for an amend- 
ment of the original Act which has been revealed by war 
experience. Under Section 59 of the original Act a court- 
martial must be held on board ship ; that is an established 
rule from which there is no variation. We propose to add 
these words 

' Unless the Admiralty or the officer who ordered the 
court-martial in any particular case for reasons to be 
recorded on the proceedings otherwise direct, in which 
case the court-martial shall be held at such convenient 
place on shore as the Admiralty or the officer who ordered 
the court-martial may direct.' 

The reason for that modification will be obvious. In war 
time it may be necessary for a ship on which a court-martial 
is being held to go to sea in the middle of the hearing, and 
therefore that is an impracticable method of dealing with 
62 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

these cases. Again, you may have to hold a court-martial 
where for the moment there may not be a ship at all, and in 
view of these possible disabilities we propose the addition 
to Clause 8, which I have just read to the House. 

MR. T. M. HEALY : Is that against the wish of the accused ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I do not know whether he would have 
the power to appeal under any other regulation, but if I 
were asked the question on the matter off-hand I should say 
' Yes/ 

MR. T. M. HEALY : He might desire to be tried by his own 
officer on his own ship. 

DR. MACNAMARA : The Regulations will not give him 
that power. As he has not got that power, we are taking 
nothing away in that respect. 

COMMANDER BELLAIRS : Are you taking power to try a 
man by court-martial anywhere in London, for instance ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The hon. Member will see the provi- 
sion in the Bill is this 

' Unless the Admiralty or the officer who ordered the 
court-martial in any particular case for reasons to be 
recorded on the proceedings otherwise direct, in which 
case the court-martial shall be held at some convenient 
place on shore as the Admiralty or the officer who ordered 
the court-martial may direct/ 

That is the proposal. I put that forward as very urgently 
necessary, or it may be necessary as a result of experience. 

SIR JOHN JARDINE : Will the ordering of the court- 
martial to take place at any place on shore include the case 
of foreign States ? For instance, supposing a ship is near 
or at the coast of an allied State, can the Admiralty or the 
officer commanding' order the court-martial to be held on 
shore ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I am not sure, and I do not wish to 
give any answer of which I am not quite sure. In Clause 9 
we propose to insert a provision, the absence of which has 
caused trouble. We propose to adopt the practice already 
in vogue in the Army under Section 163 (i) (d) of the Army 
Act. We propose to take power to produce the Navy List 
or the Gazette, as evidence of the status and rank of an officer, 
and to make these documents legal evidence. Section 73 

63 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY -NAVAL 

of the original Act provides that where a sentence has been 
passed by court-martial and the offender is serving it, a 
second court-martial can impose punishment to commence 
at the expiration of the previous sentence ; but if the offender 
is undergoing sentence as the result of summary punishment, 
then the court-martial cannot impose a sentence until the 
end of the summary punishment. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : Are there to be two courts-martial ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I do not say that. If the offender is 
undergoing punishment for one court-martial, the next 
court-martial can make the sentence commence at the end 
of the first ; but if he is undergoing punishment awarded by 
the summary jurisdiction, the court-martial sentence must 
begin after the end of that punishment. 

LORD C. BERESFORD made an observation which was 
inaudible in the Reporters' Gallery. 

DR. MACNAMARA : Certainly. In any case the sentence 
of court-martial could not begin if the offender is undergoing 
summary punishment. It would have to begin at the moment, 
whether he serves the whole of the summary punishment or 
not. We propose to take power, in regard to persons already 
undergoing summary punishment, that if a court-martial is 
then held for some other offence the court-martial punish- 
ment may commence at the close of the sentence of summary 
punishment. We propose to take that power by substitut- 
ing the words * under this Act ' for the words ' by court- 
martial ' in the original Act. Let me explain the reason for 
that. Supposing you have a man in detention barracks 
for an offence for which he has been punished by summary 
jurisdiction, and supposing that, while there, he commits 
an offence by striking a superior officer, he is court-martialled 
and under the existing law his punishment by court-martial 
would have to commence at once. We think it might be 
desirable to let him finish in that case the punishment in- 
flicted by the summary jurisdiction and commence the court- 
martial punishment at the end of it. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : It is only three months. 

DR. MACNAMARA : I know, but we think it better he should 
finish the punishment and then commence the punishment 
inflicted by the court-martial. That is the reason for the 
alteration of the words ' by a court-martial ' into ' under this 
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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Act/ Clause n makes an interesting proposal which will 
specially commend itself to everybody. We propose to take 
power to enable the coming into operation of a sentence to 
be suspended until the order of committal is issued. That 
will be effected by the words in Clause n : 

' The case may at any time and shall, at intervals of 
not less than three months, be reconsidered "by the Admir- 
alty or committing authority, and if on such recon- 
sideration it appears to the Admiralty or committing 
authority that the conduct of the offender since his 
conviction has been such as to justify a remission of the 
sentence, the Admiralty or the committing authority 
shall remit the whole or any part of it.' 

That power will be valuable in the case of good men who, 
perhaps after a time of great strain, have done something 
very wrong for the first time in their career. It introduces 
a kind of probation into the service, which will be of great 
value in enabling a man to regain his character if by his 
subsequent good conduct he wipes out the offence for which 
he has been sentenced. It would also have another effect, 
although I hope, believe and trust that this will not often 
arise. If such case arose, it would enable the awarding 
officer to deal effectively with a man who may conceivably 
commit an offence and thus secure detention or imprison- 
ment with a view to escaping from distasteful duty. The 
provision will have a twofold effect. It will enable an order 
to be made suspending the sentence until the man has per- 
formed the distasteful duty, although I believe the most 
likely application of it will be to enable a man to restore his 
character. The new proposal deals also with the possible 
case of the imposition of a new sentence during the time the 
actual operation of the previous sentence was in suspense. 
Clause 12 deals with the change of the place of confinement 
of a prisoner. Under Section 75 of the original Act of 1866, 
it is for the Admiralty or the Commander-in-Chief on a 
foreign station to make an order in writing if any change is 
sought to be made in the place of confinement of any offender 
in prison or sentenced to be in prison, or detained under the 
Naval Discipline Act . The necessity of obtaining the approval 
of the Admiralty at home or the Commander-in-Chief of a 

NAVAL 4 E 65 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

foreign station may involve undesirable delay, so we propose 
to add to the original Act in Section 75 the words empowering 
also ' the Senior Naval Officer present ' to exercise the power 
which the original Act gives. 

LORD C. BERESFORD made an observation which was 
inaudible in the Reporters' Gallery. 

DR. MACNAMARA : No, I think the Commander-in-Chief 
at a foreign station will have the only power to determine 
that. We do not affect his jurisdiction. Under Clause 13 
of the Bill we propose to add to Section 90 of the original Act 
a provision affecting both the Army and the Navy, so that 
when bodies belonging to either of the Forces are serving with 
or attached to the other Force, they may be properly subject 
to the disciplinary control of the senior officer, irrespective 
of the Force to which he may belong. At present an officer 
in one Force is not a superior officer within the meaning of the 
Naval Discipline Act as regards members of the other Force 
of a lower rank than himself. Under Clause 13 regulations 
will be framed which will define the conditions in which such 
power may properly be exercised. Here we are adopting a 
new provision similar in character to one which has already 
been added to the Army (Annual) Bill for the purposes of the 
Army. Section 90 of the original Act makes provision re- 
specting hired ships in His Majesty's service in time of war, 
and invests the commanding officer of every such hired vessel 
with the powers which an officer commanding has, in the 
matter of naval discipline, in respect of the members of the 
crew of the ship he commands. Under Section 90 of the ori- 
ginal Act, if it should arise that a hired ship in His Majesty's 
service in time of war went to sea, and a deserter, for instance, 
was left behind, no provision is clearly made for the punish- 
ment of such a person. He has signed on for a particular 
ship, whereas the naval rating agrees to serve in His Majesty's 
Navy. The distinction between the two terms of service 
would create, and possibly has created, a difficulty in the sort 
of case I have suggested. In the case of the deserter belonging 
to the hired ship his commanding officer has gone, and there 
is no jurisdiction for bringing him to trial. We propose, 
therefore, that in the absence of the officer commanding the 
hired ship, the offender may be dealt with by the officer com- 
manding the ship or vessel, or station, in which he may, for 
66 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the time being, be held in custody. I am sorry to nave to go 
into such detail, but I think the subject demands it. I have 
stated fully the consequences of the clauses in this Bill and 
their full purpose. The Bill makes an interesting rectification 
which I have to state to the House. Under the Statute Law 
Revision Act, 1893, the Preamble to the Naval Discipline 
Act, 1866, was struck out. These words have been used as a 
Preamble to every Naval Discipline Act since 1661. These are 
the words : 

' Whereas it is expedient to amend the law relating to 
the government of the Navy, whereon, under the good 
Providence of God, the wealth, safety and strength of the 
Kingdom chiefly depend/ 

then follow the words, 
' be it enacted/ 

and so on. Those words were proposed to be struck out and I 
have no doubt were struck out, literally and legally, by the 
Statute Law Revision Act, 1893. Notwithstanding that 
fact, I have to stand here and say that that Preamble has ever 
since appeared in the Naval Discipline Act. Clause 15 of this 
Bill proposes to give due and proper authority for the retention 
of those words. Clause 15 further gives due and proper 
authority for the continuance in Section 86 of the original Act 
of the definition of the terms ' Admiralty ' and * Lord of the 
Admiralty/ which definition, curiously enough, was similarly 
struck out by the Statute Law Revision Act, 1893, but which 
definition, singularly enough, has continued to appear in print 
ever since. We now propose in the Bill before the House to 
give proper authority for its retention. 

MR. CHAMBERLAIN : I am quite certain that every one 
who values the history and traditions of the Navy will welcome 
the announcement that the famous and moving Preamble 
used in every old Naval Discipline Act is to be restored by 
this Bill to its proper position. As regards the general 
question, I would like to make one observation. There is a 
tendency on the part of His Majesty's Government to use too 
freely the indulgence which the House is anxious to give to 
them in these difficult times. It was a misfortune for the 
House, and especially for those Members who have already 
spoken, that they were obliged] to intervene before there had 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

been any statement from the Minister as to what this Bill was 
about or what the meaning of these clauses was. The right 
hon. gentleman very courteously offered his apology to the 
House. He had been taken by surprise by the rapidity with 
which business had passed, and he made a very full and frank 
statement the moment he was ready to rise. I suggest to him 
that in a Bill of this character, under present circumstances, 
there is more than usual reason for following a not unusual 
practice and prefacing to the Bill a memorandum explaining 
its provisions. The statement which the right hon. gentleman 
has just made is just that class of statement which, in ordinary 
times, Ministers, in order to suit their own convenience and 
to save their own time, put into a memorandum and not into a 
speech, and the fact that the House is treating Ministers with 
exceptional indulgence under present circumstances is not a 
reason for Ministers failing to supply the House with the in- 
formation they can in the way that is most convenient to the 
House. I hope the right hon. gentleman and his colleagues 
will receive that very gentle and mild protest in the spirit in 
which it is made, and, if they have occasion to introduce 
legislation of this kind, will circulate a memorandum with the 
Bill which will give the House an explanation which the Bill 
itself does not afford. 

On one or two specific points raised by the right hon. 
gentleman I should like to make some observations. First 
in regard to Clause i, which amends Section 16 of the previous 
Act. Section 16 of the original Act is one of a series of seven 
sections grouped together, and my hon. friend (Sir F. Banbury) 
and my noble friend (Lord C. Beresford) feared that Clause i 
applied not merely to Section 16, but to Section 10, the first 
of the sections of the original Act so grouped under a single 
heading. The right hon. gentleman has made it quite clear 
that that is not the intention of the Board of Admiralty. I 
hope he will satisfy himself before he proceeds with the Bill 
in Committee that he has done nothing in the new Bill to alter 
Section 10. I speak as a layman and subject to correction on 
points of drafting, but I think it would be worth while that 
Clause i should be especially stated as modifying Section 16 and 
having no reference to the other sections of the original Act. 

DR. MACNAMARA : That is our view, but the point is a very 
good one. 
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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

MR. CHAMBERLAIN : It will be satisfactory if that is done. 
Then I. turn to Clause 3, which is intended, as explained by 
the right hon. gentleman, to extend the provisions of the 
original Act which relate to offences committed on board ship 
and in other places over which the Admiralty has jurisdiction 
to places of a type not described or covered in the original Act, 
but in which the Admiralty now has jurisdiction. 

DR. MACNAMARA : Sailors congregate there, but we have 
not the jurisdiction without altering the Naval Discipline Act 
which we have in respect to places already mentioned in the 
Act. 

MR. CHAMBERLAIN : I quite understand their desiring to 
take this power in respect of other premises held by or on 
behalf of the Crown for naval or military purposes, or in any 
canteen. But then you go on to say, ' or other place fre- 
quented by seamen/ Those are extremely wide words. I 
do not know what they are intended to cover, but they would 
apply to the whole City of London. 

DR. MACNAMARA : Take a Royal Naval air station. 

MR. CHAMBERLAIN : Does not that show that this Bill 
requires very careful consideration in Committee, and that 
there is at least a possibility that the Admiralty are doing a 
great deal more than they are prepared to defend, and, I 
hope, a great deal more than they intended ? A Naval air 
station would be a place under the jurisdiction of the Ad- 
miralty, and it would be premises held by or on behalf of the 
Crown. But do they mean to apply these words to any 
public-house in London where seamen who are in London 
happen to be ? Do they mean to apply them to any street in 
London where a group of seamen may happen to be ? The 
words are so wide that I think the right hon. gentleman must 
give us a much more exact definition of what I believe the 
Admiralty want, and what I think they are entitled to ask, 
than is given in the words as they are here. The one illustra- 
tion which the right hon. gentleman has given is one on which 
every one will agree. The words are so wide that wherever you 
find half a dozen sailors, if there was no naval establishment in 
the neighbourhood, I believe they would cover that case, and I 
think that is more than the Admiralty ought to have, and I 
believe it is more than they have any intention of demanding. 

I would make one other observation on Clauses 8 and 9. 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The right hon. gentleman said this Bill was not absolutely 
strictly limited to the new needs arising out of the war, but 
was in part intended for subsequent regulation of the Navy 
during times of peace. I am not quite certain how far he 
includes Clauses 8 and 9 under the one or the other category. 
He suggests, in regard to Clause 8, the difficulty of holding 
courts-martial on board ship in time of war, but it seems 
rather odd that we should legislate in Clause 8 about courts- 
martial, and in Clause 9 about the Navy, at the very moment 
when the Government have abandoned the uniform practice 
of the Service of holding courts-martial, and have abandoned 
the publication of the Navy List. The action of the Admir- 
alty in legislation and in administration does not seem quite 
consistent, and I should have thought the right hon. gentle- 
man, since he neither publishes a Navy List nor will hold 
courts-martial, might leave Clauses 8 and 9 to be considered 
at leisure when perhaps the Board will once again give us a 
Navy List and resume the practice of holding courts-martial. 
MR. T. M. HEALY : I desire, without in any way criti- 
cising the Bill itself, to ask a few questions from the draft- 
ing and legal point of view. I think the measure as a whole 
is satisfactory, but there are one or two questions I wish to 
ask. The Government pfoposes to re-enact the words of 
the Act of 1893, which I am wholly in sympathy with ; but 
I wish to ask for general information whether this Bill has 
been drafted by the ordinary draftsmen of the Government 
or by some special person connected with the Admiralty. 
There is a clause in every Statute Law Revision Bill which 
provides that, notwithstanding repeal, Acts shall still remain 
in force as if they never had been repealed, unless in a given 
eventuality. It is plainly the opinion of the lawyers of 
successive Governments who have been advising the House 
that the repeal of the Act of 1892 had no eifect, because not- 
withstanding the repeal they had used the Preamble in every 
subsequent Naval Discipline Act. Why, then, twenty years 
after, should we suddenly discover that this repeal has actually 
taken place ? I have known the Courts to hold, notwith- 
standing formal repeal in the Statute Law Revision Act, 
that in fact the repealed section was still in full operation. 
Therefore I feel that this question is one of great nicety, and 
it is not merely for the purpose of criticising this Bill that 
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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

I raise this point, but only by reference to the fact that if 
you once re-enact this provision every lawyer will say the 
Navy has found it necessary to re-enact this provision and 
that the repeal had come into effect notwithstanding that 
the Preamble had been used in every successive annual 
Statute. It is only because of the general effect of this 
proposed repeal that I make this criticism. 

Here is another observation of the same kind. There is 
remarkable provision in Clause 16, Sub-section (2), which I 
think, perhaps claiming some small experience of watching 
Acts of Parliament, is novel. 

' A copy of the Naval Discipline Act, with every such 
enactment, would be inserted in the place so assigned and 
with the omission of any portion of that Act directed by 
the Schedule to this Act to be omitted from that Act, and 
with the substitution of references to His Majesty for 
references to Her Majesty shall be prepared and certified 
by the Clerk of the Parliaments and deposited with the 
Rolls of Parliament, and His Majesty's printers shall 
print in accordance with the copy so certified all copies 
of the Naval Discipline Act which are printed after the 
commencement of this Act/ 

I am not clear that certain portions of that order are 
necessary, because if you look at the Interpretation Act you 
will find that the demise of the Crown is provided for, and 
surely it is no more necessary in a Naval Act to provide for 
the case of ' His ' for ' Her ' in the case of the demise of the 
Crown than in the case of any other Act, and therefore I 
suggest that unless there is some special reason connected 
with the Navy, this provision is wholly unnecessary. But 
what is the necessity for the provision in regard to the King's 
printers ? This constantly arises in connection with the 
Army Bill. Year after year the new Act is brought into 
force by the same system of draftsmanship which is, I take 
it, in existence in connection with the Army Act, but has 
any one ever seen the provision that the Clerk of the Parlia- 
ments shall deposit a certified copy with the Rolls of Parlia- 
ment ? Is not this an entire novelty in procedure in con- 
nection with the Acts of Parliament, and if it be a novelty 
what is the necessity for it ? I quite grant that the Govern- 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ment have, in connection with this war, to do a vast number 
of things for which changes are desirable which are neces- 
sitated as cases arise, but in the technique of the printing of 
Acts of Parliament the war has not created any change, and 
it has not created any change in regard to the printing of 
Bills and the Rolls of Parliament. Unless some precedent 
or some special necessity can be cited, I shall enter my protest 
as a humble student of Statutes against any provision of 
this kind. 

As regards courts-martial, from what the right hon. 
gentleman has said there is no change whatever made as 
regards the status of prisoners in the Third Clause of the Bill. 
I think it is a mere matter of convenience in providing as 
to the places where courts-martial may be held. While that 
is so, I would suggest that, as a rule, everybody thinks of 
the accuser, and of the convenience of the Department, but 
there are few to speak on behalf of prisoners and accused 
persons. It is therefore all the more necessary in time of 
war, when you will not allow wages to be paid under certain 
circumstances in public-houses, to provide that you shall 
not appear to degrade the administration of justice by bring- 
ing a sailor suddenly into a certain place because there is no 
other place where he can be tried. I do not object if it 
becomes an absolute necessity, and if strong necessity can 
be shown, but I think that in the case of such a grave and 
reverend assembly as a court-martial it is far better that it 
should continue to proceed in a place, I will not say of more 
respectability, but of more orderliness of character. If you 
once lay down that a court-martial may meet in a canteen, or 
other rough and ready place of that kind 

MR. CHAMBERLAIN : I would ask the hon. and learned 
gentleman to look at the clause. I do not understand Clause 
3 to deal with places where a court-martial may be held, 
but rather to deal with the offences which are punishable 
under the Act. 

MR. HEALY : If that is so, of course my observation falls 
to the ground, and I am obliged to the right hon. gentleman. 
I simply rose to refer to a drafting point, and I trust that 
the Government will give it consideration before next 
stage. 

Question put, and agreed to. 
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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



NAVAL MARRIAGES BILL 

House of Commons, March 8, 1915. 

Order for Second Reading read. Hansard. 

Motion made, and Question proposed, 'That the Bill be 
now read a second time/ 

MR. GEORGE LAMBERT (CiviL LORD OF THE ADMIRALTY) : 
This is a Bill which has been rendered necessary by the war, 
and its duration, I may say, is limited to the duration of the 
war. At the present time the banns for naval marriages are 
published on board ship, and the marriage therefore just 
takes place in a parish where a marriage can be solemnised. 
While the fleets are at sea men cannot be spared so long as 
to go down to some parish in the country, and therefore the 
proposal of this Bill is that a marriage may take place in 
any legal place where marriages may be solemnised in the 
United Kingdom that is to say, if the Fleet may be coming 
into Hull or some other port sailors may go there to be married. 
In other words, if Jack cannot go to Jill, Jill may come to 
Jack, and if the formalities have been duly complied with 
the marriage may be solemnised in any place of worship 
licensed for that purpose. There is another provision in 
the Bill the extension of the time for the validity of banns. 
Now a marriage must be solemnised within three months of 
the publication of the banns. Sometimes sailors cannot get 
away for that time. We propose in this Bill that the period 
over which the banns may remain valid should be twelve 
months instead of three. This is a war emergency Bill, 
and I hope the House will give it a Second Reading. 

Question put, and agreed to. 

AIR ATTACK ON OSTEND 

The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following Times, 
announcement : March 9, 

Wing-Commander Longmore reports that an air attack on 
Ostend was carried out yesterday afternoon by six aeroplanes 
of the Naval Wing. Of these, two had to return owing to 
the petrol freezing. 

The remainder reached Ostend, and dropped eleven bombs 

73 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

on the submarine repair base and four bombs on the Kursaal, 
the headquarters of the military. 

All machines and pilots returned. 

It is probable that considerable damage was done. No 
submarines were seen in the basin. 

The attack was carried out in a fresh N.N.W. wind. 

THE CASE OF THE S.S. PAKLAT 

We have received through the Press Bureau copies of 
communications which have passed between the Foreign 
Office and the United States Ambassador in London on the 
subject of the seizure of the German steamer Paklat, which 
was arrested by British warships last autumn while conveying 
German refugees from-Tsing-tau to Tientsin. 

The German communication took the form of a Note 
Verbale forwarded through the United States Embassies in 
Berlin and London, and dated Berlin, March 8 (1915). 

' Before the siege of Tsing-tau was started, the German 
steamer Paklat had been ordered by the Governor of Tsing-tau 
to transport the women and children from there to Tientsin. 
The steamer was given a certificate by the Governor as to 
the purpose of her trip, and -she was carrying the white flag. 
None the less, she was stopped during her voyage by British 
men-of-war and was brought to Wei-hai-wei. At the latter 
place, the women and children had to embark on a small 
freight steamer, while the steamer Paklat was taken to Hong- 
Kong, where the Prize Court there has pronounced her 
confiscation. 4 '" 

* This procedure against the ship involves a serious viola- 
tion of the international law, according to which vessels 
entrusted with humanitarian missions are exempt from 
seizure by hostile marine forces (see also Article 4 of the 
Eleventh Convention of The Hague concerning certain 
restrictions in the exercise of the right of capture in maritime 
war, of October 18, 1907).! 

* [The Paklat was condemned by the Prize Court at Hong-Kong on 
April 22, 1915.] 

t [The terms of this Article are as follows : Vessels employed on re- 
ligious, scientific, or philanthropic missions are likewise exempt from 
capture.] 

74 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

' The German Government energetically protest against 
the violation of this rule of international law which is in the 
interest of humane warfare, and ask the speedy release of 
the steamer Paklat. 

' It would be grateful to the American Embassy if the 
latter would cause the foregoing to be brought to the attention 
of the British Government/ 

Sir Edward Grey replied on March 30, through Mr. Page, 
the American Ambassador in London, as follows : 

' I duly received the Note which you were good enough 
to address to me on the i8th instant, transmitting a Note 
Verbale from the German Government, in which they protest 
against the seizure and condemnation of the German S.S. 
Paklat, as being in contravention of Article 4 of Convention 
No. XL, signed at The Hague in 1907. 

' So far as His Majesty's Governmental^ aware, judgment 
on the vessel has not yet been pronounced by the British 
Prize Court at Hong- Kong, before which she was brought for 
adjudication on the 2nd December last. The further hear- 
ing of the case was then adjourned on the application of the 
owners of the ship, in order to permit of a full consideration 
of their contention that she was exempt from condemnation 
in virtue of the provisions of the Convention quoted above. 

' His Majesty's Government are of opinion that the ship 
is liable to condemnation, since Article 4 of the Convention 
to which the German Government refer does not apply to 
cases such as that now under consideration. This appears 
to be made clear by the extract from the Report on the 
labours of the Fourth Commission (sub- Annexe 10 to Protocol 
of Seventh Plenary meeting), of which I have the honour to 
enclose a copy. In the view of His Majesty's Government 
the conveyance of women and children from a fortress which 
was about to be besieged (an action which would have the 
effect of increasing the power of resistance of the fortress) 
cannot be regarded as a philanthropic mission within the 
meaning of the Article ; and it would indeed appear that the 
Paklat might more properly be considered as being employed 
on a service connected with the operations of war, which 
would, as the Report points out, be sufficient to deprive a 
vessel of any privileges which she might otherwise be entitled 
to under the Article in question. The question whether the 

75 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ship is exempt from condemnation in virtue of these provisions 
is, however, essentially one for the Prize Court to determine 
after due consideration of the circumstances of the case. 

' I must confess that I have received the protest of the 
German Government in this case with considerable astonish- 
ment. It will be within your Excellency's recollection that 
1 [See the French vessel Amiral Ganteaume, 1 which was conveying 
Naval i, refugees to England, was torpedoed by a German submarine 
PP- 344-5-] in the English Channel some months ago. No opportunity 
was given to the passengers to escape in the ship's boats, 
and it was not owing to any act of the commander of the 
submarine that the lives of all on board were not lost. 

' I cannot refrain from calling your Excellency's attention 
to the difference in the treatment accorded to these two 
vessels. The Paklat was taken into a British port and the 
refugees on board forwarded to their destination, the vessel 
being brought for adjudication before a British Prize Court, 
where the owners are being afforded every opportunity of 
putting forward their claim to exemption from condemna- 
tion ; the Amiral Ganteaume was torpedoed at sight without 
any regard to the laws of war or the dictates of humanity. 

' In view of the protest of the German Government, their 
contention would appear to b"e that they are entitled to sink 
without notice a French merchant ship carrying refugees and 
at the same time to protest against the validity of the capture 
of a German ship engaged on a similar errand being investi- 
gated and decided by a Prize Court. I am content to leave 
this contention without further comment/ 

The following is a translation of the French text of the 
extract from the Second Hague Convention, in interpretation 
of Article 4, appended to Sir Edward Grey's reply : 

' The terms of this article, which originated in a motion by 
the Italian delegates, are in conformity with the usage for 
which the La Perouse Expedition furnishes one of the best- 
known precedents. The consecration of the principle of 
immunity could not give rise to any objections, and was 
adopted unanimously. It did not appear necessary to state 
afresh in the text the conditions upon which enjoyment of 
this immunity depends. It is clear that this favour is granted 
only on condition of non-participation in operations of the 
war ; in order to avoid all difficulties the State whose flag 
76 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

is flown by the ship in question will have to abstain from 
implicating it in any service of a warlike nature. The favour 
granted to the vessel confers upon it 'a sort of neutral char- 
acter, which continues until the end of hostilities, and debars 
it from changing its destination/ 

NOTICES TO MARINERS 

(No. 164 of the year 1915) 

NORTH SEA, RIVER THAMES, AND ENGLISH CHANNEL 

(Information with regard to Lights, Light Vessels, and Pilotage) 

Former Notice (No. 1823 of 1914 *) hereby cancelled 

I. A light-vessel with * No. 9' painted on the sides and L.G., 
showing a Gp. Fl, (4) white light is moored off Beachy Head March 9. 
in latitude 50 39' 25" North, longitude o 09' 20" East. This I9I5< 
vessel will be withdrawn as soon as possible without further 
notice. With the above exception, the main coast lights 

and fog-signals on the English coast between Selsea Bill 
and Deal are now in the same condition as they were previous 
to the outbreak of the war. 

II. The following Orders as to Compulsory Pilotage 
between the Downs and Great Yarmouth made under the 
Defence of the Realm (Consolidation) Regulations, 1914, will 
come into operation at 6 A.M. on the loth March 1915. 

1. All ships (other than British ships of less than 
500 tons gross tonnage, when trading coastwise and not 
carrying passengers) whilst bound from, and whilst navi- 
gating in the waters from the Downs Pilot Station to 
Gravesend or vice versa, must be conducted by pilots 
licensed by the London Trinity House. 

2. All ships (other than British ships of less than 
500 tons gross tonnage, when trading coastwise and not 
carrying passengers) whilst bound from, and whilst 
navigating in the waters from the Downs Pilot Station 
to Great Yarmouth or vice versa, must be conducted by 
pilots licensed by the London Trinity House. 

3. All ships (other than British ships of less than 

* [This notice will be found in Naval 2, p. 419, but its number ' 1823 of 
1914 was there inadvertently omitted.] 

77 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

3500 tons gross tonnage, when trading coastwise and when 
not carrying passengers) whilst bound from, and whilst 
navigating in the waters from Gravesend to Great Yar- 
mouth or vice versa, must be conducted by pilots licensed 
by the London Trinity House. 

4. All ships (other than British ships of less than 
3500 tons gross tonnage, when trading coastwise and 
when not carrying passengers) whilst navigating in the 
waters from Gravesend to London Bridge or vice versa, 
must be conducted by pilots licensed by the London 
Trinity House. 

5. The Trinity House Pilot Station at Dungeness 
having been discontinued, pilotage is therefore not com- 
pulsory between the Downs Pilot Station and Dungeness, 
except for ships bound into or out of the Harbours of 
Dover and Folkestone. 

III. By 6 A.M. on the loth March 1915, Trinity House 
Pilot Stations will be established at the under-mentioned 
places, and merchant vessels not under compulsion of pilotage 
are very strongly advised to take pilots : 

(a) The Downs, where ships proceeding north can 

obtain pilots capable of piloting as far as Great Yarmouth ; 

and also pilots for the River Thames, and for Folkestone 

and Dover harbours. The pilot steamers attached to the 

Downs Station will cruise in the vicinity of a position 

two miles south-east of Deal Pier. 

(6) Great Yarmouth, where ships from the North Sea 

bound for the River Thames or the English Channel can 

obtain pilots capable of piloting as far as the Downs. 
The pilot steamer attached to the Great Yarmouth 

Station will cruise between the Corton Light-vessel and 

the South Scroby Buoy. 

(c) The Sunk Light-vessel, where ships crossing the 
North Sea between the parallels of 51 40' and 51 54' 
North latitude, but no others, can obtain pilots for the 
River Thames and the Downs. 

(d) Pilots can also be obtained at London and Har- 
wich for the Downs and Great Yarmouth (including the 
River Thames and approaches). 

Note. The pilot stations at Dover and St. Helens (I.W.) 
will be discontinued on the same date. 
78 



;] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 






The pilots referred to in this Notice are the pilots 
licensed by the London Trinity House and no others. 
IV. RIVER THAMES. All traffic into and out of the river 
Thames must pass through the Edinburgh Channels, or 
through the Black Deep south of the Knock John and Knob 
Light buoys, and through the Oaze Deep, until further notice. 
No vessels are to remain under way in the above-men- 
tioned Channels inside the Sunk Head Light-buoy, or within 
a line joining the positions of the South Long Sand and East 
Shingles buoys, between the hours of 10 P.M. and 4 A.M. 

Vessels at anchor within these limits must not exhibit any 
lights between the hours of 10 P.M. and 4 A.M. 
All other Channels are closed to navigation. 
Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
By Command of their Lordships, 

J. F. PARRY, Hydrographer. 
Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, 8th March 1915. 



(No. 165 of the year 1915) 
ENGLAND EAST COAST 
River H umber Pilotage 

Former Notice (No. 108 of 1915) 1 hereby cancelled 

Mariners are hereby warned that, under the Defence of L.G., 
the Realm (Consolidation) Regulations, 1914, the following March 12, 
instructions respecting Pilotage of the River Humber are now I 9 I 5- 
in force : * \. See 

Until further notice, the outer pilot station of the Humber a ? ' 
Pilotage District will be in the neighbourhood of the Bull 
Light-vessel. 

All vessels proceeding into or out of the Humber must be 
navigated by way of Hawke and Sunk roads, passing to the 
northward of the Bull Light-vessel. 

All vessels, irrespective of draught, size and nationality, 
bound to or from any place above Grimsby must be conducted 
by licensed pilots over the whole or any part of the waters 
between Hull and the Outer Pilot Station. 

In .the cases of British vessels employed in the Coasting 

79 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Trade of the United Kingdom, of British fishing vessels, and 
of British vessels of less than six feet draught of water, if 
bound between Grimsby and the sea, pilotage by licensed 
pilots will not be insisted upon. 

During the hours of official night, and during fog, no 
vessel should enter or remain within a radius of 5 miles from 
the Spurn Light-vessel. 

A vessel should not approach the Humber unless there is 
sufficient time available to enable such vessel to obtain a 
pilot, if one is necessary, and to proceed to her destination or 
to a position in which she is permitted to anchor, before the 
commencement of official night. 

No vessel should anchor whilst awaiting a pilot. 

Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

By Command of their Lordships, 

J. F. PARRY, Hydrographer. 
Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, Sth March 1915. 



AMERICAN COTTON CARGOES 

s- 

Washington, March 8. 

In order to meet the temporary conditions arising out of 
the fact that certain Americans have already contracted for 
delivery of American cottons in neutral countries in Northern 
Europe, Sir Cecil Spring Rice has made a statement to the 
effect that, ' while there is no question of the confiscation of 
cotton cargoes that may come within the scope of the Order 
in Council to be issued, the following arrangement has been 
arrived at in London as to cotton consigned to neutral ports : 

' (i) All cotton for which contracts for sale and freight 
engagements were already made before March 2 will be 
allowed free passage (or bought at contract price if stopped) 
provided that the ships sail not later than March 31. 

' (2) Similar treatment will be accorded to all cotton 
insured before March 2, provided it is put on board not later 
than March 16. 

' (3) All shipments of cotton claiming the above protection 
to be declared before sailing, and documents are to be handed 
80 








i] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to, and certificates obtained from, Consular officers and other 
authorities fixed by the Governments. Ship cargoes con- 
signed to enemy ports will not be allowed to proceed/ 

Regarding the last sentence it is explained that where 
shipment was made before the announcement of the British 
intention to stop all supplies for Germany, the cotton cargo 
will be taken by Great Britain at invoice value. Renter. 

BRITISH SHIPS (TRANSFER RESTRICTION) BILL 

House of Lords, March 9, 1915. 

Order of the Day for the Second Reading read. Hansard. 

The UNDER-SECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE COLONIES (LORD 
ISLINGTON) : My Lords, the short Bill to which I ask your 
Lordships to give your approval this evening is an emergency 
measure and is to have effect only during the continuance of 
the war, the object of the Bill being to make quite clear that 
no British ship may be transferred from the British Register to 
a foreign flag without the consent of the Government. During 
the periods of peace ships can be sold to foreigners like any 
other commodity, and are merely regarded as being removed 
from the British Register and transferred to that foreign 
country. But it has been brought home more and more as 
the war proceeds that it is necessary to exercise a very strict 
control on the transfer of British ships to any foreign flag. 
We do not want, by allowing transfer to a neutral flag, either 
directly or indirectly to offer advantage to our enemies. 

This Bill is merely an extension of an Act already in force 
which was passed some months ago to prohibit the export 
from the United Kingdom of any British ship. It is an 
extension because it not only prohibits the transfer of a 
British ship from any port in the United Kingdom but also 
from any abroad, except subject to the consent of the Govern- 
ment ; and when it is in operation instructions will be given 
to our Consuls in those foreign ports to see that it is strictly 
enforced. Anybody who attempts to transfer without such 
consent will be subject, as may be seen in a clause in the 
Bill, to a severe penalty. By the schedule, British India 
and our Dominions are excluded from the Bill, but concurrent 
legislation is being passed to the same effect in each of those 
parts of the world. The Bill is necessary to make the legal 

NAVAL 4 F 8 1 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

position quite clear. It will have but little effect in practice, 
because the Board of Trade last December issued a notice 
to all owners inviting them to state whether they had in 
contemplation the sale of any ships, and the Board of Trade 
found that owners have been most willing to recognise the 
necessity during the war of a strict restriction of transfer. 
Therefore very little trouble has ensued. Speaking generally, 
I may say in regard to this Bill that no hardship will fall on 
the shoulders of a British shipowner during the continuance 
of the war by this restriction. The Bill has already passed 
through all its stages without amendment in another place, 
and with, indeed, little discussion ; and I would ask your 
Lordships not only to give it a second reading this evening 
but to allow it to pass through its other stages. 

Moved, That the Bill be now read 20. (Lord Islington.) 

On Question, Bill read 20, . 

Committee negatived : Then (Standing Order No. XXXIX 
having been suspended) Bill read 30 and passed. 

INTERNATIONAL LAW 

House of Commons, March 9, 1915. 

Hansard. SIR WILLIAM BULL asked the Prime Minister (i), in view 

of the fact that, because of the absence of common and 
universal agreement thereto, neither the Declaration of Paris, 
1856, nor The Hague Conventions, 1907, nor the Declaration 
of London, 1909, have become part of the Law of Nations, do 
His Majesty's Government propose to repudiate and to with- 
draw from all obligation to be bound by those instruments ; 
and (2) having regard to the fact that the second article of the 
Declaration of Paris of 1856 declares that the neutral flag 
covers enemy's merchandise with the exception of contraband 
of war, and that His Majesty's Government nevertheless 
propose to detain and take into port neutral ships carrying 
enemy goods, and therefore in effect repudiate that article of 
the Declaration of Paris, whether His Majesty's Government 
propose to denounce and repudiate the Declaration itself ? 

THE PRIME MINISTER : The answer to these questions is 
in the negative. All that is necessary to be done in order to 

i carry out the decision recently announced will be effected by 

is! 1 an Order m Council which is about to be issued. 1 
82 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

NAVAL DISCIPLINE BILL 

Considered in Committee. 

[MR. MACLEAN in the chair.] 
CLAUSE i. (Punishment for Striking, etc., Superior Officer) 

A sentence of death shall not be passed on a person subject ibid 
to the Naval Discipline Act for striking, or with any weapon 
attempting to strike, or drawing or lifting up any weapon 
against, his superior officer, and accordingly for Section 16 
of that Act the following section shall be substituted : 

' Every person subject to this Act who shall strike or 
attempt to strike, or draw or lift up any weapon against, 
or use or attempt to use any violence against, his superior 
officer, whether or not such superior officer is in the 
execution of his office, shall be punished with penal servitude 
or such other punishment as is hereinafter mentioned/ 

The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE ADMIRALTY (DR. 
MACNAMARA) : I think it is due to the Committee to explain 
precisely what the scope of this clause is. I endeavoured 
to explain yesterday that it relates to Section 16 of the original 
Act only. That section provides that the maximum penalty 
for striking or attempting to strike a superior officer with a 
weapon when engaged in the execution of his office is death, 
and that the maximum penalty is penal servitude for striking 
or attempting to strike otherwise than with a weapon, or for 
using or attempting to use violence against a superior officer 
in the execution of his office, and that penal servitude is 
the maximum penalty for striking or attempting to strike 
without a weapon, or using or attempting to use violence 
against a superior officer not being engaged in the execu- 
tion of his office. For that Section 16 we substitute this 
Clause i, which makes in every such case penal servitude 
the maximum penalty. As I pointed out, there might be 
cases in which the matter might be dealt with summarily, 
and the commanding officer could give a maximum of two 
months' imprisonment. Of course, he might ask for a court- 
martial and proceed to make a charge, and the noble Lord 
(Lord C. Beresford) and, I think, the right hon. gentleman 
(Mr. Chamberlain) asked how that would affect death being 

83 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the maximum penalty in other parts of this Act. That is a 
question I wish to bear in mind. Death would remain the 
maximum penalty under the Act for misconduct in the pre- 
sence of the enemy, and also under Clause 2 (absence without 
leave in time of war). Clause 3 (offences punishable under 
the Act). I am assured that this modification of Clause 16 
does not affect in any way the clauses which I have named. 
In these cases death remains the maximum penalty. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : May I ask the right hon. gentleman 
where he intends to put this in the Naval Discipline Act ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : In the 1886 Act there is a line printed 
as amended. We shall put that line at the top. We shall, 
as the result of the amendment, include these emendations. 
In place of Section 15 there will be this Clause i. 

Clause ordered to stand part of the Bill. 

CLAUSE 3. (Offences Punishable under the Act) 

In Section 46 of the Naval Discipline Act, which defines 
the cases in which offences are triable by court-martial, after 
the words ' in any arsenal, barrack, or hospital belonging to 
Her Majesty ' there shall be inserted the words ' or in any 
other premises held by or on^behalf of the Crown for naval or 
military purposes, or in any canteen or other place frequented 
by seamen which may be prescribed by the Admiralty/ 

Motion made, and Question proposed, ' That the Clause 
stand part of the Bill/ 

DR. MACNAMARA : I should explain that Section 46 of the 
original Act sets out a large number of offences for which 
sailors may be punished, whether they are offences against 
the ordinary law or naval law. This proposal will apply to 
these cases. Both the noble Lord the Member for Ports- 
mouth (Lord C. Beresford) and the hon. and learned Member 
for Cork (Mr. T. M. Healy) called attention to the phrase, 
' or in any other premises held by or on behalf of the Crown 
for naval or military purposes, or in any canteen or other 
place frequented by seamen which may be prescribed by the 
Admiralty/ They objected to these words on the ground 
that we were taking rather too wide power. I felt the force 
of the criticism, and I am quite sure that hon. Members who 
have followed the debate share the general desire which 
84 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



was expressed by my hon. friends yesterday. Nevertheless, 
in order that there may be no misunderstanding, I propose to 
make an amendment on the clause I moved, to leave out 
the words, ' or other place frequented by seamen/ and to 
insert instead thereof the words ' sailors' home or other 
place of recreation placed at the disposal of or used by members 
of His Majesty's Navy/ I understand that there may be 
cases where we may need jurisdiction in certain circumstances. 

MR. HEALY : Will the word ' canteen ' remain in ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Yes, Sir. 

MR. HEALY : It is a remarkable thing that the teetotallers 
in the House, who are so angry about men in the trenches 
having to stand the horrors of war and the stench of shell, 
should object to a court-martial being held in a canteen. 
I am very glad that the right hon. gentleman has seen his 
way to make the change which he has proposed. I would 
expect the poor men, who are nearly dead, would be glad 
to get a little glass of grog. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : I think this addition to the clause 
is a very great improvement. The real improvement in it 
will be that it will keep the jurisdiction in our own hands 
without having to go to the Civil Courts. 

MR. CHANCELLOR : I think the hon. Member for Cork 
(Mr. Healy) misunderstands the attitude of teetotallers in 
regard to these matters. We do not object to any soldier 
being given rum if he asks for it. What we object to is that 
those who are total abstainers should have intoxicants prac- 
tically thrust upon them. We wish that they should be 
treated on an equality with others. 

Amendment agreed to. 

Clause, as amended, ordered to stand part of the Bill. 

CLAUSE 6. (Power to inflict Dismissal in Addition to 
Imprisonment) 

A sentence of imprisonment may be accompanied by a 
sentence that the prisoner be dismissed from His Majesty's 
Service, and accordingly at the end of paragraph (7) of Section 
53 of the Naval Discipline Act, there shall be inserted the 
words ' and may be accompanied with a sentence of dismissal 
from His Majesty's Service/ 

85 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Motion made, and Question proposed, ' That the Clause 
stand part of the Bill.' 

Dr. MACNAMARA : I wish to make a correction in an 
answer which I gave yesterday * to the right hon. gentleman 
the Member for West Birmingham (Mr. Chamberlain). The 
right hon. gentleman asked : ' Does that mean that a man 
may be dismissed without a court-martial on a sentence 
inflicted by a commanding officer ? ' To that I replied : 
' Yes, up to two years/ Then the right hon. gentleman 
asked : ' Over two years or under two years ? Is any officer 
to have power to sentence a man to two years' imprisonment 
and to accompany that sentence with an order of dismissal 
from the Service without a court-martial ? ' To that I re- 
plied : ' I think the summary jurisdiction of an officer 
only goes up to three months' imprisonment, but if a Court 
awards two years' imprisonment, then we propose it shall 
be in its discretion to accompany it with a sentence of 
dismissal.' The former answer I gave is incorrect, and I 
take this opportunity of correcting it. 

Clause ordered to stand part of the Bill. 

CLAUSE 8. (Place for ^Holding Courts-Martial] 

At the end of Section 59 of the Naval Discipline Act, 
which requires courts-martial to be held on board ship, 
the following words shall be added, ' unless the Admiralty 
or the officer who ordered the court-martial in any particular 
case for reasons to be recorded on the proceedings otherwise 
direct, in which case the court-martial shall be held at such 
convenient place on shore as the Admiralty or the officer 
who ordered the court-martial may direct.' 

Motion made, and Question proposed, ' That the Clause 
stand part of the Bill.' 

DR. MACNAMARA : The general desirability of not depart- 
ing from the established practice of holding a court-martial 
on board ship was expressed by the noble Lord. He objected 
to the Court being transferred to any out of the way or distant 
place. He did not wish an accused person to be dragged to 
London. We never had that in mind, and I move as an amend- 
ment, after the word ' held,' to insert the words, ' at a port.' 

LORD C. BERESFORD : This is a very good amendment. 
86 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

No doubt, in the circumstances of this war, it might be neces- 
sary to hold a court-martial when a ship was away. In war 
time there would be at a port officers qualified to hold courts- 
martial. I am sure the Service will be glad of this amend- 
ment. 

MR. HEALY : May I ask whether the interest of an accused 
person will be prejudiced by the shifting of the tribunal ? A 
man might prefer to be tried by his own officers. I can 
understand a sailor desiring to be tried by his own officers 
men who have known him all the time he has been in the 
Service. Is it absolutely clear that a change of the tribunal, 
if it takes place, will not prejudice him ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I think the hon. and learned gentle- 
man is under a misapprehension. Any rights an accused 
man might have under the established law and the King's 
Regulations would not be prejudiced by the holding of the 
court-martial at a port. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : The hon. and learned gentleman 
(Mr. Healy) has expressed a view, very kind and sympathetic 
to the prisoner. I would point out that men are never tried 
by their own officers. They are tried by naval officers. 
They can ask for an officer of their ship to come and give 
evidence of good character, but accused men are really tried 
by officers of other ships. In the case represented by the 
hon. and learned Member, there could be no prejudice what- 
ever, the Court would be held under the same circumstances 
of naval law. 

MR. R. M'NEILL : How would the clause as amended 
affect the case if the ship was in a foreign port ? Would it be 
open to hold the court-martial in a foreign port ? I under- 
stand that those on board a British ship are legally on British 
territory. I want to know whether the clause as proposed to 
be amended will enable a British subject to be tried in a foreign 
port ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The question is a very important one. 
I think an accused person could? be tried at a Colonial port, 
but I do not think he could be tried in a foreign port under 
this clause as amended. 

MR. PETO : May I suggest that the clause should be 
amended so that the court-martial could be held at any port 
in His Majesty's Dominions. 

87 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

DR. MACNAMARA : I will take care that the point shall 
have consideration, and, if necessary, whatever amendment 
may be desirable shall be made. 

MR. R. M'NEILL : It is rather important to make the matter 
perfectly clear, because difficult questions might arise in 
certain circumstances and in reference to certain points. For 
instance, in the case of an Egyptian port it might be difficult 
to say whether under the present status of Egypt such a port 
was or was not under the jurisdiction of His Majesty. It ought 
to be made quite clear exactly where a court-martial could 
or could not be held. 

DR. MACNAMARA : I agree that the point should be looked 
into. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : The Court could not be formed in 
any foreign port. We should not have any naval officers 
there doing duty for the Fleet, but if the right hon. gentleman 
puts that in it would make the thing quite clear. 

Question, ' That those words be there inserted/ put, and 
agreed to. 

CLAUSE 14. (Discipline on Hired Ships in Time of War) 

At the end of paragraph (5) of Section 90 of the Naval 
Discipline Act, which relates t6 discipline upon hired ships in 
His Majesty's service in time of war, there shall be inserted the 
words ' Provided that in the absence of the officer commanding 
such hired vessel, the officer commanding the ship or vessel 
or station in which such person may for the time being be held 
in custody shall have such power as aforesaid/ 

MR. PETO : The right hon. gentleman has said that Section 
go of the original Act, which makes provision in respect of 
hired ships in His Majesty's service in time of war, invests the 
commanding officer of every such hired vessel with the powers 
of a commanding officer in the matter of naval discipline in 
respect of members of the crew. I wish that was an absolutely 
accurate statement of the effect of Section 90, but the effect 
of what the right hon. gentleman says is qualified by the fact 
that the hired vessel in question must be either commanded by 
an officer of the Navy, or be an armed vessel. 

DR. MACNAMARA : I said in His Majesty's service. 

MR. PETO : Would not the hired ship be in His Majesty's 
service even if it was not an armed ship and did not happen to 
88 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

be commanded by a naval officer ? The question has arisen 
about the transports and the discipline upon them. It is one 
to which I have called the attention of the right hon. gentle- 
man, and which has been brought much more authoritatively 
to his notice by the memorial of the very large number of 
officers commanding these hired transports. I could no doubt 
move an amendment, but I did not like to do so. I only take 
the opportunity of asking the right hon. gentleman that the 
Board of Admiralty should consider very seriously whether 
during the remaining period of the war these hired vessels, 
which are in fact transports constantly carrying a very large 
number of troops, should be commanded by officers of the 
Navy or of the Royal Naval Reserve, and therefore brought 
under the terms of Section 90 which it is here proposed to 
amend. I am quite convinced that if that could be done it 
would be an enormous relief to those who have to undertake 
this responsible duty of the safe-conduct of His Majesty's 
forces over seas. 

CLAUSE 15. (Revival of Parts of Naval Discipline Act 1 ) l [See 

So much of the Statute Law Revision Act, 1893, as repeals * 
the Preamble to, and part of Section 86 of, the Naval Dis- 
cipline Act shall cease to have and shall be deemed never to 
have had effect. 

MR. HEALY : I desire to ask a question on this clause. I 
have a most vivid recollection of the Statute Law Revision 
Act of 1893. In that Act there is a provision that the Preamble 
of the Naval Discipline Act shall stand repealed, and the 
Government after twenty-two years propose to repeal that 
repeal and declare that the Preamble has never been repealed, 
whereas the very forcible draftsmen or printers of the Naval 
Discipline Act have never regarded the repeal as having any 
effect at all, and they bring in a drag-net clause into every one 
of their Bills providing that in spite of that repeal there is to be 
no repeal whatever. If there is anything that would produce 
want of respect for the law and for lawyers, it is the system 
of Statute Law Revision whereby you solemnly repeal all the 
laws. I remember when there was a proposal to repeal 
Magna Charta, made in this House by some person of a re- 
pealing mind who said that it was obsolete, but by a vigorous 
effort the proposal was stopped. When I sat on a Committee 

89 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

on Statute Law Revision, of which the present Prime Minister 
was a member, there was a proposal made that the priority 
of salary of the Lord Chief- Justice should stand repealed, and 
the Prime Minister made an emphatic protest against that 
repeal taking place, and with great difficulty succeeded in 
preserving that most splendid relic of the Constitution. Here 
we have the most absolute absurdity demonstrated, not merely 
to this House, but to the public, and I ask what respect there 
can be for lawyers or for legislation when it is proposed here 
to repeal the repeal of a Preamble which every lawyer con- 
cerned in it for the last twenty-two years has never deemed to 
be repealed at all. 

It is certainly one of the most curious instances connected 
with legislation. For twenty-two years, notwithstanding the 
repeal of the Preamble of the Naval Discipline Act, you have 
ignored the repeal, and this couple of sentences has continued, 
as I understand, to ornament and adorn the forefront of these 
Bills. Why should we now in a time of war suddenly wake up 
to the consciousness that this repeal, of which nobody hitherto 
has taken the smallest notice, has taken effect. I always wish 
to meet Treasury clerks to see what sort of persons they are. 
One would like to meet the kind of man who has discovered 
this, and who sat up for nights, I suppose, planning that he 
would give the House of Commons some judicial entertainment 
by suddenly providing that the ghost of this repeal shall be 
finally laid by a Statute declaring that the repeal has never 
taken place at all. I would like to meet the gentleman re- 
sponsible. Read the clause, I think it is a classic instance : 

' So much of the Statute Law Revision Act, 1893, as 
repeals the Preamble to and part of Section 86 of the Naval 
Discipline Act shall cease to have and shall be deemed never 
to have had effect.' 

Whoever drew that had the courage of his convictions. What 
is the fact ? That everybody connected with the Navy has 
insisted upon this Preamble continually, as if no repeal had 
taken place at all. 

Why cannot you leave it so ? Because you have really this 
position : So far as my experience in Courts of Law has gone, 
every time you said to a Court that the Statute Law Revision 
Act has repealed a particular provision, the Courts took no 
90 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

notice of it. I remember complaining that no attention was 
being bestowed on the revision of the Irish Statute, and, for 
my sins, the then Government, about twenty-five years ago, 
appointed a man who has mottled and dappled Irish legisla- 
tion, so that when you require to consider the effect of bank- 
ruptcy laws, land laws, and other things of difficulty and 
doubt, nobody can construe the Statute Law Revision, and 
consequently the Irish Courts have come to the sensible 
resolution that they will pay no heed whatever to the Statute 
Law Acts. I remember Lord Chancellor Ashbourne asking 
me, ' Why on earth does the House of Commons pass such 
Statute Law Acts ? ' and I said that they were intended as a 
codification of the law, in order to make the law clear to the 
working man. That is the only explanation which I have 
ever been able to get of this system of legislation. To pass 
this section now would mean a legislative declaration by the 
Government that the Statute Law Revision Acts have force, 
because they themselves, having refused to recognise the force 
of the Statute Law Revision Acts, now find it necessary to 
declare, as they do by this clause, that in fact they believe 
that they have had force, whereas it was known to every one 
that they had no force whatever. 

Therefore, when by the blundering of the gentlemen con- 
nected with the Statute Law Revision some Act is repealed, 
you can always say ' that is a blunder and the drag-net section 
will cover it, and therefore no harm has been done/ But 
can you do that now ? Because the moment you say, ' Oh, 
the Government for twenty-two years never took any notice 
of the repeal and they put the Preamble forthwith into the 
section/ then it would be said immediately by somebody 
that there was a revival and a re-enactment. When you 
yourselves have given no effect to the repeal you should not 
now prejudice other legislation by this proposal. I have 
no doubt whatever of the reason of the repeal. This is only 
a dive back to the past. In the old days there used to be a 
question that the Preamble could be postponed, and you 
could debate that. Then there was a Standing Order passed 
that the Preamble should stand proposed with the Question. 
Then as Preambles had gone out of fashion, it was possible, 
under the Navy Acts, I take it, to have a debate on the 
Preamble, and so it came under the notice of the naval law 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

revisor and he abolished it altogether for the sake of what 
he thought was parliamentary convenience, and when he 
had done that the Navy, with glorious persistency, treats the 
repeal as having had no effect whatever. We have lived in 
that happy state of things for twenty-two years, and now, 
in the midst of a vast war with the Teuton or the Hun, or 
whatever he is called, supposed to be threatening at our gates, 
we declare that we shall run up the flag once more, and that 
the glories of the Navy shall stand blazoned upon our banners, 
notwithstanding the repeal of the Preamble of the Naval 
Discipline Act. I only hope that the gentleman responsible 
in doing what he has done in this case will not leave for future 
times a puzzle for lawyers like the puzzle which was pro- 
pounded in the case of the fly in the amber, as to how the 
mischief he got there. 

SIR J. SIMON : Whatever else the Naval Discipline Act 
has produced, all of us are grateful that it should have pro- 
duced the speech of the hon. and learned gentleman. He 
has told us a number of things which we are greatly interested 
to know, including the part which he has played in appoint- 
ing those officials who in Ireland look after the revision of 
the Statutes, and also his opinion of the law. But my imme- 
diate reason for rising was this-: he said that he wants to 
see the man who will admit that he has got any sort of respon- 
sibility for putting this clause in this Bill at this time. I am, 
I hope, a reasonably retiring person, but, that request having 
been made, I feel it necessary to stand up and say that I 
am the man. We have enjoyed the hon. and learned gentle- 
man's review of the Statute Law Revision Act, but I am 
sorry to say that I do not entirely share his view that it could 
have no effect on anything whatever. Ireland, indeed, is a 
fortunate country in many ways, but in no way so fortunate 
as in matters of this kind ; at any rate, last Monday, in our 
own courts here, a judgment was being considered with respect 
to which I had to argue. It was given by three judges of 
our own High Court, a short time back, in which they agreed 
unanimously that a section in another Statute Law Revision 
Act had, in fact, altered a very important part of the pre- 
rogative of the Crown. I am glad to say that before the Court 
of. Appeal we found that to be groundless, and we restored 
ourselves to the position in which we were before. There are 
92 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

two reasons why this section should be put in, and I hope 
they will commend themselves to the House. The first is, 
at any rate in the view of those who are responsible for advis- 
ing the Admiralty, that there is some doubt as to whether 
the Statute Law Revision Act here referred to has not thrown 
doubt upon some decisions already given by the Admiralty 
authorities in respect of courts-martial. Everybody will 
agree that when you are administering naval discipline 
through naval courts-martial you do not want a court-martial 
to be upset on the ground of a pure technicality. That is one 
reason why the clause is put in at this time. There is an- 
other reason. Generally speaking, the Preamble of an Act of 
Parliament is found very dreary reading, more dreary than 
the enacting clause, and the more we get rid of those Pre- 
ambles of old Statutes I dare say the better ; but there is 
one exception, and it is that which is traditionally to be 
found in the Naval Discipline Act. Its pedigree goes right 
back to Charles the Second, and it is a simple and splendid 
Preamble which existed until the Statute Law Revision Act, 
framed by those who cared nothing for these things, cut it 
out of the Statute Book. I think it is proper that we should 
restore it : 

' Whereas it is expedient to amend the law relating to 

the government of the Navy, wherein under the good 

providence and protection of God, the wealth, safety, and 

strength of the Kingdom is so much concerned/ 

I do not think we are in the least to be reproached, even 

in the event of war, because, when we had on various urgent 

matters to improve and amend the law with respect to naval 

discipline, we should, in set terms, restore to the Statute 

Book that traditional and splendid expression, ' Wherein 

under the good providence of God/ I am the guilty person 

who has put in this provision, and I ask the House to accept it. 

Clause ordered to stand part of the Bill. 

CLAUSE 16.' (Printing and Construction of Naval 

Discipline Act) 

(i) Every enactment and word which is directed by this 
Act to be substituted for or added to any portion of the 
Naval Discipline Act shall form part of that Act in the place 
assigned to it by this Act, and the Naval Discipline Act, 

93 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

and all Acts which refer thereto, shall after the commence- 
ment of this Act be construed as if that enactment or word 
had been originally enacted in the Naval Discipline Act in 
the place so assigned, and, where it is substituted for another 
enactment or word, had been so enacted in lieu of that enact- 
ment or word, and as if the Naval Discipline Act had been 
enacted with the omission of any enactment or word which 
is directed by the Schedule to this Act to be omitted from 
that Act, and the expression ' this Act ' in the Naval Discipline 
Act shall be construed accordingly. 

(2) A copy of the Naval Discipline Act with every such 
enactment and word inserted in the place so assigned, and 
with the omission of any portion of that Act directed by the 
Schedule to this Act to be omitted from that Act, and with 
the substitution of references to His Majesty for references 
to Her Majesty shall be prepared and certified by the Clerk 
of the Parliaments and deposited with the rolls of Parliament, 
and His Majesty's printers shall print in accordance with the 
copy so certified aU copies of the Naval Discipline Act which 
are printed after the commencement of this Act. 

MR. HEALY : Perhaps the right hon. and learned gentle- 
man will give some explanation of Sub-section (2). It is a 
most desirable thing in the case of such complicated provi- 
sions as these. I only want to know, as in the case of the 
Army Act, how it becomes necessary in the Navy Act. If 
the right hon. and learned gentleman is not prepared to 
reply now, perhaps he will give a reply on the Report stage. 

SIR J. SIMON : In the case of the Army Act it has been 
for many years the custom to reprint all the amendments 
made, so that those who wished to see those amendments 
might have them inside the four corners of one document. 
That has, in fact, been provided by Statute, and I think you 
will find that it is in the Army Act of 1885. The object, in 
both cases, is to furnish the document containing the existing 
law, complete in itself, and corrected up to date, instead of 
persons having to refer to half a dozen different books, in 
order to build up for themselves the Statute as it is. The 
second sub-section, just as is the first sub-section, is to provide 
that we may ensure that there is no mistake as to what is 
exactly the existing state of the law, both military and naval. 

Clause ordered to stand part of the Bill. 
94 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

NEW CLAUSE. (Corporal Punishment] 

(1) No person subject to the Naval Discipline Act who is 
of or over the age of sixteen years shall be liable to corporal 
punishment, but nothing in this sub-section shall be con- 
strued as rendering any person liable to such punishment 
who would not have been so liable if this section had not 
been enacted. 

(2) The maximum number of strokes which may be in- 
flicted upon a person liable to corporal punishment shall be 
twelve. 

(3) Section 53 of the Naval Discipline Act is repealed 
so far as inconsistent with this section. 

SIR W. BYLES : I beg to move this clause on behalf of 
my hon. friend the Member for Peterborough (Mr. George 
Greenwood). I understand that the object of the proposal 
is to bring the law in regard to corporal punishment into 
harmony with the practice and regulations of His Majesty's 
Navy. I remember long debates in this House about flogging 
in the Navy, and I thought that perhaps the right hon. 
gentleman would explain how far those punishments have 
been abolished. At any rate, the object of this clause is to 
make statutory what is already in practice. 

DR. MACNAMARA : My hon. friend will remember that 
the only corporal punishment now in force in the Navy is 
caning. He will remember that flogging has been definitely 
suspended since 1881, and it could not be reinstituted except 
by the special authority of the Board of Admiralty. 

SIR W. BYLES : Is it not abolished by law ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I have stated that it has been suspended 
and could not be reinstituted except by the authority of the 
Board of Admiralty. There remains the punishment of caning. 
That punishment may be administered to boys who are above 
the age of fifteen and under eighteen. Here, again, my hon. 
friend will remember that in recent years we restricted the 
permission to cane. We went into the question very closely, 
and set up material restrictions. In 1906 the captain could 
delegate the power of caning to the commander, but in that 
year strict orders were issued that the caning should only be 
imposed under the actual order of the captain. Then, early 
in 1913, we issued instructions that caning was to be restricted 

95 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to the serious offences of theft, immorality, drunkenness, 
insubordination, and deliberate and continued disobedience of 
orders. Further, at that time instructions were issued to the 
effect that, in the absence of the captain, the commanding 
officer is not to order caning to be inflicted unless the captain be 
absent from duty by permission of superior authority for more 
than forty-eight hours. It was also laid down that the 
punishment is not to be carried out in public. I may say 
further, in reply to my hon. friend, that the instructions 
provide that the punishment is to be inflicted with a light 
and ordinary cane on the clothes. I trust, therefore, that my 
hon. friend will not enter upon a discussion at this time. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : Does the hon. gentleman want to 
do away with corporal punishment altogether ? 

SIR W. BYLES : Certainly. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : May I point out that I am an 
example of corporal punishment. In one school I attended I 
was more flogged than the whole of the rest of the boys put 
together, and it did me a great deal of good. An impulsive, 
energetic, high-spirited boy often gets into more trouble and 
rows than the other lads, and he takes his flogging, and the 
thing is over. If you are going to punish him in some other 
way, if he is a high-tempered, spirited boy, and he is kept 
indoors, or otherwise punished, he will resent it, and the 
punishment will not have the moral effect which is derived 
from the use of the cane. The lad takes his caning, and thinks 
no more of it. He takes his punishment like a man, and it 
does him a great deal of good. It is true that a boy may be a 
thief, and a thief is a cur, and it is a very good thing to flog a 
cur at times ; but I am speaking of high-spirited boys who get 
into mischief and submit to caning without thinking more 
about it. In the Service corporal punishment has been done 
away with, but when I joined the Service we had no discipline 
and plenty of ' cat/ but now it is thought a good thing to have 
plenty of discipline and no ' cat/ When I joined the Service, 
if a man offended he was flogged. Often a man would use 
rough remarks about the captain, and, if it was discovered, he 
was called out. It was a bestial punishment ; it was a 
punishment suited to those days when men could not read or 
write, and when many of them were convicts, and when many 
of them were very bad characters, but it would be absolutely 
96 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

horrible now for a man to be tied up and get four dozen. 
Times have changed, but I still feel that the cane for the boy 
is good. It is not as if I had not had it myself. I had plenty 
of it, and I think it did me a great deal of good in those days. 

SIR W. BYLES : I do not think that this is the time to 
discuss the ethics of flogging, but if it were I could find a good 
deal to say in reply to the noble Lord, who, no doubt, is a fine 
specimen of the mature honourable man, notwithstanding the 
flogging he got in his youth. Neither he nor my right hon. 
friend the Parliamentary Secretary have met the point, the 
only point I made, namely, that this is an attempt to make 
the Statute agree with the practice. The right hon. gentle- 
man has explained to us what the practice is in the Navy with 
regard to flogging, and I should like him to tell us what can 
be the objection to making that practice statutory. 

DR. MACNAMARA : Without going into that question, I 
am afraid it could not be done in this Bill, which we bring in 
as an emergency measure. 

SI*R W. BYLES : I beg to withdraw the proposed new clause. 

Proposed new clause, by leave, withdrawn. 

Bill reported, as amended, considered ; read the third 
time, and passed. 

THE ABORTIVE ' BLOCKADE ' 

The Secretary of the Admiralty announces the following Times, 
further results of the German submarine ' blockade/ the March 9, 
arrivals and departures of vessels mentioned below being I 9 I 5- 
those of oversea steamers (over 300 tons) of all nationalities 
at United Kingdom ports, excluding vessels used by the 
Admiralty for naval and military purposes : 

British Merchant 

Vessels Lives 
Week. Arrivals. Sailings. Torpedoed. Lost. 

Jan. 21 to Jan. 27 . . 823 680 I 

Jan. 28 to Feb. 3 . . 677 743 6 1 2O 1 

Feb. 4 to Feb. 10 . . 754 664 

Feb. ii to Feb. 17 . . 752 686 I 2 

Feb. 18 to Feb. 24 . . 708 673 7 7 

Feb. 25 to Mar. 3 . . 805 669 
1 [Including S.S. Oriole (20 lives).] 

NAVAL 40 97 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The vessels which German submarines have unsuccessfully 
endeavoured to attack are as under : 

Feb. i. Asturias (tonnage 12,002) ; Owners, R.M.S.P. 
Company, Belfast. Torpedo fired at her 15 miles N.N.E. of 
Havre Lightship. Torpedo missed. Asturias is a War Office 
Hospital Ship. She has two large Red Crosses lit up at night 
by powerful reflectors, also a broad green horizontal band. 

Feb. 10. Laertes (4541) ; Ocean Steamship Company, 
Liverpool (A. Holt and Co.). Attacked by gunfire and shot 
through funnel. Torpedo also fired and missed. 

Feb. 14. Kirkham Abbey (1166) ; Hull and Netherlands 
Steamship Company, Hull. Chased for twenty minutes by 
submarine. 

Feb. 21. Penhale (3712) ; Penhale Steamship Company, 
Falmouth. While making for Holyhead was chased for three 
miles by a submarine. 

Feb. 22. Victoria (1689) ; South-Eastern and Chatham 
Railway. Torpedo fired at her, but missed, passing thirty 
yards ahead of ship. (Ninety-two passengers, including 
twenty-one women and a large number of neutrals.) 

Feb. 23. Kalibia (4930) ; Clyde Shipping Company. 
Chased for thirty miles. 

Feb. 23. Alex. Hastie (206) ; R. Hastie and Sons, North 
Shields. Approached by submarine, which fouled trawl. 

Feb. 24. Hungarian Prince (4765) ; Prince Line. Attack 
attempted by submarine off Beachy Head. 

Feb. 25. St. Andrew (2528) ; Fishguard and Rosslare 
Railways and Harbours Company. Hospital ship. Chased 
by submarine for four miles off Boulogne at 9.30 A.M. 

Feb. 26. Alston (2563) ; Webster and Barraclough, West 
Hartlepool. Reported struck submarine off Dungeness. 

Feb. 28. Thordis (501) ; Thordis Steamship Company, 
Bolton. Attacked off Beachy Head at 9.30 A.M. Torpedo 
passed under engine-room section of ship. Attacking sub- 
marine struck by Thordis. 

March 2. Wrexham (1414) ; Great Central Railway. 
Chased by submarine for about thirty miles. 

March 4. Ningchow (9021) ; China Mutual Steam Naviga- 
tion Company (A. Holt and Co.). Chased by submarine for 
about twenty minutes. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

March 5. Lydia (1175) ; London and South-Western 
Railway. Torpedo fired at vessel by submarine while on 
journey from Jersey to Southampton. Torpedo passed forty 
feet astern of ship (fifty passengers). 



SPECIAL TREATMENT OF U-BOAT CAPTIVES 

The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following Times, 
announcement : March 9, 

Since the war began His Majesty's ships have on every 
occasion done their utmost to rescue from the sea German 
officers and men whose vessels have been sunk, and more 
than 1000 have been saved, often in circumstances of diffi- 
culty and danger, although no such treatment has ever yet 
been shown to British sailors in similar distress. 

The officers and men thus taken prisoners have received 
the treatment appropriate to their rank and such courtesies 
as the Service allows ; and in the case of the Emden were 
accorded the honours of war. 

The Board of Admiralty do not, however, feel justified 
in extending honourable treatment to the twenty-nine officers 
and men rescued from submarine U 8. 

This vessel has been operating in the Straits of Dover 
and the English Channel during the last few weeks, and there 
is strong probability that she has been guilty of attacking 
and sinking unarmed merchantmen and firing torpedoes at 
ships carrying non-combatants, neutrals, and women. 

In particular the steamship Oriole is missing, and there is 
grave reason to fear she was sunk at the beginning of February 
with all hands twenty. 

There is, of course, great difficulty in bringing home 
particular crimes to any individual German submarine, and 
it may be that the evidence necessary to establish a conviction 
will not be obtained until after the conclusion of peace. 

In the meantime persons against whom such charges are 
pending must be the subject of special restriction, cannot be 
accorded the distinctions of their rank, or be allowed to mingle 
with other prisoners of war. 

99 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



THREE BRITISH STEAMSHIPS SUNK 

Times, The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 

March 10, announcement : 

I 9 I 5- The British steamship Tangistan, 3738 tons, owned by 

Messrs. F. C. Strick and Co., London, was sunk by torpedo off 
Scarborough at 12.30 A.M., gth March. The crew consisted 
of 38 hands ; of these only one survivor is at present known 
to have been picked up. 

The British steamship Blackwood, 1230 tons, owned by the 
Tyneside Line (Limited), North Shields, was sunk without 
warning by torpedo from submarine at 6 A.M., gth March, off 
Hastings. The crew of seventeen were all saved, and were 
landed at Newhaven. 

The British steamship Princess Victoria, 1108 tons, owned 
by Messrs. M. Langlands and Sons, Glasgow, was sunk without 
warning by torpedo from submarine at 9.15 A.M., gth March, 
off Liverpool. The crew of thirty-four hands were all saved 
and landed at Liverpool. 



U 12. SUNK 

Times, It was officially announced yesterday that the German 

March ii, submarine U 20 had been rammed and sunk by a British 
destroyer, but it appears from a subsequent announcement 
made by the Admiralty that it was the U 12, a somewhat 
older boat, that met with disaster, and that with her went 
down eighteen of her crew of twenty-eight. The following 
is the text of the two announcements issued by the Admiralty : 

2.35 P.M. 

The German submarine U 20 was rammed to-day by Ariel 
(Lieutenant-Commander James V. Creagh). The submarine 
sank, and the crew surrendered. 

8.50 P.M. 

Later and more detailed reports have now been received 
which establish the fact that the German submarine which 
was rammed and sunk by H.M.S. Ariel was U 12, and that 
out of her crew of twenty-eight the number saved was ten. 

IOO 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

BRITISH COLLIER REPORTED SUNK 

March 10. 

The British collier Beethoven, bound from Newcastle to ibid. 
Gibraltar, either ran on a mine or was torpedoed and sank. 
The crew, with the exception of two of its members, was 
saved. German Wireless. 

[The Beethoven was safely docked at Avonmouth on 
March 7.] 

ALIENS AND PILOTAGE 

House of Lords, March 10, 1915. 

The EARL OF SELBORNE rose to call attention to the Hansard. 
reply of Lord Islington on February 24 x on the subject i [See 
of certificates of pilotage held by the Germans in the United Naval 3, 
Kingdom, and to ask whether the Board of Trade will hence- P- 421. 
forth confine the grant of certificates of pilotage for the River 
Thames and the coasts of the United Kingdom to natural-born 
British subjects. 

The noble Earl said : My Lords, there was an old-standing 
controversy between many naval officers and the Board of 
Trade in past years as to whether the Board should issue certi- 
ficates of pilotage to other than natural-born British subjects, 
but the Board of Trade up to the time of the war had always 
refused to withhold these certificates from aliens. On Feb- 
ruary 24 last I asked the noble Lord the Under-Secretary of 
State for the Colonies a question as to the number of certificates 
of pilotage for the River Thames or for any part of the United 
Kingdom held by German or Austrian subjects at the time of 
the declaration of war, and his answer was that five pilotage 
certificates for the London district and three for the Humber 
were held by German subjects. It is obvious that those pilots 
may conceivably have been of real use to the German Admiralty, 
or they may be during the course of this war. We hope not. 
But it cannot be otherwise contended than that the existence 
of German subjects with such a knowledge of our coastal waters 
might, in conceivable circumstances, be a very important 
matter in the eyes of the German Admiralty. I ask His 
Majesty's Government whether, in the light of the experience 
of this war, the Board of Trade are not prepared to reconsider 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

this question. I do not wish to go into it at length to-night. 
I merely desire to ascertain what the attitude of the Govern- 
ment is, and whether the Board of Trade are still of opinion 
that it is a wise policy to issue certificates for pilotage in respect 
of our ports and coastal waters to other than natural-born 
British subjects. 

The UNDERSECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE COLONIES 
(LORD ISLINGTON) : My Lords, I am hopeful that the formal 
answer which I hold in my hand from the Board of Trade will 
sufficiently reply to the question put by the noble Earl, but if 
there is any further point, after I have read this answer, upon 
which he desires information, I shall be very pleased to explain 
it if it lies in my power to do so. So far as the information of 
the Board of Trade goes, there are only ten naturalised British 
subjects out of a total of 2538 masters and mates holding 
pilotage certificates, and of these none are of German or 
Austrian birth. The Board have no power to deprive natural- 
ised British subjects of rights to which they, in common with 
British-born subjects, are entitled. Since December 10, 1914, 
all pilotage certificates granted to masters and mates by the 
Corporation of Trinity House, London, for the London pilotage 
district have been suspended until further notice, and this is 
the case also in other district sf 

The EARL OF SELBORNE : With great respect to the noble 
Lord, he has not answered my question, which was this 
whether the Board of Trade will henceforth confine the 
granting of certificates of pilotage for the River Thames and 
the coasts of the United Kingdom to natural-born British 
subjects. 

LORD ISLINGTON : The latter part of my answer met the 
question put by the noble Earl namely, that all grants of 
pilotage certificates were suspended on December 10, and will 
continue so during the duration of the war. A master or mate 
of a ship in possession of a pilotage certificate and who hitherto, 
in such possession, could steer his ship into any of the ports 
for which he had that certificate, no longer can do so during 
the war, and the ship will have to employ a pilot with a 
licence. 

The EARL OF SELBORNE : That only answers a small part 
of my question. What the noble Lord has told me is that the 
Board of Trade have suspended for the rest of the war the 
zoa 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

issue of such certificates. I am glad to hear it. But I want 
to know whether the Board of Trade are prepared for the 
future, after the war, to discontinue the grant of certificates 
of pilotage to aliens. 

LORD ISLINGTON : Under the Pilotage Act, 1913, it was 
laid down, in Section 23, that a certificate should not be 
granted to a master or mate of a ship unless he is a British 
subject. There are, however, exceptions to that under the 
1913 Act. If the noble Earl will look at Section 26, I think 
it is, he will see that certain renewals of certificates may be 
allowed to those who, prior to the year 1906, had such certifi- 
cates ; but in a subsequent schedule of the Act it will be found 
that in those cases where renewals allowed are to masters and 
mates who are other than British subjects they are only 
granted over a comparatively limited area. In Section 24, 
sub-section (2), there is a long list of ports in respect of which 
masters and mates who are aliens are excluded from this 
privilege. Under the 1913 Act the only certificates allowed 
to aliens are those which the pilotage authorities grant in the 
form of renewals to men who had certificates previous to 1906, 
and, as I have said, the certificates are confined to a limited 
area, the holders being debarred from going into the ports 
named in the schedule to the Act. 

The EARL OF SELBORNE : I am obliged to the noble Lord 
for his answer, and if he will be good enough to send me the 
reference I shall be glad. 

The EARL OF CAMPERDOWN : The answer given by the 
noble Lord the Under-Secretary for the Colonies, as I under- 
stood it, related to British subjects, but the question put to 
him by the noble Earl was whether the Board of Trade would 
in future confine the grant of certificates of pilotage to natural- 
born British subjects. That is a much tighter definition, 
and refers to quite a different class of men. 

LORD ISLINGTON : As I explained in the formal answer 
which I gave just now, the Board of Trade have no power 
to deprive naturalised British subjects of rights to which 
they, in common with British-born subjects, are entitled. 

The EARL OF CAMPERDOWN : The noble Earl asked whether 
the Board of Trade would hereafter confine these certificates 
to natural-born British subjects. That is a point which the 
noble Lord has not touched. 

103 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

PRIZE MONEY 

Hansard. The EARL OF SELBORNE : My Lords, I rise to ask the 

noble Marquess the Leader of the House when he will be in 
a position to answer the question on the subject of the Prize 
Claims Committee which is already on the Notice Paper.* 
Since I placed the question on the Paper I have had com- 
munications from a good many quarters, which show that I 
was not wrong in thinking that this is a matter of very general 
interest. 

The LORD PRIVY SEAL and SECRETARY OF STATE FOR 
INDIA (The MARQUESS OF CREWE) : My Lords, I quite agree 
that the subject mentioned in the noble Earl's question is 
one which excites a great deal of general interest. There is 
a sort of historical flavour attaching to Naval Prize which 
causes a great number of people to be interested in the 
subject besides those immediately concerned. The question 
is not only one of importance but it is also one, as I have no 
doubt the noble Earl recognises, of considerable complexity, 
and it affects more than one Department of the State. But if 
the noble Earl will put his question on the Paper for to-morrow 
I shall hope to be able to give him an answer by then. 

DISASTERS TO TRADING VESSELS (PUBLICATION 

OF NEWS) 

House of Commons, March 10, 1915. 

ibid. MR. HOLT asked the First Lord of the Admiralty whether 

he has caused the Censor to prevent the publication of news 
of damage to or loss of British merchant vessels by mine or 
submarine ; and whether, in view of the responsibility in- 
curred by shipowners in sending their vessels on dangerous 

* [To ask His Majesty's Government whether it is true that they have 
set up a Prize Claims Committee to consider of a distribution to individuals, 
whose claims have been rejected by the Prize Court, of portions of Prize 
Money ; and if so, whether they can inform the House what are its qualifica- 
tions, and what cases in respect of what vessels and of what persons are 
now under consideration by that Committee ; and whether it is intended 
that while all Prize Money is withheld from the officers and men of the 
Navy, part of it shall be distributed to persons selected by the Prize Claims 
Committee.] 
104 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

voyages, he will give an assurance that no information regard- 
ing disasters to trading vessels shall be withheld ? 

The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE BOARD OF 
ADMIRALTY (DR. MACNAMARA) : The Censor is guided in his 
action by the instructions he receives from the Admiralty, 
and announcements are made by him in accordance with these 
instructions. No such news has been suppressed, though the 
time of publication necessarily depends upon circumstances of 
which the Admiralty alone are the judge. Arrangements are 
made whereby the news of damage to or loss of British merchant 
vessels is communicated to the owners and Lloyd's at once. 
The immediate publication of individual losses would be of 
little assistance to the safety of the mercantile marine apart 
from the precautionary measures taken by the Admiralty. So 
far every loss has been published. 

NAVAL OFFICERS (SHORE APPOINTMENTS) 

COMMANDER BELLAIRS asked the First Lord of the Ad- ibid. 
miralty whether he is aware that a number of active list 
officers, filling appointments on shore in the Coastguard and 
elsewhere, have applied for service afloat, and that the practice 
of giving the preference to retired officers deprives these 
active list officers of the legitimate opportunity of winning 
distinction in the proper sphere of a seaman ; and whether 
he can see his way to take any action to meet such cases ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I am informed that many officers filling 
shore appointments have been given sea appointments since 
war broke out, and that it is not the case that preference is 
given to retired officers. 

RETIRED NAVAL OFFICERS (WAR SERVICE 
AND PENSIONS) 

SIR CLEMENT KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the ibid. 
Admiralty whether, seeing that time served during the war is 
regarded as active service time and that such time counts 
towards an increase of half-pay for active list officers, he will 
consider the possibility of officers retired from the Navy on . 
account of ill-health, and who voluntarily offered their services 
during the war, being allowed to count their war service 
towards an increase of pension ; is he aware that the majority 

105 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of these officers have given up civil employment ; and that, 
should the war last any length of time, their chances of obtain- 
ing similar work after hostilities are over will be materially 
reduced owing to increased age, and especially will this be so 
in the case of men nearing their forty-fifth year ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I regret I am unable to see my way to 
recommending the adoption of the suggestion of the hon. 
Member. Retired officers recalled to service receive a war 
bonus of 25 per cent, of their full pay in lieu of counting their 
service for increase of pension. This system is undoubtedly 
the fairest for officers as a whole. Under the proposal of the 
hon. Member some officers would undoubtedly gain, but a very 
considerable number would receive no increase in pension 
whatever by counting their service under the present general 
rules on which the calculation of retired pay is based. 

HOSPITAL SHIP ASTURIAS (SUBMARINE ATTACK) 

House of Commons, March 10, 1915. 

Hansard. SIR JOHN LONSDALE asked the First Lord of the Admiralty 

if his attention has been directed to the apology issued by 
the German Embassy in Washington for the submarine 
attack upon the British hospital ship Asturias off Havre on 
ist February ; and if the excuse offered that the distinctive 
marks showing the character of the ship were not recognised 
has any validity ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The master's report says : -' It was a 
very light and clear evening and at 5.15 broad daylight, and 
in no possibility could the character of the ship be mistaken/ 
The report further says : ' Apart from the testimony of my 
officers, a number of people on board not only saw the course 
of the torpedo, but also observed the submarine following in 
our wake/ 

As the submarine was herself seen by several of those in 
the Asturias, it is difficult to believe that the ship's distinctive 
marks could have been mistaken. 

ENEMY SHIPS IN BRITISH PORTS 

ibid. MR. ROBINSON asked the President of the Board of Trade 

how many German and Austrian steamers and sailing ships 
are now lying unused in British ports ; who pays the dock 
106 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

dues and watching expenses of these vessels ; and whether 
they can all be made use of in view of the shortage of tonnage 
existing ? 

The PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF TRADE (MR. RUNCI- 
MAN) : All the German and Austrian steamers and sailing 
ships which were detained in British ports, with the exception 
of a few sailing ships which cannot be usefully employed at 
present, are either in use already or will be in use very shortly. 
Any expenses properly chargeable against the ships before 
the date of employment would, I understand, be payable by 
the Admiralty Marshal or other proper officer of the Crown. 

MR. ROBINSON : Will my right hon. friend consider care- 
fully whether these sailing ships cannot be made use of ? 
There are certain vessels between 1800 and 5000 tons lying 
in the same port at the present time which might be used. 

MR. RUNCIMAN : Yes, sir, if it were possible to make use 
of them we should certainly do so, but it is not only a question 
of making use of the vessels themselves, but of providing 
crews for them. There is at the present moment a great 
shortage of sailors, and I am advised that we would not be 
able to man any more vessels at our ports. If the supply of 
sailors were to alter, we could, of course, reconsider the 
matter. 

MR. ROBINSON : Will not my right hon. friend, under the 
exceptional circumstances, consider the advisability of obtain- 
ing Scandinavian sailors ? 

MR. RUNCIMAN : We can consider that, but in British 
ships we have been rather deprecating the use of alien crews. 



ENEMY SUBMARINES (REWARDS FOR 
DESTRUCTION) 

SIR JOHN LONSDALE asked the Prime Minister if it is the ibid. 
intention of the Government to offer adequate monetary 
rewards to the officers and seamen of British merchant ships 
for the destruction of enemy submarines ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The Admiralty are always ready to 
mark any act of daring and good seamanship which assists the 
naval operations in a fitting manner, but I have no further 
statement to make on the subject at present. 

107 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

SINKING GERMAN SUBMARINES 

House of Commons, March 10, 1915. 

Hansard. SIR FoRTESCUE FLANNERY asked the First Lord of the 

Admiralty whether his attention has been called to the claim 

by the merchant vessels Thordis and Alston that they have 

sunk enemy submarines, and to the claim of the steam 

trawler Alexander Hastie of having performed a similar 

service ; and whether the reward of 500 offered by the news- 

1 [See paper Syren and Shipping?- for the first sinking by merchant 

Naval 3, ships of enemy submarines, and other similar rewards offered, 

pp. 464-7.] C an be adjudicated by the Admiralty amongst these rival 

claimants to have been the first to sink an enemy submarine, 

by examination in dry dock by Admiralty officials, as in the 

case of the Thordis, examined by Admiral Sir George Egerton ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The attention of the Admiralty has 

been drawn to the three cases mentioned. The case of the 

Thordis has already been considered, and the opinion of the 

Admiralty has been made known. In the case of the other 

two vessels, inquiries are being made, but it is not possible 

to say whether any definite conclusion can be come to. The 

adjudication of private awards is not a matter which the 

Admiralty can officially undertake. 

DARDANELLES 

C-0-' On the loth inst., during the day, in unfavourable weather, 

ioi? 2 ' two British warships fired on the defences at Bulair, while two 
British battleships bombarded the light batteries commanding 
Morto Bay, at the entrance to the Dardanelles. 

On the night between the loth and nth mine-sweepers 
entered the Straits under the protection of an ironclad and a 
cruiser ; they succeeded in traversing the first mine-field in the 
teeth of a lively fire from the guns of the defence. On the 
nth inst. a French division continued the operations begun 
the day before against the defences at Bulair and against the 
light batteries placed above Morto Bay. 

On the following days mine-sweeping was continued. 



Constantinople. 

K.V., . Main Headquarters reports : To-day two enemy cruisers 
March 10, bombarded our positions in a desultory and half-hearted 

fashion near Kum Kale and Sedd-el-Bahr. An enemy mine- 

108 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

sweeper, in attempting to approach the mine-field before 
Smyrna during the night of March 8, struck a mine and sank. 
The enemy fleet bombarded the forts of Smyrna for an hour 
yesterday without effect. An enemy seaplane which flew 
towards our forts was compelled by the fire of our batteries 
to withdraw. 



Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : For three days the enemy has made K.V., 
no attempt against the Dardanelles. During the night of March 12, 
March n seven mine-sweepers under cover of a cruiser and a I9I5> 
few torpedo-boats approached the line of our mines, but our 
light batteries damaged the armoured ships and sank two of 
the mine-sweepers. A third mine-sweeper struck a mine and 
sank. The enemy's attempt to remove our mine was thus 
completely shattered. 

Constantinople. 

Main Headquarters reports : Last night our batteries sank ibid. 
a few mine-sweepers which had approached the mine-field. 
To-day the enemy made no attempts against the Dardanelles. 
Our warships torpedoed an enemy transport steamer in the 
Sea. 



Tchanak Kale. 

The agent of Wolff's Telegraph Bureau telegraphs from K.V., 
the Dardanelles : March 13, 

After a two days' lull the first night action took place in I 9 I 5- 
the night from Wednesday to Thursday (March 10 and n) on 
a rather larger scale* than usual. At II o'clock an English 
cruiser and several torpedo-boats began energetically to 
bombard the searchlight at Dardanos. The howitzer batteries 
replied, and the whole horizon was lit up and the earth trembled 
for miles round. The first action lasted an hour. At two 
o'clock in the morning the fight was renewed. At the same 
time mine-sweepers were sent out by the English to clear a way 
through the mine-field. During the violent fire from both 
sides the English cruiser retired from the firing line in con- 
sequence of a hit from a howitzer. Three mine-sweepers were 
sunk, whereupon the remaining mine-sweepers fled in all haste 
pursued by the Turkish fire, without having in any way 
accomplished their purpose. There was no loss on the Turkish 

109 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

side; the searchlights are intact. In consequence of the 
complete failure of the English night attack, there was a lull 
on Thursday notwithstanding the clearest weather. The forts 
of the middle Dardanelles are intact, all traces of the great 
bombardment of Saturday and Sunday have disappeared. 
The officers and men are in excellent spirits and very confident. 



Constantinople. 

K.V., Main Headquarters report ; To-day an enemy armoured 

March 14, ship bombarded at long intervals and without results Sedd-el- 

I 9 I 5- Bahr and Kum Kale. Last night the enemy attempted again 

to approach the mine-field with a light flotilla, but was repulsed 

by the fire from our batteries, which damaged a few of the 

enemy ships. 

OFFICIAL DESPATCHES 

Admiralty, 2nd May 1919 
Letter from Vice- Admiral S. H. Garden, March 17, 1915 

H.M.S. Queen Elizabeth, March 17, 1915. 

L.G., SIR, I have the honour to submit, for the consideration 

May 2, of their Lordships, the narrative of events during the opera- 

I 9 I 9- tions of the Allied British and French Squadrons against the 

defences of the Dardanelles, from the igth February to i6th 

March 1915. 

^ There was a marked difference in the tactics of the enemy 
manning the forts at the entrance when attacked on this occa- 
sion to that which they followed on the 3rd November 1914 ; 
on that day when a short bombardment was carried out by 
Indefatigable, Indomitable, Suffren and Vrite, by a run past 
in close order, range 13,000 yards, they replied to our fire 
almost at once, and maintained from forts Nos. i, 3, 4, and 6, 
till our squadron completed their run. The only projectiles, 
however, which fell close were those from the 94-inch guns 
in forts Nos. i and 4. Good practice was made by the Allied 
Squadron on forts Nos. 3 and 6, in the former of which there 
was a large magazine explosion. Information was received 
later that the casualties to personnel were high amongst the 
enemy, some accounts putting it at 600. 

That it was considerable is, I think, shown by the fact 
no 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL. 

that on the igth February, when the present operations began, 
and a deliberate bombardment by our ships took place, no 
Turkish fort attempted to reply until late in the afternoon, 
when the old battleships were sent close in. They apparently 
kept their men in shelters until the desired moment. 

Bad weather prevented a renewal until the 26th February, 
and then there was this difference. Fort No. i opened fire 
on Agamemnon at 10,000 yards as soon as that ship was in 
position, and hit her several times. This fort maintained its 
fire with great perseverance against Queen Elizabeth, Aga- 
memnon, and Gaulois, until the former ship by hitting with 
two consecutive 15-inch projectiles dismounted one gun and 
put the other out of action, and effectually silenced the fort ; 
the surviving personnel quickly made their way down to the 
neighbouring village. 

On the same day the accurate fire of Irresistible on fort 
No. 4 prevented its two 94-inch guns taking any part in the 
proceedings. When the ships closed in forts No. 3 and 6 
fired a few ineffective rounds. 

Although a heavy and prolonged fire at short range was 
poured into these forts, 70 per cent, of the heavy guns were 
found to be in a serviceable condition when the demolition 
parties landed. 

The destruction of the guns in fort No. 3 by Irresistible, 
and in Nos. 4 and 6 by Vengeance, was most smartly and 
effectively carried out on the 26th February and the ist March 
by demolition parties from those ships, which were ably 
supported by -their detachments of Royal Marines. 

In this service the following officers are specially and 
strongly recommended : 

Major G. M. Heriot, D.S.O., R.M.L.I., Vengeance. 

Lieutenant-Commander (T.) E. G. Robinson, Vengeance. 
Lieutenant (T.) F. H. Sandford, Irresistible. 

The two latter officers are further very strongly recom- 
mended for their conduct in the sweeping operations. 

I was present in Inflexible close off Kum Kale on the 4th 
March and witnessed the landing operations, which were under 
the immediate direction of Rear-Admiral de Robeck and 
Brigadier-General Trotman, both of whom were on board 
Irresistible in the entrance of the Straits. I consider the 

in 



. DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

operations were correctly conducted, and that everything 
possible under the circumstances was done. 

The skilful manner in which Wolverine (Commander 
O. J. Prentis) and Scorpion (Lieutenant-Commander A. B. 
Cunningham) ran close inshore after dark, and sent whalers 
ashore to bring off the remaining officers and men, is highly 
commended. 

I desire specially to endorse recommendations made by 
the Rear- Admiral and Brigadier-General on the conduct of 
Lieutenant-Colonel G. E. Matthews, R. M.L.I., and also of 
Major A. E. Bewes, R.M.L.I. 

Four Maxim guns, which had been left on Kum Kale Pier, 
were recovered by volunteers from Agamemnon a smart and 
plucky piece of work. 

The sweeping operations by night between the I2th and 
I5th March were conducted with great gallantry under heavy 
fire, and, though not completely successful, I consider the 
officers and men are deserving of great praise for their 
efforts. 

It is regretted that a complete list of those who volunteered 
for this dangerous duty was lost in Ocean, but a further list 
is being prepared and will be submitted as soon as possible. 

The attempt made on the night I3th-i4th March was most 
determined, and I desire to bring particularly to the notice 
of their Lordships the following names : 

Commander W. Mellor, in charge of mine-sweepers. 

Lieutenant-Commander J. B. Waterlow, Blenheim. 

Lieutenant-Commander J. R. Middleton, Albion. 

Lieutenant-Commander E. G. Robinson, Vengeance. 

Lieutenant-Commander G. B. Palmes, Egmont. 

Lieutenant F. H. Sandford, Irresistible. 

Lieutenant B. T. Cox, R.N.R., Prince George. 

Acting-boatswain R. G. Young, Cornwallis. 

Midshipman J. C. W. Price, Ocean. 

Captain of trawler 318. 

The six officers first mentioned carried out these duties 
on several nights, and I desire to submit that they may be 
awarded the highest decoration suitable for their rank and 
seniority, and that Commander Mellor and Lieutenant- 
Commander Waterlow be promoted now. 

In connection with the operation of the night I3th-i4th 

1X2 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

March I desire also to bring to their Lordships' notice the name 
of Commander G. J. Todd, Amethyst. 

Amethyst was hit several times by large projectiles, and 
had her steering-gear and engine-room telegraphs put out of 
action. Arrangements were quickly made to man the hand- 
steering wheel, and improvise engine-room communications. 
Both during and after the action Commander Todd was very 
ably assisted by Lieutenant James C. J. Soutter, Senior 
Lieutenant of Amethyst, who was indefatigable in his efforts. 

The services rendered by the Destroyer Flotilla during all 
this period have fully maintained the high traditions of that 
branch of the service, their boldness in action and untiring 
devotion to duty are worthy of the highest praise. 

I beg to call special attention to the excellent work done 
by the French squadron on every occasion that they have 
been called upon, and also to the cordial good feeling which 
prevails in the Allied Fleet, due so much to the personality 
of that dashing and courteous officer, Contre-Amiral E. P. A. 
Guepratte. 

I consider it a special duty to call attention to the excellent 
work done by Malta Dockyard, under Vice- Admiral A. H. 
Limpus, C.B., in supplying every need of the large force off 
the Dardanelles in addition to the main French Fleet. Com- 
manding officers speak most highly of the great assistance 
rendered to them on all occasions at Malta, and the rapidity 
with which work is done, which shows that the principle that 
the dockyard exists for the benefit of ships is fully understood 
and acted upon. 

The conduct and ability of the commanding officers has 
been of a high order. 

The behaviour of officers and men on all occasions has 
been most admirable, and in every way as could be expected. 

In closing the report on this stage of the operations I wish 
especially to bring to the notice of their Lordships the splendid 
work done by Rear- Admiral J. M. de Robeck, and the great 
assistance I have received from him, together with the valuable 
services of Commodore R. J. B. Keyes, C.B., M.V.O., Flag 
Commander Hon. A. R. M. Ramsay and Captain W. W. God- 
frey, R.M.L.I., War Staff. I have, etc., 

S. H. GARDEN, Vice-Admiral. 

The Secretary the Admiralty. 

NAVAL 4 H 113 



Distances in Se: Miles from 
entrance of Dardanelles - (5) 
Soundings in fathoms 
Heights in Feet 




GALLIPOLI AND THE DARDANELLES 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ENCLOSURE 

NARRATIVE OF EVENTS, DARDANELLES, FEBRUARY 19 TO 

MARCH 16, 1915 

The attack on the defences of the Dardanelles commenced 
on the igth February 1915. 

Air reconnaissance on the lyth, i8th, and A.M. igth con- 
firmed information in our possession with regard to forts 
Nos. i, 3, 4, and 6, except that an additional gun was shown 
in eastern bastion of fort No. 6. 

Seaplanes also reported that some minor earthworks and 
trenches appeared to have been extensively prepared for the 
defence of possible landing places. 

The following ships took part in the operations of the 
igth February : 

Suffren (Flag of Contre-Amiral Guepratte). 

Bouvet. 

Triumph. 

Cornwallis. 

Inflexible (flag of Vice- Admiral). 

Albion. 

The Gaulois acted in support of Suffren, while Amethyst 
supported Albion. 

Seven British mine-sweepers were employed with Albion. 

The Vengeance (flag of Rear- Admiral de Robeck) was 
ordered to take station as convenient to observe the fire of 
her division. 

4.30 P.M. Queen Elizabeth arrived with Agamemnon, the 
latter taking part at the end of the day. 

February 19. 

9.51 A.M. Cornwallis fired first shot on fort No. 4. 

10. Triumph opened fire on fort No. i. 

10.32. Suffren opened on fort No. 6. 

10.38. Ships were ordered to anchor with a view to 
improving the practice. 

ii. The Vengeance and Cornwallis were ordered to ex- 
change positions; Cornwallis owing to a defective capstan, 
being unable to anchor in deep water. 

"5 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

11.25. Cornwallis was ordered to spot for Triumph and 
for Inflexible if required. 

11.45. Inflexible opened on fort No. i, which was hard to 
distinguish, but practice appeared good. 

0.14 P.M. Vengeance opened fire on fort No. 4 practice 
was very good her third shot appeared to hit close to northern 
embrasure. 

0.30. Triumph was ordered to cease fire, as she was unable 
to hit fort No. i. 

Suffren, at this time, was making excellent practice against 
fort No. 6, firing by indirect laying, with Bouvet spotting. 

0.52. Triumph was ordered to open fire with light guns 
on men showing signs of activity in a field-work 2 miles north 
of Cape Tekeh. 

0.55. A seaplane was ordered up to spot for Vengeance, 
but, owing to wireless troubles in seaplane, no results were 
obtained. 

i. Inflexible opened fire on fort No. 3, making good practice. 

1.56. It was now considered that the effect produced by 
the bombardment at long range was great enough to allow of 
ships approaching nearer to the forts, and signal was made 
accordingly. 

2.12. Suffren and Triwftiph were ordered to commence 
their operations, the Triumph being ordered to engage the 
position of the new battery of Cape Tekeh only. 

3.53. Cornwallis was ordered to close fort No. i 'on present 
line of bearing/ and open fire when certain of position. 

4.10. There still being no reply from the forts, Vengeance 
and Cornwallis were ordered to close and destroy forts. 

Forts Nos. 3 and 6 were heavily bombarded by Vengeance 
and Cornwallis, assisted by Suffren. Vengeance engaged fort 
No. 4 with her secondary armament, while Cornwallis did the 
same to fort No. i. 

4.40. Suffren was directed to close the forts. 

4.45. At the same time 'Cease fire, examine forts/ was 
signalled to Vengeance. 

Fort No. i opened fire on Vengeance and Cornwallis, and 
shortly after fort No. 4 also opened fire. 

Vengeance and Cornwallis, assisted by Bouvet, engaged 
and silenced fort No. i. Fort No. 4 being left unfired at, both 
inshore ships were unaware that she had opened fire. 
116 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

5. Inflexible opened fire on fort No. 4, with the immediate 
effect of causing her fire to suffer in accuracy. 

5.08. Gaulois also opened fire on this fort. 

Agamemnon was ordered to support Vengeance. 

5.09. The ' General recall ' was made Vengeance requested 
permission to continue the action ; this was not approved, as 
the light looking towards the land was becoming bad, while 
ships showed up well against western sky. 

5.30. Cease firing was ordered and the squadron withdrew. 

7. Albion reported 'No mines or guns encountered area 
has been swept/ 

The result of the day's action showed apparently, that the 
effect of long-range bombardment by direct fire on modern 
earthwork forts is slight ; forts Nos. i and 4 appeared to be 
hit, on many occasions, by 12-inch common shell well placed, 
but when the ships closed in all four guns in these forts opened 
fire. 

From February 20 to 24. 

From the 2Oth to 24th February, inclusive, the weather 
was too rough to continue operations, and no reconnaissance 
by seaplanes was possible. 

February 25. 

The weather being favourable, operations were resumed. 
No seaplanes took part the sea being too rough for them to 
rise off the water. 

The following ships took part : 

Inflexible, Vengeance, Agamemnon, Queen Elizabeth, 
Albion, Cornwallis, Irresistible, Triumph, Suffren, Gaulois, 
Bouvet, Charlemagne, and Dublin, with eight destroyers 
and two submarines. 

Ships were in position to commence the long-range bom- 
bardment by 10 A.M. the destroyers forming a screen to 
seaward of the battleships. 

10.7 A.M. Agamemnon reported range obtained of fort 
No. i. 

10.14. Queen Elizabeth opened fire on fort {No. 3. 

10.16. Fort No. i opened fire on Agamemnon, range 
10,000 yards. 

117 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

10.18. Gaulois opened fire on fort No. 6. 

10.22. Agamemnon opened fire on fort No. i. 

10.27. Irresistible opened fire on fort No. 4. 

IO -33- Frt No. i seemed to be getting the range of 
Agamemnon, who was ordered to weigh and proceed farther 
out- Queen Elizabeth being ordered to fire on fort No. i. 

Between 10.34 an d IO-43- Agamemnon was hit seven 
times, but as the shells did not detonate it was not realised 
she had been struck ; directly Agamemnon had good way on 
fort No. i lost the range. 

10.44. Fort No. i opened an accurate fire on Gaulois, 
who immediately replied to it from all her guns, this probably 
accounted for the fact that she was able to weigh and proceed 
farther out without the fort scoring a single hit. 

10.45. Queen Elizabeth opened fire on fort No. i, and 
Dublin was observed firing at a gun near Yeni Shehr. 

10.55. Irresistible reported she obtained range of fort 
No. 4, she was ordered to continue slow firing. She opened 
a very deliberate, accurate fire on the fort, which kept silent 
practically all day. 

11.30. Gaulois was making excellent practice on fort 6. 

11.47. Fort No. i was still firing at Agamemnon and 
Gaulois, but shots were going short its extreme range 
appeared to be about 11,000 yards. 

Noon. Queen Elizabeth, whose shooting had been ex- 
tremely accurate, appeared to drop a shell right into fort 
No. i, and at 0.02 P.M. she reported eastern gun dis- 
mounted. 

0.15 P.M. Irresistible reported she thought her tenth round 
had damaged northern gun of fort No. 4. 

Vengeance and Cornwallis were ordered to prepare for 
run i, which was commenced at 12.45 P.M., with all covering 
ships firing deliberately on their allotted forts. 

0.50. Queen Elizabeth reported she had hit the western 
gun of fort No. i. Agamemnon also claimed to have hit this 
gun at 12.55 P - M - Agamemnon at this time was fifing on fort 
No. i. Inflexible engaging fort No. 3. 

0.55. Vengeance and Cornwallis opened fire, concentrating 
chiefly on forts i and 4. Forts 3 and 6 both opened fire, but 
their practice was poor, and few rounds were fired. Forts 
I and 4 did not fire during the run. 
118 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

By 1.22 Vengeance and Cornwallis had completed run i, 
and all ships checked fire. 

1.50. Rear- Admiral, Vengeance, reported ' No. i battery 
west gun pointing in the air, right gun not visible, battery 
not manned. No. 3 fired at Vengeance apparently using 
black powder three guns are visible on south-west face. 
No. 4, both guns laid horizontal, battery not manned, one 
round was fired from western gun. . . .' 

2.5. Centre- Amiral, Suffren, was directed to commence 
run 2, and given the following directions : ' Battery No. i 
out of action, battery No. 4 was not manned, concentrate 
your fire on 3, 4, and 6, especially 4.' 

Run 2 was carried out most deliberately, Suffren being 
about 3000 yards ahead of Charlemagne both ships made 
excellent practice the only round fired at them was from 
fort No. 6. 

The run was completed at 3 P.M. 

Covering ships fired very few rounds during this run ; it 
was evident that forts were silenced. 

3.5. Mine-sweepers were ordered to close the entrance, 
and carry out sweeping operations laid down. 

Albion and Triumph were ordered to prepare to close forts 
to 2000 yards of southern and northern shore respectively, 
keeping way on and carrying out destruction of guns still 
intact. 

Rear- Admiral in Vengeance being directed to follow them 
to direct operations. 

While Albion and Triumph were attempting to destroy the 
guns of forts i and 6 at close range, fort No. 4 apparently 
fired one round from her northernmost gun. The fort was 
immediately engaged by Albion and Irresistible. Forts i 
and 6 also appeared to fire one round each. These were the 
last rounds fired at the ships. 

Concealed guns of apparently 6" calibre fired from positions 
i mile north-east of Cape Tekeh, and from behind northern 
end of Yeni Shehr village. These guns did no damage, 
though Gaulois was struck three times on the armour. 

Albion, when off Kum Kale, reported two explosions, 
probably light ground mines ; these occurred about 100 
yards ahead of the ship, and did no damage. 

By 4 P.M. the forts were reduced, and the mine-sweepers 

119 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

were ordered to enter and commence sweeping. Vengeance, 
Albion, and Triumph, with six destroyers, covered these 
operations. 

The remainder of the fleet returning to Tenedos during 
the night of the 25th-26th, mine-sweepers swept the entrance ; 
they found no mines. The enemy were reported as burning 
the villages at entrance. 

February 26. 

Albion, Triumph, and Majestic entered Straits between 
8 A.M. and 9 A.M., and shelled forts 3 and 6 from inside 
entrance, also firing station below De Totts' battery. 

Albion, preceded by sweepers, proceeded to a position 
12,000 yards from fort 8, from which position fire was opened 
on that fort. Majestic supported Albion; these two ships 
being under fire from field guns and howitzers from Asiatic 
shore, ships remained under way ; enemy scored one hit on 
Majestic. 

Jed and Chelmer reconnoitred northern and southern 
shores during forenoon as far up as the line White Cliffs 
Suandere, both ships being engaged with the enemy's light 
batteries ; they sank some large range buoys, and located 
several batteries. 

Vengeance, from outside Straits, was engaged bombarding 
position on Asiatic shore near Achilles' Tomb. 

At 2.30 P.M., the enemy apparently having abandoned 
Kum Kale and Sedd-el-Bahr, the opportunity was seized to 
land demolition parties on both sides from Vengeance at 
Kum Kale, and Irresistible at Sedd-el-Bahr. Parties being 
covered by the guns of Vengeance, Irresistible, Cornwallis, 
Dublin, and Racoon, forts 3, 4, and 6 were entered and 
demolitions carried out, and two new 4" guns concealed near 
Achilles' Tomb were destroyed, but owing to lateness of the 
landing it was impossible to verify results. Both parties 
encountered slight opposition, the enemy being in some force 
in Sedd-el-Bahr prevented fort 7 being reached. 

On night of the 26th-2yth mine-sweepers entered straits 
to continue sweeping in lower area, being covered by Colne, 
Jed, and Kennet, who engaged enemy's batteries and sank 
more range buoys. 

Seaplanes carried out reconnaissances inside Straits in 

120 



I DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

order to locate batteries, etc. Amongst other details they 
reported battery 8 now contains eight guns. Many positions 
for guns have been prepared on both shores. 

February 27. 

Weather broke, north-easterly gale, much rain with low 
visibility. Operations inside the Straits much impeded, 
small progress made. 

February 28. 

Heavy north-easterly gale. Operations confined to watch- 
ing the Straits. 

March i. 

Gale having moderated, operations inside Straits were 
resumed. 

The following battleships entered Straits to engage 
howitzers and field batteries : Vengeance, Ocean, Albion, 
Triumph, Irresistible, and Majestic. 

Fort 8 and battery at White Cliffs were engaged by Albion 
and Triumph, Ocean and Majestic meanwhile engaging guns 
near Erenkioi village and on European shore. These proved 
extremely hard to locate, and when seen great difficulty was 
experienced in obtaining points of aim, the guns being well 
concealed. 

The action was discontinued at 5 P.M. Ocean, Albion, and 
Triumph were each hit on several occasions by projectiles of 
6-inch calibre and below without suffering any serious 
damage. 

Demolition party from Irresistible landed at Sedd-el-Bahr 
and completed demolition of fort 6. 

The party was attacked during the operation. The fire 
from covering ships and destroyers in Morto Bay, however, 
was sufficient to disperse enemy. 

During the night of ist-2nd March mine-sweepers entered 
and swept to within 3000 yards of Kephez Point. They were 
covered by destroyers. When abreast of Suandere River 
batteries opened fire and sweepers retired, destroyers covering 
withdrawal. 

No vessels were hit. 

121 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

March 2. 

Canopus, Swiftsure, and Cornwallis entered the Straits 
and engaged forts Nos. 8 and 7, also field guns. 

Garrison of fort No. 8 were forced to withdraw, but 
material damage to fort could not be determined. 

Howitzers and concealed field guns opened a heavy fire, 
which could not be silenced. All ships were hit on several 
occasions, suffering some material damage. 

An observation mine exploded ineffectively ahead of 
Canopus. 

On the ist-2nd March the French squadron reconnoitred 
the Gulf of Xeros, bombarding the forts and earthworks of 
the Bulair lines and the bridge over Kavak. French mine- 
sweepers swept along the coast. They discovered no mines. 

The landing-places in the Gulf of Xeros were also reported 
on. 

Destroyers and mine-sweepers continued the attack on 
the Kephez mine-field, but made no progress in the face of 
heavy fire. 

March 3. 

Weather in the morning unfavourable foggy. 

In the afternoon Albion, Prince George, Triumph continued 
the attack on forts 7 and 8 and field batteries. These latter 
were not so active as on former days. 

Sweeping operations continued at night, covered by 
destroyers. Slight progress was made. 

Seaplanes carried out useful reconnaissance, without, how- 
ever, being able to locate batteries firing at the ships. 

March 4. 

It being uncertain whether forts Nos. I and 4 were abso- 
lutely destroyed, demolition parties were ordered to land and 
complete the destruction, being covered by a landing party 
of the Royal Marine Brigade, one company of 250 men 
each side. 

This landing had been postponed for several days, on 
account of the weather. 

Seaplanes reconnoitred the vicinity of forts and villages 
near them in the morning, and reported no movement of 
troops. 
122 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

At 10 A.M. parties landed at Sedd-el-Bahr and Kum Kale. 

Both parties met with opposition. At Sedd-el-Bahr no 
progress could be made, and the party withdrew at 3 P.M. 

At Kum Kale an attempt was made to reach fort No. 4, 
but without success, the enemy being in some force in well- 
concealed trenches. Great difficulty was experienced in with- 
drawing the advanced party, the enemy gaining possession of 
a cemetery near Mendere Bridge, commanding the ground 
over which the party had to fall back, and which could not be 
shelled by the ships, as our troops were between the cemetery 
and the ships. 

Seaplanes attempted to locate the enemy's trenches without 
success, descending to 2000 feet in their efforts to distinguish 
the positions ; one seaplane was hit twenty-eight times and 
another eight times. 

It was not till the destroyers were sent close in to shell 
the trenches that the retirement could be carried out. 

After sunset Scorpion and Wolverine ran in and landed 
parties, under fire, to search the beach from Kum Kale to 
the cliffs below fort No. 4. The former brought off two 
officers and five men, who had been unable to reach the 
boats. 

March 5. 

The attack on the forts at the Narrows commenced by 
indirect bombardment by Queen Elizabeth. 

Three seaplanes were sent up to spot for fall of shot. 
One met with an accident, and the second was forced to return 
on account of her pilot being wounded by a rifle bullet ; in 
consequence, they were not of assistance in the firing. 

Queen Elizabeth was under fire from field guns, being 
struck on many occasions, without, however, suffering any 
great material damage. 

March 6. 

Indirect attack by Queen Elizabeth continued. 

Vengeance, inside the Straits, spotted for Queen Elizabeth. 
Albion, Majestic, Prince George, and Suffren engaged forts 
No. 7, 8, and 13, with what result could not be discovered. 

At night Amethyst, with destroyers and mine-sweepers in 
company, proceeded inside Dardanelles to attack the Kephez 

123 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

mine-field. Some progress was made, but, as on former 
occasions, gunfire drove the mine-sweepers out of the mined 
area. 

Between the 3rd and 6th March Sapphire was engaged in 
the neighbourhood of Mitylene in destroying telegraph 
stations, etc. 

March 7. 

French squadron, consisting of Suffren, Gaulois, Charle- 
magne, and Bouvet, entered the Straits and engaged forts 
Nos. 7 and 8. 

Later Agamemnon and Lord Nelson attacked the forts at 
the Narrows by direct fire from ranges between 14,000 and 
12,000 yards. After a severe engagement, during which 
both ships were hit by heavy projectiles, forts Nos. 13 and 19 
were silenced. During this attack the French battleships 
kept down the fire from howitzers and field guns. 

Dublin at Bulair was engaged with a shore battery. 

During the night of the 7th-8th March destroyers attacked 
the searchlights at Kephez, but without result, the lights 
being extinguished temporarily, but invariably reappearing. 

March 8. 

Queen Elizabeth entered the Straits to continue the attack 
on the Narrows by direct fire. Conditions became vmfavour- 
able for spotting, and little was accomplished. 

Weather was too misty for seaplanes to do any spotting. 

Attack on mine-field was continued at night with mine- 
sweepers and picket boats. Batteries opened fire. 

March 9. 

Albion, Prince George, and Irresistible entered the Straits 
and made a thorough search for boats, etc., and shelled look- 
out stations. The weather was misty throughout the day. 

At night picket boats covered by destroyers attacked the 
Kephez mine-field with explosive creeps. 

March 10. 

Irresistible, Dublin, and Ark Royal off Bulair. The former 
bombarded the enemy's positions when guns had been located. 
The seaplanes were unable to fly owing to the rough weather. 
124 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Ocean and Albion bombarded light gun battery in Morto 
Bay, also villages and positions near entrance. 

After nightfall seven sweepers, attended by picket boats 
fitted with explosive creeps, supported by destroyers Ame- 
thyst and Canopus, entered the Straits. The latter opened 
fire on the batteries and searchlights protecting the mine- 
field off Kephez Point, but was unable to extinguish the 
lights. The vessels were subjected to a heavy fire from guns 
of and below 6-inch calibre. 

Sweepers and picket boats succeeded in getting above the 
mine-field with the object of sweeping down with the current. 
Picket boats destroyed several cables, but* only one pair of 
sweepers got out their sweep and little was effected. Two 
trawlers were hit by 6-inch projectiles. 

Trawler No. 339 was sunk by a mine. 

March n. 

Seaplanes carried out reconnaissance for the ships operating 
off Bulair. 

Ships inside the Straits engaged in watching both shores. 

Operations against the Narrows delayed by failure to 
clear the mine-field. 

Attack on the mine-field at night failed owing to the 
sweepers refusing to face the heavy fire opened by batteries 
on them and the covering destroyers. 

March n. 

Daylight operations at a standstill. Weather misty. 

French mine-sweepers attacked the mine-field at night 
with no success, being driven off by heavy fire. 

Aerial reconnaissance reported a line of mines near the 
surface extending from Suandere Bay in an E.S.E. direction. 
These were examined by a sweeper and picket boats which 
attacked the line with creeps and explosive sweeps. The 
line subsequently turned out to be an obstruction consisting 
of empty observation mines moored by chain cables and 
connected by a wire hawser. The latter apparently had a 
hemp netting suspended from it. It was evidently an anti- 
submarine obstruction. 

March 13. 

A determined attack on the mine-field was made on the 

125 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

night of the I3th March, volunteer officers and men being in 
each trawler. 

The plan of attack was similar to that on the loth, it being 
very essential for the sweepers to get above the mine-field 
before getting out their sweeps, as they can make no progress 
against the current. 

Amethyst and destroyers covered the operations, which 
commenced with a bombardment of the lights and batteries 
by Cornwallis. 

The defence of the mine-field was well organised, and 
sweepers and picket boats had to pass through an area lit 
by six powerful searchlights, under fire from fort No. 13 and 
batteries Nos. 7 and 8, besides numerous light guns estimated 
at twenty to thirty on either shore. 

The passage was accomplished, but on reaching the turn- 
ing point only one pair of trawlers was able to get out the 
sweep owing to damage to winches and gear, and loss of 
personnel. 

Picket boats did excellent service in blowing up cables 
with explosive creeps. 

Amethyst drew the fire of the batteries at a critical period, 
and suffered severely. 

March 14, 15, and 16. 

Mine-sweepers engaged in clearing up area inside the 
Straits in which ships would have to manoeuvre in their 
combined attacks against the forts at the Narrows and the 
mine- fields at Kephez. 

Times, The Secretary of the Admiralty communicates the follow- 

March 20, ing account of the operations at the Dardanelles on 
March 18 :- 

Mine-sweeping having been in progress during the last 
ten days inside the Straits, a general attack was delivered by 
the British and French Fleets yesterday morning upon the 
fortresses at the Narrows of the Dardanelles. At 10.45 A.M. 
Queen Elizabeth, Inflexible, Agamemnon, Lord Nelson bom- 
barded forts J, L, T, U, and V, while Triumph and Prince 
George fired at batteries F, E, and H. A heavy fire was opened 
on the ships from howitzers and field guns. 

At 12.22 the French squadron, consisting of Suffren, 
126 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Gaulois, Charlemagne, and Bouvet, advanced up the Dardan- 
elles and engaged the forts at closer range. Forts J, U, F, 
and E replied strongly. Their fire was silenced by the ten 
battleships inside the Straits, all the ships being hit several 
times during this part of the action. 

By 1.25 P.M. all forts had ceased firing. Vengeance, 
Irresistible, Albion, Ocean, Swiftsure, and Majestic then ad- 
vanced to relieve the six old battleships inside the Straits. 

As the French squadron which had engaged the forts in 
the most brilliant fashion was passing out, Bouvet was blown 
up by a drifting mine and sank in 36 fathoms north of Eren- 
kioi village in less than three minutes. 

At 2.36 P.M., the relief battleships renewed the attack on 
the forts, which again opened fire. The attack on the forts 
was maintained while the operations of the mine-sweepers 
continued. 

At 4.9 Irresistible quitted the line listing heavily ; and at 
5.50 she sank, having probably struck a drifting mine. At 
6.5 Ocean, also having struck a mine, both vessels sank in 
deep water, practically the whole of the crews having been 
removed safely under a hot fire. 

The Gaulois was damaged by gun fire. Inflexible had her 
forward control position hit by a heavy shell, and requires 
repair. 

The bombardment of the forts and the mine-sweeping 
operations terminated when darkness fell. The damage to 
the forts effected by the prolonged direct fire of the very 
powerful forces employed cannot yet be estimated, and a 
further report will follow. 

The losses of ships were caused by mines drifting with 
the current which were encountered in areas hitherto swept 
clear, and this danger will require special treatment. 

The British casualties in personnel are not heavy con- 
sidering the scale of the operations ; but practically the 
whole of the crew of the Bouvet were lost with the ship, an 
internal explosion having apparently supervened on the 
explosion of the mine. 

The Queen and Implacable, who were despatched from 
England to replace ships' casualties in anticipation of this 
operation, are due to arrive immediately, thus bringing the 
British Fleet up to its original strength. The operations are 

127 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

continuing, ample naval and military forces being available 
on the spot. 

On the i6th inst. Vice-Admiral Garden, who has been 
incapacitated by illness, was succeeded in the chief command 
by Rear- Admiral John Michael de Robeck, with acting rank 
of Vice- Admiral. 



Times, The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 

March 22, announcement : 

1915- Unfavourable weather has interrupted the operations in 

the Dardanelles, and, as seaplane reconnaissance has not been 
possible, the amount of damage done to the forts by the 
bombardment of the i8th cannot be ascertained. No great 
expectations should, however, be based on this, as owing to 
the losses caused by drifting mines the attack was not pressed 
to its conclusion on that day. The power of the Fleet to 
dominate the fortresses by superiority of fire seems to be 
established. 

Various other dangers and difficulties have to be en- 
countered, but nothing has happened which justifies the belief 
that the cost of the undertaking will exceed what has always 
been expected and provided^for. 

The British casualties in personnel are sixty-one killed, 
wounded, and missing. 

Admiral de Robeck has telegraphed to the Admiralty : 

' I desire to bring to the notice of their Lordships the 

splendid behaviour of the French Squadron. Their heavy 

loss leaves them quite undaunted. They were led into close 

action by Rear- Admiral Guepratte with the greatest gallantry/ 



In the course of the operations in the Dardanelles on 
March 27, March 18, the Allied naval forces had to endure a very intense 
1915- fire, and some vessels struck floating mines in the Narrows. 

The French and British ironclads violently bombarded the 
forts of Kilid-Bahr, of Tchanak-Keleshi, of Suandere, of 
Dardanos and of Kephez Point. The results obtained 
during this day of fierce combat have cost serious losses. 
The Bouvet was sunk by the explosion of a mine ; the Gaulois 
is temporarily out of action as the result of injuries caused 
128 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

by the enemy's fire. The British fleet has suffered equally ; 
two of its ironclads were sunk by mines. Their losses, 
painful though they are, will not arrest the progress of the 
operations. As soon as news was received of the accident 
to the Bouvet the Minister of Marine telegraphed to the 
Henri IV., which was on the coast of Syria, to take her place. 
The reports which have reached the Minister show the brilliant 
part which the French division took in the conflict. It was 
our battleships which had the honour of attacking the forts 
of the Narrows at close range. The vigour they displayed 
was greatly appreciated by the British sailors. The tele- 
graphic account sent by Vice-Admiral Guepratte says that 
the honour of the flag was fully upheld, although it was 
dearly bought by the loss of the Bouvet. The number of 
survivors from the vessel is sixty-six, of whom five are officers. 
The number of killed and wounded among the other vessels 
engaged is very small. The Minister of Marine has sent the 
congratulations of the Government of the Republic to Vice- 
Admiral Guepratte, and the officers and men of the fleet. 
Since March 18 unfavourable weather has caused a suspen- 
sion of the operations. 

It was after ten days employed in the destruction of the c.O., 
mines at the entrance to the Dardanelles, that the Allied March 
Fleets proceeded on March 18 to a general attack on the I 9 I 5- 
forts in the Narrows at Chanak. At 10.45 A.M. the Queen 
Elizabeth, the Inflexible, the Agamemnon, and the Lord Nelson 
bombarded the forts Tekeh, Namazieh, and Hamidieh, while 
the Triumph and the Prince George engaged the batteries of 
Suandere, of Dardanos and of Kephez Point. The Turkish 
howitzers and field guns opened a violent fire on the ships. 
At 12. 20 the French division, composed of the Suffren, the 
Gaulois, the Charlemagne, and the Bouvet, advanced and 
engaged the forts at close range. Kilid-Bahr and Hamidieh 
replied at first with vigour, but their fire was gradually sup- 
pressed by that of the ten ironclads, which were all more or 
less engaged during this phase of the action. By 1.25 A.M. 
all the forts had been reduced to silence. The Vengeance, 
the Inflexible, the Albion, the Vulcan, the Swiftsure, and the 
Majestic, then advanced to relieve the six British ironclads 
previously engaged. As the French division was leaving 
NAVAL 4 i 129 



Times, 
March 20, 



K.V., 
March 18, 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the Narrows, after a brilliant engagement at close quarters, 
the Bouvet struck a floating mine. A formidable explosion 
ensued, and the vessel sank in three minutes to the north- 
ward of Erenkioi. At 2.35 the relieving ironclads reopened 
the attack on the forts, which now resumed firing. At 4.10 
the Irresistible struck a mine and listed heavily. At 5.50 
she sank in deep water. At 6.5 the Ocean also struck a mine 
and sank. Nearly the whole of the crews of these two vessels 
were saved. Unhappily this was not the case with the 
Bouvet, which sank quite suddenly. The Gaulois and the 
Inflexible were injured by the enemy's fire. The bombard- 
ment and the mine-sweeping operations ceased as the night 
fell. During the following days bad weather prevented our 
aircraft ascertaining the damage done by the bombardment 
to the enemy's works. The ironclads Queen, and Implacable 
have left England to take the place of the ironclads which 
were sunk. On the part of the French the Henri IV., which 
was stationed off the coast of Syria, has been ordered to 
proceed to the Dardanelles, where she will take the place of 
the Bouvet, while the Jaureguiberry will temporarily take 
the place of the Gaulois. Admiral de Robeck, who has suc- 
ceeded Admiral Garden in command of the British fleet 
engaged in the operations, lias telegraphed to the Admiralty 
as follows : 

[For text of Admiral de Robeck's telegram, see p. 128.] 



Petrograd, March 19. 

It is officially confirmed that the Russian squadron has 
approached the north part of the Bosphorus, and that its 
arrival has caused a great panic in Constantinople. Renter. 



Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : Early yesterday a portion of our 
fleet bombarded the wharf and practice ground for torpedo 
boats west of Theodosia in the Crimea and set it on fire. 
Early to-day the enemy fleet opened a violent fire against the 
Dardanelles forts, which replied successfully. At 2 o'clock in 
the afternoon the French armoured ship Bouvet was sunk. 



130 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : To-day at 11.30 in the forenoon ibid. 
fourteen enemy armoured ships opened fire against the 
Dardanelles batteries. At three o'clock in the afternoon a 
part of the armoured ships withdrew beyond reach of our 
fire. Eight armoured ships continued the bombardment until 
5 o'clock at very long intervals. In addition to the French 
ironclad Bouvet an enemy torpedo-boat was sunk. An English 
armoured ship of the Irresistible class was put out of action, 
another of the Cornwallis class was damaged and compelled to 
retire from the fighting line. 



Constantinople. 

The report already published by the Milli Agency, of the K.V., 
destruction of the English line-of-battle ships Irresistible and March 
Africa, is now confirmed by the Turkish headquarters, which I915 * 
report as follows on the matter : The English line-of-battle 
ships Irresistible and Africa, which were reported yesterday as 
being seriously damaged, were sunk at midnight by fire from 
the batteries. 

Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : Yesterday at 11.30 in the forenoon ibid. 
the enemy fleet composed of sixteen armoured ships, among 
which were four French ships, three cruisers, and several 
torpedo-boat destroyers, opened fire against the forts of the 
Straits. At 3 o'clock in the afternoon a part of the enemy 
fleet withdrew beyond reach of the fire of our batteries. Eight 
armoured ships continued the bombardment at long intervals 
until 6 o'clock, when they ceased firing and retired. Besides 
the French ironclad Bouvet, an enemy torpedo-boat was sunk. 
An English armoured ship of the Irresistible class was seriously 
damaged, and took such a heavy list to port that her guns 
appeared to be dipping in the water. The ship was incapable 
of carrying out any manoeuvre whatever. Another ironclad, 
the Africa, was likewise damaged, heeled on one side, and 
withdrew with great difficulty. The damage caused by our 
fire, some of which also hit other ships, could not be 
ascertained. The stiff fight, which lasted seven hours, ended 
in the victory of our forts. With exception of slight injury to 
a few of our earthworks, we suffered no damage. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Constantinople. 

K.V., Headquarters reports that complete quiet reigned to-day 

March 20, i n the Dardanelles and confirms the reports of the correspondent 

I 9 I 5- of the Milli Agency concerning the destruction of the English 

armoured ships Irresistible and Africa and the damage to 

another armoured ship, as will as the destruction of an enemy 

torpedo boat. The material damage caused to the forts is 

very slight. Our batteries are constantly ready for action. 

The loss in men is unimportant. 

The correspondent of the Milli Agency learns that the 
enemy armoured ship which was being towed to Tenedos in a 
damaged condition sank with her towship. The crew of the 
ship was saved by other craft off Tenedos. The armoured ship 
in question was French. 



Constantinople. 

ibid. Headquarters reports : From our observations it is estab- 

lished with absolute certainty that during the battle in the 
Dardanelles the French armoured ship Bouvet was struck by 
two shells of large calibre before she went down. Five of 
our shells hit the Queen Elizabeth and four the Inflexible. We 
had only a long-range gun damaged on our side. Our loss 
in men amounted to about twenty killed. To-day the enemy 
made no attempt against the Dardanelles. 



Letter from Vice-Admiral De Robeck 

Queen Elizabeth, March 26, 1915. 

SIR, I have the honour to enclose a detailed narrative of 
the operations in the Dardanelles on the i8th March 1915. 

With regard to the general results of this attack, although 
the principal forts remained silent for considerable intervals, 
only a portion of their armaments can be considered disabled. 
The tactics employed by the enemy when the bombardment 
by the fleet becomes heavy are to desert their guns and retire 
to bomb-proof shelters. When they consider a favourable 
opportunity offered, they re-man the guns and open fire 
again. 
132 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

But taking into consideration the accuracy of fire of the 
ships and the number of explosions which occurred in the 
forts, both material and personnel must have suffered con- 
siderably. Throughout the greater part of the day the 
fleet appeared to have a marked advantage as regards gun- 
fire, so much so that the mine-sweepers were called in at 
2 P.M. Soon after they were inside it was, however, evident 
from the amount of fire from howitzers and field guns that 
they would not be able to proceed into the mine-field at 
Kephez Point, and beyond sweeping in the area where Bouvet 
sank the sweepers effected nothing. 

Up to the time Bouvet was mined everything had proceeded 
satisfactorily, the ships receiving little damage by the enemy's 
gunfire, although the annoyance from concealed batteries 
on both sides of the Straits was very great. It was evident 
that some of these batteries were directing their fire on the 
control positions of the ships. In this way the Inflexible lost 
two very fine officers who were in her fore control, viz., 
Commander Rudolf H. C. Verner and Lieutenant Arthur 
W. Blaker. 

During the period the second division battleships Ocean, 
Irresistible, Albion, and Vengeance were bombarding, the 
situation again looked satisfactory. 

Inflexible reported shortly after 4 P.M. that she had struck 
a mine, and she was* ordered out of the Dardanelles. I submit 
that it reflects great credit on Captain Phillimore and his 
ship's company that Inflexible was able to reach shoal water 
off Tenedos. 

It was only after Wear had returned from Irresistible at 4.50 
P.M. that it was realised that the latter had also struck a mine. 
As soon as I was informed of this I ordered Ocean to take her 
in tow. This was, however, impossible, as will be seen from 
the reports of Ocean and Irresistible. It was also apparent 
that the area in which the ships were operating was too 
dangerous, and I therefore determined to withdraw the ' B ' 
(advance) line and break off the engagement. Whilst these 
orders were being carried out Ocean was also struck by a 
torpedo or mine. 

Eventually the ships withdrew at dark, the destroyers 
having taken off the ships' companies of both Ocean and 
Irresistible. 

i33 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The conduct of all ranks was reported to be excellent and 
up to the best traditions of our Service. The saving of valu- 
able lives by 

Wear, 
Colne, 
Chelmer, 
Jed, and 
Kennet, 

was a brilliant and gallant performance on their part. I 
would submit the names of 

Captain Christopher P. Metcalfe, H.M.S. Wear, ' 
Commander Claude Seymour, H.M.S. Colne, 
Lieutenant-Commander Hugh T. England, H.M.S. Chelmer, 
Lieutenant-Commander George F. A. Mulock, H.M.S. Jed, 

and 
Lieutenant Charles E. S. Farrant, H.M.S. Kennet, 

for their Lordships' favourable consideration ; and if I single 
out one for specially meritorious service, it is Captain Chris- 
topher P. Metcalfe, H.M.S. Wear, of whose conduct I cannot 
speak too highly. 

I would also bring to their Lordships' notice the excellent 
conduct of the officers in charge of picket boats. 

These young officers, who were under fire all day, performed 
most valuable service. 

I received every assistance from my staff. 

The advice and initiative of my Chief of Staff, Commodore 
Roger J. B. Keyes, was of the greatest value. He left in 
Wear, shortly before 5.30 P.M., to see whether it was possible 
to save Ocean or Irresistible, but their condition made it im- 
practicable. 

Though the squadron had to retire without accomplishing 
its task, it was by no means a defeated force, and the with- 
drawal was only necessitated owing to the mine menace, all 
ranks being anxious to renew the attack. 

As a result of this bombardment it is considered impera- 
tive for success that the area in which ships are manoeuvring 
shall be kept clear of mines, also that the mine-sweepers be 
manned by naval ratings, who will be prepared to work under 
heavy fire. In some cases their crews appear to have no 
objection to being blown up by mines, though they do not 
i34 



] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

seem to like to work under gun-fire, which is a new element 
in their calling. 

A reorganisation of the mine-sweepers' personnel is com- 
pleted, and they are now manned for the most part by naval 
ranks and ratings. I have, etc. 

J. M. DE ROBECK, 

Vice- Admiral. 
The Secretary of the Admiralty. 

ENCLOSURE 

REPORT OF OPERATIONS CARRIED OUT BY THE ALLIED BRITISH 
AND FRENCH FLEETS OFF THE DARDANELLES ON MARCH 
17 AND 18, 1915 

(All times are local, i.e., two hours fast on G.M.T.) 

The attempts to clear the mine-field at Kephez Point during 
the dark hours having failed, it became necessary to carry this 
out by daylight. 

The plan of operations was fully explained to captains of 
ships on the i6th, and issued to them on the iyth March. 

Sweeping operations against Kephez mine-field were sus- 
pended during the nights of the I5th-i6th, i6th-i7th, and 
I7th-i8th, trawlers during this time being employed in thor- 
oughly sweeping the area in which the ships would have to 
manoeuvre. 

It was considered impracticable for ships to be at anchor 
inside the Dardanelles, owing to the heavy howitzer fire which 
can be brought to bear on them ; subject to the necessity of 
occasionally moving, so as to throw off the enemy's fire, ships 
remained stationary on the i8th, in order that the gun-fire 
of the fleet might be as accurate as possible. 

The morning of the i8th was fine, though it was at first 
doubtful whether the direction of the wind which was from 
the south would allow the operations to take place under 
favourable conditions for spotting ; there was also a slight 
haze over the land ; this, however, cleared, and the wind 
having fallen the signal was made at 8.26 A.M. that operation 
would be proceeded with, commencing at 10.30 A.M. 

March 18. 

At 8.15 A.M. the Commander of the British mine-sweepers 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

reported area between 8000 and 10,000 yards range was 
traversed by sweepers on the night of the I7th-i8th without 
result. 

8.45. Senior Officer of mine-sweepers reported that they 
had swept as far as White Cliffs, ' eleven cutters showed signs 
of working no mines have been caught in the sweep/ 

8.50. Signal was made to French Admiral that Vice- 
Admiral did not wish him to approach nearer than 500 yards 
to the position of the reported mines situated at S.E. of 
Suandere Bay. 

9.7. It was reported that Mosquito had sunk three electric 
mines, none of which exploded ; these were evidently empty 
mine-cases which were used to form a boom defence below 
Suandere Bay, and which had been broken up by our explo- 
sive creeps. 

9.10. Destroyers, fitted with light sweep, were ordered to 
sweep in ahead of the fleet. 

10.30. Ships reported ' Ready for action ' and Line ' A ' 
proceeded in the following order : 
Prince George (on port beam). 
Agamemnon. 
Lord Nelson. 
Queen Elizabeth. 
Inflexible. 
Triumph (on starboard beam). 

Destroyers with sweeps preceded Line ' A ' into the Dar- 
danelles. Each battleship had one picket boat in attendance 
on her to deal with floating mines, and Wear was also in attend- 
ance on Queen Elizabeth. 

Dartmouth was ordered to patrol the north coast of Gallipoli 
to fire on any batteries she could locate, and which were firing 
on the fleet inside the Straits. 

Dublin demonstrated against Besika Bay and watched 
Yeni Shehr. 

ii. Ships were engaging field guns and howitzers firing 
from the Asiatic shore. 

11.15. Four steamers were observed in the middle of the 
stream off Chanak ; these made off up the Straits about 
fifteen minutes later. 

11.25. Queen Elizabeth opened fire on fort No. 19 ; Aga- 
memnon, Lord Nelson, and Inflexible opening fire shortly 
136 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

afterwards in the order named. All line ' A ' were firing by 
11.36 A.M. 

11.40. Triumph was firing at fort No. 8 at a range of 
10,400 yards. 

Line ' A ' was now being subjected to a heavy fire from 
howitzers and field guns. One battery of the former, using 
four guns of about 6-inch calibre, which fell well together, was 
particularly annoying. The forts also opened fire, but the 
range, about 14,400 yards, was evidently too great for them, 
and they fired only a few shots, none of which took effect. 

11.50. A big explosion was seen in fort No. 20, on which 
Queen Elizabeth was now firing. Agamemnon and Lord Nelson 
were apparently making good practice against forts Nos. 13 
and 17. 

About this time the fire from the heavy howitzers was less 
intense, but there were still a large number of smaller guns 
firing on ships of line ' A ' all of whom were struck several 
times at this period. 

0.6 P.M. Suffren, Bouvet, Gaulois, Charlemagne (who formed 
the first line ' B '), were ordered to pass through line * A ' and 
engage the forts at closer range. 

The wind at this time was blowing almost straight from 
the ships to Chanak, making spotting difficult from aloft. 

Suffren led the French Squadron through line ' A ' well 
ahead of Bouvet, and by 0.32 P.M. she came under fire from, 
and engaged the forts. Fort No. 13 was firing four guns, and 
forts Nos. 19, 7 A, 9, and 8 all opened fire, and possibly 16 as 
well. 

The action now became general, both lines ' A ' and ' B ' 
engaging the forts, and, at the same time, the lighter batteries. 

Fort No. 7A was very persistent, and seemed hard to hit. 

0.47. Agamemnon was being made the target for most 
of the lighter guns. She turned 32 points, and the batteries 
lost the range. 

Inflexible was also under heavy fire, and a picket boat along- 
side her was sunk. 

0.52. Some large projectiles were falling into the water 
about 500 yards short of the line ' B.' 

Forts Nos. 13, 19, 7 A, and 8 were all firing ; their practice 
was good, chiefly directed against line ' B/ Prince George and 
Triumph. 

137 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

0.56. Inflexible s fore bridge observed to be on fire, 
blazing fiercely. 

About this time a heavy explosion occurred in fort No. 13. 

1.15. Line ' B ' under a heavy fire, Suffren apparently 
hit several times ; Fort No. 8 had now ceased firing. 

1.25. There was a slight lull in the firing, Lord Nelson, 
however, being straddled by a 6-inch battery. 

Gaulois and Charlemagne were making good practice on 
forts Nos. 13 and 16. 

1.25. Inflexible quitted line to extinguish fire and clear 
control top, which had been wrecked by a shell, and all per- 
sonnel therein disabled. 

1.38. Seaplane reported Fort No. 16 firing ; 19 hit ; 17 
hit but firing ; new battery at Kephez Point not manned ; 
battery south of Suandere River firing. 

1.43. There was little firing ; mine-sweepers were ordered 
to close. The French Squadron were ordered out of the 
Straits, also Prince George and Triumph, the ships relieving 
them being formed up just inside the Straits. 

1.54. Suffren leading line ' B ' out of Straits, with Bouvet 
immediately astern. A large explosion occurred on the star- 
board side of the latter, abaft the after-bridge, accompanied 
by dense masses of reddish-black smoke. Bouvet capsized to 
starboard and sank within two minutes of the first explosion. 

From the Queen Elizabeth it appeared that the explosion 
was not due to a mine, but possibly to a large projectile ; it 
was also considered that a magazine explosion had occurred, 
as she was previously observed to be on fire aft, and she sank 
so rapidly ; there appears little doubt that her magazine blew 
up, but whether it was exploded by a mine, gun-fire, or by an 
internal fire, is not clear. 

British boats were quickly on the scene, but the whole 
episode occupied so short a time that few of the crew could 
have reached the upper deck ; only sixty-six, were picked up. 

Suffren stood by till all the survivors were picked up, the 
remainder of her line proceeding out of harbour. 

The enemy fired a few shells at the boats picking up sur- 
vivors, without, however, obtaining any hits. 

2,15. Queen Elizabeth and Lord Nelson were practically 
the only ships firing, the forts being silent. About this time 
the enemy again opened fire with their 6-inch howitzer battery. 
138 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

2.31. Seaplane over forts at i P.M. reported troops at 
Kephez Point. Forts Nos. 13, 16, 17, and 19 all manned and 
firing ; Suandere also firing. 

2.32. New line ' B ' passed through line ' A ' to engage 
forts at closer range. This line consisted of Vengeance, Irresis- 
tible, Albion and Ocean, with Swiftsure and Majestic in support. 

2.52. Line 'B' was engaged with -forts, of which only 
No. 19 was firing at all rapidly. 

3.7. Large explosion behind fort No. 13 ; from the 
volume of smoke it appeared that an oil tank had been set 
on fire. 

3.14. A heavy explosion was observed alongside Irresis- 
tible, evidently a big shell. 

All forts were now firing rapidly, but inaccurately. 

Fort No. 19 apparently concentrating on Irresistible, Queen 
Elizabeth in consequence opened salvo firing on it. 

3.32. Irresistible was observed to have slight list. 

4.11. Inflexible reported ' struck a mine ' ; she proceeded 
out of the Straits. 

4.14. Irresistible apparently unable to move, and with a 
noticeable list. Wear was ordered to close her and ascertain 
what was the matter, signalling communication having broken 
down. 

Irresistible was ordered to proceed out of the Straits, if able 
to do so, and Ocean to prepare to take Irresistible in tow. 

Wear was seen to go alongside Irresistible, and subsequently 
returned to Queen Elizabeth at 4.50 P.M. with 28 officers and 
582 crew of Irresistible on board her. It was then ascertained 
for the first time that Irresistible had struck a mine, both 
engine-rooms being immediately flooded. 

As the ship was helpless, her commanding officer decided 
to remove a portion of the crew, retaining the executive officer 
and ten volunteers to work wires, etc., should it be found 
possible to take her in tow. 

The operation of removing the crew was carried out in 
a perfectly orderly manner, the ship being under fire the 
whole time from forts Nos. 7 and 8 and batteries near 
Erenkioi. 

4.50. When it was learnt that Irresistible had also struck 
a mine, orders were given for line ' B ' to withdraw. 

5.10. Wear, having disembarked crew of Irresistible, was 

139 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ordered to close Ocean and Irresistible, and direct the former 
to withdraw if she was unable to take the latter in tow. 

5.50. Survivors on board Irresistible were removed to 
Ocean, the captains of both ships being of opinion that it was 
impracticable to take Irresistible in tow, she being bows on 
to the Asiatic shore, listing badly, at right angles to the course 
for going out, and there appearing to be insufficient room to 
manoeuvre between her and the shore. 

It was therefore determined to leave her till dark, when 
an attempt would be made to tow her out with destroyers and 
mine-sweepers, arrangements being meanwhile taken to tor- 
pedo and sink her in deep water should there be any chance 
of her grounding ; this was always a possibility, as she was 
in the dead water off White Cliffs with a light breeze blowing 
up the Straits. 

Irresistible having been abandoned, it was decided, in view 
of the unexpected mine menace, to abandon the mine-sweep- 
ing of the Kephez mine-field, it being inadvisable to leave 
heavy ships inside the Straits to cover the mine-sweepers. 

6.5. Ocean, while withdrawing, struck a mine and took 
a quick list to starboard of about fifteen degrees. 

At the same time a shell, striking the starboard side aft, 
jambed the helm nearly hard~a-port. 

The list becoming gradually greater, her commanding 
officer determined to, disembark the crew : this was done in 
the destroyers Colne, Jed, and Chelmer, under a heavy cross 
fire from forts Nos. 7 and 8 and batteries at Erenkioi. Chelmer 
was twice struck while alongside Ocean. 

Destroyers Wear, Racoon, Mosquito, and Rennet also stood 
by Ocean. 

When all were reported clear of the ship, the captain em- 
barked in Jed and lay off till dark ; he then returned to her 
to make absolutely certain no one was left on boarxl and that 
nothing could be done to save her. 

His opinion being that nothing could be done, the ship was 
finally abandoned in the centre of the Straits at about 7.30 P.M. 

The captains of Ocean and Irresistible, after reporting to the 
Vice-Admiral Commanding, returned to the Dardanelles to 
join the destroyers, which, with six mine-sweepers, had been 
ordered to enter the Straits after dark to endeavour to tow 
Irresistible into the current and prevent Ocean drifting out of 
140 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

it. No trace of either ship could be found ; this was con- 
firmed by Jed at n P.M. after an exhaustive search. Canopus 
at daylight also reconnoitred, and found no trace of either. 
There is no doubt both ships sank in deep water. 

The squadron anchored at Tenedos for the night, Canopus 
and Cornwallis being on patrol with destroyers at the entrance 
of the Straits. 

The damaged ships were dealt with as follows : 

Inflexible anchored north of Tenedos. 

Gaulois grounded on north of Drepano Island damage 
due to gun-fire. 

On the morning of the igth instant, Contre-Amiral Gue- 
pratte informed me that the Suffren was leaking forward ; it 
had been necessary to flood the fore magazine on account of 
fire, and a heavy shell had started a leak. 

Inflexible, Suffren, and Gaulois will therefore require to go 
to Malta for repairs. 

J. M. DE ROBECK, 

Vice- Admiral. 
March 24, 1915. 



DESTROYER OPERATIONS, MARCH 17 AND 18, 1915 

(All times are local.) 

Basilisk, Grasshopper, Racoon, and Mosquito covered the 
operations of the mine-sweepers on the night of the I7th-i8th 
March, being engaged during this service with shore batteries 
on both sides of the Straits. 

At 6 A.M. on the i8th March, Mosquito saw and sunk three 
carbonite mines floating near Morto Bay none exploded. 

10 A.M. Colne and Chelmer sweeping ahead of line 'A/ 
During this time Colne' s whaler was struck by a 4-inch shell. 

Wear was in attendance on Queen Elizabeth throughout 
the day, being in consequence frequently under fire. When 
Bouvet sank, Wear closed and lowered whaler to pick up 
survivors, being under fire at the time. Basilisk, Grasshopper, 
Racoon, Mosquito, Ribble, Kennet, Colne, and Chelmer also 
closed, but were too late to pick up any survivors. 

2.45 P.M. Destroyers closed Gaulois, who was in distress 
outside the Straits, Colne, Chelmer, Mosquito, and Kennet 

141 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

transferring some of her crew to Suffren, Dartmouth, and Lord 
Nelson. 

4.10. When Irresistible was observed to be in distress, 
Wear was ordered to close her. Wear went alongside and 
took off practically the whole crew under heavy fire, trans- 
ferring them at 4.50 P.M. to Queen Elizabeth. 

She then returned and, after sounding round the Irresistible, 
remained in the vicinity of the damaged ships until nightfall, 
when she rejoined Queen Elizabeth to report. 

Colne, Chelmer, Racoon, Mosquito, Rennet, and Jed stood 
by Irresistible, having come in from entrance of Straits. 

6.5. When Ocean struck a mine, Racoon, Mosquito, Colne, 
Chelmer, Jed, Kennet, and Wear stood by under heavy cross 
fire, Colne, Chelmer, Jed, and Kennet going alongside to remove 
the crew. 

7.15. Colne found no signs of Ocean ; enemy still firing 
on Irresistible. 

8.30 to 11.30 P.M. Jed carried out a thorough search, but 
could find no trace of Ocean or Irresistible. 

Damage sustained by destroyers : 

Chelmer, while alongside Ocean, struck and holed by centre 
stokehold, which was flooded. She went alongside Lord 
Nelson, where her own mat and that belonging to Lord Nelson 
were placed over the hole. She shortly afterwards proceeded 
to Tenedos, escorted by Colne. 

Racoon, while standing by Irresistible, was damaged by 
concussion of large shell under starboard quarters and some 
shrapnel bullets. 

J. M. DE ROBECK, 

Vice- Admiral. 
March 24, 1915. 

MINE-SWEEPING OPERATIONS, MARCH 17 AND 18, 1915 

Night of March 17 and 18. 

British and French mine -sweepers continued sweeping 
area below the line Suandere River Kephez Light. 

They reported : ' No mines found/ 

March 18. 

Mine-sweepers ordered to enter and commence sweeping 
142 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

at 2 P.M. Of these two pairs got sweeps out, when abreast of 
White Cliffs, about 3.30 P.M. ; they were under fire. 

No progress was made beyond this point, as it was not 
considered advisable to leave heavy ships inside the Straits 
to cover their operations, Inflexible having already struck a 
mine. 

J. M. DE ROBECK, 

Vice- Admiral. 
March 24, 1915. 



THE AUGUSTE CONSEIL TORPEDOED 

The steamer Auguste Conseil, belonging to the Societe des C.O., 
Affreteurs Rennes, was torpedoed on March n at 4.30 A.M. March 20, 
22 miles south of the Start by the submarine U 29. The 
whole of the crew were rescued by a Danish ship and landed 
at Falmouth. 

THE GUADELOUPE SUNK 

The mail steamer Guadeloupe of the Transatlantic ibid. 
Company, which had left Rio de Janeiro on February 18, 
bound for Dakar, was sunk by the auxiliary cruiser Kron- 
prinz Wilhelm near the island of Fernando Noronha. The 
passengers (143 in number) and the crew were landed at Per- 
nambuco by English steamer Churchill. 

NAVAL DISCIPLINE BILL 

House of Lords, March n, 1915. 
Order of the Day for the Second Reading read. 

The FIRST COMMISSIONER OF WORKS (LORD EMMOTT) : Hansard. 
My Lords, this Bill to amend the Naval Discipline Act consists 
for the most part of emergency provisions, but the opportunity 
has been taken to add one or two other desirable alterations 
in the law which are needed at the present time. The Bill was 
passed in another place with general good will and with only 
one or two very small alterations. It is entirely a question of 
detail, and I will explain briefly the various clauses to your 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Lordships. Clause i deals with Section 16 of the present Act. 
In Section 16 it is provided that if any one in the Navy strikes 
a superior officer who is in the execution of his office, he is 
liable to the punishment of death ; but if he strikes a superior 
officer when that superior officer is not in the execution of his 
office, then he is liable to penal servitude. The effect of Clause 
i of this Bill will be that penal servitude will be the punish- 
ment for both offences. As a matter of fact, for the last 
hundred years no death sentence has been carried out in 
connection with any offence of this kind, and I think it is 
generally agreed that penal servitude is a severe enough 
penalty. There is another advantage. At present, even in a 
case that is not at all serious, if a man in the Navy strikes a 
superior officer who is in the execution of his office, he must be 
tried by court-martial, but if this clause is carried it will be 
possible for a slight offence to be dealt with summarily. 

Clause 2 deals with the question of absence. In time of 
war it is quite clear that absence may be almost, if not quite, 
as bad as desertion. The utmost penalty at present that can 
be given, even in time of war, for absence without leave is 
ten weeks' imprisonment, but this clause will enact that im- 
prisonment for two years may be given as a punishment for 
absence. Clause 3 deals with an amendment of Section 46 
of the original Act. Section 46 defines places in which 
offences are triable by courts-martial, and mentions ' Her 
Majesty's dockyards, victualling yards, steam factory yards, 
or on any gun-wharf, or in any arsenal, barrack, or hospital 
belonging to Her Majesty/ Modern conditions make it 
advisable that the places mentioned in Section 46 should be 
extended. Accordingly it is proposed to add to them the 
words ' or in any other premises held by or on behalf of the 
Crown for naval or military purposes, or in any canteen or 
sailors' home, or any place of recreation placed at the disposal 
of or used by officers or men of His Majesty's Navy which may 
be prescribed by the Admiralty/ 

In Clause 4 is reproduced a provision similar to that in 
Section 158 of the Army Act. It enables a man who has 
ceased to be subject to the Naval Discipline Act to be tried for 
an offence committed while he was still under the Act, but it 
is enacted that the liability shall not, except in the case of the 
offence of mutiny or desertion, extend beyond three months 
144 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

after he has left the Service. Clause 5 and Clause 7 are 
related. Clause 7 slightly extends the class of officers who can 
try offences summarily, and Clause 5 will enact that a warrant 
for arrest may be given not only by the officer in command 
of the Fleet or the squadron or the captain of a ship or senior 
officer present at the port, as is now the case, but also by an 
officer having, by virtue of Sub-section (3) of Section 56 of the 
Naval Discipline Act, power to try offences. Clause 6 deals 
with the power to inflict dismissal in addition to imprison- 
ment. I think this is a very desirable change in the law. In 
effect, it will not apply to cases summarily tried, inasmuch 
as by the King's Regulations an officer in command of a ship 
can only recommend dismissal to the Admiralty. Therefore 
the effect will be that in cases of court-martial the court- 
martial will have the power to add a sentence of dismissal to 
any punishment that is inflicted. 

Clause 8 deals with the places where a court-martial may 
be held. At present I believe a court-martial must be held 
on a ship. This clause will enable the Admiralty or the officer 
who ordered the court-martial in any particular case, for 
reasons to be recorded on the proceedings, to direct that a 
court-martial shall be held at a port at such convenient place 
on shore as the Admiralty or the officer who ordered the 
court-martial may direct. That will be a very beneficial 
change. In the case of Admiral Keppel a special Act of 
Parliament had to be passed in order that he might be tried 
on shore. It is obvious that a difficulty may arise and it may 
be convenient to hold the court-martial elsewhere than on 
board ship. Clause 9 enables the Navy List or Gazette to be 
evidence of the status of an officer. That is a matter of no 
great importance as regards most of the officers in the Navy, 
but there are so many auxiliary ships at the present time that 
it may be of considerable convenience in the future. Clause 
10 deals with the question of two sentences running one with 
the other. In the case of a man who has been tried summarily 
and is in detention at the time, if he is tried and convicted for 
another offence the punishment for his later offence cannot be 
made to run from the time when the punishment for his first 
offence ceases. In the case of a man who has been tried by 
court-martial it can, but not in the case of a man tried sum- 
marily. This clause will remove that difference. 
NAVAL 4 K 145 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

A question which was the subject of a special Bill as 
applying to the Army, introduced by the noble and learned 
Viscount on the Woolsack yesterday and passed through all its 
stages by your Lordships' House, is dealt with in Clause n, 
and I think it will be of particular value in the Navy. The 
clause deals with two cases. First, the case of a man who, 
under the stress of war, may have committed an offence. The 
power of suspension will enable him to have a chance of purging 
that offence. It also deals with the case of a shirker, a man 
who apparently prefers imprisonment to going, say, to the 
North Sea at the present time. It will enable any one con- 
victed of an offence of that kind to be sent to the North Sea 
before he undergoes his punishment. Clause 12 makes a very 
small change in the law in reference to the officer who can 
order a change of place of confinement. Clause 13 is com- 
plementary to the Army Act (Amendment) Bill, and deals 
with cases where naval and military forces are serving to- 
gether. Clause 14 makes a very necessary change in the law. 
In the case of an officer in command of a hired ship going 
away and leaving a man in detention who is to be tried, there 
are many cases in which no one is left at the port where the 
man is in custody to try him. This clause will add to the 
class of people who are able -to try a man of that kind. The 
officer commanding the ship, or vessel, or station in which 
such person may for the time being be held in custody will, 
under this clause, have the power to try him. 

Clause 15 will replace without any sort of doubt the well- 
known and beautiful Preamble of the Naval Discipline Act, 
and it will also revive the definition of the Admiralty which 
enables two Lords of the Admiralty to act. Clause 16 is a 
common form in all amendments of the Naval Discipline Act. 
Its principal effect is that when amendments of this Act are 
made an authoritative print of the Act with the amendments 
is immediately published. It is obviously very desirable that 
an important Act of this kind should be kept up to date in 
this way, so that those who are interested may know exactly 
what the law is. I have now described briefly what this Bill 
purports to do. There are a few small amendments to be 
moved, and if your Lordships will agree, after reading the 
Bill a second time, to put it through the rest of its stages to-day, 
those amendments could be moved on Third Reading. 
146 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Moved, That the Bill be now read za. (Lord Emmott.) 
The EARL OF SELBORNE : My Lords, we have not had the 
time that we should have liked in which to examine the details 
of this Bill, but I know that in the circumstances that could 
not be helped. So far as I have been able to follow the ex- 
planations of the noble Lord and to examine the details of the 
Bill, I do not think there is anything in it of which we should 
otherwise than approve, but if hereafter on further considera- 
tion there are points of criticism which arise, we should not 
feel ourselves precluded from raising them in some future 
session. I should not like, however, to sit down without ex- 
pressing my delight that the First Lord of the Admiralty and 
his Board have had the historical sense to restore that Preamble 
which, born at the end of the seventeenth century, was 
temporarily smothered at the time of the revision of the 
Statutes by some legal luminary who possessed more learning 
than imagination. I am very glad indeed to see that that 
act of literary vandalism is now being obliterated. 

On Question, Bill read 2a. 

Committee negatived : Then (Standing Order No. XXXIX 
having been suspended) Bill read 30. 

The LORD CHANCELLOR : The noble Earl who has just 
sat down congratulated my noble friend on the successful 
determination of the Admiralty to save the historic Preamble 
of the Naval Discipline Act from the ruthless hand of the 
Statute Law Revision Committee ; but, unfortunately, Clause 15 
as it stands in the Bill does not do that. The clause as drawn 
proposes to repeal a supposed repeal of the Preamble. There 
has been no such repeal. It was part of the policy of the 
Statute Law Revision Committee to get rid of all unnecessary 
Preambles. As it could not be known beforehand which were 
necessary and which were unnecessary, power was taken in 
the Statute Law Revision Act of 1893 to repeal such Preambles 
as might prove to be unnecessary. But in so far as the Pre- 
amble to the Naval Discipline Act in question was concerned, 
the Committee never exercised their power. The clause 
which the Admiralty have introduced into this Bill proceeds 
on the hypothesis that something has been repealed which has 
not been repealed, and restores it. What the Admiralty have 
overlooked is the power to repeal, which remains untouched 

i47 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

by the clause in this Bill. Notwithstanding what has been 
said about lawyers in this House upon this occasion, I come 
as representative of the law to the relief of the Admiralty to 
rescue this historic Preamble from the hands of the executioner. 
I propose to amend Clause 15 in line 39, after ' the/ by inserting 
' schedule to the ' ; and in line 40 by leaving out ' repeals ' and 
inserting ' relates to/ As so altered the clause will run in this 
way 

' So much of the schedule to the Statute Law Revision Act, 1893, 
as relates to the Preamble to, and part of Section 86 of, the 
Naval Discipline Act shall cease to have and shall be deemed never to 
have had effect.' 

What the result of these last words may be I do not know, 
but as a concession to the outraged spirit of the Navy I propose 
to insert the words as they will now stand. 
Amendments moved 

Clause 15, page 5, line 39, after (' the ') insert (' schedule to the ' ; 
line 40, leave out (' repeals ') and insert (' relates to '). (The Lord 
Chancellor.) 

On Question, Amendments agreed to. 

LORD EMMOTT : The amendment which I have to propose 
is a merely verbal one. It is-to leave out from Clause 16 words 
which clearly ought not to be there. 

Amendment moved 

Clause 16, page 6, lines 17 and 18, leave out (' the schedule to '). 
(Lord Emmott.) 

On Question, Amendment agreed to. 
Bill passed, and returned to the Commons, and to be 
printed as amended. 

NAVAL MARRIAGES BILL. 

House of Lords, March n, 1915. 

Order of the Day for the Second Reading read. 

LORD EMMOTT : My Lords, in 1908 there was passed 
through Parliament a Bill which enabled the banns of an 
officer, seaman, or marine to be published on board a man-of- 
war. This Bill goes a step further, and seeks to enact that 
when the banns have been so published and the banns of 
the lady have been published according to law in the country, 
148 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the marriage may take place in any place of worship or 
building in the United Kingdom other than the one in which 
the banns have been published that is to say, in any other 
building in which marriages may lawfully be solemnised or 
contracted. There are a certain number of marriages which 
it is not very easy to carry out under conditions of active 
service. They often have to take place in a great hurry. 
This Bill will enable a man who comes in on his ship to, say, 
Newcastle, to be married in that town if the lady is there, 
instead of having to go, perhaps, to a village in, say, War- 
wickshire. 

Moved, That the Bill be now read 20, (Lord Emmott.) 
The LORD ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY : My Lords, to 
the intent and purport of this Bill I take no exception what- 
ever. On. the contrary, from ample experience during the 
last few months of the difficulties which have attended the 
celebration of some of the naval marriages that were desired 
to take place, I think that the Bill is admirable. There can 
be, however, no wish, in exceptional legislation of this kind 
carried for the sake of facilitating matters during war time, 
to interfere with the existing law more than is absolutely 
necessary. That, I imagine, would be the underlying prin- 
ciple in all such emergency legislation, and I want to call 
attention to the fact that there is a very material change 
in the existing law effected by the Bill as it is drawn. 

By the law as it now stands, if banns are called in a church 
of the Church of England, or if a licence is given by a Bishop 
of the Church of England for a marriage, that marriage may 
take place in particular places which are named, but, of 
course, only within the churches of the Church of England. 
This Bill if carried would allow, I think most desirably, that 
the present limitation which confines the marriage to a par- 
ticular town or a particular parish should be removed. But 
it goes further and, unintentionally as I believe, practically 
allows marriages which are authorised by a licence issued by 
a Bishop in England or by banns published in the Church 
of England to be celebrated in any building or place, which 
would include any registrar's office or the chapels of any 
denomination. That might cause a good deal of technical 
difficulty in certain ecclesiastical matters. I have reason to 
believe that the Admiralty are persuaded as to that, and the 

149 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

words which I desire to see added to Clause i actually emanate 
from the Admiralty themselves. I venture to hope that 
your Lordships will allow me, when the Bill reaches Third 
Reading, to move an amendment to make that point clear. 

On Question, Bill read za. 

Committee negatived : Then (Standing Order No. XXXIX 
having been suspended) Bill read 30. 

The LORD ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY : The amend- 
ment which I desire to move is to insert at the end of Clause I 
words providing that in England no marriage after banns 
published or an episcopal licence granted in England shall 
be solemnised elsewhere than in a church or chapel of the 
Church of England in which marriages may lawfully be 
solemnised. 

Amendment moved 

Clause I, page i, at end of line 20, insert ' Provided that in England 
no marriage after banns published or an episcopal licence granted in 
England shall be solemnised elsewhere than in a church or chapel of the 
Church of England in which marriages may lawfully be solemnised. '- 
(The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury.) 

LORD EMMOTT : I am in rather a difficulty because I did 
not hear of this amendment until a few moments ago. I 
have been intensely busy, and have not had an opportunity, 
until the most rev. Primate was on his feet, of hearing 
anything at all about the matter. As the provision is 
confined to the period of the war I do not think the point 
is a very important one, and it would be a pity to jeopardise, 
as might be the case were the amendment accepted, the 
passing of this Bill. As I say, I have not heard until a few 
moments ago what the amendment was, and I have not 
had an opportunity of consulting the Admiralty with regard 
to it. But knowing the House of Commons as I do, I feel 
that there might be on a point of this kind considerable 
danger of the Bill being lost if we were to accept this amend- 
ment at this moment. 

The LORD ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY : I wish to make 
my own position perfectly clear. The words in the amend- 
ment are not my words at all, but the words of the Admiralty. 
The amendment is in the form in which they thought it 
might properly be made, and it was furnished to me after 
an ample correspondence on the point. I did suggest other 
150 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

words, but instead of those the Admiralty thought that these 
words would be better. Accordingly I have moved the 
words in the form given to me by the Admiralty. Therefore 
I think my own action in the matter cannot be regarded as 
calculated to cause any of the difficulties of which the noble 
Lord spoke. 

LORD PARMOOR : Unless an amendment of this kind were 
introduced there would be serious difficulty. You would 
really almost get back to the conditions when the Secret 
Marriage Act was necessary. Therefore I hope that the 
noble Lord in charge of the Bill will accept the amendment. 

LORD EMMOTT : In the circumstances I do not feel that 
I can offer a blank negative to this amendment, but I do 
not like to accept it without warning your Lordships, as I 
have done, that I do not know what the effect will be when 
the Bill goes back to another place. 

On Question, Amendment agreed to. 

LORD EMMOTT : I have an amendment in Clause 2 to 
meet the case of Scotland I beg to move. 

Amendment moved 

Clause 2, page i, line 24, after (' publication ') insert (' or pro- 
clamation '). (Lord Emmott.) 

On Question, Amendment agreed to. 
Bill passed, and returned to the Commons, and to be 
printed as amended. 

PRIZE MONEY 

House of Lords, March n, 1915. 

The EARL OF SELBORNE : My Lords, I beg to ask the Hansard. 
Question standing in my name on the Paper viz. : To ask His 
Majesty's Government whether it is true that they have set up 
a Prize Claims Committee to consider of a distribution to 
individuals, whose claims have been rejected by the Prize 
Court, of portions of Prize Money ; and if so, whether they can 
inform the House what are its qualifications, and what cases 
in respect of what vessels and of what persons are now under 
consideration by that Committee ; and whether it is intended 
that while all Prize Money is withheld from the officers and men 
of the Navy, part of it shall be distributed to persons selected 
by the Prize Claims Committee. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The MARQUESS OF CREWE : My Lords, the answer to the 
noble Earl's first Question is in the affirmative. The Prize 
Claims Committee has been set up, with my right hon. friend 
the Attorney-General as its chairman and my noble friend 
Lord Desart as its vice-chairman ; and I ought to add that on 
it are representatives of the Admiralty and of the Treasury 
and also of financial and shipping interests. Its functions 
are to look into claims which may be made by either British 
or neutral firms in respect of ships or cargoes condemned by 
Prize Courts. In numbers of cases claims have been made 
either upon the ships or upon the cargoes by banks and other 
people. This Prize Claims Committee examines the validity 
of those claims, and there its functions stop. There has been, 
of course, in a sense a departure from the old practice in which 
prizes at sea were regarded as the actual booty of the particular 
ship that made the capture. It is now intended that Prize 
Money in the strict sense should be ultimately allocated among 
the Navy as a whole. But that, of course, is a question apart 
from the case, say, of an advance which a British banker has 
made on shipping documents which have been handed to him 
as security and as to which he puts in a claim. 

The Committee does not pretend to decide from what funds 
or in what manner the claims should be met. Its functions 
are simply concerned with the determination and examination 
of the validity of the claim itself. Suppose, say, that a ship 
has been captured with a cargo worth 20,000 upon which 
some financier has made an advance of 10,000. It becomes 
a matter of policy to consider whether the proceeds of the 
cargo when sold should be handed over in their entirety to the 
Navy, or whether the claifh of the lender should by some means 
or other be met. But the Prize Committee does not offer an 
opinion as to how the money is to be found, supposing it to be 
assumed that the holder of security has an equitable claim for 
some consideration. All a Prize Court does is to determine the 
ownership of the property without any respect to the claims 
on the property. I take it that that is the immemorial 
function of a Prize Court. 

I conceive that the noble Earl opposite, as a former First 
Lord of the Admiralty, has in mind the interests of the Navy 
in this matter, and is desirous that the Navy should not suffer. 
It is not possible, if the principle is adopted of regarding as 
152 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

admissible a question of prize claim, to make an immediate 
distribution of the proceeds of the sale of the ship or the cargo ; 
and it, of course, becomes much more impossible when the 
distribution is to be made to the Navy as a whole and not to the 
actual capturers of the ship. " But that in no way prevents 
the allocation, either at present or at any time during the war, 
or at the close of the war, of such a sum in the form of prize 
bounty as it may be decided the Navy is entitled to. As 
regards the particular sums of money produced by the sale of 
prizes, it is impossible at this moment to regard the Navy as 
strictly entitled to more than the net proceeds as distinct from 
the gross ; but that, of course, does not prejudice the actual 
amount of money which in the long run the Navy may receive, 
because it is a matter for the country to decide how far it is 
the duty of the taxpayers to indemnify the person who has 
made the advances on the cargo as well as to reward the seamen 
and the officers for the capture of the ship. Therefore the 
whole matter has to stand over in that sense until the end of 
the war. I must not be taken as expressing an opinion that 
when a prize of this kind is sold a certain proportion of the 
proceeds ought to belong to those who have some kind of lien 
on the cargo or on the ship, and a certain other proportion to 
the Navy. But, as I think the noble Earl will see, the change 
which has been made in the whole principle of distribution 
of Prize Money prevents the immediate allocation to the 
particular persons and crew of a particular ship of their share 
of the proceeds of a particular capture. 

The EARL OF DESART : My Lords, I want to say a word, 
rather more to explain the position than anything else. The 
noble Earl who asked this Question, I think, feels some un- 
easiness because he thinks Prize Money has been dealt with by 
this Committee. Of course my colleagues and I are not 
responsible for the policy, and at the present moment the 
Committee are not dealing with money at all. It would be 
unwise for them to go into these claims and make awards 
when they have no means of giving effect to them, and there 
is at present no means of giving effect to them. Therefore 
as long as the matter is under consideration the Committee 
cannot tell whether it will be out of this or that fund that the 
money will ultimately come, and have not in fact made any 
awards. I think there may arise a feeling amongst those 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

interested that the Committee ought to do something, and 
that some sort of decision ought to be arrived at as soon as may 
be. I rose merely to state how the thing stood, and to say 
that the noble Earl need not be under any uneasiness that 
money has up to now been paid* out of this or any other fund. 

The MARQUESS OF CREWE : May I ask the noble and 
learned Earl for an explanation ? As he says, the actual 
money is not available for distribution. But why does that 
prevent the allocation of claims ? 

The EARL OF DESART : It was very carefully considered, 
and it was decided that it would be better to postpone action 
rather than that witnesses should be examined and people 
put to expense until we knew how awards will be met. 

INQUIRIES INTO SHIPPING CASUALTIES ABROAD 

Board of Trade, Marine Department, 

Whitehall Gardens, S.W., 

March u, 1915. 

L.G., The Board of Trade hereby give notice, under the General 

March 12, Rules for Formal Investigations into Shipping Casualties and 
I 9 I 5- Appeals and Rehearings, 1907, that they have received during 

the month of February 1915, -the following Reports of Formal 
Investigations into Shipping Casualties held by Courts in 
British Possessions abroad : Corra Lynn, Clan Stuart, Nor- 
folk, Baroda and Gopal, and Batiscan and Muriel. 

BLOCKADE OF GERMANY 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the nth day of March 

19*5- 

Present, 

The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

L.G., WHEREAS the German Government has issued certain 

March 15, Orders which, in violation of the usages of war, purport to 

I 9 I 5- declare the waters surrounding the United Kingdom a 

military area, in which all British and allied merchant vessels 

will be destroyed irrespective of the safety of the lives of 

passengers and crew, and in which neutral shipping will be 

exposed to similar danger in view of the uncertainties of 

naval warfare : 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

And whereas in a memorandum accompanying the said 
Orders neutrals are warned against entrusting crews, pas- 
sengers, or goods to British or allied ships : 

And whereas such attempts on the part of the enemy give 
to His Majesty an unquestionable right of retaliation : 

And whereas His Majesty has therefore decided to adopt 
further measures in order to prevent commodities of any kind 
from reaching or leaving Germany, though such measures 
will be enforced without risk to neutral ships or to neutral 
or non-combatant life, and in strict observance of the dictates 
of humanity : 

And whereas the Allies of His Majesty are associated with 
Him in the steps now to be announced for restricting further 
the commerce of Germany : 

His Majesty is therefore pleased, by and with the advice 
of His Privy Council, to order and it is hereby ordered, as 
follows : 

I. No merchant vessel which sailed from her port of 
departure after the ist March 1915 shall be allowed to pro- 
ceed on her voyage to any German port. 

Unless the vessel receives a pass enabling her to proceed 
to some neutral or allied port to be named in the pass, goods 
on board any such vessel must be discharged in a British port 
and placed in the custody of the Marshal of the Prize Court. 
Goods so discharged, not being contraband of war, shall, if 
not requisitioned for the use of His Majesty, be restored by 
order of the Court, upon such terms as the Court may in the 
circumstances deem to be just, to the person entitled thereto. 

II. No merchant vessel which sailed from any German 
port after the ist March 1915 shall be allowed to proceed 
on her voyage with any goods on board laden at such port. 

All goods laden at such port must be discharged in a 
British or allied port. Goods so discharged in a British port 
shall be placed in the custody of the Marshal of the Prize 
Court, and, if not requisitioned for the use of His Majesty, 
shall be detained or sold under the direction of the Prize 
Court. The proceeds of goods so sold shall be paid into 
Court and dealt with in such manner as the Court may in 
the circumstances deem to be just. 

Provided that no proceeds of the sale of such goods shall 
be paid out of Court until the conclusion of peace, except on 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the application of the proper Officer of the Crown, unless it 
be shown that the goods had become neutral property before 
the issue of this Order. 

Provided also that nothing herein shall prevent the release 
of neutral property laden at such enemy port on the applica- 
tion of the proper Officer of the Crown. 

III. Every merchant vessel which sailed from her port 
of departure after the ist March 1915 on her way to a port 
other than a German port, carrying goods with an enemy 
destination, or which are enemy property, may be required 
to discharge such goods in a British or allied port. Any 
goods so discharged in a British port shall be placed in the 
custody of the Marshal of the Prize Court, and, unless they 
are contraband of war, shall, if not requisitioned for the use 
of His Majesty, be restored by order of the Court, upon such 
terms as the Court may in the circumstances deem to be 
just, to the person entitled thereto. 

Provided that this Article shall not apply in any case 
falling within Articles II. or IV. of this Order. 

IV. Every merchant vessel which sailed from a port other 
than a German port after the ist March 1915, having on 
board goods which are of enemy origin or are enemy property, 
may be required to discharge" such goods in a British or allied 
port. Goods so discharged in a British port shall be placed 
in the custody of the Marshal of the Prize Court, and, if not 
requisitioned for the use of His Majesty, shall be detained or 
sold under the direction of the Prize Court. The proceeds 
of goods so sold shall be paid into Court and dealt with in 
such manner as the Court may in the circumstances deem to 
be just. 

Provided that no proceeds of the sale of such goods shall 
be paid out of Court until the conclusion of peace except on 
the application of the proper Officer of the Crown, unless it 
be shown that the goods had become neutral property before 
the issue of this Order. 

Provided also that nothing herein shall prevent the release 
of neutral property of enemy origin on the application of the 
proper Officer of the Crown. 

V. (i) Any person claiming to be interested in, or to 
have any claim in respect of any goods (not being contraband 
of war) placed in the custody of the Marshal of the Prize 

156 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Court under this order, or in the proceeds of such goods, 
may forthwith issue a writ in the Prize Court against the 
proper Officer of the Crown and apply for an order that 
the goods should be restored to him, or that their proceeds 
should be paid to him, or for such other order as the circum- 
stances of the case may require. 

(2) The practice and procedure of the Prize Court shall, 
so far as applicable, be followed mutatis mutandis in any pro- 
ceedings consequential upon this Order. 

VI. A merchant vessel which has cleared for a neutral 
port from a British or allied port, or which has been allowed 
to pass having an ostensible destination to a neutral port, and 
proceeds to an enemy port, shall, if captured on any subse- 
quent voyage, be liable to condemnation. 

VII. Nothing in this Order shall be deemed to affect the 
liability of any vessel or goods to capture or condemnation 
independently of this Order. 

VIII. Nothing in this Order shall prevent the relaxation 
of the provisions of this Order in respect of the merchant 
vessels of any country which declares that no commerce 
intended for or originating in Germany or belonging to 
German subjects shall enjoy the protection of its flag. 



NAVY SEPARATION ALLOWANCE 

The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following Times, 
announcement : March n, 

The weekly rates of Navy Separation Allowance for 
children have been increased from 2s. to 45. for the first child, 
from 2s. to 35. for the second, and from is. to 2s. for the 
third. The rate for the fourth and any subsequent children 
will continue to be, as at present, is. a week. For motherless 
children the rate has been increased from 33. to 53. each. 

These increases take effect from the ist inst. The 
additional sum due from that date will be included with the 
first payment for next quarter, which will be made on April 8. 
As the books of postal drafts on which payment is made fcr 
the present quarter are already in the hands of the post- 
masters, it is not possible to recall them all and alter the 
amounts payable, but the full amount due will be paid in 

157 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

all cases on April 8 without any application from the persons 
concerned. 

The payment on April 8 will also for the first time include 
a weekly instalment of the man's allotment, which will cease 
to be paid monthly after the payment due on the 3ist of 
this month. 

A detailed statement will be sent to each payee before 
April 8, explaining fully the payments to be received on that 
date and on subsequent Thursdays. 



FRENCH TROOPS FOR DARDANELLES 

(Official] 

Paris, March n. 

The Expeditionary Force concentrated in North Africa is 
composed partly of troops other than Algerian sharpshooters 
drawn from this region and partly by troops from France. 
These troops have been placed under the orders of General 
d'Amade, who has been selected for the command owing to 
his experience of expeditions in distant lands. 

General d'Amade, it may be mentioned, followed the 
operations of the British Army in the Transvaal. 

A part of the Expeditionary Corps is at present on the 
way to the Levant, where it will join the naval forces which 
have already been in action. Renter. 

LOSS OF THE BAYANO 

March 13. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty reports the loss of His 
Majesty's auxiliary cruiser Bayano while engaged on patrol 
duty. 

On the nth inst. the wreckage of the vessel and bodies 
were discovered, and circumstances point to her having been 
sunk by an enemy's torpedo. 

The following officers are missing, and must be presumed 
to have lost their lives : 

Commander Henry Cecil Carr. 
Lieutenant R.N.R. Bernard Dunphy. 
Lieutenant R.N.R. Arthur Crossfield Brattan. 
Lieutenant R.N.R. John Huddy. 
158 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Lieutenant R.N.R. Ernest Arthur Brown. 
Sub-Lieutenant R.N.R. Charles Edmonds Sims. 
Sub-Lieutenant R.N.R. Alexander Clyne Davison. 
Chief Engineer R.N.R. Harold Richard Williams. 
Senior Engineer R.N.R. Charles Jones. 
Engineer R.N.R. Edward William George Humble. 
Assistant Paymaster R.N.R. Dudley Cecil Chorley. 
Gunner Richard Harrison. 
Midshipman R.N.R. Harold Brantnall Gough. 
Midshipman R.N.R. Leslie Frank Bailey. 

The following officers and men have been rescued and 
landed by the auxiliary patrol vessel Tar a : ' 

Lieutenant-Commander Kenneth A. F. Guy, R.N., 
Surgeon Kenneth H. Hole, R.N., Probationary 
Surgeon Richard Batson, R.N.R. (?), Midshipman 
Henry A. Wright, R.N.R., C.P.O.; R. A. G. 
Wood, O.N. 115347 ; P.O. ist Cl. G. A. Glover, 
O.N. 177130 ; Carpenter's Crew S. V. Brailsford, 
ship's books 15 B ; Able Seaman J. Hayes, O.N. 
5517 R.F.R. 

The following other ratings were taken on board the S.S. 
Balmerino, and landed : 

Baker, Richard, A.B. (R.F.R. 6650), 151102; Bat- 
trick, Arthur Dennis, Boy Telegraphist, 729320 ; 
Caulfield, John, Ordinary Seaman, R.N.V.R., 
London, Z/620 ; Chiddle, Frederick, A.B. (R.F.R. 
66863), 212229; Courtney, Percy George Chris- 
topher, A.B. (R.F.R. 61584), 185061 ; Craze, A. 
T. C., Private, R.M.L.I., Po/6736; Cummings, 
Benjamin John, Petty Officer ist cl. (R.F.R. 
A3752), 143745 ; Glover, George Albert, Petty 
Officer, 177130; Hayes, John, A.B. (R.F.R. 
65517), 217802; James, Henry, A.B. (R.F.R. 
66598), 205627; Keates, Stephen, Leading Sea- 
man, R.N.R. (Newfoundland), 458X; Lucas, 
Arthur William, A.B. (R.F.R. 64669), 8.8.1665 ; 
Luck, Ernest Samuel, A.6. (R.F.R. 66312), 
233152 i M'Dermott, James. W., Ordinary Seaman, 
R.N.V.R., Mersey, Zfolj ; Please, Charles Victor, 
Signal 6oy, J272I5 ; Rolfe, Thomas G., Seaman, 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

R.N.R., 4823 A ; Ryan, William, Ordinary Seaman, 
R.N.V.R., Tyne, Z/i682 ; Taylor, Dennis, A.B. 
(R.F.R. BISI), 189099. 

SPECIALLY ENTERED MERCANTILE CREW 

M'Sporran, John, Carpenter's Mate ; Whitcomb, 
Abner, Painter. 

Captain McGarrick, of the S.S. Castlereagh, of Belfast, 
states that his ship passed on Thursday morning through a 
quantity of wreckage and dead bodies floating in lifebelts. 
He attempted to search the spot in the hope of saving any 
men who migKt still be alive, but was prevented by the 
appearance of an enemy submarine, which gave chase for 
about twenty minutes. 

PAY OF TEMPORARY OFFICERS IN ROYAL 
MARINES 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the nth day of March, 



Present, 

The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

L.G., WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a Memorial 

March 12, from the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the 
I 9 I 5- Admiralty, dated the 3rd day of March 1915, in the words 

following, viz. : 

' Whereas by Section 3 of the Naval and Marine Pay 
and Pensions Act, 1865, it is enacted, inter alia, that 
all pay, pensions, or other allowances in the nature 
thereof, payable in respect of services in Your Majesty's 
Naval or Marine Force to a person being or having been 
an Officer, Seaman, or Marine therein, shall be paid in 
such manner, and subject to such restrictions, conditions, 
and provisions, as are from time to time directed by 
Order in Council : 

' And whereas it is necessary that Officers of the Royal 

Navy or Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve attached to 

Royal Marine Artillery Brigades should be given tem- 

porary rank in the Royal Marines, and we are of opinion 

1 60 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

that Officers so attached should continue to receive pay 
at Naval rates : 

' We beg leave humbly to recommend that Your 
Majesty may be graciously pleased, by Your Order in 
Council, to authorise the retention of Naval Emolu- 
ments by Officers granted temporary commissions in the 
Royal Marines in the above-mentioned circumstances. 

'The Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Treasury 
have signified their concurrence in this proposal/ 

His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy 
Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And the 
Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
are to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 

ALLOWANCES TO SICK BERTH STAFF 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the nth day of March 

19*5. 

Present, 

The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 
WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a Memorial ibid. 
from the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty, dated the 5th day of March 1915, in the words 
following, viz. : 

' Whereas by section 3 of the Naval and Marine Pay 
and Pensions Act, 1865, it is enacted, inter alia, that 
all pay, pensions, and other allowances in the nature 
thereof, payable in respect of services in Your Majesty's 
Naval or Marine Force to a person being or having been 
an Officer, Seaman, or Marine therein, shall be paid in 
such manner, and subject to such restrictions, conditions, 
and provisions, as are from time to time directed by 
Order in Council : 

' And whereas it has been found necessary to increase 
the accommodation at Your Majesty's Royal Naval Sick 
Quarters at Shotley, and to organise the Staff on a basis 
similar to that adopted for the Staff of Your Majesty's 
Royal Naval Hospitals : 

1 And whereas we are of opinion that in these circum- 

NAVAL 4 L l6l 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

stances the Sick Berth Staff of the Sick Quarters at 
Shotley should be granted the same allowances as are 
granted to Members of the Sick Berth Staff of the Naval 
Hospitals who are engaged upon similar duties : 

' We, therefore, beg leave humbly to recommend that 
Your Majesty may be graciously pleased, by Your Order 
in Council, to sanction the grant of the following allow- 
ances to Members of the Staff at Shotley, with effect as 
from the 6th November 1914 : 

' (i) An allowance of 6d. a day to one of the Sick Berth 
Staff for acting as Operating Room Attendant : 

' (2) An allowance of 6d. a day to the Chief Sick 
Berth Steward for charge of stores. 

' The Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Treasury 
have concurred in these proposals/ 

His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy 
Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And the 
Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
are to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 



C.O., 

March 20, 



1 [See 
Naval 3, 
P- 131-] 
Times, 
March 19, 



THE PRINZ EITEL FRIEDRICH AT 
NEWPORT NEWS 

On March u the auxiliary cruiser Prinz Eitel Friedrich * 
entered the port of Newport News in Virginia, and is there 
undergoing repairs. 



The Philadelphia Ledger remonstrates against a thing 
which is causing much amusement and some annoyance here 
namely, the official attentions paid to the commander of the 
Eitel Friedrich. Despite his sinking of an American ship and 
the protest which the United States Government is under- 
stood to have registered, this officer was invited to sit on the 
platform at the recent launching at Newport News of the 
super-Dreadnought Pennsylvania, and in other ways was 
officially noticed by Mr. Daniels, the Secretary of the Navy, 
who was present. The Ledger writes : 

A distinctly discordant note was struck when the officer responsible 
162 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

for so flagrant a breach of comity was made the guest of honour at an 
important naval function and allowed to make jesting comments about 
the serious international situation for .which he is responsible. Good 
taste on his part would have dictated a different course. 

It cannot be too emphatically stated, lest the incident 
should be misunderstood at home, that the Ledger voices 
responsible American opinion. 



Washington, March 19. 

There is reason to believe that the Eitel Friedrich will bear Times, 
watching at Newport News. The American authorities, of March 20, 
course, are bound to be silent as to the length of time her I 9 I 5- 
repairs will take. Her captain has announced she must have 
about a month in dock. Good information, however, reaches 
me that the vessel is in a state to leave any day. 

It is further alleged that the reason she came to Newport 
News at all was to deflect the attention of our cruisers from 
the interned liners in New York. Evidence accumulates that 
these liners were preparing a dash about that time. If that 
really were the case they have missed their opportunity, for, 
alarmed by the possibility of an infringement of its rules of 
neutrality, the Government has taken stringent steps to 
prevent any ship leaving New York without clearance papers. 



Washington, March 31. 

A detachment of coast artillerymen have been sent from Times, 
Fort Monroe to Newport News shipyard to mount guard over April 2, 
the Prinz Eitel Friedrich. The commander had asked for a I 9 I 5- 
patrol to be set round the ship. Renter. 



Washington, April 4. 

It is believed that the time-limit set for the departure of Times, 
the Eitel Friedrich from Newport News has nearly expired, and A P ril 5. 
that she will be interned. For a week past the newspapers 
have been filled with stories that she was about to make a dash 
for the sea, but in well-informed quarters these stories are 
discounted as due, partly to a desire to keep the British 
cruisers off Chesapeake Bay, and partly as the contribution 

163 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of the captain of the Eitel Friedrich to the German publicity 
campaign in the United States. Certainly as a Press agent 
the captain has been even more successful than as a commerce 
destroyer. He has not only succeeded in spreading the im- 
pression that he is almost persona grata with the American 
officials, but by having his remarks and movements volubly 
reported he has picturesquely seconded the campaign for the 
popularisation of German arms. 

Not that the campaign is having conspicuous success. 
The indications are that feeling against Germany is running 
higher than ever. The efforts of racially and materially 
interested people to make trouble over our war zone policy 
have been more than discounted by the sinking of the Falaba, 
and by the murder of Mr. Thrasher. 



Newport News, April 5. 

Times, The Commandant of the Norfolk Navy Yard to-day went 

April 6, on board the Prinz Eitel Friedrich, and conferred with her 

1915 ' commander. It is now confidently predicted that, having 

missed the opportunity to get away in Saturday's storm, the 

German cruiser will be interned shortly. Reuter. 



Washington, April 7. 

Times,. The commander of the German auxiliary cruiser Prinz 

April 8, Eitel Friedrich has informed the Collector of Customs at 
I 9 I 5- Newport News that he desires to intern his ship. 

The commander said that he was compelled to intern 
because the relief which would have made a dash out to sea 
possible had failed to arrive. The cruiser will be interned in 
Norfolk Navy Yard. Reuter. 



New York, April 7. 

ibid. The continued refusal of American officials to clear British 

ships at Newport News has aroused strong protests in the 
Chamber of Commerce, whose members assert that the delayed 
clearances are greatly damaging the business of the port. 
Efforts have been made to induce the two Senators of Virginia 
to have the embargo raised. The restrictions to-day were 
164 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

heavier than ever, and the British ship captains can get no 
explanation from the Collector of Customs. It is supposed 
that the detention of the British ships has for its object to 
give an opportunity for the departure of the Prinz Eitel 
Fried/rich. 



kNew York, April 8. 
The German commerce destroyer, the Prinz Eitel Friedrich, Times, 
was to-day interned by the American authorities. Until the A P ril 9 
last moment her captain maintained the pretence of preparing 
for a dash for the open sea, but since his failure on Saturday 
to avail himself of the opportunity of escape offered by the 
blinding snowstorm, there were few doubts as to his actual in- 
tentions. Captain Thierichens's final excuse for not carrying 
out his professed intention is, to say the least, ingenuous. 
He asserted that he was expecting the arrival of relief. This 
relief was to come in the shape of a Dreadnought cruiser Yonder 
Tann and a large submarine, which were to have engaged the 
British and French cruisers while the Eitel Friedrich rushed 
out to sea. 

The American authorities gave the Eitel Friedrich an abso- 
lutely clear way through the territorial waters, by preventing 
all ships belonging to the other belligerents from leaving the 
port during twenty-four hours. At the same time the United 
States warship Alabama cruised outside with cleared decks 
and under orders to prevent at all costs any violation of 
American neutrality. Yet the Eitel Friedrich, though smoke 
was belching from her funnels, showed no signs of weighing 
anchor. 

At a late hour Mr. Hamilton, the Collector of the port, 
boarded the vessel and notified the captain afresh that he must, 
under pain of internment, leave the port before midnight and 
the three-mile zone before four o'clock this morning. Captain 
Thierichens, in reply, handed to Mr. Hamilton the following 
Note : 

I inform you that I intend to intern S.M.S. Prinz Eitel Friedrich. 
The relief I expected appear not to arrive in time ; so number and force 
of enemy cruisers watching the entrance of the bay makes to me im- 
possible the dash for the open sea with any hope of success. I have 
decided not to deliver the crew and the ship to fruitless and certain 

165 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

destruction. Being obliged for the courtesy shown by all the United 
States authorities, I am expecting your orders. I have sent same 
information to Rear-Admiral Helm, of the United States ship Alabama. 
Yours respectfully, THIERICHENS. 

Upon receiving this communication the authorities im- 
mediately informed the captains of more than a score of 
British vessels that they were now at liberty to leave port. 

The Eitel Friedrich is to be dismantled at Norfolk Navy 
Yard and the crew placed on parole on their giving a promise 
not to take any further part in the war. ' It makes me sick/ 
was Captain Thierichens's message to the reporters, while 
other officers explained that, while the ship's stocks of beer 
have been replenished, it had proved impossible to obtain from 
neutral America fresh ammunition for the 8-inch guns. 



Times, The Prinz Eitel Friedrich arrived at Newport News oh 

April 9, March II, her boilers and machinery being badly in need of 

I 9 I 5- repair. The American Neutrality Board recommended that 

the vessel should be allowed sufficient time to effect such 

repairs as to render her seaworthy. These appear to have 

been completed about a week ago, and from day to day it was 

expected that the vessel would depart. 

The raider is a vessel of 8800 tons, formerly in the service 
of the Norddeutscher Lloyd. She was at Tientsin on July 29, 
and was not reported again until November 6, when she left 
Valparaiso. In the meantime she had obtained guns from 
one of the German cruisers. 

Her raiding began with the sinking on December 5 off the 
South American coast of the Charcas, a British chartered 
vessel, belonging to the William R. Grace Company of New 
York. The next victim was the French collier Jean, with 
3000 tons of coal for British war vessels. The Jean was towed 
to Easter Island, where she was sunk. The British vessel 
Kildalton was caught and destroyed on the way. The crews 
of these ships were left on Easter Island. The list of the 
vessels sunk and of the crews taken into the Eitel Friedrich 
after leaving Easter Island was given to the Collector of 
Customs at Newport News as follows : [For list, see Naval 
3, P. 132.] 

166 



;] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The locking up of the Prinz Eitel Friedrich is a relief. Not ibid. 
that this vessel was capable of much more mischief, or that 
her further career is likely to have been other than a short 
one. The Allies had seen to that. But if she had got to sea 
and continued her depredations, for only a brief period, some 
international difficulties might have been caused. The treat- 
ment accorded to this vessel by the United States authorities 
lacked nothing in generosity, in spite of what happened to 
the William P. Frye. 1 It is all very well to allow a belligerent l [See 
vessel to repair in a neutral port damages caused by the sea, Naval 3, 
but to permit her to add to her efficiency as a warship, and P- 3C 3 I J 
even to help her to do so, is scarcely in strict accordance with a 
neutral attitude. To restore the Prinz Eitel Friedrich to a state 
of seaworthiness, and make her fit to proceed to her nearest 
national port, was quite right and proper. To take her into 
dock and clean her hull, thus adding two or three knots to her 
speed, was another thing altogether. Any explanation, how- 
ever, of this course of action which might have been asked for 
may now be dispensed with, in view of the ship's internment. 

The excuse made by Captain Thierichens that he was left 
no alternative to voluntary internment because the relief he 
was expecting had failed to arrive is too thin. What kind 
of assistance he could have hoped for he does not explain. 
It could scarcely have been anything from home, and the only 
other German vessel still on the seas is the Kronprinz Wilhelm. 
This ship was last reported to be making her way northward 
in the hope of getting interned in an American port, but she 
is not likely to have sought a meeting with the British cruisers 
off the Virginia Capes. There were, of course, attempts on 
the part of the Macedonia, 2 at Las Palmas, and the Odenwald, 3 2 [See 
at San Juan de Porto Rico, to escape, but neither of these P- I 9 I 
vessels could have given any help. Germany has lodged a 3 
protest in connection with the attempted flight of the Oden- p> 
wald, complaining that no blank charge was fired as a warning 
to her, and that after she had begun to go astern she was still 
the target for the fort's guns. Looking at the circumstances, 
and to the real status of the Odenwald, the United States 
authorities should have no difficulty in dealing with this 
matter. Only a German could have had the audacity to raise 
such a question at all in view of the barefaced attempt to use 
an American harbour as a base of supply. 

167 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Another instance of German effrontery and shamelessness 
is exposed by the official reply, issued yesterday, to the plea of 
Count Bernstorff that the loss of life in the Falaba x was due 
to military necessity. In the Note from Berlin, it was 
suggested that the blame rested upon the British Government 
for instructing our merchant ships to offer resistance. As a 
matter of fact, no resistance was offered by the Falaba. She 
was not armed, and when the submarine signalled her to do 
so she stopped. The loss of life was caused by the captain of 
the submarine firing his torpedo into the ship at short range 
within the period he had given to the crew and passengers to 
leave her. Whether everybody could have escaped in five 
minutes is doubtful, but they were not even permitted so long 
as this. No regret, moreover, is expressed at the exhibition 
of callousness and inhumanity of the crew of the submarine 
in jeering at the people struggling for their lives in the water. 
It may be that the captain of the submarine considered it a 
military necessity to sink the ship, but this is no palliation 
of his conduct in drowning her passengers, when five minutes' 
grace would have given them a chance for their lives. 

It is to be noticed, by the way, that on April 2 the German 
official wireless news denounced the testimony of those 
actually present at the sinking of the Falaba as ' a shameless 
lie,' but the Note from Berlin, which Herr von Jagow sent to 
America, and which is dated April 6, states that ' no report 
has been received from the submarine which sank the Falaba.' 
Consequently the Germans could have had no rebutting 
evidence on which to base their denial. 



DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO THE 
INTERNMENT OF THE PRINZ EITEL FRIEDRICH 

The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador 

Department of State, 
Washington, March 18, 1915. 

EXCELLENCY : The Department of State has received 
from the Navy Department the report of the board of naval 
168 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

officers who made an examination of S.M.S. Prinz Eitel 
Friedrich, now in the harbour of Newport News, Va., with 
a view to ascertaining the repairs necessary to put the vessel 
in a thoroughly seaworthy condition, and from this report 
it appears that the time required for these repairs will be a 
period of fourteen working days. The Government has con- 
cluded, therefore, that S.M.S. Prinz Eitel Friedrich will be 
allowed until midnight of the close of the 6th day of April 
next to complete her repairs, and that she will be allowed 
twenty-four hours in addition, or until midnight of the 
7th day of April, to leave the territorial waters of the United 
States, or failing this that she will be under the necessity of 
accepting internment within American jurisdiction during the 
continuance of the wars in which your country is now engaged. 

This information has been confidentially conveyed to the 
Treasury Department with the request that it be transmitted 
immediately to the commander of S.M.S. Prinz Eitel 
Friedrich. 

Accept, etc., W. J. BRYAN. 



Memorandum to the British Embassy 

Department of State, 
Washington, March 29, 1915. 

The Department of State has received the memorandum, 
dated March 24, 1915, from His Britannic Majesty's Embassy, 
inviting attention to the principle embodied in Article XVI 
of The Hague Convention, of 1907, No. XIII, paragraph 3, 1 
namely : that a belligerent warship may not leave a neutral Naval 
port or roadstead until twenty-four hours after the departure p * 
of an enemy merchant ship. 

It is pointed out that this convention was signed by Great 
Britain, but not ratified ; that it was adhered to by the 
United States ; that the principle referred to is generally 
accepted (Oppenheim, Sections 333 and 347) ; and that the 
regulations issued by the British Government on January 31, 
1862, embodied this principle in sections 2 and 3. 

His Britannic Majesty's Embassy states that it has no 
doubt that this principle will be taken into consideration by 
the United States authorities in regard to the departure of the 

169 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

German war vessel now undergoing repairs in the port of 
Newport News, Va. 

In reply the Department of State informs His Britannic 
Majesty's Embassy that the Government of the United States 
has given instructions that this rule of international law be 
observed by the Prinz Eitel Friedrich upon her departure 
from an American port. 



The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State 
(Translation) 

Imperial German Embassy, 
Washington, D.C., April 8, 1915. 

MR. SECRETARY OF STATE : I have the honour to express 
to your Excellency my most sincere thanks for the accommo- 
dating treatment accorded S.M.S. Prinz Eitel Friedrich during 
her stay at Newport News. I have been especially gratified 
to hear that the Government of the United States had taken 
far-reaching safety measures for the protection of the ship 
from the various menaces o an attack. 

I venture, therefore, respectfully to beg your Excellency 
kindly to convey this expression of my thanks to the De- 
partments and officials concerned. Neither shall I fail to 
apprize my Government of the attention shown S.M.S. Prinz 
Eitel Friedrich. 

Accept, etc. J. BERNSTORFF. 



FIVE BRITISH STEAMERS TORPEDOED 

K.V., Reuter's Agency reports from Fecamp on March 22 : It 

March 24, is reported here that the barque Jacques Cceur, on her way to 

I 9 I 5- Newfoundland was hailed on March 14 when 85 nautical miles 

from the Lizard by a German submarine which had previously 

sunk five English steamers, and requested to take on board 

the crew of an English steamer which had been sunk by a 

torpedo. The French captain took the English crew on 

170 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

board, and after having obtained permission to continue his 
journey, eventually transhipped it to an English steamer. 

THE DRESDEN SUNK 

The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following Times, 
announcement : 

On i4th March, at 9.0 A.M., H.M.S. Glasgow, Captain John I 9 I 5- 
Luce, R.N., H.M. Auxiliary Cruiser Orama, Captain John R. 
Segrave, R.N., and H.M.S. Kent, Captain John D. Allen, C.B., 
R.N., caught the Dresden near Juan Fernandez Island. 

An action ensued. After five minutes' fighting the Dresden 
hauled down her colours and displayed the white flag. 

She was much damaged and set on fire, and after she had 
been burning for some time her magazine exploded and she 
sank. 

The crew were saved. Fifteen badly wounded Germans 
are being landed at Valparaiso. There were no British 
casualties and no damage to the ships. 



Amsterdam, March 16. 

A Berlin official telegram states that the German Admiralty 
Staff briefly reproduces the report of the British Admiralty 
on the sinking of the German cruiser Dresden. Reuter. 



Santiago de Chile, March 17. 

The German Consul at Valparaiso has issued an account Times, 
of the sinking of the Dresden, in which he says the vessel was March 19, 
sunk at anchor within 500 yards from the shore in Cum- I 9 I 5- 
berland Bay, Juan Fernandez. 

It is reported that the German Minister has lodged a pro- 
test and claim with the Chilean Government. There is a 
general inclination to believe the German account pending a 
further British report. 

Chilean cruisers left yesterday to make an investigation 
on the spot. The best Chilean opinion tends generally not 

171 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to give the affair too much importance, even if the German 
version proves correct, in view of the continuous violations 
of Chilean neutrality by the Dresden. 

The following is the account of the sinking of the Dresden 
officially circulated through the German wireless stations : 

' Wounded officers of the Dresden state that the Dresden 
was anchored at a distance of 400 metres from the shore in 
the Cumberland Bay of Juan Fernandez, when she was attacked 
in the early morning of March 14 by the Kent, Glasgow, and 
Orama. She returned the fire of the enemy at a distance of 
from 3000 to 3500 metres, with several shots. One enemy 
volley struck and seriously damaged the stern of the Dresden. 

' Thereupon the Dresden hoisted the parlementaire flag, and 
sent a boat with a protest against the bombardment of the 
vessel in a neutral harbour. The English Commander replied 
that he had instructions to destroy the Dresden, and that 
what followed would have to be diplomatically arranged, and 
that, if the Dresden did not blow herself up, he would do so. 
Thereupon the greater part of the crew of the Dresden was 
landed, while the Commander and a small number of the 
remaining crew blew the ship up, and also landed afterwards. 

' The number of killed is as yet undecided, and amounts to 
about from three to ten. The number of wounded amounts 
to fifteen. A Chilean vessel was also damaged by splinters of 
the English shells. Splinters also fell on shore. The Chilean 
Government has sent two men-of-war to Juan Fernandez to 
investigate the matter. BOY-ED/ 

Captain Boy-Ed, whose signature appears to the above, is 
the German Naval Attache at Washington. 

A Reuter telegram from Santiago states that the crew of 
the Dresden will be brought to Valparaiso and interned in 
Chile. 



Amsterdam, March 24. 

An official telegram from Berlin states that the commander 
and the crew of the German cruiser Dresden have arrived at 
Valparaiso on board a Chilean cruiser. 

The commander, adds the telegram, has sent the following 
report of the action : 
172 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

On March 14, in the forenoon, the Dresden was lying at 
anchor in Cumberland Bay, Juan Fernandez, when the ship 
was attacked by the British cruisers Kent and Glasgow and the 
auxiliary cruiser Orama from such a direction as enabled the 
Dresden to bring only her after guns to bear. The Dresden 
replied to the fire until all the available guns and three 
magazines had become unserviceable. 

In order to prevent the capture of the ship by the enemy 
preparations were made for sinking her, while at the same time 
a parlementaire was sent to the Glasgow to point out that the 
Dresden was in neutral waters. As, however, despite this, the 
Glasgow wished to continue the attack, the Dresden was blown 
up at ii. 16 with her flag flying, while the crew gave three 
cheers for the Emperor. 

This disproves the English statement that the Dresden 
hoisted the white flag and surrendered. 



NOTES EXCHANGED WITH THE CHILEAN MINISTER 
RESPECTING THE SINKING OF THE GERMAN 
CRUISER DRESDEN IN CHILEAN TERRITORIAL 
WATERS 

(Miscellaneous No. 9, 1915. Cd. 7859.) 

No. i 

The Chilean Minister to Sir Edward Grey 
(Received March 26) 

(Translation.) 

Chilean Legation, London, March 26, 1915. 

SIR, In compliance with instructions from my Govern- 
ment, I have the honour to inform your Excellency of the 
facts which led to the sinking of the German cruiser Dresden 
in Chilean territorial waters, as they appear to be estab- 
lished by the information in the possession of the Chilean 
Government. 

The cruiser cast anchor on the gth March in Cumberland 
Bay, in the island of Mas-a-Tierra, belonging to the Juan 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Fernandez group, 500 metres from the shore, and her com- 
mander asked the Maritime Governor of the port for permission 
to remain there for eight days for the purpose of repairing 
her engines, which were, he said, out of order. The Maritime 
Governor refused to grant the request, as he considered it 
unfounded, and ordered the captain to leave the bay within 
twenty-four hours, threatening to intern the cruiser if her 
stay were prolonged beyond that period. Upon the expiry 
of the time stated the Maritime Governor proceeded to 
notify the captain of the Dresden that he had incurred the 
penalty imposed, and he immediately reported the situation 
which had arisen to the Governor of the Republic. Mean- 
while, on the I4th March, a British naval squadron, com- 
posed of the cruisers Kent and Glasgow and the armed trans- 
port Orama, arrived at Cumberland Bay, and immediately 
opened fire upon the Dresden while she lay at anchor. The 
Maritime Governor, who was making his way towards the 
Glasgow in order to carry out the usual obligations of courtesy, 
was compelled to return to land. 

The Dresden hoisted a flag of truce, and despatched one 
of her officers to inform the Glasgow that she was in neutral 
waters, a circumstance disregarded by the British naval 
squadron, which summoned the Dresden to surrender, warning 
her that if she refused she would be destroyed. The captain 
of the Dresden then gave orders to blow up the powder 
magazine and sink the ship. 

The act of hostility committed in Chilean territorial 
waters by the British naval squadron has painfully surprised 
my Government. 

The internment of the Dresden had been notified to her 
captain by the Maritime Governor of Juan Fernandez, and 
the Government of the Republic, having been informed of 
what had occurred, would have proceeded to the subsequent 
steps had it not been for the intervention of the British naval 
squadron. Having regard to the geographical position of 
the islands of Juan Fernandez and to the difficulty of com- 
munication with the mainland, the only authority able to 
act in the matter did everything possible from the outset, 
and the internment of the Dresden was as effective and 
complete as the circumstances would permit when she was 
attacked by the British naval squadron. Even supposing 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

that the British force feared that the Dresden intended to 
escape and to ignore the measures taken by the Maritime 
Governor of Juan Fernandez, and that this apprehension was 
adduced as the reason which determined its action, it should 
still be observed that the close watch which the British naval 
squadron could itself exercise precluded the possibility of the 
attempt. Moreover, no such eventuality was contemplated 
by the British squadron which, as I have said, did not give 
the Maritime Governor of Mas-a-Tierra the opportunity of 
explaining to the naval officer in command of the island the 
state of the Dresden in Cumberland Bay. The officer in 
command of the squadron acted a priori without pausing to 
consider that his action constituted a serious offence against 
the sovereignty of the country in whose territorial waters he 
was at the time. The traditions of the British navy are 
such that I feel convinced that if the officer who commanded 
the British squadron had received the Maritime Governor, 
who was going on board his ship in the fulfilment of his 
duty, and had been informed of the state of the interned 
vessel, he would not have opened fire upon her and would 
not have brought about the situation which now con- 
strains my Government, in defence of their sovereign rights, 
to formulate the most energetic protest to His Britannic 
Majesty's Government. 

Your Excellency will not be surprised that the attitude of 
the naval squadron should have aroused such deep feeling 
in Chile if you bear in mind the fact that the British warships 
composing it had received, shortly before and upon repeated 
occasions, convincing proofs of the cordial friendship which 
unites us to Great Britain, and which finds its clearest and 
strongest expression in our respective navies. They had been 
supplied in the ports of the Republic with everything which it 
was permissible for us to furnish consistent with our neutrality 
in the present European conflict. Nothing, therefore, could 
be a more painful surprise to us than to see our exceedingly 
cordial and friendly attitude repaid by an act which bears 
unfortunately all the evidences of contempt for our sovereign 
rights, although it is probable that nothing was further from 
the minds of those by whom it was unthinkingly committed. 

Nor will your Excellency be astonished that my Govern- 
ment should show themselves to be very jealous of the 

i75 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

rights and prerogatives inherent in the exercise of sovereignty. 
Nations which lack powerful material means of making their 
rights respected have no other guarantee and protection for 
their life and prosperity than the clear and perfect under- 
standing, and the exact and scrupulous fulfilment of the 
obligations incumbent upon them towards other nations, and 
the right to demand that other nations shall equally observe 
their duties towards them. Few nations have given more 
convincing proofs than Great Britain of their desire to comply 
with international obligations and to require compliance from 
others, and few have shown more eloquently their respect 
for the rights and prerogatives both of great and small 
nations. These facts convince my Government that His 
Britannic Majesty's Government will give them satisfaction 
for the act committed by the British naval forces of a char- 
acter to correspond with the frankly cordial relations existing 
between them. Nothing could be more deeply deplored by 
the Chilean Government than that the traditional bonds of 
friendship uniting the two peoples, which my Government 
value so highly, and upon which they base so many hopes 
of new and mutual benefits, should fail to derive on this 
occasion additional strength from the test to which circum- 
stances have subjected them. I have, etc. 

AGUSTIN EDWARDS. 

No. 2 
Sir Edward Grey to the Chilean Minister 

Foreign Office, March 30, 1915. 

SIR, His Majesty's Government, after receiving the com- 
munication from the Chilean Government of the 26th March, 
deeply regret that any misunderstanding should have arisen 
which should be a cause of complaint to the Chilean Govern- 
ment ; and, on the facts as stated in the communication 
made to them, they are prepared to offer a full and ample 
apology to the Chilean Government. 

His Majesty's Government, before receiving the com- 
munication from the Chilean Government, could only con- 
jecture the actual facts at the time when the Dresden was 
discovered by the British squadron ; and. even now they 
are not in possession of a full account of his action by the 
176 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

captain of the Glasgow. Such information as they have 
points to the fact that the Dresden had not accepted intern- 
ment, and still had her colours flying and her guns trained. 
If this was so, and if there were no means available on the 
spot at the moment for enforcing the decision of the Chilean 
authorities to intern the Dresden, she might obviously, had 
not the British ships taken action, have escaped again to 
attack British commerce. It is believed that the island 
where the Dresden had taken refuge is not connected with 
the mainland by cable. In these circumstances, if the 
Dresden still had her colours flying and her guns trained, 
the captain of the Glasgow probably assumed, especially in 
view of the past action of the Dresden, that she was defying 
the Chilean authorities and abusing Chilean neutrality, and 
was only awaiting a favourable opportunity to sally out and 
attack British commerce again. 

If these really were the circumstances, His Majesty's 
Government cannot but feel that they explain the action 
taken by the captain of the British ship ; but, in view of 
the length of time that it may take to clear up all the cir- 
cumstances and of the communication that the Chilean 
Government have made of the view that they take from the 
information they have of the circumstances, His Majesty's 
Government do not wish to qualify the apology that they now 
present to the Chilean Government. I have, etc. 

E. GREY. 



ATALANTA AND FINGAL TORPEDOED 

Admiralty, March 17. 

British steamship Atalanta, 519 tons, owned by Messrs. J. Times, 
and P. Hutchison, of Glasgow, was torpedoed by German March 18, 
submarine off Inishturk about noon on March 14. The crew 
landed on Inishturk Island. The vessel is now in harbour. 

British steamship Fingal, 1562 tons, owned by the London 
and Edinburgh Shipping Company, of Leith, was torpedoed 
and sunk at 10.50 A.M. on March 15 off the Northumberland 
coast. Twenty-one of the crew were landed at North Shields, 
but six lives are reported to have been lost, including the chief 
mate and the stewardess. 

NAVAL 4 M 177 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

CUSTOMS (WAR POWERS) BILL 
Order of the Day for the Second Reading read. 

House of Lords, March 15, 1915. 

Hansard. The PAYMASTER-GENERAL (LORD STRACHIE) I My Lords, 

this is a war emergency Bill. It is proposed that it should 
only remain in force, if your Lordships see fit to pass it, during 
the continuation of the war, and ipso facto it will come to an 
end at the conclusion of the war. An Inter-Departmental 
Conference sat to consider the question of trading with the 
enemy, and it was in consequence of the recommendations 
made by the Conference that this Bill is introduced. Although 
the Customs have great powers at the present moment to 
deal with goods which are exported from this country, yet 
there are small powers to deal with stores, and no notice is 
required to be given to the Customs in regard to stores being 
put on a vessel, for what purpose they are to be used, or their 
destination. Therefore we take power under this Bill to 
require that during the war the Customs shall have the same 
power as regards stores just as much as over goods. I can 
give your Lordships an instance of the necessity for this 

S revision from the fact that not so long ago a ship was going 
om Swansea to Havre, and it took in stores at Swansea 
to the amount of 400 gallons of petrol notwithstanding that 
it was not a motor-boat and there was no reason to suppose 
that it would require petrol to that amount for any purpose. 
She was a neutral ; it was known that in the direction in which 
she was going there were enemy ships which might be sup- 
plied by that ship ; yet there was no power for the Customs 
to interfere and prohibit her taking 400 gallons of petrol for 
a voyage from Swansea to Havre. 

There is also a provision imposing a penalty upon coasting 
vessels leaving a port without proper clearance notice. That 
is also considered by the Customs to be important. Then 
there is another power which the Admiralty desire the Cus- 
toms to have. Under an Order in Council while there is 
power for the Customs to prohibit neutral ships from con- 
veying goods on bills of lading made out to order only, without 
any name of consignee, there is no power at the present 
moment for the Customs to apply a similar treatment to 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

British ships. It is thought that it would be only fair to 
neutral countries that we should have power, if we think fit, 
to make this provision applicable to British ships as well. 
There is another important provision. Under this Bill the 
Customs may call upon any exporter to prove that goods 
that had been sent out to a neutral country had not reached 
the enemy, or, at any rate, had not reached the enemy with 
his connivance or consent. There is also power for the 
Customs to detain any suspected goods ; and the last pro- 
vision in the Bill gives power to seize all goods suspected as 
coming from the enemies' countries. I think that your 
Lordships will see that this Bill is one of great importance, 
and that it is desirable to pass it at the earliest possible 
moment. Therefore I hope your Lordships will allow me not 
only to take the Second Reading to-day but to pass it through 
all its subsequent stages. 

Moved. That the Bill be now read 2a. 

(Lord Strachie.) 

The EARL OF SELBORNE : My Lords, the noble Lord who 
has introduced this Bill repeated the story which the Attorney- 
General told the House of Commons the other day. I must 
say it is the most extraordinary confession which has ever 
been put by a Government before a nation at a time of crisis. 
What is the confession ? It is that because the law was too 
weak a neutral vessel was allowed only two or three weeks 
ago to leave Swansea loaded with petrol which was known 
to be destined for German submarines that were hovering in 
the Channel. I do not care what the state of the law was. 
At the very worst the Government could have had an Act 
of Indemnity for stopping that petrol. Considering that 
Parliament has given the Government every power for which 
they have asked, I think it is an extraordinary thing that 
the Custom House authorities and the Admiralty between 
them, whatever the state of the law, should have allowed 
such a ship to leave our ports with such a cargo. 

On Question, Bill read 20. 

Committee negatived : Then (Standing Order No. XXXIX 
having been suspended) Bill read 30, and passed. 

Lord Strachie. 

[This Bill was also debated on much the same lines in the House 

179 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of Commons on March 10, but the only naval issue raised in either 
debate was that touched upon by Lord Selborne, as cited above, 
and it has not, therefore, been thought necessary to give the previous 
debate in the House of Commons.] 

PRIZE BOUNTIES 

House of Commons, March 15, 1915. 

Hansard. MR. GEORGE TERRELL asked whether the Government 

have commenced to pay prize bounty to the relatives and 
dependants of the men who have lost their lives in the recent 
naval engagements ; and, if not, when they propose to do so ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : No payment has yet been made, 
and none could be made until the Prize Court have decided 
how much shall be allowed and until certain other formalities 
have been observed. The periodic payment of prize bounty 
does not, I admit, represent so difficult a task as the periodic 
payment of prize money. And whilst I do not wish it to be 
understood that we shall necessarily wait till the end of the 
war to distribute the bounty, I must not create the impression 
that we shall find ourselves able to distribute it after each 
well-defined engagement. I sympathise with the hon. gentle- 
man's intention, and we shall do what we can to give effect 
to it, though he no doubt will admit the difficulties. 

MR. G. TERRELL asked whether, in view of the difficulty 
in destroying a submarine and of the service rendered to the 
State in doing so, and also of the number of vessels employed 
who would be entitled to participate, the Government will 
consider the advisability of increasing the prize bounty from 
5 a head to 50 a head of the crew of the submarine so 
destroyed ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The prize bounty payable is fixed by 
Act of Parliament, and an amendment of the Act would be 
necessary before any such suggestion could be entertained. 
Whilst I can give no undertaking, I will not absolutely 
dismiss the suggestion. Meanwhile, I would point out that 
the Admiralty have other means of rewarding officers and 
men for their services in time of war. 

MR. G. TERRELL asked what rewards, if any, the Govern- 
ment propose to pay to the captains and crews of merchant 
ships who have been successful in destroying enemy sub- 
marines ? 
180 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

DR. MACNAMARA : As I stated in reply to the hon. baronet, 
the Member for Mid- Armagh on Wednesday last, 1 the Admir- l [See 
alty are always ready to mark any act of daring and good P- 107.] 
seamanship, which assists the naval operations, in a fitting 
manner, but I have no further statement to make on the 
subject at present. 

MR. TERRELL : Can the right hon. gentleman say when 
he will be able to make a statement as to these rewards ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I should not like to say without notice. 

ANNOUNCEMENT OF NEWS (ADMIRALTY) 

MR. R. M'NEILL asked the First Lord of the Admiralty ibid. 
if he is aware of the inconvenience frequently caused to the 
Press by the hour at which announcements of news are issued 
from the Admiralty ; whether he will give instructions that 
when important and lengthy communications, such as the 
recent despatches of Admirals Sturdee and Beatty, are to be 
made public, the Press shall be notified as early as possible 
in the day that such communications may be expected and 
of the approximate length of such communications, and that 
the communications themselves shall reach the Press when- 
ever practicable not later than 8 P.M. ; and whether, having 
regard to the fact that many newspapers are published in 
the afternoon, he will issue communications to the Press 
before noon in all cases where news which it has been decided 
to publish is then to hand at the Admiralty, instead of adher- 
ing to the practice of keeping back such communications 
until a late hour in the evening ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : As stated in reply to other questions 
on this subject, the Admiralty desire to meet the convenience 
of the Press as much as possible in all such matters, and an 
endeavour will be made that, in the case of all lengthy dis- 
patches to be published, ample time may be allowed. 

MR. M'NEILL : Can the right hon. gentleman not arrange 
that the news should be communicated, having regard to 
the time limit required by the Press ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : We do all we can. 

MR. M'NEILL : May I call the right hon. gentleman's 
attention to that part of the question which mentions 8 P.M. 
as the latest time to receive communications ? 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

DR. MACNAMARA : The hon. gentleman will see that I 
could not give any definite undertaking. 

SIR C. KiNLOCH-CooKE : Will the right hon. gentleman 
consider the provincial Press in this matter, and see that 
they are supplied at the same time as the London Press ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I am not aware that there is any 
distinction made. 

MR. R. M'NEILL asked the First Lord of the Admiralty if 

he will explain why the news of the sinking of the S.S. Princess 

1 [See Victoria, 1 off the Bar lightship at an early hour on the gth 

p. ioo.] of March, which was known in shipping centres by 10 A.M. 

on that day, was not allowed to be published by the evening 

newspapers, but was held back by the censor until midnight ; 

and whether he will give instructions that in future the 

evening newspapers shall not be unfairly deprived of the 

opportunity of publishing important news until after their 

morning competitors of the following day ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The Admiralty cannot undertake to 
give specific reasons for their action in sending any particular 
notice to the bureau at one time rather than another, but 
their wish is to announce such losses as soon as practicable. 
To attempt to consider the jival claims of evening and morn- 
ing papers to receive such news would lead to further diffi- 
culties. 

MR. M'NEILL : Is the right hon. gentleman aware that 
the particular case mentioned in the question was known 
at a very early hour, and was held back in order that the 
evening papers should not publish it first ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : No ; I know from the question that 
this particular news was known in shipping centres by 10 A.M., 
and I assumed that at once, but I do not think the hon. 
member is entitled to say that this news was held back because 
the Admiralty thought it was undesirable that it should 
appear in the evening papers. 

PRISONERS OF WAR (HIRE OF SHIPS FOR 
INTERNMENT) 

House of Commons, March 15, 1915. 

Hansard. MR. BOWERMAN asked the First Lord of the Admiralty how 

the sum of 86,000, allotted for the maintenance of prisoners 
182 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of war interned on ships, has been apportioned ; how many 
ships have been employed ; what rent is being paid for each 
ship ; how many prisoners there are on each ship ; what is the 
cost of fitting out each ship for the accommodation of the 
prisoners ; what amount is allowed for the food supplied to 
each man ; whether any clothing or boots are given to the 
men, and, if so, the value ; and what is the cost of administra- 
tion on each ship, including the salaries of the staff employed ? 
DR. MACNAMARA : Nine ships have been utilised for the 
internment of prisoners of war. The hire of these ships 
amounts to 86,000 per month, and varies from 7000 to 
12,500 per month according to the gross tonnage. Three of 
the ships have now been taken off this service. The number 
of prisoners on board the remainder are : 



Ascania 

Scotian 

Lake Manitoba 

Saxonia 

Ivernia 

Royal Edward 



1397 
1132 
1242 
2300 

1575 

1200 



The cost of fitting each ship was about 1000 1500. The 
cost of victualling prisoners is under discussion with the owners 
of the vessels. Clothing and boots are supplied to the men as 
required. The salaries of the staff are as follows : 

One Adjutant and Quartermaster Regimental pay and 

allowances of rank, plus 35. a day extra duty pay. 
One Interpreter 3 a week. 
One Medical Officer About i6s. a day. 
One Quarter-master Sergeant 45. 6d. a day. 
One Provost Sergeant 35. 2d. a day. 
Four Civilian Clerks 245. to 305. a week. 

For every three ships, a Commandant, with regimental pay 
and allowances of rank, plus 55. a day command pay. These 
ships were taken up by the Admiralty at the request of the 
War Office, to house prisoners for whom no accommodation 
was available ashore. But, as I stated in my reply to the 
hon. Member for the Kirkdale Division of Liverpool on 
Thursday last, it is expected that by the middle of April all 
the vessels now engaged in housing alien prisoners will have 

183 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

been vacated, and the ships will then be released unless 
required for other Government services. 

[The following is the question and answer above referred to. 



PRISONERS OF WAR 

House of Commons, March n, 1915. 

MR. PENNEFATHER asked the President of the Board of Trade if 
the Government will consider the possibility of using passenger vessels 
such as those of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, which are 
now idle, for the purpose of housing German prisoners, thereby setting 
free for the ordinary purposes of commerce any cargo-carrying vessels 
which may now be employed by the Government to accommodate 
such prisoners ? 

The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE ADMIRALTY (DR. MAC- 
NAMARA) : It is expected that by the middle of April all the vessels 
now engaged in housing alien prisoners will have been vacated, and 
the ships will then be released unless required for other Government 
services.] 



BRITISH MERCHANT SHIPS DETAINED, 
CAPTURED, OR DESTROYED 

House of Commons, March 15, 1915. 

MR. HOUSTON asked the First Lord of the Admiralty 
whether he has any information showing that the British 
steamer Van Dyke, with a valuable cargo, captured by a 
German cruiser some months ago on the coast of South 
America, is now in Hamburg or other German North Sea 
port ; and, if so, can he state how she arrived there ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I have no information as to the where- 
abouts of this vessel. 

MAJOR MEYSEY-THOMPSON asked the First Lord of the 
Admiralty if he can state the total number of British merchant 
ships detained, captured, or destroyed by the enemy from the 
beginning of the present war up to date ; is the official state- 
ment that during the war with France, 1793 to 1814, there 
were 10,871 British merchant ships captured or destroyed by 
the enemy, drawn from any Admiralty or other British official 
records, or is it founded upon unofficial records derived from 
184 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

French sources ; and is there official information disproving 
the accuracy of Lloyd's Official Record, which gives the 
number of British merchant ships captured or sunk by the 
enemy during the period 1793 to 1814 as 7353 ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : The answer to the first part of the 
question is 166 up to the loth March. With regard to the 
remainder of the question, the number quoted in my statement 
in the House on the I5th February l was based on information l [See 
mainly derived from French official sources, from which it Naval 3, 
may be judged that Lloyd's figures are incomplete. 



INTERNED ENEMY STEAMERS 

MR. NEEDHAM asked the Secretary of State for the Colonies ibid. 
if he will state how many enemy steamers are interned on the 
West Coast of Africa ; and whether, in view of the fears of a 
shortage of tonnage arising from the serious disorganisation 
of outward sailings to the West Coast of Africa from this 
country, he can see his way to employ for purposes of trade 
such enemy steamers which are at present interned ? 

MR. HARCOURT : There are only two small steamers 
interned on the West Coast, and arrangements are being made 
for the employment of both of them. 



BRITISH MERCHANT VESSELS LOST 
DURING THE WAR 

The Secretary of the Admiralty communicates lists (i) of Times, 
British merchant and fishing vessels lost by hostile action March 15, 
since the outbreak of war, and (2) of British vessels reported I9I5< 
sunk by German submarines, March 4 to March 10 
inclusive : 

WEEK BY WEEK SUMMARY 

The following list shows the number of British merchant 
vessels lost by hostile action in each week since the outbreak 
of the war, the column within parentheses showing the total 

185 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

arrival and sailings of oversea steamers (over 300 tons net) 
of all nationalities to and from United Kingdom ports : 





By 




By 








Enemy 


By 


Sub- 




Gross 




Cruisers. 


Mines. 


marines. 


Total. 


Tonnage. 


Aug. 12 (801) 


I 








I 


6,800 


Aug. 19 (985) . 


4 








4 


18,861 


Aug. 26 (1260) . 


i 








i 


4,233 


Sept. 2 (1274) . 


i 








i 


4,336 


Sept. 9 (1297) . 


2 


I 





3 


8,863 


Sept. 16 (1120) . 


8 





' 


8 


41,136 


Sept. 23 (1228) . 


3 








3 


13,339 


Sept. 30 (1223) 


7 


I 





8 


29,254 


Oct. 7(1328) . 


3 








3 


16,931 


Oct. 14 (1340) . 


3 








3 


12,096 


Oct. 21 (1416) . 


6 


I 


I 


8 


25,5o8 


Oct. 28 (1374) . 


2 


I 





3 


I 8,443 


Nov. 4 (1237) 















Nov. ii (1354) . 

















Nov. 18 (1227) 


I 








i 


3,691 


Nov. 25 (1130) . 








I 


i 


718 


Dec. 2 (1295) . 


I 


I 


I 


3 


6,230 


Dec. 9 (1217) . 


2 








2 


8,881 


Dec. 16 (1526) . 


I 


2 





3 


4,010 


Dec. 23 (1294) . 





I 





i 


4,272 


Dec. 30 (1329) . 


I 


2 





3 


7,028 


Jan. 6 (1180) . 
















Jan. 13 (1355) . 


I 


I 





2 


7,43 


Jan. 20 (1584) . 


2 








2 


7,885 


COMMENCEMENT OF SUBMARINE ATTACKS 


ON MERCHANT VESSELS 


Jan. 27 (1503) . 








i 


I 


1,301 


Feb. 3 (1420) . 








6 


6 


15,825 


Feb. 10 (1418) . 
















Feb. 17 (1438) . 


I 





i 


2 


4,7io 


COMMENCEMENT OF 


SUBMARINE 


' BLOCKADE ' 


(Feb. 18) 




Feb. 24 (1381) . 


2 


i 


7 


10 


26,941 


Mar. 3 (1474) . 


I 







i 


1,694 


Mar. 10 (1557) . 








4 


4 





186 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

FISHING VESSELS 

The following table, complementary to that given above, 
shows the total number of British fishing vessels sunk or 
captured since the outbreak of the war : 

By Vessels 

Week of all By Gross 

ending. Classes. Mines. Tonnage. 

Aug. 12 . . .1 227 

Aug. 19 . . . 

Aug. 26 . . .24 4141 

Sept. 2 ... 3 336 

Sept. 9 ... 2 425 

Sept. 16 . . 

Sept. 23 ... 2 341 

Sept. 30 ... 

Oct. 7 ... 

Oct. 14 . . 

Oct. 21 . . . 

Oct. 28 . . . 

Nov. 4 ... 5 583 

Nov. ii ... i 60 

Nov. 18 i 50 

Nov. 25 ... i 50 

Dec. 2 . . . 

Dec. 9 ... 

Dec. 16 . . . 3 294 

Dec. 23 ... i 260 

Dec. 30 . . . 

Jan. 6 ... 

Jan. 13 . . . - 

Jan. 20 . 4 ., . 

COMMENCEMENT OF SUBMARINE ATTACKS ON MERCHANT VESSELS 
Jan. 27 . . . - _2 222 { 

Feb. ii . . . 

Feb. 17 ... 

COMMENCEMENT OF SUBMARINE ' BLOCKADE ' (Feb. 18) 

Feb. 24 . 

Mar. 3 I 289 

Mar. 10 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



A WEEK'S LOSSES 

List of British vessels reported to have been sunk by 
German submarines from March 4 to March 10 inclusive : 

Date. Ships. Tons. Position. Lives Lost. 

Mar. 7. Bengrove . . 3839 Off Ilfracombe 

Mar. 9. Tangistan . . 3738 Off Scarborough 37 

Mar. 9. Blackwood . . 1230 Off Hastings 

Mar. 9. Princess Victoria . 1108 Off Liverpool 

SEVEN MERCHANT VESSELS ATTACKED 

Times, The Secretary of the Admiralty announces that since 

March 15, Wednesday last [March 10] the following British merchant 
I 9 I 5- ships have been attacked by enemy submarines : 

NOT SUNK 

British steamship Adenwen, 3798 tons, owned by Messrs. 
W. and C. T. Jones Steamship Company (Limited), Cardiff, 
was torpedoed on March n, at 7 A.M., in the English Channel, 
and has since been towed into Cherbourg. The crew have 
been landed at Brixham. 

SINKING NOT YET CONFIRMED 

British steamship Florazan, 4658 tons, owned by the 
Liverpool Shipping Company (Limited) (Messrs. H. Vernie 
and Sons), Liverpool, was torpedoed on March n, at 9.20 P.M., 
at the mouth of the Bristol Channel. The crew have been 
landed at Milford Haven with the exception of one fireman. 

NOT SUNK 

British steamship Headlands, 2988 tons, owned by the 
Sefton Steamship Company (Limited) (Messrs. H. E. Moss 
and Co.), Liverpool, was torpedoed on March 13, off the 
Scillys. Crew reported saved. 

SUNK 

British steamship Indian City, 4645 tons, owned by the 
Instow Steamship Company (Limited) (Messrs. W. R. Smith 
188 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

and Sons), Cardiff, was torpedoed on March 12, off the Sallys. 
Crew reported saved. 

SINKING NOT CONFIRMED 

British steamship Andalusian, 2350 tons, owned by the 
Ellerman Lines (Limited), ' Liverpool, was attacked on 
March 12, off the Scillys. Crew reported saved. 

SUNK. 

British steamship Invergyle, 1794 tons, owned by Messrs. 
Stewart and Gray, Glasgow, was torpedoed March 13, at 
9.25 A.M., off Cresswell. The crew have all been saved. 

NOT SUNK. 

British steamship Hartdale, 3839 tons, owned by Messrs. 
Trechmann Bros., West Hartlepool, was torpedoed at 6 A.M., 
March 13, off South Rock, Irish Channel. Twenty-nine of 
the crew of thirty-one were picked up by the Swedish steam- 
ship Heindal and landed at Bangor ; the remaining two lives 
are lost. 



SWEDISH STEAMER SEIZED BY GERMANS 

Copenhagen, March 15. 

A telegram from Helsingborg states that the steamer Times, 
Gloria, of Helsingborg, has been captured by the Germans March 16, 
and brought to Swinemiinde. The vessel was on her way I 9 I 5- 
from La Plata to Stockholm, laden with maize. Renter. 



PETROL AND GERMAN SUBMARINES 

House of Lords, March 16, 1915. 

LORD CHARNWOOD : My Lords, I beg to ask the Govern- Hansard. 
ment a question of which I have given private notice 
namely, whether the neutral vessel which was yesterday 1 i [See 
stated in this House to have taken on board at Swansea p. 178.] 
stores of petrol presumably intended for the use of German 
submarines was allowed to leave the port with those stores ? 

The FIRST COMMISSIONER OF WORKS (LORD EMMOTT) : I 
may inform the House that the Dutch vessel Theodora left 

189 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Swansea on January 9 after shipping ninety cases of petrol. 
The shippers were prosecuted for shipping petrol without 
giving notice, and were fined five shillings. The Admiralty 
are satisfied in regard to this case that the petrol was not 
intended for the use of enemy submarines. 

FRANCE (BRITISH NAVAL SUPPORT) 

House of Commons, March 16, 1915. 

Hansard. MR. OuTHWAiTE asked at what time the decision of the 

Cabinet to give naval support to France was conveyed to 
the French Ambassador at London on 2nd August ; and 
whether he can state at what time on the same day the 
demand of the German Government for a passage-way through 
Belgium was presented at Brussels ? 

SIR E. GREY : I cannot at this distance of time say pre- 
cisely at what hours various communications were made, 
unless they were stated or recorded in the papers at the 
time. In any case there is no connection between the two 
points, since, as the White Paper clearly shows, the German 
Government were asked by His Majesty's Government 
whether they would respect the neutrality of Belgium so 
long as no other Power violated it, and declined to give an 
answer, a considerable time before the question of naval 
support to France was even discussed. 

MR. OUTHWAITE : Is it not a fact that the demand made 
by the German Government on Belgium was the first indica- 
tion of Germany's intended action ? 

SIR E. GREY : It certainly was an indication. The first 
indication of Germany's intended action was that we addressed 
a request simultaneously to the French and German Govern- 
ments some time they are both reported in the docu- 
ments in the preceding week. The French Government at 
once replied in the affirmative that they would respect the 
neutrality of Belgium, but the German Government said 
they could not give an answer. 

MR. KING : Is any record kept at the Foreign Office of 
the exact hour when telegraphic communications are sent off ? 

SIR E. GREY : Of telegrams, yes ; but if I make a com- 
munication to an Ambassador the date but not the hour is 
recorded. 
190 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



ROYAL NAVAL DIVISION 

LORD C. BERESFORD asked the First Lord of the Admiralty ibid. 
whether he will consider the possibility of reserving some com- 
missions in the Royal Naval Division for qualified non-com- 
missioned officers of the Royal Marine forces ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : There have been eight commissions 
given as quartermasters in the Royal Naval Division, and 
four combatant commissions for service with the Naval 
battalions. In the Royal Marine Brigade fifteen combatant 
commissions have been granted, and four commissions as 
quartermaster. 

REPORTED ESCAPE OF INTERNED GERMAN 

LINER 

Las P almas, March 16. 

The German liner Macedonia, which acted as collier and Times, 
supply ship to the German commerce destroyers in the Atlantic, March 17, 
and which was brought here in October by the Spanish war- 
ship Cataluna, has disappeared. She took advantage of the 
absence of the guard warship and left before dawn this morning. 
Her departure has caused a sensation. Renter. 



Madrid, March 23. 

A Reuter telegram from Las Palmas, dated March 16, Times, 
stated that the German liner Macedonia had disappeared, March 24, 
having taken advantage of the absence of the guardship, and 
departed before dawn. I now learn that the statement is 
inaccurate and that the Macedonia is still in port. 



The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following Times, 
announcement : May i, 

The German steamship Macedonia, which escaped from I 9 I 5- 
Las Palmas, Canary Islands, a few weeks ago, has now been 
captured by one of our cruisers. 



191 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ANOTHER ATTEMPTED ESCAPE OF AN 
INTERNED LINER 

New York, March 21. 

Times, A telegram from San Juan, Puerto Rico, states that the 

March 23, Hamburg- Amerika steamer Odenwald, which has been there 

since August, made an attempt to steal out to sea. The guns 

of the forts fired blank cartridge across her bows, but the 

steamer continued on her course until live shells were fired. 

She then returned, and was seized by the Customs authorities. 

The vessel was arrested under the congressional resolution, 

empowering the President to prevent supplies being sent from 

American ports to ships of belligerents at sea. Renter. 



Washington, March 22. 

ibid. The view is held in official quarters here that, if the 

Odenwald had succeeded in getting out to sea, she might have 
transferred stores to the Kronprinz Wilhelm, which was 
recently reported off the east coast of South America, while, 
according to a still later rumour, she was stated to be not far 
from Puerto Rico. 

The specific charge made by the Customs authorities 
against the Odenwald is that she attempted to leave port 
without clearing. Renter. 

DIPLOMATIC CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO 
THE ODENWALD 

The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State 
(Translation) 

German Embassy, 
Washington, April i, 1915. 

U.S.D.C. MR. SECRETARY OF STATE : On the i8th of last month the 

German steamer Odenwald lying in the port of San Juan de 
Porto Rico applied for clearance for Hamburg. The Collector 
of Customs then declared that he had to inquire of Washington 
whether the steamer could be cleared. On the igth the 
steamer was subjected to a thorough search, alleged to have 
been ordered from Washington. The search, according to 
the statement of the Collector of Customs, proved satisfactory 
192 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

in every respect. The ship's cargo consisted of 1500 tons of 
coal and provisions. On the 2Oth of March the same official 
again conducted another strict inspection. Clearance papers 
were nevertheless again refused as they had been the day 
before on the plea that no answer had yet come from 
Washington. The Collector of Customs, urged by the agent 
of the Hamburg- American Line, promised, however, to send 
an urgent telegram that night to Washington. 

Again on the next day (March 21) the ship's captain 
waited in vain for a final decision. Thus he decided to put 
to sea without clearance papers. The captain, so he asserts, 
found himself in a critical situation, as further delay made the 
danger of enemy cruisers gathering worse every day. With 
that situation he tried to deal fairly in taking the course he 
did. 

Just before passing Buoys H C and Co the ship met with a 
brisk machine-gun fire from Morro Castle. A few minutes 
later a solid cannon shot struck the water a short distance 
in front of the ship's bow, raising a column of water from 10 
to 12 feet high. The engine was immediately stopped and 
backed at full speed. The forward motion of the ship ceased 
at once, in spite of which she was fired upon about three minutes 
longer ; marks of the bullets can be plainly seen in various 
places of the ship and hall. It was only through luck that no 
human life was lost in that onslaught. 

A few affidavits x fully describing the occurrence are re- 
spectfully enclosed with a request that they be returned. 

I have the honour to beg your Excellency kindly to let me 
know why her papers were not delivered to the Odenwald 
though in the opinion of the harbour officials after two thorough 
searches of the ship they had no ground upon which to refuse 
the said papers. Finally, I am unable to conceal from your 
Excellency that the reckless action of the harbour authorities 
in opening fire on the steamer without warning does not seem 
to me to have been justified by the circumstances of the case. 
It could hardly be the intention of the American Government 
to endanger, without imperative cause, the lives of a ship's 
crew for the mere sake of insuring orderly traffic in the harbour. 
Accept, etc., J. BERNSTORFF. 

1 Not printed. 

NAVAL 4 N 193 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador. 

Department of State, 
Washington, May 3, 1915. 

EXCELLENCY : I have the honour to acknowledge the 
receipt of your Excellency's note of April i last in relation to 
the refusal of the United States Collector of Customs at San 
Juan, Porto Rico, to clear the German steamer Odenwald 
for Hamburg with a cargo of 1500 tons of coal and provisions. 
Your Excellency reviews certain circumstances connected 
with this incident, and states that after two thorough searches 
of the vessel, application for clearance was denied by the 
collector on the plea that he had as yet received no instructions 
from Washington authorising clearance and that the captain 
finally decided to put to sea without clearance papers, as 
further delay would cause increased danger from enemy 
cruisers which were gathering off the port. 

Your Excellency further states that as the ship was leaving 
the harbour on the afternoon of Sunday, March 21, she ' met 
with a brisk machine-gun fire from Morro Castle. A few 
minutes later a solid cannon shot struck the water a short 
distance in front of the ship's bow, raising a column of water 
from ten to twelve feet high. The engine was immediately 
stopped and backed at full speed. The forward motion of the 
ship ceased at once, in spite of which she was fired upon about 
three minutes longer. Marks of the bullets can be plainly 
seen in various places of the ship and hull. It was only 
through luck that no human life was lost in that onslaught/ 

The foregoing statements are based on affidavits by the 
German Consul in Porto Rico, the captain of the Odenwald, 
the first officer, the third officer, and the chief engineer, which 
you enclosed. 

Your Excellency requests to be advised as to why the 
Odenwald's clearance papers were refused, though in the 
opinion of the harbour officials, after two thorough inspections 
of the vessel, there was no ground upon which to decline to 
issue the papers, and your Excellency declares that ' the 
reckless action of the harbour authorities in opening fire on 
the steamer without warning ' does not seem to you to have 
been ' justified by the circumstances of the case, as it could 
hardly be the intention of the American Government to 
194 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

endanger, without imperative cause, the lives of a ship's crew 
for the mere sake of insuring orderly traffic in the harbour.' 

In reply I have the honour to state that upon the report 
to this Government by the authorities at San Juan of certain 
circumstances surrounding the preparation of the Odenwald 
for sea an investigation was immediately instituted. Until 
the investigation was concluded and acted upon at Washington 
the authorities at San Juan were instructed to decline to issue 
clearance papers to the Odenwald. While this investigation 
was pending, and while the Collector of Customs at San Juan 
was acting under these instructions, the captain of the Odenwald 
reached the determination that he would depart without 
authorised clearance and in open violation of the customs laws 
of the United States. Circumstances, which it does not seem 
necessary to relate here, have shown that the suspicions as to 
the bona fides of the application for clearance, which had been 
aroused by the preparations for sailing by the officers of the 
Odenwald, acting in conjunction with the officers of the 
German steamer President, lying in the same harbour, were 
well founded, and that this Government and its officers at 
San Juan were justified in the course which they took in de- 
ferring the clearance of the Odenwald. Irrespective of the 
substantial grounds for the suspicions of the port officials at 
San Juan, the fact remains that the Odenwald in her endeavour 
to leave port on March 21 last without papers committed a 
wilful breach of the navigation laws of the United States, 
because of which judicial proceedings have been brought by 
the United States against the vessel and the persons concerned 
in her illegal conduct which made it necessary for the United 
States authorities to employ force to prevent her unauthorised 
departure on a mission which this Government felt at the 
time might constitute a breach of the neutrality of the United 
States and result in a possible claim for lack of due diligence 
on the part of this Government in performing its neutral 
duties. 

As to the assertion that the reckless action of the port 
authorities in their exercise of force endangered human lives 
on board the Odenwald, I have the honour to inform your 
Excellency that this Government has had instituted a thorough 
and searching investigation into the circumstances of the 
attempted sailing and arrest of the Odenwald on March 21. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The result of this investigation, which is supported by the 
statements and affidavits of the officers of the customs, as 
well as of the military officers in charge of the defences of the 
port, establish the following facts : 

On March 19, at a conference between the Collector of 
Customs, Colonel Burnham, United States Army, the German 
Consul, the captain of the Odenwald, and others, the captain of 
the vessel was informed by Colonel Burnham that the latter 
would use whatever force was necessary in order to prevent 
the Odenwald from leaving port without the necessary custom- 
house clearance, and that he would go to the length of using 
the guns of his command in the forts for this purpose. 

On March 20, at another conference between the same 
persons, a similar statement was made to the captain of the 
Odenwald, and it was arranged to place an armed party on 
board the vessel, unless the captain, the vessel's agents, and the 
German Consul would give assurances that no attempt would 
be made to leave without proper papers. Promises were 
given not to leave during the night of March 20-21. Never- 
theless, it was discovered in the early morning hours of the 
2 ist that officers from the German steamer President had 
boarded the Odenwald, and that the machinery of the Odenwald 
was being put in motion. - The port authorities thereupon 
again notified the chief officer of the Odenwald not to depart 
without clearance papers, warning him that the vessel would 
be closely watched and would be stopped by force if 
necessary. 

On March 21, at about 3 P.M., the Odenwald raised anchor 
and started her engines. The customs officer on board the 
vessel at the time was told by the captain that if he desired 
to go ashore he could take the sail boat of the steamer President, 
which was at the gangway. The Odenwald had moved ahead 
about five lengths when the customs officer notified the captain 
that the vessel could not leave port without clearance papers. 
Notwithstanding this notice the vessel continued in motion, 
and the officer was under the necessity of leaving the ship 
while she was under way. 

As she passed San Augustin Bastion, 500 feet from Morro 
Castle, Captain Wood, United States Army, who was there 
stationed with a machine gun, hailed the vessel several times 
and ordered her to stop, in circumstances which made it 
196 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

impossible for the officers of the vessel not to have heard the 
order. The Odenwald nevertheless continued on her course, 
whereupon about seventy-five shots were fired from the 
machine gun mounted on the bastion. These shots were aimed 
and fell a considerable distance in front and short of the 
Odenwald. In order not to endanger craft which appeared 
ahead of the Odenwald as she proceeded, fifteen shots were 
fired from the machine gun, which fell off the stern of the 
vessel. Although these were small solid shots, they were 
used as a warning, because it is not possible to use blank 
cartridges in a machine gun. The machine gun was not 
aimed at the Odenwald, nor did any of the shots strike the 
vessel. Any marks on the Odenwald 's hull, which is old and 
scarred through many months of sea service, were made by 
other causes than by machine-gun bullets striking the vessel, 
according to the proofs laid before this Government. 

The Odenwald did not heed this warning or slacken her 
speed. Thereupon a 4. 7-inch gun on the Morro Castle was 
aimed and fired under the personal direction of Colonel 
Burnham. The shot struck at least 300 yards in front of the 
Odenwald and short of her projected course. The vessel then 
stopped, and was taken back to her anchorage under the 
direction of a pilot. No machine-gun shots could have been 
fired from Morro Castle, as no machine guns are mounted at 
that fort. 

It will be observed that six distinct warnings were given 
to the captain of the Odenwald that force would be used in 
case he attempted to leave the harbour without the clearance 
papers required by law, namely, at the conferences on March 
19 and March 20, twice by the customs officers on board the 
vessel on March 21, by the orders of Captain Wood from the 
bastion, and by the shots from his machine gun. None of 
these warnings was heeded by the captain, who persisted in 
his determination to leave port in violation of the laws of 
the United States, until the warning shot from Morro Castle 
induced him to obey the regulations of the port. 

Your Excellency will perceive from the foregoing statement 
of facts that the United States authorities at San Juan in 
the performance of their duties avoided any act endangering 
the safety of the vessel and the lives of the persons on board, 
and exercised no greater force than was necessary to prevent 

197 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the illegal departure of the Odenwald from the port of San 
Juan. 

I have the honour, in accordance with your Excellency's 
request, to return herewith the affidavits transmitted with 
your note under acknowledgment. Accept, etc., 

W. J. BRYAN. 

DUTCH SHIPS SEIZED BY GERMANS 

Amsterdam, March 21. 

Times, The Dutch steamers Batavier V. and Zaanstroom have been 

March 22, seized at sea by the Germans and taken into Zeebrugge. 
I 9 I 5- The arrest of the Batavier V. has excited the greatest 

attention in the Netherlands, where public opinion universally 
condemns the action. The Telegraaf says that Government, 
trade, and shipping circles are greatly put out by the taking 
of this steamer and the Zaanstroom. Competent persons ask, 
says the Telegraaf, why, now that negotiations have led to 
German goods destined for Dutch colonies not being detained 
by the Entente Powers, does Germany pursue this policy by 
which Dutch trade is very seriously hampered. It will be 
difficult to explain this away. The result will be that all 
traffic will be discontinued ^between Holland and Germany, 
unless the protest made by Holland is yielded to by Germany. 
On board the Batavier was a Belgian lady with her son of 
sixteen years. This lady was going to visit her husband, an 
officer fighting in France, who was about to take a brief 
holiday in England. The lady had been five months in 
Holland and went with the intention of living in England. 
She stated that the passengers were awakened at 8 o'clock 
on Thursday morning (March 18), and were told that a sub- 
marine had seized the ship. She went on deck with fifty 
passengers and saw U 28 alongside. Some officers and men 
came aboard the Batavier, and assumed command of the boat 
and took her to Zeebrugge. 

Before they entered Zeebrugge port every one was ordered 
to leave the deck and was confined to the cabins, the windows 
of which were closed and no one was allowed to look out. 
The Germans brought the ship into the inner harbour, where 
the passengers remained two full days, no one being allowed 
to go on deck or to look out of the windows. The passengers, 
198 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

who included many Americans and Belgians, were prisoners. 
After that a train was brought alongside the quay and the 
passengers had to leave the ship and go to Ghent. 

While they were proceeding from the boat to the train 
they saw three or more German waterplanes on the water in 
the harbour, also the submarine which brought them to 
Zeebrugge and many soldiers. The windows of the train to 
Ghent were closed, the passengers not being allowed to look 
out. At Ghent all the Belgians over sixteen were taken 
prisoners, including two priests. The remainder of the pas- 
sengers were taken to Terneuzen and stayed there the night. 
The German engine left at the frontier, and the passengers 
travelled in the same train from Zeebrugge to Terneuzen. 
During the two days they were imprisoned in the ship they 
had no warm food, and they lived on eggs and cakes and 
chocolate provided by the steward from the ship's stores. 

The Germans hoisted the German war flag on the Zaan- 
stroom and the Batavier V. on Saturday. Sixteen of the crew 
of the Zaanstroom arrived to-day at Amsterdam. They state 
that the crew consisted of twenty-four and that the captain 
and eight men are detained aboard as prisoners of war. The 
crew do not complain of the treatment. They said that the 
Germans were kind to them and brought 20 kilogrammes of 
black bread for them, their supplies being exhausted. 

* # * The Batavier V. left Rotterdam on Thursday for London with 
a general cargo and meat. The Zaanstroom was bound from Amsterdam 
for London with eggs and a general cargo. 



Amsterdam, March 22. 

The extraordinary action of the Germans against Dutch Times, 
shipping continues to absorb public attention. The news- March 23, 
papers publish strong comments protesting against the violence I 9 I 5- 
thus offered to neutral vessels. 

The Government awaits confirmation of the facts reported 
in regard to the Zaanstroom, Batavier V., and Zevenbergen, 
but in well-informed circles it is recognised that, if the incidents 
occurred as the newspapers state, the situation assumes a 
very serious character. 

The Dutch are unable to comprehend why the Germans 
should have suddenly adopted such provocative measures, 

199 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

and further developments are awaited with the keenest in- 
terest, but without alarm. 

Further details communicated by the Zevenbergen make 
it clear that it was a Taube which threw the bombs at her, 
after which the aeroplane followed white-funnelled English 
steamers from Leith, at which she had previously thrown 
bombs. 

When bombs were aimed at the Zevenbergen she was about 
five miles west of the Nordhinder. When the Zevenbergen 
was lying with a number of other ships in the Downs at mid- 
day on Saturday she saw an aeroplane throw bombs, but was 
unable to observe whether any took effect. The Zevenbergen 
also reported that at midday on Thursday last, near the 
Royal Sovereign lightship, she saw two boats, one with 
fourteen and the other with eight men. She steamed towards 
them to render assistance, but an English torpedo-boat 
arrived, picked up the men, and let the boats drift. 

The report adds that it was noticed that the merchantmen 
above mentioned, which were followed by the aeroplane, fired 
on it. 

Amsterdam, March 22. 

The Zevenbergen was showing three flags indicating her 
nationality on the masts, two Dutch flags on the bridge, and 
three spread out on the deck, when the Taube attacked her. 
The first bomb thrown fell into the water about 40 feet to 
starboard of the steamer, and exploded. The second fell some 
8 yards ahead of the ship, and exploded before reaching 
the water. The crew were greatly excited by the incident, 
and hastened to paint on the deck of the steamer the words 
' Zevenbergen, Rotterdam, Holland/ 

The Naval Commander of Amsterdam has been instructed 
to make an official investigation into the incident. 

According to information received from shipping circles, 
several steamship companies have petitioned the Dutch 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs for explanations regarding the 
arrest of the Zaanstroom and the Batavier V. This step has 
been taken owing to the uncertainty prevailing in shipping 
circles regarding the reasons for these seizures. 

The directors of the company owning the Zaanstroom 
have had an interview with the Minister for Foreign Affairs 
200 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

at The Hague. It is still unknown whether the German 
Government will confiscate food stuffs destined for private 
persons in England, or whether they will reimburse the value 
to the company. 

The steamers Ystroom and Rijnstroom have left for England 
since the incident. 

It is rumoured that the steamer Eemstroom, of the same 
company, which left on Wednesday for Hull, has also been 
stopped in the North Sea by a German submarine. The 
Eemstroom had only a small quantity of food stuffs aboard. 
Details are still lacking. Renter. 

* # * The German wireless news circulated from Berlin under 
yesterday's date states that ' the Dutch steamers Batavier and Zaan- 
stroom, bound for London, have been brought to Zeebrugge by a 
German submarine as prizes/ 



Rotterdam, March 22. 

Since Saturday evening thirty steamers of different 
nationalities have arrived here. The British steamer Elfland, 
under charter to the Belgian Relief Committee, was the only 
one attacked by a German aeroplane. The bombs dropped 
did no damage. 

During the same period twenty-one steamers of different 
flags left the waterway, thus proving that German action 
against navigation to and from Dutch ports has, so far, had 
no influence on traffic. Renter. 

*** The British steamer Elfland left Bahia Blanca for Rotterdam 
with a cargo of grain. 



Amsterdam, March 24. 

The tension occasioned by the arbitrary German action Times, 
against the Batavier V. and the Zaanstroom is as yet unre- March 25, 
lieved. It is supposed that these vessels will be retained and I 9 I 5- 
brought before the German Prize Court. This supposition is 
based on the confiscation of provisions, which, apparently, 
are considered contraband by the German Government, the 

201 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

substitution of the German war flag for the Dutch flag, and 
the dismissal of the major part of the crews. 

It would seem that the Germans are likely to attempt to 
justify their action by an appeal to the consideration that 
the greater part of the cargo consisted of contraband. If 
this position should be assumed, it is considered that it would 
be untenable, having regard to the fact that there is nothing 
in the German declarations of February 2 and 4 which gave 
the least notice that provisions destined for England would 
be regarded as conditional contraband. The appeal to the 
Declaration of London by the Germans would carry no 
weight, seeing that the Declaration was not agreed to by all 
the parties interested, and, therefore, is entirely worthless. 
Moreover, it is important to remember that when the Entente 
Powers have taken action, they have restricted themselves to 
confiscating the contraband on board while letting the ships 
go free. 

It is evident from the foregoing that the situation remains 
serious. The Telegraaf, while expressing this view, adds that 
it is the one generally accepted in the Netherlands. Foreign 
countries, it says, would do well not to be misled by the calm 
bearing of the Dutch. If opinion does not openly declare 
itself, it is because it is desired to leave the Government full 
freedom in regard to the decisions which it judges necessary 
and which may be speedily awaited. 



The Hague, March 24. 

It is semi-officially announced that, up to noon to-day, 
the Foreign Office has received no reply to the questions 
addressed by the Dutch Minister in Berlin to the German 
Government in regard to the Zaanstroom and Batavier. 



Amsterdam, March 30. 

Times, The Telegraaf learns to-night that ten men of the Zaanstroom 

March 31, anc j e i even men o f the Batavier V., including the captains of 

both vessels, have arrived at Terneuzen, having been liberated. 

They say that they were well treated by the Germans, who 

state that both vessels must come before the Prize Court. 



202 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



DANISH CARGO CONFISCATED 

Copenhagen, March 22. 

The Danish steamer Bryssel, which was arrested by a Times, 
German torpedo-boat and brought to Swinemiinde, has now March 23, 
been released and has arrived at Copenhagen. Her cargo of I 9 I 5- 
motor oil, destined for Sweden, was, however, retained in 
Germany. Renter. 



THE KARLSRUHE BELIEVED SUNK 

The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following Times, 
announcement : March 20, 

There is every reason to believe that the Karlsruhe was I 9 I 5- 
sunk in the neighbourhood of the West Indies at the begin- 
ning of November, and that those of the crew who were 
rescued reached Germany in the steamship Rio Grande, which 
had been acting in concert with the Karlsruhe, early in 
December. 

RUSSIAN TROOPS AT MEMEL 

An official German statement sent from Amsterdam early Times, 
yesterday morning asserted that rumours of a fresh occupa- March 20, 
tion of parts of the province of East Prussia by Russians were I 9 I 5- 
untrue, and that the German line in the Eastern theatre of 
war ran from beginning to end on hostile territory. The 
official communique issued in Berlin later in the day, however, 
corrected this statement : 

' The situation near Memel, in Northern Prussia, is not yet 
cleared. Russian forces, apparently of weak strength, have 
entered Memel. Counter-measures have been taken/ 



Petrograd, March 21. 

The German tales of ' frightfulness ' during the Russian Times, 
occupation of Memel are circumstantially disproved by the March 22, 
official reports. We neither imitated German methods nor I 9 I 5- 

203 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

resorted to reprisals. The panic-stricken garrison of the 
Landsturm disbanded, and the whole population began sniping 
our troops. Last autumn, during General Rennenkampf 's re- 
tirement, the inhabitants of Tilsit, who had been treated by 
him with the utmost kindness and consideration, fusilladed our 
marching columns. This bitter experience taught our officers 
that the townfolk of East Prussia are unable to appreciate 
leniency. 

The commander of the troops who occupied Memel had, 
therefore, to choose between sacrificing his men or removing 
the treacherous burgesses. Naturally he chose the latter. 
Suitable quarters were provided for them along the sea front. 
Here they impatiently await the appearance of their warships, 
and transports are in the offing beyond the shoals of the 
Kurische Haff. The swamps around Memel make rescue 
impossible except from the sea, and landing is practicable 
only on the deserted coast north of the city. The troops who 
were driven across the Niemen beyond the German border 
facing Tauroggen cannot be utilised for this purpose. 

In the opinion of experts at least a division must be landed 
to do any good. The attraction of some German forces to 
the north has been the sole motive of the Russian move. 
Hitherto we left the city alone simply because we did not 
believe in ' frightfulness ' as a factor in success in war. 



Petrograd, March 20. 

A statement issued by the General Staff says : 
The communique issued by the German General Staff on 
Friday regarding the advance of the Russian troops towards 
Memel contained a threat of reprisals against Russian towns 
and villages occupied by the enemy for losses which might be 
sustained by the population of the region of Memel. 

The Russian General Staff points out that Memel was 
defended by the armed forces of the enemy and that fighting 
occurred in the streets. The civil population having partici- 
pated in the fighting, our troops were obliged to take the 
necessary measures. Therefore, if the German troops carry 
out the threats against the peaceful inhabitants of the Russian 
districts which they occupy, the moral responsibility will lie 
with them. Reuter. 
204 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Petrograd, March 20. 
An official communique issued here to-day says : 

THE NIEMEN. On the right bank of the Niemen the 
Germans, after the fight at Tauroggen, have been forced 
beyond the frontier. 

Another Russian detachment, displaying an impetuous 
offensive, reached Memel at 8 o'clock on Thursday evening, 
and, after street fighting in which the inhabitants took part, 
captured the town. 

On the left bank of the Niemen the enemy, during the 
fighting of the last few days, has been compelled to evacuate 
the township of Pilwiszki and the region east of the line 
Ozero-Dusia-Kopciowo. 



Petrograd, March 21. 
The following communique is issued here : 

Our troops reached Memel on Thursday evening after Times, 
crossing the frontier near Gorshdy and beating the German March 22, 
forces, capturing some machine guns and motor-cars laden I 9 I 5- 
with stores. Memel was defended by two regiments of the 
Landsturm, which, after being driven back, mingled With the 
population. 

When our troops entered the town at 8 P.M., they were 
received with fire from the houses and from behind barricades. 
The civil population, as well as the troops, took part in the 
fighting. Our troops were then withdrawn from Memel, 
which was subjected to a short bombardment. 

Our shells put an end to the resistance of the enemy, 
and the town was evacuated, the inhabitants fleeing towards 
Konigsberg along the narrow neck of land which separates 
the Kurische Haff from the Baltic Sea. 



Amsterdam, March 22. 
The German Main Headquarters reports : 
After short fighting south of the town and obstinate street Times, 
fighting, the Russians were yesterday driven out of Memel. March 23, 

Renter. 

205 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Times, 
March 24, 



Petrograd, March 23. 

A despatch from the Headquarters of the Commander-in- 
Chief says : 

MEMEL. Our detachment, which carried out a recon- 
naissance towards Memel, has fallen back on our territory. 



Petrograd, March 25. 

Times, An official communique issued to-day states : 

j Throughout the day of the 23rd a German squadron, con- 

sisting of seven battleships and twenty-eight torpedo-boats, 
cruised off the Courland coast near Polangen and fired on the 
coast villages. 

At six o'clock they disappeared. Reuter. 



Amsterdam, March 25. 

The following official review of events at and near Memel 
was issued from the German Main Headquarters in Berlin 
to-day : 

On March 18 the Russians advanced towards Memel in 
several columns from the north and east, numbering between 
6000 and 10,000 men, infantry, cavalry, and marines, with 
six to eight old guns. A small force of German Landsturm 
retreated from the frontier towards Memel, and later across the 
bay to the neck of land known as the Kurische Nehrung. As 
they advanced the Russians burnt numerous buildings and 
barns at Nimmersatt and Laugallen, and damaged altogether 
fifteen villages. 

In the evening of March 18 the Russians entered Memel. 
The following evening the Russian Commander appeared at 
the Town Hall and ordered the Mayor to hand over three 
citizens as hostages. On March 20, in the morning, there 
were only Russian patrols in the streets. In the evening the 
majority of the Russians left Memel. Next morning strong 
Russian forces again entered the town from the north, but 
they then met German patrols followed by strong German 
forces from the south, who vigorously attacked the enemy 
and chased him out of the town. In the severe street fighting 
206 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

which took place the Russians lost some 150 killed. Our 
losses were small. 

The Russians fled, taking with them the hostages, but 
the car on which the hostages were transported broke down, 
the escort fled, and the hostages returned to Memel. The 
German soldiers pursued the Russians. 

When marching through Polangen the Russians suffered 
severely through the gunfire from German cruisers. Five 
hundred Russians, three cannons, and three machine guns 
were captured. The Russian enterprise against Memel 
assumed the character of a raid, and a similar raid was appa- 
rently planned also against Tilsit. 

Prince Joachim, youngest son of the Emperor William, 
was with the troops who liberated Memel. Renter. 

* # * Nimmersatt is 12 miles north of Memel on the coast near 
Polangen, and Laugallen is east of Memel close to the frontier, near 
Gursden. 



Berlin. 

During the actions north of Memel our sea forces supported K.V., 
the operations from the sea. At the same time the village and Marc h 2 4> 
castle of Polangen were shelled on March 23 in the forenoon, and 
in the course of the day the road Polangen-Libau was kept 
under fire. 



ZEPPELIN RAID ON PARIS, AND FRENCH REPLY 

Paris, March 21. 

The official announcement regarding last night's visit by Times, 
Zeppelins is as follows : March 22, 

Between 1.15 and 3 o'clock this morning four Zeppelins I 9 I 5- 
started for Paris, coming from the direction of Compiegne, 
and following the valley of the Oise. 

Two of them were compelled to turn back before reaching 
Paris, one at Ecouen, the other at Mantes. The two others 
were attacked by anti-aircraft guns, and only passed over the 
outlying districts of the north-west of the city and the neigh- 
bouring suburban districts. They withdrew after having 
dropped a dozen bombs. 

207 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The damage to property was of little importance. Seven 
or eight persons were struck, only one being seriously injured. 

Various anti-aircraft posts opened fire on the Zeppelins, 
which were constantly lighted up by searchlights. One of 
them appears to have been hit. Aeroplane squadrons took 
part in the action, but mist hampered them in their pursuit. 

To sum up, the Zeppelin raid on Paris was a complete 
failure, and only served to demonstrate how well the defensive 
arrangements adopted work. The population of the city 
remained perfectly calm. 

On their way back the Zeppelins dropped a dozen in- 
cendiary or explosive bombs on Compiegne, which only did 
a little unimportant damage. Three other bombs were 
dropped on Ribecourt and Dreslincourt, to the north of 
Compiegne, without any result. 

A second official communique gives the following further 
details : 

At Asnieres eight bombs were dropped and three people 
were wounded. At Neuilly a slight fire was caused in a 
house, but was rapidly put out. Nobody was hurt. At 
Levallois a one-storey house was destroyed. At Courbevoie 
a workman received trivial injury and another slight injury. 

In Paris bombs were dropped in the rue des Dames and 
the rue Duelons. No victims. In the Department of Seine- 
et-Oise and at Saint Germain Zeppelins were reported between 
half-past one and two o'clock. At Mantes they were fired 
at from the fort. At Poissy three bombs were dropped, two 
of which were explosive bombs. No victim. The passage 
of Zeppelins was likewise reported from Domont and Argen- 
teuil. 



Paris, March 22. 

An official note issued this evening says : 
In consequence of the defeats sustained by them at La 
Boisselle, the Germans bombarded the civil hospital of Albert. 
The Red Cross flag was flying over the hospital. The bom- 
bardment was carried out after the range had been found by 
an aeroplane, and several projectiles found their mark. Five 
old men were killed and several others were wounded. The 
Mother Superior was seriously injured. The French aviators 
208 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

have actively and effectively replied to the impotent Zeppelin 
raid on Paris on Saturday night. 

In Belgium on Sunday twenty bombs were dropped on 
the aerodrome at Gits, and on the railway and stations of 
Lichterfelde and Essen. An aviatik was chased as far as 
Roulers, carbine shots being fired at it. Ten go-millimetre 
bombs were dropped on the stations of Merkem and Wyfvege. 
Farther to the south near La Bassee two enemy aeroplanes 
were pursued and were forced to return to their lines. The 
station of Foye was effectively bombarded. In the valley 
of the Aisne an aviatik was put to flight by two of our 
aeroplanes. 

In Champagne five hundred arrows were dropped on a 
German captive balloon, and several bombs on the station of 
Bazancourt, and on the enemy batteries at Brimont and 
Vailly. A German aeroplane was pursued to the north of 
Rheims. 

In Alsace Pilot Sergeant Falze and Sub-Lieutenant 
Moreau brought down an aviatik on the railway to the west 
of Colmar. Six bombs were dropped on the station of Cernay, 
and the barracks at Mulheim and the station of Altkirch were 
effectively bombarded. On Monday in Belgium we bom- 
barded the station of Staden, near Roulers, and several camps, 
while bombs were also successfully dropped on the aviation 
ground at La Bruquette, near Valenciennes. 

In the Aisne region the barracks of La Fere, the stations 
of Anizy, Chauny, Tergnier, and Coucy le Chateau were 
struck by our aeroplanes. 

In Champagne the aviation ground and the ammunition 
stores of Pont Faverges were bombarded day and night with 
go-millimetre bombs. Forty bombs were dropped on the 
station of Conflans-Jarny and the adjoining railway lines. 
The effectiveness of the bombardment was verified. The 
barracks and the station of Freiburg, in Breisgau, received 
eight bombs. At 10.50 in the evening of March 22 three 
bombs were dropped on Villers-Cotterets, and a Zeppelin was 
noticed proceeding westward. The alarm was given in Paris, 
where all the measures provided for were taken. Renter. 



NAVAL 4 o 209 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



BRITISH MERCHANT VESSELS LOST 
BY HOSTILE ACTION 

Times, The Secretary of the Admiralty communicates the fol- 

March22, lowing list showing the number of British merchant vessels 

I 9 I 5- lost by hostile action in each week since the outbreak of the 

war, the column within parentheses showing the total arrival 

and sailings of oversea steamers (over 300 tons net) of all 

nationalities to and from United Kingdom ports : 

[See p. 186.] 

COMMENCEMENT OF SUBMARINE ATTACKS ON MERCHANT VESSELS 

[See p. 186.] 

COMMENCEMENT OF SUBMARINE ' BLOCKADE ' (Feb. 18) 

By By 

Enemy By Sub- Gross 

Cruisers. Mines, marines. Total. Tonnage. 

Feb. 24 (1381) ... 2 i 7 10 26,941 

Mar. 3 (1474) i i 1,694 

Mar. 10 (1557) . . . " 44 9,916 

Mar. 17 (1539) ... 88 22,825 * 

British steamship Hyndford (4286 tons), owned by the 
Scottish Shipowners' Company (Limited), of Glasgow, was 
torpedoed at 3.45 P.M. on March 15 off Beachy Head. The 
captain remained on the bridge, and having ordered the crew 
to their stations took the ship to Gravesend. One seaman 
was drowned. 

British steamship Leeuwarden (988 tons), owned by 
General Steam Navigation Company, of London, reported to 
have been stopped by German submarine. Crew left the 
ship, which was then sunk. 

Neutral vessel reported torpedoed and sunk : March 13, 
Swedish steamship Hanna. 

* Three other vessels were torpedoed but reached port. Details of nine 
of these eleven vessels have been published, viz. : Adenwen (not sunk), 
Florazan, Headlands, Indian City, Andalusian, Invergyle, Hartdale, Atalanta 
(not sunk), and Fingal. [See pp. 177, 188-9,] 

210 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

FISHING VESSELS 

The following table, complementary to that given above, 
shows the total number of British fishing vessels sunk or 
captured since the outbreak of the war : 

[See p. 187.] 

COMMENCEMENT OF SUBMARINE ATTACKS ON MERCHANT VESSELS 

[See p. 187.] 

COMMENCEMENT OF SUBMARINE ' BLOCKADE ' (Feb. 18) 
[See p. 187.] 

MOUAILEH BOMBARDED BY AN ENGLISH 

CRUISER 

Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports: There is no important change in K.V., 
the Dardanelles. April 3, 

On March 21 an English cruiser bombarded the market- I 9 I 5- 
town of Mouaileh on the coast of Hedjaz, and attempted to 
land there. Being prevented from doing so she returned on 
the following morning, and bombarded the above-mentioned 
place continuously for five hours. She directed her fire 
especially on the Mosque, which was destroyed, and damaged 
a few houses. The enemy attempted to land troops in boats, 
but was driven away with heavy losses by detachments of our 
troops and the armed population. The cruiser then withdrew. 
We sustained no loss of life. 

LOSSES BY SUBMARINE ATTACK 

The British steamer Blue Jacket was sunk on March 18 C.O., 
by a German submarine off Beachy Head. March 25, 

The British steamer Cairntorr was sunk on March 21 off 
Newhaven by a German submarine. Attempts were made to 
tow her into port, but she foundered. " The crew were rescued. 

The British steamer Concord was sunk on March 22 at 
8 miles south 20 west of the Royal Sovereign lightship. 

During the past week several British and French merchant 

211 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

vessels have been unsuccessfully attacked by the German 
submarines. 



PAY OF PROBATIONARY SUB-LIEUTENANTS 
ROYAL MARINES 

L.G., At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 23rd day of March, 

March 26, 1 9*5- 

Present, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a Memorial 
from the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty, dated the i8th day of March 1915, in the words 
following, viz. : 

* Whereas by Section 3 of the Naval and Marine 
Pay and Pensions Act, 1865, it is enacted, inter alia, 
that all pay, pensions, or other allowances in the nature 
thereof, payable in respect of services in Your Majesty's 
Naval or Marine Force to a person being or having been 
an Officer, Seaman, or Marine therein, shall be paid in 
such manner, and subject to such restrictions, condi- 
tions, and provisions, as are from time to time directed 
by Order in Council : 

' And whereas the rates of pay, and the conditions 
of payment, authorised by Your Majesty's Order in 
Council, bearing date the 8th of August 1911, for Pro- 
bationary Second Lieutenants, Royal Marines, are not 
applicable under existing circumstances : 

' We beg leave humbly to recommend that Your 
Majesty may be graciously pleased, by Your Order in 
Council, to authorise the grant of pay at the rate of 
75. 6d. a day during the period of Hostilities to Pro- 
bationary Second Lieutenants, Royal Marines, when 
embarked or appointed to the Royal Marine Brigades or 
Batteries. 

' We further beg leave to recommend that the pay 
of Second Lieutenants, Royal Marines, entered tempor- 
arily for the period of Hostilities, be increased from 55. 
to 75. 6d. a day, as from the 24th November 1914, such 

212 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

increase having been granted to Second Lieutenants 

(appointed to Your Majesty's Army under similar circum- 
stances, and that these Officers be grante4 P a Y at tne 
rate of 8s. 6d. a day, when promoted to the rank of 
Lieutenant. 
' The Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Treasury 
have signified their concurrence in these proposals/ 
His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy 
Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And the 
Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
are to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 



NOTICE TO MARINERS 

(No. 218 of the year 1915) 

ENGLAND SOUTH-EAST COAST 

Dover Strait. Light-vessels to be established Traffic 

Regulations 

On or about the ist April 1915, two Light-vessels will be L.G., 
moored in the English Channel oft Folkestone, as follows : March 26, 

(1) A Light-vessel, showing a flashing green light, in a 
position 2,\ miles, 140 (S. 26 E. Mag.), from Folkestone 
pier head, or approximately in latitude 51 02' 40" N., 
longitude i 14' 10" E. 

(2) A Light-vessel, showing a flashing white light, in a 
position 5 cables, 150 (S. 16 E. Mag.), from (i). 

The Light-vessels will be provided with fog-signals. Full 
descriptions with all details of the Light-vessels, lights and 
fog-signals will be given in a further Notice. 

Shipping is hereby warned that all traffic in that part of 
the Straits of Dover which lies between the Varne shoal and 
Folkstone, must pass between the above-mentioned Light- 
vessels, and that Article 25 of the Collision Regulations must 
be complied with, that is to say, Eastbound traffic must keep 
to the southern side of the passage, and Westbound traffic 
must keep to the northern side. 

213 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [ 

Ships disregarding this warning will do so at their own 
peril. 

Variation 14 W. 

Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
By Command of their Lordships, 

J. F. PARRY, Hydrographer. 
Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, 2^th March 1915. 



BRITISH AIR-RAID ON HOBOKEN 

Times, The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 

March 25, announcement : 

I 9 I 5 The following has been received from Wing-Commander 

Longmore : 

I have to report that a successful air attack was carried 
out this morning (Wednesday) by five machines of the Dunkirk 
Squadron on the German submarines being constructed at 
Hoboken, near Antwerp. 

Two of the pilots had to return owing to thick weather, 
but Squadron Commander. Ivor T. Courtney and Flight- 
Lieutenant H. Rosher reached their objective, and, after 
planing down to 1000 ft., dropped four bombs each on the 
submarines. It is believed that considerable damage has 
been done to both the works and two submarines. The works 
were observed to be on fire. In all, five submarines were 
observed on the slip. 

Flight-Lieutenant B. Crossley-Meates was obliged by 
engine trouble to descend in Holland. 

Owing to the mist the two pilots experienced considerable 
difficulty in finding their way, and were subjected to a heavy 
gun-fire whilst delivering their attack. 

U2 9 SUNK 

Times, The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 

March 26, announcement : 

The Admiralty have good reason to believe that the 
German submarine U 29 has been sunk with all hands. 

214 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Amsterdam, April 7. 

An official telegram from Berlin announces that the Times, 
Admiralty Staff issued the following statement to-day : April 8, 

Submarine U 29 has not yet returned from her last cruise. 
According to the report of the British Admiralty issued on 
March 26 the ship sank with her entire crew. The sub- 
marine must therefore be regarded as lost. 



Berlin, June 18. 

Regarding the nature of the destruction of U 29, it has K.V., 
now transpired, so we hear from a competent source, that J une J 8 
the boat was sunk by an English tank-steamer sailing under 
the Swedish flag. Hereby the rumours which were circulated 
from the very beginning, find confirmation, namely, that the 
boat fell a prey to British intrigue. 

The Commander of U 29 was Lieut. -Commander Otto 
Weddigen. 



Special interest attached to this boat by reason of the J-R-U.S.L, 
fact that she was commanded by Lieut .-Commander Otto g * 
Weddigen, the most successful of Germany's submarine 
captains during the first eight months of the war, and the 
officer who sank the Aboukir, Hogue, Cressy, and Hawke. 
He was then in command of the U p, in regard to which he 
himself said : ' My boat was one of the old type, but she 
behaved beautifully/ In a letter dated March 2nd, how- 
ever, and published in the Lokalanzeiger, the brother of the 
captain stated that the latter was for some days confined to 
his room in Wilhelmshaven, having sprained his foot, but 
he went to sea ' some days ago ' in the new submarine U 29, 
as his former command, U 9 was no longer fit for ocean 
voyages. Weddigen made his debut as a commerce destroyer 
on March nth, when he attacked and sunk the British 
steamer Adenwen off the Casquets, and on that occasion he 
was remarkably polite, informing the master how very sorry 
he was to have to scuttle his ship. He gave the crew ten 
minutes to launch their boats, as ' We wish no lives to be 
lost/ he said, and having noticed that a seaman fell overboard, 

215 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

he sent a suit of dry clothes for him. The same afternoon, in 
sinking the French steamer Auguste Conseil off the Start, his 
farewell remark to her captain was, ' Give my compliments 
to Lord Churchill/ The loss of this brave and chivalrous 
officer was universally regretted. In Germany it caused a 
profound sensation. The Emperor sent a long letter of con- 
dolence to the widow, and a public subscription for a memorial 
was organised, while the Hamburg Fremdenblatt suggested 
that the word ' torpedo ' should be replaced by the name 
' Weddigen ' in the German language as a lasting honour to 
the man ' who created the new weapon which is being used 
against British sea-militarism/ 



DUTCH STEAMER MEDEA SUNK 

Times, Late last night the Admiralty issued the following an- 

March 26, nouncement : 

I 9 I 5- At 10 A.M. to-day the Dutch steamer Medea, flying the 

Dutch flag, with a Dutch crew and with the name ' Medea, 
Amsterdam/ printed in large- letters on her sides, was stopped 
by the German submarine U 28 off Beachy Head. The vessel 
was ordered to send a boat with the ship's papers to the 
submarine. The crew of the Medea were ordered into the 
boats, and the ship was sunk by gunfire. The return of the 
ship's papers was asked for, but refused. The crew were 
brought to Dover by the British destroyer Teviot. 

THE DELMIRA DISABLED 

C.O., On March 25 the British steamer Delmira of Liverpool 

April 3, was attacked by a German submarine, which fired at her and 
I 9 I 5- set her on fire. The crew abandoned their ship, which went 

ashore at La Hogue on the morning of the 26th. She was 
floated and taken into Cherbourg on April i. The steamer 
Lizzie, which took part in the rescue of the crew of the Delmira, 
reports having encountered (avoir aborde) the attacking sub- 
marine, which was U 27, and to have subsequently seen large 
sheets of petrol on the surface of the water. 
216 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

THE KING AND THE FLEET 

The following announcement is published in yesterday's Times, 
Court Circular from Buckingham Palace : March 26, 

The King to-day visited a portion of the Fleet. Com- I 9 I 5- 
mander Sir Charles Cust, Bt., R.N., and Vice-Admiral Sir 
Colin Keppel were in attendance. 

It will be remembered that a previous visit was paid by 
His Majesty 1 to * a portion of the Grand Fleet ' at the end of * [See p. i.J 
last month. 

The visit was paid to Harwich and Felixstowe. His 
Majesty, who wore the undress uniform of an Admiral of the 
Fleet, arrived at Parkeston Quay by special train. He made 
a tour of the harbour in a naval motor-pinnace, informally 
inspecting various naval ships and also one of the submarine 
craft. 

He also visited the naval barracks at Shotley and took 
luncheon on board H.M.S. Ganges, those present including 
Commodore Cayley, senior naval officer of the port, Brigadier- 
General Buckle, Commander Lyne, and Captain Waistell. 
Subsequently the King crossed to the Felixstowe side, where 
he inspected mine-sweepers and a mine-layer and witnessed a 
seaplane flight. 

His Majesty, who was everywhere enthusiastically cheered, 
left Felixstowe on his return to London by special train 
shortly before five o'clock. 

EGYPT AND MESOPOTAMIA 

Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : A detachment of our troops K.V., 
operating against the Suez Canal came unexpectedly upon March 26, 
a small English column in the neighbourhood of the Canal I 9 I 5- 
opposite the station of Madam and annihilated it ; it then 
successfully shelled two transport steamers filled with English 
troops. Similarly another detachment shelled an English 
transport steamer between Schaluf and Adschigol. 

On March 16 our troops, in co-operation with the warlike 
tribes to the north of Schnabia and south-west of Bassora, 
surprised the enemy, carried his positions, and drove him 
back as far as Schnabia ; the enemy lost over three hundred 

217 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



K.V., 

March 25, 



K.V., 

March 27, 



K.V., 

March 28, 



men killed and wounded and a quantity of arms and ammuni- 
tion. Our loss only amounted to nine killed and thirty-two 
wounded. 

DARDANELLES 

Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : On Friday evening (March 26) 
enemy torpedo-boats and mine-sweepers attempted to enter 
the Dardanelles. They were, however, driven back by the 
fire of our batteries. 

Constantinople. 

Since the actions which were so disastrous to the enemy 
in the Dardanelles the Allies have not undertaken any further 
enterprises against the Dardanelles or other Turkish places 
in the ^Egean. Last night enemy torpedo-boats and mine- 
sweeping craft attempted to proceed against the outer mine- 
field, after the moon had gone down, but they were at once 
driven off by the fire of the batteries. The reports of battles, 
successes, and landings of the Allies in the Dardanelles or in 
the Bay of Saros reported in the English Press are pure 
inventions. 

Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : Early to-day our observation posts 
on the Bosphorus noticed some Russian warships, which fired 
a few shells from a very great distance against our patrol 
ships and then quickly retired. 



l [See 
P- 213.] 
L.G., 
March 30, 



NOTICES TO MARINERS 

(No. 228 of the year 1915) 

ENGLAND, SOUTH-EAST COAST 

Dover Strait. Light-vessels to be Established 
Traffic Regulations 

Former Notice (No. 218 of 1915 x ) hereby cancelled 

On or about the ist April 1915, two Light-vessels will be 
moored in the English Channel off Folkestone, as follows : 

(i) Position. At a distance of 2| miles, 140 (S. 26 E. 
218 



5] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Mag.), from Folkestone pier head. Lat. 51 02' 40" N., long. 
i 14' 10" E. 

Characteristics : 

(a) Light : Character A flashing green light every 

thirty seconds. 

(b) Fog-signal : Description A siren giving four blasts 

in quick succession of two seconds' duration each, 
every minute. 

(c) Vessel: Description Has one mast with two globes 

as daymark, hull painted green. 

(2) Position. At a distance of five cables, 150 (S. 16 E. 
Mag.), from (i). 

Characteristics : 

(a) Light : Character A flashing white light every ten 

seconds. 

(b) Fog-signal : Description A horn worked by hand 

giving two blasts in quick succession every two 
minutes. 

(c) Vessel : Description Has one mast with one globe 

as daymark, hull painted red. 

Shipping is hereby warned that all traffic in that part of 
the Straits of Dover which lies between the Varne shoal and 
Folkestone must pass between the above-mentioned Light- 
vessels, and that Article 25 of the Collision Regulations must 
be complied with, that is to say, Eastbound traffic must keep 
to the southern side of the passage, and Westbound traffic 
must keep to the northern side. 

Ships disregarding this warning will do so at their own 
peril. 

Variation. 14 W. 
Charts temporarily affected : 
No. 1895, Dungeness to the Thames. 
No. 1406, Dover and Calais to Orfordness and Scheve- 

ningen. 

No. 2451, Owers to Dungeness. 
No. 2675^, English Channel, eastern sheet. 
No. 21820, North Sea, southern sheet. 
No. 1598, English Channel. 



219 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(No. 232 of the year 1915) 
ENGLAND, SOUTH COAST 

L.G., Portland Harbour Approach Restriction of Navigation. 

March 30, Caution re Target Practice 
19*5- 

1 [See Former Notice (No. 41 of 1915 J ) hereby cancelled 
Naval 3, 

P 81 ] Position. Portland outer breakwater, lat. 50 35' N., 
long. 2 25' W. 

1. Restriction of Navigation : 

Caution. No vessels or boats of any description are to 
move in the area north of a line joining Portland Bill with 
St. Albans Head, by day or night, unless proceeding into Wey- 
mouth anchorage. 

2. Caution re Target practice : 

Caution. Target practice will take place, without further 
notice, from ships lying in Portland Harbour, and it will there- 
fore be dangerous henceforth for vessels to enter the following 
area : 

Limits of dangerous area : 

(a) On the North. By a line drawn in a 97 (S. 67 E. 
Mag.) direction from the north end of the outer break- 
water until St. Albans Head bears 18 (N. 34 E. Mag.). 

(b) On the South. By a line drawn in a 119 (S. 45 E. 
Mag.) direction from the south end of the outer break- 
water, until St. Albans Head bears 18 (N. 34 E. Mag.). 

(c) On the East. By a line joining the eastern ex- 
tremities of limits (a) and (b). 

(d) On the West. By Portland and outer breakwater. 

Variation. 16 W. 

Charts temporarily affected. No. 2255, Weymouth and 
Portland ; No. 3315, Straight point to Portland (i) ; No. 2615, 
Portland to Christchurch ; No. 2620, Eddystone to Portland 
(i) ; No. 2450, Portland to Owers ; No. 26756, English Channel 
middle sheet ; No. 1598, English Channel (i). 
220 



5] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 






Publication. Channel Pilot, Part L, 1908, page 150; 
Supplement No. 2, 1914. 

Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
By Command of their Lordships, 

J. F. PARRY, Hydrographer. 

Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, 2*jth March 1914. 



(No. 239 of the year 1915) 
NORTH SEA, RIVER THAMES, AND ENGLISH CHANNEL 

(Information with regard to Pilotage) 
Former Notice (No. 164 of 1915) 1 hereby cancelled l [S ee P-77-] 

I. The following Orders as to Compulsory Pilotage be- ibid. 
tween the Downs and Great Yarmouth made under the 
Defence of the Realm (Consolidation) Regulations, 1914, will 
come into operation at 6 A.M. on the 3ist March 1915, and 
will supersede those now in force. 

1. All ships (other than British ships of less than 
3500 tons gross tonnage, when trading coastwise or to or 
from the Channel Islands and not carrying passengers) 
whilst bound from, and whilst navigating in the waters 
from, the Downs Pilot Station to Gravesend or vice versa, 
must be conducted by pilots licensed by the London 
Trinity House. 

2. All ships (other than British ships of less than 
3500 tons gross tonnage, when trading coastwise or to or 
from the Channel Islands and not carrying passengers) 
whilst bound from, and whilst navigating in the waters 
from, Gravesend to Great Yarmouth or vice versa, must 
be conducted by pilots licensed by the London Trinity 
House. 

3. All ships (other than British ships of less than 
3500 tons gross tonnage, when trading coastwise or to or 
from the Channel Islands and when not carrying passengers) 
whilst navigating in the waters from Gravesend to London 
Bridge or vice versa, must be conducted by pilots licensed 
by the London Trinity House. 

4. The Trinity House Pilot Station at Dungeness 

221 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

having been discontinued, pilotage is therefore not com- 
pulsory between the Downs Pilot Station and Dungeness, 
except for ships bound into or out of the Harbours of 
Dover and Folkestone. 

II. Trinity House Pilot Stations have been established at 
the under-mentioned places, and merchant vessels not under 
compulsion of pilotage are very strongly advised to take 
pilots : 

(a) THE DOWNS, where ships proceeding north can 
obtain pilots capable of piloting as far as Great Yarmouth ; 
and also pilots for the river Thames, and for Folkestone 
and Dover harbours. The pilot steamers attached to the 
Downs Station will cruise in the vicinity of a position 
two miles south-east of Deal Pier. 

(b) GREAT YARMOUTH, where ships from the North 
Sea bound for the river Thames or the English Channel 
can obtain pilots capable of piloting as far as the Downs. 

The Pilot Steamer attached to the Great Yarmouth 
Station will cruise between the Gorton Light-vessel and 
the South Scroby Buoy. 

(c) THE SUNK LIGHT- VESSEL, where ships crossing the 
North Sea between the .parallels of 51 4' and 51 54' 
North Latitude, but no others, can obtain pilots for the 
river Thames and the Downs. 

(d) Pilots can also be obtained at LONDON and HAR- 
WICH for the Downs and Great Yarmouth (including the 
river Thames and approaches). 

Note. The pilots referred to in this Notice are the 
pilots licensed by the London Trinity House and no 
others. 

III. RIVER THAMES. All traffic into and out of the river 
Thames must pass through the Edinburgh Channels, or 
through the Black Deep south of the Knock John and Knob 
Light buoys, and through the Oaze Deep, until further notice. 

No vessels are to remain under way in the above-men- 
tioned Channels inside the Sunk Head Light-buoy, or within 
a line joining the positions of the South Long Sand and East 
Shingles buoys, between the hours of 10 P.M. and 4 A.M. 

Vessels at anchor within these limits must not exhibit 
any lights between the hours of 10 P.M. and 4 A.M. 

222 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

All other Channels are closed to navigation. 
Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
By Command of their Lordships, 

J. F. PARRY, Hydrographer. 

Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, zjth March 1915. 



FRENCH CRUISERS IN EASTERN WATERS 

Paris, April 2. 

An official communique on the subject of the naval opera- 
tions, covering events since March 26, mentions that the 
cruiser Desaioc destroyed with one of her guns a small Turkish 
fort in the Gulf of Akaba, and that while a boat from the 
D'Entrecasteaux was on its way to search a sailing vessel 
off Gaza (Syria) it was fired upon from the shore, one man 
being killed and another wounded. The cruiser then bom- 
barded the town and the Turkish troops. Renter. 

ESCAPE OF THE VOSGES FROM A SUBMARINE 

A remarkable story of an encounter between a British Times, 
cargo vessel and a German submarine is related by Captain March 29, 
J. R. Green, of the Moss Line steamer Vosges. I 9 I 5- 

The Vosges, from Bordeaux to Liverpool, was hailed by 
the submarine on Saturday (March 27) about sixty miles 
west of Trevose Head. For two hours the British vessel 
successfully prevented the enemy from torpedoing her, but 
she nevertheless suffered such damage from shrapnel and 
shell that she had to be abandoned and eventually went 
down, though not until the submarine had disappeared 
without learning of -her fate. In the course of the struggle 
the chief engineer was killed, and several of the ship's company 
were more or less seriously injured. There were seven 
passengers on board. Captain Green says : 

' On Saturday morning a submarine appeared flying the 
German ensign and signalled to us to prepare to abandon 
ship. I had always made up my mind to make a fight of it 

223 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

in such an emergency, and I ordered all steam up in order to 
get away. I turned my stern to the enemy, and then ensued 
a duel of skill. Foiled of using his torpedo, the submarine 
manoeuvred to bring his gun into action, and his superior 
speed, despite the fact that we were making over 14 knots, 
enabled him to do so. Still, it was only now and again that 
the gun could be trained on the ship, and then the shells 
dropped as if from a quick-firer. The main target was 
undoubtedly the bridge, and it was marvellous how any of 
the chief officers there ever escaped ; the bridge was riddled 
like a colander and one shell struck down Second Officer 
Doody, of Blackpool, while in the course of the fight all the 
officers received injury from shrapnel splinters. The funnel 
was almost carried away by one shell. The chief engineer, 
Mr. Davies, of Liverpool, who was urging his stokers to further 
efforts, was killed by a shell which travelled 40 ft. along 
an alley-way after penetrating an iron plate. 

' It was evident that the submarine could not overtake 
the vessel, and her commander decided to give up the chase. 
With a last shot she disappeared, but that missile probably 
proved fatal. A. hole 2 ft. square was torn on the water-line 
in the fore part of the ship. I got a ladder and went over the 
side to see if the damage cduld be repaired, but realised that 
it was hopeless. I was almost sucked inside myself by the 
indraught of water. There was nothing for it but to abandon 
the ship. 

' I am thankful, however, that the enemy did not know 
he fatally struck us and did not see us sink. About this time 
H.M. patrol yacht Wintonia hove in sight and was signalled. 
As towing was out of the question we took to our boats, and 
boarded the yacht, which brought us to Newquay. It was 
found necessary to take the second officer and a mess-room 
boy, aged fifteen, to the Truro infirmary. Several of the 
crew received minor injuries, and a Belgian lady who was on 
board was also wounded/ 

Captain Green, who was struck in the right hand, de- 
clared that if the ship had been provided with a gun there 
would have been one hostile submarine less to-day. Her 
audacity was such that she presented an easy target at just 
over 200 yards from the deck of the Vosges. 

224 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The Secretary of the Admiralty announces : 

Captain John Richard Green, of the steamship Vosges, Times, 
has been granted a commission as lieutenant in the Royal April 10, 
Naval Reserve, and His Majesty the King has been pleased I 9 I 5- 
to award him the Distinguished Service Cross in recognition 
of his gallant and resolute conduct when the vessel was 
attacked by a German submarine on March 27. 

The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty have expressed 
their high appreciation of the gallant behaviour of the officers 
and crew during the attack, and they propose to present the 
officers with gold watches and each member of the crew 
with 3. The widow of the late Chief Engineer Harry Davies, 
who was killed during the attack, will be presented with the 
gold watch which would have been awarded to him. 

At 10.15 A.M. on March 27 the steamship Vosges was 
attacked by a German submarine in Latitude 50.27 North, 
Longitude 6 West. Captain Green ordered all firemen below 
and asked the passengers to volunteer to assist the firemen, 
which they did willingly. The submarine opened fire from 
straight astern ; the first round was blank, but was followed 
immediately by one which hit the vessel in the stern. During 
this time the vessel was going at extreme speed, and altering 
course as necessary to keep the submarine dead astern. This 
continued for one and a half hours, during which time 
the vessel was struck repeatedly by shell ; the funnel riddled, 
the bridge house on both sides smashed, and the engine-room 
badly pierced. The enemy were firing shrapnel. The Chief 
Engineer was killed near the stokehold by a shell striking 
him in the chest while he was exhorting the firemen and 
volunteers to further efforts. The Second Mate was hit in 
the arm while on the bridge. One fireman was hit in the 
wrist, and the mess-room boy in the leg. The Mate was 
slightly wounded in the hand, and splinters also grazed the 
Captain's hand. A lady passenger was slightly injured in 
the foot. At about 11.45 the submarine sheered off. 

The Vosges made all speed towards Milf ord, intending to put 
in and report there, but water was gaining rapidly on pumps, 
and at about 12.30 His Majesty's ship Wintonia was sighted. It 
then became evident that the Vosges was sinking, and, after all 
hands had been transferred to the Wintonia, she sank at 2 P.M. 
The Wintonia took the survivors into Newquay (Cornwall). 
NAVAL 4 p 225 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



K.V., 

March 29, 
19*5- 



1 [See 
p. 240.] 

2 [See 
p. 228.] 



March 29, 



London, March 29. The Admiralty publishes the follow- 
ing details concerning the sinking of the steamer Vosges ; 
the steamer Vosges was sunk on Saturday (March 27) when 
sixty miles south-west of Stanns Head by shell fire from 
the same submarine which chased the steamers Aguila, 
Dunedin, 1 and Falaba 2 off the Land's End on Sunday and 
was also sighted near Cape Clear. The wounded of the 
Vosges relate : The captain did not obey the signal of 
the submarine, and manoeuvred so as to have the sub- 
marine astern, the latter being thus unable to use her 
torpedoes. A blank shot having no effect, the submarine 
fired with shell. The steamer went full steam ahead, but the 
submarine, which appeared to be of a new type, easily over- 
took her. The effect of the gun at a range of three hundred 
metres was fearful. Twenty shells were fired in all. The 
chief engineer was killed. All the officers but one were 
wounded. The second quartermaster was seriously wounded. 
Everything on deck was smashed to pieces. Three boats 
were destroyed. Nevertheless the Vosges held on her course. 
After two hours the submarine gave up the pursuit. A shell 
hit the ship on the water line. The water poured in. The 
passengers helped in working the pumps. The Vosges 
attempted to ram the submarine, but without success. In 
the meanwhile, rockets were fired to call for assistance. The 
last shot from the submarine carried away the flag. After 
the submarine had disappeared the steamer continued her 
voyage, using the pumps the whole time. An hour later she 
encountered a patrol boat, which took her in tow. The ship 
could, however, not keep afloat any longer. The occupants 
then took to the boats, and went on board the patrol boat. 



DARDANELLES 

Constantinople. 

An Imperial Irade orders that the Ottoman fighting forces 
assembled on the Dardanelles and neighbourhood shall hence- 
forth constitute an army, i.e. the fifth, the high command of 
which has been entrusted to Marshal Liman von Sanders, 
the former high commander of the first Army. 



226 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : One of our seaplanes threw bombs ibid. 
yesterday on an English warship which was cruising outside 
the Dardanelles. 



CONFESSIONS OF A PIRATE 

Washington, March 29. 

The Sun and the World, among other papers, publish a Times, 
picturesque interview with Lieutenant-Commander Claus March 30, 
Hansen, commander of the German submarine U 16, describ- I 9 I 5- 
ing his life at sea and the torpedoing of the Dulwich and the 
Ville de Lille* The interview was secured by Herr von l [See 
Wiegand, formerly German correspondent of the United Naval 3, 
Press. P- 4 6 -] 

After some talk about the chief danger to American ships 
coming from the British habit of sailing under false colours, 
Commander Hansen explained that each submarine has a 
definite area to cover. On his last cruise he was assigned to 
the Channel. 

He described the sinking of the Dulwich off Havre, and 
the Ville de Lille shortly after it left Cherbourg. In the case 
of the French steamer, he said : 

' We saw two women and two children on deck. Of course we 
could not torpedo the ship with women and children aboard, so we 
gave chase. The Ville de Lille finally stopped, and twenty-four men, 
women, and children clambered with alacrity into the boats. We 
sent four men aboard, who placed bombs in the bottom, and sank 
the steamer. They found a little terrier, who had been abandoned 
and fought the men with his teeth, but was captured and brought 
along. Ever since it has been the mascot of the U 16. We gave the 
women and children some blankets and food for themselves and the 
crew. Then we towed the two boats to opposite Barfleur, close to 
the land, from where there was no difficulty in rowing in.' 

Two days later the U 16 torpedoed the French steamer 
Dinorah, loaded with horse and artillery, off Dieppe. Speak- 
ing of life in submarines, Commander Hansen said : 

' It is fearfully trying on the nerves. Every man does not stand 
it. ... When running under sea there is a deathlike silence in the 
boats, as the electric machinery is noiseless. It is not unusual to hear 

227 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the propeller of a ship passing over or near us. We steer entirely by 
chart and compass. As the air heats it gets poor and mixed with the 
odour of the oil from the machinery. The atmosphere becomes 
fearful. An overpowering sleepiness often attacks new men, and one 
requires the utmost will-power to remain awake. I have had men who 
did not eat during the first three days out because they did not want 
to lose that amount of time from sleep. Day after day spent in such 
cramped quarters, where there is hardly room to stretch your legs) 
and constantly on the alert, is a tremendous strain on the nerves. 

' I have sat or stood eight hours on end with my eyes glued on the 
periscope and peered into the brilliant glass until eyes and head ached. 
When the crew is worn out, we seek a good sleep and rest under the 
water. The boat often is rocking gently with a movement somewhat 
like a' cradle. Before ascending, I always order silence for several 
minutes in order to determine by hearing, through the shell-like sides 
of the submarine, whether there are any propellers in the vicinity.' 

Commander Hansen prophesied a more effective blockade 
when the crews of the vessels had ' found ' themselves. He 
refused to say how long the newest German submarine could 
remain below, and the censor did not allow him to talk 
about the length of his voyages. When asked about the 
supposed secret rendezvous near England, he laughed and 
said, ' Let the English think so. The more torpedo-boats 
they keep hunting for the secret rendezvous, the fewer we 
have to dodge/ 



LOSS OF THE AGUILA, FALABA, AND AMSTEL 

Admiralty, March 29. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 
announcement : 

British S.S. Aguila, 2114 tons, belonging to the Yeoward 
Line, when on passage from Liverpool to Lisbon, was tor- 
pedoed off Pembroke at 6 P.M. on 27th March. The vessel 
sank. Twenty-three of the crew and three passengers are 
missing. The master and nineteen of the crew have been 
landed at Fishguard. 

British S.S. Falaba, 4806 tons, owned by Elder, Dempster, 
and Co. (Limited), was torpedoed at 0.25 P.M., 28th March, 
to the south of the St. George's Channel, and sank in ten 
minutes. The ship carried a crew of about 90 persons, with 
228 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

about 1 60 passengers. About 140 survivors have been picked 
up, eight of whom, including the captain, died after being 
picked up. It is feared that many were killed by the explosion 
of the torpedo. 

Dutch S.S. Amstel, 853 tons, belonging to P. A. Van Es 
and Co., of Rotterdam, when on passage from Rotterdam to 
Goole, struck a mine at 4 A.M. 2gth March in the German 
mine-field off Flamborough. The crew have been landed in 
the Humber by the Grimsby trawler Pinewold. 



Messrs. Yeoward Brothers, Liverpool, have received the Times, 
following message from the Admiralty : March 31, 

' Steamer St. Stephen reports that captain spoke the 
steamer Lady Plymouth in lat. 49.37 N., long. 8.35 W., when 
the vessel informed him by signal that she was bound for 
Madeira, and had crew of 15 hands and 2 passengers from the 
Aguila, of Liverpool, which was sunk by a German submarine/ 

According to the Admiralty statement issued on Monday 
evening, the master and nineteen of the crew of the Aguila 
were landed at Fishguard, and twenty-three of the crew and 
three passengers were missing. Of the missing it is known 
that the chief engineer and two of the crew were killed by 
gunfire, and it was also stated that the stewardess and a 
woman passenger were drowned. Four persons are thus still 
unaccounted for and have presumably been drowned a 
total death-roll of nine. 



Milford Haven, March 29. 

The Falaba, one of the largest of the Elder-Dempster Times, 
liners, left Liverpool at six o'clock on Saturday evening. March 30, 
She had on board about 140 passengers and a crew numbering I 9 I 5- 
about 100. About midday on Sunday, when the liner was 
off the Pembrokeshire coast near the Smalls Lightship, a 
submarine appeared about 300 yards to starboard, flying 
the German ensign. She made three signals to the Falaba, 
including the signal to stop. Escape was impossible the 
submarine proved herself some six knots better than the 
Falaba and so Captain Davies stopped and prepared to 
launch his boats. 

229 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Just as the first boat was lowered, an explosion occurred 
which blew it to pieces and threw all the passengers into 
the water. The second and third boats were stove in as 
they were being lowered. Only one boat, bearing fourteen 
persons, was successfully launched. 

There is some doubt about the exact number of minutes' 
grace accorded by the German commander, but it is agreed 
that well within ten minutes the Falaba was torpedoed at 
100 yards range, when the enemy could not fail to see that 
the deck was still crowded, and the first boat was actually 
halfway down the davits. The torpedo struck near the 
engine-room, and the Falaba sank rapidly. The callousness 
of the attack was aggravated by the conduct of the Germans 
when their victims were struggling in the water. As they 
raised their arms, reaching out for lifebuoys or scraps of 
wreckage, the Germans looked on and laughed, and answered 
their cries for help with jeers. This charge of inhumanity is 
not founded on any isolated allegation. It is definite testi- 
mony of some half-dozen survivors. 

Fortunately some help, though not enough, was at hand. 
The steam drifter Eileen Emma, of Lowestoft, had seen the 
submarine, and followed her, and was only some 300 yards 
away when the Falaba was "torpedoed, and immediately went 
to the rescue. Over 100 persons were picked up alive, and 
six of the dead were recovered. Captain Davies was living 
when taken out of the water, but died almost immediately 
from the effects of exposure. A second drifter soon joined 
in the work of rescue, and the lifeboat with fourteen persons 
on board was picked up by a third. The survivors were 
taken to Milford Haven. 

The official list supplied by the Elder-Dempster Company 
shows that, as far as is at present known, 52 first-class 
passengers, 34 second-class passengers, and 49 of the crew 
are saved. Four passengers and four of the crew are reported 
dead. There are missing 61 passengers and 43 of the crew. 
The following is the list of survivors : 

Chief Officer Baxter, Third Officer Pengelly, Fourth Officer 
Spray. Chief Engineer Guy, Third Engineer Mellvin, Fourth 
Engineer Brown, Fifth Engineer Shaw. Stewards Ford, 
Brearer, Muscar, Ellams, Turton, Barber, Hinmars, Mailing, 
Doherty, Astley, Percy, Jones, Sam Bartley, Ashton, Noble, 
230 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Harrison, Clarke, and Shields. Chief Cook Marchbanks, Second 
Baker Seavor. Marconi Operator Taylor. Musicians Crane 
and Killip, Carpenter Joshua Thomas, Sailors Monteith, Harri- 
son, and Roderig. Deck boys Irvine and Fell. Quarter- 
master Tyrell. Greaser Harding. Firemen and Triinmers 
Thomas Williams, James Abbol, John Abbol, Heinmeradanay 
Massaquoi, Roberts, and Kutchon. Ship's Barber Rowett. 
Head Stoker John Thomas. 



First-Class Passengers 

J. Marshall, S. Barnett, E. H. Cassell, A. Goldwater, 
H. H. Seacombe, H. M'Laren, P. Deacon, Dr. E. E. Maples, 
F. G. Wallach, H. E. Kent, Capt. A. E. Brown, Lieut. J. H. 
Barrett, F. P. Barker, F. Unwin, D. Bathgate, C. E. Bressey, 
O. Pearson, H. C. Higgins, A. C. Davidson, R. H. Grahame, 
H. B. Hermon Hodge, J. A. Michell, H. J. Johnston, The 
Rev. A. Field, J. Fitztownsend, Lieut. D. S. Grant, Lieut. 

D. C. Sambridge, Capt. M. C. C. Harrison, W. A. Austin, 
Lieut. -Commander G. C. Heathcote, R.N., Lieut. C. C. R. 
Lacon, R.F.A., C. C. Robinson, J. C. Einery, A. E. Miles, 
Dr. J. C. Fox, Miss A. J. Wait, Miss J. Bell, Mrs. Hode, 
W. W. Bishop, Mrs. W. W. Bishop, Miss Victoria Palmer, 
Miss C. Palmer, Lieut. P. W. E. Le Gros, Lieut. P. S. Emerton, 
C. J. Matt, J. R. Anderson, D. C. M'Dougall, R. W. M'Neill, 
C. B. Wooley, Dr. B. A. Percival, Lieut. C. W. H. Parker, 
James Heatley. 

Second-Class Passengers 

J. Gould, William Walton, W. Kenmare, W. G. Phizacklea, 

E. Phizacklea, J. M. Sharp, W. Dovell, Sgt. H. Blair, Sgt. 
T. H. Plaum, E. Primrose, D. J. Ryder, D. H. Ryder, W. C. 
Chiswell, J. King, W. J. Barrell, Corporal J. E. Kelliker, 
H. Dibley, E. Penrose, A. E. Crawley, Corporal N. C. Turn- 
bull, Sgt. J. W. Gallagher, T. Culver, W. Michaeli, R. Service, 
E. Anderson, W. J. Thomas, A. Nichol, C. Nicol, Quarter- 
master-Sgt. Birkett, Sgt. A. V. Roe, Sgt. J. D. Beatti, Charles 
Davies, E. F. Rigby, A. Meikle. 

The following were landed injured, and placed in the 
Naval Hospital at Milford Haven : Second Engineer Peat 

231 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(two fractured ribs), Lieut. Charles Toller (one rib broken), 
A. D. A. Cottingham (fingers injured). 



Milford Haven, March 29. 

Times, Chief Cook Marchbanks said that the submarine screened 

March 30, itself behind a trawler, and appeared quite suddenly. The 
I 9 I 5- explosion of the torpedo blew one of the lifeboats out of the 

davits, and it fell upside down in the water with eighteen 
passengers in it, all of whom, he held, were drowned. The 
Falaba quickly took a heavy list. As he saw the Germans 
on the submarine, laughing at them, faced with death as 
they were, he shook his fist at them and called out : ' You 
murderers ! ' He helped to support a steward named Muscar 
in the water for an hour. There were dozens of people in 
the sea crying out for help. All the time the submarine 
was circling around them, with the Germans ' laughing their 
sides out ' at them as they drowned. The trawler picked 
up many of the people in the water, and made three attempts 
to get the captain, hauling him aboard at last with a boat- 
hook. He was clasping the ship's papers to his chest, and 
died in a few minutes. The- Germans made no effort at all 
to save any one, and they are nothing but murderers and 
cold-blooded murderers at that. 

Quartermaster Harrison, who was at the wheel when the 
submarine appeared, said a course was at once steered to 
throw the submarine astern, but she was going too fast for 
them. The submarine carried a 3-in. gun, which was not 
used and had no identification marks. He confirmed the 
statement that the crew of the submarine looked on while 
the men were in the water and jeered at them. 

Survivors praise highly the coolness of Captain Davies 
and the excellent discipline he maintained on board. He.re- 
mained on the bridge throughout. The conduct of the wire- 
less operator is also mentioned. He was repeatedly ordered 
by the Germans to stop working ; he persisted, and was able 
to pick up the Land's End station and telegraph the message, 
' Torpedoed ; taken to boats ' before the Germans jammed 
the apparatus. 

Both stewardesses are believed to have been drowned. 
232 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

To one of them a young officer had nobly given up his life- 
belt, and he also was drowned. 






Captain George Wright, master of the Lowestoft drifter ibid. 
Eileen Emma, said he saw the submarine at 12.15 P.M. on 
Sunday. He followed her for an hour. An hour later he 
saw the torpedo fired at the liner. The liner sank after a 
short time. The Eileen Emma was then 200 yards from the 
submarine, and the enemy craft was about the same distance 
from the Falaba. The crew of the submarine made no 
attempt to rescue the scores of people struggling in the 
water. Many of the rescued passengers declared emphati- 
cally that the Germans laughed and jeered them while they 
were fighting for life. Captain Wright said he laboured for 
2^ hours rescuing the passengers and crew of the Falaba. 
He picked up 115, six of whom died. The submarine stood 
by whilst the liner sank. She then headed off in a south- 
easterly direction, and then westerly. After picking up the 
survivors, he (Captain Wright) made for Milford, and while 
on the way met a destroyer, to which vessel the majority 
of the rescued persons were transferred. 



Mr. W. Michaeli, London, describing the sinking of the ibid. 
vessel, said : 

' Every one on board became excited when it was known 
that a submarine was near, and the passengers crowded on 
deck. The captain of the Falaba put on full steam, but very 
soon it was evident that we had no chance of getting away. 
The enemy submarine chased us, and three-quarters of an 
hour after we sighted her she was within hailing distance. 
She appeared to be one of their latest and biggest boats, 
carrying a good-sized gun, and this was trained on the Falaba 
as soon as the submarine got near us. The commander of 
the submarine sent up a rocket, and then, coming nearer, 
ordered our captain to get every passenger into the boats 
at once, saying, in good English, " I am going to sink your 
ship/ 1 

1 Then followed a terrible scene. Some of the boats were 

233 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

swamped, and their occupants thrown into the sea, several 
being drowned almost immediately. One man whom I after- 
wards met was picked up after being in the water for an 
hour. Barely ten minutes after we received the order to 
leave the ship, and before the last boat had been lowered, 
I heard a report and saw our vessel heel over. The pirates 
had actually fired a torpedo at her at a range of 100 yards 
when they could distinctly see a large number of passengers 
and crew, including the captain, the purser, and other officers 
still on board. It was a dastardly thing to do ; nothing but 
murder in cold blood/ 



Another passenger gave the following account : 

Times, 'We were going full speed at the time, but the boat's 

March 30, best was only between 12 and 13 knots, and the submarine 
I 9 I 5- overhauled us. She ran to our port side and hailed us, 

threatening to sink us instantly if we did not obey. The 
captain hove to, and the commander of the submarine then 
called out in English that he gave us five minutes to leave 
the boat. He immediately turned the submarine round to 
our starboard quarter, and hove to about 300 yards away, 
with the nose pointing direct to us amidships. Our crew 
were lowering the boats as quickly as they could, but several 
of them did not get down properly and were upset. Three 
of them were swamped, and people were soon struggling in 
the water. Another boat was actually half-way down the 
davits, full of passengers, when the submarine torpedoed us 
without further warning. I was one of the small party of 
passengers and officers who had not got into boats, and I 
distinctly saw the torpedo coming. In fact, it came straight 
towards where we were standing, and we ran to the forepart 
of the ship to escape it. The torpedo struck our vessel 
amidships, and the Falaba immediately gave a list to star- 
board and went down about ten minutes after. There was 
a slight explosion when she was struck, but it was not very 
loud, more like the report of a small gun. 

1 The party of whom I was one jumped off into the water, 

and got into a boat from Mumbles before she sank. The 

. main deck was then awash. I had previously grasped a 

lifebelt which was in my cabin indeed, all the passengers 

234 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

had been served with lifebelts and when I got into the 
water I seized hold of a floating buoy. For an hour I was 
in the water, floating and swimming, and had to make my 
way through wreckage and a number of dead bodies. At 
last I was picked up, together with four others, including 
one of the officers, by one of our own boats. I had all my 
clothes on, and I should never have survived but for the 
lifebelt and the buoy. The master of the Falaba jumped 
off about the same time as I did, and he was one of the last 
to leave the ship. But I was afterwards told he died imme- 
diately, as the result of exposure. I also heard that eight 
or nine of the crew died from injury after being landed. 

'The submarine was flying the German ensign. I did not 
really believe that she would fire the torpedo so soon without 
giving warning. It was murderous, for people were swimming 
around the ship, and a boat that was half-way down the davits 
was flung into the water through the shock of the torpedo, 
which smashed the davits. If the Germans had given us 
only another ten minutes I believe all the passengers and 
crew would have been saved. As it was, if the trawler had 
not come up very few of us would have been left to tell the 
tale. Not only did the submarine torpedo us so soon after 
the warning, but we could see her crew laughing at us as we 
were struggling in the water. I could not see her number, 
which I believe had been painted out/ 



New York, March 30. 

The World, whose comment on the sinking of the Falaba Times, 
is headed ' Not War but Murder/ says : March 31, 

' Sinking enemy merchant vessels before the crews can be I915 ' 
taken off and assured of being safely landed is flatly contrary 
to international law. To blow up or drown helpless pas- 
sengers is infinitely worse. It is of no military advantage. 
This war will be determined as wars always have been deter- 
mined by men in arms. It rouses the pity of the neutral 
world for the helpless victims and abhorrence for the men in 
high command who order the murder to be done. The higher 
policy of war as waged in Berlin began with the gigantic 
blunder in the invasion of Belgium. It is continuing it with 

235 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

another in decreeing the deliberate slaughter at sea of defence- 
less men, women, and children/ 

The New York Press says, under the title, ' Submarine 
Atrocities ' : 

' Modern civilisation has never before known anything to 
approach the crimes committed within the last seventy-two 
hours by submarines acting with the approval and under 
the direction of the German Admiralty. The Dark Ages 
have scarcely surpassed them/ 

The article goes on to say that no plea of reprisals can 
remove the world's indictment of murder, and concludes : 

' Indelible is the stain on the naval name of Germany, 
hitherto so often splendid in this war. Imperishable is the 
infamy fixed by those butchers upon a race of such noble 
purpose and glorious achievements through years of the past/ 

The German Staats Zeitung^ of course, upholds the attack, 
saying : 

' The great number of those lost gives reason for regret. 
Allied howlers and humanity shouters will naturally raise a 
great cry. But they should not forget one thing the number 
of those lost in the ship disaster dwindles to nothing compared 
with the millions of German women and children whom 
England would bring to death by starvation, and the action 
of Germany is in such circumstances the only proper answer 
to English brutality/ 

New York, March 30. 

Times, In a n article headed ' Kultur at Its Meridian/ the New 

March 31, York Herald makes the following comment on the sinking of 
the Falaba : 

' There is great joy in the halls of kultur that over a 
hundred non-combatants, some of them women, have been 
ruthlessly murdered on the high seas. It is " the day/' 
Renter. 

ibid. Messrs. Elder-Dempster yesterday issued a list of 104 

names of passengers and members of the crew of the Falaba 
who have not yet been accounted for. To that number must 
be added the seven identified bodies at Milford Haven. 

A citizen of the United States, Mr; Leon Chester Thrasher, 
236 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

was one of the passengers in the Falaba, and his name is 
included in the official list of those missing. 

Mr. Thrasher was about thirty years of age, and was on 
his way back to the Gold Coast to resume his work as a 
mining engineer. He had been staying for some weeks at the 
Home and Colonial Hotel, Cartwright Gardens, Bloomsbury. 

It is feared that there is no hope that further rescues have 
been made. Passengers who survived declare that those who 
were not picked up by the trawlers must have perished. They 
add that the death-roll would have been much heavier owing 
to the result of .exposure if the British destroyer had not 
come alongside and taken off the passengers 4^ hours after 
they had been rescued by the trawler. 

Several passengers who were practically penniless, having 
left all their effects behind them owing to the haste with 
which they had to take to the boats, were provided with 
money by Messrs. Elder-Dempster in order to return to 
their homes. 

The following is the official list of the missing passengers 
and members of the crew : 

PASSENGERS 

SIERRA LEONE. B. W. Orr, F. E. Telford, R. J. Whittaker. 

ACCRA. L. A. Brooks, William Bruce, C. Bruce Frame, 
M. Eddelin, T. Grimshaw, J. G. Marsden. 

SECONDEE. O. P. Bourke, T. Kreil, L. H. Massey, 
F. L. ParneU, I. Sanderson, E. G. Teskie, L. C. Thrasher, 
W. G. Wakeham, H. J. Willes, Miss J. Winchester. 

LAGOS. N. Antonopoulos, I. Bailey, Dr. F. J. A. Baldwin, 
W. A. M. Chalmin, W. H. J. Clifton, W. Downham, Dr. J. C. 
Fox, G. K. Gwen, F. G. Boulden, Dr. A. W. H. Grant, P. O. 
Henderson, H. H. Hendrick, J. A. Houston, W. Jackson, 
W. E. Knighton, L. R. Mann, S. Manger, T. A. E. Rouchetti, 
J. H. Silcock, I. C. Thomas, W. H. C. Traisdell. 

FORCADOS. A. Burgess, W. Wagstaff. 

BONNY. D. Pryde. 

CALABAR. W. E. Georgeson, H. J. Hesse, Mrs. J. Hyde. 

DUALA. A. Hall, W. Lees, W. J. W. Nicholas, P. Turner, 
W. Westlake. 



237 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

CREW 

Second Officer H. C. Hawkins, Sixth Engineer C. Pickup. 
Stewardess S. Gearle. G. Ackquah, I. Ackton, J. Alimo, 
W. Bolton, H. Boardman, W. Corry, D. Cameron, J. Cruik- 
shank, G. Coffee, Robert Corkhill, E. Clare, H. Dording, 
J. Dandy, S. V. Daley, T. Evans, C. H. Eastaway, W. Fitz- 
gerald, A. Holdsworth, J. Freeman, W. Freeman, A. Gough, 
A. Harding, J. Hampson, W. O. Hughes, D. Irvine, Ed. 
Johnson, R. Hamilton Jones, W. J. Kirwin, E. Lessint, W. R. 
Lancaster, H. Meugrieyk, J. Massaquie, F. M c Combe, M. G. 
Roskell, J. Ryan, R. Loust, R. Roberts, R. Reffells, C. Sullivan, 
J. Tyrrel, C. L. Taylor, G. W. Whitwell, F. C. Williams, 
J. Williams, H. H. Wright, J. Wyse, T. Williams. 

Dr. J. C. Fox, Putney, and Mr. A. C. Francis, who have 
been included in the list of the missing, are now ascertained 
to have been saved. 

A message from Liverpool states that Mr. R. C. Lee ; 
first-class passenger on the Falaba, whose name appears in 
the official list of missing, arrived there last night. He was 
rescued by a trawler and landed at Milford. 

(In the list given above the only similar name among the 
missing passengers is W. Lees, who was bound for Duala.) 



Times, The inquest on the eight recovered bodies of victims of 

March 31, the Falaba disaster, including Captain Frederick J. Davies, 
I 9 I 5- was h e id a t Milford Haven yesterday by Mr. Price, the 

Pembroke County Coroner. The Admiralty was represented 
by Lieutenant-Commander de Crespigny and Mr. Bryant, 
solicitor, and the owners by Mr. Williams. The Chief Con- 
stable of Pembroke was also present. 

Walter Baxter, chief officer of the Falaba, said the Falaba 
left Liverpool for the West Coast of Africa at six o'clock on 
Saturday evening with a crew of about 100, 150 passengers, 
and a general cargo. All went well until 11.40 on Sunday 
morning, when the third officer sighted a submarine from the 
bridge. Captain Davies was in the chart room. The submarine 
was flying the British ensign at first, and when she got close 
hauled it down and flew the German flag. The witness called 
the captain, who altered the vessel's course. The submarine 
overhauled them in about ten minutes and signalled, ' Stop 
238 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

and abandon ship/ The Falaba kept on at full speed, where- 
upon the submarine signalled, ' Stop, or I will fire into you/ 
The captain asked the witness's advice, and he replied, 
' Better stop, considering there are so many passengers aboard/ 
Five boats had slung out when a torpedo was fired. The 
first boat capsized and the occupants were thrown into the 
water. The submarine steamed over from port to starboard, 
got into position, and fired the torpedo. Several boats had 
not been lowered, and a number of the crew and passengers 
were on deck. He could not make out the number of the 
submarine, which made no attempt to help them, but went 
away at once. The witness stopped on board till the Falaba 
sank about ten minutes after being struck. The torpedo 
struck the ship opposite the wireless room, and there was a 
violent explosion. The witness was about two hours in the 
water before being rescued. Most of the crew were English. 
The torpedo was fired five minutes after the Falaba stopped 
and from a distance of about 150 yards, and the attacking 
vessel could plainly see the people on the deck of the Falaba. 
The submarine carried two guns, was painted the same colour 
as the water, and her crew were in khaki. He was sure 
of that. 

George Wright, skipper of the steam-drifter Eileen Emma, 
said that he saw the submarine and the Falaba some six 
miles apart. The submarine came up about half a mile in 
front of him, and the Falaba was torpedoed when he had 
approached to within 300 yards. As soon as she had dis- 
charged the torpedo the submarine steamed to the south- 
west. The Eileen Emma picked up forty persons from the 
water, including the captain, who was then nearly gone, 
and so were five others. None of the six lived long. He 
steamed for Milford Haven after the work of rescue, in which 
the submarine made no attempt to join. 

Denis Randleson, skipper of the drifter Wenlock, of 
Lowestoft, said he picked up eight people, two of whom died. 

David Rice, surgeon, of Milford, said all the eight bodies 
had slight injuries on them, but none sufficient to cause death, 
which was due to exhaustion and exposure. 

The Coroner said that was all the evidence. There could 
be no question as to the verdict. The ship was struck by 
this torpedo, and the result was that, owing to exposure, 

239 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

these men met with their deaths. If it had been under 
ordinary circumstances he did not think the jury would 
hesitate to say that the submarine had committed what was 
an unlawful act. Here was a ship leaving England, not 
coming to England, to prevent which the Germans said was 
the object of their blockade. An enemy's boat appeared, and 
without any pretence at examination and giving no time for 
those aboard to clear, discharged a torpedo in a most cold- 
blooded fashion. If that was not piracy and murder on the 
high seas he did not know what was. Still he thought under 
the circumstances it would be better if the jury brought in 
a verdict that the victims met their deaths by being struck 
by a torpedo fired from a German submarine. The authorities 
might, if successful in capturing the submarine (her number 
was not known), be able to mete out such measures as would 
be commensurate with the dastardly deed committed. They 
all deplored the deaths of these unfortunate people, and 
hoped the crime would be brought home in the end. 

The jury returned a verdict that deceased died from 
exposure consequent on the ship being torpedoed by a German 
submarine, and expressed their admiration at the conduct of 
the crew of the steam drifter in rescuing so many lives. 

The description of one oi the victims, an unknown man, 
is aged about twenty-five, height 5 ft. 8 in., dress grey flannel 
suit and grey overcoat, clean shaven, long features. He had 
10, i8s. in a horseshoe-shaped purse, besides a silver match- 
box and a small red silk handkerchief. 



Dublin, March 20. 

Times, The steamer Dunedin, of Leith, which unloaded her cargo 

March 31, m Dublin to-day, reports that on Sunday morning she 
I 9 I 5- observed the Falaba on the port bow at twenty miles to the 

north. The morning was fine, and there was only a moderate 
sea running. About 12.5 the captain of the Falaba sent a 
wireless message which was received by the Dunedin stating 
that a large submarine was approaching flying the British flag. 
This was followed immediately by the ' S.O.S.' signal and a 
further message stating that the submarine had hauled down 
the British and hoisted the German flag and ordered the 
passengers and crew to the boats. This message was not 
240 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

completed, and a few minutes after, the crew of the Dunedin 
observed a large volume of steam and water being shot several 
feet into the air. When this lifted it was seen that the 
Falaba had been struck amidships and almost torn in two. 
She at once began to sink, and had disappeared in less than 
ten minutes. 

The captain of the Dunedin, acting under instructions, 
made at full speed for the Irish coast. 



Washington, April I. 

The loss of Mr. Thrasher in the Falaba, as might be Times, 
expected, bulks large in to-day's Press. Many despatches April 2 > 
are published from Washington about the embarrassment and 
annoyance of the Administration. The New York Tribune 
in its editorial columns urges the Administration to take a 
strong line, and even the Washington Post suspends its abuse 
of England to warn Germany that things like the sinking of 
the Frye and Mr. Thrasher's death may cause complications. 

Nor has Herr Dernburg improved his country's standing 
by giving the New York Times an interview in which Teutonic 
cynicism, dishonesty, and ineptitude are neatly balanced. 

The Falaba, Herr Dernburg explains, was probably sunk 
because she was using her wireless to call for help. Anyhow, 
civilians were warned on February 18 to keep out of the 
war zone, and it is ridiculous to circulate tales of piracy and 
murder if non-combatants insist on getting between the firing 
lines. Besides, all this outcry over the loss of a few hundred 
civilians is difficult to understand when England is trying to 
starve a nation. As for Mr. Thrasher's death, it must be 
remembered that the American Government has not pre- 
vented Americans from risking death by fighting against 
Germany. 

But if the German case is more than usually weak, and if 
various newspapers are indignant, there are no signs of any 
popular outcry sufficient to justify a modification of the 
forecast which I ventured to make yesterday as to the ulti- 
mate position of the Government. 



NAVAL 4 Q 241 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The following news, officially circulated through German 
wireless stations, has been received by the Marconi 
Company : 

Berlin, April 2. 

Times, The official provocative reports of the English and neutral 

April 5, Press to the effect that the crew of the German submarine, 
I 9 I 5- when sinking the Falaba, laughed at the passengers' death 

struggles, and, despite given possibilities, refused assistance, 
is a shameless lie. England's decision to attack German 
submarines by merchant ships, and to give prizes for suc- 
cessful attacks, forces our submarines to act without loss of 
time. Unfortunately, it is frequently impossible for sub- 
marine crews to spare human lives, but, until now, England 
recognised that submarine crews acted in the most humane 
and most lenient way. England's attitude changed because 
the sinking of the Falaba proves that passenger traffic is no 
longer safe, and because submarine warfare therefore affects 
her economic life seriously. 



Berlin, April 6. 

Times, A telegram from Herr von Jagow to the German Embassy 

April 7, in New York states : 

I 9 I 5- No report has been received from the submarine which 

sunk the Falaba. According to trustworthy reports the 
submarine requested the steamer Falaba to put the passengers 
and crew in the lifeboats when other ships arrived on the 
scene. Of late the English merchant ships have frequently 
been provided with guns by the British Government, and 
have been advised to ram and otherwise attack German 
submarines. This advice has been repeatedly followed in 
order to win the promised rewards. Military necessity, 
therefore, forced the submarine to act quickly, which made 
the granting of a longer space of time and the saving of life 
impossible. 

The German Government regrets the sacrifice of human 
lives, but both British ships and neutral passengers on board 
of such ships were urgently warned, and in good time, not 
to cross the war zone. The responsibility rests with the 
British Government, which, contrary to international law, 
has inaugurated a commercial war against Germany, and, 
242 



] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

contrary to international law, has caused merchant ships to 
offer resistance. 

. 

Washington, April 7. 

Count Bernstorff yesterday issued an extraordinary state- Times, 
ment in which he justified the Falaba outrage and the death April " 
of Mr. Thrasher on the ground that British merchant ships 
are armed and that a submarine had in self-preservation to 
act quickly. Hence, if Americans persist in ignoring the 
German warning to keep out of the war zone the responsi- 
bility for their death rests ' with the British Government, 
which, contrary to international law, had inaugurated a 
commercial war against Germany, and contrary to inter- 
national law had caused merchant ships to offer armed resist- 
ance/ If, as various newspapers point out, this is really the 
view of Berlin, it means that Washington is confronted with 
a German denial of the right of Americans to traverse the 
high seas, and a refusal to heed the warning of the American 
War Zone Note that the United States would hold Germany 
to ' strict accountability ' for the loss of American lives. 



An authorised statement has been issued with reference Times, 
to the sinking of the Elder-Dempster Liner Falaba, which was April 9, 
torpedoed to the south of St. George's Channel on March 28. I 9 I 5- 
The liner sank in ten minutes, and the total number of lives 
lost, according to the list supplied by the Elder-Dempster line, 
was in. The statement is as follows : 

The Falaba was not armed. It is untrue that sufficient 
time was given for the passengers and crew to escape. The 
submarine closed the Falaba, ascertained her name, signalled 
her to stop, and gave them five minutes to take to their boats. 
It would have been nothing less than a miracle if all the 
passengers and crew of a good-sized liner had been able to 
take to the boats within the time allowed. 

While the boats were still on the davits the submarine 
fired a torpedo at the Falaba at short range. This action 
made it absolutely certain that there must be great loss of 

243 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

life, and must have been committed knowingly with the 
intention of producing that result. 

The conduct of all on board the Falaba appears to have 
been excellent, and there was no avoidable delay in getting 
out the boats. 

It is possibly true, but quite irrelevant, that a trained 
man-of-war's crew of equal numbers might have managed 
to escape in similar circumstances with less loss of life. 

To accuse the Falaba's crew of negligence under the 
circumstances could not easily be paralleled. 



Times, The following German war news is officially circulated 

April 14, through German wireless stations and received by the Marconi 
I 9 I 5- Company : 

Berlin, April 14. 
Main Headquarters report as follows : 

Re the news of the sinking of the British ship Falaba, it 
is reported from a reliable source that the Falaba refused to 
heave to, and that it drew away and even sent up rockets 
for assistance, thus exposing the submarine to danger from 
attack by ships coming to the rescue, and it also fired on the 
submarine. In spite of this the submarine did not shoot at 
once. From a distance of 530 yards the submarine ordered 
the crew to leave the ship within ten minutes. The crew 
took to the boats, but gave no help to the passengers who 
were in the water, whom they might easily have helped. 

From the time the command was given to the time the 
torpedo was fired, not ten minutes, but twenty-three minutes 
elapsed. When the shot was fired, only the captain could 
be seen on the ship, and the submarine could not take any 
passengers on board. It is a slander to say that the crew 
of the submarine laughed at the drowning victims. It is not 
necessary to answer this accusation, as at the inquiry made 
by the British Government this was not repeated. The loss 
of human lives must be blamed on England, who armed ships 
in the mercantile marine. 

The German papers generally fully approve of the re- 
taliatory measures against English officers. 

244 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



House of Commons, April 28, 1915. 

SIR J. D. REES asked the First Lord of the Admiralty Hansard. 
whether official record will be made and published of the 
circumstances attending the sinking of the Falaba ? 

The PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF TRADE (MR. RUNCIMAN) : 
My right hon. friend has asked me to reply to this question. 
A formal investigation under the Merchant Shipping Act, . 

1894, into the circumstances attending the sinking of the 
Falaba will be held as soon as possible. I am glad to be able 
to announce that Lord Mersey has consented to undertake 
the inquiry. 

SIR J. D. REES : Will it be public ? 

MR. RUNCIMAN : Subject to considerations affecting the 
public interest, I think the report will probably be made 
public. 



REPORT ON THE LOSS OF THE S.S. FALABA 
(The Merchant Shipping Acts, 1894 to 1906) 

IN THE MATTER OF the Formal Investigation held at the White 
Caxton Hall, Westminster, on the 2oth, 2ist, 27th, and Paper, 
28th May, 1915, before the Right Honourable Lord Mersey, 
Wreck Commissioner, assisted by Admiral Sir F. S. Ingle- 
field, K.C.B. ; Lieutenant-Commander Hearn ; Captain D. 
Davies ; and Captain J. Spedding, acting as Assessors, into 
the circumstances attending the loss of the steamship Falaba, 
of Liverpool, and the loss of 104 lives in or near latitude 
51 30' N., longitude 6 36' W. on the 28th March 1915. 

REPORT OF THE COURT 

The Court, having carefully inquired into the circum- 
stances of the above-mentioned shipping casualty, finds, for 
the reasons appearing in the annex hereto, that the loss of 
the said ship and lives was due to damage caused to the said 
ship by a torpedo fired by a submarine of German nationality, 
whereby the ship sank. In the opinion of the Court the act 

245 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

was done not merely with the intention of destroying the 
ship but also with the intention of sacrificing life. 

Dated this 8th day of July 1915. 

MERSEY, Wreck Commissioner. 



We concur in the above Report, 

F. S. INGLEFIELD ^ 
H. J. HEARN 
DAVID DAVIES 
JOHN SPEDDING 



^Assessors. 



ANNEX TO THE REPORT 

Introduction 

On the 3rd May 1915, the Lord Chancellor appointed a 
Wreck Commissioner under the Merchant Shipping Acts, 
and, on the i8th May, the Home Secretary appointed four 
assessors. On the 4th of May the Board of Trade required 
that a Formal Investigation of the circumstances attending 
the loss of the Falaba should be held, and the Court accordingly 
commenced to sit on the 2Oth May 1915. There were four 
public sittings, at which forty-six witnesses were examined 
and a number of documents were produced. The twenty- 
five questions formulated by the Board of Trade, which are 
set out in detail hereinafter, appear to cover all the circum- 
stances to be inquired into. 

BUILDING, OWNERSHIP, AND MANAGEMENT OF THE ' FALABA ' 

The Falaba was a screw steamer, built in the year 1906 
by Messrs. Stephens and Sons, of Glasgow, for the Elder 
Line, Limited. She was intended for the West African trade. 

Her managers were Elder, Dempster and Company, 
Limited, of which Company Mr. John Craig was (and is) the 
Liverpool managing director. His name stands on the ship's 
register as the managing owner. 

Captain William Peter Thompson is, and for seventeen 
years has been, Marine Superintendent to Elder, Dempster 
and Company. He had general authority to issue instruc- 
tions regarding the equipment of the vessel. 
246 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Dimensions and Equipment 

The Falaba was of 4806 tons gross and 3011 tons net 
register. Her length was 380 feet and her nominal horse- 
power 654. 

She was a liner fitted for passengers and cargo. 

She carried four lifeboats, numbered i, 2, 3, and 4, 
which had been built for the vessel by Messrs. Stephens and 
Sons in 1906. She also carried three other lifeboats more 
strongly built, and intended to serve as surfboats on the 
African coast. These were numbered 5, 6, and 8. Number 5 
had been built in 1911, and numbers 6 and 8 as recently as 
1913. The seven lifeboats had accommodation for 282 
persons. In addition to these lifeboats there was the 
captain's gig (No. 7), which was designed to carry 25 persons. 
Thus the boat accommodation on board was sufficient for 
307 persons. On the voyage in question the Falaba carried 
242 persons in all. 

In addition to the boats the vessel was furnished with 
12 life-buoys and 301 life-jackets, 19 of which were for 
children. 

Surveys, etc. 

On the 2ist December 1914, Mr. Thomas Miller, Board of 
Trade Surveyor of Liverpool, surveyed the Falaba for the 
purpose of enabling her to obtain a renewal of her passenger 
certificate. He gave evidence at the inquiry, and satisfied 
me that at the time of his inspection the lifeboats, the 
life-buoys, and the belts were in sound condition and fit for 
the intended service. Having completed his survey he made 
the declaration required by the Board of Trade, and on the 
faith of it the Board issued a twelve months' certificate 
dated the 22nd December 1914, by which the Falaba was 
authorised to carry 118 first-class and 72 second-class pas- 
sengers and a crew of 92, making a total of 282 persons. 

In addition to this official survey the lifebelts were 
inspected at Liverpool upon the sailing of the vessel, and at 
the same time the boats were also examined by the ship's 
carpenter and found to be in good condition. 

I am satisfied that when the Falaba started on the voyage 
in question in this inquiry the boats and the life-saving 

247 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

appliances were all in good order and condition, and complied 
with the requirements of the law. 

The Position of the Boats on leaving Liverpool 

When the Falaba left the Mersey on the 27th March 1915, 
the lifeboats were disposed as follows : Nos. i, 3, and 5 (the 
last-mentioned being a surf lifeboat) were on the starboard 
side of the boat deck ; Nos. 2, 4, and 6 (the last-mentioned 
being a surfboat) were on the port side. No. 8 (a surf life- 
boat) was on the starboard side, and the captain's gig (No. 7) 
on the port side of the poop or after boat deck. 

Nos. i, 2, 3, and 4 (the large lifeboats), and No. 7, the 
captain's gig, were swung out before the pilot left the Falaba 
on the evening of the 27th March when she sailed. The 
surf lifeboats 5, 6, and 8 were not swung out. 

The launching apparatus consisted of Welin Patent Davits. 

Boat Lists and Boat Drill 

It is the practice on the steamers of the Elder-Dempster 
Line to prepare boat lists for each voyage assigning to each 
member of the crew a particular boat to which he must go 
in case of need. This list cannot be prepared until the vessel 
has left the port of departure, for not until then is it known 
which of the crew will join the ship. Not infrequently some 
of them fail to appear. On this occasion the vessel, having 
left the dock and entered the river, began her voyage at 
6 P.M. on Saturday, the 27th March, and apparently the 
purser commenced the preparation of the boat list next 
morning at 10.30 A.M. It had not been completed at the 
time the Falaba was torpedoed as hereinafter described. But 
about one-half of the crew consisted of men who had served 
on the previous voyage. These men would know their boat 
stations, for they would retain the old stations allocated to 
them. 

Boat drill on the Elder-Dempster Line is held once a 
week, usually on the first Saturday or Sunday after the 
commencement of the voyage. The masters of the steamers 
are ordered by letter to see that the drill is repeated weekly, 
and to record it in the log. Competitions are also held 
between sailors, firemen, and stewards in swinging out, 
248 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

lowering, manning, and rowing the boats, and a money prize 
is awarded to the men of the successful boat. Particulars 
of these competitions are also entered in the log. No boat 
drill had been held on this voyage up to time when the Falaba 
was torpedoed. 

The Captain and Officers 

The Falaba was under the command of Captain Davies. 
He had been for more than twenty years in the employment 
of Elder, Dempster and Co. He lost his life when the ship 
went down. 

Of the four officers three were making a voyage in the 
Falaba for the first time. The fourth had made a previous 
voyage in her. 

Both the captain and the officers were competent and 
efficient men. 

The Crew 

The crew numbered 95. Of these 43 were old hands on 
the vessel, and the remaining 52 were new. The white 
members of the crew comprised four quartermasters, three 
A.B/s, a boatswain, a carpenter, an ordinary seaman, and 
two deck boys. There were about 18 black sailors. The 
remainder of the crew consisted of engineers, firemen, and 
stewards. About one-half of the crew lost their lives when 
the Falaba went down. The crew was, in my opinion, 
efficient. 

The Passengers 

There were 147 passengers on board, namely, 85 males 
and 7 females in the first-class, and 55 males in the second- 
class. Of these passengers, 144 were of British nationality, 
one was Danish, one Greek, and one American. There were 
no children on board. 

The Cargo 

The cargo was loaded in the Liverpool Docks. It was a 
general cargo of the ordinary kind. It included 13 tons 
of cartridges and gunpowder for Government use on the West 
Coast. This was not more than is usually carried in peace 
time. 

249 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [ B 

The Falaba unarmed 

The Falaba was not armed. She carried no means either 
of defence or of offence. 

The Torpedoing of the ' Falaba ' 

In the following narrative ship's time is given throughout. 

The Falaba started from the Mersey on her voyage to 
Sierra Leone and other West African ports at 6 P.M. on 
Saturday the 27th of March last. 

On the morning of Sunday the 28th March, Mr. Baxter, 
the chief officer, and Mr. Pengilly, the third officer, were on 
watch on the bridge. The captain was in the chart room. 

At 11.40 A.M., Mr. PengUly sighted a submarine three 
miles off and about two points abaft the starboard beam. 
She was flying what Mr. Pengilly took to be a British ensign. 
The only other craft in sight was a steam drifter, the Eileen 
Emma, which was at some distance. 

At this time the course of the Falaba was S. 36 W. by 
compass, her speed was 12 to 13 knots, and her position 
51 32' N. lat. and 6 36' W. long. She was about 60 miles 
west of St. Ann's Head. There was a choppy sea, which was 
becoming worse. 

Mr. Pengilly at once reported the submarine to Mr. Baxter, 
and he summoned the captain to the bridge. 

The captain immediately altered the course of the Falaba 
so as to get the submarine directly astern, and at the same 
time he rang up the engine-room to increase the speed. 
The best was done in the engine-room to respond to this call, 
but it was found impossible to effect any material improve- 
ment in the short time available. 

The captain then sent Baxter to instruct the Marconi 
operator to signal all stations as follows : ' Submarine over- 
hauling us. Flying British flag. 51 32', 6 36'.' This 
message was sent out at 11.50 A.M. Baxter then obtained 
a telescope, and observed that the submarine was flying a 
German ensign. It is, in my opinion, uncertain whether the 
ensign had been changed or whether the ensign already 
observed was not, in fact, a German flag. The point, how- 
ever, is not material, because from the first the captain 
believed the submarine to be an enemy craft. 

The submarine was at this time making about 18 knots, 
250 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

and was rapidly overhauling the Falaba. Shortly before 
noon she fired a detonating signal to call attention, and by 
flags signalled the Falaba to ' stop and abandon ship/ The 
Falaba did not stop, but still manoeuvred to keep the sub- 
marine astern. The submarine then signalled ' Stop, or I 
fire.' The captain and the chief officer then conferred, and 
decided that it was impossible to escape. They accordingly 
rang to the engine-room to stop the engines. The signal 
' Stop, or I fire ' was given a minute or two before noon. 
The submarine then signalled ' Abandon ship immediately/ 
and hailed through a megaphone to the Falaba to take to the 
boats as they were going ' to sink the ship in five minutes/ 
The captain answered that he was taking to the boats. The 
Marconi operator heard the hail, and sent a second message 
' Position 51 32' N., 6 36' W. torpedo going boats/ The 
warning that the submarine was going to sink the ship in 
five minutes was given as nearly as possible at noon. 

The Falaba stopped at 12.4 or 12.5 and at 12.10 the 
submarine fired a torpedo into her. At this moment the 
submarine was within about 100 yards of the Falaba. The 
torpedo struck the Falaba on the starboard side by No. 3 
hatch aft of No. I lifeboat and just alongside the Marconi 
house. 

The blow was fatal. The Falaba at once took a list to 
starboard, and in eight minutes (namely 12.18) she sank. 
This was within twenty minutes of the notice from the 
submarine of her intention to sink the ship. 

An affidavit by Mr. Baxter, the chief officer, which has been 
put in has satisfied me that no rocket or other signals were 
fired or shown from the Falaba on the 28th March. 

I do not desire, nor am I in this case required, to find 
whether the submarine was within her rights as an enemy 
craft in sinking the Falaba. But I do assume that in any 
event she was bound to afford the men and women on board 
a reasonable opportunity of getting to the boats and of 
saving their lives. This, those in charge of the submarine 
did not do. And so grossly insufficient was the opportunity 
in fact afforded, that I am driven to the conclusion that the 
captain of the submarine desired and designed not merely 
to sink the ship, but, in doing so, also to sacrifice the lives of 
the passengers and crew. 

251 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

There was evidence before me of laughing and jeering on 
board the submarine while the men and women from the 
Falaba were struggling for their lives in the water ; but I 
prefer to keep silence on this matter in the hope that the 
witness was mistaken. 

Orders to Passengers and Crew 

Between the first signal of the submarine to stop and the 
actual stopping of the Falaba the chief officer directed the 
first and second stewards to assemble the passengers on deck 
and to tell them to put on their lifebelts. The captain also 
sent the fourth officer below to see that these orders were 
carried out. 

After the engines were stopped the chief engineer and 
the third engineer ordered all men in the engine-room and 
stoke-hole on deck, and the order was obeyed. 

Orders to Man the Boats 

By the time the Falaba was stopped a large number of 
the passengers were already on the boat deck. The captain 
was on the bridge. He sent the third officer and the quarter- 
master to see to the lowering and the filling of the boats, arid 
the order to man the boats Was passed round the ship. 

The Condition of the Lifeboats when the Order to lower 

was given 

During the course of the inquiry serious complaints were 
made by some of the witnesses both as to the condition of 
the boats and as to the launching of them. These complaints 
were put forward quite honestly, although in some instances 
they came from passengers who are now preferring claims 
against the owners for compensation. I will take the charge 
against the boats first : it is the more important. It was 
said of them that they were ' rotten/ Now the four large 
life-boats, Nos. I, 2, 3, and 4, were all built in 1906 by the 
builders of the ship herself, and they had all seen exactly 
the same service. Two of them, Nos. 3 and 4, were filled 
and were got away from the Falaba safely. They were in 
the water some hours, and were instrumental in saving about 
eighty persons. One of them, No. i, was seriously damaged 
while being launched, and after reaching the water opened 
252 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

out and went adrift. The other, No. 2, was also seriously 
damaged while being launched, but she remained afloat, and, 
in fact, picked up a number of persons from the water and 
put them on board a trawler. Mr. Ralston, the naval archi- 
tect of the builders, was called before me. He satisfied me 
that the materials used in building the four boats in 1906 
were good, and the workmanship proper. He also told me 
that such boats are estimated to last fourteen or fifteen years. 

It appears that the two boats which got away safely 
(Nos. 3 and 4) were washed up on the rocks of the coast of 
Cornwall in April 1915, and were there seen and examined 
by Mr. Cotterell, the Assistant Marine Superintendent of 
Elder, Dempster and Co., on the 20th of that month. He 
found at the same time and in the same locality the captain's 
gig (No. 7) and one of the surf lifeboats (No. 8). The gig 
had been washed up on the beach, but the surfboat (No. 8) 
had been picked up at sea by a trawler and brought in to 
Padstow to be repaired. Mr. Cotterell found the four boats, 
3, 4, 7, 8, quite sound as to their timbers, but, of course, 
damaged. These four boats were again seen and examined 
in the month of May : on this occasion by Mr. Camps, a 
member of the Institute of Naval Architects, who had been 
sent for the* purpose to Cornwall by the owners. When 
Mr. Camps arrived he found that another of the surfboats, 
namely, No. 6, had been washed up on the rocks, so that 
he was able to examine five of the boats Nos. 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8. 
He gave me a description of the damage sustained by each 
of these boats. It was all damage attributable to rough 
usage of one kind or another. The timbers were in all cases 
quite sound. As to Nos. 3, 4, and 6, the structural damage 
was probably due to contact with the rocks. No. 7 (the 
gig) was not badly damaged, and was quite repairable. No. 8 
had a hole smashed into her side two feet square. This hole 
Mr. Camps ascribes to the boat having been rammed against 
the side of the Falaba by the force of the explosion of the 
torpedo, and I am of opinion that he is right. 

I recall that all the lifeboats (seven) were surveyed at 
Liverpool by the Board of Trade surveyor as recently as 
December 1914, and also that they were examined at the 
commencement of the voyage in question by Captain 
Thompson, the Marine Superintendent of the owners, and 

253 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

found on both occasions to be in good condition and fit for 
the intended service. 

It also appears that a sister ship to the Falaba namely, 
the Elmira, was built by Messrs. Stephens and Sons, of 
Glasgow, at the same time as the Falaba, and was provided 
with lifeboats similar to those furnished to the Falaba. 
Those boats have been examined by Mr. Camps within the 
last few days, and have been found quite sound. This evi- 
dence of skilled and apparently careful men satisfies me that 
the witnesses who describe the boats as having been ' rotten ' 
are mistaken, and that, in truth, the boats were sound and 
in good order up to the time of the attack by the submarine. 

What, however, the witnesses probably mean when they 
say the boats were rotten is that when afloat some of them 
were found to be unseaworthy. And this, no doubt, is true. 
But this condition of things was, in my opinion, wholly due 
to the damage sustained by the boats after the operation of 
launching began, and not to any previous defect. Upon the 
subject of the launching, it is, therefore, necessary to say a 
few words. It is to be remembered that the submarine had 
given the Falaba only about five minutes in which to man, to 
fill, and to launch these boats : in which, in short, to save 
the lives of 242 persons. This was an operation quite in- 
capable of efficient performance in anything like that short 
space of time. There was unavoidable hurry and disorder ; 
the falls of one of the boats slipped ; the falls of another 
jammed ; some boats were dashed against the side of the 
ship and damaged ; one (No. 8) was seriously injured by the 
explosion of the torpedo while still hanging from the davits. 
It is in these circumstances that some of the witnesses appa- 
rently desire me to find that the damage done to the boats 
was due to the neglect of the officers and crew in connection 
with the launching. I cannot do this. I have no doubt 
that had there been more time for the work it might have 
been better carried out, but, in my opinion, all on board, 
captain, officers, crew, and passengers, did their very best. 
People were fighting for their lives and for the lives of others 
about them, and in the struggle the captain, half the crew, 
and a large number of the passengers were drowned. It is 
impossible for me to fix any man on board the ship with a 
failure of duty or with incompetence. The responsibility for 
254 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the consequences of this catastrophe must rest exclusively 
with the officers and crew of the German submarine. 

The Deaths 

Out of the 242 persons on board, 138 were saved and 104 
were lost. Those lost were made up of 57 of the passengers 
and of 47 of the crew. 

The Drifter ' Eileen Emma ' and the Trawlers 
Most of the people saved were picked up from the water 

or taken from the boats by the master and crew of the Eileen 

Emma, a drifter. 

Others were taken on board the trawlers Orient II., 

Wenlock, George Baker, and Emulate, which arrived on the 

scene after the Falaba had sunk. 

The men on board all those five fishing boats behaved 

with great courage and kindness, and deserve the highest 

commendation . 

FINDING OF THE COURT 

It is now convenient to answer the twenty-five questions 
submitted by the Board of Trade. 

i. When the S.S. Falaba left Liverpool on the 27th March 
last : (a) What was the total number of persons employed in 
any capacity on board her, and what were their respective 
ratings ? (b) What was the total number of her passengers, 
distinguishing sexes and classes and discriminating 'between 
adults and children ? 
Answer : 

(a) The total number of persons employed in any 
capacity on board the Falaba was 95. 
Their ratings were : 

Master and 5 deck officers . 6 

6 engineers .... 6 
12 deck hands . . . .12 
2 pursers .... 2 

14 firemen and 7 trimmers . 21 

OX c + ^vtiro-r/-^ o-nrl T c-f-oixro-rrlocc O Cf 



14 nremen and 7 trimmers > 21 
34 stewards and i stewardess . 35 
i Marconi operator and 2 clerks 3 
Cooks, etc. . . . .10 



Total . . 95 

255 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(b) The total number of passengers was 147. Of 
these : 

Male. 

ist Class . . 85 

2nd Class . . 55 




Of the above, none were children. 

2. Before leaving Liverpool on the 27th March last, did 
the Falaba comply with the requirements of the Merchant 
Shipping Acts, 1894 to 1906, and the Rules and Regulations 
made thereunder with regard to the safety and otherwise 
of passenger steamers ? Answer : Yes. 

3. Was the S.S. Falaba sufficiently officered and manned ? 
Answer : Yes. 

4. (a) What was the number of boats of any kind on 
board the S.S. Falaba ? (b) Were the arrangements for 
manning and launching the boats on board the Falaba in 
case of emergency proper and sufficient ? (c) What was the 
carrying capacity of the respective boats ? (d) Had a boat 
drill been held on board before the vessel left Liverpool, and, 
if so, when ? 

Answer : 

(a) 4 lifeboats. 

3 surf lifeboats, 
i captain's gig. 

(b) Yes. 

(c) The carrying capacity of the 4 lifeboats and the 

3 surf lifeboats was for 282 persons. Captain's 
gig was for 25 persons, or a total of 307 persons. 

(d) No, but see p. 248 above. 

5. What number of life-jackets for adults and children 
and life-buoys did the vessel carry ? Where were they kept, 
and were they fit and ready for use when the vessel left 
Liverpool ? 

Answer : 

The number of life-jackets was 301, of which 19 
were for children. The number of life-buoys was 12. 
Yes. 

6. Were any, and if so how many, and which, of the boats 
256 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

carried swung out-board on leaving Liverpool ? Answer : 
The 4 large lifeboats (Nos. i, 2, 3, and 4) and the captain's 
gig (No. 7) were swung out before the pilot left the Falaba 
on the evening of 27th March. 

7. At what time on March 28th last was the German 
submarine first sighted by those on board the Falaba, and 
what were the approximate positions of the two vessels at 
that time ? Were any other vessels in sight at this time, 
and if so what were they, and what were their relative posi- 
tions as regards the S.S. Falaba and the German submarine ? 

Answer : 

The submarine was first sighted at 11.40 A.M. 

The position of the Falaba was approximately 51 32' 

N. latitude and 6 36" W. longitude. 
The position of the submarine was three miles off the 

Falaba and about two points abaft the starboard 

beam. 
The only other vessel in sight was a steam drifter, 

the. Eileen Emma, which was at some distance from 

the Falaba and astern of the submarine. 

8. What flag or flags were being displayed by the Falaba 
at the time the German submarine was first sighted and 
thereafter ? Answer : None. 

9. What flag or flags (if any) were displayed or shown 
by the German submarine (a) At the time she was first sighted, 
(b) At any time thereafter ? Did the German submarine 
carry any distinguishing number or marks by which her 
identity could be established ? 

Answer : 

(a) A white ensign, but see p. 250 above. 

[b) The German white ensign. 

No distinguishing number or marks were observed. 
IO; What signals were made by the German submarine ? 
At what times were they made ? Was any answer made by 
the S.S. Falaba to such signals ? Answer : See p. 251 
above. 

11. At what time were the engines of the Falaba stopped ? 
Answer : One minute or two before noon. 

12. How near to the Falaba did the submarine approach ? 
Were any verbal directions or messages given by any one 
on board her to the Falaba ? If so, what were they ? What 
NAVAL 4 R 257 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

answer (if any) was made to them by any one on board the 
Falaba. 
Answer : 

One hundred yards. 

Yes. The submarine hailed through a megaphone to 
the Falaba to take to the boats as they were going 
to sink the ship in five minutes. 

The captain of the Falaba answered that he was taking 
to the boats. 

13. What orders, if any, were given by the master of the 
Falaba after sighting the German submarine as to sending 
out wireless messages from his vessel ? What wireless 
messages were, in fact, sent out from the Falaba, and at 
what times were they sent out ? 

Answer : 

See pp. 250, 251 above. 

The message ' Submarine overhauling us. Flying 

British flag. 51 32', 6 36V was sent at 11.50 A.M. 
The second message, ' Position 51 32' N., 6 36' W., 

torpedo going boats ' was sent about noon. 

14. Was the Falaba sunk by a torpedo fired by a German 
submarine ? Answer : Yes. 

15. At what time and from what distance away was the 
torpedo fired by the German submarine ? At the time the 
torpedo was fired had all the crew and passengers of the 
Falaba left the ship in the boats ? Were those on board the 
German submarine in a position to see clearly the position 
of affairs on board the Falaba at the time the torpedo was 
fired ? What other ships (if any) were in the vicinity of the 
Falaba at the time the torpedo was fired ? 

Answer : 

About 100 yards. 

No. 

Yes. 

The steam-drifter Eileen Emma, see p. 250 above. 

16. Where did the torpedo strike the Falaba ? When it 
exploded what was the result (a) to the ship, (b) to any of 
her boats which were being, or about to be lowered, (c) to any 
passengers and crew then in the boats or in the water near 
the ship or on the ship ? 

258 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Answer : 

The torpedo struck the Falaba on the starboard side 
by No. 3 hatch aft of No. I lifeboat and along- 
side the Marconi house. 

(a) The Falaba at once took a list to starboard and 

sank in eight minutes. 

(b) See pp. 253, 254 above. 

(c) No evidence, but a surmise by witness Bathgate 

that the concussion killed some of the people 
in the boats or in the water. 

17. For how long after firing the torpedo did the German 
submarine remain in the vicinity of the Falaba ? Did those 
on board her make any effort to render assistance in saving 
life ? If not, could they have done so ? 

Answer : 

Till the Falaba sank. 

No. 

Probably not, without endangering the submarine. 

18. For how long after being struck by the torpedo did 
the Falaba remain afloat ? Answer : Eight minutes. 

19. When were orders given by the Master of the Falaba 
to get out the boats and leave the ship ? Were such orders 
promptly carried out and was proper discipline maintained ? 
Were the boats swung out filled, lowered, or otherwise put 
into the water and got away under proper superintendence ? 

Answer : 

About noon and after the order to stop the engines. 

Yes. 

Yes. 

20. How many and which boats were successfully lowered 
and sent away ? What number of (a) Crew, (b) Passengers 
were in each of these boats ? To how many and which boats 
did accidents happen whilst they were being got out or 
being lowered or when in the water ? What were the nature 
and causes of such accident ? What number of passengers 
and crew were in each boat at the time ? What loss of life 
(if any) occurred by reason of the accidents to these boats ? 

Answer : 

Lifeboats Nos. 3 and 4 ; see p. 252 above. 
See pp. 253, 254 above. 

259 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

21. Were all the boats efficient and serviceable for the 
purpose of saving life ? Answer : Yes. 

22. Before firing the torpedo, what time was given by 
the Commander of the German submarine to the Master of 
the Falaba to get all on board into the boats and leave the 
ship safely ? Was such time reasonable ? Answer : See 
p. 251 above. 

23. How many persons on board the Falaba on the 
occasion in question were saved, and by what means ? What 
was the number of passengers, distinguishing between men 
and women and adults and children of the first and second 
class respectively, who were saved ? What was the number 
of the crew, discriminating their ratings and sexes, who 
were saved ? 

Answer : 

138 persons were saved ; of whom 90 were passengers, 

of whom 6 were females. 
No evidence of class of survivors. 
Of the crew, there were 48 survivors, of whom all 

were males. 

24. What was the cause of the loss of the S.S. Falaba 
and the loss of life ? Answer : Damage to the Falaba caused 
by a torpedo fired by a German submarine, whereby the 
ship sank. 

25. Is blame attributable to Mr. John Craig, Registered 
Manager, Mr. William Peter Thompson, Marine Superin- 
tendent, and Mr. Walter Campbell Baxter, Chief Officer, or 
to any, and, if so, which of them ? Answer : No. 



WAR WORK IN THE BALTIC THEATRE 

Communique of the Russian Naval General Staff 

Novoe With the approach of spring public interest in the opera- 

Vremya, tions in the naval theatres of Northern Europe and in the 

March situation which has come into existence during eight months 

I 9 I 5 ' ^ war ' ^ as na ^ ura ^y increased. Leaving aside the situation 

in the Western theatre, where the influence of Russian naval 

power is not exerted directly, we deem it timely now to 

260 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

trace in general outlines the situation as it appears in the 
Eastern naval theatre. Unfortunately the moment has not 
yet arrived for entire frankness. Much as before must 
remain secret, because among that which has passed is an 
entire series of events connecting us with that which is 
occurring and will occur in the future. Experience of the 
war has clearly confirmed the necessity for the observation 
of secrecy in war operations under modern conditions ; espe- 
cially in war operations at sea, and especially for the weaker 
opponent, such as the Russian fleet undoubtedly is in com- 
parison with that of Germany. Nevertheless, while keeping 
secret everything necessary, we may now depict the existing 
situation in its general form. Seeing that the problems, 
forces, and resources of the antagonists, as they were at the 
moment of the outbreak of war, are known, so, in order to 
present the situation, it will be most convenient cautiously 
to give a review of what has taken place in the Baltic Sea 
since the beginning of the war. 

During the first month of the war the German fleet con- 
fined itself to observation of our fleet. The Germans did not 
know what the English would undertake, and therefore, 
fearing an attack on their rear, did not risk moving their 
main forces to the East. This circumstance gave us time to 
put the occupied region into a defensive position and move 
forward the line of defence. The entire region of the fleet's 
operations was mined and declared closed to navigation. 
After we had occupied a firm position, several units of our 
fleet began to develop operations near the coast of the enemy. 
Scouting vessels, which put to sea on several occasions, dis- 
covered the enemy's whereabouts, when his light cruisers, of 
a weaker type than ours, invariably avoided an engagement 
and retired, taking advantage of their superior speed. Thus 
on July 29th (August nth) one of the Russian scouts en- 
countered two of the enemy's cruisers and two torpedo-boats 
in the latitude of Gothland Island. The affair took place at 
night, and the German vessels, increasing their speed, escaped 
in the darkness. On August 2Oth (September 2nd) the Oleg 
and Bogatyr, west of Libau, tried to pursue two light cruisers, 
but the latter, without allowing them to come within range, 
escaped to the south. In August the enemy once attempted 
to penetrate beyond the line of our defence, which he suc- 

261 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ceeded in doing, thanks to the fog. However, the same fog 
served as the cause of the loss of one of the German ships ; 
the cruiser Magdeburg, as we know, at this time ran on a rock 
and was destroyed by us. At the same period several result- 
less skirmishes occurred between our vessels and the enemy. 
The cruiser Augsburg shelled a trawling party which was 
working south-west of Gange (?) with the object of finding 
and demolishing the German obstructions, where before this 
two Dutch merchant steamers had been blown up. The 
Augsburg did not succeed in her intention, and ceased firing 
on the trawlers as soon as she noticed the smoke of the 
approaching torpedo-boat Voiskovoy. While retiring west- 
ward she fell in with the cruiser Admiral Makarov, but, thanks 
to her great speed, the Augsburg escaped destruction, though 
during the exchange of fire, which developed at very long 
range, she apparently sustained damage to her rudder. On 
August 24th (September 6th) the cruiser Pallada, which was 
on patrol duty, came under the fire of the armoured cruiser 
Blucher ; the latter, though possessing a considerably stronger 
armament (twelve 8.2-in. guns against two 8-in. guns of the 
Pallada) avoided an engagement, availing herself of her speed 
of 25 knots against our cruiser's 21 knots, and did not ap- 
proach within range of the Pallada's fire. 

On August 24th (September 6th) for the first time con- 
siderable forces of the enemy appeared in the northern part 
of the Baltic Sea. They comprised from five to seven battle- 
ships of an old type ; three armoured cruisers, several other 
cruisers, and two torpedo flotillas. The strength of the enemy 
exceeded ours, which consisted of four battleships of the line 
and five armoured cruisers. Vessels were despatched to the 
support of the attacked Pallada, but, after cruising about 
two days, they did not discover the enemy. At this time the 
cruiser Augsburg was attacked by our submarine Akula, but 
against her the Germans sent their torpedo-boats, and the 
Akula was forced to retreat, having accomplished, it should 
be said, a voyage under water under extraordinarily arduous 
conditions. The German squadron on this occasion confined 
itself only to the destruction of the lighthouse Bogsher, while 
light cruisers entering the Gulf of Bothnia destroyed the 
steamer Uleaborg. 

Having received information about the emergence of our 
262 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

forces, the German squadron at night fell in with its own 
torpedo-boats, and, taking them for Russians, opened fire, 
damaging as many as eight of its own ships. Having learnt 
that the enemy had gone to sea south of Vindau, our squadron 
returned, inasmuch as a battle with the enemy near his own 
shores obviously did not enter into our plans ; under such 
conditions it would have been easy to lose even a slightly 
injured vessel, whose return to her base the Germans would 
have been able to cut off, while it was highly undesirable 
to lose ships, taking into consideration the weakness of our 
forces. 

At the beginning of September the second phase of the 
war was entered upon. The German fleet undertook demon- 
strative movements off our south coast, these movements 
bearing the character of preparation for a landing. The 
enemy carried out soundings, reconnoitred the coast, shelled 
the lighthouses Steinort and Bakhofen. At Bakhofen was 
situated our observation post, which, on the approach of the 
German torpedo-boats, opened fire ; one officer and two men 
were killed on the torpedo-boat. Meeting with resistance 
the enemy rapidly withdrew, without having inflicted on us 
any material damage, and having only slightly wounded one 
man. On October nth (October 24th) the Germans 
approached Vindau with a squadron accompanied by trans- 
ports. Our torpedo-boats were despatched to the spot of 
the proposed landing, but the main forces of the Germans 
had already withdrawn, and our torpedo-boats came into 
collision with the German torpedo-boats, which avoided an 
engagement and escaped in the darkness. 

Having in this manner discovered the activity of our 
fleet in the southern part of the Baltic, the enemy from the 
end of September changed his plan of action, and began to 
direct his chief efforts to the task of hampering our activity 
with his submarines. 

The first attack took place on September 27th (October 
loth), when a submarine, hiding behind a laiba (Finnish bark), 
assaulted the cruiser Admiral Makarov. On the following 
day the Pallada was attacked and sunk. The" activity of 
the German submarines proved far from being so successful 
as many thought at first. For one successful attack there 
occurred an enormous number of failures. We will take as 

263 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

an example the attacks for two months from the time of the 
first attack on the Matiarov. On September 2yth (October 
loth) the Makarov was attacked. On September 28th 
(October nth) the Pallada. On September 3oth (October 
I3th) our submarines were attacked. On September 3rd 
(September i6th), September I5th (September 28th), and 
September 2ist (October 4th) attacks were made on our 
torpedo-boats. On September 2ist (October 4th) submarines 
attacked the Bogatyr. On the 22nd September (October 5th) 
and September 24th (October yth) two torpedo-boats were 
attacked ; then a group of torpedo-boats ; then one torpedo- 
boat. On October 24th (November 6th) two submarines, 
ours and a German, unsuccessfully attacked one another. 
On November 4th (November iyth) a submarine tried to 
attack the Steregushchi, which in her turn was preparing to 
ram it. On November gth (November 22nd) the Inzhener 
Mekhanik Dmitriev was attacked, and also rammed a sub- 
marine. On November 24th (December 7th) a torpedo-boat 
was twice attacked. On November 28th (December nth) 
there were two attacks on the cruiser Bogatyr. On November 
28th (December nth) the Bobr was attacked. Thus for two 
months there were nineteen attacks by submarines, of which 
in nine cases the torpedoes did not reach the target ; in nine 
cases the submarines could not even discharge their tor- 
pedoes ; and only in one case did the attack prove successful, 
whereas the submarines suffered very materially. One of 
them was destroyed by the artillery of the Bayan ; another 
of the newest type was rammed by the torpedo-boat Letuchi, 
one on September 28th (October nth) was blown up on our 
mines, and two more also probably perished on mines. The 
failure of the German submarine operations is all the more 
notable, in that the Russian fleet, precisely at this time, 
having completed the preparation of the region for its opera- 
tions in the north of the Baltic Sea, was intensively develop- 
ing its movements off the enemy's coasts. Thus it appears 
that conflict with submarines proved quite possible, given 
the observation of certain measures perfected by practice. 
Submarines embarrass an enemy fleet, but they cannot 
positively hinder it. 

The operations undertaken by the Russian fleet off the 
enemy's coast must not yet be revealed. However, it may 
264 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

be openly said that their result was not slow to reflect on the 
activity of the foe, who sustained very material losses in 
ships and saw his movements along his own coasts severely 
hampered, because he lost here several transports with 
military freight. 

In conclusion, we may point out that for the time that 
has expired, the Russian fleet to a considerable degree has 
strengthened and prepared for encounter with the enemy the 
region on which it rests ; it has acquired the most valuable 
material experience for conflict with new technical means, 
and has not only not been weakened but, on the contrary, 
has been extraordinarily strengthened in its composition. 

RUSSIAN BOMBARDMENT OF THE BOSPHORUS 

(Official.) 

Petrograd, March 29. 

The Black Sea Fleet yesterday bombarded the outside forts Times, 
and batteries of the Bosphorus on both sides of the Straits. March 30, 
According to observations made from the ships and hydro- 
planes, the shells fell with exactitude. 

The Russian aviators flying above the Bosphorus batteries 
carried out reconnaissances and dropped bombs with success. 
A heavy artillery fire was poured on to the aviators, but 
without success. The enemy's torpedo-boats which tried to 
come out were driven back into the Straits by the fire of. our 
guns. 

A large hostile four-masted ship, which was trying to get 
into the Bosphorus from seaward, was bombarded by us. She 
finally heeled over and blew up. 



Petrograd, March 31. 

An official communique issued to-night says : 

Fog in the region of the Bosphorus on March 29, 30, and 
31 prevented our warships from continuing the bombardment. 

Our fleet bombarded Zunguldak, Kozlu, Kilimli, and 
Eregli (70 or 80 miles east of the Bosphorus), and destroyed 
once more the buildings which the Turks had repaired after 
the previous bombardments. 

We also sank a steamer and many sailing ships laden with 

265 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Times, 
April i, 



K.V., 

March 30, 



Times, 
April i, 



coal. In spite of a very sharp fusillade our aviators dropped 
bombs from seaplanes. Renter. 



(Official) 

Petrograd, March 30. 

On the morning of March 29 our fleet approached the 
outer fortifications of the Bosphorus, but could not continue 
the bombardment owing to the fog which shrouded the 
coasts. One of our smaller ships exchanged shots with a 
destroyer from the Turkish squadron, which made off at full 
speed for the Bosphorus after the first shots. 

The statement published in the Vossische Zeitung that a 
Russian General was on board the Russian cruiser Askold 
with the mission to keep a watch over the operation of the 
British and French fleets in the Dardanelles is one of the 
numerous canards which the Germans are inventing with 
the sole purpose of creating a breach in the camp of the 
Allies. It would be useless to deny this fresh lie, for, without 
a denial, this invention did not attain its desired object. It 
will be estimated at its true value by European opinion. 



Constantinople. 

After ten days of almost complete quiet the enemy fleet 
recently renewed the bombardment of the villages near the 
outer Dardanelles forts, the occupation of which by the 
English landing corps had failed on March 4. Apart from 
this the Allied squadron displayed no activity beyond the 
daily reconnoitring flights by enemy airmen. It is evidently 
awaiting reinforcements. 



Berlin, March 31. 

Reports from Constantinople state that the first bombard- 
ment of the Bosphorus by the Russian Black Sea Fleet, 
glorified by the Russian Admiralty, consisted of 128 shots 
fired at three small cottages 17 kilometres (io|- miles) from 
the fortifications, which did not reply. 

Field-Marshal von der Goltz has informed the Sofia corre- 
spondent of the Corriere delta Sera that, during the defence 
against the bombardment of the Dardanelles, the Turkish 
266 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

middle artillery, which constantly and quickly changed 
positions, proved itself to be excellent. 

At the last meeting of the Bulgarian Chamber, Radoslavoff 
stated that a Balkan State Federation is impossible in conse- 
quence of the incompatibility of interests. German Wireless. 



Amsterdam, March 31. 

The following official communique from the Army Head- 
quarters is published in Constantinople to-day : 

The Russian fleet, after bombarding Zunguldak, Eregli, 
and Kozlu, on the Black Sea coast, with 2000 shells, without 
doing any important damage, disappeared in a northerly 
direction. Several aeroplanes ascending from the Russian 
ships were driven back by the Turkish airmen. 

The situation in the Dardanelles and other theatres of 
war remains unchanged. Renter. 



FRENCH ATTACK ON A GERMAN SUBMARINE 

Ministry of Marine, Paris, March 31. 

Yesterday afternoon a vessel of the flotilla of the Second Times, 
French Light Squadron off Dieppe saw a German submarine April i, 
moving on the surface. I 9 I 5- 

The French vessel instantly started in pursuit and forced 
the submarine to dive. 

She then shelled her periscope and manoeuvred to ram her. 

She passed over the submarine at the moment when the 
periscope was disappearing, and noticed that a large amount 
of oil was floating at that spot. 



RECENT SUBMARINE CONFLICTS 

On March 22 about noon the British steamer Southport c.O., 
was torpedoed by a German submarine in the neighbourhood April 3, 
of the Royal Sovereign lightship. I 9 I 5- 

In the afternoon of March 28 the British steamer Brussels 
encountered near the Maas lightship a large German sub- 

267 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

marine which ordered her to stop. The Brussels made for 
the submarine at full speed, and the latter hastily dived. It 
is not known if she was sunk. 

On March 29 the British steamer Flaminian was torpedoed 
and sunk, her crew being saved by a Danish steamer. 



London. 

K.V., Renter's Agency reports : The steamer Crown of Castille 

April i, was on her way from Newfoundland to Havre. When a 

I 9 I 5- submarine came in sight the captain called for volunteers as 

stokers, the Chinese stokers being so frightened that they 

were unable to do any work. The steamer was hoping to 

escape the submarine, but after a chase lasting three-quarters 

of an hour, the cabin and bridge were struck by shots. The 

crew received half an hour's time to leave the ship. After 

rowing about for six hours they were saved. It took the 

Germans two hours to sink the steamer with shots. 



London. 

ibid. Report from Renter's Agency : The steamer Emma from- 

Havre was torpedoed yesterday off Beachy Head without 
previous warning. The ship sank immediately. Out of the 
crew of nineteen men, seventeen are said to be drowned. 



LIBAU BOMBARDED 

C.O., On the evening of March 28 German warships approached 

April 3, Libau and fired 200 rounds at that town. 



Petrograd, March 30. 

Times, A despatch from the General Staff of the Commander-in- 

March 31, Chief says : 

I 9 I 5- On the evening of the 28th German warships approaching 

Libau fired 200 shells on the town, killing one peaceful in- 
habitant and wounding another. No soldier was hit. 



268 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



THE JAPANESE NAVY 

The following account of the condition of the Japanese Navy, 
and of the activities of the Fleet during the War, was specially 
prepared by the Japanese Admiralty for publication in the 
Japanese Section of l The Times,' which appeared on 
September 2, 1916. It is printed here because the narrative it 
contains of the activities of the Japanese Fleet during the War 
is not continued beyond me month of March 1915, although 
later dates are to be found in the section relating to con- 
struction and finance. As the whole article was translated 
and revised at the Japanese Embassy in London, the ortho- 
graphy of proper names mentioned in it has been left as 
settled by that authority. 

In the months of July and August 1914, when a lowering 
war cloud hung menacingly over Europe, Japan maintained 
an attitude of strict neutrality. Hence the movements of 
her Navy were mainly restricted to guarding her coasts, 
protecting maritime trade, and carrying out the measures 
necessary for the maintenance of her neutrality. Towards 
the latter part of August, however, she broke off diplomatic 
relations with Germany and Austria, and for the first time 
entered into a state of war with the Central European Powers 
a circumstance still vivid in our memory. 

Strictly speaking, the national policy of the Far Eastern 
Island Empire has always been the maintenance of peace in 
the East. That policy has never undergone any change, and 
never will. Nevertheless, at the outbreak of the terrible 
hostilities between the Great Powers of Europe the action of 
Germany had compelled our Ally, Great Britain, to declare 
war against that country. Even at Kiao-Chau (Tsing-Tau), 
Germany's leased colony in China, all possible warlike pre- 
parations had arduously been made by the Germans. The 
incessant movements of her warships in all parts of the 
Eastern Seas had become a serious menace to the international 
trade of Japan and of other friendly Powers. 

The peace of the Far East was at this moment in the 
greatest possible danger. Free and frank consultation took 
place between Japan and Great Britain, with the result that 
the two Powers agreed to take such measures as were essential 

269 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to the protection of their joint interests, in accordance with 
the provisions of their Alliance. First, the Japanese Govern- 
ment approached the German Government with moderate 
advice. On the refusal of the latter Japan found herself 
unavoidably involved in the present war under the terms of 
her Treaty of Alliance with Great Britain. The actual con- 
ditions which obliged Japan to enter into war with Germany 
were clearly, though tersely, set forth in the Declaration of 
War made by the Japanese Emperor. 

Thus it was that in the present war the Japanese Navy 
entered the contest in strict accordance with international 
law, and with a view to securing by its valour the righteous 
objects which have ever been pursued by the Land of the 
Rising Sun. 

We now propose to give the summary of activities of our 
Navy since the beginning of war. But first let us remind 
our readers of one fact which it would be unfair to leave un- 
noticed namely, that, the sole ground of Japan's participa- 
tion in this terrific war being that already mentioned, the 
plan of operations of the Japanese Navy was arrived at in 
consultation with the chiefs of the British Navy. Conse- 
quently the general movements of our Fleet were, and still 
are, whenever necessary, carried out in conjunction with the 
British Navy. 

I. NAVAL ACTION AT KIAO-CHAU 

Directly after the declaration of war by Japan on August 
23, 1914, the main force of the First Japanese Fleet, led by 
the Commander-in-Chief, Vice-Admiral Tomosaburoh Kato 
(now Admiral and Minister of Marine), was despatched to the 
region extending from the Yellow Sea to the northern part 
of the Eastern Sea, for the purpose of searching for and ward- 
ing off any attacks by the hostile squadron. The battleships 
Kawachi, Aki, and Satsuma were under the direct command 
of Admiral Tomosaburoh Kato, a light cruiser squadron con- 
sisting of Yahagi, Hirado, Niitaka, and Kasagi was placed 
under Rear-Admiral Tetsuzo Tsuchiya, while the Otowa, 
together with four destroyer flotillas, were led by Rear- 
Admiral Hidesiro Fujimoto. Meanwhile, the Second Japanese 
Fleet, under the command of Vice-Admiral Sadakichi Kato 
270 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(at present Chief of the Educational Department of the 
Japanese Navy), hastened simultaneously to the open sea 
outside Tsing-Tau and began the attack on that German 
stronghold. The official declaration of the blockade was 
issued on August 27, 1914. Captain Hubert G. Brand, Naval 
Attache to the British Embassy, Tokyo, took part in the 
operation as one of the staff officers of the Japanese Admiral. 
The British battleship Triumph and the destroyer Usk were 
both placed under the command of the Second Japanese 
Fleet, and thus took part in the operation. 

At this time the main body of the enemy's Eastern Fleet 
was playing hide-and-seek among the South Sea Islands, 
while the rest of their vessels sought safety under the guns 
of the Tsing-Tau Fortress not daring to steam out of port. 
In presence of this situation the Japanese Navy steadily and 
watchfully awaited the further development of the chances 
of war. At the end of August 1914, the first transport of 
the Japanese besieging army started for Tsing-Tau, the 
First Japanese Fleet securely convoying it through the South 
Korean Seas in conjunction with a portion of the Second 
Fleet, which took upon itself the duty of safeguarding navi- 
gation in the direction of the Yellow Sea. Either directly 
or indirectly the Navy assisted the Army transports to reach 
their destination without any hitch. Subsequently a part of 
the Second Fleet, consisting of the cruisers Chitos6, Chiyoda, 
and Akitsusima, under Rear- Admiral Ohsuke Kamimura, 
together with the Japanese Port Arthur Squadron, assisted 
the landing of the besieging army at a certain point in the 
vicinity of Tsing-Tau. 

Meanwhile the Second Japanese Fleet, under the Com- 
mander-in-Chief, Admiral Kato, who led the Suwoh, Iwami, 
Tango, Okinosima, and Minosima, accompanied by another 
force consisting of the Iwate, Tokiwa, Yakumo, Triumph, and 
Usk, under Vice- Admiral Tochinai, and strengthened by the 
torpedo flotilla, the Tone, and three destroyer flotillas, as 
well as a specially commissioned flotilla, were all concen- 
trated in the direction of Kiao-Chau ; and kept the strictest 
watch over the enemy by day and night. Having forced 
the main body of the German Fleet deep within the port, a 
force was despatched to sea, notwithstanding the greatest 
risk of terrific storms, to clear the way for the transport of 

271 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the second part of the besieging army by clearing the seas 
of mines, etc. Furthermore, the Japanese Naval Aeronautical 
Squadron was sent up repeatedly, and hovered above the 
danger zone of the hostile fortifications, with a view to recon- 
noitring the condition of the enemy's forces. The Takachiho, 
the special-commissioned boat, had succeeded in cutting the 
enemy's maritime cables which connected them with the 
outside world, and thereby rendered help in furthering the 
warlike operations. 

In the middle of September 1914, when the second trans- 
portation of the Japanese troops took place, the First Fleet 
had again resumed the task of convoying it. The landing of 
troops at Laoshan Bay had been effected chiefly through 
the assistance given by the Kamimura Division as well as 
that of the Port Arthur Squadron. The main force of the 
Second Fleet had, from September 28 onwards, together with 
its mine-sweeping work, co-operated with the besieging army 
in the repeated bombardments of the German forts. At 
the same time it assisted the Kamimura Division as well as 
the Okada squadron in rendering the blockade more and 
more effective. The Naval Heavy Guns Section, which had 
already joined the besieging army in the neighbourhood of 
Tsing-Tau, had most successfully commenced the bombard- 
ment of the hostile squadron, bottled up inside the^port since 
October 14 a bombardment which seriously handicapped 
the preconceived plans of the German warships. Subse- 
quently it gave substantial help, in co-operation with the 
Army, in the tremendous attacks against the very strong 
German positions. 

On the completion of the preparations about the end of 
October 1914, for the attack on the Tsing-Tau fortresses the 
Second Japanese Fleet began a severe cannonade from the 
2gth against the German forts and camps, and joined in the 

general assault of the besieging army which commenced on 
ctober 31. Upon the surrender of the enemy on November 
7, 1914, en bloc, the blockade was raised by a proclamation 
of November 10, thereby bringing to a conclusion the Japanese 
operations in this direction. 

In these operations the Japanese Navy lost the following 
vessels : The cruiser Takachiho, Sirataye, a destroyer, tor- 
pedo-boat No. 33, the specially commissioned steamers the 
272 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Chohmoh-Maru III. and VI., as well as the Kohyoh- 
Maru. 

The following enemy warships were either sunk or severely 
damaged : The cruiser Kaiserin Elisabeth, five gunboats, and 
two destroyers. 

* 

II. THE EASTERN AND CHINA SEAS 

Directly after the outbreak of the war the Third Japanese 
Squadron, comprising the Tsusima, Mogami, Yodo, Saga, 
Uji, Sumida, Toba, and Fusimi, under Rear-Admiral Mitsu- 
kane Tsuchiya (now Vice- Admiral), was entrusted with the pro- 
tection of sea-borne commerce in the region extending from 
the southern part of the Eastern Sea to the China Sea. As 
the war developed it extended its vigil as far as the east of 
Luzon Island, and at the same time it undertook the main- 
tenance of communications between the different operating 
squadrons. But, as the enemy warships were completely 
driven from the Eastern Seas by the beginning of November, 
1914, the Third Japanese Squadron was after that date given 
the task of keeping watch over the German vessels. 

Meanwhile during February 1915, a serious disturbance 
had taken place among the Indian troops in Singapore. At 
the request of Vice- Admiral Jerram, the Commander-m- 
Chief of the British Eastern Fleet, the Commander of the 
Third Japanese Squadron landed at Singapore marine troops 
drawn from the crews of the Tsusima and Otowa, and thus 
rendered special help in suppressing the disturbances in con- 
junction with the combined troops of the English Army and 
Navy. It is further reported that some of the troops landed 
from the French warship Montcalm and the Russian con- 
verted cruiser A riol had also co-operated in suppressing the 
disturbances. 

Subsequently Rear-Admiral Tsuchiya was transferred to 
another post, Vice-Admiral Takarabe succeeding him as 
Commander of the Third Squadron. The latter was also 
transferred later on, his successor being Vice-Admiral Kakuichi 
Kamimura. Part of this squadron is now performing other 
duties under the command of Vice-Admiral Kaneo Noma- 
guchi, whose sphere of action has since been extended in the 
direction of the Indian Ocean. 
NAVAL 4 s 273 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

III. THE INDIAN OCEAN 

A division of the Japanese Squadron despatched to the 
South Seas, led by Captain Kwanji Kato, commander of the 
Ibuki, had proceeded to Singapore on August 26, 1914, and 
joined the British Eastern Squadron under Vice- Admiral 
Thomas H. Martyn Jerram to engage in joint operations. 
Captain Katsunosin Yamanasi represented the Japanese Navy 
on the staff of the British Commander-in-Chief in this region. 
At that time the Allied squadrons assumed a waiting attitude 
while exercising a strict watch over the adjacent seas. 

On September 10, 1914, one of the enemy warships, the 
Emden, appeared in the Indian Ocean and the Eastern Seas. 
The Japanese Division, largely increased in numbers, exerted 
the best of its power to hunt down such enemy warships, 
while another part of the Japanese Fleet convoyed the trans- 
ports carrying the Australian and New Zealand Contingents. 
In conjunction with the British Squadron the Japanese 
Division adopted the measures best suited to the circumstances. 

The enemy warships, however, continued their activities, 
thereby rendering navigation in the Indian Ocean dangerous. 
The result was that on October 15, 1914, another Japanese 
Division, consisting of the Tokiwa and Yakumo, under the 
command of Vice- Admiral Tochinai, was despatched to co- 
operate with the British Squadron. Admiral Tochinai had, 
besides the Tokiwa and Yakumo, resumed the command of 
the Ibuki, Nisshin, Chikuma, Hirado, Yabuki, and Ikoma, 
as well as a division of British destroyers. On November 9 
the Emden attacked the Cocos Island, when she was destroyed 
by the Sydney, thus putting an end to the operations in those 
waters. Subsequently the Ibuki, one of the warships of 
the Kato Division, had, either independently or in conjunc- 
tion with the British warships, convoyed the great fleet of 
transports from the British Oversea Dominions, and thus 
carried the footprints of Japan as far as Aden. 

At present the sphere of action undertaken by the Japanese 
Navy is extended over the length and breadth of the Indian 
Ocean. 

IV. THE PACIFIC 

At the beginning of the war a division of the German 
Fleet was operating off the North American coast and in the 
274 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

vicinity of Hawaii. There was much uncertainty as to the 
whereabouts of the main body of the German Fleet previ- 
ously cruising round the South Sea Islands, together with 
those German and Austrian warships which escaped from 
their Eastern basis in Tsing-Tau before the Japanese declara- 
tion of war. Consequently, the moment war was declared 
by the Mikado the Japanese Navy despatched a fighting 
division of its First Fleet composed of the battle cruisers 
Kongo, Hiyei, Kumma, and Tsukuba (under the able com- 
mand of Vice- Admiral Tsuchiya) to the Pacific, with a view 
to safeguarding the international trade routes as well as 
searching for these German and Austrian vessels. The divi- 
sion (consisting of the Kurama, Tsukuba, Asama, Iwate and a 
destroyer flotilla) was, however, afterwards called ' The Divi- 
sion despatched to the South Seas/ owing to the correspond- 
ing change of operations as the war developed. Soon after- 
wards another body of the First Japanese Fleet, comprising 
the Satsuma, Yabuki, Hirado, etc., led by Rear- Admiral 
Tatsuo Matsumura, was despatched to the South Seas. This 
was called ' The Second Japanese Detachment in the South 
Seas/ Its object was to protect the Australian trade routes 
and to search for German vessels. The two naval divisions 
were able in co-operation to -do splendid work. The enemy, 
however, tried strenuously to evade our ships, so that the 
Japanese vessels occupied all his important strategical posi- 
tions scattered throughout the South Seas, and thereby 
deprived him of all his naval bases. At the same time, all 
the natives of the possessions thus occupied were treated with 
the greatest consideration by the Japanese Navy, being 
allowed to continue their daily life perfectly unmolested and 
undisturbed. The measures thus taken have not only con- 
solidated and confirmed the safety of those places, but have 
also contributed very considerably towards the progress and 
success of our subsequent operations. Meanwhile these 
Japanese Squadrons in the South Seas exercised enormous 
pressure, either directly or from afar, upon the remnant of 
the enemy warships scattered all over the high seas, as well 
as upon the main body of the German Fleet cruising off the 
Chilean coasts. 



276 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



V. THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA 

Before this the Japanese Government had been com- 
pelled, in consequence of the disturbances in Mexico, to send 
out at the end of the year 1913 a man of war, the Izumo 
(commanded by Captain Keijiroh Moriyama), in order to 
protect their own people in that country. Then followed 
the great European War in 1914, which obliged Japan to 
declare war on Germany and Austria, under the Treaty of 
Alliance with Great Britain. Thereupon the Japanese Navy 
commissioned the Izumo to ensure the safety of the trade 
routes along the western coasts of America. Simultaneously 
two other warships were despatched from Japan to join 
Captain Moriyama's vessel for the purpose of engaging in the 
warlike operations against any hostile vessel in those waters. 
This has come to be known as ' The Division despatched to 
America/ which consisted of the Izumo, Hizen, and Asama. 
Subsequently Captain Moriyama was promoted to the rank 
of Rear- Admiral, and was made the Commander-in-Chief of 
this Division. The British warship the Newcastle (Captain 
Frederick A. Powlett) and the Rainbow (Commander Walter 
Hose), of the Canadian Navy, were also attached to the 
command of Rear- Admiral Moriyama in those waters. 

Events developed very favourably for the Japanese Navy, 
and on October 15, 1914, one of the German warships, the 
Gaiel, while entering Honolulu Harbour, Hawaii, escorting 
some transport steamers, was discovered by a portion of 
the Japanese Division which was cruising in that vicinity. 
Thereupon the Japanese vessels put on speed to get outside 
the harbour and kept a close watch on the German ships in 
order to prevent their escape .On November 7, 1914, these 
enemy vessels were at length interned by the American 
authorities in Hawaii. 

Later on the main body of the German Fleet appeared 
off the coast of Chile, and it became fairly plain that nearly 
all of the enemy vessels, which had thus far been scattered 
on all seas, had succeeded in reuniting. This reunion of the 
hostile ships constituted an entirely new phase of the opera- 
tions of the Japanese Navy in the Pacific. 

At this time the British Australian Squadron (Commander- 

277 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

in-Chief Vice-Admiral Sir George E. Patey) happened to be 
cruising along the western coast of America. The Mori- 
yama Squadron acted in concert with this British force, both 
bringing pressure to bear upon the German Fleet by cruising 
down to the south. In taking this course they supplemented 
the vigorous action of another British Squadron from a 
different direction. The joint plan of operations was con- 
tinued for some time, until at length on December 9, 1914, 
a severe defeat was inflicted upon the German Fleet by the 
British Squadron off the Falkland Islands, when the great 
majority of the enemy ships were destroyed. 

Apart from the Japanese Division already mentioned 
despatched to the American coast the Japanese Navy sent a 
further division consisting of the Tokiwa and Chitose under 
Vice- Admiral Tochinai to those waters with a view to dealing 
with the remnant of the German warships as well as to pro- 
tecting the trade of Japan and other friendly countries. In 
March 10, 1915, however, one of the hostile warships, the 
62- Prince Eitel Friedrich, 1 escaped into a United States port and 
170 ] was there disarmed. Four days later another enemy warship, 

2 [S the Dresden? was also successfully destroyed off Juan Fer- 

pp ?7i-3 1 nan dez, by some British men-of-war. Thus the operations 
in these waters were brought- to a satisfactory close. 

It is hoped that the foregoing summary of the operations 
of the Japanese Fleet since the outbreak of the war will, 
notwithstanding its brevity, suffice to give a tangible picture 
of the work which it has done. The vast extent of the sphere 
of activity allotted to our Fleet and the consequent enormous 
length of the cruises, etc., in which it was engaged, have not 
been dwelt upon. The map accompanying this article will 
help the reader to realise the magnitude of the task ac- 
complished. Nor does our space permit of any detailed 
description of many a thrilling and interesting story of the 
achievements of our Japanese sailors. 

VI. NAVAL CONSTRUCTION 

The Times Special Japanese Number of 1910 contained an 
article on ' Public Administration in Japan : The Imperial 
Forces/ dealing with the progress and development of the 
Japanese Navy, its organisation, its warships, crews, and ex- 
278 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

penditure, and its relationship with the British Fleet. Con- 
tinuing the description given in that article, we now propose 
to furnish an outline of the developments of the Japanese 
Imperial Navy during the past six years. 

i. Naval Stations and other Important Ports 

(A) There are now five naval Districts instead of the four 
which previously existed. The fifth is composed of Tsusima 
Island, formerly part of the 3rd Naval District, and Chosen 
(Korea). Its naval bases are Keishoh, Nandoh, Shohgengun, 
and Chinkai in Korea. 

(B) In the Chinkai naval port no Naval Station is estab- 
lished for the time being, but it has been decided to establish 
there a ' Yohkohbu ' or important Port Office, which has been 
open since April ist, 1916. 

(C) The Ryojun (Port Arthur) Naval Station was changed 
into Yohkohbu, or Important Port Office on April ist, 1914. 

(D) The Takesiki Naval Port Office was abolished on 
October ist, 1912. 

(E) As the result of the foregoing changes there are, under 
the present system, four Naval Stations (' Chinjufu '), namely, 
Yokoska, Kure, Sasebo, and Maizuru ; and four Important 
Ports (Yohkohbu), viz., Makoh, Ohminato, Chinkai, and 
Ryojun (Port Arthur). 

(F) Consequently with regard to the supervision of the 
Japanese Naval Districts the Sasebo Naval Station has been 
given the supervision of three districts, namely, of the 5th, 
the Kwantung, and its own Naval District, the Sasebo. 

2. Construction of Warships 

(A) Parliament has approved of the expenditure on Naval 
Reinforcement of 228,616,905 yen for the period between 
April i, 1911, and March 31, 1919, in addition to 166,450,411 
yen, the balance left on March 31, 1911. Therefore 
395*067,316 yen is now at the disposal of the Japanese Navy 
to be expended for a couple of years to come. 

(B) The following warships have been added to the 
Japanese Navy during the last six years, that is, since 
1910 : 

279 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

4 Battleships : the Fuso, Yamasiro, Kawachi, and Settsu. 
4 Battle cruisers : the Kongo, Hiyei, Kirisima, and 

Hatana. 

3 Second-class cruisers : the Chikuma, Hirado, and Yabuki. 
2 Second-class coast-defence boats : the Wakamiya and 

Komahasi. 
2 Second-class gunboats : the Saga and Toba. 

In addition to the foregoing fifteen new warships, there are 
now under construction 2 battleships, the Ise and Hyuhga. 

During the last six years the following warships have been 
struck off the register : 

2 Battleships : the Sagami and Tango. 

3 Second-class cruisers : the Sohya, Naniwa, and Taka- 

chiho. 

1 Third-class cruiser : the Izumi. 

2 First-class coast-defence boats : the Iki and Chinyen. 

3 Third-class coast-defence boats : the Hiyei (first of that 

name), Takao, and Katsuragi. 
i Second-class gunboat : the Akagi ; and 

4 Despatch boats : the Anekawa, Suzuya, Yayeyama, and 

Tatsuta. 

Thus, deducting the 16 worships withdrawn from service, 
the Japanese Navy has, during the period in question, added 
one ship to its force, including the two under construction. 

In addition, 15 destroyers have already been launched, 
while 9 are under construction. Thus, altogether 24 new 
destroyers are added to the Japanese Navy. When we 
deduct, however, 12 old ones, which have been struck off the 
register, we find that Japan has increased her destroyers by 
12 during the last six years. 

42 Torpedo-boats were withdrawn during the period in 
question, no new ones being built thus far to replace them. 

A certain number of submarines have been constructed 
during the same period, the total now being 17. 

VII THE FLEET 

The following table shows the present strength of the 
Japanese Fleet, all the vessels, with two exceptions, being 
built of steel : 
280 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



TOTAL NUMBER OF WARSHIPS IN APRIL 1916 



Name. 


Place of Construction. 


Date of 
Launching. 


Displace- 
ment. 


Horse- 
power. 


BATTLESHIPS 


Fuso 


Kurd . 


March 1914 


30,600 


4O,OOO 


Yamasiro . 


Yokoska 


Nov. 1915 


30,600 


40,000 


Kawachi 





Oct. 1910 


2O,8OO 


25,OOO 


Settsu 


Kure . 


March 1911 


20,800 


25,000 


Aki . 




April loo? 


19,800 


24,000 


Satsuma 


Yokoska 


VT ^ r 

Nov. 1906 


19.350 


17,300 


Kasima 


England . . 


March 1905 


16,400 


15,600 


Katori 





July 1905 


15,950 


16,000 


Mikasa 


a 


Nov. 1900 


I5>362 


15,207 


Asahi 


>i 


March 1899 


14,765 


15,207 


Shikisima . 


>i 


Nov. 1898 


14,580 


14,700 


Hizen 


America 


1900 


12,700 


16,000 


BATTLE-CRUISERS 


Kongo 


England 


May 1912 


27,500 


64,000 


Hiyei 


Yokoska 


Nov. 1912 


27,500 


64,000 


Kirisima . 


Mitsubisi Dockyard 


Dec. 1913 


27,500 


64,000 


Hatana 


Kawasaki Dockyard 


Dec. 1913 


27,500 


64,000 


Kurama 


Yokoska 


Oct. 1911 


14,600 


22,500 


Ibuki 


Kure . 


Nov. 1911 


14,600 


24,000 


Tsukuba 




Dec. IQO^ 


I^,7<o 


2O,5OO 






j j 
April 1906 


+ji / j 
13,750 


2O,5OO 




FIRST-CLAS 


>s CRUISERS 


<*J) / \J 




Asama 


England 


March 1898 


9,885 


18,248 


Tokiwa 


a 


July 1898 


9,885 


18,248 


Izumo 


>i 


Sept. 1899 


9,826 


14,700 


Iwate 


a 


March 1900 


9,826 


14,700 


Yakumo 


Germany 


July 1899 


9,735 


15,500 


Azuma 


France 


June 1899 


9,426 


16,600 


Aso . 





1900 


7,800 


17,000 


Kasuga 


Italy . 


Oct. 1902 


7,7oo 


14,696 


Nisshin 


> 


Feb. 1903 


7,700 


14,696 


SECOND-CLASS CRUISERS 


Tsugaru 


Russia 


1899 


6,630 


11,600 


Kasagi 


America 


Jan. 1898 


5,503 


17,235 


Chitose 


a 


Jan. 1898 


4,992 


15,714 


Chikuma 


Sasebo 


April 1911 


4,950 


22,500 


281 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Name. 


Place of Construction. 


Date of 
Launching. 


Displace- 
ment. 


Horse- 
power. 


SECOND-CLASS CRUISERS continued 


Hirado 


Kawasaki Dockyard 


June 1911 


4,950 


22,500 


Yabuki . 


Mitsubisi Dockyard 


Oct. 1911 


4,950 


22,500 


Tone . 


Sasebo 


Oct. 1907 


4,100 


15,000 


Niitaka 


Yokoska 


Nov. 1902 


3,420 


9,400 


Tsusima 


Kure . 


Dec. 1902 


3,420 


9,400 


Otowa 


Yokoska 


Nov. 1903 


. 3,000 


IO,OOO 


Akasi 


>* 


Nov. 1897 


2,800 


8,OOO 


Suma 


** 


March 1895 


2,700 


8,500 


FIRST-CLASS COAST-DEFENCE BOATS 


Iwami 


Russia 


1902 * 


I3,5i6 


16,500 


Suwoh 





1900 


12,674 


I4,50O 


Fuji . 


England 


March 1896 


12,649 


13,678 


SECOND-CLASS COAST-DEFENCE BOATS 


Kanzaki 


England 


1896 


10,500 


2,300 


Wakamiya . 


. 


1901 


7,600 


1,000 


Minosima . 
Itsukusima 


Russia 
France 


1894 
July 1889 


4,960 
4,278 


6,000 

5,400 


Hasidate 


Yokoska 


March 1891 


4,278 


5,400 


Okinosima . 


Russia 


1896 


4,126 


6,000 


Manshu 


Austria 


1901 


8,916 


5,000 


Akitsusima 


Yokoska . 


July 1892 


3J72 


8,516 


Matsuye 


Kinghorn 


1898 


2,550 


1,500 


Chiyoda 


England 


June 1890 


2,439 


5,678 


Yamato 


*Onohama 


May 1885 


1,502 


1,622 


Musasi 


*Yokoska 


March 1886 


1,502 


1,622 


Komahasi . 


Sasebo 


May 1913 


1,230 


1,824 


FIRST-CLASS GUNBOATS 


Mogami 


Mitsubisi Dockyard 


March 1908 


i,35o 


8,000 


Chihaya 


Yokoska 


May 1900 


1,263 


6,000 


Yodo 


Kawasaki Dockyard 


Nov. 1907 


1,250 


6,500 


SECOND-CLASS GUNBOATS 


Saga . 


Sasebo 


Sept. 1912 


785 


1, 600 


TT '' 

Uji . 


Kure . 


March 1903 


620 


1,000 


Toba . 


Sasebo 


Nov. 1911 


250 


1,400 


Fusimi 


England 


Aug. 1906 


180 


800 


Sumida 


> 


Dec. 1903 


126 


680 


Total . 


65 ships 





628,321 


1,047,371 



* Wood with iron keel. 



282 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



WARSHIPS NOW UNDER CONSTRUCTION 



Names. 


Classes. 


Dockyards. 


Materials. 


Displace- 
ment. 


Horse- 
power. 


The Ise . 

The Hyuhga 

Total . 


Battleship 



Kawasaki 
Mitsubisi 


Steel 

n 


30,800 



45,000 

M 


2 








6l,6oo 


90,000 



Total Number. 
60 



DESTROYERS 

Displacement. 
27,666 



Horse-Power. 

444,375 



DESTROYERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION 



Names. 


Classes. 


Dockyards. 


Materials. 


Displace- 
ment. 


Horse- 
power. 


Amatsukaze 


1st Class 


Kure 


Steel 


1,227 


27,000 


Tokitsukaze 




Kawasaki 




^ 


M 


Isokaze . 


tr 


Kure 


^ 


M 


M 


Hamakaze 


II 


Mitsubisi 


M 


M 


M 


Yekaze . 


II 


England 


f| 


955 


22,OOO 


Momo 


2nd Class 


Sasebo 


,, 


835 


16,000 


Yanagi 


M 


P JJ 


M 


j- 


N 


Kasi 


M 


Maizuru 


)f 


^^ 


f> 


Hinoki 


'> 





* 


" 





Total . 


9 








9,203 


I94,OOO 



TORPEDO BOATS 

Total Number. Displacement. Horse-power. 

27 3,317 70,000 

TOTAL NUMBER OF SUBMARINES 



283 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



NUMBER OF NAVAL OFFICERS AND NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS ON 

JANUARY i, 1916 



Ranks. 


Active 
Service. 


Reserve. 


Special 
Reserve. 


Grand 
Total. 


Admirals and those who receive 










treatment of Admirals 


99 


92 


44 


235 


Captains, Lieuts., and those who 










receive corresponding treatment 


3,956 


503 


127 


4,586 


Special Commissioned Officers and 










those receiving corresponding 










treatment .... 


1,642 


271 


329 


2,242 


Cadets 


173 




. . 


173 


Non-Commissioned Officers . 


51,836 


18,658 


11,678 


82,172 


Total 


57,706 


19,524 


12,178 


89,408 



LIST OF CIVIL OFFICIALS IN THE NAVY ON APRIL i, 1916 



Ranks. 



Number of Officials. 



Ckokunin (i) ... 

Sohnin (2) ... 

Hannin (3) ... 

Those receiving Hannin's treatment 



Total number 



6 

116 

879 

68 



1,069 



S Officials appointed by the Emperor. 
Names appointed by the Cabinet, and then submitted to the 

Emperor for approval. 
(3) Appointed by the heads of Public Departments. 



284 



5] 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



VIII. EXPENDITURE. 
EXPENDITURE ON NAVY FROM APRIL i, 1909, TO MARCH 31, 1917 





Naval Expenditure. 


Year. 


Ordinary Expenditure. 


Special Expenditure. 




Yen, Sen and Rin. 


Yen, Sen and Rin. 


1909 


35,143,415.86.6 


35,902,959-24.I 


1910 


38,359,312.42.4 


45,481,219.754 


1911 


40,208,251.47.8 


60,255,366.29.9 


1912 


41,533,600.57.3 


53,9s 1 , 538.60. 2 


1913 


38,885,701.72.4 


57,559,890.040 


1914 


30,398,898.97.8 


52,861,106.66.9 


19*5 


*42,346,i84.ooo 


*53,576,637.ooo 


1916 


* 4 6,496,i6 5 .ooo 


*55,747,76i.ooo 



Year. 


Total Naval 
Expenditure. 


Total National 
Expenditure. 


Ratio of Naval 
Expenditure 
as compared 
to Total 
National 
Expenditure. 


1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 

I9 I 3 
19*4 - 
1915 
1916 


Yen, Sen and Rin. 
71,046,375.107 

83,840,532.178 
100,463,617777 

95,485,i39- I 75 
96,445,591.764 
83,260,005.647 
*95,922,82i.ooo 

*I02,243,926.000 


Yen. 
532,893,635 
569,154,027 

585,374,613 
593,596,444 

573,633,925 
648,420,409 

*66i,923,223 

*6O2,262,972 


Per cent. 
13.33 
14.73 
17.21 
16.09 

16.81 
12.84 
14.49 
16.99 



* Budget estimates. 

In concluding this survey we must call attention to one 
fact, the importance of which constantly impresses itself upon 
us, namely, the revised Anglo- Japanese Alliance, promul- 
gated in July 1911. This revised Alliance has played, and is 
still playing, a most important part in the respective positions 
of the navies of the two island Empires. We are so firmly 
convinced of the immense value of this renewed Alliance that 
it calls for no explanation or discussion. 

285 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

PROMOTIONS, APPOINTMENTS, HONOURS, 
AND REWARDS 

Admiralty, 26th February 1918. 
Royal Naval Division 

To be temporary Lieutenant-Colonel, R.M. : 
Commander Charles G. Collins, R.N.V.R. To date 4th 

February 1915. 

Lieutenant-Colonel H. C. Moorhouse, C.M.G., D.S.O. (late 

Royal Artillery). Dated 2ist February 1915. 



Admiralty, 2jth February 1915. 
Royal Naval Reserve 

In accordance with the provisions of His Majesty's Order 
in Council of i6th December 1912, temporary Commissions in 
the Royal Naval Reserve have been issued as follows : 

CAPTAINS 

Charles Hope Robertson, C.M.G., M.V.O. (Vice-Admiral 
retired). 

William John Grogan (Rear- Admiral retired). 
John Arthur Tuke (Rear- Admiral retired). 



Lord Chamberlain's Office, St. James's Palace, 

3rd March 1915. 

The King has been graciously pleased to give orders for 
the following appointment to the Most Honourable Order of 
the Bath, in recognition of the services of the under-mentioned 
officer mentioned in the foregoing despatch. 1 

To be an Additional Member of the Military Division 
of the Third Class or Companion 

Captain Osmond de Beauvoir Brock, A.D.C., Royal Navy. 



Admiralty, S.W., $rd March 1915. 

The King has been graciously pleased to give orders for 
the following appointment to the Distinguished Service Order, 
286 



;] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

and for the award of the Distinguished Service Cross, to the 
under-mentioned officers in recognition of their services men- 
tioned in the foregoing despatch 1 : i [See 

To be Companion of the Distinguished Service Order p.?ai ] ' 

Lieutenant Frederic Thornton Peters, Royal Navy. 

To receive the Distinguished Service Cross 

Surgeon Probationer James Alexander Stirling, R.N.V.R. 
Gunner (T) Joseph H. Burton. 
Chief Carpenter Frederick E. Dailey. 

The following promotion has been made : 

Commander Charles Andrew Fountaine to be a Captain 
in His Majesty's Fleet, to date March 3, 1915. 

The following awards have also been made : 
To receive the Distinguished Service Medal 

P.O. J. W. Kemmett, O.N. 186788. 

A.B. H. Davis, O.N. 184526. 

A.B. H. F. Griffin, O.N. J. 14160. 

A.B. P. S. Livingstone, O.N. 234328. 

A.B. H. Robison, O.N. 209112. 

A.B. G. H. le Seilleur, O.N. 156802. 

Boy, ist CL, F. G. H. Bamford, O.N. J. 26598. 

Boy, ist CL, J. F. Rogers, O.N. J. 28329. ' 

Ch. E.-R. Art., ist CL, E. R. Hughes, O.N. 268999. 

Ch. E.-R. Art., 2nd. CL, W. B. Dand, O.N. 270648. 

Ch. E.-R. Art. W. Gillespie, O.N. 270080. 

Mechn. A. J. Cannon, O.N. 175440. 

Mechn. E. C. Ephgrave, O.N. 288231. 

Ch. Stkr. P. Callaghan, O.N. 278953. 

Ch. Stkr. A. W. Ferris, O.N. 175824. 

Ch. Stkr. J. E. James, O.N. 174232. 

Ch. Stkr. W. E. James, O.N. 294406. 

Ch. Stkr. J. Keating, R.F.R., O.N. 165732. 

Stkr. P.O. M. Flood, R.F.R., O.N. 153418. 

Stkr. P.O. T. W. Hardy, O.N. 292542. 

Stkr. P.O. A. J. Sims, O.N. 276502. 

Stkr. P.O. S. Westaway, R.F.R., O.N. 300938. 

Actg. Ldg. Stkr. J. Blackburn, O.N., K. 4844. 

Stkr., ist CL, A. H. Bennet, O.N. K. 10700. 

287 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Stkr., 2nd Cl., H. Turner, O.N. K. 22720. 

Ldg. Carpenter's Crew, E. O. Bradley, O.N. 346621. 

Ldg. Carpenter's Crew, E. Currie, O.N. 344851. 

Sick Berth Attendant C. S. Hutchinson, O.N. M. 3882. 

Ch. Writer S. G. White, O.N. 340597. 

Third Writer H. C. Green, O.N. M. 8266. 

Officers' Steward, 3rd CL, F. W. Kearley, O.N. L. 2716. 



Lord Chamberlain's Office, St. James's Palace, S.W., 

yd March 1915. 

L.G., The King has been graciously pleased to give orders for 

March 3, the following appointment to the Most Honourable Order of 
I 9 I 5- the Bath in recognition of the services of the under-mentioned 

Officer mentioned in the foregoing despatch : 

To be an Additional Member of the Military Division 
of the Third Class or Companion 

Captain John Luce, Royal Navy. 



Admiralty, S.W., $rd March 1915. 

ibid. The King has been graciously pleased to give orders for 

the award of the Distinguished Service Cross to the under- 
mentioned officers in recognition of their services mentioned 
in the foregoing despatch : 

Carpenter Thomas Andrew Walls. 
Carpenter William Henry Venning. 
Carpenter George Henry Egford. 

The following awards have also been made : 

To receive the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal 

Portsmouth R.F.R.B. 3307 Sergeant Charles Mayes, H.M.S. 
Kent. A shell burst and ignited some cordite charges in the 
casemate ; a flash of flame went down the hoist into the 
ammunition passage. Sergeant Mayes picked up a charge of 
cordite and threw it away. He then got hold of a fire hose 
and flooded the compartment, extinguishing the fire in some 
empty shell bags which were burning. The extinction of this 
fire saved a disaster which might have led to the loss of 
the ship. 
288 



5] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

To receive the Distinguished Service Medal 

Chief Petty Officer David Leighton, O.N. 124238. 

Petty Officer, 2nd Class, Matthew J. Walton (R.F.R., A. 

1756), O.N. 118358. 
Leading Seaman Frederick Sidney Martin, O.N. 233301, 

Gunner's Mate, Gunlayer, ist Class. 
Signalman Frank Glover, O.N. 225731. 
Chief Engine-Room Artificer, 2nd Class, John George Hill, 

O.N. 269646. 
Acting Chief Engine-Room Artificer, 2nd Class, Robert 

Snowdon, O.N. 270654. 
Engine-Room Artificer, ist Class, George Henry Francis 

McCarton, O.N. 270023. 

Stoker Petty Officer George S. Brewer, O.N. 150950. 
Stoker Petty Officer William Alfred Townsend, O.N. 

301650. 

Stoker, ist Class, John Smith, O.N. SS 111915. 
Shipwright, ist Class, Albert N. E. England, O.N. 341971. 
Shipwright, 2nd Class, Albert C. H. Dymott, O.N. M. 8047. 



Admiralty, $th March 1915. 

In accordance with the provisions of Order in Council of L.G., 
22nd February 1870 March 9, 

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Gerard Henry Uctred Noel, 
G.C.B., K.C.M.G., has this day been placed on the 
Retired List. 

In pursuance of His Majesty's pleasure the following pro- 
motion has been made : 

Admiral The Honourable Sir Hedworth Meux, G.C.B., 

K.C.V.O., to be Admiral of the Fleet in His Majesty's 

Fleet. Dated 5th March 1915. 

Consequent thereon the following promotions have been 
made from the same date : 

Vice-Admiral Sir John Rushworth Jellicoe, G.C.B., 
K.C.V.O., at present holding the temporary rank of 
Acting Admiral, to be Admiral in His Majesty's Fleet, 
but to retain seniority as Admiral of 4th August, 1914, 
while holding his present command. 

Rear-Admiral Herbert Goodenough King-Hall, C.V.O., 
C.B., D.S.O., to be Vice- Admiral in His Majesty's Fleet. 

NAVAL 4 T 289 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Captain Osmond de Beauvoir Brock, C.B., A.D.C., to be 

Rear- Admiral in His Majesty's Fleet. 
Consequent on the above the following promotions on the 
Retired List take place from the same date : 

Vice -Admiral Robert Stevenson Dalton Cuming to be 

Admiral. 
Rear-Admiral Charles Holcombe Dare, M.V.O., to be Vice- 

'Admiral. 
Rear-Admiral Edward George Shortland to be Vice- 

Admiral. 

Royal Naval Reserve 

In accordance with the provisions of His Majesty's Order 
in Council of igth December 1912, a temporary commission 
has been issued as follows : 

Captain. William De Salis, M.V.O. (Rear-Admiral, retired). 



CENTRAL CHANCERY OF THE ORDERS OF KNIGHTHOOD 

Lord Chamberlain s Office, St. James's Palace, S.W., 

loth March 1915. 

L G., The King has been graciously pleased to give orders for 

March 12, the following appointment to the Most Honourable Order of 
I 9 I 5- the Bath, in recognition of the meritorious services of the 

under-mentioned officer during the war : 

To be an Additional Member of the Military Division 
of the Third Class or Companion 

Captain John Derwent Allen, R.N. (H.M.S. Kent). 



Admiralty, i$th March 1915. 

L.G., Captain Douglas Romilly Lothian Nicholson has been 

March 16, appointed a Naval Aide-de-Camp to His Majesty the 

King, in place of Captain Cecil Frederick Dampier, 
. promoted to Flag rank. Dated i8th February 1915. 
Captain George Price Webley Hope has been appointed a 
Naval Aide-de-Camp to His Majesty the King, in place 
of Captain Osmond de Beauvoir Brock, promoted to 
Flag rank. Dated 5th March 1915. 

290 



5] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Admiralty, i6th March 1915. 

The King has been graciously pleased to award the Dis- L.G., 
tinguished Service Cross to the under-mentioned officer : March 19, 
Lieutenant Denys Charles Gerald Shoppee, Royal Navy, I 9 I 5- 
for gallant and distinguished service in the field. 



Royal Naval Reserve 

In accordance with the provisions of His Majesty's Order L.G., 
in Council of i6th December 1912, a temporary Commission March 23, 
in the Royal Naval Reserve has been issued as follows : I 9 I 5- 

CAPTAIN 
Francis George Kirby (Admiral, retired). 

Royal Naval Reserve 

Admiralty, 2$rd March 1915. 

The King has been graciously pleased to confer the Royal L.G., 
Naval Reserve Officers' Decoration upon the following March 26, 
officers : 

Lieutenant-Commander Edward James McBarnet. 

Lieutenant-Commander Frank Morgan Main. 

Senior Engineer Alfred Daniel Varian. 

Engineer William Thomas Tucker. 



PRIZE COURTS 

VESSELS DETAINED OR CAPTURED AT SEA 
BY His MAJESTY'S ARMED FORCES 

(In continuation of previous notification published in the L.G., 
London Gazette of February 12, 1915. x ) March 2, 



List of Vessels 1 [See 

Naval 3, 
Name and Tonnage. Nationality. Where Detained. p. 469.] 

Madang (194) . German . . . Simpsonhafen. 

Meklong (438) . German . . . Simpsonhafen. 

Nusa (yacht) . . German . . . Simpsonhafen. 

Sumatra (584) . German . . . Simpsonhafen* 

291 



L.G., 

March 2 



L.G., 
March 16, 



L.G., 
March 23, 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

SHIPS WHOSE CARGOES OR PART OF THEM 

HAVE BEEN DETAINED 

(In continuation of previous notification published in the 
London Gazette of February 12, 1915-) 

List of Vessels 

Nationality. 
British . . 
Netherland 
British . . 
Belgian 
United States 



[M 



Name of Vessel. 
Amazon 
Boeroe 
Euterpe 
Gothland . 
Wilhelmina 



Cargo Detained at 
Liverpool. 
London. 
Bristol. 
Southampton. 
Falmouth. 



Foreign Office, March 15, 1915. 



SHIPS WHOSE CARGOES, OR PART OF THEM, 
HAVE BEEN DETAINED 

(In continuation of previous notification published in the 
London Gazette of March 2, 1915.) 

List of Vessels 

Nationality. 
United Slates 
British 



Name of Vessel. 
Antilla 

Cretic .... 
Eleutheros K. Veni- 

zelos 
Taurus 
Wearbridge 



Cargo Detained at 
Dundee. 
Gibraltar. 



Greek . 

Norwegian 

British 



Gibraltar. 

Dundee. 

Gibraltar. 



Foreign Office, March 15, 1915. 



VESSELS DETAINED OR CAPTURED BY THE 
RUSSIAN NAVAL AUTHORITIES 

With reference to the notification which appeared in the 
London Gazette of September 22nd last (see Naval i, p. 291) 
respecting vessels detained or captured by the Russian Naval 
Authorities, a further list of such vessels, which has been 
furnished by the Russian Government to His Majesty's 
Ambassador at Petrograd, is appended hereto. 

Foreign Office, March 20, 1915. 
292 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Name. 
Alexandra 
Aristea 

Erndte (s.v.) . 
Genius- (s.v.) . 
Greif . 

Harald . . . 
Helsingborg . 
Ilmenau . 
A. W. Kafeman . 
Louisa Leonhardt . 
Maria (s.v.) . 
Marienberg 
Martha 
Prussia 
Vandkharm 
Wandrahm 



List of Vessels 

(s.v. Sailing Vessel 

Nationality. 
German 
Austrian . 
German 
German 
German . . 
German 
German 
German 
German . 
German . 
German . 
German ... 
German . 
German . . " . 
German 
German 



Where Detained. 
Nicolaistad. 
Petrograd. 
Kotka. 
Kotka. 
Port Loksa 
Kronstadt. 
Kronstadt. 
Jacobstad. 
Kronstadt. 
Kronstadt. 
Kotka. 
Kronstadt. 
Kronstadt. 
Kronstadt. 
Kronstadt. 
Helsingfors. 



SHIPS WHOSE CARGOES, OR PART OF THEM, 
HAVE BEEN DETAINED 



(In continuation of previous notification published in the L.G., 
London Gazette of March 16, 1915.) March 30, 



Name of Vessel. 
Arabia 
Fabian 
Forsvik 
Frogner 
Grekland . 
Jeanne 

Karla . . . 
Korsfjord . 
Vera 



List of Vessels 

Nationality. 
British . . , 
British . . , 
Swedish 
Norwegian 
Swedish 
Danish 
Swedish . 
Norwegian 
Danish 



Cargo Detained at 
London. 
Liverpool. 
Fleetwood. 
Newcastle. 
Middlesbrough. 
Ardrossan. 
The Downs. 
Grimsby. 
Ardrossan. 



293 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

VESSELS DETAINED OR CAPTURED AT SEA 
BY His MAJESTY'S ARMED FORCES 

L.G., (In continuation of previous notification published in the 

March 30, London Gazette of March 16, 1915.) 

List of Vessels 

Name and Tonnage. Nationality. Where Detained. 

Bangor (5133) . Norwegian . . Falkland Islands. 

Maracas (2926) . United States . Hall. 

Foreign Office, March 29, 1915. 



VESSELS DETAINED OR CAPTURED BY THE 
FRENCH NAVAL AUTHORITIES 

Foreign Office, March 25, 1915. 

ibid. With reference to the last paragraph of the notification 

which appeared in the London Gazette of September 2gth 
last (see Naval i, p. 291), His Majesty's Government have now 
received information to the effect that the French Prize 
Court has been removed from Bordeaux to Paris, and that 
all applications to the Court should in future be addressed 
to the ' Conseil des Prises/ Palais Royal, Paris. 



ADMIRALTY MONTHLY ORDERS 

Admiralty, S.W., ist April 1915. 
148. Pigeons Caught at Sea Rewards for bringing in 

Senior Naval Officers at Ports where naval pigeon service 
is established are authorised to pay at their discretion rewards 
not exceeding i in any one case, to private vessels bringing 
in carrier pigeons, either enemy owned or belonging to the 
naval pigeon service. 

Senior Naval Officers should satisfy themselves that the 
birds brought in are bona fide captures at sea. 

150. Lieutenant-Commanders, Supplementary List Pay of 

It has been decided to grant full pay at the rate of i6s. a 
day (in addition to Messing Allowance of 2s. a day) to Lieu- 
294 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

tenant-Commanders on the Supplementary List who were 
entered under the provisions of Orders in Council of zgth June 
1895 and gth August 1898, on attaining six years' seniority 
in that rank. 

This increase will take effect from the ist January 1915. 

151 Lieutenant (E) Appointment and Qualification 
as During the War 

In view of the suspension during the war of the usual 
courses for Officers specialising in Engineering, the following 
arrangements have been approved. 

Those Officers who had completed half the course at the 
Royal Naval College, Greenwich, at the commencement of 
the war, will be required to complete six months' Engine- 
Room duty. 

Other Officers who are volunteers to specialise in Engineer- 
ing, and are appointed for Engine-Room duty, will be required 
to complete nine months' such duty. 

At the expiration of the above periods they must be 
recommended by the Commanding Officers of the ships in 
which they are serving, and this recommendation must be 
accompanied by a certificate from the Engineer Officer of 
the ship to the effect that they are considered fit to perform 
the duty of a Lieutenant (E). They will then be eligible to 
receive the authorised allowances for the performance of 
Engineering duties. 

On the conclusion of the war these Officers will be required 
to undergo such courses of instruction as may be considered 
necessary. 

152. Temporary Chaplains Messing Allowance 

Messing Allowance of 2s. a day is to be paid to Chaplains, 
R.N., entered for temporary service during the war as from 
the dates on which they commenced duty. 

153. Reserve of Medical Officers Equipment Allowance 

Officers belonging to the Reserve of Medical Officers under 
Order in Council of nth August 1903, are to be paid an 
Equipment Allowance of 20 on being called out for service. 

295 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [M 

156. Acting and Temporary Officers, R.N.R. Relative Rank 
Acting and Temporary Officers of the Royal Naval Reserve 
are to rank among themselves according to the respective 
dates of their seniority. 

157. Skippers, R.N.R. Allowances when Embarked 
in Torpedo Craft 

Skippers, Royal Naval Reserve, who mess with other 
Officers in a Destroyer or Torpedo Boat are to be treated as 
Warrant Officers, R.N. 

Under this arrangement victualling allowance at lod. a 
day should be paid to the mess, and the Skippers should 
be paid Grog Money and is. 6d. a day difference of mess 
subscription, instead of the special victualling allowance of 
is. 5d. a day payable to them at other times. 

Hard-lying Money is not payable. 

158. Skippers, R.N.R. Clothing 

Skippers, R.N.R. (Trawler Section), may wear Overcoats 
of the pattern worn by Chief Petty Officers, R.N., the Over- 
coats required for this purpose being taken up from Navy 
Stocks on payment of the Service Issuing Price of i, 55. lod. 

159. Surgeons, R.N.V.R. Promotion to Staff Surgeon 

Surgeons, R.N.V.R., will be considered qualified for pro- 
motion to the rank of Staff Surgeon, R.N.V.R., on completing 
six months' active service, provided they have attained eight 
years' seniority in lieu of the courses which they are required 
to undergo in time of peace. 

160. Surgeon-Probationers, R.N.V.R. Examination Leave 

Leave for Surgeon-Probationers to attend examinations is 
limited to three weeks. If a longer period is required, resigna- 
tion will be necessary. No reliefs can be sent during leave. 

I66.R.F.R. and R.N.R. War Retainer 
In the cases of Royal Fleet Reservists and Royal Naval 
Reservists sentenced to imprisonment, detention, cells, etc., 
credit of War Retainer is to be continued, provided the men 
return to the Service at the expiration of their punishment. 

In the case of men recovered from desertion whose services 
296 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

it is decided to retain, credit of War Retainer should be 
resumed immediately the man is recovered, i.e., during any 
period he is awaiting trial, undergoing punishment, etc., 
notwithstanding the fact that during such period pay is 
withheld. 

The above decisions do not apply to men who are ordered 
to be discharged at the expiration of their sentences, the cases 
of such men being governed by M.O. 141/1914. 

Credit of War Retainer is also to be continued until 
discharge in the case of men whose pay ceases on their being 
marked D.S.Q. 

167. R.N.R. and R.N.V.R. Payment for Non-substantive 

Ratings 

R.N.R. and R.N.V.R. ratings who undergo the pre- 
scribed courses (where applicable) may be granted the ratings 
and pay for which they qualify or have qualified in the 
following cases : 

Gunnery ratings. 

Torpedo ratings. 

Artificer Diver. 

Diver. 

Engineer Yeoman of Stores. 

Engineer's Writer. 

Ordinary Seamen, R.N.V.R., are not to be put through 
courses for which Ordinary Seamen, R.N., are not eligible. 

169. Kit Additional for Trawler Section 

Commanding Officers of Parent ships of Trawlers are to 
demand from the local Contractors the additional articles of 
clothing which have been approved for issue and which cannot 
be obtained from the ship's stock. The local Registrar, 
R.N.R., at the various Mobilising Ports will furnish the name 
of the Contractor. When the men's kits have been com- 
pleted up to the new standard, a notation should be made 
in the man's T.R.V. 2. 

170. R.N.R. (Trawler Section) Local Enrolment to fill 

Vacancies 

Authority is given for the enrolment of ranks and ratings 
in R.N.R. (Trawler Section) at all ports where Trawlers or 

297 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Drifters are stationed in addition to those Mobilising Ports 
where the vessels are taken up, and where there is already a 
Mobilising Officer. 

In carrying out these enrolments the following conditions 
are to be observed. 

The examining Officer is to be a Gommissioned Officer of 
the Royal Navy in conjunction with the local Registrar, 
R.N.R. 

Skippers must not be provisionally enrolled, but must 
wait until the applications for their appointment have reached 
the A.C.R. (through Registrar-General of Shipping and Sea- 
men) and a reply has been received that their names have 
been submitted to the Board. 

Qualifications for Skippers, Second Hands, and Engine- 
men, must be strictly in accordance with the Regulations, 
except as regards Articles 4, 73, and 74, Trawler Reserve 
Regulations, and the addition of ' or Steam Drifter ' where 
Steam Trawler is mentioned. 

In the case of Deck Hands and Trimmers, the Naval 
Officer and Registrar are to certify that the man is suitable 
for the proposed rating. 

Medical examination is to be carried out by the Medical 
Officer of the unit for whicruthe man is being enrolled, or, if 
there is none, by the local Surgeon and Agent. 

It is to be made perfectly clear to all applicants that 
enrolment is for duration of war. 

Enrolments are only to be made to fill vacancies caused 
by men being discharged from R.N.R., or being removed 
permanently from the unit, and not to fill temporary vacancies 
caused by men being sent to detention quarters or hospital, 
when they will return in due course. 

Enrolments at other than Mobilising Ports should be 
reported to the parent ship of the Trawler or Drifter con- 
cerned. 

No persons other than of proved British nationality are 
to be enrolled ; naturalised aliens are not to be enrolled. 

Where there is no local contractor for supplying uniforms 
in the vicinity, it will be necessary for the kitting up to be 
undertaken by the parent ship of Trawler or Drifter in which 
the rating is required. 

With the exceptions mentioned, procedure of enrolment 
298 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

is to be carried out strictly in accordance with the enrolment 
forms, of which copies (amended to suit present circum- 
stances) have been supplied to local Registrars. 

171. Signal Boys, R.N.R. Drafting of 

Signal Boys, R.N.R., will nominally be drafted only to 
Armed Yachts. 

In very exceptional circumstances the Commanders-in- 
Chief, Three Home Ports, or the Admiralty will authorise 
their serving in Trawlers commanded by R.N. or R.N.R. 
Officers. 

The Commanding Officers of vessels in which Signal Boys, 
R.N.R., are borne, are expected to exercise a special super- 
vision over their training and moral character. 

172. R.N. Auxiliary S.B. Reserve Promotion to 
Senior Reserve Attendan 

All Junior Reserve Attendants on Active Service at the 
date of this Order are to be considered eligible for promotion 
to the rating of Senior Reserve Attendant provided they are 
in possession of the Advanced First Aid and Nursing Certifi- 
cate or hold the Medallion of the St. John Ambulance Asso- 
ciation with the Nursing Certificate of that body. 

In addition, they must be reported upon as efficient by 
the Medical Officer under whom they are serving. 

The names of all Junior ratings recommended for pro- 
motion are to be forwarded to the Medical Director-General 
for approval prior to advancement by their Commanding 
Officers. 

173. Wages of Mercantile Crews Calculation of 
(Mercantile Fleet Auxiliaries) 

As some diversity of practice exists in the above matter, 
in regard to Officers and men engaged at monthly rates of 
pay, it is notified that the following procedure should be 
followed, as from the commencement of the current Ledger : 

The rate per month should be credited for each clear 
month, i.e. ' January/ ' February/ ' March/ 

Broken periods should be reckoned as one-thirtieth of a 
month's pay for each day of the period vide the Instruc- 
tions to Accountant Officers of Mercantile Fleet Auxiliaries. 

299 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Example. A man employed from the 3ist January to 
the loth March at 7, los. a month should be paid 10, 55., 
arrived at as follows : 

s. d. 

31 January, at ^ of 7, los. . . .050 
1-28 February, at 7, los. a month . 7 10 o 

i-io March, at J of 7, los. . . . 2 10 o 



10 5 o 

175.- Allowance for Charge of Stores in Trawlers 

An allowance of 3d. a day may be granted to the rating 
(preferably a C.P.O. or P.O.) in charge of Stores on each 
trawler carrying an establishment of naval stores as from 
the date on which such duties commenced. This allowance 
is intended as remuneration for the responsibility of seeing 
that the stores are properly issued and expended without 
waste, and is to be withheld if these conditions are not 
fulfilled. 

176. Store Allowances in Mercantile Fleet Auxiliaries 

Store Allowances are to. be paid to Warrant or Petty 
Officers as follows in the Mercantile Fleet Auxiliaries speci- 
fied : 

Armed Merchant Cruisers. On the scales laid down in 
Appendices VII. and XV., King's Regulations, for seagoing 
ships in commission. 

Ammunition Ships. is. a day for charge of Ordnance 
stores. No allowance is payable for other stores. 

Squadron Supply Ships. is. 6d. a day for charge of all 
stores. 

Flotilla Supply Ships. is. a day for charge of all stores. 

Store Carriers. is. a day for charge of all stores. 

In Armed Merchant Cruisers, the allowances are to be 
credited on ledger. 

In the other cases, payment of the amount due will be 
made by the Accountant-General when the accounts have 
been examined and passed at the Admiralty. The payment 
of any Store allowance which is already being made in these 
vessels should be suspended as from ist January last, and 
300 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the amount so paid will be included in the subsequent adjust- 
ment at the Admiralty. 

178. Basis of Payment for Religious Ministrations 

At ports at which ships are more or less permanently 
stationed, Officiating Ministers, other than those who are in 
receipt of fixed annual allowances, are to be paid, for the 
half-year ended the 3ist December last, one-half the amount 
paid to them during the previous twelve months. 

Thereafter, and for the period of the war, the capitation 
basis is to be reverted to, payments being based on the 
numbers of men actually present at divine services, instead 
of, as hitherto, on the numbers present in port. 

In view of the fact that this method of reckoning will 
cause a reduction in the amount of remuneration of the 
ministers concerned, these fees are in all such cases to be 
increased in amount by 25 per cent. 

180. Railway Warrants Authorised Forms to be used 

A number of cases have recently occurred in which railway 
warrants have been issued on unauthorised forms. This 
course has led to difficulties with the Railway Companies, 
and care is accordingly to be taken that only the authorised 
forms of warrant are used, except in cases of special emergency, 
when it may not have been possible to obtain supplies of 
the proper forms. 

181. Navy Separation Allowance Increase of Rates for 

Children 

The weekly rates of Navy Separation Allowance for 
children have been increased from 2s. to 45. for the first 
child, from 2s. to 33. for the second, and from is. to 2s. for 
the third. The rate for the fourth and any subsequent 
children will continue to be, as at present, is. a week. For 
motherless children the rate has been increased from 33. to 
55. each. 

These increases will take effect from ist March, but the 
additional sum due from that date will be included with the 
first payment for next quarter, which will be made on the 
8th April. As the books of postal drafts on which payment 
is made for the present quarter are already in the hands of 

301 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the postmasters, it is not possible to recall them all and 
alter the amounts payable, but the full amount due will be 
paid in all cases on the 8th April without any application 
from the persons concerned. 

The payment on the 8th April will also for the first time 
include a weekly instalment of the man's allotment, which 
will cease to be paid monthly after the payment due on the 
3ist of this month. 

Detailed instructions for giving effect to the change from 
monthly to weekly payment of allotments will be issued at 
an early date. 

183. Funeral Arrangements in Cases of Doubtful Identity 

In cases where bodies washed ashore are presumed to be 
from one of H.M. Ships, the funeral arrangements should 
always be made by the Naval Authorities. 

184. Railway Warrants for Seamen in Cases of 
Sickness, etc., at Home 

Free Railway Warrants may be issued to seamen (but not 
to Officers) during the war to enable them to visit their 
homes in the case of the serious illness or death of a near 
relative, upon condition that the concession is restricted to 
cases of grave and urgent illness or death of a parent, wife, 
or child, and that the genuineness of each case will be duly 
certified by a medical attendant. 

185. Leave in lieu of Christmas Leave Free Railway 

Warrants 

Free return railway warrants may be issued on one 
occasion only to Officers and men of ships permanently 
stationed in remote harbours and anchorages who were not 
able during the Christmas season, owing to the exigencies of 
the Service, to be granted Christmas leave. This concession 
applies only to Officers and men who have been continuously 
employed in such ships since a date prior to Christmas 1914. 

186. Income Tax 

A declaration of income for 1914-15 is required from each 
Officer on the Emergency List or holding a permanent or 
temporary commission in the R.N.R. or R.N.V.R., or a 
302 



, 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



temporary commission in the Royal Navy or Royal Marines. 
Every Officer who has not already furnished a declaration, 
either to a local Surveyor of Taxes or on the customary 
Naval form headed ' Income Tax claim, 1914/15, ' should 
now make a full return of his income on the form ordinarily 
used by Naval Officers. In these cases tax should be charged 
in conformity with the particulars shown on the declaration. 

Officers who have already sent a declaration to a local 
Surveyor are to complete the special blue form for R.N.R. 
and R.N.V.R. Officers recently issued. This form is to be 
forwarded through the Accountant-General of the Navy to 
the Inland Revenue authorities, who will decide as to the 
correct assessment. Pending their decision Officers are to 
be assessed provisionally from date of entry as though their 
incomes consisted solely of Naval emoluments, i.e., an Officer 
whose Naval taxable emoluments are less than 160 a year 
is not to be taxed, while an Officer whose Naval taxable 
emoluments are between 160 and 400 a year is to be 
allowed abatement at the rate of 160 a year, and taxed at 
the lowest rate on the balance, and so on. 

These arrangements do not apply to Retired Officers, 
R.N., who have been called out, and regarding whom instruc- 
tions as to the tax chargeable have already been notified by 
the Accountant-General. 

187. Ship's Fund 

The following instructions are to be observed in those 
Ships whose Ship's fund, under Port General Orders or 
authority issued direct from the Admiralty, has been deposited' 
in a Bank on Shore or taken on charge as Public Cash : 

(1) The Accountant-General is to be informed at the 
earliest opportunity of all sums so deposited or taken on 
charge, and of all subsequent additions or withdrawals, the 
resultant balance as well as the amount of the variation 
being stated in each case. 

(2) The Accountant-General is also to be furnished with 
definite information as to the wishes of the Ship's Company 
with regard to the disposal of the balance of the fund in the 
event of a casualty resulting in the loss or dispersal of the 
crew. In all cases of deposit with a Bank the Bank Manager 
is also to be furnished with this information (the communica- 

303 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

tion to him being identical in substance with that made to 
the Accountant-General), or if preferred he may be directed 
to apply to the Accountant-General for instructions. In 
either case the directions to the Bank on this point should 
be signed by the Officer authorised to operate on the banking 
account. A copy of the communication to the Bank should 
be forwarded to the Accountant-General. 

(3) It would not be practicable for the Accountant-General 
or the Bank authorities to investigate the circumstances of 
the relatives or friends of men lost or to distinguish between 
dependent or other relatives and friends. Neither can it be 
anticipated that it would be practicable for the fund to be 
administered by a committee of survivors. In all cases 
therefore where it is the intention that in the event of casualty 
the balance of the fund should be used for benevolent pur- 
poses, it is necessary that the instructions as to the disposal 
of the balance in that event should provide for its being 
handed over to a Naval or other charity for administration ; 
and if any conditions are imposed, that it should be ascer- 
tained that such conditions would be accepted and acted 
on by the charity selected. A copy of any correspondence 
relating to such conditions should be forwarded to the 
Accountant-General. The observance of these arrangements 
will be a condition of the relaxation of Article 856, Clause 4, 
of the King's Regulations. 

(4) The equal distribution of the money among the next- 
of-kin of men lost is not to be allowed in view of the difficulty 
of distributing the comparatively small amounts payable to 
each person in the circumstances under consideration, and of 
the probable existence of necessitous cases to the relief of 
which the sum available might more advantageously be 
devoted. 

(5) Fresh reports in accordance with the foregoing para- 
graphs are to be forwarded to the Accountant-General, and, 
if necessary, to the Bank having charge of the Ship's Fund, 
by all the Ships affected. It will not be sufficient to provide 
merely for the possible eventuality of ' the total loss of the 
Ship ' or ' the loss of the Ship ' or ' anything happening to 
the Ship/ etc., as has been done in some cases. Precise 
instructions are required which can be acted on when the 
fund can no longer be controlled by the Ship's company. 
304 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Care should be taken to give the correct official designation 
and full address of any Charity named. 

188. Prisoners of War Messing Allowances 

When Foreign Naval Officers are accommodated as 
prisoners of war in H.M. Ships, a Messing Allowance to the 
Messes concerned may be paid at the rate of 75. 6d., 55., 
and 33. a day in the cases of Officers of Ward Room, Gun 
Room, and Warrant rank respectively. 

In the case of Officers of a Foreign Merchant Service 
embarked as prisoners of war, an allowance of 53. a day may 
be paid for each Officer messed from the Ward Room and 33. 
a day for each Officer supplied with food from the Gun Room 
or Warrant Officers' Mess. 

195. Recommendations for Advancement and Special 
Advancement 

In order that full information as to suitable men may be 
available when advancements are being made from time to 
time to complete the numbers required, Commanding Officers 
of H.M. Ships and establishments are to forward on the ist of 
each month to the Rear-Admirals of the respective Depots a 
return showing the names of qualified men in the Seaman, 
Signal, Telegraphist, and Engine-Room Branches considered 
deserving of special advancement (a) to Petty Officer and 
(b) to Leading rate. 

This return should be additional to the ordinary return of 
ratings recommended for advancement on Form S. 507. 

During the period of hostilities Form S. 507 is to be 
rendered quarterly. 

198. R.N.R. Regulations (Officers) 

The following amendments to the R.N.R. Regulations 
(Officers) have been approved, and will be included in the 
Addenda in due course : 

Article 29. 
****** 

4. At the subsequent embarkations for training, or when 
called out by Royal Proclamation, the Warrant Engineer will 
be paid by the Registrar an upkeep allowance at the rate of 

NAVAL 4 U 305 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

35. 4d. a month (up to a maximum of 10) since last embarked, 
subject to the conditions specified in clause 3. 

In calculating this allowance 33. 4d. is to be credited for 
the month in which the previous embarkation commenced, 
and 33. 4d. for each succeeding calendar month, but no credit 
is to be made for the month in which the present embarkation 
commenced. 

Note. In the cases of officers who have already received 
the gratuity of 10 prior to the new regulations coming into 
force, the first payment of the upkeep allowance is to be 
calculated from the date on which they last received the 
gratuity of 10, 

199. R.N.R. Regulations (Trawler Section). 

The following amendments to the R.N.R. Regulations 
(Trawler Section) have been approved, and will be included 
in the Addenda in due course : 

Article 26. 

A Clothing Gratuity at the rate of 2s. a month since last 
embarked will be paid to the Skipper on his appearing for 
biennial training, or when called out by Royal Proclamation, 
as an aid to him to maintain his uniform. 

* * * - * * * 

Article 121. 

The Clothing Allowance is to be credited at these rates 
on the second or subsequent embarkations for training, or 
when called out by Royal Proclamation, to those men who 
produce their kits complete, properly marked, and in good 
order. In the case of men whose kits are incomplete, they 
are to be credited with a proportion only of the gratuity as 
follows : 

* If the value of the articles required to complete the 
kit 

(a) does not exceed 2s. 6d. Full allowance to be paid. 

(b) does not exceed i in Two-thirds allowance to be 

the case of Second paid. 
Hands and Engine- 
men, and i os. in the 
case of Deck Hands 
and Trimmers. 
306 



)i 5 ] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(c) exceeds i in the case One-third allowance to be 
of Second Hands and paid. 
Enginemen, and los. 
in the case of Second 
Hands and Trimmers. 

In calculating these allowances, yd. in the case of Second 
Hands or Enginemen, and 3d. in the case of Deck Hands or 
Trimmers, to be credited for the month in which the previous 
embarkation commenced, and a similar sum for each succeed- 
ing calendar month, but no credit is to be made for the 
month in which the present embarkation commenced. 

* Note. This regulation is suspended at present by M.O. 
I 35/ I 9 I 4 [ see Naval i, p. 310], which allows full payment of 
upkeep gratuity. 



307 



APRIL 1915 

SUBMARINE PRISONERS 

The Foreign Office issued last night the following Notes : 

I. THE GERMAN NOTE 

The American Ambassador presents his compliments to 
His Majesty's Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and has 
the honour, under instructions from the Secretary of State 
at Washington, to transmit, hereto annexed, the text of a 
telegram, dated March I7th, which Mr. Bryan has received 
from the German Foreign Office through the Embassy at 
Berlin : 

' According to notices appearing in the British Press, the 
British Admiralty is said to have made known its intention 
not to accord to officers and crews of German submarines 
who have become prisoners the treatment due to them as 
prisoners of war, especially not to concede to the officers the 
advantage of their rank. 

' The German Government is of the opinion that these 
reports are not correct, as the crews of the submarines acted 
in the execution of orders given to them, and in doing this 
have solely fulfilled their military duties. At any rate, the 
reports in question have become so numerous in the neutral 
Press that an immediate explanation of the true facts appears 
to be of most urgent importance, if for no other reasons than 
consideration of public opinion in Germany. 

' The Imperial Foreign Office therefore requests the American 
Embassy to have inquiry of the British Government made by 
telegraph, through the medium of the American Embassy 
at London, as to whether and in what way they intend to 
treat officers and crews of German submarine boats who have 
been made prisoners in any respect worse than other prisoners 
of war. Should this prove to be the case, the request is added 
308 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

that in the name of the German Government sharpest protest 
be lodged with the British Government against such proceed- 
ings, and that no doubt be left that for each member of the 
crew of a submarine made prisoner a British Army officer held 
prisoner of war in Germany will receive corresponding harsher 
treatment. The Imperial Foreign Office would be grateful 
for information at the earliest convenience regarding the 
result of the steps taken/ 

American Embassy, London, March 20, 1915. 

II. THE BRITISH REPLY 

The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his 
compliments to the United States Ambassador, and with 
reference to his Excellency's Note of the 2oth ultimo respecting 
reports in the Press upon the treatment of prisoners from 
German submarines, has the honour to state that he learns 
from the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty that the 
officers and men who were rescued from the German sub- 
marines U 8 and U 12 have been placed in the Naval Detention 
Barracks in view of the necessity of their segregation from 
other prisoners of war. In these quarters they are treated 
with humanity, given opportunities for exercise, provided 
with German books, subjected to no forced labour, and are 
better fed and clothed than British prisoners of equal rank 
now in Germany. 

As, however, the crews of the two German submarines in 
question, before they were rescued from the sea, were engaged 
in sinking innocent British and neutral merchant ships and 
wantonly killing non-combatants, they cannot be regarded as 
honourable opponents, but rather as persons who at the orders 
of their Government have committed acts which are offences 
against the law of nations and contrary to common humanity. 

His Majesty's Government would also bring to the notice 
of the United States Government that during the present war 
more than 1000 officers and men of the German Navy have 
been rescued from the sea, sometimes in spite of danger to 
the rescuers, and sometimes to the prejudice of British naval 
operations. No case has, however, occurred of any officer or 
man of the Royal Navy being rescued by the Germans. 

Foreign Office, April i, 1915. 

39 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Amsterdam, April 13. 

A Berlin telegram, quoting the North-German Gazette, 
states that the German Foreign Office sent the following Note 
to the American Ambassador on the nth inst. : 

' The German Government has learned with astonishment 
and indignation that the British Government regards the 
officers and crews of German submarines not as honourable 
enemies, and accordingly treats them not as other prisoners 
of war, but as ordinary prisoners (Arrestanten). These officers 
and crews acted as brave men in the discharge of their military 
duties, and they are, therefore, fully entitled to be treated 
like other prisoners of war in accordance with international 
arrangements. The German Government, therefore, enters 
the strongest protest against a procedure which is contrary to 
international law, and sees itself at the same time regretfully 
compelled immediately to execute the reprisals announced by 
it, and subject to similar harsh treatment a corresponding 
number of English Army officers who are prisoners of war. 

' When, moreover, the British Government sees fit to re- 
mark that the German Navy, in contrast to the British, 
failed to save shipwrecked men, we can only reject with loath- 
ing the insinuation that such rescue was possible for German 
ships but was wilfully neglected by them. 

'The undersigned begs the Ambassador to convey this 
information to the British Government, and also to take steps 
to secure for a member of the American Embassy in London 
an opportunity personally to inquire into the treatment of 
German submarine prisoners and present a report concerning 
the details of their lodging, maintenance, and employment. 

' Further proceedings with regard to British officers who 
have been provisionally placed under officers' arrest {Offizier- 
shaft) will depend upon the treatment of the German prisoners/ 

According to a telegram from Berlin the German Press 
is rejoicing at the reprisals to be taken against British officers 
in reply to the treatment of German submarine prisoners in 
England. Renter. 

(German official statement handed to each of thirty British 
officers chosen for segregation in fortresses) 

The regulations adopted by the English Government for 
the treatment of our submarine personnel (steadfastly carrying 
310 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

out their duty) who have fallen into their hands, viz., denying 
them honourable imprisonment of war and substituting im- 
prisonment in Naval Detention Barracks, have compelled the 
German Government to adopt measures of reprisal by treating 
in like manner British officers, prisoners of war, without 
respect of person (probably means irrespective of rank) 
during the period of the harsh treatment meted out by the 
English Government (which is against the Law of Nations). 
In consequence to-day, April I2th, thirty British officers taken 
from officers' camps have been confined in military places of 
arrest. 



BOMBARDMENT OF ZEEBRUGGE 

Amsterdam, April i. 

The Handelsblad learns from Sluis that at half-past nine 
last night a heavy bombardment by British warships was 
opened upon the north Belgian coast. Several explosions 
were heard. The German batteries replied to the fire. At 
six o'clock this morning British aviators reconnoitred the 
coast to ascertain the results of the bombardment, which was 
directed against Zeebrugge and the aviation camp between 
Lisseweghe and Zeebrugge near the canal. Renter. 

GERMAN SUBMARINES DAMAGED 

The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following Times, 
announcement : April 2, 

The following report has been received from Wing Com. I9I5> 
A. M. Longmore,' R.N. : 

' I have to report that this morning Flight Sub-Lieutenant 
Frank G. Andreae carried out a successful air attack on the 
German submarines which are being constructed at Hoboken, 
near Antwerp, dropping four bombs. Also Flight Lieutenant 
John P. Wilson, whilst reconnoitring over Zeebrugge, observed 
two submarines lying alongside the Mole, and attacked them, 
dropping four bombs with, it is believed, successful results. 
These officers started in the moonlight this morning. Both 
pilots returned safely. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

THE SEVEN SEAS SUNK 

London. 

K.V., Renter's Agency reports : The English steamer Seven 

April 2, Seas was sunk off Beachy Head without previous warning 

by a German submarine. The ship sank within three minutes. 

Out of the crew mustering eighteen men, eleven were drowned. 

BRITISH TRAWLERS SUNK 

London. 

ibid. Report from Renter's Agency. Three British steam 

trawlers were sunk early to-day by a German submarine off 
Shields. The crews were saved. 

THE LOCKWOOD TORPEDOED 

London. 

K.V., The English steamer Lockwood was torpedoed last night off 

April 3, the Start. The crew were rescued by a fishing boat from 
I 9 I 5- Brixham. Renter. 

THE BOSPHORUS BOMBARDED 

Petrograd, April 3. 

According to the latest information during the bombard- 
ment of the outer forts on the Bosphorus on March 28, the 
Russian warships approached to within forty or sixty cable 
lengths, bringing them within the mine area and the fire of 
the coast forts. 

The Russian battleships were preceded by torpedo-boat 
destroyers, which dragged for mines, without, however, find- 
ing any. The Turkish forts did not reply to the fire of the 
Russian Fleet. Renter. 

DARDANELLES 

Amsterdam, April 3. 

The following official communique from the chief head- 
quarters is issued in Constantinople to-day : 

Some enemy mine-sweepers attempted to approach the 
Dardanelles Straits (? Narrows), but retired before our fire. 
Two ironclads, which were covering the operations of the mine- 
sweepers, for a few minutes unsuccessfully bombarded the 
forts at long range and then retired. Reuter. 
312 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

THE MEDJIDIEH REPORTED SUNK 

Petrograd, April 4. 

A semi-official message from Sebastopol, under yesterday's 
date, states that on that evening the Turkish cruiser Medjidieh 
struck a mine near the Russian coast and sank. Renter. 



On April 3 the Turkish Fleet appeared before Odessa, C.O., 
when the cruiser Medjidieh struck a mine and sank. The April 10, 
Russian squadron gave chase to the Goeben and the Breslau, I 9 I 5- 
which, however, succeeded in escaping. 



Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : Yesterday our fleet sank two K.V., 
Russian ships near Odessa, i.e., the Provident, of 2000 tons, April 4, 
and the Bastochnaja, of 1500 tons displacement. The crews I 9 I 5- 
were taken prisoner. During this occurrence the cruiser 
Medjidieh, while pursuing enemy mine-sweepers in the vicinity 
of the fort of Otchakow, approached the enemy shore, struck 
against a mine and sank. The crew of the Medjidieh was 
saved by Turkish warships which were in the neighbourhood. 
The sailors of the Medjidieh showed a- conduct worthy of all 
praise. Before the sinking of the ship the breech-blocks of 
the guns were removed and the cruiser itself torpedoed so as to 
make it impossible for the enemy to salve it. 

One of the enemy mine-sweepers on attempting to approach 
the Dardanelles yesterday was hit by a shot from our batteries 
off Kum Kale, and sunk. 

NOTICES TO MARINERS 

(No. 258 of the year 1915) 
ENGLAND, SOUTH COAST 

Portland Harbour approach Restriction of Navigation ; L.G., 

Caution re Target Practice April 6, 

Former Notice (No. 232 of 1915 *) hereby cancelled i\See 

i. Restriction of Navigation : p. 220.] 

Caution. (a) No vessels or boats of any description are 
to move in the area north of a line joining Portland Bill with 

313 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

St. Albans Head, by day or night, unless proceeding into 
Wey mouth anchorage. 

(b) No vessels or boats of any description are to move in 
the area north of a line joining Portland Bill with Hopes Nose 
between sunset and sunrise. 

No vessels or boats of any description are to put to sea in 
this prohibited area during fog, and any caught at sea by 
fog are to return to shore or harbour at once. 

Vessels or boats found in this area after dark are liable 
to be fired upon. 

2. Caution re Target practice : 

Caution. Target practice will take place, without further 
notice, from ships lying in Portland harbour, and it will there- 
fore be dangerous henceforth for vessels to enter the follow- 
ing area : 

Limits of dangerous area : 

(a) On the North. By a line drawn in a 97 (S. 67 E. Mag.) 
direction from the north end of the outer breakwater until 
St. Albans Head bears 18 (N. 34 E. Mag.). 

(b) On the South. By a line drawn in a 119 (S. 45 E. 
Mag.) direction from the south end of the outer breakwater 
until St. Albans Head bears 18 (N. 34 E. Mag.). 

(c) On the East. By a line joining the eastern extremities 
of limits (a) and (b). 

(d) On the West. By Portland outer breakwater. 
Variation. 16 W. 

Charts temporarily affected : " 

No. 2615, Portland to Christchurch (2). 

No. 2450, Portland to Owers (2). 

No. 2255, Weymouth and Portland (2). 

No. 2675^, English Channel, middle sheet (2). 

Publication.- Channel Pilot, Part I., 1908, page 150 ; 
Supplement No. 2, 1914. 

Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
By Command of their Lordships, 

J. F. PARRY, Hydrographer. 

Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, $rd April 1915. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(No. 259 of the year 1915) 

ENGLAND, WEST COAST 
River Dee Restriction of Navigation 

Mariners are hereby warned that the following orders as L.G., 
to closing the river Dee have been made under the Defence April 6, 
of the Realm (Consolidation) Regulations, 1914 ; and will 
remain in force until further notice : 

1. The river Dee and the Port of Chester within the 
jurisdiction of the Dee Conservancy Board are closed to all 
traffic at night ; and vessels are not allowed to enter or leave 
the river at night. 

2. All lights for the assistance of navigation are extin- 
guished. 

Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
By Command of their Lordships, 

J. F. PARRY, Hydrographer. 

Hydrographic Department Admiralty, 
London, ^rd April 1915. 



STEAMER OLIVINE AND SAILING SHIP HERMES 

SUNK IN CHANNEL 

London. 

The small English steamer Olivine was torpedoed between K V., 
the island of Guernsey and Calais ; the crew was saved. The A P ri l 5. 
Russian sailing ship Hermes, on her voyage to Mexico, was I 9 I 5- 
torpedoed off the Isle of Wight ; the crew was saved. 

STEAMER NORTHLANDS SUNK 

London. 

The English steamer Northlands was torpedoed yesterday K.V., 
off Beachy Head. The crew was saved. Renter. April 6, 

1915. 

THE ACANTHA TORPEDOED 

It is reported from Blyth that the British sailing vessel ibid. 
Acantha was torpedoed yesterday off Longstone in the North 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Sea. The whole of the crew of thirteen men were rescued by 
a Swedish steamer. Renter. 

DARDANELLES 

Constantinople. 

K.V., Yesterday and to-day the enemy made no serious attempt 

April 6, against the Dardanelles. The day before yesterday two 
I 9 I 5- enemy cruisers opened fire against our batteries at the entrance 

of the Dardanelles. They fired 300 shells without obtaining 
any effective results. On the other hand it was ascertained 
by various observations that an enemy cruiser and a torpedo- 
boat were hit by shells fired from our batteries. 

ALLIED ATTACK IN ENOS BAY 

Constantinople. 

K.V., Headquarters reports : Yesterday a part of the enemy fleet 

April 8, attempted to land two boats full of soldiers after having fired 

I915 ' . about twenty shells at the landing stage of Dragodina near 

Enos. Our weak coast guards were sufficient to drive the 

enemy away. While retiring the enemy fleet fired a few more 

shells at a house without causing any damage. 

ALLEGED NAVAL SKIRMISH ON THE EUPHRATES 

Constantinople. 

ibid. According to private reports to hand from a reliable source, 

a motor boat belonging to the Turkish patrol service opened 
fire at a distance of three kilometres from Sonjaff on the 
Euphrates in the region of Kurna, on a large English gunboat 
armed with heavy artillery. The ship received twenty hits, 
which caused a fire in the engine-room, and also damaged 
other parts, so that she only managed to retire with difficulty 
and with assistance of other English ships. 

RUSSIAN MINE-LAYING IN BOSPHORUS 

Petrograd, April 7. 

It is semi-officially announced that the mine-laying opera- 
tions carried out by Russia in the Bosphorus, in spite of all 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the difficulties, have given the most satisfactory results, of 
which the following is a summary : 

On December 12, the Turkish cruiser Hamidieh struck a 
mine and was seriously injured. A few days later a gunboat 
of a new type, the Issa Reis, of 420 tons, sank in the same 
region. On January 2 a large transport was sunk. On 
December 26 the cruiser Goeben was seriously damaged by 
Russian mines. 

On January 21 another gunboat of the Reis type was sunk. 
On February 15 yet another gunboat was sunk. A few days 
later a Turkish torpedo-boat was blown up by a mine, and 
almost at the same time two other Turkish torpedo-boats were 
lost near the entrance to the Bosphorus. Renter. 

NOTICE TO MARINERS 

(No. 274 of the year 1915) 
CAUTION WHEN APPROACHING BRITISH PORTS 

PART I 

c 

CLOSING OF PORTS 

Former Notices (Nos. i and 101 of 1915 *) hereby cancelled. l [See 

(1) My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, having P ^i 3 3 ' 
taken into consideration the fact that it may be necessary to 214.] 
forbid all entrance to certain ports of the Empire, this is to LQ t 
give Notice that on approaching the shores of the United April 9, 
Kingdom, or any of the ports or localities of the British 
Empire, referred to in Part III. of this Notice, a sharp look- 
out should be kept for the signals described in the following 
paragraph, and for the vessels mentioned in paragraph (5), 

Part II., of this Notice, and the distinguishing and other signals 
made by them. In the event of such signals being displayed, 
the port or locality should be approached with great caution, 
as it may be apprehended that obstructions may exist. 

(2) If entrance to a port is prohibited, three red vertical 
lights by night, or three red vertical balls by day, will be 
exhibited in some conspicuous position, in or near to its 
approach, which signals will also be shown by the vessels 
indicated in paragraph (5), Part II., of this Notice. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

If these signals are displayed, vessels must either proceed 
to the position marked * Examination Anchorage ' on the 
Admiralty charts and anchor there, or keep the sea. 

(3) At all the ports or localities at home or abroad referred 
to in Part III. of this Notice, search-lights are occasionally 
exhibited for exercise. 

Instructions have been given to avoid directing movable 
search-lights during practice on to vessels under way, but 
mariners are warned that great care should be taken to keep 
a sharp look out for the signals indicated in paragraph (2) 
above, when search-lights are observed to be working. 

PART II 
EXAMINATION SERVICE 

(4) In certain circumstances it is also necessary to take 
special measures to examine vessels desiring to enter the ports 
or localities at home or abroad, referred to in Part III. of this 
Notice. 

(5) In such case, vessels carrying the distinguishing flags 
or lights mentioned in paragraph (7) will be charged with the 
duty of examining ships which desire to enter the ports and of 
allotting positions in which they shall anchor. If Government 
vessels, or vessels belonging to the local port authority, are 
found patrolling in the offing, merchant vessels are advised to 
communicate with such vessels with a view to obtaining in- 
formation as to the course on which they should approach 
the Examination Anchorage. Such communication will not 
be necessary in cases where the pilot on board has already 
received this information from the local authorities. 

(6) As the institution of the Examination Service at any 
port will never be publicly advertised, especial care should be 
taken in approaching the ports, by day or night, to keep a 
sharp look-out for any vessel carrying the flags or lights 
mentioned in paragraph (7), and to be ready to * bring to ' at 
once when hailed by her or warned by the firing of a gun or 
sound rocket. 

In entering by night any of the ports mentioned in Part 
III., serious delay and risk will be avoided if four efficient all 
round lamps, two red and two white, are kept available for use. 

(7) By day the distinguishing flags of the Examination 
318 ' 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Steamer will be a special flag (white and red horizontal sur- 
rounded by a blue border) and a blue ensign. 

Also, three red vertical balls if the port is closed. 



SPECIAL fr'LAG THREE REID BALLS 

BLUC 




By night the steamer will carry : 

(a) Three red vertical lights if the port is closed. 

(b) Three white vertical lights if the port is open. 

The above lights will be carried in addition to the ordinary 
navigation lights, and will show an unbroken light around the 
horizon. 

(8) Masters are warned that, when approaching a British 
port where the Examination Service is in force, they must have 
the distinguishing signal of their vessel ready to hoist im- 
mediately the Examination Steamer makes the signal. 

(9) Masters are warned that, before attempting to enter 
any of these ports when the Examination Service is in force, 
they must in their own interests strictly obey all instructions 
given to them by the Examination Steamer. In the absence 
of any instructions from the Examination Steamer they must 
proceed to the position marked ' Examination Anchorage ' on 
the Admiralty Charts and anchor there, or keep the sea. 

Whilst at anchor in the Examination Anchorage, masters 
are warned that they must not lower any boats (except to 
avoid accident), communicate with the shore, work cables, 
move the ship, or allow any one to leave the ship, without 
permission from the Examination Steamer. 

(10) In case of fog, masters are enjoined to use the utmost 
care and the Examination Anchorage itself should be ap- 
proached with caution. 

(n) Merchant vessels when approaching ports are especially 
cautioned against making use of private signals of any de- 
scription, either by day or night : the use of them will render 
a vessel liable to be fired on. 

319 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(12) The pilots attached to the ports will be acquainted 
with the regulations to be followed. 

PART III 
PORTS OR LOCALITIES REFERRED TO 



Alderney 

Barrow 

Barry 

Belfast 

Berehaven 

Blyth 

Clyde 

Cromarty 

Dover 

Falmouth 

Firth of Forth 

Guernsey 

Hartlepool 

Harwich 

Jersey 

Esquimalt 
Halifax 

Gibraltar 



United Kingdom 

Lough Swilly 
Milford Haven 
Newhaven 
Plymouth 
Portland 
Portsmouth 
Queenstown 
River Humber 
Mersey 
Tay 
Tees 

Thames 
Tyne 
Scapa Flow 
Sheerness 



Canada 



Quebec 



Mediterranean 

Malta 



Indian Ocean 



Aden 
Bombay 
Calcutta 
Colombo 



Hong Kong 



Durban 
Sierra Leone 



China Sea 



Africa 



Karachi 
Madras 
Mauritius 
Rangoon 



Singapore 



Simons Bay 
Table Bay 



320 



5] 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Australia 

Newcastle 
Sydney 
Thursday Island 



Adelaide 
Brisbane 
Fremantle 
Melbourne 



Hobart. 

Auckland 
Otago 

Bermuda 



Tasmania 



New Zealand 



West Indies 



PART IV 



Port Lyttelton 
Wellington 

Port Royal, Jamaica 



Sweeping Operations 

H.M. Vessels are constantly engaged in sweeping opera- 
tions off ports in the United Kingdom. 

Whilst so engaged, they work in pairs connected by a wire 
hawser, and are consequently hampered to a very considerable 
extent in their manoeuvring powers. 

With a view to indicating the nature of the work on which 
these vessels are engaged, they will show the following 
signals : 

A black bah 1 at the foremast head and a similar ball at the 
yardarm, or where it can best be seen, on that side on which 
it is dangerous for vessels to pass. 

For the public safety, all other vessels, whether steamers 
or sailing craft, must keep out of the way of vessels flying this 
signal, and should especially remember that it is dangerous 
to pass between the vessels of a pair. 

Note. This Notice is a repetition of Notice No. 101 of 
1915, with the addition of paragraph (8). 

Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
By Command of their Lordships, 

J. F. PARRY, Hydrographer. 

Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, jth April 1915. 



NAVAL 4 



321 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

GERMAN SUBMARINE OUTWITTED BY TUG HOMER 

Times, News has reached St. Helens, Isle of Wight, of an exciting 

April 10, encounter in the English Channel between a German sub- 
I 9 I 5- marine and the steam- tug Homer, of South Shields, Captain 

H. Gibson. The tug was 15 miles off St. Catherine's pro- 
ceeding up the Channel, having in tow the French barque 
General de Sonis, laden with grain and bound for Sunderland. 
The captain was challenged by the submarine, and ordered 
to abandon the ship, which he refused to do. The submarine 
altered its course and came up on the other side of the tug, 
again challenging, and this time firing a shot over the bridge. 
Captain Gibson, after waiting until the submarine was abeam, 
cast off the hawser and steamed at full speed. He steered 
straight for the submarine, but owing to the heavy sea missed 
the hostile craft by about three feet. During this manoeuvre 
the submarine fired at the bridge and wheel-house of the tug, 
shattering the windows and woodwork. The captain escaped 
injury. The submarine then steered away, fired a torpedo 
at the tug, gave chase for about ten minutes, and then went 
away. The Homer subsequently arrived in St. Helens Roads. 
The barque, General de Sonis, was picked up by the Dover 
tug Lady Crundall, and passed Dover last evening. She will 
be anchored in the Downs. 



Times, The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 

May 12, announcement : 

I 9 I 5- On April 8 the tug Homer, of the Lawson Steam Tugboat 

Company (Limited), was towing the French barque General 
de Sonis up Channel. When off the Isle of Wight a German 
submarine approached and hailed the master of the Homer 
(Captain H. J. Gibson) to surrender, making a flag signal to 
that effect at the same time. 

Captain Gibson paid no attention, but, awaiting his oppor- 
tunity, slipped the tow rope of the barque and steered straight 
for the submarine under a shower of bullets from the enemy's 
machine gun. 

The Homer missed the submarine's stern by three feet, 
and then steered for the Owers lightship, pursued by the 
enemy, who fired a torpedo, which passed close to the tug. 
322 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

After a chase of half an hour the submarine gave up the 
pursuit, and Captain Gibson brought the Homer to Bembridge, 
Isle of Wight, with seven bullet holes in his vessel. 

The General de Sonis arrived at Dungeness under sail. 

SINKING OF THE CHATEAUBRIAND 

German submarines have attacked several British mer- C.O. 
chant vessels and the French sailing vessel Chateaubriand, 
which was sunk on April 8th by a torpedo. The crew had 
time to take to the boats, which ultimately reached Treport. 

GERMAN ACCOUNT OF A FIGHT IN THE 
NORTH SEA 

The following statement, dated Berlin, May 9, says the Times, 
Press Bureau, has been officially circulated through German Ma Y 
wireless stations and received by the Marconi Company : 

Main Headquarters reports as follows : 

' Some weeks ago a large number of reports were current, 
which originated in Norway, to the effect that near Bergen, 
on the Norwegian coast, during the night from April 7 to 
April 8, heavy sea fighting between English and German 
ships had taken place. Ships coming from that direction 
also reported that they had seen squadrons of warships. On 
the night in question .gunfire by the aid of illuminating 
rockets had been noticed. With regard to these reports 
some light has now been thrown on the matter by the com- 
mander of the A.E 2, which was destroyed in the Dardanelles. 

' According to a letter which came into our possession re 
the North Sea fight, which is said to have taken place, the 
Superb is said to have been sunk and the Warrior is said to 
have been sinking, without the German Navy having suffered 
any loss. On Friday, April 9, a number of cruisers are said 
to have arrived in a badly damaged condition. The Lion 
was very badly damaged. The official^ reports say nothing 
of all this. 

' Similar reports have come to hand from reliable neutral 
sources which were known soon after the battle, and they 
are to the effect that a number of badly damaged and slightly 

323 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

damaged ships had reached English ports for repairs. The 
manner in which they had been damaged was left unexplained. 

' A specially large number of damaged ships ran into the 
Tyne,. A damaged cruiser was towed into the Tyne. A ship 
of the line, with a starboard list and with her aft funnel 
missing, was towed into the Firth of Forth. 

' The silence of the Admiralty on all this is easily to be 
understood. As the German Navy took no part in any fight 
on the night in question, and as a fight with neutral vessels 
is out of the question, a battle can only have taken place 
between ships of the British Fleet which did not recognise 
each other in the darkness/ 

The Secretary of the Admiralty states that ' there is not 
a word of truth in this fabrication. It is, however, interest- 
ing as a mark of the anxiety of Germany at the present 
moment to make an impression on neutral States/ 



DARDANELLES 

Paris, April 9. 
An official Note says : 

Times, The Eastern Expeditionary Force, placed under the corn- 

April 12, mand of General d'Amade, and concentrated at Bizerta to 
effect its organisation, has completed its Levant voyage under 
the best conditions. It has been ready since March 16 to 
give its help to the Allied Fleets and to the British Expedi- 
1 [See tionary Force. 1 

P- 1 58.] It was desirable that during the period of waiting the 

stay of the troops on the transports should not be prolonged, 
and with this in view the hospitality offered to them in Egypt 
was accepted. The French forces have been disembarked 
at Alexandria and are quartered close to the port, at Ramleh, 
a popular watering-place in the delta. 

They are resting there, and at the same time completing 
their organisation and combination. They are in a position 
to embark without delay for any destination where their 
presence may become necessary. Their review by General 
d'Amade created a most favourable impression on all who 
witnessed it. Renter. 

324 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

NOTICE TO MARINERS 

(No. 292 of the year 1915) 

UNITED KINGDOM 

Pilotage Stations established at certain Ports on account of L.G., 

defensive Mine-fields April 13, 



Former Notice (No. 154 of 1915 x ) hereby cancelled 

With reference to the extension of the system of Mine * 
defence, notice is hereby given that Pilotage is now com- p * 34 *-l 
pulsory at the following ports for all vessels (including fishing 
vessels) which have a draught of over eight feet, and that 
it is highly dangerous for any vessel to enter or leave such 
ports without a pilot. Fishing and other small vessels 
having a draught of over eight feet are to assemble at the 
Pilotage stations, and will be conducted into and out of port 
in groups. 

(1) FIRTH OF FORTH. All incoming vessels are only per- 
mitted to enter the Firth of Forth during daylight hours ; 
they are to pass between the Isle of May and Anstruther 
Wester, thence they must steer a direct course for Kinghorn 
Ness. On approaching Inchkeith, the Pilot vessel in the 
North channel is to be closed, and a pilot embarked. 

Vessels are warned that they should on no account pass 
to the southward of a line joining the north point of the Isle 
of May and Kinghorn Ness, until in the longitude of 3 W., 
when course may be shaped for the centre of North channel. 

Outward bound vessels should steer to pass the longitude 
of 3 W. in latitude 56 06' 30" N., then shape course to pass 
between Anstruther Wester and the Isle of May. 

The above orders apply to vessels proceeding to any port 
in the Firth of Forth, whether to the eastward of Inchkeith 
or not. 

(2) MORAY FIRTH. All vessels bound to Cromarty or 
Inverness must call for a pilot at Wick or Burghead. 

Outgoing vessels are to discharge their pilots at one or 
the other of these places. 

It is dangerous for any vessel to be under way to the 
south-westward of a line joining Findhorn and Tarbat Ness 
without a pilot. 

325 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(3) SCAPA FLOW. All entrances are dangerous and entry 
is absolutely prohibited by any of them except as provided 
in succeeding paragraphs. 

Examination services have been established in the entrances 
to Hoxa and Hoy Sounds ; vessels wishing to enter must 
communicate with the Examination vessel, and follow the 
instructions received from her very carefully. 

The only vessels permitted to enter Hoy Sound from the 
westward, are those bound for Stromness : vessels cannot 
enter Scapa Flow from Stromness. 

Vessels are not permitted to enter Hoxa or Hoy Sounds 
by night. 

Passage through Cantick Sound is entirely prohibited. 

Note. This Notice is a repetition of Notice No. 154 of 
1915, with additions to paragraph (3). 

Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 
By Command of their Lordships, 

J. F. PARRY, Hydrographer. 

Hydrographic Department, Admiralty, 
London, loth April 1915. 

BELGIAN RELIEF SHIP SUNK 

Rotterdam, April 10. 

Times, The sinking of the Belgian relief ship Harpalyce to-day by 

April 12, a German submarine amounted to particularly cold-blooded 

I 9 I 5 f murder of some seventeen innocent men. I have just seen 

the survivors, who were brought by the Dutch steamer 

Elizabeth to Rotterdam. Their stories only need repeating 

to show German conduct in a light which will still further 

increase, if possible, the indignation and contempt of the 

civilised world. 

The Harpalyce left here at 3 o'clock this morning for 
Norfolk, Virginia, in ballast. She flew a large white flag 
bearing the words, ' Commission for Belgian Relief ' in very 
large letters, visible for about eight miles. The same inscrip- 
jtion was painted in large characters on both sides of the 
vessel. She had aboard a crew of forty-four, of whom eight 
were British, one Dutchman, one Indian, one Finn, and the 
remainder Chinese. 
326 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

When nine miles north-east of North Hinder lightship she 
was torpedoed at 10 o'clock without warning by a submarine. 
Almost the whole side of the vessel was blown away. The 
torpedo struck the starboard side of the ship, which immedi- 
ately filled with water and sank within four or five minutes. 
Two or three other vessels were in the neighbourhood at the 
time. One, the Elizabeth (Captain K. Matroos), was about 
a mile distant, and saw the Harpalyce sinking. The Elizabeth 
immediately made for her and saved many lives. Her crew 
showed the greatest humanity, and brought the survivors to 
Rotterdam, where they are being cared for. 

The third officer, named Llewellyn, was on the bridge 
when the torpedo struck the Harpalyce. He told me that a 
terrific explosion occurred, debris of all kinds being projected 
to a great height above the vessel, with clouds of steam and 
a huge column of water. Captain Wawn, captain of the 
Harpalyce, was in his cabin at the time. He immediately 
rushed out and ordered the boats to be lowered, but there 
was no time to execute the orders. Mr. Llewellyn, looking 
round to see whether any other vessels were in the vicinity 
and were approaching to render assistance, saw the periscope 
of the submarine, which was then travelling in a northerly 
direction. 

Members of the crew of the Harpalyce described to me the 
rapidity with which she sank. Two men got into a lifeboat, 
but it filled with water. They began to bale her, and she 
remained afloat. They rescued about nine others, who were 
struggling in the water. Some were injured by wreckage, 
and had limbs broken and bruised. 

ENGINEER'S ESCAPE THROUGH SKYLIGHT 

There was a second explosion due to water entering the 
engine-room. Henry Horwood, the first engineer, was in the 
engine-room and slipped on a lifebelt. He escaped from the 
engine-room by the skylight, and was sucked under by the 
sinking vessel. He suffered severely from the shock of the 
immersion and bruises. He told me that he owes his life 
entirely to the lifebelt, but for which he would never have 
come to the surface again. He saw Wawn in the water. His 
chief officer, Johanson, a Russian Finn, had his arm round 

327 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the captain, endeavouring to support him. Both are missing, 
also the fourth engineer, who was a native of Bombay, and 
the steward and an apprentice, names unknown. 

Those saved include Walter George, second officer ; 
Llewellyn, third officer ; Henry Horwood, first engineer ; 
John Turnbull, second engineer ; John Wadley, third engineer; 
Arie Pieters, a Dutchman, fifth engineer. About twenty-one 
Chinese were also saved. 

When the Elizabeth arrived on the scene the crew were 
struggling in the water. Some were in a boat, others clinging 
to wreckage. It is remarkable that so many lives were saved, 
as the sea was choppy and the wind strong. The survivors 
all suffered severely from shock and exposure. 

The Dutch steamer Constance Catherine (Captain Kuyper) 
rescued five Chinese. The steamer Ruby, from Rotterdam, 
is reported to have been stopped momentarily by the sub- 
marine The Ruby is proceeding to New York. It is con- 
sidered possible that she rescued two men. 

* + * The Harpalyce was a four-masted steamer of 5940 tons, built 
by W. Gray and Co. in 1911, and owned by J. and C. Harrison (Limited). 
The Harpalion, a sister-ship, was torpedoed off Beachy Head on 
February 24, while bound from London for Newport News, U.S.A. 
(See Naval 3, p. 462.) Three Chinese members of the crew were killed, 
and two other men, who were scalded, were taken ashore on stretchers. 



Amsterdam, April 13. 

Times, The Telegraaf publishes the text of the certificate which 

April 14, the German Minister at The Hague gave before the vessel's 
departure to the captain of the Harpalyce, which was tor- 
pedoed by a German submarine. It is in the following terms : 

In accordance with an agreement between the Imperial 
Government and the Government of the United States, the 
undersigned German Imperial Minister certifies that the 
steamer Harpalyce, Captain F. Wawn, port of origin London, 
has exclusively transported cargo of the American Commission 
for the Relief in Belgium of the needy Belgian civil population. 

This safe-conduct has been drafted under the following 
conditions : 

(i) It is valid only for the present return journey. 
328 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(2) It must, immediately after the arrival of the ship in 
an American port, be handed over to a German Consul or 
to the Imperial Ambassador at Washington. 

(3) The captain has declared on his honour that he will 
refrain from actions on journey to and from which could 
assist the enemies of Germany. 

(4) Vessels of the Imperial Navy have the right to search 
the vessel, and all assistance must be given in order to ex- 
pedite such examination. 

(5) Non-compliance with these conditions deprives the 
ship of all right to privileged treatment. 

It was added that the course round the north of the 
Shetland Islands was recommended, and the vessel was 
urgently warned not to take a course through the waters 
declared to be a war zone by Germany, and especially the 
English Channel. 

The certificate was signed by Baron von Kiihlmann. 
Renter. 



GAZA SHELLED BY THE ALLIES 

Constantinople. 

There is no change on the Dardanelles. Two enemy K.V., 
cruisers bombarded the town of Gaza on the Syrian coast for Apnl 10, 
two and a half hours with intervals, and damaged a part of the 
harbour mole ; the town suffered no damage. 

THE KRONPRINZ WILHELM AT NEWPORT 

NEWS 

Newport News, April n. 

Mr. Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, has been notified of 
the arrival of the Kronprinz Wilhelm. The Government will 
take the same steps regarding her stay as in the case of the 
Prinz Eitel Friedrich. . 

The Kronprinz has on board sixty-one prisoners taken 
from her last victims, the steamers Tamar and Daleby. 
Renter. 

329 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The German Ambassador to the Secretary of State 
(Translation) 

Imperial German Embassy, 
Washington, D.C., April 12, 1915. 

U.S.D.C. MR. SECRETARY OF STATE, In continuation of my note 

of the nth instant I have the honour to inform your Excel- 
lency that S.M.S. Kronprinz Wilhelm would like to land at 
Newport News sixty-one persons belonging to the crews of 
enemy vessels sunk by her. 

The ship further stands in urgent need of repairs to restore 
her seaworthiness and has to replenish her supply of coal 
and provisions. The commander has asked me to procure 
for him permission to undergo the aforesaid necessary repairs 
at the Newport News shipyard, and announced that the 
extent and time of the repairs could only be made known 
upon the completion of the survey now on foot. 

In compliance with the request of the commander of 
S.M.S. Kronprinz Wilhelm, I beg your Excellency to take 
the necessary measures and in particular to allow the ship to 
stay at Newport News beyond the twenty-four hours pre- 
scribed by law in accordance, with Article 14 of the I3th Con- 
vention of the 2nd Conference of The Hague of October 18, 
1907. 

Accept, etc., For the Imperial Ambassador, 

HANIEL. 



The Secretary of State to the German Ambassador 

Department of State, 
Washington, April 21, 1915. 

EXCELLENCY, In reply to your note of the I2th instant 
requesting the hospitality of the port of Norfolk for S.M.S. 
Kronprinz Wilhelm, I have the honour to inform you that 
the Department has received the report of the board of naval 
officers who have made an examination of the cruiser with a 
view to ascertaining the repairs which the vessel may undergo 
in American waters. From this report it appears that the 
time required for repairs will consume a period of six working 
days, but that the proposed repairs will not cover the damage 
330 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to the port side of the cruiser incident to the service in 
which the vessel has been engaged. 

The Government has concluded, therefore, that S.M.S. 
Kronprinz Wilhelm will be allowed until midnight of the close 
of the 29th day of April next to complete the proposed repairs 
in the port of Norfolk, and that she will be allowed twenty- 
four hours in addition, or until midnight of 30th day of 
April, to leave the territorial waters of the United States, or, 
failing this, that she will be under the necessity of accepting 
internment within American jurisdiction during the con- 
tinuance of the wars in which your country is now engaged. 

It is expected that in accordance with the President's 
proclamations of neutrality S.M.S. Kronprinz Wilhelm will 
not depart from the port of Norfolk within twenty-four hours 
after a vessel of an opposing belligerent shall have departed 
therefrom. 

This information has been confidentially conveyed to the 
collector of customs at Norfolk for transmittal to the com- 
mander of the Kronprinz Wilhelm. 

Accept, etc., For the Secretary of State, 

ROBERT LANSING. 



Washington, April 26. 

The commander of the Kronprinz Wilhelm has decided to 
intern the vessel at Newport News. Renter. 



STEAMER WAYFARER TORPEDOED 

London. 

The British passenger boat Way/air,^ of 9000 tons, was K.V., 
torpedoed off the Scilly Islands. The ship was towed to A P ril I2 
Queenstown. Renter. I 9 I 5- 

1 [Way- 

TURKISH CAMP BOMBARDED 

Paris, 

The Ministry of Marine has issued the following com- Times, 
munique : A P ril J 4 

' Yesterday, with the help of hydroplanes the French 

33i 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [A: 

battleship St. Louis bombarded a large Turkish camp in the 
neighbourhood of Gaza/ 

THE FEAT OF THE THORDIS 

Times, At the Mansion House yesterday the Lord Mayor pre- 

April 13, sented to Lieutenant Bell, captain of the Thordis (see Naval 3, 
I 9 I 5- pp. 464-467), the sum of 500 offered by Syren and Shipping 

to the captain and crew of the first British merchant steamer 
to sink an enemy submarine. The Lord Mayor was accom- 
panied by the Lady Mayoress, and among those present 
were : 

Lord Inchcape (Chairman of the P. and O. Company and 
British India Company), Sir J. Fortescue Flannery, M.P., 
Sir F. Green (Orient Line), Sir E. E. Cooper, Sir A. RoUit, 
Mr. W. Petersen, Rear- Admiral Inglefield (Secretary, Lloyd's), 
Sir H. Acton Blake (Trinity House), Mr. Cuthbert Laws 
(Shipping Federation), Mr. W. Townend (Messrs. W. Runci- 
man and Co.), and M. Marconi. 

The Lord Mayor said that Lieutenant Bell's feat had been 
performed at a time when neither captain nor crew of the 
Thordis had any knowledge .of the offer of a prize. He had 
received a letter from Mr. Runciman (President of the Board 
of Trade) expressing regret that he could not be present. 
In his letter Mr. Runciman wrote : ' Every successful effort 
to rid the seas of the inhuman pests which have now become 
the only expression of German failure afloat, is well worthy 
of distinction. Lieutenant Bell has shown that courage and 
resource which is characteristic of the British merchant 
service/ 

Lord Inchcape said that Admiral Von Tirpitz never made 
a greater mistake than when he imagined his ' sunk-at-sight ' 
or ' ten minutes for boats ' policy would carry terror to the 
hearts of British seamen or those who took passage in British 
ships. The spirit and intuition of captains of the P. and O. 
and British India steamers were shown by an answer of the 
captain of the Caledonia : ' If we see a submarine we shall 
either sink him or give him a run/ Lieutenant Bell, with 
his slow-moving little steamer, could not give his assailant a 
' run/ but he gave him a ' ram ' and sent him to the bottom. 
332 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

If the Kaiser fondly hoped that he could stop communication 
with these islands by any such means he was woefully mis- 
taken. Lord Inchcape went on to explain that Lieutenant 
Bell would receive a cheque for 330, being 50 per cent, of 
the amount offered, with the additions. 

The Lord Mayor, in making the presentation, assured 
Lieutenant Bell that he had the best wishes of the whole 
British nation. The decoration which the King had be- 
stowed on him showed that His Majesty had a kindly eye for 
the seamen in the merchant ships. 

Lieutenant Bell said he was grateful that he and his 
crew had come safely through the incident on February 28, 
and he was grateful also for the honour of being permitted 
to do something in a practical way for King and country. 
He firmly believed they were the means of saving valuable 
lives, for just after they were attacked, he saw two large 
mail steamers or transports approaching the vicinity where 
the submarine disappeared. He had done his duty as many 
others had who had not been honoured as he had been, and 
he hoped he might be spared for further service. He was very 
proud of the distinction with which the King had honoured 
him, and the kind words spoken to him in that personal inter- 
view, which would be in his memory to the last day of his life. 

LIVE TORPEDOES ADRIFT 

Paris, April 13. 

The following communique has been issued by the Minister 
of Marine : 

Contrary to Article i of the Hague Convention, which 
forbids the use of torpedoes which do not become harmless 
after they have missed their mark, examination of torpedoes 
from German submarines recently found in the English 
Channel proves that their immersion apparatus had been 
systematically jammed so as to turn the torpedo into a floating 
mine. This is a fresh violation of international law. Renter. 

DARDANELLES 

Constantinople. 

Main Headquarters reports : Yesterday a few enemy K.v. y 
observation ships at the outlet of the Dardanelles fired at April 13, 

333 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

our batteries situated in the region of the entrance to the 
Straits, for half an hour without result. An enemy cruiser 
and a torpedo-boat were then struck by shells. 



GERMAN OPERATIONS IN THE BALTIC 

Copenhagen. 

K.V., According to official reports from Petrograd, a German 

April 13, cruiser bombarded the village of Bowendtschoff, at the mouth 

I 9 I 5- of the Swenta River and the Russian Baltic coast. The 

German guns fired about twenty rounds at the enemy positions. 



FRENCH AND ENGLISH STEAMERS TORPEDOED 
IN THE CHANNEL 

Paris. 

ibid. The French steamer Frederick Frank was torpedoed 

yesterday off Portsmouth. The crew was saved. The English 
steamer President, of Glasgow, was also sunk by a German 
submarine near the Eddystone on Saturday. In this case 
also the crew was saved. The English steamer torpedoed 
yesterday off Scilly was called Wayfarer. Havas Agency. 

OPERATIONS IN THE PERSIAN GULF AND 
MESOPOTAMIA 

FIELD OPERATIONS 

Parlia- The Governor-General in Council has much pleasure in 

mentary directing the publication of the following letter from the 
Paper, Chief of the General Staff, dated July 29th, 1915, submitting 
(Cd.8o74), a Despatch from General Sir J. E. Nixon, K.C.B., Command- 
ing, Indian Expeditionary Force ' D/ describing the opera- 
tions in the vicinity of Shaiba April I2th to I4th, 1915. 
The Governor-General in Council concurs in the opinion 
expressed by His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief , regard- 
ing the conduct of the troops engaged in the operations and 
the manner in which the latter were carried out. His Excel- 
lency in Council also shares the opinion of the Commander- 
in-Chief that the manner in which the attack on April I4th, 

334 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

1915, was executed, reflects the greatest credit on Major - 
General C. J. Melliss, V.C., C.B., and on the troops engaged. 



From Lieutenant-General P. Lake, Chief of the General Staff, 
to the Secretary to the Government of India, No. 11741-1, 
dated Simla, July 29, 1915 

I am directed by His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief 
in India to submit for the information of the Government 
of India the following report : 

Report by General Sir J. E. Nixon, K.C.B., Com- 
manding Indian Expeditionary Force ' D,' on the 
Operations in the vicinity of Shaiba, April I2th to I4th, 



1. His Excellency considers that the conduct of the troops 
in these operations was exemplary throughout, that the 
operations were skilfully carried out and that, in particular, 
the manner in which the attack on April I4th was executed 
reflects the greatest credit both on Major-General Melliss and 
on the troops engaged. 

2. His Excellency recommends that this report be treated 
as a despatch and published in the Gazette of India. 



GENERAL HEADQUARTERS. 

INDIAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE ' D ' 

From General Sir John Eccles Nixon, K.C.B., Commanding 
Force ' D,' to the Chief of the General Staff, Simla, 
No. 168-40, dated Basrah, May 6, 1915 

I have the honour to forward for the information of the 
Government of India, the accompanying despatches from 
Major-General C. I. Fry, regarding the fighting at Shaiba 
on April i2th, and from Major-General C. J. Melliss, V.C., 
C.B., regarding the action at Shaiba on the I3th, followed 
by the defeat of the Turkish forces on the i4th at the battle 
of Barjisiyah.* 

* [These despatches, and other portions of the present despatch which 
are wholly military in character, are omitted' here. They will be found in 
the Military Division.] 

335 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [, 

5. The actions themselves are described by the Com- 
manders, and I will now pass on to the part played by the 
Euphrates Blockade Flotilla, consisting of armed launches, 
small steamers, and gun barges on which were mounted 
two 4.7 in., one 12-pr., and three 3-pr. Naval guns, one 5 in. 
B.L. and one i8-pr. gun. This flotilla, under the command 
of Lieutenant-Colonel R. P. Molesworth, R.G.A., was enabled 
to do good service, aided as it was by the valuable assistance 
of Lieutenant A. G. Seymour, R.N., H.M.S. Espiegle, officers 
and men of the Royal Navy on this station. 

When the fighting commenced round Shaiba on the I2th, 
this flotilla was operating off Nakhailah intercepting supplies, 
which were coming to the enemy across the water in 
' rnahailas ' (country boats of from 30 to 80 tons burthen). 

The Officer Commanding the Blockade, having observed 
the action of Barjisiyah on the i4th, approached Nakhailah 
early on the morning of the I5th, and, finding that many 
of the enemy were escaping in native craft, at once gave 
chase and pursued them to Ratawi, destroying 8 and captur- 
ing 4 large * mahailas ' ; a heavy gale on the following day 
forced him to lie to. 

On the iyth he reached Chubashiah, but found it entirely 
deserted. The enemy were- seen retiring in scattered groups 
across the desert, and though he fired a few rounds at them, 
they offered no target. It would appear, from subsequent 
information, that, during their retreat, the enemy were 
harassed and robbed by their former allies, the Arabs, and 
that they fled across the desert in wild confusion, scarcely 
halting until they reached Kamsieh, a distance of close on 
90 miles from the scene of their defeat, so thoroughly dis- 
organised were they. 
. 

ii. In addition I wish to mention the following who 
prominently came to my notice, and who were not under 
the orders of either Major-General Fry or Major-General 
Melliss : 

Lieutenant-Colonel R. P. Molesworth, R.A., for some 
weeks commanded the Euphrates Blockade Flotilla, which, 
with the aid of the Royal Navy, often under extremely 
336 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

arduous and hazardous conditions, did excellent service in 
stopping the enemy's supplies and harassing his retreat. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Molesworth has shown much enterprise 
and energy in these duties, and also in reconnaissance work 
which has been most valuable. 

Captain C. A. Pogson, ii7th Mahrattas, has done very 
valuable intelligence work in connection with the Euphrates 
Blockade and showed much enterprise and daring. He has 
probably undergone more continuous hardships than any 
other individual in the force. 

Lieutenant R. H. Dewing, Royal Engineers. On April 
1 5th, the Euphrates Blockade guns drove two ' mahailas ' 
(large country cargo boats) into the reeds. Lieutenant 
Dewing went in after them and destroyed them with explo- 
sives. 

Lieutenant Commander A. G. Seymour, R.N. (H.M.S. 
Espiegle). The guns and gun crews of the Royal Navy under 
this officer have contributed largely to the success of the 
Euphrates Blockade, while his advice on naval matters and 
constant support were most valuable to the Officer Com- 
manding. 

EXPLOIT OF THE RENARD 

Tenedos, April 14. 

His Majesty's destroyer Renard yesterday entered the 
Dardanelles on a scouting expedition. She ran up the Straits 
at high speed for ten miles, penetrating probably farther 
than any of our ships has yet done. A heavy fire was directed 
at her, but she was not hit. His Majesty's ship London 
entered the Strait after her, and drew most of the enemy's 
fire. 

The batteries on the Asiatic side, especially the howitzers 
behind Erenkioi, were active, but those on the European 
side were quiescent. It is possible that the Turks have with- 
drawn most of their artillery from here in order to mass it 
quickly at any spot the Allied armies may choose for landing. 

A battery was bombarded by His Majesty's ship Triumph 
on Saturday. It has apparently been permanently put out 
of action. The weather is rainy and murky, hindering aerial 
reconnaissance. Renter. 

NAVAL 4 Y 337 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

DARDANELLES 

Constantinople. 

K.V., Headquarters reports as follows : 

April 15, Yesterday afternoon an enemy armoured cruiser bom- 

barded the fortifications of the Dardanelles from the entrance 
onwards at long range and without result. Four shells from 
our batteries hit the armoured cruiser, and a fire broke out 
on board. The ship steamed away immediately in the 
direction of Tenedos. 

The Russian fleet bombarded Eregli and Zunguldak 
yesterday, after which it sailed away in a northerly direction. 
Its only result was the sinking of a few sailing ships. 

There is no change in the other theatres of war. We do 
not consider it worth while to describe as warlike events the 
temporary, aimless, and unsuccessful bombardment of villages 
by ships which are constantly cruising on the Syrian coast. 



Constantinople. 

K.V., In the afternoon of April 14 the English battleship Majestic 

April 17, bombarded the land positions near Gaba Tepe (Bay of Saros). 
I 9 I 5- The fire was returned, and after a few shots the Majestic was 

compelled to retire. On the Majestic again attacking a few 
of the advanced batteries in the afternoon of April 15, she 
was caught by the fire of the Turkish forts and received three 
hits, i.e. two behind the navigating bridge and one between 
the funnels. The ship turned away, and was replaced by the 
battleship Swiftsure, which continued the bombardment with- 
out success. 

During the nights from April 13 to 14, and 14 to 15, enemy 
torpedo-boats attempted to penetrate into the Dardanelles, 
but they were easily repulsed. A German airman dropped 
two bombs, which struck and exploded on board enemy 
colliers near Tenedos. 

HERR BALLIN ON THE WAR 

New York, April 13. 

Times, I am permitted by the editor of the New York World to 

April 15, sen( j y OU extracts from an account of an important interview, 
338 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

which will appear to-morrow, with Herr Ballin (head of 
the Hamburg- Amerika line), who, in the enforced idleness 
of the German merchant marine, has been appointed by the 
Emperor purchaser of supplies for the German Army and 
Navy. 

The importance of the interview is derived from the fact 
that it took place in Hamburg immediately after the return 
of Herr Ballin from the front, where he had a long audience 
with the Emperor, whose views of the war he was authorised 
to communicate to the New York World for American con- 
sumption. 

Herr Ballin quoted to the correspondent the usual assur- 
ances conveyed to him personally by the Emperor : ' I never 
desired this war. Every act of mine in the twenty-six years 
of my government proves that I did not want to bring about 
this or any other war.' 

' Who, then/ asked the correspondent/ does the Emperor 
consider responsible for the war ? ' To this question Herr 
Ballin made the following extraordinary answer, which 
amounts virtually to a confession that Germany would have 
avoided war had she known that Great Britain would parti- 
cipate in it : ' We all feel that this war has been brought 
about by England. We honestly believe that Sir Edward 
Grey could have stopped it. If, on the first day, he had de- 
clared " England refuses to go to war because of the internal 
questions between Serbia and Austria/' then Russia and 
France would have found a way to compromise with Austria. 
If, on the other hand, Sir Edward Grey had said England 
was ready to go to war, then, for the sake of Germany, pro- 
bably Austria might have been more ready to compromise. 
But, by leaving his attitude uncertain and letting us under- 
stand that he was not bound to go to war, Sir Edward Grey 
certainly brought about the war. If he had decided at once, 
one way or the other, Sir Edward Grey could have avoided 
this terrible thing/ 

Of the significance of this admission Herr Ballin seemed 
to be utterly unaware, for he proceeded to dilate with pride 
on the part taken in the war by the Emperor, who, he assured 
the correspondent, was directing every detail of the campaigns 
on both fronts. The Emperor, Herr Ballin said, was in excel- 
lent health and spirits, and full of optimism, which was re- 

339 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

fleeted in the words, ' I am in the field with my brave soldiers, 
and I am certain that victory will be ours/ 

' How long will the war last ? ' asked the correspondent. 

* I wish I knew/ replied Herr Ballin. ' But you have just 
come from the Emperor. Did not he tell you ? ' The malice 
of this question was quite accidental, for Herr Ballin answered, 

* It is true I have just come from the Emperor, but I am 
sorry to say I do not think that even His Majesty could answer 
your question. The Emperor does not know either/ 

Herr Ballin proceeded to boast of Germany's abundant 
supply of troops, food, and ammunition, and said the nine 
milliards of marks (450,000,000) subscribed by the nation 
to the latest war loan showed what the German people believed 
would be the outcome of the war. ' As a matter of fact/ he 
observed, with a grin, ' Russia is feeding our Army in the east, 
and in the west Belgium and France are doing us the same 
favour. So you see there is no cause for worry. Time is in 
our favour, for, whereas our enemies are depleting their re- 
sources by spending their money abroad, we are making all 
our own supplies, and keeping all our money circulating 
within the Empire/ 

Herr Ballin next informed the correspondent that Ger- 
many's exports are being carried to America in American 
cotton vessels as well as by Scandinavian and Dutch steamers. 
' Here is an astonishing fact/ he said. ' Our exports to 
America in January last showed scarcely any falling off, while 
those from Austria were larger than in the same month of 1914.' 
As for the future, Herr Ballin professed supreme confidence. 
'We have just closed a contract/ he said, 'for seven new 
steamers, each with a carrying capacity of 17,000 tons, which, 
when peace is declared, will trade with the United States and, 
through the Panama Canal, with South America. As soon 
as the war is over all ill-feeling between our country and 
America will disappear, and you will see a boom in business 
the like of which has never been known. Shipping will not 
only be re-established, but there will be an unprecedented 
demand for cargo steamers. Supplies which have run short 
because of the war will be replenished, everybody will 
want his goods shipped immediately, and Germany and 
the United States will profit from the boom more than 
other nations/ Herr Ballin concluded by observing that 
340 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the Allies' warships will never attempt to approach the 
German coast, as the mouth of the Elbe is hermetically 
sealed by an unbroken line of mines. 



The following is the letter from Herr Ballin published, Times, 
without his name, in The Times of August 12, 1914. As it 
reached us on August 2, and was dated the same day, it was 
evidently timed to appear on the morning of August 3, the 
day when Sir Edward Grey was to reveal to the House of 
Commons the causes which made war inevitable. The object 
of the letter was undoubtedly to influence British political 
opinion in favour of Germany. Since the statements it con- 
tained were false, we withheld it from publication until 
August 12 : 

' August 2, 1914. 

' I hear with astonishment that in France and elsewhere 
in the world it is imagined that Germany wants to carry on 
an aggressive war, and that she had with this aim brought 
about the present situation. It is said that the Emperor was 
of the opinion that the moment had come to have a final 
reckoning with his enemies ; but what a terrible error that is ! 
Whoever knows the Emperor as I do, whoever knows how 
very seriously he takes the responsibility of the crown, how 
his moral ideas are rooted in true religious feeling, must be 
astonished that any one could attribute such motives to him. 

' He has not wanted the war ; it has been forced upon 
him by the might of circumstances. He has worked un- 
swervingly to keep the peace, and has, together with England, 
thrown his whole influence into the scales to find a peaceful 
solution, in order to save his people from the horrors of war. 
But everything has been wrecked upon the attitude of Russia, 
which, in the middle of negotiations which offered good out- 
look of success, mobilised her forces, wherewith she proved 
that she did not mean in earnest what her assurances of 
peaceful intentions indicated. 

' Now Germany's frontiers are menaced by Russia, which 
drags her Allies into the war ; now Germany's honour is at 
stake. Is it possible under these circumstances that the most 
peace-loving monarch can do otherwise than take to the 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

sword in order to defend the most sacred interests of the 
nation ? 

And, finally, the German people ! In them is firmly 
rooted the word of Prince Bismarck against aggressive wars : 
" One must not try to look into the cards of Fate." 

' It must be stated again ; Russia alone forces the war 
upon Europe. Russia alone must carry the full weight of 
responsibility.' 

THE KATWYK TORPEDOED 

Amsterdam, April 15. 

' What next ? ' was the question that Dutch people asked 
themselves this morning, as they gathered in little knots to 
read a bulletin in the shop windows, announcing the sinking 
of the Dutch ship Katwyk. 

This 20OO-ton steamer, according to the Telegraaf, was 
bound, with a Government cargo of grain, from Baltimore to 
Rotterdam, when she was. torpedoed off the North Hinder 
lightship. The crew was saved and taken to Flushing by a 
tug. 

Details of the affair have just been received from the 
Telegraafs Flushing correspondent. The Katwyk's crew 
arrived at Flushing at four o'clock this afternoon on board 
the steamer Flushing, which brought them from the North 
Hinder lightship. The crew of twenty-three were all well, 
but tired. They were immediately taken to the Hotel Zealand, 
where the Dutch naval captain von Leschen was awaiting 
Captain Teensma, of the Katwyk, to inquire into the circum- 
stances. 

Meanwhile the crew reported that the Katwyk had anchored 
six miles from the North Hinder lightship about 8 o'clock 
on Wednesday evening. The wind was fresh, so the Dutch 
flag was fully displayed. It was not quite dark, and the flag 
must have been recognisable at some distance. The watch 
was on deck, the remainder of the crew being below at supper. 
After the ship had been anchored about a quarter of an hour, 
all her lights being up, a loud explosion suddenly alarmed the 
crew, who ran on deck and shouted with the watch, both in 
English and German, that the ship was Dutch. 

That the ship had been torpedoed was soon evident. There 
342 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

was an enormous hole in the port side, and the ship immediately 
began to burn. She had been torpedoed in the second hold, 
near a watertight compartment. It was impossible to ex- 
tinguish the fire, and the ship having already begun to sink, 
the crew calmly obeyed the officers' command to prepare the 
lifeboats. While doing so they saw the submarine, which had 
hitherto been unnoticed. She was too remote for the crew 
to identify her nationality, but it is certain that the ship was 
torpedoed without the slightest notification. 

The crew entered two boats, one commanded by the 
captain, the other by the first mate. When the boats were 
at some distance from the Katwyk she disappeared. The 
Katwyk only floated for twenty minutes after being torpedoed, 
and the crew were unable to save their belongings, most of 
them bringing away only the clothes they were wearing. The 
captain, however, saved the ship's papers. Fortunately, the 
watch had just been changed at the moment that she was 
torpedoed, therefore no one was in the cabins. The fact that 
no lives were lost is attributable to this circumstance. Both 
the boats went to the North Hinder lightship, where the crew 
passed the night. 

The Katwyk 1 's case differs from that of the Medea in two 
important respects. The Katwyk was carrying a cargo of grain 
consigned to the Netherlands Government, when she was 
torpedoed without warning. 

The incident has revived the uneasiness and alarm occasioned 
by the sinking of the Medea. No people are more peaceably 
inclined than the Dutch, who fully realise how serious a 
calamity war would be for their country. The object-lesson 
of Belgium has not been lost upon them. The Dutch have no 
desire to see the Netherlands afflicted with all the sorrow and 
misery which have befallen their neighbours. This attitude 
is natural on the part of a small nation, of which the whole 
population does not exceed six millions, or no more than that 
of London alone. Therefore, those who imagine that the 
Netherlands will lightly draw the sword are destined to be 
disillusioned. Holland will not make war unless circumstances 
become too strong for her. 

The question arises, however, whether the Germans are 
presuming on the patience of the Netherlands, which, of course, 
has its limits. 

343 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Times, 
April 16, 



Times, 
April 17, 



Great disappointment is undoubtedly felt in Holland at 
this latest incident, because it was hoped that, after the 
publication of the Netherlands communique concerning the 
recent German-Dutch shipping incidents, any immediate 
cause for anxiety had been removed. Germany gave Holland 
to understand that those incidents did not indicate any change 
in Germany's line of policy. It was pointed out in the Nieuwe 
Courant only last Sunday that no further action by German 
submarines against Dutch ships in particular had been heard 
of since the Dutch Minister at Berlin pointed out how much 
public opinion in the Netherlands had been disquieted by the 
sharp measures of the German Navy in the last week of March. 



The sinking of the Katwyk is the latest of a series of 
provocative acts by German submarine crews and airmen 
against Holland. Three weeks ago the steamship Medea, of 
Amsterdam, was stopped off Beachy Head by the U 28, and, 
after the crew had been ordered into the boats, was sunk by 
gunfire. On April i a Rotterdam ship, the Schi eland, noo 
tons, was blown up in the North Sea, near Spurn Head. In 
this case no submarine was seen, but the chief mate stated 
that as the steamer was struck opposite the engine-house 
instead of in the fore part ol the ship, it was unlikely that 
the explosion was caused by a mine. On March 23 the 
Mecklenburg, 2885 tons, was pursued by a German steam 
trawler, which fired three shots at her. A few days earlier 
the Germans seized the Batavier V., 1500 tons, and the 
Zaanstroom, and took them to Zeebrugge, and bombs were 
thrown from an aeroplane at the Zevenbergen. 



Amsterdam, April 16. 

Captain Teensma, of the Katwyk, arrived at Rotterdam 
to-night with the crew of the Katwyk. 

He stated that the steamer was about seven miles west of 
the North Hinder lightship on Wednesday evening when he 
anchored for fear of mines, and ordered that in addition to the 
anchor light a large petroleum gaslight should be shown. A 
frightful explosion occurred while this was being done. The 
deck was blown open and the crew were covered with water 
and grain. 
344 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The watch on the bridge had seen nothing, but a few 
seconds after the Katwyk was torpedoed he saw the periscope 
of a submarine. The ship sank quickly. Both boats were 
launched. All the crew entered them and rowed behind the 
Katwyk. The crew believed they saw a couple of ghost-like 
lights when they came close to the submarine, and the captain 
called for help. There was no answer, however. The sub- 
marine, on the contrary, went away as quickly as possible 
from where the Katwyk' 's crew were. 

Far from losing their heads over the incident, the Dutch have 
never been more self-possessed than, at the present moment. 
Their indignation and disgust at this outrage are as great as 
would be those of any other neutral people whose property 
had been wantonly destroyed and whose fellow-countrymen's 
lives had been exposed to the gravest peril under similar 
conditions. Newspaper comment to-day gives forcible ex- 
pression to these feelings, a chorus of protest being uttered 
in journals of all shades of opinion. Counsels of self-restraint 
are not wanting, however, and it is pointed out that the duty 
of the Dutch is to strengthen the hands of their Government in 
dealing with exceptional difficulties at a time when calm and 
sober handling of affairs is of the utmost importance. 

The announcement of the Wolff Bureau this morning that 
the German Government has already instituted an investigation 
into the torpedoing of the Katwyk is regarded as an indication 
that Germany realises the seriousness of the situation created 
by this latest exploit, and desires to reassure the Netherlands. 
It is recognised, however, that nothing can acquit either the 
German Government or German sailors of the responsibility 
for the consequences of this sea crime. 

The Germans seem convinced that Holland will submit 
to every injustice, indignity, and outrage rather than have 
recourse to arms. This opinion may prove unfounded. The 
Handelsblad to-night points out that, while all the Netherlands 
desires to remain outside the war, it is possible for peace to be 
purchased at too high a price. 

Amsterdam, April 16. 

Dr. Ludwig Stein, according to a Berlin telegram, writes ibid. 
as follows in the Vossische Zeitung : 

' We must quickly oppose the view that the sinking of the 

345 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Medea and the Katwyk is contrary to international law or 
involves any change of German policy towards Holland. The 
sinking of the Medea and the Katwyk is a parallel case to that 
of the William P. Frye, the American steamer sunk by the 
Eitel Friedrich. The German commander acted in that case 
completely within the principles of international law as laid 
down by the London Declaration and the German Prize Law. 

' Of course, differences of opinion exist concerning the 
validity of the London Declaration because England did not 
ratify it. If that came to pass then nothing could prevent 
the formation of a Court of Appeal, but England frustrated 
it herself.' 

Dr. Stein seems unaware that the Katwyk was proceeding 
to Rotterdam from Baltimore with a cargo of grain for the 
Dutch Government. Reuter. 



Amsterdam, April 19. 

Times, The afternoon papers published a Paris telegram, stating 

April 20, that Germany is ready immediately to pay compensation 
1 9 I 5- for the Katwyk and to offer apologies conformably to the 

provisions of international law. This seems to go rather 
further than the facts justify as disclosed in the semi-official 
German communique, which speaks of Germany's readiness to 
make amends if it is proved that the submarine was German. 
How far the difficulty or impossibility of identifying the 
nationality of the submarine may render this condition fatal 
to the satisfaction of Holland's just claims remains to be seen. 
It is noteworthy that the Vaderland, a Hague journal which 
it is impossible to accuse of anti-German sympathies, speak- 
ing in Friday's issue of the impossibility of an appeal to a 
Prize Court, says : ' Wherever we appeal for justice, we may 
be dismissed with, "Come to the wrong address." Against 
this view may be set the opinion of the Handelsblad, which 
on Saturday published an article headed ' Cui Prodest/ point- 
ing out that there is only one nation which has declared that 
it will destroy merchantmen on the presumption that they 
are English ships or carry contraband. The article con- 
tinues : ' There is only one nation which torpedoes ships 
without investigation, regardless of danger for those aboard, 
and which considers that this is to its advantage. . . . Should 
346 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the German Government submit sworn declarations and 
journals of all submarine commanders, and thus demonstrate 
that the crime was not committed by a German boat, then 
we should certainly assume penitential garb. But we are 
firmly convinced that this will not happen. 1 

Time will show whether Germany will place the whole 
responsibility of proof upon Holland or will prove the Handels- 
blad's scepticism to have been unjustified. 



Berlin, April 20. 

The special Rotterdam correspondent of the Deutsche Times, 
Tageszeitung reports that the description of the boat which A P ril 2I 
torpedoed the Katwyk, and the behaviour of the crew, lead 
one to believe that the vessel was of English nationality. 
German Wireless. 



Amsterdam, May 10. 

It is officially stated that the German Government had Times, 
sent a written declaration to the Dutch Government, dealing May n, 
with the torpedoing of the Katwyk, and admitting that she 
was sunk by a German submarine. 

The commander of the submarine was under the impres- 
sion that he had to do with an enemy ship, as the distin- 
guishing marks used by neutrals had not, when darkness 
came on, been illuminated by the Katwyk, on the side which 
was struck by the torpedo. The German Government 
expresses its sincere regret for the mishap, which was in no 
way intentional, and undertakes to make compensation for 
the damage done. Renter. 



DUTCH NEUTRALITY VIOLATED 

Amsterdam, April 13. 

The Nieuwe Courant to-night, referring to reports that the Times, 
steamship Main had a wireless apparatus aboard, says : April 14, 
We learn that the report is so far true. That for this, as I 9 I 5- 
well as other reasons, the presence of the merchantman Main 
at Flushing was considered by our naval authorities to be no 

347 

i 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [ 

longer desirable. After a watch had been placed on the ship 
a short time ago, it was intimated that if it wished longer to 
enjoy an asylum in a Dutch harbour it must proceed to another 
place than Flushing. The ship, therefore, chose to go to 
Antwerp, which, naturally it had full freedom to do, and it 
left for that place yesterday. 

The Handelsblad, referring to the Main, says that the 
report concerning her secret wireless installation is on the 
whole accurate, so far as its information goes. It adds : 
'There was no question of interning the Main, for being 
a merchantman and not a warship, it could remain volun- 
tarily at Flushing, but the misuse of hospitality extended to 
the vessel, and the violation of Holland's neutrality in this 
way is for this reason serious, fpr a violation of neutrality is 
what the Main committed. It is announced from Flushing 
that the Main has gone to Antwerp. It is not clear why the 
Netherlands authorities permitted this departure, and had 
not seized the ship after this discovery/ 

The Main is a vessel of 10,058 tons, belonging to the 
Norddeutsche Lloyd, and has been sheltering at Flushing 
since the outbreak of the war. 



The Hague, April 16. 

With reference to the departure of -the German steamer 
Main from Flushing, it is semi-officially announced here 
that military considerations led the authorities to consider it 
undesirable that the vessel should stay any longer at Flushing, 
where she has been voluntarily lying at anchor since the 
beginning of the war. Owing to the great draught of the 
Main, it is declared her removal within territorial waters to 
another Dutch port was impossible, and therefore she was 
permitted to go to Antwerp. There was, it is added, no 
question of the internment of the vessel. Renter. 

A SWEDISH SHIP STOPPED 

Stockholm, April 15. 

The news that the Swedish steamer Sir Ernest Cassel, 
which was bound from Narvik to Rotterdam, has been stopped 
348 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

and taken into Middlesbrough, has evoked expressions of 
astonishment and uneasiness in all the Swedish newspapers 
without exception as well as among the general public, for 
the stoppage of the steamer is regarded as constituting a 
fresh menace to the export of iron ore from Sweden. 

The journal Socialdemokraten dwells on the serious losses 
which such interruptions in the voyages of vessels would 
entail on the export of Swedish iron ore, which is now shipped 
from Narvik, and, as it says, ' all because Great Britain, in 
defiance of international law, forbids shipments from neutral 
Norway to neutral Holland/ Reuter. 



Stockholm, April 16. 

In view of the situation caused by the detention by the 
British authorities of the steamer Sir Ernest Cassel, carrying 
a cargo of iron ore, the owners have given telegraphic orders 
to three other ships bound for England to break their voyage 
and to remain, until fresh instructions are received, in a 
Norwegian port. Reuter. 

CONTRABAND 

House of Commons, April 14, 1915. 

MR. PETO asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Hansard. 
whether, in view of the fact that in Articles 27 and 2.8 of the 
Declaration of London raw cotton wool and yarns of the same 
are placed upon the free list as not susceptible of use in War, 
and in view of the Government having, by proclamation 
published in the London Gazette of I2th March, placed wool 
and woollen and worsted yarns on the list of absolute con- 
traband they intend to extend the list of absolute contraband 
to raw cotton and yarns of the same ; and, if not, whether 
he can state the reason for this distinction between wool and 
woollen yarns and cotton and cotton yarns ? 

MR. PRIMROSE : After careful consideration it was found 
that the military advantages to be gained from declaring 
cotton to be contraband were insufficient to render such a 
step expedient. The reasons were explained in the reply 
given to the hon. Member for Nottingham on the 4th February. 

349 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

[The following is the answer above referred to : 

CONTRABAND OF WAR (COTTON) 

House of Commons, February 4, 1915. 

Hansard. SIR J. D. REES asked the President of the Board of Trade whether 

cotton is a usual, if not indispensable, ingredient in many modern 
explosives ; and, if so, why it is not included in the list of articles of 
contraband of war ? 

SIR E. GREY : I understand that the suggestion made in the first 
part of the question is correct, but the proportion of the German cotton 
import used in the manufacture of explosives is very small and the 
requirements for that purpose could have been supplied from the 
stocks of cotton goods already in the country at the outbreak of war. 
The advantage of treating cotton as contraband of war is consequently 
not apparent, whilst the disadvantage which would result from such 
a step is considerable.] 

RETIRED CAPTAINS (ROYAL NAVY) 

House of Commons, April 14, 1915. 

Hansard. COMMANDER BELLAIRS asked the First Lord of the Admir- 

alty whether, in the case of retired captains who are employed 
during the war, the time of active service and sea service is 
allowed to count towards -promotion on the retired list so 
that in the case of a captain who has hitherto been below the 
three years' sea service and six years' active service margin, 
laid down by regulation, he may qualify for promotion ulti- 
mately to vice-admiral on the retired list ; and, if not, 
whether he can grant this concession in view of the fact that 
it will not involve any increased charge on the Estimates ? 
Mr. CHURCHILL : Yes, sir. 



EXPLOSION AT LERWICK 

ibid. MR. CATHCART WASON : I beg to ask the Parliamentary 

Secretary to the Admiralty a question of which I have given 
private notice, namely, whether he has received any account 
of the explosion at Lerwick, and the lamentable loss of life 
which is reported ? 

The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE ADMIRALTY (DR. 
MACNAMARA) : I have seen a newspaper statement. Beyond 
that I have no information, but I will at once inquire. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

MR. CATHCART WASON : May I repeat the question to- 
morrow ? . 

DR. MACNAMARA : Yes. 



House of Commons, April 15, 1915. 

MR. CATHCART WASON : I desire to ask the Parliamentary Hansard. 
Secretary to the Admiralty whether he is now in a position 
to' give us any details regarding the explosion at Lerwick ? 

The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE ADMIRALTY (DR. 
MACNAMARA) : An inquiry is being held into the matter, 
pending the result of which I am not in a position to add to 
the reports which have appeared in the Press, except that I 
regret to say that the number of deaths resulting from the 
explosion now appears to be seven three being naval ratings 
and four civilians, in addition to about twenty injured. 

AIR RAID ON NORTH-EAST COAST 

Newcastle, April 14. 

An airship raid took place on the North-East Coast to-night. Times, 
A hostile aircraft passed over Blyth about 8 o'clock, and made A P ril I 5 
a circuit over Wallsend. In its course it traversed a large 
area of mid-Tyne district, the centre of one of the most 
important shipbuilding areas in the country. 

An eye-witness in the neighbourhood of Wallsend said 
at 10 minutes past 8 his attention was directed to a dark 
object in the sky, and he heard the noise of propellers in 
mid-air. Before he had really time to grasp the situation 
there were a number of sharp explosions, which seemed to 
be at no great distance from where he was standing. 

Simultaneously he saw flashes of light in the sky, which 
were followed by a loud report, resembling that of a big 
gun. The night was exceptionally dark, and there was not 
a breath of wind. The flashes which accompanied the explo- 
sions illuminated the whole district. There is reason to 
believe that at least one building in Wallsend was struck by 
a bomb. 

All the lights in the district have been extinguished, and 
the order for immediate darkness is said to have been applied 
to the whole north-east coast. At any rate a message from 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Hull was received between 10 and n o'clock, inquiring why 
that port had been suddenly plunged into darkness. 

The town of Blyth, where the airship seems first to have 
been seen, is on the coast almost due north-north-east of 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Wallsend is practically at the mouth 
of the Tyne, due south of Blyth and south-west of Tynemouth. 

Midnight. 

A number of bombs were thrown on Wallsend and Hebburn, 
and it was at once evident that the object of the raid was to 
do damage to the shipbuilding works, where work was going 
on at the time. Precautions were immediately taken by the 
authorities, the men being dismissed from the yards and the 
latter closed. 

A house in Station Road, Wallsend, was struck by a 
missile which passed through the roof and brought down the 
ceiling of a bedroom in which a woman was at the time. 
Happily she escaped serious injury. 

Bombs were also dropped at Annitsford and Killing- 
worth, and other places, but in no case was any material 
damage done by them, so far as could be ascertained. 

When the news of the raid reached Newcastle every pre- 
caution was at once taken. The lights in the streets were 
extinguished and the electric current was cut off. Tramway- 
cars were brought to a standstill, and the entire city was in 
darkness. The railway station was closed. 

The Great Northern (King's Cross to Aberdeen) express 
was stopped in the station, and the railway traffic generally 
was delayed, as a number of the trains would have had to 
pass through the danger area. By n o'clock, however, it 
was realised that the danger was over, and railway traffic was 
resumed, and the city once again wore its normal aspect. 

It was over Blyth that the airship first made its presence 
known, it then went west to Choppington, from there south 
to Wallsend and Benton. No deaths have been reported, 
and people remained calm. 

12.30 A.M. 

The whole of the communications of the area affected 
were seriously interrupted, and confirmation of many of the 
rumours which were current in the Newcastle district was not 
obtainable. 
352 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

It was also stated that the Choppington area between 
Blyth and Newcastle seemed to be the centre of the raid, 
and that it was there that most alarm was felt. 

It is understood that there was no loss of life at any 
rate, that none had been reported at midnight that the 
special constabulary had not been called out, and that no 
troops had been requisitioned for special duty. 

All the anti-aircraft searchlights were playing in all direc- 
tions immediately, and the Zeppelins were seen later in the 
night off the mouth of the Tyne proceeding southwards, 
apparently heading for the German coast. 



Blyth, April 15, 12.30 A.M. 

A Zeppelin passed over Blyth last night and dropped Times, 
bombs without doing much damage. A policeman who saw A P nl 
the airship plainly says : 

' The airship looked like a great cigar in the twilight. I 
should say it was at a height of about 2000 feet. Twelve 
bombs, as far as can be ascertained at present, were dropped 
from the raider, but Blyth escaped lightly. 

' Immediately it was seen, the authorities took the neces- 
sary emergency steps, and Blyth was plunged into darkness, 
and the tramway-cars stopped running. The townspeople 
took the affair calmly, and there was very little excitement.' 

A Press Association message from Blyth states : ' At 
about 8 o'clock to-night several colliery villages in East 
Northumberland were the object of an attack by a Zeppelin. 
The aircraft -was observed to come in from the seaward at 
Blyth, hover about for a few minutes, and then proceed 
rapidly westward. The people in the streets at first thought 
the Zeppelin was one of our own patrol ships, but doubts 
were dispelled shortly afterwards when a loud explosion 
occurred, accompanied by a blinding flash. Further bombs 
were dropped about a dozen in all at Choppington, two 
miles from the coast. A publichouse and a social club were 
narrowly missed by a bomb, the windows being broken. At 
the railway station a bomb shook the premises and set the 
lamps swinging. 

'The Zeppelin then moved southward, passing over Bed- 
NAVAL 4 z 353 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

lington. The windows of the Salvation Army barracks were 
blown out. At a village named Dudley, further windows 
were blown out. At Cramlington a house was struck by a 
bomb and set on fire, but the fire was quickly extinguished. 
The occupants managed to escape in safety. 

' This was the last heard of the Zeppelin on the East Coast, 
and it is presumed locally that she made her way to the 
seaward via Sunderland. 

'The streets of Blyth were unusually thronged, there being 
a recruiting demonstration in progress. One of the speakers 
in the Market Place, where a large crowd had collected, the 
Rev. J. W. Ogden, had been speaking of the barbarism of 
the Germans in Belgium. He remarked that the Germans 
threatened that the treatment to be meted out to the English 
people, were the Germans to get a footing here, would be 
ten times worse. 

' Shortly afterwards the Zeppelin hove in sight, flying high 
in the air, and the speaker dramatically raised his hand and 
said, "Here is a visitor for you. This should be an induce- 
ment to recruiting. It 's a Zeppelin ! " ' 



Leeds, April 15. 

Times, The Yorkshire Post of -this morning has the following 

April 15, account : 

I9I5> ' As soon as news of the arrival of the raiders on the North- 

East Coast reached them the military authorities took prompt 
measures for the safety of cities and towns likely to be in 
the course of their southward travels. In most places the 
lights were at once turned out in accordance with arrange- 
ments made in advance, and the results in many cases were 
extremely awkward, the Yorkshire Post office being one in- 
stance, all the operations incident to the production of the 
paper being held up for the better part of an hour. 

* At a concert given in the Town Hall at Newcastle there 
were five numbers of the programme still to go when it was 
. announced that orders had been given to put out lights in 
public buildings, and the trams were stopped. The audience 
rose and, for the second time that evening, sang " God save the 
King," and dispersed amid cheering. Very prompt measures 
for the safety of the great industrial towns within a few hours' 
journey from Northumberland were taken by the military 
354 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

and police working in conjunction on lines which had been 
arranged long in advance. In no case does panic appear to 
have been caused/ 

Wallsend, April 15, 2.45 A.M. 

The Zeppelin which visited the North-East Coast late ibid. 
last night flew over Wallsend and dropped four bombs. 

One bomb hit a house in Station Road, causing a fire, 
which was easily extinguished. 

Two bombs fell on the railway line, doing damage of no 
importance, while another fell harmlessly into the river. 

There was no panic in the town. 



Jar row. 

No damage was done at Jarrow. Bombs fell outside the ibid. 
dock at Hebburn into the river. 

At 8.35 a loud explosion was heard here, but nothing was 
seen of the airship. 

Amsterdam, April 16. 

A Berlin official telegram states : On April 14 in the 
evening a naval airship attacked the mouth of the Tyne, 
dropping a number of bombs. The airship returned safely. 
Renter. 



BLACK SEA AND DARDANELLES 

Petrograd, April 16. 

A communique from the Headquarters of the Commander- 
in-Chief says : 

Yesterday in the Black Sea our destroyers sank off the 
Anatolian coast four steamers, two of which were laden with 
coal, and several sailing vessels, and exchanged fire with the 
Zunguldak batteries. Renter. 



Amsterdam, April 16. 

The Turkish Headquarters report, a Berlin telegram says, 
that a cruiser yesterday bombarded the Dardanelles forti- 
fications from the entrance. The Russian Fleet bombarded 
Eregli and Zunguldak. Renter. 

355 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

RAILWAY BRIDGE DESTROYED BY CRUISER 

Paris, April 16. 

Times, The Ministry of Marine states that yesterday a French 

April 17, cruiser destroyed a railway bridge connecting the town of Acre 
with the interior railway system of Syria. 

ZEPPELIN OVER EAST COAST 

Ipswich, 2.30 A.M. 

Times, News was received here this morning of another Zeppelin 

April 16, ra id on the East Coast. According to the official reports the 
airship first appeared over Harwich, but did not drop any 
bombs on this town. It proceeded in the direction of Felix- 
stowe, but does not appear to have committed any outrage 
until it reached Southwold, where several bombs were dropped, 

It then passed on to Lowestoft, where further damage was 
done, but happily no one was killed or injured. 

The East Anglian Daily Times says that at Lowestoft the 
inhabitants were warned by the siren at one o'clock, and 
almost before it had ceased three explosions were heard, the 
branch office of the East Anglian Daily Times in Gladstone 
Road being made to rattle. - 

The noise of the Zeppelin could be heard before one could 
pop out of bed, and there was a crash of falling masonry. 

The first two bombs appeared to have been dropped to 
the north of Lowestoft, and the third to the south. After the 
third explosion one of the timber yards was seen to be alight, 
and judging by the glare considerable damage appeared to 
have been done. The Zeppelin departed from the town in 
a northerly direction and appeared to be making for Yarmouth, 
travelling slightly out at sea. 

At Southwold the airship was seen approaching from a 
southerly direction, and passed directly over the town until 
it reached the vicinity of Henham Hall, where it is reported 
three bombs were dropped. It is in keeping with the 
German ideas of culture that they should select that spot. 
The Hall, the residence of the Earl and Countess of Strad- 
broke, has, since the commencement of the war, been con- 
verted into a hospital for the wounded. 

After this the invader turned again until directly over the 
356 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

town, and one bomb was dropped, which fell on a railway 
truck and set it on fire. The bomb, which was an incendiary 
one, passed through the bottom of the truck. The airship 
then again turned and made off in the direction of Lowestoft. 
On its way a bomb was dropped, which exploded with a 
terrific report. From the direction of the resulting glare it 
seemed that the village of Wrentham was singled out for 
attack. The time taken for the visitation was from 12.35 to 
12.50 A.M. 

Lowestoft, 2.30 A.M. 

A Zeppelin passed over Lowestoft about one o'clock this ibid. 
morning and dropped six bombs on the town. Damage was 
done to house property, windows were shattered, and three 
horses killed. A large timber yard was also set on fire. 

The airship came from Southwold, and when near Lowe- 
stoft Harbour steered some way out to sea. It suddenly 
turned back and circled twice round the town, during which 
the bombs were dropped. Windows here were shattered 
and doors blown in, but fortunately all the residents escaped 
injury. 

At one spot a bomb made a hole in the road large enough 
for four or five people to stand in. A bedroom door was 
blown from its hinges on to a soldier who was lying in bed. 
He, too, escaped unhurt. The Zeppelin hovered over the 
town for several minutes, and then proceeded in the direction 
of the sea. 



Southwold, 3 A.M. 

A Zeppelin passed over Southwold about midnight and ibid. 
dropped five or six bombs. It came from the direction of 
the sea, and while circling round the town dropped the bombs, 
one of which set fire to the contents of a truck. 

Afterwards the airship passed on to Henham Hall, where 
a number of wounded soldiers are being cared for. One 
bomb fell near this building, but did no damage. Returning 
to Southwold the airship dropped another bomb and proceeded 
to sea. It hovered over the town for about half an hour. No 
loss of life and no injury was reported. 



357 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Maldon, 3.30 A.M. 

Times, At 12.15 A.M. the inhabitants of Maldon were aroused by 

April 16, the loud explosions of bombs, eight in succession, and an air- 

I 9 I 5- ship was seen at a considerable height circling over the town. 

The bombs, which were of the incendiary type, burst into 

flames after exploding. 

The first bomb fell near the residence of the district super- 
visor. The effect of the explosion was to break all the 
windows of the house and damage the brickwork. The bed- 
room window of the supervisor was destroyed, but the officer 
himself escaped injury. 

Another bomb fell in a garden, but no one was hurt. A 
third fell in the gardens at the back of some cottages, but here 
again every one escaped except a young girl, who received 
a small flesh wound. The other bombs did not drop near 
inhabited houses. Two buried themselves in a meadow and 
another wrecked a fowl-house, killing several chickens. 

It is also reported that three bombs were dropped on the 
village of Heybridge, falling in the village square. 



Harwich, 3 A.M. 

ibid. An airship passed over Harwich about one o'clock at a con- 

siderable height, coming from the sea. It passed over Felix- 
stowe and went in the direction of Ipswich. The aircraft 
showed no lights, but was clearly seen by several policemen, 
a fireman, and workmen, and the noise of her engine was 
distinctly heard. No bombs were dropped on Harwich. 



Clacton-on-Sea, April 16, 2 A.M. 

ibid. Considerable excitement was caused here at midnight by 

the sound of an aircraft engine. From the sea front the form 
of a Zeppelin could be clearly seen moving along the coastline 
in a southerly direction. It disappeared across the Thames 

Estuary. 

Wells, 3 A.M. 

ibid. An airship passed over here about two this morning. It 

proceeded along the coastline from west to east, but no 
bombs were dropped. 

358 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Amsterdam, April 15. 

The Telegraaf learns from the Islands of Vlieland and ibid. 
Terschelling that a Zeppelin was seen going west at six this 
evening. 

Berlin. 

During the night of April 15 to 16, naval airships success- K.V., 
fully dropped bombs on several defended places on the south- A P ril l6 > 
eastern English coast. Before and during the attacks the 
airships were vigorously shelled. They returned undamaged. 
The Acting Chief of the Admiral Staff, 

BEHNCKE. 



Ipswich, April 16. 

Whatever may have been the case on the north-east coast, Times, 
a tour in the track of the Suffolk raider makes it apparent A P ril I 7 
that, unless he completely lost his way, he had no immediate I 9 I 5* 
military object in view. The Zeppelin was first sighted at 
Southwold shortly after midnight, and disappeared over the 
sea from Lowestoft about an hour later. It made an exten- 
sive circular tour over a considerable area, dropping in- 
cendiary bombs freely and explosive bombs sparingly ; but 
the efforts of its crew were devoted mainly to an attack on 
Henham Hall, a few miles from Southwold, where there are 
in hospital a number of wounded soldiers, some of whom 
have only this week arrived in this country. Fortunately 
the aim of the Germans was most erratic, and, though they 
launched twenty-three incendiary bombs and two explosive 
bombs, the majority were not within 100 or 200 yards of the 
hospital and the farthest quite 400 yards from it, though 
within the grounds. No damage was done. 

At Lowestoft the raiders were more successful, and the 
back parts of a number of houses in Denmark Road were 
wrecked. The only loss of life reported was that of three 
horses, two chickens, and one sparrow. Elsewhere there was 
nothing but some holes in the ground, broken windows, doors 
torn from their hinges, and a gossiping countryside to tell 
of the passage of the invaders. These broken windows and 
damaged doors were regarded lightly by the cottagers, who 
were the principal sufferers, and their feeling was rather of 
astonishment than dismay. ' I Ve lived in this house nigh 

359 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

nineteen years/ one bewildered man declared, ' and nobody 
has ever played me such a trick before/ 

At Henham Hall there is a disposition to regard the half- 
hour of danger in the early hours of this morning as an amusing 
interlude in the monotonous life of a wounded soldier. The 
nurses from the moment of the first explosion devoted their 
attention to the patients, not even leaving them for a moment 
to inquire what was happening. Other nurses accompanied 
Lady Stradbroke into the park, where for a minute or two 
they were mistaken by the park-keepers as allies of the 
attacking forces. 

It is believed by some that this prolonged attack was not 
intentional. A possible explanation is that the raiders lost 
their way and, mistaking the local stream for the Waveney, 
assumed that Henham Hall was Lowest oft. The airship 
circled over Southwold when it first arrived as if seeking 
some clue to its whereabouts. The warm reception which it 
received led to the substitution of explosive for incendiary 
bombs before it moved off to Henham Hall ; here it circled 
for half an hour ; visited Halesworth and Holton in its search 
for features by which it might identify its position ; it came 
back to drop more bombs on Henham Hall, then proceeded 
by way of Southwold and Wrentham to Lowest oft. 

The prodigality with which incendiary bombs were thrown 
in preference to explosive bombs, and the fact that one or 
other of the small searchlights carried by the airship was in 
almost constant use certainly suggests that the crew were not 
sure of their whereabouts. I noticed particularly also that, 
while villages which could probably be clearly distinguished 
and upon which the searchlight was turned were passed over 
without attack, the majority of the buildings at which 
explosive bombs were aimed were situated within short dis- 
tances of pools of water. 



Shortly before midnight on Thursday a Zeppelin was 
observed on the Essex coast, and at 12.20 it was seen to 
approach Maldon along the line of the river Blackwater. It 
circled the town at a low altitude, and then began to drop 
bombs. Four of these fell in Spital Road, two in Fambridge 
Road, and seven in the adjoining parish of Heybridge. 
360 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

One of the bombs landed on a workshop at the back of 
the house of a man named Foreman in Spital Road, and the 
building was destroyed. Fifty yards from the workhouse in 
the same road a bomb containing shrapnel fell in a meadow, 
making a hole 5 feet deep and riddling a fence with bullet 
holes. Another bomb struck the house of the supervisor at 
the post-office, and part of the side was blown out. The 
occupants of the house were asleep and escaped injury. 

The Maldon police have received no report of any personal 
injuries, but an old hen was killed. 

ENEMY SEAPLANE OVER KENT 

F aver sham, April 16. 

A German aeroplane flew over Kent this afternoon, and Times, 
dropped nine bombs on Faversham and Sittingbourne without April 
doing any damage. The machine was first sighted from Deal, I 9 I 5- 
shortly before twelve o'clock, flying at a great height. It 
visited Faversham, Sittingbourne, and Sheerness in turn, went 
across the Isle of Sheppey, turned inland once again, and 
flew over Canterbury, disappearing a few minutes before one 
o'clock. A British aeroplane set out in search of the enemy. 

The course taken was so erratic that for some time it was 
believed that there were two aeroplanes. Its movements 
were largely directed by the opposition it encountered. 
Sheerness and Chatham were undoubtedly its main objec- 
tives. It was easily driven off from the neighbourhood of 
Faversham. It approached Faversham from the south-west, 
described a wide semi-circle, and then continued its irregular 
course. Later a British aeroplane set out in pursuit. The 
German at once made off, and, travelling at a great pace, 
was socn out of sight of Faversham. An exciting chase fol- 
lowed. The German had an excellent start, and by flying 
at an altitude which at times reached 8000 feet or 9000 feet, 
it was able to make the task of the pursuer very difficult. 

Four ordinary bombs and one incendiary bomb were 
thrown at Faversham. The second bomb fell in the edge of 
the Mall cricket ground, within a few yards of the Ashford 
Road. One of the exploding missiles was thrown in the 
middle of the road, but did nothing but make a small pit 
in the surface. The Rev. S. H. Chapman, chaplain of the 

361 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

almshouses, and Police-Constable Hopper had narrow escapes. 
The third bomb fell in the cricket-field at the Mount, near 
a South-Eastern level crossing. A signal-box was missed by 
a few yards only. The fourth bomb alighted in a garden at 
Preston village. The fifth buried itself in a fruit plantation 
at Macned Park. 

Lord Harris, Vice-lieutenant of the county, who lives in 
the neighbourhood, tells me that the people of Faversham 
were in no alarm at the visitation, and that, like the people 
of Sittingbourne, instead of taking to cellars, as they had 
been advised to do in the event of an air raid, they crowded 
into the streets and watched the movements of the German 
machine as if it had been a flying exhibition given for their 
special benefit. The aeroplane flew over the town and dis- 
trict for about five minutes. 

The only damage done at Sittingbourne by the raider was 
the killing of a blackbird, which was sitting on the bough of 
an apple-tree. The tree was uprooted in an orchard. ' The 
body of the victim ! ' said a non-commissioned officer who 
discovered the dead bird. Another bomb fell near Crayalls 
Farm, while three more fell in Gorecourt Park. 

It seems probable, judging by the course taken by the 
Taube, that the machine came from Zeebrugge. 

The machine is described as a biplane fitted with floats. 
The opinion is held that it was on a scouting expedition. 

At Deal, shortly before one o'clock, the buzz of an aeroplane 
caused many of the inhabitants to go into the street and 
stare at the clouds, but nothing was to be seen, even with 
the aid of telescopes, as there were heavy banks of clouds. 
People at Kingsdown, a little village two miles away, claimed 
to have seen a German aeroplane emerge from the clouds, 
and they say that it came south at a great height a mere 
speck in the sky and was apparently travelling towards 
Dunkirk. Shortly afterwards a number of British airmen 
were seen giving chase. 

GREEK STEAMER SUNK BY GERMANS 

Amsterdam, April 18. 

Times, Another case of torpedoing a neutral ship without warning is 

April 19, reported to-day. The victim is a Greek ship, the Ellispontos. 
362 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The crew of the Ellispontos, numbering twenty-one, and 
the Dutch pilot, were saved, and have arrived at Flushing. 
The Ellispontos, a steamship of 3000 tons, belonged to the 
shipping firm of Embiricos, and was registered at Andros. 

A member of the crew stated that the ship passed the 
North Hinder lightship at 3 o'clock on Saturday (April 17). 
Five miles farther on a submarine, whose nationality was un- 
known, was observed. At ten minutes past four a torpedo 
was discharged at the ship, and struck her in No. 2 hold, 
blowing up the chart room where the captain was, and 
wounding him. 

The North Hinder lightship's crew stated that two English 
steam trawlers were attacked yesterday by German airmen 
with bombs. Eight bombs were thrown, but all missed. 



Amsterdam, April 19. 

The Flushing correspondent of the Telegraaf to-night saw Times, 
the Greek Consul, who substantially confirmed the narrative A P ril 20 > 
already despatched about the sinking by a German submarine I ^ 1 ^' 
of the Greek steamer Ellispontos. 

The Consul had visited the hospital and seen the captain 
of the Ellispontos, who has undergone an operation. A large 
ship's bolt had entered the captain's head above the temple 
and penetrated the brain. He is still under anaesthetics, and 
his condition is very grave. The crew temporarily remains 
in Flushing, where shelter and necessaries have been provided 
for them. 

Athens, April 22. 

The torpedoing, apparently without any previous warning, Times, 
of the Greek steamer Ellispontos by a German submarine on A P ril 23, 
April 17, in the vicinity of the Dutch coast, has caused the 
greatest indignation in Greece, and will probably lead to a 
claim against Germany. The entire Press condemns the 
incident as an act of barbarism. The Embros says, ' Greece 
will give her real reply in a few days.' Renter. 



Athens, April 24. 

The German Government, replying to the Greek overtures Times, 
on the subject of the sinking of the steamer Ellispontos by April- 26, 

363 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

a German submarine, has declared itself willing to express 
regret and to indemnify Greece for the loss sustained if the 
inquiry instituted by the German General Staff has estab- 
lished that the steamer was really sunk by a German sub- 
marine. Exchange Telegraph Co. 



Athens, June 6. 

Times, The German Government has admitted the responsibility 

June 8, of the commander of the submarine which torpedoed the 
I 9 I 5- Greek steamer Ellispontos in the North Sea, and has agreed 

to compensate the company owning the steamer. 

Two experts, one Greek and one German, will be appointed 
to determine the amount due. Renter. 



TURKISH WARSHIP DESTROYED 

Times, The Secretary of the Admiralty on Saturday, April 19, 

April 19, made the following announcement : 

I 9 I 5- The transport Manitou, carrying British troops, was 

attacked by a Turkish torpedo-boat in the ^Egean this morn- 
ing. The Turkish boat fired three torpedoes, all of which 
missed. The torpedo-boat then made off, chased by a British 
cruiser (the Minerva) and destroyers, and was finally run 
ashore and destroyed on the coast of Chios, in Kalammuti 
Bay. The crew have been made prisoners. It is reported 
that about a hundred men on board the transport have lost 
their lives through drowning, but full particulars have not 
yet been received. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty late last night made the 
following announcement : 

A further report shows that the loss of life on board the 
transport Manitou is less than was at first reported. It 
appears to have been due to one boat capsizing in the water, 
and another while being lowered owing to the breaking of a 
davit. Twenty-four men were drowned, and their bodies have 
been identified. Twenty-seven are missing. The transport 
herself was undamaged. 

364 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Constantinople. 

Yesterday a flotilla of enemy torpedo-boats attempted to K.V., 
approach the Dardanelles. Two enemy torpedo-boats were April 19, 
hit for certain by our fire. Whereupon the flotilla withdrew. I 9 I 5- 
A Turkish airman dropped bombs successfully on the enemy 
ships whilst on a reconnoitring flight over Tenedos, and 
returned safely in spite of the fire which was opened against it. 
The Turkish torpedo-boat Timur Hissar attacked the English 
transport Manitou with complete success on April 17 in the 
^Egean Sea. The English Admiralty admits that 100 English 
soldiers of this transport were drowned. Our torpedo-boat 
was then pursued by English cruisers and torpedo-boat 
destroyers as far as Chios. The crew of the Timur Hissar 
blew up the ship to prevent it falling into the hands of the 
enemy. The crew was received in a very friendly way by the 
Greek authorities. 



Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : We have subsequently ascertained K.V., 
that amongst the six enemy torpedo-boats which attempted April 2 . 
to penetrate into the Straits of the Dardanelles during the night I 9 I 5- 
before last, there were also four mine-sweepers, and that two 
of these enemy boats were sunk in the Straits after being hit 
by our shells. 



SUBMARINE ASHORE 

The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following Times, 
announcement : April 19, 

' The British submarine E 75, while attempting a difficult I 9 I 5- 
reconnaissance of the Kephez mine-field, in the Dardanelles, 
yesterday ran ashore on Kephez Point. 

According to an official communique, published at Con- 
stantinople, the officers and men have been rescued and made 
prisoners. 

The Secretary of the Admiralty announces that the follow- Times, 
ing officers and men of submarine E 75, officially reported April 23, 
missing, are unofficially reported prisoners of war : I 9 I 5- 

365 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

OFFICERS. 

Lieutenant-Commander Theodore S. Brodie. 
Lieutenant Edward J. Price. 

Acting Sub-Lieutenant, R.N.R., Geoffrey J. F. Fitzgerald. 
Temporary Lieutenant, R.N.V.R., Charles E. S. Palmer. 

MEN. 

Barter, Henry John, Able Seaman ; Bond, James, Acting 
Leading Stoker ; Brennan, Patrick, Able Seaman ; Cornish, 
Frederick John, Able Seaman ; Ellis, Albert Henry, E.R.A., 
4th Class ; Geens, James, Stoker, ist Class ; Gingell, Frederick 
John, Able Seaman ; Gosling, Charles Emil, Leading Stoker ; 
Hindman, Ernest Valetta, E.R.A., 2nd Class ; Horn, Charles, 
Leading Signalman ; Housman, Arthur, Able Seaman ; Howes, 
William, Stoker, ist Class ; Kenchington, Sidney James 
Cromwell, Petty Officer ; Lockerbie, John Biggar, Able 
Seaman ; M'Donagh, John Joseph, Stoker, ist Class ; May, 
Alfred Edward, Telegraphist ; Mitchell, Ernest Henry, 
Stoker Petty Officer ; Norman, William, E.R.A., 3rd Class ; 
O'Neill, Thomas, Stoker, ist Class ; Rogers, Herbert James, 
Able Seaman ; Shepard, John, Petty Officer ; Stratford, 
Charles Henry, Stoker, ist Class ; Tapper, James Henry 
Nash, Stoker, ist Class ; Todd, Samuel Bishop, Acting 
Chief E.R.A., 2nd Class ; Trimmer, Henry William, Leading 
Seaman ; Williams, George, Petty Officer ; Williams, William 
Thomas George, Stoker, ist Class. 

The following casualties are also reported. 

H.M.S. Majestic Hooper, Thomas, Armourer (Pensioner), 
killed. H.M.S. Albion Rowe, William, Seaman, R.N.R., 
died of wounds. 

Times, The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following 

April 21, announcement : 

The submarine E 75, which grounded on Kephez Point last 
Saturday, appears to have been in danger of falling into the 
enemy's hands in a serviceable condition, and great efforts 
were made by the Turks to secure her. 

Attempts to destroy her by the long-range fire of battle- 
ships failed. During the night of the i8th two picket boats, 
that of H.M.S. Triumph, under Lieutenant-Commander 
366 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Eric Robinson, who commanded the expedition, assisted by 
Lieutenant Arthur Brooke Webb, R.N.R., and Midshipman 
John Woolley, and that of H.M.S. Majestic, under Lieutenant 
Claude Godwin, both manned by volunteer crews, attacked 
the submarine. The boats were subjected to a very heavy 
fire, estimated at over 200 rounds, from fort No. 8, which was 
only a few hundred yards distant, and a number of smaller 
guns at short range. Notwithstanding this, the submarine 
was torpedoed and rendered useless. The Majestic s picket 
boat was holed and sunk, but the crew were saved by the other 
boat, and the only casualty was one man, who died of his 
wounds. 

Vice-Admiral De Robeck speaks in the highest terms of 
all concerned in this gallant enterprise. Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Eric Robinson has been promoted Commander by 
the Admiralty, and a report has been called for on the in- 
dividual services of the other officers and men, with a view to 
their recognition. 



Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : Yesterday afternoon an enemy K.V., 
seaplane was damaged by our fire and fell into the sea before April 17, 
Sazli Liman while flying across the Gulf of Saros. A second I 9 I 5- 
seaplane, which settled on the sea in order to save the first, 
was sunk by our fire. The English armoured ship Lord 
Nelson and a mothership for seaplanes were hit by shells when 
drawing near. The Lord Nelson withdrew. The mothership 
for seaplanes, which was towing the damaged seaplane, also 
withdrew. The English submarine Ei$ was sunk in the 
Straits of the Dardanelles east of Kavanlik Liman. Of the 
crew, composed of thirty-one men, three officers and twenty- 
one men were saved and taken prisoner ; amongst their 
number was the former English Vice-Consul in the Dardanelles, 



May 13. 

A Turkish newspaper, published in French, gives the 
following official account of the sinking of the E 75 : 

The British submarine E 75, one of the most recent type, 
which we have just destroyed, left Plymouth on April 15 in 
tow of a cruiser. After staying at Gibraltar for a night the 

367 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

E 75 came by way of Malta to Mudros Harbour, in the Isle 
of Lemnos. Here she stayed six days, and another day at 
Tenedos. 

Leaving Tenedos at midnight the E 15 entered the Straits 
at about 2.20 A.M. Ten minutes later she dived to escape our 
searchlights. Driven shorewards by the strong current, the 
vessel touched ground, part of the deck being above the 
surface of the sea. 

The first shot from our batteries, fired at half-past six in 
the morning, destroyed the conning tower and killed the 
commander, whilst a second struck the electric batteries. 
The crew was then faced with the necessity of abandoning 
the vessel, but our fire, which was kept up in order to prevent 
the submarine diving again, killed three and wounded seven 
others. Mr. Palmer, the British Vice-Consul at Tchanak Kale, 
who was amongst the prisoners, states that he was an officer 
of reserve. 

Enemy aeroplanes, on learning of the mishap to the E 15, 
flew over the Straits searching for the vessel. They threw 
bombs on the piles resembling periscopes which had been 
placed in the sea to deceive our opponents, and which they 
imagined might belong to the submarine. The object was, of 
course, to prevent the submarine falling into our hands. 

The crew of the E 75 threw themselves into the water. 
Turkish troops in the neighbourhood launched boats and 
went to their rescue. The wounded were taken to hospital, and 
they have expressed their astonishment at the humane treat- 
ment which they have received. Renter. 



RUSSIAN OPERATIONS IN BLACK SEA 

Petrograd, April 20. 
The following official statement is issued here : 

The first flotilla of our torpedo-boat destroyers in the Black 
Sea bombarded the Turkish positions at Arkhan, near the 
villages of Sumi and Vitze, correcting the fire of our gunners on 
shore. 

A semi-official communication from Sebastopol says : 

Our torpedo-boats, cruising off the Anatolian coast on the 
366 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

i8th and igth inst., sank ten vessels laden with ammunition 
and stores. They then approached Arkhan, where they 
shelled the Turkish positions, causing a panic among the 
Turkish troops. Renter. 

ALLEGED LOSS OF BRITISH SUBMARINE 

Amsterdam, April 22. 

A Berlin official telegram says : 

The Admiralty Staff states that British submarines have 
recently been repeatedly observed in the Heligoland Bight. 
They were attacked by German forces, and a hostile sub- 
marine was sunk on April 17. It is probable that other sub- 
marines have been destroyed, but this cannot be ascertained 
with certainty. Renter. 

STATEMENT BY MR. CHURCHILL 

There has been no naval action of any kind in the North Morning 
Sea during the last month, nor has there been any action of 
any kind in the Dardanelles other than local bombardment 
and reconnaissances by single ships. 

Since the i6th of last month up to the present moment 
there have only been two or three men hit at the Dardanelles, 
and no loss or injury to, French or British ships. 

All rumours to the contrary are untrue and baseless. 

THE VANILLA SUNK 

The Secretary of the Admiralty made the following Times, 
announcement last night : A P ril 20 

To-day a German submarine sank by a torpedo the trawler 
Vanilla. 

The trawler Fermo endeavoured to rescue the crew, but 
she was fired at and driven off. All hands on the Vanilla 
were lost. 

This killing of fisher-folk for no military purpose should 
not escape attention. It is the second murder of this character 
committed within a week. 

Careful record is kept of these events. 



NAVAL 4 2 A 369 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Times, 
April 21, 



Berlin, April 20. 

The following statement is circulated through German 
wireless stations : 

The captain of the trawler Fermo reports that the trawler 
Vanilla was yesterday torpedoed by a German submarine. 
The Vanilla was blown to pieces, and sank immediately. 
The Fermo, which was three hundred yards away, went to the 
assistance of the crew of the Vanilla, but the submarine drove 
it off by its fire, which, however, missed its mark. 

Of course, the facts, in accordance with English practice, 
are quite falsified. The truth is that the trawler intended to 
ram the submarine, but, of course, it failed, and so it is re- 
presented as having been prevented from accomplishing its 
life-saving mission on behalf of the crew of the sunken trawler. 



OFFICERS OF THE ROYAL MARINES 

House of Lords, April 20. 

Hansard. LORD LATYMER had on the Paper a Notice to move for a 

return of the number and rank of (i) Naval officers attached 
to the Land Expeditionary Force ; (2) Efficient officers of the 
Royal Marines at present unemployed. 

The noble Lord said : My Lords, the two parts of the 
motion standing in my name are very closely connected, as 
any one who knows the history of the Royal Marines will be 
aware ; but as I have reason for thinking that my motion 
in its present double form is not likely to be accepted by the 
Government, I wish to withdraw the first part relating to 
naval officers attached to the Land Expeditionary Force and 
merely to ask for a return of the number- and rank of effi- 
cient officers of the Royal Marines at present unemployed. 
Hints are constantly being thrown out that in these difficult 
times any questions relating to military or naval affairs, 
and I suppose to Royal Marine affairs, are out of place. I 
cannot, however, agree with that doctrine in the present 
instance. I am not asking for the names of Marine officers 
who are unemployed, but merely for their number and rank. 
Not only is it in my opinion harmless, but I am bound to 
say I think it is decidedly to the public benefit, that this 
question should be answered ; and I cannot see that I am 
37 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

in any way embarrassing the Admiralty in asking for in- 
formation which it cannot possibly take five minutes to 
find out. 

It is common knowledge to us all that at the present 
time as many efficient officers are required as can possibly 
be obtained. Therefore it does seem on the face of it an 
extraordinary thing that a body of highly trained and physi- 
cally fit men who are available to serve their country and who 
are of high rank in their own particular line of service should 
be apparently left without any work to do at all, unless it 
be an inferior place in a wireless telegraph station or recruiting 
office, or some inferior post of that kind. As far as my 
information goes and it is fairly authentic there are about 
thirty of these men, who, as I am told, are ' efficient/ That, 
I suppose, means that they have gone through all the neces- 
sary military training and experience and are also physically 
able to perform service if they were required. 

In one respect it does not signify very much whether this 
motion is received or not, because if the Government will not 
give any information on the subject, one must draw one's 
own conclusion. It is impossible to imagine that these men 
are kept in the background because of any inefficiency on 
their part. Therefore there must be other reasons for the 
Admiralty not recommending them for military service. I 
will not venture to enter into what those reasons may be, but 
I am quite sure they will be present to the minds of all noble 
Lords who are conversant with the history of the Marines 
and the relation between the Admiralty and the Marines for 
the last hundred years. To put this motion is really for the 
public benefit. I say so because officers are most certainly 
required at the present time. Why should the public have 
been put to the expense of having these men highly trained 
for many years past if at the end of all that expense they are 
to be left on the shelf with nothing to do ? I acknowledge at 
once that if my motion as amended is accepted, the next step 
will be to ask why these officers have been left in this position 
of idleness. On the other hand, if the Admiralty do not 
wish to give any answer to this question, noble Lords will, no 
doubt, take for granted that they do not wish to give the 
reasons. I beg to move. 
" Moved, That there be laid before the House a return of 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [A 

the number and rank of efficient officers of the Royal Marines 
at present unemployed. (Lord Latymer.) 

The FIRST COMMISSIONER OF WORKS (LORD EMMOTT) : 
My Lords, I am grateful to the noble Lord for not pressing 
for the information which he desired to obtain under heading 
No. (i) of the motion which stands on the Paper, but I am 
sorry that I cannot meet him even on the question of the 
return which he asks for under the heading of ' Efficient 
officers of the Royal Marines at present unemployed/ The 
noble Lord has expressed the opinion that it would be for 
the public benefit that this information should be given, but 
I am bound to tell him and the House that, in the opinion of 
the Admiralty, such details cannot be given at the present 
time with any public advantage. As the motion stands on 
the Paper, I do not know exactly how it could be given effect 
to. For I do not know precisely what ' efficient ' means. 
But even if I could agree with the noble Lord that ' efficient ' 
means properly trained men and men who are physically 
fit, even if we could agree on some definition, still I fear the 
return could not be granted. The noble Lord has spoken of 
the history of the Royal Marines during the last hundred 
years. So far as this is an old complaint, I think it can well 
stand over until after the -war. So far, however, as the 
complaint which the noble Lord makes refers specially to this 
war, to give the numbers, as he now asks us to do, without 
the names would, I think, be of no use ; and to give the 
names for public use, and in a form which would possibly 
lead to public discussion of a most undesirable kind, would be 
very unwise. This much, and this much only, I can say to 
the noble Lord. If he has any cases of individual hardship 
which he thinks require reconsideration, I promise, on behalf 
of my right hon. friend the First Lord of the Admiralty, 
that they shall be inquired into. Otherwise I must beg of 
him to leave this matter at any rate until the war is over, for 
during the war the Admiralty cannot see its way to grant 
this return. 

The EARL OF SELBORNE : My Lords, I have no knowledge 
of the facts of this case, but what I understand the noble 
Lord alleges is that there are efficient officers of the Royal 
Marines who are at the present moment unemployed. By 
' efficient ' he means officers who are physically efficient, 
372 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

because if they were not otherwise efficient they would not 
still be in the Royal Marines. He may be completely in 
error. There may be no such officers. But if there are it 
seems to me a most astonishing fact, when we remember 
that in the Army not only is every officer who in a similar 
sense may be called efficient employed, but every officer is 
utilised who has retired within the last twenty years and has 
had the patriotism to come forward. Moreover, in important 
commands those of battalions and brigades officers are 
employed who have never been in the Army itself and who 
can only be described as zealous amateurs. Therefore I 
throw out as a suggestion that if there are Marine officers who 
are at present unemployed or not doing service in positions 
corresponding to their rank, the Admiralty might apply to 
the War Office and the War Office might be very glad to employ 
them. 

LORD LATYMER : I intended to include in the term ' effi- 
cient ' not only those Marine officers at present actively con- 
nected with the Royal Marines, but also those who are on 
the Reserve or retired. 

Motion, by leave, withdrawn. 



CONTRABAND (RAW COTTON) 

House of Commons, April 20, 1915. 

SIR JOHN LONSDALE asked the Secretary of State for Hansard. 
Foreign Affairs if it is intended to declare raw cotton absolute 
contraband ? 

SIR E. GREY : I must refer the hon. gentleman to the 
reply returned to the hon. member for the Devizes Division 
of Wiltshire on the I4th instant, 1 wherein it was explained 1 [ See 
why cotton had not been declared contraband. P- 349-] 



INTERNATIONAL TRADE 

MR. SAMUEL SAMUEL asked the Secretary of State for ibid. 
Foreign Affairs why 1000 tons of copra shipped by the Com- 
pania General de Tabacos de Filipinas from the Philippine 
Islands on board the steamship Harbury, and consigned to 
the Oleifici Nazionali of Genoa, for discharge at Savona, has 

373 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

been ordered by the Government to proceed to Marseilles 
instead, seeing that the representatives of the company in 
London have furnished certificates, attested before the British 
Consul, and necessary documents to prove that neither the 
copra nor the oil will be re-exported frdm Italy ; whether 
these documents were sent on the 24th March to the Foreign 
Office and have never been acknowledged or returned ; is it 
the intention of His Majesty's Government to stop all inter- 
national trade ; and will he state why 2000 tons of copra 
by the steamship Benlawers, consigned to Hull, on arrival in 
Marseilles was allowed to proceed to Savona to discharge 
instead of HuU ? 

SIR E. GREY : The answer to the first question is that 
the copra specified by the hon. member was not the only, or 
indeed the principal, part of the vessel's cargo ; that it was 
consigned 'to order/ and liable, therefore, to seizure under 
1 [See the Order in Council of 2Qth October 1914 ; x and that it 
Naval i, was no -^ as suggested in the question, accompanied by the 
P- 35 2 -J necessary documents to prove that neither the copra nor the 
oil would be re-exported from Italy. The answer to the 
second question is that certain documents were sent to the 
Foreign Office on 24th March, and that, although the company 
referred to has addressed repeated subsequent communica- 
tions to the Department, it was not till I5th April that full 
particulars respecting the cargo were obtained ; immediately 
on the receipt of the documents forwarded on 24th March, 
His Majesty's Government, observing that the shippers had 
not paid due regard to the Order in Council of 2Qth October, 
placed themselves in communication with the Italian Govern- 
ment with a view to the introduction of an effective pro- 
hibition of export of copra and its products from Italy, and, 
as a result of the successful issue of these negotiations, all 
objection on the part of the British authorities to the dis- 
charge of the Italian cargo is removed and the shipowners 
have been so informed. The answer to the third question is 
in the negative ; it is the intention of His Majesty's Govern- 
ment to check all contraband and enemy trade, but, subject 
to this paramount necessity, to interfere as little as possible 
with neutral commerce ; that the negotiations above referred 
to with the Italian Government are a concrete evidence of 
their desire to assist such trade, and the omission of the 
374 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

shippers and shipowners in this case is a typical example of 
the delays caused by failure to pay due regard to official 
published statements. The answer to the last question is 
that the authorisation to allow the steamship Benlawers to 
proceed from Marseilles to Savona did not proceed from His 
Majesty's Government, who are unaware of the circumstances. 

INTERNED STEAMERS (FREIGHT CHARGES) 

House of Commons, April 20, 1915. 

MR. RONALD M'NEILL asked the Prime Minister whether Hansard. 
his attention has been called to a circular recently issued by 
the chairman of the South Metropolitan Gas Company, in 
which complaint is made that whereas the Government pay 
from 35. 6d. to 45. per ton for steamships requisitioned for 
Government use, they charge no less than los. per ton to 
traders for the use of interned enemy ships, thus setting a 
bad example to shipowners, which tends to keep up the 
price of freights and, consequently, the price of coal to the 
consumers ; if he will say who is responsible for fixing the 
prices for the use of interned enemy ships ; and why the 
prices are fixed at a higher rate than those paid by the Govern- 
ment for the use of commercial vessels requisitioned for His 
Majesty's service ? 

The PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF TRADE (MR. RUNCIMAN) : 
I have seen the circular issued by the South Metropolitan Gas 
Company. The rates of freight charged for the interned 
steamers are settled for each voyage by the managers at New- 
castle with regard to the state of the market at the time, 
and the managers act under general instructions from the 
Admiralty and Board of Trade to the effect that the rates 
for the interned steamers are to be below rather than above 
the market rates, and lead the market in a downward direc- 
tion. It was not considered practicable to follow the pro- 
cedure laid down for fixing the rates of hire in the case of 
commercial vessels requisitioned by the Transport Depart- 
ment of the Admiralty. 

MR. R. M'NEILL : Can the right hon. gentleman say 
whether, as a matter of fact, the figures given in the circular 
were or were not correct ? 

MR. RUNCIMAN : If the circular was intended to convey 

375 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the impression that IDS. is the rate now being paid for the 
use of interned steamers carrying coal to London, the circular 
was incorrect. At one time the rate did average ios., but it 
has been much below that for a long time past. 

ENEMY ALIENS AND STRIKES 

House of Commons, April 20, 1915. 

Hansard. SIR J. LONSDALE asked the Prime Minister whether, having 

regard to the information in the possession of the intelligence 
department of the Admiralty, that there is an extensive con- 
spiracy being carried out by German agents in this country 
to foment strikes among workmen in order to hamper the 
performance of war contracts, the Government intend to 
impose any further restrictions upon the large number of 
enemy aliens allowed to remain at large in the United 
Kingdom ? 

The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE ADMIRALTY (DR. 
MACNAMARA) : The possibility of such influences as those 
mentioned in the question being at work requires vigilant 
attention. Ample powers are, however, provided under the 
Defence of the Realm Act and other Regulations to deal 
with enemy aliens, and no further steps are in contemplation. 

MR. C. DUNCAN : Can the right hon. gentleman say 
whether there is the slightest conceivable evidence of any 
attempt being made in this direction in regard to the work- 
people of this country ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : It manifestly is not in the public 
interest to make a statement. 

BRITISH AND NEUTRAL MERCHANT SHIPS 
(SUBMARINE ATTACKS) 

ibid. COMMANDER BELLAIRS asked the First Lord of the Admir- 

alty the number of vessels of the Allies and neutral Powers 
which have been sunk, chased, or stopped by German sub- 
marines off Beachy Head since ist February ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : No, sir ; it is not desirable to give 
information on this subject. All the results of the submarine 
attacks on British and neutral merchant ships are carefully 
examined, and the necessary directions to the mercantile 
marine are given by the Admiralty. 
376 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ROYAL NAVY 

ENGINEER OFFICERS (HONOURS AND 
PROMOTIONS) 

COMMANDER BELLAIRS asked the First Lord of the Admir- ibid. 
alty, in view of the fact that a number of honours have already 
been distributed, whether he can state what honours or pro- 
motions have been awarded up to I5th April to the engineer 
officers who were mentioned in despatches for the three naval 
battles which have been fought in the war ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : Engineer- Lieutenant-Commander Edward 
H. T. Meeson, of the Laurel, was awarded the D.S.O. for 
service in the action of the 28th August 1914. Engineer- 
Commander D. P. Green was promoted to Engineer-Captain 
for services in the Lion, in the action of the 24th January 
1915. The following officers have been noted for early pro- 
motion : Engineer - Lieutenant - Commanders A. Hill, His 
Majesty's ship Laertes ; F. A. Butler, His Majesty's ship 
Liberty] G. Preece, His Majesty's ship Lion .; J. F. Shaw, 
His Majesty's ship Invincible ; E. H. T. Meeson, His Majesty's 
ship Laurel. 

ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN 

MR. CATHCART WASON asked the First Lord of the Admir- ibid. 
alty if he is aware that a man who has been legally judged 
the father of an illegitimate child and condemned to pay 
aliment has escaped his liability by joining the Navy ; whether 
in view of the fact that the War Office in like cases have power 
to deduct and do deduct monthly a certain amount from a 
soldier's pay and remit to the mother, he will ascertain whether 
the power of the Admiralty is equal to that of the War Office 
in the administration of justice and upholding the decisions 
of courts of law ; and, if not, whether he proposes to take 
any action in the matter ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I am not aware of any specific case 
similar to that to which the hon. member alludes. As regards 
the power of making compulsory stoppages from the pay of 
sailors for the purpose suggested, the Admiralty can only 
obtain powers similar to those of the War Office by means 
of legislation, and as in the majority of cases which occur 

377 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Hansard. 



1 [See 
Naval 3, 
P. 3870 

ibid. 



ibid. 



in the Navy it is found possible to persuade men to accept 
their liabilities voluntarily, I am not at present prepared to 
ask for legislative powers. 

PRIZE MONEY 

House of Commons, April 20, 1915. 

LORD C. BERESFORD asked whether the Admiralty will 
make a statement with regard to the distribution of prize 
money ; and whether it is proposed to treat men who served 
through the whole of the war on the same terms as those who 
may join within a few weeks of its close ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The question continues to receive the 
close attention of the Government, but I am afraid that I am 
not yet in a position to add to the statement which I made 
to the House on the subject on i6th February last. 1 

MEDICAL OFFICERS 

MR. GEORGE TERRELL asked the First Lord of the Admir- 
alty whether medical officers who have withdrawn from the 
Service previous to the war, and had received a gratuity on 
the scale laid down in the .regulations now have deductions 
made on their pay as representing interest on the amount of 
such gratuity ; and whether, in the absence of any authority 
for the making of such deductions, he will give instructions 
that all such officers are to receive their pay in full ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : It is a long established rule in the 
Navy, that an officer in receipt of an annual retiring allow- 
ance should cease to draw that allowance on becoming entitled 
to full pay, etc., during re-employment, whether in peace or 
war. The same principle is applied to officers who received 
their retiring or withdrawing allowance in a lump sum, and 
an amount representing the annual value of this gratuity is 
accordingly abated from their active service emoluments. 



MR. 



MERCHANT SHIPS IN WAR SERVICE 

ANDERSON asked whether the shipowners whose 



vessels are in the employ of the Transport Department have 
succeeded in obtaining an advance in the price paid for their 
ships beyond the original determination ; whether the first 
378 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

award was given by Lord Inchcape on the understanding 
that it should not be regarded as a minimum on which to 
build further claims ; whether the Arbitration Committee 
appointed to adjust prices paid to shipowners consists almost 
entirely of shipowners ; whether there is anything to justify 
these fresh demands other than the freightage ruling in the 
open market; and whether all the facts in regard to these 
negotiations will be supplied to the House ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : As indicated in reply to my hon. friend's 
question of the i8th February last, 1 shipowners have not l [See 
obtained any advance in the price paid for their ships beyond Naval 3, 
the original determination, except owners of oil tankers and p> 4 1 *-' 
tramp steamers, who have asked for higher rates to meet 
altered circumstances since ist January. These requests have 
received the careful consideration of the Board of Admir- 
alty, and a fresh agreement has been arrived at with the 
general body of these owners for moderate increases in rate, 
to date from ist January ; but it has also been stipulated 
that these rates shall obtain for all requisitioned steamers 
during the period of the war. These agreements were made 
with representative committees of the shipowners concerned, 
and have since been confirmed individually by the large 
majority of the owners. A certain section of the Glasgow 
shipowners have up to the present not signified their concur- 
rence. Rates for certain smaller steamers not covered by 
these agreements are now under discussion. The increases 
granted may be summarised roughly as follows : In the 
case of tramp steamers, the increase asked for was 33 per 
cent. ; the increase granted, 16 per cent. Tank steamers asked 
for from n per cent, to 39 per cent., according to size ; 
granted, from 8 per cent, to 22 per cent. These settlements 
are very favourable to the Government when compared 
with the rates ruling in the market. After the expiry of a 
short period certain, the Admiralty will have in all cases the 
right to discharge the vessels on giving notice varying from a 
fortnight to six weeks, according to the type of steamer ; 
whereas, in the market, time charters are readily obtainable 
for six, eight, or nine months at rates varying from 50 to 
70 per cent, higher than the Admiralty rate. I should say 
that shipowners in general have throughout these negotia- 
tions approached the matter in a reasonable spirit and with 

379 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

real regard to the special conditions created by the present 
emergency. 

Lord Inchcape was Chairman of certain Sub-Committees 
of the Arbitration Board which, on 22nd October last, reported 
to Lord Mersey, President of the Admiralty Transport Board 
of Arbitration, for his information and advice, the basis, 
general scale or rate at which payment to owners of ships 
requisitioned for Government service should be assessed. In 
forwarding these recommendations to the President, Lord 
Inchcape stated that he trusted that the shipowners would 
not look upon the rates as a minimum on which increases 
might be built. The Board of Arbitration consists of seven- 
teen panels, namely, Government nominees, shipowners (four 
panels representing different types of steamers), cargo owners, 
bankers, underwriters, marine insurance companies, insurance 
brokers, average adjusters, and five panels representative of 
officers, engineers, seamen, firemen, and stewards of the 
mercantile marine. The Sub-Committees alluded to above 
were drawn from these panels, including in each case a Govern- 
ment representative. The increases lately granted are, it is 
considered, justified on the ground of the very much increased 
running expenses, especially the enhanced cost of stores, re- 
pairs (including the abnormal delay in effecting them), and, in 
the majority of vessels, of provisions. It is not considered 
desirable in the public interest to publish the detailed proceed- 
ings of the meetings between the representative committees 
and the Admiralty. With this exception, the course of the 
negotiations has been fully reported in the public Press. 



ROYAL NAVY (CONSUMPTION OF RUM IN) 

House of Commons, April 20, 1915- 

Hansard. MR. HOGGE asked what was the consumption of rum in 

the Navy in 1914, and the average age of such rum ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The figures for the year 1914 are not 
complete, but during the year ending ist July 1914 the 
quantity of rum issued in the Navy was 421,230 gallons. 
The average age of the rum on issue is, so far as can be calcu- 
lated, about eighteen months. 

380 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



ROYAL DOCKYARDS (PAY AND PRIVILEGES) 

MR. FALLE asked the Secretary to the Admiralty if he ibid. 
can grant to those dockyard employes who had three months' 
service at Invergordon previous to Christmas 1914, the same 
privileges as to railway passes as were granted to the Royal 
Navy, Royal Marines, and Royal Naval Division that is to 
say, free passes ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Instructions have been issued to the 
dockyards and to the senior naval officers of the distant 
places at which dockyard men are employed away from their 
homes, to the effect that men who have served away from 
their homes for three months may be given railway passes 
when it is convenient to grant them leave for the purpose of 
visiting their homes. 

MR. FALLE asked if it has been decided to accede to the 
petition of the established and hired blockmakers, Ports- 
mouth Dockyard, as regards increase of wages and the increase 
of establishment from six to nine ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The wages of the blockmakers employed 
at Portsmouth Dockyard have been increased by the amount 
of the war increase awarded by the Committee on Production 
in Engineering and Shipbuilding Establishments as from 
28th March. No further advance to this class is in immediate 
contemplation. The numbers to be allowed on the estab- 
lished list are being considered in connection with the general 
question of distribution of established numbers for all classes 
employed in the dockyard. 

MR. FALLE asked the Secretary to the Admiralty if he 
can give the probable date at which the reply to the annual 
petition of the employes of the Director of Works Depart- 
ment, Portsmouth Dockyard, presented last May, may be 
expected ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The replies to these petitions, except- 
ing a few minor questions which still remain to be settled, 
were issued to Portsmouth and other yards on the 5th instant. 

LORD C. BERESFORD asked if the recent increase in wages 
to joiners employed under the Director of Works will also be 
given to bricklayers employed in the same department ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The case of the bricklayers emploved 

"381 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

in the Director of Works Department was considered with 
those of the other classes of dockyard employes, but having 
regard to all the circumstances, it is not considered that any 
increase in the rates for this class is warranted at present. 
These bricklayers are, however, participating in the recent 
general emergency advance of 35. a week to mechanics. 

LORD C. BERESFORD asked whether the Admiralty are 
going to review the subsistence allowance allowed to work- 
men who are called upon temporarily to work outside the 
Home yards, in order that the allowance should be the same 
to skilled and ordinary labourers as that allowed to 
mechanics ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The rate of subsistence allowance pay- 
able in such cases is dependent upon the rate of pay, all men 
whose day pay exceeds 100 a year being granted 75. 6d. 
for the first fourteen nights and 55. a night thereafter, and 
those on a lower scale of pay corresponding payments of 55. 
and 35. 4d. a night. This rate is payable for seven days a 
week, and is considered to be sufficient to cover all the 
necessary expenses for board and lodging which it is in- 
tended to meet. 



WAR DEPARTMENT VESSELS (PETITIONS 
OF CREWS) 

House of Commons, April 20, 1915. 

Hansard. LORD C. BERESFORD asked the Financial Secretary to the 

War Office whether the Committee appointed by the War 
Office and the Admiralty to consider the petitions presented 
by the crews of War Department vessels in September 1911, 
have issued their Report ; and, if so, will the men concerned 
be informed of the results of the committee's deliberations 
in the same manner as that adopted by the Admiralty ? 

MR. BAKER : The Committee referred to duly reported, 
but other questions arose which involved a further inquiry 
by the Admiralty. The proposals resulting from this inquiry 
have only recently come into force. In the meantime steps 
were taken to give a considerable temporary increase to the 
wages of War Department crews. Now that the Admiralty 
382 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

inquiry is complete, the question of its application to War 
Department employes is under consideration. 



EXAMINATION SERVICE (TYNE) 

MR. HERBERT CRAIG asked the Financial Secretary to the ibid. 
War Office whether he will state, in regard to the three vessels 
employed in the examination service of the River Tyne, the 
Southern Prince, the Ben Arthur, and the Great Emperor, 
what was the original cost of each of these vessels ; what is the 
present monthly rate of hire paid by the War Office ; what is 
the total amount of hire earned by each vessel up to date, and 
the name of the owner of each vessel ; and whether he can say 
if any modification has yet been made in the terms upon which 
these vessels are hired by the War Office so as to reduce the 
disparity of cost as compared with similar vessels requisitioned 
by the Admiralty ? 

MR. BAKER : The information asked for by the hon. 
member may be summarised as follows : 







Present 


Total 






Original 


Monthly 


earned 


Name of Owner. 




Cost. 


Rate of 
Hire. 


by each" 
Vessel. 




Southern Prince 


7,200 


500 


2,568 


The Prince Fishing Co., Ltd., 










Union Road, North Shields. 


Ben Arthur . . 


7,000 


500 


2,568 


Richard Irwin and Sons, Ltd., 










Union Road, North Shields. 


Great Emperor . 


8,OOO 


510 


6,422 


The John Dry Steam Tugs, 










Ltd., Mill Dam, S. Shields. 



The rate of hire of the Great Emperor is being reduced to 450 
per month from the 22nd instant, and that of the other two 
vessels has been reduced considerably since they were first 
hired. As the hon. member has recently been informed by 
letter, it is impossible, with any degree of accuracy, to compare 
the cost of hiring these trawlers with the cost of similar vessels 
requisitioned by the Admiralty. 



383 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ARMED GERMAN CRUISERS 

House of Commons, April 20, 1915. 

Hansard. COMMANDER BELLAIRS asked the Secretary of State for 

Foreign Affairs if he has any official information showing that 
the repairs to the Prinz Eitel Friedrich included the use of the 
port for cleaning her hull, thereby increasing her speed and her 
chances of escape from British cruisers ; and, if such assistance 
was given, whether we have any assurance that the Kronprinz 
Wilhelm will only receive assistance to the extent of rendering 
her seaworthy for a trip to a German port within a recognised 
period of time ? 

SIR E. GREY : Article 17 of the i3th Hague Convention of 
1907 reads : 

' In neutral ports and roadsteads belligerent warships may only 
carry out such repairs as are absolutely necessary to render them sea- 
worthy, and may not add in any manner whatever to their fighting 
force. The local authorities of the neutral Power shall decide what 
repairs are necessary, and these must be carried out with the least 
possible delay/ 

The German auxiliary cruiser Prinz Eitel Friedrich before her 
internment, had her bottom cleaned and coated with non- 
fouling composition while -in dry dock at Newport News, 
thus considerably increasing her speed. His Maj esty 's Govern- 
ment protested on the ground that the increase to her speed 
(or radius of action, as the case might be) was an increase to 
her fighting force such as the above quoted article forbids. 
The United States Government refuse to admit this, consider- 
ing that any damage sustained from the action of the sea and 
not inflicted by the enemy may be made good. They also 
called attention to the provision that the local authorities 
of the neutral Power shall decide what repairs are necessary. 

SUPPLIES TO ENEMY 

ibid. MR. RAWLINSON asked the President of the Board of 

Trade what are the exact steps which have been taken to 

prevent the importation of cotton into Germany and Austria ? 

SIR E. GREY : As stated in my reply to the hon. member 

1 [See f r Ealing to-day, every effort is being made, in accordance 

p. 154.] with the terms of the Order in Council of nth March 1 to 

384 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

prevent any sea-borne commodities of all kinds from reaching 
the enemy. 

[There is no question asked by Mr. Nield, the member for Ealing, 
and replied to by Sir Edward Grey, reported in Hansard of this day's 
date ; nor does the Index to Hansard give any reference to such a 
question and answer.] 



DETENTION OF ENEMY SHIPS (INDIA) 

MR. STEWART asked whether the Indian Government are ibid. 
using a number of detained German steamers in commercial 
trading and, at the same time, requisitioning in India for 
Government service cargo liners usually employed in the 
trade between India and this country, thereby causing delay 
to cargo and increased charges to merchants, who have to 
rearrange their freight engagements, which result in an in- 
creased cost of goods to the consumers in this country ; and 
whether the Indian Government can see its way to use 
detained steamers for Government work and allow cargo 
liners as far as possible to do their usual business ? 

MR. C. ROBERTS : The Secretary of State is without 
precise information on the matter, but understands that the 
Indian Government has on occasions used detained enemy 
ships for military work and on other occasions has allowed 
them to be chartered for the conveyance of Indian merchandise 
to this country. In thus disposing of the vessels the Indian 
Government would seem to have been guided partly by the 
relative urgency at the moment of military requirements and 
of the requirements of Indian commerce partly by the 
greater suitability of a vessel for one purpose than for the 
other. Some of these ships may, in the near future, be used 
for the carriage of Indian wheat under the Indian Govern- 
ment purchase scheme. 



ANTI-AIRCRAFT FORCE 

MR. NIELD asked the hon. member for the Saffron Walden ibid. 
Division, as representing the First Commissioner of Works, 

NAVAL 4 2 B 385 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

how many of the staff of the Department have enlisted in 
the Anti- Aircraft Force ; how many of these men have been 
withdrawn from their departmental work during official hours 
by reason of their duties in the Aircraft Force, and for what 
periods ; and whether a sum of 75. weekly or what sum has 
been deducted by the Department from the salaries of these 
persons, whether or not any official time has been lost by 
them ? 

MR. BECK : One hundred and thirty-four members of the 
Office of Works staff are serving in the Anti-aircraft Corps. 
They are regarded as being primarily at the disposal of the 
Admiralty, but, as their duties have to be performed almost 
entirely at night, there has, in fact, been little interference 
with their civil duties. The sum of 75. weekly has been 
deducted from their civil salaries, but the question what the 
deduction should be in future is receiving further considera- 
tion in view of changes recently made in the duties of the 
force. 

DARDANELLES 

Constantinople. 

K.V., Main Headquarters reports : Yesterday two enemy armoured 

April 21, ships hurled over 100 shells at intervals and from a great 
I 9 I 5- distance at our batteries on the Dardanelles without success ; 

the batteries did not think it necessary to reply to the fire. 

The English who were encamped south of Ahvaz were 
attacked early on the I2th instant by our troops and after a 
fight lasting until the afternoon, were compelled to hide in the 
entrenchments of their camp. The fire which was opened by 
our artillery against four of their ships two large and two 
small ones and against two motor boats, damaged two of 
these ships. On our side one man was killed and ten 
wounded. The enemy's losses are not yet known. 



SUPPLEMENTARY LIEUTENANTS (PENSIONS) 

House of Commons, April 21, 1915- 

Hansard. SIR C. KiNLOCH-CooKE asked the First Lord of the Ad- 

miralty whether his attention has been called to the case of 
386 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the twenty-four supplementary lieutenants who joined the 
Service under Orders in Council, October 1895, and August 
1898, with regard to an increase of pension after fifteen years 
served for the maximum ; whether he is aware that in some 
instances these officers are serving with retired commanders 
junior to themselves on the active list, which means not only 
a junior position but 180 a year less pay ; and whether he 
will consider the possibility of placing these officers on the list 
of lieutenant-commanders and, where the appointment justifies 
it, promoting them to the rank of acting-commanders as a 
reward for war services ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The answer to the first and second parts 
of the question are in the affirmative. As regards the third 
part, all the officers referred to are already lieutenant-com- 
manders, but the acting rank of commander can only be 
granted in exceptional cases when such higher rank is necessary 
in the interests of the Service. 



LIEUTENANTS-COMMANDER 

SIR C. KiNLOCH-CooKE asked the First Lord of the Ad- ibid. 
miralty whether he is aware that all the lieutenants-commander 
of the 1898 entry who have reached the age limit of forty-five 
have been called to active service as commanders, whereas 
those who are still serving their country on the active list are 
allowed to remain in an inferior position to their brother 
officers who have served shorter periods ; and, if so, whether 
he proposes to take any action in the matter? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The answer to the first part of the 
question is in the affirmative ; but an officer retired with the 
rank of commander does not take command over a lieutenant- 
commander who was senior to him on the active list. It is 
not proposed to alter the regulations on the subject. 



MINE-SWEEPING (HOPPER BARGES) 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the Ad- ibid. 
miralty whether any petition has been received from men 
employed on board the hoppers at Devonport engaged since 
the outbreak of hostilities in mine-sweeping operations ; 

387 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

whether he is aware that the rates of pay of these men in one 
case compare unfavourably with the rates prevailing in others 
at the same depot and engaged in a similar capacity, and can 
he see his way to equalise matters in this respect ; and 
whether he can explain why seamen on board the hoppers get 
no allowance or compensation such as that given to other 
seamen employed on similar work, nor have any guarantee 
of compensation in the event of an accident involving loss of 
life or limb other than that given in time of peace ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The Admiralty has recently approved 
payment to the crews of hopper barges employed on mine- 
sweeping of rates of pay analogous to those authorised for 
members of the Trawler Reserve, together with a victualling 
allowance of is. 5d. a day, if the men are not victualled. 
Compensation for loss of life or limb due to a war risk during 
employment would be granted under the Injuries in War 
Compensation Act, at rates corresponding to those granted 
to the crews of fleet auxiliaries. 



SHIPWRIGHTS (LEAVE) 

House of Commons, April 21, 1915. 

Hansard. SIR C. KiNLOCH-CooKE asked the First Lord of the Ad- 

miralty whether he is aware that shipwrights taken from 
Devonport Dockyard to outside districts for the purpose of 
effecting repairs to His Majesty's ships are unable to take their 
leave owing to the cost of the journey home ; that one man 
has four days now due to him but is unable to pay the amount 
it would cost him to visit his wife and family ; and whether he 
will consider the possibility of giving these men free passes to 
their homes say, once every three or six months during the 
period of their employment ? 

1 [See DR. MACNAMARA : As I stated yesterday, 1 in reply to the 

p. 381.] hon. member for Portsmouth, instructions have been issued 
to the dockyards and to the senior naval officers of the distant 
places at which dockyard men are employed away from their 
homes, to the effect that men who have served away from their 
homes for three months may be given railway passes when it is 
convenient to grant them leave for the purpose of visiting their 
homes. 
388 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



STOKER RATINGS (PROMOTION) 

SIR CLEMENT KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the ibid. 
Admiralty (i) whether he will give the number of stoker 
ratings serving in the Navy when war broke out, and the 
proportion of these ratings promoted during the preceding 
twelve months to warrant rank as mechanicians ; and (2) 
whether he is aware that the advertisements are appearing on 
hoardings in London and elsewhere asking for stokers, on the 
ground that this rating is eligible for advancement to warrant 
commission and commission rank ; whether stoker ratings 
are ineligible for any such promotion except as mechanicians ; 
and, if so, whether he will cause the statement to be revised 
and the actual position stated ? 

The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE ADMIRALTY (DR. 
MACNAMARA) : The advertisement to which I presume the 
hon. member refers indicates that, amongst other ratings, 
stokers are required for the Royal Navy, and gives their 
weekly rate of pay, besides free rations, as ranging from 
us. 8d. to 405. lod. in the case of chief stokers and 455. 6d. 
in the case of mechanicians. It further states, in a footnote, 
that stoker ratings entered for continuous service are eligible 
for advancement to warrant, commissioned warrant, and 
commissioned ranks. The facts of the case are correctly 
represented, and I see no grounds for altering the advertise- 
ment. The respective numbers of stokers and mechanicians 
are based entirely on the requirements of the Service, and I 
do not think that any public purpose would be served by 
giving detailed figures ; but naturally, mechanicians and 
warrant mechanicians form but a small proportion of the 
large number of stoker ratings serving. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE : Is it not the fact that no stoker 
in the Navy can obtain, as a stoker, warrant or commission 
rank ? 

ROYAL NAVY (DOCKYARDS) 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the ibid. 
Admiralty whether he is aware that the deck hands employed 
on dredging plant at Devonport are still only in receipt of 

389 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

235. a week ; and will he explain why these men have not 
participated in the general increase granted to the labourers 
in the Royal dockyards ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : This question has been under con- 
sideration, and instructions have been issued that all deck 
hands of dredging plant are to be advanced to the present 
labourers' rate. 

SIR C. KiNLOCH-CooKE asked the First Lord of the 
Admiralty whether the Government proposes to grant a small 
bonus for the period of the war to dockyard pensioners whose 
pensions range from los. to i a week, so as to enable them 
to meet the increased cost of food ; 'and whether he is aware 
that in many cases the man's pension is all he has to live 
upon, and that in not a few cases other persons are dependent 
upon him ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : It is not proposed to make the augmen- 
tations suggested by the hon. member. 



Times, 
April 23, 



DARDANELLES 

April 22. 

The war news officially ^circulated from Berlin through 
German wireless stations states that the Tageszeitung publishes 
a special despatch, according to which 20,000 English and 
French troops have landed near Enos, and adding that a heavy 
cannonade took place between the Turkish batteries and the 
ships of the Allies. 



WARRANT OFFICERS (PAY) 

House of Commons, April 22, 1915. 

Hansard. SIR CLEMENT KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the 

Admiralty whether he is now in a position to make any state- 
ment concerning the pay of warrant officers, Royal Navy, 
and the granting of separation allowance to their wives and 
families ; whether he is aware that in present circumstances 
many chief petty officers are drawing higher pay, counting 
separation allowance, than many warrant officers, and that, 
while the pecuniary position of the lower deck has been 
advanced since the outbreak of war by the granting of separa- 
39 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

tion allowances and the pay of lieutenants and sub-lieutenants 
has been increased, the pecuniary position of warrant officers 
remains as it was ? 

The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE ADMIRALTY 
(DR. MACNAMARA) : I am not yet in a position to make any 
statement as regards separation allowance in the case of 
warrant officers. No alterations in the pay of warrant officers 
are in contemplation. 

SIR C. KiNLOCH-CooKE : When does the right hon. gentle- 
man think that he will be in a position to make a statement 
to the House on the subject ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I cannot say the exact time. I hope 
that there will not be any undue delay. I will give no under- 
taking as to what the position will be. 



THE TRANSPORT MANITOU (ADMIRALTY 
COMMUNICATION) 

LORD CHARLES BERESFORD asked the First Lord of the ibid 
Admiralty whether he will state to the House all the circum- 
stances which happened with regard to the attack on the 
transport Manitou ; whether he is aware that the communi- 
cation already made by the Admiralty l leaves a mystery which 1 
is disquieting ; and whether he is aware that such mystery p 
gives occasion for unfair inferences to be drawn ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The transport Manitou, with troops on 
board, was stopped by the Turkish torpedo-boat Timur Hissar, 
which had escaped from Smyrna. The crew and troops were 
ordered to abandon the vessel, about eight minutes being 
given. The torpedo-boat then fired three torpedoes at the 
transport which missed. She was then driven off by the 
British destroyers, which had come up. She was chased and 
eventually beached herself and was destroyed, her crew being 
captured. While the troops were leaving the transport, two 
boats capsized, fifty-one lives being lost. In one case a 
davit broke, and in the other the boat appears to have been 
overcrowded. There is nothing either mysterious or dis- 
quieting about this affair. The essential facts were made 
public by the Admiralty as soon as they were known. I do 
not know what unfair inferences have been drawn. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

SIR C. KiNLOCH-CooKE : How was it reported that a 
hundred lives were lost when there were only fifty-one ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I cannot answer that. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : Is the right hon. gentleman aware 
that it was because the essential facts were not stated that 
there was in the country a general idea, which was unfounded, 
that there had been damage done ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I think that the noble Lord will gather 
from the answer which I have given that the essential facts 
were made known by the Admiralty as soon as they were 
known. 

MR. BOYTON : Can the right hon. gentleman say what 
were the troops that were concerned in this disaster ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Perhaps the hon. member will give 
me notice. 



PRISONERS OF WAR (ACCOMMODATION IN 
STEAMSHIPS) 

House of Commons, April 22, 1915. 

Hansard. SIR FoRTESCUE FLANNERY asked the Secretary to the 

Admiralty whether the steamers Ascania, Scotian, Lake 
Manitoba, Saxonia, Ivernia, and Royal Edward, or any of 
them, still remain occupied by German prisoners of war ; 
whether he can state what is the cost per head per day of the 
housing accommodation afforded by these steamers ; whether 
for lodging alone each German prisoner on board these ships 
is costing at the rate of 80 per annum ; and whether, in 
view of the difficulty of obtaining ships sufficient for the 
legitimate requirements of transport, the use of sea-going 
vessels for the purpose of imprisonment will be discontinued ? 
DR. MACNAMARA : The use of sea-going vessels for the 
internment of prisoners has always been considered a tem- 
porary measure, and every endeavour has been made to free 
the ships for their legitimate purpose. The Saxonia, Royal 
Edward, and Uranium, are the only ships now being so used. 
The two former will be released for other purposes by the 
end of the month. The date at which the Uranium (taken 
up to replace the Lake Manitoba, required for other work) 
can be freed is not yet fixed, but it will be early. The cost 
392 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of the service was given in reply to my hon. friend the member 
for Deptford on I5th March. 1 l [See 

p. 182.] 

TORPEDOED BRITISH SHIPS 

LORD C. BERESFORD asked the Prime Minister whether ibid. 
steps will be taken to confiscate a German or Austrian ship 
at present interned for every British merchant ship sunk by 
German submarines ? 

The PRIME MINISTER : The suggestion put forward in the 
question was carefully considered by His Majesty's Govern- 
ment, but it was decided not to adopt it for the present. 
This decision will not, however, preclude a reconsideration of 
the matter, should circumstances demand it. 

DARDANELLES 

LORD C. BERESFORD asked the Prime Minister if he will ibid. 
inform the House who is responsible for the operations in the 
Dardanelles ; whether it was intended to be in the nature of 
combined naval and military operations ; and whether the 
ultimate success of the operations will be considerably delayed 
owing to the naval attack having been delivered before the 
Army was landed ? 

The PRIME MINISTER : These operations are being jointly 
conducted by the Navy and Army in co-operation, under the 
responsibility of His Majesty's Government. It is not desir- 
able at the present stage to say anything further. 

BRITISH LOSSES (NAVAL FORCES) 

MR. JOHN asked the Prime Minister whether he will state, ibid. 
separately, the losses sustained by the Army and the Navy 
from the commencement of the war to the 3ist March last, 
indicating, respectively, the numbers killed, wounded, and 
missing ? 

The PRIME MINISTER : The number of officers and men 
of the Royal Navy, Royal Marines, Royal Naval Reserve, 
and Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve killed, wounded, and 
missing from the commencement of the war to the 3ist March 
1915, are as follows : 

393 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [AH 



OFFICERS 

Killed . 

Wounded 

Missing .... 

Interned 

Prisoners 



Total 4=12 




MEN 

Killed . . 4981 (including 57 Mercantile 

ratings lost in H.M.S. 
Bayano] . 

Wounded . . 640 (including 3 Interned 

and 50 Prisoners). 

Missing . . 72 

Interned . . 1524 (exclusive of 34 wounded). 

Prisoners . . 924 (exclusive of 50 wounded). 

Total 



ENEMY VESSELS (BRITISH PRIZES) 

House of Commons, April 22, 1915. 

MR. HOUSTON asked the President of the Board of Trade 
whether it is his Department that controls and employs 
enemy vessels which were interned in British ports or cap- 
tured as prizes and not sold to private owners, and are, or 
have been, employed in carrying coal or other cargoes from 
British ports to British and French ports, in carrying cargo 
from Indian, Colonial, or foreign ports to ports in the United 
Kingdom or in Allies' countries, and coal or other cargo out- 
wards from this country, in carrying troops, animals, muni- 
tions of war, stores, food-stuffs, or coal on Government account ; 
if not his Department, will he state respectively which De- 
partment does control and handle each of the aforementioned 
394 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



classes, and will he state whether profits are being made by 
the employment of these steamers and how the profits will 
ultimately be disposed of ; and whether there is any inten- 
tion of crediting or handing over any portion of the profits 
to the alien enemy owners of these vessels at the time of 
internment or capture after the termination of the war ? 

MR. RUNCIMAN : The arrangements for the employment 
and control of such captured and interned enemy vessels as 
are used in the carrying trade- are made by a Special Com- 
mittee of representatives of the Government Departments 
concerned, under the chairmanship of Vice- Admiral Sir E. 
Slade. The ships which have been requisitioned for Admir- 
alty purposes are under the control of the Admiralty ; and 
a certain number of ships are being utilised under the control 
of the Indian and Australian Governments. It has not yet 
been decided how any profits that may be made in each class 
of case will ultimately be disposed of, but there is no intention 
of handing them over to the alien enemy owners or ex-owners 
of the vessels. 



LERWICK EXPLOSION 

MR. CATHCART WASON asked if as great consideration will ibid. 
be shown to those who suffered by the explosion at Lerwick 
as was given to Scarborough ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Inquiry into the causes of the ex- 
plosion at Lerwick is still proceeding, and the question of 
granting compensation will receive careful consideration ; 
but, in regard to this, I would point out to my hon. friend 
that the circumstances are entirely different from those at 
Scarborough. 



PRISONERS OF WAR (TREATMENT IN GERMANY 
AND GREAT BRITAIN) 

LORD C. BERESFORD asked the Prime Minister the names of ibid. 
the British officers who have been sent to fortresses to undergo 
solitary confinement in Germany ; and whether he will state 
the regiments of the officers so confined and their ranks, and 

395 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the places to where they have been sent to undergo their 
sentences ? 

The UNDER-SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS 
(MR. PRIMROSE) : On the I3th instant I requested the United 
States Ambassador in London to be good enough to ask the 
United States Ambassador at Berlin, by telegram, to ascertain 
from the German Government whether there was any truth 
in the statement which had appeared in the Press that 
morning that thirty-nine British officers had been placed in 
imprisonment in military detention barracks in retaliation 
for the alleged harsh treatment of the crews of German sub- 
marines. On the i yth instant the United States Ambassador 
informed me that a number of British officers had been placed 
under officers' arrest as a reprisal for the treatment of the 
German submarine crews in England, and that the further 
procedure against those officers would be made to conform 
to the treatment of the German prisoners. I thereupon asked 
His Excellency to be good enough to ascertain, by telegraph, 
the names of the British officers who had been arrested. We 
have informed the United States Embassy that an inspection 
can be made of the treatment of German submarine officers 
and crews here if the same facilities are given by the German 
Government for inspection of the treatment of these British 
officers. This is practically the only way in which further 
information can be obtained. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : May I ask if the hon. gentleman 
will let the House know when he gets the reply ? 

MR. PRIMROSE : I have no doubt it will be published as 
soon as possible. 

LORD C. BERESFORD : Can the hon. gentleman give us 
any information as to when he can get it ? 
MR. PRIMROSE : No. 

STEAMSHIP TRAFFIC STOPPED 

Amsterdam, April 22. 

The following official British statement is issued here : 
All shipping and passenger traffic between Holland and 

the United Kingdom is stopped for the time being. No ships 

will leave the United Kingdom for Holland after to-day. 

Ships from Holland will not be admitted to the United 

39 6 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Kingdom after to-day. It is hoped shortly to resume a 
limited cargo and passenger traffic. Special arrangements 
are being made for the transport of the mail. Renter. 

SERBIAN ATTACK ON AUSTRIAN GUNBOATS 

Nish, April 25. 

On the night of April 22-23, we made a surprise attack on 
the enemy's river gunboats* north of Semlin. One gunboat 
was damaged, and this caused great confusion among the 
rest of the flotilla and on both banks of the Danube. The 
enemy replied with rifle and machine-gun fire which did no 
damage. 

The enemy opened fire from his guns of position towards 
Belgrade against our aeroplanes, which were engaged in 
reconnaissance work, but his efforts were without result. 
Serbian Press Bureau. 

GERMAN FLEET IN NORTH SEA 

Amsterdam, April 23. 

An official telegram from Berlin says : 

The Admiralty Staff states that recently the German Times, 
High Sea Fleet has repeatedly been cruising in the North Sea, A? 1 * 1 2 4 
and has advanced into English waters without meeting any I ^ 1 ^' 
British naval forces. Renter. 

BLOCKADE OF CAMEROONS 

Foreign Office, April 24, 1915. 

His Majesty's Government have decided to declare a L.G., 
blockade of the coast of the Cameroons as from midnight A P nl 2 7- 
April 23rd-24th. The blockade will extend from the entrance I9I5> 
of the Akwayafe River to Bimbia Creek, and from the Benge 
mouth of the Sanaga River to Campo. 

Forty-eight hours' grace from the time of the commence- 
ment of the blockade will be given for the departure of neutral 
vessels from the blockaded area. 

COMPENSATION FOR SEAMEN 

The Board of Trade have appointed a Committee, consisting Times, 
of Mr. W. B. Yates (chairman), Mr. A. C. Gordon, of the Claims A P ril 2 4> 

397 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Department of the Government War Risks Insurance Office, 
and Mr. W. H. G. Deacon, I.S.O., the chief superintendent 
of the Mercantile Marine Offices in the London district, to 
consider any cases of hardship that may be brought before 
them on behalf of masters, officers, and seamen, including 
pilots and apprentices, of British merchant and fishing vessels 
who have lost personal effects through hostile operations at 
sea, without being in a position to recover compensation or to 
obtain adequate relief in respect of such losses from other 
sources, and to grant such sums as they may think just in any 
such cases. 

Communications should be addressed to the secretary 
to the Committee, Mr. C. F. Bickerdike, at 47 Victoria Street, 
London, S.W. 

RUSSIAN FLEET OFF THE BOSPHORUS 

Petrograd, April 26. 

Times The following communique is issued by the Headquarters 

April 28, Staff : 

1915. Our Black Sea Fleet yesterday bombarded the Bosphorus 

forts. Great explosions were observed in one fort. A Turkish 
battleship which was in the Straits made a futile reply to our 
fire. 



Petrograd, April 26. 

The following semi-official communique dated April 25 is 
issued here : 

At 6 A.M. the Black Sea Fleet approached the Bosphorus. 
At 8 A.M. the vessels opened fire with heavy guns against the 
forts and batteries. They successfully shelled the two forts 
at Fener, the Karibdje, Jumburnu, and Uzuniar forts, and the 
forts at Kavaka-Madjer. As a result of the bombardment 
great explosions were observed in the forts. 

The Turkish warships in the Straits were shelled and forced 
to retire. The battleship Torgud (Tor gut Reis ?) replied to 
our fire without effect. 

Enemy torpedo-boats which advanced towards us were 
quickly driven off by the fire of our ships. Observations 
made by hydroplanes showed the accuracy of the fire of the 
squadron. 
398 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The enemy's batteries attempted to shell our aviators, but 
without success.- Renter. 

DARDANELLES 

The War Office and the Admiralty make the following Times. 
announcement : April 27, 

The general attack on the Dardanelles by the Fleet and I 9 I 5- 
the Army was resumed yesterday (April 25). 

The disembarkation of the Army, covered by the Fleet, 
began before sunrise at various points on the Gallipoli 
Peninsula, and, in spite of serious opposition from the enemy 
in strong entrenchments protected by barbed wire, was com- 
pletely successf u 1. Before nightfall large forces were established 
on shore. 

The landing of the Army and the advance continue. 



The War Office and Admiralty make the following Times, 
announcement (April 27) : April 28, 

After a day's hard fighting in difficult country, the troops I 9 I 5- 
landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula are thoroughly making good 
their footing with the effective help of the Navy. The French 
have taken 500 prisoners. 

The following telegram has been officially published in 
Cairo : 

' The Allied forces under Sir Ian Hamilton have effected a 
landing on both sides of Dardanelles under excellent con- 
ditions ; many prisoners taken, and our forces are continuing 
their advance/ 



Paris, April 27. 

The War Office issues the following announcement Times, 
(April 28): April 29, 

In face of continual opposition the troops have now I 9 I 5- 
established themselves across the end of the Gallipoli Penin- 
sula from a point north-east of Eski Hissarlik to the mouth of 
the stream on the opposite side. 

They have also beaten off all attacks at Sari Bahr, and are 
steadily advancing. 

The Turks had made considerable preparations to hamper 

399 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

any landings. Wire entanglements under the sea as well 
as on land, and deep pits with spikes at the bottom were 
among the obstacles overcome by the troops. 



Amsterdam, April 28. 

A Constantinople official communique states : 
The enemy renewed their attempts against Gaba Tepe and 

the south coast of Gallipoli, but were successfully repulsed. 
Yesterday fresh forces of the enemy attacked near the 

coast at Kum Kale, but were obliged to retreat, abandoning 

three machine guns. Reuter. 



The following statement on the progress of the operations 
in the Dardanelles from the 25th to the 2Qth April was issued 
yesterday by the War Office and the Admiralty : 

The disembarkation of the Army began before sunrise 
on the 25th. Six different beaches were used, and the opera- 
tion was covered by the whole Fleet. The landing was imme- 
diately successful on five beaches, although opposed with 
vigour by a strongly entrenched enemy in successive lines 
protected by barbed wire entanglements, in some places fifty 
yards wide, and supported by artillery. On the sixth beach, 
near Sedd-el-Bahr, the troops could not advance until the 
evening, when a fine attack by British infantry from the 
direction of Cape Tekeh relieved the pressure on their front. 
The arrangements for the landing had been concerted in the 
utmost detail between the Fleet and the Army. 

The result of the first day's operations was the establish- 
ment of strong British, Australasian, and French forces at 
three main points, namely, the Australian and New Zealand 
troops on the lower slopes of Sari Bahr to the north of Gaba 
Tepe, the British troops at Cape Tekeh, Cape Helles, and near 
Morto Bay, and the French force on the Asiatic shore at Kum 
Kale after a gallant attack towards Yeni Shehr. During the 
afternoon of the 25th strong counter-attacks by the enemy 
began, and hard fighting took place. Meanwhile the disem- 
barkation of the Army proceeded continuously, favoured by 
good weather. 
400 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

At daybreak on the 26th the enemy were still holding the 
village and position of Sedd-el-Bahr, which was a labyrinth 
of caves, ruins, trenches, pits, and entanglements. Aided 
by the gun-fire of the Fleet, this position was stormed by the 
British in a frontal attack through undamaged wire entangle- 
ments. Sedd-el-Bahr was taken at about 2 P.M., four pom- 
poms being captured. The situation at this end of the penin- 
sula was thus definitely secured, and the disembarkation of 
the French and British forces proceeded. 

On the morning of the 27th, after repulsing a Turkish 
attack upon their left towards Cape Helles, the Allied force 
advanced, and at 8 P.M. was established in an entrenched line 
running from a point about two miles to the north of Cape 
Tekeh to the small plateau above De Totts battery. From 
this line an advance has since been made to the neighbour- 
hood of Krithia. 

Meanwhile the Australian and New Zealand troops at 
Sari Bahr, who had pushed on with the utmost boldness after 
landing on the 25th, had been engaged almost constantly 
with the enemy, who made strong and repeated counter- 
attacks, which were invariably repulsed. The Australian 
and New Zealand troops fought with fine spirit and deter- 
mination. Early on the morning of the 27th a fresh Turkish 
division was launched against Sari Bahr, preceded by heavy 
artillery fire. A hot engagement followed. The enemy 
came on boldly time after time, but the Australian and New 
Zealand troops defeated every attempt, and by 3 P.M. had 
resumed the offensive. 

The French troops at Kum Kale were also four times 
strongly counter-attacked on the 26th, but retained all their 
positions. Five hundred Turks who, in the course of one of 
these counter-attacks, were cut off by the fire of the Fleet, 
were made prisoners. 

The operation of landing the Army in the face of modern 
weapons, in spite of wire entanglements under the sea as 
well as on land, land mines, and deep pits with spikes at the 
bottom, has thus been accomplished. The Admiral reports 
that the Fleet are filled with an intense admiration of the 
achievements of their military comrades. 

The casualties in the Army have necessarily been heavy. 
The casualties in the Fleet are not numerous, and appear 
NAVAL 4 2 c 401 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to be confined to the destroyers and to the boats' crews 
engaged in the landing operations, in which the merchant 
captains, officers, and crews of the transports have also taken 
part. 

During these operations the Turkish warships from Nagara 
have several times attempted to intervene, but have always 
made off directly the Queen Elizabeth was at hand. At noon 
on the 27th, however, a transport of about 8000 tons was 
reported off Maidos, and before she could escape the Queen 
Elizabeth opened fire. The third shot hit and destroyed her, 
and she sank rapidly ; but whether she contained troops or 
not could not be seen. 

On the 28th and 2gth the Allied forces rested, and improved 
and consolidated their positions and continued the disem- 
barkation of stores and artillery. All counter-attacks by 
the enemy, which were incessant on the 28th but weaker on 
the 29th, were repulsed. 

The Fleet, as well as supporting the Army, began to 
engage the batteries. The Triumph bombarded Maidos, 
which was in flames last night (29th). 

The next phase of the operations will be dealt with when 
it is complete and not in daily communiques. 



C.O., On April 25 a regiment of Colonial infantry with a battery 

May's, of 75 mm. guns, which was ordered to create a diversion on 
I 9 I 5- the Asiatic bank, landed at Kum Kale, under the protection 

of the fire from the guns of the French ships. The dis- 
embarkation was carried out in good conditions, and occu- 
pying Kum Kale the force marched on Yeni Shehr. A 
fierce fight with the enemy began that night, and continued 
the following day. 

The Turks, who were in greatly superior force, suffered 
heavy losses, and 500 were taken prisoners. The re-embarka- 
tion of our troops was effected during the night of the 26th 
with the support of the warships. The diversion had com- 
pletely succeeded, and while it was being made large forces 
of the Allies were landed in the Gallipoli Peninsula. 



402 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Constantinople. 

Report from Main Headquarters : To-day in the fore- K.V., 
noon the Russian fleet opened fire outside the firing line of April 25, 
our fortifications on the Bosphorus, with the object of I 9 I 5- 
making a demonstration ; the firing lasted half an hour, and 
the Russian fleet withdrew immediately afterwards in a 
northernly direction. Our fortifications did not consider 
it necessary to reply to the fire. 



Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : On the 25th inst. the enemy K.V., 
attempted under cover of his warships to land at four points April 26, 
on the west coast of the Peninsula of Gallipoli, viz., at the I 9 I 5- 
mouth of the Sighin Dere, on the strip of coast of Ari Burnu 
west of Kaba Tepe, on the coast of Teke Burnu, as well as 
in the region of Kum Kale. The enemy troops who had landed 
on the strip of coast of Teke Burnu were pushed back into 
the sea by a bayonet attack of our soldiers. The troops 
which had reached the land near Ari Burnu, attempted to 
advance, but were forced to retreat by an attack of our 
troops and pushed back to the coast. A part of the enemy 
forces in this direction was compelled to make a rapid flight 
to the ships last night. To-day our troops continued their 
attacks successfully at all the above points. At the same 
time a fleet approached the Straits, to undertake the assault 
from the sea, but was forced to retire before our fire. In 
this action an enemy torpedo-boat was sunk and another 
heavily damaged. It had to be towed to Tenedos. To-day 
the enemy made no attempt against the Dardanelles from the 
sea. The following additional report is made : The enemy 
troops which had landed near Kum Kale wanted to advance 
under cover of their warships, but in spite of the violent 
bombardment from all sides, our troops carried their attack 
through with success and forced the enemy back to the coast. 
The enemy lost 400 killed, besides which we took 200 
prisoners. Our losses are insignificant. A detachment of 
Mussulman soldiers which had disembarked with the French 
on this strip of coast came over to us. On the other spot 
near Kaba Tepe we took prisoner a number of English and 
Australians, among whom were a captain and a lieutenant. 

403 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Berlin, April 27. 

An enemy torpedo-boat was sunk. Another torpedo-boat 
was heavily damaged and had to be towed to Tenedos. The 
enemy did not undertake any operations from the sea against 
the Dardanelles to-day. German Wireless. 



Constantinople. 

K.V., Headquarters reports : The banks of the Sighin Dere, 

April 27, W est of Sedd-el-Bahr, have been cleared of the enemy. The 
I 9 I 5- enemy, who had landed in the neighbourhood of Kaba Tepe, 

endeavours to maintain himself in his defensive positions 
under cover of the fire of his ships. Early to-day our troops 
carried the said positions by storm, forced the enemy to 
retire along the whole front, and caused him exceptionally 
heavy losses. A part of the enemy who had fled to the sea 
escaped in his boats and retired with all speed. Those who 
were unable to flee displayed white flags and surrendered in 
crowds. 

We ascertained that an enemy transport steamer was 
struck by shots from our artillery and sank near Ari Burnu. 
A report, brought in at the last hour at 4.30 P.M., states that 
the enemy forces, estimated at four brigades, were driven into 
the sea on the coast of Kaba Yepe. 

An enemy cruiser with a broken mast and a damaged 
stern was towed into Tenedos. 



Constantinople. 

K.V., In the supplementary reports on the events in the Dar- 

April 29, danelles, the bravery and the dash of the Turkish officers and 
I 9 I 5- soldiers are more and more clearly revealed. During the 

fights on the Peninsula of Gallipoli, especially near Kaba 
Tepe, the Turkish soldiers fought uninterruptedly throughout 
two days and a night without showing the least sign of 
exhaustion, against the constantly renewed advance of enemy 
forces. During the first fights at Kum Kale the Turkish 
troops did not waste a single shot, but merely threw back the 
enemy with the bayonet. During the fighting forty enemy 
warships, including the Russian cruiser Askold, which had 
been placed on observation, bombarded Sedd-el-Bahr and Kum 
Kale from time to time. The Turkish forts returned the 
404 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

fire with success, and sank two torpedo-boats and one trans- 
port. As already announced, a heavily damaged cruiser 
had to be towed to Tenedos. The booty won by the 
Turks includes a large number of rifles and a quantity of 
ammunition. 

Constantinople. 

Last evening Main Headquarters made the following com- K.V., 
munication : The enemy, who had landed in the neighbour- April 30, 
hood of Kum Kale, was completely driven off in spite of all I 9 I 5- 
his efforts to maintain himself on the land under cover of 
the fire of his ships ; not a single enemy remains on the 
Asiatic shore of the Dardanelles. The enemy forces on the 
point of Kaba Tepe maintain themselves obstinately under 
cover of the fire of the enemy ships ; the enemy has been 
driven away from the other parts of the Peninsula of Gallipoli. 
On April 28 the fire of our batteries damaged the French 
armoured cruiser Jeanne d'Arc, and she had to retire to Tenedos 
in a burning condition. On April 28 an English torpedo- 
boat destroyer sank at the entrance of the Straits in conse- 
quence of a fire caused by our shells. An attack by sixteen 
armoured ships and many torpedo-boat destroyers on our 
advanced batteries in the Straits on April 27 had the follow- 
ing result. The thousands of shells fired against our batteries 
and infantry positions had only slightly wounded a few 
soldiers by the evening ; on the other hand, two transport 
steamers before Sedd-el-Bahr were repeatedly hit by our shells, 
so much so that one of them ran aground immediately. 
We have sunk a row of boats and sailing ships filled with 
soldiers which were near the transports with their tow boats. 
The English battleships Majestic and Triumph were damaged 
and retired from the firing line. During the last two days 
the enemy fleet made no further attempts on the Straits. 



Constantinople. 

Headquarters reports : The enemy left wing, which had K.V., 
been thrown out of its positions near Kaba Tepe, towards the Ma Y * 
north in the direction of Ari Burnu by our repeated attacks, I 9 15 ' 
attempted to advance yesterday in order to escape from the 
effective flank fire of our artillery, but was again driven into 
its old positions on the shore by a bayonet charge. On this 

405 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

occasion we captured two machine-guns with complete equip- 
ment and ammunition. The enemy who had landed near 
Sedd-el-Bahr at protected coast positions, and who might 
have fancied themselves covered, actually find themselves in 
an untenable position in consequence of the fire of our batteries 
on the Anatolian Coast. 

The enemy ships, having to protect their forces ashore 
with the fire of their heavy artillery, took no action against 
the Straits. 

The Australian- English submarine A.E 2 was sunk a few 
days ago by our warships whilst attempting to penetrate 
into the Sea of Marmora. The crew, composed of three 
officers and twenty-nine men, was taken prisoner. 

An enemy seaplane, while flying over the Gulf of Alex- 
andretta, was damaged by our fire and fell into the sea. The 
wreckage was picked up by a cruiser present in those waters. 



Times, The following message from the King has been despatched 

May i, to Vice- Admiral de Robeck and General Sir Ian Hamilton : 
I 9 I 5- ' It is with intense satisfaction that I have heard of the 

success which, in face of determined resistance, has attended 
the combined naval and military operations in the Dardanelles. 
Please convey to all ranks, including those of our Allies, my 
hearty congratulations on this splendid achievement/ 



Sydney, April 30. 

ibid. Mr. Fisher, the Prime Minister, has received the following 

cable from the King : 

' Heartily congratulate you upon the splendid conduct and 
bravery displayed by the Australian troops in their opera- 
tions in the Dardanelles. They, indeed, proved themselves 
worthy sons of the Empire/ 

The King's message was read in the Senate and the House 
of Representatives to-day amid great enthusiasm. 



Times, The following telegrams have passed between the First 

Ma Y 3. Lord of the Admiralty and the Governor-General of the 
I 9 I 5. 406 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Commonwealth of Australia and the Governor of New Zealand, 
through the Colonial Office : 

FIRST LORD'S MESSAGE 

30/4/15- 

On behalf of the Board of Admiralty I express our heartiest 
congratulations on the brilliant and memorable achievements 
of the Australian and New Zealand troops at the Dardanelles. 
The Admiral telegraphs that the Fleet is filled with intense 
admiration at the feat of arms accomplished by the Army. 

CHURCHILL. 

REPLY FROM GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE COMMONWEALTH 

OF AUSTRALIA 

I/5/I5- 

Will you kindly thank the First Lord and Board of Ad- 
miralty for congratulations. To win the admiration of the 
British Tar is an honour worth having, and the participation 
of His Majesty's Australian troops with the Navy in these 
great operations will cement their comradeship in arms. 

R. MUNRO-FERGUSON. 

REPLY FROM GOVERNOR OF NEW ZEALAND 

I/5/I5- 

On behalf of myself, my Government, and the people of 
New Zealand, I desire to thank you and the Board of Admir- 
alty for the very kind message of congratulations which you 
have sent. It is a source of great gratification to every one 
in this Dominion to feel that their troops have been so closely 
connected in those arduous operations with the officers and 
men of the Royal Navy, to whom the Empire owes so much. 

LIVERPOOL. 



Constantinople, May I. 
Turkish Main Headquarters reports : 
At Kaba Tepe, Gallipoli, the enemy made attempts to fight 
his way out of a narrow strip of land, where he had been 
shut in, but we repulsed his efforts, and forced the enemy to 
retreat 500 metres from the sea-coast and to flee within 

407 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the protection of the ships' guns. We inflicted enormous 
losses on the enemy. Attempts made by the enemy in 
the Bay of Saros to land troops under the protection oi 
part of the Fleet were completely frustrated by us. 

The official English reports of the Dardanelles battles 
between April 25 and 29, admit heavy losses of the Allied 
armies and fleets. German Wireless. 






THE KAISER AND TIRPITZ 

Amsterdam, April 25. 

A Berlin telegram states that the Emperor has sent the 
following telegram to Admiral von Tirpitz, the German 
Minister of Marine, from Main Headquarters : 

On to-day's fiftieth anniversary of your entering the naval 
service I express to you my heartiest congratulations, also my 
pleasure that with God's help it has been granted you to 
celebrate this day still in active service and in full vigour. I 
readily embrace this opportunity to assure you of my warmest 
gratitude for the great services you have rendered to the 
Fatherland by the successful expansion of the Navy. 

With justified pride you can look to-day on this your life 
work, the importance of which in the present war has been 
strikingly shown. As a sign of my gratitude I confer on you 
the Cross with Swords of Grand Commander of the Royal 
Order of the House of Hohenzollern. Renter. 

LOSS OF LEON GAMBETTA 

Paris, May i. 

The armoured cruiser Leon Gambetta, while cruising at the 
entrance to the Otranto Straits, was torpedoed on the night 
of the 26th to 27th April, and sank in ten minutes. All the 
officers perished at their posts. One hundred and thirty-six 
of the crew, eleven of whom were petty officers, were saved 
by ships promptly sent to the rescue by the Italian authorities. 
The vessel was torpedoed at 1.30 A.M. some twenty-five miles 
from Santa Maria di Leuca. The attack on her was made by 
the Austrian submarine U 5, which fired two torpedoes. The 
survivors were rescued by Italian torpedo craft and tugs. A 
408 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

preliminary list of these survivors has reached the Ministry [of 
Marine], but it cannot be guaranteed as exact, and it is neces- 
sary to accept with reserve the indications which have been 
made public on this subject. 



Vienna. 

The Naval Command publishes the following communica- K.V., 
tion : Submarine V, under the command of Lieutenant Georg A P ri l 28, 
Ritter von Trapp, has torpedoed and sunk the French armoured 
cruiser Leon Gambetta in the Ionian Sea. 



Paris, April 29. 

A communique issued by the Ministry of Marine to-night 
says : 

One hundred and ten survivors of the Leon Gambetta have 
been sent to Syracuse ; twenty-six others are at Brindisi. 
The bodies of Admiral Senes and fifty-two seamen were 
buried at Santa Maria di Leuca. The circumstances in which 
the cruiser was lost have not yet been established. For the 
moment no reliance should be placed upon stories and comment 
emanating from foreign sources. Renter. 



Toulon, April 30. 

M. Augagneur, the Minister of Marine, has telegraphed to 
Madame Senes, the widow of Rear-Admiral Senes, who was 
drowned in the disaster to the French cruiser Leon Gambetta, 
the condolences of the French Navy on the occasion of the 
premature death of her husband. Madame Senes has re- 
ceived other messages of sympathy. Reuter. 



THE ELUSIVE BRITISH FLEET 

Berlin, April 26. 

The German papers call attention to the fact that the 
German battle fleet has patrolled the entire North Sea without 
meeting the British Fleet, which is hiding somewhere on the 
north coast of Scotland or in the Irish Sea. The naval expert 

409 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



of the Deutsche Tageszeitung, Count Reventlow, accentuates 
that for the first time the German Admiralty has announced 
that the entire German Fleet is busily engaged ~ searching the 
North Sea for the British Fleet, whereas before only squadrons 
have been sent out. Further proof of the abdication of the 
North Sea by the British is the fact that a German submarine 
has been able to escort a captured British steamer from 
Aberdeen across the North Sea to Cuxhaven. German 
Wireless. 

ENEMY AEROPLANES ACTIVE 

Berlin. 

K.V., Our aeroplanes in Flanders have lately displayed brisk 

Ma Y 4. activity. They have carried out numerous attacks on the 
i9 I 5- enemy's naval forces and merchant ships, and scored repeated 

successes. Amongst others, a British battleship of the For- 
midable class was attacked by bombs and damaged by hits 
on April 26th in the Westdiep. On the same day English 
boats on patrol duty were successfully attacked. 

THE GERMAN REPRISALS 

Times, The Secretary of State -for Foreign Affairs has received 

April 26, the following communication : 

The American Ambassador presents his compliments to 
His Majesty's Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and, with 
reference to the telephonic message referred to in the last 
paragraph of the Note Sir Edward Grey was good enough to 
address to him on the igth instant, asking for the names of 
the thirty-nine English officers in Germany who have been 
placed under arrest as a reprisal for the treatment of German 
submarine crews in England, has the honour to quote the 
following telegram he has just received from the Ambassador 
at Berlin : 

List of officers is as follows : 

CAPTAINS. 

Robin Grey, Royal Flying Corps. 
George Elliott, Royal Irish Regiment. 
Coke, Scots Guards. 
Jump, ist Dragoons. 
410 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Montgomery, yth Dragoon Guards. 
Spence, Middlesex Regiment. 
Ashton, 2nd Life Guards. 



LIEUTENANTS. 

Houldsworth, Gordon Highlanders. 

Master of Saltoun, Gordon Highlanders. 

Goschen, Grenadier Guards. 

Campbell, Royal Horse Guards. 

Ivan Hay, 5th Lancers. 

Hunter Blair, Gordon Highlanders. 

Keppel, Coldstream Guards. 

Lord Garlies, Scots Guards. 

Trafford, Scots Guards. 

Colin Campbell, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. 

Fitzroy, Scots Guards. 

Hamilton, Gordon Highlanders. 

Bingham, Royal Welsh Fusiliers. 

Cartwright, Middlesex Regiment. 

MacLeod, Royal Field Artillery. 

O'Malley, Royal Munster Fusiliers. 

Robertson, Gordon Highlanders. 

Stewart, Gordon Highlanders. 

Wavell-Paxton, Coldstream Guards. 

H. G. McNeile, Coldstream Guards. 

Hickman, 4th Royal Irish Dragoons. 

Graves, Royal Scots. 

Graham Watson, Royal Scots. 

French, Royal Irish Regiment. 

Palmer, 2nd Life Guards. 

Allistone, Middlesex Regiment. 

Rogerson, i8th Hussars. 

Sanderson, 4th Dragoons. 

Stewart Menzies, Scots Guards. 

Gage Brown, ist Life Guards 

Schoon, King's Royal Rifles. 

Jolliffe, Scots Guards. 

Officers have been placed in arrest barracks at following 
places : 15 at Magdeburg, 7 at Burg, i at Torgau, 13 at 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Cologne, -i at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 2 at Rastatt, to be 
transferred to Karlsruhe, Baden. 

NORTH SEA CROSSING FORBIDDEN 

Rotterdam, April 27. 

The British Consulate here announces that no British 
ships bound for British ports will be allowed to leave Dutch 
ports to-day. Renter. 

PACIFIC CLEAR OF GERMAN SHIPS 

Melbourne, April 27. 

Mr. Pearce, Minister of Defence, announces that a British 
warship has captured the German trading steamer Elfriede, 
which is believed to be the last German vessel in the Pacific. 
Renter. 

BRITISH PRISONERS IN GERMANY 

House of Lords, April 27, 1915. 

Hansard. LORD NEWTON rose to call attention to the correspond- 

ence respecting the treatment of prisoners of war and interned 
civilians in the United Kingdom and Germany respec- 
tively: . . . But, my Lords, with regard to this question of re- 
taliation we have a singularly unfortunate object-lesson before 
us at the present moment. We have, unfortunately, provided 
the Germans with a pretext of which they have not been 
slow to take advantage. Owing to what is generally believed 
to be the more or less independent action of the First Lord 
of the Admiralty, the prisoners taken from submarines have 
been treated differentially from other prisoners. What is 
the result ? The German Government has not only retaliated, 
but it has retaliated with vindictive tyranny. By retalia- 
tion I understand that you do exactly the same thing as 
the other party. But in this case there is no equality of 
treatment. The submarine prisoners, I believe, consist of 
three officers and thirty-six men, whereas the German Govern- 
ment has laid hands upon thirty-nine British officers irre- 
spective of rank, and has apparently chosen officers who 
belong to families whose names are well known ; and it is 
an instructive sign of the feeling of the German Government 
412 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY -NAVAL 

with regard to this matter that one of these unfortunate 
hostages is the son of the ex-British Ambassador at Berlin 
who, only a short time ago, was so severely wounded that 
his life was, for a time, despaired of. Personally I entertain 
the opinion that the German Government looks upon prisoners 
in a totally different light from that in which we do. I am 
convinced that the German Government looks upon prisoners 
as mere wreckage. And judging from the correspondence 
in the other White Paper recently presented No. 8 I gather 
that the only prisoners in whom they take any interest at all 
and whom they wish to recover are those who are still capable 
of rendering some form of military service. . . . 

The MARQUESS OF LANSDOWNE : . . . I wish to say a word 
about another matter I mean that which is usually spoken 
of as the question of reprisals. I greatly regret that the 
word ' reprisals ' should have been admitted into this contro- 
versy at all. Your Lordships are all, I think, familiar with 
the statement x which was published by the Admiralty on * [See 
March 9 last. It was announced in that statement that p- 99-] 
prisoners taken from the German submarine U 8 were to be 
made the subject of special restriction, and could not be 
accorded the distinctions of their rank or be allowed to mingle 
with others prisoners of war. Those words, carefully and 
closely interpreted, do not really go very far ; but I am 
afraid there is no doubt whatever that they have been taken 
by many people who have read them and by a good many 
who have not taken the pains to read them carefully to 
indicate that His Majesty's Government were prepared to 
embark upon a course of reprisals in the true sense of the 
word. To my mind no policy could be more unfortunate or 
disastrous than a policy of reprisals in a case of this kind. It 
is, to begin with, a policy which I go so far as to say a Chris- 
tian country could not deliberately adopt. I do not believe 
that public opinion would support any Government that 
adopted a policy of reprisals in the full sense of the word ; 
but what is much more to the point I think my noble friend 
said so just now is that in any competition of this kind 
with the Germans we should be hopelessly outdistanced. It 
is quite clear that if we were to endeavour to respond to every 
German act of barbarity by an act of barbarity perpetrated 
by ourselves we should very soon come to the end of our 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

tether, and certainly to the end of the patience of the public 
of this country. 

There is another reason which leads me to hold this 
opinion. These reprisals are supposed to be directed against 
the crews of the submarines by whom our vessels and those 
of our Allies have been sunk during the last few weeks. The 
crews of these submarines are not the real culprits. They 
are under the orders of the German Government ; they are 
sent out on this ruthless mission. If they refused to go or to 
obey the orders given them they would be shot. The real 
culprits are not these men ; the real culprits are the Govern- 
ment who adopt this policy and send out these submarines 
on their deadly mission. It is quite true that when a de- 
fenceless merchantman is sunk by a submarine no lives are 
saved. Of course they are not, because a submarine has no 
means of saving lives. If the captain of the submarine was 
ever so willing, it would be impossible for him to save the 
lives of, say, two hundred or three hundred sailors plunged 
into a wintry sea ; and that is why the Prime Minister to my 
mind very rightly protested against these acts of German 
piracy, because from the very circumstances of the case it 
was impossible that peaceful vessels should be sunk without 
the loss of the innocent sailors on board them. I say, there- 
fore, that a policy of reprisals in the usual sense of the word 
would be, in the first place, a policy unworthy of this country, 
and, in the next place, a policy which I believe would be 
futile and predestined to failure. There are other forms of 
retaliation which are, I think, much more open to considera- 
tion. It has been, for example, suggested that those who 
suffer by the barbarous conditions of their internment might 
be compensated out of funds levied on German property 
impounded in this country. That is quite a different form 
of retaliation, and that kind of retaliation seems to me to be 
one well worthy of consideration. . . . 

LORD GRENFELL : . . . May I say that there is a very 
strong feeling in the Army regarding the internment of the 
thirty-nine British officers ? Bearing in mind the very slight 
punishment that the German submarine men were to receive 
it seems to us perfectly incomprehensible why it was neces- 
sary to issue any sort of manifesto to the world as to their 
treatment. The punishment they are now receiving might 
414 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

have been merely a disciplinary question, and when they were 
sent to their destination they might have been told that 
they were not considered fit to be accorded the distinction of 
their rank or to be allowed to mingle with other prisoners of 
war. But naturally retaliation was immediately taken up 
by the Germans, and these British officers, some of them 
sons of members of your Lordships' House, are now suffering 
we know not what at any rate, solitary confinement and 
differential treatment. We all consider it most unfortunate 
that the Admiralty's manifesto should ever have been 
issued. . . . 

The ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY : . . . I cannot help 
saying a single word of regret at having heard from two noble 
Lords on the other side something like approval of another 
measure of retaliation than that which has been already to 
some extent put in force by the conditions prescribed for the 
internment of the men taken from the German submarines. 
I feel that we shall do a wrong thing in principle and commit 
a very grave blunder at the same time if we allow it to stand 
upon the records in the history that will hereafter be written 
about this war that we attempted anything in the way of 
competition as regards the severities of imprisonment. We 
want scrupulously and even proudly to repudiate and eschew 
any action contrary to the ordinary high-minded rules which 
hold good between belligerents and which is not in accordance 
with the great conventions of The Hague Conference. To 
retaliate upon property may be less cruel and certainly less 
barbarous than retaliating upon the persons of individuals, 
but it does come into the category of our going outside what 
English belligerents regard as honourable. For that reason 
I believe we shall stand right with ourselves, with posterity, 
and with history if we adhere absolutely and without reserve 
to the honourable, high-minded conduct of war. Whatever 
our foes may do, let us scrupulously avoid any action which 
can be regarded as contravening the ordinary interchange 
of international procedure with regard to matters of this 
kind. I hope the Government will consider many times 
before they adopt it. After all, and apart from higher 
reasons, it would not be an extraordinarily effective mode of 
attempted competition with our enemies on the other side. 
I shall lament it exceedingly if we adopt action of a re- 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

taliatory kind, which I believe would smear us with some mark, 
at all events, of a sort which Englishmen have always re- 
garded with intense dislike. We want to go down into 
history absolutely unsullied in the records of our carrying on 
of this great war. 

LORD HYLTON : . . . I should like to say a word on the 
subject of the thirty-nine British officers who, we understand, 
have been sentenced to and are undergoing a form of punish- 
ment called solitary confinement in prisons in various parts 
of the German Empire. This would appear to be the out- 
come of the instructions conveyed in the Admiralty Order 
as regards the treatment of Germans captured in submarines 
and who are prisoners in this country. I think your Lord- 
ships will agree that solitary imprisonment, if protracted 
over an indefinite period, is a very ghastly punishment indeed, 
and I can conceive in the case of many individuals that death 
would be preferable, I can only hope that the brave men 
who are undergoing this form of imprisonment will have the 
fortitude to endure it with the utmost courage. I happen 
to have a relative among the men who have been thus sen- 
tenced, and I find on inquiry that the War Office is unable 
to give any information to the families of these officers as to 
whether the officers will be ^entitled to receive communica- 
tions or whether they will be allowed to send any letters to 
their families ; and the question of their treatment at present 
and what it will be is quite unknown in this country. I 
sincerely hope that His Majesty's Government will direct the 
attention of neutral countries to the fact that this treatment 
of prisoners, officers or men, is entirely contrary to The 
Hague Convention and to what I believe has been the recog- 
nised usage of all civilised countries during the last two 
centuries or more. 

This is a time at which I am sure none of us desire to 
criticise any action of His Majesty's Government, but I think 
it was injudicious on the part of the Admiralty to have 
issued those instructions last month with regard to the 
differential treatment of the officers and men of the German 
submarines. Every single person one speaks to on this sub- 
ject has but one opinion on the point namely, that the 
instructions were of a singularly injudicious character. I 
would venture to quote what was said only last Monday in 
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the Daily News : ' It is doubtful whether we are wise, even 
in the case of the submarine murderers, to give Germany 
the excuse of inflicting more misery on the British prisoners 
of war/ And I saw on March 23, a letter in The Times, 
signed by Admiral Sir William Kennedy, in which he said : 
' All this talk about treating the officers and crews of German 
submarines as pirates and hanging them or treating them 
differently from other prisoners is nonsense/ Now, what 
has been the net result of these instructions of the Admiralty ? 
The net result is that we have, on the credit side of the 
account, a handful of German prisoners, officers and men, 
who were captured from one of these submarines, and are, I 
fancy, detained in naval barracks somewhere on the south 
coast. But their detention appears to be of a very mild 
character, and mitigated, as the White Paper shows, by the 
admission of German newspapers and by other amenities. 
The net result on the debit side is that there are thirty-nine 
British officers in Germany undergoing one of the most 
deplorable punishments that could be devised namely, soli- 
tary imprisonment for an indefinite period. I do not know 
whether it will be the opinion of any other noble Lords, but 
I do not think it would affect the national honour if our 
Government were to inform the German Government, through 
the United States Embassy or in any other way open to them, 
that, for the sake of our officers, and only for the sake of our 
officers, we were prepared to give the submarine crews the 
same treatment as the other German prisoners of war in this 
country, provided that there was an immediate, proper, and 
decent treatment of the British officers and men who have 
the misfortune to be prisoners of war in Germany. 

The EARL OF ALBEMARLE : My Lords, will you allow me 
two minutes in which to make a formal protest ? I feel that 
I need make no excuse for addressing you for a brief space, 
inasmuch as I am deeply interested in the question that is 
now before your Lordships* House. My only reason for doing 
so I have, by the way, three sons serving His Majesty with 
the colours is that my third son is one of the officers who 
are undergoing this special punishment in Germany, and I 
desire to enter a formal protest against, and to record my 
horror at what has been done in the last few days by the 
arrest of these thirty-nine gallant officers. The ground has 
NAVAL 4 2 D 417 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

been so fully covered that I will not say more upon that 
subject. 

But your Lordships will allow me, perhaps, to say that the 
other day I represented to the First Lord of the Admiralty 
that it was solely and entirely due to his action that this 
state of things has arisen. He might have taken the steps 
which he thought fit in respect of the submarine officers and 
men now imprisoned in this country, but I cannot see why 
anything should have been said about it. The Admiralty 
1 [See communique of March 9 1 it is familiar to your Lordships, 

P- 99-] and therefore I need not trouble to read it through stated 
that the Board of Admiralty did not consider themselves 
justified in extending honourable treatment to the officers 
and men rescued from the submarine U 8 ; and in the last 
paragraph the communique stated that ' Persons against whom 
such charges are pending must be the subject of special 
restrictions and cannot be accorded the distinction of their 
rank or be allowed to mingle with other prisoners of war/ 
That is all very well, but I hope that before the House rises 
this evening we shall hear whether it is the First Lord of the 
Admiralty .who is responsible for this procedure or whether 
he has the full support of the Cabinet. We all know that 
the First Lord of the Admiralty is a brave man on the field 
of battle, and a brave man on the field of politics, and is not 
a man to shelter himself behind anybody ; and when I repre- 
sented to him the other day that I felt very keenly, not only 
about my own son but equally about all the other officers, 
he was only too ready to say, * Yes ; I have laid down this 
policy, and I am going to adhere to this or that ' I cannot 
repeat exactly what he said. I would like to have some assur- 
ance from the Government whether this -policy has their 
support or has not their support. From what I have heard 
and seen I think that if this matter had been left in the 
hands of the Foreign Office, we should have heard of no 
reprisals, and matters would have been amicably and satis- 
factorily adjusted between the two countries with the aid of 
the American Ambassador. 

The PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE AND 
FISHERIES (LORD LUCAS) : . . . I come now to the question 
of the treatment of the crews of these submarines. I think 
it should be explained at once that their special treatment 
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was not a question of reprisals. It was not done from the 
point of view of a reprisal, but, if I may so express it, as an 
expression of the highest kind of moral disapproval of what 
was being done. You were faced by an action on the part 
of these men which was unique in civilised warfare. I need 
not go into the number of actions by submarines. These facts 
are familiar to every one. But it was felt very strongly that 
there should be some sort of expression of the most severe 
disapproval. These people were therefore treated as a 
separate class. But it is important in this context that it 
should be quite clearly understood by every one concerned, 
that these men are to be treated according to conditions laid 
down by The Hague Convention. In all these things we 
entirely agree that there is only one standard on which we 
can go, and that is the standard laid down by international 
law ; and nothing has yet occurred, though there has been a 
great deal of provocation, which can tempt us to depart 
from that course. 

We are in negotiation, again through the American 
Ambassador in Berlin, to obtain inspection of the conditions 
under which the thirty-nine officers referred to are living. 
We have not yet received an answer to our application, but 
we hope that it will come, though it is impossible for me to 
say for certain at the present time. What we are aiming at 
is to secure inspection so that we may obtain information as 
to what the conditions are under which these officers live. 
That is an indispensable preliminary to any action. . ..>. 

The EARL OF CAMPERDOWN : The noble Lord has omitted 
to answer one very important point with reference to the 
Admiralty circular which I am sure we all agree was the 
origin of the retaliation by the Germans. If any individual 
member of a Cabinet is to issue circulars of that kind, it seems 
to me that he is taking upon himself a very grave responsi- 
bility a responsibility which no single member of any Cabinet 
ought to be able to assume. What we wish to know is 
whether this circular originated with the First Lord of the 
Admiralty alone, or had it the approval of the Cabinet ? 

LORD LUCAS : I can only answer the noble Earl's inquiry 
in general terms. As I understand the constitution of this 
country, there is only one form of decision in matters of this 
kind the decision of the whole Government. The decision 

419 



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with which we are dealing, like all other decisions, was the 
decision of the Government as a whole. And in this matter 
I hope that the present Cabinet is not less nor more constitu- 
tional than other Cabinets. 

EARL CURZON OF KEDLESTON : My Lords, I do not know 
that we have received much consolation from the last reply 
with which the noble Lord has favoured us. We all know 
the constitutional position that a Minister speaks on behalf 
of his colleagues, with their knowledge and consent. But, as 
the noble Lord knows very well, since the commencement of 
this war there has been more than one case in which there 
has been an appearance of independent action on the part 
of one Minister in particular the First Lord of the Admir- 
alty ; and the noble Lord must not be surprised if the con- 
tinued recurrence of these incidents is called attention to in 
this House, as it has undoubtedly caused profound disquiet 
and anxiety in the country. There is an appearance from 
time to time of independent action on the part of this Minister 
action which raises doubts as to whether it is supported 
by his colleagues at the Admiralty, and also whether the 
course in question could conceivably have been approved by 
the Government as a whole. I do not desire to press the 
matter unduly. But no member of the Government can be 
ignorant of the fact that those doubts are felt, and the Govern- 
ment should practise greater care in their action, and still 
more in the control they exercise over their colleague, than 
has hitherto been the case. 

While saying that the last few remarks of the noble 
Lord in reply to Lord Camperdown do not give us much 
solace, I think that from his speech we could derive more 
satisfaction. He gave us what I understand to be the Minis- 
terial explanation of what was in their minds when this 
Admiralty declaration was made. I only wish that that 
explanation had been given rather earlier in the day. The 
noble Lord told us this afternoon that the Government, in 
authorising this statement if they did were merely empha- 
sising the high moral considerations which they entertain in 
regard to the action of these German submarines. So far so 
good. We are entirely with them in that matter. But why 
did they allow the enunciation of this moral principle to be 
couched in such a form ? Can anybody doubt that the 
420 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

publication of that announcement to the world, urbi et orbi, 
in the form which was adopted, did suggest that it was a 
deliberate statement on the part of our Government of an 
intention to exact reprisals ? I need not enter into the 
question of reprisals. I think we are all agreed about it, 
from the most reverend Primate down to every layman who 
has spoken this evening. But the form in which the Pro- 
clamation was made undoubtedly was open to grave mis- 
interpretation. We all abhor the acts of the German Govern- 
ment which led to the announcement in question, but I 
would counsel His Majesty's Government, if I may do so 
without impertinence, to be rather more careful as to the way 
in which they make their statements, all the more because 
the sufferings of which we complain to-night are, without a 
doubt, the consequence of the mistake made on that occasion. 
LORD COURTNEY OF PENWITH : My Lords, I do not wish 
to enter into this discussion for the purpose of inquiring into 
the indiscretion, real or imaginary, of the First Lord of the 
Admiralty ; but I must say, in justice to the right hon. gentle- 
man, that I seem to remember an utterance by the First Lord 
of the Treasury which adumbrated, if it did not suggest, the 
exact words of the circular. But I leave that. 



PRISONERS OF WAR (TREATMENT OF 
BRITISH OFFICERS) 

House of Commons, April 27, 1915. 

MR. CATHCART WASON asked the Secretary of State for Hansard. 
Foreign Affairs if he has any official information showing 
that British officers have been condemned to solitary con- 
finement in fortresses in Germany ; and, if so, whether he 
will solicit the assistance of the United States Ambassador 
to make it clear to the German Government that, while this 
country will not descend to retaliatory measures on German 
officers, the Kaiser and those responsible for the outrage will 
be held to strict account ? . 

The SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS (SiR 
EDWARD GREY) : The matters raised in the question of the 
hon. member will be dealt with in the debate which will take 
place to-day, and that will be the more convenient course. 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [A: 

GERMAN SUBMARINE CREWS 

House of Commons, April 27, 1915. 

Hansard. MR. MACCALLUM SCOTT asked the First Lord of the 

Admiralty (i) whether any regulations have been made with 
regard to the differential treatment of prisoners captured in 
German submarines ; in what respects this treatment differs 
from that accorded to other persons ; whether this treat- 
ment applies to all submarine prisoners, and, if not, on what 
principle is discrimination made between them ; whether he 
will state the total number of prisoners now subject to such 
differential treatment ; and (2) whether the treatment accorded 
to German submarine prisoners is penal in character ; and 
whether it is proposed to put them on trial on any charge ? 

The FIRST LORD OF THE AD'MIRALTY (MR. CHURCHILL) : No 
special conditions are applied to German submarine prisoners 
because they fight in submarines ; but special conditions are 
applied to prisoners who have been engaged in wantonly 
killing non-combatants, neutrals, and women on the high 
seas. Submarine prisoners taken before i8th February have 
been treated as any other prisoners in our hands. But we 
cannot recognise persons who are systematically employed 
in the sinking of merchant ships and fishing boats, often 
without warning, and regardless of the loss of life entailed, 
as on the same footing as honourable soldiers. Incidents 
such as the sinking of the Oriole by night, without warning, 
with all her crew, the circumstances attending the sinking of 
the Falaba, and the blowing up by torpedoes of fishing vessels, 
through the agency of German submarines, force us for the 
future to place all German submarine prisoners taken after 
i8th February, and for as long as this system of warfare is 
continued, in a distinct and separate category. The question 
is not free from difficulty, because as the crimes committed 
are entirely unforeseen in international law, no remedy has 
been prescribed. We cannot tell at present how far it may 
be possible at the end of the war to bring home the guilt 
of their actions, directly or indirectly, to individuals ; nor in 
what form reparation of a special character should be exacted 
from the guilty State. Meanwhile, we consider it just and 
necessary that the prisoners concerned should be separated 
422 



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from honourable prisoners of war who are free from all 
reproach. 

The conditions under which they are interned are in every 
respect humane. I do not propose to go into the details of 
their treatment here, because it is better that that should be 
the subject of neutral investigation. We have offered to 
allow a representative of the United States Government to 
visit the prisoners, and make a report on the conditions of 
their captivity, provided reciprocal facilities are accorded. 
There are at present thirty-nine German submarine prisoners 
who are thus separately interned. We cannot admit that 
the reprisals which have been taken against a number of our 
own officers can be allowed to deflect us from a policy which 
we regard as humane and just in itself, and as a necessary 
means of publicly branding a barbarous form of warfare, and 
of preventing it from taking its place among methods open 
to belligerent nations. Whatever, material ill-usage is in- 
flicted upon the gallant gentlemen upon whom it is in the 
power of the Germans to revenge themselves, they will have 
the consolation that no charge can be made against their 
conduct as honourable soldiers. 

MR. MACCALLUM SCOTT : Will the right hon. gentleman 
say whether it would not be advisable for him to state fully 
and definitely what are the exact conditions of imprisonment 
of these persons, and not leave the matter wrapped in mystery, 
in view of the fact that certain evils may proceed from any 
mystery that is allowed to surround the matter ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : I thought myself that it would be more 
efficacious that a report should be made by a representative 
of a neutral State, because on both sides 

LORD ROBERT CECIL : Why should not both be done ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : I do not think it necessary to object to 
that at all, if that is the general opinion of the House 

MR. CHAMBERLAIN : To see if reciprocal treatment could 
be arranged ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : But if a question is put on the Paper, 
I will have an answer prepared. It is necessary in these 
matters to be precise. They are not suited to any loose 
description by word of mouth. 

SIR HENRY DALZIEL : Does the right hon. gentleman 
consider the submarine officers more guilty than the officers 

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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

who bombarded Scarborough and killed women and children, 
and who are now at Donnington Hall ? 

MR. LOUGH : Would my right hon. friend say whether 
he does not think that the question of reflection upon the 
character of these officers is affected by the question that 
they acted under orders, and, indeed, might be shot if they 
did not obey those orders ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : All these points have been very carefully 
considered, and we have arrived at the conclusion that a 
distinction must be drawn in regard to the conduct of these 
men. 

MR. MACCALLUM SCOTT : Can the right hon. gentleman 
make any statement as to the number of prisoners who come 
within the category ? 

MR. MAcM ASTER : Is there anything in the treatment 
extended to these prisoners that is at all contrary to the 
obligations and provisions of the Geneva [An HON. MEMBER : 
' Hague ! '] Convention ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : I think it much better that the case 
should be stated in full detail after an impartial and neutral 
investigation has taken place. 

ROYAL DOCKYARDS (INCREASED PAY) 

House of Commons, April 27, 1915. 

MR. TYSON WILSON asked the Secretary to the Admiralty 
if he is aware that dissatisfaction prevails in the Royal dock- 
yards regarding the manner in which the arrears of increased 
pay are being paid ; whether he will take steps to expedite 
the payment ; and whether he is aware that the increase is 
only being paid on a 48-hour week, though many of the men 
have worked 60 or 70 hours per week ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : In respect of the increases in rates of 
wages which were granted in replies to the workmen's petitions, 
and announced in February last, the Admiralty decision was 
that the increases should take effect as from the ist October 
in so far as they related to ordinary time wages. So far as is 
known, there has not been any general delay in making the 
back payments, but any particular cases in which there has 
been delay could be investigated if brought to notice. I may 
observe that since the increases in wages in question were 
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granted emergency increases have been granted on the award 
of the Committee on Production. 



MEDICAL CONSULTANTS 

COMMANDER BELLAIRS asked the First Lord of the ibid. 
Admiralty whether any sums of over 3000 a year are being 
paid to doctors and surgeons in civil life as retainers for their 
services ; if so, in what cases and what amounts ; and whether 
the arrangement was made prior to the war and allows of 
private practice as well ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The following consultants are paid 
over 3000 per annum : Cheatle, G. L., Esq., C.B., C.V.O., 
F.R.C.S., 5000 per annum ; Cheyne, Sir W. W., Bart., C.B., 
F.R.C.S., 5000 per annum ; Johnson, Raymond, Esq., M.B., 
F.R.C.S., 5000 per annum ; Macewen, Sir W., F.R.C.S., 
5000 per annum ; Rolleston, H. D., Esq., M.D., F.R.C.S., 
5000 per annum ; Turner, C. R., Esq., F.R.C.S., 5000 per 
annum. The employment of eight consultants was approved 
previous to the outbreak of war. The whole time of these 
consultants is at the disposal of the Admiralty, and they are 
under similar regulations with regard to private practice as 
all other medical officers serving, namely, private practice 
is not forbidden, but must not in any way interfere with the 
performance of an officer's naval duties. 



FALKLAND ISLANDS BATTLE 

y 

MR. NEVILLE asked the First Lord of the Admiralty ibid. 
whether Admiral Sir Doveton Sturdee's despatch relative to 
his expedition to, and the naval action fought near, the 
Falklands Islands has been published in its entirety, or have 
any parts been omitted in the despatch as published ? 

MR. CHURCHILL : All despatches are carefully edited by 
the Admiralty, and in the case of the Grand Fleet Squadrons 
by the Commander-in-Chief as well ; and nothing is allowed 
to appear which throws too much light on British naval 
tactics or gunnery. Recommendations in regard to indi- 
viduals are only made public to the extent and in the form 
in which they are concurred in by the Admiralty. 

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PRISONERS OF WAR 

House of Commons, April 27, 1915. 

Hansard. SIR F. BANBURY : I beg to move, ' That, in view of the 

grave statements that have been made regarding the treat- 
ment of prisoners of war in Germany, this House requests 
His Majesty's Government to take all the means in their 
power to ensure their better treatment in the future/ . . . 

There was a question, asked to-day about the officers who 
have been interned in Germany in solitary confinement, in 
consequence of the treatment which has been meted out to 
the thirty-nine officers and the crew of the submarines, who 
have been captured. So far as I know the officers and crew 
of the submarines, if they have been treated differently from 
the other prisoners of war, have been treated in a humane 
manner, whereas the thirty-nine British officers who have 
been taken by the Germans have, in some instances, not been 
treated in a humane way. An old friend of mine wrote to 
me the other day on hearing that I was to raise this question 
in the House, and she sent me a letter from her niece who is 
engaged to be married to one of these officers who have 
been placed in a common gaol in Germany. From that 
letter, which I have in my pocket, it appears that this gentle- 
man is wounded. I think he is wounded in the lung. They 
thought he was dead, but they found out later that he was 
alive, but in a very weak condition, and still suffering from 
this wound in the lung. In the letter this lady says : ' Why 
cannot they take an unwounded man it it is necessary to 
make a reprisal of that sort ? Why do they take a wounded 
man, and put a poor, weak, wounded man in solitary confine- 
ment, where he has to clean his own cell and so on ? I should 
not have minded so much if he had only been strong and 
well, because I know he would have borne it for the sake of 
his country/ It seems to me almost incredible that any 
nation calling itself a civilised nation should do a thing like 
that. I think the fact, and it is an undoubted fact that that 
has been done, should be made known all over the country. . . . 

SIR HENRY DALZIEL : . . . I should like to say a word on 
another aspect of the case. Nothing has been said in regard 
to the question of reprisals. There is the isolation of the 
426 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

thirty-nine officers in Germany, and the treatment of them as 
felons. This is a very serious matter indeed. Something, I 
hope, will be done I do not know how to find a way out by 
which that intolerable state of things may come to an end. 
It may be by neutral inquiry in some way. I wish we could 
say that we are entirely free ourselves in regard to this matter. 
So far as we are concerned, I think the dramatic announce- 
ment of the manner in which we are going to treat the sub- 
marine officers, almost as though it had been a great naval 
victory, was ill-advised, and in itself was a great political 
blunder. If we had desired to treat these German submarine 
officers differently it could have been perfectly well done, and 
still they might have been treated most humanely because 
there is no officer treated badly in this country. I venture 
to say that the treatment which is being meted out here to 
these German submarine officers is a very great deal better 
than that meted out to any British officer in Germany ; 
although there is not the shadow of a doubt that the result 
of making that announcement has given the impression that 
we were treating them practically as felons, and punishing 
them in a way that could not be defended. That policy was, 
I say, a mistake, and the manner in which it was announced 
was a still greater mistake. 

For my part, as I indicated in the question I put to the 
First Lord to-day, I cannot for the life of me see where the 
difference comes in between the German submarine officers 
who sink ships and the officers of the Blucher, or anybody 
else who killed women and children at Scarborough, and who, 
some of them, are now at Donnington Hall. They were carry- 
ing out the orders of their Government. So were the German 
submarine officers, though, of course, I do not defend the 
latter. But that aspect is one for consideration when you 
come to consider the punishment which ought to be meted 
out. We have acted in this matter in a way that is not 
calculated to help our fellow-countrymen in Germany. In 
every step we take in regard to the Germans civilians and 
soldiers in this country, we ought to weigh well how far it 
is going to help or injure the condition of things in regard to 
our own people in Germany. Our action was a mistake 
from the beginning ; it was totally unjustified, in my opinion, 
from any point of view, and I do hope there will be a way 

427 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

found whereby we will make this matter straight ; for, unless 
we do that the question of reprisals will get much worse for 
our own people than they will for the Germans. 

In reprisals the Germans will stick at nothing. They do 
things we should never do, no matter what happens. We, 
therefore, ought to bear that in mind, whatever they do, 
that our policy in this country ought to be to treat our 
prisoners humanely and fairly and not injuriously. If we 
start on a policy of reprisals we are not going to get anything 
from it at all. On the contrary, our own men in Germany 
would suffer as a result of that policy. Therefore I say we 
are indebted to the hon. Baronet for raising this question 
to-day. It is one that has been rather neglected. I am 
certain of this, however, that a state of mind is gradually 
arising outside, and once the country gets to know the facts 
the people will not allow the Government to tolerate the 
horrors that are going on in Germany. I am certain that 
the Under-Secretary is sympathetic in this matter, and I 
hope he will be able to give us a statement to-day which will 
be much more hopeful than any of the information we have 
up to the present. 

LORD ROBERT CECIL : ... I see it is suggested, and by 
some of the hon. gentlemen who sit near me, that, at any 
rate, we might cut off the luxuries, as they call them, which 
we give to the German prisoners here. If we are giving them 
real luxuries, they ought to be cut off on the merits. We are 
bound to treat the Germans, as I hope we do, only according 
to the terms of The Hague Convention. I should look with 
great disfavour upon any modification of that treatment. 
After all, we want to improve the condition of the treatment 
of our fellow-subjects in Germany. We believe at least I 
believe that a great deal of ill-treatment is the result of 
deliberate policy of the high military command in Germany. 
Is it possible that you are going to affect the high military 
command in Germany by saying that some of the prisoners 
here are not to have so much tobacco, or are to have a few 
shillings less a week, or anything of that kind ? They will 
not be affected in the least degree ; they are not that kind of 
men at all, and, therefore, I do not myself believe that that 
policy would succeed in the least, and I must say I associate 
myself for the same reason with a good deal perhaps not 
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DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

everything of what fell from the right hon. gentleman with 
reference to the treatment of the submarine prisoners. I am 
not concerned with the abstract justice of making a distinc- 
tion between these prisoners ; I want to treat the matter 
purely practically. What good are you going to do by any 
particular policy you adopt, and I confess I agree very 
largely with the right hon. gentleman's criticism of the actual 
policy, and entirely with him in his criticism of the way in 
which it was announced. I dislike histrionics at all times, 
particularly when it is a very serious matter of this descrip- 
tion. . . . 

LORD C. BERESFORD : ... I do not think the thirty-nine 
officers will suffer so much. They will probably be put in a 
gaol where there is proper ventilation. No doubt they will 
have solitary confinement, but the whole world knows their 
names, and the Germans, in spite of their brutality, will not 
murder them. All the others there are thousands of them 
are kept in these sheds which are not ventilated, with filthy 
floors and disgusting sanitary arrangements. . . . 

MR. DICKINSON : . . . I cannot help thinking that we 
are making another mistake which will have a similar effect 
of hardship to prisoners in Germany. That is the one already 
referred to, namely, the action taken with regard to the 
officers in the submarines. It may be justifiable under inter- 
national law. I will not argue that, although I doubt it 
myself, but it was a very great error and mistake. The 
result has been that the German Government have taken it 
up in order to inflict hardships upon many of our finest 
officers, for whom we must feel the greatest sympathy. I 
have no doubt whatever that if these officers themselves were 
asked, they would say to us, ' Do not stir a finger to release 
us. We will bear our trials like men, and we do not want 
you to ask any favour on our account from the German 
Government/ That does not release us from the obligation 
of doing what we can to remedy that state of things. Inas- 
much as the initial mistake was made by our announcement 
that we were going to treat the captive officers of the sub- 
marines differently, when, as a matter of fact, we did not 
treat them differently, except by putting them into different 
residences inasmuch as we made that mistake, we had 
better retreat from that position, or at any rate see whether 

429 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

we cannot come to some further arrangement about prisoners 
so as to get rid of this difficulty and liberate the unfortunate 
men who, in solitary confinement, must undoubtedly be 
undergoing hardships which are cruel, and certainly not con- 
sistent with international law. This might be done by intro- 
ducing again in this particular special case the good services 
of some neutral Power. I had a good deal to do with the late 
Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, and recognise his great 
ability in dealing with this particular subject. I have .no 
doubt the Foreign Office could obtain the services of some 
neutral to negotiate in just the same way as they succeeded 
in obtaining what was a very great concession, the repre- 
sentative of the United States who visited the camps in 
Germany. I trust we shall not let this matter of the officers 
at present in solitary confinement in Germany drop simply 
by threatening what we will do at the end of the war when we 
do not even see the end of the war, and have no more means 
of judging what it will be than the Germans themselves. I 
hope we shall have this matter attended to rapidly for the 
benefit of these men who have been picked out by a very 
cruel Government because they think that by so doing they 
can force us to make some other concessions. Let us try 
and see whether the Ambassador of a neutral Power cannot 
arrange this matter by appealing to the better sense which 
still remains in Germany, and then we shall have done some 
good to these men who are suffering on our behalf. 

MR. STEWART : . . . I should like to associate myself with 
the remarks of the hon. gentleman [Sir H. Dalziel] on the 
impossibility of retaliation, and about the mistake made in 
putting the submarine officers into special confinement and 
giving the Germans an excuse for what they have done. I 
think we should not be too proud to retreat from that position 
if, by so doing, we can benefit in some way the men who are 
now suffering from a foolish Departmental action of this kind. 
It is against our English ideas that the sins of one man should 
be visited upon another, and because the German High 
Admiral has brought indelible disgrace upon the German 
naval uniform by the orders he gave his officers, I am certain 
that there is no man in this country who would feel that we 
were doing any good in taking steps to impose hardships on 
his own son, who is now a prisoner in this country. That 
430 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Germany has so far forgotten herself is to be regretted, but 
we cannot follow in her footsteps. . . . 

MR. MACMASTER : . . . Though the course which has been 
taken was taken in good faith, I think that it was a great 
mistake for any one to have said that we will give different 
treatment to submarine prisoners from that which we give 
to others. I believe that when the facts are investigated and 
known, it will be found that the submarine prisoners in this 
country are getting all the humane treatment which The 
Hague Convention provides for them, and that it is all moon- 
shine about them being kept in close confinement, though it 
has been made an excuse for Germany to intern some of our 
people under very severe conditions. 

Mistake though it is, it may not be too late to retract it. 
I believe that the best thing to do now is to have these sub- 
marine prisoners inspected, their conditions ascertained, to 
give the result to this House, and let it go forth to the public, 
to the world, and to Germany, and if Germany in face of all 
that pretends to make the excuse that they are not properly 
treated, and goes on to persecute our prisoners in that country, 
we may not help it for the moment ; but I believe that a day 
of reckoning is coming, and Germany must be told, through 
the force of public opinion in this country, that the day of 
accountability will come, and that it will not be those in 
subordinate positions who executed the orders who will be 
held to account, but those in high authority, because we 
know that by one word from them this bad treatment might 
have been stopped. We know that the insensate hate of 
England might have been prevented if the German Emperor 
and those associated with him in the conduct of this war, 
had issued but the faintest suggestion that their wish was 
that our prisoners should receive the humane treatment 
provided under The Hague Convention. Nothing will deter 
them from continuing their course except they see that we 
are firmly resolved to take note of what they are doing, and 
to hold them to strict account when the day of reckoning 
comes. We may remind them that their seat of power is not 
secure, that we have sent a greater man than William to 
St. Helena, and that we will yet have to deal with the German 
authorities who have so persecuted our countrymen. 

MR. SANDERSON : . . . I think that for the future all our 

43* 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

prisoners in this country should be dealt with in the same 
way. Personally, I think it is no use saying that we will 
treat the crews of the submarines differently from other 
prisoners. I am not going to discuss it further than this. 
An instance was given by the right hon. gentleman opposite 
to-day. What good does it do anybody ? Further than that, 
to make a statement that you are going to treat the crews 
of the submarines differently by keeping them separate from 
other prisoners because they are not fit to associate with them, 
to my mind, and I speak with some hesitation, was simply a 
piece of absolute folly. I do not know who was responsible 
for it. I have my suspicions, especially after what was said 
just now in another place. As I understand, the Government 
have taken responsibility for it. What could be the result 
of a statement of that kind ? It could not possibly deter 
the crews of any other submarine from doing what that crew 
had done. The Germans were not going to be prevented 
from carrying out their orders by being told that they would 
be separated from other German prisoners, but that they 
would get better treatment than any of our prisoners in 
Germany. The only result that could possibly occur was 
this, that we were gratuitously giving the Germans an oppor- 
tunity, and a pretext for treating some of our prisoners in the 
way they have treated them. 

I am bound to say I do not envy the person or people 
who were responsible for that extreme act of foolishness, 
because if they will only think about it, they must come to 
the conclusion that they and they alone are responsible now 
for the indignity which has been imposed upon no less than 
thirty-nine of our officers in Germany. If it had not been 
for that act, those thirty-nine officers would not at the 
present moment have been interned and treated as common 
prisoners. I hope nothing of the kind will ever be done 
again. Let us make it clear with regard to all prisoners of 
war that we shall treat them in the same humane manner, as 
we have treated them in the past, and do not let us in any 
shape or form give Germany a pretext for the ill-treatment 
of our prisoners. My object in rising, and the only object 
of everybody, is, if possible, to mitigate the conditions under 
which our poor countrymen are living in Germany. I am 
perfectly certain that the only way to do so is for ourselves 
43* 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

to treat them in a humane manner, all of them, and make it 
plain, with the assistance of France and Russia, and the 
whole world, that if the Germans do not do the same we will 
hold those who are guilty liable to the last extent. 

SIR WALTER ESSEX (indistinctly heard) : I cannot agree 
with the last speaker altogether in the matter of the sub- 
marine prisoners, although in what he has said in the main 
I agree with him. I do not think I agree quite with what 
anybody has said on the subject, except the hon. member 
who represents the Foreign Office, and it seemed to me that 
he put the true position when he said that we have no pre- 
cedents whereby we may guide ourselves in our treatment 
of these men. Neither The Hague Convention nor any of 
the other various arrangements made internationally provide 
for these unexpected and unprecedented events. Again, I 
would ask the hon. gentleman opposite to remember the 
temper we were all in, and the horror and indignation with 
which we heard of those outrages against all previous prac- 
tices and humane ideas of war, when crews were sent to the 
bottom composed of simple, honest sailors harmlessly going 
about their business, and when we had women and children 
sent to the bottom without any attempt being made to 
rescue or help them, and, as one report had it, with jeers 
and laughter meeting them in their death struggles. It was 
a submarine to which that story attached. With that 
indignation has grown a good deal of the power which forced 
forward the policy which has been adopted. It has been 
pointed out that what these men have done was done under 
orders, and that they were bound to do it, just as, if we 
can conceive our submarines engaging in such a practice, if 
our men were ordered to do so they would be bound to obey 
orders. But I do think the Government is right in keeping 
those people apart. Ihe charge we make against them, and 
that has been committed against civilisation, has been com- 
mitted by them in an unprecedented way, and we have no 
law laid down by which we may guide ourselves. But at 
least we may signalise a unique practice that has crept into 
the naval aspect of this war by keeping these people separate 
until we have decided what shall be done, and by that separate- 
ness recognising them as a clasS of prisoners apart, and in 
doing that we shall have done a very great deal to show the 

NAVAL 4 2 E 433 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

peoples of the neutral countries of the world what our feelings 
in this matter are. . . . 

MR. KING : . . . I venture to speak in order to call atten- 
tion to two omissions which I noted in the hon. gentleman's 
[Mr. Acland] speech. I am very sorry that, summing up the 
whole debate as he did for the Government, he should not 
have said whether the Government intend to accept or to 
refuse this motion. 

MR. ACLAND : We accept it. 

MR. KING : I am very glad he has accepted, and that 
gives me the opportunity of referring to the second omission 
in his speech. He made no reference to the condemnation 
which we had in several speeches on either side of the House 
of the policy which the First Lord of the Admiralty defended 
to-day in connection with prisoners taken from enemy sub- 
marines. As far as I have listened to the debate, there has 
been no approval of the policy of the First Lord of the 
Admiralty. On the other hand, there have been several most 
emphatic condemnations of it, and certainly it has not been 
defended by the hon. gentleman who has just sat down, and 
has listened to the whole debate. I am sorry the First Lord 
of the Admiralty has not been here, and I hope that in the 
great and arduous work in which he is, of course, engaged at 
his office, he will find time either to read or to have com- 
municated to him the condemnation which has been given to 
his policy of reprisals on enemy officers. I believe myself 
that the one way to ensure better treatment .for our men 
who are in captivity is to make it perfectly clear to all the 
world that we are treating well and, if possible, better and 
better those of our enemies whom we capture and intern here. 
I believe the policy of reprisals, though it may have some 
justification, will, at any rate, have this result, that it will 
make the lot of our fellow-countrymen in captivity harder 
than ever. 

Question put, and agreed to. 

Resolved, ' That in view of the grave statements that 
have been made regarding the treatment of prisoners of war 
in Germany, this House requests His Majesty's Government 
to take all the means in their power to ensure their better 
treatment in the future/ 



434 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



ANTI-AIRCRAFT CORPS 

House of Commons, April 28, 1915. 

MR. FELL asked the First Lord of the Admiralty if he will Hansard. 
state the number of men of military and non-military age, 
respectively, belonging to the Anti- Aircraft Corps, exclusive 
of Reserves, at its first formation, on 3ist March last, and 
subsequent to the reconstruction of 1st April ? 

The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE ADMIRALTY 
(DR. MACNAMARA) : At the first formation of the Anti- Aircraft 
Corps there were 100 special constables, no record of whose 
ages can be found. Up to the 3ist March 1915, 45 per cent, 
were of non-military age and 55 per cent, of military age, a 
large proportion of those of military age come from His 
Majesty's Office of Works and other Government Departments, 
who could not release them for more active service. After 
the reconstruction, ist April, 46 per cent, were of non-military 
age and 54 per cent, of military age. Large numbers of those 
of military age are medically unfit for more active service. It 
is pointed out that 100 discharges have been granted to officers 
and men to join more combatant units of His Majesty's Forces 
since the Corps first started in November last, and that over 
200 of those in the Corps have served or are serving abroad with 
the various anti-aircraft detachments. Any member of the 
Corps who wishes to join a more combatant unit is at once 
released for this purpose. 

MR. FELL : May I ask if all the members of this Corps are 
duly enrolled and liable to military discipline ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I should like notice of that question. 



OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS (SUPPLY OF GLASS) 

SIR PHILIP MAGNUS asked the First Lord of the Admiralty ibid. 
whether the supply of optical glass for the manufacture of 
lenses, prisms, and other optical instruments for the use of the 
Navy is keeping pace with the immediate requirements of the 
Service ; and what steps have been taken to increase the 
number of British sources from which the supply may be 
drawn ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : There has been delay, but so far not of 

435 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

a serious character in the supply of optical instruments for 
Naval Service. The Admiralty, War Office, and Board of 
Trade have been in communication on this matter, and as a 
result of joint action a large firm of makers in this country 
have greatly increased their output and are still adding to their 
plant. 

SIR P. MAGNUS : May I point out that the right hon. 
gentleman's answer referred to optical instruments. My 
question referred to the supply of optical glass, which is 
essential to the manufacture of optical instruments ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : If I have misunderstood the question, 
I will confer with the hon. gentleman. 

In reply to a similar question addressed by Sir P. Magnus 
to the Under- Secretary of State for War, MR. BAKER said : 
There has been some difficulty in procuring a sufficient 
supply of optical glass. The British supply is, however, being 
largely increased, and is expected to prove sufficient. The 
matter is being carefully watched, and further measures will 
be taken if found necessary. 



SINKING OF STEAMSHIP LA CORRENTINA 

House of Commons, April 28, 1915. 

Hansard. LORD C. BERESFORD asked the First Lord of the Admir- 

alty whether the Houlder Line steamship La Correntina, 
which was sunk by the Kronprinz Wilhelm, was armed for 
purposes of self-defence ; and whether, although she was 
armed with 4.7 inch guns, she had no ammunition on 
board ? 

SIR C. KiNLOCH-CooKE asked whether the Karlsruhe ran 
into the British steamer La Correntina, which was armed but 
without ammunition ; and can he say whether she was one 
of the ships taken over by the Admiralty, or explain the 
reason why, seeing that the ship was armed with two 3-inch 
guns, no ammunition was on board ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The carrying of ammunition before 
the war by merchant ships armed in self-defence raised a 
good many difficult questions which were being gradually 
adjusted. In a few cases the supply had not been actually 
placed on board. The Correntina was one of these. 
436 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

GERMAN SUBMARINES (CAPTAINS OF ESCAPED 

VESSELS) 

LORD C. BERESFORD asked the First Lord of the Admir- ibid. 
alty whether he will give to the House a list of merchant 
vessels and the names of their captains that have baffled 
German submarines by their bravery and resource ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Many vessels have behaved well in 
the face of this new form of attack, but the following have 
been selected by the Admiralty as deserving of reward for 
specially meritorious services : 

Steamship Laertes . Lieutenant William Henry Propert, 

R.N.R., D.S.O. 
Steamship Thordis . Lieutenant John William Bell, R.N.R., 

D.S.O. 
Steamship Vosges . Lieutenant John Richard Green, 

R.N.R., D.S.O. 

The conduct of the following masters has also been brought 
to their Lordships' notice : 

Steamship City of Cambridge \ Alfred George Fry. 
Steamship Brussels . . , .. ' Charles Fryatt. 
Steamship Theseus . . .,,> L. M. Bevan. 
Steamship A guila . . * Thomas Ross Banner- 
man. 
Steamship Hartdale . . . Thomas Martin. 

MR. PETO : Am I to understand in the case of those officers 
whose services have been brought to the notice of the Admir- 
alty that there is to be some consideration as to the matter 
of reward ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The last named ? 

MR. PETO : Yes. 

DR. MACNAMARA : I think that is the case. 

ROYAL DOCKYARDS 

SIR C. KiNLOCH-CooKE asked the First Lord of the Admir- ibid. 
alty whether his attention has been called to the position 
of timekeepers in His Majesty's dockyards ; whether he is 
aware that on entry they receive 45. a day for seven days' 

* " 437 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [A 

work ; that, taking this work on the basis of six days, this 
payment is equivalent to the minimum amount paid to 
labourers ; and whether, in view of the importance of the 
work done by timekeepers, he will consider the possibility 
of some higher remuneration being given, more especially in 
view of the fact that no increase of pay has been granted to 
timekeepers since 1901, while during that period the wages 
of the ordinary labourer have risen from 195. to 245. a week ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The facts are as stated in the first 
part of the hon. member's question, though it should be 
added that timekeepers are on an incremental scale of pay 
rising to a maximum of 355. a week. As regards the latter 
part of the question, it is not proposed to authorise any 
increase in the normal scale of pay, but the question of allow- 
ing timekeepers to participate in the war increases recently 
approved for labourers and others is at present under con- 
sideration. 

MR. TYSON WILSON asked the Secretary to the Admir- 
alty if he is aware that the joiners employed by the Admir- 
alty at Rosyth have not had their wages increased to the 
same extent as those employed at the Royal dockyards, 
and that the increase they have received has only been paid 
from I2th February while the men in the Royal dockyards 
received the increase as from ist October last ; and whether 
he will see that the men at Rosyth are treated in the same 
manner as those in the Royal dockyards ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The joiners at present employed by 
the Admiralty at Rosyth are paid on the basis of the local 
outside rate, which at present is gd. per hour. The increase 
referred to as paid from I2th February last refers to an 
advance to gjd. per hour given to Admiralty joiners in con- 
sequence of increased outside rates due to the acceleration 
of work at Rosyth. The rates paid and increases recently 
given at the Royal dockyards to similar workmen do not 
apply. 

MR. SNOWDEN asked the Secretary to the Admiralty if a 
petition from the additional hired writers in the Nava] Stores 
Department at Devonport asking for an increase of wages 
from their present rate of 243. a week has been received ; 
and, if so, has favourable consideration been given to the 
prayer of the petitioners ? 
438 






DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

DR. MACNAMARA : The answer to the first part of the 
question is in the affirmative. The application is now being 
considered. 

SUPPLIES TO GERMANY 

House of Commons, April 28, 1915. 

MR. RONALD M'NEILL asked the Secretary for Foreign Hansard. 
Affairs, whether he has received information from consular 
or other official sources in Scandinavian countries of the 
manner in which foodstuffs and other cargoes are being 
systematically conveyed to Germany, notwithstanding an 
undertaking to prohibit such re-export by the Government * 
of the importing country ; whether the method adopted is 
to consign a cargo in proper form to a neutral Baltic port and 
on arrival there to reconsign it to another neutral port in 
the same or in some neighbouring state, with a secret arrange- 
ment for the ostensibly forcible capture of the vessel by the 
Germans during the voyage between these two neutral ports ; 
and what steps His Majesty's Government propose to take to 
stop these supplies reaching the enemy ? 

MR. PRIMROSE : Several cases have recently occurred of 
ships loaded with grain and oil for Swedish Baltic ports being 
seized by German warships and their cargoes detained, under 
circumstances which clearly point to collusion between some 
individuals and the German authorities. The Swedish 
Government have since issued regulations intended to prevent 
the recurrence of such incidents, and I trust that if these 
prove effective it may not be necessary for His Majesty's 
Government to take any special measures in the matter. 

MR. M'NEILL : Suppose they do not prove effective, 
will the Government be prepared to take drastic steps ? 

MR. PRIMROSE : I think the answer rather suggests that. 

MR. PETO asked the Secretary for Foreign Affairs if he 
will state what steps are taken at the ports of Genoa and 
Savona to inspect the discharge of British ships trading with 
America ; whether he has received information that the 
steamship Hazlemoor of the Runciman Line, was, on the nth 
March, discharging grain at Savona into wagons labelled 
Mannheim (Germany) via Basle ; and whether he intends 
to take any steps to recall vessels of the British mercantile 
marine that may be under time charter, so that they may 

439 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

be employed to increase the tonnage available for British 
trade and Admiralty service and cease carrying supplies 
destined for enemy countries ? 

MR. PRIMROSE : It is not advisable to explain in detail 
the measures and arrangements on which His Majesty's 
Government rely for guarding against the passage of goods 
to enemy countries through neutral territory. The owners 
of the steamship Hazlemoor have sent me particulars with 
'regard to her cargo, which show that it was shipped by Major- 
General Carlo Pagani to the order of the Italian Government. 
I would further remind the hon. member of the reply given 
on 23rd February to the hon. member for Plymouth as to 
the presence of German railway trucks in Italy and Switzer- 
land. The last point of the hon. member's question should 
be addressed to the Admiralty. 

[The following is the answer above referred to as having been given 
on February 23. 

GRAIN SHIPPED TO ITALY 

House of Commons, February 23, 1915. 

Hansard. MR. SHIRLEY BENN asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 

if the British Consuls in Italy have reported that grain shipped in 
British vessels to Italy under a guarantee that it is for consumption 
in Italy has been discharged int5 German wagons ; and if the British 
Consuls in Italy have reported that the cargoes of ships discharging 
at Italian ports for the Swiss Government with the Government seal 
on their papers have been loaded in German wagons ? 

The SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS (SiR EDWARD 
GREY) : Reports have from time to time been received that cargoes 
for Italy and Switzerland are being discharged into German trucks. 
But we are assured by the Italian and Swiss authorities that a certain 
number of German trucks are normally circulating on the Italian and 
Swiss railways, and represent an equivalent number of Italian and Swiss 
trucks on the German railways. The use of German trucks does not, 
therefore, in itself indicate that the goods are intended for Germany.] 

WRITERS (ROYAL NAVY) 

House of Commons, April 28, 1915. 

Hansard. LORD C. BERESFORD asked the First Lord of the Admiralty 

(i) whether the Admiralty will give equal opportunities to 
the writer branch to gain commissioned rank as is now given 
to the military and engineering branches of the Navy, and thus 
440 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

bring into effect his promise that merit on the lower deck 
will be rewarded ; (2) whether the procedure followed in pro- 
moting artificer engineers and warrant telegraphists after five 
years' service to commissioned warrant rank may be extended 
to warrant writers, seeing the advanced age at which they 
are promoted ; and (3) whether he will consider the advis- 
ability of promoting a number of experienced and qualified 
writers to warrant and commissioned rank ; whether he is 
aware that the system now adopted for filling the posts of 
accountant officers, Royal Navy, by the entry of pursers and 
assistant pursers from the mercantile marine and civilian 
clerks, has caused dissatisfaction amongst the writers whose 
qualifications for naval accountant duties have constantly 
been brought before the Admiralty ; and whether these officers 
who, by virtue of their commission, should be capable of 
supervising the duties of an office are, in most cases, instructed 
by the writers ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : As I stated in reply to the noble Lord 
on 25th November last, 1 the question of providing the neces- l [See 
sary number of officers for the Accountant Branch was under Naval 2, 
consideration of the Admiralty when the war broke out ; but p * 3 5 
this question, in common with others, had to be deferred. 
As the noble Lord is aware, twelve chief writers have since 
been promoted to warrant rank. Whilst I can give no under- 
taking as to further promotion, and whilst particular questions 
of this kind cannot be dissociated from consideration of the 
general question, for dealing with which the present juncture 
is scarcely opportune, the matter will not be lost sight of. 

LORD C. BERESFORD asked the First Lord of the Admiralty 
whether he is aware that several of the twelve warrant writers 
promoted in December last are now receiving is. 6d. a day 
less in pay and allowances than they received as chief writers 
prior to promotion ; what steps it is proposed to take to 
remedy this state of affairs ; and why, in view of the shortage 
of accountant officers, as shown by the number of entries of 
assistant paymasters, Royal Naval Reserve, warrant writers 
are not appointed to and utilised in the Fleet as officers 
instead of being reappointed to the same duties as they 
carried out prior to their promotion ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : As regards the first and second parts 
of the question, I presume that the noble Lord alludes to the 

441 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



, 



loss of separation allowance, which ceased on promotion to 
warrant rank. This matter is under consideration, and I 
hope soon to make a definite statement about it. As regards 
the last part of the question : warrant officers are appointed 
to posts where, in the opinion of the Admiralty, they can be 
most usefully employed. It has not hitherto been the practice 
to appoint them to seagoing ships, and it is hardly the time 
at present to make this change, though the whole question of 
their employment will be thoroughly reconsidered in con- 
nection with the report on the conditions of employment of 
accountant officers. 

PROFICIENCY PAY 

House of Commons, April 28, 1915. 

Hansard. LORD C. BERESFORD asked the Under Secretary for War 

whether the Army Council will now cancel Army Order 
No. 96, 1915, and grant proficiency pay to soldiers who entered 
from the National Reserve after previous service in the Navy; 
whether he is aware that large numbers of these men have 
served many years in the Navy and left that service as trained 
men and seamen gunners ; and whether he is aware that a 
sense of injustice and irritation exists amongst them at the 
manner in which they have been treated with regard to pro- 
ficiency pay ? 

MR. BAKER : The grant of proficiency pay has always 
depended on previous military service, and I regret that it was 
not possible to make an exception in the case of the men 
referred to by the noble Lord. 

AIR ATTACK ON AMERICAN STEAMER GUSHING 

Rotterdam, April 30. 

Times, The American steamer Gushing, which arrived here to-day, 

May ! reports that she was attacked on Wednesday (April 28) by 

I 9 I 5- German airmen, although the name of the ship was painted on 

both sides in letters 6 feet high and she was flying the American 

flag. Two bombs were dropped, but they did no damage. 

The attack was made in latitude 51 degrees 45 minutes 
north, longitude 2 degrees 30 minutes east. Reuter. 

[This point would be about midway between the North Foreland 
(Isle of Thanet) and Flushing.] 

442 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Philadelphia, May 19. 

The oil steamer Gushing has arrived here. Captain Herland Times, 
has handed to his employers a report of the attempt of May 20, 
German airmen to wreck the vessel by dropping bombs, one I 9 I 5- 
of which hit the rail. The captain refers to this as a dastardly 
act, and a deliberate attempt to sink an unarmed vessel and 
to murder the crew. A copy of the report will be forwarded 
to the State Department at Washington. Renter. 



Washington, June 5. 

The Note from Germany cabled yesterday by Mr. Gerard, Times, 
the American Ambassador in Berlin, to the State Department J une 7. 
notifying Germany's willingness to pay an indemnity for the I9I5> 
damage done to the American steamer Gulflight, and explain- 
ing that she was torpedoed by mistake, also states that it has 
been impossible to clear up the question of the dropping of 
bombs by German aeroplanes on the American steamer 
Gushing, and further information regarding the accident is 
asked for. The Note says that German airmen only attacked 
one ship in the vicinity of the North Hinder lightship, and 
that ship was flying no flag and had no neutral markings. 
' The attack/ the note says, ' by four bombs was, of course, 
not aimed at any American ship. However, considering the 
time and place of the occurrence, it is possible that the ship 
attacked was the Gushing.' Renter. 

PRISONERS OF WAR 

House of Commons, April 29, 1915. 

SIR J. D. REES asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Hansard. 
Affairs whether he has obtained any information regarding 
the treatment of prisoners taken by the Turks or interned in 
the Turkish Empire ? 

SIR E. GREY : His Majesty's Government have no informa- 
tion as to the treatment of the crew of submarine E 15, and on 
23rd April requested the United States Ambassador to make 
inquiries as to the names of those taken prisoners, but have not 
yet received a reply. A certain number of merchant seamen 
are interned at Magnesia, near Smyrna. The United States 

443 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Consul-General and the British Chaplain at that port are in 
touch with them, and the latter, once a week, visits the 
prisoners, who have received assistance from the American 
Red Cross Society. 

GERMAN SUBMARINES 

House of Commons, April 28, 1915. 

Hansard. MR. MACCALLUM SCOTT asked what are the special condi- 

tions to which prisoners from German submarines are subject ? 

The PARLIAMENTARY SECRETARY TO THE BOARD OF 
ADMIRALTY (DR. MACNAMARA) : I am informed that pending 
the fitting up of a fort which is intended to be their separate 
place of internment, the German submarine prisoners taken 
since i8th February are at Chatham and Devonport Detention 
Barracks. They are not kept in solitary confinement, but 
are allowed to exercise in company between breakfast and 
dinner, and between dinner and supper. Smoking is also 
allowed at certain hours. The officers are allowed to use the 
gymnasium, and a room has been provided as a smoking 
room. Their dietary is equivalent to the Government rations 
supplied to the ordinary prisoners of war, and they are per- 
mitted within limits to supplement this dietary by purchase 
out of money sent them by their friends. The officers will 
receive pay at 2s. 6d. a day. They are permitted to write 
letters and to receive letters and parcels within the usual 
limits. Facilities for obtaining German or English books are 
accorded to them. They are not forced to undertake any 
labour, but it is open to them to do so if they wish. The men 
are allowed to wait on the officers and clean their rooms. 

MR. MACCALLUM SCOTT : In what respect does their treat- 
ment differ from that accorded to ordinary prisoners of war ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : They are kept separate. 

MR. MACCALLUM SCOTT : Is that the only difference ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Speaking offhand, yes. 

SIR H. DALZIEL : Can the right hon. gentleman explain 
why an announcement was made bearing an entirely different 
interpretation as to how they were to be treated ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I do not know to what my right hon. 
friend refers. He should read this statement with the state- 

1 [See ment made the day before yesterday. 1 
pp. 442-4.] 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

SIR H. DALZIEL : If it is the case that these officers are so 
well treated as the right hon. gentleman has now explained, 
why was an announcement made which indicated to the public 
that they were to be treated very severely indeed ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : As far as I know, the policy laid down 
was that after i8th February they were to be separated and 
kept by themeslves. 

SIR H. DALZIEL : Is it not the case that the answer says 
that they are not separated, but that they are allowed to 
exercise along with other prisoners ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Let there be no misunderstanding 
about that. The answer is that they are not in solitary con- 
finement. They are allowed to exercise in company. The 
point I am trying to make is that they are kept separate from 
other prisoners of war. 

MR. JoYNSON-HiCKS : Will the right hon. gentleman have 
that important answer communicated to the American 
Embassy in order that it may be made public in Germany ? 

DR. MACNAMARA was understood to assent. 

SIR GEORGE YOUNGER: Have any arrangements been 
made since yesterday to allow an independent American 
representative to see these prisoners and how they are 
treated ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The hon. member will remember that 
on Tuesday the First Lord said that he was quite ready to have 
an impartial examination of that sort in return for a similar 
examination in Germany. Whether anything has been done 
in the meantime I cannot say offhand. 

SIR G. YOUNGER : Is the right hon. gentleman aware that 
an opportunity offers at the present moment to have that 
examination made ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I will consider that, yes. 

LORD ROBERT CECIL : Can the right hon. gentleman say 
whether or not the report in to-day's papers that the American 
Embassy in Germany has inspected the conditions of detention 
of the thirty-nine British officers is correct, and, if so, whether 
that complies with the condition laid down by the First 
Lord? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I cannot say offhand. 



445 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

BRITISH VESSELS SUNK BY GERMAN 
SUBMARINES 

House of Commons, April 29, 1915. 

Hansard . MR. KELLAWAY asked how many British vessels have been 

sunk by German submarines in waters outside the North Sea 

during the month of February, March, and April, respectively ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The number of British vessels sunk by 
German submarines in waters outside the North Sea is: 
Eight during February, seventeen during March, and six 
during April, up to the 27th. 

MR. KELLAWAY : Can the right hon. gentleman give the 
last date in April on which a vessel was sunk ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I am afraid I cannot without notice. 

ROYAL DOCKYARDS 

ibid. SIR C. KiNLOCH-CooKE asked the First Lord of the Ad- 

miralty whether he is aware that civilian pensioners employed 
at the Royal Naval Barracks, Devonport, and Indus, unlike 
other dockyard employes called up for service, are not partici- 
pating in the 2S. bonus ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : If the hon. member refers to pensioners 
in receipt of civilian rates of pay, they will receive the emer- 
gency increase announced in the award of the Committee on 
Production. The award is not applicable to the cases of men 
called up but retained in the establishments referred to on 
naval work at naval rates of pay. 

SIR C. KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the Ad- 
miralty (i) whether yard-craft men are required, under Clause 
35 of Answers to Petitions (page 12), to surrender any special 
privileges ; and, if so, will he explain what those privileges 
are and the cause of their surrender ; and (2) whether he can 
say when the yard-craft men will receive payment in respect 
to the concessions recently granted therein ; and will he 
explain the cause of the delay that has occurred ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The improvements in wages and con- 
ditions of employment of yard-craft men set out in the answers 
to petitions were conditional upon the surrender of special 
privileges in certain cases. The privileges in question are 
certain advantages which were enjoyed by some of the yard- 
446 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

. 

craft men in respect of sick leave with pay and medical attend- 
ance. I imagine that any delay which may have occurred in 
some cases is owing to the hesitation of some of the men to 
accept the conditions regarding the surrender of special 
privileges previously enjoyed by them. Payment of the in- 
creased rates has already been made to those men who have 
accepted the conditions. 

SIR C. KiNLOCH-CooKE : Are we to understand, unless 
they agree to this, that that bonus of 2s. will be stopped ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : I do not know what the hon. member 
is thinking about in the matter of bonuses. It is not a 
question of bonus. We set out new conditions, and the 
receipt of the new conditions were contingent upon giving 
up certain privileges. 

MR. CHARLES DUNCAN : Is it not the fact that the advance 
of wages was given to these men because of the increase in 
the cost of living, and now, instead of giving them an advance, 
the advantages that they have been in receipt of are to be 
taken away from them ; therefore, it will be no advance at 
all? 

DR. MACNAMARA : My hon. friend, if I may respectfully 
say so, quite misunderstands. These are the replies of the 
officials ; what he refers to is quite a different matter. 

SCOTTISH ESTUARIES (YACHTING) 

MR. WATT asked the First Lord of the Admiralty whether ibid. 
it is the intention of his Department to close the Clyde and 
other estuaries of Scotland against yachting during the 
approaching summer ; and, if so, whether he will publish 
the decision speedily in view of the number of interests 
involved ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The Admiralty have decided that 
definite limits should be drawn at each harbour or estuary 
outside of which no cruising of yachts or pleasure boats can be 
allowed. Before a regatta is held within the limits of the 
authorised port or waters, the permission of the senior naval 
officer should be obtained. Excursion steamer traffic can be 
permitted only so far as it serves for conveyance of necessaries 
to places off the mainland. All such sailings must be made 
under licence from the local naval authorities. These authori- 

447 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ties are authorised to publish the limits within which pleasure 
cruising, etc., is allowed, and requests for information as 
regards particular areas should be addressed to them. In 
the case of Scottish waters, the authority concerned is the 
Admiral Commanding, Coast of Scotland, Rosyth. 

NAVAL LOSSES (OFFICERS AND MEN) 

House of Commons, April 29, 1919. 

Hansard. MR. JoYNSON-HicKS asked the First Lord of the Admiralty 

the number of officers and men of the Royal Navy, Royal 
Marines, Royal Naval Reserve, and Royal Naval Volunteer 
Reserve killed from the commencement of the war to the 3ist 
March 1915, in view of the statement in the Navy List for 
April of officers and men killed in action up to the i8th March 
1915, giving names which amount to a total of 6606 379 
officers and 6227 men ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : The total number of officers killed down 
to 3ist March is 417. The total number of men killed down 
to 3ist March is 6313. 

PRIZE CLAIMS COMMITTEE 

ibid. SIR E. CARSON asked the Secretary to the Admiralty 

whether the Prize Claims Committee have made any awards 
in respect of claims against ships or cargo condemned in the 
Prize Court ; and, if so, whether such awards will be made 
public ? 

The ATTORNEY-GENERAL (SiR JOHN SIMON) : The right 
hon. gentleman will permit me to reply to this question. The 
Prize Claims Committee has investigated a number of claims 
and arrived at a provisional decision upon them, but no 
awards can be made until certain outstanding questions 
connected with the Prize Funds have been settled. 

SIR E. CARSON : The right hon. gentleman has not answered 
the last part of my question. Will the awards be made public ? 
May I also ask him : will those sums which are paid as awards 
be taken out of the money otherwise given as prize money to 
the Navy ? 

SIR J. SIMON : The right hon. gentleman puts two further 
questions. I understood the last part of his question to be 
governed by the words ' if so ' if any awards have been made, 
448 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

whether they will be made public ? My answer was : No 
awards have been made. As to whether the awards will be 
made public, there is no doubt that they will have to be made 
public as soon as they are finally determined upon. The 
second question as to the fund out of which the money would 
come is one of the matters which are now under consideration 
both in respect of the funds in this country and the correspond- 
ing funds throughout the Empire. 

MR. R. M'NEiLL : What is the position of the Prize Claims 
Committee ? Is it a Committee of Appeal from the Prize 
Court ? 

SIR J. SIMON : No, it is not a Court of Appeal from the 
Prize Court. It is a Committee appointed in order to ascer- 
tain what charges British subjects may have over goods which 
may come into the Prize Court, otherwise many British subjects 
would find themselves deprived of what is, in effect, their 
property, because that property is condemned in the Prize 
Court. 

MR. M'NEILL : Those are the facts the Prize Court itself 
ascertains ? 

SIR J. SIMON : From a very long course of practice the 
Prize Court itself pays no attention to that, so that if a German 
ship worth 60,000 is mortgaged for 50,000 to an English- 
man, the German ship is condemned, the Englishman would 
lose his 50,000, unless special provision is made. 

SIR E. CARSON : Are there any rules laid down upon which 
this Committee is to adjudicate, or is it left entirely at large 
to do entirely what the members think proper ? 

SIR J. SIMON : The Committee is instructed to report to 
the Treasury, and when that report is made it has got to be 
considered from the financial point of view by the Treasury. 

SIR E. CARSON : Are there any rules governing the ulti- 
mate destination of the money which otherwise would be 
prize money for the Navy ? 

SIR J. SIMON : I have told the right hon. gentleman that 
that is one of the matters which is under consideration. It 
is not possible, of course, for the Prize Claims Committee to 
lay down what shall go to the Navy or not ; that must be a 
matter of general policy. All the Committee has to do is to 
investigate the value of the claims made by the British 
subjects and neutrals who have charges over cargoes and 
NAVAL 4 2 F 449 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [. 

ships which come before the Prize Courts. They merely have 
to report upon the amounts. 

MR. M'NEILL : Is that confined to British ships ? 

OPERATIONS IN TURKEY 

House of Commons, April 29, 1915. 

Hansard. MR. JOYNSON-HiCKS asked the Prime Minister (i) whether 

the operations by land of His Majesty's Forces now being 
conducted in Turkey are controlled by the Secretary of State 
for War, or by the First Lord or the Board of Admiralty ; 
and by whom or by which Department is their equip- 
ment, supply and transport provided ; and (2) in view of the 
fact that we have eight wars on hand in Flanders, in Egypt, 
in the Cameroons, in East Africa, in South- West Africa, in 
Central Africa, in Persia, and on the North- West Frontier of 
India will he state generally the reasons for withdrawing 
troops and ships from these eight wars in order to commence 
a ninth war in European Turkey ; and have the admirals 
commanding our Fleets at sea and the generals commanding 
our troops on land, been consulted before such withdrawals 
were made and expressed agreement therewith ? 

MR. McKENNA: I must refer the hon. member to the 
answer which I gave on the 22nd April to the noble Lord 

1 [See the member for Portsmouth. 1 

P* 393-] [The only answer given on this subject on April 22 was given, not 

by Mr. McKenna but by the Prime Minister ; but this answer of the 
Prime Minister's appears to be the one to which Mr. McKenna here 
refers.] 

ROYAL NAVY (MEAT SUPPLIES) 

ibid. MR. WILLIAM THORNE asked the First Lord of the Admir- 

alty, if purchases of frozen meat and canned meat for use 
in the Royal Navy are made separately or in conjunction with 
the War Office purchases ; what quantities approximately 
were acquired for the use of the Navy from ist August to . 
3ist December 1914 ; and what prices were paid by the 
Admiralty approximately for these two classes of goods ? 

DR. MACNAMARA : Frozen meat for the Navy is obtained 
under a special arrangement made by the Board of Trade 
with the large importers, which provides for the joint require- 
450 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

ments of the Army and Navy. Canned meat for the Navy 
is purchased separately from . Army requirements. The 
approximate quantities bought and prices paid for meat for 
the Navy from ist August to 3ist December 1914, are as 
follows : Frozen meat, 2000 tons, chiefly beef ; average price 
estimated at slightly over 6d. per pound. Canned meat, 
3150 tons ; average price 8Jd. per pound. 

HONOUR FOR ADMIRAL GUEPRATTE 

Paris, April 29. 

The name of Rear-Admiral Guepratte, commanding the 
French Naval Division at the Dardanelles, has been included 
in the special list of the Legion of Honour under the grade 
of commander. Renter. 



SPECIAL PAY FOR NAVAL INTELLIGENCE 
OFFICER, JAMAICA 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 2gth day of April, 



Present, 
The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a Memorial L.G., 
from the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the A P ril 3<>, 
Admiralty, dated the I5th day of April 1915, in the words 
following, viz. : 

' Whereas by Sections 3 of the Naval and Marine Pay 
and Pensions Act, 1865, it is enacted, inter alia, that all 
pay, pensions, or other allowances in the nature thereof, 
payable in respect of services in Your Majesty's Naval 
or Marine Force to a person being or having been an 
Officer, Seaman, or Marine therein, shall be paid in such 
manner, and subject to such restrictions, conditions, and 
provisions, as are from time to time directed by Order 
in Council : 

' And whereas we are of opinion that the Officer 
appointed for Naval Intelligence Duties at Jamaica 
should be granted an allowance in consideration of the 
high cost of living in that Island : 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

' We beg leave humbly to recommend that Your 
Majesty may be graciously pleased, by Your Order in 
Council, to sanction the payment of a Colonial Allow- 
ance at the rate of 50 per annum to the Officer appointed 
for Naval Intelligence Duties at Jamaica, to take effect 
as from the 24th day of February 1914, the date on 
which the Officer in question took up his appointment. 

' The Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Treasury 
have signified their concurrence in this proposal/ 

His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy 
Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And the 
Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
are to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 

PAY FOR MOTOR SERVICES IN THE NAVY 
At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 2gth day of April, 

19*5. 

Present, 

The KING'S Most Excellent Majesty in Council. 

L.G., WHEREAS there was this day read at the Board a Memorial 

April 30, from the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the 
I 9 I 5- Admiralty, dated the I2th day of April 1915, in the words 

following, viz. : 

' Whereas by Section 3 of the Naval and Marine Pay 
and Pensions Act, 1865, it is enacted, inter alia, that all 
pay, pensions, or other allowances in the nature thereof, 
payable in respect of services in Your Majesty's Naval 
or Marine Force to a person being or having been an 
Officer, Seaman, or Marine therein, shall be paid in such 
manner, and subject to such restrictions, conditions, 
and provisions, as are from time to time directed by 
Order in Council : 

' And whereas we consider that provision should be 
made for the emoluments of certain Officers and Men 
entered in the Royal Naval Division for service in con- 
nection with motor vehicles : 

' We beg leave humbly to recommend that Your 
Majesty may be graciously pleased, by Your Order in 
Council, to sanction the following rates of pay for such 
452 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Officers and Men, with effect as from the date of their 
entry up to and including the 28th February 1915 : 

s. d. 

Motor Superintendent . . . i o o a day. 

Motor Owner Drivers . . i o o ,, 

Foreman Fitters . . . . o 15 o 

Road Inspectors . . . . o 15 o ,, 

Fitters . . . . .0100,, 

Mechanic Drivers . . .0100,, 

Motor Store-Keepers . . .076,, 

' We further beg leave to recommend that on and 
after the ist March 1915, the rate of pay of Motor Owner 
Drivers should be on the scale authorised for 2nd Lieu- 
tenants, Royal Marines, and that the rates of pay for 
the Motor Superintendents, Foreman Fitters, Road 
Inspectors, Fitters, Mechanic Drivers, and Motor Store- 
Keepers should be continued on the same scale as that 
in force up to the 28th February 1915. 

' The Lords Commissioners of Your Majesty's Treasury 
have signified their concurrence in these proposals/ 

His Majesty, having taken the said Memorial into con- 
sideration, was pleased, by and with the advice of His Privy 
Council, to approve of what is therein proposed. And the 
Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admir- 
alty are to give the necessary directions herein accordingly. 

SPECIAL TREATMENT OF SUBMARINE 
OFFICERS AND MEN 

i 

Admiralty, May 4. 

The American Ambassador presents his compliments to P.B. 
His Majesty's Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and has 
the honour to communicate to him the following transcription 
of a telegram, dated April 29, received this morning from the 
Ambassador at Berlin : 

Pursuant to general arrangement regarding visiting pri- 
soners which is still in force here, I personally visited each 
of twenty-two of thirty-nine officers arrested April 27 in Burg 
and Magdeburg. Each officer is in clean cell, allowed bath, 

453 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

books, packages. Can smoke ; one hour exercise morning ; 
one hour exercise evening in prison yards ; during exercise 
hours can talk together ; food good ; no complaints except 
that they are so arrested. 

German Government will follow exactly the treatment 
given submarine crews as soon as Page can visit prisoners, 
and these officers will be again treated like ordinary prisoners 
of war the instant I report submarine crews so treated in 
England. The treatment accorded officers now is that usual 
for German officers in arrest, and is given pending definite 
report treatment of submarine crews in England. 

London, May I, 1915. 

II 

Telegram sent by Mr. Page to the Department of State at 
Washington and to American Embassy at Berlin, May 
3, 1915. (Published with the consent of the American 
Ambassador.) 

Lowry visited on Saturday German submarine prisoners, 
twenty-nine in number, made up as follows : four commis- 
sioned officers, one warrant engineer officer, twenty-four 
enlisted men, interned at Naval Detention Barracks, Chatham 
Dockyards. Other ten submarine prisoners are interned at 
Naval Detention Barracks, Devonport. Will be visited this 
week, to-morrow if possible. 

Lowry reports officers and men at Chatham in good health 
and supplied with money ; officers receive 2s. 6d. per day 
from British Government. None in solitary confinement, 
but are kept in separate rooms at night. Size of room, 8 feet 
by 12 feet. 

Men eat together in one mess and officers together in 
another mess. Officers and men have same food. Dietary 
composed of bread, cocoa, tea, sugar, potatoes, suet pudding, 
pork and pea-soup, cheese, beef, mutton, and milk. Officers 
may have butter ; men supplied with margarine. All supplied 
with books and tobacco. Officers are allowed servants from 
among the crew. 

All have use of well-equipped gymnasium daily at stated 
periods. Permitted to write letters once a week and to 
receive money, parcels, and letters. Both men and officers 
454 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

exercise in association, but at different times. Recreation 
quarters indoors as well as outdoors. 

Officers complained of being held in Detention Barracks 
rather than in officers' camps, but no complaint as to quantity 
or quality of food. No complaint as to treatment or as to 
character of accommodation. Hygiene and sanitary require- 
ments excellent. Rooms and all surroundings specklessly 
clean. 

Lowry is submitting to me detailed report in writing, 
which follows by first bag. 

(Signed) AMBASSADOR, London. 

LOSS OF THE A. 2 

The Secretary of the Admiralty makes the following Times, 
announcement : May 19, 

A report from Turkish sources states that Submarine A.E 2 I915 ' 
of the Royal Australian Navy, was sunk on April 30 while 
endeavouring to enter the Sea of Marmora, and her crew were 
taken prisoners. 

A further report received through diplomatic channels at 
Athens states that three officers and seventeen men were 
taken prisoners out of a total of three officers and twenty-nine 
men. 

No communication having been received from this vessel 
since April 26, her loss must be presumed. 

The following is a list of the officers : 

Lieut.-Commander Henry Hugh Gordon Dacre Stoker. 
Lieut. Geoffrey Arthur Gordon Haggard. 
Lieut; John Pitt Gary. 

ZEPPELIN RAID IN THE EASTERN COUNTIES 

The Cambridge Daily News states that enemy aircraft Times, 
appeared over Ipswich shortly after midnight, and dropped April 30, 
a number of bombs, setting several buildings on fire. 



Ipswich, April 30, 2 A.M. 

About 12.20 this morning a Zeppelin passed over Ipswich ibid. 
and dropped five bombs, two of which were explosive and 

455 . 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



t 



three incendiary. The incendiary bombs fell upon houses in 
Brookshall Road, and set three of them on fire. Within ten 
minutes of the occurrence the houses were well alight, and 
the whole strength of the Fire Brigade was engaged in dealing 
with the outbreak. Two of the houses were burnt out. 
There was no loss of life and, so far as is known, no one was 
injured. Brookshall Road, a middle-class district, is situated 
on the western outskirts of the town. All the residents were 
in bed at the time, and that they escaped injury is sufficiently 
remarkable. It is probably due to the fact that by great 
good fortune the bombs dropped on the back of the houses 
and not over the sleeping apartments. The back parts of 
the houses were set on fire, and the flames spread rapidly to 
the main buildings. 

One of the most striking experiences of the night was that 
of a policeman whose beat included Brookshall Road. He 
was in front of one of the houses there when he heard the 
engines of the aircraft and, looking up, saw a bomb fall on 
the house before which he was standing. It was he who gave 
the alarm to the fire brigade. The airship continued its 
course over the town, but no further bombs were dropped. 
The noise of the explosion caused great excitement, and in- 
habitants of the houses which were set on fire ran into the 
street scantily clothed. 

So far as can be ascertained, says the East Anglian Daily 
Times, the only serious damage sustained in Ipswich was 
from the bombs which dropped in Brookshall Road. Here 
three houses were enveloped in fire, which broke out as the 
result of an incendiary missile. All were completely gutted. 
One of the bombs in its fall struck No. 60 Brookshall Road, 
occupied by Mr. Harry Goodwin, with his wife and daughter, 
aged just over twelve years. About twenty minutes past 
twelve Mr. Goodwin was aroused by his wife, who heard the 
noise of the aircraft engine, and immediately afterwards his 
house was struck. The bomb pierced the roof, and fell into 
the back bedroom, where Mrs. Goodwin was sleeping and 
where it struck a chest of drawers standing in the corner of 
the apartment within a few feet of the bed occupied by the 
little girl. The chest of drawers immediately burst into 
flame. Mr. Goodwin rushed into the room, which appeared 
to be enveloped in flame and smoke, and rescued the now 
456 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

awakened and frightened girl. Snatching her up in his arms 
he carried her out of the house and found her shelter with a 
kindly neighbour. Meanwhile the flames spread rapidly and 
enveloped the adjoining house, No. 58, occupied by Mr. and 
Mrs. Easey, and their son. Mr. Easey had retired to bed 
about ii o'clock, and says that he heard the aircraft soon 
after midnight. Immediately after the bomb had struck 
No. 60, Mr. Easey found that a back bedroom, where his son 
was sleeping, was on fire. The family, without waiting to 
save any effects, left the house and sought refuge with neigh- 
bours. Mr. Alfred Easey, the son, said he heard the bomb 
drop on the first house, and the next thing he knew was that 
his room was on fire. In No. 56 resided a married couple 
named Farnham, who had time to clear out and save some of 
their furniture. None of the contents of the other two houses 
could be saved. The Corporation Fire Brigade, under Super- 
intendent Galloway, was speedily on the scene, but, in view 
of the rapid extension of the fire, they could do little beyond 
saving other villas immediately adjacent. 

Police-constable Claydon, of the Ipswich Borough police, 
who was on duty in the Norwich Road district, states that 
he was right in front of No. 60 Brookshall Road when, at 
12.5, he heard the throb of the propeller of an aircraft. He 
watched skyward, but did not see anything. The sound kept 
growing louder, until about 12.15, when it appeared right 
overhead. He saw a spark descend from the clouds ; it 
increased in size until it struck the rear of the house, No. 60, 
Brookshall Road. When the bomb fell there was a loud 
crash. Claydon at once went to the back of the premises and 
found the house in flames. He rushed round to the front and 
knocked at the door to find the inhabitants 'were already 
alarmed and prepared to leave, which they did immediately. 
Claydon added that when the airship left it dropped three 
more bombs in the suburb of Whitton. 



Bury St. Edmunds, 1.30 A.M. 

An airship believed to be a Zeppelin passed over Bury 
St. Edmunds shortly before i o'clock this morning. A resident 
who happened to be in the street at the time states that for 
some minutes before the airship appeared overhead he heard 

457 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [ 

the noise of its engine. He was standing at a point from 
which he had a good view of the butter market, in the centre 
of the town. Suddenly there was a loud noise, and he saw 
flames rising from a shop on the south side. An incendiary 
bomb was, as he put it, blazing furiously. The shop belonged 
to a photographer named Day. An adjoining shop was also 
somewhat damaged by fire. Almost immediately afterwards 
a second bomb struck a stable about 150 yards away in 
another street. Here, too, flames broke out. The airship 
passed on to the outskirts of the town, where three more 
bombs were dropped. The first of these fell between two 
detached cottages standing in a broad road, and a resident, 
aroused by the explosion, ran into the road and promptly 
poured a pail of water on the blazing bomb. The second and 
third bombs fell in a field. After circling the town the air- 
ship was last seen going in the direction of the East Coast. 

Later. The raider was clearly seen by several residents, 
and was identified as a Zeppelin. It passed over Abbeygate 
Street, circled round the town, and dropped more than ten 
bombs. The two fires were caused by incendiary bombs, 
and at one time the Suffolk Hotel was in danger. St. Andrew's 
Hall, Cemetery Road, was also burnt out. Other bombs fell 
in York Road, in Westerley Road, Northgate Street, South- 
gate Street, and near Hardwick Park. 



Felixstowe, 2 A.M. 

Almost on the stroke of midnight a Zeppelin's engine was 
heard high up, coming in from the North Sea. Although 
the moon was shining, a mist hung over the coast, and the 
airship, at the height at which it was sailing, was hardly 
discernible. Some excitement was caused among the resi- 
dents, who are ever on the alert against air raids, and a 
number ran into the streets. Every moment a bomb was 
expected to fall, and there was deepest relief when it was 
ascertained that the Zeppelin had passed over the town 
without committing this outrage. Later, news was received 
that bombs had been dropped on Ipswich and Bury St. 
Edmunds. 



458 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Ipswich, April 30. 

The alarm of the people of East Anglia at the latest air 
raid has rapidly turned to scorn. ' What sort of an enemy 
is this/ they say, ' that flies hundreds of miles simply to burn 
a few cottages and shops ? ' Blackened beams, charred wood, 
a dead dog, and a few pits in the earth are all the evidences 
of the midnight raid. 

Bombs were dropped on only two towns of any import- 
ance, namely, Ipswich and Bury. Just in front of the Presby- 
terian Church at Ipswich, and only a few inches from the wall, 
is a shell hole where the first bomb fell and failed to explode. 
A few yards farther west a similar indentation in the road- 
way of Waterloo Street shows where the second fell. 

Close by, and still westward, three houses in Rosebery 
Villas, Brookshall Road, are completely gutted. They were 
fired by bombs which fell shortly after midnight. In two of 
the houses, dwellings of the artisan class, children were sleep- 
ing. Police-constable Clay don saw one of the projectiles fall, 
and gave the alarm without delay. The bomb which fell on 
No. 60, the house of a Mr. Goodwin, passed through a room 
in which his twelve-year-old daughter was sleeping. In a 
few moments three houses (Nos. 56, 58, and 60) were burning 
furiously. From the first a family named Farnham escaped 
with some of their belongings. From the next a man named 
Easey first carried his invalid wife to a place of safety and 
then returned for his boy Alfred. From No. 60 Mr. Goodwin, 
who had been called by his wife when she heard the engines 
of the Zeppelin, took her and his little girl to a neighbour's 
house. In both cases the escapes of the children were remark- 
able. None of the people of these families were hurt, but 
to-day they are suffering more or less from shock. 

At Bury St. Edmunds more damage was done. The air- 
ship started at a height of 3000 feet, and eye-witnesses state 
that in the bright moonlight the occupants of the car were 
plainly visible. The first fire broke out in the Butter Market, 
followed immediately by another on property belonging to 
Mr. Pettit. A soldier who saw the whole thing said that it 
seemed to him as if a cartload of bombs were being poured 
down. 

Meanwhile, in the Butter Market the fire had become 

459 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

more serious, a number of shops having been fired by the hail 
of incendiary bombs. They were the premises of Mr. Day, 
photographer ; Mrs. Wise ; Messrs. Nice, motor works ; 
Messrs. Johnson, dyers ; and Miss Clarke, tobacconist. The 
brigade had the assistance of the special constables and the 
military, but, hard as they worked, they were not able to save 
the shops, two of which were burned to the ground. For 
some time there was the danger of the fire spreading to the 
Suffolk Hotel close by. This was averted, though the out- 
break was not quelled till this afternoon. Miss Clarke was 
rescued in her night attire, unhurt, but her pet dog was killed, 
and this was the only loss of life reported. Mr. Day has 
written above his shop window ' Business as usual/ and con- 
tinues to take photographs. Of the bombs dropped on Bury 
only two seem to have been of an explosive character, the 
remainder, fifteen to twenty, being incendiary. 

Further reports were received from the East Coast yester- 
day of the sighting of Zeppelins over the North Sea. 

At Wells-on-Sea, about 6.30 in the evening, some lifeboat- 
men saw through a telescope four large bodies distant about 
8 miles from land. They were convinced that these were 
German airships. When first seen they were coming towards 
the East Coast, but a few minutes later they turned back and 
were lost to view. 

At Lowest oft shortly after 4 o'clock a report was received 
that a hostile airship had been seen about 4 miles from 
land. British aircraft were sent up. They returned about 
an hour later, when it was stated that the hostile airship had 
gone seaward and disappeared. 

The visit of the airship led to a considerable demand from 
the Eastern Counties for insurance. One method adopted by 
underwriters for dealing with the proposals was to draw a 
straight line from the Humber through London and to charge 
a rate of los. per cent, on all property east of the line. 
Hitherto, while los. per cent, has been charged for property 
on the coast, only 55. per cent, has been quoted on property 
more than 5 miles from the sea. 



460 



, 



I DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

NOTICE OF INTENDED DISTRIBUTION OF NAVAL 
SALVAGE MONEY 

Department of the A ccountant-General 
of the Navy, Admiralty, S.W., 

30th April 1915. 

Notice is hereby given to the Officers, Seamen, and Marines, L.G., 
and to all persons interested therein, that the Distribution April 30, 
of the award for the Salvage of Casks of Wine by His Majesty's I 9 I 5- 
Ship Foyle, between the I2th and I5th October 1913, will 
commence on Saturday, the 1st proximo, in the Prize Branch 
of the Department of the ' Account ant-General of the Navy, 
Admiralty, S.W.' 

Agents and other persons holding Powers of Attorney, 
Prize Orders, Assignment, or other instruments, by virtue 
of which they may be legally entitled to claim the share of 
any Officer serving in the above-named Ship, are requested 
to present the same at this Office. 

All applications from persons entitled to share, who are 
not serving afloat, should be addressed ' On Prize Business : 
to the Accountant-General of the Navy, Admiralty, London, 
S.W/ Such applications (except in the case of Commissioned 
Officers), should be accompanied by Certificates of Service. 

The following are the Shares due to an individual in the 
several Classes : 

s. d. 

Commanding Officer - rr . . 3 12 5 
5th Class . . ^ . .216 
6th . . .' . . i 4 ii 
7th . . ,, .,. ..109 
8th . . .:- . o 14 6 

9th . . . . * o 8 4 
loth 042 



RUSSIAN STEAMER TORPEDOED 

The Russian steamer Sworono, of Marinpol, laden with Times, 
coal from Port Talbot to Archangel, was sunk by a German May 3, 
submarine on Friday morning (April 30) off the Kerry Coast. I 9 I 5- 
It was fired on without warning, the shots being continued 

461 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

while the crew were taking to the boats. The men were 
rescued by a trawler. 

NOTICE TO MARINERS 

(No. 360 of the year 1915) 

. 

UNITED KINGDOM 

Pilotage Stations established at Certain Ports on 
! r ~ Account -of Defensive Minefields 

P- 325-] Former Notice (No. 292 of 1915 x ) hereby cancelled. 

L.G., With reference to the extension of the system of Mine 

April 30, defence, notice is hereby given that Pilotage is now com- 
pulsory at the following ports for all vessels (including fishing 
vessels) which have a draught of over eight feet, and that 
it is highly dangerous for any vessel to enter or leave such 
ports without a pilot. Fishing and other small vessels having 
a draught of over eight feet are to assemble at the Pilotage 
stations, and will be conducted into and out of port in groups. 

(1) FIRTH OF FORTH. All incoming vessels are only 
permitted to enter the Firth of Forth during daylight hours ; 
they are to pass between- the Isle of May and Anstruther 
Wester, thence they must steer a direct course for Kinghorn 
Ness. On approaching Inchkeith, the Pilot vessel in the 
North channel is to be closed, and a pilot embarked. 

Vessels are warned that they should on no account pass 
to the southward of a line joining the north point of the Isle 
of May and Kinghorn Ness, until in the longitude of 3 W., 
when course may be shaped for the centre of North channel. 

Outward bound vessels should steer to pass the longitude 
of 3 W., in latitude 56 06' 30" N., then shape course to pass 
between Anstruther Wester and the Isle of May. 

No merchant vessel is permitted to be at an anchorage, 
during the hours of official night, West of a line drawn from 
Barnes Ness to North Carr Rock, and East of Inchkeith. 

The above orders apply to vessels proceeding to any port 
in the Firth of Forth, whether to the eastward of Inchkeith 
or not. 

(2) MORAY FIRTH. All vessels bound to Cromarty or 
Inverness must call for a pilot at Wick or Burghead. 

462 









DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Outgoing vessels are to discharge their pilots at one or 
the other of these places. 

It is dangerous for any vessel to be under way to the south- 
westward of a line joining Findhorn and Tarbat Ness without 
a pilot. 

(3) SCAPA FLOW. All entrances are dangerous, and entry 
is absolutely prohibited by any of them except as provided 
in succeeding paragraphs. 

Examination services have been established in the entrances 
to Hoxa and Hoy Sounds : vessels wishing to enter must 
communicate with the Examination vessel, and follow the 
instructions received from her very carefully. 

The only vessels permitted to enter Hoy Sound from the 
westward are those bound for Stromness : vessels cannot 
enter Scapa Flow from Stromness. 

Vessels are not permitted to enter Hoxa or Hoy Sounds 
by night. 

Passage through Cantick Sound is entirely prohibited. 

Note. This Notice is a repetition of Notice No. 292 of 
1915, with additions to paragraph (i) relating to the Firth 
of Forth. 

Authority. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

PROMOTIONS, APPOINTMENTS, HONOURS, 
AND REWARDS 

loth April, 1915. 

The King has been graciously pleased to give orders for L.G., 
the following appointment to the Most Honourable Order of April 10. 
the Bath, in recognition of the services of the under-mentioned I 9 I 5- 
officer during the chase of the German cruisers Goeben and 

Breslau by H.M.S. Gloucester on 6th and 7th August 1914 : 

. 

To be an Additional Member of the Military Division 
of the Third Class or Companion 

Captain William Archibald Howard Kelly, Royal Navy. 

The report of the Gloucester shows that the Goeben 
could have caught and sunk her at any time had she dared 
to turn upon her. The Goeben was apparently deterred 
by the Gloucester's boldness, which gave the impression 

463 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

of support close at hand. The combination of audacity 
with restraint, unswerving attention to the principal 
military object, namely, holding on to the Goeben without 
tempting her too much, and strict conformity to orders, 
constitute a naval episode which may justly be regarded 
as a model. 

Admiralty, ioth April 1915. 

The King has been graciously pleased to approve of the 
grant of the Victoria Cross to Commander Henry Peel Ritchie, 
Royal Navy, for the conspicuous act of bravery specified 
below : 

For most conspicuous bravery on the 28th November 
1914, when in command of the searching and demoli- 
tion operations at Dar-es- Salaam, East Africa. Though 
severely wounded several times, his fortitude and resolution 
enabled him to continue to do his duty, inspiring all by his 
example, until at his eighth wound he became unconscious. 
The interval between his first and last severe wound was 
between twenty and twenty-five minutes. 

Admiralty, ioth April 1915. 

The King has been graciously pleased to give orders for the 
following appointments to the Distinguished Service Order, 
and for the award of the Distinguished Service Cross to the 
under-mentioned officers in recognition of their services as 
mentioned : 

To be Companions of the Distinguished Service Order 

For services during the operations in the Shatt-el-Arab, 
3rd to gth December 1914, resulting in the capture of 
Qurnah 
Commander (now Captain) Wilfrid Nunn, Royal Navy. 

Commander Nunn displayed great coolness and skill 
in handling his ship under fire in difficult conditions of 
unsurveyed waters. 

For services rendered in the aerial attack on Dunkirk, 23rd 
January 1915 

Squadron Commander Richard Bell Davies. 
Flight-Lieutenant Richard Edmund Charles Peirse. 
464 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

These officers have repeatedly attacked the German 
submarine station at Ostend and Zeebrugge, being sub- 
jected on each occasion to heavy and accurate fire, their 
machines being frequently hit. In particular, on 23rd 
January, they each discharged eight bombs in an attack 
upon submarines alongside the mole at Zeebrugge, flying 
down to close range. At the outset of this flight Lieu- 
tenant Davies was severely wounded by a bullet in the 
thigh, but nevertheless he accomplished his task, handling 
his machine for an hour with great skill in spite of pain 
and loss of blood. 



For services in command of torpedo-boat O^j during the 
operations on the Suez Canal, 3rd February 1915 

Lieutenant-Commander George Bryan Palmes, Royal 

Navy. 

Lieutenant-Commander Palmes disabled a number 
of the enemy's boats intended to be used for crossing the 
Canal, and showed coolness and bravery under fire. He 
was severely wounded. 

To receive the Distinguished Service Cross 

For services in the action between H.M.S. Carmania and the 
German Armed Merchant Cruiser Cap Trafalgar, on I4th 
September 1914, when the latter vessel was sunk 

Chief Gunner Henry Middleton. 

Acting Sub-Lieutenant George Frederick Dickens, R.N.R. 
Midshipman (now Acting Sub-Lieutenant) Douglas Nowell 
Colson, R.N.R. 

For services during the operations at Dar-es- Salaam on 28th 
November 1914, when boats' parties from H.M.S. Fox 
and Goliath were attacked unexpectedly at the harbour 
entrance 

Lieutenant Eric Reid Corson, R.N. 
Lieutenant Herbert Walter Julian Orde, R.N. 
Sub-Lieutenant Clement James Charlewood, R.N.R. 

Lieutenant Corson was in H.M.S. Fox's steam cutter, 
and, under a close and heavy fire from both sides of the 
Channel, climbed forward to relieve a stoker who was 

NAVAL 4 2 G 4 6 5 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

mortally wounded. By his exertions he kept the fires 
going and steam up at the most critical moment. 

Lieutenant Orde was in H.M.S. Helmuth, and, though 
himself wounded and under exceptionally heavy fire, with 
dangerous escape of steam, brought his ship safely through 
the narrow channel. 

Sub-Lieutenant Charlewood ably assisted Lieutenant 
Orde in bringing the Helmuth through the channel. 

For services in H.M.S. Hardinge during the operations on the 
Suez Canal, 3rd February 1915 

Temporary Lieutenant George Carew, R.N.R. 

A shell struck the fore funnel of H.M.S. Hardinge, and 
completely shattered one of Lieutenant Carew's legs from 
the knee down, and broke one arm, besides inflicting other 
wounds. Notwithstanding this, he continued to advise 
on the piloting of the ship with coolness and equanimity. 

The following awards have also been made : 

To receive the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal 
For services at Dar-es- Salaam, 28th November 1914 

Thomas James Clark, Petty Officer, ist Class, O.N. 178489 

(R.F.R., Dev., 8.71535). 
Thomas Arthur Gallagher, Leading Seaman, O.N. 222943. 

Petty Officer Clark was coxswain of H.M.S. Goliath's 
steam pinnace. He was wounded, but gallantly returned 
to the wheel, to which he stood until the boat was out of 
gunfire. 

Leading Seaman Gallagher was coxswain of H.M.S. 
Fox's steam cutter. When twice wounded, and under 
galling fire, he remained at the tiller, and with the utmost 
coolness steered his boat through the danger zone. 

For services in the Shatt-el-Arab, 3rd to gth December 1914 
Arthur Jones, Stoker Petty Officer, O.N. 227970. 

Petty Officer Jones, after being severely wounded, kept 
the engines of the launch Miner going when water was 
pouring into the engine-room, and undoubtedly by his 
action saved the Miner from disaster. 

[Also thirty-one awards of the Distinguished Service 
466 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Medal to petty officers and men for the Goeben, Cap Trafalgar, 
Emden, Doris, and Persian Gulf operations.] 

Admiralty, loth April 1915. 

In connection with the sinking of the German submarine L.G., 
U 8 off Dover on the 4th March, and U 12 off the Forth on April 10, 
the loth March, the following officers have received letters I 9 I 5- 
on vellum, expressing the approbation of the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty for their services and conduct. 
These letters will be issued by their Lordships in cases where 
skill and address in the handling of His Majesty's ships in the 
presence of the enemy are shown by officers or men, or other 
high qualities are displayed, such as daring, resource, tenacity, 
and quickness of mind and eye, although the actions may 
not necessarily be performed under the fire of the enemy. 
Such letters are equivalent to a mention in despatches. 

Operations against U 8 

Captain Charles Duncan Johnson, M.V.O. 
Commander Benjamin Wingate Barrow. 
Lieutenant-Commander Robert Wise Richardson. 

Operations against U 12 

Commander Brien Michael Money. 
Lieutenant-Commander James Vandeleur Creagh. 
Lieutenant-Commander Cyril Callaghan. 

The following awards have been made to Petty Officers and 
Men : 

To receive the Distinguished Service Medal 

For services in connection with sinking of U 8 

Alfred Ethelbert Bushell, Chief Petty Officer, O.N. 156648. 
Oswald Sydney Scholey, Petty Officer, O.N. 205660. 
William Neale, Petty Officer, O.N. 217518. 
Henry Ernest Knight, Petty Officer, ist Class, O.N. 176903. 
John Checkley, Petty Officer, ist Class, O.N. 191617. 
John Buttonshaw, Yeoman of Signals, O.N. 215905. 
Ernest Farnsworth, Able Seaman, O.N. 220392. 
Peter Robert Youngs, Able Seaman, O.N. J. 9388. 
Alfred Charles Philip Arnold, Able Seaman, O.N. 152157- 
George William Tatler, Able Seaman, O.N. J. 70. 

467 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [A 

For services in connection with the sinking of U 12 

Thomas Ong, Chief Petty Officer, Torpedo Coxswain, O.N. 

156848. 
William M'Goff, Chief Petty Officer, Torpedo Coxswain, 

O.N. 187916. 
Arthur Davis, Chief Petty Officer, Torpedo Coxswain, 

O.N. 161905. 

George Rodgers, Petty Officer, O.N. 165462. 
Frederick Marshall, Leading Seaman, O.N. 215976. 



Admiralty, April 10, 1915. 
ROYAL NAVAL RESERVE 

L.G., In accordance with the provisions of His Majesty's Order 

April 27, in Council of i6th December 1912, a temporary Commission 
I 9 I 5- in the Royal Naval Reserve has been issued as follows : 

Captain 
Thomas Philip Walker (Vice- Admiral, retired). 



Admiralty, April n, 1915. 

In accordance with the provisions of His late Majesty's 
Order in Council of 8th December 1903 : 

Vice-Admiral Hugh Pigot Williams has this day been 
placed on the Retired List. 

Consequent thereon the following promotions have been 
made from the same date : 

Rear-Admiral Arthur Yerbury Moggridge to be Vice- 
Admiral in His Majesty's Fleet. 

Captain Hubert Grant-Dalton, C.B., to be Rear-Admiral 
in His Majesty's Fleet. 



CHANCERY OF THE ORDER OF SAINT MICHAEL AND 
SAINT GEORGE 

Downing Street, 20th April 1915- 

L.G., The King has been graciously pleased to give directions 

May 14, for the following appointments to the Most Distinguished 
I 9 I 5- Order of Saint Michael and Saint George : 

468 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

To be Honorary Members of the First Class, or Knights 
Grand Cross of the said Most Distinguished Order : 

Lieutenant-General Mitsuomi Kamio, Imperial Japanese 
Army, Commander-in-Chief of the Military Operations 
against Tsing-tau. 

Vice-Admiral Sadakichi Kato, Imperial Japanese Navy, 
Commander-in-Chief of the Second Squadron, Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Naval Operations against Tsing- 
tau. 



Admiralty, 2ist April 1915. 

Lieutenant-Commander Eric Gascoigne Robinson has been L.G., 
specially promoted to the rank of Commander in His April 23, 
Majesty's Fleet, in recognition of the distinguished 
service rendered by him on the night of the i8th April 
1915, as Commanding Officer of the force which torpedoed 
and rendered useless submarine E 75, thus preventing that 
vessel from falling into the enemy's hands in a serviceable 
condition. Dated 2Oth April 1915. 



Admiralty, April 24, 1915. 
ROYAL NAVAL RESERVE 

In accordance with the provisions of His Majesty's Order L.G., 
in Council of i6th December, 1912, temporary commissions A P ril 2 7> 
in the Royal Naval Reserve have been issued as follows : 

Captains 

Frank Finnis, C.V.O. (Admiral retired). 

Robert Stevenson Dalton Cuming (Admiral retired). 



PRIZE COURTS 

Foreign Office, March i, 1915. 

VESSELS DETAINED OR CAPTURED BY THE 
FRENCH NAVAL AUTHORITIES 

A notification is published in the French Journal Officiel L.G., 



of the 26th instant, to the effect that parties interested in the ^pm 2, 

469 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



l [See 
p. 294.] 



L.G., 
April 20, 



P- 293.] 



German vessels Colonia and Rohlfs, and in the cargo of the 
Netherland vessel Boeroe, should send in their claims to the 
Conseil des Prises, Palais Royal, Paris, before the 26th April 
next. 

VESSELS DETAINED OR CAPTURED AT SEA 
BY His MAJESTY'S ARMED FORCES 

(In continuation of previous notification published in the 
London Gazette of March 30, 1915. 1 ) 






List of Vessels 

Name and Tonnage. Nationality. 

Rijn Netherland . 



Cargo Detained at 
Portsmouth. 



SHIPS WHOSE CARGOES, OR PART OF THEM, 
HAVE BEEN DETAINED 

(In continuation of previous notification published in the 
London Gazette of March 30, 1915. x ) 



Name of Vessel. 
Akabo 
Akassa . 
Albania . 
Albis . 
America . 
Annam . 
Arkansas 
Balto . . . 
Banka 
Benue 

Bia . . . 
Bravo 
Chantala . 
Clan Sutherland 
Culna 
Cygnus . 
Gunhild . 
Hammershus 
Henrik 
470 



List of Vessels 

Nationality. 
British . . 
British 
Swedish . 
Norwegian 
Norwegian 
Danish 
Danish 
Norwegian 
Netherland 
British . . 
Swedish 
Norwegian 
British . . 
British . . 
British . . 
Norwegian 
Danish 
Danish 
Norwegian 



Cargo Detainee! at 

Liverpool. 

Liverpool. 

Ardrossan. 

KirkwaU 

Sunderland 

KirkwaU 

Kirkwall 

HuU 

London 

Liverpool 

Manchester 

Cardiff 

London 

London 

London 

Kirkwall 

Grimsby 

Manchester 

Sunderland 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Name of Vessel. 
Hilding . . 
Japan 
Lapland . 
Lusitania 
Maud 
Mexicano 
Navajo 
Navigator 
New Sweden 
Ogeechee . 
Pacific 
Pennsylvania 
Prins Frederik 

Hendrik 
Raven 

Rio de la Plata . 
Romsdalsfjord 
Salerno 
Sigurd 

Sir Ernest Cassel 
Sommelsdijk . 
Sorland . 
Stavn 
Stronsa . 
United States 
Uto . . . . 
York . . . 
Zamora 



Nationality. 
Swedish 
Swedish 
Norwegian 
British . . 
Norwegian 
Norwegian 
United States 
Norwegian 
Swedish . 
United States 
Swedish 
Danish 

Netherland 

British . ; 

Norwegian 

Norwegian 

Norwegian , 

Norwegian 

Swedish . 

Netherland 

Norwegian 

Norwegian 

Argentine 

Danish 

Norwegian 

British 

Swedish 



Foreign Office, April 15, 1915. 



Cargo Detained at 
Leith 
Leith 
Kirkwall 
London 
South Shields 
Kirkwall 
Kirkwall 
Gibraltar 
Newcastle 
Stornoway 
Leith 
Newcastle 

Falmouth 

London 

Cardiff 

Leith 

Ardrossan 

Stornoway 

Kirkwall 

London 

Kirkwall. 

Leith 

Queenstown 

Newcastle 

KirkwaU 

Hull 

Barrow 



VESSELS DETAINED OR CAPTURED AT SEA BY 
His MAJESTY'S ARMED FORCES 

(In continuation of previous notification published in the L.G., 

London Gazette of April 20, 1915.) A P ril 3<>, 

19*5. 



Name and Tonnage. 
Macedonia (4312) 



List of Vessels 

Nationality. 
German 



Where Detained. 
Gibraltar. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



SHIPS WHOSE CARGOES, OR PART OF THEM, 
HAVE BEEN DETAINED 



Name of Vessel. 
Anglia 
Artemis . 
Batavier II. . 
Batavier III. 
Batavier IV. 
Cathay 
Christiansund 



List of Vessels 

Nationality. 
Swedish 
Norwegian 
Netherland 
Netherland 
Netherland 
Danish 
Danish 



Edna . Danish 



Euterpe . 

Florida 

Georgia ... 

Joseph W. Fordney 

L. P. Holmblad . 



Netherland 
Danish 
Swedish 
American . 
Danish 



Lijre Danish 



Louisiana 
Monginevro . 
Magne . 
Nippon . 
N. J. Fiord 
Oscar Fredrik 
Otto Sverdrup 
Spyros Vallianos 
Stigstad . 
Tongking 
Tranquebar . 



Danish 

Italian 

Swedish . 

Swedish 

Danish 

Swedish 

Norwegian 

Greek . . 

Norwegian 

Danish 

Danish 



Foreign Office, April 30, 1915. 



Cargo Detained at 

Dundee 

Kirkwall 

London 

London 

London 

North Shields 

London 

Goole 

Falmouth 

North Shields 

Kirkwall 

Kirkwall 

Falmouth 

Sharpness 

Hull 

Gibraltar 

London 

North Shields 

London 

West Hartlepool 

Kirkwall 

Cardiff 

Leith 

Hull 

Newcastle 



ADMIRALTY MONTHLY ORDERS 

200. DEFENCE OF THE REALM (CONSOLIDATION) 
REGULATIONS, 1914 AMENDMENTS TO 

The following amendments to the Defence of the Realm 
(Consolidation) Regulations, 1914, are promulgated for infor- 
mation and guidance. They will be included in Monthly 
Orders in due course : 
472 



5] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

1. After Regulation 2 the following Regulation to be 
inserted : 

' It shall be lawful for the Admiralty or Army Council 
to take possession of any unoccupied premises for the 
purpose of housing workmen employed in the production, 
storage, or transport of war material/ 

2. At the end of Regulation 7 the following paragraph to 
be inserted : 

' For the purpose of ascertaining the amount of the 
output of any such factory or workshop or any plant 
therein, the Admiralty or Army Council may require the 
occupier of any such factory or workshop, or any officer 
or servant of the occupier, or where the occupier is a 
company any director of the company, to furnish to the 
Admiralty or Army Council such particulars as to such 
output as they may direct, and if any such person fails 
to comply with any such requirements he shall be guilty 
of an offence against these Regulations/ 

3. For Regulation 8 the following Regulation to be sub- 
stituted : 

' The Admiralty or Army Council may take possession 
of any factory or workshop or of any plant belonging 
thereto without taking possession of the factory or work- 
shop itself, and may use the same for His Majesty's naval 
or military service at such times and in such manner as 
the Admiralty or Army Council may consider necessary 
or expedient, and the occupier and every officer and 
servant of the occupier of the factory or workshop, and 
where the occupier is a company, every director of the 
company, shall obey the directions of the Admiralty or 
Army Council as to the uses of the factory or workshop or 
plant, and if he fails to do so shall be guilty of an offence 
against these Regulations/ 

4. After Regulation 8 the following Regulation to be 
inserted : 

'8A. It shall be lawful for the Admiralty or Army 
Council 

(a) to require any work in any factory or workshop to 
be done in accordance with the directions of the 

473 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Admiralty or Army Council, given with the 
object of making the factory or workshop or the 
plant or labour therein as useful as possible for 
the production of war material ; 

(b) to regulate or restrict the carrying on of work in 
any factory or workshop or remove the plant 
therefrom, with a view to increasing the pro- 
duction of war material in other factories or 
workshops ; 

and the occupier and every officer and servant of the 
occupier of the factory or workshop, and where the 
occupier is a company, every director of the company, 
shall obey the directions, regulations, or restrictions of 
the Admiralty or Army Council so given, and if he fails 
to do so he shall be guilty of an offence against these 
Regulations/ 

5. At the end of the first paragraph of Regulation 14, the 
following proviso to be inserted : 

' Provided that if the person with respect to whom it 
is proposed to make such an order as aforesaid undertakes 
to comply with such conditions as to reporting to the 
police, restriction on movements, or otherwise as may be 
imposed on him, the order may, instead of requiring him 
to cease to reside in any locality, authorise him to con- 
tinue to reside therein if he complies with such conditions 
as to the matters aforesaid as may be specified in the 
order, and if any person in respect of whom such an order 
is made fails to comply with any such condition he shall 
be guilty of an offence against these Regulations/ 

6. In Regulation 22, after the words ' without the written 
permission of the Postmaster-General ' insert the word ' make/ 
and after the words ' no person shall sell any such apparatus 
to any person who has not obtained such permission as 
aforesaid ' there shall be inserted the words ' and any person 
having in his possession or under his control any such 
apparatus, whether with or without the permission of the 
Postmaster-General, shall on demand deliver the apparatus to 
the Postmaster- General, or as he may direct/ 

In the second paragraph of the same Regulation, after the 
474 



] DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

words ' any apparatus for sending or receiving messages by 
telegraphy ' the words ' wireless telegraphy ' to be inserted. 

7. For Regulation 24 the following Regulations, as from the 
5th April 1915, to be substituted : 

'24. No person shall without lawful authority trans- 
mit (otherwise than through the post) or convey, to or from 
the United Kingdom, or receive or have in his possession 
for such transmission or conveyance, any letter or any 
written message for any other person, and if any person 
contravenes this provision he shall be guilty of an offence 
against these Regulations/ 

'This Regulation shall not apply to "shipowners' 
letters " as defined by section thirty of the Post Office 
Act, 1908, nor to any other class of letters or written 
messages that may be for the time being exempted by 
order of the Secretary of State. 

' 24A. If any person sends from the United Kingdom, 
whether by post or otherwise, any letter or other docu- 
ment containing any matter written in any medium which 
is not visible unless subjected to heat or some other 
treatment, he shall be guilty of an offence against these 
Regulations/ 

8. In Regulation 45 the following words to be inserted after 
the words ' has been duly issued ' : 

* or allows any other person to have possession of any pass, 
permit, or passport issued to him, or applies to any build- 
ing, structure, premises or vehicle, any lights, letters or 
marks, for the time being used to indicate that buildings, 
structures, premises, or vehicles, to which they are 
applied are used for naval or military purposes, or any 
lights, letters or marks, so nearly resembling the same 
as to be calculated to deceive/ 

9. The following Regulation to be substituted for Regula- 
tion 56 : 

(i) Except as otherwise provided by this Regulation, a 
person alleged to be guilty of an offence against these 
Regulations may be tried either by court-martial, or 
by a civil court with a jury, or by a court of summary 
jurisdiction. 

475 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [ 

(2) Where a person is alleged to be guilty of an offence 

which is by these Regulations declared to be a 
summary offence he may be tried by a court of 
summary jurisdiction and not otherwise. 

(3) Where a person is alleged to be guilty of an offence 

other than an offence declared by these Regulations 
to be a summary offence, the case shall be referred 
to the competent naval or military authority who 
shall forthwith investigate the case and determine 
whether or not the case is to be proceeded with, and 
if it is to be proceeded with, whether or not it is an 
offence of such a minor character as can adequately 
be dealt with by a court of summary jurisdiction. 

(4) If it is determined that the case is not to be proceeded 

with, the alleged offender, if in custody, shall (unless 
he is detained on some other charge) forthwith be 
released. 

(5) If it is determined that the case is to be proceeded with, 

but that the offence is of such a minor character as 
aforesaid, the offender may be tried by a court of 
summary jurisdiction and not otherwise. 

(6) If it is determined that the case is to be proceeded with 

and that the offence is not of such a minor character 
as aforesaid, then 

(a) If the offender is a British subject and is not 
a person subject to the Naval Discipline Act or to 
military law r and he claims, in the manner herein- 
after provided, to be tried by a civil court with a 
jury instead of being tried by a court-martial, the 
case shall be handed over, for the purposes of 
trial, to the civil authority ; 

(b) If the offender, being a British subject, does 
not make any such claim, or if the offender is not 
a British subject or is a person subject to the 
Naval Discipline Act or to military law, the com- 
petent naval or military authority shall, subject to 
any general or special instructions given by the 
Admiralty or Army Council, order the case to be 
tried by court-martial, or, where in pursuance of 
such instructions the case is not to be tried by 

476 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

court-martial, shall order it to be handed over, for 
purposes of trial, to the civil authority. 

(7) Any case which is handed over to the civil authority 

may be tried by a civil court with a jury : 

Provided that if on further investigation it appears 
to the prosecution that a case so handed over to the 
civil authority is of such a character as can be 
adequately dealt with by a court of summary juris- 
diction, it may, if the Admiralty or Army Council 
consent, or in Scotland if the Lord Advocate after 
consultation with the Admiralty or Army Council so 
directs, be so dealt with. 

(8) For the purpose of enabling such a claim as aforesaid 

to be made, the competent naval or military autho- 
rity shall, as soon as practicable after his arrest, give 
to the alleged offender notice in writing, in the form 
set out in Part I. of the Schedule to these Regula- 
tions, of the general nature of the charge and of his 
right (if he is a British subject and not a person 
subject to the Naval Discipline Act or to military 
law) to claim to be tried by a civil court with a 
jury instead of being tried by court-martial : 

Provided that it shall not be necessary to give such 

a notice if the offence is an offence which is by these 

. Regulations declared to be a summary offence or it 

has been determined that the offence is an offence of 

such a minor character as aforesaid. 

(9) A person to whom such a notice has been given may 

if he is a British subject and not a person subject 
to the Naval Discipline Act or to military law, 
within six clear days from the date when it was so 
given to him, claim to be tried by a civil court with 
a jury instead of being tried by court-martial by 
giving notice in writing to that effect to the com- 
petent naval or military authority in the form set out 
in Part II. of the Schedule to these Regulations. 

(10) If the alleged offender is in custody he shall, if he is 
to be tried by court-martial, be kept in or handed 
over to military custody, and, if he is to be tried 

477 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [, 

otherwise than by court-martial, be kept in or 
handed over to civil custody. 

(n) In England and Ireland offences against these Regula- 
tions shall not be prosecuted before a civil court 
with a jury except by or with the consent of the 
Attorney-General for England or Ireland, as the case 
may be, nor before a court of summary jurisdiction 
by>any person, other than the competent naval or 
military authority or a person authorised by him, or 
an officer of police, an officer of customs and excise, 
or an aliens officer, except with the consent of the 
Attorney-General for England or Ireland, as the case 
may be. 

(12) For the purposes of this Regulation the expression 
' British subject ' includes a woman who has married 
an alien but who before marriage was a British 
subject. 

10. After Regulation 56 the following Regulation to be 
inserted : 

56A. Any offence tried by a civil court with a jury shall 
be deemed to be a felony, and on conviction of the offender 
he shall be liable to such punishment as might have been 
inflicted under Regulation 57 if the case had been tried 
by a general court-martial. 

When sentence of death is passed by such a civil court, 
the court may order the sentence to be executed in any 
manner in which a court-martial may order a sentence 
of death to be executed. If the manner in which the 
sentence is to be executed is by shooting, the court may 
direct that the offender be handed over to the military 
authority, and in such case the sentence shall be executed 
as if it had been passed by a court-martial, but in England 
shall not be carried into execution until after such time 
as is allowed by the Criminal Appeal Act, 1907, for giving 
notice of appeal or notice of application for leave to appeal 
under that Act, nor pending such appeal or application ; 
or in Scotland until after such date as may be specified 
in the sentence. 

In England and Ireland a court of quarter sessions 
shall not have jurisdiction to try such a felony. 
478 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

In Scotland the court having jurisdiction to try such a 
felony shall be the High Court of Justiciary. 

For the purpose of the trial of a person for such a 
felony, the offence shall be deemed to have been com- 
mitted either at the place in which the same actually was 
committed, or in any place in the United Kingdom in 
which the offender may be found, or to which he may be 
brought for the purpose of speedy trial. 

11. In Regulation 57, after the figure ' 22 ' insert the 
figure ' 24.' 

12. After Regulation 58 the following Regulation to be 
inserted : 

58A. Whenever His Majesty by Proclamation suspends 
the operation of section one of the Defence of the Realm 
(Amendment) Act, 1915, either generally or as respects 
any specified area, then, as respects all offences committed 
against these Regulations, or (as the case may be) all 
such offences committed within the specified area, so much 
of Regulation 56 as relates to trial by a civil court with a 
jury, and in particular paragraphs (6) to (10) thereof, 
shall, so long as the Proclamation remains in force, cease 
to have effect, without prejudice however to any pro- 
ceedings under the said section which may be pending at 
the date of the issue of such Proclamation, and in lieu of 
the said paragraphs, the following provision shall have 
effect : 

' If it is determined that the case is to be proceeded 
with and that the offence is not of such a minor 
character as aforesaid, the case may be tried by court- 
martial, and notwithstanding anything in Regulation 
57 a field general court-martial convened by an officer 
authorised to convene such a court-martial shall have 
the like jurisdiction to deal with the case as in the 
last-mentioned Regulation is conferred on a general 
court-martial/ 

13. At the end of Regulation 62 the following paragraph to 
be inserted : 

' For the purposes of these Regulations, the expression 
" war material " includes arms, ammunitions, warlike 

479 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

stores and equipment, and everything required for or in 
connection with the production thereof/ 

14. The amendments specified in the Second Schedule to 
these Regulations, which relate to minor details, to be made in 
the Regulations specified in the first column of the Schedule. 

15. The First Schedule hereinafter set forth at the end of 
the Regulations to be inserted as a Schedule. 



SCHEDULES 
FIRST SCHEDULE 

PART I 

Form of Notice to be given to an Alleged Offender 

(a) Here insert To (a) 

name of alleged You are hereby informed that the general nature of 

offender. the charge against you is (b) 

(b) Here state If you are a British subject [or in the case of a 
general nature woman who has married an alien were before marriage 
of the charge. to an alien a British subject] and are not a person 

subject to tjie Naval Discipline Act or to military 
law you are entitled to claim to be tried upon the said charge [s] by a 
civil court with a jury [or in Scotland by the High Court of Justiciary] 
instead of by a court-martial. 

If you are entitled and wish to make such a claim you must sign the 
form appended hereto and send it within six clear days from the receipt 
of this notice to the competent naval or military authority at the address 
designated below. 

Dated the day of 191 5- 

Signature 



Competent naval or military 
authority. 

. Address (c) 
(c) Here insert 

address to which N.B. The competent naval or military authority 
the claim is to should cause a record to be made of the date when 

be sent. this notice is received by the alleged offender. 

480 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 






(a) The ad- 
dress of the 
competent naval 
or military au- 
thority should 
be here inserted. 



PART II 
Form of Claim to be appended to the Notice in Part I 

To the competent naval or military authority at 



(a) 



I, , am a British subject 

[was before my marriage to an alien a British 
subject] and am not a person subject to the Naval 
Discipline Act or to military law, and I claim to be 
tried for the said offence by a civil court with a jury 
for in Scotland by the High Court of Justiciary] instead of by a court- 
martial. 

Signed 

This claim may be sent by registered post, or if you are in custody by 
delivering it to the person in whose custody you are. 

The competent naval or military authority should cause a record to 
be made of the date when the claim is given to him. 



Regulation 12 
Regulation 29 



Regulation 30 



Regulation 41 



NAVAL 4 



SECOND SCHEDULE 
MINOR AMENDMENTS 

The word 'resident ' shall be omitted. 

At end; insert the following paragraph : ' No 
person shall trespass on any work of defence, 
arsenal, factory, dockyard, ship, telegraph, or 
signalling station or office, belonging to, or used 
for the service of, His Majesty, and if he does so 
he shall be guilty of an offence against these 
Regulations.' 

For the words ' or sale ' there shall be substituted 
the words ' sale, transfer, or disposal/ after the 
word ' sells ' there shall be inserted the words 
' transfers or disposes of/ and after the word 
' sale ' where it secondly occurs there shall be 
inserted the words ' transfer or disposal/ 

After the words ' or other official uniform/ there 
shall be inserted ' or any badge supplied or 
authorised by the Admiralty or Army Council/ 

For the words ' any uniform/ there shall be sub- 
stituted ' any uniform or badge/ 

For the words ' any such uniform/ there shall be 
substituted ' any such uniform or badge/ 

After the words ' a member of His Majesty's 

Forces/ there shall be inserted ' or any such 

2H 481 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

badge as aforesaid to any person not authorised 

to wear the same.' 
Regulation 43 . After the words ' shall obstruct/ there shall be 

inserted the words ' knowingly mislead.' 
Regulation 45 . . After the word ' document/ where that word first 

occurs, there shall be inserted the words ' or 

any passport/ and after the word ' document/ 

where it secondly and thirdly occurs, there shall 

be inserted the words ' or passport/ 
Regulation 46 . For the words ' is found ' there shall be substituted 

the words * is or has been found/ 
Regulation 49 . After the word ' knows ' there shall be inserted the 

words ' or has good reason for believing/ 
Regulation 54 . The words ' unless satisfied that they are of an 

innocent nature ' shall be omitted. 



201. ENGINEERING SPECIALISATION IN 

During hostilities Officers may volunteer to specialise in 
Engineering before they have obtained an Engine- Room watch- 
keeping certificate, provided they hold a Deck watchkeeping 
certificate. Officers provisionally selected under these condi- 
tions will be specially detailed for Engine- Room duty as soon 
as possible after selection, in order that they may obtain the 
necessary certificate prior to being appointed as part Engine- 
Room staff in H.M. Ships. 

202. PROBATIONARY AND TEMPORARY SECOND LIEU- 
TENANTS, R.M. INCREASE OF PAY 

The following increased rates of pay have been authorised 
for Probationary and Temporary Second Lieutenant, R.M., 
during the present hostilities, viz. : 

Probationary Second Lieutenants, R.M., 
when embarked or appointed to Royal 
Marine Brigades or Batteries . . 75. 6d. a day. 

(As from ist August 1914.) 
Temporary Second Lieutenants, R.M. 75. 6d. a day. 

(As from 24th November 1914.) 
Ditto on promotion to Lieutenant . . 8s. 6d. a day. 

NOTE. The 8s. 6d. rate of pay for Lieutenants, R.M., 
only applicable to Officers entered for temporary service. 
482 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Probationary Second Lieutenants on advancement to the 
rank of Lieutenant should continue to be paid at the rate of 
75. 6d. a day. 

203. PROMOTION OF MATES TO LIEUTENANT 

In the case of Warrant Officers selected to qualify for Mate, 
it has been decided that service in Warrant rank shall be taken 
into consideration in determining the date of promotion to 
Lieutenant. 

Warrant Officers may, at the discretion of their Lordships, 
be allowed one month's acceleration of promotion to Lieutenant 
for each complete three months' service in Warrant rank at the 
date of appointment to undergo the qualifying courses, in 
addition to such acceleration as may be gained in respect of 
marks obtained for certificates in accordance with the scale laid 
down in Article 266, Clause 6, of the King's Regulations and 
Admiralty Instructions. The maximum acceleration will, 
however, be limited to 12 months as at present, i.e., the earliest 
date at which it will be possible to obtain promotion will be 
two years from date of seniority as Mate. 

This arrangement will be retrospective, and will apply to all 
Mates selected since the institution of the scheme. 

It should be clearly understood that accelerated promotion 
to Lieutenant, whether in respect of classes of certificates or of 
previous service as Warrant Officer, is subject to the officer 
being recommended from sea. 

Such recommendations should be forwarded as soon as 
possible in the case of Mates who are now eligible for promotion 
under this Order. 

204. R.N.R. OFFICERS IN THE AUXILIARY PATROL 
SERVICE NAVIGATING ALLOWANCE 

The last paragraph of the note to M.O. 116/1915 
cancelled. 

Royal Naval Reserve Officers employed on Navigating 
duties in the Auxiliary Patrol Service who hold a deep-sea 
Mate's or Second Mate's Certificate may now be paid Navigat- 
ing Allowance at the rate of 2s. a day from date of commencing 
duty, or from the date on which payment was suspended under 
the previous orders. 

483 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The Allowance is not, however, payable to Officers receiv- 
ing an inclusive rate of Mercantile pay. 

The names of Officers paid Navigating Allowance under the 
authority of this Order should be reported to the Accountant- 
General. 

205. R.N.R. OFFICERS EXAMINATION FOR MERCANTILE 
MARINE CERTIFICATES WHILST ON ACTIVE SERVICE 

A Midshipman R.N.R. on Active Service in the Royal 
Navy who becomes eligible by service to sit for a Second Mate's 
certificate will be considered as qualified for Second Mate from 
the date he becomes eligible for examination and will be pro- 
moted to Acting Sub-Lieutenant (Acting), R.N.R., provided 
he is otherwise qualified. 

If so promoted his time will then reckon for a First Mate's 
certificate, and he will be considered as qualified for First Mate 
when he becomes eligible by service to take the examination 
for such certificate. Similarly his time will then reckon for a 
Master's certificate, and he will be considered as qualified for 
Master when he becomes eligible by service to take the exa- 
mination for that certificate. 

This principle will apply equally to other R.N.R. Officers 
on Active Service who, already holding certificates as Second 
or First Mate, become eligible by service for examination for a 
certificate of higher grade. 

If the examinations for the foregoing certificates are passed 
at dates not remote from the date of completion of Active 
Service in the Royal Navy, the certificates will be antedated to 
the dates when the periods of service for examination were 
completed in each case. 

No certificate will, however, be antedated to a date prior to 
that on which the Officer was called out for Active Service. 

206. SUB-LlEUTENANTS AND MIDSHIPMEN, R.N.R. 

PROMOTION 

As Officers of the Royal Naval Reserve have at present no 
opportunity of being examined for higher Board of Trade 
certificates, acting appointments in higher rank will be granted 
during the period of hostilities to Officers having the following 
qualifications : 

Sub-Lieutenants, Temporary Sub-Lieutenants, and Acting 
484 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Sub-Lieutenants holding First Mate's certificates will be con- 
sidered eligible for the acting rank of Lieutenant provided they 
have completed the service required by the Board of Trade to 
qualify them to sit for a Master's certificate, and that they are 
recommended by their Commanding Officers after at least six 
months' Active Service. 

Midshipmen and Temporary Midshipmen will be considered 
eligible for the ' acting ' rank of Acting Sub-Lieutenant 
provided they hold a Second Mate's certificate, or have con- 
pleted the sea service required by the Board of Trade to qualify 
them to sit for Second Mate, are recommended by their Com- 
manding Officers after at least 28 days' sea service, and have 
reached the age of twenty-one years. 

To .distinguish between Officers holding the substantive 
rank of Acting Sub-Lieutenant and those granted acting rank 
under this order, the latter will be designated Acting Sub- 
Lieutenant (acting) and Temporary Acting Sub-Lieutenant 
(acting) ; their names will continue to appear in the Navy List 
in their substantive rank. 

Officers eligible for promotion under these conditions should 
apply to the Register-General of Shipping and Seamen on a 
manuscript form of which a specimen is given below. This 
form should not however be used by Midshipmen, R.N.R., who 
already hold a Second Mate's certificate. In these cases the 
Commanding Officer should apply for the promotion by letter, 
in the usual way. 

No Officers will be promoted unless they are recommended 
by their Commanding Officer, who should state whether they 
are recommended or not. 

These arrangements apply only to R.N.R. Officers of the 
above ranks who have been entered for General Service. 

Specimen Form of Application 

APPLICATION by a Royal Naval Reserve Officer on Active 
Service in the Royal Navy to be considered qualified to 

(2nd Mate's] 
sit for Examination for a \ ist Mate's V Certificate of 

( Master's J 

Competency, with a view to being granted Acting rank in 
the Royal Naval Reserve. 

485 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Particulars of Officer and, Certificate 



Name of 
Candidate 
in Full. 


Date of 
Birth. 


Particulars of 
any Board of 
Trade Certifi- 
cate held. 


Certificate for 
which he wishes 
to be considered 
eligible to be 
examined. 


Particulars of 
any Failure in 
an Examination 
for the 
Certificate. 













B 

Complete List of Testimonials and Full Statement of Service 
from first going to Sea, or from Date of present Certificate 
(including Time served in Training Ships). Indentures, 
Continuous Discharge Book, or other Certificates of Dis- 
charge, must be forwarded with Testimonials. 



Ship's 
Name. 


Official 
Number. 


Capacity. 


From. 


* 
To. 


Years. 


Mos. 


Days. 


Trade in 
which 
employed. 


Initials 
of 
Verifier. 






















Total service at sea, 



Declaration to be made by Applicant 

I hereby declare that the particulars contained in Divisions 
A and B of this Form are correct and true to the best of my 
knowledge and belief, and that the papers enumerated in 
Division B, and sent with this Form, are true and genuine 
documents, given and signed by the persons whose names 
appear on them. I further declare that the statement B con- 
486 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

tains a true and correct account of the whole of my services 
without exception. 

Dated this 

Signature of Candidate 

H.M. Ship in which serving__ 

Signed in the presence of 



Sea Service Qualifications Required 

Second Mate. Must have served four years at sea. Half 
the time served on board a Training Ship will be allowed to 
count as service at sea, provided that a satisfactory Certificate 
is obtained. 

First Mate. A Candidate must have served five years at 
sea. Of this time one year must have been served in a capacity 
not lower than Fourth Mate of a Foreign-going Vessel whilst 
holding a Second Mate's Certificate for Foreign-going Vessels. 
If this service was as Third or Fourth Mate proof will be 
required that he had during the whole year charge of a Watch ; 
or one year and a half must have been served with a Second 
Mate's Certificate for Foreign-going Vessels, or with a Mate's 
Certificate for Home Trade Passenger Ships in a capacity not 
lower than Only Mate of a Home Trade or Coasting Vessel ; or 
one year must have been served as Pilot with a First-Class 
Pilot's Certificate. 

Master. A Candidate must have served six years at sea, of 
which one year, if in Foreign-going Vessels, or eighteen months 
if in Home Trade or Coasting Vessels, must have been in a 
capacity not lower than Only Mate whilst holding a Certificate 
not lower than Only Mate for Foreign-going Vessels ; and if 
this service was not performed with a First Mate's Certificate 
for Foreign-going Vessels, the Candidate will also be required 
to prove the Officer's Service prescribed for that grade ; or 

He must have served six and a half years at sea, one year of 
which must have been in a capacity not lower than Second 
Mate of a Foreign-going Vessel whilst holding a First Mate's 
Certificate for Foreign-going Vessels, provided that if this 
service was performed under an Additional or Auxiliary First 
Mate it will only be accepted if a Third and Fourth Mate were 

487 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

also carried, and one year and a half not lower than Third or 
Fourth Mate of a Foreign-going Vessel, in charge of a Watch, 
whilst holding a Second Mate's Certificate for Foreign-going 
Vessels. 

NOTE. Sub-Lieutenants and Acting Sub-Lieutenants, 
R.N.R., who perform good service in H.M. Ships, will, if well 
reported upon, be allowed to count such service as if it had been 
performed in Foreign-going ships, and it will rank according to 
the Certificate of Competency held at the time or deemed to 
be held at the time under this order. Midshipmen, R.N.R., 
who serve in H.M. Ships may count such service only as sea- 
service for a Certificate as Second Mate. 

208. DENTAL SURGEONS, R.N.V.R. UNIFORM 

Dental Surgeons in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve will 
wear the uniform of Surgeons, R.N.V.R. 

209. UNIFORM 

In pursuance of His Majesty's pleasure, the Ribbons of the 
following Orders are not to be worn with Undress Uniform : 
The Order of the Garter. 
The Order of the Thistle. 
The Order of St. Patrick. 
The Order of Merit. 

210. ADVANCEMENT TO PETTY OFFICER WITHOUT 
EDUCATIONAL TEST 

When the Educational Test is suspended, as allowed by 
M.O. 90/1914, Leading Rates who have passed professionally 
and are otherwise qualified for the higher rating, under the 
Regulations, may be considered eligible for advancement to 
Petty Officer (N.S.). 

214. R.M. BAND RANKS AND BUGLERS EFFICIENCY AND 
MUSICAL PROFICIENCY ALLOWANCES, AND FIRE CONTROL 

During the period of hostilities 

(i. ) Efficiency allowance may be paid to Band Ranks and 
Buglers not in possession of a certificate of educa- 
tion, provided that they have the other qualifica- 
tions required by the Regulations, and their 
488 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Commanding Officers are satisfied that the men are 
educationally competent to perform their duties. 
(rL) Band Ranks and Buglers may be examined for 
Musical Proficiency Allowance by the Bandmaster 
of the Flagship of the Squadron in which they are 
serving. 

Any particular Fire Control Instrument for which a Band 
Rank shows a marked aptitude is to be noted on his Musical 
and Drill History Sheet. Existing Regulations already 
provide for ability at Fire Control Instruments generally to be 
noted on the History Sheet. 

218. R.N.R. MEN LENT TO TRAWLER SECTION 

R.N.R. men who are lent to the Trawler Section for the 
period of the war, when no longer required in that Section, will 
revert to the R.N.R. proper. 

They are to receive the difference of pay between their 
present ratings and the ratings to which they are transferred, 
but they are not to be paid Hardlying Money nor charge pay 
for charge of engines. They will continue to remain in their 
proper R.N.R. ratings, retaining their existing privileges as to 
pension or gratuity, and are not to be kitted up as Trawler 
Reserve men. 

They are to be shown on Ships' Books, Certificate Books, 
etc., as ' doing duty as 2nd Hand, or Engineman/ as the case 
may be, and whilst so lent, are not to be regarded as available 
for draft in their proper R.N.R. rating, but in their acting 
Trawler Reserve rating. 

The Regulations do not admit of their permanent transfer 
to the Trawler Section. 

222. COASTGUARD RATINGS SPECIALLY ADVANCED 

AFLOAT 

As in the ordinary course of events men of the Coastguard 
who are embarked in the Fleet revert on disembarkation to the 
ratings held by them in the Coastguard, a special notification 
is to be made to the Admiral Commanding Coastguard and 
Reserves in the case of such ratings who may be specially 
advanced in active service rates afloat, for gallantry in action or 
other meritorious service, in order that the men may not lose 
the benefits thus gained on return to the Coastguard. These 

489 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

reports should contain particulars of the circumstances in 
which the men were specially advanced and should also state 
the men's names, official number, ship and Coastguard Station 
to which they belong. 

All such special advancements, whether made in vacancies 
or in addition to complement, are to be reported, but ordinary 
advancements of Coastguard ratings in vacancies need not be 
reported. 

223. MERCANTILE RATINGS CLOTHING GRATUITIES 

Armed Mercantile Fleet Auxiliaries 

With reference to Appendix III. of the Instructions regard- 
ing Mercantile Fleet Auxiliaries showing the scale of Clothing 
or Allowances in lieu to Mercantile ratings in Armed Auxili- 
aries, it has been decided that ratings who re-engage at the 
expiration of their period of engagement shall be credited with 
clothing gratuities as follows, to enable them to renew their 
Kits : 

S. d. 

Men not dressed as Seamen ....200 

Men dressed as Seamen i 10 o 

Officers' Stewards and Cooks . . . . I 10 o 
These allowances should "be paid at the expiration of every 
six months in the case of men who have engaged for the period 
of the war. When it is necessary for mercantile ratings on 
Armed Auxiliaries to provide themselves with White Clothing, 
owing to the vessels being employed on Foreign Stations, they 
may be credited with the following additional gratuities for the 
purpose of the first supply and again on re-engagement or at 
the expiration of every six months if the ship is still serving 
abroad : 

Men not dressed as Seamen .... 155. 
Men dressed as Seamen .... los. 
A certificate is to be furnished by the Commanding Officer 
on each occasion that the white clothing is necessary. 

225. ALLOTMENTS AND SEPARATION ALLOWANCE OF 
MEN UNDERGOING DETENTION OR IN DEBT 

In cases of men undergoing sentences of detention, the 
following allotments will be permitted during the period of 
detention, viz. : 
490 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

55. a week to wives or 
2s. 6d. a week to other dependants, 

provided that the sum so allotted will allow of the extinction 
of the debt by the end of three months from the date on which 
pay ceases. If the sentence is of such length that this is not 
possible the allotment must cease temporarily, but the Separa- 
tion Allowance will in any event be continued for the period of 
detention. 

On the man's return from detention steps should be taken 
as early as possible to renew the allotment if it has ceased or to 
restore it to the original figure if it has been reduced. 

As the rate of Separation Allowance to a dependant 
(M.O. 271/1914) is governed partly by the amount of the 
allotment, it may be necessary in some cases to reduce the 
allowance if the allotment is not at a reasonably early date 
restored to the full amount in force prior to the detention. 

These rules will apply also to men in debt from any other 
cause ; and any cases in which it is necessary to reduce an 
allotment below the rates stated above in order to avoid a debt, 
which could not be liquidated within three months, should be 
reported individually to the Accountant-General. 

In the case of Royal Naval Reserve men in debt, or in 
detention, if the total sum (including retainer) that can be 
allotted, so as to work off the debt in three months' time, is 
only i a month (55. a week), the allotment of los. to the 
Savings Bank should continue, and the allotment of the 
other los. (2S. 6d. a week) to the man's wife and children will 
still be allowed to carry Separation Allowance. 

If he is allotting the whole of his retainer to the Savings 
Bank this allotment should be reduced to los. before the allot- 
ment to his wife is reduced. If he is allotting to the Savings 
Bank only, the allotment should continue at the rate of i a 
month. 

226. ALLOTMENTS WEEKLY PAYMENT OF 

On and after the 8th April 1915, Allotments of Seamen and 
Marines will, with certain exceptions, be paid weekly instead 
of monthly. 

As time does not permit of the men executing fresh allot- 
ments at weekly rates, a scale of transfer has been laid down : 
and since the inception of such a scheme produces inevitably 

491 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [> 

a number of difficulties Accountant Officers are confidently 
relied upon to assist in minimising them as far as possible by 
studying carefully the directions which follow : 

I. Cases where Payment will be made Weekly 

All monthly Allotments of Seamen and Marines will be 
paid weekly when they are in favour of wives, relatives, or 
friends. 

II. Cases where Payment will continue to be made 
Monthly 

The following Allotments will be paid monthly : 

(1) All Allotments of Officers (including Warrant Officers 

whose Allotments will in future be paid by Navy 
Bill instead of by Money Order). 

(2) Allotments of Seamen and Marines in favour of 

tradesmen. 

(3) Allotments of Seamen and Marines to Naval Savings 

Bank. 

(4) Allotments payable outside the United Kingdom, the 

Isle of Man, the Channel Islands, Malta or Gibraltar. 
These foreign allotments although paid monthly 
will be calculated on a weekly basis, and ledger 
charges should be made on the weekly system. 
To enable Accountant Officers to ascertain which Allot- 
ments of Men are to be paid weekly or monthly, it will be 
necessary for them to re-examine all Allotments made out in 
the Ship, and in the case of those transferred from other Ships 
to question the men as to the Allottee. If any doubt is felt as 
to the latter, lists may be forwarded to the Accountant- 
General of the Navy for decision as to whether the amount 
remains a Monthly Allotment or is to be converted into a 
Weekly rate. 

III. Rates of Weekly Allotment 

Every Monthly Allotment which comes under the above 
heading for conversion to a weekly rate will be so converted in 
accordance with the following scale, and no revision of the 
equivalent rates of that scale will be undertaken until six 
months are passed from the inception of the scheme. The 
492 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

appropriate weekly rate is to be inserted in the Ledger for 
Midsummer Quarter 1915, commencing 8th April 1915, and is 
to be distinguished by the letter *W.' Such Allotments as 
still remain monthly on the Men's section of the Ledger are to 
be designated ' M.' 



Present 
Monthly Rate. 

45. 
55. 6d. 

8s. 

IOS. 
I2S. 
I4S. 

i6s. 
i8s. 

2OS. 

23s. 
25s. 

275. 

295. 
3is. 

33s. 
36s. 
38s. 
405.. 

42S. 

44s. 
465. 
5os. 
55s. 
59s. 
635. 
68s. 
725. 
765. 
8is. 
85s. 
925. 

IOOS. 

io6s. 
nos. 



and under 



55. 6d. 

8s. 

IOS. 
I2S. 
I4S. 

i6s. 
i8s. 

20S. 

235. 

255. 
275. 
295. 



33s. 
36s. 
38s. 
4os. 

42S. 

44s. 
46s. 



59 s - 
635. 

68s. 

72s. 

765. 

8is. 

855. 

92S. 
IOOS. 

io6s. 
nos. 
n8s. 



Weekly 
Rate. 

IS. 

is. 6d. 

2S. 

2s. 6d. 

3s. 

3 s. 6d. 
49, 
45. 6d. 

5s. 

5s. 6d. 
6s. 
6s. 6d. 

75. 

73. 6d. 
8s. 

8s. 6d. 
95. 
95. 6d. 

IOS. 

los. 6d. 
us. 

I2S. 

135. 
145. 
155. 
i6s. 
175. 
i8s. 
195. 

20S. 
22S. 
24S. 
25S. 

26s. 



493 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORYNAVAL 

Present Weekly 

Monthly Rate. Rate. 

n8s. and under 1265. . . 28s. 

1265. 1355. . . 305. 

1355. 1445. . 32s. 

1445. 1495. . 345. 

149 s - i54s. . 35s. 

1545. i6is. . 365. 

i6is. 1705. . . 385. 

1705. 1785. . . 405. 

1785. 1875. . . 42s. 

1873. 1965. . . 445. 

1965. 2055. . . 465. 

2055. 2155. . . 485. 

2155. . . 5s. 



IV.- Method of Payment 

Payment will be made weekly on Thursdays, commencing 
8th April 1915, by means of Postal Drafts, on the Allottee 
presenting his or her identity certificate at the Post Office 
required. Each Allottee will receive a fresh identity certificate. 
In cases where Separation -Allowance is being paid, the two 
payments (Allotment and Separation Allowance) will be com- 
bined in a single draft. Each Allottee in such cases will 
receive with the new Identity Certificate a statement showing 
the amount which will be paid each week in respect of both 
payments. 

For the information of men whose Allottees do not desire to 
draw their money weekly, it may be stated that it will not be 
necessary to attend weekly at the Post Offices, but that less 
frequent attendance, when several drafts can be cashed at the 
same time, will be permissible. 

The books of Postal Drafts will not be sent to the Allottee, 
but will be in the hands of the Postmaster of the local Post 
Office. Payment may be made at any Post Office, and will not 
be restricted to Money Order Offices. When an Allottee wishes 
to receive payment at an Office other than that named in the 
Identity Certificate, this can be arranged without reference to 
the Admiralty, by filling up a ' Change of Office ' Form, to be 
obtained at the Office named on the Identity Certificate. 
494 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

V. Charges on Ledger 

Monthly Allotments are to continue to be shown as at 
present on Ship's Ledger, except that on the men's section 
they are to be designated ' M.' 

Weekly Allotments designated ' W ' are to be charged on 
the Ledger as from and including Thursday the 8th April 1915, 
in quarterly sums, the charge in each case being determined 
by the number of Thursdays as from and including that date, 
on which the Allottor is borne on the books of the ship during 
the quarter. 

When effecting payment of wages to Allottors or closing 
accounts on discharge, care is to be taken that all necessary 
charges for Allotment have been taken into account. 
t 

VI. Institution of New Allotments 

New Allotments may be declared to commence on any 
Thursday, and charges are to commence on that Thursday. 
The date of commencement is to be shown in the declaration 
list (Forms S. 63 and S. 63 A). In case of first entries other 
than Boys, into the Navy, should the entry take place on a 
Thursday, Friday, or Saturday, the Allotment may be de- 
clared if desired as from the Thursday following ; but if the 
entry takes place on any other day of the week, the Allotment 
can only be declared from the second Thursday after entry. As 
regards Boys, similar instructions will apply at the expiration 
of three months' training. The rate allowable should be that 
permitted by the King's Regulations, converted into a weekly 
rate in accordance with the scale herein. 

VII. Changes in existing Allotments 
Changes in rate of weekly Allotment during the first three 
months of the system are generally to be discouraged, except 
for the following reasons : 

(a) increase due to promotion or rise in pay ; 

(b) decrease due to state of man's Account. 

(New Allotments or Changes of Allottee are of course per- 
missible.) 

As far as possible changes should coincide, at any rate at 
first, with the commencing date of each quarter, which in the 
case of Michaelmas and Christmas Quarters next will be the 

495 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

8th July and 7th October 1915 respectively. It is desirable, 
however, that changes intended to be made on those dates 
should be notified to the Admiralty as far in advance as 
possible. Thereafter the change may take place on any 
Thursday. 

VIII. Transfers 

On the transference of an Allottor to another Ship or 
Depot, the Allotment is to .be shown on the Transfer List with 
the designation of ' M ' or ' W/ and with the month, or the 
last Thursday to which Ledger charges have been made, 
according as the Allotment is Monthly or Weekly. 

In the case of a man who does not allot, the word ' nil ' is 
to be entered in the Allotment column of the transfer list. In 
the absence of this notation or of particulars of a weekly or 
monthly Allotment, immediate reference is to be made to the 
man's previous ship. If a man has both a weekly and a 
monthly allotment in force, it is desirable that special care 
should be taken in the insertion of particulars on the transfer 
list. 

IX. Stoppage 

On stoppage of payment becoming necessary for any 
purpose other than death, e.g., when leave is overstayed or 
there is reason to suspect desertion, the Accountant-General 
of the Navy or the Commandant of the Royal Marine Division 
concerned is to be informed at once by a special reference 
sheet, or by telegram, if there is any probability that the 
information will not arrive in time to prevent the next pay- 
ment. In case of death the statement as to allotment should 
be included in the telegram required by Article 575 (2) of the 
King's Regulations. In any case details of the allotment 
should be furnished on Form S. 54 or Form S. 54A. 

X. Authorities for Issuing Payment 

Payments will be issued by the Accountant-General of the 
Navy in the case of seamen, and by the Commandants of the 
R.M. Divisions in case of Marines, whether serving ashore 
or afloat. Any declarations, therefore, by men of the Royal 
Marines subsequent to the ist April 1915 should be forwarded 
on separate lists (Forms S. 63A and S. 630) to the men's 
respective divisions. 
496 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

The arrangements as regards payment of Allotments of 
Marine Officers and Monthly Allotments of Marines to trades- 
men remain unaltered. 

XL Forms 

The following Forms have been revised or instituted for 
notification of the different classes of allotment, and supplies 
may be demanded of the Superintendent, R.N. Store Depot, 
West India Docks : 



Allotments. 


Declaration. ; 


Stoppage. 




Form. 


Form. 


Weekly Naval ratings .... 


S. 63 


S. 54 


Weekly Marines 


S. 6 3 A 


S. 54A 


Monthly Officers and Naval ratings 


S. 636 


S. 5 4 B 


Monthly Marines . . . . 


S. 630 


S. 54 c 



All forms for declaration and stoppage of allotments of men 
of the Royal Marines should be sent direct to the respective 
Marine Divisions. 

The existing stocks of Forms S. 63 and S. 54 will become 
obsolete on receipt of supplies of the new forms. 

XII. General 

In communicating with R.M. Divisions respecting the allot- 
ments of Royal Marines, and on forms in connection therewith, 
the Marines' Division and Register No. is to be used in the 
case of pensioners and Royal Fleet Reserve men as well as 
active service ratings. The R.F.R. No. is also to be shown in 
the case of men of the R.F.R. 

Other questions of detail should be governed by Articles 
1618-1627 of the King's Regulations, but any question of 
doubt arising out of the change of system should be referred 
to the Accountant-General. 

Care should be taken that the men understand the change. 
The scale of transfer of monthly to weekly payments together 
with a statement of any points herein which it is desirable that 
the men should have a clear knowledge of, should be posted on 
the lower deck. 
NAVAL 4 21 497 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



230. RAILWAY WARRANTS AUTHORISED FORMS TO BE 

USED 

A number of cases have recently occurred in which railway 
warrants have been issued on unauthorised forms. This 
course has led to difficulties with the Railway Companies, and 
care is accordingly to be taken that only the authorised forms 
of warrant are used, except in cases of special emergency, 
when it may not have been possible to obtain supplies of the 
proper forms. 

The following are the authorised forms in use : 



Forms of Warrant for which Tickets are issued without 

Payment 
No. of Form. For issue to. 



(a) A.G. 800 . . Officers and men travelling at 

the public expense. 

(6) A.G. 844 . . Officers and men who are 

chargeable with the cost of 
their conveyance. 

Forms of Application for Cheap Tickets, to be paid for at 
the time of Booking 

No. of Form. For issue to. 



(a) Army Form O. 1799 Officers proceeding on leave at 

their own expense. 

(b) Army Form O. 1800 Men proceeding on leave at 

their own expense. 

(c) A.G. 866 . . Nursing sisters proceeding on 

leave at their own expense ; 
also to the wives and families 
of seamen and marines. 

Supplies can be obtained in each case from the Accountant- 
General of the Navy. 

(M.O. 180/1915 is cancelled.) 
498 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

231. TRAVELLING FACILITIES WHEN PROCEEDING ON 

LEAVE 

The concession of free railway warrants to men proceeding 
on leave when their ships have come into dock for refit or 
repair, provided that the ship has not come into her own home 
port, is, in the case of men serving in Trawlers and Drifters, 
only to be granted in connection with the six-monthly docking 
authorised in M.O. 48/1915. 

232. BODIES OF DECEASED WARRANT OFFICERS AND 

MEN FREE CONVEYANCE 

In continuation of M.O. 97/1915, it has now been arranged 
that a form (a copy of which is printed below) is to be trans- 
mitted to the Stationmasters of the controlled Railway Com- 
panies in Great Britain with each order for the conveyance of 
the bodies of Warrant Officers, Non-commissioned Officers, or 
men in the Naval Forces of the Crown or in the Royal Marines, 
who are killed or die of wounds or disease attributable to the 
War, from the place of death to the home of the deceased in 
cases in which the relatives express a wish to this effect. These 
forms are issued in lieu of payment of the usual railway charges. 

A supply of the forms will be forwarded to Senior Naval 
Officers round the Coast and to Senior Medical Officers of 
Royal Naval Hospitals and Hospital Ships. 


Specimen Form 

This form to be used for the conveyance within the United 
Kingdom of the body of a Warrant Officer, Non-commissioned 
Officer, or Man in the Naval Forces of the Crown or in the 
Royal Marines who is killed or has died of wounds or disease 
attributable to the War. 

IQIS. 

s <j 

To the Station Master at 

Please arrange for the conveyance of the body of 
Rank or Rating^ 



Official Number_ H.M.S.- 

to 

Certified that the deceased was a member of the Naval 

499 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [ A 

or Marine Forces of the Crown, and that the charge for con- 
veyance is admissible against Public Funds. 



Senior Naval Officer, 
or Senior Medical Officer, R.N. Hospital 
or Hospital Ship, or Surgeon and 
Agent, Naval Sick Quarters. 

235. INSURANCE OF OFFICERS' MESS STOCK 

In view of Note 6 to Appendix VIII. and Clause 4 of 
Article 845 of the King's Regulations, no compensation is 
payable from public funds in respect to loss of or damage to 
Mess Stock, but in order to protect Officers, Mess Committees, 
and Messmen from such losses on board H.M. Ships during the 
present hostilities it has been arranged that facilities for the 
insurance of these stores shall be granted by the War Risks 
Insurance Committee under the Government Scheme, irre- 
spective of whether the stores are on board at the risk of the 
Officers themselves, or the Mess Committees, or of individual 
Stewards or Messmen. 

(1) The stores in question are those for 

(a) Admirals' and "Captains' Tables. 

(b) Ward Room Messes. 

(c) Gun Room Messes. 

(d) Warrant Officers' Messes. 

They might include Wines and Spirits actually bought and 
paid for, but no stores at the risk of Tradesmen. 

(2) An Insurance Certificate, to remain in force during the 
term of the present hostilities, but not exceeding twelve months 
from the date of issue, will be granted by the War Risks 
Insurance Office at a premium of 4, 45. per cent., net. 

(3) The amount to be insured may be, in the case of Stores 
for the Admirals' and Captains' Tables, such sum as shall be 
by the Officers determined. 

In all the other cases the maximum insurable shall be 150, 
but in determining the amount to be insured, this should not 
be higher than is shown by the Quarterly Audit Statement. 
This statement, or a copy of it, to be open to the inspection of 
the War Risks Insurance Office either before insurance or, in 
500 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

the event of a claim under the policy, as the Office may 
require. 

(4) The risks insured against shall be conjointly those of 
war and of perils of the sea, both as in Lloyd's policy defined. 

Whatever the sum insured, only the amount of the loss 
actually sustained shall be made good, but in no case to exceed 
the amount of the Insurance Certificate. 

(5) In the event of loss or claim, it will rest with the 
claimants to place before the War Risks Insurance Office such 
particulars or documentary evidences as the facts may require. 

(6) Where the insurance is effected by a steward or mess- 
man, it shall be deemed to include cash in hand at the time of 
the loss. Credit must be given by him for stores saved, if 
any, and for cash proceeds saved or previously remitted, if 
any, as well as for the amount of any debts recoverable from 
Officers surviving after the loss. In the event of the loss of 
the vessel causing also the death of the steward or messman, 
the War Risks Insurance Office shall make good the full 
amount of the loss, up to the sum insured, credit being given 
for cash proceeds and value of stores, if any, not lost, and for 
any proceeds previously received and remitted by him. 

In any case not provided for in the foregoing, the War 
Risks Insurance Office shall make good the amount of loss 
actually sustained, up to, but in no case exceeding, the sum 
insured. 

(7) In the case of Messes the Insurance should be effected 
in the names of one or more members of the Committee or of 
the Steward or Messman, in order that the War Risks Insurance 
Committee may be aware who is entitled to claim the insurance 
on behalf of those who have sustained loss. 

(8) Care should be taken to comply with the provisions of 
Article 845, Clause 4, for the payment of all mess debts. 

(9) Applications for insurance, marked ' Mess Stock 
Insurance/ should be addressed to * 

The Secretary, 
War Risks Insurance Office, 

33-36 King William Street, 
London, E.C. 

A remittance for the amount of the premium, calculated at 
4, 45. per cent, on the sum to be insured, must accompany the 
application. 

501 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

Applications must state : 

(1) Name of applicant. 

(2) His rank or description. 

(3) Name of the ship carrying the stock to be insured. 

(4) Description of the stock, i.e., whether (a), (b), (c), or 

(d), as defined in Clause I. 

(5) Sum to be insured. 

(6) Amount of premium thereon, calculated as above. 

(7) Form of remittance (Cheque, Postal Order, etc.). 

N.B. In the absence of other request, the Insurance 
Certificate will be forwarded to the sender of the 
remittance. The date of the Insurance Certi- 
ficate will be that of the receipt of the remittance, 

244. EXTRA WAR EMERGENCY COMFORTS FOR 
SUBMARINES 

(1) It has been decided to provide supplies of the following 
special articles of Provisions for issue to the Crews of Sub- 
marines on long distance trips, with a view to enabling the men 
to obtain a more liberal and varied dietary than is necessary in 
ordinary circumstances : 

Tinned Sausages. Bottled Fruits (Plums, Gooseberries, 
Bacon. and Cherries). 

Sardines. Tinned Vegetables (Green Peas and 
French Beans *). 

(2) These articles will be known as Extra War Emergency 
Comforts, and their issue is to be at the discretion of the 
Commanding Officer and in addition to the present Service 
Emergency Ration and the Victualling Allowance of is. id. 
a day. 

(3) Supplies are to be drawn from the Depot Ship by Boats 
proceeding for a cruise of twenty-four hours or over, and the 
occasions on wrjich these Comforts are issued during the cruise 
together with the quantities served out as rations, will be left 
to the discretion of the Commanding Officer, who is to satisfy 
himself that the issues are sufficient, and not more than 
sufficient, for the purpose intended. He is to furnish a certi- 
ficate at the end of each quarter of the quantities of the various 
articles authorised by him to be expended. 

* If French Beans are not obtainable, Green Peas will be supplied in lieu. 
502 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 

(4) A first supply equivalent to fourteen days' estimated 
issues for the number of Boats attached to the Base is being 
forwarded to each Depot Ship, and demands are to be sent to 
the Director of Victualling, Admiralty, from time to time, for 
such quantities as are required to maintain the stocks at the 
Depots at a level of between seven and fourteen days' estimated 
supplies for the total number of Boats attached. For the 
present, the demand should contain the following informa- 
tion ; 

(a) Quantities remaining in stock. 

(b) Expended since date of last demand. 

(c) Required to complete. 

(5) The stores are to be accounted for in the ordinary way, 
and the certificates of the Commanding Officers of Submarines 
referred to in paragraph 3 are to be forwarded into Office with 
the Store Accounts in support of the credits. 

247. PAYMENT FOR SUPPLIES OF STORES, ETC., TO 
ALLIED NAVAL FORCES 

An agreement has been arrived at between the British, 
French, Japanese, and Russian Governments, under which 
payment will be made for all supplies of stores, or services 
rendered, to each other by the Allied Naval Forces during the 
present naval co-operation. 

The method of settlement to be as follows : 

Supplies from private Payment direct by the ship 
trade. supplied, or by .the local 

consular representative. 

Freight charges on any Freight arranged and cost paid 
stores sent out to a by the Power arranging the 
particular station. matter, the amount being 

subsequentlyreclaimedfrom 
the Government concerned. 

Stores supplied from Claims preferred periodically 
Government stocks, or by the Admiralty on the 
work done at Govern- respective Government, 
ment Establishments. when the necessary state- 
ments have been received 
from the Establishments 
concerned. 

503 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL [APRIL 

AMENDMENTS TO BOOKS OF REGULATIONS, ETC. 

ARTICLE 799 
******* 

2. Caning on the breech with clothes on is limited to boys 
and is to be inflicted with a light and ordinary cane. The 
number of cuts or blows is not to exceed 12, and the punish- 
ment is not to be carried out hi public. Caning is intended for 
the serious offences of theft, immorality, drunkenness, desertion 
(in special cases as an act of leniency), insubordination, and 
deliberate or continued disobedience of orders. In the 
absence of the Captain, the Commanding Officer is not to 
order caning to be inflicted, unless the Captain shall be absent 
from duty by permission of superior authority for more than 
48 hours. 



504 



INDEX 



A.E 2 \ 323. 

Loss of, in the Dardanelles, 406, 4^ 
Aboukir, H.M.S., 215. 
Acantha, sailing vessel, sinking of, by 

torpedo, 315. 
Acland, P. D., M.P., on treatment oi 

prisoners, 434. 

Acorn, H.M.S., loss of, 1828, 53. 
Acre, see under Palestine. 
Adenwen, S.S., attack by submarine in 

English Channel, 188, 210 note, 215. 
Admiral Makarov, Russian cruiser, oper- 
ations in the Baltic, 262, 263, 264. 
Admiralty, see under Great Britain. 
,/Egean Sea, operations in, 364-5. 
Aerial Navigation : 
British : 
Raids : 

Hoboken, submarines at, 214, 311. 

Ostend, 73-4, 465. 

Zeebrugge submarine station, 311, 

465- 
Reconnaissance work, Dardanelles, 

12, 15, 114, 119-20, 121, 122, 124. 
Seaplanes at the Dardanelles, 17-18, 

367- 
French : 

Hydroplanes at Gaza, 331. 
Raids : 

Altkirch station, 209. 
Anizy station, 209. 
Brimont batteries, 209. 
Cernay station, 209. 
Champagne, German captive bal- 
loon, 209. 

Chauny station, 209. 
Conflans- Jarny railway and station, 

209. 

Coucy le Chateau station, 209. 
Essen railway and station, 209. 
Foye station, 209. 
Freiburg barracks and station, 209. 
Gits aerodrome, 209. 
La Bruquette aviation ground, 209. 
La Fdre barracks, 209. 



Aerial Navigation (continued) : 
French Raids (continued) : 

Lichterfelde railway and station, 209. 

Merkem station, 209. 

Mulheim barracks, 209. 

Pont Faverges aviation ground and 

ammunition stores, 209. 
Staden station, 209. 
Tergnier station, 209. 
Vailly batteries, 209. 
Wyfvege station, 209. 
German : 

Activity in Flanders, 410. 
Attack on American S.S. Gushing, 

44 2 -3. 

Attack on colliers near Tenedos, 338. 
Attack on Dutch ship Zevenbergen, 

199-200, 344. 

Attack on S.S. Elfland, 201. 
Attacks on steam trawlers, 363. 
Seaplane raid over Kent, 361-2. 
L 8 Zeppelin damaged in Belgium, 

46-7. 
Zeppelin raids : 

M. Augagneur on, 48. 
French towns, 208. 
Great Britain : 

East Coast, 356-61 . 
Eastern counties, 455-60. 
North-east Coast, 351-5. 
Paris, 207-8. 

Russian, bombs on Bosphorus bat- 
teries, 265, 266. 

Africa, West Coast of, enemy steamers in- 
terned on, number and employment, 

185- 

Africa, H.M.S., alleged sinking of, at 
the Dardanelles, 130, 131. 

Agamemnon, H.M.S., Dardanelles opera- 
tions, 4, 16, 17, 19, in, 112, 115, 117, 
118, 124, 126, 129, 136, 137. 

Aguila, S.S. : 226. 
Sinking of, by submarine, 228, 229. 
Testimony to conduct in attack by 
submarine, 437. 

505 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY NAVAL 



Ahvaz, see under Mesopotamia. 
Akaba, Gulf of, French cruisers in, 223. 
Akasi, Japanese cruiser, 282. 
Aki, Japanese battleship, 270, 281. 
Akitsusima, Japanese coast defence boat ; 
282. 

Operations near Tsing-Tau, 271. 
Akula, German submarine in the Baltic, 

262. 

Alabama, American warship, 165, 166. 
Albemarle, Earl of, on treatment of 

prisoners, 417-18. 
Albert, see under France. 
Albion, H.M.S., Dardanelles operations, 

17, 112, 115, 117, 119, I2O, 121, 122, 
123, I2 4 ,. 125, 127, I2Q, 133, 139, 366. 

Alexander Hastie, S.S. : 
Claim to have sunk submarine, 108. 
German submarine's attempted attack 
on, 98. 

Alexandretta, Gulf of, alleged loss of Allied 
seaplane in, 406. 

Algerine, H.M.S., loss of, 1826, 53-4. 

Allen, Capt. John Derwent, H.M.S. Kent : 
Appointment as Companion, Order of 

the Bath, 290. 
Sinking of the Dresden by, 171-3. 

Allistone, Lieut., Middlesex Regt., Ger- 
man reprisals on, 411. * 

Alsace-Lorraine : 

Altkirch station, French air raid, 209. 
Cernay, French air raid, 209. 
Mulheim barracks, French air raid, 
209. 

Alston, S.S., reported to have struck 
submarine, 98, 108. 

Altkirch, see under Alsace-Lorraine. 

d'Amade, General, French Expedition- 
ary Force under, for the Dardanelles, 

156, 324- 

Amatsukaze, Japanese destroyer, 283. 

America, West Coast of, Japanese Navy 
off, 277-8. 

Amethyst, H.M.S. , Dardanelles opera- 
tions, 112, 113, 115, 123, 125, 126. 

Amiral Ganteaume, torpedoing of, re- 
ferred to, 76. 

Amstel 9 Dutch S.S., mining of, 229. 

Andalusian, S.S. : 
Attack by submarine off the Scillys, 

189. 
Sunk by torpedo, 210 note. 

Anderson, W. C., M.P., question re 
merchant ships in war service, rates 
paid, 378-9. 

506 



Andreae, Flight Sub-Lieut. Frank G., 

attack on German submarines at 
Hoboken, 311. 

Anglo- Japanese Alliance, 285. 

Anizy, see under France. 

Annitsford, see under Great Britain. 

Antivari, see under Montenegro. 

Arab, H.M.S., wreck of, 1823, 53. 

Arabia, Mouaileh, bombardment by Eng- 
lish cruiser, 211. 

Argenteuil, see under France. 

Argentine, ship whose cargo, or part of 
it, has been detained, 471. 

Ariel, H.M.S., U 12 sunk by, 100. 

Ariol, Russian cruiser, at Singapore, 

273- 
Ark Royal, Dardanelles operations, 18, 

123. 

Arkhan, see under Turkey-in-Asia. 
Arnold, Able Seaman Alfred Charles Philip, 

award of D.S.M., 467. 
Arsoun, see under Turkey. 
Asahi, Japanese battleship, 281. 
Asama, Japanese cruiser: 281. 

in the Pacific and South Seas, 276. 
Ascania, S.S., accommodation of prisoners 

in, 183, 392. 
Ashton, Capt., 2nd Life Guards, German 

reprisals on, 411. 
A skold, Russian cruiser : 
Alleged presence of Russian General on, 
to watch over operation of British 
and French fleets in the Dardanelles, 
266. 

Dardanelles operations, 13, 404. 
Asnieres, see under France. 
A so, Japanese cruiser, 281. 
Asquith, Rt. Hon. H. H., M.P., Prime 
Minister, replies to questions in the 
House : 

Confiscation of enemy ships for tor- 
pedoed British merchant ships, 393. 
Dardanelles operations, 3-4, 393. 
German submarine blockade, 4-10. 
International Law, 82. 
Naval casualties, 393-4. 
Asturias, S.S., hospital ship, German sub- 
marine attack on, 95, 108. 
Atalanta, S.S., torpedoed, 177, 210 note. 
Augagneur, Victor, French Minister of 

Marine : 
Interview with Paris correspondent of 

the United Press of America, 47-8. 
Telegram of sympathy sent to Mme. 
Senes, 409. 



INDEX 



Augsburg, German cruiser, operations in 

the Baltic, 262. 
Auguste Conseil, French S.S., torpedoed 

by U 29, 143, 216. 
Australia : 

Enemy ships, employment, 395. 
Imperial Force, Gallipoli operations, 

400, 401, 406-7. 
Navy, loss of A . E 2 at the Dardanelles, 

406, 455- 

Prime Minister, see Fisher, Rt. Hon. A. 
Transports, convoying of, by Japanese 

ships, 274. 
Austria-Hungary : 
Cotton supplies, 384-5. 
Export trade, Herr Ballin on, 340. 
Gunboats on the Danube, Serbian 

attack on, 396. 
Navy : 

Bombardment of Antivari, 28. 
Loss of Kaiserin Elisabeth at Kiao- 

Chau, 273. 
Ship detained or captured by Russian 

Naval authorities, 293. 
Ships in British ports, use of, 10677. 
Azuma, Japanese cruiser, 281. 

Bailey, Midshipman Leslie Frank, H.M.S. 

Bayano, loss of, 159. 
Baker, H., M.P., replies to questions in the 

House : 
Optical instruments, supply* of glass, 

436. 

Proficiency pay, 442. 
Tyne examination service vessels, 383. 
War Department vessels, wages of 

crews, 382-3. 

Bakhofen, see under Russia. 
Ballin, Herr, head of Hamburg-Ainerika 

line : 
Interview with New York World, 338- 

41- 
Letter to The Times, 2nd Aug. 1914, 

341-2. 
Balmerino, S.S., survivors from H.M.S. 

Bayano taken on board, 159. 
Baltic: 

Communique of Russian Naval General 
Staff, 260-5. 

German operations in, 334. 
Bamford, 1st Cl. Boy F. G. H., awarded 

D.S.M., 287. 
Banbury, Sir F., M.P. : 

on Naval Discipline Bill, 56. 

on Treatment of prisoners, 426. 



Bannerman, Thomas Ross, Master of S.S. 

Aguila, to be rewarded for conduct in 

attack by submarine, 437. 
Barber, Alfred W., Boatswain. R.N., 

wounded in Dardanelles operations, 

13; . 

Barjisiyah, see under Mesopotamia. 
Baroda, inquiry held into loss of, 154. 
Barrow, Comdr. Benjamin Wingate, Ad- 
miralty letter of approbation to, 467. 
Basilisk, H.M.S., Dardanelles operations, 

140. 
Bastochnaja, Russian ship, sunk by 

Turkish fleet, 313. 

Batavier V., Dutch ship, seizure by Ger- 
mans, 198-202, 344. 

Bath, Order of the, see under Great Britain. 
Batiscan, inquiry held into loss of, 1^4. 
Baxter, Walter Campbell, Chief Officer, 
S.S. Falaba : 250, 251. 

Evidence re sinking of ship, 238-9. 

Exonerated from blame in connection 

with loss of ship, 260. 
Bayan, Russian ship, German submarine 

destroyed by, in the Baltic, 264. 
Bayano, H.M.S. : 3