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Beklin Museum. 

[See p. 139, Vol. II. 







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Rivalry of Titian and Pordcnnnc. — Pordenone decorates the Public 
Library, and Titian lust-s his Rn>kcr'« Patent. — Pordenone is 
onlcrcil to comjK'te with Titian in the IHiblic Palace, and Titian 
paints the " Rattle of Cadore." — History of that Picture. — Site of 
the Rattle. — Prints by Fontana and Rurjikmair ; Rul)ons' Drawinp. 
and Copy at Florence. — Titian in contnu^t with Da Vi nci and 
Raphael. — Drawinpff of ffre^ " Ralfic 61 I'adorc." — 1'ort raits of 
fJpor^e Cornaro. Savorpnano, and others. — Death of the Duke of 
L'rbinu and Andrea Oritti. — Portrait of Doj^e I^ndo. — Sultan 
Soliraan. — Titian's jirivnf** Affairs. — He tries to visit Florence and 
Rome.— He Tafls.— ' ' liiH_ Lampoon e£a. — Del Vasto fn^*-'« 
a Canonry to Titian ■< !-ni.- ine " Allo<-ufion." — Portrait of ncmbo. 
— Death of Pordenone. — Titian repiins his Hnikcr'n Patent. — 
" Angel and Tobit," and " Presentation ia the Temple." — From 
Jacopo Rellini to Paolo Veron eae 1 


North-cast of Venice. — Titian's House iu Riri Grande ; his Home 
Life; his Children. — Portraits. — Death of the Duke of Mantua. — 
Portraits of Mendozza and Martincnpo. — Charles the Fifth and 
Titian at Milan; the "Allocution." and the " Nativity."— Titian 
receives a Pension on the Milan Treasury. — His quarrel with the 
Monks of San Spirito. — Carnival anil the (V>ni|>any of the Calza. — 
Aretino sends for Vasari, who receives employment at Venice. — 
Portraits of Catherine Cornaro and Doge Lando. — Portraits of 
Titian l)y himself ; fif Titian and Zuccato ; of Titian and I>avinia. 
— Votive Picture of the Doge. — The Strozzi, and Titian's likeness 
of R. Strozzi's daughter. — Ceilings of San S|>irito. — " Descent of 
the Holy Spirit." — Titian compared with liiphael and Michacl- 
angelo, — Visit to Cadore, — Alessandro Vitclli 





Titian and the Famese Family. — Portrait of Kannccio Farnese. — Offer 
of a Benefice and proposals of service to Titian. — History and 
policy of the Farnese Princes. — Cardinal Alessandro. — Titian 
accepts the invitation of the Farnese. — Visits Ferrara, Bologna, 
and Buss^. — He refuses an offer of the Piombo. — His Portraits of 
Paul III., Pier Luigi, and Alessandro Famese. — Family of Danna, 
and the great " Ecce Homo " at Vienna. — The Assunta of Verona. — 
Renewed correspondence with Cardinal Farnese. — Letter of Titian 
to Michaelangelo. — Altar-piece of Jloganzuolo. — Portraits of the 
Empress, and Duke and Duchess of Urbino. — Court of Urbino, 
and Sperone's Dialogues. — Portraits of Daniel Barbaro, Morosini, 
8perone, and Axetino.- — Titian's relations with Guidubaldo II. — 
Guidubaldo opposes Titian's Journey to Rome, which is favoured 
by Girolamo Quirini. — Guidubaldo gives Titian escort to Rome. 
— Meeting of Titian with Sebastian del Piombo, Vasari, and 
Michaelangelo. — Jealousy of Roman Artists. — Pictures executed 
at Rome : Danae. — Contrast between Titian and Correggio, and 
Titian and Buonarroti. — Titian and the Antique. — Portraits of 
Paul III., Ottavio, and Alessandro Farnese 75 


Sansovino meets with a mishap at Venice. — His imprisonment. — He is 
liberated by Titian's interest. — Negotiations for the Benefice of 
Colle.— Doge Donato succeeds Doge Lando, and allows Titian to 
remain at Rome. — Portraits executed for the Duke of Urbino. — 
Titian's return to Venice. — He visits Florence, and paints again 
the Portrait of Pier Luigi Farnese. — Portraits of Doge Donato, 
Giovanni de' Medici, and Lavinia. — Cardinal Farnese visits 
Venice. — Marriage of Guidubaldo II. — Marriage of Orazio Ve- 
celli. — Titian askes for the Piombo, and receives the promise of it. 
— Altar-piece of Serravalle. — Titian and Raphael. — The Cartoons, 
and especially the " Miraculous Draught." — " Venus and Adonis," 
— " Disciples at Emmaus." — " Recumbent Venus and Cupid " at 
Florence. — " Venus and the Organ-player " at Madrid. — Replicas 
and Copies.— The " Ecce Homo " at Madrid 127 


The Pope and the Emperor. — Titian has to choose between them : gives 
up the Seals of the Piombo, and goes to Court at Augsburg. — He 
visits Cardinal Madruzzi at Ceneda. — Augsburg, the Fuggers. — 
Titian's reception by Charles the Fifth. — His pension on Milan 
doubled. — He promises a likeness of the Emperor to the Governor 
of Milan. — Sketch of Charles the Fifth, and how he rode at Miihl- 
berg with Maurice of Saxony and Alva. — His Court at Augsburg. 



— King Ferdinand. — The Granvelles, John Frederick of Saxony, 
and other Princes and Princesses portrayed by Titian. — Like- 
nesses : of Charles as he ro^le at MUhlberg ; as he sat at Augsburg ; 
of the captive Elector, with and without Armour ; of Chancellor 
and Cardinal Granvclle. and Cardinal Jladnizzi. — The '' Prome- 
theus and Sisyphus." — Likeness of King Ferdinand and his Infant 
Children. — Titian returns to Venice ; proceeds to Milan, where he 
meets Alva and the Prince of Spain. — Portrait of Alva and his 
Secretary.— Replicas of Charles the Fifth's Portrait for Canlinal 
Famcse and Francesco Gonzaga. — Betrothal of Lavinia. — Death of 
Paul the Thinl. — Plans for the Succefision of Philip of Spain. — 
Charles the F'ifth again sends for Titian to p.iint the LikcnesvS of 
his presumptive Heir. — Projectetl Picture of the '* Trinity." — Close 
Relations of Titian with the Emperor, and surprise caused by it. — 
Mclanchthnn. — Court of the captive Elector. — Cranach paints 
Titian's Likcne.s,s. — Philip of Spain sits to Titian. — Numerous 
Portraits are the result 1G2 


Alleged reception of Titian ))y the Doge in Council. — His suspension 
from the Sanseria, and resumption of that Office. — Life at Venice. 
— Portrait of Legate Rcccadelli. — Pictures for the Prince of Spain ; 
" Queen of Persia," LandscajK;, and "St. Margaret." — Of Titian's 
I^andscapes in general. — Prints and Drawings. — '* St. Margaret " at 
Madrid. — Rumours of Titian's Death. — He reports himself alive to 
the P^niperor. — Tlie " Grieving Virgin." the " Trinity," and " Christ 
ai)peariiig to the Magdalen." — Portmit of Doge Trevisani. — Varga.s 
and Thomas Granvelle. — " Daniie," for Philip of Spain, and 
Replicas of the same. — Titian and Philip. — Tlie "Venus and 
Adonis." — Philip and Pom])onio. — " Virgin of Medole." — Portrait of 
Doge Venier. — Votive Picture of Doge Trevisani and '• The Fede." 
— ^larriage of I>avinia. — Titian sends to Philip the " Perseus and 
Andionioda." — Decoration of the Library at Venice. — Paolo 
Veronese. — The "Baptist" of Santa Maria Maggiore. — Death of 
Aretino. — Titian. Ferr.inte Gonzaga and the Milan Pension. — 
" Entombment," sent to Philip and lost '2\i 


Standard of San Bernardino. — Philip and St. Lawrence. — " Martyrdom 
of St. Lawrence" in the Gcsuiti at Venice. — Girolamo di Titiano. 
— Lorenzo Massolo ; his Widow and Titian. — Parody on the 
" Laocoon," "Christ Crowned with Thorns" at the Louvre. — 
Portraits. — Death of Charles the Fifth. — Titian and Coxic. — The 
" Grieving Virgin." — Philip at Ghent orders Titian's Pensions to 
be paid. — Orazio at Milan is nearly murdered by Leone LeonL — 
Titian begins the " Diana and Acta:on," and " Diana and Calisto." 



— Philip the Second orders an " Entombment." — Titian, Philip, 
and Apelles. — The " Girl in Yellow." — Description of the " Diana 
and Actfeon," " Calisto," " Entombment," and replicas.— Figure of 
" Wisdom " at Venice. — Death of Francesco Vecelli. — Altar-piece 
of Pieve 258 


Paolo and Giulia da Ponte, Irene and Emilia of Spilimberg. — Their 
Portraits. — The Cornaro Family at Alnwick. — "Epiphany" at 
Madrid, and numerous Replicas of the same. — Victories of Caesar. 

— Magdalens. — "Venus of Pardo." — "Christ in the Garden." — 
Titian and Correggio. — The '■ Europa " at Cobham. — Titian begins 
the " Last Supper." — " Crucifixion " at ^ncona. — " St. Francis 
receiving the Stigmata," at Ascoli.— Mosaics and Mosaists. — 
Titian's Cartoons designed by Orazio Vecelli. — Nicholas Crasso. — 
His Altarpiece of " St. Nicholas " by Titian. — " St. Jerome " at 
the Brera. — " Venus with the Mirror." — Loss of Titian's Venetian 
Pictures by Fire. — " The Last Supper " at Venice and the Escorial. 

— Portrait of the Queen of the Romans. — Commission for the 
"Martyrdom of St. Lawrence." — Titian visits Brescia. — Titian, 
A. Perez, and Philip the Second. — Canvases of Brescia Town 
Hall. — "The Last Supper" at the Escorial.— Its Mutilation.— 
Titian and the Milanese Treasury. — The " Transfiguration," the 
"Annunciation," and "St. James of Compostella." — Titian employs 
Cort and Boldrini as Engravers. — Vasari's Visit to Venice. — Pic- 
tures at that time in Titian's House. — Allegories. — Titian joins the 
Florentine Academy 300 


Titian is taxed for his Income. — His Relations with Picture Dealers 
and Collectors. — Strada the Antiquary. — Final Correspondence 
vnth Urbino and the Farnese. — Frescos at Pieve di Cadore. — The 
" Nativity." — " Martyrdom of St. Lawrence " at the Escorial. — 
Canvases of the Town Hall at Brescia, and Quarrel as to the 
Payment for them.— The second " Christ of the Tribute Money." 
— Death of Sansovino.— " Lucretia and Tarquin." — " Battle of 
Lepanto," and Pictures illustrative of that Encounter. — Titian's 
Allegory of Lepanto.—" Christ Derided " at Munich.— Exalted 
Visitors at Biri Grande. — Titian's List of Pictures.— His last Letter 
to Philip the Second.— The Plague at Venice,— Titian's last 
Masterpiece, — His Death. — Titian's Pictures : Genuine, Uncertified, 
and Missing 364 



TITIA>'s DAUOHTEU Frontitpieet 







DANAE 229 







Rivaliy of Titian and ronlonone. — Pordcnono docoratos tho Public 
Libruiy, and Titian loses his r>rokor's Patent. — Pordonono is 
ordered to compete •with Titian in tho Public Palace, and Titian 
paints tho " Battle of Cadoro." — Ilistorj' of that Picture. — Site of 
tho Battle.— Prints by Fontana and Burj^kniair ; Ilubens" Drawinpr, 
and <'opy at Florence. — Titian in contract vrith Da Vinci and 
Baphacl. I )rawings of tho ''Battle of Cadore." — Portraits of 
George Coniaro, Savorgnano, and others. — Death of the l>uko of 
Urbino and .\ndroa Tfritti. — Portrait of Doge Lando. — Sultan 
Soliinan. — Titian's j)rivate Affairs. — lie tries to visit l-'lorcnce 
and Rome. — lie fails. Ai-etino and his Lampooners. — Del Vasto 
gives a Canonry to Titian's son. — The " Allocution." — Portrait of 
Bembo. Death of Pordenone. — Titian regains his Broker's Patent. 
— "Angel and Tobit," and "Presentation in tho Temple."— From 
Jacopo r>ellini to Paolo Veronese. 

Titian'.s life and times have been traced from lii.s 
first landing at Venice to the days when he eomjiletel y 
established his independence. The eminence of his 
position was now so fully rccogni.sed that he had 
nothing apparently to fear from any sort of competi- 
tion ; yet it is a fact that he only held his own by 
great and constant exertion, and he never once was 
free from stronr; and even dancrerous rivalrv. A 
versatile craftsman, it would have been <litli('ult to 
find a single artist who could p;iint a picture oi' a 
portrait with more or .skill than himself. JUit 

vol,. II. . J / D 


there were branches of his profession in which he 
probably confessed his o^Yn inferiority, and we cannot 
be sure that he would not have been able to name, at 
least, one Venetian who surpassed him in the practice 
of fresco. There Avere moments too when he would 
have admitted that there was a limit to the extension 
of his business as a painter, a limit at once defined by 
his own powers of production and the ability of a 
wealthy public to absorb the produce of his pencil at 
the price which he felt inclined to put upon it. Again 
he would have to choose between the sources of 
income derivable from composed pieces or likenesses. 
At the period with which we are now concerned he 
neglected composition to some extent as being less 
profitable than portraits, and this gave him a certain 
one-sidedness which did not escape general observation. 
The Venetian public seeing that in five years he had 
not brought out more than three or four pictures, 
whilst his portraits or portrait canvasses nearly 
reached the number of forty, grew impatient of his 
exclusiveness. The sjovernment which had besouofht 
him in vain to complete one subject at least for the 
Council Hall looked round for a cheaper, more pliant, 
and more accommodatino; artist. Gritti, the Doofe, 
whose countenance and support had been Titian's 
mainstay, grew old or wearied of defending him ; and 
the result was the coming of Pordenone. 

Pordenone had spent most of his life as a monu- 
mental drauo-htsman. Scarce a town or a villao-e in 
Friuli could be named in which he had not covered an 
aisle, a chancel, or a choir with frescoes. In Venice 


itself lie had decorated the whole of one church and 
the cloisters of another with compositions celebrated 
for the talent with which they were executed. But 
his settlement in the capital had long been deferred, 
because the freedom of a wanderinir life or the charms 
of a country residence had always had more attrac- 
tions for him than the conlinement of a city. Perhaps 
also Pordenone was ill siitisfied to hold rank after 
Titian, to whom he succumbctl in l.")-27; still less 
pleased after 153:3 t<> think that he wiis socially 
inferior to his rival, who had risen to the atatus oi ii 
count of the Roman Empire. lUit after I'rlS Porde- 
none's fame had greatly increased. It extended far 
beyund tin; alpine regions which surrounded his home 
— to Mantua, Cremona, and Genoa. It was no longer 
based exclusively on skill in fresco painting, but on 
solid a((piir(nnents in every branch of art. Socially 
the gap which lay between hini and Titian had been 
filled by a patent of nobility purclnised or begged from 
the king of Hungary. Besides this, Pordenone's 
residence in the hills had been made intolerable by a 
family feud, and — last not least — \'enice, as a miu'ket 
for artistic })roduction, had accpiired an importance 
hitherto unforeseen. During a i)criod of comparative 
quiet, that portion «»f the public receipts which the 
government of Venice was authorized to expend on 
the preservation of state buildings had been allowed 
to accumulate. It was asserted in a minute of Decem- 
ber, 1033, that the sum set apart for the keep and 
repair of the public palace had risen to 7000 ducats, 
though, two years before, 1700 ducats had been spent 


in rebuildiug the library called in after years the Sala 
del Scrutinio or Sala d'Oro.'" Lookino- round for 
artists to adorn this large and noble hall, which lay ot 
right angles to that of Great Council, the sages had to 
determine whether they should employ the facile hand 
of Bonifacio or Paris Bordone, or trust to the un- 
certain promises of Titian. At the critical moment 
Pordenone made his appearance at Venice ; and his 
services were instantly accepted. The library had 
been restored architecturally by Serlio and Sansovino 
under the superintendence of Antonio Scarpagnini, 
builder of the Fondaco de' Tedeschi.t All these artists 
were friends of Titian, and, we may believe, hostile to 
Pordenone, yet they were compelled to witness the 
favour extended to Titian's rival. Scarpagnini, when 
ordered to pay ten ducats to Pordenone for preparing 
the decoration of the library ceiling, declined to per- 
form the duty. The Council of Ten respected the 
feeling which dictated his conduct, l:)ut not the less 
continued to patronize the painter of their choice. J 
The library was so fiiv advanced in March, 1.537, that 
the Council of Ten entered a special minute on the 
journals to mark its approval of Pordenone's work. 
Not satisfied with this negative rebuff, it determined 
also to promote Pordenone at Titian's expense, and on 
the 23rd of June it issued the folio winsj hard and 
significant decree : 

* Lorenzi, u. s. pp. 204 & 213. 

t Compare Serlio's own state- 
ment in "Eegole geuerali di ar- 
chitettura," fol. Yen. Iu37, lib. 

4, c. xi. p. Ixx, witli Lorenzi, u. s. 
pp. 194 & 213. 

X See the details of these trans- 
actions in Lorenzi, u. s. p. 213. 


" Since December, IjIG, Titian has been in posses- 
sion of a broker's patent, with a salary varying from 
118 to 120 ducats a year, on condition that he shall 
paint the canvas of the land hght on the side of the 
Hall of Great Council looking out on the Grand 
Canal. Since tliat time he has held his patent and 
drawn his salary without performing his promise. It 
is proper that this state of things should cease, and 
accordingly Titian is called upon to refund all that he 
has received for the time in whirh he has done no 

Preparations wcri- then made to install rordcuone 
as a rival t<> Vorelli ; and on the 22nd of November, 
1538, an order was issued appointing Giovanni An- 
tonio da l^ordenoue to paint the picture between the 
pilasters six and seven in the Hall of Great Council — 
the space next to that reserved to Titian's.t These 
proceedings of the council, however severe they may 
have appeared to the person most concerned, were not 
without immediate effect. They induced Titian to 
thuik at once of his promise, and four months after 
the issue of the decree against him Aretino wrote the 
letter of November 9, 1537, already quoted in these 
pages, ill which, after describing the picture of the 
Annunciation sent to the Empress, he spoke with 
emphatic praise of that which his friend was painting 
in the Palace of St. Mark.| 

The state of irritation in which Titian was placed 

* Seo untea, and Lorenzi, p.  X Ai-etino to Titian, Nov. !), 
219. I 1537, in Lottero di M. 1'. Aro- 

t Loronzi, p. 223. | tino, i. p. ISO. 


by the rivalry of Pordenone and the displeasure of the 
council may be easily conceived. We can fancy his 
despair at being asked to refund the unattainable sum 
of 1800 ducats, and obliged to remain, if but tem- 
porarily, deprived of his annual salary. We can 
picture to ourselves Pordenone, who was no stranger 
to the settlement of quarrels by arms, believing that 
he too mio'ht be wavlaid and killed, if not on his 
defence, and he niio-ht think it fortunate that the 
patent of nobility which he had recently acquired 
should entitle him to wear the sword that would 
allow him to pink his antagonist. But nothing in 
Titian's conduct, then or after, appears to have justi- 
fied his adversary's precautions. Titian redressed the 
wrong which he had inflicted on himself by diligently 
completing the battle-piece, which Vasari declared to 
have been the finest and best that was ever placed in 
the Hall.* Though a tardy atonement, it was the 
fittest that he could make ; and we contemplate, 
even now, with a sigh the loss which the destruction 
of this composition inflicted on the Arts. In copies, 
drawings, and a print which have casually been pre- 
served, we gain a fair knowledge of the groups which 
Titian threw upon his canvas, but no notion of the 
splendid execution which Sansovino attempted to 
describe in the following words : 

" With surprising industry and art Titian repre- 
sented the Battle of Spoleto in Umbria, where — conspi- 
cuous above all others — a captain, awake on a sudden 

* Yasari, xiii. 29. 


to the noise of a fight, was armed Ijy a page. Ou the 
front of liis breastplate there shone with ineredible 
reality the lights and reflections of arms and the 
clothes of the page. There was a horse of extreme 
beauty and a youth [a girl] rising from the depth of a 
ditch to its banks, in whose face the utmost terror 
wiis depicted. And beneath this piece there was no 
inscription." * 

It is to be borne in mind that all the pictures in 
the Council Hall had inscriptions, and that the 
absence of such an appendage to Titian's work must 
have had a cause. Beneath tlie fresco which Titian 
covered, there stood as far back as 14l'5 a sentence 
which i>roved that it was meant to commemorate an 
Imperial victory : 


Why, the public might have asked, was this sen- 
tence now omitted ? 

Doge Gritti had always been known as a partisan of 
France. He probably asked Titian to produce a pic- 
ture which should prefigure the capture of Spoleto, 
but illustrate an action won by Venice against tlie 
Kaiser; and Titian doubtless chose the battle of 
Cadorc as one which, on account of his knowledge of 
the locality, he could paint better than any other. It 
was not desirable to offend the partisans of the 
Emperor, who ruled the destinies of Italy by too open 

* Sansovino, Ven. Descr., p. ;i:i7. t Lorenzi, «. a. p. Gl. 



an exliibition of Venetian pride.* Titian tlierefore 
veiled the composition discreetly : lie displayed in his 
composition the banner of the Empire, and the cogni- 
sance of the Cornari, rather than the winged lion of 
St. Mark; he dressed oMaximilian's soldiers in the 
garb of Eomans, and refrained from giving prominence 
to the characteristic troops of the Republic. The dis- 
tance which simulated the Castle of Spoleto was 
really the crag of Cadore. The battle thus remained 
to the initiated a symbol of Venetian heroism and 
success, whilst it might still appear to the ignorant a 
victory without political meaning. Presuming all 
this to be true, it is amusing to register the reticences 
and assumptions of contemporary writers. Ridolfi, 
having no precautions to observe, revealed the purpose 
of the artist.t Critics of the time were more wary. 
A^enetian chronicles only spoke of the "land fight." 
Dolce curtly talked of " the battle ; '"' | and Sansovino 
affected to believe that Titian represented " the cap- 
ture of Spoleto." § Vasari, deceived by the banter of 
the Venetians, was alone in the belief that the Signors 
had published a brilliant record of their own humilia- 
tion ; and he wrote, in apparent good faith, that 
Titian's picture represented the " rout of Chiara- 

* It was a moot i^oint whether Paruta, Storia Veueta, torn. iii. 

Venice ia 1537 should exchange 
the alliance of the Emperor for 
that of France, and the matter 
was seriously discussed in that 
year in the Venetian senate. See 

of Storici Yen. 1718, lib. yiii. p. 

t Eidolfi, Marav. i. 214. 

X Lorenzi, p. 219 ; Dolce, Dia- 
logo, 27, 67. 

a speech by Marcantonio Cor- } § Sansoyino, Yen. Descr. p. 
naro, in favour of Charles, in 327. 


dadda," * thus substituting the action which Alviano 
lost for that which Alviano won. It was reserved to 
Ticozzi's defective historical insight to assign to Titian 
two l)attles instead of one.+ If, after this, we still 
should doubt, an old canvas at Florence and a print 
by Fontana would show that Titian meant to paint 
the field of Tai, where the troops of ^laxiniilian were 
overthrown in sicfht of the Castle of C'adore. And 
thus the master, who owed his knighthood and pen- 
sions to Charles the Fifth, is seen witliout compunction 
recording the defeat of Charles' predecessor, and, as 
Aretino says, doing honour to tlic " Signoi*s." 

Vasari describes the contest truly as a mclce of 
soldiers in a storm of rain, but he adds that Titian 
took the whole scene from life, which we can scarcely 
interpret to mean that the painter was present at the 
fight. We should rather think that the landscapes and 
the figures were se[>aratcly drawn from nature, and 
this again would confirm, if confirmation were needed, 
the story of IJidolfi. ikit Titian, as we shall see, 
was not so foolish as to depict one episode of a 
celebrated encounter. He was too well acquainted 
with the locality and history, not to be aware that its 
varied incidents could scarcely be seen from a single 
point. r>ut he thought a painter might take the 
liberty of composing the subject so as to show the 
whole action at once, and we shall presently see how 
he succeeded. Shortly stated, the main features of 
the battle are these. Cadore and its castle havinix 

* Vasaii, xiii..p. 28. t Ticozzi, Vecelli, pp. 54, 114. 

10 TITLiX: HIS Lli^E AXD TIMES. [Chap. I. 

fallen into the hauds of the Emperor's generals, 
Gii'olamo Savorgnauo was ordered to close the upper 
passes, Alviano to occupy the lower defiles of the 
valley of the Piave, and Cornaro the provveditore gave 
his consent to the scheme. Ahiano then concerted 
measures with his colleagues, and surprised the 
passage of the Boite at Yena,s. Having posted his 
troops in Yalle, and on the ground that stretches from 
Valle to Monte Zucco, he sent a detachment round to 
his left to seize Xebbiii, with orders to fall on the 
flank of the Imperialists as they advanced from 
Cadore. lu these positions Alviano awaited the 
enemy's attack. The chroniclers of the fight say that 
the Emperor's force was allowed to fling back the 
outlying troops of the Venetians. But '" near a small 
torrent," " at the fii'st house of Valle," Alviano turned 
and took the oflensive. This is the moment depicted 
on Titian's foresTound. 

It has been supposed by the writer of a charming 
notice of the battle-field, that an arched brido;e 
spanning " the torrent " in Titian's pictm^e is that still 
existing over the Boite near Venas, which by an 
artistic licence is made a leadino- featm^e in the com- 
position," but this is probably a mistake, as may 
presently be shown. 

Titian's original canvas perished in the fire of 1577, 
but a complete view of the whole composition may be 
obtained from the contemporary print by Fontana. 
Its colours and shadows are found in the mutilated 

* Cadore, by Josiah Gilbert, u. s. p, 182. 

# ^ .1; =1^=5, 





Chap. I.] FONTANA'S PEINT. 11 

copy at Florence, its admirable detail iu a drawing by 
Eubens. A stream with steep and rocky banks, forms 
the centre of the foreQ;round. To the risjht, half seen 
above the edge of the picture, a general, bare-headed, 
but armed in steel, stands resting his hand on a long- 
cane, whilst his page in a slashed dress ties his 
rihoulder-laces. Close in rear of tliese personages a 
field-piece stands unlimbered, and a girl, who seems 
to have crossed the water, struggles up with terror 
<lepicted in her face from the depths below. On the 
hi<T^her around to the ri^ht, tlic Venetian knights 
with flying pennons and tlie ( ornaro Ix^nner — three 
lions passant — unfurled, moves into action ; two 
drummers l)eating, one trumpeter sounding a charge. 
A irroom with dilHcultv holds the o-enerals led-horse. 
Across a light stone bridge which spans the banks of 
the stream, the head files of the Venetian an-ay have 
charged in twos, and an.' still charging the Germans, 
whose cavalry and men-at-anns are falling together in 
the melee. Two Venetian knights are galloping across 
the bridge, six others are on the left bank cutting down 
the enemy who resists with obstinacy yet with loss. The 
left-hand corner of tlie picture is tilled by the figure 
of an Imperialist soldier, whose horse is stumbling- 
down the bank of the stream, whilst his rider is 
thrown sideways from the saddle, to wdiich liis legs 
still cling with spasmodic energy. His sword is in 
his hand, but his left arm is thrown up convulsively, 
the head forced back by the shock of the lance 
piercing the ribs ; and the reins fly loosely in the air 
us horse and man are hurled to destruction. In 


Eubens' drawino' the marvellous foreshortenina; of this 
figure, the outline of the forms in their tension and agony, 
are admirable ; equally so those of a soldier behind, who 
stands with his blade ready to defend himself, and 
presents a brawny back and arms to the spectator. 
Admirable, too, in this drawing is the knight who has 
just crossed the bridge, and tearing on at full gallop, 
stoops to his opponent, who falls headlong into the 
river. The left bank is strewn rioht down to the 
water with the bodies of the dead and dvino- whilst 
through the arch one sees a soldier trying to climb the 
face of a perpendicular rock. In the field of Tai beyond 
are two distinct bodies of troops, one in motion 
nearest to the bridgre, another in reserve at the foot of 
a spur, which gradually rises to form the crag on 
which the castle of Cadore is built. Deep ravines on 
the right and left part the crag from the surrounding 
hills, and flames and smoke are darting from a house, 
and from the more distant battlements of the fortress. 
AVe can fix with tolerable certainty the spot upon 
which Titian made his sketch of the foreground for 
the " Battle of Cadore." The road which leads from 
Valle to Tai crosses the beds of two torrents which 
take their rise in the neighbouring mountains. These 
two torrents fall into one bed, south of the road, and 
taking the name of Ruseco, run between very steep 
banks to the Boite. The old road from Valle to 
Perarolo crosses the Buseco over a wooden covered 
bridge, which spans a chasm of some depth ; and here 
we may think Titian imagined the arch of stone 
which is a conspicuous feature of his picture. From 

Cn.vp. I.] THE EUSECO. 13 

the bank to the iwht of the stream one can see the 
bridge, and the precipices over wliich it is built, the 
side of jMonte Ziicco, and the road to Perarolo. 
Behind the bridge the " Pian di Tai," the very field 
on which the action was ultimately won. Eisiug from 
the Pian di Tai, the spurs are cleft to form the range 
of San Dionisio, in rear of which the peak of Antelao 
soars. To the left, on a lieight, is Valle. Titian 
having chosen the bridge on the Euseco as the point, 
" near the torrent at the first liouse of Valle," wliere 
the first onset was made, takes the licence of io^normo; 
the natural background of Tai, but substitutes for it 
that of tlie crac: of Cadore, as it mi<dit l)e seen from 
other points of the battle-field. He paints the action 
in its various pliases and general character, as if all 
its parts were visible from one spot. He keeps 
enough of the reality t<> enable a Cadorine to 
recooTiise the action, but not enough to cidirrhten 
those whom tlie Venetian ijovernment miuht wish to 
convince that the scene was the liill of Spoleto. The 
deception is kept up by ingenious arrangements of 
detail. The Emperor's troops, we saw, are dressed as 
Ptoman soldiers ; tlieir banners are those of the 
empu'e. The troops on the other side are not under 
the wino;ed lion of St. Mark, but under a banner 
Avhicli bears the tlu-ee passant lions of the Cornari. 
No snow conceals the land, no dolomites are visible. 
There are no signs of the Stradiots, the nimble cavalry 
of the Venetians."" I'lic prominent forces of Venice 

* '! 

Thej' were easily recognized by their cylinder hats. 


are all in armour, tlieir infantry is thrown back into 
the middle distance. We noted tliat Eidolfi boldly 
called tlie fight by its real name. Fontana's print 
always has borne the title of "Titian's Battle of 
Cadore." Bnrgkmair designed a woodcut for the 
romance of the " Weiss Kunig," in which he repre- 
sented, long before Titian, the action of Pian di Tai. 
It is curious to observe how closely the landscape 
resembles that which adorned the public palace of 
Venice. Havino- nothino- to conceal, Buro-kmair 

CO ' O 

shows the Stradiots tilting at the Germans. The 
win2:ed lion of St. Mark is the standard of Venice. 
Cadore crag is in the middle of the background. 
The castle crowns the hill, under the flag of the 
empire ; and fire has not singed its walls. The 
torrent and bridge are not component j^arts of the 
picture, but the general lie of the ground and rocks is 
that of Fontana's print. 

We noted, besides the print, a copy of Titian's 
picture at Florence. This is a sketch on canvas, 
repeating on a small scale part of the master's com- 
position. Rubens' drawing of the principal group is 
preserved in the All^ertina at Vienna, and was 
probably copied from the original registered in the 
great Fleming's collection, as "a draught of horses b}' 
Titian." "' The copy is but a transcript in Rubens' 
style of outlines by a still greater artist, but we may 
yet discern in it the truth, correctness, and energetic 
desio;n of Titian. It enables us to admire the com- 

* See Eubens' inventory in Sainsbuiy, u. s. p. 236. 


binecl perfection of appropriate grouping and indi- 
vidual action, carried to surprising completeness in the 
splendid figure of the falling horse and rnan in the 
left foreground, in which the "weight and power con- 
centrated in the foreshortenings of the " Peter Martyr '' 
are apparent, allied to more searching contour. Here 
we recognise a force akni to that of Michael Augelo, 
conjoined with that realistic boldness which Tintoretto 
so often, yet so vainly, strove to emulate. Strange 
that the same artist who preserved the group of 
Lionardo's " Battle of Anghiari '' should also have 
rescued from total loss one group of the "Battle of 
Cadore." Stranire that in l)oth fraomeuts we should 
finel tlic weapons and dress of the Eoman age — 
matters familiar indeed to Titian, who was studying 
the antique at this time to realise his portraits of the 
Caesars, but striking in Lionardo as contrasting with 
his tender delineations of JMadonnas, deep-meaning 
in their sublime serenity ;iiid eternal smile. In 
Fontana's print we olxsers^e Titian's surprising art as 
a composer, his rare skill in depicting the stern 
reality and varied expression of a hand-to-hand 
conflict. His cleverness in detail is only ecjualled by 
the grandeur of his conception in the spring and 
motion of horses. Looking at this noble display as a 
whole, we are struck by its relation to the " Battle of 
Constantine" at the Vatican, which, though carried 
out by Giulio Romano, was designed by Baphael. AVe 
concede to Sanzio more simplicity of arrangement, a 
more measured distribution, more studied outline, 
greater elegance in figures and drapery. But Titian 



is second to none in fancy and appropriate action, 
whilst lie is more naturally true and convincing by 
reason of his colour and massive balance of light and 
shade. Of this last quality we have evidence in the 
copy at the Uffizi, which has long been considered a 
sketch by Titian himself, — a copy which, in spite of 
its imperfections and hasty execution, still preserves 
the tints as well as the lights and shades of the 
original picture.''" 

We should think this canvas a copy, not alone 
because it is drawn and painted without the mastery 
of Titian, but because its details are not those of a 
preliminary sketch, and because it comprises a part 
only of Titian's composition. So great a master 
would never have thrust back the prominent figures 
of the general and his page to the edge of the canvas, 
nor confined himself to the indication of the trumpeter 
and drummers, and leading files of the Venetian 
array. He would have given to his sketch the grand 
lines w^hich distinguish Fontana's print. A copyist, 
without feeling for the laws of composition, might, 
arui probably did mutilate the master's design for 
some purpose of his own. The same mutilation and 

* Uffizi, No. 609. Small sketcli 
on canyas, four feet square, omit- 
ting no less than one entire figure 
of a knight on hoi'seback, and 
eight others in rear of it ; all 
forming part of the Venetian 
troop on the right side of Titian's 
composition, as shown in Fon- 
tana's print. We may note some 
of the coloui's in the Uffizi co])j. 

The page is in red ; the groom, in 
yellow, leads a white horse. The 
standard of the troops in the 
middle ground is striped in red 
and white. The trumpeter wears 
a red dress. The horse of the 
foremost rider on the bridge is 
white ; the banner of the empire 
white, embroidered with a black 

Chap. I.] 



similar defects mark a drawino; wliicli the late Dr. 
Wellesley, Principal of New Inu Hall at Oxford, 
fondly assigned to Titian ; and we might conclude 
that drawing and canvas were the labour of one pair 
of hands, but that some details, such as a Stradiot in 
the left side of the former, arc not to be found in the 
latter."-' There is but one artist in the pictorial 
annals of Venice whose name is mentioned in con- 
nection with a copy of the "Battle of Cadore." Ridolfi 
states that Leonardo Corona, who studied the works 
of all the great Venetians, copied the masterpiece in 
the Hall of Great Council, and sold it tg his colleague, 
Aliense, who sent it to Verona, where it passed for an 
original, t It would be rash to infer that this copy 
was used for the production of Fontana's print. We 
arc unfortunately ignorant of every detail respecting 
the life of an engraver of whom but one plate is 
known to exist. 

Italian historians were fond of attributino: the 
victory of Cadore to Giorgio Cornaro, the provveditore, 
whom the Venetian government appointed to control 
Alviano in the exercise of supreme command. Titian 
appears to have given pictorial expression to this feel- 
ing, which Ridolfi refused to countenance.^ Not only 

* This drawing passed through, 
the Lawrence and Esdailo Col- 
lections, and now belongs to Mr. 
Gilbert, who purchased it at Dr. 
Wellesley's sale, together with a 
study for the horse and falling 
rider, assigned to Titian, but ob- 
Tiously by some other draughts- 
man. Compare Gilbert's Cadore, 


pp. 185, ISG. 

t Eidolfi, Marav. ii. p. 289, 
The same author, however, af- 
firms: "Di questa istoria molte 
copio si sono vedute, ma scarsa- 
meute rappresentano la bellezza 
dell' originale." (Marav. i. 215.) 

X Ridolfi, Mar. i. 225. 




the banner is that of Cornaro, but the general, 
whose laces the page is t}dng in the foreground of the 
battle, is another man than Alviano. Some years 
after this brave soldier died, a monument was erected 
to bis memory in the church of San Stefano at Venice, 
and the quaint ugliness of his ungainly form was thus 
handed down to posterity. In stature short and stout, 
his head was disfigured by unpleasant pinguiclity, his 
nose was mutilated by scars, his hair was long and 
parted in the middle, falling in limp masses over the 
shoulders, and his chin and lip Avere free from every 
trace of beard. In Titian's battle the general is bearded, 
and his head is covered with a short shock of curly 
bair. His person is tall and stately, his features 
handsome and manly, all distinctly pointing to Giorgio 
Cornaro, of whom a contemporary panegyrist said : — 
" Quam enim decora forma fuit ; quanta oris maj es- 
tate ! qua totius corporis pulchritudine/' * 

Nor is it to be forgotten that a portrait of Titian's 
best time exists which bears some trace of a likeness 
to the general of " the battle," and on the back of the 
canvas are the words : — " Georgius Cornelius frater 
Catterinse Cipri et Hierlisalem Reginte." Titian 
had numerous opportunities of meeting Giorgio 
Cornaro, who lived till 1527, and played an important 
part in Venetian politics. His form was conspicuous 
in the canvas which Titian first painted for the Hall 
of Great Council. It is probable that the portrait, to 

* " CaroLL Cappellii in funere 
Georgii Cornelii Catharinre Cypri 
Eegince fratris Oratio ; " in Au- 

gustini Yalerii opusculum, &c., 
4to, Patav. 1719, p. 223. 


which allusion has been made, was executed aliout 
1522, when Cornaro was sixty-eight years old, but 
that the painter reproduced the features of an earlier 
time,'" for which he had ample facility from his long 
and untiring practice. 

AVe cannot otherwise explain the conflicting evidence 
of style, which shows that the portrait was executed 
about 1522, of an age which proves that the man de- 
picted is not more than fifty years old ; of an inscrip- 
tion which tells that the person portrayed is Giorgio 
Cornaro. Titian never j^roduccd a finer picture than 
that which now adorns the gallery of Castle Howard. 
Cornaro stands as large as life at a window, and liis 
frame is seen to the hips. His head, three-quarters to 
the right, is raised in a quick and natural way, and 
his fine manly features are enframed in short chestnut 
hair, and a well-trimmed beard of the same colour. 
On his o;loved left hand a falcon Avithout a hood is 
resting, of which he is grasping the breast. He looks 
at the bird, which is still chained to his finger, as if 
preparing to fly it ; a sword hangs to his waist, which 
is bound with a crimson sash ; a fur collar falls over a 
brown hunting coat, and a large white liver-spotted 
hound shows his head above the parapet. There is no 
.sign of a touch in this beautiful work, which is modelled 
witii all the richness of tone and smoothness of surface 

* Comaro's panegj'rist says he 
succeeded his father at the age 
of twenty-five. Marco Cornaro, 
Giprgio's father, was buried on 
the Gth of September, 1479. See 

Caroli Cappellii Oratio, n. s. p. 
ni8, and I'etri Contareni in Fu- 
nere, Marci Cornelii Oratio, lb 
p. 202. 

c 2 



which distinguish polished flesh. The attitude is 
natural, the complexion is warm and embrowned by 
sun ; and every part is blended with the utmost 
finish without producing want of flexibility.''' 

Tradition points to another general who commanded 
in the Cadorine war as one of Titian's sitters, and 
Girolamo Savorgnano, who had this honour, deserved 
to be portrayed by so great a master, if only for the 
grandeur of the figure which he presents in the annals 
of Venetian diplomacy and war. Yet a portrait of 
" Savorgnano," which adorns the Bankes Collection, is 
not certainly that of Girolamo, who died in Friuli on the 
30th of March, 1529 ; and were it even so, can hardly 
have been executed as early as 1537. It represents a 
man of sixty, in a dark green pelisse, with a fur collar 
and sleeves, and a red stole falling across the breast 
from the left shoulder. The right hand grasps the 
stole, whilst the left rests on a table and lightly holds 
a glove. The whole form, detached in gloomy warmth 
on a licrht brown OTound, is striking for the grave 
dignity of its bearing and the energy of its attitude 
and expression. The face is open, its shape regular, 
the features are well cut, and fairly set ofi" by short 
curly hair, and a close trimmed beard. It is hard to 
believe that Titian should have painted a likeness of 

* This beautiful piece lias been 
transferred to a new canvas, on 
wbich the old inscription above 
given was copied. There are 
traces of stippling here and there 
in the flesh. On the brown back- 
ground we read, " Titiax7S F." 

A copy of this picture was for- 
merly owned by Signer Talentino 
Benfatto of Venice. See the 
addenda to Zanotto's Guida of 
1863. The original at Castle 
Howard was engraved, 1811, by 

Chap. I.] 



this boldness, — bold in touch and modellinir — bold in 
glance, and thoroughly natural in attitude ; without 
the presence of a model. Whilst if he produced this 
work, — as we should think he did — after 1537, and 
meant to depict Girolamo Savorgnano, he must have 
trusted to memory or to some earlier likeness.* 

If we judge of the size of the "Battle of Cadore" by 
that of the Hall in which it was placed, we must con- 
clude that it was a picture of great compass, with the 
principal figures as large as life. If in November, 
1537, Titian was at work in the palace, as Aretino 
assertSjtit is not probable that he ceased to work there 
before the folio winnj Midsummer. But in .June and 
during the latter half of the year he had time to 
attend to commissions from other patrons besides the 
angry and obdurate signors of Venice. Having sent 
the first emperor — Augustus — in April, 1537, to 
Mantua, he had been able to finish three more in the 
middle of the following September ; but then he 
paused and surrendered every hour of his time to the 
Council of Ten. J In June, 1538, he found leisure to 
do his friend San so vino a service. The Cadorines 
had been quarrelling with the municipality of Belluno 
as to boundaries, and the Doge, to whom they had 
appealed, had refused to delivei' judgment Ijcfore 
seeing a sketch of the ground. At Titian's request 

* This also is a half-length, of 
lifo size, on canvas, not without 
injury from wear and re-touching. 
It once belonged to the Mares- 
calchi Collection at Bologna. 

t See antea, p. 9. 

X See antea, i. pp. 422 and f^,^ 
and two letters of Benedetto 
Agnello to the Duke of J»Iantua, 
in Appendix. 



the Syndic of Caclore and Girolamo Ciani took 
San so vino throiigli the woods of the Toanella, which 
skirted the BeUimese limits, and his sketch of the 
country was sent to Venice and decided the case in 
favour of Cadore.* 

About the same time Titian painted the hkeness — 
still preserved in the Berlin Museum — of Giovanni 
Moro, a Avell-known captain in the Venetian fleet, 
who was appointed to a high command in the Duke 
of Urbino's armada. Moro had made his name illus- 
trious in the wars of Venice with the Duke of Fcrrara. 
He had been envoy to Charles the Fifth, and " Prov- 
veditore Generale " in Candia. He was now on the 
eve of returning to the island, where he was killed in 
a riot in 1539. Titian has preserved to us the 
features of a soldier who appears in long hair and 
beard, with a red scarf across his arm and the baton 
of his rank in his hand. The channelled breast-plate 
and scolloped shoulder-pieces are cleverly rendered ; 
but time has done some injury to the surfaces, which 
are in part abraded and scaled away or injured by 

* Ciani, Storia, u. s., ii. 255-6. 

t This canvas, No. 161 in the 
Berlin Museum, is 2 ft. 7| in. 
high, by 2 ft. 2 in. The figure is 
bareheaded, and seen to the belt. 
As late as 1873 the surface of the 
picture was such as to suggest 
grave doubts as to the authorship 
of Titian ; the flesh tints being 
crude and uniform, the beard and 
hair repainted, and the breast 
and shoulders lost in darkness. 

In white letters, on a very dark 
gi'ound, the following modern 
inscription was to be read: — 


In 1874 the canvas was regene- 
rated by Pettenkofer's process, 
when much of the richness of the 
original tones reappeared. The 

Chap. I.] 



In August, 1538, Federico Gonzaga ^vrote to 
Benedetto Agnello, his agent at Venice, that he 
intended to visit his marquisate of Montferrat, and 
for that purpose would proceed to Casale in the 
following September. It was his wish that Titian 
should be informed of this and instructed to come 
with the remaining " Emperors " to ]\lantua. If, he 
added, Titian was not ready, he should still be asked 
to come, on the understaudiuii; that the " Ca3sars " 
should be sent at least for the Duke's return. Titian 
promised Agnello to devote all his time to his duty ; 
but in view of further commissions said he had made 
a portrait of the Grand Turk from a medal, and he 
would repeat it in proper form if His Excellency 
pleased. Federico replied that he would take all that 
Titian sent him, the "Emperors" first, the "Grand 
Turk" after. The latter, Agnello wrote on the 18th 
of September, was already finished ; the " Emperors " 
would be delayed because the Duke of Urbino had 
asked Titian to accompany him to Pesaro.* Francesco 
Maria, it is well to recall, had fallen ill in the midst 
of his warlike preparations, and had hoped to recover 
by changing his residence from Venice to Pesaro. 
The poison which killed him worked with no less 
effect at Pesaro than at Venice, and on the 20th of 

inscription was thon found to 
have been written over the old 
one, the letters of which wore in 
black. Abraded parts were left 
as they were. Holes made by 
scaling in the forehead, back- 
ground, and armour, were re- 

paired. The hands still remain 
unsatisfactory. For details of 
Moro's career, Cicogna, Isc. Yen. 
vi. 590. 

* See the correspondence of the 
Duke of Mantua and his agents in 



October the Duke of Urbino died after weeks of 
protracted agony. About two months later, on the 
28tli of December, the Doge, Andrea Gritti, died also, 
having attained to the great age of 83. He was 
succeeded on the 8th of January, 1539, by Pietro 
Lando, for whom Titian at once painted a portrait for 
the Hall of Great Council.* It is with regret that 
we look back to the annals of a time so fruitful in 
great and important creations of Titian's brush. AVe 
saw that none, or at the best but one, of the "Caesars" 
was preserved. The portraits of the great Soliman, 
one of which belonged to the Duke of Urbino, and 
that of the Doge Lando, are all lost.t 

Amono;st the cares with which Titian was sur- 
rounded at this period we should notice not only 
those caused by the displeasure of the Venetian 
government, and the rivalry of Pordenone, but others 
more petty, but not less irksome. Though his claims 
on the Emperor's bounty had been satisfied by an 
assignment of dues on the Neapolitan treasury, and 
the Duke of Mantua had given him the benefice of 
Medole, he had not yet received any money from the 
first, and the second had been burdened with an 
annuity. In April, 1537, Titian asked the Duke to 
relieve him of this annuity, and in September, 1539, 
he complained that the annuitant pestered him with 

tte proofs in Lorenzi 
For this portrait Titian 
as usual twenty-five 

* See 
(p. 259). 

t The former is noted in the 
Mantuan inventory of 1627 : Ei- 

tratto di SeHm re dei Turchi. 
Darco. Pitt. Mant. ii. p. 167. The 
original from which it was done 
Vasari saw in the collection of 
the Roveres' at Urbino. It has 
also been lost. (See Vas. xiii. 32.) 


letters which prevented him from working."^' But 
the Duke had not done anything for his relief, and 
the plague of letu^^'s continued. Conversely Titian 
bombarded the treasury of Naples with letters, making 
demands similar to those which he found distressing: 
to himself " I have no money," said Titian to 
Agnello, "to pay this annuitant." "We have no 
money to send to Titian," was the reply of the 
Neapolitans. Yet Titian left no stone unturned to 
soften the rigour of the Imperial agents, and Aretino, 
in his name, moved " Heaven and earth " for months 
to the same purpose. In a characteristic epistle he 
promised Ottaviano de' Medici, in July, lo31), that 
Titian should go over to Florence and 2)aint the like- 
nesses of himself, the Duke and Duchess, and the 
Princess Mary, if he would only use his interest in 
the painter's favour.t 

Writintc on the followinfr dav to Leone Aretino at 
Rome, he complained of tlu; lukcwarmness of the 
Pope, who delayed to send for Titian, wliose genius 
was destined to leave "eternal memories of the 
princes of the house of Farnese." | All in vain. 
Frequently as Titian had been asked to Rome, he had 
always refused. Now that Aretino wanted him to be 
asked, no one would attend to his wishes. There 
was something too in the agency of Titian's applica- 
tions which possil)ly ensured their failure. Aretino 

• Soo Appendix, vol. i., and 
Appendix to this volume. 

t Aretino to Ottaviano de' Mo- 

tero di M. 1*. Arct", ii. 84\ & Ho. 
X Aretino to Leone Aretino, 
Venice, July 11, 1539, in Lottero 

dici, Venice, July 10, lo39, in Let- i di M. P. A., ii. p. SG. 


was in trouble. His malignant tongue and pen had 
offended the Duke of Mantua and other potent person- 
ages, and satirists, almost equal to himself in shame- 
less \irulence, were lampooning him without mercy. 
To the sonnets of Berni there came superadded 
those of Franco of Benevento, whose hand never 
tired till he had written more than five hundred 
couplets. It was the more grievous for "the scourge" 
that he should be thus attacked, because Franco was 
a parasite of his own. He had taken the man in, a 
stranger, shoeless and starving, had clothed, fed, and 
lodged him, and used his services as a secretary. 
Titian too had recommended him to Benedetto 
Agnello, and now the venomous serpent turned and 
bit his benefactors.* One day he met Titian in the 
street and thrust his cap into his pocket to avoid 
doffing it when the painter passed ; t then he wrote a 
sonnet in which he praised Titian for painting Aretino, 
and thus immortalizing the concentrated infamy of an 
entu'e age : — 

" Datevi buona voglia, Tiziano, 
E deir aver ritratto 1' Aretino 
Pentir non vi deggiate .... 
Non manco lodi ve ne saran date 
Di quanta avete in simile soggetto : 
Anzi d' assai piu, quanto rinchiuso aggiate 
Nello spacio d'un piccolo quadretto 
Tutta I'infamia della nostra etate." J 

Aretino replied to these lampoons with abusive 
letters, which he printed, and which obtained a much 

* Aretino to Lodovico Dolce, 
Yenice, Oct. 7, 1539, in Letteie 
di M. P. Ai-etino, ii. 98, 99. 

t Ibid. 

X Mazuchelli, Vita di P. Are- 
tino, «. s., p. 141. 

.Chap. I.] 


wider circulation than the manuscript effusions of his 
adversaries ; and Titian recouped his losses at Medole 
and Naples under the favour of the Marquis del Vasto. 
Davalos had been sent to Venice to attend the 
installation of the Doge Pietro Lando.* He had been 
with Titian, and commissioned him to paint a picture 
of himself in the act of addressins; his soldiers. Titian 
then confided his grievances to the patron whose 
recent appointment to the government of Milan had 
made him quite a power in the Italian states, and 
Davalos promised every sort of support. In October, 
1539, Don Lope de Soria, who had just been super- 
seded in the office of ambassador to Charles the Fifth 
at Venice, Ijy Don Diego de Mendozza, passed through 
Milan, and wrote to Titian to ask him to visit the 
marquis and his wife, and to tell him that his son 
Pomponio had been invested with a new canonry.t 
At the same time Antonio Anselmi, a friend of Bembo, 
whose promotion to a cardinal's hat had just been 
made, wrote to his friend Agostino Lando, at Bembo's 
instigation, to recommend him to Titian. Agostino, a 
relative of the Doge, agent and afterwards murderer 
of Pier' Luigi Farnese of Parma, sat to the painter ; 
and Aretino, when thanking the nobleman for a 
present of anchovies and fruit in November, 1539, 
was able to congratulate him on Titian's success in 

* Aretino to the Emperor, 
Venice, Dec. 25, 1539, Lettere di 
M. P. A. ii. 108^ 

t Liruti, Memorie dei letterati 
del Friuli, ii. p. 288, in Ticozzi, 
Yecelli, note to p. 113; and Are- 

tino to Don Lope di Soria, Venice, 
Feb. 1, 1540, in Lcttore di M. P. 
Aretino, ii. 11G\ Eidolfi (i. 238) 
errs in affirming that the cauonry 
was given by Charles V. 



portraying liis features.* Bembo, on his part, asked 
Titian for another likeness, and writing to Girolamo 
Quirini at the close of May, 1540, begged him to 
thank the master for his second portrait, which he had 
meant to pay for, but was willing to accept as a 
present, seeing that he would be able to repay the 
kindness by some appropriate favour. t Finally, the 
Venetian government having lost the services of 
Pordenone, who had died suddenly at Ferrara, in 
December, 1538, relented of its severity and re- 
instated Titian in his broker's patent on the 28th of 
August, 1539. J 

Titian's likeness of Bembo as a cardinal has been 
preserved. It now adorns one of the rooms of the 
Barberini Palace at Eome, and represents the Venetian 
statesman in a grand and noble fashion. The gaunt 
and bony head is lively and energetic, the flesh warm 
and flushed. Though powerful in form, it represents 
an aged man ; but one who lightly bears the seventy 
years that have passed over his features. The glance 
is animated, and the eyes look firmly out from a face 
turned three-quarters to the left. The right hand, 
half pointing, half gesticulating, appears to enforce 
the words that — we might think — had just issued 

* Antonio Anselmi to Agostino 
Landi at Venice, Padua, April 27, 
1539 ; and the same to the same, 
Padua, May 2, 15:59, in Eonchini, 
DeUo Eelazioni di Tiziano coi 
Farnesi, 4°, Modena, 1864, note 
top. 1. ; also Aretino to Agostino 
Landi, Venice, Nov, 15, 1539, in 
Lettere di AI. P. Aretino, ii. 104. 

The portrait of Landi "was taken 
to !Milan, and is not now to be 
traced. See also Eonchini's Let- 
tere di TJomini illustri, u. s., i. 
127, 133. 

t Bembo to Girolamo Quirini, 
Eome, May 30, 1540, in P. Bembo, 
Opere, vol. vi. p. 316. 

X Lorenzi, u. s., p. 276. 

Chap. I.] THE "ANGEL AND TOBIT." 29 

from the lips. The high forehead is partly concealed 
by the red hat, the white beard square-trimmed, and 
the white collar and sleeve relieved on the red silk of 
the cardinal's habit. Notwithstanding a dark and 
cold background, injured by restoring, the figure 
stands out fairly before us, and modern daubs on the 
forehead and face hardly prevent us from observing 
the quick sway of the brush as it laid in the parts, 
and modelled them in a deep bed of pigment* 

But Titian's energy and great creative power are not 
fairly illustrated by this — the sole surviving relic of 
numerous pictures noted by the letter-writers of the 
time. Several masterpieces, of which contemporary 
annalists say little or nothing, are worthy of more 
prolonged attention ; and amongst these we should 
particularly note the " Angel and Tobit " of San 
Marciliano at Venice, and the " Presentation in the 
Temple," at the Venice Academy. 

In the "Angel and Tobit" of San Marciliano, the art 
which Titian displays is equal to that which excited 
the envy of Pordenone in the Almsgiver of San 
Giovanni Elemosinario. The grace and liveliness of 
the angel, Avho steps forward like a Roman Victory, 
borne by his green-toned wings, are enhanced by the 
gorgeousness of a red tunic bound by a girdle to his 
hips, and falling in beautiful folds to the ground. 
The right arm outstretched, the hand with a vase are 
fine. It would seem as if the vase was the subject of 

* This picture, No. 35 in the 
2nd. Eoom, is on canvas; the 
^gure of life size, seen to the 

elbows. It is mentioned by Ya- 
sari, xiii. p. 43. 



Tobit's thoughts, as he walks and looks up whilst he 
puts forth his right hand in wondering awe. The warm 
brown dress, the white sleeve and yellow leggings 
harmonize with the reds of the angel's tunic, the 
green of his wings, and the blues of the sky behind. 
No figures Avere ever more beautifully coupled. One 
sees that, though moving from right to left towards 
the foreground, they are on the point of turning to 
their right, the inception of this movement being 
indicated in part by themselves, in part by the white 
spotted dog in front of them, who sidles very 
markedly to the left. St. John the Baptist kneels at 
the foot of a tree with a cross resting against his 
shoulder. His glance is directed to the heavens, 
where a ray of sun pierces the clouds, to descend and 
illumine a beautiful expanse of landscape. To form 
of a masculine and powerful type Titian adds appro- 
priate expression and gesture, and action and motion 
of grand boldness and freedom. The bed of pigment 
is heavy and thick, but of malleable stuff. Largo 
flakes of light are pitted against equally large masses 
of gloom, and blended with them in masterly fusion. 
The shadow is thrown with broad sweeps of a brush 
of stiff bristle and solid size, and it seems as if no 
time had been lost in subtle glazino-s, when effect 
could be won by direct but moderate and temperate 

* This canvas is engraved in 
the Collections of Patina and 
Lovisa. Vasari's assertion that 
it was executed before 1508 is 

clearly erroneous. The figures 
are as large as life, and the canvas 
now hangs on its old altar to the ' 
left of the church portal, after 


ill \f$, 'H^. 














The "PresentatioD in the Temple," originally designed 
for the brotherhood of Santa Maria della Carita, covered 
the whole side of a room in the so-called " Albergo," 
now used for the exhibition of works of the old 
masters at Venice. In this room, which is contiguous 
to the modern hall in which Titian's " Assunta " is 
displayed, there were two doors for which allowance 
was made in Titian's canvas ; and twenty-five feet — 
the lenc^th of the wall — is now the leno-th of the 
picture. When this vast canvas was removed from 
its place, the gaps of the doors were filled in with 
new linen, and painted up to the tone of the original, 
giving rise to the quaint deformity of a simulated 
opening in the flank of the steps leading up to the 
Temple, and a production of the figures in the left 
foreground — a boy, a senator giving alms, a beggar 
woman and two nobles. Strips of new stufi" were 
sewn on above and below, and in addition to various 
patches of restoring, the whole was toned up, or 
" tuned " to the great detriment of the picture. Not- 
withstanding these drawbacks and in spite of the 
fact that the light is no longer that which the painter 
contemplated, the genius of Titian triumphs over all 
difficulties, and the "Presentation in the Temple " is 
the finest and most complete creation of Venetian 
art, since the " Peter Martyr " and the " Madonna di 
Casa" Pesaro. 

having been a long time in the 
sacristy. Compare Yas. xiii. 21 ; 
Sansovino, Yen. Desc. 146 ; Bos- 
chini, Miniere S. di Canarregio, 
p. 53; Zanetti, Tit. Yen. 146. 

Old varnish and the effects of 
time contribute to give a dark 
aspect to this piece. An old copy 
of it is (No. 234) in the Dresden 


It was not to be expected that Titian should go 
deeper into the period from which he derived his 
gospel subject than other artists of his time. An 
ardent admirer of his genius has noticed the propriety 
with which he adorned a background with a portico 
of Corinthian pillars, because Herod's palace was 
decorated with a similar appendage. He might with 
equal truth have justified the country of Bethlehem 
transformed into Cadorine hills, Venice substituted 
for Jerusalem, and Pharisees replaced by Venetian 
senators. It was in the nature of Titian to represent 
a subject like this as a domestic pageant of his own 
time, and seen in this light, it is exceedingly touching 
and surprisingly beautiful. Mary in a dress of celestial 
blue ascends the steps of the temple in a halo of 
radiance. She pauses on the first landing place, and 
o^athers her skirts, to ascend to the second. The flioht 
is in profile before us. At the top of it the high 
priest in Jewish garments, yellow tunic, blue under- 
coat and sleeves and white robe, looks down at the 
girl with serene and kindly gravity, a priest in 
cardinal's robes at his side, a menial in black behind 
him, and a young acolyte in red and yellow holding 
the book of prayer. At the bottom, there are people 
looking up, some of them leaning on the edge of the 
steps, others about to ascend, — Anna, with a matron 
in company ; Joachim turning to address a friend. 
Curious people press forward to witness the scene, and 
a child baits a little dog with a cake. Behind and 
to the left and with grave solemnity, some dignitaries 
are moving. One in red robe of state with a black 


velvet stole across his slioulder is supposed to repre- 
sent Paolo de' Francesclii, at this time grand-chancellor 
of Venice.* The noble in black to whom he speaks 
is Lazzaro Crasso. Two senators follow, whilst a third 
still further back gives alms to a poor mother with a 
child in her arms. In front of the ojloom that lies on 
the profile of steps an old Avoman sits with a basket 
of eggs and a couple of fowls at her feet, her head and 
frame swathed in a white hood, which carries the 
light of the picture into the foreground. In a corner 
to the right an antique torso receives a reflex of the 
light that darts more fully on the hag close by. It 
seems to be the orif^inal model of the soldiers that 
rode in the battle of Cadore, or the Emperors that 
hung in the halls of the palace of Mantua. t 

Uniting the majestic lines of a composition perfect 
in the balance of its masses with an effect unsurpassed 
in its contrasts of light and shade, the genius of the 
master has laid the scene in palatial architecture of 
grand simplicity. On one side a house and colonnade 
on square pillars, with a slender pyramid behind it, 
on the other a palace and portico of coloured marbles 
in front of an edifice richly patterned in diapered 
bricks. From the windows and balconies the 
spectators look do^^■n upon the ceremony or con- 
verse with the groups below. With instinctive tact 

* There was a portrait of the 
Chancellor, Paolo de' Franceschi, 
in the Vidman Collection, which 
Eidolfi (Maiav. i. 2G2) assigned 
to Titian. 


t This torso filled the unoc- 
cupied corner of the picture to the 
right of the door, the framework 
of which broke through the base 
of the picture. 


the whole of these are kept in focus by appropriate 
gradations of light, which enable Titian to give the 
highest prominence to the Virgin, though she is neces- 
sarily smaller than any other person present. The 
brio-ht radiance round her fades as it recedes to the 
more remote groups in the picture, the forms of which 
are cast into deeper gloom in proportion as they are 
more distant from the halo. The senator who gives 
alms is darkly seen under the shade of the colonnade, 
from which he seems to have emerged. In every one 
of these gradations the heads preserve the portrait 
character peculiar to Titian, yet each of the figures 
is varied as to sex, age, and condition ; each in his 
sphere has a decided type, and all are diverse in form, 
in movement, and gesture. To the monumental 
dignity of the groups and architecture the distance 
perfectly corresponds. We admire the wonderful 
expressiveness of the painter's mountain lines. The 
boulder to the left, with its scanty vegetation and 
sparse trees, rises darkly behind the jiyramid. A low 
hummock rests dimly in rear, whilst a gleam flits over 
remoter crags, crested with ruins of castles ; and the 
dark heath of the hill beyond — with the smoke issuing 
from a moss-fire — relieves the blue cones of dolomites 
that are wreathed as it were in the mist which curls 
into and mingles with the clouded sky. The, splendid 
contrast of palaces and Alps tells of the master who 
was born at Cadore, yet lived at Venice. 

The harmony of the colours is so true and ringing, 
and the chords are so subtle, that the e3^e takes in the 
scene as if it were one of natural richness, unconscious 



•of the means by which that richness is attained. 
Ideals of form created by combinations of perfect 
shapes and outlines with select pro[)ortions, may strike 
us in the Greeks and Florentines. Here the picture 
is built u[) ill colours, the landscape is not a syml)ol, 
but scenic ; and the men and ])alaces and hills are 
■seen livinf; or life-like in sun and shade and air. In 
this gorgeous yet masculine and robust realism Titian 
.shows his gi'eat originality, and claims to be the 
noblest representative of the \'enctian school of 

Ifardly a century has ex] tired since Venetian })aint- 
ing rose out of the slough of liyzantine tradition, yet 
now it stands in its zenith. Ivei-ruitiuo- its streiifrth 
from Jarupo Delliiii, who lirought the laws of per- 
spective from Tuscany, the scliools of tlie Rinlto 
expand witli help from Paduau sources, and master 
the antiipie as taught by Donatello ;iiid ^^antegna. 
They found the monumentjd but realistic style which 
Oentile Bellini developi'(l in his "Procession of the. 

* The measure of this canvas, 
No. 487, at thn Vcuice Acadeni}', 
is m. 3.7o high by 7.80, but of 
tho height 10 cent, above and 
10 below are now. Tho person 
who mado these and other addi- 
tions, as well as restorations noted 
in tho text, was a painter of this 
century, named Sobastiano Siinti. 
(Zanotto, Pinac. Yenot.) Besides 
tho patches described above, thero 
are damaging retouches in tho 
landscaj)o and skj*, in a figure at 
a window to the left, in figures on 

tho balcony, and a soldier holding 
a halbert. Tho face of .St. Anna, 
and tho dress of tho old woman 
in tho foreground, are both new. 
Zanotti (Pitt. Yen. p. loo) stiites 
that tho pirfuro was cleaned and 
tho sky injured in his time (ISth 
century) ; compare Vas. xiii. p. 
2!> ; Sansovino, Yon. desc. p. 20(5 ; 
Piidolfi, Mar. i. 198; and Boschini, 
Minicre, S. di D. Duro. p. .'jO. 
Engi-aved in Lovisa ; photograph 
by Naya. 


Eelic/' and C'arpaccio displayed in liis " Ursula Legend."^ 
They seize and acquire tlie secrets of colour by means 
of Antonello ; and their chief masters, Giovanni 
Bellini, Giorgione, and Titian, adding a story to the 
pictorial edifice, bring it at last to that perfection 
which we witness in the '' Presentation in the Temple." 
Looking back a hundred years, we find Jacopo Bellini's 
conception of this subject altogether monumental. 
The long flight of steps, the portico of the temple^^ 
Mary on the first lauding, her parents behind her, a 
castellated mansion in the distance, are all to be found 
in the sketch book of 1430. Titian inherits the 
framework, and fills it in. He takes up and assimi- 
lates what his predecessors have garnered. He goes 
back to nature and the antique, and with a gTand 
creative power sets his seal on Venetian art for ever. 
AVhat Paris Bordone or Paul Veronese can do on the 
lines which their master laid down is clear when we 
look at the Doge and fisherman of the first and the 
monumental palaces in the compositions of the latter. 
In a later form of Titian's progress — that which marks 
the ceiling pieces of San Spirito — we trace the source 
of Tintoretto's darino;. All inherit somethino; from 
Titian, but none are able to surpass him. 


North-east of Venice. — Titian's IIouso in Biri Grande ; his Homo 
Life ; his f'hilflien. — Portraits.— l)eath of the Duke of ^funtua. — 
Portraits of Mondozza and ^lartinengo. — Charles the Tilth and 
Titian at Milan ; the " AUocution," and the " Nativity."— Titian 
receives a Pension on the Milan Treasury. — His quarrel •with the 
Monks of San Spirito. — Carnival and the Company '>f tho Calza. 
— Ai-etino sends for Vasari, who receives tinjdoymcnt at Venice. 
— Portraits of Catherine Coraaro and Doge Lando — Portraits of 
Titian by himself; of Titian and Zuccato ; of Titian and Laviuia. 
— Votive Picture of the Doge.— The Strozzi, and Titian's likeness 
of K. Strozzi'.s daughter. — Ceilings of San .Spirito. — "Descent of 
the Holy Spirit." — Ti tian com])ared with Eaphacl and Micha fil- 
nngelo. — Visit to Cadore. — Alessandro Vitclli. 

Foil many years subsequent l«.) tlic settlement of 
Titian in Venice, the north-eastern limit of the city 
was sparsely built over, and the [)lea.sure-seekers, mIio 
rowed in their gondolas to the villas of ^lurano, issued 
from the more intricate canals by 8ant' Apostoli, San 
Canciano or San Giovanni c Paolo, to find themselves 
skirt iiiLf a shore on which iiiven fields were varied with 
patches of morass and garden enclosures. The long 
and dreary wharves, which now go by the name of 
the Fondamenta uuova, were not in existence, and 
persons living beyond Santa jMaria de' Miracoli might 
be looked upon as country residents rather than towns- 
people. There was much to attract the lover of tlic 
picturesque, in a, dwelling on the northern outskirts of 
the city. There was the free bank of the lagoon, with 


a view towards Murano ; at right angles to which 
the hills of Ceneda rose beyond the lowland of 
]\Iestre, and showed through their gaps the Alps of 
Cadore. Here too w^as fresh vegetation, herbage, and 
trees, something quite different from the palace fringe 
of the grand canal, or the gloomy shade of the narrow 
Avater-courses intersecting the populous quarters. The 
house at San Samuele, which Titian inhabited from 
1516 to 1530, was in the heart of Venice ; close to- 
the grand canal, and equally distant from San Marco, 
or the Eialto bridge. 

In 1531, Titian left San Samuele to settle in the- 
north-eastern fields, and thus exchano-ed the town for 
a suburban residence. The lease of his new dwelling, 
which still exists, is dated September the 1st, 1531, and 
describes it as situate in the contrada or parish of 
San Canciano, in Biri.'" When built, in 1527, by the 
patrician, Alvise Polani, the Casa Grande, as it was 
then called, stood somewhat back from the banks of 
the lagoon, upon w^hicli its open gardens were laid 
out. The basements were let to various tenants, 
having; their own access to these holdino;s, whilst the 
upper story, composed of one large apartment and 
several smaller ones, was entered liy a terraced lodge, 
to which there was an ascent from the garden by a 
flight of steps. From the garden the view extended 
to Murano and the hills of Ceneda, between which, on 
favourable days, the peaks of Antelao, the tutelary 
dolomite of the Cadorines, mioht be seen ag-ainst the 

* See for this and the following facts, Cadorin, Dello Amore, pp. 83-7. 


morning sk}-. AVe can funcy sucli a garden and such 
a house having peculiar attractions for Titian, who 
woukl find there constant memories of his native Alps, 
rural surroundings, and complete freedom from the 
noise of traffic. After several renewals of his lease, 
Titian hired the whole of the Casa Grande in 153G, 
and in 1549 acfpiired the title to the land, which he 
inclosed. It is not unlikely that }>revious to 1531 
he was acquainted with the site, which had not been 
much built on during the first years of the sixteenth 
century. IJidolfi says that the distance in the picture 
of " Peter ;^hlrtyr " represented the Ceneda hills as 
seen from liiri, and Zanetti asserts that he saw the 
roun<l leaved trees of the same picture in the court- 
yard of Titian's house ; * but of this little that is 
certain has been handed down. W c only know that 
in course of years Titian greatly cmbellisho<l the place 
and decorated the irarden on the water's edoe and 
that it M'as the resort at times of \-ery good company. 
On the 1st of August, 1540, Priscianese, a well known 
Latinist, who came t<j Venice to publish a grammar, 
was received by Titian, who asked Aretino and »San- 
sovino, and Jacopo Nardi, the historian of Florence, to 
meet him. A letter ajtpeudud l)y Priscianese to the 
first edition of his grammar in 1540, thus describes 
the author's impressions : — 

* Zanotti, Pitt. Ton. p. IGO, stored; tho frescos of Corona, on 

and Eidolti, Mur. i. '2\[). Zanotto 
(Giiida di Yenozia of 18()3) says 
in the Aihhinhi at tho close of his 
vohimo : "Tho house of Titian 

tho outer wall having been white- 
washed, and the tree in the neigh- 
bouring garden which figures in 
tho 'i'eter Martyr,' having boo n 

was quite lately barbarously re- uprooted."' 


" I was invited on tlie day of the calends of August 
to celebrate that sort of Bacchanalian feast Avhich, I 
know not why, is called ferrare Agosto — though there 
was much disputing about this in the evening — in a 
pleasant garden belonging to Messer Tiziano Vecellio, 
an excellent painter as every one knows, and a person 
really fitted to season by his courtesies any distinguished 
entertainment. There were assembled with the said 
M. Tiziano, as like desires like, some of the most 
celebrated characters that are now in this city, and of 
ours chiefly M. Pietro Aretino, a new miracle of nature, 
and next to him as great an imitator of nature with 
the chisel as the master of the feast is with his pencil, 
Messer Jacopo Tatti, called il Sansovino, and M. Jacopo 
Nardi, and I ; so that I made the fourth amidst so 
much wisdom. Here, before the tables were set out, 
because the sun, in spite of the shade, still made his 
heat much felt, we spent the time in looking at the 
lively figures in the excellent pictures, of which the 
house was full, and in discussing the real beauty and 
charm of the garden with singular pleasure and note 
of admiration of all of us. It is situated in the ex- 
treme part of Venice, upon the sea, and from it one 
sees the pretty little island of ]\Iurano, and other 
beautiful places. This part of the sea, as soon as the 
sun went do^^m, swarmed with gondolas, adorned with 
beautiful women, and resounded with the varied har- 
mony and music of voices and instruments, which till 
midnight accompanied our delightful supper. 

" But to return to the garden. It was so well laid 
out and so beautiful, and consequently so much 



praised, that tlie resemblance wliicli it offered to the 
delicious retreat of St. Agata, refreshed my memory 
and my ^\'ish to see you ; and it was hard for me, 
dearest friends, during the greater part of the evening 
to realize whether I was at Eome or at Venice. In 
the meanwhile came the hour for supper, which was 
no less beautiful and well arranged than copious and 
well provided. Besides the most delicate viands and 
precious wines, there were all those pleasures and 
amusements that are suited to the season, the guests 
and the feast. Having just arrived at the fruit, your 
letters came, and because in praising the Latin lan- 
guage the Tuscan was reproved, Aretino became 
exceedingly angry, and, if he had not been prevented, 
he would have indited one of the most cruel invec- 
tives in the world, calling out furiously for paper and 
inkstand, though he did not fail to do a good deal in 
words. Finally the supper ended most gaily." '■' 

Whatever the relations of the humanists with 
Titian may have been in the earlier part of the 
century, it is clear that those which existed now were 
cordial and honourable to the painter. The story of 

* The letter, printed in full in 
Ticozzi (Vecelli, note to p. 79), is 
in Prisciancse's " Gramatica La- 
tiua," of wliicli there is a copy in 
the library of San Marco, with 
the following imprint: " Stam- 
pato in Yonezia per Bartolommeo 
Zanctti nel mcso di Agosto 
ilDXL." (Compare Boltrame's Ti- 
ziano Vecellio, p. 64.) Aretino, 
in a letter of Nov. 28, 1.340, to 
Priscianese at Eome, gives him 

news of the successful introduc- 
tion of his grammar into some 
Venetian schools. (Lettero di M. 
P. A. ii. p. 173"^.) Jacopo Nardi, 
who was one of Titian's guests, 
dedicated his translation of Livy 
to tho Marquis of Yasto, and 
Aretino congratulates him on tho 
publication of the book in 154.5. 
See Lett, di M. P. A. i. p. 1S7 ; 
and ii. p. 'J(J8. 



Priscianese's visit to Titian recalls an episode which 
illustrates a brilliant and in some respects celebrated 
circle at Eome, It enables us to contrast the social 
disposition of the greatest of Venetian masters with 
the solitary habits of J\Iichaelangelo Buonarroti. Pris- 
cianese's letter is addressed to Lodovico Becci and 
Luigi del Eiccio, and introduces us to the company 
immortalised in the Dialoo-ues of Donato Gianotti. 
Del Pticcio, a poet who frec[uently corrected and often 
transcribed Michaelangelo's sonnets, is walking in 
company with Antonio Petrco, and meets Buonarroti 
coming out of the Capitol in Donato' s company. The 
latter appeals to the sculptor as a "Dantist " to settle 
a dispute as to the time spent by Dante in visiting 
the infernal regions and purgatory. A debate ensues 
in which ]Michaelano;olo disclaims the knowledire re- 
quired to answer so intricate a question, but shows, 
his profound study of early Florentine literature. 
The hour grows late, and del Eiccio proposes an 
adjournment to dinner and a fresh meeting at supper 
in the rooms of Priscianese. Michaelangelo asks, is 
this the man whom he has heard commended for 
writing in Tuscan the rules of Latin grammar ; and 
del Eiccio answers in the affirmative, pressing the 
sculptor to join the party. Buonarroti refuses, on the 
plea that society is a burden involving a loss of power 
which is better employed in creating original works.* 

* See " De' Giorni che Dante 
consumo nel cercare 1' Inferno," 
(Src. Dialogo di Messer Donato 
Gianotti, republished at Florence 

in 13j9; or extracts from the 
Dialogue in Cesare Guasti's- 
"Eime di M. Buonarroti," 4to, 
Florence, 1863, pp. xxvii. xxxi. 

Chap. II.] 



The pletosant amenities of convi^-ial meetings Tvhieh 
seem a pastime and a relief to Titian, are In-anded by 
]\IicliaelanQ;elo as a mistake : and two artists of the 
liiglicst genius at opposite ends of the peninsula are 
found to stand at opposite poles of thought and of 
feeling. In one respect Priscianese's letter excites 
surprise. He ought, we should think, to have kuo\\'n 
and settled the dispute as to the Bacchanals of Fcrrare 
Ai^osto, which arc but the Christian substitute for the 
Ferifc Augusta), celebrated since the fall of Pa2;anism 
as the festival of the chains of St. Peter, in the church 
of San Pietro in Vinculis, at Rome. Even now the 
1st of August is familiar to the Romans as the feast 
oi" '' Ferrarc Ai>osto." * 

Those who should wi.sli to visit the house of Titian 
in our day will find considerable, if not insurmount- 
able difficulties in their wa}'. Some years ago it was 
still shown to the public, and was minutely examined 
by the authors of these pages, though even then it was 
impossible to recognise the original distribution of the 
apartments, subdivided and whitewashed for modern 
l»ur])oses. Put now the garden-staircase and loggia 
are thrown down, and the dwelling, which was once 
isolated, is gradually disappearing into the dull uni- 
formity of a row.+ ]\Ir. Gilbert, in his charming 

• Compare Gregorovius' Oes- 
chichto dcr Stadt Rom., 'Jnd ed. 
8vo, Stuttgardt, 18^)9, vol. i., notes 
to p. 206. 

t On entering the door in the 
loggia, to which there was, as 
stated, an ascent by a flight of 

steps from the garden, there was 
another staircase to ascend, lead- 
ing to the upper story first in- 
habited by Titian. The principal 
room, which was of very large 
size, was subdivided at the north 
end into several small chambers. 



book on Cadore, has justly remarked " tliat after 
giving a gondolier a deal of trouble to find that part 
of the parish of San Canciano called Biri, and still 
more that part of Biri called 'Campo Tiziano/ the 
traveller will only discover a narrow court lined by 
small new-looking houses on one side and closed at 
the end bv a o-arden door bearinsf the number 5,526. 
Let any one," adds Mr. Gilbert, " enter there who can. 
But if he cannot, let him subsidise a friendly artisan 
in one of the tall houses overlookino- the o-arden wall. 
The view from this man's window will discover that 
probably nothing that was familiar to the eye of the 
great painter is now visible, excepting the stone cor- 
nice, which, running round the house and continued 
all the length of the row of houses, shows that it was. 
formerly one habitation, the upper story of which 
formed the roomy studio of Titian. Since his time," 
Mr. Gilbert continues, " the prospect that once ex- 
tended far over sea and land has been hopelessly 
blocked out by a pile of buildings, of which our 
artisan's dwelling is one, erected between the garden 
and the shore, if not covering great part of the garden 
itself, which must, from the descriptions, have been 
rather extensive, and once certainly reached to the 
water's edo-e." * 

There is no view towards Murano 
except through, the lane called 
Calle Colombina. The way to 
Titian's house from the church of 
San Canciano is through the 
" Calle Widman " to the " Campo 

* Cadore, or Titian's country, 
u. s. pp. 3-5 ; and compare, for the 
various leases of Titian's house, 
Cadorin, Dello Amore, u. s. pp. 
83, and foU^'. Mr. Gilbert re- 
publishes Cadorin' s drawing of 
Titian's house, as it existed in 1 833. 


The truth is, that many changes occnrrcd in Venice 
after 1540, which contributed to alter the topography 
of the north-eastern suburl.)s of the city ; and under 
the influence of these changes, the waters of the higoous 
receded from Titian's garden as the sea withdrew from 
Pisa and Puavenna. The banks were originally cut up 
into creeks of vaiying depths, and the approaches by 
land were insecure, and these Qvih outweighed the 
charms which struck Priscianese. Tn \r)-iC, Cristo- 
foro Sabbadini, a friend of Sansovino, j)roposed to the 
Senate to embank the whole of the land from Santa 
Giustina in the south-east, to Sant' Alvise on the 
north-west. But the scheme was so vast tliat it met 
with serious opposition, and even when reduced !•> 
more modest dimensions, and confined to the region 
between San Francesco d.Ha \'iL,nia, and the Creek or 
Sacco della Misericordia, it failed to find support. 
Ill 1,388, however, the water baibfl', Oirolamo Pighetti, 
suff^^ested to the Senate to undertake the embankment 
from a point between Santa Giustina and San Fran- 
cesco, to the church of Santa Catherina ; and this 
project was approved by a pul)lic decree of Feljruary, 
1589. Several sections of the quay were finished 
before 159:^. Most of the creeks were filled uj> suc- 
cessively. A roadway was made along the waterside. 
Houses lined the roadway, and thus Titian's dwelling, 
the chief attraction of which had been its garden and 
its view, was gi-adually enclosed, and lost most of its 
charms.* Yet it remained for many years a favourite 

* M.S. records in the archives of Venice, collated in a MS. at 
Cadoro by the Abate Cadorin. 



haunt of artists. After its sale in 1581, by Pomponio, 
the worthless son of a great father, it was let to 
Francesco Bassano, who put an end to his life by 
throwiu,^ himself from the upper windows in a fit of 
frenzy.""' Leonardo Corona subsequently lived and 
died there ;t and it is not without interest to note 
that Bassano was the man who repainted the " Battle 
of Cadore," on the ceiling of the Hall of Great Council 
at Venice, and Corona who copied Titian's original 
composition for that subject. ;j; 

To the glimpse of Titian's leisure hours which 
Priscianese affords, we add another from a letter 
written by Aretino to the canon in posse, Pomponio 
Vecelli. In 1530 Titian had taken his sister Orsa 
to live with him. In the years that followed, his 
children, Pomponio, Orazio, and Lavinia, grew apace, 
and tlie letter which Aretino wrote on the 2Gth of 
November, 1537, shows how these children shared the 
luxury with wliich their father had surrounded liis 
home. " Pomponio Monsignorino ! " Aretino says, 
"your father Titian has given me the compliments 
which you sent me. . . . and in order to show you 
my libcralit}^, I send a thousand in return, on con- 
dition that you give the least of them to your pretty 

* July 2S, 1591. (See Yerci. 
Pitt. Bassanese, 8vo, Ven. 1775, 
p. 157. 

t Eidolfi, Maraviglie, ii. 297. 

+ Leonardo Corona also painted 
the outer walls of the house in 
fresco, but his work has disap- 
peared. Inside the house there 

were paintings on canvas, attri- 
buted to Titian, which represented 
a frieze of cupids. They were 
whitewashed and then sold by 
one of the tenants at the beginning 
of the present century. See Ca- 
dorin, Dello Amore, «. s. p. 32. 

Chap. II.] TITIAX BUYS AN ORG.\A'. 47 

little brother Orazio, wlio forgot to let mo know what 
he thinks of the diftcrence between this world and the 
next. ... It is time that you should return from the 
country, where there is no school. ... So (.'ome home, 
and now that you are twelve years old, you shall write 
.some exercises in Hebrew, in Greek, and in Latin, 
that will astonish the doctors, as the pictures astonish 
the artists of Italy which are painted by Messer your 
father. So no more, but keep yourself warm and in 
good appetite."* 

" Monsignorino," we shall see, became fonder of 
pleasure than Greek, and instead of astonishing the 
doctors, shocked an indulgent world by the vices of a 
spendthrift cloaked by llie < of a priest. But 
Orazio was put by his father to the easel, and lived 
with his sister Lavinia to lie a solace and support of 
Titian's old age. 

To the luxurious surroundinL:s which made the 
painter's abode so lemarkablc, an organ was added in 
Ajtril, l."^40. The "canny" Titian was not a man to 
l)uy such an instrument with ready money ; he pro- 
posed to Alessandro "da gli ( )rgani," to exchange the 
instrument for a portrait of himself, and he punctually 
peiformed his j»art of the contract.*^ Another portrait 
of the time is that of Vincenzo Gapello, appointiMl in 
ir)40 to high command in the \'enetian fleet, whose 
figure, encased in burnished armour, loni: fidorned the 
collection of the Ruzzini family.:]: 

* Lcttcre di 'M. V. A. i. :!(».>. 
+ 1.j4i), April 7, Iroui V<uic'o. 

gani, Lettaro di M. P. A. ii. 1 10', 
aud IlidolG, Murav. i. L'OJ. 

Arotino to Alessandro da gli Or- ' ( 1540, Doc. L'5, Aretiuo to 


In contrast with it, a likeness of Elizabeth Quirini 
displayed the features of a plump and youthful dame, 
sister to Girolamo, patriarch of Venice, dear to Bembo 
for her brother's sake, and celebrated in the sonnets of 
Giovanni della Casa. All that remains of that cele- 
brated picture is the copper plate of Jos. Canale, 
representing the lady in a rich dress of silks, and lace 
with fair hair curled into short locks over a hin^h and 
vaulted forehead.* 

But the most honourable commission with wLich 
Titian was entrusted in this year, was that of painting 
Federico Gonzaga and his wife for Otto Henry, Count 
Palatine of the Ehine and Duke of Bavaria. Federico 
and the Count corresponded in Latin — that being the 
only language which they both understood ; and we 
still possess the letter which the Mantuan prince 
addressed in June, 1540, to his German colleague. 

" Meam et uxoris mepe imagines curabo fieri manu 
Titiani pictoris Ex"" cjui Venetiis moratur, ut quani 
simillimas eas habere possit." t 

Molino, with a sonnet in praise 
of Capello's portrait, Lett, di 
M. P. A. ii. 190 ; Eidolfi, Marav. 
i. 16L 

* The portrait of Elizabeth 
Quirini as engraved by Canale, is 
turned f to the right. Her hair 
is plaited and curled ; her silk 
bodice laced over a very full 
form ; the bosom covered with 
lace in square patterns ; the puff 
sleeves are of stuff trimmed with 
silk. Eound the neck a collar of 
pearls ; in the right hand a pair 
of gloves. The plate is inscribed, 


cellio da Cad. pinxit ; Jos. Canale, 
del. and scul. The original was. 
in the Collection of Giovanni 
della Casa in 1544. (See Bembo to 
Girolamo Quirini, Aug. 3, 1544, 
in Bembo, Op. u. s. vi. p. 339 ; or 
in Eottari's Eaccolta, 5, 213.) 
Delia Casa's sonnet to it, begin- 
ning, "Benvegg'io, Tiziano, in 
forme nuove," is reprinted in, 
Ticozzi's VecelLi, u. s. 143. See 
also Vasari, xiii. 43. 

t Copied from the original. 


In November tlie Duke of Bavaria sent to remind 
the Mantuan court of these portraits, but in the mean- 
while Federico Gonzasja had been carried off, leavinor 
the Mantuan possessions to his son Francesco. 

It is impossible to look back upon the life of this 
prince without perceiving that he did more than any 
other to foster the arts and keep up the dignity of the 
artists of his time. He wdll always be remembered 
as the patron of Giulio Romano, Titian, and a host of 
minor craftsmen. The galleries which he formed, the 
palaces which he adorned, WTre second to none but 
those of Florence and Rome. Nor is it to be credited 
that Titian would ever have gained the protection of 
Charles the Fifth but for his countenance and intro- 
duction. Titian was grateful to him fur his steady 
patronage and his generous recpiital of pictorial 
labours, and when Federico was buried in the last 
days of June, the painter went to Mantua to attend 
the Duke's funeral and pay court to his successor."' 

Hardly a year had elapsed since Don Diego de 
JMcndozza succeeded Don Lope de Soria at Venice ; 
yet he had already sat to Titian ; and Arctino, with 
becoming zeal, had penned a sonnet in which he 
praised the talent of the limner, and sang of the old 
head on younj]: shoulders which distino:uished the hifrh- 

dated Juno 17, in tho Archives of 
Mantua, bj' Canon linighiroUi, 

* In a letter dated Venice, 
Nov. 20, to the Marquis of Vasto, 
Aretino excuses Titian's delay in 
Jinidhiug tho picture of tho " Al- [ zagas took place. 


locution" (the Marquis addressini; 
his soldiers), by his necessary ab- 
sence at Mantua (Lett, di M. P. 
A. ii. IGo''). But he does not say 
■when Titian's visit to tho Gou 



born Spaniard. Mendozza Avas by connection and 
office a man of considerable influence. He followed 
the fasliion set by bis master in patronizing Titian, 
and was tlie first nobleman who received Vasari on his 
arrival at Venice.* His wealth was impartially spent 
on art and the fair sex ; and the lady of his devotion, 
also portrayed by Titian, had the fortune to be sung 
by Aretino in the lines : 

" Furtivamente Titiano et amore 
Presi a gara i pennelli, e le quadreUa 
Duo essempi han' fatto cV una Donna bella 
E sacrati al Mendozza aureo Signore 
Ond' egli altier di si divin favore 
Per seguir' cotal Dea, come sua Stella ; 
Con cerimonie apaxtenenti a quella, 
L' una in camera tien, 1' altro nel core."t 

Vasari describes Titian's Mendozza as a full-length 
of the greatest perfection.! But nothing is known of 
it now, except that it shared the fate of its companion, 
the lady of Mendozza's afiections. An attempt to 
connect it with a full-length under Titian's name at 
the Pitti deserves but little commendation, since if it 
were proved that this imperfect production was once 
a fine creation of Titian, it would also prove that 
modern restorers can utterly destroy the masterpieces 
of a great painter. § 

* Yas. (i. 20) tells how Men- 
dozza gave him 200 ducats for two 
pictures painted from Michael 
Angelo's cartoons. 

t Lettere di M. P. Aret", u. s., 
ii. 314. 

J Vas. xiii. 33. 

§ Pitti, No. 215, canvas, full 

length, of life size. The figure is 
that of a man of forty, in black 
silk vest, short cloak, and hose ; 
the right hand on the hip, the 
left holding the cloak. In the 
background of the room is a bas- 
relief. The head is totally re- 
painted, the rest ill preserved. 

Chap, n.] 



Having taken his usual autumnal trip to Cadore, 
during which he appointed his kinsman Yincenzo 
Vecelli to the office of a notary,^ Titian settled down 
to work for the winter at Venice, and began labouring 
seriously at the " Allocution " for the ^larcpiis of 
Vasto. He had promised that picture early in the 
previous year, Ijut had only made a large sketch of it 
when the marquis wrote to complain of the painter's 
delays. Aretino too had promised to write the life of 
St. Catherine for tlie marchioness, but hnd not done it. 
Excusing his procrastination on the score of private 
disappointments, Aretino, in November, penned a 
letter to Davalos, explaining that Titian's want of 
punctuality was due to an unforeseen visit to ]\[antua. 
But he had ah-eady made up for lost time by drawing 
in Del Vasto and his soldiers with a figure of the boy 
Francesco Ferrante holding his father's plumed helmet. 
The likeness, he went on to say, was already admirable, 
the armour dazzling in its reflections, the boy like 
Phoebus at the side of jMars.t But all this was mere 
word painting. The picture was not nearly so far 
advanced as Aretino said ; and in December, whilst 
sending, on his own account, the life of St. Catherine 
and a bronze statue of the saint by Sansovino, "the 

To 8ay that the execution recalls 
Cesare Vecellio or Schiavone, is 
equivalent to sayinp: that the 
picture is not by Titian. Yet 
some bits, such as the hand on 
the hip and the bas-relief, are 
almost good enough for Titian. 
• Memoria di alcuno persone 

da Tiziano create notai; MS. 
Jacobi of Cadore. Yincenzo Ye- 
celli was enrolled as a notary by 
order of the Council of Cadore 
on the 15th of September, 1540. 

t Aretino to Del Yasto, Yenice, 
Nov. 20, 1540, in Lett, di M. P. 
Aretino, li. p. 1G5. 

E 2 



Scourge" also despatched Titian's original sketch in 
order to silence Del Vasto's complaints.* In February, 
1541, we find Titian negotiating with Girolamo 
Martinengo of Brescia, and promising to paint that 
nobleman's portrait if he would but send a complete 
suit of armour to fio;ure in the " Allocution. "t The 
picture was doubtless finished soon after, for when 
exhibited at Milan it made quite a sensation amongst 
the crowds which Davalos invited to see it.| Its 
despatch to Spain, and subsequent transfer to the 
Alcazar of Madrid, remain unexplained ; unexplained, 
likewise, the existence of a similar picture in the 
Mantuan collection which passed into the gallery 
formed at Whitehall by Charles the First. § Even the 
sketch has disappeared, though it may still perhaps be 
identified as that which Charles the First purchased 
during his visit to Spain. || Unhappily the Spanish 
edition of the picture which adorned the Alcazar in 
the reign of Philip the Fourth (1621), was irretrievably 
injured by fire and subjected to repainting ; and it is 
only with considerable difiiculty that we discover a 
touch of Titian's brush. Still the composition is clear. 

* Aretino to Del Vasto, Venice, 
Dec. 22, 1540 ; and the same to 
Sansovino, Venice, January 13, 
1541, in Lett, di M. P. Aret°, ii. 
pp. 189—191. 

t Aretino to Capitan' Palazzo, 
Venice, Eeb. 15, 1541, in Lett, di 
M. P. A. ii. 193\ 

X Marcolini to Aretino, in Let- 
tere a M. P. A., vol. ii., extr. in 
Ticozzi's Vecelli, p. 122. 

§ Bathoe's Cat., u. s., p. 96. 

The marquis here called Vaugona 
may be Guido Eangone. The 
canvas measured 7 ft. 4 in. by 
5 ft. 5 in. higb. 

II Bathoe's Catalogue registers 
tbis as follows : " Done by Titian, 
the picture of the Marquis Guasto, 
containing five half figures so big 
as the life which the king bought 
out of an ' Almonedo,' " wbich 
means, that the picture was pur- 
chased at an auction. 

Chap. H.] 



The marquis stands on a low plintli in burnislied and 
damasked armour. Witli one hand he holds the baton, 
with the other he gesticulates as he speaks to a 
company of halberdiers on the ground to the right. 
A red mantle falls from his shoulders, his cropped hair 
and beard arc Ijlack. Near him his son Francesco 
stands in a gi'cen coat and buskins, and liolds his 
father's plumed helmet. But for the daubs on the 
faces we might perhaps recognize Aretino, who is 
descril^ed l)y a contemporary as a spectator under the 
garb of a soldier.* The likeness of del Vasto and his 
son is lost under copious rctouches.t Titian's reward 
is said to have been an annual pension of fifty scudi 
on one of his patron's estates.^ Titian had good 
reasons for showing zeal in del \*asto's behalf, since it 
was rumoured that the emperor was coming to revisit 
the peninsuhi and inspect his possessions in Italy. 
After ineffectual neijcjtiation, Charles the Fifth had 
failed to obtain from the French king the cession of 
his claims on IMilan. Xot even Burgundy and the 
Netherlands which the Emperor tendered in exchange 
ha<l been found sufficient to tempt Francis the First. 
Ecpially vain had been the effort to settle religious 
differences in the diet of llatisbon. Charles had spent 
the spring and summer of 1541 in these negotiations, 
and now he was bent on seeing; how matters stood in 
Lombardy, resolved to meet the Pope, and prepare 

• MarcoHni to Aretino, n. s. 

t The picture is numbered 471 
in the Mudiid Museum. It is on 
canvas, m. 2.23 high, by l.GJ. 

Sec Don Pedro do Madrazo's Ca- 

t Ridolfi, Marav. i. 223. 



the fleet Avhicb, lie fondly hoped, would compensate 
the loss of Pesth to the Turks by the capture of 
Algiers. In August he was met in the name of Paul 
the Third at Peschiera by Ottavio Farnese. Though 
travelling without state, and as Giustiniani remarks, 
concealing the majesty of the Empire under the shade 
of a bad hat and threadbare clothes,* his reception at 
Milan was regal, and he made a solemn entry into the 
old capital of the Sforzas with Granvelle and Gaspar 
Contarini at his side, and accompanied by Davalos, 
the Prince of Salerno, Lope de Soria, Davila, and the 
crowd of imperial captains, councillors, and secre- 
taries.! Aretino had hoped that he would be asked 
to join the solemnity, but having fallen into some 
temporary disfavour, and being compelled, much 
against his will, to remain at Venice, he had the more 
reason for wishing that Titian should witness it, and 
soothe in his intercourse with the Emperor and his 
officials any difficulties that might have arisen. 
Aretino judiciously heralded Titian's coming by 
letters to some of Charles's generals and secretaries. 
To the prince of Salerno, who was about to command 
a division in Algiers, he wrote that Titian would ask 
him to sit " for an outline of his figure." To Lope de 
Soria, " that he had asked Titian to do him reverence 
in his name."J Davalos was propitiated by the 

* Pietro Giustiniani, Hist. Ye- 
netiane, 4to, Yen. 1576, lib. 13, 
p. 271. 

t Albicante, Trattato dell' In- 
trar a Milano di Carlo Y., 4to, 
Milan, 1541, in Cicogna, Isc. 

Yen. iv. 665. 

X Aretino to the Prince of Sa- 
lerno, Yenice, Aug. 13, 1541 ; 
and Aretino to Lope de Soria, 
Yenice, Aug. 14, 1541, in Lettere 
di M. P. Aretino, ii. 222^ & 223'. 



" Allocution " which, we may think, Titian took with 
him to Milan, and Gian' Battista Torniello was 
gladdened with the sight of a " Nativity," which for 
many subsequent years formed the chief ornament of 
the chapel of St. Joseph in the cathedral of Novarra.* 
Titian for his part had occasion to paint new portraits 
and urge his claims on the Emperor's treasury. He 
received from Charles the Fifth a patent granting him 
an annuity of 100 ducats payable out of the Milanese 
treasury.! The length of his stay at jNIilan has not 
been ascertained, nor has any detail of his daily 
avocations l^een preserved. At home at Venice in the 
following October, we find him enjoying the usual 
round of quiet dissipation attendant on mirthful 
company and fine suppers, the triumvirate, into which 
Marcolini the bookseller had entered, being turned into 
a club called the " Academy," where a small but jovial 
set of " compeers " met either in the rooms at Biri, 
or in Aretino's palace on the Grand Canal. | In 
the workshop at Biri, there was to be seen, before the 

• Torniello had been dissatis- 
fied with a "Nativity" which 
Titiau had doue for him. He had 
seut it back, and Ai*etino wrote to 
him on the (Jth of August, 1541, 
that "Titiau had repainted the 
tavolu, iuto which ho had intro- 
duced the protector of his (Tor- 
niello's) birthplace (St. Gauden- 
gius of Novarra) in armour, and 
two angels in place of cherubs." 
(Compare Lett, di M. P. A. ii. 
308'.) The picture was placed on 
the high altar of San Giuseppe, 
iu the Uuomo of Novarra, where 

it was seen and described by Lo- 
mazzo. (Idea del Tempio, p. 141.) 
It is not now to bo found. 

t This patent has not been 
preserved, but is recited in a later 
one, to which reference will bo 
niad(^ jxjstea ; but see Gaye, Car- 
teggio, ii. 369. 

X See Leone Aretino to P. Ai'C- 
tino, Genoa, 23rd of March, 1541, 
in Lett, a M. P. Aret", i. 357 ; 
and Aretino to Pigna, Oct. 11, 
1541, in Lettere di M. P. Ai", li. 


winter closed, a large altarpiece of the " Descent of the 
Holy Spirit," ordered by the canons of San Spirito in 
Isola, the same religious community which had 
employed Titian years before, but was now desirous 
of more modern masterpieces suited to the splendour 
of a new church rebuilt by Sansovino.* AVhen the 
canons were invited to inspect this altarpiece, they 
protested their unwillingness to take it, and a quarrel 
began, which we shall see expanding to large propor- 
tions, till the influence of the Farnese princes put an 
end to it. 

Carnival time was now approaching, and the gay 
patricians of the company of the Calza, led by the 
irrepressible humour of Aretino, planned a grand 
" apparato " or show, to conclude with the perform- 
ance of Aretino's new comedy, called the " Talanta." 
It is characteristic of the peculiar form which art had 
assumed at Venice, that the pieces required for scenes 
and show were not entrusted to Venetian painters, 
and the members of the Calza deputed Aretino to 
engage artists for this purpose in Tuscany. Aretino 
naturally thought of patronising one of the craftsmen 
of his native town, and in this way Vasari first 
made acquaintance with the city of the lagoons. t A 
couple of pages in his autobiography give a descrip- 
tion of the work which he executed for the carnival 
company ; but the public was informed of the artist's 
name by a dialogue in the " Talanta," in which the 

* Yasari, xiii. 33; Sansovino, I t Yas. i. 20, xi. 9, and xiii 
Yen. Des. 229. 34. 

Chap. II.] 



princijial character was ingeniously made to puff all 
the friends of the dramatist in a single sentence. 

" I am told, am informed, and have seen it written, 
says Messer Vergolo, that Messer Giorgio d'Arczzo, 
who is hardly thirty-five, has painted a scene and an 
apparato, which those clever spirits, Titian and 
Sansovino, greatly admire." "* 

But Vasari's success was not limited to the perish- 
able canvases of a puhlic show or of theatrical scenes. 
Since the days of the exhibition of the "Battle of 
Cadore " in the Hall of Great Council, Titian had 
kept up his connection with the Cornaro family. He 
had even been painting as Yasari came, or had caused 
one of his journeymen to paint, a portrait of Catherine 
Cornaro, the dead Queen uf Cyprus, in the garb of a 
saint, which numberless artists were afterwards to 
copy and multiply. He gave the young Aretine an 
introduction to Giovanni Cornaro ; and it was doubt- 
less not ^vithout his countenance that Sansovino pro- 
cured for him the order to decorate San Spirito in 

* La Talanta commedia di M. 
1'. Aretino comiio^ta a pctizione 
de' magnifici signori sompitorni, 
recitata dalle lor proprie mag- 
nificonze con mirabil supoibia di 
ai)parato. Yincgia per E. Marco- 
lini, 1542, act i. sc. 3. 

t The palace of Giovanni Cor- 
naro at San Benedetto, now 
Corner- Spiuelli, on the Grand 
Canal, was that in which Vasari 
laboured, and there ho designed 
the ornament of a ceiling. The 
canons of Sau Spirito in Isola, 

wished him to paint the ceiling 
canvases, which were afterwards 
executed by Titian (Vas. xiii. 34). 
Uidolfi (Maraviglie, i. 198) states 
that this portrait of Catherine 
( "oriiaro was often copied. The 
finest example ascribed to Titian is 
that exhibited at the Uflizi in EIo- 
reucc (No. (348, half-longth of life 
size on canvas), where the queen 
is represented standing turned 
three-quarters to the left, her oj'cs 
to the right, her left hand in the 
grasp of her right. A crown of 



Titian meanwhile had been enterinsf on new and 


onerous engagements. In May, 1542, he received an 

gold, studded -witli pearls, forms 
the edging to a turban of silk. 
A jewelled brooch is fastened at 
the bosom to a red silk bodice, 
the sleeves of which are puffed 
with green damask. Over this a 
rich surcoat falls, the border of 
which is strewed with pearls. The 
face and form are full, plump, 
and youthful, but finely moulded 
and of graceful shape; and the 
attitude is nobly kept and ren- 
dered. But the treatment is cold 
and empty, notwithstanding that 
some traits of Titianesque exe- 
cution are apparent in it. The 
painter in Titian's school of whom 
we are most reminded, is Marco 
di Tiziano, yet on the back of the 
canvas, and re- copied, according 
to records in the secret archive of 
the Pitti on July 8, 1773, are 
the words : ' ' titdvni op vs axxo 
1542." The dress and minutite 
are all retouched in the lights ; 
at the queen's elbow is the wheel, 
romid her head on a brown back- 
ground, the nimbus of St. Cathe- 
rine. Photograph by Braun. 

The same person, turbaned and 
standing in a room with an open 
window to the left, is fairly de- 
scribed as C. Cornaro, by Titian, 
in the Holford Collection. But 
the treatment is feebler here than 
at the Ufiizi. The same person 
again, without a head-dress, and 
holding a garland of flowers, is 
ascribed to Titian in the collection 
of the Duke of Wellington in 
London. It is a copy of life size 
on canvas, by some imitator of 

Titian. " The Queen of Cyprus," 
as St. Catherine, with the palm 
and wheel, was exhibited under 
Titian's name as the property of 
Earl Brownlow, at the Academy, 
in 1875. 

Unlike any of these pieces, and 
doubtless erroneously called Ca- 
therine Cornaro, is a portrait of a 
lady, more than half length, in 
possession of Signer Francesco 
Pdccardi, Via Borgo Pignolo at 
Bergamo ; a canvas which, when 
in the Casa Yincenzo Martinengo 
Colleoni at Brescia, was engraved 
in the line series of Sala. The 
person represented is a portly 
woman in a red dress, whose 
chestnut hair is gathered up into 
a striped bag. She stands full 
front at the side of a marble 
plinth, on the face of which her 
own profile is carved in relief. 
Iler left hand is raised to rest on 
the slab, the right hanging list- 
less at her side. The regular 
features of a broad, good hu- 
moured, and pinguid counte- 
nance, are quite the reverse of 
queenly. The homely di-ess is 
well set and draped, and the whole 
j^iece recalls in its general aspect 
the period when Titian strove with 
Giorgione for a place in Yenetian 
art. But the canvas is now too 
much injured to warrant a posi- 
tive opinion. The hair is new, 
the eyes and flesh are mostly 
daubed over, and there is much 
modern colour to conceal what 
may in past times have been the 
work of Titian. 



advance of teu ducats to begin the votive picture of 
the Doge Lando, which was to be placed in the Sala 
d'Oro.* On the 5th of June he received a sum 
exactly similar, as an earnest that he would furnisli to 
Domenico Giustiniani an altarpiece for the high altar 
of the Church of Serravalle.t lu the intervals 
devoted to labours of a lighter kind he painted the 
portrait of himself, which he purposed to leave as a 
reminiscence to his children. 

Of the numerous portraits which might claim to 
be that produced ]>}' the painter for his descendants, 
history unhap])ily gives insuthcicnt account. Kecords 
show that a likeness of Titian, registered as an heir- 
loom of the Vecelli of Cadorc, was stolen in 1 733, and 
purchased in a mysterious and unaccountable way 
for the "Duke of Florence." licspoctable Cadorines, 
who visited the Tuscan cai)ital, declared that the 
picture exhibited in the gallery of the UfKzi was the 
heirloom in <piestion, and recent historians have 
repeated the tale without testing its truth. J The 
fact appears to be that there were several portraits of 
Titian not unlike each other, which passed through 
the hands of dealers out of Italy ; that one came into 
Rubens' possession, v^ whilst another changed owners 
obscurely, until it reached the gallery of M. Solly, 
Avliose treasures now form the Museum of Berlin, 

• Tho document is in Lorenzi, 
«. «., p. '2'6'). 

t Soo Appendix. 

\ Compare the correspondence 
of 1733 in Ticozzi's Vecelli, pp. 
303-7, with tho anuotators of 

Vasari, xiii. p. 34. 

§ In Rubens' Inventory (1(J40) 
•we find " tho pictuio of Titian 
himseLfe, made by himsell'e." 
(Saiusbury, u. s., p. 23G.) 



The evidence which affirms that the Duke of Florence 
purchased the stolen portrait of Titian in 1733, may 
be unimpeachable, yet we must assume that the 
portrait, so stolen, was never exhibited at Florence, 
since the Titian now at the Uffizi was bought at 
Antwerp in 1677, and publicly displayed a short time 

The earliest likeness, or rather that which gives 
Titian the greatest apparent youth, is that of the 
Belvedere at Vienna. But this is so altered by 
repainting as now to deny the hand of the master.! 
Next in point of age, and executed with surprising 
skill, is that of Berlin, where Titian, with his own 
hand, has rapidly sketched his manly form, encased 
in a closely-buttoned doublet, of changing stuff, 
showing red lake shadows and lights of laky white. 
His shoulders are covered by a wide pelisse of dark 
brown cloth, with a collar of brown musk, giving free 
play to arms sheathed in silvery damask. A broad 

* See the correspondence of the 
Grand Duke Cosimo the Third 
and Francis Schilders, February 
to September, 1666 — 1677, in 
Gualandi's Nuova Eaccolta di 
Lettere, §vo, Bologna, 1845, ii. 
pp. 306-316. 

t This picture, a bust on wood, 
1 ft. 7 in. high, by 1 ft. 4 in., is 
No. 48, Eoom II., 1st Floor, of 
Italian Schools in the Belvedere 
Collection. The face is turned to 
the right, the head covered with 
a black skull-cap ; the fur pelisse, 
and knight's chain, are similar to 
those in other portraits of Titian. 
The flesh parts are altogether re- 

painted, and show at present no 
trace of Titian's hand. The only 
part which might do this is the 
shirt collar, but this is too little 
to go by. A copy of this portrait, 
by Teniers, is at Blenheim. There 
is an engraving by L. Vorster- 
man, in the Teniers Gallery, and 
another in Haas's Galerie de 
Yienne. It is a question whether 
this may not be the ' ' portrait of 
Titian by himself" which be- 
longed to the Antiquarian Strada 
at Venice in 1567. See Stock- 
bauer's Kunstbestrebungen am 
Bayrischen Hofe, in Quellen- 
schriften, u. s., viii. p. 43. 


white shirt collar and a black skull-cap relieve the 
grand Llock of a finely chiselled face, decorated with 
beard and moustache of dubious grey. The hands 
are as full of life as the movement and the frame. 
One of them rests with fini^ers outstretched on the 
green cloth of a table, the other on the knee. Tlie 
face is seen at three-quarters to the right, divided into 
perfect proportions, the forehead high, the brow bold 
and projectinrr, tlic nose of fine cut, shooting, arched 
from a powerful bjuse, that parts a pair of penetrant 
eyes of admirable^ regularity ; round the neck are two 
twists of the chain, which imlicates the painters 
knightly r;ink. AVliat distinguishes the liead from 
the rest of the picture is its finished modelbng. The 
sleeves are a mere rubbing of silver grey, the hands 
a scumble of umber. One can see that the man who 
painted the picture was of a tough fil)r(', and 
eminently fitted to represent himself in the form in 
which he is made to appear. The eye and action 
reveal the same headlong fire and overllow of spirit 
that characterised iNIichaelangelo ; and as we picture 
to ourselves tlie s(.'ul[)tor hammering out tlie chips 
with dust and din, so we picture to ourselves Titian 
dashing off this likeness of himself, expressing his 
meaning, here with a rubbed pigment, there with an 
indication of outline, now witli a dash of colour, 
making out the shape in ligliter or darker tone of red 
and black on the neutral stretcli of the ground, then 
with a touch, leaving a little hill of light sparkling as 
a diamond iu the eyes and finger tips. Uut having 
done this, a more sober, laborious mood supervenes ; 



tlie face is kneaded and modelled into shape, and 
finished in a russet key.* 

From this masterly piece, which time has unhappily 
injured, there can be no doubt the likeness of the. 
Uffizi — whoever painted it — was taken. In the main 
the features are the same as those of Berlin. The 
hands alone differ ; but the distinctive quality of the 
Florentine example is its finish. The black skull-ca23 
of the study is exchanged for one of a deep but gayer 
blue. The knight's chain, with the double eagle 
pendent from it, is fully made out. The left hand, 
holding a pallet, is well shaped and finely detached, 
the dress complete. Yet the surfaces have been 
abraded or changed to such an extent by time and 
repainting that one can hardly decide whether the 
picture was executed by Titian or Marco Vecelli.t 

Many years later, perhaps in 1562, when — Vasari 
says — Titian again took a likeness of himself, the 
noble portrait of the Madrid Museum was brought to 

* This canvas, a half length on 
a brown i-ubbed ground, was in a 
very bad state till regenerated in 
April, 1874, by the Pettenkofer 
process. It is now very bright, 
but one still sees where it suffered 
abrasion. The canvas is No. 16^3 
in the Berlin Museum, 3 ft. 2 in. 
high by 2 ft. 5 in. Injured by 
rubbing off of its final glazes, it 
shows a " pentimento " at the 
right ear, and the flesh looks 
somewhat more monotonous than 
we expect to find it in a perfect 
Titian. From a passage in Maier's 
Imitazione pittorica, 8vo, Venice, 

1818, p. 333, we gather that this 
picture once belonged to Ci- 

+ No. 384 in the Uffizi ; this 
canvas only shows Titian to the 
waist. There are strong marks 
of abrasion in various parts, and 
particularly on the forehead, 
where also there are heavy re- 
touches. Large spots of new 
colour disfigure the pelisse and 
arm to the right. The whole 
surface is dulled by modern tint- 
ing. Engraved by Agostino Ca- 



perfection, in which we see the artist hoary with ao-e, 
yet still lithe and erect, and, as ever, noble in bearino-. 
The features have grown thin and cornered ; the beard 
and hair are whiter than the linen of the collar, but 
the vigour of the old man's frame is still apparent in 
the hawk's eye which glistens from out of tlie hollow 
orbit, overshadowed by its silver-streak u[ brow ; and 
the black skull-cap marks a contrast not only witli 
the hair on tlie temples, but witli flosli fidl of pul.sant 
life. Here Titian is almost in profile to the left, but 
wears the time-honoured collar, doublet, and pelisse. 
In the right hand he holds a brush, the emblem of 
his art. The featur(\s aj>pear to have gained in 
dignity what they liavc lost in youth ; and the face, 
though it is retouched here and tliere, is full of 
character, and dolineated with all th(> mastery and 
delicacy of gradations of whidi Titian's pencil was 

Once or twice again we find the likeness repeated 
in a "St. Matthew" at the Salute, or as adjuncts to 
larger compositions, in the '' Madonna " of Pieve, or 
the " Pietil " of the Venice Academy, which is the last 

* This portrait, a life-sizod 
bust on canvas, M. 0-S6 h. by 
0.65, is No. 477 in tho Madrid 
Museum, and as early as tho 
reign of Philip tho Fourth of Spain 
(1G'21 — 65), hung in tho Alcazar. 
It is not frco from retouching. 
Photograph hy Tianrent. In 1 oVI 
Alphonse Fran<;ois engraved it 
from, a replica (? copy), at that 
time in possession of M. Chaix 

d'Est-Ange, in Paris. Yasari says 
(xiii. p. Hi) that Titian painted 
his own likeness about tlio timo 
when hn executed tho ceiling of 
tho Saluto (1543). Ho adds (xiii. 
44) that ho painted his own like- 
ness, " as boforo stated," in 1.362, 
leaving us in doubt as to whether 
Titian produced one or two like- 
nesses. Two seems moro pro- 
bable than ono. 



creation of the master's hand. Other artists immor- 
talized this painter also, Paul Veronese in the 
" Marriage of Cana " at the Louvre, Palma Giovine in 
the ceiling of the Oratory of San Fantino ; but there 
are numerous pictures in addition which represent the 
master in converse with a friend, and these are every- 
where assumed to he by Titian. There may have 
been originals from which they were taken. In no 
case are they genuine, nor is it even certain that the 
persons represented are correctly designated. In a 
canvas at Cobham Hall, the well-known form of 
Titian is accompanied by that of a bearded man 
called Francesco Zuccato.* In a canvas at Windsor 
Castle, of which there is also a replica at Cobham 
Hall, we find him in company of a senator miscalled 
Aretino. It is natural to guess at the names of men 
known to have been familar with Titian, and the 
guess may be justified as regards Zuccato. The so- 
called Aretino at Windsor is the counterpart of "A 
Senator " by Titian in the collection of Lord Elcho, a 
fine delineation of a man of grave aspect, whose 
glance is not less spirited because coupled with a 
bony shape, dry flesh, and sparse hair and beard of 
pepper and salt quality. Titian here threw the whole 

* The canvas at Cobham Hall, 
called " Titian, and Zuccato," re- 
presents the painter at a table, 
with a bearded man speaking to 
him. The so-called Zuccato is on 
the right side of the picture, lay- 
ing his right hand on Titian's 
shoulder. Titian rests his right 
hand on the green cloth of a 

table, and holds a sheet of paper. 
Judging of the painter from the 
thin pigments and rapid decision 
of brush work, one might guess 
him to be Tintoretto, or an imi- 
tator of Tintoretto. Hasty hand- 
ling, neglected form, and un- 
transparent colour, are not cha- 
racteristic of Titian. 

Chai'. n.] 



energy of his talent into the balance to produce with 
freedom a life-like presentation ; but the model Avas 
not Aretino, whose flesh and fat never abandoned him 
at any period of his existence.* 

Of one portrait noted by historians we have no 
present knowledge. It belonged to the Renier collec- 
tion in the 17th century, and represented Titian 
drawing with one hand on a portfoho, and a pencil in 
the other : in the backccround the Venus of ]\[edici. 
The description eijually suits the picture and an 
engraving by Giovanni Bello, for which Aretino wrote 
a sonnet in 1550.t It gives a less characteristic view 
of Titian thun the later print of Odoardo Fialetti, or 
that miscalled " Titian and his Mistress," in which 
the grey-bearded artist is shown laying his hand on 
the waist of his daughter, a copper-plate which 

* The canvas at Windsor Castlo 
is stated to havo been in the col- 
lections of Charles I. and James II. 
It represents Titian in his pelisse 
turned to the ri{»ht, and a bearded 
man to the right showing Titian 
a sheet of paper. This man (who 
is now siipposed to bo the Chan- 
cellor Francoschi) is di'essed in 
red, is bare-headed, and wears the 
stole of a Venetian senator. Both 
men are of life size, and seen to 
the waist. Thoy coincido with 
Ridolfi's description of figures in 
a picture in the collection of Do- 
mouico Ruzziiii at Venice, repre- 
senting, as Ridolfi affirmed (Ma- 
rav. i. '201), Titian and Francesco 
del Mosaico (Zuccato). But here 
the execution is that of a painter 

VOL. It. 

of the 17th century, whoso stylo 
recalls Odoardo Fialetti. Seo 
Bathoo's Catalogue, u. s., where 
the picture is numbered 11. The 
counterpart of this canvas at 
Cobhara Hall is also a work of 
the 17 th century. 

Lord Elcho's portrait, a life- 
size bust, in rod vest and stole, 
bears remnants of an inscription 
which has become illegible from 

t Sansoviuo, Ven. Desc, p. 
377 ; Campori, Cataloghi, pp. 4-lL', 
4-1.3 ; and Lettore di M. 1'. Are- 
tino, V. 288. — In the Canonici 
Collection at Ferrara in 1632, 
there was a " portrait of Titian," 
a drawing from Titian's own hand. 
(Campori, Cataloghi, p. 12G.) 



probably dates after 1555, when Lavinia Vecelli was 
married to Cornelio Sarciuelli.* 

Portraits of himself were not more tlian Titian's 
pastime. His serious labours Avere the votive picture 
in honour of Doge Lando, for which payments were 
registered as late as May 31, 1543 ; jDortraits of 
Eanuccio Farnese, and the dauo-hter of Eoberto 
Strozzi ; and — eminent as works of mark in the 
master's career — the ceiling canvases of the church of 
San Spirito. 

The votive picture of Doge Lando perished in the 
fire of 1577, and no description of it survives. t 
It is still doubtful whether the portrait of Eanuccio 
Farnese was preserved. That of the daughter of 
Eoberto Strozzi now adorns the palace at Florence, 
Avhich the Strozzi at the period of which we are 
treating were precluded from inhabiting. Filippo 
Strozzi is remembered in Florentine history as the 
great party chieftain Avho went into exile Avith those 
of his countrymen who refused to acknowledge Ales- 
sandro de' Medici. He led the o-allant but ill-fated 
band of patriots which strove, in 1537, to ^^I'event the 
accession of Duke Cosimo. He took his own life in 
prison Avhen informed that Charles the Fifth had given 
him up to the vengeance of the Medici. His sons 
Piero and Leo fought with the French for Italian 
supremacy, whilst Eoberto spent his life partly at 
Venice, partly in France and at Eome, consuming 

* See postea. Odoardo Fia- 
letti's print is attached as a fron- 
tispiece to Titianello's anonymous 

Life of Titian. 

t The records are in Lorenzi, 
«. s., pp. 235, 238— 24L 


some of tliG wealth of " the richest family "' in Italv in 
patronising painters and men of letters. * His daughter 
was a mere child when she sat to Titian ; but the 
picture which he produced is one of the most spark- 
ling displays of youth that ever was executed by any 
artist, not excepting those which came from the hands 
of such portraitists as Kubens or Van Dyke. The 
child is ten years old, and stands at the edge of a 
console, on which hor fiiithful lapdog rests. Her left 
hand is on the silken l>ack of the favourite. Her right 
holds a fran-ment of the cake which both have been 
munching. Both, as if they had been interrupted, 
turn tlieir heads to look straightway out <>f the pic- 
ture — a movement seized on the instant from nature. 
It is a handsome child, with a chubby face and arms, 
and a profusion of short curly auburn hair; — a child 
dressed with all thr richness ])ecoming an heiress of 
the Strozzi, in a frock and slippei-s of wliitc satin, 
girdled with a jewelled belt, the end of which is a 
jewelled tassel, the neck clasped by a necklace of 
pearls supporting a pendant. The whole of the re- 
splendent little apparition relieved in light against the 
russet sides of the room, and in silver grey against the 
casement, through wliicji we sec a stretch of landscape, 
a lake and swans, a Inllowy range of hills covering the 

• Francesco Sansovino dedi- 
cated to Roberto Strozzi his trans- 
lation of Berosus, for which Ro- 
berto made him a present of a 
gold cup, which he left by will to 
his widow. See Cicogna, Isc. Yen. 
iv. 39. Strozzi was also well 

known to Michaolangelo, and ne- 
gotiated with him for an eques- 
trian statue of Henry II. of 
France, in the name of Catherine 
de' Medici. See Catherine to Gui- 
ducci, Oct. J5()0, in Gayo, Cartcg- 
iii. 40. 

F 2 



bases of more distant mountains, and a clear sky be- 
decked with spare cloud. The panelled console against 
which she leans is carved at the side with two little 
figures of dancing Cupids, and the rich brown of the 
wood is made richer by a fall of red damask hanging. 
One can see that Titian had leisure to watch the girl, 
and seized her characteristic features, which he gave 
back with Avonderful breadth of handling, yet depicted 
with delicacy and roundness equally marvellous. The 
flesh is solid and pulpy, the balance of light and 
shadow as true as it is surprising in the subtlety of its 
shades and tonic values, its harmonies of tints rich, 
sweet, and ringing; and over all is a sheen of the 
utmost brilliance. Well might Aretino, as he saw 
this wondrous piece of brightness, exclaim : " If I were 
a painter I should die of despair . . . but certain it is 
that Titian's pencil has waited on Titian's old age to 
perform its miracles."* 

Equal in technical skill, but superior to the Strozzi 
heirloom as embodying higher laws of the pictorial 
craft, the ceiling canvases of San Spirito, to which we 
may add the four Evangelists and the four Doctors, 
and the later " Descent of the Holy Spirit," executed 

* Aretino to Titian, from Ve- 
nice, July 6, 1542, in Lett, di M. 
P. Aret", ii. p. 288\ The picture 
is on canvas ; the figure of life 
size. On a tablet high up on the 
wall to the left we read, annor x. 
MDXLii, and on the edge of the 
console to the right, titianvs f. 
Old varnish covers and partly 
conceals the beauty of this pic- 

ture, which is retouched on the 
girl's forehead and elsewhere ; 
but the surface generally is well 
preserved. At the beginning of 
the present century the portrait 
was in the palace of Duke Strozzi 
at Eome. (Bottari, Eaccolta, vol. 
iii. p. 107.) It was engraved by 
Dom. Cunego at Home in 1770. 

Chap. H.] 



for the same church, remain to us as representative 
examples of the development of Venetian art in the 
midclle of the sixteenth century. All these pictures 
are striking, either as individual displays of thought 
or as compositions. All are remarkable for boldness 
of conception and handling ; none more so than the 
ceiliug-pieccs, which convey a sense of distance as 
between the spectator and the ol)ject delineated quite 
beyond anything hitherto attempted by A'cnetian 
artists. AVhere Abraham prepares to sacrifice Isaac, 
and is stopped by the angel, the whole group is fore- 
shortened, as if the scene were presented on an 
eminence to which we necessarily look up. But 
Titian is too clever to foreshorten the group without 
foreshortening the ground ; and this he indicates by a 
perspective view of a mound oii which Abraham's 
altar stands, the projection <^f which partly conceals 
tlic patriarcli's legs, hides all l)iit tho head of an ass, 
and leaves an interlace of lines to be seen upon the 
blue of the sky. Poised in this space the angel checks 
with lightning speed the stroke that is about to fall 
on Isaac. The full swing of the blow is, as it were, 
magnetically arrested ; and Abraham turns shar^tly, 
nay, angrily, towards the messenger of heaven, his 
hand still lying heavy on the head of Isaac, bound and 
kneeling on the altar. The breeze blows freshly the 
while over the range and throws the drapery into 
picturesque surges.* 

* A largo drawing, pen and 
Bepia, in theAlbei'tina at Vienna, 

is supposed to bo the original 
sketch for this picture. It is not 


Cain, in a scant dress of hides, tramples with 
tremendous force on the hip of Abel, who falls with 
outstretched arms as the murderer wields the clul3 
over the stumbling form. The daring of the fore- 
shortening is greater than the power to realize it. 
But a sense of herculean strength and concentrated 
muscular force is conveyed. Though strained and in 
many ways incorrect, the group is still imposing, be- 
cause where the contour is false and articulations are 
loosely rendered, the defects lie hid under magic 
effects of colour, and light and shade, and such life 
and motion are displayed that one thinks not the 
artist but the being he depicts is in fault. But not a 
little of the magic of this piece is due to the subtle 
way in which a smoke of livid shades is driven to 
leeward of the altar on which Abel's sacrifice is 

The prostrate form of Goliath in the third ceiling- 
canvas looks gigantic as it lies in death on the 
sloping crest seen here again from below. David, 
slightly further back, in his green sliepherd's tunic 
gathers himself together, lifts his arms in thanks- 
giving ; and the sky seems to open and shed its light 
on him as he strains with his whole beina; towards 
heaven. The body lies headless but grandiose in its 
strength, an inert mass disposed with consummate 
skill ; the head hard by, and near it the giant's sword 
stuck into the earth. The whole scene is illumined 

original. Engraved by J. M<^ 
Mitellus, 16G9, and Lefebre, G. 
Y. Haecbt and Gottf. Saiter. 

* Engraved by Jos. M'= Mi- 
tellus, 1669, by Lefebre, and re- 
versed by Gottf. Saiter. 


weirdly by the opeuiug in the sky, the rays from, 
which do not pierce the gloom on the horizon.* 

Though painted after 1543, and in place of an older 
canvas which the canons of San Spirito had refused ; 
though executed at a time when Titian's pencil was 
wielded with more fiicility than in 1542, the 
*' Descent of the Holy Spirit " is less interesting than 
the "Cain," the "David," or the "Sacrifice," because 
it is tamer in .subject, and has suffered more from 
time and repainting. The " Marys " and " The 
Twelve " are in a vaulted room, the panellings of which 
are radiant from the light shed by the dove that hovers 
over the scene, and the cloven tongues of fire that rest 
on the heads of the elect. In the centre the Virgin 
with strongly marked gesture gives thanks, the Apostles 
iind otliers round her displaying their feelings with 
demonstrative eagerness in various ways, kneeling, 
sittinec, or standincj. In no earlier work of tlie master 
is the impression more fully conveyed, that nature has 
been caught in a quick and instant manner and trans- 
ferred to the canvas with sweeps of pastose pigment, 
and broad stretches of lioht and shade. No contours 
are seen. Everything finds its limit without an outline, 
by help of rich and unctuous tone, rare modelling, and 
subtlest gradations of colour. Bold, free, and expres- 
sive, with the boldness and freedom whicli Tintoretto 
and Schiavone admired and envied ; the handling 
betokens a mastery altogether unsurpassable.t In 

• Engraved by Jos. "M" Mi- I t A composition much in tho 
toUus, 10(3!), by Lcfobre, and re- spirit of this at tho Saluto is 
vursod by Oottf. Saiter. ' diawn in pen and sepia ou a 



their more limited sphere again, the "Four Doctors' 
and "Four Evangelists" are worthy comj)lements of a 
series which would be remarkable at any time and in 
any place. Models, or imitations of objects, are no 
longer in Cjuestion. Titian is an independent creator, 
whose art realizes beino;s instinct with a life and 
individuality of their own. His figures are not cast 
in the supernatural mould of those of Michaelangelo, 
at the Sixtine, they are not shaped in his sculptural 
way, or foreshortened in his preternatural manner. 
They have not the elegance of Eaphael, nor the con- 
ventional grace of Correggio, but they are built up as 
it were of flesh and blood, and illumined with a magic 
effect of light and shade and colour which differs from 
all else that was realised elsewhere by selection, outline, 
and chiaroscuro. They form pictures peculiar to 
Titian, and pregnant with his — and only his — grand 
and natural originality.* 

sheet ascribed to Titian in tte 
Museum of Florence, but the exe- 
cution is obviously more modern 
than that of Titian. The pictui-e 
is engraved by N. R. Cochin. 

* Compare Scanelli (Micro- 
cosmo, 216), who places Titian 
here above Michaelangelo; Va- 
sari (xiii. 34), "who calls the ceiling 
pieces " bellissime ; " and Eidolfi 
(Marav. i. 227-8). The " Cain," 
the " Abraham," and " David," 
are now in the ceiling of the great 
Sacristy of the Church of the 
Salute ; the doctors and evange- 
lists in the ceiling of the choir 
behind the high altar, St. Mat- 
thew being a portrait of Titian 

himself with a brush in his hand. 
The descent of the Holy Spirit on 
the altar of chapel 4 is greatly 
damaged, especially in the upper 
part, by repainting. That it was 
executed after all the others in 
the church is clear from the style. 
In the ceiling-pieces, which are 
large rectangular canvases, the 
figures are above life size. In 
the sacrifice of Abraham, the 
patriarch is dressed in an orange 
tunic and green mantle, the angel 
in yellow and violet, Isaac in 
lake. The angel's left foot is in- 
jured. In the "David and 
Goliath," the giant lies with his 
shoulders to the spectator, in a 

Chap. H.] 



Writing ill 1.5-44, to CardiDal Farnese, Titian alludes 
with some pride to the canvases of San Spirito, and 
claims in the following letter countenance and pro- 


" I have an action pending Ijefore the Legate* here 
against the brothers of San Spirito, of whom I hear 
that they mean to tire me out by delays. Their 
purpose is to obtain a commission or brief, l)y which 
my cause shall be transferred to aiiotlur judge, who 
is their friend. I beg your Keverend Lordship, in 
remembrance of my services, and in view of the 
importance of the case, to give i\[onsignor Guidiccione 
to understand that he may not pass any tiling contrary 
to me, Init trust to the goodness and sufficiency of 
]\[ousignor the Legate, so that the brothers shall not 
have it in their power to ill-use me, and create delays 
contrary- to duty and justice ; the matter being public 
at Venice, where everyone knows that tliese brethren 
are old and certain debtors to me for my works. 
" Your llev** and IIP Lordship's servant, 

" From Venice, December 11, 1544. " TlTIANO."t 

Titian was either himself litimous in his old aue, or 
he had to do with litigious people. A ducal letter of 
April 20, 1042, exists, in which execution is issued in 

"brown tonod panoply ; David is 
in yellow and green. The whole 
canvas is much injured, especially 
in tho upper part. But all the 
compositions are damaged more 
or less by old varuishes, which 
have dimmed and dulled tho 

colours, and taken away their 

• Tho legate was Titian's friend, 
Giovanni deUa Oasa. 

t From the original in Eon- 
chini's llelazioni, u. s., note to 
p. G. 



his name against one Giovanni Battista Spinelli, who 
had been cast in an action for debt, and ordered to 
pay him forty-eight ducats, and five grossi, and costs 
of ten hre and some soldi.'"' Sharp in the recovery of 
his dues, Titian was equally clever in directing his 
w^orldly affairs, and lapng out his money at interest. 
A contract of March 11, 1542, determines the sale of 
a share in a mill at Ansogne of Cadore, the seller 
being Vincenzio Vecelli, the buyers Titian and Fran- 
cesco Yecelli.t The corn stores of Cadore were low 
in 1542. Titian obtained a concession of import from 
Ceneda and other places ; and stored the Cadorine 
Jbiidachi with grain, for which he received payment 
in acknowledsfments of interest-bearins; debt from the 
community of Cadore. | 

As he came down from his native hills at the close 
of autumn, he met at Conegliano Alessandro Vitelli, 
the gaoler of Filippo Strozzi, the servant of the Medici, 
now a general of the king of the Romans, retm-ning 
from the Turkish war in Hungary. The condottiere 
sent greetings through Titian to Aretino, who sent in 
return a letter not less laudatory nor less full of 
incense than one written a few months before to Piero 
Strozzi. Titian, who shortly before had painted the 
daughter of Roberto Strozzi, is now put forward as 
eager to portray the hereditary foe of the Strozzi 
family. § 

* M. S. Jacobi of Cadore. 
t Ibid. J Ciani, «. s., ii. 271. 
§ Aretino to Alessandro Vi- 
telli, from Venice, Dec. 1542, in 

Lettere di M. P. Aretino, iii. 20 ; 
and Aretino to Pietro Strozzi, 
from Venice, March 11, 1542. 
Ibid. ii. 252''. 


Titian and tho Farncso Family. — Portrait of Ranuccio Famesc. — 
OfFt.T of a IJoneiico and jnoposals of senice to Titian. — History 
and policy of the Furneso Princes. — Cardinal Alessandro. — Titian 
accepts the invitation of tho Famese. — Visits Ferrara, Bologna, 
and Bussc. — IIo refuses an offer of tho Piombo. — His Portraits of 
Paul III., I'icr Luigi, and Alossandro Faniosc. — Family of Danna, 
and tho great Kcco Homo at Vienna. — Tho Assunta of ^'o^ona. — 
Eenewod coiTespondcnco with Cardinal Famese. — Letter of Titian 
to Michaolantr'-'io..— Altar-picco of lioganzuolo. — Portraits of tho 
Empress, and I'uko and Dnchoss of Urhino. — Court of P'rbino, 
and >>porone'.s Dialogues. — Portraits of Danitd Barbaro, Morosini, 
Sperono, and .f\jotino. — Titian's relations w-ith Guidubaldo il. — 
Guidubaldo Titian's Journey to Eomo, which is favoured 
by Girolamo (iuirini. — Guidubaldo gives Titian escort to liomo. 
— Meetiiig_ui Xiliau wiLh SnhnAt.iini d el Piombo, Vas ari. and 
Micliaelang elc — Jealousy of Poman Artists. — Picturesexocuted 
~at Piorae : i)anae. — Contrast between ITtiaiT and Corrcggio, and 
Titian and I'.uonarroti.^^^^iiniau find t^Anli^iUO.-r-Port raits of 
Paul 111., Uttavio, and .iUessandro Famese. 

Ranuccio Farnese, whose portrait Titian painted 
in 1.142, was the third son of Pier Luigi, the natural 
child of Paul the Third. l*i<r Luigi married, 
at the age of sixteen, Gerolima Orsini, daughter of 
Luigi, Count of Pitigliano, and l>y her liad live 
rhildren : — Alessandro, born October 7th, 1520, 
made a cardinal in 1534 ; Vittoria, married June 
4th, 1547, to Guidubaldo, the second Duke of 
Urbino ; Ottavio, married to ]\hirgaret, a child of 
Charles the Fiftli, and widow of Alessandro de' 
]\ledici ; Orazio, married in 1547, to Diana, natural 



daughter of Henry tlie Third of France ; and 
Eanuccio, born 1531, Archbishop of Naples in 1544, 
and Cardinal in 1545. Though Raniiccio was but a 
boy when he first came to Venice, he was already 
prior in commendam of St. John of the Templars, 
and being a youth of parts, was sent through a course 
of classics at the University of Padua. His departure 
from Rome was duly announced by Cardinal Bembo 
to his friends the Quirinis ; * and he was guided or 
accompanied at Venice by Marco Grimani, patriarch 
of Acj[uileia, Andrea Cornaro, Bishop of Brescia ; and 
Gian-Francesco Leoni, the humanist who belonged to 
the Academy of " Virtu " founded at Rome by Claudio 
Tolomei. Bembo and Quirini — it is probable — in- 
duced Ranuccio to visit Titian, who thus acquired the 
patronage of the powerful house of Farnese.t Ra- 
nuccio's likeness was finished about midsummer of 
1542, and was thou2;ht the more admirable because 
the young " prior " had not been able to give the 
painter long or frequent sittings.t We might plausibly 
assume, since no trace of such a work has been found 
in the inventories of Parma and Naples, that the like- 
ness was cast away at an early period, and hopelessly 
lost; yet if we should venture on a conjecture, it 
may be that Ranuccio's features have been handed 
down to us in the portrait of a " young Jesuit,'^ 
now preserved in the Gallery of Vienna. This curious 
picture represents a boy in a dark silk dress, with one 

* Card. Bembo to Lisbetta Qui- 
rini, from Eome, Aug. 27, 1541, 
in Bembo. Oi^. vol. viii. p. 132. 

Girolamo Quirini was at this time 
patriarch of Venice. . 

t Eoncbini Eelazioni, u. s. p. 2, 


hand on his breast, and the other holding a glove and 
a couple of aiTows. The head is raised, the eye 
turned towards heaven ; and the impression created 
is that of a childish ecstasy, produced by causes to 
which the fiinire itself skives no clue. On close exami- 
nation it appears that very little of Titian's work, 
except some parts about the ear and cheek of the boy, 
has been preserved ; a large piece has been added to 
the left side of the canvas, and the hand and arrows 
look like modern repaints. Some mysterious agency 
has thus apparently changed the original form of the 
piece. By a fortunate combination of circumstances the 
key to the mysteiy has been furnished in a curious and 
unforeseen manner. The " young Jesuit" of Vienna 
reappears without the arrows in a picture of the 
Berlin Musemn, where he is seen standing at a table, 
on which some ])ooks arc Ivinn", and the cause of his 
ecstasy is explained by tlie attitude and gesture of a 
bearded man near him, who points with the fore 
finijer of his riirht hand towards heaven. We have 
tlius at Vienna the fragment of a composition of 
which the whole is disi)layed in a copy at Berlin. If 
we find a second fragment to match the first, the 
mystery is cleared up. But tlie second fragment 
exists. The li<iure of the Ijcarded man hanir.s in the 

o o 

Gallery of Vienna, under the name of " St. James the 
Elder, by Titian ; " and as in the one case a hand 
and arrow have been introduced to deceive the specta- 
tor, so in the other the hand which should merely 
point to heaven is made to grasp a stafl'. We may 
presume that before these two fragments were parted 


they represented Eanuccio Farnese taking a lesson 
from his preceptor Leoni.* 

The patriarch of Acjuileia, Cornaro, and Leoni were 
all so pleased with the work that they gave Titian 
a formal invitation to the papal court, which they 
renewed with pressing insistence in the following 
September. Knowing that the painter was hard to 
move, but aware that he was accessible to offers of 
church preferment for his son, Leoni set the only bait 
which he tliouf>-ht Titian would be likelv to take, and 
tendered the interest of the house of Farnese to obtain 
for Pomponio a new benefice. Titian eagerly caught 
the proffered morsel, and even went so far as to 
induce Leoni to believe he would take service with 
Cardinal Alessandro.t 

* The two canvases at Vienna 
—"The Young Jesuit," No. 30, 
in the 2nd room, 1st floor, Italian 
Schools; " St. James the Elder," 
No. IS, in the same room — were 
both of the same size, but have 
been changed by patching and 
piecing. The Jesuit in profile to 
the left, is patched at the left side ; 
St. James at three-quarters to the 
right, is patched at the base and 
right side. The first is 2 ft. 9Hd. 
by 2 ft. 1 in.; the second, 2 ft. 
8 in. by 1 ft. lOi in. Both are 
rubbed down, weather-beaten, 
discoloured, and, in many parts, 
repaiuted ; but bits here and there 
reveal the hand of Titian. St. 
James shows traces of a nimbus 
of rays in the background about 
the head. He wears a red vest 
and a dark pelisse, with a collar 

originally of fur. The black silk 
of the Jesuit's dress is relieved at 
the neck bj'- a linen collar. A 
copy of the St. James, by Teniers, 
is at Blenheim. The figure itself, 
engraved by L. Vorstermann, is 
in the Teniers' Gallery. The Je- 
suit is engraved as ' ' St. Louis of 
Gonzaga," by J. Troyon. Photo- 
graph by Miethke and Wawra. 

The picture at Berlin, No. 170 
of the Catalogue, is a canvas 2 ft. 
9 in. high by 3 ft. 4 in., bought 
at the sale of the Solly Collection, 
attributed to Bernardino Porde- 
none, and much repainted. Be- 
hind the boy is the sky, seen 
through a square opening, in 
which the bough and large leaves 
of a tree are seen. The painter 
seems to be Cesare Vecellio. 

t Seepostea. 


None of tlie Popes of the IGtli century are free 
from the charge of nepotism, and when nepotism of 
the worst form is in question the name of Alexander 
the Sixtli naturally suggests itself. But Paul the 
Third was hardly less remarkahle in this respect than 
Rodrifjo Borcria, His eldest son Pier Luicfi, thouuh 
guilty of many crimes, was endowed successively with 
the duchies of Castro, Parma, and Piacenza, Pier 
Luigi's sons Alessandro and Pianuccio, and his 
nephew Guid'-Ascanio Sforza, were all made cardinals 
at fourteen, and Ottavio, who married early tlie 
widow of Alessandro de' ]\Icdici, would have been 
invested with the duchy of Milan, l)ut that Ferrando 
Gonzaixa, who hated the Farneses, and Dic^i]:;© ^len- 
dozza, who disliked tliem, dissuaded Charles the 
Fifth from taking so dangerous a step. At the very 
time when Ranuccio was sitting to Titian at Venice, 
the eddies of politics had brought the family policy of 
the Farnese princes to the surface. The old struggles 
of France and Austria had been renewed, and the 
adverse and irreconcilable claims of Protestants and 
Catholics had become a subject of grave and states- 
manlike meditation. Charles the Fifth liaviuo- failed 
ill his expedition aijainst Algiers in 1541, had also 
suffered a check from the Turks at Pcsth in 1.342. 
In the spring of 1543 he was in the perilous posi- 
tion of linving to repel a French and Turkisli inva- 
sion of Italy, without being sure of adequate support 
from the Pope. Paul tlie Third, a trimmer at this 
time, had one grandson at the Emperor's court, another 
in the camp of the French king. He was watching. 


catlike, for an occasion to aggrandize his house. His 
policy as Pope, was to favour Francis the First, who 
was distant, and not pledged to the Protestants. But 
he would have sacrificed his policy had it been 
necessary to the promotion of his children, and on this 
point he was prepared to negociate. 

His anxiety to meet the Emperor was as great as 

the Emperor's wish to meet him ; and he left Eome 

early in April for Piacenza, that he might be near 

Charles, who was coming from Spain, and intended to 

land at Geneva ; on the 1 5 th of April, Paul went to 

Casteir Arquato on a visit to his daughter Constanza, 

whose son Guid'-Ascanio he had raised to the purple. 

From thence he rode to Brescello, where, on the 22nd, 

he found barges to float him down to Ferrara. Here 

he stayed but a short time, returning quickly to 

Bologna, from whence he dispatched Pier Luigi to 

Genoa to meet Charles the Fifth. But Charles was in 

an ill-humour, grumbled at Paul's trimming, refused 

to proceed to Bologna, and proposed to meet the Pope 

at Parma. A secret intimation was, in the meanwhile, 

given that a large sum of money might induce the 

Emperor to transfer the Duchy of Milan to Ottavio 

Farnese, and on this basis Paul determined to treat. 

Ottavio, on the one hand, was ordered to Pavia to 

meet his wife, Margaret of Austria ; Pier Luigi was 

sent out of the way to Castro, whilst the Pope, leaving 

Bologna, proceeded to Parma, and made his entry into 

that city with twenty-one cardinals and an equal 

number of bisho|)s on the 15th of June. The 

Emperor on that day lay at Cremona. On the 20th 


Paul rode to Busseto, and there he was joined by 
Charles on the 21st. The whole suite of Pope and 
Kaiser lodged in the narrow castello governed by 
Girolamo Pallavicini. Granvelle as usual presided at 
the negociations. He proposed to cede ^lilan to 
Ottavio Farnese for 300,000 scudi, on condition that 
Charles should keep the castles of ]\Iihin and Cre- 
mona. After five days' haggling the potentates failed 
to agree. The Pope turned his face to the South, and 
Charles, in dudgeon, passed on towards Ocrmaiiv.* 
In the period wliich elapsed between the arrival of 
Paul tlic Third at Ferrara and Busseto, and his depar- 
ture from Bologna, Titian was tlie miest of Cardinal 

Of the wcaltli and splendour of tliis young and 
influential prelate when he resided at Bomc, we have 
a notion fi-om "N^asari, who states that, on numerous 
occasions, lie went to look at the illustrious Cardinal 
Farnese sui)})ing, attended by IMolza, Annibal Caro, 
Messer Gandoltb, ]\Iesser Claud io Tolomei, Messer 
Romolo Amaseo, Giovio, and other literary and gal- 
lant sjentlemen who formed his court. t It was at one 
of these suppers that the Cardinal asked Vasari to 
sketch the lives of the painters which Giovio, Caro, 
and others were to write. To him Leoni addressed 
himself in matters relatino; to Titian as follows : 

• For tho facts in the text, con- 
sult the general histories of tho 
period : Ranko's Deutsche Ge- 
schichte, vol. iv. ; and AlTo's Life 
of Pier' Luigi Farnese, edited by 


Pompeo Litta, Svo, Milan, 1S21, 
pp. 4<5-o(). 

t Vasari : His own Life, i. -9, 




" Titian was prevented by some interruption [from 
continuing a discourse as to liis visit to the Farneses], 
and as I had to leave Venice on the following morning, 
he begged I would visit him on my return and resume 
the subject, upon which he ^\T.shed to enter fully. 
Now, in so far as I can form an opinion, I think from 
the words that were used between us, he would resolve 
to come and take service in the house of your Eeverend 
and Illustrious Lordship ; and I think, too, he would 
trust entirely to your courtesy and liberality, if you 
should acknowledge his talents and labours by the 
promotion of his son. It has not been in my power 
to \dsit Venice since, and I thought it good to give 
your Lordship notice that this man is to be had, if you 
A\'ish to engage him. Titian, besides being clever, 
seemed to us all mild, tractable, and easy to deal with, 
which is worthy of note in respect of such exceptional 
men as he is. 

" Septemher 22, 1542 " * [probably from Padua]. 

An invitation to join the Farneses in their progress 
from Eome was issued to the painter early in April, 
1543. Aretino wrote to Cosimo de" Medici on the 
10th that the Pope had sent for Titian.t Agostino 
Mosti saw him on the 22nd at the festivities of Paul's 
entrance into Ferrara.;]; He accompanied the Court to 

* Erom tbe original in Eon- 
chini, Eelazione, ?f. s., p. 2. 

t Aretino to Cosimo I., April 
10, 1543. Gaj-e Carteggio, ii. 311. 

X "In Piazza (at Eerrara) tro- 
vammo nno infinito numero di 
gente ... da Venezia ne bo cono- 
sciuto una gran parte, non pur 



Biisseto, where Charles the Fifth gave him a likeness 
from which he was to paint a portrait of the Empress.* 
He then went on to Boloo-na, where he stayed till 
the middle of July. As usual the marvellous resem- 
blance and beauty of his portraits were the subject of 
every conversation. Aretino had been sent with a 
deputation of the Signoria to greet the Sovereign on 
his aiTival at Verona. He first wrote a piteous letter 
to Titian, bewailing: his hard fate at beino- forced to 
exchange the repose of a gondola for the jolt of a horse, 
urging Titian to rid himself of " the priests'' and come 
home to Venice, which he, for his part, would never 
leave again, f He subsequently wrote in lietter spirits, 
charmed l)y tlie Em})eror's reception, who condescended 
to shake hands ^vit]l him, allowed him to ride at his 
side, andi)raised the pictures of Titian. | " Fama," he 
further ol)served, "took pleasure in publishing the 
miracle which the painter had performed in producing 
the Pope's portrait, though fame still valued at a 
higher figure his generosity in rejecting the Pope's 
off'er of the Piombo." ^ The truth is that whilst 
Cardinal Farnese was Imino- Titian with a benefice 

Mcssor Tiziano, ma infiniti altri." 
Mosti in Citadella. Notizie, u. s., 
p. 599. 

* Aretino to Monteso, from Ve- 
rona, July, 1543, in Lettere di M. 
P. Aret", iii. 36^. A fresco repre- 
senting Charles V. and Paul III. 
meeting was jiainted on the front 
of a house at Busseto, and tradi- 
tion assigned this work to Titian. 
It has pei-it-hed. Compare Pel- 

trame's Titian, it. s., pp. 45 and 65, 
and P. Vitali, Pittui'o di Busseto. 
Busseto, l.siO. 

t Aretino to Titian, Jul}', 15-13, 
from Verona, in Lettere di M. P. 
Aretino, iii. 350. 

t Aretino to Montese, July, 
1543, from A'erona. lb. ib. p. 'M". 

§ Aretino to Titian, July, 1543, 
from Verona. Ib. ib., p. 36. 

G 2 


which it appeared was not witliiii liis gift, the Pope 

lia<l also proposed to bestow (»n liiiu an i>thie at Rome 

wliieh had hni^ sinee l)oen conferred on another. At 

the death ui' Fra Mariau<», the court fool of Leo thi' 

T(Mith, tlic "seal of the papal hulls" had been given 

to Sel)afttian Luciani for life, on condition that he 

slundd i)ay a yearly pension of SO ducats to Giovanni 

(la I'dine.* The olfer nia«h' to Titian involvt'il nothing 

less than that he should deprive two artist friends of 

their iivehhood. ijr naturally revolted against the 

]ir.)}»i).siiion and refused to entertain it. But he was 

th.- nioro eager to secure the l)enefice, which was held 

l)y an archbishop certain to receive ample compcns;i- 

tion from ('anlinal Farnese. The sinecure of \vhi<-h 

so much had been said, and so much wjis still to be 

written, was th»^ abl)ey of San Tietro in ('(jlle, in the 

diocese of Ceneda. already held /// commcndam by 

Giulio Sertorio, abbot of Nonantola and archbishop of 

San Severina. The archbishop, when pressed to give 

up his interest in this abbey, had sent his brother 

Antonio ^laria to represent him at liologna; and with 

him Farnese had come to terms which he afterwards 

urged on Sertorio by letter ; but before it was possible 

that an answer in this missive should come, the 

Cardinal suddenly felt the first symptoms of an attack 

of fever, and hurriedly left Bologna, A^-ithout notice to 

Titian. Bernardino ^[atiei, the Cardinal's secretar}-, 

paid a visit to the painter to communicate this unwel- 

■• Maniago, Storia delle belle .Viti Friulane, 8vo, Udine, 1823, 
2nd od., p. 35u. 

Chap. III.] BENEl ith ui* t\)LLE. 86 

come intellijjcncc, but acUled consolation bv aftirminjr 
— what lie knew to be false — that Monsignor .lulio 
had alnady connrnted to transfer the Wnefiee of Colle. 
On his ntum to Venice, Titian trave vent to his 
fe- in a letter to the Canlinal «lat««l the 12 7th of 

July, 154:J, in whieh he Siiid "that the sudden tle- 
pnrture of bis Eminence had caused him to spend a 
Kid nifjht, which would have been followed by a lia«l 
day and a worse year (' Mnhnno,' an untranslatable 
pun) if MatVt'i had not eonio next nv : to say that 

Mon»i*;nor Julio had i or pn>mis<Hl to sentl the 

cession of the l»onefirr."* I'..;: niontli>« d an«l no 

nrw< of the cession came, and Titian had ample leisuni 
i.. ^-tjnder over tlie vicissitudes of fortune which caused 
him to undertake lonjj and wfar\*inu joumep, to exe- 
cute the most jMiwrrful of his works f»»r nt) pn»fit what- 
ever. Ills first ' !iad l>een that of the Pojh', his 
secimd that of I'li-r' LuIl: I'-th were then ]»ainte<l 
tofjether on a canvas whieh hits not iK-tn pn\Hrrved.t 
These were followed by a replica of the Pojn^ for Car- 
dinal 8antafiore, and a likeness of Cardinal Famese.J 

* ThoMtcr infiilLwithaiitato. . . ritmno il Ftp*; olio fu opom 

ment of tho facU in tho text, i«t boIlUnitna : o dn iiuollo, un altro 

in Uonrhiui'a IlolaziuDO, ii. 4.. pp. . al ' 'i 

3--*. ■•■ '"•■ '■ •-'» 

t " I'aul III.inacrim«onchnir, Tapa' xni. p. 

bis foot on a ro<l vtool rcwtint? on I 31 

a Ii««\ "t. To • " It/Juno . . nvcndo pruiia n- 

ri'>r 1 ' • ..... l»„pft I'no! ' S. ^*. 

•with i: i lUiiwi, ;.« TO- 

OQo han«l on bin haunch." Far- ' inunorar.iono di (|u<'llo ui^ d'alcuni 

ni'no . 'ri. Rac- ultri ch© avpva fatti al Cnnliiial.' 

ooUa li- ' >: .'•'. Farnc«e od a Santa Fiorn" (Ih. x. 

X Am to t) in, as uniml, 171). 

is conimdictor}-, i. r.— " Tir-iano | 


AVlien we contemplate tlie wondrous finish of the 
first of these pictures as it hangs, perfectly preserved, 
in the museum of Naples, when we study the skilful 
handling of the second as it stands in the rooms 
of the royal palace of the same sunny city, w^e 
can understand the master's chagrin. These were 
simply the Lest and most remarkable creations of 
a period in which all that Titian did was grand and 

The pontift^'s likeness is that of a strong man, gaunt 
and dry from age. His lean arm swells out from a 
narrow wrist to a bony hand, which in turn branches 
off into fingers portentously spare but apparently 
capable of a hard and disagreeable grip. His head 
looks oblong from the close crop of its short grey hair, 
and the length of its square deep hanging beard. A 
forehead high and endless, a nose both long and slender, 
expanding to a flat drooping bulb with flabby nostrils 
overhanging the mouth, an eye peculiarly small and 
bleary, a large and thin-lipped mouth, display the 
character of Paul Farnese as that of a fox whose 
wariness could seldom be at fault. The heiojht of his 
frame, its size and sinew, still give him an imposing- 
air, to which Titian has added by drapery admirable 
in its account of the under forms, splendid in the 
contrasts of its reds in velvet chair and silken stole 
and rochet, and subtle in the delicacy of its lawn 
whites. One hand is on the knee, another on the arm 
of the chair, the face in full front view, the body 
slightly turned to the right and relieved against a 
brown background. The quality of life and pulsation 



SO often conveyed in Titian's pictures is liere in its 
liigliest development. It is life senile in the relaxation 
of the eyelids and the red humours showing at the eye 
corners, life of slow current in the projecting veins 
which run along the backs of the hands or beneath 
the flesh on the bony projections of f:ice and wrists, 
but flashinc;' out irresistibly through the eyeballs. 
Both face and hands are models of execution, models 
of balance of light and shade and harmonious broken 
tones. Here and there with the butt end of the 
l)rush a notch has been stiiick into the hii^-h liohts of 
flesh and hair, but that is the only trace of technical 
trick that human ingenuity can detect. Never, it is 
clear, since the days of the " Christ of the Tribute 
ISToney," had Titian more imperiously felt the necessity 
of finisliincr and modellinn; ; never was he more 
successful in combinini:; the detail of a Fleminir with 
the softness of Bellini or the polish of Antonello, 
combining them all with breadth of plane, freedom of 
touch, and transparence of shadow peculiarly his 

Was he thinking, when he produced a masterpiece 
thus instinct with life and motion, of Michaelangclo 
who was to see and criticise his work at Home ? Did 
he remember the illustrious dead, the noble Kaphael 
whose grandest creation had been a portrait of Leo ? 
Did it strike him that he had painted countless doges, 

• This picture is of lifo-size to 
the knees, and on canvas. It is 
numbered 8 in the Corroggio 
Saloon of the Naples Museum, 

and is in perfect preservation. 
We find it in the Parmese in- 
ventory of 1680 (Cumpori, u. s., 
Raccolta de' Cataloghi, p. 233). 



clukes, and senators and statesmen, and never a Pope 
before, that it behoved him to do his best for a 
potentate whose palaces were filled with the marvels 
of the Revival 1 Had not Clement the Seventh heard 
of him at Bologna and left him unheeded ; """ and 
should he not endeavour to Avring praise from 
Paul the Third ? After the picture was finished 
it was varnished and set to dry on the terrace 
of Titian's lodging, and the passing crowd stopped 
to look and doffed their hats as they thought to a 
living Pope.t 

With greater speed but not less skill Titian painted 
Pier' Luigi Farnese, the worthy son of an astute and 
unscrupulous father. But as Titian depicts him, tlie 
Duke of Castro looks more grandly base and possessed 
of less than his father's share of that cunnino- which 
he required to keep his person from the daggers of his 
foes. Though given to every form of vice, his striking- 
presence was not marred at this time by any lurking 
sickness. Caro, his confidential agent and adviser, 
says he was then in better looks and spirits than he 
had ever known before.J His figure stands out 
grandly in front of a pillar and a fall of green drapery. 
His flesh is smooth and oily, his nose long and of 
meandering curve, but in the main aquiline, his short 
hair and copious beard deeply black, his eyebrows full 

* A portrait of Clement "VTI. 
ascribed to Titian in the Bridge- 
water Collection is not original, 
but recalls the style of the dis- 
ciples of Schiavone and Tintoretto. 

t Yasari to Benedetto (? Varcbi) 

Bottari, Eaccolta, i. p. 57. 

J Annl. Caro to Claudio Tolo- 
mei, from Castro, July, 1J43, in 
Lettere familiari del Comnien- 
datore A. Caro, Syo, Yen. 1574. 
Yol. i., p. 167. 



and sharply pencilled, bis eyes close to each other, 
large, treacherous, and of jet ; his lips sensual and 
blood-red. A black velvet tO(|ue with gold buttons 
and a white feather, a tippet of brown fur over a 
slashed silver silk damask doublet, furs at the wrist, 
the ducal staff to rest the riirht hand, the left on a 
sword. All this is blocked out with sweep of bmsh 
and swift lightness of touch, making up a picture 
surprising for the ease with which it is thrown oil, and 
full of the most wonderful accidents of surface.* 

At the Naples Museum Cardinal Alessandro in his 
robes and cap, holding a glove in his right hand, looks 
tame when compared witli his splemlid fatlnr. His 
face is youthful ; his hair of chestnut colour ; his beard 
downy ; a violet curtain fiiUs in the background, over 
a wall of brownish tint. The tamencss is doubtless 
due to time, abrasion and neglect, from which the 
canvas has sulfered almost irretrievable injury. So 
bad indeed is the preservation, so dry the pigment, 
that we fail to reco[rnise the hand of Titian. t The 
same Cardinal, a bust turned to the right, in the 
Corsini palace at Tiome, is still more difficult to judge 

* This picture, in the Palazzo 
Realo at Naples, is described in 
the Farncso inventory of in.SO 
(C'ampori, Cat. u. s., p. 230). It is 
on panel to the knees, largo as 
life, and well preserved. 

t Naples Museum, No. IS, 
Knee piece, on canvas, of life- 
eizo. On the back we find the 
seal of the Farnosc, a lily in vrax, 
and the words : C.[ardiual] S. 

AlfOLO. This picture would gain 
much if stretched on a new can- 
vas. It is registered in the Panna. 
inventory of 1(580 (Cump. Cat., 
V. s., p. 230). Another portrait in 
the same inventory has not been 
traced, — Cardinal S. Angolo, cap 
on head and gluvfs in his left 
hand, and his right hand in 
shadow (Camp. Catal. p. 234). 



of, thougli bits of it miglit point to the autliorsliip of 

Vasari observes that the portrait of Paul the 
Third, of which a replica was made for Cardinal 
Guidascanio Santafiore, was preserved in Eome, and 
that both original and replica were frequently copied. 
We naturally infer from this statement that the replica 
differed from the original at Naples, and it is to he 
presumed that this was so, because the portraits of 
Paul the Third, exhibited under Titian's name in 
numerous English and continental galleries, are mostly 
in two forms ; one of which shows the Pope bare- 
headed with his left hand on the arm of his chair, and 
his right hand on his knee ; the other Avith the red 
cap on the head, and the right hand at least on the 
arm of the chair. The finest example in the second 
form is that of the Barbario-o collection now at Peters- 
burg, where both hands are on the arms of the ponti- 
fical seat; but Titian in this instance worked hurriedly, 
and was probably helped l^y assistants, and the result 
is an aged look in the Pope.f Those in the second 

* The bust of Cardinal Famese 
in the Corsini Gallery at Eome, 
represents the prelate in his cap 
and robes in front of a green cur- 
tain, of life-size, and on panel. 
Of the original little more is seen 
than in the half shades of the fore- 
head, part of the neck and ear, and 
ueighboiuing cheek. The eyes, the 
bair, the dress, and ground, are 
all repainted. The older frag- 
ments suggest the handling of 
Titian. There is a print of this 

portrait by Girolamo Eossi. 

t This is a canvas, with the 
Pope seen to the knees, numbered 
101 in the Gallery of the Hermit- 
age, and in size 3 ft. 8 in. English 
h. by 2 ft. 11| in. The colours 
are slightly dimmed by time and 
old varnish, and partial retouch- 
ing is not to j)ass unobserved, ex. 
gr. in the neck and left hand. 
But, besides, a piece has been 
added to the canvas on the right 
side of the picture. 



form are eitlier copies or injured to such an extent 
that an opinion on them would not be justified. 
They are to be found in the catalogues of the North- 
wick, Pitti and Spada collections, at the Belvedere in 
A^ienna, in the Aluseum of Turin, or in the Castle of 

Not till he returned to his home in Liri was it in 
Titian's power to attend to more lucrative commissions 
than those which he had carried out for the Farnese. 
No doubt there was less honour to be had by working 

• Tho Northwick example, 
^vhich chauged hand-s at the sale 
ot that collection, was a counter- 
part of tho bare-headed original 
at Nai)les ; it was so much ro- 
2)ainted that it was (Hflicult to 
decide whether Titian was tho 
painter or one of his i)upils (No. 
iSTO of Lord Ninthwick'a Cata- 

Tho I'itti copy (No. li'JT), as- 
cribed to Paris Pordone, is a re- 
production of that of Najiles by a 
l)ainter of thu ITth century. 

Tho Spada copy is not by a 
Venetian, but by an artist of the 
Italian Schools of tho 18th cen- 

That of tho Turin Mu»eum (No. 
129), formerly aseribod to Titian 
and now thrown back into tho 
.school, is in tho manner of a lato 
disciple of the last Passanos. 

A more faithful imitation, on a 
small scale (half Pfe-size) and on 
})anel, is that of Ixnd Northum- 
berland at Alnwick, originally iu 
the Cammuccini and Altieri Col- 
lections at Pome. 

Other varieties are a knee-piece, 

; No. 24 in tho Museum of Naples, 
' in which the right baud of tho 
I Pope is closed over a i)niior, and 
j a landscape is seen through a 
j window to tho right. This canvas 
I ai)pears to have been one of tho 
i Parmeso heirlooms, and is regis- 
tered as an oiiginal Titian in the 
Inventoiy of Parma of 1680. It 
is greatly damaged ; but if we 
judge from a iragment of tho left 
hand on the arm of tho chair' 
which has escaj)ed injury, tho 
jKutrait may have been originally 

At tho Belvedere of Vienna tho 
Pope is represented sitting, with 
his right hand on tho arm of his 
seat, lie wears the purple cap, 
and his left arm hangs to his 
knees. This, however, is a Vene- 
tian canvas, of a jieriod subse(iuent 
to Titian's death (jihotograph by 
Miethke and Wawra). 

One of the copies above noted 
may be that registered in tho 
Parntso inventory as done by 
Gatti (Soiaro), Campori, Eaccolta 
de' Cataloghi, u. s., p. 291. 



for mercliants or provincial nobles than for Eoman 
prelates, but for less labour a liiglier reward was- 
probably secured. Early in the year 1529, Ferdinand, 
King of Bohemia, raised to the rank of a noble ]\Iartin 
van der Hanna, a citizen of Brussels, whose money- 
bags had done good service in the cause of Charles the 
Fifth. Martin settled shortly after at Venice, called 
himself D'Anna, and bought the palace of the Talenti, 
at the ferry of San Benedetto on the Grand Canal. 
Here he engaged Pordenone to paint the walls of his 
dwelling inside and out.'"' Here he resided with his 
sons Giovanni and Daniel, who followed their father's 
business of general merchants. In 1543, Giovanni 
d'Anna became the friend and compare, as w^ell as the 
patron of Titian, and Titian completed for him the 
great " Ecce Homo "t which hangs in the gallery of 
Vienna. AVhen Henry the Third passed through 
Venice on his way to Paris in 1574, he saw this mas- 
terpiece in the house of the d'Annas, and offered eight 
hundred ducats for it.J But when Sir Henry Wotton 
was English envoy at Venice, in 1G20, he bought the 
canvas for the Duke of Buckingham ; and a few years 
later that superb favourite refused £7000 for it 
from Thomas, Earl of Arundel. To the wealth and 
splendour of the days of James, the troublous time 

* Yasari, ix. 36 ; Sansovino, 
Ven. desc. 212; Dolce, Dialogo, 
62; Cicogna, Isc. Ven., iii. 198. 
This palace is now called Palazzo 
Martinengo. There are fragments 
of Pordenone's frescos on the 
canal front. 

t Vasari, xiii. 20. Titian also 
painted Giovanni's portrait ; and, 
later still, he composed for him. 
a crucifixion. lb. ib., xiii. 43. 
Both pictures are missing. 

X Anonimo, ed. Morelli, p. 89. 

ciLvi'. in.] 



of the Eevolution succeeded. The sou of the mur- 
dered Villiers was ghid to sell by auction the gallery 
of his father, glad to get as many hundreds for 
the " Ecce Homo " from Canon Hillewerve of Ant- 
werp, as Buckingham had refused thousands to 
Arundel. Archduke Leo^iold bought the picture from 
the canon for his brother the Em}>eror Ferdinand the 
Third. It came to Prague, and was taken from 
thence, in 1GS8, to Vienna Ijy the Emperor Charles 
the Sixtl).* 

In this large canvas, which measures little less tlian 
twelve feet by eiglit, Titian again transforms a gos- 
pel sul)ject into a modern episode ; merging religious 
feelinc,^ into familiar realism, and transformini:: the 
.sublime sacrifice of Clirist into a display of ordinary 
suffering. ( )n the same general lines as the " Presenta- 
tion in tlic Temple "the composition is set partly on 
steps leading down from a palace, and partly in the 
square fronting the i>alace. On tlie top of tlic steps, 
and before the door, the Saviour is presented to the 
people. The gaoler behind looks on as Pilate, in llie 
semblance of Aretino, points to the Captive, and asks 
the crowd, "What evil hath he done?" The chief priests, 
the elders and multitude, are shouting, " f^et liim l)e 
cruciiied." Two of the number stride up the steps to 
claim the victim, otliers slicnv their arms and hands 
above the press, two guards advance with halberds, in 

* " Advciti.scmout" to tho Ca- 
taloguo of tho Collection of Georgo 
Villiers, Duko of Buckingham, by 

Brian Fairfax, Svo, London, Ba- 
thoo, ITSJ; Krairt, Hist. Krit. 
Catalog., u. 8., p. 3.S. 


rear of them a young mother grasps the shoulders of a 
boy who clings to her in terror. A prelate in red 
robes moves gravely on. A standard-bearer waves his 
colours, and two horsemen — a Turk, the counterfeit of 
Sultan Soliman, in a white turban, and a knight in 
steel armour — bring up the rear. To the left, at the 
foot of the steps, a man in working dress chides his 
barkinsf dosf, and a reclininsj soldier sets his hand on 
his shield as he turns to look up at the Saviour. The 
whole scene is laid in the open air, in front of a 
palace of solid and dungeon -like appearance, yet 
finely decorated with statues ; and it is surprising 
how Titian, in this confined space and with only 
twenty-seven figures, efiectively realises the idea of a 

Though handled with great freedom and facility, 
and coloured with richly contrasted tones, this picture 
betrays more than Titian's habitual neglect of contour, 
whilst it displays less of his usual elevation of charac- 
ter. The palet is varied in tint, the brush stroke solid 
and broad. The shades of colour are strong and 
decided, and a pleasing warmth of brown spreads 
evenly over the canvas, but effect produced by dark 
bituminous shadow reminds us of habits peculiar in 
after years to Schiavone and Tintoretto ; and it is 
scarcely to be doubted that whilst Titian was enjoying 
the society and the flattering attentions of the papal 
court, his ablest assistants were laboriously employed in 
the workshop at home. To this distribution of labour 
we perhaps owe the comparative insignificance of the 
finfure of Christ, ^^'hose shape is as mean as His bear- 

Chap. HI.] 



ing is humble ; to the same cause also, the violent 
plebeian action of some of the crowd, which differs so 
greatly from the devotional calm impressed on the 
" Presentation in the Temple." But even with these 
defects such a picture naturally appealed to the feel- 
ings of the Venetian i»ulilic, not merely because it 
illustrated Scripture in a striking way, Init because it 
gave a cpuiint and startling prominence to some noted 
individuals of the time. It must have been amusinor 
to those who knew Arctino to see him represented in 
the garb of Pilate, though Aretino himself might have 
wished that his face had shown somewhat less of the 
vulgar litentiousncss habitually impressed on his 
features. It was natural again tliat Soliman, whose 
likeness Titian ha<l so often taken from medals, should 
be numbered amongst those who asked for the blood 
of Christ. Strange is the tradition which described 
the armed rider at Soliman's side iis an e<]uestrian 
portrait of Charles the Fifth, equally strange that the 
features of this rider should be those of Alfonso of 

• Eidolfi, ^[araviglic, i. '2'2o, 
properly described tbo I'ilate as a 
portrait of Aretino, and the tur- 
banod Turk as Soliman. Tho 
knight, whom he calls Charles V., 
is not in tho least liko that 
monarch. Tho picture in tho 
Belvedere at Vienna, is No. 1!> 
in the 2nd room of the 1st floor. 
It is on canvas, with figures as 
largo, or nearly as large, as lil'e. 
On a scroll ot jjuper at tho foot of 
tho steps we read : 




Tho bituminous pigment used 
in the colours contributed greatly 
to mako tho canvas dark as it 
now is. Besides this, the surface 
has been unequallj' cleaned, was 
much retouched in various places, 



About tlie time of tlie completion of a picture thus 
fitted to rouse the envy and admiration of Paolo 
Veronese, Titian probably finished the " Ascension of 
the Yirofin" which now hang-s in the Cathedral of 
Yerona. Without the majestic grandeur of the 
Assunta of the Frari, this fine composition is striking 
for its masterly combination of light and shade and 
harmonious colours with realistic form and action. 
Mysterious gloom lies on the Virgin's face as she sits 
in a corona of lio-ht on the clouds above the tomb. 
The very inception of thankful feeling is shown in 
the movement of the hands which rise to join each 
other in prayer. Serene joy marks the features 
looking down at the apostles. A fine contrast is 
produced by the standing St. Peter on the left, and 
the kneeling apostle to the right of the canvas ; a 
contrast equally fine by the luotion of the two men 
who look down into the sepulchre whilst their com- 
panions glance upwards at the radiant apparition in the 
sky. St. Thomas in the middle of the background has 
cauo'lit the Viroin's o-irdle as it fell from heaven. The 
system of dark shading which marks the " Ecce Homo" 

and is at present somewliat out of 
focus in consequence. What re- 
minds us here of Schiavone is the 
scumbled bituminous tone and the 
realism of the forms, and an evi- 
dent vulgarity in action. A fine 
photograph from the original was 
published by Miethke and Wa-wra. 
Hollar engraved the j^iece in 1650. 
A copy of this piece hangs high 
up in the sacristy of the church of 
San Gaetano at Padua, and bears 

an inscription similar to the above, 
except that the date is 1574. The 
colours are much dimmed, and 
the canvas hangs so high that the 
question of originalitj^ must, for 
the present, remain undecided. 

The same subject by Titian is 
noted in a picture once in the 
Correr Palace, near Santa Fosca 
of Yenice, by Boschini. Pref. to 
the Eicche Miniere. 


recurs auaiu, and shows to some advanta2[e in uuiou 
with a bold free touch and sweep of brush. But 
there is more concentration in the composition, more 
character in the faces, a finer cast of di-apery and 
greater dignity than in the picture of the Dannas.* 

Meanwhile Titian and the Academy, with Aretiuo 
at its head, were setting levers in motion to stii' the 
Farncses into some acknowledmnent of the ser\'ices 
rendered by Titian at Bologna and Busse. In Marcli 
the painter himself, at Aretino's dictation, penned a 
letter to the Cardinal's secretary ^latlei, to urge the 
nature of his claims. " The fame of the great 
Alexander, he wrote, was as wide as the world, ex- 
cluding all other themes of praise or conversation. 
To hear this praise was like a return of youth, and 
not less refreshiniT than it would be to luar that his 
Eminence had kept the vow made by the holy 
clemency of the Pope in respect of the benefice."t 

Eanuccio Farncse, no less diligently canvassed in 
the same direction, was made to address his brother 
in A}>ril as follows : 

• Rossi (Gius. Mar.) in the 
Nuovu GuiJa di Verona (Svo, 
Verona, 18,34, p. 2o), states that 
the " Assumption " was placed on 
an altar onco belonging to the Ve- 
ronese family of Cartolari, but 
afterwards rebuilt on a design of 
Sansovino for tho family of Ni- 
chesola. This is confirmed by 
Ridolfi, Marav., i. 229. The can- 
vas is arched at top. Its fore- 
ground figures are largo as life. 
It was carried to France at the 
close of last century, and was 


subsequently returned. Ilcavj' 
layers of varnish and some re- 
touches disfigure the surface, 
which has lost much of its fresh- 
ness in consequence. There aio 
line engravings of this piece by 
Gaotano Zancon and C. Normand. 
It was copied by Ridolfi for an 
altar in a chmx'h at Roveredo 
(Ridolfi, Marav., i. 229). 

t Titian to Malfei, from Venice, 
March 20, 1J44, in Ronchiui, Re- 
lazioui, u. s. p. 5. 



" I came to Venice to thank tlie Siornoria for oivino- 
me quiet possession of the Abbey of Eosazzo ; and 
there I received a visit from M°. Ticiano Avho begged 
I would ask your R*^. L^. to hasten the grant of the 
benefice for his son. Titian being a most estimable 
person, I beg to recommend him most earnestly. I 
leave to morrow for Padua."'"' 

Mindful of the hio;h favour in which Michaelano;elo 
stood with Paul the Third, for whom he had painted 
the " Last Judgment," Titian also wrote in April to 
the great Florentine asking him as a brother of the 
craft to favour his suit at Rome ; t and this letter was 
seconded by one from Aretino to the same master, 
telling him of the honours received from the Emperor 
at Verona, praising the " Last Judgment " at the 
Sixtine, which he had not seen, and — commino-lino; 
dulce cum utile — bes^o-ins; for drawin&s, which ho 
valued more than all the cups and chains of princes.J 
To Carlo Gualteruzzi, a friend and translator of Bembo, 
and secretary to Ottavio Farnese, communications of 
a similar character were made in June, when Aretino 
suggested an appeal to Bembo to use his influence 
with Michaelangelo.§ In November, finally Aretino 
sent a personal and most flattering missive to Ottavio 
Farnese, II and in order to keep in view the talents 

* Eanuccio to Cardinal Ear- 
nese, Venice, April 25, 1544. lb. 
ib. ib. 

t Aretino to Buonarroti, from 
Venice, April 1544, in Lettere di 
M. P. A. iii. 45-G. 

X Ib. ib. ib. 

§ Aretino to Carlo Gualteruzzi, 
Venice, June, 1544, in Lett, di 
M. P. A. iii. 51; and compare 
Sansovino, Ven. Descritta, p. 597. 

II The same to Ottavio Earnese, 


of the painter whose interests were thus persistently 
put forward, he puLlished a note to Titian, in which 
he shows a true feeling for the sublime in nature and 
art : 

"Having dined, contrary to my habit, alone, or 
rather in company of the cpiartan fever which robs me 
of all taste for the yood thino;s of the table, I looked 
out of my window and watched the countless passing 
boats, and amongst them the gondolas manned by 
celebrated oarsmen racino; with each other on the 
Grand Canal. I saw the crowd that thronged the 
bridge of Itialto and the liiva to witness the race, 
and as it slowly dispersed 1 glanced at a sky which 
since the davs of the creation wa>; never more 
splendidly graced with lights an<l shadows. The 
air v/as such as an artist would like to depict who 
grieved that he was not Titian. The stonework of 
the houses, though solid, seemed artificial, the atmo- 
sphere varied from clear to leaden. The clouds above 
the roofs merged into a distance of smuky grey, the 
nearest blazing hke suns, more distant ones glowing 
as molten lead dissolvinc;- at last into horizontal 
streaks, now greenish blue, now l»luish green, cutting 
the palaces as they cut them in the landscapes of 
Vecelli. And as I watched the scene I exclaimed 
more than once, ' Titian, where art thou, and why 
not here to realize this scene ? ' " * 

Venice, Nov., 151 1, in Lett, di 
W!. P. A. iii. 68. 

• Thia is a free paraphrase of 

Aretino's letter, dated Venice, 
May, loi-i, in Lettero di M. P. A. 
iii. !•. 48. 


Where Titian was at this moment is uncertain, 
perhaps far away on a trip to his native mountains, 
perhaps lingering on the borders of the Alpine land, 
near the canonry of Colle, which he was claiming for 
Pomponio. Early in the year he signed a contract 
with the people of Castel Eoganzuolo, whose church 
l)elonged to Colle by Ceneda, to paint an altar-piece 
in three parts, and deliver it in the following Sep- 
tember for 200 ducats ; and there is every reason to 
believe that he performed his part of the agreement. 
He was indeed much more punctual with the delivery 
of his work than the churchwardens with the settle- 
ment of their dues ; for in 1546 it was arranged that 
the debt should be cancelled by instalments, the people 
of Castel Eoganzuolo undertook to pay an annual sum 
on account for eight years in kind, and furnish the 
stones and the labour for the building of a cottage, 
planned by Titian on the neighbouring slope of Manza. 

" Fortunate Titian," says Josiali Gilbert, " to possess 
a resort like this, which no Venice garden could rival 
in attraction. A mile or two of high road and as 
much of a winding lane through hedges of acacia, once 
brought me from Ceneda to Castel Eoganzuolo, a poor 
and scattered village at the foot of a bare knoll. To 
one edge of this clung a forlorn looking little church, 
and a few yards off, upon an out-cropping rock, stood 
its attendant tower. But wdiat a view ! An expiring 
thunderstorm was moaning along the terraces of Alpine 
hills, rising into mist and blackness on the north ; but 
under a ragged canopy of cloud, the distant Julian 
Alps stood out in opal clearness, and a flood of golden 



light was poured over the j^kiiu, which spread bound- 
less beneath the eye — east and west, and south, a sea 
of verdure, whose purple distance might have been the 
sea itself, as the shining campaniles, dotting it all 
over, might have been the sails of innumeral>le ships. 
One of the most distant, due south, was pointed out 
as that of St. ^Faik's. . . . 

" Inside the little church (the key of which must be 
oljtained frr)m the canonica a short distance oft) a 
single glance at the altar-piece sliowed that if Titiiin's 
hand had l)een there much of liis work liad been 
coarsely painted over, and mucli liad perished."* 

The truth is, the people of Koganzuolo wlio com- 
missioned the picture of Titian in l.")44 also ordered 
and obtained a churcli standard from his son Uiazio 
in 1575, and there is some c^round for thinkinc: that 
the first was disposed of or lost, whilst the second 
was set up in its place. Orazio's contract sti^iulated 
that the standard should comprise a figure of St. Peter 
on one side, and St. Paul on the other. St. Peter and 
St. Paul are the two saints on the side canvases of the 
composite altar-piece now in the church of Ptoganzuolo. 
They arc painted in (,)razio's well known style, whilst 
the central Virgin and Child is a coarse production in 
the fourth-rate manner (jf Fiumicclli, or Peccanisio of 

* Gilbert's Cadore, n. s. pp. 29- 

t For records concerning Ti- 
tian's and Orazio's dealings with 
the men of C'astol lloganzuolo, sco 
Appendix. The canvases, with 

their lifo-sizo figures, are in a 
stately gilt screen, with pilasters 
and pediment and basu. 8t. Peter 
stands to the right, hokling the 
keys and reading from a book. 
St. I'aul holds a volume iu lus 



During 1544, and the greater part of 1545, Titian's 
efforts to obtain a reward for his services to the 
Farnese princes were altogether fruitless. But this 
neglect was due, not so much to meanness or avarice, 
as to the vicissitudes of politics. The Pope and his 
clan were much too busy with temporal cares, and the 
cardinal was too frequently away on distant missions to 
think of the claims of a painter so far away from Eome 
as Titian was. Francis the First had sent an army 
into Italy in spring, and won the battle of Cerisole, 
giving a death wound there to Titian's old patron del 
Vasto. Charles the Fifth had put an end to cam- 
paigning in Italy by invading France, and Cardinal 
Alessandro had been actinoj as leo;ate at the tail of 
the contending armies. After the peace of Crespi, 
signed by Charles and Francis in September, Titian's 
hope of deriving advantage from the papal connexion 
may have increased. He certainly showed no distrust 
of it when he wrote in December to engage the 

left hand and points downward 
with the sword in his right. The 
Virgin stands at the side of an 
ornamented plinth, on which she 
supports the naked form of Christ. 
At her feet is a lemon and a basket 
of flowers. Each of the three can- 
vases is arched at top. The tech- 
nical treatment of the saints is 
Titianesque, but Titianesque only 
in the form of Titian's pupils, and 
especially of Orazio in his old age ; 
and this is easily observable, in 
spite of the fading of the colours, 
the scaling of the flesh tints, and 
a general dimness of surface. The 

pigments are thin, yet opaque in 
tone ; drawing, modelling, and 
light and shade are all too feeble 
for Titian. The Virgin is less 
skilfully handled than the saints, 
being heavy and squat in shape, 
and strained in movement. The 
colours are sharp, and the touch 
rapid and loose. Besides the dam- 
age done by time, we may notice 
the scaling of the blue mantle, 
which is changed to green. If 
Orazio's standard should not have 
been used to make up the altar- 
piece it has disappeared. 



Carclinal's interest iu his quarrel with the canons of 
San Spirito.* 

Pending results at the court of the Pope, it would 
have been impolitic to neglect the older and more 
certain patronage of Charles ; and early in October 
Titian wrote a letter all his own, and free from the 
turgid style of .-Vi-etino, to tell the Emperor that he 
had finished two portraits of the deceased Empress 


" Youii Cesarean Majesty, 

" I consigned to Sefior Don Diew di ]\Ieu- 
<loza, the two portraits of the most Serene Empress, in 
whicli I have used all the diligence of which I was 
capable. I sliould have liked to take tliem to your 
Majesty in jierson, l)Ut that my age and the length 
of the journey forbade such a course. I beg your 
iMajesty to send me word of the faults or failings 
which I may have made, and return the pictures that 
I may correct them. Your ^lajesty will not j'cnnit 
anyone else to lay hand on them. For the rest I 
refer to what S°' Don Diego will say respecting my 
affairs, and T embrace tlie feet and hands of your 
INFajesty, to whose grace I beg most humljly to be 
" Your ^Majesty's most humble and constant servant, 

" To Ilia Cjesarean Majesty, tho Emi^eror my Scuor." 
" frow Venice, Oct. 5, 1544. "t 

* Seo (tntia. 

t This letter, copied iu tho Ar- 

chives of Simanras by Mr. Bor- 
geuroth, bears tho dato of 1545 



The messenger who took this letter no doubt 
carried another, which Aretino piibHshed for the 
benefit of his contemporaries, referring at length to the 
points which Titian had left to Charles' ambassador. 
It was the old complaint breaking out afresh. Nine 
years had elapsed since Titian had received a grant to 
import corn from Naples, and nothing had come of it ; 
months had gone by, and the pension on Milan re- 
mained unpaid.* The portraits were sent to Brussels, 
where they remained till Charles the Fifth's final re- 
tirement into Spain,t when they were taken to Yuste, 
and registered in the inventory drawn up after the 
Emperor's death. The first perished, the last still 
hangs in the museum of Madrid. | 

The original of these portraits is supposed to have 
been b}^ a Fleming, but Titian, as usual, is careful not 
to betray the absence of his model. The Empress 
had been dead some time when he painted her like- 
ness. Yet no one would think that she had not sat 

(see Bergenrotli MS. in the Bri- 
tish Museum) ; but it is clear that 
it "was written in 1544, because 
Ai-etino sent a letter to Charles 
the Fifth in October of the latter 
year, to say that Titian's portrait 
of Isabella was finished (Lettere 
di M. P. A. iii. p. 77), and be- 
cause Titian in October, 1545, 
was not at Yenice, but in Eome. 
The original letter will be found 
in Appendix. 

* Aretino' s letter to the Em- 
peror, antea, forwarded under 
cover to the Venetian envoy 
in Charles the Fifth's camp, 

Bernardo Navagero. 

t ^^ Item. La resemblance de 
I'Empereur et de I'lmperatrice 
faict sur toille par Tisiane. 

' ' Item. La resemblance de I'lm- 
peratrice faict sur toille par Ti- 
siane." — Inventory of Aug. 1556, 
in Gachard, Eetraite et Mort de 
Charles V., 8vo, Brux., Gand, et 
Leipzig, 1855, vol. ii. p. 93. 

% Stirling, Cloister Life of 
Charles Y. Both canvases were 
copied by Eubens at Madrid in 
1605. See Sainsbury's Papers, 
«. s., pp. 3 & 237. 



for it. She rests on a chair near a window, in front 
of a rich fall of brocade. Her red hair is strewed 
with pearls, her neck bound by a pearl necklace, 
supporting a pendant of emeralds and mines. The 
bodice is red velvet, the sleeves lined with crimson 
satin, slashed and looped with jewels, the habit-shirt 
and puffed foresleeve muslin with gold fillets. The 
left hand holds a book, and through the window is a 
view of a mountain landscape. The picture was never 
sent back for correction, llcudering gravely, even 
sadly, the features of a woman turned of twenty-four, 
it remained very dear to Charles tlu*- Fifth, who took it 
to Yuste, and asked to see it as he lay on his death- 

During tliis and most of the following years Titian 
was chiefly occupied with portraits. Just about this 
time, the most distinguished resort of men eminent in 
politics, literature, and art, was the palace of the Duke 
of Urbino at Venice, where Guidubahhi and his wife 
Julia Yarana frequently held court, when public business 
or the vicissitudes of the seasons failed to keep them 
at Pesaru. Here the Duke was fond of assembling his 
friends and such persons as might help to further 
his pui^pose of acquiring supreme command of the 

* This picture, numbered 485 
in the Madrid Museum, is on 
canvas, m. 1.17 h. by 0.98. In 
1582 it wa.'! in the palace of Pardo, 
in IGSO in the iVlcazar of Madrid. 
See D. Pedro do Madrazo'a Cata- 
logue, in which it is suggested 
that the original from which 

Titian painted was by Anthony 
Moro, probably a baseless con- 
jecture. See Mignet's Charies V., 
8vo, Paris, 1854, 2nd cd. p. 412. 
An engraving by I), do Jodo re- 
presents the empress with her 
right hand on a table, and flowers 
in her loft. 



Venetian forces. Here the essayist Sperone was sure 
to be found in company of tlie Emperor's envoy, 
Mendozza, the Duke's agent, Gian-Jacomo Lionardi, 
Trissino, Aretino, Bernardo Navagero, Marcantonio 
and Domenico Morosini, Daniel Barbaro, Federico 
Badoer, and Domenico Venier, all of whom paid court 
to the lord and lady of the mansion. The whole of 
the company may be found in colloquy in Sperone's 
dialogue of Fortune, where the Duke hears his guests 
discuss the failure of Charles the Fifth before Algiers,* 
and as in Castiglione's "Cortigiano," the most excellent 
painter, adored by patron and clients, is Eaphael, so 
here the popular idol is Titian. On one occasion, 
Avlien the dialogue is confined to Tullia, Bernardo 
Tasso, Niccolo Gratia, and j\lolza, and the theme is 
all-absorbing " Love," Tullia talks very loftily of the 
world "as an image of God created by Nature," and 
with some contempt contrasts that " image " with the 
portraits of painters, which give of man's life but the 
outer skin. " You are unjust to Titian," cries Tasso 
enthusiastically, "No," exclaims Tullia, "I hold Titian 
to be not a painter — his creations not art, but his 
works to be miracles, and I think that his pigments 
must be composed of that wonderful herb which made 
Glaucus a god when he j)9'rtook of it ; since his 
portraits make upon me the impression of something 
divine, and as Heaven is the paradise of the soul, so 
God has transfused into Titian's colours the paradise 
of our bodies, "t 

* Dialoghi del Sig. Speron Spe- 
rone, 8vo, Yen. 1596, p. 510. 

t Sperone, Dialogo d'Amore, 
8vo, Aldus, Yen. 1512, pp. 21, 25. 




Of all the j)ersons wlio figure in these dialogues, 
five at least were portrayed by Titiau in 1545, after 
an obscurer sitter, a friend of Priscianese, called 
Alessandro Corvino, had been introduced and des- 
2\atched.'"' In February the portrait of Daniel Bar- 
))aro M'as sent to Bishop Jovius, ^vllom Charles the 
Fifth habitually called his liar, whilst Titian called 
him his compared Though not as yet appointed 
envoy to Edward the Sixth, nor patriarch of Aquilcia, 
Barljaro was a doctor in the faculty of Arts at Padun, 
and a patron of Titian i»reparatory to acting ^lecienas 
to Palladio, Vittoria and Paolo Veronese. 

A likeness of Guidubaldo the Second, completed in 
jVIarch, was followed later in the year by one of Julia 
Varana ; whilst that of ^larcantonio Morosini was deli- 
vered in July, j It is not quite certain whether a similar 
canvas representing Speronc was done at this time.§ 

* Arctino to Priscianeso, Ve- 
nice, Feb. 1.j4o, in Lcttero di M. 
P. A. iii. 97\— f)S. 

t Aiotino to Giovio at Eomo, 
Ven., Fob. 1.545, Lett, di M. P. 
A. iii. p. 104. A portrait of Da- 
niel Barbaro, restinj,' his hand on 
a book, was in tho cuUoction of 
Hans Van Ulfel, at Antwerp, in 
Ilidolfi's time. (8co Maraviglio, i. 
p. 259.) It corresponds altoge- 
ther with a portrait cngravod 
by UoUar, inscribed: "Titianus 
pinxit. Hollar fecit, KHO.— lii- 
tratto di Monsignor doUa Casa. — 
Front face of a man with short 
hair and long beard, with tho 
fingers of his left hand on a 

+ Arotino to tho Duke of Ur- 
biuo, Venice, March, 1545. Tho 
same to the Duchess of Urbino, 
Venice, Oct. 1545. Tho same to 
Marcantouio Morosini, Venice, 
July, 1545 ; in Lettero di M. P. 
Aretino, iii. 114, lOS, and 101. 
The portraitof Guidubaldo passed, 
with other heirlooms, to Florence 
in 1031, but is now missing. See 
Chiavacci's I'itti Catalogue of 
1.S.59, p. '245. 

§ Sporone's likeness was seen 
by Ividolfi at Padua, in possession 
of a canon Conti ; on a cover over 
the picture a child was painted 
playing with a lion. See also a 
fragment of a letter from Sperono 
in Ticozzi, Vecelli, u.s., note to 



But we measure the labour wliich still awaits the 
student of Titian's works when we note that of all 
these portraits none can be traced or identified. One 
and one only remains to tell of the master's industry 
in these days, and that is the picture in which Titian 
immortahzed the features of the now bloated Aretino. 
In a letter acknowledging the receipt of the "Barbaro," 
Jovius had asked for a sketch of Aretino. His friend 
replied that he would give him a copy of the " terrible 
marvel," just brought to completion by Titian/'' A 
few months later the painter sent the canvas home ; 
and Aretino despatched it to the Duke of Florence with 
a sarcastic letter, saying that the satins, velvets, and 
brocades would perhaps have been better if Titian had 
received a few more scudi for working them out.t In 
a similar strain he wrote to Titian himself, then absent 
at Kome, upbraiding him for having left his portrait a 
sketch instead of a finished picture ;;!: and yet, when 
we look at the masterpiece as it hangs in the museum 
of the Pitti at Florence, it strikes us as a marvel of 
finish. In the " Ecce Homo " at Vienna, where 

p. 223. But consult also Bartoli 
Pitture, &e., di Eovigo, Svo, Ven. 
1793, p. 164, who describes ia the 
bishop's palace a portrait of 
Sperone, "aged 22, by Titian." 
But Bartoli adds that Sperone 
holds in his hand the book of his 
Dialogues, and these Sperone only 
began to write at the age of 
thirty. (See Sperone, Apologia 
dei Dialoghi, in Dialoghi, u. s., 
p. 521.) _ 

* Giovio to Aretino, from 

Eome, March 11, loio, in Bot- 
tari's Raccolta, 5, 230 ; and Are- 
tino to Giovio, Yenice, April, 
1545, in Lettere di M. P. A. iii. 

t Compare Gaye, Carteggio, ii. 
331, 345-7; and Aretino to the 
Duke of Florence, Oct. 1545, in 
Lett, di M. P. A. iii. 238. 

J Aretino to Titian, from Ye- 
nice, Oct. 1545, Lett, di M. P. A. 
iii. 236. 

Chap, in.] POETEAIT OF .lEETIXO. 109 

Aretino acts the part of Pilate, the features are low 
and the expression common. At the Pitti, the face 
seems diseng-aged from an atmosphere of corruption, 
and — as far as such a thing is possible — appears 
idealized and ennobled. (,)f short stature originally 
and of great strength, Aretino still looks lusty, though 
beginning to age There is power in the solid arch of 
the brow, power in the scantling of the forehead. Fire 
is in the large dark eye, and something that tells of 
strength too in the pepper and salt of the hair and 
streaks of grey in the full, well-furnished beard. The 
model ha.s not lost his characteristic cunninir and 


audacity ; the tyi:)e of the blusterer and bully is not 
completely effaced, nor has the natural etlrontery of 
the scribe entirely disappeared ; but the worst points are 
cleverly toned down, and more prominence is given to 
an air of .sharpness than to mere bloat and fat. What 
Aretino calls a hozzo is a miracle of modellini]: in solid 
impast of rich coloured pigments. There is no trace 
here of ipiartan fever, no sallow toning of flesh, but, 
on the contrary, a ruddy flush of health, and some- 
thing of that warmth and depth of tinge which we find 
rccurrincj in Picmbrandt. The livid shades beneath the 
eyes tell not so much of dissipation as of a bilious and 
irascible temper. Freedom and spirit are shown alike 
in the motion and colours of a head slightly raised and 
turned to the right, anil in the action of the body, one 
arm of which is behind the back, the right across the 
breast, as the gloved hand gi'asps and holds together 
the stuff pelisse which covers a brown doublet. Con- 
spicuous is the chain of knighthood thrown l)rightly 



across the cliest.''' Cosiino uever tlianked Aretino for 
this portrait, which reminded him of unpleasant rela- 
tions said to have existed between his own father and 
his secretary. To the repeated and perfectly insolent 
letters of Aretino, he answered at last with the present 
of money, which was all that Aretino cared for.t 

The Duke of Urbino, at whose com't Titian found 
encouragement in these years was not the richest, 
though he was certainly the most profuse in his 
expenditm-e of all the north Italian princes. He Avas 
a soldier who never led large armies in the field, nor 
fouo^ht a o;eneral action. As commander of the Yene- 
tian forces after 1545, he found no opportunity to 
signalize his powers. As chief in succession of the 
troops of the Church and Philip the Second, his 
duties remained administrative rather than active in a 
military sense. His reign was remarkable, too, for 
disturbances caused by arbitrary taxation; and he put 
down those disturbances with an iron hand, and spent 
the money he obtained right regally. But he was a 
man of taste, with literary and artistic sympathies, 
and peculiarly fitted to play the part of Mecsenas to 
a man of the genius of Titian, at a time when peace 
had been restored to Italy and a great part of Europe. 

* The portrait, on a dark brown 
ground, is numbered 54 at the 
Pitti. The figure is seen to the 
waist, is of Kfe size, on canvas, 
and W€ll preserved. Photograph 
by Alinari. Of other portraits 
supposed to represent Aretino 
something was said (see ardta, 
p. 319}. Another portrait, with a 

forged inscription, at Dresden 
shall be noted at its proper time 
and place. A fine engraving of 
the Pitti portrait reversed, is by 
P. Petrucci and T. Yer Cruys, 
who also engraved a portrait of a 
younger man, under the name 
of Aretino. 

t Gaye, u. s., ii. 345-7. 


The causes favourable to the exercise of a generous 
patronage by a small chieftain of the rank of Guidu- 
baldo, were, however, as potent at the court of the 
Pope and Charles the Fifth as at the court of Pesaro ; 
and we shall find an eager competition taking place 
between these unequal but rival powers as to who 
should monopolize the services of Titian. 

Charles the Fifth, who had settled his differences 
with France, and sitrncd a truce with the Moslems, 
had also negotiated a league with tlie Farnese princes 
to put down the Protestants, and the first result of 
this leairuc had been a o-eneral council, which met with 
great solemnity at Trent, in December, 1545. The 
Pope was triumphant, lie had just made Pier Luigi 
Duke of Parma and Piacenza against the Emperor's 
will. His grandson Ottavio was expecting an heir 
from his wife, the daughter of the Emperor. Cardinal 
Alessandro no longer required to lead the wandering 
life of an itinerant envoy. Most of the Famese 
family was in Rome, and concentrated — socially 
speaking — in the Palace of Belvedere. No wonder, 
under these circumstances, that whilst the Duke of 
Urbino was strivino- to secure the talents of Titian for 
himself, the Farnese should have renewed their efforts 
to attract him to Pvome. It is doubtful whether the 
painter would have had courage, after so many dis- 
appointments, to accept the invitation, in the face of 
determined opposition from Guidubaldo, had not 
Girolamo Quirini urged upon him the advantages of 
such a step at this particular juncture. It was to him 
no doubt that Titian was indebted for an arrangement 



by "vvliicli the Duke of Urbino contented himself with 
a temporary stay of his favourite master at Pesaro, and 
allowed him to proceed from thence to Eome, on 
condition that once in the capital he should not forget 
the commissions for which he had pledged himself.* 

Under this arrangement, Guidubaldo took Titian 
under his own personal protection at Venice, in 
September, 1545, caused him to journey with Orazio, 
now his assistant, in the ducal suite through Ferrara to 
Pesaro, and after a stay in that city, gave him an 
escort through the whole of the Papal States to 
Eome.t Never had a painter since the days of 
Apelles been treated more royally. " Titian," says 
Aretino writing to Guidubaldo in October, " bids me 
adore the Duke of Urbino, whose princely kindness 
was never equalled by any sovereign, and he bids me 
do this in gratitude for the escort of seven riders, the 
payment of his journey, the company on the road, the 
caresses, honours, and presents, the hospitality of a 
palace which he was bid to treat as his own."J " Your 
Titian, or rather our Titian," Bembo writes to Girolamo 
Quirini from Eome, " is here, and he tells me that he 
is under great obligation to you for having been the 
main cause of his coming hither, and encouraging him 
by the kindest words to make the trip, of which he is 
more contented than he can say. He has already 

* Bembo to Quirini, from Eome, 
Oct. 10, 1545, in Opere, w. s., 
vol. vi. p. 316; Vasari, xiii. 36. 

t Ibid. Also Aretino to Mo- 
danese, from Venice, in Oct. ; and 

Aretino to Duke Guidubaldo, 
same place and date, in Lettere 
di M. P. A. iii. 217 & 223. 
X Aretino to Guidubaldo, t(. s. 


seen so many fine antiques that he is filled with 
wonder, and glad that he came. The Duke of Urbino 
was most kind, taking him personally as far as Pesaro, 
and sending him from thence with horse and company, 
so as he confesses to be greatly bounden to him.""' 

Not only did Bembo receive Titian cordially, but 
Paul the Third gave him a friendly welcome,! and 
Cardinal Farnese deputed Vasari to act as his guide to 
the artistic treasures of the city, and then gave him 
rooms in the Belvedere Palace, whore he had easy 
access to the Pope and his family, whose portraits he 
was now to ])aint.;|: \'asari doubtless took him first 
into the galleries of antiijues, of which he very soon 
made particular use. He showed him the tapestries 
of Raphael, from which sketches were probably made 
on the spol.^ JIc went with him to the Farnesina, 
where Titian would scarcely believe that the mono- 
chromes of Peruzzi were not carved in stone rather 
than painted in moiiochrome.|| He visited the Stanzc 
of the Vatican in company of Sebastian del Piombo, 
who blushed to confess that he was the " barbarian 
who had dared to restore the frescoes of Ra|)hael."*i 

Full of enthusiasm at his reception by Bembo and 
the Pope, he wrote to Arctiuo regretting that he had 
not come to Pome twenty years before, giving his 
friend occasion to remind him that caresses were the 

* Bembo to Quirini, u. s. 

t Aretiuo to Bembo, from Ve- 
nice, Oct. luio; Arctiuo to Titian, 
from Venice, Oct. 1.54.5, in Lcttcro 
diM. P. A., iii. 220 & 236. 

J Vasari, xiii. 34. 
§ See the proof of this, poatea, 
in an altar-piece at Sorravalle. 
II Vas. viii. 223. 
IT Dolce Lialogo, a. s., p. 9. 


114 TITIAN: HIS LIFE AND TIMES. [Cilvp. in. 

current coin of the Farnese. " I long for your return," 
continued Aretino in reply, " that I may hear what 
you think of the antiques, and how far you consider 
them to surpass the works of Michaelangelo. I want 
to know how far Buonarroti approaches or surpasses 
Kaphael as a painter ; and wish to talk with you of 
Bramante's 'Church of St. Peter,' and the master- 
pieces of other architects and sculptors. Bear in mind 
the methods of each of the famous painters, parti- 
cularly that of Fra Bastiano and Perino del Vaga; 
look at every intaglio of Bucino. Contrast the figures 
of Jacopo Sansovino with those of men who pretend 
to rival him, and remember not to lose yourself in 
contemplation of the ' Last Judgment,' at the Sixtine, 
lest you should be kept all the ^^anter from the 
company of Sansovino and myself."* 

How little did Aretino really know of Titian if he 
thought he could now learn anything from Sebastian 
del Piombo or Perino del Vaga. From cartoons or 
casts of statues by Michaelangelo at Venice he might 
in earlier days have derived some notions of the pecu-' 
liar way in which nature and the models of earlier 
generations of artists should be consulted for the 
attainment of a monumental ideal. Now that Titian's 
practice and method had set hard into a shape from 
which they could never again escape, comparisons of 
the antique and Buonarroti would necessarily have 
little eflfect on the further expansion of his style. Not 
that Titian's mind was closed at this time to all 

* Aretino to Titian, u. s., Lettere di M". P. A., iii. 236. 


improving influences. We shall presently see that old 
as he was he still showed readiness to assimilate the 
good that he found in the antique or in ^liehael- 
aiifjelo : but it was idle to think with Micliaelan2;elo 
that, had he leamt to draw better in his youth, and 
added to the gifts which he possessed by nature the 
further mft of correct desisjn, he would have been a 
paragon ;* ielle to suppose, as Del Piombo affected to 
believe, that had Titian come to Rome when he 
pulilished the " Triumph of Faith,'' and then studied 
the works of ^lichaelangelo and Raphael together with 
antique statues, he would have produced master- 
pieces. ■*" Titian himself was well aware of the danger 
of mere imitation, and we saw he once told Variras, 
the Spanish envoy, that he purposely avoided the 
styles of Raphael and ]\Iichaelangelo because he was 
ambitious of hiirher distinction than that of a clever 
imitator.^ It is hardly necessary to add that the 
education which he had received was one that enaliled 
him to produce acknowledged masterpieces ; and it is 
quite impossible that the study which Alichaelangelo 
and Del Piombo reo-retted to have found neo-lected 
should have made Titian greater. AVe look in vain 
throuirhout the annals of art for a man who combined 
all the excellencies discernable singly in Lionardo and 
Raphael, or in Michaelangelo, Correggio, and Titian. 
To paint like Titian required Titian's peculiar talents 
and means ; it required that colour should be made a 

* Vasari, xiii. 35. 

t lb. 21. 

X Vicus, De studiorum ratione, 

jf. s. p. 109; and see antea, vol. i. 
p. 329. 

I 2 



speciality. To draw and render form chastened and 
select as that of the Florentines demanded an educa- 
tion of another kind, which should make colour 
subordinate to design. Light and shade, as pitted 
against each other by Correggio, were only attainable 
by one who gave himself exclusively to their produc- 
tion. There never was a genius more universal than 
Eaphael, or one more fitted by nature to coml)ine all 
the highest and best elements of art, yet Raphael is 
not a colourist. Del Piombo, who came to Rome with 
the impress of Venice in his manner, gradually lost 
his originality in a grand but palpable imitation of 
Raphael and Michaelangelo. His opinion was trans- 
planted to Venice with that of Buonarroti and set up 
as a text over the door of Tintoretto, but it failed to 
produce the expected ideal ; and it would have been 
utterly vain to hope that colour after the Venetian 
fashion or design in the grandiose style of the classics 
and Tuscans could amaloamate: the base and elements 
of both beiog altogether different and incapable of 
assimilation. The trial was finally made by the 
eclectics of the school of Bologna, and every tyro 
knows with what result. 

That Titian himself thought he might have gained 
something from an earlier visit to Rome is obvious 
from his correspondence ; that he afterwards confessed 
to have improved by his stay there in 1545 and 1546, 
is clear from a confession made by himself to the 
painter Leoni;* but it is a moot point whether he 

* Giovanni Battista Leoni to 
Francesco Montemezzano, Eome, 

August 6. 1589 

I recollect 

hearing Messer Titian say, when 


would have acquired more in 1525 than in 1545 ; 
and all that a genius of his class could obtain from a 
stay in the capital was enlarged experience, and that 
sort of superiority which a travelled man has over one 
who has not travelled. 

If Titian, however, could not hope to procure more 
solid advantages from a residence at Rome than en- 
larged experience, he niiglit expect that some material 
improvement of his social position would result from 
the patronage of the Pope and liis friends : and there 
is evidence that some of the artists who were best 
employed at the Vatican became very jealous of him 
on tliat account. IVrint^ del Va<ja, whom Arctino 
had asked Titian to study, trend »lcil at tin- very 
prospect of I'itian's stay, not because he feared com- 
petition as a fresco painter, but l)ecausc he feared he 
niiifht lose the decoration of the Kina;'s I fall at tlie 
Vatican," and \'a-ari, or Sebastian it may be, nourished 
secretly some sentiments of a similar kind. They 
were too clever, however, to display these feelings, 
wliilst .Michaelangelo, who in by-gone times had 
praised the portraits of the great Venetian master, 
was eivil eiiouuh to itav liini a visit in his rooms of 

The first picture to wliich Vasari refers as a work of 
Titian at itonie is the likeness of i'aul the Third, 

I visited his house in my child- 
hood to learn something of paint- 
ing, that ho had greatly improved 
his works after having been at 
liome." Seo Lottere familiaro di 

G. P,. Leoni, 8vo, Yen. 1600, 
p. \b, in Bottari, Raccolta, u. ■>•. 
V. 11. .').3. 

* Vasari, x. 171. 

t lb. xiii. 3.J. 


with Cardinal Alessandro and Ottavio Farnese, " exe- 
cuted with great skill, and entirely to the satisfaction 
of those concerned."* The canvas which contains 
these three personages was left to the very last un- 
finished, and we may think that the cause of this 
mishap lay in the dislike of the Pope to sit. Though 
the palace of the Belvedere had been chosen as Titian's 
habitation because it was likely to facilitate his inter- 
course with the pontiff, Paul was too old, too aihng, 
and too peevish to visit the painter's room frequently. 
Titian fiDished the heads of Cardinal Alessandro and 
Ottavio Farnese carefully, he left that of the Pope 
incomplete. But in his leisure hours he produced 
other works, which were quite as important as this, 
eome unhappily destroyed, others fortunately pre- 
served. Amongst the former is a likeness of the 
Pope in company of his son. Pier Luigi; " Margaret of 
Austria," with a white veil on her head and a double 
necklace of pearls ; t " Clelia Farnese," the Cardinal's 
illegitimate daughter ; a Venus, ordered by Ottavio 
Farnese ; a Magdalen, and an " Ecce Homo," con- 
sidered at the time below the master's mark.| The 
canvases which remain to show the imjDress of Rome 
on Titian's mind are the Pope with his grandsons, of 

* Yasari, xiii. 35. 

+ Campori, Farnese Inventory 
in Eaccolta de' Cataloghi, pp. 208, 
227, 234, 237. The picture of the 
Pope and his son is thus de- 
scribed: "Paul III. in a red 
■p'elvet chair, his feet on a red 
stool fi'iuged with gold, standing 

on a Levantine carpet ; to the 
right the Seren" Pier Luigi, full 
length standing, in black, em- 
broidered with gold, with a sword, 
and a hand on his haunch : by 
t Vas. xiii. 35; Eidolfi, i. 231. 


which mention has been made, and "Danae receiviusr 
the Golden Rain," both in the museum of Naples. 

It seems curious that the Farneses should have 
employed Titian to illustrate the fable of Jupiter and 
Danae. When he began that composition, the Council 
of Trent was on the eve of meeting to put do^vn 
corru})tion, simony, and protestantism. But Titian 
we saw had failed in the " Ecce Homo," his incon- 
stant sitters would not always attend, and Ottavio 
Farnese, a layman, a man of the world, and son-in- 
law to tlie Emperor, did woX disapjjrove of sensualism 
if it was veiled with delicacy and clad in peerless 

Ill Titian's version of the subject we find liim 
triui)ii)liing over ever)- difiiculty of art, and marking 
— at sixty-eiglit — a progivss in the development of 
his style. Danae lies on a couch scantily covered 
with a veil, tlie upper part of her form raised on 
snow-wliite cushions. A nmslin sheet partially con- 
ceals the red silk of a drapery falling in graceful folds 
from the sides of an alcove. In the gloom 1)ehind, 
made gloomier liy the livid cloud, from which the 
golden rain is falling, a pillar rears its shaft on a 
dark grey plinth, cutting strongly on the pure blue 
of a bright and sunny sky, and a distance of hills and 
trees bathed in liaze. Cupid, a full grown boy in 
beautiful movement, glides away to the right, with 
outstretched wings and a gesture of surprise, looking 
curiously as he goes at the dropping of the pieces, 
and holding with a steady grasp his unstrung bow. 
The light, which scarcely illumines the features of 


the maid, whose forehead lies under the shade of the 
cloud, strikes brightly on her frame and arm, and 
especially on the hand. A bracelet glistens on her 
wrist, a ring on one of the fingers that play with 
the muslin sheet. The glow of day seems to fade 
as it rests on the boy, and is quenched in the dark- 
ness behind ; but the gradations are so delicate as 
to escape detection, and even the mass of projected 
shadow is mild and warm, Avhilst blended tones are 
spread in gentle waves over the canvas. Such per- 
fectly balanced chiaroscuro, modelling so finished, 
such admirably painted flesh, are hardly to be found 
again ; yet looking into the picture closely we see 
how spacious breadths of light are massed on the 
prominent places and illumined with decisive touches 
of still lighter quality, whilst pearly half tints of great ; 
tenderness, and transparent strata of a deeper value, 
are broken and rejoined by rubbings and glazings 
Avith a skill quite incomparable. 

It was some sixteen years before this time that 
Correo-o;io, accordins: to a current tradition, had 
composed the "Danae," which was to pass into the 
collection of Charles the Fifth. "Was Titian acquainted 
with this masterpiece, which had gone through the 
hands of Federico Gonzaga ? Could he foresee that the 
creator of it would be accounted the most ideal of 
those artists who concealed sensualism under perfect 
loveliness of female shape ? No doubt the " Danae " 
of Correggio strikes us even now as a splendid solution 
of the diflicult problem of balancing light and shade 
in exquisitely blended proportions ; as a delicate display 

Chap. HI.] 



of silver-toned flesh ; as a picture of the greatest 
Lricrhtness executed with the utmost sensitiveness of 
feeling. But it pales when compared with the " Danae " 
of Titian, in which similar alhirements, and an equally 
subtle application of the laws of chiaroscuro are com- 
bined with colour not to be surpassed, and a grand 
breadth of form recalling the preternatural strength of 

Buonarroti also had tried to illustrate one of the 
pagan legends. Though it was never carried out pic- 
torially by himself, the Leda had been painted from 
his cartoon by Pontormo and other Florentines. To 
this wonderful creation pe<-uliar character had been 
given by perfect shap(3 in every part, united to 
scientific accuracy of rendering in the framework and 
contours. It was, so to speak, the triumph of the 
plastic over the pictorial element of colour. Titian 
could not vie with the <zreat Florentine in modelled 
accuracy or ])urity of outline, Init the charm which 
]Michaelan2;elo disdained, the tints for which he had 
no eyes, were added by Titian to his picture, and 
enabled him to realize what no one finds in ]\Iichael- 
angelo, that is, nature in flesh and blood. 

Vecelli's })leasure at sight of antiques with which he 
was previously unacquainted, was described by Bembo. 
We can fancy the interest with which he looked at the 
Cupid " of Praxiteles," of whicli tliere were replicas in 
the galleries of the Vatican.* l[e noted the move- 

• This Cupid, in tho Vatican 
Collection (Mus. Chiaramonti), 
stands winged, with his two arms 

raiwod, as if he had just used his 
l)ow. llo looks as it wcro in tho 
direction of the arrow which lie 



ment of the god, who seems to look out after dis- 
charging his arrow. With a power of assimilation 
which is truly marvellous, he mastered the laws of 
motion illustrated in the statue, divined the classic 
method of interpreting form, committed to memory its 
grand disposal of lines, and reproduced them in his 
own peculiar way in the boy at the feet of Danae. He 
did this by reversing the action of the legs and frame, 
and altering the turn of the head, and thus produced 
somethino; orioinal that reminds us of the Greeks. 
And so Titian, verging on seventy, went on adding to 
the store gathered during a long and industrious life, 
and, never satisfied, never still, but always novel, he 
preserved an unflagging energy and power, which 
enabled him to live and to work till he nearly com- 
pleted a century of existence.* 

has shot. A replica is in the 
Museum of the Oai)itol. 

* The " Danae," now No. 5 in 
the Correggio Saloon of the Naples 
Museum, was painted for Ottavio 
Earnese (Eidolfi, Marav. i. 231). 
It was in the Farnese Collection 
till after 1680. (Campori, Eac- 
colta de' Cataloghi, p. 212.) Its 
size is 2 brae. 2^ oncie h., by 3 b. 
1| o. The whole pictui'e has been 
unevenly cleaned, and in many 
parts retouched ; it is out of focus 
in consequence. But these are 
old injuries, as the surface is still 
covered with old and yellow var- 
nish. The parts retouched are 
the head of Danae, in those por- 
tions which lie under the shadow 
of the cloud, the hair having lost 
its shape, and the shadows of 

Cupid, which are weakened by 
stippling. See the engraving by 

A replica called " Danae, with 
a boy, by Titian," is catalogued 
in an inventoiy of pictures be- 
longing to Prince Pio of Savoy, 
at Rome, in 1776. (Citadella, 
Notizie, k,. s., p. 556.) 

Copies of the picture were fre- 
quently made, one of which, by 
Erancesco Quattro Case, was in 
the Earnese Collection (Campori, 
Cataloghi, p. 280) in 1680. 

Of extant reproductions the 
following are to be noted : 

Nostitz Collection at Prague. — 
Under the name of Paul Veronese 
we have here a cold and not un- 
injured work on canvas, executed 
with care, but feebly, and appa- 



During the days "which Titian spent in carrying out 
this picture, the Farnese princes were deep in secret 
intrigiies for the promotion of their dynastic interests. 
As it often hnp})ens in families whose members are 
jealous and unscrupulous, there was no love lost 
between the relatives. Pier Luifri had been made 
Duke of Parma and Piaccnza in Ausiaist, 1545. 
Ottavio, ]\Iargaret his wife, and Charles the Fifth, 
were the more disgusted at his success, as the Emperor 
had instructed Andelot, his envoy at Piome, to urge 
the claims of his son-indaw with the greatest persis- 
tence. But Paul rebuked the selfishness of the son 
who envied his father's elevation, and both he and 
Luigi were satisfied that Charles would accept the 
apjtointment, wlicn made, in remembrance of the 
dangers that miiiht accrue from a bnaeh with the 
Pope at the opening of a general council, and on the 
eve of <i war with the protestants of Germany. Little 
did Paul or the Duke know liow deei)ly Charles would 
resent the trick, and how terrible his revenge would 
be. He dissembled, but never acknowledged the title 

rent) J' by a stranger who studied 
Youetiiin masterpiocos after Ti- 
tian's time. 

Dudlcij House. — This is smaller 
than the foregoing, by an artist 
of tho Venetian School in its 
(loclino. Tho background hero is 
all dark. 

]'e»icf Aradcmi/, No. 317. — Here 
is a copy, with varieties, assigned 
to Contaiini. 

A fourth rp]iroduction is that 
■whirh formerly belonged to Lord 

Wo shall seo that tho subject 
was repeated in later yearj b}' 
Titian, and multii)lied exces- 

A *' sketch for a larger picture 
in tho Naples Museum," assigned 
to Titian, in tho collection of Sii' 
Richard Wallace, No. 31(5 of 
Bothnal Green Exhibition, is not, 
as it purports to be, executed 
before, but after Titian's great 
original, and is clearly not by 


of Pier Lnis^i, and lie even fororot that Ottavio liad 
acquired his father's discarded dignity, and insulted 
the Duke of Parma by calling him, in public dispatches, 
Duke of Castro. 

In Titian's portraits of the Pope, the Cardinal, and 
Ottavio, some of the passions roused by these events 
aj)pear distinctly reflected. Paul, in his arm-chair in 
one of the rooms of the Vatican, sits deep and bent as 
an old man of eighty would necessarily sit whose frame 
is w^orn by anger and care. His body is turned to 
the left ; the red cap is pressed down over his fore- 
head so as to touch the brows, and the red cape is 
buttoned closely down the breast, whilst both it and 
the white silk robe that falls to the toes of his red- 
slippered feet are lined with fur. On the red cloth of 
the table upon Avhieh the right hand rests, an hour- 
glass symbolizes the shortness of even a pontifi''s life. 
At the back of the chair, and A\'ith one hand on the 
ball of it, Cardinal Farnese, in robes and cap of ofiice, 
stands musing as he looks at the spectator. To the 
right, and more in front, Ottavio comes in bareheaded, 
and obsecjuiously bowing, a black-plumed hat in his 
gloved hand, his fingers on the sheath of a rapier. 
Doublet, mantle, and slashed sleeves are coloured in 
various shades of brown. His sleeves are worn over 
long tight hose ; and behind him a curtain of orange 
stuff hangs in grand festoons. At his grandson's 
approach, and notwithstanding the humility of his 
obeisance, the Pope turns his head w^itli a quick and 
irritcible motion, and grasps with force the arm of his 
chair as he looks round sharply, even angrily, to chide. 


Thoiigli sketchy, Paul's features are all life, the glance 
is penetrant, the motion rapid. The ear is a mere 
stroke of paint, the beard blocked in with grey. The 
cap is a rubbing of crimson, like the rochet on which 
the lights are thrown in wliite dashes, whilst the darks 
are thick with lake, and the right hand is indicated 
with clear flake on the brin-ht undertone of tlie table- 
cloth. The Cardinal's face, more modefled and 
finished, is turned to the right, and full of freshness, 
the nose, the eyes, and mouth admirable in regularity, 
the beard and hair dark chestnut. Ottavio, tall, thin, 
almost cringing, is in profile, with thick cropped luiir 
of brownish hue, and a slight moustache. His nose is 
slightly hooked, his chin small and bare. The body 
and legs are mere spl;i.shcs of paint, the rapier a line or 
two of pigment. " White, red, and black, these are 
all the colours that a painter needs;" but, as Titian, 
according to a tradition still jjreserved, was heard to 
say, " one must know how to use them ;" and in this 
the master's power lay. Nothing can be more simple 
than the means, but what mastery they show in the 
application. Singidarly good as a composition, the 
group is varied with such skill, the movements are so 
natural and instantaneous, the life in the sitters is so 
cleverly concentrated in a single moment, that the effect 
is overpowering ; and it is prol)ably impossible to point 
out a finer set of contrasts than those produced by the 
measured bend of Uttavi(j, the instant turn of the 
Pope, and the steady calm of the Cardinal. One can 
fancy Paul surprised at the coming of Ottavio, charo-ino- 
him with intriguing against his father, Alessandro 



looking on at the lesson ; and it may be that Titian 
was a witness of the scene, whilst the cleverness with 
which he reproduced it afterwards irritated the chief 
actor, and caused the canvas to be set aside, and left 
incomplete. As it is, we have a rare opportunity of 
observing how Titian worked, how easy he could feel 
in competing with Michaelangelo or Del Piomlio, how 
well Venetian art could repose on its own laurels, with 
what facility grand form could be allied to rich and 
vivid colour. Laid on first with broad sweeps of brush 
in the thinnest of shades, the surfaces appear to have 
been worked over and coloured more highly with 
successive layers of pigment of similar quality, and 
modelled in the process to a delicate finish. The 
shadows were struck in with the same power as they 
were struck out in chips in the statues of Michael- 
angelo. The accessories were all j^repared in well- 
marked tints, subject to toning down by glazing, 
smirch, or scumble. White in light, dark in shadow, 
indicate forms, the whole blended into harmony by 
transparents, broken at last by flat masses of high 
liofht, and concrete touch.* 

* This picture, on canvas, is 
No. 17 in the Grand Saloon of the 
Naples Museum. It is noted in 
the Farnese inventory (Campori, 
Eaccolta de' Cataloghi, p. 237) as 
an "ahbozzo." The figui'es are 
fuU length and of life size. The 
colours are scaling in several 
places; and there are repainted 
bits in the left eye and forehead, 
and the white robe of the pontiff, 

as well as in the gloved right 
hand and legs of Ottavio. A 
small copy on canvas, in the 
Academy of San Luca, passes 
erroneously for an original sketch. 
It was bequeathed to the Academy 
by the painter Pellegrini, and is 
an old Venetian picture, in which 
the parts left unfinished in Titian's 
original are cleverly completed by 
a more modern hand. 


Sanaovino meets with a mishap at Venice. — Uis imprisonment. — lie 
is liberated by Titian's interest. — Negotiations for the Benefice of 
CoUo. — Dogo Douato succeeds Doge Lando, and allows Titian to 
remain at Rome. — Portraits executed for tho Duke of Urbino. — 
Titian's return to Venice. — He visits Florence, and paints again 
the Portrait of Pier Luigi Famese. — Portraits of Doge Donate, 
Giovanni de' Medici, and Lavinia. — Cardinal Fanieso visits 
Venice. — !^^aITiago of Giudubaldo II. — Marriage of Ora>;i<> Ve- 
celli. — Titian a.sks for the I'iombo, and receives tho promise of it. 
— Altar-pieco of Serravallf. — Ti^inn^iul 1?npli;v^l — Th" Cartoons, 
and especially tho "Miraculous Draught." — " Vonus and Adonis." 
— Disciples at Emmaus. — " Pecunil)ont V<'nus and Cupid" at 
Florence. — "Vonus and tho Organ-player " at Madrid. — Replicas 
and Copies. — Tho " Ecco Homo" at Madrid. 

Whilst Titian Ava.s enjoying honour.s and hard 
work at Ptome, San.sovino was meeting with serious 
misfortune at Venice. Being architect of St. Mark, 
Sansovino had for some time been emrafi^ed in erecting; 
the library hi w hich it was propo.sed to deposit the 
books bequeathed to the State l)y Petrarch and 
Cardinal Pcssarion. Tlie CTcat hall of this buildinc^, 
which still lines the Piazzetta and Grand Canal, had 
been greatly advanced in autumn, and arched over in 
winter. On the 18th of December, 1545, it fell in 
with a crash, burying in the ruins the money of the 
republic and the fame of the builder.* Sansovino 

• Temenza's Sansovino, ». «. p. 30. 



had scarcely heard of the disaster when he was arrested 
and imprisoned on a charge of culpable negligence. 
Ai^etino wrote to Titian in despair at this mishap, 
which deprived his friend of liberty, and threatened 
his very existence.* The utmost efiforts were made 
by Bembo, Mendozza, and Aretino himself to mitigate 
the blow ; t but Titian's interest appears to have been 
most efficacious. J Francesco Donato, an old and 
tried friend of the "Academy," had just succeeded 
Pietro Lando as Doge,§ he had been sitting to Titian 
as Titian started for Eome ; other friends were members 
of the Council of Ten. By a judicious use of this 
interest Sansovino was liberated, and a few months 
later reinstated, the fine of a thousand pieces in which 
he was mulcted having been remitted. || 

Francesco Donato might have required the instant 
return of Titian from Eome, where it was not possible 
that he could perform the duty of taking a ducal 
portrait, but being favourably inclined to the master, 
he merely sent a greeting and compliments by Aretino. 
It was of good omen, the latter thought, that Titian 
should not have finished " Donato as a Senator." It 
was clearly preordained that he should represent him 
in a diadem. Titian sent his respects to the Doge in 

* Aretino to Titian, in Lettere, 
n. s. iii. 360. 

t Temenza, p. 31 ; Bembo to 
Sansovino, Eome, Oct. 23, 1546, 
in Bembo, Op. ix. 488. 

X Beltrame {u. s. p. 46) says 
tbat it was entirely due to Titian 
tbat Sansovino was released. His 

statement apparently rests on 
public records ; but, unhappily, 
tbey are not quoted, 

§ No. 8, 1545, Doge Lando 

II Aretino to Sansovino, Let- 
tere, iv. 157. 

Chap. IV.] 



December, and the Dosje returned the compliment in 
January ^vithout imperiously commanding the painter's 

Thus encouraged to prolong his absence, Titian con- 
tinued liis labours for the Farnese, and urged with his 
usual persistence the claim of his son to the benefice 
of CoUe. Scrtnrio, AbVxjt of Nonantolo, liad long 
since, as we observed, consented to cede the abbey for 
a consideration; but bcliind Sertorio there were two 
powerful persons with jealous interests to conciliate, 
and Cardiiiiil Farn(\sr, tliough he had the will had 
not as yet fouml tlie way to satisfy these persons. 
hi May, l.")4i!, the Abbot wrote to Farnese to say that 
whilst his Eminenrc was asking for the benefice for 
Titian, the l)uk(^ of Ferrara and Cardinal Salviati 
were covctiiiLL it fn- some of their friends. " He 
(Sertorio) would be well content to accept compensa- 
tion, but lie could not part with the sinecure without 
the consent of Ferrara and Salviati. "t So the days 
went by and the liciiefiee was not obtained, and Titian 
was forced to leave the papal court without the solid 
advantages wliidi he had expected to reap.| 

In his leisure hours he had found time to complete 
several portraits for the Duke of Urbino.§ These he 
doubtless sent direct to their destination, his own road 

* Aretino to Titian, Lettere iii. 
son, '.i'29. 

t Soo tho letter in Ronoliini's 
Eolazioni di Tiziano coi I'^arnesi, 
«. s. p. 6. 

X Vasari and Ridolfi both 
thought that Titian now got a 

VOL. It. 

benefice, and Ridolfi even speaka 
of a bishoprick ; but this is au 
error. See postea, and cnmi)aro 
Vas. ::iiii. 36, and liidolfi, M.ira- 
Yiglio, i. 233. 

§ Vasari, xiii. 36. 

130 TITLiN: HIS LIFE AND TniES. [Cilvp. IV. 

lying through Florence, where he wished to make 
further acquaintance with the niaster23ieces of Tuscan 
art. On the 12th of June, 154G, Aretino wrote to 
Duke Cosimo to say that if Titian came to visit him 
he slioukl at least say that he had seen the likeness of 
Aretino.* The Duke hardly vouchsafed to answer 
this appeal. He received Titian about mid-June at 
Poo-orio a Caiano, and refused to sit to him, mindful 

DO ' 

perhaps of the claims of Florentine artists to commis- 
sions of this sort, possibly disinclined to admire a 
style so diflferent from that of Pontormo, Bronzino, and 
Allori.t Titian consoled himself by looking round 
the churches and palaces of Florence, and admiring 
their contents.| After a short stay he proceeded to 
Venice, taking, it may be, on his way Piacenza, where 
Pier Luigi Farnese was vainly striving to consolidate 
his vacillating throne. Historians tell us that this 
prince, previous to his death by violence in 1547, was 
so reduced in body by disease that he looked like a 
walking corpse.§ In this form, and lean from sick- 
ness, we find him represented in a picture at Naples 
ascribed to Titian. Injured as this ca.nvas appears to 
have been by time, neglect, and ill-treatment, it still 
looks as if it might have been executed by the great 
Venetian to whom it is assigned, and if this be so there 
are but two hypotheses that will bear to be stated 
respecting it. Pier Luigi w^as not at Rome during 
the time of Titian's stay. The portrait was therefore 

* Gaye Carteggio, ii. p. 351. 
f Yas., xiii. 36. 

X lb. ib. 

§ Aflfo., V. s. p. 193. 


painted from a sketch taken at Piacenza, or from a 
sketch sent to Titian at Venice. The characteristic 
feature is the leanness of the Duke, who stands bare- 
headed in aniiour, witli a (higger in one hand and a 
baton in the other, near a helmeted soklier whose arm 
supports the standard of Parma. One sees that the 
features arc those depicted three years earlier at 
Bologna ; but that care has worn the flesh of the face 
down to the bone. The hollows of the temples, cheeks, 
and eyes, are marked ; the eye has lost its fire, tli<' 
lip its colour. I besides, the surface is worn to a raw 
dryness of substance wherever it is not covered with 
new paint or lost iu abrasions. Another year was to, and then Pier Luigi was to fall before the daggers 
of assassins suborned by Charles the Fiftli and his 
ij-cneral PY^rrantc Gonza^ca.* 

111 Ills old haunts at \'enice, Titian found no change 
to notice. Aretino as usual kept open house on the 
Grand Ganal. Sansovino had recovered from his 
misfortunes, and was makinn; a new ceiling- to the 
hall of the librar}'. The Papal Legate Giovanni della 
Casa, a close adherent of the Farnese, and an old 
friend of ]-)embo and the Quirinis, welcomed the 
painter to his palace, and there Titian was soon asked 
to meet Count CVsare Boschetti, and Galeazzo Paleotti, 
relatives of Sertorio, Abbot of Nonantola. 

• This picture, No. 33 in the Titian (Campori, Raccolta de' Ca- 
Muscura of NaploH, is on canvas, | taloghi, p. 233). Tho standard in 

of life size, and seen to tho waist. 
It is reffistored in the Farnese 

tho soldier's hand is of a reddish 
yellow; the ground behind dark 

inventory' of 1680 as an original brown. 



" On reaching Venice, I found Galeazzo Paleotti in 
the house of the Eio-ht Keverend the Lesrate, who 
spoke of the benefice of Ceneda as reported to him by 
the Archbishop of Santa Severina ; and as your 
Eminence, he said, had heard by his letters and those 
of the Archbishop. All that remains to be done, now 
that matters are in train, is to keep the thing going, 
and obtain from Cardinal Salviati and the Duke of 
Ferrara the licence Avhich Monsignor requires. The 
Archbishop willingly gives way to your Eminence's 
pleasure, whom I now beg to provide for his Eeve- 
rence's satisfaction. And so I hope to enjoy content- 
ment in old age, and obtain for the rest of my life 
wherewithal to work upon and toil in your Lordship's 
service without further thought of care. 

"From Venice, June 19, 1546 

" * 

AVhen the painter wrote tliis letter he seemed 
clearly under the impression that sooner or later he 
would enter the household of Farnese. But as 
regards the benefice and his chance of getting it, he 
was wide of the mark. At home and at ease in 
Eome, the Cardinal mio-ht have w^orked with eff'ect on 
the Duke of Ferrara and his colleague Salviati ; l^ut 
he was no longer at home, or if so, no longer at 
ease. Charles the Fifth had broken with the Pro- 
testant princes. The Pope and his allies had entered 
into a leagiie with the Emperor. Ottavio Farnese 

* See the original letter in Eonchini, Eelazioni, u. s. p. 8. 


was raising Italian troops to pass the Alps into the 
valley of the Dauube, and Alessaudro was preparing 
to cross into Germany as legate. It was obvious that 
under these circumstances the patronage of the Farnese 
princes must dwindle to nutliing, anel Titian looked 
round for other supporters. 

Now no doubt he composed afresh the " Descent of 
the Holy Spirit " for the canons of San Spirito, now 
lie began the altar^iiece of Serravalle, produced for 
Aretino the long-desired picture of Giovanni dc' 
Medici,* and took sittings from the Doge for his 
official likeness. 

Francesco Duuato was specially pleased, we may 
think, to be portrayed by the linnd of Titian, but his 
portrait wits not preserved. ■*■ 

The profile of Giovanni de' Medici, after hanging 
for some years in the palace of Aretino, was presented 
to Duke Cosimo, and is now exliibited in the gallery 
of the Uffizi.J 

We may remember that wlien Aretino, late in 1526, 
was called upon to tend the couch of his master at 
iMantua, the young but already celebrated leader of 
the " black bands " was suHering from a gunshot 
wound which made an operation necessary. Amputa- 
tion of the shattered limb took place, and of this the 
wounded man died. As Giovanni lay dead on his 

* Aretino to Duke Cosimo, , i. 2G;J) uotes a second portrait of 

Dec. 30, 154G, in Bottari, Rac- ' Dogo Donato in the Procuratio at 

tolta, iii. 67. Venice, which is also missing. 

t The payment in Lorenzi, X Aretino to Cosimo, Bottari, 

u, 8. p. 2o9. The canvas perished 
by fire in 1577. But Ridolfi (Mar. 

Eaccolta, i. 67. 


bed, Aretiuo sent for Giiilio Koniano, and had a cast 
taken of the chieftain's face.* This cast was sub- 
sequently lent to numerous artists, and amongst 
others, to Titian, who now revived with its assistance 
the form of the " Condottiere.''t Like many earlier 
pieces produced under similar conditions, this looks as 
if it had been done from life. The chieftain stands, 
beardless, in profile to the left, and is seen to the 
waist in armour, with his hand on a helmet on which 
the blow of a sword is apparent. A red hanging acts 
as a foil to the cold surface of the canvas, as well as to 
a face of regular shape, with lineaments indicative of 
strength and determined purpose ; and the bold freedom 
with which the flesh is painted is only equalled by the 
skill with which the polish of the breastplate is repre- 
sented. With difficulty we note that the warm flesh 
tones are more blended and more uniformly rounded 
than they might have been had the Medici been 
sitting to Titian. But this impression is almost 
obliterated Avhen we look at the studied reflexes of 
the panoj^ly, which were certainly copied with un- 
exampled fidelity from nature.^ 

In quiet hours, when undisturbed by any but purely 
artistic considerations, Titian threw more soul and feel- 
ing into his work, and this is more particularly true 

* Aretino to Anichini, Lettere 
iii. 82. 

t The same to Sansovino and 

the Uffizi, gives the likeness of 
Giovanni de' Medici to the waist. 
The figure is life size. An en-- 

Parasio, Lettere iii. 137, and v. i graving of it is in the '' Galleria 
170. { di Firenze." 

t This canvas, now No. 614 at 


of a contemporary portrait in tlic Dresden Museum, 
the features of wliicli are apparently those of Lavinia 
Vecelli. Scanelli, the author of the Microcosmo, has 
preserved the sul^stance of a letter in which Titian 
announced to Alfonso of Ferrara the despatch of a 
picture "representing the person dearest to him in 
all the world." He then describes "the figure of a 
young girl, of life size, gracefully walking with her 
face at three quarters, and looking out brightly as 
she waves her ian — the time, a summer afternoon, 
when the girl, one might think, was courted by her 
exalted lover.''^ The portrait admired by Scanelli 
is no doubt that of the young girl in white at the 
Dresden Museum. l^>ut it would be a mistake to 
suppose that thi.s lovely m;iid was painted iov Alfonso, 
a fortiori n mistake to believe that she was the mistress 
of a prince who died in l.")34, nor can we believe that 
Titian portrayed the person dearest to tln' didvc, since 
it is apparent that he meant to immortalize the face 
and form of his own daughter. We shall presently 
see that he often painted Lavinia, whose real name 
was curiously changed to Cornelia by writers of a 
later acce.t Thoui^h unfortunate in his eldest son 
Pomponio, who disgraced the priest's cassock and 
squandered his father's means in debauchery, Titian 
was happy in the affection of two children worthy of 
his love, Orazio, who act^ompanicd him to Rome and 
gave numerous proofs of pictorial skill, and Lavinia, 
a beauty who married Cornel io Sarcinelli of Serravalle 

* Microcosmo, u. a. p. 222. f Eidolfi, Mar. i. 2j3, 259, 


in 1555. Eiclolfi refers to Lavinia when lie describes 
'■' a maiden carrying a basket of fruit," by Titian, in 
possession of Niccolo Crasso, and " a girl holding a 
basin with two melons," by the same hand, in the 
collection of Giovanni d' Uifel of Antwerp. Of both 
he writes, "that they were said to represent the 
painter's daughter Cornelia."'"' We remember the 
adventures of Covos with the lady in waiting of 
Countess Pepoli, and pardon the error A^'hicll con- 
founded the maid of BoloQ-na with that of Biri 
Grande. The girl with the fruit is still preserved 
in the Museum of Berlin, and is probably that Avhich 
was claimed as a portrait of Lavinia by Argentina 
Rangone in 1549. There were relations of friendship 
between the Raugones and Titian in that year, and 
Argentina proposed to the painter to take one of her 
dependents as an apprentice into his workshop at 
Venice. In the letter which she wrote upon this 
matter she refers to Lavinia's portrait, which she begs 
Titian to complete ; and we can easily fancy that the 
master instantly attended to the wish of a lady who 
was godmother to one of his children. t The counter- 
parts of the canvas at Berlin are the portrait of a 
lass w^ith a casket in Lord Cowper's collection, and 
"Salome" in the gallery of Madrid, both of which 
display with more or less resemblance the features of 
the girl at the Dresden Museum. 

Titian at eighty-two wrote to Philip the Second 
begging him to accept the portrait of a lady whom 

* lb. ib. t The lettei' is in Gaye's Carteggio, u. s. ii. p. 375. 

Chat. IV.] 



he described as "absolute mistress of liis soul,"* but 
Garcia Hernandez, the Spanish Secretaiy at Venice,^ 
explains in another letter that the mistress of Titian's 
soul is " a fanciful representation of a Turkish or 
Persian girl/'t Yet what Titian described so fondly 
to the Duke and to the King may have been the face 
of Lavinia, in the first case portrayed from nature, 
in the second idealized to suit tlie fancy of Phili}). 
Scanelli, it is more than probable, erred m stating that 
Titian wrote to Alfonso, when it is obvious that the 
mv\ with the leaf-fan at Dresden is a creation of the 
time when Titian returned from Jiome. From the 
first stroke to the last this beautiful piece is the work 
of the master, and there is nul an iueli of il in which 
his hand is not to be traced. His is the brilhant flesh 
brought up to a rosy carnation ]>y wondrous kneading 
of copious pigment, his the contours formed by texture 
and not defined by outline ; his again the mixtunj of 
sharp and bhuivd touches, the delicate modelling in 
dazzling light ; the soft glazing, cherry lip, and spark- 
ling eye. Such a charming vision as this was well 
fitted to twine itself round a fiither's heart. 

Lavinia's hair is yellow and strewed with pearls, 
showing a pretty wave and irrepressible curls in 
stray locks on the forehead. Earrings, a necklace of 
pearls, glitter with grey reflexions (»ii a skin incom- 
parably fair. The gauze on the shoulders is light as 
air, and contrasts with the stiff richness of a white 

• Titian to Philip II., Sept. 22, 
155n, in Appendix. 

t Garcia Ilernandc/ to rbilij) 
II., Aug. y, 1059, in AppondLx. 



damask-silk dress and skirt, the folds of wliicli heave 
^and sink in shalloAV projections and depressions, 
touched in tender scales of yellow or ashen white. 
The left hand, with its bracelet of pearls, hangs grace- 
fully as it tucks up the train of the gown, whilst the 
right is raised no higher than the waist, to wave the 
stiff plaited leaf of a palmetto fan. Without any 
methodical strapping or adjustment of shape, — nay 
with something formless in the stiff span and lacing 
of the bodice, — the figure is the very reverse of supple, 
and yet it moves with grace, shows youth and life 
and smiling contentment, and a striking grandeur of 
carriage, combined with ladylike modesty.* 

When the master, in more advanced years, painted 
the well-known picture of which Van Dyke made an 
etching — a picture in Avhich the lady's interesting- 
situation and Titian's gesture, as well as the death's 
head in the left foreground, suggest philosophical 
reflections as to the contrast between life and death ; 
when Titian, we say, was producing a master-piece, of 
which but a copy has been preserved, he presented 
anew, it may be thought, the form of his daughter. 

* This portrait came, with the 
rest of the Dresden pictures, from 
Modena, and is an heirloom of the 
Estes. On canvas, ft. 8 in. h. 
by 3 ft. 1 in., it was transferred 
to a new cloth in 1827, and looks 
fairly preserved. The brown 
ground is darker on the left than 
on the right side. Photograph by 
the Photographic Co., engraved by 
Basan. A free copy on canvas, 
ascribed to Titian, is No. 21 in 

the Cassel Mus. But the features 
are not the same as those of the 
Dresden canvas, and the hand is 
not that of Titian, though the 
copyist may have been an Italian. 
Moi'e Flemish in type is a copy 
by Eubens in the Museum of 
Vienna. A study for the original 
at Dresden, in black and red 
chalk, is in the Albertina Collec- 
tion at Vienna. 


whose face, with slight modifications, is no other than 
that of the Dresden portrait ; whose figure is that of' 
Lavinia gTown to be a matron, but still youthful in 
features, and of extreme beauty.* Subsequent repeti- 
tions of the same pei-son as a girl bearing fruit and 
flowers, or as Salome raisino; on hiMi the head of the 
Baptist, merely sensed to fix a type which, whether it 
issued from Titian's own hands or those of his disciples, 
preserved always the aspect <if youth. 

As depicted in the broad manner characteristic of 
Titian aljout ISoO, Lavinia, at Berlin, is full-grown 
but of roljust shape, dressed in yellowish flowered silk 
with slashed sleeves, a cliiselled girdle round her 
waist, and a white veil hanging from her shoulders. 
Seen in profile, she raises with both hands, to the 
level of her forehead, a silver disli ])ile(l with fruit and 
flowers. Her head i> thrown back, and turned so as 
to allow three-quarters of it to be seen as she looks 
from the corners of her eyes at the spectator. Auburn 
hair is carefully brushed off the temples, and confined 
by a jewelled diadem, and the neck is set off with a 
string of pearls. A deep red curtain partly concealing 
a brown-tinized wall to the left, to the riiiht a view of 
hills, seen from a balcony at eventide, complete a 
picture executed with great bravuni, on a canvas of 

• The copy to -nhich allusion is j was not soon by the authors. Tho 
hero made is that which Waagon, j engraving was mentioned in notes 

in his Treasures (Supplement, 
p. 110), has described in the col- 
lection of Mr. .Tamos ^Nforrison. in 
London, as betraying in part the 

hand of a scholar. The picture Dello Amoro, p. 79. 

to an earlier chapter of this vo- 
lume, and exists in two difForent 
impressions, with inscriptions 
which will be found in Cadorin's 



coarse twill. Fully in keeping with the idea that 
Titian had before him the image of his child, is the 
natural and unconstrained movement, the open face 
and modest look. The flesh, the dress, are coloured with 
great richness, yet, perhaps, with more of the blurred 
softness which the French call flou, than is usual in 
pure works of Titian. It may be that excessive 
blendino; and somethino- like down or fluff in the 
touch was caused by time, restoring, or varnish. It 
may be that these blemishes are due to the co-opera- 
tion of Orazio Vecelli, who now had a share in almost 
all the pictures of his father, as he had his confidence 
in all business transactions. But in the main this is 
a grand creation of Titian.'"" 


Of equal richness in tone, but inferior in modelling, 
and too marked in its freedom to be entirely by 
Titian, Lavinia with the casket, in Lord Cowper's 
London collection, is still interestino- as showing the 
w^ell-known features of the painter's daughter in fuller 
bloom than at Berlin. The casket here also lies on a 
silver dish, there is a distance of landscape too, but 
the balcony is wanting, the dress is green, the veil 
yellow, and the face is cut into planes of more decided 

* This example of Lavinia is 
No. 166 in the Berlin Museum, 
-and m.easures 3 ft. oh in. high, by 
2 ft. 7| in. The figure is seen to 
the hips. A tawny film, of old 
varnish lies over the whole sur- 
face, and there are clear signs of 
retouching in the shadows of the 
face, the wrists, and right hand. 

and the sky. A strip of canvas 
has been added to the right side 
of the picture, which was bought 
in 1832 from Abbate Celotti, at 
Florence, for 5000 thalers. The 
Abbate aflBrmed it was identical 
with that mentioned by Eidolfi 
as painted for Niccolo Crasso. 



setting, wliilst the frame is sti-ongor and more de- 
veloped than before. There is more ease of hand, but 
also more laxity in the rendering of form than W(^ like 
to welcome in a picture all by Titian. But again in 
this, as in the Berlin example, much of the impression 
produced may be caused l>y rest(jring.* 

Younger again, ])ut with nak(^d arms, a wiiite veil 
and sleeve, nnd a red damask dress, the " Salome " of 
^ladrid carries the head of tin* Baptist on a chased 
salver. But this piece is by no means equal in merit 
to the girl with the casket, and is certainly painted 
bv one of Titian's followers, from the Lavinia of 

An accident wliicli occurred about tliis time revived 

• This canvas, ^-ith .1 figure of 
life size, is retouched in the hands, 
and disfipiiied hy a patch of re- 
storing on tho .shoulder. It was 
in the Orleans Gallery before it 
passed into the hands of Lord 
Co^Tier, and was noteil in the 
collections of Lady Lucas and 
Lady do Gro}'. (Waagen, Trea- 
sures, ii. 197.) Engraved by 

One of Uollur's prints (IGjO), 
taken from a picture in the Van 
Veerle Collection, of which we 
know nothing at jm-scnt, show.s 
Lavinia with a dish on which 
there are three melons. 

t This picture. No. 4'>1 in the 
Madrid Museum, has been well 
]>hotogi-aphed by Laurent. It is 
on canvas, m. 0.87 high, by 0..S0, 
nnd ill preserved, being repainted 
in several places, and particularly 

in the cheek and near the elbow 
of the right ann. The b.ack- 
ground is a dark wall. A copy 
of this picture, by Padovanino, is 
No. 'JKH in the Municipal Gallery 
at Padua. 

A copy of the head of tho 
Berlin picture (erroneously .sup- 
posed by Waagen — Gemiildo 
Sammlung der Ennitage, 11. s., 
p. ()'J — to be a fragment of a can- 
vas of the IJarbarigo Collection 
by Titian) is No. 104 in the 
(Jailer J' of the Ilermitage at St. 
Petersburg, and not original. It 
has been supposed that tho Ma- 
drid " Salome " is tho picture de- 
scribed in tho catalogue of Charles 
the I'irst's collection as by Titian. 
(Waagen, Treasures, ii. 480.) But 
this is only a surmise, and if an 
unfounded one, the " l^alome " of 
Charles the First is missing. 


the hope which Titian liad long entertained of per- 
manent aid from the Farnese princes. Cardinal 
Alessandro had crossed the Alps in Jidy, 1546, with 
the troops of his brother Ottavio, and found himself 
in August at Ingoldstadt, where the Emperor was 
facing the Protestants of the league under John 
Frederick of Saxony. During the marches and 
counter-marches of the contendino: armies the light 
forces of the Italians and Spaniards were active and 
fortunate. As autumn set in, and a standing camp 
was j^itched in the neighbourhood of Ulm, the cold 
reacted severely on the soldiers of the South, who 
perished in vast numbers of dysentery. Cardinal 
Farnese was attacked by a tertian fever, which made 
it advisable that he should seek the warmer climate 
of his own land ; and he returned on the 22nd of 
November to Venice to find his brother leg-ate and 


client, Giovanni della Casa, suffering from a violent 
attack of 2jout.* Durino; the intervals in which he 
was free from ague the Cardinal visited Titian, who 
showed him pictures in various stages of progress on 
the walls of his house ; and he asked the painter to 
finish one of these pictures for liim.+ Titian was but 
the more ready to make this promise, as Farnese was 
going to Rome, and he hoped would again take steps 
to obtain for him the benefice of CoUe. Other events 

* Eoncliim, Lettere d'uomini 
iUustri, u. s. pp. 155 — 163. Titian 
to Earnese, Dec. 24, 1547, in 
Eoncliini's Eelazioni, u. s. p. 10, 
and Eanke's Deutsche Geschichte 

im Zeitalter der Eeformation, 8vo, 
Berlin, 1843, vol. iv. p. 438. 

t Titian to Farnese, Dec. 24, 

Chap. IV.] TITL\N ASKS FOR Till-: PTOMBO. 143 

took place shortly after, which seemed calculated to 
be fruitful of further consequences. On the 18th of 
February, 1547, Julia Varana died and left the Duke 
of Urbino a widower. With indecent haste Guidu- 
baldo entered into negotiations fur a new matrimonial 
alliance, and on the 4tli of June he espoused at Rome 
Vittoria, the daughter of Pier Luigi Farnesi\ Hardly 
a fortnight after the celebration of the nuptials, Scbas- 
tian del Piurabo also died, leavinij the seals of the 
papal bulls in the hands of Paul the Third. Titian, 
w^ho had married and settled his second son, Orazio, 
in April,* was not slow to perceive that a diange of 
residence would now give him a place as well as the 
joint interest of the Rovores and Fanieses. He accord- 
ingly wrote to the Cardinal t<> offer his services and 
bt'or for the heritaf^^e of Sebastian. 


" Though he has had no message and no em- 
bassy to press him to furnish the picture of your 
Reverend Lordship, Titian, youi- liumble and most 
<lcvoted servant, has not failed to bring it to that 
ultimate perfection of wliicli his pencil is capable, and 
keeps it ready fur an expression of your Lordship's 
desire. As I should acquire the gi-eatest praise and 
immortal honour in the eyes of tlie world if it should 
be known for certain to all as it is known to myself, 
that I live under the shadow of the high bounty and 

* Aretino to Orazio Vecelli, Venice, April, 1ij47, in Lottere di 
M. P. A. iv. TO'. 


courtesy of your Reverend and Illustrious LordsHp, 
I would beg your Lordship, in order that I may remain 
in this credit, and no^y that I am free from every care 
that might reach mc here, to prepare to employ me 
and give me commands ; and I am ready to obey 
these commands even thougJi your Lordship should 
impose on me for the third time the acceptance of 
the cowl of the late Fra Bastiano. And so I bow 
most humbly and kiss your Lordship's hands. 
" Your Most Rev. and 111. Lordship's 

perpetual servant, 

" TiTIANO.* 
" Frovi Yenice, Jinie IS, 1547." 

A fortni2;ht later Giovanni della Casa wrote to the 
Cardinal to say that the Duke of Urbino had arrived 
at Venice in perfect health, that Titian had been 
informed that the seals of the Piombo were reserved 
for his acceptance, and that he had already asked 
whether anything had been done in respect of this 
promotion. " It seems to me," Della Casa concluded, 
" that Titian is more inclined to accept the place now 
than he was on former occasions, and it would be 
very desirable that your Lordship should acquire such 
an ornament as he is for the court of his Holiness." t 

How well we mark in this the canny nature of the 
painter, a born negotiator, who begged the patron 
direct for a vacancy, yet pretended to his agent to 
be only inclined to take it if offered. 

* Eoncliini, Eelazioni, v,. s. J f Eonchini, Lettere d'uomini 
pp. 8, 9. I illustri, u. s. i. pp. 191 — 4. 


Months, as we see, went by in the course of these 
transactions, but Titian during those months finished 
the altar-piece of Serravalle ami other works, of which 
we have uncertain or incolierent notices. 

The peopki of Serravalle had not at first intended 
to ask Titian for an altar-piece. But Francesco 
V'ecelli, to whom thoy had originally applied, liad 
produced a sketch whidi they did not approve ; and 
wlien they witlidrew tlieir otter he suggested an appli- 
cation to his brother which found their willing sup- 
})ort.* In 1547, Titian wrote to the council (>f the 
-church of Senavalle to say that he had finished and 
wished them to send iur the pictui*e. At their request, 
— he subjoined — the figure of 8t. Peter had been sub- 
stituted for that of Rt. \'inrent, and this liad caused 
a surcharge of -.") ducats. The council protested 
against this claim, asked Titian to deliver the canvas 
at Serravalle, and bargained for the payment of the 
stipulated price. The cpiarrel which ensued was not 
.settled till 155;3, but the picture was not subsequently 
altered, and though injured still gives account of the 
progress which the master's art had made after it felt 
the inttuence of the Florentine and Roman schools. 

A massive and eddying cloud serves as a throne 
to the Virfjin and Child, both of whom are looking 
down towards tin? earth, surrounded by cherubim 
fioating in the brilliant haze of a glory. An angel to 
the riiiht bends to single out St. Peter below. Another 
stoops to support with his hand the foot of ]\Iary. 

* See Appendix, anno 1542, and Ciani, Storia, u. s., ii. 204. 
vol.. It. L 


St. Peter, grey-bearded, on the riglit foreground raises 
his Lead and lifts the keys towards heaven, his frame 
enwrapped in a cinnamon cloth twisted over a peach- 
tinted robe ; St. Andrew, opposite to him, stands with 
sandaled feet, clad in an oHve-green dress and red 
mantle, and supports with both arms the heavy beam 
of a tall cross, looking round as he does so with stern 
majesty at the spectator. In the distance between 
the two, Christ, in the bow of a fishing boat, calls 
Peter and Andrew from their nets. Light emanates 
from the Viro;in and radiates from her head into the 
A-aulted sky beyond. The distance, of few but superb 
lines brushed in with quick sweeping strokes, presents 
a view of mountains with a coast bathed by a dark 
lake, whose waters are stirred by a breeze, before 
which a sail or two are running, and a marvellous 
current of atmosphere flows over the water and the 
shore. Forms more muscular and fleshy than any 
produced at an earlier time are conceived with 
sublimer grandeur and delineated with more than 
usual force and ease in resolute and natural move- 
ment. Draperies are cast in a monumental mould. 
A masterly division of light and shade accompanies 
an equally masterly definition of parts. The force 
of the touch is only equalled by its spaciousness, 
which neither excludes modelling nor delicate blend- 
ing, whilst a pulpy pastose substance is produced that 
rivals the flesh and bone and muscle of nature. 

Little did the council of Serravalle know, whilst 
quarrelling over a few ducats, that this picture re- 
sumed the art of Titian as embodied in the "Peter 


]\Lxrtyr " and " St. John the Almsgiver," and marked 
a st^p in advance of all the master's previons -works. 
Powerful as Miehaelangelo in the strength and serenity 
of the principal figures, it recalls the tempered and 
dainty grace of Eaphael and Correggio in the golden 
sheen of its gloiy, and unites the sprightly elegance 
of the Madonna of San Niccolo to the breadth and 
style of a later age. More than this, it shows the 
ingenuity of the painter in taking stock of the ideas 
of his contemporaries and adapting some of them in 
a novel and picturesqut^ way. In the distance we ob- 
served is the miraculous draught of fishes. Eaphael 
in 151 G fuiished the great set of cartoons in which 
ho illustrated the life of Christ and the Acts of the 
Apostles. On St. Stephen's day the tapestries worked 
from these cartoons were exhibited for the first time 
in the Sixtine chapel. From this time forward the 
cartoons were in the main lost to Italy, but the arras 
for which they were made remained a treasure closely 
guarded in the papal palace, A notice embroidered on 
the cloth of the Conversion of St. Paul at the Vatican 
tells that this piec6 was stolen at the sack of Pome in 
1527 and restored to Julius the Thir<l in 1550 ])y 
Anne de ^lontmorency, and this notice is supposed to 
refer to the theft and restitution of all the tapestries 
made from Pa})haers designs. Put it is dithcult to 
reconcile this version with history, which declares that 
the tapestries were hung in front of St. Peter's, at the 
festivals of Corpus Christi, by Paul the Third.* 

• Compare rassavant's Life of Raphael, 1st ed., ii. p. 233. 


Titian apparently saw them at Rome, wliere Lis 
disciple Andrea Schiavone possibly made the draw- 
mgs for the plates, of which impressions are still 
preserved ; * or he saw Eaphael's original sketches, 
of which he made use in the altar-piece of Serra- 
valle. The " Miraculous Draught " by Raphael exists 
in two different forms. The cartoon at Kensinsfton 
shows Christ sittins^ to the rioht in the stern of a 
boat, with St. Peter on his knees before him, and St. 
Andrew stepping down from the thwart behind. In 
the second boat to the left, two men bend to the nets 
which they are hauling out of the water, whilst a 
bearded rower sits and steers. On the bank in front 
of the barks three cranes are standino-. An earlier 
version of the subject is that preserved in a drawing 
at the Albertina of Vienna, which though heavily 
retouched seems an original by Raphael. Here the 
composition is reversed, and three apostles wait on 
the shore near a group of women and a child. On 
the back of the sheet the skiffs and figures are repeated 
with varieties, St. Peter kneeling before the Saviour 
as before, but St. Andrew giving the course, and the 
second crew in rear to the right. The idea of placing 
Christ in the middle distance and apostles in the 
foreground was abandoned almost as soon as formed 
by Sanzio, but Titian took it up and worked it out 
with success, feeling that there was nothing inap- 
propriate in making the miraculous draught an 
episode in a picture sacred to St. Peter and St. 

* Passavant's Life of Eaphael, let ed. ii. p. 233, and Bartsch, xvi. 
p. 51. 


Andrew. He modified Raphael's design in so fiir that 
]ie represented Christ erect in the bows to the left, 
and St. Peter kneel inoj before him on one knee to 
the right. T\\e steersman of the second boat to the 
right he placed in a standing attitude guiding the 
skirt" with his oar, as one sees the gondoliers at Venice 
doing. St. Andrew stepping down, tlie two men 
bending to the nets, he took bodily as he found 
them, lie thus created somethinfr that was original 
out of Raphael's design, adding to the scene the 
colour, the movement of the waters, and the scud 
of the wind fjxvourablc to fishin<r.* lie took from 
one of the greatest masters of the revival a thought 
which he assimilated and gave back in a new shape. 
He treated Raphael as he had previously treated the 

It is a punishment of which Tantalus would have 
been worthy to study Titian's letters and read of the 
pictures which he showed to patrons, and to find 
these works vanishing before us in the attempt to de- 
termine their subject. AVe kiiow that Cardinal Farnese 
chose a canvas out of the master's stock in 1546, and 

• Tho altar-piece, on canvas, 
archocl at top, is 14 ft. high by 
7 ft. broad. The figmes are large 
as life. Tho ■n'holo picture "was 
cleaned and thrown out of focus, 
and then in part retouched. Tho 
Virgin's dress has lost its shape 
in this process, and there are 
smirches of new pigment on parts 
of the dresses. Tho halo with the 
angels is more disharmonized than 

tho rest of the picture. On a 
stone on the foreground wo read 
the word " Titian," with a frag- 
ment of an s, which now looks 
like a note of interrogation. Tho 
canvas is on the high altar of tho 
church of Scrravallo, the patron 
of which is St. Andrew. For 
records referring to this piece, 
under date of 1548-53, see Ap- 


that Titian repeatedly declared his intention of finish- 
ing and sending it home. The will was not followed 
by performance, and time slipped past before the 
promise was fulfilled, though it was realized at last, 
we hardly tell liov/. There is only probability in 
favour of assuming that the " Venus and Adonis " 
which long adorned the Farnese collections at Parma 
and Eome, was one of the masterpieces of this period. 
Few compositions of Titian were more frequently 
repeated, or exist in more numbers, yet none of the 
finished repetitions are equal to the orighial sketch 
which is now preserved at Alnwick. Though small in 
scale, and not free from patching, this is a noble 
instance of the cleverness with which the great 
Cadorine treated pagan fable. The scene is laid in a 
landscape of splendid tone and lines. The couch of 
the goddess, a deep red-brown cloth on a raised 
mound overshadowed by trees, is set in the corner 
of a glade, where Venus, half lying, half sitting, with 
her back to the spectator, turns and clutches at the 
form of Adonis, who has risen and strides away to the 
field. The youth is already fully equipped, his 
feathered spear in one hand, a leash of three dogs in 
the other ; over his red hunting shirt a horn at his 
waist is bound with a striped cloth ; red buskins are 
on his legs, and a winged cap like that of Mercury on 
his head. He looks at Venus as she clings to him, 
but is not the less bent on departing, for the sun is 
up, Apollo in his car is riding across the heavens, and 
beneath him a pure morning sky sheds its light 
mysteriously over a deep-toned landscape. Far away 

•Chap. IV.] 



the tale of death is told after the mediaeval fashion, by 
a distant episode, and in a grove to the right the boar 
attacks and wounds the hunter. Rich tones, harmo- 
nious colours, and a Ijalmy atmosphere give additional 
charms to ficaires in themselves charminu;, for Venus 
is perfect in shape, Adonis litlie and finely propor- 
tioned, and both are well drawn, whilst tlie rapid 
action caused l)y cpiick volition is rendered witli ( rpial 
trutli and fire.* In other versions of this theme, 
derived no doubt from this one oriiiinal, varieties are 
introduced to express a fuller embodiment of the 
painter's thouglit. Amor carries a dove, ('upid sleeps 
under a tree, a rainbow is seen in the skv. In tlie 
first oi" these forms the Farnese example, of wliich 
there are copies at Leigh Court, Cobliam Hall, and the 
Belvedere of Yionnn, was created. f The second is 

* This canvas, .3 ft. 4 in. long 
by 2 ft. (ii in., was once in the 
Cammuccini and Baiborini Col- 
lections. There are patches of 
re-painting in the back and hip 
of Venus, and the throat and 
wi'ist of Adonis. It may be that 
this is one of tho sketch pictures 
of Titian which came into the 
hands of Tintoretto ; or it may be 
that which was presented to Vin- 
cenzo Vecelli by Titian in \')G'2 ; 
see Appendix under that date. 
Eidolfi, Mar. i. 270 ; and Ticozzi 
Vecelli, note to p. ('A. 

f Tho Farnese example is noted 
by Ridolti, Marav. i. 2:32-3. It 
is registered in tho Parmese in- 
ventory of 1G80 as follows : " Un 
q\iadro alto br. 1, on. 11 largo, 
br. 2, on. 4. Una Venero che 

eicdo sopra di un panno cremesi, 
abbraccia Adono che con la si- 
nistra tiene duoi levrieri et un 
Amorino con una colomba in 
mano,diTiziano." (Oampori, Eac- 
colta di Cataloghi, p. 211.) 

The canvas at Leigh Court, 
seat of Sir William Miles, 5 ft. 
10 in. h., by (5 ft. 8 in., belonged 
to Sir Benjamin West. Here 
Amor sleeps with a dove in his 
hands; Adonis, bare-headed, leads 
two dogs ; Apollo rides on the 
clouds ; and in tho distance the 
boar attacks the hunter. On a 
tree to tho left the quiver of Amor 
is hanging, and on the ground a 
vase. This copy is by some old 
Venetian follower of Titian. 

Tho copy of Cobham Uall, half 
life size, was ori^i-inally in tho 



j found in a repetition made for Philip the Second when 
Prince of Spain, and in minor imitations of that work. 
Unhappily the Farnese example is not to bo traced. 

In a letter to Chancellor Granvellc, Aretino* de- 
scribes the great excitement of the Venetian public 
Avhen Titian was called to Augsburg, in 1547, by the 
Emperor. Crowds besieged his house with demands 
for canvases and panels, or anything else that might 
serve to display the talent of the master. 

Alessandro Contarini, a patrician and poet, wa» 
probably one in the crowd. He bought a " Christ at 
Emmaus," and found it so beautiful that he presented 
it to the Signoria, which accepted the gift, and hung 
the picture in the public palace, where it remained till 
the close of last century.t But Titian had finished a. 

Mariscotti Collection at Bologna, 
and is a moderate imitation of 
Titian by a later artist. Here 
again Amor sleeps vrith. the dove 
in his hand ; Adonis is bare- 
headed, and has two dogs in a 
leash ; instead of Apollo in his 
car there is a rainbow in the sky. 
Another copy, much injured, of 
this piece is No. 91 in the Venice 
Academy ; but here, though 
Adonis wears the winged hat, 
Cupid sleeps under the trees to 
the left. Photograph by Nay a. 

The school replica. No. 54 in 
1st room, first floor, of the Bel- 
vedere at Vienna, is perhaps that 
which belonged to the Archduke 
Leopold William, at Brussels, in 
the seventeenth century. It was 
engraved as by Schiavone in 
Teniers' gallery work, and there 

we still see Amor flying away with 
the dove, which is no longer to 
be seen in the picture; the spot 
on which that figure stood being 
patched with canvas and painted 
over of the colour of the ground. 
This canvas, now ill preserved (3 
ft. high by 3 ft. 9), is extensively 
re-painted and cut down at the 
sides. It is a school piece, with 
some traces left of the hand of 
Schiavone. Whether any one of 
the foregoing is the copy which 
Titian eUo's Anonimo describes as 
belonging to Gio. Carlo Doria, it 
is impossible to say. (Anon. p. 5.) 

* Aretino to Granvelle, Jan. 
1548, in Lettere di M. P. A., iv. 

t Vasari, xiii. p. 29, saw it 
above the door in a room of the 
public palace ; and this room is^ 

:■■■ 'f J}^^.■y^ . 











replica, which he sent to ]\Iaiitua, and thi^^ passed, 
with the Gouzaga Collection, into the hands of 
Charles the First, and came with other Whitehall 
treasures into the gallery ot" Louis the Fourteenth. 

Like many of Titian's Scripture scenes this is a 
humble incident in monumental surroundings. The 
house in which Christ '"tarried" wirli ( 'leopas and 
Luke is a palace adorned with piUars. The table at 
which the Redeemer sits with liis diseiples is laid in a 
marble court, from which the view extends to the 
woods and dolomites of Cadore. In other respects 
there is something of the domestic antl familiar in the 
way in which events are recorded. Christ is seated 
with Luke behind a tal)le covered witli a snowy damask 
cloth, the diaper of which is given with surprising 
skill. He blesses the l)read, wliilst Cleopas, to the 
right — his bare and close-shorn head reverently bent, 
and his elbows on the board, — joins hands and repeats 
a silent prayer. Luke, un liie other side, is lost in 
wonder, a display of feeling which quite escapes the 
stolid servant serving with turned up slecvo, and the 
page with feathered hat, to the left, who Ijrings in the 
tureen. A do£r under the table erowls at a cat. The 
whole composition commingles homeliness and gran- 
deur, in the form familiar in after days to Paolo 
Veronese. Turning from this masterpiece of Titian's 
old age to the works of ids earlicjr time, and compar- 
iniT the " Christ at Emmaus " with the " Christ of the 

described by Boschini, R. M. S. 
di S. Marco, p. 18 ; llidolti, Ma- 
rav. i. 216; and Zanotti, Pitt. 

Yen. If).";, as contigTioiis to tho 
chapel of tbo Pregadi. 



Tribute Money," we gauge the changes which Venetian 
painting underwent in the course of years. We note 
the progress of realism at the same time that we ob- 
serve how much more bold and natural the conception 
of the artist has become, with what case he has learnt 
to work, and what magic results his facile hand pro- 
duces. Experience has given him complete command 
in every branch. He composes with skill, compact- 
ness, and simplicity. He disposes masses of colour, 
light and shade with lively boldness, and in masterly 
contrasts. His hand is quick jet not careless, and his 
modelling, where it requires finish and rounding, is 
still smooth and polished. His stuffs, again, have 
texture and tone of surprising variety, and everything, 
principal and accessory, contributes to a gorgeous 
tinted picture.* 

It is possible that Titian was more than once 

* This canvas, signed " Tici- 
A^nJS, F.," No. 462 at the Louvre, 
measures m. 1.69 h. by 2.44. It 
is registered in Charles the First's 
Collection (Bathoe's Cat% p. 96) 
as "a Mantua piece . . . where 
Christ is sitting at the table at 
Emaus with his two disciples, 
and a boy and the host standing 
by." The figures are under life- 
size; Christ in red and blue, 
Cleopas in a coflFee-coloured dress 
with a red mantle, over which a 
hat is hanging ; Luke bearded, in 
profile in a deep green coat, and 
white and blue check scarf. The 
servant between Luke and Christ 
wears a red cap and black vest. 
The page has a blue cap, yellow 

doublet, and red sleeves. A shield 
on the wall above the page's 
head bears the double-headed im- 
perial eagle. The picture was en- 
graved, "in .a^dibus Jabachiis," 
by F. Chauveau, in 1656; later 
by Lorichon, Masson, andDuthe. 
A plate of it is in Landon's work ; 
photograph by Braun. A copy 
of the Louvre canvas is No. 209 
in the Turin Museum, but is not 
original. Another copy, No. 237 
in the Dresden Museum, looks 
like the work of Sassoferrato. 
Yet another was sold at the sale 
of the Gallery of William the 
Third of the Netherlands in 1850, 
to Mr. Eoos. 


required to repeat this composition. But the only 
extant repetition preserved by Lord Yarljorough 
proves that the labour of multiplication was left to 
disciples, and more particularly to Orazio or Cesare 
Vecelli, who modified at will the types, the faces, and 
the dress without comiufj near to attain the frrandeur 
and perfection of their relative and master.* 

Titian did not part with his best treasures to those 
who fancied that once engaged with the Emperor 
beyond the Alps he would never return, or at least 
never find time to attend to the wants of less exalted 
patrons. Numerous pieces on liis walls were only 
suited to adorn the palaces of the great. These he 
probaldy set apart and prepared to take witli liini to 
Augsburg, where we may believe he found a ready 
market for them. 

Of all the masterpieces whicli mark this jieriod one 
such as the " Venus " of ^ladiid would alone immor- 
talize the master ; and of this there is a counterpart, 
or rather an earlier rival, in the " Venus and ( \ipid " 
of Florence. 

Lord Yarborough's canvas intercepting a landscape of dif- 

13 signed " TiTIA^fVS F. ; '" it is 
therefore a school piece, hut vcrj' 
inferior to the Louvre example. 
Here Christ wears the green man- 
tle of a pilgrim. The dress of 
Cleopas is red, that of St. Luko 
yellow ; the cap of the page is 
grey, his doublet red ; the vest of 
the servant olive green. The 
heads all differ from those at the 
Louvre, that of Cleopas being 

bearded. Behind Cleojias, and I revision. 

ferent lines, is a pillar not to be 
found at the Jjouvrc. It is not 
to bo denied that this picture 
exactly coincides with that de- 
scribed by Zanetti in the public 
palace at Venice. (Pitt. Ven. 1G.5.) 
It is much dimmed by varnish 
and grime, and has been re- 
touched in various parts. In so 
far the present opinion held re- 
specting it may be subject to 


The Greeks were acknowleclo-ed from time im- 
memorial as the most perfect creators of form, plastic 
in its development, regular in its proportions, and 
ideal in its parts. Titian never attempted to storm 
the heights occupied by these heroes ; justly thinking 
that such a giddy elevation was not to be climbed 
more than once. But Titian, on the other hand, was 
the only painter of his age who gave to the nude, as 
we commonly see it, the colour and flexibility of 
nature. If the earlier " Venus " of Florence leaves us 
in doubt Avhether Titian meant to represent a goddess, 
the later one suggests no such reflections. She lies 
on a couch of burnt lake-like velvet, the cloth of wliich 
she holds, together with a bunch of flowers, in her left 
hand. Her elbow rests on the lawn of the pillows on 
which her frame reposes. Her right arm follows and 
lies on the undulations of waist and hip, and she 
turns to listen to Cupid, who whispers as he looks 
over her shoulder, and puts his tiny hand on her 
throat. The calm and passionless character of -the 
scene is indicated by the harmless arrow lying near 
the quiver at the end of the couch — a little dog at the 
goddess' feet snifis at an owl perched on the balustrade 
which parts the bower from the gardens beyond. A 
vase on a table contains roses and pinks. Behind the 
balustrade, where curtains of stuff, sparkling with the 
redness of wine, close in the space, a picturesque tree 
shows its broad leafy vegetation and stunted branches 
against a clouded sky, and a scolloped lake bathing 
rocks or distant shore. Far away the blue mountains 
of a Cadorine upland are faintly seen in the twilight 


of eventide, which covers more or less the whole 
picture. We see that the sun is going down in light 
grey mist without streaking the heavens with his 
gleam. In the dusk at a ftiir distance the eye 
gradually catches objects whidi become more and 
more distinct as we look Ioniser at them. 

Venus not onlv looks at Amor, but hears his 
whispering. The boy is arch and handsome and 
typical of Titian, as an angel in the SLxtinc "Madonna" 
is typical of Raphael. His eyes are like his mother's, 
.speaking. The group, siuiplc as in the anticpie, is 
living and warmly coloured in a soft brown tone. 
The lines of the goddess's frame sweep with rounded 
modelling. Every flexion of it is given, and every 
inch of it is throbbing flcsli. Not the slender youth- 
ful maid of Darmstadt lies Ijcfore us, not the buddinij: 
growth of the girl at Florence, but a shape of larger 
scantling and more dapple fulness.* 

The "Venus" of Madrid, in some respects a repetition 
of that of Florence, shows the same lie of the body 
and limbs, with a different face and more womanly 
tigure. Cupid has vanished, and the girl no longer 
plays with flowers, but pats the back of a cinnamon- 
coloured lap-dog, the l)ark of which disturbs a man 
playing an organ at the foot of the couch, who turns 
to chide as his hands press the keys of the instrument. 

* This picture, No. 1 U>8 at the shows a general resemblance to 

Uffizi, is one of the heirlooms 
from Urbino. The figures are of 
life size, on canvas, and not free 
from damage by cleaning and 
stippling. The face of Venus 

that of a woman's portrait iu- 
floribod with Lavinia's namo in 
the Gallery of Dresden, of which 
more hereafter. Photograph by 
Brauu, engraved l)y Ma.ssard. 



Behind tlie balcony we see a long shaded walk, 
sheltering a couple of hunters with a dog, a deer, and 
a peacock standing on the edge of a fountain. Lines 
of trimmed trees remind us of parks and palaces 
rather than of Cyprus and Naxos. It would seem 
indeed as if distinct individuals were represented here, 
the girl with her bracelets and necklace of pearl, being, 
as it were, the divinity adored by the man at the 
organ, whose dress and rapier indicate birth. But it 
would be vain to plunge further into a mystery whicli 
we can no longer fathom.* We shall presently see 
that a picture very like this belonged to the Granvelles, 
whilst Kidolfi notes the same subject painted by Titian 
for Francesco Assonica of Venice, f It may be that 
Titian was furnished with limnings of the persons he 
was asked to delineate. The spectator is certainly 
transported from the realms of fancy to those of a 
peculiar civilization, in spite of which he may still 
find pleasure in admiring the master's skill in the 
painting of flesh, his art in treating surface — here as 
at Florence — with a breadth and power such as we 
expect from the great craftsman when at his best.| 

* There is some likeness in the 
man at the organ to Ottavio 
Farnese, as painted in the por- 
trait group by Titian at Naples. 

t Eidolfi (Mar. i. 253-4) says 
that the picture thus painted for 
F. A. Tvas taken to England. 

X No. 459 at the Madrid Mu- 
seum, m. 1*36 h, by 2*30, and on 
canvas. This picture has been in 
Spain at least since 1665 (seeMa- 
drazo's Catalogue). It is said to 

have formed part of Charles the 
First's Collection. (Bathoe's Ca- 
talogue, u. s., p. 96.) Of its pre- 
vious history something may be 
said presently. It is only neces- 
sary now to observe that the 
surface is damaged by repeated 
cleaning and restoring. The head 
of the Venus is thus enfeebled, 
whilst the contours are either 
rubbed down or altered by re- 
touching. The right hand of the 

Chap. IV.] 



That this class of subject should often have been 
repeated by the scholars and followers of Titian was 
to have been expected, but the repetitions, such as we 
find them, in the Galleries of Madi-id, Cambridge, and 
Dresden, arc far beneath his powers.* But Titian 

mnn at tho organ is lost in a 
smudge. Photograph by Laurent. 
A copj' of this picture, not an 
original Titian, is in tho Fenaroli ' 
Collection at Brescia ; another 
copy ■svas sold in 1850 at the sale 
of tho Gallery of King "William IT. 
of tho Netherlands, for 1000 i 
francs, the buyer being Mr. ' 

* Tho following will su^ico to | 
characterizo and determine tho j 
history of those works ; Madrid \ 
Museum, No. 4G0 ; canvas, m. I 
l-4Sh. by '2-17. Though trace- I 
able to tho royal palace uf Madrid 
as early as 16Go, this picture is 
not original. Venus lies on a 
couch listening to tho whispers of 
Amor ; she has no flowers in her 
hand, and Amor is in profile. In 
the main tho group is taken from 
that of tho Florentine "Venus." 
A man plays tho organ at tho foot 
of the couch, but he wears no 
rapier ; in tho distance is a foun- 
tain and a poplar walk. This 
part of tho subject is derived from 
the Venus above described in the 
Madrid Gallery. Though tho 
name " TlTIA^•vs " is written on 
tho wall near tho man's shoulder, 
the picture is by some imitator of 
the master, and tho inscription is 
necessarily a later addition. Pho- 
tograph by Laurent. 

Cambridge : Fitzwilliam Mu- 

seum. — In the collection of Queen 
Christine (Campori, Raccolta di 
Cataloghi, p. ;j;j9), then in tho 
Orleans ( Jailer)', this picture was 
bought by Viscount Fitzwilliam 
for £1000. The following was 
tho description of it: "Picture 
of Venus on a red velvet couch, 
the left arm on a wliito cloth, 
a flute in her other hand. In 
front of her a violin and open 
music book. An amorino crowns 
her head ; at her feet, and on her 
couch, a man showing his back 
playing a lute ; distance a land- 
scape by Titian." This picture 
is now exhibited under Titian's 
name at Cambridge, and num- 
bered 14 ; it is on canvas. Hero 
again wo have a mixture of tho 
figures at Madrid and Florence. 
Tho forms of tho woman arc heavy 
and coarse, the drawing defective, 
and the painter is 2>robably an 
imitator of tho early part of 
the seventeenth century. On the 
music book we read the word 
"Tenok." Tho siufaco is much 
injured, tho red hanging behind 
the girl being all repainted, Amor 
much retoiiched, and the whole 
canvas grimed with old varnish. 
Sii- A. Hume (Life of Titian, p. KG) 
notes a copy of the Cambridge 
example at llolkham. 

Dresden : Museum, No. 22.5, 
o ft. 1 in. high, by 7 ft. 3 in. This 



was not content with taking profane subject pictures 
to the Court of Charles, he required to touch another 
chord, if he wished to satisfy the Emperor. He 
therefore finished the " Ecce Homo," or Christ bound 
-and suffering from the crown of thorns, and, as he 
worked it out on skate after the fashion of Sebastian 
<lel Piombo, he gave it necessarily some of the polish 
which marked the '' Christ of the Tribute Money." 

The " Ecce Homo " now lianofs in the Museum of 
Madrid, but the master who boasted in his youth that 
he could finish, like Diirer, without losing the breadth 
of Venetian art, is no longer the patient and minute 
craftsman of those early days. The type which he 
created was as fine in its way as any that he had 
previously conceived. It was realistic, expressive, and 
speaking in its mournfulness ; it was modelled with 
breadth, yet with blended softness and rounding. 
The orradations of its lights and half tints were 
delicate as they could be, the colour rich as ever, light 
and shade was grandly balanced. But the mould of 
the face was not as ideal or perfect as it might have 
been, and in so far the "Christ" of Madrid is less 
elevated in feeling than that of Dresden.* 

is a variety of the foregoing, 
softly and cleverly painted by a 
late Venetian, wliose treatment 
approximates very much, to that 
of Andrea Celesti. 

At the Hague and Dresden the 
copies were called " Philip the 
Second and his mistress." 

* Madrid Museum, No. 467, on 
slate, m. 0.69 h. by 0.56. This 

picture is no doubt that which 
Titian took to Charles the Fifth 
at Augsburg. It answers to the 
description of Aretino in letters to 
Titian and Sansovino, of January 
and February, 1548. (Lettere, iv. 
134 & 144.) The figure is a half- 
length turned to the right ; the 
arms being bound in front of the 
body, and the left arm partly 

Chap. IV.] 



covered with, a red cloth. The 
head is bent, the hair parted in 
the middle, and tears of blood 
drop from the punctures of the 
crown of thorns ; on the ground 
to the left, "TiTiAN\'s." AVith 
the exception of some abrasion 
from cleaning, the surface is 
fairly preserved. 

Aretino describes, in his letter 
of January, I'HS, a copy of this 
jiioce given him by Titian, which 
differs in no respect from that 
of Madrid. It is, perhaps, that 
which camo into the Averoldi 
Collection at Brescia, where it 

was engraved by Sala, and after- 
wards passed into the gallery of 
the Duke d'Aumale. This piece, 
m. 0.72 h. by 0. jS, was exhibited 
at Leeds in 1868 (Xo. 254), and in 
Paris in 1874 (Xo. oOli of Exhi- 
bition for the Relief of Alsaco 
Lorraine), but has not been seen 
by the authors. 

Vermeyen made a copy of the 
original " Ecce Homo" for Charles 
the Fifth at I'russels in \')do. 
See the original record, printed in 
Kevuo Univ. des Ai'ts, ii. s., iii. 
p. i;}8. 

Vol.. II. 



The Pope and the Emperor. — Titian has to choose between them; 
gives up the Seals of the Piombo, and goes to Court at Augsburg. 
— He visits Cardinal Madruzzi at Ceneda. — Augsburg, the 
Fuggers. — Titian's Pieception by Charles the Fifth. — His Pension 
on Milan doubled. — Ho promises a Likeness of the Emperor to 
the Governor of Milan.— Sketch of Charles the Eifth, and how he 
rode at Miihlberg with Maurice of Saxony and Alva. — His Court 
at Augsburg. — King Eerdinand. — The Granvelles, John Frederick 
of Saxony, and other Princes and Princesses portrayed by 
Titian. — Likenesses: of Charles as he rode atMuhlberg; as he 
sat at Augsburg ; of the captive Elector, with and without 
Armour; of Chancellor and Cardinal Granvelle, and Cardinal 
Madruzzi. — The " Prometheus and Sisyphus." — Likeness of King 
Ferdinand and his Infant Children. — Titian returns to Venice ; 
proceeds to Milan, where he meets Alva and the Prince of Spain. 
— Portrait of Alva and his Secretary. — Eeplicas of Charles the 
Fifth's Portrait for Cardinal Famese and Francesco Gonzaga. — 
Betrothal of Lavinia. — Death of Paul the Third. — Plans for the 
Succession of Philip of Spain. — Charles the Fifth again sends for 
Titian to paint the Likeness of his presumptive Heir. —Projected 
Picture of the " Trinity." — Close Eelations of Titian with the 
Emperor, and surprise caused by it. — Melanchthon. — Court of the 
captive Elector. — Cranach paints Titian's Likeness.— Philip of 
Spain sits to Titian. ^ — Numerous Portraits are the result. 

At the time when Titian entered into enoao-emeuts 
"with the Famese princes to take the seal of the papal 
bulls which had droj^ped from the hands of Sebastian 
del Piombo, Paul the Third and Charles the Fifth 
were on the worst of terms, and there was reason 
for thinking that the Pope would enter into a league 
with Venice and France. After the fidit of Mtihlbero- 


in which John Frederick of Saxony lost his liberty 
and possessions, the policy of Charles had acquired 
a natural ascendency which tlie subsequent surrender 
of Wittenberg, the submission and imprisonment of 
Philip of Hesse, and the reduction of all the cities of 
South and Central Germany naturally increased. 
But as the power of the Emperor re^'ived, the aversion 
of Paul the Third returned. He cursed the ill-luck 
of the Protestants, wished they had won at ]MLihlberg 
as they won before at Rochlitz, and reverted speedily 
to his old system of trimming. Paul's negotiations, 
the coquetting of his son Pier Luigi with the French 
Kin*;- and the marriaf^e of ( )razio Farnesc with Diana 
the; dauirhtcr of Hcnrv the Second, are all attributable 
to the same cause. \k\t when Paul <letermined to 
reopen the Council at Pologna, and Charles insisted 
on its return to Trent, the papal and imperial power 
were clearly in o}>position, and this opposition was 
not soothed when the Pojx- was informed that Pier 
Luigi Farnese had been murdered, and Piacenza 
occupied by Ferrando Gonzaga. As Cardinal 
Madruzzi entered Pome in November, and sum- 
moned the Pope in the h^mperor's name to transfer 
the Council to Trent, it must have been evident 
to any one accpiainted with ])olitics in these 
days, that Paul was weak and the p]mpcror strong. 
At this very moment Charles the Fiftli ordered 
Titian to Augsburg. Titian, under promise to pro- 
<:eed to Pome, obeyed the Emperor's bidding, and 
wrote to Cardinal Farnese the following letter of 
t^xcuse : 

u 2 



"Most Illustrious Lord, 

" I sliould be acting the part of an ungrate- 
ful servant, unworthy of the favoui-s which unite my 
duty to your great kindness, if I were not to say that 
though his Majesty forces me to go to him and pays 
the expenses of my journey, I start discontented, 
because I have not fulfilled your wish and my 
obligation in presenting myself to my Lord and 
yours, and working in obedience to his intentions, 
also because I have not been able as yet to send 
the work which your Ecv'\ Lordship saw here and 
ordered of me. But I promise as a true servant 
to pay interest on my return with a new picture 
in addition to the first. Meanwhile I supplicate 
the good spirit which always prompts you to do 
good, — and for Avhich I adore you, — not to with- 
draw your favour in respect of the benefice of 
Colle, than which I have nothing more at heart, 
since that person has shown a wish to possess it, 
who as a boy deprived wives of their husbands, 
and now that he is a man takes the sons from 
their fathers ; and these sorts of vices ought not 
to weigh against my devotion. I trust so entirely 
to your sincere kindness that I shall certainly 
be consoled at last in the measure of my present 
despair. So with your licence, Padron mio unico, 
I shall go, whither I am called, and returning with 
the grace of God, I shall serve you with all the 
strength of the talents which I got from my cradle,- 

Chap. V.] 



and meanwliile I kiss the hands of your Rev"^. and 
Illustrious Lordship. 

" Your Ptev*^. Lordship's perpetual servant, 

" TlTL\>s-0." * 
" i-'/Wrt Venice, nth December, 1j4T." 

That Titian should have been attracted to Rome 
by promises of a benefice on the one hand, and a 
prospect on the other of the seals of the Pioniljo was 
natural enough. There was nothing to be expected 
from the Emperor so long as he remained at Wiu*. 
That Titian again should Ix' flattered by the otl'er 
of a stay at the court of Augsburg when all the world 
seemed willing to bow down and worship Charles the 
Fifth was pardonable. It is not })robable that the 
Farneses W(juld have treated the painter as royally 
as he was treated by the Emperor. What they held 
out as an ineentive was somethinir disLunl and un- 
certain. Charles sent Titian ready money and an 
outfit, well knowing from experience the superior 
attraction of gold, and Titian was not inclined, 
perhaps not in a condition, to resist the temptation. 
His letter to Farnesc is clever, but might have roused 
the anofcr of the Cardinal if it had come alone. He 


therefore enclosed it to the Duke of Urbino and asked 
him to send it on with a friendly line of his own. 
Possibly he joined to the missive some of his pictures, 

• Tho original, in Eonchini'.s 
Eelazionc, u. a., pp. 9-10, may bo 
compared with a letter from 
Arctino to Giiidubaldo, Diiko of 

Urbino, dated Dec. 1547, in Let- 
tero di M. P. Aret", iv. 131-2 ; 
and Aretino to Titian, of a siimilur 
date. Ibid. 133. 


perhaps the Venus and Cupid of the Uffizi. It is- 
a proof of the prince's regard for the painter that 
he did not hesitate to accede to his wishes, but 
forwarded the letter w^th the following covering 
despatch : 



"Most Illustrious and Eeverend Sionor, Am> 


" I greatly love Messer Tiziano, because of 
his rare qualities, as well as Ijecause he has particular 
claims on my friendship. He communicates in the 
enclosed his wishes and desires to your Illustrious- 
Lordship ; and I beg you to be convinced that the 
matter in question is quite as much desired by me as 
it is by him, and not more grateful if in the interest 
of Titian than it w^ould be if for my own convenience. 
I therefore beg you to deign to do us both this favour, 
for which I shall be obliged as much as he, and I kiss 
3'our hands. 

" Servant, and Brother-in-law, 

"The Duke of Urbino."* 

" Froni PesARO, January 8, 1548." 

The patronage of the Duke Avas perhaps of less 
service to Titian in his relations with Cardinal Farnese 
than the evident inclination of the Emperor. The 
nimbus which surrounded the painter had gained new 

* Eonchini's Eelazione, j). 10. 

CuAP. v.] 



radiance. It dazzled the pivLite, who hastened to 
perform one at least of his numerous promises. The 
benefice of CoUe we may believe was given to Titian, 
whilst the seals of the Piom'ho were handed to 
Guglielmo della Porta ; and Titian, in February, 
received the compliments of Aretino on the successful 
attainment of his wishes.* 

It was on Christmas Day in i.")47 thai Aretino 
received the " Eccc Homo,*' which was a replica of 
that taken by his friend to Augsburg. On the sixth 
of the following January Titian was ;it Ceneda where 
Count Girolamo dclhi Torre gave him a letter of intro- 
duction to Cardinal Madruzzi. We left that prelate a 
short time befor<> Ijearing the Emperor's summons to 
the Pope to translate the Council from Pologna to 

" T hear," says Delia Torre " that your Lordship has 
left Rome and returned to the court of his Majesty. 
I therefore take this opportunity of presenting to your 
Lordship Titian the painter, the first man in Christen- 
dom, whom I ask you to treat as you would treat 
myself, and who is coming at the Emperor's bidding 
to do work for his Majesty."f 

Wc are not informed as to the particulars of Titian's 
journey, but let us picture to ourselves an old man of 
seventy setting out on a long and tiring ride in the 
heart of winter, crossing the Alps in January to take 
up his residence in one of the coldest cities of Southern 

* Seo Aretino to Guidubaldo, 
in Lottero di M. P. A", iv. Ur, ; 

and Vapuri, xii. 2.';."]; and xiii. 120. 
t The original in ApiJCudix. 


Germany. Ceneda, Trent, Innspruck, the finest of 
Alpine towns, cliarni us in summer or in spring. 
But who amongst us would now undertake Titian's 
journey and visit them in winter ■? 

Augsburg, in the sixteenth century, was an Imperial 
city, surrounded with wall and bastion, but larger and 
more airy than Nuremberg, to which it was inferior in 
the character of its architecture. At Nuremberg every 
church was a carved shrine, every house a jewel, every 
fountain a miracle of fretwork. At Augsburg churches 
and monasteries were imposing for their size and 
extent, and the age of some of their parts, they were 
not monuments worthy of any special admiration. 
What misfht strike Titian would l)e the breadth and 


length and the cjuaint aspect of the principal street, 
the numerous houses covered with frescos, and a 
certain medley of tints which might remind him of the 
painted facades of Verona or Treviso. There was 
nothing really imposing at Augsburg except the bril- 
liant Imperial Court w^ith its suite of dukes and 
electors, the diet presided over by Granvelle and the 
patriciate which hid its head at the reformation, and 
now stood defiant round Charles's throne. The courtiers 
were well known to Titian, the merchant princes 
equally so, many of them having acquired their wealth 
at the Fondaco. It was difficult to name a sino-le 
member of the house of Fugger that had not resided 
in Titian's vicinity : Jacob Fugger, who built the alms- 
houses still known as the Fuggerei ; Anton Fugger, 
who negotiated the capitulation of Augsburg in 1547, 
owned a palace at Venice, and Anton's sons, John, 


James, and George, were traders whose money bags 
had often been opened for the benefit of Aretino.* 

Titian's stay with Cliarles the Fifth was contem- 
porary with the suppression of the liberties of Augs- 
buro-. It was then that Charles took the relimous 
movement in hand, imposed the compromise called the 
interim, suppressed tlie guilds and restored the patri- 
cians to power. Titian wrote of all this to Aretino, 
told him at once of the gracious reception which the 
Emperor had given him ; and of Charles' intention to 
give a dowry to '' Austria," the '' Scourge's '' daugliter ; 
and in April communicated the gi'ateful intelligence 
that his Majesty had sat to him, and would he repre- 
sented in the armour, and on the liorse which had been 
at Miihlbcrg-.t To Lotto he also sent his compliments 
in April, wishing he were with him, so good a 2>ainter 
and judge being invaluable as a critic. In ]\lay he 
had exhausted part (jf liis supply of colours, and 
begged Aretino, cum iustantla, to transmit half a 
pound of lake by the first Imperial messenger. J 

On the 10th of June, Charles the Fifth signed a 
patent doubling Titian's pension <»n the treasury of 
Milan ; Natale Musi, the faithful agent of Ferraodo 
Gonzao^a, then oovernor of Milan, hastened to inform / 
his nftaster " that the Emperor really meant Titian's 
pension to be paid regularly at Venice, and Titian 

* Lottcro (li M. P. Aretino, iii. 
239, 2J8 ; iv. 52 & 1G9. 

t Aretino to Titian, Feb. \o\ii ; 
Aretino to the Prince of Salerno, 
of the same date ; and Aretino to 
Titian, April, 1548, in Lottcre di 

M. P. A., iv. 153, 155 & 202. 

X Aretino to Lorenzo Lotto, 
April, 154S. The same to Lo- 
renzotto (Jorriere, May, 1548, in 
Lettore, iv. 215 & 252. 



prayed he would do so, and accept a portrait of 
the Emperor.* From Speyer, in xAugust, Giovanni 
Battista Cattani wrote to promise that he would duly 
solicit the Bishop of Arras (Anthony Granvelle) in 
favour of Titian. He added that nothing had caused 
him more pain, except the parting with " Signora 
Marina," than the parting with the painter at Augs- 
burg. The portrait of " Pirrovano," he continued, 
had suffered some injury in the face, he begged 
that his might be well packed before being sent, and 
suggested as a change the previous lengthening of the 
beard. I The scantiness of the news contained in 
these few sentences is compensated by a brilliant 
picture of artistic industry, and a noble series of 
historical portraits. 

When the Emperor, forgetting his gout and asthma, 
and neglecting his doctor's advice, rode to the Saxon 
frontier in March, 1547, to encounter his enemies, h(^ 
was described by the Protestants as little better than 
a mummy or a ghost, yet there was " a will and a 
way " in the worn frame of the Kaiser ; and a spring 

* The patent is in Gayc, Car- 
teggio, ii. o69 ; the letter of Musi, 
dated Augsburg, June 12, 1548, 
in Eonchini, Kelazioni, «. s., pp. 

t G. B. Cattani, from Speyer, 
August 30, loiS, to Titian at 
Augsburg, in Gaye, Carteggio, ii. 
372. Sandrart says (Academia 
Artis pictorise), " Augustfe Vin- 
delicorum . . . pro familia Pe- 
ronnseorum, qui mercatores erant 
opus elaborabat magnum in quo 
scenographice quinque architec- 

turfp ordines exhibuerat." Is 
there any connection between the 
familj- noted by Sandrart, and 
Cattani's Pirrovano ? But again 
let us compare the above passage 
from Sandrart with the following 
from Yasari (xiii. oO) : "In Au- 
gusta fece (Paris Bordone) per i 
Piineri un quadrone grande dove 
in prospettiva mise tutti i cinque 
ordini d'architettura." Bordone's 
picture is now in the Gallery of 
Yienna. Did Titian also paint 
this subject ? 



of freshness rose to the surface -when the monarch was 
roused to revenge or assured of victor}". Charles came 
into the field on the day of ^liihlbcrGj, in burnished 
armour inlaid with orold, his arms and lesjs in chain 
mail, his liands gauntlettcd, a morion with a red 
plume — but witliout a visor — on his head. The red 
scarf with gold stripes — cognizance of the House of 
Burgundy — hung across his slioulders, and he 1>rand- 
ished with liis riglit hand a sluirp and pointed spear. 
The chestnut steed, half hid in striped housings, had a 
head-piece of steel topped by a red feather similar to 
that of its master. In full panoply Charles dashed 
across a dangerous ford of the Ellje, his pale and 
colourless face still marked liy hooked nose, large 
mouth and projecting chin, and, if possible, thinner, 
more hollow, and not less blenched than of old. One 
great change marked his appearance. The red hair of 
earlier days had turned to a chestnut brown com- 
mingled with copious grey.''' 

At the Emperor's side rode Ferdinand, his brother, 
a short figure with short l^rown red hair, and bushy 
eyebrows, high cheek bones, and sunken cheeks, his 
eagle nose more prominent than ever since the thick 
and protruding lips had been covered by a new growth 
of beard.t Both saw the Elector as he came a prisoner 

* A (Icscription of Charles's 
appearance is in the llelation of 
Moccnigo, tho Venetian envoy, 
in F. B. von Bucholtz's Gcschichte 
der Eegierung Ferdinands des 
Ereten, 8vo, VVien, 183 J, vol. vi. 
pp. 498—501. 

t Eelaziono of B. Navagero, 
Venetian envoy at tho Court of 
King Ferdinand (1547), in Bu- 
choltz [F. B. von], Goschichte 
der Ecgierung Ferdinands des 
Ersten, n. s., vol. vi. p. 493. 


escorted by Ippolito cLa Porto, bending his bead for 
sbame, the blood flowing from a gash in his cheek. 
He had been riding in plain sable armour, Avhicli 
made his fat and unwieldy frame look fatter and more 
unwieldy than ever. As he approached the " ghost of 
a kaiser " and the wiry king,- — the latter assailed him 
with a torrent of abuse, the former called out : " Do 
you now acknowledge me as Roman Emperor," on 
which John Frederick with dignity replied : " I am 
to-day but an unfortunate prisoner, and beg your 
Imperial Majesty will treat me as a born prince," 
which his ]\Iajesty would not promise to do. Maurice 
of Saxony, at that time twenty-eight years of age, 
rode twenty hours, and came home to find the father 
of his house a captive, and his own claims to the 
electorate secure. The Duke of Alva,, who led the 
army, was the first to receive the submission of John 
Frederick after he had yielded — rescue or no rescue — 
to his own vassal, Thilo von Trotha. It was he who 
led the van after the surrender of Wittenberg, to him 
that Charles entrusted John Frederick and Philip of 
Hesse after the conference of Halle. It was a weary 
journey for the two electors, Philip of Hesse more 
particularly feeling the irksomeness of imprisonment. 
On the 23rd of July, 1547, v/hilst Philip was detached 
to Donauwerth, John Frederick was taken to Augs- 
burg, where he spent a year in comparative quiet. 
He was lodged in a roomy house opposite the palace 
of the Fuggers, wdiere the Emperor resided, and a 
bridge was thrown across the street, to allow the 
Kaiser's seeing his prisoner. He had his own servants 



and liberty to ride out for exercise. The Spanish 
guard Avas nominally forbidden to enter his drawino-- 
room and bedroom, but it is said the soldiers often 
showed him for money. From a window of his house 
he was forced, in February, 1548, to witness the solemn 
entry of his kinsman jMaurice, when he received invest- 
ment of the Saxon electorate. i\Ieanwhile, Charles 
the Fifth had assembled the Diet. There was liio-li 
company in tlie palaces of Augsburg, and the king 
and princes of the Empire Ijrought their ladies to 
grace the ceremonies with their presence. Charles, 
notoriously saturnine and mood}' at this period, saw 
nobody, sat alone at dinner, and ate enormously as 
he received tlie dishes from pages whose worn dress 
and patches did not escape tlie observant eye of the 
Venetian Mocenio;o. In the early morninii- his valet 
Adrian, who could neitlier read nor write, would go 
quietly to the residence of the Gran^'clles, and return 
Avith a slip of paper containing the instructions set 
down for his political conduct by the Cliancellor.* 
No minister had ever inspired his master with so 
mucli confidence — not even Cardinal Gattinara, nor 
the bold but clever Covos. But if guests were not 
frequent at the Emperor's table, his brother Ferdi- 
nand, who willingly undertook the duties of hospi- 
tality, often attended with pleasure the numerous 
baUs and dinners that were oiven at this festive time. 
Tlie AVelsers, Baumo-artners, and Fuo-o-ers, who owned 

* Mocenigo, Eelazione in Bu- 
choltz, Geschichte der Eegierung 

Ferdinands des Erston, vol. vi. 
p. olT. 


seven millions of gold gulden between them, were 
but too glad to lend tlieir money to King and Emperor, 
and the former kept regal court for himself apart from 
bis sons Maximilian and Ferdinand, whilst a fourth 
establishment, with all the paraphernalia of state, was 
maintained at Innspruck for the benefit of the King's 
daughters. Besides these royalties, there were present 
at Augsburg, during the sittings of the diet, Mary, 
Queen Dowager of Hungary, for whose person and 
advice both Charles and Ferdinand had always the 
greatest respect ; Christine, widow of two husbands ; 
Francesco Sforza and Francis of Lorraine ; Anna, 
daughter of King Ferdinand, with her husband Albert 
the Third, Duke of Bavaria, and four of her sisters ; 
Dorothy, sister to Christine, and wife of the Count 
Palatine Frederick the Second ; Nicole Bonvalot, the 
wife of Chancellor Granvelle ; Philibcrt Emmanuel of 
Savoy, Ijetrothed to one of the King's daughters, whom 
he never married ; Maurice of Saxony, the Duke of 
Alva, the Prince of Salerno, the Granvelles, Gaztelu 
Figueroa, Vargas, Alexander Vitelli, Giovanni Cas- 
taldo, and numerous Spanish and Italian captains. 

According to the testimony of Mocenigo, the 
Venetian envoy at the diet of 1547-8, Nicholas 
Granvelle had once been lowly and poor, but w^as 
now rich and likely to be richer."'' xlbout sixty 
years old and sickly, but still courtly and supple, 
he was reputed to understand affairs of state better 
than any man living.* Charles the Fifth called him 

* Eelazione of M. Mocenigo, in Bucholtz, vol. vi. p. 516, 

Chap. V.] 



liis " bed of rest," '•' because lie was fertile in ex- 
pedients and seldom at a loss for ways of doing 
things. Thougli it was openly said that he received 
presents, it was stated with equal openness that 
Charles the Fifth was awai-e of the fact and connived 
at it. Anthony Granvelle, the son of Nicholas did 
not require — though he possibly did not disdain — this 
source of income, being in receipt of 14000 ducats from 
benefices and sharing; with his father the confidence 
of the Emperor. 

One of the most graphic passages in the voluminous 
work of Hortleder is that in which the two Granvelles 
are described as proceeding on ;i hot day in July, 1548, 
to the lodging of John Fredeiidv of Saxony and try- 
ing by cajolery and threats to make him accept the 
interim.t The Chancellor, a tall man in a black robe, 
wearing the order of the Golden Fleece is conspicuous 
by his white beard falling forked from a heavy under- 
jaw. The upper lip is fringed with a mere stripe of 
moustache, and commanded by a heavy fleshy nose, 
the high and vaulted forehead lost in sj)arse and 
downy hair of doubtful colour ; l)ut the eyebrows 
are bushy as they overhang an eye sharp in glance 
but lying shallow under a broad pair of lids. Intel- 
lect and shrewdness were the qualities which spoke 
out of this statesman's face. The bishop his son was 
almost the counterpart of his father, but his forehead 

. * Charles the Eifth to Philip, 
inWeiss (C), Papiors d'Etat du 
Cardinal de Granvelle, 4to, Paris, 
1843, i. pp. ii. — vi. 

t Ilortledcr, Eomisch. Keyser 
Ilaudlungon, &c., fol.,Gota, 1045; 
ii. 940, and following. 


was less high, his nose and eyes were smaller, the 
beard and hair shorter, more copious, and curly. 
Both men were burly, but neither showed the j)lethoric 
stoutness peculiar to the elector. 

John Frederick was so fat that the confinement 
which he endured in the heat of summer was most 
irksome to him. His habit was so portly that riding 
necessarily distressed l;)oth man and horse. Looking 
at the black armour which he wore at Miihlbero; as 
it stands in the Ambras Museum at Vienna, we can 
easily imagine that none but a weighty Frisian 
stallion could carry it and its wearer. John Frederick 
had a favourite charger of this muscular race ; and 
Charles the Fifth recognised the Elector on the battle- 
field by his horse, because he bestrode the same animal 
at the Diet of KSpeyer in 1544. Both Cranach and 
Titian have immortalized the features and fioure of 
John Frederick as they immortalized those of the 
Emperor and his family. He ]md fat sides, fat 
cheeks, fat hands, a bull neck, out of which the head 
rose like a truncated cone. The eye was large, blood- 
shot and apoplectic, the eyebrow spare, the forehead 
sharply marked at the centre by a black " cow's-lick." 
Tlie skull was displayed by dark close shorn hair, whilst 
the beard clung short and frizzy to the hanging jaws. 

This obese yet choleric apparition was very cool 
under the threats and arguments of the Granvelles. 
John Frederick was prepared for the worst, which in 
his case would be closer seclusion and restraint. He 
refused to surrender the Confession of Augsburg ; and 
wandered with Charles the Fifth in Auoust 154S to 


Ghent and Brussels, from whence in course of time 
he wandered back again to Germany. 

It is characteristic of the activity of Titian that he 
portrayed, during his stay at Augsburg, not only the 
Emperor and his captives, but most of the royal and 
princely persons who attended on Charles the Fifth. 

Mary, Queen Dowager of Hungary, who lived 
alternately at Brussels or in the country residence of 
her brother in the Netherlands, was one of the most 
exalted of the painter's sitters. She was represented 
in " every-day dress" on canvas. Her two relatives, 
Christine and Dorothy, followed ; then came Mary 
Jacqueline of Baden, widow of William the First of 
Bavaria ; Anna, Consort of Albert the third Duke of 
Bavaria, and her four sisters, each of whom, as daughter 
of King Ferdinand, was allowed to sit separately. 
King Ferdinand liimself was depicted "in armour, but 
without a morion ; " after him, his sons Maximilinn 
and Ferdinand, then Philibert Emmanuel of Savoy, 
jMaurice of Saxony in armour, and the Duke of Alva 
with cuirass and scarf.* 

All these portraits were taken by order of the 
Emperor, or by command of Mary of Hungary, to the 
Netherlands, where they were kept either at Brussels 
or at Binclie till the court retired to Spain in 1556. 
As late as 1582 Argote de Molina saw several of them 
in the Palace of Pardo, and it is presumed that they 
perished in tlie fire of 1608.t 

* See the inventories of Mary 
of Hungary's pictures, in Revue 
Universelle des Arts, u. s. , vol. iii. 

pp. 127, and ffol. ; and Vas. xiii. 
p. 38. 

t Revue Univ. iii. p. 14j. 




Charles tlie Fifth, as he rode at Miihlberg, John 
Frederick as he sat at Augsburg after recovering 
from his wound, Chancellor Granvelle and Cardinal 
Madruzzi, are the sole extant likenesses which still 
recall this period of Titian's practice. The picture of 
Charles was safely taken to Spain, and subsequently 
rescued from the fire of the Palace of Pardo, yet it 
did not remain unscathed, but hangs — a wreck — in the 
gallery of Madrid. Coinciding in every respect with 
the descriptions of contemporary historians, it repre- 
sents the Emperor, cantering — large as life — on a 
brown charger, towards the Elbe, which runs to the 
right, reflecting the dull light of a grey sky, remnant 
of the fog which at early morn overhung the field of 
Miihlberg. Tall forest trees form a dark background 
to the left. The brightest light catches the face, the 
white collar and gorget, and the polished surface of the 
armour. The black eye and bent nose, the pale skin, 
dark moustache, and short grey beard, are well given ; 
and the features, though blanched and sallow, show 
the momentary gleam of fire which then animated the 
worn frame of the Kaiser. That Charles was not 
distinguished by grandeur or majesty of shape is very 
evident ; nor has Titian tried to falsify nature by 
importing flattery into the portrait ; but the seat of 
the Emperor is natural and good, his movement is 
correct. The horse is also true ; and we pass over 
defects of hip and leg to dwell with the more pleasure 
on the character and expression of the countenance.* 

* This canvas, No. 457 in the 
Madrid Museum, is m. 3.32 h. by 

2. 79. It is registered in the in- 
ventory of Mary of Hungary 


Mai/Rid Museum. 

[Vol. II., 2). 178. 

Chap. V.] 



Charles the Fifth is reported to have differed in 
many respects from liis brother Ferdinand, but in 
none more so than in his demeanour before company. 
When Ferdinand was in humour he would make puns 
with the court fool and chatter ceaselessly with his 
guests. Charles hardly listened to the jokes of his 
jester, and even when they were good, received them 
with the cold gravity of a Castilian. Although this 
manner was assumed at first in obedience to the 
advice of Covos, who said that Spaniards required to 
be treateel with stiffness and severity, it became 
natural to Charles, whose sour aspect was at last pro- 
verbial. At dinner he ate copiously, without uttering 
a word, and after the dotli was removed, he generally 
withdrew to a corner near a window, and sat quite 
still listeniui; to suitors.'" 

In tliis mood and occupation we may suj)pose 
Titian once caught him, and the result was the 
portrait in the Pinakothek at Munich, where Charles 

(Eovuo Universello dcsArts, «. s., 
iii. 139), and in numerous Spanish 
catalogues. The fire of 1008 in- 
jured the lower part of the piece, 
which i/% not only altered in con- 
tour, but rotouchod with colours. 
Tht! whole surface is more or less 
opaque and dim in tone. Photo- 
graph by Laurent. A copy of 
this equestrian portrait was re- 
gistered as a genuine Titian in 
the Farnoso Collection in 1680, 
bruccie 4 on, o h. by 4 br. on. ; 
another, " palmi 3.^ h. by palm. 3 
o un dito," in the collection of 
Queen Christine. (Campori, Ruc- 

colta di Cataloghi, pp. 359 & 243 ; 
also Scanelli's Microcosmo, p. 
222.) A clever repetition, on a 
small scale, is that of the Rogers 
and Baring Collections, where 
the hand of Titian is alleged, but 
the execution is more like that of 
a good copyist, such as we have 
in the Spaniard, Juan Bautista 
Martinez del ^tazo, the pujjil 
and son-in-law of Velasquez de 

• Compare Sastrow and Mo- 
cenigo iu Bucholtz, u. s., vol. vi. 
pp, 300 & 501. 



is to be seen in black, seated in an arm chair, at the 
angle of a stone court. A gold damask hanging falls 
from a wall near the base of a pillar, and a screen 
of stone separates the terrace where the Kaiser sits 
from a distant landscape. The Emperor's gout re- 
quired careful dressing. To sit in the open ail' he 
wanted, and on this occasion he wore a black cap, 
undressed leather gloves, and a fur pelisse. The 
attitude, the elbows on the arms of the chair, the right 
hand holding the glove, are set in Titian's fashion, but 
little more than the head and shirt-collar are his. The 
rest of the canvas is covered with layers of paint of a 
character so modern as even to exclude the numerous 
disciples of the master.'"' 

Amongst the youths who accompanied Titian to 
Augsburg, in 1548, one of his kinsmen is now to be 

* This picture is now in the 
Munich Pinakothek, on canvas, 
6 ft. 4 in. h. by 3 ft. 9 in., and 
numbered 496. It was abraded 
and rubbed down to such an 
extent that much of the detail, 
especially in the background, was 
removed. The surface was then 
covered over, apparently bj^ a 
Eleming, who gave quite a Dutch 
character to the landscape dis- 
tance. The Emperor is seated to 
the left, and turned to the right. 
The clever modelling of the face 
and right hand is the more appa- 
rent since the final glazings have 
disappeared. The black hose and 
shoes, the rapier, are partly slob- 
bered over with the more modern 
paint of the wall and red carpet. 
The glove in the left hand is new, 

and the signature, "mdxlviii, 
Titianus F.," is repainted. 

For more than a century a 
small replica of this piece, on 
panel, in the gallery of Vienna 
(No. 51, room 2, 1st floor, Italian 
schools, 7 in. h. by 5i) passed 
for a sketch for the canvas at 
Munich ; but apart from the fact 
that the dress is differently tinted, 
the hose at Vienna being of a 
brownish yellow instead of black, 
the handling of the panel dis- 
plays none of the breadth of 
Titian in 1548; and unless we 
presuppose a total alteration 
produced by abrasion and re- 
storing, the picture is rather a 
copy by Teniers than an original 
by Titian. 


distinfmislied ; and it is remarkaLle that tlie first 
authentic record of his share in Titian's labours should 
refer to the portraits of the captive Elector of Saxony, 
of which one is still in existence : Cesare Vecelli may 
have had a part in the detail of Charles' portrait. 

He was the son of Ettore, own cousin to Grecrorio 
Vecelli, and assistant to Titian when he produced the 
portrait of John Frederick of Saxony. Being struck 
with the Elector's armour, whicli ha<l heen deposited 
for a time in his master's workshop, he made a draw- 
ing of it, witli wliich he subsequently illustrated a 
book on costume. In writiuo; the text to this illustrn- 
tion, he not only observed that he had seen Titian's 
picture of the Elector, witli the scar on his face, rest- 
ing his hand on a baton, but that the })anoply was that 
which John Frederick wore at Mlihlberg, and that he 
was present as Titian's pupil when the portrait was 
designed at the request of Charles the Fifth.'" This 
portrait was one of those which Mary of Hungary 
took to Spain, in l.j.')G ; and it was one of the series 
which perished in the fire of the Palace of Pardo ; | a 
second without a breastplate, done at the same time, 
and likewise taken to Spain, survived, and is now 
preserved in the Gallery of Vienna. 

At ditiercnt periods of his life the Elector wore his 
beard in dificrent ways. In the earlier portraits of 
Cranach and his school, it is cut short and brushed 

• Cesare Vecelli, Degli Abiti 
Antichi e Moderni, 8vo, Yen. 
1590, p. 61. 

t See the inventory in Revue 
Uuiveiselle dea Aits, u. «., iii. 

140. The entry is as follows : 
"El retrato del Duquede Suxonia, 
cuaudo fuo preso, annado, y en 
el lostro una oucbillada." 

182 TITIi\.N: HIS LIFE AND TIMES. [Chap. V. 

off the cliiu into the whiskers, giving a cpaint broad 
shape to a face already very remarkable for breadth. 
Almost all the princes who signed the Confession of 
Augsburg wore this appendage, which is as character- 
istic as cropped hair to the Puritans of England. After 
the defeat of the Schmalkaldic league, the Spanish 
beard, which is so remarkable for its length and pointed 
shape, became fashionable, and John Frederick, in his 
captivity, found it advisable to conform, thinking, no 
doubt, that conformity was more pardonable in matters 
of dress than in matters of religion ; and thus Titian 
drew him with a pointed and not with a swallow- 
tailed beard. Like most productions of this period, 
the Vienna portrait is a picture of touch, in which the 
head and hands are magnificently laid in from life, 
whilst the dress, though executed with care, is pro- 
bably done from memory. Had the surfaces been 
spared by time and restorers, we should have a master- 
piece before us. As it is, we still see that the Elector 
sat, and sat well, and Titian gave the apoplectic look, 
the bloodshot eye, the staring glance, which are cha- 
racteristic of most men of dark complexion and 
plethoric habit. But where his mastery is most ap- 
parent is in the modelling of the flesh, which displays 
the scantling of bone beneath the layers of fat with 
a searching minuteness, surprising when combined 
with so much breadth of treatment. The features of 
John Frederick have been described. They were well 
reproduced by the painter, who probably had the 
sittings in the first months of winter, 1548. The 
captive Elector is seated with his elbows and hands 

Chap. V.] 



at rest, on the arms of a cliair ; his coat is of black- 
striped silk, his black pelisse is faced with brown fur. 
In his left he holds a dark hat. White linen is 
cleverly interposed to l)reak the monotony of black at 
the neck and wrists, and the scar of the wound received 
at Miihlbcrg appears on the left check. Cranach por- 
trayed the Prince before and after jMiihlbcrg ; but he 
never ennobled the form of his sitter. Titian takes 
the fat and obese figure, sets it in an arm-chair, and, in 
spite of these disadvantages, imparts to the shape and 
features a dignified nnd princely air.* 

Nicholas Granvclle was painted by Titian in state 
dress, with the chain of the Golden Fleece round his 
neck, a white beard falling silken and abundant to 
his chest. Judging from a photograph of the picture 
now ill th(.- museum of Besan9on, the likeness is 
speaking and expressive, and if genuine, one of the 
few specimens of Titian's art which remain in Franche 

* Vienna gallery, first floor, 
room 2, Italian schools, No. 46. 
This picture is 3 ft. 7^ in. h. by 
3 ft. 1 in., and painted on very 
fine canvas, to which a strip has 
been ackled at the top. The flesh 
generally is tlayed and disco- 
loured, and has lost its glazings 
and other delicacies of finish. It 
was re-touched in the forehead, 
in four fingers of the right hand, 
the fur, and the hut. The bark- 
ground is a -warm grey-toned 
wall. This is one of the canvases 
which only came to Vienna in 
the eighteenth century; but its 
history after reaching Spain is 
unknown. Eubens copied it to- 

gether with that of the Laudgravo 
Philip, during his stay at Madrid 
(Saiasbury Papers, u. s., p. 237. 
Compare also Vasari, xiii. p. 38). 
That the portraits were painted 
in 1548, rather than in 1550, 
seems confirmed by the entry in 
the inventory of Mary of Ilun- 
gary's pictures (w. s.), " Otro ri- 
tratto del dicho Duque do Sajonia 
cuando estaba preso, hecho por 
Ticiano." There is a copy by 
Teniers of the Vienna portrait 
now preserved at Blenheim. It 
is engraved in the Touiors Gall, 
by L. Vorstcrmann. A fine pho- 
tograph by Miothke and AVawra. 



Comte.* In earlier days this province was greatly 
lionoured by the presence of the Chancellor and the 
Cardinal, Both were pleased to favour the city in 
which their ancestors had risen from obscurity. In 
1534 Nicholas commenced a palace at Besan^on, which 
he finished in 1.540, and in the course of years this 
mansion was filled by his care and the taste of the 
Cardinal with treasures of painting and sculpture. 
Here were several masterpieces by the greatest artists 
of the revival; a "Joconde" of Leonardo da Vinci, 
two "Madonnas" and a "St. Catherine" by Cor- 
reggio, besides a "Jupiter and Antiope" and the 
" Venus and Mercury " of the National Gallery. 
Here were a " Venus " by Paris Bordone, the 
" Martyrs " of Albert Diirer, a present from the 
captive John Frederick of Saxony now at Vienna,t 
and numerous canvases by Titian, to which we shall 
presently revert.| 

At the death of Nicholas Granvelle the palace and 
collection went by tail male to the Cardinal, and 
would have passed to his brother Thomas, but that he 
died in 1575. In 1586 the Cardinal made a will 
disinheriting his nephew Francois the son of Thomas 

* The canvas in the Museum of 
BesaE9on represents the Chan- 
cellor seen to the hips, large as 
life, and his head turned three- 
quarters to the left. It is said to 
be the picture noted in the Gran- 
velle inventory of 1607 (printed 
in full in A. Castan's Monographie 
du Palais Granvelle a Besangon, 
8vo, Besan9on, 1867, p. 56), which 
registers two likenesses of Ni- 

cholas Granvelle, one 4 ft. by 
3 ft. 3 in., the other 3 ft. 6^ in. 
by 2 ft. 4 in., both by Titian. 

t Scheurl, in C. Schuchardt's 
Lucas Cranach, 8vo, Leipzig, 
1851, p. 193. 

X Ibid., and D. Levesque's 
Mem. pour servir a I'llistoire du 
Cardinal de Granvelle, fol., Paris, 



Count of Cautecroix, because of his attempt to palm 
off a copy of Diirer's " Martyrs " on the Emperor 
Rudolf the Second. Instead of cutting off his nephew 
with a shilling, Anthony left him his portrait by 
Titian, and Cantecroix, to show his contempt, placed 
the picture in a dishonourable part of his house, " afin, 
disait-il, de lui faire tons les jours la grimace."* The 
consequence was the loss of a valuable heirloom, 
without an equivalent in money, in IGOO Cantecroix 
parted with several of the Granvelle pictures to 
Eudolf the Second, and them with the 
"Venus on a Couch, and an Organist," and "The 
Sleeping Venus with a Satyr " by Titian,! leaving tlie 
portrait of Nicole Bonvalot, wife of the Chancellor, 
tliat of the Chancellor liimself in two examples, 
" Cupid holding a Mirror to Venus," " A Golden 
Kain," "xV Lady putting on her Smock," "A Lady 
seated," "A Colossal Head," and "A Child," all by 
Titian, to be sold or disposed of by his heirs. ;[ It is 
hardly necessary to point out that the " Venus with 
the Organist" may be identified as the "Venus of 
Madrid." The "Venus and Satyr" may have been 
the fifst form of the " Jupiter and Antiope," so long- 
called the " Venus of Pardo " at the Louvre ; and we 
might thus conclude that if Titian took these works to 
Augsburg in 1547, they were sold to the all-powerful 
Chancellor, for whom the master likewise painted two 

• L'Evesque, ;'. s., i. p. 190. 

t Beitriige 7,ur Gcschichte der 
Kunstbestvebiingcn nnd Samm- 
lungoa Kaiser Eudolfs II., vou 

Ludwig Uhrliclis, in Zeitschrift 
flir bildonde Kunst, n. s., vol. v., 
pp. l."J(5, and following. 
X Castan u. s. 



portraits of himself, a portrait of liis wife, and one of 
Anthony as Bishop of Arras. 

Christopher Madruzzi, to whom Titian, as we saw, 
was introduced l)y Count deUa Torre, was but thirty- 
five years old when Charles the Fifth sent him to 
challenge the Pope to translate the council of Bologna. 
There was a certain fitness in the despatch to Rome 
on such an errand of a man who was not only an 
ecclesiastical dignitary of the first rank but prince- 
bishop of Trent. Titian's likeness of this churchman 
is still preserved at Trent in the house of the Sal- 
vadori, the last descendants by collateral lines of a 
most potent family. The prelate stood to the master 
in the black robes and hat of a prince-bishop, disdain- 
ing as it were the cardinal's dress. He walks like a 
minister busy with the cares of state over a red 
carpet, a ministerial paper in his left hand, his right 
raising the red curtain which partly conceals a study- 
table covered with a green cloth, and laden with a 
clock and letters. Though injured, this fine full-length 
is painted quickly and with a masterly hand. As if 
the sitter had but little time to spare, the lines of his 
form are swept on to the canvas with rapid strokes, 
and modelled with broad touches without much 
thought of delicate transitions or glazed tonings.'"" 

* Christoforo Madruzzi was 
born in 1512. His direct lino 
expired in 1658, when the agnates 
Barons of Eoccabruna inherited 
the family dignities and heir- 
looms. From these the property 
came in 1837 to the Barons Isidore 

and Valentino Salvadori of Trent, 
who now own the portrait. The 
figure of Cardinal Madruzzi is a 
fuU length of life size, on canvas. 
Injured by time and restoring, 
especially in the flesh parts, it is 
still fine, though deprived of the 

--^•""•:^'*^'"~-^'V ■"'■^«- <■--— "''^^ ■■" 

From a Piunt by Cort. 

\Toface-p. 187, Vol. II. 



In the intervals that were not taken up with this 
form of pictorial labour Titian varied his leisure, even 
at Augsburg-, with the composition of subjects, and he 
produced for Queen Mary of Hungary " Prometheus," 
'' Sisyphus," '-'Ixion," and "Tantalus," which Calvete 
d'Estrella saw in 1.349 at Biuche, before they were 
.sent to Spain to perish by fire at the Palace of Pardo. 
Two copies, by Sanchez Coello, the " Prometheus " and 
" Sisyphus," in the Madrid ^luseum, alone survive to 
tell of Titian's industry.* 

Though Titian's portrait of King Ferdinand perished 
in Spain, there is reason to think that the original sketch 
may have l)een preserved.| Amongst the Barbarigo 

hrii< of Titian's touch and tone, 
and opaiino in most of its sur- 
faces. This portrait was known 
to Va.sari (xiii. p. 3 !)• 

• " rroinuthcus," No. 466, 
" Sisyphus," No. 46 J, in the 
Madrid Museum, are still as- 
cribed, though not without hesi- 
tation, to Titian. When !N[ary of 
Hungary came over to Spain from 
the Netherlands in 1556, she is 
recorded to have taken with her 
two at least of these canvases, 
the existence of which was known 
to Vasari (xiii. 38-39), and Lo- 
mazzo (Trattato, u.s., 676). The 
"Tantalus" and " Ixion " (In- 
ventory of 1558 — Simancas — 
printed in Revue Universello des 
Arts, «..s., iii. pp. 140 — 141), are 
described as "viojos e gastados 
quo estaban en la Casa de Vinz," 
These, and the "Sisyphus" and 
"Prometheus" of the Madrid 
Museum were hung, according 
to Carducci, in the Alcazar of 

Madrid, the latter being already 
known as copies by S. Coello. 
(See ^[adrazo's Catalogue of the 
Madrid Museum.) Since then 
the "Tantalus" and "Ixion" 
peiished. The two remaining 
canvases are fine copies, and 
nothing more. Prometheus hangs 
downwards, his feet being chained 
to the trunk of a tree, his arms 
being thrown abroad wildly as 
the bird pecks at the breast ; a 
snake crawls on the right hand 
foreground. Sisyphus bends under 
the weight of a rock on his shoul- 
ders. Both canvases, but " Si- 
syphus" more than "Prome- 
theus," are greatly injured. The 
" Prometheus" was engraved by 
Cort in 1506, by M. Rota in 1570. 
" Sisyphus rolling a large stone " 
was one of the Titians in the 
Buckingham Collection, 4 f . 6 h. 
bj^ 3, in the seventeenth century. 
(Bathoe, «. s., p. 2). 

+ Amongst the "copies from 


heii'looms, of wliicli we remember some transferred 
to the collection of Count Ginstiniani Barbarigo, at 
Padua, we note one under the name of Morone, 
representing Ferdinand, with short cropped chestnut 
hair and pointed beard, seated in an arm-chair. 
Through an opening to the left, a distance of sky and 
trees is seen ; behind the chair, a brow^n hanging. 
The king wears the obligate pelisse of black silk, with 
a broad fur collar, and round his neck the chain and 
Order of the Golden Fleece. His hands rest on the 
arms of the chair, and the thick underlij) of the Bur- 
gundian Dukes, noted by historians as a prominent 
feature in the monarch's face, is very clearly displayed. 
The canvas, unfortunately, was so heavily repainted 
that Titian's original touches have been lost, but there 
is something Titianesque in the look of the piece, 
which is foreign to jMorone, and it may be that here 
again modern daubing covers the handiwork of a great 

Titian painted not only Ferdinand, his two sons 
and five daughters, but on liis way from Augsburg to 
Venice, in October, 1548, he called at the royal 
palace of Innspruck, and made a family picture of the 
King's children. A letter which he wrote after he 
sketched in this canvas has been preserved, and proves 
that he put Ferdinand nnder contribution much in 
the same way as Charles the Fifth. Just as he asked 

Titian" in the Museum of Madrid, 
is a portrait of Ferdinand in 
armour, with his right hand on a 
helmet lying on a table, and his 
left on the hilt of his sword ; a 

half-length of life size. That and 
an engraving by P. de J ode, is 
all that remains to tell of Titian's 
labours in this case. 


the Emperor in early days to give him a privilege to 
import corn from Naples, he now asked Ferdinand to 
allow him to cut timber in the Tyrolese forests, and it 
is curious to find that the letter written to press this 
request was translated into German in the King's 
Chancery ; thus proving that, however much his- 
torians may Loast, Ferdinand was not so familiar with 
the Italian language as to read it currently. 


" Most Serene and Powerful King, most 
Clement LoitD, 

"Though your ^lajcsty, of your Royal 
bounty, did me the grace to remit in my favour one 
hundred ... of the duty on the timber which I am 
authorised for the next three years to carry, yet, most 
gracious Lord, I find, whilst soliciting here the expedi- 
ting of this matter, that the councillors of the chamber 
(kammerrathc) raise difficulties as to the liberty to cut 
trees in the forest of Horbolt (?), on the ground that 
your Majesty's order makes no mention of cutting, and 
that the wood of this forest is reserved for the use of 
the mines. This has annoyed me the more, as I did 
not fancy tliat the said councillors would resist your 
Majesty's order, as I am not a man to make mer- 
chandize of the timber, but use the wood for myself 
and my buildings, and I have served and now serve 
your Majesty with all the diligence and fidelity which 
can be expected of a faithful servant, of all which 
these gentlemen can — if they choose — give testimony. 
Therefore I beg your Majesty to order that I shall not 


be impeded in the felling of timber in the said forest, 
the more as other persons, in the year last past, have 
felled timber there, as I can fully prove, and there are 
no mines within twenty German miles or more. 
Doing me this favour your Majesty will find me not 
ungrateful, as I shall try to acknowledge by all the 
means in my power. 

"The portraits of the serene daughters of your 
Majesty will be done in two days, and I shall take 
them to Venice, whence — having finished them with 
all diligence — I shall send them quickly to your 
Majesty. As soon as your Majesty has seen them, I 
am convinced I shall receive much greater favours 
than those which have been previously done me, and 
so I recommend myself humbly to your Majesty. 
" Your Majesty's faithful servant, 


''From Innspruck, 20f7t Oct. 1548." 

The king's daughters at lunspruck when Titian 
WTote this letter were Barbara, nine years old, Helena, 
aged five, and Johanna, a baby in long clothes, whose 
birth cost its mother her life in January, 1547. If we 
judge from the portraits which hang in the collection 
of Lord Co^vper at Panshanger, Titian's share in them 
was slight indeed. It seems clear from numerous 
signs that the preparatory work at Innspruck was 
done by Cesare Vecelli, whose pastose handling is 
discernible by its emptiness and uniformity ; and that 

See the original in Appendix. 



the master himself added but a very little to the 
heads when he took the canvas to Venice. The baby 
in a cot with the royal arms, lies on a green carpet in 
front of its two sisters, who sit on a red cushion 
behind. Barbara to the right in white-silk damask, 
Helena at her side to the left, holding a bird in her 
hand. Time and restorers have not quite removed 
the spirited touches of Titian in the hands and faces, 
but all the rest is devoid of the firmness and power 
characteristic of the master's own treatment."' 

Titian's friends awaited his return to Venice in 
October with impatience, proud of his familiar inter- 
course with tlio Emperor, rejoicing " that he should 
come home rich as a prince instead of poor as a 
painter. "t For a few weeks of November and 
December Aretino's palace was enlivened with the 
converse and feasting of the full academy, when 
doubtless Titian quaintly described to his friends the 
details of his life abroad.;}: But the restless old 
artist was after all not to be detained by feasting 
and company any more than by hard weather from 
attending to his worldly interests. At Augsburg, 
toward the close of his stay, he had seen the Duke 
of Alva and Cardinal ]\Iadruzzi start to fetch the 

• This canvas, -with figiiros as 
large as life, has boen retouched, 
particularly in the loft hand of 
the baby, and the deep green 
coverlet of the cot. On the back 
of the canvas is an extract from 
the letter, the whole of which is 
given in the text. 

t Aretino to Titian, Venice, 
May, lo-iH, in Lettere di M. P. 
A., iv. p. 232; and the same to 
Corezaro, Venice, Oct. 1.348, in 
Lett., V. p. 40. 

X Aretino in Lettere, v. 72, 78, 



Emperor's son from Spain. Philip had made his way 
in state from Yalladolid to Barcelona, and from Bar- 
celona to Genoa, and thence to Milan. His progress 
was called by the courtiers the "felicissimo viage." 
The purpose was the prince's introduction to the 
potentates of Italy and Germany, and his presentation 
to the states of the Netherlands. Titian set out in 
December to meet him, confident that the payment of 
his pension, which his son Orazio was vainly urging 
at the time with the Governor and Senate of Milan, 
would be made the sooner if his claims were su^Dported 
by Alva and the Cardinal of Trent. A portrait of 
Alva, which he then painted, suggested to Arctino one 
of his most flattering sonnets, whilst a likeness ol 
Giuliano Gosellini, Gonzaga's secretary, proved a 
mere loss of time in so far as the person whom it was 
to influence remained proof against such persuasion.* 
Early in 1549 Titian resumed the ordinary routine of 
his existence at Venice, where repeated allusions in 
Aretino's letters reveal the popularity of his presence 
amongst a host of admirers, f In July he stood god- 
father, with Aretino, Sansovino, Marcantonio Cornaro, 
and other patricians, to Francesco del Monte, a near 
relative to Maria del Monte of Arezzo, who was soon 
to exchange the Cardinal's hat for the tiara, and give 
Aretino hopes of ecclesiastical preferment.! Of his 
professional labours we have unhappily but dubious 

* Aretino to Alva, Lettere, v. 
81, 105. Both portraits are lost. 
See also Titian to Gosellini, Augs- 
burg, Feb. 10, 1551, in Eonchini, 
Eelazioni, u. s., p. 13. 

t Aretino, Lettere, v. 98, 101, 

X Abbate Lancelotti's Memorie 
di Eaniero del Monte, in Ci- 
cogna'slsc. Yen., u. s., iv. p. 644. 


account; and it is a mere conjecture to say that he 
sent to Cardinal Farnese, in fullihneut of an earlier 
promise, a copy of "Charles the Fifth riding at Mlihl- 
])erg," which long adorned the palace of Parma.* 
About the same time he despatched to Ferrante 
Gonzaga another likeness of Charles, which — he vainly 
hoped — wouhl procure for him the payment of the 
pension so long delayed on the Treasury of Milan. 


" I send to your Excellency by tlie bearer 
ul" tliis letter the portrait of the Emperor, fullilling 
my promise to demonstrate by such means as I have 
in my power my gratitude for the courteous and 
friendly way in whicli your Excellency proffered 
through Sr. Francesco Cortese to obtain the payment 
of my pension on presentment of the authentic docu- 
ments. I am the more thankful and oblicjed for this 
kindness as nothing could be more opportune than 
the receipt of these monies, because, having a mar- 
riageable daughter, I ventured to betroth her on the 
faith of your Excellency's performance. This too I 
was desirous of saying to show what good and chari- 
table work your Excellency's promise will have 
caused. The privileges will be presented with a 
power from me by Messer Jacomo Fagnann, and I beg 
that your Excellency will kindly give effect to the 
good and courteous wishes expressed on my behalf. 

* It is registered in tboParmese | recorded with praise by Anneniiii 

inventory of 16h0, in Campori, (p. 115) and Scanclli (p. 222), bnt 

Race, di Catalogbi, p. 243, and I has since been lost. 

vol,. II. o 



[CiiAr. Y. 

and favour my agent in this respect. It remains for 
me to kiss most reverently your invincible and 
honoured hand, and request that you will deign to 
command me, as I shall deem it a favour to serve 
your Excellency in Milan or Venice, or anj^vhere else 
that your Excellency pleases. 

" Your Excellency's most devoted 
" and obliged Servant, 

"TiTiANO Vecellio, Pittorc.^' ' 

" From Y^yiCB, Sept. 8, 1549." 

Autumn and winter passed away, and the "honoured 
and invincible hand " of the Governor of Milan was 
never stirred in the painter's behalf Nor was it 
without further pressure — we may think — that he 
was induced, in February 1550, to send Titian's 
papers down to the Senate of Milan asking that the 
statute of limitations should not apply to his claims.t 
Of the portrait, the present of which had been so 
poorly rewarded, no certain record exists. We know 
of one likeness, a half length, in the Naples Museum, 
which might be that sent to Ferrante Gonzaga. It 
represents Charles the Fifth in a black cap and dress, 
his face and form turned three quarters to the left, the 
collar of the Golden Fleece round his neck, a letter 
in his right hand. The right eye and forehead, a l^it 
of the upper lip and hand, are the parts which seem 
free from retouching ; but the fragments scarcely 
allow of a more decided opinion than that the canvas 

* The original is in Eonckini's 
Eelazioni, u. s., p. 11. 

t See Gonzaga to the Senate of 
Milan, in Appendix. 



originally came from the easel of an artist who painted 
in Titian's manner, whilst the age of the Kaiser is 
that of the time when he came to ^'isit Pope Clement 
at Bologna.'"' 

If remarkable for nothing more, the year 1549 
deserves to be noted in the chronology of Titian as 
marking tlie publication of his celebrated print of the 
"Submersion of Pharaoh," a large and important 
piece, in whicli the master's design was engraved by 
one of his Spanish pupils, Domenico delle Greche.+ 

At Biri Grande during the frequent absences of 
Titian, alternations of pain and pleasure such as we 
expect to find in every family in whicli there are 
children contributed to sunshine or gloom according 
as they came. Cornelio Sarcinelli, a respectable youth 
of Serravalle, had courted and won Lavinia, and ob- 
tained her father's consent to their marriao;e. The 
only drawback was the obduracy of the ]\Iilan Trea- 
sury, which delayed the settlement of the dowry, 
wliilst Titian's earnings, which mii^ht have sufficed to 
furnish a portion for the daughter, were unhappily 
drawn upon by the eldest son, who not only spent his 
father's patrimony and got into debt beside, but 

• Naples Mus., No. 45, canvas, 
half-length, of lifc-sizo, without 
any history at present. 

t This print is rare, but espe- 
cially so with the margin con- 
taining the following: "La crudel 
pcrsccutione del ostinato re contro 
il ])opolo tun to da lui aniato con 
la Sommorsione di osso Pharaone 
goloso del inoconto sangue. Di- 

segnata per mano dil crande et 
immortal Titian. 

" In Venetia p domeneco dcllo 
grecho depentoro Venetian, 


Cicogna, in his MS. Annotations 
to Morelli's Anonimo, notes a 
complete copj' in possession ( 1 SGO) 
of Abate Cadoiiu. 

o 2 



lauohed at the admonitious of his sire and of Aretino.'"' 
In his letters to Titian on this subject, Aretino begged 
the painter to remember the days of his own youth, 
and temper severity with indulgence. But writing to 
Pomponio he upbraided him sternly with spending in 
pleasure the fruits of his father's labours, journeys 
and savings.^' Nor was this the only misfortune 
which weighed on the painter. In March he lost his 
sister Orsa, who for years had been the companion and 
guardian of his children and the keeper of his house- 
hold ; and the cares of a matron devolved on Lavinia 
before she entered into the married state.t 

Meanwhile, important changes had occurred at 
Rome. On the 10th of November, 1549, Paul the 
Third died, and a protracted struggle between the 
partisans of France and Spain ended in the elevation 
of Cardinal del Monte to the papacy. For a time 
Aretino, who flattered himself that Julius the Third 
would give him a hat, and who knew that del Monte 
had been Paul's right-hand man at Trent, inclined to 
the party of France. He wrote letters to Henry the 
Second and his queen, heaped flatteries on Bonnivet 
the French agent at Venice, and even induced Titian 
to begin a portrait of . that captain in armour which 
promised to be one of his finest works. J But the 
current, instead of setting in the direction of France, 
had really changed in favour of Spain ; and as it did 
so the Emperor sent for Titian to Augsburg, who 
started to cross the Alps, leaving his friend to excuse 

* Lettere, v. 310, 313-14. 
t Ibid. V. pp. 243-244. 

X Aretino to Bonnivet, Yen., 
Nov. 1550, in Lett. vi. 31^. 


liim as best lie could with the French envoy. Seeing 
his opportunity, Aretino naturally dropped off from the 
French side, and wrote letters to the Emperor urging 
his claim to preferment in the Church and begging for 
Charles' support. Titian, who had put together such of 
his canvases as were finished, took charge of Aretino's 
missive and rode with liis load to Augsburg. 

Paul the Third had liad tlie wisdom to dissolve the 
council of Bologna, but liad doggedly refused to 
sanction its meetiiifr elsewhere. Julius the Third 
yielded on tliis important point to the will of the 
Emperor, and Charles called a diet on the 2Gth of July 
at AufTsburix to revive the Council of Trent. Other 
plans were in his mind at the same time. ^lary 
of lluugary shared his belief that the welfare of the 
royal and imperial house required that the succession 
of the Empire should fall on Phili|> of Spain rather 
than on Maximilian of Austria. IMidip accompanied 
his father to Augsburg as heir presumptive, whilst 
Maximilian was kept at a distance in Spain. But it 
was soon found necessary to bring all the members of 
the family together, and as Titian came to Augsburg 
in the first days of November, the Emperor and Philip, 
the king and Maximilian, and all the appendages of 
both courts, were together in the imperial city. 

On the 4th of November, Titian wrote by ^neas 
Vico the engraver to Aretino to announce his safe 
arrival at court.'" On the 11th he wrote ao-ain to 
describe his reception by the Emperor. 

• Aretino to Titian, Venice, Nov. 1550, in Lettorc, vi. -"52'. 



" I wrote by Messer ^neas that I kept your 
letters near my lieart till occasion should offer to 
deliver them to his Majesty. The day after the 
Parmesan's (iEueas) departure his Majesty sent for 
me. After the usual courtesies and examination of 
the pictures whicli I had brouglit, he asked for news 
of you and whether I had letters from you to deliver. 
To the last question I answered affirmatively, and then 
presented the letter you gave me. Having read it, 
the Emperor repeated its contents so as to be heard 
by his Highness his son, the Duke of Alva, Don 
Luigi Davila, and the rest of the gentlemen of 
the chamber, and as there was mention of me he 
asked what it was that was required of him. I replied 
that at Venice, in Kon:e, and in all Italy the public 
assumed that his Holiness was well minded to make 
you . . . [Cardinal], upon which Caesar showed signs 
of pleasure in his face, saying he would greatly rejoice 
at such an event, which could not fail to please you, 
and so, dear brother, I have done for you such service 
as I owe to a friend of your standing, and if I should 
be able otherwise to assist you I beg you will 
command me in every respect. Not a day passes 
but the Duke of Alva speaks to me of the 'divine 
Aretino,' because he loves you much, and he says he 
will favour your interest with his Majesty. I told 
him tha*^, you would spend the world, that what you 
got you shared with everybody, and that you gave to 


the poor even to the clothes on your back, which is 
true as every one knows. I gave your letter too to 
the bishop of Arras, and you shall shortly have an 
answer. Sir Philip Hoby left yesterday for England 
by land ; he salutes you and says he will not be 
content till he does you a pleasure himself in 
addition to the good offices which he promises to do 
for your benefit with his sovereign. Rejoice therefore 
as you well may l^y the grace of God, and keep me 
ill good recollection, saluting for me Signor Jacopo 
Sansovino and kissing the hand of Anichino. 

" Your friend and gossip, 

" TiZIANO.* 
" From Augsburg, Nov. 11, 1.3o0.'" 

Titian found with few exceptions the same com- 
pany at Augsburg in 1550 as in 1548. The Emperor, 
the King, and Ijoth their famiUes, ]\lary of Hungaiy, 
the Electors, John Frederick of Saxony, Chancellor 
Granvelle and his son, Alva and the usual accompani- 
ment of courtiers and envoys, were all residing 
together. But there was little of the confidence and 
elation in the chiefs of the court party which marked 
the earlier period. Charles the Fifth was more sickly 
and more gloomy than ever. Meditating retirement 
from the world, and hoping to compass the transfer 
of his dignity to his son, he doubtless felt that there 
was some cause for the anger of his brother, and the 
choler of his nephew Maximilian, who chafed at the 

• Tho original is in Lettere a P. Aretino, u. a., i. p. 147. 


prospect of losing the dignities to which thej thought 
themselves entitled. It was no doubt in the gloomy 
humour of those days that he consulted with Titian 
as to the composition of a picture in which the 
religious struggle of the time and his own longing 
for rest should be embodied. Titian at his request 
proposed to represent the radiant realm of heaven 
presided by the three Persons of the Trinity, escorted 
by the patriarchs, prophets, and Evangelists, and the 
Virgin Mary interceding with her son for the sins of 
the royal family, which should kneel in the clouds 
attended by angels. Foremost in the group, Charles 
himself was to appear as a penitent, accompanied by 
•his Empress, Philip, and Mary of Hungary. There 
must have been long and frequent conferences 
between the Emperor and the artist on this and 
cognate subjects, when Titian heard his patron con- 
fess that it was his wish to get the picture finished 
that he might take it to the distant convent where 
he proposed to retire to end his days.* The world 
observed with surprise the confidential intercourse of 
the monarch with Titian. Far away into the centre 
of Germany the fame of the master as a welcome 
guest of Charles was spread, and Melancthon from his 
distant study at AVittenberg, wrote to Camerarius, 
" Our Genoese has been here and tells me that the 
Pope is gathering troops to recover Parma. Titian 
the painter is at Augsburg, whither the Emperor has 
called him, and he has constant access to his Majesty, 

* Vasari, xii. p. 38; Charles to Vargas, May 31, 1553, in Ap- 

CnAr. Y. 



whose health is on the whole but middliiio-." * Doubt- 
less there were agents enough who reported the 
doings of Charles to the Eeformers, and the more 
because a little court of Protestants had been formed 
with the Emperor's leave round the person of the 
captive Elector of Saxony, and here amongst others 
resided Lucas Cranach, who had gone from AVitten- 
berg to share the privations of his lord and master, 
and who was quite capable of giving his co-religionists 
all the news they wanted. 

But Cranach was not a political newsmonger. He 
was one of the first artists to whom Charles the Fifth 
had ever sat, and one of the few Protestants whom he 
had treated well after the battle of Miililberg. AMien 
encamped before Wittenberg after the capture of the 
Elector, he recollected Cranach's name, and ordered 
him to appear. " John Frederick, your prince," he said, 
" gave me one of your pictures when I was with him at 
Speyer. You once painted a likeness of me as a boy 
which I still keep in my rooms at Malines, and I want 
you to tell me what I was hke in those days." " Your 
Majesty," answered Cranach, "was eight years old when 
the Emperor Maximilian took you by the hand and 
received the homafjc of the Belgian States. There 
was a teacher with you, who seeing your restlessness 
told me that iron or steel would attract your particular 
attention. I asked him to place a spear against a 

• This letter, without date, biit 
probably of January, Io.'jO, is in 
Voogelin's " Liber continens con- 
tinua sorio opistolas Philippi Afe- 
lancthonis scriptis annis xxxvili 

ad Joach. Camerar. Pabep. (Bam- 
berg) . . . curante . . . Ernesto 
Yocgelino, 8vo, Lipsitc, mdlxix, 
pp. G14— 615." 



wall SO that tlie point should be turned towards you, 
and your Majesty's eye remained fixed on that point 
till I had done the picture." The Emperor was 
pleased at this story, and promised to be gracious to 
Cranach, whereat the painter fell on his knees and 
in earnest words pleaded the cause of his prince, for 
whom he bespoke the mercy of the Kaiser. " I don't 
attach much importance," said Charles, " to the captive 
Elector, if I could but catch the Landgrave of Hesse. " 
He then dismissed Cranach with a present."'" 

Two years after this interview, the Elector, who 
followed the Emperor about like a muzzled bear, 
asked Cranach to meet him in summer at Augsburg, 
and, punctual to a day, the old artist arrived on the 
23rd of July, and took up his residence in the house 
assigned to his master, f Here Titian found him five 
months later the favoured servant of John Frederick, 
who after reading his Bible for an hour in the morn- 
ing, sent for Cranach to paint for him in the fore- 
noon. J In the lists of the marshal of the court, 
Cranach's place was marked for dinner at the first 
table, whilst his apprentices served the meals at the 
lower ones, of which they received the remnants. § 
In February the Elector was escorted by order of 
Charles to Innspruck, whither Cranach followed him, 

* See Matthseus Gunderam's 
contemporary report in Schu- 
chardt's Cranach, u. s., i. 186, and 
Eanke's Deutsche Geschichte, 
n. s., vol. iv. p. 523. 

t See Cranach's order of ap- 
pointment, dated Weimar, Oct. 8, 

1551, in Schuchardt, u. s., i. p. 
195 ; and the Elector's letter to 
Biuck, in ib. iii. 81. 

J Forster of Arnstadt, in 
Schuchardt, i. p. 199. 

§ Ibid. i. p. 204. 

Chap. V.] 



liaving earned the name of pictor celer by finishing 
thirty pictures in seven months.* 

Titian in early hfe had had the chance of studying 
tlie works and admiring the person of Albert Diirer, at 
the period when German art stood at tlie point of full 
development. At tlie blooming time of Venetian 
painting he marked the withering of the German 
plant in the person of Cranach. Yet he would natu- 
rally be too courteous to show any want of respect to 
one who with all liis faults was imlnicd with a genuine 
love of his craft, lie visited Cranach and gave him 
sittings, and nmongst the portraits which the captive 
Elector took home was the " Cunterfet of Thucia, the 
painter of Venice," by Lucas, the painter of Witten- 
berg.| It would liave been hard to find two men 
more in contrast tlian these. Titian, a master of touch 
and colour and eiiect, reproduced on canvas the sub- 
stance as much as the semblance of his sitter, idealiz- 
ing the features, catching with quick insight the 
character, the type, and expression, and ennobling 
them all in a grand and dignified way. Cranach, 
quick and clever after another fashion, but without 
poetry or grace in his conception of form, and without 
tlie searching power which made Diirer great, reduced 
his models to an uniform level of commonplace. Both 
artists in their respective countries were representa- 
tive men. But if we compare a likeness by Cranach 
with one by Titian we measure a wide and impassable 

• Schuchardt gives Cranach's 
own account for these pieces (i. 

pp. 206-8). 

t Cranach's account, n. s. 


gulf which parts the art of Italy from that of the 
countries beyond the Alps. 

But the principal object for which Titian was called 
to Augsburg was not to sit to Cranach, nor to portray 
afresh the Kaiser, or the princes and nobles around 
him. The whole bent of Charles' policy and wishes 
was to promote his son ; to this end every considera- 
tion was made subordinate, and every detail was 
calculated. As Charles of old had had to put away 
the gossiping and friendly manner of a Fleming to 
take upon himself the starched and haughty air of a 
Spaniard, so Philip now had to divest himself of the 
stiffness of a Castilian and — not without reluctance 
we may think — to assume the friendly Biederheit of a 
German. He rode German horses, danced German 
dances, and tried his head and stomach at German 
drinking parties. But the days w^ere past when his 1 
ancestor Philip of Burgundy drank an abbot under 
the table. Philip of Spain was no more capable 
constitutionally to bear the coarse but copious fare of 
the north than he was able physically to unbend and 
ape a jovial manner. He w^as not strong, nor fond of 
martial exercise. His chest was narrow and his le"S 
were spare, and his feet were large and curiously 
ungainly. His eyes lay under lids like rolls of flesh 
and full of bilious humour, as if the gall which gave its 
olive tone to his complexion was anxious to gush and 
show itself. His projecting under-jaw was poorly 
concealed by a downy chestnut beard, which by its 
paucity gave but more importance to a pair of tliick 
and fleshy lips, the chief characteristic of wdiicli was 

Chap. Y.] 



redness. Add to this an oily smootliness of complexion, 
and short chestnut hair, and we have the face of the 
prince whose form won the heart of Mnvy Tudor ; 
whose sensualism was only equalled by his disregard 
for all that was good and kind in human nature ; 
whose fanaticism sent hundreds of the noblest victims 
to the stake or the block ; whose policy dictated the 
Armada and lost the Netherlands to Spain. It Avas 
for the purpose of making a likeness of this prince, 
who was then twenty-four years old, that Titian was 
called to Auo;sbur!j. He had not been more than a 
month at court wlicn he finished the })reliminary 
canvas. In the following Februaiy he prol)ably com- 
pleted the large full-length which hangs in the 
Museum of ^Madrid, and in the course of a few suc- 
cessive years he sent forth the long series of copies, 
the best of which adorns the gallery of Naples. ''' 

That we should enjoy in the case of Philip of Spain 
both the orighial sketch for which he sat, and the 
parade portrait for which he did not sit, is an ad- 
vantage seldom vouelisafed to admirers of Titian. 
It is clear that the master's method of preparing 
pictures intended to be finished was different from 
that which he practised in throwing off work at one 
painting. In the first case a known process or a series 
of processes was systematically carried out, so as to 
produce substance, impast and tone. In the second 

• Eccords of Dec. 1550, and 
Feb. 1551, in Appendix, prove 
that Titian was employed for 
Philip of Spain immediately on 
his anivul at Augsburg. We 

may assume that the payments 
made to the painter in February 
are for the finished portrait now 
at Madrid. 



tlie sole aim of the artist was to determine form 
and expression during the curt and rapidly fleeting- 
moments conceded by a royal and — we may believe — 
impatient sitter. The sketch for which Philip of 
Spain sat to Titian is one of the Barbarigo heirlooms, 
now in the house of Count Sebastian Giustiniani 
Barbarigo at Padua. The Prince is sitting, large as 
life, near an opening through which a landscape and 
sky are seen, in front of a brown curtain damasked 
with arabesques and white flowers. His face and 
body are turned to the left, the axe of the eyeballs 
facing the spectator. A doublet of black silk buttoned 
up to the neck allows the frill of a shirt to be seen. 
Over it lies a pelisse of white silk, witli a lining and 
broad collar of dark fur, and sleeves swelling into 
slashed puff's at the shoulders. The chain of the 
Golden Fleece falls over the breast. Part of the head 
shows its short chestnut hair cropping out from a 
black berret cap sown with pearls. The hands are 
roughly outlined with the white pigment which served 
to colour the pelisse, so as to give the movement with- 
out even an indication of the fingers. The left, on 
the arm of a chair bound in dark cloth fastened with 
red buttons, the right holding what seems to be a 
baton or the rudiment of a sceptre. Looking care- 
fully at this canvas, which has only been injured in 
the least important parts, we discern that the face 
was struck off" from the life rapidly, almost hurriedly, 
as if the master was conscious that unless he lashed 
himself into a fury of haste he would not catch quick 
enough the shape, the action, the colour and the charac- 

Chap. V.] 



teristic individualism, or the complexion and temper 
of the Prince. Like a fijeneral in the thick of a fi^iht, 
who sees through the smoke and hears amidst the din, 
and curtly but decisively gives the orders which 
secure a victory, Titian rouses himself to a momen- 
tary concentration of faculties, instinctively but surely 
gives the true run and accent of the lines, and then 
subsides, sure of success, into rest. His whole power 
was brought to bear on the head, of which he gave the 
lineaments and modelling witli spare pigment on a 
very thin smooth canvjis, the sallow flesh light merg- 
ing into half tones of clear red, the darker shadows, as 
of eye and nostril, laid on in Ijlack. ^^ ho does not 
see the application of the old principle, famous for 
having been enunciated by Titian: " Black, red, and 
white, and all three well in hand ? " The sketch, it is 
evident, is not such as the master would have shown 
even to the Prince if he could help it, being as it were 
his own private memorandum, his "j^ensee intime," 
meant for himself and no other, a thing that was 
neither drawing nor painting, yet partaking of both, 
and sufficient for the reproduction of either ; — a sur- 
face without the charm of rich tint or broken modula- 
tion, but masterly, as giving in a few strokes the 
moral and physical aspect of his sitter.* _ 

Being now possessed of the sketch, Titian leisurely 

• Tho canvas in the Giusti- 
niani Collection at Padua is a 
half length on canvas, m. 1.14 h. 
by 0.95 ; on a strip at bottom are 
the comparatively modern words : 
"PHiLirvs Hisr.vx. kex." The 

only parts really injured are the 
background, which is dark, and 
some of the accessories. This, 
no doubt, is tho portrait of Philip 
seen by Vasari, xiii. 37; and 
Eidolfi, Marav. i. 262. 



used it as a groundwork to compose his sliow por- 
traits of Philip, his first business being to represent i 
the Prince as a captain in damasked steel, and then 
to display his form in the dress of the court and draw- 
ing-room.'"' In each of these replicas he changed 
the attitude and costume whilst the head remained 
the same. Of the first the Prince in armour at 
Madrid is the earliest, and one to which an interesting 
fragment of history is attached. Knowing the type 
of Philip's face and the blemishes of his figure, we 
should think it hard for a painter to realize a portrait 
of him true to nature, yet of elevated conception and 
regal mien. Titian overcomes the difficulty with ease. 
The sallow ill-shaped face may haunt us and suggest 
uneasy forebodings as to the spirit and temper of the 
man, but gloom here is cleverly concealed in grave 
intentness, and every line tells of the habitual distinc- 
tion of a man of old blood and high station. The 
head we saw is the same as in the sketch. It stands 
out from the gorget relieved by a frill of white linen, 
beneath which the handsome collar of the Golden 
Fleece falls to the chest. A breastplate and hip pieces 
richly inlaid with gold cover the frame and arms. 
The fine embroidery of the sleeves and slashed hose, 
the white silk tights and slashed white slippers, form a 
rich and tasteful dress. The ringed left hand on the 
hilt of the rapier, the right on the plumed morion 
which lies on a console covered with a crimson velvet 
cloth, the whole figure seen in front of a dark wall — 

* See Mary of Hungary to 
Kenard, Nov. 19, 1553, in Papiers 

d'Etat de Granyelle, ii. s., iv. p= 
150, and postea. 

CuAr. v.] PHUJP'S POETRAIT. 209 

all this makes up a splendid and attractive full length 
standing on a carpet of a deep reddish brown. 

When Charles the Fifth preferred the suit of Philip 
to Mary Tudor in 1553, his sister Mary of Hungary 
sent Titian's masterpiece at tli(.' Queen's request to 
Renard the Spanish envoy in London, telling him 
" that it was thought very like when executed three 
years before, but had been injured in the carriage from 
Augsburg to Brussels. Still, if seen in its proper 
light and at a fitting distance, Titian's pictures not 
Ijearing t(j Ije looked at too closely, it would enable 
the Queen, by adding three years to the Prince's age, , 
to judge of his present appearance." Renard was ' 
fui'ther directed to present t]i(^ canvas to Her jMajesty 
with instructions to have it returned when the living 
original had been substituted for the lifeless semblance.  
Had not Mary been previously flattered at the 
prospect of matching herself to a prince so much her 
junior, she might have been induced by the mere sight 
of this piece to entertain the proposal of Charles the 
Fifth. As it proved, her prepossession was betrayed 
to her courtiers by admiration of the picture, of which 
Strype reports that she was "greatly enamoured." t 
After the marriage in 1554 this most important work 
of art was faithfully returned to Mary of Hungary, 
wlio took it to Spain in 155 G.J A school replies. 

* Mary of Hungary to Eonard, 
Nov. 19, 1553, u. 8. 

t Strypo, Memorials, Lond. 
1721, iii. p. 19t). 

I This picture, to which a piece 
has been added all round, is now 

No. 454 iu the Madrid Museum, 
on cauvas, and in size, m. 1*93 h. 
by ril. There are patches of 
ro-touching on the right hand 
and thigh, and here and there a 
flaw in other 2)art3. But it is a 

VOL. H. F 



made by Orazio or Cesare Vecelli under Titian's 
superintendence, is preserved at Chatswortli, of 
which there was a poor example in the Northwick 

In March 1553 Titian sent his second version of 
the portrait to Philip,t and this version — it may be — 
is that which now hangs in the Museum of Naples, 
where the figure is altered so as to bring the right 
hand to the waist, and show the left holding a glove, 
whilst the frame is clad in a splendid doublet of white 
silk shot with gold, the puffs of the sleeves being braced 
with red bands and the short mantle lined with 
dark fur.J Of this fine piece, which is hardly inferior 
to that of Madrid, numerous repetitions or copies exist. 

fine -work in the best style of this 
the broad period of Titian's style. 
We find it noted in the inventory 
of Mary of Hungary (1558), ti. .s., 
Eevue Universelle des Arts, iii. 
132. There is a fine photograph 
of it by Laurent. 

* This replica, of life size, on 
canvas, besides being injured by 
restoring, to which we should 
attribute a certain dulness and 
opacity in the colours, is hard 
and raw in tone if compared with 
genuine pictures of Titian, and 
the contours are much more 
marked than those of the master. 
The only point in which the piece 
differs from its original at Madrid 
is, that the console to the left 
leans against the plinth of a 
pillar. Beneath the crimson cloth 
which hangs from the console is 
the foot of the same. 

The copy in the Northwick 

Collection seems to have been 
made by a Spaniard. 

t Titian to Philip, March 23, 
1553, in Appendix. 

J This fine canvas, No. 11 in 
the Naples Museum, shows Philip 
at full length, his right hand 
playing with the tassel at his 
belt. We are not told whence 
the picture came. It is signed 
on the wall to the right of the 
Prince's feet: 




The treatment is more conven- 
tional here than at Madrid, but 
the head is still like, and the 
features are given with masterly 
skill. We notice here and there 
unpleasant signs of stippling, and 
over all a dull and embrowned 

Chap. Y.] 



one of tliem at BlcDlieim by some disciple of the 
master, aiiother better still at the Pitti, whilst two or 
three feebler imitations are shown at Castle Howard, 
in the Collection of Lord Stanhope and in the Corsiui 
Palace at Rome." 

Distant memories of Titian's occupations at Angs- 
burg are recalled by scattered notices in the papers of 
Rubens' succession. During Rubens' stay at Madrid 
he copied almost all Titian's portraits, and amongst 
these we find " Philip the 11^ big as ye life, James 
the secretarie of the sayd Kynge, and the Kynge's 
dwarf."t That copy and original of these pictures 
should l)e lost is much to be regretted. Chi the Gth 
of February, lool, Titian received from the treasurer 
of Philip of Spain -I'SO ducats,:}: at siglit of which he 
was dinibtless reminded of pensions overdue at Naples 
and at ^lilan, and sat down to write the following 

• Tho Blenheim copy is exactly 
reproduced from that of Naples, 
on canvas. 

Tho Pitti replica, No. '200, on 
canvas, is said to be that which, 
according to Vasari, was sent to 
tho Grand Duke Cosimo I. by 
Titian (Yas. xiii. 38). It differs 
from that of Naples in some de- 
tails, the background being no 
longer plain but a colonnade, 
the gi-ound a meadow ; the right 
hand, too, is over the handle of 
a dagger. Engraved by Mogelli. 

Tho copy at (^istlo Howard, a 
half length, is much injured by 

Tho copy belonging to Lord 

Stanhope (figure seen to the 
knees) was exhibited at Man- 
chester. It does not deserve 
the encomiums of Dr. Waagen. 
(Treasures, Supplement, p. 181.) 

The half length in the Corsini 
Palace at Eome shows Philip in 
a black doublet, with his left 
hand at the hilt of his rapier, the 
right resting on a table covered 
with a red cloth. This is a good 
old copy or adaptation, and not 
an original Titian. 

t From Rubens' Inventory iu 
Sainsburj', u. s., p. 238. 

I See the payments in Ap- 

p 2 



" I am more tlum certain that the good grace of the 
Most Eeverend Monsignore (Cardinal Gonzaga) and of 
the Most Illustrious Don Ferrante, will not take effect 
as I wish unless it be aided by the courtesy of 
yourself, to whom I already owe so much. I therefore 
beg that you will put me under still further obligation 
by presenting the two inclosed letters to your Illus- 
trious Lord and to the President Grasso, and not only 
present but recommend their contents so as I shall get 
my 'passion,' or if you like it better, my pension. I 
may add that I should be content to have the money 
\ in your hands or in those of my agent Donato 

Fognana, provided it can be screwed out of the grasp 
of the treasury. And this would facilitate business 
greatly, as I have promised to his Illustrious Lordship, 
to visit him in satisfaction of the earlier engagement 
which I made before his Majesty called me to this 
torrid zone where we are all dying of cold. When I 
do come I shall repaint the head of your picture, or if 
necessary begin the whole afresh, as I already promised 
and arch-promise now. Signor Pola (a captain in 
Don Ferrante' s service) has much facilitated this 
business with his Lordship, so that President Grasso 
will easily have the word of the same so as to be able 
if he listens with a will to the Eeverend of Arras 
(Granvelle) to obtain for me the payment of my due. 
I beg of you as the Cavalier Leone Aretino is not 
there to give me further proofs of the affection he 
liears me, to take charge of this matter for me. The 


said Cavalier Leoni now kisses your hand as I like- 
wise do, being more than ever a favourite with the 
said Monsii^nore d' Arras : and Avithout further words I 
pray that God may adorn yuu with eternal glor}'. 
"From Augsburg, Feb. 10, 1.5.31, 

" Your Signore's Servant, 


Shortly after this tlie court broke up from Augs- 
l)urg, Philip leaving for Spain t(3 wards the close of 
^lay, Charles the Fiftli proceeding to Iniir^pruck, 
wliither we may presume he Avas followed by Titian. 
Here, according to an obscure and uncertain tradition, 
Titian [)ainted an allegorical composition, in which the 
king and ;ill his family were introduced.t Parting ] 
with the master to see him no more, Charles gave him 
in his son's name, a Spanish pension of 500 scudi, 
which, like other grants of the same kind, remained 
unpaid.;}: In August Titian was busy at his usual 
avocations in Venice. § 

* From the original in Ron- 1 ful authority. See Mara\-iglie, i. 

chini's Eolazioni, u.s., p. 12, 

t Ridolfi accepts this picture 
as a reality, because at Titian's 
funeral it was proposed to repre- 
sent Titian, on a large canvas, 
working at it ; but this is donbt- 

2-10 & 281. 

J Titian to Charles the Fifth, \ \ 
Sept. 10, 1.554, in Appendix, 

§ Aretino to Francesco Terzi, 
Aug. 15 jl, in Lettere di M. P. A. 
vi. p. 8'. 


Alleged reception of Titian by the Doge in Council. — His suspension 
from the Sanseria, and resumption of that Office. — Life at Venice. 
— Portrait of Legate Beccadelli.— Pictures for the Prince of 
Sixain ; " Queen of Persia," Landscape, and " St. Margaret." — Of 
Titian's Landscapes in general. — Prints and Drawings. — " St. 
Margaret " at Madrid. — Eumours of Titian's Death. — He reports 
himself alive to the Emperor. — The " Grieving Virgin," the 
"Trinity," and " Christ appearing to the Magdalen." — Portrait 
of Doge Trevisani. — Vargas and Thomas Granvelle. — " Danae," 
for Philip of Spain, and Eejilicas of the same.— Titian and 
Philiji. — The "Venus and Adonis." — Philip and Pomponio. — 
"Virgin of Medole." — Portrait of Doge Venier. — Votive Picture 
of Doge Trevisani and "The Fede." — Marriage of Lavinia. — 
Titian sends to Philip the " Perseus and Andi'omeda." — Decoration 
of the Library at Venice. — Paolo Veronese. — The "Baptist" of 
Santa Maria Maggiore. — . Death of Aretino -^-Titian. Ferrante 
Gonzaga and the Milan Pension. — " Entombment," sent to Philip 
and lost. 

Ax anecdote current at the close of the sixteenth 
century tells how Titian, after his return from 
Auo^sburo-, was taken before the Venetian Council, and 
in presence of the Doge Francesco Yenier related his 
experiences at the courts of Ferdinand and Charles 
the Fifth. After concluding his narrative, the great 
master is said to have proposed to complete the 
decoration of the Council Hall. At Titian's funeral in 
1576 it was suggested that this incident should l3e 
made the subject of a picture, and the plan would 
have been carried out but for the virulence of the 


2:»lague which was then raging,""' The sober truth of 
liistory refuses unhappily to be reconciled with an 
anecdote which places Francesco Yenier on the Ducal 
throne in 15.32. The privilege conceded to Venetian 
envoys was one that would hardly have been granted 
to an artist even of Titian's celebrity, and the story is 
probably a fable. But tlicre was good reason why 
Titian, if not in state, at least through ordinary 
channels, should enter into communication with the 
Signors. During his long and protracted absences the 
government had very properly suspended him from 
the Sanseria, and now that he was home again he 
wishfxl tliat suspension to be witlidrawn. There is 
trace of a petition to the Council of Ten in which the 
painter prays to be restored to the use of his broker's 
patent. A decree of October 29, 1552, orders him to 
be re instated. t The pictures of the Council Hall were 
completed in due course not Ijy Titian, but by his son 
Orazio, Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese. 

For the latter half of 1551 and the first half of 
1552, contemporary letter books contain much more 
information than the catalogues of public or private 
collections. Dirmers and suppers in which Titian and 
his friends are guests, and delicacies in season, 
copiously served on luxurious tables, are of frequent 
occurrence, luit pictures of note or portraits of cele- 
l)rit}' are much more scarce. One might fancy that a 
period had arrived in Titian's life when pleasure alone 
had attractions for him. Niccolo Massa, a well-known 

* Eidolfi, Mar. i. 240, 281. t The record is inLoronzi, ii.s. p. 27G. 



surgeon at Venice, once asked liim what his expe- 
rience was of the variation in his capacity to work, 
and Titian answered that he had often noticed this 
variation, being eager one day to paint, unable the 
next to do anything but idle. The cause he could 
not explain, though some people assigned it to the 
conjunction of certain planets. Massa's explanation 
was, that the variations depended upon the inner heat 
or coldness of the body."^ With Titian we may 
believe moments of weariness and disinclination to 
w^ork were short and rare, and when we find nothing 
written as to his labours, we may almost be sure that 
historians have simply neglected to notice the results 
of his unconquerable love of hard work. Aretino, in a 
letter of August, 1551, to Francesco Terzi, reminds his 
correspondent that Titian has become possessed of a 
lordly income by dint of exertion and toil ; but he 
adds, " I would not exchange my ease for his wealth 
on any consideration ."t Titian, it might be, was 
laying in stock or composing the vast picture of the 
" Trinity " which was to be delivered in 1555. We 
dimly note for 1552 the completion of a portrait of 
the legate Beccadelli, a " Queen of Persia," a land- 
scape and a "St. Margaret " for the Prince of Spain. J 
Beccadelli had been sent to Venice after the death 
of Paul the Third to supersede Giovanni della Casa. 
On the eve of his arrival both Aretino and Titian were 

* " Facile est inventis addere," 
bj' Niccolo Massa, 8yo, Yenice, 
1556, cit. in Cicogna, Isc. Yen. 
yi., 805. 

t Lettere di M. P. A., vi. p. 

J See further on, Titian to the 
Prince of Spain, Oct. 11, 1552. 

ClIAP. VI.] 



speculating as to his power to relieve a common friend 
from unexpected tribulation. The curate of the 
Minorites, their joint confessor, had been thrown into 
gaol for denying the divine origin of " confession," 
and Aretino could think of no better way to compass 
his liberation than to await Beccadelli's comino;.'" 
Titian finished this portrait, now at the Uffizi, in 
July, 1552, and it is a magnificent likeness, in wliieh 
the true grain of what may l)e called Churchman's 
flesh is reproduced in a form both clear and fair but 
with the slight puftiness and tendency to droop which 
is characteristic in priests. The whole picture is 
painted after Titian's fasliion in tliese days with broad 
immediate sweeps of a brush loaded with jilenteous 
consistent pigment grained to a pleasant warmtli. 
The oblong but regular head witii spacious forehead, 
pointed beard and tumid lips, is seen to great advan- 
taoje beneath a black trianoular cap. A black silk 
cape and lawn sleeves admirably relieve a pair of 
hands of perfect workmanship, holding between them 
a piece of unfolded paper. The prelate is seated in an 
arm-chair, and looks up as if he was about to com- 
municate the contents of the paper to some one near 
him. Ill a letter enclosing a sonnet in honour of this 
picture, Aretino — truly for once — said that as there 
were two Charleses, one created by Nature and the 
other by Titian, so now there were two Beccadelli to 
listen to Aretino's verse, t 

• Arotiiio to Titian, Venice, Oct. 

lo49, in Lett, di M. 1'. A., v. 108. 

t Lettero di M. P. ^^.-etino, vi. 

U)2, Aretino " to the Secretary of 
the Legate," Venice, Oct. 1552. 
The picture is on canvas, iimu- 



The canvases intended for Philip of Spain were 
despatched to Madrid in the course of the same year, 
the last being the " Queen of Persia," which was 
accompanied by the following letter. 

titian to the prince of spain. 
"Most high and potent Signor, 

" Having recently obtained a ' Queen of 
Persia ' of some quality, which I thought worthy of 
appearing before your Highness' exalted presence, I had 
her sent, pending the time when other works of mine 
were drying, to take embassies from me to your High- 
ness, and be company to the landscape and St, Margaret 
previously sent by Ambassador Vargas, under cover 
to the bishop of Segovia. Meanwhile, may God keep 
and prosper your Highness's high and potent person 
and state in all the prosperity and felicity which your 
Highness's most devoted servant Titian desires. 
" i^VoTO Venice, lltJiof Odoher, 1552. 

" Most high and potent Signer's servant, who kisses 
your feet, 


bered at the Uffizi, 1116, and of 
life size. On the paper, in the 
prelate's hand, we read : 


Yenerabilis fratri Ludovico epo 
Piayelleii, apud dominium Vene- 
torum, nostro et aplicse sedis 
nuntio [cum annum ageret Lii, 
Titianus Vecellius faciebat Ve- 
netiis mdlii, mense Julii]." 

lu a later character : 

"Translatus deinde mdlv die 

xviii Septembris a Paulo Quarto 
Pontj; maximo ad archiepiscopum 
Eagusinum quo pervenit die ix 
Decembris proximo subsequente." 

The background of the picture 
is dark brown ; the whole a per- 
fect piece of harmony in a pre- 
dominant warm brownish tone, 
and with all the vapour of a hot 
sunny day upon it. Engraved 
by J. C. Ulmer. 

* See the original in Appendix. 

Chap. VI.] 



Titian once before wrote to kiss the feet of Charles 
the Fifth, Init he had been usually content to kiss the 
liands of his patrons. His last stay at Augsburg made 
liira better acquainted with the idol worship of the 
Castilians, and the canny old mountaineer of seventy- 
five now kissed the feet of liis prince like any Spanish 
secretary.-' But let us remendier tlicse are the days 
and the customs wliich the satire of Rabelais vainly 
strove to change and chastise, and Venice,, like Spain, 
was still to some extent under the influence of Oriental 

Fortlir lirst tinn- in tlie annals of Italian painting we 
lu.'ar of a picture which claims to be nothing more than 
a landscape ; and of this landscape Titian was the 
painter. AVc look throuifh the numberless catalooues 
of the 17th century and find but one reference to a 
piece of the Idnd by the great Venetian. It was "a 
landscape with soldiers and animals," in the collec- 
tion of Paolo del Sera.f European galleries may be 
searched almost in vain for such productions, and there 
is but one canvas at Windsor in which the figures are 
altogether subordinate. Yet it may be easily conceived 
that Titian often had such works on his easel, though 
they may subsccpiently have perished, neglected alike 
by the indifierent or the religious of all denominations, 
Aurelio Luini once j^aid a visit to Titian, and asked 

* Tu all the official corre- 
spondcTico of (liplonjatists with 
I'hilip the Socoiul, the secretaries 
invariablj' kiss the hands aud 
foet of his Majesty, and wish him 

increase of kinfidoms and lord- 
ships. The times have undergone 
a radical change since then, 
t Eidolfi, Mar. i. 262. 


him how he connected his trees with the ground in 
his compositions. Titian showed him divers ways of 
doing this, and brought an admirable Landscape from 
one of the rooms of his house, which struck AureHo at 
first as a daub, till, drawing back to a distance he 
found it suddenly light up as with the beams of the 
sun. He left the workshop declaring that he never 
had seen anything so rare in its way as this 
creation.* , 

How nobly Titian furnished his canvases with back- 
grounds has often been noted. The awful gloom of 
mountains, their " fellowship with clouds, their per- 
sonality as they stand sphinx-like in attitude of repose 
or writhing like hooded giants^ striving to be free," 
their majesty as they sit "like tutelaiy powers presid- 
ing over some gentle scene," have Ijeen sketched with 
enthusiasm by the pen of Gilbert. "Forest depths, 
masses of foliage backed by banks of solemn cloud, 
olintinof liohts amonsfst the boles of trees," had as 
much attraction for Titian as "the domestic charm 
of cottao^e and farm."t Pictures in which these 
characteristic features exclusively occur have not as 
we saw been preserved. But numerous etchings and 
drawings show how fondly Titian would have given 
his time to such subjects had he but found a public to 
appreciate their value. There are Cjuaint and startling 
views of dolomites in the prints of Lefebre, forming 
backgrounds to homesteads equally quaint and pic- 

* Lomazzo. Trattato, n. s., ji. I f Gilbert's Cadore, u.s., j^p. 
474. ! :, 72, &c. 


turesque, in which castellated towers are roofed with 
ragged and long projecting deals, and rocky boulders 
are watered at their bases by rapid torrents. Some- 
times it is but the outskirt of a hamlet or town that 
we see, with the orchards near it, and a bridge 
defended sometimes by a keep spanning a quick flow- 
iusf stream. A fii^ure or at most two houres are 
thrown into the foreground to o;ive a name to the 
picture. In one of Boldrini's woodcuts, of 1566, free 
in line as if it had been drawn l)y Titian himself, a 
charming fifjure of Venus is shown sittino- under trees 
with Cupid nestling in the folds of her dress. Here 
is a good study of rocks and grasses in a glen over- 
shadowed by pines. Gnarled trunks and roots and 
broken o-round witli weeds and rushes are strikin"; 
accompaniments to some of the prints of St. Jerome in 
the wilderness, liut more characteristic, and of more 
lasting interest, are the drawings in which every form 
to l)e found in inanimate nature is consigned to paper. 
A screen of beeches near boulders, belonging to Mr. 
Malcolm of Poltallock, a clump of trees in front of a 
village backed by Alps, a study of tree trunks and 
meadow side, before a range half covered with round 
or stunted arborescence, or a solitary group of twined 
stumps, with scant leafage in advance of a castle lying 
tarn-like in the gloom of a mountain cauldron, are 
but a few of a series in the gallery of Florence. A 
figure of a naked boy or a woman often cowers in the 
foreground, giving — in the absence of aerial perspec- 
tive — a measure of the distance to which the planes 
recede. In the Museum of Dresden, a large sheet 


contains a view of a haven with an approach by two 
deep channels, and a fortified port of a triangular 
shape, presenting its wedged apex to the spectator. 
A castle crowning a precipice to the right commands 
the entrance on that side, where galleys of war are 
lying in the stream. Behind the town a rolling coast 
rises majestically to a distance of dolomitic rocks. 
At the Albertina in Vienna, another sheet shows a. 
town nestling on the slopes of hills, the wooded crests 
of Avhicli grandl}^ contrast with the bareness of the more 
distant peaks. A more extensive view, partaking at 
once of mountain, plain, water and sea-shore, is that 
in a drawing at the Louvre, in which a canopy of low- 
lying cloud is reflected in the stream, towards which 
Europa is flying on the back of the bull. Titian's 
dolomites we may confess are often exaggerated in 
form or unnatural in settino;. The leafaoe of his trees 
is mostly conventional. But in drawing chiefly with 
the pen, his treatment is surprisingly effective and 
often most poetic. 

As — unhappily — no clue to the, landscape despatched 
to Philip of Spain has been discovered, so unfor- 
tunately no trace remains of the "Queen of Persia," 
by which it Avas accompanied. But we still possess 
the " St. Margaret," which for centuries adorned a 
gloomy hall in the gloomy Escorial. Though now in 
a bad state in the Museum of Madrid, it is a. fine rem- 
nant of a picture in which Titian clearly did his best 
to captivate the young and powerful prince, to whom 
he was willing to ofler all his incense. The vast frame 
of the drao-on stretches from the left foreo-round to the 

Ch-aj. YI.] 



mouth ol the cavern which yawns in the background 
to the right. In front of him the saint bears the cross 
in her left hand, and as she passes not without haste, 
turns round to go, \\liilst her glance is still fettered by 
the monster's open throat and paw. This subject, often 
painted by Giulio Romano,* had never as yet been 
touched by Titian. Tie gave it all the charm of a 
grand and sprightly form in fine and lively movement. 
He managed a convolution of a few simple lines with 
great skill and simplicity, and clothed the surfaces 
within these lines with rich and harmonious tints, 
sucli as only Titian was able to produce. Pity that 
the green mantle which swathed the saint's shape and 
relieved the brisrhtness of a lio;ht red scarf, should be 
injured by a long and irrepressible scar on the canvas, 
extendinfj from the cheek of the fiojure at one end to 
the left leiT and foot at the other.t 

Titian's connection Avitli the Imperial ftimily was 
not severed in tho least by separation, nor was his 
correspondence allowed to drop from lack of response. 

• One of these is in the Louvre, 
tho other in tho Belvedere at 
Vienna. Both were assigned for 
years to Eaphucl. 

t This canvas, M. 2-42 h. by 
1-82, is now No. 469 in the 
^fadrid Museum, having been 
in tho Escorial. The inonk?^, who 
disliked the sight of tho bare leg, 
had it painted over with a drapery 
which has since been removed, 
leaving the flesh abraded. This, 
and the left side of tho face, is 
heavily repainted. In tho dis- 
tance to tho left the landscape is 

coloured by tho flames of a burn- 
ing city. In the foreground to 
the I'ight is a human skull. On 
the rock in which the cavern 
mouth is yawning wo read, 
" TiTi^iNVS." Two copies of this 
piece are still at the Escorial. 

A very similar picture by 
Titian, in the collection of Charles 
the First of England, is no longer 
to be traced. See Bathoe's Cata- 
logue, u. s. See tho engravings 
by an anonymous hand, and by 
H. Howard. 



Philip acknowledged the receipt of Titian's letter of 
October in a despatch of the 12th of December, and 
for this the painter made humble return in the follow- 
ing March, 1553, declaring "that the kindness of the 
Prince's answer had made him young again, and pray- 
ing that pending the completion of certain ' poesies ' 
which he had in preparation. His Highness would 
accept a portrait of himself (the Prince) which he 
now begged to forward." " 

On the back of this letter Philip wrote the following 
memorandum in his own hand. 


"For Italy on the 18tli of June, by Don Antonio 
de Bineros from Madrid. 

" Answer Titian. 

" Well beloved and faithful, 

" By Ortiz the servant of our ambassador at 
Venice we received your letter and the portrait which 
accompanied it ; for which, being from your own 
hand, as well as for the trouble you have taken, we 
give you many thanks, together with assurance of 
our good will in respect of your offer." 

Almost at the same time Charles the Fifth \^Tote 
to Vargas to ask whether it was true as rumoured 
at Brussels that Titian had died. 

* The original of Titian's letter 
is in Appendix. It alludes to 
Philip's despatch of the previous 


which has not beeu 




" It is rumoured here that Titian is dead, but the 
rumour has not been confirmed and is probably 
untrue. Give us advice of the truth, and say whether 
Titian has finished certain pictures which he was 
charged to execute when he left Aug.-;l)urg, or how 
far he has got on with them. 
" From Brussels, May 31, l.jo3." * 

Writing at the close of June, Titian conclusively 
proved to the Emperor that he was alivc,t but \^argas, 
after communicating similar intelligence, gave account 
to the Emperor not only of the great picture of the 
Trinity, Init of other works which the master had 
l)een painting for Charles and ^lary of Hungary. 


" Titian is alive and well, and not a little pleased 
to know that your ^Majesty was inquiring for him. 
He took me to see the ' Trinity,' which he promised 
to finish towards the end of September. It seems to 
me to be a fine work. Equally so a Christ appearing 
to the ]\Ia<]^dalen in the o-ardcn for the Screnissima 
(,»>ueen Mary. The other picture he says will be a 
' grieving Virgin,' companion to the ' Ecce Homo, 
already in possession of your ]Majesty, whicli he has 

f \ 

• See the original in Appendix. 

t Titian to Charles the Fifth, 

in Ticozzi, p. 309. The date, 

VOL. It. 

which Ticozzi does not give, is 
siip])lied by the following letter 
of Vargas. 



not done because tlie size was not given, but whicli 
lie will execute so soon as tlie particulars are sent 
to him. 
" From Venice, 30^7i of June, 1553." * 

Meanwhile Francesco Donato the Docfe havinof 
attained to the great age of eighty, had been gathered 
to his fathers, and found a substitute in the pious 
senator Marc-Antonio Trevisani. Titian was forced 
to suspend his labours to portray the new prince, 
and Aretino was enabled to write a sonnet in praise 
of the likeness in November.! A replica fortunately 
survived the original, which perished in the fire of 
1577, and this replica in the Sterne collection at 
Vienna betrays the sickly complexion of a man who 
died after a year of office as he sat at mass in a room 
of the public palace. There is no picture of the time 
in which Titian has more superficially contrasted 
the smoothness and polish of flesh with accidents of 
texture in dress. The figure and face are turned to 
the right ; the ducal cap of yellow silk and gold seems 
to overweight the head, which shows all the sio;ns of 
disease, in a dull black eye, and skin suflfused with 
bile. A black beard streaked with grey, falls on the 
rich lemon-toned damask of the mantle, the folds of 
which are kept together with the left hand whilst 
the right grasps a white handkerchief.:]: We can 

* The original is in Appendix. 

t Aretino to Boccamazza, Ven. 
Nov. 1553, in Lettere de M. P. A. 
vi. 203. 

X This canvas is m. 0'99 h. by 
0'S6, and was long in the Ees- 
tetits Collection. The figure is 
seen to the thirrh, and is not free 

Chap. VI. THE " DANAE."— MADEID. 227 

hardly doubt that the master bestowed more care 
and spent more time on the contemporary portraits 
of Francesco Vargas and the Protonotary Thomas 
Granvelle, each of which adorned the palace of the 
Imperial embassy and Titian's house at Venice in 
the winter of 1553-4.* 

In spring and summer of 1554 Titian finished and 
forwarded to their several destinations four important 
works, — the "Danae" of Madrid for the Prince of 
Spain, '•'Christ appearing to tlie ^lagdalen," which 
Queen ]\laiy of Hungary took with her from the 
Netherlands to Spain, the " Grieving Virgin," and 
tlie "Trinity" to which allusion wiis made in the 
letter of Vargas. Philip received the " Danae " but a 
few (lays Ijcforc he left Coi-unna for the shores of 
Britain. t A companion piece representing Venus 
and Adonis, despatched a little later from Venice, 
reached him in London about three months after 
his marriage with Mary Tudor, and it is curious to 
note how the annals of art here confirm whnt 
historians of the time have told respecting a prince 
whose habitual regularity of church observance did 
not exclude the utmost freedom in respect of con- 
nection with the fair sex. *' Se non ha il Re per 
ccisto," the Venetian envoy wrote from London to 
his government, and Philip's taste for the lightest 

from restoring, particularly in 
the parts immediately beneath 
the beard. 

* Aretino to Titian, Venice, 
October, lijo'6. The same to Va- 
sallo, Nov. lo53, and Aretino to 

Thomas Granvelle, Jan. 15u4, in 
Lettere, u. s., vi. 193, 203-5, and 
220'. Neither of these portraits 
is at present to be traced. 

t The date of an-ival in Spain 
is not exactly stated. 

Q 2 


nudities of the Venetian school seems to confirm the 

In the " Danae " as in other, canvases of the same 
class, Titian was no longer producing anything new 
or original, but merely composing variations upon old 
and well-worn themes. The " Danae " of Madrid is 
not different in any essential particular from that of 
Naples. It is only coarser and more realistic. One of 
the distinct peculiarities of the " Danae" of Naples was 
form of ideal beauty akin to that of the antique, and 
colour of richness only attainable on Titian's palet. 
The " Danae " of Madrid lies in the same attitude as its 
earlier prototype and is cast in a similar mould, but 
the shape is less refined, the contours are less clean,, 
and — it is clear — a certain obtuseness has grown upon 
Titian, who now felt with less delicacy than of yore. 
The sacrifice of poetry and sentiment to realism, 
equally marked in the palatial and festive canvases of 
Paolo Veronese, and in the lowly and pastoral pieces of 
Giacomo Bassano, is already complete, and the limbs, 
the hands and feet of Danae will no more permit 
us to think of princely birth or tender nurture 
than the hag who catches the gold pieces in her apron 
will help us to remember the classic loves of Jove. 
But this brings us to another feature in which the 
Madrid canvas differs from that of Naples. Cupid 
here has disappeared, and has taken away his bow 
and arrows. A little dog lies curled up at Danae's 
side. The gold pieces fall from the clouds, and an 

* Eelatione di Gioyanni Michele, in Prescott's Philip tlie Second. 





old womau with a key at her girdle sits at the foot 
of the couch, and greedily watches them as they fall 
into her dress. But to give Titian his due, — if we 
accept as unalterable the coarser fibre of thought 
which runs through the picture — we shall still admire 
the wonderful power which lies in the artist's touch, 
his efiectiveness in the distribution of lisjht and shade 
and colour, and his absolute mastery in reproducing 
nature. As a study of character nothing can l)e 
more true or more strikingly real than the hag on 
the bedside, and as a contnist to fciirness and youth 
what can be more telliuij than old aQ;e and weather- 
beaten skin, or the sear of vice and rags.* 

We cannot trace to Titian's easel a replica which 
formed part of the Granvelle collection, t but more 
than once in later days tlie master rang the changes 
on this composition without altering it, and extant 
repetitions in St. Petersburg and Vienna fully demon- 
strate the popularity of the subject. In the Petersburg 
example the dog is absent, and the old woman wears 

* This canvas is mentioned in 
a letter which Titian wrote to 
Philip in Nov. 1554 (Ticozzi, 
VeceUi, u. s., p. 312). He 
speaks of it as having been for- 
warded earlier in the year. It 
is now No. 458 in the Madrid 
Museum, having been preserved 
for centuries in the "Titian Hall" 
at the Alcazar. It is on canvas, 
m. 1-28 h. by 1 -78, and the figures 
are as large as life. It has been 
injured by cleaning and repairs, 
And there are bad patchings with 
new paint about the upper part 

of the right aim, the left breast, 
and abdomen. The toes of the 
right foot are also repainted, and 
the sky is so altered that the face 
of Jove in the clouds has disap- 
peared. The old woman with her 
grey cap, naked shoulders, and 
brown dress, is best preserved. 
There are engravings of this piece 
by Sutman, Lisebetius, Le Fdbre, 
and Richer. 

t This picture was 3 ft. h. by 
5^. See the inventory in Castan, 
u. s.y p. bo. 



a brown dress ; '"' wliilst a second at Vienna gives the 
form of the hag fronting the spectator, and holding 
up a chased dish. Both these canvases are executed 
Avith bold Titianesque ease of hand, and must be held 
to be originals, though perhaps not carried out with- 
out assistance from Cesare Vecelli, or Girolamo, the 
favourite of the master s workshop.t 

Titian received his reward for the " Danae'' of Madrid 
through Vargas. In a letter to Philip he acknow- 
ledged that the guerdon was more suited to the 
Prince's greatness than to the painter's merit : but he 
promised to finish quickly the "Venus and Adonis" in 
order that he might deserve it more.J Having done 

* The Petersburg example is 
on canvas, No. 100 of the Gallery 
of the Hermitage, m. 1"2 by 1'88, 
or about 3 ft. 8 by 7 ft. It has 
also been damaged by unequal 
cleaning and abrasions, which 
have removed some glazings and 
half-tones, leaving the whites es- 
pecially raw and cold. It was, 
1633, in the collection of the 
Marquis de Vrilliere, afterwards 
in the French collections of The- 
venin, Bourvalais, and Crozat. 
It is engraved in reverse by Louis 

t This picture. No. 36 in the 
2nd room of the 1st Floor (Ital. 
Sch.), in the Belvedere of Vienna, 
is 4 ft. 3 h. by 4 ft. 8, and in- 
scribed beneath the left foot of 
Danae, " titianvs ^qves c^s." 
But this inscription is modern, 
though it may have been re- 
painted on the old lines. It is 
more injured than the Petersburg 
example, and less in focus. The 

head of Danae is in part rubbed 
away, the toes of the right foot 
are renewed, and glazes here and 
there have been removed. A copy 
of the Petersburg replica, pos- 
sibly by the Spaniard Mazo, is in 
the collection of the Duke of 
"Wellington in London ; a copy 
of that of Vienna, in the collection 
of Lady Malniesbuiy, was sold in 
1876 for £15 4s. 6d. ; a Venetian 
adaptation of the Naples original 
is at Cobham Hall. In Februaiy, 
1 875, there was on view at Angers^ 
a " Danae by Titian," and said to 
have belonged to the Buoncom- 
pagni family at Bologna. The 
same picture was exhibited at 
Milan in 1874. In both cities it 
was said that it had been pur- 
chased for the Emperor, of Eussia 
for 630,000 fr. 

J The letter without date in 
Ticozzi (Vecelli, u. s., p. 312), 
must have been written at th©- 
close of Spring in 1554. 


this, he penned a contrasting letter to Charles the 
Fifth, announcing the completion and delivery of the 
"Trinity" and " Addolorata," and complaining — we 
may think justly — that his claims for pensions on 
^nian and Na})les had never as yet been satisfied. 


" Most Sacred Cesarean Majesty, 

" By order of your Coesarean ^lajesty a yearly 
provision of 200 scudi was assigned to me at Milan, and 
a privilege for the carriage of corn Wiis granted to me 
at Naples. The latter has cost me hundreds of scudi 
to pay an agent in the kingdom. Lastly, I received 
a * natiiralezza ' in Spain for one of my sons, to which 
a yearly pension of 500 scudi was attached. It has 
been my ill fortune to fail in obtaining anything from 
these grants, and I now beg leave to say a word to 
}'our Majesty respecting them, hoping that the liberal 
mind of the greatest Christian Emperor that ever lived 
will not suffer his orders to be contemned by his 
ministers. I should consider such a benefit as an act 
of charity, inasmuch as I am straitened for means, 
havino; lieen in ill health, and havinix married a 
daughter. My supplication to the celestial Queen to 
intercede for me with your C. M. finds expression 
in the record of her image, which now comes before 
your ]\Iajesty with a semblance of grieving which 
reflects the quality of my troubles. I also send the 
picture of the ' Trinity,' and, had it not been for the 
tribulation I liavc undergone, I should have finished 
and sent it earlier, although in my wish to satisfy 


your C. M. I have not spared myself tlie pains of 
striking out two or three times the work of many 
days to bring it to perfection and satisfy myself, 
whereby more time was wasted than I usually take to 
do such things. But I shall hold myself fortunate if 
I give satisfaction, and beg your C. M. will accept my 
eager wish to be of service, my greatest ambition being 
to do a pleasure to your Majesty, whose all powerful 
hand I kiss with all devotion and humility of heart. 

" From Venice, Se^jt. 10, 15o4." 

" The portrait of Signor Vargas, introduced into the 
work, was done at his request. If it should not please 
your C. M. any painter can, with a couple of strokes, 
convert it into another person. 

" Of your Csesarean Majesty, 

" The most humble Servant, 

" TiTiANO, Fittore." * 

It is unfortunate for Titian's character for veracity 
that the contract for his daughter's marriage should 
be dated in 1555, instead of in 1554, but the word 
" married " may be charitably attributed to the promise • 
rather than to the consummation of Lavinia's union. 

A letter from Francesco Vargas communicated to 
the Emperor the dispatch of the " Trinity " and 
" Addolorata," Avhich left Venice for the Netherlands 
on the 11th of October, 1554, and there is every 
reason for thinking that Mary of Hungary was 
destined to receive by the same conveyance the 
" Christ appearing to the Magdalen," which she after- 

* See tlie original letter in Appendix. 

Chap. Yl.] 

<<■ V 



wards took with her to Spain.'"' For a long time 
Titian's latest version of the " Noli me tangere " was 
preserved at the Escorial, where a copy of it still exists. 
The original was mutilated in a stranore and iinac- 
countable way, and what remains of it is a fine head 
and bust of the Saviour holding a hoe in his left 

The " Yu'gin of Grief," being on slate, was probably 
saved by the strengtli of its materials from sharing 
the fate of many other masterpieces of Titian. It was 
a companion piece to the " Ecce Homo," and as such, 
properly represented the Virgin as a mother lamenting 
over the sufferincfs of the Son. Tlie face, at three- 
quarters to the left, is bent forward, the glance is 
intent, and the liands are held up in token of grieving. 
Sweetness and richness of colour are combined with 
great blending and very delicate transitions of tone. 
But the type and expression and the cast of the 
features indicate the master's irrepressible tendency to 
absolute realism. :|: 

* The letter of Vargas is in 

t This fragment, on canvas fast 
to panel, is No. 489 in the Madrid 
Museum, m. 0G8 h. by 0-G2. It 
represents the .Saviour at three- 
([uartors to the left, in a white 
tunic and blue mantle, with rays 
issuing from the head ; distance, 
sky. The fragment was found at 
the Escorial by Don P. Madrazo ; 
it then served as a cover to an oil 
jar. See an account of this by 
Mr. J. C. Robinson, in the " Aca- 
demy " for March, 1872. The 

I proof that the picture in its entire 
state was taken to Spain, is to be 
found in QueoTi Mary's inventory 
of 1ju6, in Revue Universelle des 
Arts, u. s., iii. 141 ; another edi- 
tion of this subject was seen un- 
finished in Titian's atelier by 
Vasari in 1j66 (xiii. 44). 

t Madrid Mus., No. 468, on 
slate, m. 0G8 h. by 0'53. The 
Virgin wears u violet tunic and 
blue mantle, the latter partly 
covering the head, on which there 
is a white cap. The figure is a 
bust of life si/e. See postea. 




It lias been remarked that the distribution of the 
" Trinity " was in defiance of the laws of composition, 
whilst the strained attitude of most of the figures was 
detrimental to their general efi'ect.'"" There is no 
doubt a great deal of truth in the reproach, for we 
miss altogether the convergence and symmetrical 
arrangement of lines which so large a subject on so 
vast a scale required. But it should be remembered 
that Titian was worldngj at a theme dictated to him 
by the Emperor or some of his spiritual advisers, and 
if he failerl under these cii^cumstances to produce the 
necessary pictorial equilibrium he was not much to 
blame. AVe are bound meanwhile to concede that he 
all but restored the balance by contrasts of light and 
shade, and a vivid spread of harmonious colour un- 
attainable by any artist but himself. One might add, 
indeed, that the glorious medium of light amidst 
clouds, in which his personages are suspended, trans- 
fio'ures the host which he has brought tos^ether, and 
makes one forget the colossal bulk of some, the violent 
movement of others, and the realism which more than 
ever reveals itself in the rendering; of all. In the 
highest circle of the heavens, and as it were in a halo 
of golden radiance, the two first Persons of the Trinity 
are seated in awful majesty, with crystal orbs and 
sceptres in their hands. About them the countless array 
of cherubim and seraphim loses itself in a brilliant mist. 
Lower down in the clouds the Virgin stands before 
the heavenly tribunal, and intercedes for the sinners at 

* Waagen, Ueber in Spanien 
Yorliandene Gemalde in Jahr- 

biicher fiir Kunstwissenscliaft, 
Leipzig, 1868, vol. i. p. 118. 

Chap. Y1.] " THE TRINITY." 235 

whose head Charles the Fifth to the right is kneeling. 
The monarcli in profile looks up prayerfully. Behind 
him is the Empress, lower dovm Mary of Hungar}-, 
Philip, and his sister, all easily recognised by their 
characteristic features — each of them in their T\andiiig 
sheets, and in action of prayer. The crown, emblem 
of the Imperial dignity, is at Charles's feet, and seems 
to indicate his purpose of abdicating the thi'one. 
Beneath the royal group and on the same side, there 
are several figures in which it may be possible to 
recognise Vargas, bearded, and simulating the patient 
Job. We can fancy Titian giving this character to 
an envoy of the Kaiser with some sort of tremor. 
Further down the canvas, and in the very centre of 
the clouds, are grand representations of Moses vdih the 
tables, Noah holding up a model of the ark, on which 
the dove is restino- with the olive branch, and near 
him a female with long and copious tresses, who may 
be the Magdalen ; further on to the left in ascending 
lines, the Evangelists and Prophets. The sheen of 
the colours can hardly be described, and particularly 
the sheen of the blue raiment in which the Eternal, 
Christ, and the Virgin are clad. The outlines are lost 1 
in the rounding of the parts as they lose themselves I 
under similar conditions in natm^e, and the flesh is 
stamped off as it were mth grand robust touches, 
reminding us of those words which Titian spoke to 
Vargas when asked why he painted with so large a 
brush."^" After Charles's abdication in 1555, several 

* See antea, i. p. 329. 



pictures of Lis favourite master were taken to the 
solitude of Yuste, and amongst them the "Trinity," 
upon which he often gazed at last with great fond- 
ness and pleasure.* In a codicil of his will, which 
Philip the Second was induced to disregard, the dying 
Emperor ordered the piece to be framed and set up on 
the high altar of the Jeronymite monastery. Philip 
carried off his father s remains and the " Trinity " 
together, and both were taken to the Escorial, where 
the ashes of the great master still repose, whilst the 
" Last Judgment " as he called it, upon which his last 
glances were thrown, was removed to the Madrid 
Museum .t 

* Figueroa, in Prescott's Philip 
II. See also the inventory of 
pictures taken by Charles the 
Fifth to Spain, and left by him at 
Yuste, in Eevue Universelle des 
Arts, u. s., iii. 227-30. Compare 
also Stirling's Cloister Life of 
Charles the Fifth; Mignet's 
Charles V., 8vo, Paris, 2nd ed., 
p. 452, and Gachard's Eetraite et 
Mort de Charles V., 8vo, Brux. 
1855, ii. pp. 90—93. The i^ictures 
taken to Yuste were : 1 , " The 
Trinity"; 2, the " Ecce Homo " 
and 3, the " Addolorata," the two 
last framed as a diptj^ch; 4, a 
" Madonna " by Titian, in a dip- 
tych, with ' ' Christ carrying his 
Cross," by Michael Coxie ; 5, a 
" Pieta," by Titian ; 6, a " Virgin 
and Child," by Titian; 7, the 
" Emperor and Empress," on one 
canvas, by Titian; 8, the "Em- 
peror in Armour," by Titian; 
9, the " Empiess," by Titian. 

t "The Trinity" is now No. 

462 at the Madiid Museum, on 
canvas, m. 3-46 h. by 2-40. The 
figures on the foreground are of 
life size, and one of them, on the 
left — St. John Evangelist, lying 
on the outstretched pinions of an 
eagle — holds a roll of paper in 
his right hand, on which we read : 
"titianvs p." Beneath the 
clouds, and quite at the base of 
the picture, is a strip of distant 
landscape, with woods and hills, 
and people assembling near a 
chapel. Till 1823 a copy of this 
canvas was on the high altar of 
Yuste. C. Cort engraved the 
original, probably from a drawing 
under Titian's direction in 1564. 
The same composition reversed 
bears the name of Hondius. A 
fair photograph from the original 
was taken by Laurent. Titian's 
petition to the government at 
Venice to print the " Trinity " is 
still extant, dated Feb. 4, 1568. 
See Cadorin, Dello Amore, 9 & 65 



"Grieving Madonnas" or tlie " Day of Judgment," 
warning mortals of the perishable nature of man, were 
fit subjects for the contemplation of a monarch in the 
frame of mind peculiar to Charles the Fifth, in 1554 ; 
classic fables, like the "Danae" or "Adonis," were better 
suited to the taste of Philip. Titian worked alter- 
nately at both, and dispatched them to their destina- 
tion almost simultaneously. In a letter written dming 
the autumn of 1554, Titian sent congratulations to the 
new kincj-consort of Enoland, and forwarded the 
" Adonis," saying that "if in the 'Danac' the forms 
were to be seen frontwise, here Avas occasion to look 
at them from a contrary direction, a pleasant variety, 
he added, "for the ornament of a camcrino. Other 
views he hoped to give of ' Perseus and Andromeda,' 
and ' Jason and ]\[edea,' to which he intended soon to 
add a devotional picture, on which he had already 
been labouring for ten years."* To Don Giovanni 
Benevides, a member of Philip's household, Titian 
also wrote in September, claiming his favour and 
interest with the King, and saying he would have sent 
the "Perseus" and a "Devotion " for the Queen, but 

n \ 

A small copy of this picture, in 
possession of the Duko of Cleve- 
land, was exhibited at the Eoyal 
Academy in 1872. It previously 
belonged to Lord Harry Vane 
and Mr. Rogers, and Tvas called 
" Titian's original sketch for the 
Trinity at Madrid." (Waagon, 
Treasures, ii. 77, favours this 
opinion, and mistakes Noah's Ark 
for Charles the I'ifth's coffin. See 
also Mrs. Jameson's Private Gal- 

leries, p. 401). But it is a copy 
and not a sketch ; a copy, too, of 
quite uncertain date, which was 
taken to England by Mr. Wallis 
about 1.S08, after having been 
discovered, as alleged, in a gam- 
bling-house at Madrid. (See the 
Manchester Catalogues.) 

* Titian to Philip, m Ticozzi, 
p. 312. This letter has no date, 
but Philip's reply to it is of 
Dec. G, 15(54. Hqq jnostea. 



tliat liis time had been taken up with the " Trinity " 
composed for the Emperor.""' Meanwhile, the "Adonis " 
reached its destination in London in such a state that 
Philip was quite distressed to look at it. " The 
* Adonis' has arrived," he writes to Vargas, "but so 
ill-treated that it must be repaired, having a long fold 
across the middle of the canvas. It were best," he 
concluded, "not to send pictures till I give special 
instructions respecting them."t 

There is clear trace of the injury on the canvas 
now hanging at Madrid, a long furrow running hori- 
zontally across the composition and parting the head 
from the shoulders of Venus ; but irrespective of this 
the picture was again but a variation, and not one of 
the best of its kind, on an old theme, and although 
the goddess is fine and Adonis manly, the figure of 
the young hunter appears to have been drawn from a 
rigid model, and betrays much more of the sitter than 
the earlier and more coloured original at Alnwick, 
whilst the landscape is neither as genial in tone nor 
as beautiful in lines as it misfht have been had Titian 
painted it all with his own hand.;]: The truth is, 

* Tkis letter, dated Sept. 10, 
1554, is in full in Ticozzi's Ve- 
celli, ti. s., p. 312. 

t The original, dated Dec. 6, 
1554, is in Appendix ; an extract 
from it in Madrazo's Madrid Ca- 
talogue, p. 247, is falsely dated 
March 4, 1556. 

X The "Adonis," though in- 
tended as a companion piece to 
the " Danae," is larger. It is on 
canvas, m. 1*86 h. by 2*07, and 

numbered 455 in the Madrid 
Museum. A long furrow runs 
horizontally across the middle of 
the canvas, cutting the trunk of 
the trees to the left, in -which 
Cupid's bow and quiver are hung, 
dividing the sleeping Amor into 
two parts, showing along Venus's 
shoulder and Adonis's breast, and 
ending in the distant trees to the 
right. Two longitudinal stripes 
lower down show that the picture 



apparently, that the subject was popular and often 
repeated, and for this reason palled on the master and 
his disciples ; and this may account for the neglectful-J 
way in which many of the replicas were executed, a 
fact of which we become aware when lookino- at 
examples in the National Gallery, or in the collection 
of Lord Elcho.""' But the truth may also be that 
Titian had been working hard and continuously, 
when his better impulse was dulled by the pain of 
domestic troul)les. There were letters exchanged 
between Poraponio Vecelli and Aretino in 1554, 

•was rolled and then squeezed flat 
by an accident. The colours are 
the same as at Alnwick. In the 
clouds to the right a small figure 
of a god looks down. Adonis 
holds three dogs in a leash. On 
the foregi'ound to the left is a 
vase. The picture was engraved 
by Jul. Sanuto and E. Sadeler; 
there is a photograph of it by 
Laurent. Wo may suspect that 
Orazio Vecelli was no stranger to 
the execution, of which Dolce 
wrote so enthusiastically to the 
patrician Alessandro Contarini, at 
Venice. See Zucchi, Idea del 
seq., ed. of 1G14, p. 4, in Cicogna, 
Isc. Ven., iii. p. 236. 

* No. 34 in the National Gal- 
lery, on canvas, 5 ft. 9 h. by 
G ft. 2, "was in the Colonna Palace 
at Piome till 1800. It is a coun- 
terpart of the Madrid example, 
but painted with less delicacy, 
and apparently with much help 
from Schiavone. It might, in- 
deed, have been altogether carried 
out by that disciple of Titian. 

Besides some general retouching, 
there is here some wholesale 
daubing of a modern character in 
the sleeping Cupid. Of this them 
are engravings by Sir E. Strange 
and W. Holt. 

Lord Elcho's repetition of this 
piece is injured, but on the whole 
less satisfactory than the fore- 
going. It is a school work, of 
which, as of the National Gallery 
canvas, there are small but very 
modem copies in the Nostitz Col- 
lection at Prague, and in the 
Gallery of Dulwich. 

It is impossible to say which of 
these repetitions originally be- 
longed to the Marquess Serra of 
Milan in Scanelli's time. (See the 
Microcosmo, u. s., p. 222.) Sir A. 
Hume notes this subject by Titian 
in the Lomellin: Palace at Genoa 
(Notices, 1)45). , and there was a 
replica ascribed to Titian in the 
collection of Queen Cki-istine. 
(See Campori, Eaccolta di Cata- 
loghi, n. s., p. 340.) 


which show that the. scapegrace had been driven to 
a state of anger and distress by some very decided 
measures of his father."' Titian had lost all con- 
iidence in his son's amendment, and taken steps to 
control him rigorously. In April, 1554, he had 
written to Guglielmo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, to 
ask permission to substitute one of his nephews for 
Pomponio in the canonry of Medole, and in the 
following October he had become possessed of the 
Ijenefice of St. Andrea del Fabbro, near Mestre, of 
which the income was secured to himself, t It is 
difficult to ascertain whether Pomponio was most 
' angered by the loss of the benefice of Medole, or by 
Titian's refusal to grant to him St. Andrea del 
Fabbro. But he must have felt very keenly the 
preference which Titian soon after showed to his 
nephew. In order to ingratiate the new incumbent 
with his flock, Titian presented to the parish church 
a picture of " Christ appearing to the Virgin Mary," 
and this masterpiece, on the high altar of St. Mary of 
Medole, shows with what interest he did his work, 
and how much of real heart he threw into it. The 
scene which the painter imagined is the meeting of 
Mary and Christ after the Ascension. The Virgin 
kneels on the clouds and raises her hands with marks 
of surprise as she looks at the Saviour, who stands 

* Aretino to Pomponio, in Lett. 
di M. P. A., \i. p. 182. 

t Titian's letter to Gonzaga is 
in Appendix, together with a 
precis of the instrument by which 

his rights to the benefice of Sant. 
Andrea del Fabbro, which Titian 
in 15o7 conferred on Pomponio. 
See also a Breve of Cardinal Tri- 
vulzi, under date of Sept. 30, 1557, 

Talamio,a priest atReggio, cedes i in Cadorin, DeUo Amore. 


before her in the garb of the tomb and shows her the 
stio-mata. To the left, behind the Redeemer, Adam, 
the first man, poises in the mist the beam of a cross, 
and behind liim stands Eve ; and two patriarchs, 
perliaps Noah and Abraham, show their bearded 
faces. • Rays issue flame-like from Christ's head, and 
a supernatural halo pierces the heaven, which is 
arched as it were with winQ-cd cherubim. One cannot 
but admire the vigour which Titian here displays, 
and rememberiiK^ his acje, one feels iuclined to com- 
pare him to an old and mighty oak which, in spite of 
years, expands its canopy of fresh and licalthy leaves. 
Granted that the forms are cast in a mouhl more ] 
indicative of strength than of grace, that the features ' 
are more expressive than select — granted, in fact, the , 
realism wliidi now characterises Titian, it is iKirdlyj ' 
possible to point to a work of this time in wliicli 
more power is concentrated, in which there is more| 
simplicity of tone or more sobriety or appropriateness 
of action. Nor is it without renewed surprise that we 
look at the skilful modellino- of the fio-ures relieved 
by tone upon the silver ground of the halo behind 
them, or on the broad and massive touches with 
whieli this modelling is produced ; and were it not 
that time and accidents have caused a marked deteri- 
oration in the surface of the canvas, one might com- 
pare the figures for studied grandeur and force of 
design to those of Michaelangelo, and the movement 
and draperies for fitness and flow to those of Fra 
Bartolommeo. Here, it is evident, Titian was not 
painting for the Prince of Spain, for whose taste and j 

VOL. II. K ' 



judgment lie might possibly feel but small respect. 
Here Titian was painting for the satisfaction of his 
own feeling as an artist, and so it happens that his 
picture is better and more successful than those pro- 
duced to order for king and kaiser.'" 

Charles the Fifth received the "Trinity and the 
grieving Virgin " not without pleasure, but his letter 
being apparently a mere compliment, had only induced 
Titian to press anew and with increased persistency his 
claims on the Lombard and Neapolitan treasuries.t He 
had sent Orazio to Milan with letters from liimself and 
Aretino to Gio Battista Castaldo, hoping that these 
and a judicious present of a picture might soften the 
obduracy of the Milanese administration ; but little 
arts of this kind had proved altogether ineffectual, 
and nothing had come of them except repeated dis- 
appointment. ;j; 

* Dr. Francesco Beltrame ■wrote 
some illustrative notes on this 
picture when it was taken, about 
the year 1862, to be restored by 
Professor Paolo Fabris, to Venice. 
These notes were published in 
five folio pages in August, 1862, 
and contain the letter to Gugli- 
elmo Gonzaga, which will be 
found in the Appendix to this 
Volume. They further explain 
the cause of the damage done to 
the piece, which was produced by 
its concealment in a tomb during 
the French revolution. Here the 
canvas rotted, and the colours 
were to some extent corroded, 
and Professor Fabris did not 
restore them with any great suc- 
cess. The blue mantle of the 

kneeling Virgin, for instance, has 
turned to a dull opaque tone not 
unlike black ; and much of the 
rest has been flayed and thrown 
out of focus. The size of the 
work is m. 2*76 h. by 1-98. Ac- 
cording to the local tradition of 
Medole, Titian fell sick at the 
house of the " parroco," his ne- 
phew, and rewarded him for his 
attention with this picture. 

t The original letter, without 
date, from Titian to Charles the 
Fifth, is in Ticozzi's Vecelli (p. 
310). It gives the Emperor thanks 
for kind expressions as to the 
Virgin " addolorata." 

J Compare Aretino to G. B. 
Castaldo, in Lettere di M. P. 
Aretino, vi. p. 264. Titian to G. 



In the meanwhile new and not nniniportant labours 
had been offered to Titian in Venice. The Doo-e 
Trevisani, having passed away on the 31st of May, 
1554, in the quiet and unobtrusive manner which 
has already been recorded, had been succeeded by 
Francesco Venier, who called on Titian soon after, not 
only to paint his likeness, but to compose the neces- 
sary votive picture in honour of his predecessor. The 
portrait of Venier was finished early in 1555, and paid 
out of the treasury of the Salt Office in the month of 
March. It was the last portrait which then found a 
place in the Hall of Great Council. It was also the 
last that Titian undertook in his official capacity, 
the two Doires, L^rpuzo and Oirolamo Priuli, havinjx 
relieved liim oi" the duty in favour of (liruhimo di 
Titiano and Tintoretto."' On the l'.»th of August, 
1554, Titian was called to the Ducal Palace, where he 
signed a contract in the presence of the Doge and the 
proveditora of the Salt Office to paint within a year 
IVum the first day uf th(3 following September a 
canvas representing Marc- Antonio Trevisani in state 
robes kneeling before the Vii-gin and Child and 
attended by St. Mark, St. iVnthony, St. Dominick, 

B. Castalflo, in Nuova Scelta di 
Lottere di divorsi, 4to, Ven. 1074, 
and reprinted in Ticozzi's 13ot- 
tari, vol. v. p. 59. 

• The payment, dated March 7, 
is printed by Lorenzi, u. s., p. 
288. See also the record in the 
sanio volnino as to Oirolamo and 
Tintoretto, who were Titian's suc- 
cesriors, and Vasari, xiii. 27-8. 
See further, an order of April 1.'}, 

I.'i4.3, in which the Council of Ten 
declares : " 1". That there are but 
three spaces left tor Doges' por- 
traits in the Hall of Great Coun- 
cil ; 2". That s])ace is to be fouud 
for Doges' jjortraits in the new 
library." Auothor order of \o\'). 
Juno 9, orders that the friezes in 
the old library bo removed to 
make room for the series of new 
Lorenzi, m. s., pp. 252-3. 
K 2 



and St. Francis. The contract provided that pay- 
ments should be made in instalments to the full 
amount of 171 ducats and 12 soldi, but that a fine 
should be imposed on Titian if alive, or if he should 
die, on his heirs in case the picture should not have 
been finished at the appointed time. The deed being- 
subject to confirmation by the Doge in Council was 
balloted on the 5th of September and lost ; balloted 
and lost asfain on the 28th of the same month. And 
the composition was nearly complete before the sages 
thought of taking a resolution in respect of it. At 
last, on the 7th of January, 15.55, a decree was passed 
ordering a valuation, and, pending that formality, 
an advance of 50 ducats was made. Long after the 
canvas was hung in a splendid frame above the door 
of the Pregadi Hall, the payment for it remained 
unliquidated.'"' In the meantime, Venier, apparently 
the most unselfish of men, was not content to contri- 
bute to immortalize his immediate predecessor, but 
recollecting that a Doge long since dead, whose 
offences had been condoned by his contemporaries, 
was still without his share of the usual tributary 
honour, resolved that a monument should be set up to 
his memory of equal value to those which had been 
dedicated to his compeers. He therefore proposed 
and carried an order in Council by which Titian was 
charged to paint a votive picture of Antonio Grimani. 
The order was issued to the master on the 22nd of 

* The records are in Lorenzi, 
pp. 285, 2S7, & 292. The final 

January, 1556. Both this picture 
and the portrait of Venier pe- 

payment of 171,12 was made in ' rished in the fire of 1577. 

Chap. ^^:.] THE "FEDE." 24o 

March. As early as the following July lie had made 
such rapid progress that an advance of 50 ducats was 
granted.'"' But then some sudden blight fell upon 
the whole undertaking. The canvas was left in the 
painter's hands, and during his lifetime was never 
exliibited. And it is related that the disciples after 
Titian's death finished and placed it where it now 
hangs in the Hall of the PulJic Palace, known as tlie 
Sala de' Quattro Porte. It is the more curious that 
this mishap should have occurred, as the "Fede" 
deserves to rank amont^st the mtjst nuiiinificent and 
effective palatial pieces that Titian composed in his j 
later years. Nor is there a sin2:le work of the artist 
whicli more fully confirms contem[)()rary accounts of , 
his style. " Titian's later creations," says Vasari, | '-'^ 
"arc struck ofi' rapidly with strokes and with touch so 
that when close you cannot see them, but afar they 
look perfect, and this is the style which so many tried 
to imitate to show that they wrre practised hands, I 
but only produced absurdities. The cause is explained 
by this, that though many think the work is fiung off j 
without trouble, it is not so. For, on the contrary, it 
is done and redone with great pains, as any one can 
see who looks into it, and this method is full of judg- 
ment, and equally fine and stupendous, as it gives life 
to the picture and displays the art whilst it conceals ' 1\ 
the means." t ' 

It is possible that the form given by Titian to the 
subject was considered likely to offend religious ov 

* Lorenzi, u, s., pp. 289-90. f Vasari, xiii. 39, 40. 


political prejudice. Grimani is represented kneeling 
on a cushion, his head in profile, and raised to look 
up at a vision. His body, arms, and thighs are clad 
in steel, whilst his shoulders are decked with the 
mantle of the Doge. He kneels to the right, before a 
bright apparition of a female, whose long loose hair 
and white dress float as it were in a balmy breeze as 
she stands erect on a cloud surrounded by angels and 
cherubs supporting the cross and the cup. A page, in 
a flowered tabard, to the right of Grimani holds up to 
him the ducal cap. A helmeted soldier behind grasps 
a partisan and bends obsequiously. A captain in the 
foreground, in a green scale-jacket and yellow buskins, 
stands in an attitude of proud strength, one hand on 
his haunch, another supporting a standard. To the 
left, St. Mark in red tunic and blue mantle, with the 
lion couchant at his side, is placed in a fine movement, 
turnino- from the leaves of his book to look at the 
vision. Beneath the clouds which curl under the 
latter, a distance is seen showing the Venetian fleet at 
anchor, and the ducal palace and campanile. That 
this after all is nothino- else than Grimani's life con- 
densed into an allegory is clear. Defeat, captivity, 
and exile, symbolised by the cup and cross, human 
trials condoned through the intercession of St. Mark ; 
this may seem tlie burden of the picture, Avhich as 
such might perhaps justify certain contemporary mis- 
givings. Be this as it may, the sages of a later gene- 
ration were content to think that the multitude would 
accept the vision as an allegory of faith, and so they 
displayed, so explained it. In itself imposing, the 

CiiAr. VI.] THE "FEDE." 247 

composition is . made still more impressive by tlie 
grandeur of the figures wliicli give a supernatural air 
to the scene. The female in the clouds, antique in 
form and drapery, antique in force and elegance of 
attitude, is hardly less efi'ective in her way than the 
angel in Raphael's " Liberation of St. Peter." The 
tall cross which she supports is made light to her by 
charming Ijoy angels, one of whom raises the foot, the 
other the arm, whilst a thii-d sports without occupa- 
tion in the air to the left. A beautiful circle of 
winged churubs' heads Hoats in the halo around. 
Equally efi'ective in a difierent but sterner key, St. 
j^lark stands out in coloured strength and splendid 
robing against the radiant mist, his head admirably 
thrown "back and foreshortened. Brilliant is the fiioht 
of })illar.s in perspective with ornaments of statues, 
gorgeous the red hanging that falls l)ehind the group 
on the right, splendid the gloom on the red and white 
marble of the floor, which forms the foreground. 
Nature itself is reproduced in the flesh, the colours 
are full of a surprising richness and variety of har- 
monic contrasts. In grand divisions the light of the 
halo is pitted against the darker ground and its occu- 
pants, whilst the breadth of deep shadow projections 
is broken by sharp bursts of light of the most varied 
quality, according as they are shown in armour or in 
stuffs of diverse texture. That Marco Vecelli should 
have had a hand in this piece is only conceivable on 
the supposition that he added the two figures of a 
prophet and a standard bearer at the sides of the 
main composition. But these are mere fillings of 




empty spaces which make no change in Titian's 
original picture. * 

In the midst of these important labours, which more 
than ever tied him down to his residence in Venice, 
Titian married his only daughter to Cornelio Sarcinelli 
of Serravalle, and the marriage settlement, which still 
exists, was signed on the 20th of March 1555. The 
dowry which Lavinia brought to her husband was not 
worth less than 1400 ducats, a regal sum for a painter 
to have amassed who complained that he never was 
paid by his royal and imperial patrons ; GOO ducats of 
this amount were given to the bridegroom in June, 
and the rest was transmitted to him in money and 
jewels in September of the following year. The 
wedding took place on the 19th of June, the day on 
which Lorenzo Priuli was elected to succeed Francesco 
Venier as Doge of Venice.t 

In March of this year, Titian had written to Philip 
the Second to announce that pictures were ready for 
despatch, if he chose to send word whither they should 
be directed. Philip replied with a letter of thanks on 

* Boschini, u. s., E. Min. S. di 
S. Marco, p. 10, distinctly states 
that all tliat Marco Vecelli did 
"was to make these additions. 
The picture itself contains figures 
of life size, which unhappily have 
been subjected to more than one 
ordeal of restoring. The remarks 
in the text are naturally subject 
to this drawback. But though 
we miss some of the original 
hrio, and have to take up with 
colour reduced in parts to a dull 
opacity, the whole piece is still 

very grand. Photograph by Naya. 
Compare Tizianello's Anon", p. 8 ; 
Eidolfi's Maraviglie, i. p. 269; and 
Zanetti, ii. s., p. 164. According 
to the Anouimo this picture was 
in the " Anticollegio," and Za- 
netti thinks that after the fire of 
1577 it was taken from thence 
and placed in its present position ,^ 
when the necessities of the space 
forced Marco Vecelli to introduce 
the side figures. 

t The marriage settlement is 
in Appendix. 



the 4tli of May, gently rebuking the painter for not 
telling him the subjects which he had prepared, but 
anxious to receive them whatever they might be. We 
may well believe that one of them was the " Perseus 
and Andromeda," of which Yasari relates that it was 
a beautiful work representing the princess of Ethiopia 
bound to the rock and Perseus appearing to save her 
from the sea monster." The monarch's letter con- 
cluded witli a request that Titian should inform him 
whether his claims had been linally settled, as he 
meant, if they were still pending, to cause special 
instructions to be sent to the Duke of Alva. He 
wrote at the same time to Vargas to pack Tit inn's 
canvases most carefully and scud them to r>russels, 
where the sooner he received them the Ijctter he should 
be pleased. t 

The high and acknowledged position held by Titian 
at this period is proved, not only by his being absolved 
from the duty of painting the ducal portraits without 
losing his broker's patent, Init by an honourable 
commission entrusted to him by the Venetian govern- 
ment. Sansovino had finished the hall of the library 
of St. Mark in 1553,| and the ceiling of that beautiful 

* Vasari, xiii. p. 29, and see 
antea, p. 237. This picture was 
engraved by F. Berteli and Bat- 
tista Fontana, and by Cort, in 
1565, Audi'omeda being fastened 
to the rock on the left ; in the 
middle Persons attacking the 
monster in the background ; to 
the left a town. " Perseus and 
Andromeda, by Titian," was in 

the Orleans Gallery; tho same, 
perhaps, which Lepicio catalogued 
in 1752 at the Louvre. 

t See Philip to Titian, and 
Vargas, May 4, 155(5, in Appendix. 

X See the inscription to that 
effect above the entrance to the 
hull, and a copy of the same in 
Sansovino's Ven. Desc. n. s., p. 


room liad been divided into compartments for the 
reception of frescos a short time after. It was now 
suggested by the procuratori that Titian and Sanso- 
vino should name the artists whom they thought best 
fitted to carry out a decoration of such importance, on 
condition that the price to be paid to eacli man for 
his work should not exceed sixty ducats ; but with a 
promise that the painter who most distinguished him- 
self should receive a gold chain of honour as a mark 
of special approbation. Neglecting Tintoretto, with 
whom the " Academy " was not on good terms, Titian 
and his colleague asked Salviati, Paolo Veronese, 
Zelotti, Franco, Schiavone and other men of less 
ability, to compete, and when their labours were con- 
cluded in the autumn of 1.556, they awarded the prize 
to Paolo Veronese, whose descendants long preserved 
the gold chain as a proof of pictorial distinction.'" 

Paolo Veronese, who had the rare good luck to 
win thus early a prominent place amongst Venetian 
artists, had not been long in the capital when this 
event occurred. Born at Verona in 1528, and bred to 
the art of sculpture, of which his father was but an 
obscure professor, he soon gave up chisel and hammer 
for the use of the brush, and exercised his skill as a 
vagrant craftsman, at Mantua, Padua and Vicenza. 
It seemed as if in the practice of fresco or in the 
production of large canvases he had never been able 
to forget the paternal business, for early and late he 

* Tlie records as to tliis com- 
petition are iu part in Zanetti, 
Pitt. Yen., u. s., p. 337. But 

comp. Vas. xi. 138 & 330, with. 
Eidolfi, Mar. ii. pp. 17 and 192. 



wielded the brush more like a modeller's spatula than 
ii painter's tool. But his talent was naturally so great 
that he made rapid progress, and the name whieh he 
acquired for himself in the provinces probably en- 
<^ouraged him to try his fortunes in the metropolis. 
He went to Venice about 15.3.5, and there was fortu- 
nate to find a patron in his countryman, Fra Bernardo 
Torlioni ; abljot of the monastery of San Sebastian. 
Titian soon discerned and rewarded the skill of the 
young fellow, but he tlid not hesitate to enter the 
lists with him in person, and we shall find him 
presently composing an allooor}' in the same locality 
in which Paul had lirsl introduced himself officially 
to the Venetians, and in the calm retirement of his 
atelier, producing that fine and standard work " The 
Baptist in the Desert," which, after adorning for cen- 
turies an altar in the church of Santa ]\[aria Maoi>iore, 
n(j\v hangs in the Academy of Venice. It is not 
\\itliout reason that Vasari and Dolce praise this fine 
creation as a marvel of design and colour. " No picture 
of the master gives note, as this does, of the power 
with wliicli Titian could set the example to his young- 
competitor in the conception and execution of form, 
realistic in shape and presented in a plastic spirit. As 
a solitary figure this Baptist embodies all the princi- . 
pies of movement inculcated in this iGth century. kU 
It is a splendid display of muscular strength and 
elasticity combined with elevation in a frame of 

• Vasari, xiii. p. 27. Dolce, 
I)ialogo, p. ()G. Tho allusion of 
tlio latter author to this picture 

shows that it was painted before 
1jj7, tho year in which tho Dia- 
iogo was published. 


most powerful build. It hardly diflers from other 
Titiauesque ^Yorks except in this, that being- 
painted with the master's usual force and fire, it is 
distinguished at the same time by more than tlie "7 
usual study of anatomy and outline, and a more / 
sculptural definition of parts. If we look back taj 
the earlier ideal of St. John in the schools of North 
Italy, asceticism is represented in the solitary by 
wild looks, sharp features, unkempt hair, and a lean 
wiry body. Here the Baptist is trained, indeed, but 
brought down to a symmetry of strength, which is 
grand in its development. The black, curly hair and 
beard, are as surely indicative of toughness and 
fibre, as the sculptured brow and bold black eye, 
which looks sternly out into space as if scanning the 
audience that has heard or is about to hear the sermon. 
Alone at the foot of a rock, where the lamb is coiled 
up and sleeps, the saint is seen standing at rest, yet 
not suggesting a motionless halt. In the hollow of 
his arm the reed cross reposes, whilst the wrist is bent 
and the fingers grasp the garment of skins. The right 
hand is raised and gesticulating as if to enforce the 
word. The whole appearance is that of a weird 
inhabitant of the wilderness, whose naked breast and 
legs are shown brio-htlv ao-ainst the trees and masses 
of a vale, through which a torrent flows after having 
spent its force in the hills that show their blue sides- 
far away. Impassioned expression is enhanced by - 
rich weather-browned features and flesh, thrown into 
prominence by strong relief of lights glowing and 
coloured, into darks of a brown and consistent warmth. 

Chap. YI.] 





More than ever before, planes of flesh are rendered by 
kneading out of solid pigment, only broken by reds, 
greys or blacks, where the monotony of blended sur- 
face made such lireaks desirable. The same art 
reappears, as we shall presently see, with almost equal 
effect in the " Diana and Calisto," the " Diana and 
Actason," and the " Europa," whicli Titian painted 
for Philip of Spain. A later form is apparent in a 
replica of the Baptist at the Escorial."' 

On the 21st of October, 1.5.3G, an event took place 
whicli probal)ly affected Titian greatly. Late in the 
evening of that day Aretino was supping with some 
acquaintances, when an accident deprived him of his 
life. The certificate drawn up after his death declared 

• This picture, on canvas, m. 
1"(>7 h. by 1-33, is numbered 3(j(i 
in the Venice Academj'. It was 
noted in S. M. Maj^giore, at Ve- 
nice, by all the writers on art of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. It is well preserved, 
and signed on the stone upon 
which the left foot is raised, 
"TiciANVS." The rock near the 
saint's right hand, and bits of the 
pky, show traces of restoring. 
Thoro are certain turns, as in tho 
hand and wrist of the saint, which 
recur in Paolo Veronese. Even 
the head is a typo to which Paolo 

Tho replica in the sacnstj' of 
tho I']scorial varies in so far that 
tho hands hold a scroll, and the 
face is thrown up as if in suppli- 
cation. On the stone one reads, 
"TITIANV3 FACI . . . ." But the 
picture when seen was ill-lighted, 

looked dim from agn, and might 
have suggested criticism if better 
exposed. How it came into the 
Escorial is not stated. 

The same saint " in the desert " 
was noted in tho collection of 
Niccolo Cornaro at Venice, by 
Martinioni. See his edition of 
Sansovino, Ven. desc, u. s., p. 

The canvas at Venice was en- 
graved by V. Le Febre, and iu 
tho work of Patina, in 1809, by 
Cipriani. It is reversed in a 
print of Jacob Hojden. Photo- 
graph by Xa5'a. 

A small replica, called "A 
sketch of the St. John Baptist," 
was long preserved as a work of 
Titian in Casa Jacobi at Cadore. 
It passed in tho present century 
to Signor Galeazzo Galeazzi, of 
Venice. (Notes from Jacobi MS. 
of Cadore . ) 




that lie died of apoplexy " at three of the night 
But it was reported that he had been sitting at table 
in his palace on the grand canal, when a joke was 
made by one of the guests at which he laughed 
immoderately. In this fit of laughter he overbalanced 
himself, fell back, and striking his head against a 
corner, was dead almost immediately .t An anecdote 
makes him live to receive supreme unction and 
utter the blasphemous words : "now that I am oiled 
keep me from the rats." J Titian probably lamented 
the loss of a man with whom he had been on terms 
of intimacy for more than thirty years. The outer 
world rejoiced rather than mourned at his departure, 
and Antonio Pola, a creature of Ferrante Gonzaga, 
who had flattered him when he lived, was obviously 
delighted at his death when he wrote to his master in 
November : " On reaching Venice I found that that 
mascarone Aretino had given up his soul to Satan, 
whose death I think will not displease many, and 
particularly not those who are from henceforth 
relieved from paying tribute to the brute." § 

Pola's visit to the capital was not accidental, he was 
travelling in the wake of Ferrante Gonzaga, who had 
recently passed through Venice on his w^ay to Milan, 

* See Bongi, Yita del Doni, 
8vo, Lucca, 1852, p. Ixviii. 

t Lorenzini, " De Eisu," in 
Mazzucchelli, u. s., p. 71. 

X Mazzucchelli, p. 73. 

§ Antonio Pola to Eerrante 
Gonzaga, Nov. 14, 1556, in Eon- 
clini. Eelazioni, u. s., jt. 13; and 
Aretino to Pola, August, 1554, in 

Lett, di M. P. A., vi. p. 253. 
Here we take leave of Aretino, 
and we do so with regret, since 
however bad lie may have been 
as a man, his letters are an inva- 
luable guide to the historian of 
art in the first half of the six- 
teenth century. 


and he had special commission, as it appeared, to 
inquire into the cause of certain marks of incivility 
which Titian was allesjed to have shown to his master. 
The letter, of wliicli a fragment has been given, was 
written to excuse Titian's conduct. Ferrante com- 
plained that having sent word to Titian that he would 
dine witli him, tli(^ painter had purposely left his 
house and allowed him to come to Biri Grande, where 
he found neither host nor hospitality. Titian ex- 
plained tliat he had been informed through Arctino 
that his Excellency intended to dine witli liim, and 
had given orders that the dinner should l)e prepared 
by his own servants. But on the appointed day no 
servants came, and Titian, tliinkin::: tliat the visit was 
postponed, went out on l)usiness. "Be this as it may," 
Pola concludes, " I propose to advance half a Innidred 
scudi to Titian to purchase the pictures wliich your 
Excellency desires to have from this discourteous 

It was perhaps in consequence of this slight, which | 
may, or may not, have been intentional, that when j 
Titian sent Orazio in the followinor summer to Milan 
to draw the pension that still remained unpaid, he 
was again put off witli promises. And this new dis- \ 
appointment must have been the more disheartening, / 
as a letter, obscure in some parts, but of interest as 
throwins: a o'leam over the relations of the master to 
his son and to Philip the Second, gave hopes of a 
more favourable issue. 

• Pola to Ferrante Oonzaga, tt. s. 



" Horatio, your delay in writing gave me some 
uneasiness. Your letter says you have had four 
ducats, but that would not cover your expenses to 
Milan" (the text of the foregoing sentence is very 
confused). "Again, you make a slip of the pen for 
mere joy, it Avould seem, when you write of two 
hundred, instead of two thousand ducats. But it is 
sufficient that you should think that things will take 
a good course. I WTote to his Majesty that the 
Treasury of Genoa had not the means of paying, and 
I hope his Majesty will make the necessary provision. 
What you write inclines me to think you intend to 
proceed to Genoa. If you fancy the journey will be 
fruitful of results .... of which you are a better 
judge than I am, you may do well to undertake it. 
But if you go be careful not to ride in the heat and 
see that you take four days to the usual two days' 

" From Venice, June IV, 1557." * 

We shall see that, during these fruitless journeys, 
Titian had been preparing for Philip the Second a 
picture of the " Entombment," which he desjDatched in 
!N^ovember, but which by some miscarriage of the post, 

* Translated from, the original, 
■which, in 1866 was in possession 
of Mr. Eudolph Weigel, at Leip- 
zig. Mr. Weigel had got it from 

G. B. Bragadin, of Venice, who 
caused it to be printed, in 1841, 
in Gualandi's Memorie, u. s., ii. 


tlien as now in the hands of the fomily of Tassis,( 
never reached its destination.""' 

Early in the year too Titian relented towards his 
eldest son and induced the pope's legate at Venice, 
(]^ardinal Tii\'ulzi, to siojn a breve i^ivino; him the 
curacy of Sant' Andrea del Fabbro free of tithes.t 

• See Philip the Second to 
Count de Luna, Januaiy 20, 15j9, 
in Appendix. 

t The breve is in Cadjrin, 
Dello Amore, ;/. ?., p. 39. 

Yor,. ir. 



standard of San Bernardino. — Philip and St. Lawrence. — " Martyrdom 
of St. Lawrence " in the Gesuiti at Venice. — Girolamo di Titiano; 
—Lorenzo Massolol ETsT VVidow and^Tilian. — Parody on the 
" Laocoon," "Christ crowned with Thorns" at the Lbtivre.--^-' 
Portraits.-^^Teath of Charles thel'iith. — ^TirialTand Coxie. — The 
" Grieving Vii'gin."— Philij^ at Ghent orders Titian's Pensions to 
be paid. — Orazio at Milan is nearly murdered by Leone Leoni. — 
Titian begins the " Diana and ActtBOu," and " Diana and Calisto." 
— Philip the Second orders an "Entombment." — Titian, Philip, 
and Apelles. — The " Girl in Yellow." — Description of the " Diana 
and Actceon," "Calisto," "Entombment," and replicas. — Figure 
of "Wisdom" at Venice. — Death of Francesco Vecelli. — Altar- 
piece of Pieye. 

NoTHiNC eventful occurred to Titian in 1558, 
during wliicli Venetian annals record tlie completion 
of a cliurcli standard, on the 11 th of June, for the 
brotherhood of San Bernardino,* but a man of his 
activity would not allow the time to pass in idleness, 
and the silence of chroniclers invites us to inquire 
what Titian may have done in this apparently un- 
eventful time. 

On the 9th of August, 1557, "the memorable day 
of St. Lawrence," when Counts Egmont and Hoorn 
won the battle of St. Quentin for Philip the Second, 
that monarch vowed to build a monastery in honour 
of the Saint to whom he ascribed the victory. Not 

See the record in Appendix. 


till 1563, however, and when fresh from some auto 
da fe in which unhappy Protestants had undergone 
the ordeal inflicted on St. Lawrence, did Philip find 
leisure to fulfil his vow; and not till 1564 did it 
occur to him to ask Titian for a picture of the " Signor 
Sant' Lorencio " to adorn the spacious church of the 
Escorial.''' The subject was not new at Venice. 
Oarcia Hernandez reported to the minister, Antonio 
Perez, in October, 1564, that there was a martyrdom 
of St. Lawrence in a Venetian monastery, Avhicli Titian 
had composed years before, and for which tlie brethren 
were willing to take 200 scudi. His Majesty might 
even for less money have a copy of this piece by 
Girolamo Titiano, an assistant who had worked for 
thirty years in Titian's house, and was inferior to no 
artist except his master.t The Crociferi, whose hospital 
contained this treasure, were cenobites devoted to the 
worship of the true cross discovered by the Empress 
Helen. Their monastery had often been in com- 
mendam, and this had not improved the character of 
the inmates, whom the Venetian government had fre- 
quently threatened to suppress, but the church was 
richly adorned with masterpieces of many periods, from 
the days of Cima, Mansueti, and Lattanzio da Pdmini, 
to those of Titian, Schiavone, and Tintoretto. Early in 
1556 Lorenzo Massolo, son-in-law to Girolamo Quirini, 
having paid the usual tribute to nature, was Ijuried in 
the church of the Crociferi, and Elisabeth Quirini, his 

* Philip the Second to Garcia 
Hernandez at Venice, Aug. 31, 
ldG4, in Appendix. 

t Garcia Ilcrnandez to Antonio 
Perez, from Venice, Oct. 9, 1564, 
in Appendix. 

8 2 



widow, mindful of lier old friendship for Titian, asked 
him to adorn a monument with a martyrdom of her 
husband's patron saint.* The date of the patrician's 
death and the time required for the erection of his 
tomb, Titian's habitual procrastination, and above all, 
the character of the painting, may lead us to believe 
that the work was finished about 1558. 

For once in his life it had occurred to Titian to 
realize a night-scene, and surely it must have struck 
him that more startlinej effects were to be obtained 
from the contrast of a glory at midnight, with furnace- 
fires and the glare of torches, than from combinations 
of halo and flames at noon. This too was a fit occa- 
sion for re vi vino; classic ideals in Pas^an statues 
and temple porticos, and there is some evidence that 
the subject of this martyrdom recalled to Titian's 
mind, not only the sculpture and statuary of early 
Rome, but the very sites which he had visited in the 
Eternal City, whilst — naturally allied to these — 
reminiscences of masterpieces by Raphael and Michael- 
angelo would easily suggest themselves. The idea of 
cremation, familiar to the Romans as practised on the 
corpses of the dead, is here applied to a living body, 
and the saint, naked in all parts but the hips, is held 
with his legs towards the spectator on an iron frame 
standing on twelve legs at an angle to the plane of 
delineation. Under this framework, which in effect 
is a gigantic gridiron, a man who stoops to the left 
feeds the flames with logs, a bundle of which is carried 

* The epitaph which fixes the 
dates of Massolo's burial and the 

erection of his monument, is in 
Sansovino's Ven. desc, p. 169. 


by a servant close at liaud. Behind, an executioner 
grasps the saint under the annpits, whilst a soldier in 
scale shoulder-plates to the right, pins him with a 
fork to the latino;. Two men crouchino- near the 
soldier are preparing to strike the mart}'r with theii- 
hands, as he, raising his arm and throwing back his 
head, looks up at the heavens, which open to give him 
iissurance of salvation in the world to come. In rear 
of these scoffers a man at arms is standing, who liolds 
a lance, whilst an officer on horseback supports the 
standard of the Empire, and looks down at the dying 
saint. The group is partly lighted by the fire kindled 
under the grating, and a cage-torch, the pole of which 
is stuck in a ring fastened to the carved sliaft of a 
pedestal supporting a statue. But the black clouds 
in the arching of the canvas open to show a dazzling 
star, which casts a briirht Jileam downwards on the 
head and frame of the sufferer, and lights the steps 
leading up to a tcm})le on which three spectators 
have met, whilst a soldier issuing from the pillars 
throws himself forward with a torch to dispel some 
more of the gloom. There are marvellous oppositions 
here of red and silver light, of greys of varying tone, 
of heavy gloom and rolling smoke. Too dark even in 
the seventeenth century to be seen in all its details, 
this most important and interesting creation was sub- 
sequently covered with daubs of paint, which now 
conceal much of the primitive workmanship, but it is 
something to be able to study in its original place a 
picture which preserved its station even after the 
'Crociferi had yielded to the more modern company of 


tlie Jesuits. The subject, and the effects that are con- 
ditional upon it, recall those which Piero della Fran- 
cesca, some hundred years earlier, produced with 
such marked preference in various places, one of which 
was repeated by Eaphael in the rooms of the Vatican, 
We prize in Raphael's masterpiece a noble simplicity 
of arrangement, measured action, and elevated form, 
admirable drapery, and majestic balance of light and 
shade. Titian is not less effective than his Umbrian 
rival. He never made a nearer approach to the grand 
art of the Florentines than when he painted this piece,, 
in which he applied the principle of dramatic execu- 
tion peculiar to Michaelangelo. With more of the 
real and human than Raphael, he attains his end by an 
exuberant display of movement in shapes instinct with 
life and stamped with emotions developing themselves 
instantly into strong exj)ression and action. Not less 
effective than Raj^hael in adjusting contrasts of light 
and gloom, he obtains them in a more complex way 
and by a more varied play of gleam Avith colour. 
Hardly less powerful than Buonarroti, his definition of 
torso and limb in states of tension is looser, but still 
in its w^ay grand and imposing. We may indeed per- 
ceive on close examination that if Sebastian del 
Piombo perfected pictures laid down on the lines of 
Michaelangelo, without giving them that sublime 
energy which characterised the Florentine- master,. 
Titian, with undeniable originality, almost attained ta 
a grandeur of composition and bold creativeness equal 
to those of Buonarroti, whilst he added to his creations 
that which was essentially his own — the magic play of 

C]iAr. VIL] 



tints and liiiLts and shadows wliicli mark the true 
Venetian craftsman. St. Lawrence, in build, in mus- 
cular strength, and foreshortening, as we see him at 
the Gesuiti, recalls the finest desiiins of the Sixtinc 
chapel, and it may well 1>e that the marvellous figures 
of that chapel clung involuntarily to Titian's memory 
as he conceived his own, just as they clung to him 
when he painti-d the " Peter ]\lartyr " and the 
" luattle of Cadore." But in all these pictures, and in 
the mode of tlnir presentment, he still preserved an 
individuality as immistakahle as it is grand and 
strikinrr. Recollections of the Eternal City no doubt 
surged up in Titian's mind when he drew in that 
noble tenii»le front which reminds us so vividly of the 
" portico of the Argonauts," in the Piazza di Pietra, at 
Home, yet what majestic beauty was added to the 
lines of the noble Might of steps leading up to them. 
The treatment, peculiar to this period of Titian'^ art, 
is that in Avhich touch and surface were all in alLJ 
Destroying hands of time and restorers have removed 
much of both, yet left enough to show how touch and 
breadth did not preclude excellent modelling and 
accurate study of the human form.'"' 

* Scanelli, iu the seventeenth 
century (Microcosmo, p. 215), 
noted the dimness of this picture, 
•which was only to be understood 
by Cort's print. Since then it 
has undergone several courses of 
repairing, one quite modern, 
which has done much to make 
earlier injiuics irreparable. The 
picture is on canvas, arched at 

top, with figures over life size, 
and stands on the first altar to 
the left after entering the portal 
of the Gesuiti at Venice. Sir 
Joshua says (Leslie and Taylor, 
u. s., i. 83) : " It is so dark a pic- 
ture, that at first casting my eyes 
on it I thought there was a black 
cm-tain before it." On the cdgo 
of the grate, titi.vnvS veceliv3 



Titian at tliis time was obviously much occupied in 
refreshing his memory with references to the antique. 
He coulcl get sometliing like burlesc^ue out of it, as we 
see in Bolclrini's print, where three monkeys are 
shown writhing under the coils of snakes like Laocoon 
and his children in the celebrated Eoman group ; but 
the study of that remarkable piece was not confined to 
drawings. It showed itself in serious works, such as 
y the " Christ croAvned with Thorns," now at the Louvre, 
where the movement of the principal figure, though 
inverted, reminds us of Laocoon, whilst the suffering- 
displayed seems derived from the same source. This 
characteristic and clever picture, transported — we 
may think — to ^lilan when Orazio went there in 
1559 to claim the pension of his father,"" is painted 
in a style which stamps it as a contemporary of the 
"St. Lawrence." It came to adorn the church of Santa 
Maria delle Grazie, and was not removed to France 
till the beginning of this century. Here we have 
the classic action united to great agony and muscular 
contraction. Christ is struggling on the steps of the 
prison, the gateway of which is surmounted by a bust 
of Tiberius. His legs and frame are twisted by pain 
in contrary directions. The head, on which two 
men with long reeds are pressing the crown of thorns, 
is bent and turned to the left, the torso inclining to 
the right, whilst the arms, which are bound at the 

^QVES F. On a print by Sadeler 
we read, TITIA^"vs mvEX. .t:qves 
C2ES. A later print exists by Jan 
Bussemaker; a line engraving by 

Zuliani. Palma Giovine copied 
the picture in 1559. (Baldinucci, 
Opere, x. 11.) 
* See postea. 


[To face p li(>5, I'ul. If. 


TVT-ist, are forcibly lield by a kneeling soldier on tlie 
foreoTound. The scarlet mantle thrown in derision 
over the frame leaves the limbs entirely bare, and in 
the working and tension of muscle apparent in these, 
as well as in the con\^ilsive strain of the features, the 
triumph of physical torture is delineated. Equally 
robust, but not more resolute in action, his motion 
being shown as much by flap of drapery as by stride, 
the man on the left who jerks the crown on the 
Saviour's forehead, is a model of herculean strength 
in a moment of .strong exertion. In his desire to 
realise emotion altogether human, Titian has ap- 
l)arently forgotten tlie divine. He has forgotten the 
select shapes and conventional ideals of expression 
and form pcruliar to the antique. He is realistic 
almost to the veroe of a disao-reeable coarseness — 
particularly so in details of hand, foot, and ancle- 
Yet there is something so grand in the life and energy 
exhibited, and a minuteness of study so profound in 
the shrinking of the features and the clinging of the 
toes of Clu'ist to the gi'ound, tliat one almost forgets 
to inquire how it is that an artist so thoroughly 
acquainted with the classic as Titian was should 
altogether neglect to apply its cardinal principles. 
The very furia which characterises the action is 
traceable to the artist himself, who seems to have 
worked oflf the contours with dash and force, whilst 
he touched in the flesh with a stroke of surprising 
breadth and sweep. Strangely enough, thougli warm 
and golden in general tone, the picture has less 
variety and more uniformity of colour than usual, 



either because the surface of the panel on which the 
figures were thrown gave less opportunity for variety 
of graining and toning, or Ijecause, fresh from a night 
scene like the St. LaAvrence, where greys and blacks 
were copiously applied, these shades predominated 
on the palet. Dash and eagerness are ecpially ap- 
parent in abrupt contrasts of light with deep bitu- 
minous shadows which give to the whole piece, in 
some respects, the look of a monochrome but partially 
brought up to the colour of nature.* 

Memorable for such creations as these, if our 
pictorial instinct is correct as to the date of produc- 
tion, the year 1558 is equally so for some very fine 
portraits. A likeness in half length of Marc Antonio 
Eezzonico in the hospital of Milan may repel us, since 
cleaning and repairing deprived it of original cha- 
racter.t But " Fabricio Salvaresio " at the Belvedere 

* No. 464 at the Louvre, on. 
panel, m. 3.03 h. by 1.80. The 
figures are large as life ; on one of 
the steps -we read, " titianvs, f." 
There are engravings of this piece 
by Luigi Scaramucci, V. Le- 
febre, Gotfr. Sayter, Pdbault, and 
Massieu, in Eilhol and Landon's 
Series. Another version of the 
composition, of which a word 
later, is in the Munich Gallery. 
Compare Vasari, xiii. 40. 

The panel has been restored, 
so as to impart a certain heaviness 
to the surface and dimness to 
the shadows. The name of the 
painter is one of the details that 
have been retouched or added. 

t This portrait is that of a man 
in a black diess with yellow 

sleeves standing in a room, and 
seen to the thigh. "With the right 
hand he points at some object, 
whilst his left rests on his hip 
and holds a glove. On the plinth 
of a pillar to the left we read, 
' ' Marco Antonio Eezzonico morta 
ai 29 Maggio, 1584 ; Tiziano Ye- 
cellio fece in Yinezia nel 1558." 
Though modern as compared with 
the painting itself, this inscription 
is probably historical. For we 
find in the Guida Storico-artistica 
deir Ospitale Maggiore in Mi- 
lano (8vo, 1857, Tip. di Pietro 
Agnelli), that Eezzonico was one 
of the deputation of the hospital 
in 1575, and at his death in 1584 
left the picture to the foundation, 
of which ho was a benefactor. 

CuAP. MI.] 



iu Vienna, shows us a fine and expressive representa- 
tion of a man embrowned l)y travel, and familiar, it 
might seem, with the East, from whence perhaps he 
Lroudit the ne^jro l)uy who stands before him and 
holds a bmich of flowers.* 

But the masterpiece of portraiture of this time is 
the " Lavinia " of the Dresden Museum, the semblance 
of a lad}'" of mature years standing in a room and 
waving a fan of ])lumes. In state di-ess of green 
velvet cut scjuare at the bosom and slashed at the 
shouldei- puffs with white silk, she turns slightly to 
the left, raising tlie liaiid with the fan, and with her 
left tucking up the skirt of her gown. Scanty 
chestnut locks are strewed with pearls. A pearl 
necklace winds round her plump neck. She wears a 
jewelled brooch, a ring, and a girdle of shells. On ca 
tablet in the upper corner of the canvas are the 

* This is also a portrait iu half- 
length, on a brown ground, No. 
l.j, in the .3r(l room of the ground 
floor, Italian schools, at the Bel- 
vodero. Size, 3 ft. 8 h. by 2 ft. 8, 
on canvas, with the following in- 
scription on a tablet in tlio upper 
corner to tho left: " MULViir, 


AGEXS L. TITIANI opvs." Painted 
on a coarse canvas, this piece is 
much imi:'aired by retouching, 
but is a good bit of energetic 
treatment. Salvaresius stands 
with the thumb of his right hand 
in a figured shawl wound round 
his waist. Ilis dress is a black 
cap, vest, and pelisse, the latter 
lined with white lamb's wool. A 
knife hangs in a sheath at his 

side. In the angle of the canvas 
to tho right is the profile of a 
negro boy looking up. His arm, 
encased in yellow damask, is 
stretched out, and he holds in his 
hand a bunch of flowers. On a 
console above tho boy's head a 
rich green cloth is lying, and be- 
hind it is a clock. Pity that tho 
flesh should have acquired a 
brick-red opaqueness. Tho negi'o 
is so completely renewed as to 
leave us in doubt whether any 
part of him is now by Titian. It is 
curious that the print in Teniers' 
Gallery work which shows that 
the picture belonged to the Arch- 
duke Leopold William, omits tho 
negro boy. Tho hand of Salva- 
resius is the i)art best preserved. 


words : " lavinia tit. v. f ab' eg p." wliicli lias been 
interpreted to mean, and no douLt was intended to 
convey, that Lavinia the daughter of Titian was por- 
trayed by her father. A cicerone or guide showing 
the picture might have expressed himself in the 
words of this inscription. Titian would have written 
ipso and not eo. But the lines are of much later 
date than the time of Titian, who neither ^vrotc 
his name in this fashion nor habitually finished his 
capitals with cross strokes. The words were scrawled 
over the background after one of its numerous 
restorings, and the pigment has settled into the older 
cracks. It is not a question whether the work is 
genuine, for Titian's hand at its best is very apparent. 
It is a question whether we have Titian's daughter 
before us, the features being essentially different from 
those traditionally known as Lavinia's, whilst they 
curiously resemble those of Venus listening to the 
whispering Cupid at the Uffizi in Florence. As a 
representation of a richly developed form in gorgeous 
habiliments this is a masterpiece. The face is vigo- 
rously painted and modelled with breadth, whilst 
blended in tone to a nicety. Fine transitions inter- 
pose between warm lights and brown tinged shadows. 
The eye sparkles and the mouth is full of a healthy 
redness. The features are cut with great delicacy, in 
spite of a certain pinguid ity. The left arm, raised to 
wave the fan, the left lowered to clutch the dress, the 
swelling bust and portly waist, are given with the 
plastic force and grain which Avere so successfully 
imitated in later days by Paolo Veronese ; and the 

Chap. YH.] 



colours of the velvet, together vriih that of the muslin 
at the bosom and ^\Tist.s and the hair and pearls, 
are all worked into harmony with the brown back- 
cround so as to form a natural vision surrounded ^Yith 
atmosphere and instinct with life.'"' 

Whilst he was busy with these and other pictures, 
Titian heard of the sjradual decline, and at last of the 
death, on the 21st of September 1558, of the Emperor 
at Yuste. 

Charles the Fiftli was the in'eatest as well as the 
most poweiful of all Titian's patrons. He had ordered 
the "Trinity" as a record of his intention to abdicate 
the throne. He took it to Yuste that he mij^lit more 
constantly be reminded of another and higher world 
than that in which lie -u-as wastino; the last of his 
strcnfctli. Tliou<j;]i he never ceased to direct from his 
Spanish solitude the weak and clianging policy of 
l^hilip, there were moments when he turned altogether 
from the contemplation of public affairs to memories 
of the past or thoughts of his own salvation, and at 
these times his mind was disposed to tender recollec- 
tion by Titian's portraits of those who had been most 
dear to him, or stimulated to prayer l)y sacred 
subjects in tlie representation of whicli Titian had 
had a share. It is characteristic of the Emperor's 
quaint love of contrast or variety in art that he 

• This canvas, in the Dresden 
Museum, numbered '230, and of 
life size, was sold to the King of 
Saxony with the Modena collec- 
tion. It was transferred to a new 
canvas in 1826. It has a scar on 

the forehead, and some stipplings 
on the face, particularly in .sha- 
dow. The left hand is much in- 
ured by repainting. The back- 
ground is renewed. Engraved by 


caused two of the latest masterpieces of his favourite 
Italian to be framed with those of a Flemish artist. 
The "Ecce Homo," which Titian took to him in 1548, 
was combined in a diptych with a Pieta by Coxie. 
The "Addolorata" of 1554 was set in the same way 
with Coxie's "Effigy of Christ."* One canvas for 
which he had a particular devotion Avas a grieving 
Virgin which probably belonged to the batch of 
pictures presented to the Emperor on the memorable 
occasion when Titian pleaded Aretino's claims to a 
cardinal's hat. It was a l^eautiful piece, well w^orthy 
of preservation, and happily preserved at this time in 
the rooms of the Madrid Museum. Here the Virofin 
is seen in profile, her form clad in traditional red, her 
blue mantle — coverino; a white veil — lined with stuff 
of a deep yellow texture. In this simple array of 
colours we have the full complement of primaries 
which go to produce the true harmonic chord. The 
Virgin's thin and delicately chiselled face is over- 
shadowed with melancholy, the hands are wrung 
together, and the eye-ball is directed towards the 
ground where we fancy the corpse of the Redeemer to 
lie or to be carried amidst mourning to the tomb. In 
none of his sino;le fio-ures has Titian ever shown more 
genuine feelino-. We need but reverse the lines of the 
face and frame to have a counterpart of the agonized 
Mary in the " Entombment " of the Lou\a'e. Agony 
is apparent in the eye and mouth as well as in the 

* See the inventory of Brussels, 
1556, in Gachard's Eetraite et 
Mort de Charles V., u, s., ii. 90- 

93 ; and that of Yuste by Juan 
de Eegla and Gaztelu in Stir- 
Hug's Cloister Life of Charles Y. 

Chap. \1I.] 



movement of the body and limbs and every articula- 
tion of the hands and fingers. Admii'ably blended 
and finished, the flesh is fresh and smooth as in life, 
and bears the closest inspection, wliilst the draperies 
display in the most admirable manner the run of the 
contours and the shape beneath them."" Besides this 
fine and pathetic creation, Charles had close at hand 
a portrait of himself in armour, to which we may 
think he would look for the sake of contnxstinG; the 
early strength of lii.s youth with tlie debility of his 
premature old age ; then tlie likeness of the Empress 
and himself in one canvas, and that of the Empress 
alone. At the last of these works of Titian he cast a 
lono; and fond ulance almost on the ver<xe of dissolu- 
tion, and he only gave u[) its contemplation in order 
to turn to that of the " Last Judgment," upon whicli 
"he gazed so long as to cause appreliension to liis 
physician, "t 

When the news of Charles's death reached Philip 
the Second at Ghent, he withdrew to the comparative 
solitude of the monastery of Groenendaele, where he 
remained secluded for several weeks. It was from 
the cloisters of this once celebrated retreat that he 
caused a despatch to be sent, on Christmas Day 1558 

* This figure, a bust on panel 
in profile to the left, is No. 47j, 
m. 0.68 h. by 0.61, in the Madrid 
Museum. It is noted in the 
13russel3 and Yusto inventories, 
ft. 8., and is fairly preserved, 
though not free from ro-toucbing, 
especially in the bead. 

An old school copy of this piece 

bangs high up in the chapel of 
the Sacrament in San Zaccaria, 
at Venice. Another school copy, 
by a later hand, in the Oratory of 
San Gaetano at Padua. A jibo- 
tograph of the original by Laurent 

t Prescott, H. s., 136. 



to the governor of ]\Iilan, Duke of Sessa, ordering- | 
him to pay all arrears of the pensions " granted to ! 
Titian by Charles his father (now in glory)," adding a 
postscrij^t in his own hand to show the interest which 
he felt personally for Titian and his claims/'"' Titian 
was made acquainted by the Duke with the terms of 
this despatch, and invited to Milan, but being too old 
to travel, sent his son to attend to his interests. Here 
Orazio put himself in communication with the Duke 
of Sessa and wrote — in March — that he had received 
letters from the governor for the Senate by means of 
which a settlement of accounts would speedily be 
made, and he hoped that the business would be finally 
transacted soon after Holy Week. From Milan, 
Orazio continued, he meant to proceed to Genoa, and 
with help of letters to the king's ambassador he 
thought that the pension due at that place would also 
be obtained. t Little did Orazio then foresee that 
events would happen which would make his journey 
to Genoa impossible. At the court of Milan there 
lived at this time Leone Aretino, a sculptor whose 
name has often appeared in these pages in connection 
with Titian. He was nearly related, though no one 
exactly knew how, to Pietro Aretino, and his interest 
had been used with Titian, and through Titian with 
the Emperor and the Granvelles, to push him on in 
the world. More violent in temper and certainly 
more cunning than Benvenuto Cellini, Leone had 

* Despatcli and postscript are 
in full in Eidolfi's Marav., i. 

t Orazio to Titian, March 19, 
1559, in Cadorin's DeUo Amore, 
u. s., p. 46. 


been placed under bann for homicide in several cities 
of the Peninsula ; yet he had always found new friends 
wherever he settled. At Milan, where he was now a 
resident, he OAVTied a palace and lived in some state 
with an establishment of horses and valets, and here 
he gave a liospitable reception to Orazio Vecelli, whom 
he fetched witli an escort of riders from his rooms 
at the Falcon. Orazio, who had brought fourteen 
pieces with him from Venice, remained upwards of a 
montli a guest in Leone's palace. He sold his pictures 
to the Duke of Sessa, and took sittings from that 
noljleman, for whom he painted a full-length portrait. 
As time went by he thought he should not tax the 
kinduess of his host too lonrr, and havinir commission 
to get the Duke's canvases framed, he took lodgings of 
his own and went on tlie 14tli of June to Leone's 
house to superintend tlie removal of his pro})erty. 
Wliilst occupied with this duty he was set u})on by 
the host and his servants, who struck at liim with 
daggers so suddenly as to put his life in imminent 
peril. Fortunately the first blow aimed by Leone in 
person liad not been mortal. Orazio struggled, ran 
for the door, and reached the street with severe 
wounds. He was carried to the Falcon inn, where he 
was attended by the Duke of Sessa's barber, who gave 
him such restoratives that he was able on the fol- 
lowing day to give evidence before a magistrate sent 
for that purpose. In answer to the question whether 
he could assign a cause to the assault, he could only 
say that he thought the murderer was envious of his 
favour with the governor. But in his subsequent 

VOL. H. T 



communications to Titian, and in a memorandum 
afterwards drawn up by his friends, lie declared that 
Leone knew that he had received two thousand ducats 
of Titian's pension from the Milanese treasury, and 
meant to take his life and his money at the same 
time.'"" Titian wrote a long letter to Philij) the 
Second on the 12th of July, accusing Leone of an 
attempt to murder and rob his son, and he asked for 
justice with pardonable expressions of indignation. 
But we do not read without surprise that the man 
whose hospitality Orazio had not disdained to accept, 
was now described by the angry Titian as a well- 
known criminal, who had been expelled from Spain 
because he was a Lutheran, condemned to the stake 
by the Duke of Ferrara on a charge of coining, and 
banished for attempted murder from the Koman and 
Venetian states.t Titian's appeal to Philip the Second 
was but partially heard. Leone, who had been 
arrested immediately after the crime, was let off with 
bann and fine, and Orazio lived for some years in 
secret fear of assassination, until the blood feud was 
condoned with a sum of money.J 

Some months before these events occurred, Philip 
the Second had written to the Duke of Luna from 
Brussels to make complaint that a large canvas of the 
" Entombment " despatched by Titian from Venice in 

* See tlie depositions in Ca- 
dorin's Dello Amore, p. 50 ; the 
memorandum in the same author, 
p. 103. 

t Titian to Philip the Second, 
July 12, 1559, in Appendix; 

X Memorandum, u. s., in Ca- 
dorin's Dello Amore. See also in 
the same work, p. 51, Orazio's 
petition to the Council of Ten, 
dated March 20, 1562, to be al- 
lowed to carry arms. 


November 1557, and received shortly after at Trent 
Ly the jjostmaster De Tassis, had never reached its 
destination. He desired search to be made for the 
missing work, and gave directions for the discovery 
and punishment of the thieves."" 

Tln-ee or four days after Leone's attempt on Orazios 
life, but before news of it had reached Venice, Titian 
wrote to Philip the Second, alluding to the loss of the 
"Entombment" and announcing the completion of two 
compositions of "Diana and Actreon," and ''Diana 
and Calisto." 


" I hiive already finished the two " poesies " 
intended for your majesty, one of Diana suri)rised Itv 
Actseon at the fountain, ;iiiother of Calisto's weakness 
exposed by the nymphs at Diana's Itidding. When 
your Majesty wishes to have them, nothing will l)e 
J 1 ceded l)ut to name the person to whom they should 
be sent, in order that no accident may occur as in 
the case of the 'Entombment,' which was lost on the 
road. I hope that if ever any tilings of mine have 
been thought worthy of favour, these will not be found 
unwoi'thy. After their despatch 1 shall devote myself 
entirely to furnishing the ' Christ on the Mount,' and 
the other two poesies which I have already begun — I 1 
mean tlu; ' Europa on the shoulders of the Bull,' and 
' Acta-'on torn by his Hounds.' In tliese pieces I shall 

* Philip the Second to Count do Luna, Jan. 20, loo9, in Appendix. 

T 2 


put all the knowledge wliieli God lias given me, and 
wliicli lias always been and ever will be dedicated to 
the service of your Majesty. That you will please to 
accept this service so long as I can use my limbs, borne 
down by the weight of age, I hope, and though the 
burden be hea^y, it becomes lighter as if by a miracle, 
A^^ienever I recollect that I am livino- to serve and do 
something grateful to your Majesty. I beg further 
to say that my bad fortune has not allowed that after 
so much time and labour and trouble, I should enjoy 
anything of the pensions due to me according to the 
schedules of your ^Majesty from the royal agents at 
Genoa, which I can only attribute to my ill luck, since 
the kindness of your Majesty in this respect has 
always been great, though your servant Titian has not 
the less remained in his old condition, in so far as he 
is mthout the payment of his due. May 1 humbly 
beg your ]\Iajesty to cause such provision to be made . 
as shall appear most opportune, and, with all reverence, 
I offer and recommend myself, and kiss your royal 
and Catholic hand. 

"Your Catholic Majesty's 

" Most humble Servant, 

" TiTiANO Vecellio, pittorc.'" 

"From Venice, June 19, 1559." 

To this letter Philip replied on the 13th of July 
from Ghent, ordering the "poesies" to be sent to 
Genoa, carefully packed so as not to be lost after the 
fashion of the " Entombment," recommending the rapid 

* The original is in Appendix. 

Chap. VH.] 


completion of the " Christ on the Mount," and other 
"poesies," asking for a second version of the "Entomb- 
ment " to replace that which was missing, and con- 
cludin2; with an assurance that orders had been issued 
as to the pensions which would preclude all further 
chance of failure.'" 

In spite of Titian's statement that he had akeady 
finished the " Diana and Actpeon," and the "Diana and 
Calisto," there still remained something to be done to 
those canvases when Garcia Hernandez, the Spanish 
secretary at Venice, wrote the following despatch to 
Philip the Second. 



" Titian will have finished the ' Diana and Actax)n ' 
in twenty days, because they are large and involve 
much work, and he wauts to do some little things to 
them which no one else would think necessary. With 
these he will give me the ' Christ in the Tomb,' of 
larirer size than that which he sent before, the 
figures being entire, and a smaller fancy piece of a 
Turkish or Persian girl — all excellent. 

" The pictures and the glass panes, as well as the 
glasses for drinkino- water and those for drinkinc^ 
wine, will all be despatched at one time 

" From Venice, August 3, .1559." 

* The original (Estado, Leg", 
1336) in the Simancas archive 
coincides as to the text with the 
^e^sion in Ridolfi'sMarav., i. 'IVl. 

But the date is erroneously given 
by Ridolfi as 1558, being in reality 


We see by this letter how anxious Titian was, even ' 
in his old age, to finish ; and how true it is, as Vasaii ' 
says, that pictures which seem to have been dashed 
off rapidly were really laboured so as to look as if they 
were executed quickly. Of interest in Garcia's letter 
is the allusion to Venetian glass, which was now 
manufactured with great delicacy and perfection in 
the factories of Murano, and exported to the most 
distant countries of Europe. 

In September, after much filing and polishing of 
his pictures, Titian delivered them M'itli the following 
letter to the Kino;. 


"I send your Majesty the 'Actseon,' 'Calisto,'/ 
and ' Christ in the Sepulchre,' in place of that which 
was lost on the way, and I rejoice that though larger, 
the last of these pictures has succeeded better than 
the first, and is more worthy of acceptance from your 
Majesty. I attribute this improvement in a great 
measure to the grief which I felt at the loss of the 
first example, which proved a strong stimulus to 
exertion in this and my other works, in order doubly 
to recoup the damage. If contrary to your expecta- 
tion and my intention, so much time has been spent 
in finishing and sending them (for I confess three 
years and more have gone by since I began them), I 
beg your Majesty not to attribute this result to my 
neglect, for I can say with truth that I have hardly 
attended to anything else, as your secretary Garcia 
Hernando can tell you, who has often pressed me, 


though I did not require pressing, and the cause was 
simply the quantity of time required, and my fervent 
wish to produce something worthy of your ^lajesty, 
which made me forget fatigue, and put all my industiy 
into the poli.shing and completing of them. Is it not 
indeed my greatest study to serve your Majesty 1 Is 
it not my only aim in life to refuse the service of 
otlier princes and cling to that of your ^lajesty 1 
AVhat painter, old or new, can boast as I can of being 
bcnignantly asked, as well as urged by his own will, 
to serve such a King? I hold myself to be so flattered 
Ijy this, that I dare to alHrni I do not envy the famous 
Apelles, who was so dear to Alexander the Great, and 
I say so with reason, since, if I consider the dignity 
of the monarch he seiwed, I fail to see who else is 
more like Alcxandt.T in all parts that are admirable 
and W(nthy of praise than your jMajesty. And as to 
dependents, though it is true my small merit is not by 
any means comparable to the excellence of that 
sino-ular man, it is enough for me that as he had the 
grace of his king, I the feeling that I also possess 
the favour of mine. Because the authority of your 
kindly judgment, united to the regal magnanimity 
continuously shown to me, makes me equal to Apelles, 
and Y)erhaps his superior in the opinion of men. And 
so, in order to show my gratitude in every way I can 
think of, I send, besides the other pictures, the portrait 
of her who is absolute patroness of my soul, and that 
is her who is dressed in yellow, who, though in truth 
only painted, is the dearest and most precious thing I 
could send away. But here I am a living witness of 


your Majesty's humane and gentle nature, which gives 
courage to one who in respect of your high rank is so 
humble to correspond with your Majesty by letter, 
and so enough as to paintings. I wrote some days 
ago to your Majesty in reference to the assassination 
of my son Horatio, at Milan, by Leone Aretino, and 
of the mortal wounds which he received, praying for 
the deserved punishment of the offender after the 
custom of your Majesty's justice. Process was issued 
in due form against him, and great effort was made 
after his recovery by my son to hasten the trial, and 
for this he was forced to spend much of the money 
obtained by your Majesty's bounty at Milan, but the 
wretch is so clever and so favoured on account of the 
name which he bears of Statuary to your Majesty, 
and my son is so much a stranger at Milan, that the 
case has been subjected to delays, and will probably 
end in smoke, to the great detriment of justice, and 
the more so because my son has come home, and there 
is no one at Milan who can counteract the cunning 
and ways of this wicked man. I therefore most 
humbly pray that your Majesty will deign to give 
orders to the Senate to hasten the judgment and 
exercise justice in a manner suitable to so great an 
offence, showing that your Majesty holds me to be 
one of your servants. My son Horatio above named 
(I had almost forgotten) sends with mine a small 
picture of ' Christ on the Cross,' painted by himself. 
Will your Majesty deign to accept it as a small 
testimony of his great desire to imitate his father in 
serving you? And with all inclination of the heart, I 

Chap. VII.] 



and he recommend ourselves, and I kiss your Royal 
and Catholic hand. 
^ " Your Catholic Majesty's 

" Most humble and devoted Sers^ant, 

" From Ven'ICE, Sept. 22, 1559." 

In a minute of two despatches of Septemher 27 
and October 11, Garcia Hernandez noted : 

" That I have sent to Genoa the glass panes and 
glasses and the pictures of Titian, according:; to his 
Majesty's orders. Titian gives the subjects which he 
sends in a letter of the 23rd of September, and adds a 
canvas from his son Horatio, the same who was struck 
by Leone Ai'etino, and as to tliis, Titian begs your 
Majesty to move the Senate that justice may be done 
in a manner suitable to the enormity of the delincpient's- 
offence." t 

Time sped on, and Titian heard no more of his 
works or their reception ; Init after the slow fashion 
of the period — as we shall see — they reached their 
destination, and gave pleasure to Philip the Second. 
Since the days of his connection with Alfonso of 
Ferrara, Titian had never composed any mythological 
subjects of equal importance, in respect of incident 
and number of figures, as the " Diana and Calisto," or 
the " Diana and Actseon ; " but now, as then, he 

* Seo the original in Appendix, 
t See the minutes in Ap- 
pendix, and see also Garcia Her- 

nandez's charge for sending the 
pictures in an account dated 
Oct. 1, 1563, in Appendix. 


spared no pains to produce engaging pictures ; and 
if he failed to come up to the standard which he 
had himself set up, the fault lay in circumstances 
over which he had no control. In looking at the 
gorgeous canvases which now form part of the Elles- 
mere collection, we are bound to remember that 
they were finished when Titian was eighty-two years 
old; and on this account alone we must look for a 
certain bluntness of expression and a certain ab- 
sence of delicacy in contour. One canvas represents 
Diana surprised at the bath by Actoeon, the other 
Calisto's shame discovered by the Goddess of the 
Chase. Both are made up of figures two-thirds of 

As Actseon breaks on the solitude of Dictynna his 
quiver is on his back, his dogs are at his heels. At 
sight of the goddess his arms are thrown up in sur- 
prise, and his bow falls stringless to the ground. 
Diana is parted from the luckless hunter by the 
breadth of a rill. The diadem is on her forehead, and 
the pearls in her hair, but she sits naked on her dress, 
and her purple mantle lies on the bank, whilst the 
nymph at her side wipes the water from her foot. At 
Actseon's appearance Diana, droops her head, and a 
negress behind her draws together, though vainly, the 
mantle from below, the muslin from above ; a little 
dog barks furiously the while across the water ; on 
the marble steps of a fountain in rear of the rill a girl 
with a mirror clutches the fold of a red cloth hanging 
from the arch above her, a second gathers herself 
together, a third turns her back, and a fourth hides 




all but her fiice Leliiiid a square pillar. The scene is 
laid ill a glade, not " of cypress and pine/' The foun- 
tain is a ruin of rustic and antique manufacture, with 
marble steps and bas-reliefs, defiant of the poet's 
lines — 

" . . . . antrum nemorale recessu, 
Arte laboratuin nulla, simulaverat arteni 
Ingenio uatura suo." * 

Through the archings of the fountain the eye wanders 
to blue hills and Id'owii ranges fitfully lighted by 
a warm sun in a sky swept with clouds. t 

As Diana })repares for the bath she sits on a hank 
at the fountain ed^c. Inhind her is a irrovc of luxu- 
riant trees, from wliich a gorgeous tapestry depends. 
Her left arm is on the shoulder of a nymph, who 
.stoops to her lovingly; at her sides two huntresses 
with their dog; kneeling in the brook a nymph 
bathinir lier foot ; on the cfrass with her lei^s in the 
stream a girl with a feathered dart, and near her a 
hound at full-length on the sward. Ikit on the oppo- 

* Ovid, Motamor. iii. I.j.j. 

t This canvas is signed on the 
pillar to the right, " titianvs f." 
Xow in tho Ellesmoro collnction ; 
it was in tho royal palace at 
Madrid when Charles Stuart, as 
heir apparent, made his apjicar- 
anco at the Spanish Court. All 
the light pictures of Titian, tho 
"Danae," "Adonis," "Rape of 
Europa," tho " Diana and Ac- 
treon," and the " Calisto," were 
packed as presents to Charles. 
I'jighty years later tho two last 
named pictures, together with the 

"Europa," were given by Philip 
tho Fifth (1704) to the Marquis 
of Grammont, who took them to 
France. They passed into the 
Orleans Gallery, at tho sale of 
which the " Act toon " and. "Ca- 
listo " were bought for the Duke 
of Bridgwater for £2500. Tho 
small version of the ''Actreon," 
No. 482 at Madrid, m. 0.96 h. 
by 1.07, is a copy, probably by 
Del Maze. (Compare Don P. do 
Madrazo's Madrid Catalogue, p. 
270. ) Tho copy was photographed 
by Laurent. 



site or left side of the picture, two nymphs are hold- 
ing the hapless Calisto, who struggles on the ground 
with shame in her face as the girl, her companion, 
stands over her and raises the veil that conceals her 
secret. At sioht of her form Diana stretches out her 
hand and bids her begone. Here, too, the fountain 
is faced with marble. A square plinth adorned 
with bas-reliefs acts as pedestal to Cupid, who pours 
water out of a vase, and behind the fountain 
stretch the groves and hills of Cynthia's hunting- 

It would be vain to look for the poetry and fresh- 
ness of the Bacchanals in these late creations of 
Titian's brush. The flash and fire of youth were 
leaving the artist as they had left the man. There 
are countless subtleties of thought and of hand 
which make up the charm of the " Bacchus and 
Ariadne" that do not recur in the "Actaeon." There 
are bits of cleverness on the other hand in the "Calisto" 
which are not to be matched in the "Bacchanal." 
But the yield of the earlier time, take it all in all, is 
sweeter and of better savour than that of the later 

* This picture is signed on the 
plinth of the fountain, '"I'ITIAJTYS, 
P." It has the same history as 
the " Actiseon," hangs in the 
EUesmere collection, and was 
bought for £2500 from the Orleans 
Gallery for the Duke of Bridg- 
water. The bas-reliefs on the 
fountain represent Diana hunt- 
ing. A, smaller copy of the 
" Calist*^ probably by del Mazo, 

is No. 483 in the Madrid Museum. 
It is photographed by Laurent. 
Both the EUesmere canvases are 
injured by abrasion, restoring, 
and bad varnishes. The subject, 
"Diana and Calisto," was one 
of which Charles had a repre- 
sentation ; but the name of the 
painter is not given. See Mr. 
Cartwright's notes in the Aca- 
demy for 1874, p. 268. 



period. Kich, exuberant, jiud bright the works of the 
master always were, but there is something mysterious 
and unfathomable in the lirightness and sweetness of 
his prime which far exceeds in charm the cleverness 
of his old ao'c. When we look at the o-roves of Xaxos 
or Cypinis, there arc enchantments there which we do 
not find again in Arcadia ; though the distant hills 
and wooded slopes of Gargaphia are lit with a sun as 
<Toro;eous as that which shines in tlie reahn of Bacchus. 
Tlie god, who springs from his car to seek Ariadne, 
M'hilst his followers dance after him on the sward, are 
much more ideally beautiful than Acta^on, or the 
goddess and her maids whom Acta?on surprises. 
Handsome in .shape and proportion, the latter have 
not quite that perfume of youth and health and 
vijTour which is so strikini;- in the former. Titian 
was never more thoroughly master of the secrets of 
the human framework than now that he was aoed. 
Never did he less require the model. AVliat his mind 
su2:2:e.sted issued from his hand as Minerva issued from 
the brain of Jove. His power was the outcome of years 
of experience, which made every stroke of his brush 
both sure and telling. But years had also made him 
a realist, and practice had given him facility ; and 
both produced a masterly ease which is not always 
quite so like nature as earlier and more studied, 
though perhaps more timid laljour. Yet it would 
be a mistake to think that the facility apparent 
on the surface of these pictures was the result of 
mere rapidity of conception and handling. On the 
contrary, there is every reason to think that Titian 


devoted both time and study to his work, and it is 
one of his clevernesses here to conceal this strain upon 
his faculties. His composition is arranged in favour- 
able and graceful lines. His forms are beautiful and 
of more slender scantlino; than of old. A rare intelli- 
gence of plastic definition is displayed in shapes 
modelled with substantial pigment and breadth of 
touch, but rich in tone and enamelled surface ; and 
additional effect is given by a flush of warm tinted 
light which merges into brown and transparent 
shadow. It may be thought that Titian indulged 
in excess of bituminous rubbino-s and blurred stroke. 
But this was a trick of execution which had become 
habitual to him, and was after all not uh suited to, 
nudes seen in the open air of summer, and Titian was 
too much of a philosopher and naturalist to wander 
into haze or supernatural halo in a scene altogether of 
earth. There is unhappily no English word to convey 
the idea of that form of execution which in French 
and Italian is expressed by " chic " and " di ^^ra^ica." 
It came very late to Titian, comparatively early to 
Paolo Veronese and other Venetian craftsmen ; but it 
would be very hasty to assume that because the same 
phenomena are apparent at about the same time in 
the younger and older master, the latter came under 
the influence of the former in an absolute sense. 
Whilst Titian was completing the " Diana and 
Actseon " or the " Entombment," Paolo Veronese had 
been composing his celebrated " Feast in the House of 
Simon," wdiere, on twenty-five square yards of canvas, 
he combined palatial architecture and costly raiment- 


painting with every form of realism that an observant 
eye could light upon. The size and splendour of the 
picture no doubt gave it a singular attraction, but one 
of its characteristic features was a peculiar scheme of 
colour.'" The system illustrated in this and cognate 
works, less familiar to an executant in oils than to 
<jne accustomed to fresco, mainly consisted in setting 
pigments of garish tints in such contrasts as would 
neutralise each other by juxtaposition. Oriental 
weavers had for centuries illustrated this theory in 
practice. Paolo applied it not only to distinguish the 
parts of one dress, but to distinguish one dress and 
figure from the other ; decomposing even the tints of 
Hesb and settino; colours tofjether without transition 
that they might act as complementary of each other. 
With this method he could produce brilliant, spark- 
ling, and even gaudy work — l)ut work that inevitably 
paled before the rich suftusion of tone which always 
covered Titian's canvases. It is true Titian had 
become at this period more silvery than of old. 
Glosses of grey and 3'ellow in flesh relieved by warm 
brown recalled more than of old the prismatic tones 
obtainable from silver ; but this scale in Titian was 
always combined either with blending or glazings and 
scumblings, forming links of transition between light; 
and shadow, and were invariably subsidiary to chiaros- 
curo, rich glow of complexion, landscape, or drapery. 
Titian, in fact, remained a colourist in the subtlest 
sense, and even now had something to teach to Paolo, 

* Tho iiicturo is in tlio Gallery of Turin. 


who had ah^eady studied to some purpose the secrets 
of such earlier pieces as the Mantuan " Entombment," 
the " Madonna " of Casa Pesaro, the " Presentation in 
the Temple," the "Ecce Homo" of the Dannas, and 
the " Vision of Faith to the Doge Grimani." 

When he sent away the " Calisto," Titian kept a 
replica or sketch model of the same size — to which, 
possibly, he had given a few touches of his own — and 
this replica came into the collection of the Archduke 
Leopold AVilliam at Brussels in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and from thence to Vienna, where it now 
remains. Whether this was the sketch of which 
history records that it passed, at Titian's death, into 
the workshop of Tintoretto, it is impossible now to 
say. At all events, in the version now at Vienna 
there are some notable varieties in the action and in 
the actors, and principally in the figure of Calisto, 
whose shame is not as ruthlessly exposed as it is at 
Madrid. But besides this change, which is merely 
wrought by the addition of a little drapery, there are 
others of a more decided character. The naked nymph 
tearing the veil from Calisto's waist is replaced by one 
that is dressed and kneeling. The nymph at Diana's 
foot has disappeared. A lap-dog is substituted for 
the hound in the foreground, and the shape of the 
fountain and landscape is changed altogether. In 
treatment, again, the picture is far behind that of the 
Ellesmere collection, and suggests the co-operation 
-—if not indeed exclusively the hand — of Orazio, 
Girolamo, or Andrea Schiavone. Numerous copies 
of the "Calisto" and "Actseon," though assigned to 



Titian, do not deserve even tliis small concession of 

In the " Entombment " wliicli accompanied tlic 
"Calisto" and "Acta^on" to Madrid, Titian repeated a 
subject which he had studied frequently since the first 
example of it had been sent to ]\Iantua some thirty 
years before. Comparing the picture as executed for 
Federico Gonzaga -with that produced for Philip the 
Second, we may be struck as with something familiar, 
lingering undefincdly, though still indelibly, on the 
mind. It is not that the theme is exactly the same in 
Ijotli pieces, since different moments in the action of 
entombment are represented, but that in l>uth we 

* The " Calisto " at Vienna is 
numbered 17 in the second room 
of the first lloor iit the 15elvedero. 
It is on canvas, o ft. 8i h. by 
ft. 4. There are some curious 
inequalities in the treatment, 
which is in places thin, diy, and 
flat, in others full and pastose. 
In many of the forms the finish 
is quite beneath Titian, and the 
trees are particularly like the 
work of Schiavono. Deserving of 
note, to fix the vaiiations from 
the Madrid picture, are the foun- 
tain, which hero is a basin, on a 
pedestal merging into dolphins at 
the water's edge. On a shaft 
above the basin Minerva stands, 
with a stag at her side ; water 
streams from her breasts and 
from the stag's nose. A yellow 
festoon hangs from the tree to the 
left, and to the right there is a 
rainbow in the sky. This pieco 
was engraved in Toniers' gallery 
work. There are also, engravings 


of the subject by Cort and Van 
Kessel. The following copies of 
smaller size than the originals 
exist : Academy of San Luca, at 
Eome, much injured copy of tho 
" Calisto;" Lord Yarl)orough, in 
London, copy of tho Madrid copy 
of the " Actcoon " of the EUesmero 
Collection, called an original 
sketch; Hampton Court, copy 
again with some varieties. None 
of these canvases are of the six- 
teenth centuiy. A feeble copy 
of tho " Act?oon " under tho name 
of Paolo Veronese, is in the Nos- 
titz Coll. at Prague. " Diana and 
Actcoon, where Diana is near 
a fountain with her nymphs," 
is one of tho pictures assigned to 
Titian, size 3 ft. ;} by 3 ft. 3, once 
catalogued in the Buckingham 
Collection (Bathoo's Catalogue, 
«. s., Y>. 2), " Actifon and Diana," 
bj' Titian, much spoiled, was ono 
of the pieces in James the Second's 
Collection (Bathoo, u. s.), No. 3M. 


observe generally the dead body of Christ, the agony 
of Mary, the grief of the Evangelist, and the wail of 
the Mao-dalcn. The same fio-ures do not affect similar 
action in both compositions, but certain rhythmic 
movements recur, as that of the man stooping over 
the form of Christ and presenting the back of his head 
and frame to the spectator, and that of the Virgin 
lookinsf with anouish at her Son. Besides these we 
have modifications of types which are to be found as 
studies of expression in single canvases. The Mag- 
dalen is still the model which o-raced the " Venus- 
Worship " at Madrid, or the " Entombment " of the 
Louvre ; the Virgin is nearly related to the grieving 
" Madonna " which we saw displayed at the death-bed 
of Charles the Fifth. But here the Saviour is not 
carried to the tomb, He is lowered into it, and the 
sepulchre presents to us its marble sides adorned with 
bas-reliefs of antique carved Avork. The legs of Christ 
are nearer to us than His head. But the foreshorten- 
ing is so cleverly managed that the parts which might 
have seemed too near to be in focus are concealed in 
the grasp of the bending Nicodemus, whilst the head 
grandly reposes on the breast of Joseph, who kneels at 
the opposite end of the grave with a strong grip of 
the body under the arm-pit. The flexibility of the 
frame, the raised legs, and hanging hand are very 
grandly represented. The Virgin taking the left arm 
of her Son, which she hopes to kiss, still hovers over 
Him with an agonized look expressed with great force. 
With equal power we note the grief of the Evangelist 
behind Mary, who wrings his fingers, and the wail of 



the Magdalen, whose yellow robe flies and leaves her 
white dress exposed as she comes sobbing and hair 
dishevelled to catch a last glimpse of the Redeemer 
There is no such o;orojeous colouring:, no such maaic 
eflect of light, no such careful definition of outline, or 
gloss and gi-ain of surface in this as in the Mantuan 
example, l)ut it is the work of a man much more 
expert and jn-actiscd than of old — of a man who knew 
the laws of composition, and applied them — a man 
acquainted with inexliaustible varieties of expression 
— a realist who knows every action of body or limb 
by heart. Less rich in tints, less engaging in form, 
less select in features, the dramatis i^ersonce at 
Madrid are superior to those of the Louvre, inasmuch 
as they arc more true to nature and have a deeper 
meaning. Less highly coloured, they bear closer 
inspection, and the nude especially is modelled with 
appropriate shades of tone with a decision and firm- 
ness which left almost nothing for subsequent blend- 
ing or s^lazinof. It is, in fact, as if we should distin- 
guisli the grave doctrine and depth of Bach from the 
playful and melodious power of Mozart, or compare 
the profound but realistic Rembrandt with the brilliant 
and cavalier-like Van Dyke.''' 

* Tho canvas sent to Philip the 
Second in 1559, is that which now 
appears numbered 464, measuring 
m. 1.37 h. by 1.75, in tho Madrid 
Museum. Its history is tho same 
as that of the "Diana and Ac- 
tteon," and tho " Calisto." But 
unUko those pieces it was not 
given away to Charles .Stuart or 

to the Duke of Grammont, and it 
remained for centuries the orna- 
ment of tho altar in the old 
church (Iglcsia Vieja) at the 
Escorial, after having been in 
Philip's lifetime on tho altar of 
tho Eoyal Chapel at Aranjucz. 
On a sheet fastened to the right 
side of tho sepulchre we read, 

V 2 



One copy we saw had been made of tlie ]\Iantuan 
*' Entombment." But it was not made in the master's 
workshop. The " Entombment " of IMadrid was fre- 
quently repeated, not only by Spanish and other 
craftsmen, of which examples may be found in Spain 
and in England, but by Titian himself or his pupils. ''■ 
One of the replicas to which Titian personally may 


Half the composition is relieved 
(to the left) on a dark wall, the 
other half on a landscape. The 
saint at Chiist's head is in brown, 
the other at the feet is in red, 
■with a striped sash. The white 
winding sheet falling over the 
bas-relief of the tomb gives some 
subtle varieties of light. (Compare 
Don P. de Madrazo's Catalogue, 
u. s.) Photograph by Laurent. 

* The "Entombment," like the 
foregoing, in the Madrid Museum, 
numbered 491, on a canvas, m. 
1.30 h. by l.GS, varies in so far 
that the saint on the extreme 
right wears a robe embroidered 
with black flowers ; the tomb is 
without bas-reliefs, and the word 
TITl^VXVS F. is written on the 
stone of the left side. But the 
execution is not that of Titian or 
his pupils, but that of a Spaniard 
who may be Del Mazo. (Compare 
again, P. de Madi'azo, who shows 
that a copy of this "Entomb- 
ment " by Del Mazo, once rested 
on an altar in the chapel of the 
Alcazar at Madrid.) Photograph 
by Laurent. 

A second copy of the "En- 
tombment" is still in the old 
church at the Escorial, sur- 
mounted by a half-length " Ma- 

donna," ascribed to Titian, but 
likewise a copy. 

To these we add the following : 

Hamilton Falacc. — This is a free 
adaptation, with figures of life 
size in a gloomy landscape. At 
Christ's head are two bearded 
men. The Magdalen wrings her 
hands. The figure in the right 
foreground holding the feet is only 
seen to the thigh. The style is 
that of a follower of the Bassani, 
a Spaniard rather than an Italian, 
who loses the lines of Titian's 
composition, and tries in vain to 
reproduce his rich colours. His 
general tone is hard and red. 

Amhrosiana, Alilan . — Thisagain 
is a variety, with the Marys and 
a standing saint in prayer to the 
left ; on the base of the tomb, 
TITIANVS. But the handling is 
that of an imitator of the seven- 
teenth century. 

Torricjiani Collection, Florence. 
— This again is an adaptation, 
with life-size figures, of the 
Madrid "Entombment," with 
different dress. The figures are 
all half-lengths, and lighted by a 
torch held by one of the men to 
the left. One of them, to the 
right, is muth injured. On the 
whole a poor work of the seven- 
teenth century. 



have coDtributed is that which came into the Mantuan 
galleiy, and is traced to the collection of Charles the 
First and James the Second of Eno;land.''' Another is 
that which passed into the hands of the prime minister 
of Spain five years before Titian's death. At a confer- 
ence held between Antonio Perez and the Venetian 
envoy Donato, in 1.'372, the former expressed a strong 
wish to become possessed of one or two pictures by 
Titian, and Donato hastened to communicate this 
wish to his government. The consequence was that 
the Council of Ten sent a competent judge to Titian's 
house, who chose tAA'o canvases, one sacred and the 
other profiine, and tliese were forwarded by the next 
opportunity to Spain.t Shortly after this Antonio 
Perez fell into disgrace and suffen-d imprisonment 
for alleged treason. His family, in want of funds, 
announced an auction of his pictures, and of these 
the Imperial envoy, Khevenhiller, made a report to 
Eudolf the Second, describing, amongst others, the 
" Entombment " by Titian as a replica of the King's 
at tlie Escorial.:}; It is not known what became of 
the picture after this report, but some persons think 
that it may have remained in Spain, from whence it 
was taken by the Duke of Buckingham in 1G22. 
There is no doubt that an " Entombment " by Titian 
formed part of the Duke's Collection ; and this was 

* See Bathoo's Catalogue, u. s. 
The picture is missing. 

t Compare Cicogna'sMS. notes, 
U.S., toTiziancUo's "Aiionimo; " 
and Mr. A. Baschet's contribution 
on this subject to the Gazette dos 

Beaux Arts, for Jan. 15, 1859, 
pp. 76-9. 

X Ludwig Urlich's Beitriige, 
«. s., in Zeitsch. f. bild. Kunst, 
V. p. 81. 



sold at Antwerp after his death to the agents of the 
Archduke Leopold William. ''" Comparing this piece, 
which is now at Vienna, \\'ith the earlier one at 
Madrid, we may concede that it is the same composi- 
tion, yet with varieties. For here the JMagdalen is 
represented wringing her hands, whilst little more 
than the head of St. John the Evangelist is seen 
between the profile of the Virgin and the shoulders of 
the saint next him. Unhappily the canvas appears to 
have heen mutilated and patched up anew, and this 
treatment may have caused injuries which prevent us 
from distinguishing much of the personal labour of 
Titian.t The master himself never thought out any 
better design of the subject than that which he used 
at Madrid ; the sketch — pen and ink and bister height- 
ened with w^hite — is still preserved in the Collection of 
Oxford University, and shows that Titian seldom made 
preparatory paintings in oil, but simply finished large 
pictures from drawings. 

Whilst the " poesies " were still hanging on their 
easels, though all but ready for despatch to Spain, 
Cristoforo Eosa, a Brescian and gossip of Titian, had 
been painting for the " Frocuratia di sopra" the 
vestibule of the library at Venice, with designs 

* Battoe's Catalogue, and 
XrafFt's Kiit. Katalog. 

t This canvas, in size 3 ft. 1|, 
by 3 ft. 7, is No. 32 in the second 
room, first floor, Italian Schools, 
at the Belvedere of Vienna. It 
has a strip of new canvas round 
three sides, and is signed on the 
right of the tomb, " titiakys." 

The scene is in an enclosed space, 
and in gloom. When in the Col- 
lection of the Duke of Bucking- 
ham this piece was 3 ft. h. by 
4 ft. 6. It was engraved by Paul 
Pontius, at Antwerp, and then 
showed the full length of the 
figui-es. Good photograph by 
Miethke and Wawra. 


simulatinsf architectural and surface decoration. Titian 
was asked by the Procuratia on the 9th of September 
to value this work,'"" and it is probable that he then 
executed the splendid picture of " Wisdom " which 
adorns the centre of the vestibule ceiling. Paolo 
Veronese, Schiavone and the rest of the young- 
painters had l)een busy with the neighbouring hall a 
short time before, and Paolo had received from 
Titian's hands the golden collar which marked the 
puljlic a})prol)ation of his skill by the Senate. We 
may fancy that Titian would be anxious to show that 
he too had not forgotten his craft, and we feel assured 
that lie undertook the figure with a film intention to 
produce something of mark. His success was fully 
equal tt) his exijcctatiou. " AVisdom " is a woman of 
gi-and form half rccumljcnt on a cloud, on which she 
rests with her left elbow as on a pillow. On the palm 
of the left hand a long scroll reposes, whilst the right 
is stretched out to touch a folio held up by a winged 
genius. The head is in profile crowned with laurel, 
the face bending, the eye fixed on the book. Subtle 
drapery falls over the bosom, to which it clings as the 
cloth clings on the breast of the females in the Elgin 
marbles. The yellow mantle, which is thrown over 
the shoulders and fiaps in the breeze, the grand 
drapery which covers the legs and shows its changing 
lines of green shot with yellow, the clever ease with 
which the form is thrown on the cloud, all this 
betrays Titian's habitual study of the antique and 

* The record is in Zanetti's I'itt. Yen., p. 339. 



liis intimate acquaintance with the ceiling-work of 
Eaphael and Michaelangelo. It would hardly be 
possible to fill an octagon field more appropriately 
than this, impossible to produce anything more 
abundantly graceful and elevated, or more splendidly 
foreshortened. The play of light and shade combined 
with that of atmosphere and colour is magic, and the 
touch, broad, firm and to the purpose, cannot be 
surpassed.'"'" In his old age Titian shows more clever- 
ness in decorative work of this kind than in his youth 
or prime, and this allegorical creation is more impres- 
sive and striking than the fresco of " St. Christopher " 
in the Ducal Palace or the fresco of uncertain date 
which adorns the staircase near the Scala de' Giganti.t 
It was during this year 1559, that Titian lost his 
brother Francesco, who died at Cadore, and was 
eulogised in a Latin oration by his relative Yincenzo 
Vecelli. It is impossible to say how Titian received 
the news of this death, nor is it known whether it 
came upon him suddenly. There is no evidence to 
show that he visited on this occasion the place of his 
birth, to which he had been so partial in the days of 

THs fine piece has been well ■with the infant Christ, who lies 

photographed by Naya. The 
earliest mention of it is in Bos- 
chini's Eicche Miniere Sest. di S. 
Marco, p. 67. Zanotto (Nuovis- 
sima Guida, p. 114) assigns it, 
without giving his authority, to 
the year 1570. 

t This fresco may be described 
here. It is a lunette, in which 
the Virgin is represented plaj-ing 

on his back on her lap, and 
catches at her veil. An angel at 
each side, naked, winged, and in 
prayer. The whole composition 
on clouds. This was once a fine 
fresco, in Titian's broad manner, 
but has sufiered from repainting' 
to such an extent that almost all 
the original beauty is gone. 



his yoiitli. Certainly the numerous duties which 
devolved upon him as successor to his brother were 
performed in his stead by his son Orazio, whose 
presence at Cadorc in the spring of 15G0 is proved by 
more than one record of undeniable authenticity.''" 
But we can hardly think that Titian would absent 
himself altogether from a family gathering of this 
kind, and it is easy to suppose that he came up to 
Cadorc and made a short stay tliere, when perhaps he 
undertook to paint for the chapel of the Vecelli the 
well-known altarpicce which still adorns the church 
of the Pieve. Between promising and executing an 
altarpiece at this period of the master's life there was 
a wide difference, and it would seem that Titian was 
not by any means ambitious of leaving one of his 
best creations at Cadorc. But still if he did not take 
much personal pains with such a work, he deputed 
some one not quite incapable to take his place, and 
the result was a picture which has the merit of being 
at least Titianesque.t The Virgin is represented 
bendino: over the form of the naked infant Christ, to 
whom she gives the breast. To tlie right St. Andrew 
stoops under the weight of a large cross. To the left 
St. Titian of Odcrzo, a young and handsome prelate 
with an eaole nose and a slio;ht l)lack beard and 
moustache, kneels in a white pivial and mitre with his 
gloved hands joined in prayer, whilst an acolyte with 

* Seo a record of May 21, 1560, 
in Appendix. 

t Vasari (xiii. 31) states dis- 

tinctly that Titian painted this 
l)icturo, which, however, ho only 
describes from hearsay. 


a grey beard in black cap and gown carries the 
crozier. According to a tradition confirmed by 
Titianello's " anonimo," the bald and bearded St. 
Andrew is Francesco Vecelli and the acolyte is Titian 
drawn by himself ; and it is undeniable that there is 
some ground for acknowledging tradition in respect of 
the latter/"' But as to St. Andrew, the legend, old 
and respectable though it be, can scarcely be accepted 
as trustworthy, and judging of the picture profes- 
sionally, no critic will admit that it bears scrutiny as a 
w^ork of Titian. It is in fact a homely and rather 
artless combination of portraits freely handled and 
gay in tone but sloppy in touch, and of that empty 
uniformity which comes of using superabundant 
varnish medium. The canvas displays some of the 
technical habits of Titian without his skill and force, 
and it must for that reason be assigned to some one 
familiar with his style, who can be no other than 
Orazio Vecelli. Titian thus undertook to paint an 
altarpiece upon which he scarcely left a stroke, if 
indeed he touched it at all ; and this accounts for the 
want of character which appears in the likeness of 
himself, which instead of having the marked and 
noble lines conspicuous in the great examples of 
Berlin and Madrid is a mere generalization of his 
features. Of Francesco Vecelli, his relative Vincenzo 
said : " erat ei species et forma admirabilis.^t This 
but ill suits the face depicted under the name of St. 
Andrew, whose air and shape are not only homely and 

* Tizianello's Anon., p. 8. 

t Orazione, Panegirica, n. s., in Ticozzi, p. 323. 



vulgar, but iii type and mould altogether different 
from Titian.""' 

* This canvas, in the Pieve, is 
2 ft. h. by 4 ft. 3 in length, and 
has suffered from a curious 
mutilation. The Madonna and 
Christ, with a fragment of the 
St. Andrew (the whole forming a 
rectangle about half as large as 
the picture), was cut out by a 
thief, but on being recovered was 
sewn, on again. The picture in 
consequence is injured, and to 
this damage the usual cleaning 
and restoring must bo added. 
The canvas is coarse in textui*e, 
and upon this gi-ound pigments 

have been used with copious di- 
luted medium. The forms ai-e 
unusually short and thickset for 
Titian. There is a woodcut of 
the altarpicco in Mi-. Gilbert's 
Cadore. But it was engraved by 
Lefcbre. (Compare Vas. xiii. 31, 
and Eidolfi, Mar. i. 265.) When 
Ticozzi wrote his lives of the Vc- 
celli, the picture had been with- 
di-awn from the Pieve to the 
house of Dr. Taddeo Jacobi, of 
Ciidore (Ticozzi, it. s., llo). It 
has since been restored to its 
original i)lacc. 


Paolo and Giulia da Ponte, Irene and Emilia of Spilimberg. — Their 
Portraits. — The Cornaro Family at Alnwick. — "Epiphany" at 
Madrid, and numerous Peplicas of the same. — Victories of Caesar. 
— Magdalens. — "Venus of Pardo." — "Christ in the Garden." — • 
Titian and Correggio. — The " Europa" at Cobham. — Titian begins 
the "Last Supper." — "Crucifixion" at Ancona. — "St. Francis 
receiving the Stigmata," at Ascoli. — Mosaics and Mosaists.— 
Titian's Cartoons designed by Orazio Vecelli. — Nicholas Crasso. —  
His Altarpiece of "St. Nicholas" by Titian.— " St. Jerome" at 
the Brera. — " Venus with the Mirror." — Loss of Titian's Venetian 
Pictures by Fire. — " The Last Supper" at Venice and theEscorial. 
— Portrait of the Queen of the Eomans. — Commission for the 
"Martyrdom of St. Lawrence." — Titian visits Brescia. — Titian, 
A. Perez, and Philip the Second. — Canvases of Brescia Towti 
Hall. — "The Last Supper" at the Escorial. — Its Mutilation. — 
Titian and the Milanese Treasury. — The " Transfiguration," the 
" Annunciation," and " St. James of Compostella."— Titian 
employs Cort and Boldrini as Engravers. — Vasari's Visit to 
Venice. — Pictures at that time in Titian's House. — Allegories. — 
Titian joins the Florentine Academy. 

Italy, at the close of the sixteenth century, was 
still the land of heroines ; it was the only country in 
Europe capable of producing women like Vittoria 
Colonna, Veronica Gambara, and Isabella of Este. 
Ladies of birth and fortune in those days were either 
confined to the solitudes of convents, or bred up after 
the fashion of men. When they studied at aU, they 
learnt Latin and Greek, or they read translations of 
the best classic authors, and when they had finished 
this course of instruction, they issued into the world. 

Chap. YIH.] 



combining the cliarms of literary converse with those 
more natural to their sex. Such a woman, in 1559, 
was Irene of Spilimberg, avIio died at the age of 
twenty, with the fame of classic learning, of poetic 
gifts, and artistic acquirements in music and })ainting. 
That a person so gifted should have lived at Venice 
without being connected in some manner with Titian, 
was not to be expected ; and, though her knowledge 
of painting was confessedly lower than that which she 
displayed in other fonns of culture, it was not the less 
re<Tarded as a loss to the workl tliat she should have 
been carried off without a chance of improving it.* 
Titian was well acquainted with Paulo da Petite, the 
Venetian patriciiin, Irene's grandfather, lie was on 
terms of friendship with Oiidia da Ponte, Paolo's 
dauLihter and Irene's mother, wlio held one of his 
children at the baptismal font.t AVhen Giulia married 
Adrian of Spilimberg, Titian probably visited the 
possessions of that noljleman, in Friuli, and particu- 
larly the Castle of Spilimljcrg, where early in the 
century Pordenone had left some of his frescos. After 
the death of Adrian, and the second marriao-e of his 
widow, Irene and her sister were taken to the house 
of their grandfather at Venice, where they received 
the manly education of which a sketch has just been 
given ; and amongst the masters to whom Irene was 
indebted for lessons, Titian appears most prominently. J 

. ■* 8eG Dionisio Atanagi,Piiinodi 
diversi in morto della Signoia 
Irene, 8vo, Von. 1561 ; and Ma- 
niago, Stor. d. b. arteFriul., n. s., 

pp. l2o, 280, and;J71. 
t Vasari, xiii. 41. 
t Atanagi and Maniago, u. s. 


Count Fabio da Maniago, to whom Ave owe the only 
trustworthy account that exists of painting in Friuli, 
being distantly related to the clan to which Adrian of 
Spilimberg belonged, inherited some of his family 
pictures, and describes three of them, painted by Irene^ 
"Noah entering the Ark," the "Deluge," and the 
" Flight into Egypt."* At Irene's death in December, 
1559, Dolce wrote a sonnet, asking Titian to collect 
his strength, and furnish to the world a portrait of the 
heroine ; and when Titian answered the call, he not 
only furnished a likeness of Irene, but one of her elder 
sister Emilia, both of which are still preserved in the 
house of her kinsman at Maniasjo. If in the first of 
these portraits we miss the beauties which inspired 
for a moment the Muse of Tasso,t it is, perhaps, only 
because time has injured the canvas, Avhich restorers 
did their utmost completely to destroy. But the picture 
was at best a reminiscence preserved after dciith of a 
lady who was described in her lifetime as beautiful 
and Mr. Irene is represented almost at full length 
and large as life, in a portico, from which a view is 
seen of a landscape, with a shepherd tending his flock, 
and an unicorn to indicate the lady's maiden condition. 
Her head is turned to the left : showing auburn hair 
tied with a string of pearls. Eound her throat is a 
necklace of the same. Her waist is bound with a 
chain girdle, and over her bodice of red stuff a jacket 
of red damask silk is embroidered with gold, and 
fringed at the neck with a high standing muslin collar. 

* Maniago, p. 245. f Atanagi, u. s. 

gkaf. vin.] 



A band hanging from the shouldei-s and passing 
beneath one arm is held in the right hand, wliilst the 
left is made to grasp a laurel crown, and " Si fata 
tulissent" is engraved on the ]Dlintli of a pillar. 
The likeness of Emilia, done, it is clear, at the same 
time as that of her sister, is in the same form and 
costume, but turned to the right, the distance being a 
storm at sea, and a galley labouring on the waves, 
all of which is displa}'ed through an opening in the 
room in which Emilia is standino;. One can see that 
the idea which these two portraits embody is that of 
Irene going in peace from the world in which her 
sister is left to encounter the storms and passions of 

At this period, or perhaps earlier, Titian probably 
exercised his ingenuity in putting together the splendid 
groups of the " Cornaro Family," which now form one 
of the prime attractions of the grand Collection of 
Alnwick. The absence of other works of this year, 
except an " Epiphany " which w^e shall find desjmtched 
to Madrid, might almost speak for L^GO. Nine feet 
long, and seven feet high, this canvas contains nine 
figures variously distributed about an altar on which 
the Holy Sacrament is displayed. Tlic cube of the 
altar stands to the right in the picture, at the top of a 
flight of marl)le steps. To the left, with his hand on 

* Both portraits aie rubbed 
down and opaque from retouch- 
ing, both are on canvas and of 
life size. A copy on canvas of 
the " Irene," seen to the waist, is 
in the house of Sign or Gatorno, 

at San Yito del Tagliamento. It 
is an old picture, and probably of 
the sixteenth century, but not by 
Titian. The surface is injured by 
stippling and tinting. 



the edge of the plinth, the ekiest member of the party 
— an aged man Avith a white beard — kneels. More to 
the left, ascending the steps, another grey-bearded 
man looks up and presses his hand devoutly to his 
breast. Both are senators in state robes of red damask, 
with open hanging sleeves lined with fur. Lower 
down on the same side, a younger senator also in red, 
shows his face in profile, looking up, whilst in front of 
him three youths are kneeling. At the foot of the 
altar to the right, a little boy in red hose, lies on the 
marble step with a dog in his lap, the head of which 
is caressed by an elder boy with one knee to the 
ground, on whose shoulder a third boy leans his hand. 
All these figures are finely relieved on a sky bedecked 
with clouds, forming a superb composition treated in 
the broad free style which characterizes Titian's art 
when Tintoretto tried to imitate its grandeur and 
"senatorial dignity." Flesh or stuffs, all have their 
proper value and peculiar surface, carried out with the 
realistic force which distino;uishes the '\A'ork of the 
master's advanced ao;e from that of the more winnino' 
time when he pleased more by colour and finish than 
by touch.* 

* The canvas of the Cornaro 
family, 6 ft. 8 h. by 8 ft. 5, was 
purchased by Algernon Percy, 
tenth Earl of Northumberland, 
at the sale of the effects of Sir 
Anthony Yjindyke in 1656. It 
was engraved by Baron in London , 
in 1732. On the altar of brown 
stone are a cross, two candles, 
and a vase. Parts of the picture 
are injured by repainting, par- 

ticularly the left half of the 
kneeling boy on the extreme left, 
and the left hand of the boy next 
him. The left hand of the boy on 
the extreme right is also injured. 
The surface generally is altered 
by uneven cleaning and varnish. 
(Exhibited at the Eoyal Academy 
in 1873.) There is a small copy of 
the picture assigned to " Old 
Stone " in the galleiy at Hampton 


The " Epiphany " which Titian sent to Spain was 
packed away and forwarded to its destination after the 
" Entomhment/' the "Actaeon," and the " CaUsto," yet 
Philip acknowledged the receipt of them all on the 
same day. The time which elapsed Ijetween dispatch 
and arrival of these pictures threw Titian into a fever 
of suspense. On the 24th of March, 15 GO, he wrote 
to the King " to ask whether they had been received. 
He feared they might not have given satisfaction. 
He would paint them over again. ^leanwhile he 
pressed for the punishment of Leone ^Vix'tino." '"" 

Again, with still greater insistance, on the 22nd of 
April : 


" Seven months have elapsed since I sent the pic- 
tures which your Majesty ordered of me, and as I 
have received no notice of their arrival, I should 
greatly rejoice to hear that they gave pleasure, 
because if they should not have done so, according to 
the perfect judgment of your Majesty, I should take 
care to paint them afresh so as to correct past errors. 
If received at last with favour, I should have more 
courage to proceed with the ' Fable of Jupiter and 
Europa' and the 'Story of Christ in the Garden,' and so 
to do something that might not be thought altogether 
unworthy of so great a King. The letters with which 

Court. A drawang assigned to 
Titian, in the Wicar Museum at 
Lillo, represents a mother at a 
table surrounded by nine chil- 
dren. The catalogue calls this 


"the Cornai-o family," but on 
what grounds does not appear. 

• Titian to Philip the Second, 
March 24, loGO, in Appendix. 



I was favoured by your Majesty in respect of the 
money assigned to me at Genoa have not had any 
effect ; from which it appears that he who can con- 
quer the most powerful and proud of his enemies is 
not able to secure the obedience of his ministers, and 
I do not see how I can hope ever to obtain the sums 
granted to me by your Majesty's grace. I therefore 
humbly beg that the obstinate insolence of these sub- 
ordinates may be chastised, either by ordering that my 
claims should be instantly satisfied, or by transferring 
the order for payment to Venice or elsewhere, so that 
your humble servant shall be enabled to obtain the 
fruits of your Majesty's liberality. My devotion 
further prompts me to ask your Majesty to order that 
the glorious and immortal victories of Caesar should 
be painted as a memorial to posterity, and of these I 
should wish to be the first to paint one, as a sign of 
gratitude for the many benefits I have received from 
their Caesarean and Catholic Majesties. So I should 
esteem it a favour of your Majesty to let me know the 
light and configuration of the rooms where these pic- 
tures are to hang, and meanwhile, &c.'"* 

" Your Majesty's humble servant." 

[No Signature.] 

"From Venice, A^ril 22nd, 1560." 

* No allusions but these occur 
in Titian's correspondence to 
" Csesar's Victories." But it is 
remarkable that in 1557 Don 
Luis Davila caused " the battles 
of Charles the Fifth" to be 
painted in fresco in his palace at 
Plasencia, in Spain,— as supposed 

— from Titian's designs (see Stir- 
ling's Convent Life of Charles the 
Fifth, U.S., p. 149); and similar 
designs are again alluded to as 
having been used at a festival 
given by the Emperor Charles 
the Sixth at Brague in 1723. (See 
Gio. Pietro Zanotti, Storia dell* 


It is to be presumed tliat this and the previous 
letter were written for the purpose of being read to 
Garcia Hernandez, and that Titian after reading them 
was asked to leave them as memoranda in the presses 
of the Spanish Embassy. We cannot otherwise explain 
their preservation without signatures in the archives 
of Simancas.'"' 

It was not till spring of 1561 that Titian heard, and 
then only by indirect channels, that his pictures had 
been received and approved. 


" I learnt by letters from Dellino that your Majesty 
was pleased with the pictures which I sent of ' Di; 
at the Fountain,' the ' Fable of Calisto,' the ' Dead 
Christ,' and the ' Kings of the East,' at which I am 
the more content, as my greatest happiness is to find 
that my works have met with approval from so great 
a King. I now thank your Majesty anew for the two 
thousand scudi, of which payment was ordered three 
years since iu Genoa, although your generous intent 
was not fulfilled, your Majesty's orders were not 
obeyed, and I have been suljjected to severe losses. 
Kesting my hopes on the payment of the money, I 
had bought some possessions for the support of myself 
and my childi'cn, which, to my great distress, I have 
been obliged to sell, and I now supplicate your 
Majesty most humbly that since your Higlmess 

Accadomia Clemontina, Bologna, 
1739, vol. ii. p. 24, quoted by 
Ciani in Storia del Pop" Cadorino, 

u. s., ii. note to 319. 

* See the original, of April 22, 
in Appendix. 



deigned to grant me tlie said two tliousand scudi, 
whieli it has been my misfortune not to obtain, your 
Highness should order that they be paid to me here 
at Venice. As an intercessor in the case, I have 
prepared a picture in which the Magdalen appears 
before you with tears and as a sup])liant in favour of 
your most devoted servant. But before sending this 
I wait to be informed by your ]\lajesty to whom it 
shall be consigned, that it may not be lost like the 
' Christ ; ' and, in the meanwhile, I shall get ready 
the ' Christ in the Garden ' and the ' Poesy of 
Europa,' and pray for the happiness Avhich your 
Eoyal Crown deserves. 

"Your Majesty's humble servant, 

" From VENICE, April 2nd, 1561. 

In a concise marginal note to this letter Philip 
the Second MTote, as if surprised : "It seems to me 
that this matter has already been arranged, and that 
w'ritten order was sent to pay and settle what is here 
stated." But this was a mistake, which, however, was 
soon after corrected. 

The " Epiphany" sent by Titian to Madrid in 1560 
is now in the Madrid Museum, being, as it were, the 
first of a series of replicas, of which one or more may 
have been finished by pupils in Titian's work-room. 
The longitudinal canvas, filled with figures of half the 
life-size, is divided into groups, the chief of which is 
that of the Virgin and Child, on the left, seated under 
a thatched pent-house with St. Joseph behind her and 
a kneeling king in front who kisses the Saviour's tiny 

Chap. Yni.] THE "EPIPHANY." 309 

foot. Beliind the kino- come tlie two monarclis his 
companions, with a suite of riders, led horses, and 
camels in a gay landscape, lighted by the rays of the 
rising sun. As a worldly scene of pomp and splen- 
dour, with people in lively motion, in the spirit of the 
great "Eccc Homo" of 1.343, this is a picturesque 
composition, the model of which probably inspired 
the Bonifacios and Bassanos, who <2:ave its touch of 
fjenre to the later art of the Venetians, a model, too, 
in the spirit and fasliion of those which assumed 
such a monumental o-randeur in tlie hands of Paolo 
Veronese. But here Titian seems to be represented in 
many parts of the composition by proxy ; and there 
are fine groups, such as that of the Virgin and her 
adorers to the left, whicli are not to be matched in 
those to the right, where indeed some disciple of the 
master appears to have painted Titian himself on a 
horse amongst the suite.'" The very picturesqueness 
of the subject caused it to be frequently copied — once 
l)y a Spaniard, whose version in the Escorial bears the 
name of Titian ; once or twice in Italy, where painters 
whose style recalls that of Schiavoue and the Bassani, 
produced the repetitions of the Munro and Ambro- 
siana Collections. t 

* This canvas is no-w No, 484 bclo-w the master's powers, the 

in the Madrid Museum, and 
measures m. 1"41 h. by 2'19. 

t The replica at the Escorial 
is in the old church, signed 
in the foreground to the left, 
" TITIANVS." Surmounting tho 
picture is an " Ecce Homo," also 
ascribed to Titian. Both are 

"Ei)iphany" being probably by 
a Sjjaniard. 

The repetition in the Munro, 
now Butler Johnstone, Colloctiou 
has much the character of Schia- 
vooe or Bassano, the shadows 
being dark and bituminous, and 
tho sui-face generally without th 



In the course of summer 1561, peremptory orders 
were issued by Philip the Second to the treasurers at 
Genoa to pay Titian two thousand scudi, and on 
receipt of these the money was quickly sent to Venice. 
But Titian's claim was for o;old, and the Genoese had 
paid him in ducats, which entailed a loss to the 
painter of two hundred pieces. The letter of acknow- 
ledgment which he addressed to the King was written 
under the influence of this defalcation, and assumed 
in consequence a tone of complaint rather than of 


"Most Potent Catholic King, 

"Thanks to your Majesty's kindness I have 
at last received the money from Genoa, and I now 
most humbly incline myself and give thanks for the 
favour which, since it frees me from some embarrass- 
ment, will I hope enable me to spend the rest of my 
life in peace in the service of your Majesty. True 
indeed, I have received 200 ducats less than your 
Majesty's first schedule ordered, because the last did 
not specify that I should be paid in gold ; but your 
Majesty will doubtless have the matter rectified and 

hrio of Titian. This jiicture once 
belonged to Miss Piogers. 

No. 170, at the Ambrosiana of 
Milan, is a good old copy in the 
style of that of the Munro Col- 
lection. There is a tradition that 
it was ordered by Cardinal Far- 
nese for the King of France, but 

that it never left Italy, and being 
purchased by San Carlo Bor- 
romeo, it was left to the Milan 
Hospital, from whence it came 
into the hands of Cardinal Fe- 
derico Borromeo, and thence into 
the Ambrosiana. (Notices in tbe 
Inventor}' of the Ambrosiana.) 


I shall get the difference, which will be of the greatest 
use to me. 1 still await your ^lajesty's directions to 
know to whom I shall deliver the ' Mau'dalen ' which 
I promised long ago, and which I have completed in 
such a manner that, if ever your Majesty was pleased 
with any work of mine, your ^lajesty will be pleased 
with this. Your Majesty may send at leisure a 
trusty person to receive it that it may not be lost 
like the ' Christ ' and other pieces some time since. 
Meanwhile, I shall proceed with the ' Christ in the 
Garden,' the ' Europa ' and the otlier paintings wliieli 
I have already designed to execute for your Majesty, 
to wlioni I humbly offer, &c. 

" Your Catholic ^lajesty's most liumble servant, 

" TiTiAXO Vecellio.'^ 

"From Vexice, the llth of Aurjust, 1561." 

i i^rccis of this letter laid l^efore the King contains 

the followino^ marfriual memoranda in his own liaud : 

1. Send the money (200 scudi) from here, which 
will be least inconvenient. 

2. Let the picture go to Garcia Hernandez, and 
write to him to foi-ward it by a safe conveyance with 
some more of the glass previously bought at Venice. 

\\. Tell Titian to hasten the completion of the 
pictures of which he speaks and send them to the 
secretary, and write an order in my name that they 
go by safe conveyance, and write further that they be 
despatched with similar care from Genoa.t 

* Soo tho oi'iginal iu Appondix. t Tho original is in Appendix. 


The letter embodying these instructions to Titian 
exists in Italian and in Spanish. The former is dated 
October 22, 1561, the latter by a clerical error, 
October 22, 1565. Both were inclosed to the secre- 
tary Hernandez, who described their delivery in the 
following interesting despatch."''" 


" As soon as I received your Majesty's communica- 
tion of the 22nd of last month, I gave Titian his 
letter, Avhich aflforded him considerable pleasure. He 
is still working at the ' Magdalen,' though he wrote 
that it was finished. When he delivers it in about 
eight days, I shall send it to the Marquess of Pescara 
with your Majesty's letter, which seems to me the 
shortest and the safest way. Good judges in art say 
that this (' Magdalen ') is the best thing Titian has 
done. He is labouring at the two other pictures 
slowly as is natural to a man who is past eighty, but 
he says they shall be completed by February next, when 
he can despatch them to your Majesty by the Venetian 
ambassador who starts at that time. I have pressed 
him to keep his word and not to miss so good an 
opportunity. Your Majesty will be pleased to OKler 
the payment of 400 scudi, which are due for two years' 
pension to Titian, who being old is somewhat covetous 
{codicioso). The glass is in course of preparation, and 
will l3e ready at the close of the month, when I shall 

* The original in Appendix ; the translation in Gaye's Carteggio, 
iii. 59. 

CnAP. Till.] 



forward it to the ambassador Figueroa at Genoa. It 
goes in two cases, with one containing drinking cups 
for wine and water, and I shall write and not cease to 
press till they are shipped, as the others with the 
pictures remained there a year .... 

"Your Catholic and Royal Majesty's servant, who 
kisses your Majesty's feet and hands, 

" Garcia IIekxandez. 

"From Venice, 20tJt of Nov., IJGI.'' 

On the 1st of December, Titian wrote to the King 
to announce the deliveiy of the " Mngdahii,'' wliicli 
Garcia Hernandez forwarded to its destination a few 
days after. ■■• Contemporary gossip declared that it 
was not the canvas "which judgt-s praised so liighly,' 
that was thus despatched to the King. Silvio Badoer, 
a patrician, well-known for his patronage of nrt, had 
seen the masterpiece on the painter's easel, and had 
taken it away for a hundred scudi ; and Titian had 
been obliged to paint another for his Catholic ]\[ajesty.t 
In course of time both pictures disappeared, or went 
throuirh such a course of adventures as to lose their 
identity .J But there arc still half-a-dozen ]\Iagdaleus 
in existence to show how Titian handled the subject, 
and the model which served as an orio;inal from wdiich 

• See Titian to Philip the Se- 
cond, Dec. 1 ; and G. Hernandez 
to the same, Dec. 12, lo()l ; also 
X>. 11. 's iiccounts of Oct. 1, 1563, 
in Appendix. 

t Vas. xiii. 41. Eidolfi (Mar. 
i. 'J48) says that the Badoer 
" Magdalen " was sold to a Fle- 

ming and taken to the Nether- 

X Yet it may he that the 
" Ma<,'dalcn" still exists in Spain, 
and Sir Abraham Hnmo notes that 
.subject by Titian in the Sacristy 
of the Escorial. (Notices, n. s., 
p. 8*2.) 


all replicas and copies were taken, is a picture of the 
period upon which we are now busy, and an heirloom 
which after passing out of the hands of Pomponio 
Vecelli, into those of the patrician Barbarigo, after- 
wards M^ent out of the Barbarigo Collection into the 
gallery of the Hermitage at St. Petersburg. 

The characteristic features of the piece which Cort 
engraved in 15GG, are masculine power and a luxurious 
maturity of charms. Technically, the treatment 
reveals a bold readiness of hand, and an absolute 
command of means. The figure is turned to the 
right, and seen to the hip scantily clad in a white 
garment, which leaves a wide and well developed 
bosom and throat to be covered by copious locks of 
long wavy hair. The eyes are turned up towards 
heaven ; tears drop down the cheeks, and the saint 
shows her grief and repentance, not only by ex- 
pression, but by gesture, pressing with the right 
hand the locks on her neck, and gathering with her 
left the cloak of white wool striped with red and black 
which winds round her arm and waist. On a skull to 
the right an open book reposes. To the left the vase 
of ointment stands, and the light edge of the form- 
on that side is relieved on a dark bank overgrown 
with coppice- wood, whilst the shaded edge is seen 
against a landscape, lovely in the variety of its hues, 
and balmy Ayith atmosphere. There is no subtle veil- 
ing of tones, no artifice of colour. The artist knows 
exactly what he has to do, he balances light and shade 
distinctly, kneading his colours rapidly, and modelling 
out the forms with resolute brush-stroke, melting the 

Chap. VIH.] 



whole at last into a polished surface broken here and 
there with a touch, and warmed to a brownish glow 
by general glazing.* 

The same figure, with some variety in the landscape 
and accessories, was repeated in the " Ashburton 
jMagdalen," a picture which diftV-rs from that of St. 
Petersburg only in being of somewhat colder execu- 
tion, t ]\Iore or less on the same lines, the later 
" Magdalen " of the Naples Museum, and that of the 
JDurazzo Palace at Genoa, are replicas in which the 
master's touch is still to be traced,J: whilst copies 

* This canvas, No. 98 in the 
Gallery of tho Ilcrmitago, is an 
hoirloom ■which passed to the 
Ijarbaiigo family, with Titian's 
house, in 1J81. It measures 
m. 1*1 7 h. by 0"98, and is signed, 
on tho dark ground to tho left, 
"TiTiAXVS r." Tho surface is 
damaged by cleaning and re- 
touching. Coniparo Ti/ianv^Uo's 
Auonimo, p. 10, and llidolfi, i. 

t Tho canvas, till lately in 
Lord Ashburton's Collection, is of 
tho same size as that in Peters- 
burg, and is signed in the same 
■way. The skull is seen at three- 
quarters, not in profile, as in the 
Larbarigo example, and the ti-ee 
in the landscape is omitted. But 
this picture has been injured by 
washing and stippling. There 
are traces of retouching on the 
bridge of the nose and the cheek 
at both sides, and patches of 
repair are seen in parts of tho 
foreground. Tho landscape and 
sky are masterly. Other parts 

may have been done by Titian's 
pupils and assistants. 

X The Naples "Magdalen," 
No. 21 in tho Museum, is like tho 
foregoing, of life-size, and on 
canvas. Uei'o tho whole form is 
relieved against tho dark bank 
behind. A slight veil is pulled 
by the wind at the shoulders. 
Tho treatment shows this to bo a 
picture of Titian's advanced age. 
We might think it was that which 
the painter sent as a present to 
Cardinal Farneso, as we shall see 
in 1 JG7 ; but that there are notices 
to prove that it was bought from 
the Colonna Collection by King 
Ferdinand the First. The pig- 
ment here is comparatively thin, 
and the tones have become dark 
and opaque from time and re- 
storing. Tho most injured parts 
are the shadows, particularly 
about the neck and chin. The 
right breast is re-painted, and 
the signature, " titianvs r," is 
renewed over tho old one. 

The Durazzo " Magdalen " is a 



belonsfino; to tlie Yarborouo;h and other Collections, 
betray more or less the hand of disciples or inferior 
artists.* The " Magdalen," it is clear, was a stock 
subject much in fashion ; often repeated, seldom 
varied. It never taxed the powers of the master like 
the Venus of which we possess so many and such 
important varieties. Amongst the heirlooms which 
we shall soon find passing out of the hands of Titian's 
son, into those of Cristoforo Barbarigo, is the " Venus 
of the Mirror," of which numerous copies were made 

repetition of that of Barbarigo, in 
■svliicli the landscape alone pre- 
serves Titianesqno character, the 
rest being thoroughly re-painted. 

* Lord Yarborough's example, 
canvas, 3 ft. 6 h. by 3 ft. 0^, has 
the book without the skull. The 
dress is striped red, yellow, and 
green. The cold tones and feeble 
modelling point to a Venetian 
artist of a time subsequent to 

Mr. Joseph Sanders exhibited at 
Manchester a " Magdalen " which 
was a copy of that of Petersburg, 
by an artist of the schools of 
Padovanino and Contarini. - 

A copy again was the "Mag- 
dalen " ascribed to Titian in the 
Northwick Collection, a much 
damaged example. 

Under Titian's name, and 
signed " titiaxvs p," is a " Mag- 
dalen " of feeble execution, No. 5, 
in the Gallery of Stuttgardt. The 
canvas is by a Venetian copyist, 
4 ft. h. by 3 ft. 5. 

Some of the foregoing may be 
identical with pictures noticed in 
books as by Titian, of which we 

have no very late accounts, i.c.y 
"Magdalen" by Titian, in the 
Madonna de' Miracoli at Venice 
(Boschini, Eicche Min. Sest. di C. 
Eeggio, p. 5); "Magdalen" by 
Titian, which belonged to Eubens 
(Sainsbury, u. s., p. 236) ; " Mag- 
dalen " on panel, 2 ft. 7 h. by 1 ft. 
11 , in the Collections of Louis the 
Pourteenth and Fifteenth (see Pere 
Dan's Tresor de Fontainebleau 
(1642), and Lepiciii's Catalogue); 
"Magdalen" belonging to the 
Venetian, N. Crasso (Eidolfi, i. 
131, 253) ; " Magdalen " in Casa 
Euzzini, at Venice (Sansovino> 
Ven. descr. p. 374) ; " Magdalen" 
in Casa Muselli at Verona (i!i- 
dolfi, i. 258) ; two " Magdalens" 
in the Collection of Queen Chris- 
tine (Campori, Eaccolta, it., s., p. 
343), one of them afterwards in 
possession of the Duke of Orleans, 
subsequently belonging to Sir 
Abraham Hume, Lord Alford, 
and Earl Brownlow ; ' ' Magda- 
len " amongst the heirlooms of 
Ippolito Capilupi, Bishop of Fano, 
in 1580 (Darco, Pitt. Mant., u. s., 
ii., note to p. 112). 







by Titian's disciples and followers. But neither the 
original nor the copies of this fine work were Ccilculated 
to create the impression produced by the more cele- 
brated "Venus of Pardo," or, rather, the ' 'Jupiter and 
xVntiope," which Titian now sent to Philip the Second. 
Till quite recently, it was not possible to trace the 
history of this canvas beyond the reign of Philip the 
Fourth of Spain. That monarch, it was well-known, 
had "-iven the picture to Charles Stuart, as he came to 
court his sister, Init no one knew who had left it to 
Philip the Fourth. It is very remarkal)le that the 
copious correspondence of Titian wiili Philip the 
Second should not once contain an allusion to it, 
wliilst frec|uent reference is made to the contemporary 
" Europa ; " yet both pictures were i)aiuted about the 
same time, and Titian claimed payment for both of 
Antonio Perez, iu l.')74.* Though injured by fire, 
travels, cleaning, and restoring, the masterpiece still 
exhibits Titian in possession of all the energy of his 
youth, and leads us back invtiluutarily to the days 
when he composed the Bacchanals. The same 
beauties of arrangement, form, light and shade, and 
some of the earlier charms of colour are here united to 
a new scale of effectiveness due to experience and a 
niao-ic readiness of hand. Fifty years of practice were 
required to bring Titian to this mastery. Distril)U- 
tion, movement, outline, modelling, atmosphere and 
distance, are all perfect. We remember the " Venus of 
Darmstadt," and "Ariadne asleep on the Sward." The 

* Seo Titian to A. Porcz, Doc. 22, 1 J74, in Ai>iiendix. 


slumbering attitude of the first, the coloured llesh of 
the second, are here combined. But Antiope on her bed 
of skins is more lovely than either. Is she dreaming or 
only musing ? Her eyes are closed, her ears are deaf 
to the sound of the horn and the barking of the 
hounds. She does not feel the stealthy pull of the cloth 
which Jupiter, " Satyri celatus imagine," lifts from 
her feet. Her shape is modelled with a purity of 
colour and softness of rounding hardly surpassed in 
the Parian marble of the ancients. Cupid, whose 
quiver hangs on a bough, is the classic boy of the 
Greeks, as he flutters on a branch and shoots his 
arrow at the Satyr. The Sylvan gods intent on 
sport or conversation, are unsuspecting tenants of the 
groves or attend to their own amusement. A faun 
sits on his haunches near a girl with a lap full of 
flowers, l3ut a huntsman who might be Actaeon, cheers 
his companion who sounds liallali, and starts Avith his 
dogs towards the distant glade where the stag has 
been brought to bay by the pack in pursuit. Charac- 
teristic is the feeling of the painter when he takes us 
into the "wilds of his native Cadore, and finds the 
heights of Cithseron or the banks of Asopus in the valley 
of Mel. Behind the group to the left, the deep foliage 
of a forest is finely contrasted with the tree-grown 
meadows on the banks of the stream, which shows 
its pretty line of falls to the right, whilst the blue 
mountains on the horizon are half concealed by the 
wooded hills that dip into the vale below. Splendid 
in contrast, the shades of tone are vivid and strong, 
and rich with a richness both solid and sating. Light 



aud gloom, fairness and weather-beaten tan ; flesh and 
dress are all varied in surface and diverse in texture.'"' 
The delivery of the " Europa " to the agents of the 
King of Spain seems to have been delayed for the 
sake of a smaller piece, of which Garcia Hernandez 
gave notice to his master on the luth of April, l.-^GiZ.t 
But on the 26th of the same month Titian himself 
communicated to Philip the completion of two of his 
fiTcat works. 


" Most Serene and Catholic King, 

" With the help of the divin<* Providence, I 
have at last finislied the two pictures ahvadv com- 

• No. 408 at the Louvto, on 
canvas, m. 1 '90 h. by ."J-SJ, figures 
large as life. For the history of 
this piece we must consult the 
Ashmoloan MS. of Charles the 
First's Collection, as published 
bj' Bathoe, u.s., where the fol- 
lowing entrj' is printed: "The 
great, large, and famous piece 
called in Spain the ' Venus del 
Pardo,' which the King of Spain 
gave to our King when he was in 
Spain . . . done by Titian." Ja- 
bach bought the picture for £000 
at the sale in London in 1050-1. 
It was valued 10,000 livres tour- 
nois in the inventory of Cardinal 
]Mazarin's property, suffered from 
fire in the Palace of Prado at 
Madrid in 1008, and in thoLouvre, 
in KiOl, was cleaned aud abraded 
by an ignorant painter, and left 
in a bad state to be restored by 
Antoine Coj-pel. All the old re- 

paints have since been removed, 
and the picture was restored 
afresh and transfeiTed to a now 
canvas in 1829. (See Villot's 
Louvre Catalogue.) Engraved by 
Bernard Baron, and Corueillo ; 
photograph by Braun. Lomazzo 
(Idea del Tempio [1590], p. 116) 
describes a picture of Venus 
asleep, with Satyrs uncovering 
her, and other Satyrs about her 
eating grapes, whilst Adonis in 
the distance is seen hunfin"-. 
This piece he describes ns having 
been left by Titian at his death 
to his son Pomponio. There is 
an adaptation of this composition 
on canvas ascribed to Titian in 
the Corsini Palace at Rome, but 
it is not original. 

t Garcia Hernandez to Philip 
tho Second, April 10, 1562, in 


menced for your Catholic Majesty. One is the 
* Christ Praying in the Garden,' the other the ' Poesy 
of Europa carried by the Bull/ both of which I send. 
And I may say that these put the seal on all that 
your Majesty was pleased to order, and I was bound 
to dehver on various occasions. Thouorh nothinof now 
remains to be executed of what your Catholic Majesty 
required, and I had determined to take a rest for 
those years of my old age which it may please the 
Majesty of God to grant me ; still, having dedicated 
such knowledge as I possess to your Majesty's service, 
when I hear — as I hope to do — that my pains have 
met with the approval of your Majesty's judgment, I 
shall devote all that is left of my life to doing rever- 
ence to your Catholic Majesty with new pictures, 
taking care that my pencil shall bring them to that 
satisfactory state which I desire and the grandeur of 
so exalted a King demands. Meanwhile I shall pro- 
ceed with a 'Virgin and Child,' hoping to produce 
something that will satisfy your Majesty not less than 
my other works. 

" Devoted humble servant, 


''From Venice, April 26, 1562." 

The pictures came in due course to Spain, where 
the gospel subject was transferred to the Escorial and 
the " poesy " to the Royal Palace. In the solitude of 
the Prior's Hall in the Spanish monastery the " Christ 
in the Garden " was allowed to decay, so that, though 
originally grand and clever, it was nearly ruined before 

(Jhap. yill.] " CHRIST IN THE G.UiDEN/' 321 

it was "restored." The " Europa " shared the fate of 
the "Venus of Pardo." It was seen and copied by 
Eubens at ^ladrid, Ijut subsequently packed away 
with other canvases of a light and fanciful style in- 
tended as presents to Charles Stuart. When Charles 
left ^Madrid and broke off his engagements, the 
"Europa" was restored to its place, and afterwards 
passed, with the "Actceon and Calist<'>," into the 
galler}' of the Duke of Orleans, from whose collection 
it came into the hands of Lord Berwick and the Earl 
of Damley.'" 

There is every reason to believe tliat early in the 
sixteenth century, Count Claudio Rangone of ^lodena 
was possessed of a celebrated work Ijy Correggio 
representing Christ's prayer in the garden of Gethse- 
mane.t After many vicissitudes, this masterpiece 
found its way to England, where it now adorns the 
palace of Apsley House. In the days of Titian's 
acquaintance with the Rangoncs he doubtless had 
occasion to admire this noble composition, which he 
imitated in the canvas of Philip the Second. Here, 
as in Correggio, we see Christ kneeling with his 
hands outstretched and looking up at the angel who 
comes on the wing from heaven, whilst Peter and the 
sons of Zebedee are sleeping on the grass. The air of 
Christ's head and its foreshortening, the sprightly and 

* Tho copy is still in. the Ma- 
drid Maseum, and is numbered 
in the catalogue of 1845, No. 
1 588. See also Madrazo's Madrid 
Catalogue, u.s., p. 270. 

t See L. A. David to Muratori 


in Campori's Lett. Ined., u. s., 
p. 5.39 ; and compare Aretino to 
Claudio Eangone in Lett, di M. 
P. A., i. 35; and Lottero a M 
P. A., i. 70, and following. 



not unaffected movement of the ano-el bearino; tlie 
cup, are reminiscences of Allegri, which are not to 
be explained in any other Avay than by acknow- 
ledoino- Titian's indebtedness to his Parmesan con- 

At first sight, the silvery light and deep brown 
shadows of the " Europa " remind us of Paolo 
Veronese ; but the scene is depicted with much more 
elevation than Paolo was capable of feeling, and 
composed with much more thought than he usually 
bestowed on pictorial labours. Nothing betrays the 
aged character of Titian more than the inevitable 
looseness of drawing and the coarse delineation of 
realistic extremities, to which we must fain plead 
guilty in his name. But these defects are compen- 
sated by startling force of modelling and impaste, by 
lively effect of movement apparent in every part, by 
magic play of light with shade and colour, and a 
genial depth of atmosphere. 

The bull, with his garland of flowers, raises a surge 

* Escorial, Sala Prioral. Mucli 
injured canvas, with figures half 
the size of life. Christ is turned 
to the left, and looks at the angel 
■who flies down from that direction. 
This picture is not to be con- 
founded, as it is by Sir A. Hume 
(Notices, u. s., pp. 38 & 84), 
with another, once in the Sa- 
cristy of the Escorial, now No. 
490 in the Madrid Museum, where 
Christ is seen kneeling by moon- 
light in the garden (without the 
angel), whilst two soldiers, ac- 

companied by a dog, are scaling 
the hill by the light of a lantern 
which one of them is carrjdng. 
Ticozzi (Vecelli, 212-13) curiously 
confounds these two jaictures irr 
one description. The last-named, 
though catalogued as a Titian 
(m. 1.76 h. by 1.3G), is a poor 
adaptation of Titian's work by a 
Venetian copyist, whose work is 
iww opaque and injured, the pig- 
ments originally being thin and. 
the drawing defective. 

Ch-VP. yni.] "JUPITER AND EUEOPA." 323 

as lie rushes tlirougli the greenish hrinc, above which 
a dolphin just shows his snout. He looks imposing 
and triumphant as he lashes his tail and carries off 
his prize, and leaves a wake behind that reaches to 
the distant bank, where the nymph's companions are 
bewailing her loss, and a royal l>ull looks quiescent at 
his daring mate. Europa struggles on the back of the 
beast whose seat she dare not leave, holding on with 
her left to one of his horns, parted from his white side 
by an orange doth, of which a fold is waved 1>y her 
outstretched riglit arm. As her face is thrown back 
it catches a shadow from her arm, and her glance may 
reach to the shores far away where her companions 
have been left. The muslin drapery which conceals 
some of her shape, the orange cloth, the creamy hide 
of the bull, and the green curl of the water, sets off" 
grauflly a form whirli is not the less tnie to nature in 
its semblance because it displays no selection or ideal 
of contour, but is the reality itself in rich substance of 
<Xor2^eous tone. Eros clino-ino- with expanded winf][s 
to a dolphin, and sporting along in the course of the 
bull, is a lovely fragment of Titianesque painting, 
representing, as finely as the two Cupids with their 
bows and arrows in the air, the idea of rapid going, 
already suggested by the swimming fishes and the 
surge at the bull's breast. i\Iasterly as a bit of 
" actuality," the shadow cast by her own arm on 
Europa's fiice is as truly caught as the reflection of the 
maid's companions in the Ijlue deep water, or the 
lovely lines of the brown and azure hills which rest 
on the horizon. Nothing can be more vigorous or 

Y 2 



brilliant than the touch which has all the breadth of 
that in the " Jupiter and Antiope/' or the " Calisto," 
without the abruptness of Paolo Veronese, the Ijroader 
expanses of tinting being broken effectually with 
sparkling red or grey or black, toned off at last by 
glazing and calculated smirch to a splendid harmony.'"" 
Strange to say there is no account extant of the 
King's reception of this picture, of which a fine, and 
probably a Spanish, copy is in the collection of Sir 
Eichard Wallace.t 

During the twelvemonth wdiich followed the de- 
livery of the " Europa," Titian had no further corres- 
pondence with Phihp the Second. In May, 1562, we 
find him writing to Vecello Vecelli announcing the 
despatch of a "Venus and Adonis," and the com- 
ing of a "Madonna" to Cadore. Earlier in the 
previous year a lively interchange of letters had taken 
place between the painter and the Cadorine com- 
munity, in consequence of Titian's claim to be paid 
with interest a debt of 1000 ducats, and the inability 
of the municipality to satisfy his demands. Vincenzo 
Vecelli was, perhaps, flattered with a present in order 
to secure his interest and accelerate the action of the 

* This picture, now at Cobham 
Hall, was bought by Lord Ber- 
wick at the sale of the Duke of 
Orleans for £700. The figures 
are large as life on a canvas 5 ft. 
10 h. by 6 ft. S in length. In the 
left hand corner of the picture, 
beneath the Cupid on the dolj)hin, 
we read in Eoman letters, " TI- 

t This copy is no doubt that 
which belonged to Dawson Tur- 
ner, Esq., of Yarmouth (Waagen, 
Treasures, iii. 18), and has been 
characterised by some critics as a 
genuine sketch by Titian. It is, 
however, but a copy, and pro- 
bably by Del Mazo. A poor copy 
of the Cobham Hall " Europa " 
is in the Dulwich Gallery. 



Cadorine Council.''"' About the same period Titian 
was in communication with Andrea CotHno, a notary 
of Medole, who sent favourable accounts of Don 
Cristoforo da Cisano, at that time curate of the bene- 
fice of which Titian was the holder. f In November 
Orazio at Cad ore was recovering for his fiither a 
meadow near Tai, which had been mortgaged in pre- 
vious years l)y Francesco Vecelli.;!: A few months 
later Titian, whose scheming to obtain payment of his 
pensions shows that he possessed in an eminent 
degree the arts of diplomacy, sent a "Portrait of a 
Turk" througli Capilupi, bishop of Fano, to Cardinal 
Gonzaga, to interest that prelate and induce him to 
react in his favour on the authorities of ^IiUin.§ 
Titian's principal professional employment was tlie 
painting of a " Last Supi)er," upon wliich he had been 
busy for six years, and of which he gave some account 
to riiilip the Second in the following letters : 

TITIAN TO rniLir the second. 

" Months have passed since I }tresented my 
humble duty to your ^lajesty otherwise than in 
thought, and now I take the opportunity of your 
jNIajesty's glorious victory to do so. In order to show 

* See Titian to the Community 
of Cadore, April 24 ami Sept. 3, 
1561, in Beltramo's Tiziano Ve- 
celli, H. 8., p. 7 t. 

t Cadorin, DuUo Amoro, u. s., 
p. 42. 

: Eecord of Nov. 10, loG2 

drawn by Yincenzo Vecelli, MS. 
Jacobi, of Cadoro. 

§ Ippoiito Capilupi to the Car- 
dinal of Mantua, March 7, 1563, 
in Darco, P. M. Muntua, ii. p. 


my devotion and my desire to be of service, I beg to 
say that tboiigli nothing remains to be done of all 
that your Majesty in past times kindly committed 
to me, I shall in a few days have brought to comple- 
tion a picture on which I have been at work for six 

years A "Last Supper of our Lord" and 

the "Twelve Apostles," seven braecia long and more 
than four braecia in height, — a work which is perhaps 
one of the most laborious and important that I ever 
did for your Majesty, and which I shall send on as 
soon as it is finished, by such channels as your 
Majesty shall direct. Meanwhile I beg your Majesty 
most humbly, and out of old friendship, before I die, 
to do me the grace to a;ive me some consolation and 
utility of the privilege of corn from Naples, which 
was granted to me so long ago by the glorious 
memory of Csesar, your Majesty's progenitor. I beg 
likewise to ask for some pension to realise the 
" naturalezza " of Spain, which was given to me in 
the person of my son, and also that your Majesty 
should deign to empower me, by some efficacious and 
valid schedule addressed to the Duke of Sessa, to 
recover my ordinary dues from the chamber of Milan, 
of which I have not had a cjuatrino for more than 

four years 

" Your Catholic Majesty's most devoted, 
" humble servant, 

*' From Venice, 28i!7i of July, 1563." 

* See the original in Appendix. 

Chap. Tin.] "LAST SUPPER" BEGUN". 327 


'OIosT Potent and Invtnciblk Catholic King, 
" Having received no answer to numerous 
letters forwarded with my paintings to your Majesty, 
I greatly fear that either the latter have not been satis- 
factory, or your servant Titian is no longer in favour 
as of old. I should like vorv much to be assured (if 
the one or the other ; for knowing the opinion of my 
great Kini^ I should endeavour to act so as to avoid 
all cause of comi»laint in future. I trust that your 
]\Iajesty will deign to give orders that I should be 
consoled, if not by a letter, at least by your ^lajesty's 
seal, which, 1 assure your Majesty, would add ten 
years to my life and be an incitement to send with a 
more joyful heart the " Last Supper," of wliich I 
wrote on previous occasions. This picture is eight 
braccia long and five in height and will shortly be 
finished, and your INFajesty will be pleased to give 
directions to whom it shall be consigned, in order that 
the matter of this ' devotion ' may be evidence of my 
devotion to your ^lajesty. And as, till now, I have 
not had the slightest payment for the numerous works 
which I have furnished, I ask for no more from the 
singular benignity and clemency of your Majesty than 

my ordinary dues on the Camera of ]Milan 

" Your Catholic Majesty's humble servant, 

" Titiano Yecellig.'^'' 

"Frcnn Venice, Dec. 6, 1563." 

* Seo the original in Appendix. I is also in the archive of Siman- 
A duplicate, dated Dec. 20, 1jG3, | cas. 



In the interval which Lay between the dates of 
these letters and the despatch of the " Europa " to 
Spain, Titian was possibly busied with the composi- 
tion and painting of the " Crucified Saviour with the 
Virgin, St. John Evangelist and the Magdalen," 
which is still preserved, though in a very bad state, in 
the church of San Domenico of Ancona.'"' He doubt- 
less also painted the kneeling " Desiderius Guido in 
prayer before the Vision of St. Francis," which still 
remains, though nearly ruined, in the public gallery of 
AscolLf Much of his time, and not a little of his 

* Vasari (xiii. 40) praises highlj' 
the "Crucifixion" in San Do- 
menico of Ancona, which he de- 
scribes as executed " di maccJtia" 
in the master's latest style. The 
picture is arched, and contains 
four figures of life size : Christ on 
the cross, of which the foot is 
grasped by St. Daminick, St. 
John looking up to the right, and 
the Magdalen to the left with 
her hands joined in prayer ; on 
the bottom of the cross, " titi- 
ANVS FECIT." A patch of canvas 
has been added to the bottom of 
the picture. The Christ is re- 
painted anew, and the rest is 
dimmed by repainting and old 

t Desiderius Guido, of Ascoli, 
is a well-known prelate, who was 
Governor of Cesena in 1546, and 
Governor of Eome in 1592. In 
1561 he founded the chapel in 
San Francesco of Ascoli, for which 
Titian's picture was furnished, 
and the fact is vouched for 
by an inscription preserved to 
the following effect : " Desiderius 

Guido, J.U.D. [juris utriusque 
Doctor], sibi posterisque suis 
Sacellum hoc divo Francisco di- 
catuni poni curavit, A. mdlxi." 
(See Abate Gaetano Frascarelli's 
Memorie del tempio di S. Fran- 
cesco di Ascoli, 8vo, Ascoli, 1861, 
coi tipi del Cardi.) Guido kneels 
to the right, whilst further back, 
in a landscape of hills, St. 
Francis kneels and receives the 
stigmata from Christ in the 
clouds. Behind the latter is a 
cross of heads of seraphs and 
cherubs. To the left of St. 
Francis the Friar Hilarius, on the 
ground some books, the arms 
of Guido, a tree on a hill, and 
near this, " titianvs veceliys 
CADVB." The pictui'e is so in- 
jured that some parts of it show 
the priming of the canvas, yet it 
looks as if it might originally 
have been by Titian. Eidolfi 
notes a picture with this subject, 
by Titian, in S. Francesco of 
Ancona (Marav. i. p. 267). But 
he probably meant to write As- 


mind, was absorbed in settling the differences Avhicli 
broke out at this period nmougst the mosaists of the 
Church of San ^larco. 

At a very early period of Venetian civilisation it 
had been found advantageous to adorn churches with 
mosaics, and the Cathedral of St. ^lark was not the 
least splendid edifice in the lagoons in which Byzan- 
tine craftsmen exercised their talents. But as pic- 
torial skill increased, the demands made upon mosaists 
increased likewise, and it became requisite to form a 
school in which apprentices should Ijc bred to the 
profession of setting coloured stones in patterns on 
walls. At tlie close of tlie loth, and even in the 
beginning of the IGtli century, painters such as 
Tiazzaro Bastiani and Bissolo contributed to the 
decoration of San ]Marco ; but aljout 1520 it was 
found necessary to organise a special establishment of 
professional mosaists, assisted by designers, chosen 
from the better masters of the day, and to these 
men the duty was entrusted of repairing worn 
mosaics, and executing fresh vntj^, and w hen the later 
pictures AVere substituted for those which time had 
brought to a state of decay, the temptation was not to 
be withstood of pulling down old work and replacing 
it with new. The founders of the modern school of 
mosaists were ISIarco Rizzo and Vincenzo Bianchini, 
whose appointment by the Senate dates as far back as 
l.;17. In 1524 an important addition of strength 
was made by the selection of Francesco Zuccato, who 
for more than half a century remained the favourite 
and best paid master of the Venetian government. 


In 1542 the mosaists were allowed to pay tlieir 
apprentices a salary of three ducats a year out of the 
treasury of St. Mark, and under this rule Bartolommeo 
Bozza became a pupil and assistant to Zuccato. 

Between Bianchini and Zuccato an old and in- 
curable feud existed, into which the friends and 
enemies of both artists were gradually drawn. 
Zuccato had once charo-ed his rival with coinino- 
which led to Bianchini's imprisonment. After 1545, 
Avhilst Zuccato and his brother Valerio were employed 
at high pay in the vestibule of San ]\Iarco and 
Bianchini with liis clan was busy designing the tree 
of Jesse in the chapel of Sant' Isidoro, Zuccato 
committed the mistake of settino: the word " Saxibus " 
in a Latin inscription, and covered the defect with a 
piece of painted paper. Bianchini received intel- 
lio-ence of this and other alleo^ed irrefjularities from 
Bozza, who abandoned his master and went over to 
Bianchini on grounds of which there is at present no 
explanation, and the ]procurator cassiere, Melchior 
Michele, w^as privately informed that irregularities had 
taken place which ought to be prevented or punished. 
A commission of inquiry was appointed, and the 
procurator was present when the mosaics of the 
vestibule ay ere Avashed and the paper Avhich covered 
*' Saxibus " Avas swept away. On the 22nd of May, 
1563, after suspicion had been thus aroused, Melchior 
Michele came to the cathedral accompanied by 
■Sansovino and folloAved by Titian, Jacopo Pistoia, 
Andrea Scliiavone, Jacopo Tintoretto, and Paolo 
Veronese, AA'hen a diligent examination of all the 

Chap. VHI.] 



mosaics was made. It was found that paint had been 
used in various places, but the judges were unanimous 
in thinkin<]c that this was not material, as the mosaics 
were other\^4se perfect. Still Zuccato was ordered to 
renew the parts that had been painted at his own 
expense ; and Valerio was deprived of his salar}' till 
such time as he should i)rovc his skill afresh. It 
appeared in the course of the investigations that all 
the cartoons of the Zuccati, were made in Titian's 
workshop and designed by Orazio Vecelli."''' Orazio, it 
is clear, was at this period the presiding genius of his 
father's house, administering his property, and super- 
intending the design and fii-st laying-in of his pictures, 
and there is some reason for thinkim:' that ho was 
maiidy instrumental in producing, with the help of 
assistants, the canvas of " St. Nicholas in cathedra," 
which was delivered in 15G3 to the Venetian Niccolo 
Crasso. Crasso had been bred to the law, which he 
liad given up for the mercantile profession, but having 
lost all he possessed by the wreck of his ship on the 
Syrian coast, he returned to the bar, where he made a 
fortune. In 15G3 he l)Ought the freehold of a chapel 
in San Sebastiano of Venice, and on the marble of 
the altar over which Titian's " St. Nicholas " was 
placed, he caused these words to be engraved : 

" Nicolaus Crassus fonira primum navigationem cloindo secutus. 
Ab advcrsa fortuna fortunis omnibus spoliatus, 
Ad forum iterum reversus hunc postreino locum 
Laborum omnium et miseriarum quietem sibi et post. p. MDliXlll." 

* Seo for all those facts Za- 
netti's Pitt. Ven., ». s., pp. 725, 
and following ; and the protocol of 

May 22, 15(33, in Ilartzen's Essay- 
on Schiavone, Deutschos Kunst- 
blatt, No. 37, of tho year 1853. 



Titian's picture on an arched panel represents St. 
Nicholas seated as if presiding over an imaginary 
audience in the stall of a cathedral choir. Behind 
him is a panelled screen of stone adorned with a 
relief of St. John the BajDtist and a plinth and part of 
the shaft of a pillar. With one hand he supports a 
book, with the other he gesticulates, whilst an angel 
in buskins to the left raises aloft an episcopal mitre. 
The forehead is bald, but the temples are covered 
with grey hair, and a grey beard stands out against 
the red cape which falls in fine relief on the lawn of 
a surplice. The red dress of the angel is looped up 
above the knee, and girdled at the waist with a blue 
sash, a striped carpet lies on the ground, and near it 
are the three balls, emblems of the saint's peculiar 
benevolence. What effect the picture may produce is 
due rather to warm general toning of a golden shade 
than to freedom of touch, grandeur of form, or massive 
contrasts of lis^ht and shade. The hand of assistants 
is betrayed in the uniform velvety surface and feeble 
modelling of the f)arts, and it would almost appear as 
if Schiavone had helped Titian not only to pass 
judgment on the mosaics of the Zuccati, but to produce 
some of the pictures which issued from Titian's 
workshop.'" We have seen in the "Europa" and 
*' Antiope " what the master could do when he put 

* The " St. Nicholas " is on a 
panel arched at top, the figure 
being just under life size. It is 
iQ-uch praised by Vasari (xiii. 41) 
and Eidolfi (Mar. i. 253). It was 
restored several times, and last 

by Count Corniani in 1822. (Ci- 
cogna, Isc. Yen. iv. 149.) En- 
graved anon3'niously. Photo- 
graphed by Naya. On the pe- 
destal of the seat we read: 


Chap. YIII.] 



forth his strength, and it might occur to us to think 
that he only exerted himself in these days when 
pleased with a fancy subject or flattered by a royal 
commission. But that this was not so is clear from 
the fine figure of St. Jerom, which was painted in 
these days for Santa ^laria Xuova of Venice, though 
now exhibited in the Brera of Milan, the " Venus of 
the ^lirror " now at Petersburc^, and other works of a 
cocmate nature. The " St. Jerom " of tlic Brera is the 
model from which a replica was made for Philip the 
Second. The "Venus of St. Petersburg" is the 
original from whicli repetitions were made for Niccolo 
Crasso and the King of Spain. AVe are accustomed 
to see Titian piling the imi)aste on his canvases at 
successive sittinirs, and kncadinti: the wli^le at last into 
a grained surface, toned u[) with glazings that pene- 
trate into the hollows and tracks of the Ijrush. Here 
he works off the figure at one painting on panel, 
using primaries chiefly, nnd producing almost a mono- 
chrome. He then seems to have glazed the surface 
all over, shaded it deeply with bitumen, and lighted it 
up here and there with flat tint, breaking the whole 
at last by notches of pure colour. Tlie result is a 
l)road picture of touch which is quite masterly, though 
it difiers from earlier work 1)}' deriving its eflcct from 
contrast of light and shade and sweep of brush rather 
than from sweetness or richness of tint.'"' 

* This picture, in the Brera, is 
on an arched panel, m. 2.23 h. by 
1.33. The fif^uro is a little under 
life size, bearded, bald, and 
stringy. At the lion's feet is the 

signature, "ticlvnvs F." A fine, 
but somewhat faded, original 
sketch in sepia is in the Dres- 
den Museum, photdgi-aphcd by 
Braun. The original pictui'O has 



The replica sent to Philip the Second is still at the 
Escorial, where it underwent such an ordeal of repair 
that the master's hand is apparent in a few places only. 
But what remains, particularly part of the head, shows 
how cleverly the canvas was executed.""" 

The " Venus of St. Petersburo- " was an heirloom of 
Pomponio Vecelli and the Barbarigos. In its original 
state it must have been a noble creation, of which wc 
can only judge with accuracy now by bits about Cupid's 
back and the bosom of Venus. No masterpiece of 
Titian's later time more agreeably combined grandeur 
of style with perfect harmony of lines and of colour. 
Venus is seated to the left, part naked, on a striped couch 
of black and yellow stuff. Piound one arm a cherry 
coloured velvet mantle, with sable lining and edges 
braided with gold, is twisted, passing underneath the 
form, and held at the hip with the right hand. The 
left hand lies on the bosom, whilst the head is turned 
to look at a mirror held by Cupid. The goddess 

been engraved by "N. B. E. S. 
(? Salter) Ant" Ucelli a I'arca di 
Noe ; " it is also engraved in the 
collection of Lefebre. Titianello's 
Anonimo (p. 9), Eidolfi (Marav. i. 
267), andZanetti (Pitt. Yen., u. s., 
p. 169), all note the picture in 
Santa Maria Nuova at Venice. 
A small copy of the seventeenth 
century, ascribed to Titian, is in 
the gallery of the Academy of 
San Luca at Home. 

* This picture, we are told by 
Don Jose Quevedo (Descripcion 
del Escorial, 4to, Madrid, 1849), 
has been restored. It is a square, 
on canvas. But here the lion is 

on the left ; a large square boul- 
der fills a large part of the back- 
ground, and the saint's left hand 
:s on a book. Beneath a volume 
on the right foreground, an in- 
scription is just visible, though 
illegible. Below, " TITIANVS f." 
Eor a variety of engraved 
figures of St. Jerom " by Titian," 
see Sir Abraham Hume's list 
(Notices, u. s., pp. xxvii, and fol^ 
lowing). There are two fine 
drawings of the penitent Jerom, 
by Titian, in the British Museum ; 
another in the Albertina at 


wears her golden liciir partly brushed in Avaves from 
the temples, partly plaited with jewels, a Ijracelet 
fastened on one wrist, a chain wound round the other ; 
earrings of pearl adorn her. The winged Cupid who 
holds the mirror, presents his back to the spectators, 
and has dropped his quiver and arrows on the couch. 
A yellow sash falls from his shoulders, Eros, almost a 
counterpart of Amor in the "Venus of the Uftizi," 
puts one hand on the shoulder of liis mother, and tries 
with the other to crown lu-r head with a garland of 
flowers. A l)rown-gTeen hanging to tliu left, is in- 
geniously pitted against a brownish background,- and 
both react upon the crimson of the mantle. The light 
is cleverly concentrated on Venus, displaying a full 
and fleshy frame of superb mould. Something of the 
Asiatic may be traced in the dark eye, the drooping 
nose, the small nostril, and tlic richly cut mouth. A 
noble contrast is produced by the repose of the goddess 
and the muscular efforts of the Cupids, one of whom 
seems obliged to stand on tiptoe to reach up to Venus's 
head, whilst the other staggers under the load of the 
mirror, which has evidently been detached from a 
neioihbourinn; wall. The latter is a vounc; Hercules in 
scantling, and the play of his muscles is admirably 
given. Not less fine is the projection of shadows, and 
the reflection in the mirror. The surface is broadly 
modelled, and notwithstanding all the injuries of time 
and retouching, we still sec that it was impasted 
repeatedly and with surprising skill before it received 
the finishing glazing, smirch, and touch. No record 
has been kej)t of the fate of tlie rej)lica sent by Titian 



to Philip the Second. We only know that the painter 
claimed payment for it in 1574. Of all the known 
copies and adajDtations at the Hermitage in St. Peters- 
burg, in the Ashburton collection, at Cobham, Dresden, 
or Augsburg, none is worthy to compare with the Bar- 
barigo heirloom.'"'" 

As the year 1563 came to a close, Titian was in 
active correspondence Avitli the Duke of Urbino in 
respect of payment for a picture of the Virgin Mary, 

* The Barbarigo " Venus with 
Cupids," is on canvas, No. 99, of 
the Hermitage Gallery, and m. 
1.23 h. by 1.03. It is mentioned 
by Eidolfi (Mar. i. 262). But 
since it came ofT the master's 
easel it has been rubbed down 
and repaired in many places ; 
and under the more transparent 
repaints we still see the original 
cracks. A good photograph by 
C. Eoettger. The replica belong- 
ing to King Philip, described by 
Titian himself as " Love holding 
the Mirror to Venus" (see his 
letter to Antonio Perez, Dec. 22, 
1574, in Appendix), is missing. 
So is the replica painted for 
Crasso (Pddolfi, Mar. i. 253). Ano- 
ther variety, classed as a school- 
piece. No. 108 at the Hermitage, 
canvas, m. 1.31 h. by 1.11, came 
from the Malmaison collection, 
and presents both Cupids holding 
the looking-glass, the Cupid in 
front having a quiver hanging 
from a sash round his shoulders. 
Of this a replica under Titian's 
name was, till lately, preserved 
in the collection of Lord Ashbur- 
ton, which bore somewhat the 
character of a copy by Contarin 

or Varottari. At Cobham Hall 
we have the Venus with one 
Cupid holding the mirror, a can- 
vas engraved by Leybold, which 
we trace back to the Orleans and 
Queen Christine collections. (See 
Waagen, Treasures, ii. 497, and 
Campori, Eaccolta, p. 342.) Here 
the hanging is red, and Venus 
holds Cupid's bow in her right 
hand. The whole picture is feeble, 
and a copy, in all but the bow, of 
a school piece once in the Im- 
perial Gallery of Prague, now 
numbered 232 in the Dresden 
Gallery; of which school piece 
there is a still j)oorer copy. No. 
233, in the same galleiy. In the 
Augsbirrg Gallery, No. 269, is a 
canvas almost completely re- 
painted, with Venus and one 
Cupid as at Dresden ; but here 
Venus, besides wearing the red 
pelisse, is draped in white, her 
bed is also white, and Cupid's 
quiver lies with the bow at his 
feet. Lithograph by Hanfstiingl. 
There was one of these Venuses 
"by Titian" in the Granvelle 
collection. (See Castan, m. s., p. 



sent as a present to some one at ^lantua, and as to a 
series of designs probably intended for the decoration 
of the paLace of Pesaro. A letter Amtten by Titian on 
the 6th of January, 1564, in reference to these matters, 
has been published, which almost desersTS to be 
reprinted, as it shows that the great painter and his 
son Orazio were at this time dealers in timber at 
Venice, and furnished the Duke of Urbino not only 
with pictures but with pine planks and logs.'" 

Amongst the altar-pieces which adorned Venetian 
churches in the last quarter of the sixteenth century, 
two by Titian seem to have been worthy of atten- 
tion — the •' Nativity," on the hio^h altar of St. ^lark, 
and the "Last Sui)per," in the refectory of San 
Giovanni e Paolo. Not a line in contemporary 
historians has been found to allude to the first of these 
masterpieces. The second was registered by Vasari 
and Ptidolfi without a word of praise, probably because 
they had not seen it.t Both were destroyed by fire in 
an accidental way. On the 19tli of January, 1580, 
there was high company at mass in San Marco. 
The Archduke JMaximilian, the Prince of Bavaria, 
and one of the Dukes of Brunswick, on their way to 
the wedding of the Duke of Ferrara, had been stopping- 
over night in the Casa Dandolo alia Giudecca, and in 
the monastery of San Giorgio. They came over 

* The original is in Lettero d' 
Illnstii Italiuni non mai stampati 
pubblicato da Z. Bicchierai per le 
nozze Galootti Cardenas di Va- 
leggio, Svo, Firenze, 18j4, Lc- 


monnior. It is signed "Ser Titiano 
Yecelli, p.," and addressed to tho 
Duke of Urbino in Pesaro. 

t Vasari, xiii. p. 37 ; Eidolfi, 
Mar. i. 2(38. 


betimes in the morniiif? to visit the treasury of the 
cathedral and hear a mass. After the ceremony, one 
of the li2;hts set fire to a festoon and burnt the 
" Nativity/' by Titian, which was fastened above the 

The day of Saint Marina "vvas kept as an annual 
festival at Venice after the recovery of Padua in 1509 ; 
and the Venetian government, as a matter of pre- 
caution, habitually quartered troops in appropriate 
localities to suppress disturbances, if any should 

On that day in 1571, some German soldiers 
detached to the magazines below the refectory of San 
Giovanni e Paolo, got drunk and set fire to the 
monastery, and burnt down the refectory, novitiate, 
and dormitories with all their contents. We may 
presume that the " Last Supper " which perished on 
this occasion, was the original which Titian now copied 
for Philip of Spain, t 

Most of the year 1564 was consumed in corre- 
spondence between the painter and the monarch on the 
subject of this picture, of which — we recollect — Titian 
had made an offer at the close of 1563. With more 
wile than we approve, he wrote repeatedly to his 
patron to say that the " Cena " was finished, though 
Garcia Hernandez, the king's secretary at Venice, was 
always in a position to report that the contrary 
w^as true. AVhat Titian wanted was payment of his 

* Diarii MS. in Cicogna, Iscr. 
Ven. iv. 333. The picture was 

t "Emortuale de' Padri de' 
SS. Gio. e Paolo." Codex Extr'. 

" sopra il yolto dell' altare." i in Cicogna, Isc. Ven. yi. 825. 


pension before parting -svitli any more of his works. 
What Philip could not for a long time compass was 
this vei*} payment, which was always evaded hy his 

In a despatch to Hernandez, dated March S, 1564, 
a minute of which has been preserved, Philip told his 
envoy that he had acknowledged the receipt pf two 
letters from Titian, and written to ]\Iilan and Naples 
to press for the payment of the dues. He would 
be glad to receive the " Last Supper " now that 
it was finislied, and hoped it would be forwarded 
in good condition to Genoa, from whence it could be 
sent by galley to Alicant or Carthagena."' The same 
post took tlie king's letter to Titian, dated from 
Jjarcelona on the 8tli of ^larch, under cover to Her- 
nandez with copies of orders (.»f tlie same day to the 
Duke of Sessa, governor of ]Milan, and to the Viceroy 
of Naples, to settle Titian's claims ; and by the same 
opportunity the minister Perez wrote to the master 
thanking him for his promise of a iNIadonna, giving 
him notice of the despatches sent to Hernandez, and 
concludino- with an assurance that when the " Cena " 
arrived, he should see that the King sent a suitable 

Garcia's reply to the King is dated the IGtli of 

* See tho Minute in Appendix. 

t All these letters are in Ap- 
pendix, except that of Perez, 
which will be found dated Bar- 
celona, March 8, in Eidolfi's Ma- 
raviglio, i. 248. It is to be noted 
that Pwidolfi's text gives the initial 

of the name of Perez as G., 
whereas there is reason to think 
the correspondent hero is Antonio 
Perez. See in Appendix, Garcia 
Hernandez to Antonio Perez, Oct. 
9, loCA. 

z 2 



April. He said lie liad given the King's despatch to 
Titian, who had been flattered by its reception. 
Titian would be content to claim his dues from Milan 
and drop those of Na^Dles, which were antiquated, 
and of which he as an old man had but an imperfect 
recollection. The " Last Supper " was not finished as 
had b^en stated, but was to be completed, according 
to promise, in May.'"' But jNIay came and passed 
away, and Garcia wrote on the lltli of June to say 
that Titian was working steadily at the " Cena," which, 
notwithstanding all his industry, would not now be 
completed for three months. Titian, he added, had 
given him a portrait of the Queen of the Eomans, to 
send to his Majesty, and it had been forwarded — well 
packed — to Don Gabriel della Cueva.t 

Titian, it is evident, wished to gain time and give 
the treasurer of Milan leisure to obey the King's 
commands. He did not like to ofi^end the King, and 
sent the portrait of Philip's sister as a sop. His 
success is shown in the King's answer to Garcia, a 
letter dated the 15th of July, in which the envoy is 
bid " to tell Titian that the King liked his diligence 
in completing the ' Cena ' and forwarding the likeness 
of the Queen his sister. ";{: 

Meanwhile no symptoms of relenting appeared on 
the part of the King's financial agents. Titian there- 
fore wrote again to Philip on the .5 th of August, 
tellins: him for the second time that the " Last 

* See tlie letter in Appendix, 
t The original is in Appen- 

+ See tlie original letter in 
Appendix. The picture is not 
known to exist. 



Supper " was ready, after seven years of labour, 
and begging that his Majesty might give command 
to his ministers to pay his pensions at ]\Iilan and in 
Spain."'" This letter was crossed on the road by a 
despatcli of the 1.3th of July from the King to Garcia 
Hernandez, stating that Philip Avas thankful for the 
diligence used by Titian in completing the " Last 
Supper" and the portrait of the King's sister. t A 
second despatch, dated a fortnight later, announced 
the arrival of the " Queen of the Romans " with other 
pieces at ^ladrid, and asked Hernandez to report how 
Titian was disposed as regarded work, because the 
King wished him to paint a picture of the " Signor 
Sant' Loreucio/'J Later still, un the 20tli of 
September, Philip wrote to express his pleasure to 
Hernandez that the " Cena" should be ready, adding 
that orders had l>een sent to Don Gabriel della Cueva 
to pay the painter ]iunctually.§ To these letters 
Hernandez made the following reply : 


"Titian has finished the picture of 'Christ our 
Lord at the Last Supper,' and on his return from 
Brescia, where he has been for more than a fortnight, 
and from whence he is hourly expected, he will give 
it to me, and I shall send it at once to the ambas- 
sador at Genoa. I shall Titian to bemn the 

* Titian to tho King of Spain, 
Aug. 5, loG-1, in Eidolfi, Mar. i. 

+ Tho original is in Apponilix. 
+ Seo tho original in Appendix. 
§ Tho original is in Appendix. 


' St. Lawrence/ as lie is well able to work, since in 
order to get money he lias gone from here to Brescia. 

"Your Majesty's, &c., 

" G. Hernandez. 

" Fro??i Venice, Odoher 8, 1564." 

Much more fully and with a clear insight into the 
character of Titian in his old age, the Spanish envoy 
wrote to his minister at Madrid. 

gaecia hernandez to antonio peeez. 

"Illustrious Senor, 

" I received the letter of your Magnificence 
dated the 1st ultimo enclosing one for Titian, which I 
gave and read to his son, Titian himself being absent 
from the city, though expected home hourly. I shall 
tell him when he comes, that your Magnificence has 
communicated with me as to the picture which he 
sent to Francisco Dolfin, now in glory, respecting 
which indeed nothing further need be said, since 
Titian is content that your Magnificence should 
make use of it as you have written. The 'Christ 
at the Last Supper ' which has been finished for his 
Majesty is a marvel, and one of the best things that 
Titian has done, as I am told by masters of the art, 
and by all who have seen the composition. Though it 
is done, and I was to have had it on the 15th of 
September for the purpose of forwarding it to Genoa, 
he said, when I sent for it, that he would finish it on 
his return, and then give it to me, which I suspect 
is due to his covetousness and avarice, which make 

Chap, yni] TITIAN AND A. PEREZ. 343 

liim keep it back, and may continue to do so, till tlie 
King's despatch arrives ordering payment to be made. 
If on his return he does not give up the canvas, I 
shall consider this the true cause, yet still try to 
obtain it, and make him Ijcfrin the 'St. Lawrence.' 
For though he is old he works and can still work, 
and if there were but money forthcoming we should 
get more out of him than we could expect from his 
^^Q, : seeinjT that for the sake of earninG; he went 
from hence to Brescia to look at the ])lace in which 
he has to set certain pictures just ordered of Idin. 
Your ]Ma!]:nificence will ask H. M. to settle witli 
Titian respecting that of which so much has been 
written, as I fear it .may not be done, and if your 
Ma^-nificcnce should like some little things from the 
master's hand, this would be a fitting and easy oppor- 
tunity. In a monastery of tliis city tliere is a picture 
of ' St. Lawrence,' done by Titian many years ago, of 
the size and style of which your letter speaks. The 
friars have told me that they would give it for 200 
scudi, and it could be copied for 50 scudi by Geronimo 
Titiano, a relative or pupil who has been in Titian's! 
house more than thirty years, and is considered the? 
next best after him, though he does not come up to 
him ; nnd if his Majesty should like these they could 
be had more (piickly. I beg your JMagnificence to 
advise me as to this. 

" Half of the ebony pictures are ready, and the rest 
will soon be done also. . . The three lamps are likewise 
finished, . . . I have been out with my surgeon and two 
apothecaries looking for rhubarb, but there is not a 



dram equal to sample to be had in all Venice, but 
if any should be found it will go with this ; if not, 
I shall send of the best till the arrival of the genuine 
article from the Levant. But all this requires money, 
and I have none . . . and if H. IMaj^'. does not com- 
mand that the dealers here and there be paid, I do 
not know what I shall do. . . 

" I kiss the hands of y''. Mag^., and remain most 
certainly your Servant, 

*' Gaecia Hernandez.''' 

" From Venice, Odoher 8, 1564." 

A week after this the envoy wrote to Philip to 
tell him that Titian had returned, and the " Last 
Supper" would be ready "in eight or ten clays." 
Titian would then begin the " St. Lawrence," from 
which he would not remove his hands till all was 
done; but Titian "begged that his Majesty would 
condescend to order that he should be paid what was 
due to him from the court and from Milan, as Don 
Gabriel de la Cueva had not done so, as he had been 
bidden." For the rest the painter was in fine 
condition, and quite capable of w^ork, and this was 
the time, if ever, to get "other things " fi'om him, as 
according to some people who knew him, Titian was 
about 90 years old, though he did not show it, and 
for money everything was to be had of him.t 

Titian, it w^ould seem from these letters, was fairly 
justified in withholding his picture, for which it was 

* The original is in Appendix, 
t See G. Hernandez to Philip 

the Second, Oct. 15, l<jG4,'_in Ap- 


clear the payment was doubtful. He knew well enough 
the men with wliom he had to deal, and was probably 
quite aware that he could secure the favour of Antonio 
Perez with "a.Ir/nnas cosillas de sic mano." The 
King, who was favoured with a precis of Garcia's 
letters of the Sth and lotli of October, wrote laconic 
notes to them in the marofin : 

" Orders have been sent to ^lilaii to make the 
payment ; and as to matters here, I don't know how 
they stand." 

" Tlic picture should be bought from Titian's rela- 
tive for ."30 ducats." 

*' Titian's should not be taken unless it dilfered from 
the first, for then there would be two instead of one." 

" All that had been done as to the ' ebony carved 
work' and lamps I approve." 

"As to the rhubarb 1 know nothincr." " 

According to these communications, Titian had 
been travelling professionally to Brescia in 'search of 
money ; and this was true in so far as it appears that 
he liad been asked to undertake an important com- 
mission, and had received a large retainer. In 1503, 
Cristoforo Kosa had contracted to decorate the vault- 
ing of the great hall in the public palace of Brescia, 
and in February, 15G4, had begun his labours. But 
the principal ornament of the place was intended to 
consist of three octawnal canvases filliniT spaces in a 
large square ceiling ; and it had been thought worthy 

* The original is in Appontlix. 


of Brescia to employ as composer of these canvases 
the best painter of the Venetian states. A contract 
was accordingly drawn up and signed, in the presence 
of Cristoforo Rosa, on the 3rd of October, in which 
Titian agreed " to j^taint three pieces in the cube of 
the ceiling of the palace of Brescia with such figures 
a,nd histories as the deputies of the to^^al should 
designate, at a price to be determined by a taxing 
-commission after the completion of the work," and 
in the meanwhile an earnest of performance was 
given by preliminary payment of an advance of 
150 ducats.'" 

We shall presently see that Titian at last obtained 
some portion of his dues from Milan, ^though the 
Lombard treasurers, like some usurers, cashed their 
bills in kind. Meantime the " Last Supper " was for- 
warded to its destination, and in due course reached 
the Escorial, where immediate preparations were 
made to hang it in the great refectory. UnhapjDily, it 
is said, the wall of this apartment was not as large as 
the canvas of Titian, and after short deliberation it 
was resolved that the picture should be cut down ; 
but this resolution had scarcely been taken when it 
was made perceptible to a deaf and dumb artist, " the 
Titian of Spain," Juan Fernandez Navarrete, at that 
time employed in the monastery, who made energetic 
protest against the mutilation, and begged hard for 
permission to make a copy. Li spite of his protest, 
summary execution was performed upon the famous 

* The original contract is in I alle ijubbliclie Fabbrich.e . . . deUa 
Zamboni (B.) Memorie intorno I Citta di Brescia, fol.' Bresc. 1778. 

CiLiP. ^Tn.] THE "LAST SUPPER." 3^7 

work of Titian'.'"' And it is hardly credible, tliouoli 
undeniably apparent, even now, that the monks cut 
off a large piece of the upper part of Titian's canyas, 
leaving the architectural background in a mutilated 
state. AVe can fancy Navarrete witnessing this van- 
dalism witli the utmost disgust, and accompanying 
it " with the most distressing attitudes and distor- 
tions." But mutilation is not the only damaoe 
inflicted on the picture. It has been so frecpiently 
repainted that little or none of the original colour is 
left on the surface, and all that the spectator cnn 
now enjoy is the grouping and distribution. Taul 
Veronese composed the " Feast in the House of Levi," 
now in the Venice Academy, to replace the " Last 
Supper," burnt down in the fire of San Giovanni c 
Paolo. He naturally challenges comparison with 
Titian at the Escorial. Both artists have qualities 
which enal)le them to impart grandeur to the sul)jects 
which they represent ; both set the scene in monu- 
mental architecture ; both give to their episodes that 
" condiment " of realism which a French critic w^ould 
call '' dciualitc.'' But Titian, thouoh his thouoht is 
deformed and lamed by accident, still shows more 
elevation and dignity than his younger and now more 
active rival. The cloth is laid in a vast hall with an 
arched opening at each of its sides. The rays of the 
Holy Ghost fall on the head of Christ as he sits at the 
centre of the board, where his form is relieved airainst 
the landscape seen through the opening beyond. His 

* This anecdote, copied from Cean Bermudez, is in Northcote's 
Life of Titian, n. s., i. .349-o0. 


right arm stretches over the table, his left is on the 
shoulder of St. John Evano-elist, who bends with melan- 
choly before hini. The dramatis ^lersonce are natu- 
rally grouped behind and round the ends of a long 
table, under which a doo; is o-uawinG; a bone. To the 
right the foremost figure is that of Judas in the act of 
rising from his seat, the purse half hid in his fingers. 
The traitor looks round as if suspecting his next com- 
panion, who leans over and supports himself with one 
hand on the cloth whilst pointing at the Saviour with 
the other. To the right of both, a man in profile is 
eating ; another faces the spectators, and nearer the 
centre, two more have their eyes fixed on Judas. 
Here, too, the arms of a servant carrying a dish pro- 
ject from the opening of the arched doorway. On the 
Saviour's right the disciples grouped in threes are 
communing with each other ; one in front, to the left, 
seated in converse with his neisfhbour, to whom a 
word is spoken by a turbaned man in rear, above 
whose head the base of a statue is visible on a bracket. 
On the floor a vase is lying near a shallow bowl, out of 
which a partridge is drinking. The finest group in 
the whole picture is that of three apostles on the 
Eedeemer's right, one of whom appears surprised, 
whilst another, forgetting the cup in his hand, 
stretches his frame and face towards Christ ; the third 
leaning over and resting his hand on the shoulder of 
the second. There flashed on Titian's mind when he 
composed this group some reminiscences of Da Vinci's 
"Last Supper," which he doubtless saw so often 
during his visits to Milan. There are parts, for iu- 

ClLiP. VIII.] 



stance the profile of the apostle leaning over the end 
of the board, and the bare arm of Judas, which are in 
iair preservation, and show the superb breadth of 
modelHng and kneading of pigment peculiar to Titian 
in his later days. The rest is seen more or less to 
disadvantage, for the causes already assigned. Seven 
years Titian admits he laboured at this great picture. 
How often during this time may he not have impasted 
and rcimpasted the figures, then forsaken the canvas 
and impasted it again, before he ventured on the last 
Mazinirs and touches 1 We can still realise to our- 
selves, in fancy, how he did this, modelling the forms 
at first in primaries, correcting, strengthening, and 
tintinf]c the whole at last to its final gorircous rich- 
ncss.'" An unfinished copy of this vast piece in a 
Venetian palace in the sixteenth century tells of 
Titian's connection Avith a painter named Stefano, 
who may be identified as Stefano Rosa, the relative of 
Christopher Eosa, who witnessed the contract for the 
ceilino; canvases at IJresciii.t It is not known what 
became of this work. But other copies exist in the 
collections of Lord Ellesmcre and Lord Overstone, 
which prove the original form of this vast composition 
and the value assigned to it. | 

* Tho picture contains thirteen 
full lengths of life size. It is still 
in itrf origiuul place, signed on 
the bowl out of which the par- 
tridge is drinking, " Titianvs F." 
A print of the picture exists, by 
C. Cort. 

t Anonimo, ed. Morelli, p. .jG. 
The picture was in the Casa Pas- 

qualino at Venice, and is de- 
scribed as having been ' ' begun 
by Titian and finished by Ste- 

+ In the Bridgwater collection. 
No. 87, is a cojjy from the " Last 
Supper" at thoEscorial, properly 
assigned to Andrea Schiavono. 
But here a high window is sub- 



Titian's reward and the beginning of fresh labours 
on the " Martyrdom of St. Lawrence " are noted in the 
following* letter : 


*'MosT Potent and Invincible King, 

"Malio-nant fortune oblio-es me to recur to 
your Majesty, whose infinite goodness as a munificent 
patron to a devoted servant may assist and favour 
me, in spite of destiny. Some days since, wishing to 
recover from the Chamber of Milan the rest of my 
ordinary pension, I had an amount equal to some 
years' pay retained from me, which caused me great 
inconvenience ; besides which, the remnant assigned to 
me was forwarded in the shape of a warrant for rice, 
by which I was put to a loss in discount of more than 
a hundred ducats. I therefore apply to your Majesty 
to vouchsafe that orders should be issued for making 
good the loss I have sustained, so that, having no 
other salary, I may be able to live in the ser\dce of 
your Majesty with that small sum which the glorious 
memory of Ctesar, your Majesty's Sire, and your 

stituted for the arching behind 
tie Eedeemer. 

The copy in Lord Oyerstone's 
collection is small, and described 
as an original sketch ("Waagen, 
Treasures, Supplement, p. 142). 
But as to this, which is open to 
contradiction, the authors would 
like to reserve their opinion. 
Meantime it is important to notice 
that here we haye the whole com- 

position as it was thought over 
by Titian. The space above the 
table is much larger. The arch- 
ing of the door behind Christ is 
complete. The pillars rise to the 
height of the entablature, and the 
statues on brackets at both ends 
are entire. It might be that this 
small copy, in which Titian's 
composition appears without mu- 
tilation, is the work of Nayarrete. 



jMajesty's self concedecl to rae. I shall await the 
effect of the infinite kindness of my most clement 
King, and meanwhile proceed to finish the picture of 
the heato Lorenzo, which, I believe, will be to the 
satisfaction of your ^Majesty, to whom, &c., 


" From Yexice, Juhj 18, loG5." 

"Wlillst it is clear from this ej^istle that the master 
had not as yet laid hands upon the " St. Lawrence," 
it is equally clear from the tenor of a correspondence 
which he had in August with the Lresciau agents, that 
he had not begun the canvas of the town hall. 
The Brescians spent six months in choosing the pro- 
mised subjects; and it was not till the :20th of August 
tliat Titian wrote to acknowledge the receipt of them. 

In September he went to spend tlie autumn at 
Cadore, and there he planned the decoration of the 
church of the Pieve with frescoes and mosaics, which, 
it was understood, were to be carried out by puj^ils 
from his designs.t On his return to Venice in De- 
cember, wc find him renewing actpiaintance by letter 
with his old friend and protector Beccadelli, who had 
now become Bishop of Ravello.J 

AMiat the master's labours may have been during 
this interval has not been reported by chroniclers. 

* Tho original is in Appendix. 

t Several of these pupils were 
thou with him at Cadore. Va- 
Icrio Zuccati, Emmanuel of Augs- 
burg, and C'esare Vecelli, wit- 
nessed tho deed appointing Fausto 

Vecelli to bo a notary on tho 
1st of October. Compare Ticozzi 
Vecelli, u. s., p. 238. 

X Tho original is in Herman 
Grimm's Kunst und Kiinstlor, 
8vo, Berlin, 18C7, ii. pp. 16j-6. 



But there is circumstantial testimony to show that 
Titian had completed two canvases at least — the 
*' Transfiguration " and the " Annunciation " — in the 
church of San Scxlvadore at Venice ; and there is reason j 
to think that the figure of "St. James of Compos- 
tella " in San Lio of Venice and the " Education of 
Cupid " in the Borghese Palace at Eome were pro- 
duced about this time. 

Titian only once designed the " Transj&guration," 
and that, as we see, in extreme old age, yet his com- 
position of the subject is very telling. Christ is just 
leavincf the earth, which he still touches with the 
ridit foot. He rises from the ground with out- 
stretched arms, looking up to heaven, as the three 
apostles, awe-struck and half-recumbent, watch him 
from the foreground. Moses on the left with the 
Tables, Elias on the right, are powerful but somewhat 
unwieldy figures, in which we discern the coarser 
execution of the master's disciples, and particularly 
the shallow technical handling of Marco Vecelli. Oily 
pigment superficially blended and a marked deficiency 
of bold contrast between lights and shadows, are 
unmistakable evidence of this. But in spite of these 
drawbacks, the canvas is remarkable for the richness 
of its toning ; and Titian's genius in realizing forcible, 
almost majestic, movement is undeniable.'"' 

* The "Transfiguration" is 
mentioned by Yasari (xiii. 37) ; 
and Eidolfi says (i. 267) that it 
had already suffered in his day 
from retouching. It is a canvas 
with figures of Hfe size, covering 

a "j)«/a" of chiselled silver, 
forming the ornament of the high 
altar. The general tone is low, 
and the surface is injured by 
partial repainting and bad var- 
nish. The picture is engraved. 

Chap. Yin.] THE " ANXUXCIATIOX." 35:5 

The "Annunr-iatioii" on a ueighbouriug altar of the 
same church is carried out with hokl skill and sur- 
prising mastery of means. The old painter is now on 
the verge of 90, yet his power and inventiveness are 
in some respects greater than they were in earlier 
days. He repeats a theme often studied and thought 
over, and his mature experience suggests to him a 
treatment as ingenious as it is new. Four angels and 
numerous cherubs flutter about the dove, the rays of 
which are dartinij towards the head of ^larv. The 
Virgin, who had been kneeling at lier book on a desk, 
turns round suddeidv and disi)hivs a face lost in 
astonishment, the features of which express timidity 
making way for fortitude. She raises with her right 
hand the veil that covers her hair and floats about her 
form, and directs her glance shar])ly at the winged 
anuel who comes in Ijowinrj to the left, with b(»th 
arms crossed over his breast. With the other hand 
she still grasps the book as if it were i)art of herself 
and not to be lost for a moment. The ty2)e is not 
that which belongs to a shrinking and youthful girl. 
It recalls in some measure that of the " Magdalen " or 
of the " Venus " at Petersburg or the Borghese Palace, 
but it is still so elevated and im})ressed witli so much 
dignity and character, that nothing more than the 
mould of the face suggests a point in common with 
these creatures of another world of thought, wliilst 
the grandeur attained brings the })ainter as near to 
]\Iichaelangelo in conception as it was possible for 
Titian to come. The life which l)ul)bles out so gaily 
in the quick movement and gleeful joy of the angels, 

VOT;. II. A A 



and the graceful action of Gabriel ; tlie charm which 
lies in bright hues of drapery, the beauty of the 
grouping in the glory ; the sheen of wings in radiant 
atmosphere, and the splendid contrasts of light and 
shade and deep harmonious colour, all combine to 
fetter attention in the highest measure, and this im- 
pression is but enhanced by masterly treatment, 
though it be but that of a man whose hand and eye 
are no longer apt for detail, but confine themselves to 
broad and sweeping dashes and planes of pigment. 
\yell might Titian feel offended at the reproach that 
the picture so composed and executed should not have 
satisfied the purchasers, and we cannot but approve 
the energetic answer of the artist to the ignorance of 
his judges when he wrote beneath the foreground, 
"titianvs fecit fecit." Curiously enough Vasari, 
who described this piece and its companion in 1566, 
declared that Titian held both in slight esteem, adding 
that he himself thousfht them inferior to other works 


of Titian. But if this were true, how could we 
account for the anecdote which tells of Titian's indig- 
nation, and how explain the double " fecit " thrown 
by the master on the canvas ? We may believe that 
Vasari on this occasion confounded the " Transfigura- 
tion " with the " Annunciation,'" and applied to both 
the opinion which Titian only applied to the first." 

* This picture is also on can- 
yas, Tvith figures large as life. 
It is mentioned by Vasari (xiii. 
37) and all the guides and his- 
torians of Venetian art. On the 
floor, above Titian's signature, we 

read, "ignis aedens non com- 
BVRENS." Between the angel 
and Virgin a view of a landscape 
is seen through a door. Here 
also the colours are dimmed, 
perhaps on account of excessive 



St. James of Compostella receiving tlie ray from, 
lieaven, whilst the Baptist kneels in the distance, is 
a life-sized fio;ure in San Lio, which misfht vie with 
those of the church of San Salvadore, if time and 
restoring had not almost obliterated the master's 
work. The walking- movement, the tender upturned 
face, the hand on the breast, express feeling without 
the affectation of the Peruginesques, and the lines are 
of that gran<l boldness which surprises afresh in every 
work of Titian.""" 

Superb in anotlier form, though quite in a different 
scale of tone, is the " Cupid and Venus " of the 
Borohese Palace, a canvas of which the orioiual 
tliought is transparent enough, though modern criti- 
cism was too careless to detect it. Not the three 
Graces disarming Cupid we should think, but Venus 
and two Graces teaching Cupid liis vocation, is the 
subject depicted. Tlic Queen of Love is seated in 
front of a gorgeous red-brown drapery ; her li(>ad is 
crowned with a diadem, and her luxuriant hair falls in 
heavy locks on her neck. Her arms are bare, but her 
tunic is bound with a sash, which meets in a cross at 
the bosom and winds away under the arms, whilst a 

uso of bitumen in shadows and 
glazings. Engraved by C. Cort. 
* This is an arched canvas, on 
tho last altar to the left, in San 
Lio. A piece has been added to 
tho right side and base of the 
picture, in the foreground of 
which there are traces of the 
master's name. In tho distance 
to the left, bounded bj^ hills, a 
knight is seated. The saint is 

bare-headed and bare-legged , 
with a green rag about his ancles. 
In his right hand the pilgrim's 
staff; his dress is red and yellow. 
(Compare Tizianello's Anon., p. 
9 ; Sansov. Ven. desc, p. 42 ; and 
Boschini, Min. Sest. di Castollo. 
p. 34.) The surface was injured 
by time, and then repainted in 
many places. Tho tones arc 
hea\'y and opaque in conscquoncc. 

A A 2 



flap of a blue mantle crosses the knees. With both 
hands she is binding the eyes of Eros leaning on her 
lap, whilst she turns to listen to the whispering of 
another Eros resting on her slioulder. A girl, with 
naked throat and arm, carries Cupid's quiver, whilst 
a second holds his bow. Behind the group a sky- 
overcast with pearly clouds lowers over a landscape 
of hills. There are reminiscences here that take us. 
back more than twenty years to the allegory of 
Davalos at the Louvre, or to similar "poesies" at 
Vienna, but how different is the treatment ! Let us 
recall the clays of the " Tribute Money," when it was 
of little consequence whether one saw the master's 
work at a distance or not. Near it the smallest 
details could be detected, losing themselves in the- 
mass as one drew back. Now a near view presents 
a medley of patches of impasted pigment, red, blue 
and black interspersed with grey, and no contour- 
or minuteness of any kind. But if w^e retire to the 
focal distance the reality itself is before us. The 
figures look plastic. Light plays upon every part, 
creating as it falls a due projection of shadow, 
producing all the delicacies of broken tone and a 
clear silvery surface full of sparkle, recalling those 
masterpieces of Paolo Veronese in which the grada- 
tions are all in the cinerine as opposed to the golden, 

* This picture is mentioned by 
Eidolfi as belonging to Prince 
Borgbese (Marav. i. 257), who 
thus possessed two allegories, 
executed at the two extremes of 

Titian's career: "Artless and 
Sated Love," and the "Education 
of Cupid." The canvas, witb balf- 
lengtbs large as life, is well pre- 
served. It sbows on tbat account 

Oh.u'. ynr.] titia.x, cort, and boldrint. 


During the winter leisure of 1565-66, Titian de- 
voted some of his time to the superintendence of 
Cornelius Cort and Niccolo Boldrini, whom he em- 
ployed to engrave some of his rarest and most 
popular pieces. He sent a petition to the C^ouncil of 
Ten praying for a monopoly of the publication of 
these* prints, and a patent to that effect was issued to 
him in Februar)' of 1566.* In this manner there 
came into circulation the "St. Jerom," the "Perseus 
and Andromeda," tlie "Trinity," the Barbarigo "Mag- 
dalen," the " Annunciation " of San Salvadore, a 
second version of the " St. Jerom," " Sisyphus," 
" Prometlieus," and several other com])ositions, a 
selection of which having been presented to Dominick 
Lampsoniu.s at Lit?ge, produced that fulsome letter 
which Gaye has published, praising Titian as the best 
landscape painter of the agc.t In January two of 
the Brescian canvases were so far advanced that the 
envoy of that numicii)ality at Venice was enabled to 
congratulate his government on their approaching 
completion.^ Shortly afterwards the Spanish envoy 
Hernandez wrote to Philip the Second, to tell him 
that the "Martyrdom of St. Lawrence" would be 
finished in the following Lent.§ But we hardly 

how well the pictures of Titian's 
old ago could look wheu he chose. 
This picture has been engraved 
in a plate marked L. Bo. Ba"" f. 
Romae, engraved by F. Vanden 
Wyngaordo and Robert Strange. 

* Cadorin, Dello Am ore, u. s., 
j)p. 9 & 65. 

t D . Lampson . to Titian , Liege, 

March 13, 1567, in Gaye's Car- 
teggio, iii. p. 242. 

X Zamboni, u. s. 

§ See Philip the Second to 
Garcia Hernandez, March 26, 
156(5, acknowledging the i-eceipt 
of that of Hernandez, in Ap- 


require the evidence of contemporary correspondence 
at tliis period, to realize the picture of Titian's 
industry. Vasari, who had been preparing a new 
edition of his Lives in the spring of 1566, had become 
impressed with the necessity of revisiting the principal 
cities of Italy, and had left Eome for Venice on the 
I7tli of April. In the short space of a month, he 
travelled by way of Narni, Terni and Spoleto to 
Tolentino, Macerata, and Loretto, thence by Ancona, 
Eimini, and Eavenna, to Bologna. From Bologna 
he passed on to Modena, Parma, Piacenza, and 
through Pavia to Milan. On the 10th of May at 
Lodi, he visited in successive days Cremona, Brescia, 
and Mantua, and after spending a few hoiu's at 
Padua and Vicenza, he reached Venice on the 21st, 
retmiiing to Ferrara on his way home on the 27th of 
May.'" In this short visit of four or five days he 
saw Titian, of whom he wrote after his return in 
terms judicious if not enthusiastic, as follows : 

" Titian has enjoyed health and happiness un- 
equalled, and has never received from heaven anything 
but favour and felicity. His house has been visited 
by all the princes, men of letters and gentlemen who 
ever came to Venice. Besides being excellent in art, 
lie is pleasant company, of fine deportment and agree- 
able manners. He has had rivals in Venice, but none 
of any great talent. His earnings have been large, 
because his works were always well paid ; but it 
would have been well for him if in these the later 

* See Yasari's own letters in Gaye, iii. 210 to 219. 


years of liLs life be had uuly laboured for a pastime, 
in order not to lose, by works of declining value, the 
reputation gained in earlier days. When Yasari, 
writer of this history, came to Venice in 1566, he 
went to pay a visit to Titian as to a friend, and he 
found him, though very aged, with the brushes in his 
hand painting, and had much pleasure in seeing his 
pictures and conversing with him ; and there, too, he 
met Gian' Maria Verdizotti, a \'enetian gentleman, a 
young man full of talent, friend of Titian and a good 
l)aiuter and designer, as he proved in some fine land- 
scapes of his own execution. This gentleman owns of 
Titian, whom he loves as a father, two figures in oil 
of Apollo and Diana, each in a niche."' Titian 
having decorated \'enice and indeed Italy and other 
parts of the world with admirable pictures, deserves 
to be loved and studied by artists, as one who has 
done and is still doing works deserving of praise, 
which will last as long as the memory of illustrious 
men. t 

Proceeding in another place to describe some of 
the things which he saw in Titian's dwelling, Vasari 
further says : 

" He lately sent a ' Last Supper ' to the Catholic 
king, which was seven braccia in length and of great 
beauty. Besides the many pieces already described, 
and others of less price which brevity commands us 
to neo-lect, the following in his house are sketched out 
and begun : — 

* Those figures are not to bo found. f Vas. xiii. 45. 


The " Martyrdom of St. La^\T:'ence," similar to one 
already described. 

" The Crucifixion," with Christ on the cross and the 
thieves and executioners below, which is ordered by 
Messer Giovanni Danna. 

A picture ordered for Doge Grimani, father of the 
Patriarch of Aquileia. 

Three large canvases for the ornament of the ceiling 
of the o-reat Palazzo of Brescia. 


A picture of a nude female bending before Minerva, 
with another figure at her side, and a view of the sea, 
where Neptune is seen on his car. This piece was 
beorun lono; ao;o, but left unfinished when Alfonzo, 
Duke of Ferrara, who ordered it, passed to another 

" Christ appearing to the Magdalen in the Garden," 
a picture much advanced but not finished. 

" The Virgin and the j\Iarys and the dead Christ 
lowered into the Sepulchre." 

A Virgin, which is one of his better things. 

A portrait done four years ago of himself, very fine 
and natural. 

"St. Paul Reading," who seems filled with the 
Holy Spirit.* 

The history of Titian's portrait remained, as we 
saw, obscure. t The "Martyrdom of St. Lawrence" was 
sent to Spain, the Brescian canvases to Brescia, after 
the lapse of one or two years ; whilst the " Entomb- 
ment " was despatched to Madrid in 1572 as a present 

* Vas. xiii. 43-4. f See antea. 


from tlie Venetian government to Antonio Perez.""' 
The picture ordered for the Doge Grimani is probably 
the "Fede" now in the public palace of Venice. "St. 
Paul," "The Crucifixion," and "Christ appearing to 
the Magdalen,"' it has not been possible to trace. The 
allegory conijtosed for Alfonzo of Ferrara, unex- 
plained in the pages of Vasari, remains equally 
inexplicable if we look at the picture still unfinished 
in the private apartments of the Doria Palace at 
Rome. A goddess or wnius with a red banner in her 
left hand, su]»})orting with lier liglit a shield of liexa- 
gonal shape, stands proudly on a seashore, attended by 
a female bearing an unsheathed sword ; at her feet lie 
the emblems of war, a flag, a helmet, breast j>late, and 
arrow. In front to the riijht, and in a bending atti- 
tude, a nude woman stands before a tree stump, on 
which seven serpents are coiled, at the foot of which 
there lies a broken stone, the wafer of the Host and an 
overturned chalice. In the distance a god drives his 
car through the waters. The key to this obscure 
allegory may possibly be found by some ingenious 
admirer of this class of pictorial subjects. The mode 
in which it is treated is of more interest to the student 
of Titian's life. Unliap})ily the sketchy forms which 
ai)pear on this canvas have apparently been taken up 
by Titian's disciples, and though still unfinished the 
figures show little, if any, of the grandeur of form 
and features or contour, and none of the dexterity of 
handling which characterised the master in his middle 

See antea. 



period. The nude female, which most recalls Titian, 
has been draped in a sketchy white drapery of modern 
ail", and the picture as a whole is quite disappointing, 
both as regards conception and execution.* At some 
unknown period of his life Titian produced an alle- 
gorical composition of the same kind, which came into 
the gallery of the Escorial, and then found its way into 
the Madrid Museum. Here the goddess with the 
standard is followed by a band of female defenders. 
The shield which she supports bears the arms of Spain, 
and the car in the distance is driven by a Turk and 
pursued by the galleys of the Christians. But even 
here we hardly see the unadulterated treatment of 
Titian, and the picture betrays the assistance of the 
master's disciples.t 

During Vasari's stay in Tuscany, in the autumn of 
1566, and but a few months after he had occasion to 
see the pictures of w^hich we have seen the descrip- 
tion, a letter was forwarded from Venice to Florence, 
and opened there in due form. That letter contained 

* At tlie feet of the bending 
naked figure we read, " D. ti- 
TiAi^o." It is a mistake of tlie 
Madi'id Museum Catalogue to say 
that tlie shield of the goddess is 
emblazoned with the arms of 
Doria ; it is altogether bare. 
Besides the repainted drapery of 
the nude figure, there are other 
parts of the picture which have 
suffered from retouching. 

t Madrid Museum, No. 476, 
canvas, m. 1.68 square. The pic- 
ture is signed with the dubious 

inscription, " titiaKus f." It 
was in the Palace of Pardo in 
1614 (Madrazo's Madrid Cat., p. 
681), and before that in the Es- 
corial. A similar subject, called 
' ' Virtue and Peace defending Be- 
ligion," was engraved by Julius 
Fontana (not seen), after Titian ; 
but Eidolfi (Mar. i. 242) gives the 
subject of the print as " Eeligion 
persecuted by Heresy," and heresy 
is described in an inscription a& 



a joint application from Titian and Lis colleagues in 
art to be admitted members of the Tuscan Academy 
of Paintino^. The letter was laid before the council of 
that body, and answered immediately, AVithout a 
dissentient voice there were registered on the lists of 
the Florentine Academy : Andrea Pallatlio, Joseph 
Salviati, Danese Cattaneo, Battista Zelotti (Veronese), 
Tintoretto, and Titiano Veccllio.* 

* Vas. xiii. 183, and see the I demy, printed in the chronology 
entry in tho books of the Aca- | of Titian, in Vasari, xiii. 07. 


Titian is taxed for his Income. — His Eelations with Picture Dealers 
and Collectors.— Strada the Antiquary. — Final Correspondence 
with Urbino and the Farnese. — Frescos at Pieve di Cadore. — 
The " Nativity." — " Martyrdom of St. Lawrence " at the Escorial. 
— Canvases of the Town Hall at Brescia, and Quan-el as to the 
Payment for them. — The second " Christ of the Tribute Money." 
— Death of Sansovino. — " Lucretia and Tarquin." — "Battle of 
Lepanto," and Pictures illustrative of that Encounter. — Titian's 
Allegory of Lepanto. — " Christ Derided " at Munich. — 
Exalted Visitors at Biri Grande. — Titian's List of Pictures. — 
His last Letter to Philip the Second. The Plague at Venice. 
— Titian's last Masterpiece. — His Death. — Titian's Pictures: 
Genuine, Uncertified, and Missing. 

OxE of the earliest privileges conferred on Titian 
had been an exemption from the income tax, valued 
in an official record at about eighteen to twenty- 
ducats a year.* In 1566 this privilege was withdrawn, 
and Titian was asked for the first time in his life to 
furnish an estimate of his property. In obedience to 
an order of the council of Pregacli he declared on the 
28th of June that he lived at San Canciano, in the house 
of the magnificent Madonna Polani, paying a clear 
annual rent for his dwelling of sixty-two ducats. His 
income he stated to be about one hundred and one 
ducats, derived from various sources. The cottage at 
Cadore, in which Francesco Vecelli his brother had 
lived, produced, as he protested, nothing but a load of 

* See antea, i. p. 162. 

Chap. IX.] 



hay, which was the produce of an adjoining meadow. 
There Avere fields belonging to him in various parts of 
the Cadorine territor}^ two saw mills at Ansogne, let 
for twenty-four ducats each, but involving charges 
for emljanking the Piave, a meadow near Ansogne, 
of which the Piave swallowed up a fragment every 
summer, and a field with a cottage at Col di ^lanza in 
the district of Serravalle. At ]\Iilart', he continued, 
he had eighteen fields ; near Serravalle, two fields 
with a cottage and a house, and a small meadow, and 
a mortoranc yieldiuu; interest at the rate of a "stara" of 
wheat. In Conegliano he owned a cottage, for which 
he paid a ground rent of three lire a year to the brother- 
hood of Sant' Antonio.* Not a word in this income 
return of the proceeds of the Sanseria, the pension from 
j\Iilan and Spain, the timber yard at the Zattere, or the 
profits of the sale of his numerous pictures. The canny 
old man was a master in conceaHng his wealth. He 
dwelt complacently on " the smallness of his receipts 
and the difticulty of maintaining his family," at the very 
time when the municipality of Cadorc was sending 
him word that they were ready to receive his pupils, 
who were to begin the frescos at the Pieve, which 
were to bring him in two hundred ducats ;f at the very 
time when he was dealing with Strada, a Mantuan 
" antiquary " who purchased pictures, prints and old 
sculpture for the Emperor All)ert the Fifth of Bavaria. 
About the middle of the 16th century, the trade in 

* See the income return in 
Cadorin, Dello Amore, p. 90. 
t The minutes and letters of 

June 18 and July 2 are in Ti- 
cozzi, «. s., pp. 318-19. 



pictures and works of old and modern art was 
actively carried on by dealers in connection witb. 
living artists and commission agents of various kinds. 
The buyers were usually kings and princes, cardinals, 
noblemen, and patricians. The sellers were im- 
poverished descendants of great houses, or spendthrift 
sons of old families, who parted secretly with heir- 
looms to fill their purses, lightened "by play and 
betting and women."* Jacob Strada, a clever judge 
of art in the service of the Emperor, from whom he 
had received the title of " Caesarian antiquary," was 
the chief asjent in transactions of this kind during the 
latter half of the century in North Italy, his aiders 
and abettors being the Fuggers on one hand, and 
half a dozen of subordinate dealers and brokers on the 
other, of whom Niccol5 Stoppio, Bernardo Olgiate, and 
J. P. Castellino were the cleverest or the most success- 
ful. In the same line of business as Strada, but with 
less professional versatility, were the sculptors Ales- 
sandro Vittoria and Leone Leoni, the engraver ^neas 
Vico, and now and then Titian, whose name crops up 
occasionally in connection with the sale of relics of 
the olden time. Of the wealth of art which lay con- 
cealed in Venice and North Italy during these days 
we have an idea when we turn the pages of the 
"Anonimo," edited by Morelli. There were "studios" 
in every one of the principal cities, at Venice, in the 
Cornaro and Odoni palaces, in the houses of the 

* Niccolo Stoppio to Max Fug- 
ger, Venice, June, 1567, in Quel- 
lensclimten, u. s., p. 53. (Dr. J. 

Stockbauer's Kunstbestrebungen 
am Bayriscben Hof. ) 

Chap. IX.] 



Pasqualini, Contariui, Marcclli, Foscarini, Zios, Veuiers, 
Loredanos, Grimani ; at Padua, in the palaces of tlie 
Bembos, Mantovas and Cornaros. In some instances, 
the greatest pains had been taken to secure the preser- 
vation of heirlooms in the shape of antiques, pictures, 
and medals by testamentary disposition, and Cardinal 
Bembo amonirst othci-s had left his museum to his son 
Torquato on the clear understandmg tliat it should 
never be dispersed. But Torquato secretly disposed 
of the best pieces from time to time, so thnt he had 
parted with some of his treasures to Strada and 
Stoppio before 15G7, and sold almost all his father's 
collection by 1583.* Under simihir circumstances 
at the same period an heir of the Loredanos at Venice 
was parting piecemeal with the lieirlooms of his 
family, the Vendramins were offering their gallery for 
sale, the Mantovas of Padua were prepared to give up 
some of their best rarities, and the heirs of Giulio 
Romano at Mantua were making money of the 
antiques which that painter had brought together witli 
so much trouble and expense.t 

Titian's connection with the " antiquaries " and 
their following of agents and adventurers is casually 
illustrated in tlie correspondence of Niccol5 Stoppio, 
an Italian of the class of Daniel Nys, the celebrated 
dealer who purchased the Mantuan collection for 
Charles the First of England. It was Stoppio who 

* Seo E. Basso to Niccolo 
Gaddi, Eome, May G, 1583, in 
Bottari, u.s., iii. 291 ; Stoppio to 
Fugger, Aug. 1, 1JG7, in Stock- 

bauer, u. s., p. 55 ; and Strada's 
accounts, also in Stockbaucr, p. 

t Stockbaucr, u. s. 


sent Cort's prints of Titian's pictures to Lambert 
Lombard at Liege."'^ It was Stoppio who negotiated 
with the Duke of Bavaria for the sale of a casket then 
in the hands of Titian. 

On the 17th of August, 1567, Stoppio wrote to the 
Duke : " His friend Cario della Serpa, once high 
chamberiain to Pope Julius the Second, had a silver- 
gilt casket set with crystals, for which the Venetian 
government were bidding 1200 crowns. For this 
price Serpa was unwilling to sell his treasure, but had 
transferred it to Titian, with instructions not to part 
with it except for ready money." The Duke's inclina- 
tion to make the purchase is shown by the following 
note from the factor of the Fuggers, David Ott, at 
Venice, who wrote in September : 

"I spoke with Titian about the crystal casket, tell- 
ing him that your Highness wished it forwarded at your 
expense. I gave him to understand that it should be 
paid at the rate of 1000 ducats, or sent back if your 
Highness did not like it. Titian wanted 1000 golden 
crowns, but he accepted your Highness's offer at 
last, and I now await an opportunity to despatch the 

To this the Duke replied that he saw no objection, 
but that he would not take the responsibility of acci- 
dents or breakage on the road. Titian should be asked 
to send the piece at the Duke's cost, but at his own 
risk ; upon this point Ott had an interview with Orazio, 
which Stoppio described as a squabble : 

* See antea, and Lampson to Titian, March 13, 1567, in Gaye^ 
Carteg", iii. 242. 


"The 'crystal casket,'" he said, "was phiced this day 
in David Ott's hands. I wish you could have heard 
the quarrel between Carlo Serpa and Titian's son as 
to the form of delivery. They chaffered so long that 
neither of them could speak. It is hard to deal with 
such curious people." 

On the 3rd of November, 15G7, the parties 
agreed to a declaratiou, in whieli Ott acknowledged 
the receipt of the casket in presence of two wit- 
nesses, and elected to send it at his risk, promising 
to return it or pay 1000 ducats on that day six 

When Max Fugger, in December, 15G7, took oc- 
casion to disparage Stoppio's skill as a judge of art, 
Stoppio retorted with the statement that his judgment 
was approved by a man of the celebrity of Titian.t 
Stoppio died in February, 1570, and his property was 
impounded by his creditors. Among^^t the goods 
seized, there were pieces purchased for the Duke of 
Bavaria. Francesco Brachicri, who inherited Stoppio's 
business, claimed these pieces, and wrote that he 
would take Titian with him to value them. In 1571, 
Brachicri bought crystals, corals, and knick-knacks 
for his patron, and Titian made the necessary advances 
in cash. J 

In 1566, before Strada took his final departure from 
Italy to enter the Duke of Bavaria's service at Munich, 
and just before he transferred his agency to Stop})io, 

* Stockbauer, n. s. ; Quellou- bauer, Quellenscbr. viii. 62. 
echrifteu, ». s., pp. 92, 93. t Ibid. pp. 66 & 69. 

t Stoppio to Fugger in Stock- 



he sat to Titian, who painted that clever though 
sketchy portrait of which Boschini wrote : 

" Ma sora il tuto quel del Antiquario : 
Perche tra i beli de quel bel' erario 
El porta el vanto, e rende stupefati." * 

Early in the seventeenth century, this portrait came 
into the gallery of the Archduke Leopold of Austria 
at Brussels, passing after his death into the Imperial 
collection, and now adorning the Belvedere. Strada 
is now sixty years of age. He stands behind a table 
over which he leans, and supports with both hands a 
small statue of Venus. As he raises it he turns his 
face to the right, speaking, one might think, to some 
invisible person. His beard is slightly grey, his hair 
cut short, round his neck is the chain of an aulic 
councillor, and the sword of a " Hofrath " is belted to 
his waist. Over the red doublet which takes white 
reflections from the light projected into the room, a black 
pelisse lies on his shoulders displaying a picturesque 
lon2;-haired lamb's wool collar. A hio^h console behind 
the figure is weig-hted with books of reference, the sfreen 
table cloth is partly concealed by a fragment of a 
torso, two gold and four silver medals, and a letter 
addressed " II Mag^« Sig°'' Sig"'' Titia. . . Veceli. . . 
Yen. . ." In spite of abrasion and a partial repainting 
of the right side of the face, we see one of those clever 
pieces of execution on coarse rough ground which is 
so characteristic of Titian in these days. The grain of 
the canvas is ingeniously concealed in the flesh parts 

* Boschini, Carta del Navegar. p. 40. 

Chap. IX.] 



by impasted pigment chilled to a glossy smoothness, 
and finished with an unctuous scumble in which we 
distins^uish the li£!;ht track of a soft brush, the smudo-e 
created by an application of the thumb, and the notch 
produced with the butt of the pencil. The dress, 
more scantily impasted, shows the roughnesses of the 
stuff, and the whole is picked out with points of light, 
giving great brio to tlic picture. In this form we see 
Paul Veronese frequently working at this time, and it 
is no wonder tliat he sliould have been captivated by 
a treatment so free, so bold, and so exceedingly clever.* 
How keen Titian could still be in preserving order 
in his affairs and promoting the welfare of his family, 
is apparent, not only from his dealings with antiquaries, 
but in his irrepressible correspondence with people of 
high station. With that steady persistence which had 
already secured so many unhoped for payments from 
the obdurate treasurers of Spain, he now corresponded 
Avitli the Duke of Urbino. 


" Many days have elapsed since, by order of your 
Excellency, I sent through the secretary (Agatone at 
Venice) the picture of " Our Lady." But having since 
then received no news as to whether it was considered 

* On a scutcheon fastened to 
tho wall we read: " JAC0BV3 DE 


^TAT LI. MD.LXVi." On the wall 
to tho left, "TiTiANVS F." The 
word " BELIC," which formerly 

was " Aulic," the age Li, which 
formerly was Lix, show how this 
inscription was altered by re- 
painting. The figure is largo as 
life, seen to tho knee, on a can- 
vas, 3 ft. 11 h. by 3 ft. 

n r. 2 



satisfactory, I beg now to kiss your Excellency's 
liand, and ask to be consoled in respect of this matter ; 
because being in tliis uncertainty I live in a state of 
doubt, as a man who would have pleasure in learning 
that his service has been Q-ratefuL I have heard that 
the painting was a long time on the road, and I think 
it would be proper to have it placed for half an hour 
in the sun to counteract any injury which it may have 
received. And so, kissing your Excellency's hand, 

" I remain, &c., 

" TiziANO Yecellio, p 


From Venice, Zrd May, 1567." 

Titian's impatience grew as months went by, and 
the secretary Agatone repeatedly met his impor- 
tunities with promises. In autumn he renewed his 
application to the Duke. 

" Six months had elapsed since May — he wrote in 
October, 1567 — and Agatone had never offered but 
fair words in return for the painting sent to his 
Excellency." And Agatone, we need not doubt, suc- 
cumbed to the pressure put upon him, and made the 
required payment.f The " Madonna " of which his 
letter speaks may possibly be one of those which 
came as heirlooms into the galleries of the Grand 
Dukes of Florence. It was but one of a series of 
pieces which found their way to Pesaro and Urbino 

* The original is in Lettere d' 
Illustri Italiani non mai Stam- 
pate, pub. da Z. Bicchierai per le 
Nozze Galeotti- Cardenas di Va- 
leggio, 8vo, Fir. Le Monnier, 

1864, p. 11. 

t Titian to tlie Duke of Ur- 
bino, Venice, Oct. 27, 1567, in 
Gaye's Carteggio, iii. 249. 


in these latter days of the master's life. Two small 
canvases, reminiscent of this period, are visible even 
now in the church of San Francesco di Paolo at 
Urbino, which fairly show how easily, yet with what 
power, Titian in his old age could work. One of 
these canvases is the " Last Supper," so arranged 
that the table, being a square instead of an oblong, is 
placed at an angle to the plane of delineation, and 
shows the Saviour and disciples in threes at the sides 
of the board. Lehind the table Christ is seated with 
a crust in his hand, whilst Judas, at the corner oppo- 
site to him, raises the bread to his mouth. The apostles 
are ingeniously delineated in various attitude and 
expression of surprise, and the scene is laid in a 
cloister, the archings of which are in part open, and 
display the landscape outside, with one of those 
slender pyramids sliooting iuto the air which Titian 
used to break the monotony of horizontal and vertical 
lines. The picture unfortunately was fatally injured 
by w\ashing, and being rapidly executed without 
repeated impasting, has darkened so much that some 
of the figures are lost in an artificial gloom. Better 
preserved, and originally better designed, is the 
"Resurrection" in the same church, a picture in which 
the foreshortening;s and somethins^ in the movement 
of the Kedeemer recall a similar masterpiece by 
Mantegna in tlie gallery of the Uffizi. The subject is 
that which Titian executed on a large scale for the 
Lcfjate Averoldi at Brescia: but the treatment here is 
bolder and more dramatic. Clu'ist rises on the cloud, 
giving the blessing and holding the banner. The 



winding sheet covers Lis hips, and flaps away in the 
breeze. In the landscape beneath we see the square 
of the tomb, with a guard on the right starting up 
and wielding his lance, whilst one to the left totters 
as he looks towards heaven and shades his eyes with 
his hand. The two sleepers in the middle of the fore- 
ground are foreshortened with consummate skill, and 
the whole picture is thrown off at one painting with 
that breadth and certainty of hand which make a 
return to the parts altogether unnecessary.* 

Amusing as illustration of Titian's pliancy in 
renewing relations with old and all but forgotten 
patrons in these years, is his correspondence with 
Cardinal Farnese in 1567 and 1.568. We may re- 
collect that he had obtained from Charles the Fifth 
what he called a " naturalezza di Spagna," a natm^a- 
lization of his son Pomponio in Spain, which ought 
to have yielded an annual income of some hundreds 
of ducats. Many of his appeals to the King of Spain 
on the score of this pension had been fruitless, and 
one of Philip the Second's last memoranda had been 
" that he knew nothing of the matter. "f Notwith- 
standing this most hopeless state of affairs, Titian now 
turned to Cardinal Farnese for the purpose of support- 
ino' his claim bv le^atine intercession : and the 
Cardinal was mindful enough of the services done to 
his family by the artist in bygone days to answer his 

■* Each of these canvases is 
m. 1 h. by 0.75. The "Eesurrec- 
tion " is fairly preserved, if we 
except the sky, which is much 
i-epainted. The " Last Supper," 

as above stated, is very dark, and 
in part obliterated ; on the fore- 
ground to the left a dog is gnaw- 
ing a bone. 

t See antea, p. 345. 



letter kindly. Encouraged by this turn of affairs, 
Titian now addressed his old protector anew, taking 
advantage of a journey undertaken towards Eonie by 
Giannantonio Facchinetti, Bishop of Nicastro, to 
send pictures to the Cardinal and to Pope Pius the 
Fifth, and accompanying the present with the follow- 
ing letter: 


" Having ascertained from your Reverence's 
communication that your Lordship's singukir courtesy 
had deigned to approve the k^tter I lately sent, I 
make bold to present a new tril)ute of service in the 
shape of a picture of " St. Mai}' ^Magdalen in the 
Desert" in an attitude of devotion and penitence. As 
on n previous occasion y(nir T^ordship showed signs of 
liking the works of my hand, I feel convinced that 
this one will not meet with less favour ; being done in 
my old age and fruit of my leisure, I beg of your 
Lordship to accept it as a proof of my devotion and 
desire to be of service. I join to it another picture 
lor our Signore (the Pope), which is the "Beato Peter 
Martyr," and I shall be glad that your Illustrious 
Lordship should do me the favour to present it in my 
name. Praying that v/henever Monsignor the Legate 
.shall write from here in my favour your Lordship 
may give me your support, and kissing your Lord- 
ship's hand, " I am, &c., 

" TiTiANO Vecelli."* 

* Tho original is in Eoncbini's 
Eelazioni, u. s., . 14. It is not 

dated, but was probably written 
about tbo close of March, loGl. 


To this letter tlie Cardinal was not so quick in 
responding as Titian thought he might have been. 


" Two months, or nearly so, have elapsed since 
I sent two of my paintings to your Illustrious and 
Eeverend Lordship, one of " St. Mary Magdalen " for 
yourself, and the " Martyrdom of St. Peter Martyr " 
for our Signore, together with a letter begging your 
intercession in favour of my son Pomponio. But 
up to this time I have had no news of the receipt of 
these paintings, or of their having given pleasure to 
your Lordship. I therefore ask in these lines to be 
allowed to do my humble reverence and pray for con- 
solation bv a word of advice. The extension of this 
grace to me will be an obligation, since in my present 
state of age I feel the greatest consolation in knowing 
that I am a favourite and liked by my old signors 
and protectors, and so, kissing hands, &c. 

" From Venice, May 17, 1567." 

The Bishop of Nicastro did not fail to second 
Titian's application with notes of the 24th of May 
and 28th of June, warning Cardinal Farnese that 
silence would probably induce Titian to give up the 
intention of sending His Eminence some rare picture.f 
The closing letter of the correspondence, dated De- 

* The original is in Roncliini's Relazioni, u. s., p. 15. f Ibid. 



cember 10, 15.68, shows that the prelate caused his 
relative Cardinal Alessandrino to reply, ordering of 
Titian a figure of "St. Catherine," which was duly 
forwarded through the Papal Nuncio at Venice to 
Kome, and telling the painter that his wishes with 
regard to Pomponio would be speedily attended to.* 
The Farnese thus obtained three pieces from Titian 
for which there is no reason to beUeve that they ever 
paid a farthing. The "Magdalen" was no doubt 
a replica of that which Titian left to Pomponio at 
his death, and passed, as we saw, to the Hermitage 
at Petersburg. AVe shall always remain in doubt 
whether it is that which is now preserv^ed in the 
Naples Museum. The " ^Martyrdom of Peter Martyr " 
was engraved by Bertelli as a masterpiece in posses- 
sion of Pius the Fifth, but it subsequently dis- 
appeared.t As to the " St. Catherine " nothing is 
known beyond the fact that Cardinal Alessandrino 
received it. In the Belvedere at Vienna we shall 
find a half length, representing a lady in red and 
green, with golden hair twined with flowers and 

* This letter, in the archive of 
Parma, is printed in Ticozzi's 
Vecelli, u. s., 317 ; and here it 
may be -well to observe that all 
the letters of Titian and others 
printed by this author were taken 
without acknowledgment from 
the second edition of Titian's life, 
edited by Tizianello, a reprint 
made on the occasion of the .uula 
Lavagnoli wedding at Venice, in 
1809, with the types of Antonio 

t Andrea Maier, in his Imi- 
tazioue pittura, gives a notice of 
this print, which the authors have 
not seen (p. 370). It consisted of 
three figures, varying slightly in 
attitude from those of the altar- 
pieces in iSan Giovanni e Paolo, 
with a difference also in details 
and landscape. It is inscribed, 
" Titianus Vecellius Equcs Cio- 
saris Pio V. Pontifici Maximo 



strewed with pearls, standing with a palm in her 
left hand and resting her right on a broken wheel. 
Unfortunately this canvas is repainted to such an 
extent that, with the exception of a patch here and 
there in which the hand of Titian might be revealed, 
we seem to discern the style of Padovanino."" The 
Madrid Museum also comprises a half length of 
"St. Catherine," in which the Saint appears in a 
flowered violet dress, looking up and prayerfully 
raising her hands to heaven. In bygone times this 
figure was preserved in the old church of the Escorial, 
and assigned to Titian ; but it is at best the work of 
one of his assistants.! 

In the meantime, the pupils of Titian had not been 
idle. They had rapidly covered the choir and other 
parts of the church of Pieve with frescos from Titian's 
designs. In the vaulting of the choir they had drawn 
the Eternal receiving the Virgin into heaven, attended 
by angels, with the four Evangelists and appropriate 
emblems. On the walls to the right and left they 
had placed the Annunciation and the Nativity ; on 
the soffit of the choir arch eight half-lengths of pro- 
phets, and on the front of the arch the Virgin lament- 
ing and St. John Evangelist. These frescos, which 
perished in 1813, were so nearly completed in March, 

* Yienna, Belvedere, second 
room, first floor, Italian School, 
No. 5, half-length on canvas, 
3 ft. 1 h. by 2 ft. 4. The figure 
is turned to the right, the left 
hand on a console. Behind, to 
the left, a panel and a bas-relief, 

all on dark ground. 

t Madrid Mus., No. 473, can- 
vas, m. 1 .35 h. by 0.98. The style 
is like that of Orazio or Cesare 
YecelLi. The figure is turned to 
the right. 

Chap. IX.] 



1567, tliat orders were issued by tlie Cadorine com- 
munity to fell fifty loads of timber to pay the first 
instalment of Titian's dues/" The series was not 
remarkable for great ability of execution, but it repre- 
sented subjects drawn by Titian, and one of them at 
least preserved in a contemporary picture. The scene 
was the pent-house, traditionally known amongst Vene- 
tian artists as the birth-place of Christ, a worn and 
uninhabitalilc hut thatched with reeds set up amongst 
the ruins of an old temple. To the right, the Virgin 
knelt in front of a basket, raising a white cloak from 
the naked form of the Infant. In rear to the left 
St. Joseph stood, weak from age and travel, leaning 
on his staff. In front a shepherd prostrate on the 
ground trailed his lamb off'ering ; behind him to the 
left Avere two herdsme^i, one of them doffing his cap 
and leadinfj the ox, the other drai^ginQ at the head of 
the ass. On the hinder wall of the pent-house, two 
men watched the cradle, whilst the grove behind was 
lighted by the moon, which shed its rays on field and 
trees and a flock tended by its keeper. This subject, 
engi-aved l)y Boldrini, is depicted in a small panel 
catalooued as a Titian in the Pitti collection at 
Florence, but recalling the peculiar form of treatment 
familiar to us in the works of Savoldo. It may be 
that the picture in earlier days displayed the hand 
of Titian. Now that it is dimmed by varnishes and 

* Wo have full accounts of 
these frescos in one of Dr. Taddeo 
Jacobi's MS. at Cadore, to which 
Northcote (Life of Titian, u. s., ii. 

pp. :i01 and ffK) seems to have 
had access. See also a record of 
March lil, 1J67, in Ticozzi, Ve- 
celli, p. 319. 



disfigured by repainting it looks like one of Savoldo's 
night scenes.'"" 

Whilst this and other work was proceeding at 
Venice and Cadore, Titian had finished the " Martyr- 
dom of St. Lawrence" for Philip the Second, and 
waited with impatience for the moment when he 
could send and claim payment for it. He had given 
notice to the King's secretary, Garcia Hernandez, 
that the picture was ready for delivery ; but sickness 
had prevented that diplomatist from attending to 
him, and his death a short time after had thrown 
Titian's communications with Spain into some sort of 
confusion. The only Spanish agent then remaining in 
Venice was a consul, and to him Titian now applied ; 
writing to the King to announce the despatch of a 
" Nude Venus " in addition to the " Martyrdom,'' and 
proposing to ^Jaint a whole series of scenes from the 
life of St. Lawrence. 


"Most Invincible and Potent King, 

" I gather from the letters of your Majesty 
to Secretary Garcia Ernando, of good memory, the 

* Pitti, No. 423, panel, with 
small figures, so injured that the 
colours are dropping from the 
wood. The best preserved part 
is the Virgin and Child, which is 
a richly coloured group. 

A copy of this panel, said to be 
identical with the " Nativity " by 
Titian, once in the collection of 
Charles the Fii-st, is in the Gral- 

lery of Christchurch at Oxford. 
It is also on panel, but almost 
completely repainted. Compare 
Bathoe's Catalogue, p. 14. The 
same siibject, by Titian was no- 
ticed by Eidolfi (Maraviglie, i. 
198) amongst the pictures be- 
longing in his days to the painter 


desire that your Majesty has of receiving the ' Beato 
Lorenzo.' Your Majesty would have had the picture 
deUvered months ago in Spain hut for the deLays, 
indisposition, and death of the said secretary. Now I 
shall consign the canvas to the Spanish consul, who 
will forward it to its destination. I have heard that 
your Majesty wishes to have paintings of all the inci- 
dents in the life of St. Lawrence, and if this be so, I 
beg to be informed in liow many parts and the height 
and breadth and lighting of each part, as the life 
might l)c illustrated in eight or ten pieces, besides 
that of the death, which measures four and a half 
braccia in breadth and six in height. When I have 
ascertained your IMajesty's wishes, I shall do all I can 
to put the matter in train quickly, and use the assist- 
ance of my son Orazio and another clever assistant, so 
that the thing shall be done at once, as I jim disposed 
to spend all that remains of my life in your Majesty's 
service. I also humbly beg your ]\Iajesty to deign to 
assist me in my wants in my old age if in no other 
way than in commanding the officials to pay my pen- 
sions without delay, as I do not receive a quatrino 
but the half of it goes in commission and interest, or 
in fees for agency and other expenses, or in bills and 
presents. The Chamber of Spain owes me pay for 
three years and a half, the Milan Chamber even more 
than that, and in months past the latter retained 
certain annates, which I did not expect of these 
officials, considering my continuous service under 
your Majesty. Besides this, when paying 400 scudi 
they gave me a warrant for 400 some of rice, for 


the discount of which I was obliged to give two reals 
per soma, making up a loss of about 80 scudi. To all 
this, I should add that my claim on Naples has never 
been settled, in spite of the numerous orders of your 
Majesty to that effect ; and so I beg your Majesty to 
give commission that if no copies of this grant are to 
be found, and though the originals may have been 
destroyed, it should be renewed, which I pray to God 
and your Majesty may be possible, in order that I 
may clear myself some day from the infinite expenses 
which I have had to make up to the present time, 
havino; had more outo-oinos than the whole value of 
the original grant, in respect of salaries and presents 
uselessly laid out in favour of various gentlemen and 
agents. In conclusion, I beg to be recommended and 
excused if, through the fault of your Majesty's minis- 
ters, I have delayed sending the ' St. Lawrence.' I 
may add that I send with that picture a ' Nude 
Venus,' which I finished after the ' St. Lawrence ' 
was completed ; and with all devotion and reverence, 
" I remain, &c., 

"Your Majesty's most humble servant, 

'^ From Venice, Decemher 2, 1567." 

We may presume that the " Venus " which accom- 
panied the " St. Lawrence " was one of those Spanish 
pictures which perished by neglect or by fire, a replica 
perhaps of the " Venus with the Mirrors " preserved in 
Titian's work-room till his death. 

* The original is in Appendix. 


The " St. Lawrence " was sent in safety to Madrid, 
and placed on the high altar of the old church of the 
Escorial, where it still remains injured — it may be 
feared — without redemption by smoke and repainting, 
yet still a grand and majestic work. It differs neither 
in oreneral form nor in treatment from the orio-inal at 
the Gesuiti of Venice, though marked by some inte- 
resting varieties. The martyred saint lies with one leg 
raised, and the ric^ht foot wTithinc^ under burns on the 
grating. The canvas is semicircular at the top. A 
triumphal arch takes the place of the Roman temple 
in the distance, and the sky seen through the arch 
is dimly lighted by the crescent of the moon. To 
the right in the foreground a don- is snarling. In 
the air in front two angels fly above the Saint's head, 
one of them holding a crown, the counteq:)art of those 
which used to float amongst the trees of the " Peter 
Martyr " on the altar of San Giovanni e Paolo.'"' 

Whilst this picture was on its way to Spain, Titian 
was finishing the three canvases ordered by the 
Brescian municipality. The " deputies " of Brescia ' 
had generously left it to the " king of painters " to 
draw the figures of such a size that they should look 
larocr than life when seen from the floor of the Brescian 
Hall, but they stiffly upheld their right to dictate the 

* Two long streaks of repaint- | graving of this picture by C. Cort, 
ing are visible, running upwards inscribed, " Titian invenit, ^ques 
frotQ the head of St. Lawrence to Cses. 1571, Cornelio Cort, fe." 

the figures of angels in the air, 
which they cut iu halves. On 
the edge of tho grating we read, 
**■ TiTiAXo F." There is an en- 

On the base of the pedestal in the 
picture at Madrid is written, 
" Invictiss. Philippo Ilispaniarum 
regi D." 


subject and the detail of face and dress in every one 
of the persons delineated. According to their paper 
of instructions, the central canvas was to represent 
Brescia as a female in the clouds attended by Minerva, 
Mars, and Naiads. Minerva was not to be the goddess 
of war but the goddess of peace, Mars in classic dress, 
armed cap-d-2ne, of powerful frame but with menace 
in his glance. Brescia, without the attributes of a 
cj[ueen, was to be dressed in simple white, one hand 
to hold a golden statue of faith with a cornucopia as 
carved on one of the pennies of Trajan, the other to 
rest on her bosom. Her form and face w^ere to be 
lovely, dignified, and serene. In memory of Hercules 
the founder of Brescia, a lion's skin was to grace her 
shoulders, a club lie at her feet. Minerva's tresses 
w^ere to be auburn floating in the wind, her eyes blue, 
the helmet on her head surmounted with a sphinx. 
She should bear an olive branch, and near her should 
be placed an owl and a crystal shield. The naiads 
were to be seated below on the sward, with wreaths of 
reeds and water lilies and urns at their side. The 
theme of the second picture was described as " Cyclops 
forging weapons of ofi'ence near the smithy of Vulcan," 
out of wdiich flames should be seen issuing, whilst Vulcan 
himself stood by, and a lion roared sullenly in the 
foreground. In contrast to this, the third piece was 
to represent Ceres with Bacchus and two river gods.* 
Titian had had these canvases a long time on hand, 
when the Brescians bethought themselves that they 

* See tlie recor.ds in Zamboni, u. s., Ap IV. pp. 132 and ffs. 


miolit put some pressure on him, l^y means of their 
friend the procurator Girohxmo Grimani at Venice. 
Grimani did not fail to do their bidding, but Titian 
had probably some complaint to make on the score of 
advances, for when he ^vrote in June, 1568, to the 
deputies to announce the completion of the pictures, 
he also asked for immediate payment. Satisfied with 
this result, the Brescians no doubt gave Titian the 
necessary assurance, and after two of the canvases had 
been publicly exhibited in October in the church of 
San Bartolommeo at Venice, all three were packed 
and consigned to Cristoforo Eosa at Brescia, A short 
time after this Orazio set out to visit the deputies, and 
there, to his surprise, he met with hostile criticism and 
discontent. The Brescians declared that the pictures 
were not l)y Titian, the referees to whom they sub- 
mitted them for valuation only thought them worth 
ii thousand ducats, and Orazio retired in dudgeon, 
refusing to accept the proffered payment. For some 
days Titian fumed over this mishap. He applied at 
last to Domenico Bollani, Bishop of Brescia, with 
a request that he should mediate in the matter. 
Nothing, however, came of the arbitration. The 
deputies remained firm, and Titian was fain at last 
to accept the 1000 ducats as a sufficient return for 
his expenditure and trouble.* The Brescian allegories 
perished by fire on the ISth of January, 1575, two 
years before the canvases of the Hall of Great Council 

* See Titian to Bollani, Von., 
Juno 3, lo(i9 ; in Zumboni, h. s., 

App. v., No. 4, p. 143; and 
Zumboni's text, p. 80. 

vol,. II. c c 



at Venice underwent the same fate.* A print engraved 
by Cort in 1572 still shows the composition of the forge 
of Vulcan ; and judging from this print, in which two 
Cyclops armed with hammers are ringing the changes on 
the tube of a piece of cannon, the figures were designed 
with remarkable boldness, and with due regard to the 
horizontal position of the canvas. But it was not to be 
expected that a man of Titian's age should execute 
pictures, each of which had a square surface of a 
hundred braccia,t without assistance from his pupils, 
and no doubt there Avas a sood deal of truth in the 
statement of the deputies that they were not by Titian,, 
if, by saying this, they meant to allude to the work of 
his disciples. For years Orazio and Girolamo or Marco 
Vecelli and Schiavone had been the mainstay of the 
workshop at San Canciano. So long as Titian with 
his own hand worked over the ground which they had 
previously covered, the picture might properly be called 
his. But if it happened, as it sometimes did, that Titian 
neglected this duty, the persons who bought his works- 
could not be said to have complained unjustly. We 
shall presently see that Titian sent a composition of 
" Christ and the Tax Gatherer " to King Philip, which 
he called his own, and yet, if this piece, which is now 
preserved and bears his name, be that which he sent 
to Spain, it shows no trace of his hand. In many 
respects the old master was labouring under blunted 
faculties. But he was perhaps not unaware that his 
powers were sinking. In his last letter to the King 

* See BroOTioli's Guida di Bres- 

cia, ?'. s., p. 58. 

t Each canvas was 10 braccia 
square. Vas, xi. p. 268. 

Chap. IX.] 



of Spain, be had not ventured to say that he could 
finish eight or ten scenes from the Ufe of St. Lawrence 
-without large and continued assistance. Many of his 
private arrangements point to the conviction that he 
thought he could not last much longer. The only 
mistake he made was to believe that his favourite son 
would live to enjoy his succession, for whom he made 
constant provision in view of that contingency. As 
early as June 19, 1;3G7, he petitioned the Council of 
Teu to transfer his brokers' patent to Orazio, and a 
decree was issued in April, 1;3G0, in accordance with 
his wishes." In July, 1571, he obtained a patent 
from Philip the Second to transfer or will to Orazio- 
his pension on the Chamber of ]\Iilan.t The timber 
yard at tin- Zattere, where we find the municipality 
of Murano taking its supplies in August, 1568,1 ^^' 
longed to Titian, though registered in the name of 
his son. But it was willed by Providence that Orazio 
should not long survive his father. One trait remains 
firmly impressed on Titian to the very last. His letters 
to princes had never been free from adulation ; but 
this adulation had usually concealed some bitter pill in 
the form of a demand for money. The last numbers of 
his correspondence are, if possible, more fulsome than 

* Seo the date of this decree in 
Cadorin, Dollo Amore, u. s., pp. 
9, 11, & Go. 

t The patent is in Gaye, Car- 
teggio, iii. p. 297. It was con- 
firmed by the senate at Milan on 
Juno 4, \o~'2. The record in 
among the Jacobi MS. Cadoi-o. 

X Order of the Podesta to the 

Camerlengo of Murano to pay to 
Ora/io Vecelli, " timber merchant 
alio Zuttere," 280 lire, and ll> 
soldi, ibr wood furnished to the 
comitintd of Murano to repair 
the Ponte Lungo. MS. T" Jacobi 
of Cadore. The order is dated 
Aug. 4, 15G8. 

c (■ 2 


previous ones, but tliey sliow no diminution in the 
old man's powers of calculation, or his canny regard 
to his own interest. 


" Most Invincible and Potent King, 

" I finished within the last few days the 
picture of ' Our Lord and the Pharisee showing the 
Coin,' which I promised to your Majesty, and I have 
sent it with the prayer that your JMajesty may enjoy 
it as much as earlier works of mine, as I desire to close 
these the days of my extreme old age in the service of 
the Catholic King my Signor. I am now busy com- 
posing another subject of large compass and greater 
artifice than I have undertaken for years, and when it 
is done, I shall lay it humbly before the exalted 
presence of your Majesty. Meanwhile, in order that I 
may more freely serve in this matter, and clear myself 
of the continual labour and expense to which I am 
subjected in res23ect of this blessed order for grain on 
the kingdom of Naples, which has never yet yielded any- 
thing after so many years, I humbly beg your Majesty 
to command that the said order be despatched without 
delay, and so that it shall be free from the deductions 
or charges of that Chamber ; and this I beg in recom- 
pense for the many and continuous interests that have 
suffered for years in this business, and in consideration 
of my old devotion and service. Such a favour, easy 
to grant to the infinite goodness and munificence of 
your Catholic Majesty, will be an alleviation to the 
great want in which I find myself at this moment, and 



I .shall consider it to have given new life to the soul 
Avithin this worn body which is so entirely devoted to 
the service of your Majesty. And so, recommending 
myself, &c. 

" I am of your Catholic Majesty 

" Tlie most devoted humble Servant, 

*' i^rom Vexice, 2G(h Oct., Ij68." 

If the "Trilmte Money " to which Titian alludes in 
his letter be that which once formed part of the 
treasure brought from Spain l)y ^larshal Soult, and 
now belongs to the National (Collection, it bears the 
master's name, yet displays a treatment far more 
crude and unsatisfactory than we can concede even to 
Palma Giovine in his bad days. Nor can it be 
supposed that Titian would send such a picture as his 
own to tile King of Spain, unless he secretly dc8})ised, 
and could witli impunity challenge the taste of the 

That Titian at this period was gradually resigning 

• Seo the original in Appendix. 

t No. 224 in the National Gal- 
lery, on canvas, 4 ft. h. by 3 ft. 
4i, signed near the Saviour's 
head, " Titiaxo F." Christ is 
tru'ned to the left, and points up- 
wards with the right hand as the 
"Pharisee" presents the coin. 
Behind the latter is a man wear- 
ing goggles. A stone wall to the 
right, sky to the left, form the 
background "f the ])icturo. The 
flesh is of u bricky red, ill painted, 
smear)', and raw. The figures aro 
at the same time altogether below 

the elevated standard of Titian. 
Martin Eota has engraved this 
piece, and his plate is inscribed, 
" TiTiAXVS ixvENTOU, Martino 
Euota Sebeuzan F." The picture 
was bought at the sale of Marshal 
Soult's collection in 1852. But 
there is another engraving, in- 
scribed ' ' Titian pinxit : Corn. Gall, 
sc. et exc," which points to an- 
other now missing composition 
of Titian, where Christ addresses 
the I'hariseo in the presence cf 
three others. 



himself to a life of less activity and movement tlian 
that to which he had hitherto been accustomed, might 
be inferred from his transaction of Cadorine business 
at Venice. On the 18th of September, 1568, we find 
him making an order of legitimacy in favour of 
Antonio and Giovanni Battista, the two sons, aged 
seventeen and nineteen respectively, of Pietro Costan- 
tini, curate of San Vito, in Cadore. Emmanuel of 
Augsburg, Titian's disciple, is named amongst the 
witnesses to the order.'-' 

Little that can be called eventful occurs in the 
painter's life at this time, and we hardly know of his 
existence, except by squabbles with the Brescian de- 
puties, or the disputes of Stoppio, Ott, and Brachieri.f 

On the 27th of November, 1570, Jacopo Sansovino 
died at the fine old age of ninety-one, and was buried 
in the church of San Basso, whither perhaps Titian, 
who was two years his senior, followed his remains to 
the grave. The death of this industrious sculptor and 
architect severed the last of the links which united 
Titian to the artists of the previous century. It left 
him the last of the triumvirate which ruled for so 
many years over hterary and artistic circles in Venice.^ 

To the letters — now few and far between — which 
Titian addressed to Philip the Second, resjDonses no 

* A copy of the order is in 
Ticozzi, Yecelli, p. 241. 

t See antea. 

X There is a " portrait of San- 
sovino by Titian," No. 576 in the 
UfEzi at Florence. But the face 
and figure are altogether diflPerent 
from those of another portrait of 

the sculptor by Tintoretto, No. 
638 in the same collection. As to 
the authorship of the likeness 
numbered 516, it is impossible to 
give any opinion in consequence 
of the state to which the canvas 
has been reduced by repainting. 


longer came, except through the mcdiuni of ministers. 
Yet he persevered, and though lie no longer received 
any commissions, he persisted in sending pictures, and 
urging, we might think ml nauseam, his claims on the 
treasuries of Naples and Milan. Pliilip, unfortunately 
for Titian, was hardly in a condition to devote either 
time or money to luxurious expenditure. His rule in 
the Netherlands, being upheld by force and terror, was 
naturally costly. His relations with France being 
unfriendly, were necessarily productive of expense. 
The Turks, too, had declared war against Venice, and 
threatened the peace of Europe. In spite of all these 
complications, Titian again sent pictures, and wrote to 
the King of Spain in the summer of l."37l. 


" ^losT Potent and Invincible King, 

" I think your ]\Iajesty will have received 
by this the picture of ' Lucretia and Tarquin,' which 
was to have been presented Ijy the Venetian am- 
bassador. I now come with these lines to ask your 
Majesty to deign to command that I should be in- 
formed as to what pleasure it has given. The cala- 
mities of the present times, in which everyone is 
suHerincT from the continuance of war, force me to 
this step, and oblige me at the same time to ask to be 
favoured with some kind proof of your Majesty's 
grace, as well as with some assistance from Spain or 
elsewhere, since I have not been able for years past to 
obtain any payment, either from the Naples grant, or 
from my ordinary pensions. The state of my affairs 


is indeed sucli that I do not kno'SY how to live in this 
my old age, devoted as it is entirely to the service of 
your Catholic Majesty, and to no other. Not having- 
for eighteen years past received a quatnno for the 
paintings which I delivered from time to time, and of 
which I forward a list by this opportunity to the 
Secretary Perez, I feel assured that your Majesty's 
infinite clemency will cause a careful consideration to 
be made of the services of an old servant of the a2:e 
of ninety-five, by extending to him some evidence of 
munificence and liberality. Sending two prints of 
the design of the heato Lorenzo, and most humbly 
recommending myself . . . 

" I am your Catholic Majesty's 

" Most devoted humble servant, 

*' From Venice, Auyust 1, 1571." 

There is no reason to doubt that Titian entrusted a 
picture of Tarcpiin and Lucretia to the Venetian 
ambassador, or that the envoy delivered it to the 
monarch to whom he was accredited. But from that 
day forward no clue to the canvas has been preserved. 
A replica probably remained at Venice, and it was 
perhaps from this that Cornelius Cort produced his 
print of 1571. In the seventeenth century, the Lord 
Marshall, Earl of Arundel, presented a picture, the 
counterpart of Cort's print, to Charles the First, and 
this piece it is which we find passing into the gallery 
of Louis the Fourteenth. But whether that again is the 
canvas which went to Spain, and thence fi^om hand to 


Land into British collections of our time, it is impossible 
to say.* The " Tarquin and Lucretia " of Charles the 
First is described in contemporary manuscripts as 
defaced, in Lepicie's catalogue as "greatly injured." 
The Northwick "Lucretia" commends itself neither 
in form nor in treatment to modern taste, and the 
damage which it has received from patching and re- 
j)ainting is considerable ; but one still sees that it was 
a work of Titian's advanced age. Luerctin, surprised 
all but naked on a couch, resists the assaults of a man 
in a green doublet and crimson hose, who grasps her 
right arm with his left hand, and threatens her life 
Avith a dagger. A man peeps into the room to the left 
by raising a corner of a green hanging, Lucretia's 
slippers lie to the right at the foot of the couch, and 
one of them bears the name of Titian. Considerable 
liberty, it will l)e seen, is taken with the traditions of 
costume. Nature is strained beyond limit in the 
stride and action of Tarquin. Yet tlie picture is still 

• TiziancUo's Anonimo tells of Louvre in 17o2-4 as a canvas 

the possession of " Tarquin forcing 6 ft. h. and Ji broad. (Catalogue 

Lucretia" by the Earl of Arundel. , raisonne, folio, No. 12 of the re- 

The catalogue of Charles the ' gistered Titians.) How it left 

Fii-st's collection (Ashmolo MS.) the Louvre is not known; but it 

states that the king received a i is not there now. We might 

•' Tarquin and Lucretia," " entire \ therefore infer that it is the same 

figures so large as the life, 6 ft. i^icturo which reappears to view 

3 h. by 4 ft. 3, from the Lord , in the collection of Joseph Bona- 

Marshall " (Earl of Arundel) as a parte, from whence it goes by 

present. (Bathoe, n. s., i>. 96.) ' purchase to Lord North wick (No. 

At the sale of the "Whitehall col- STl of the Northwick Catalogue), 

lection, Jabach bought the canvas, and thence to Mr. Conyngham, 

which ho sold to Louis the Four- , at whose sale it was bought for 

teenth. (Villot's Catalogue, p. , the Marquis of Hertford for 250 

xxii.) Lt'piciu describes it at the guineas. 



remarkable for its contrasts of colour, and for a certain 
boldness of touch in stiff impasted pigments.* 

Not without cause had Titian complained to King 
Philip of the sufferings inflicted on the Venetians by 
a state of war. Since May, 1570, Venice had been 
engaged in hostilities with Sultan Selim, and had lost 
Cyprus and numerous jilaces in the Adriatic. The 
Venetian envoy, who took with him the pictures of 
Titian, had been bound on a much more weighty 
errand than that of delivering a " Tarquin and 
Lucretia." Barbaro the haile at Constantinople had 
been thrown into gaol, and lay there in danger of 
his life. Turkish cruisers insulted the coasts of 
Greece and the Ionian islands, and the Sultans 
squadrons were sailing so near to Venice that the 
forts had to be armed, the passes blocked with 
sunken ships, and the sands of Malamocco dug up 
into redoubts. It was very necessary to press the 
preparations of Spain, which had signed a treaty in 
May, 1571, and in August had not sent a single ship 
to the rescue. At last the moment of action came. 
Phihp ordered Don John of Austria to the Straits of 
Messina with a fleet. Two hundred men of war 
rounded the capes and steered for the coasts of 
Greece, and there, on the 7th of October, near the 
classic promontory of Actium and within sight of 

* The picture, now belonging 
to Sir Eichard Wallace, to whom 
Lord Hertford's collection de- 
scended, is patched all round, and 
measures 7 ft. 2 in height, by 
4 ft. 8. The surfaces, where com- 

paratively free from repainting, 
are dulled by age and abrasion. 
On the slipper we read " Titianys 
F." Cort's inint is inscribed, 
" Titian inven. Cornelio Cort, fe. 


Sapienza, where Antouio Grimani liad met with defeat 
and disorace, was fonolit the celebrated batthi of 
Lepanto, in which the Turkish armada was anni- 
hilated at a single blow, and universal joy was spread 
throuQ-hout the lands of Christendom. Sebastian 


Venier, who commanded the Venetian division of the 
Spanish force, despatched Giustiniani, one of his 
captains, to carry the news of victory to Venice. He 
entered the pass of San ^lartino at six in the evening 
of the 17th of October, his crew wavino; Turkish 
banners and his rowers wearing the spoils of their 
enemies. The people quickly learnt the glorious 
intelligence. All the powder that could be purchased 
was burnt in squibs and fireworks in honour of the 
great event. ]\Ien and women paraded the streets in 
an ecstasy of joy. Ciiusthiiani, when he landed, was 
carried in triumph to San Marco, whither the Doge 
and council and foreign ambassadors proceeded in 
state to hear a Te Deum. All the shops were shut, 
and some of them chalked with the words : " Closed 
for the death of the Turks." The debtors' prison was 
broken open, and the inmates escaped to share in the 
general jubiUxtion.'"' Was Titian there to take a part 
in this universal festivity '? We may think that a 
man of his spirit would not be likely even at ninety- 
five to let these popular demonstrations go by, and 
remain a passive spectator of them. The Doge and 
council had not been a fortnight in possession of the 
news of the battle of Lepanto, when they thought of 

* See a contemporary descrip- 
tion of these scenes in Yriarto's 

Vic d'un Patricien de Venise, 8vo, 
Paris, 1874, pp. 20S-'J. 



illusti-ating it hy a, picture. The council met on the 
8th of Novemher and passed a patriotic decree : 
declarii]g that, " if ever a noted action of bygone 
times deserved to be represented and kept alive in 
the minds of the people, none was more entitled to 
such a distinction than the victory of the Holy 
League over the Turkish armada." It was therefore 
decreed that the chiefs of the Ten should be em- 
pow^ered to select one or more painters in Venice or 
elsewhere to paint the " Battle of Lepanto" in the Hall 
of the Library in the Ducal palace,""'' and Eidolfi relates 
that Titian was chosen to perform this distinguished 
service, and that Salviati was selected to assist him ; 
but delays occurred, and Tintoretto painted the "Battle 
of Lepanto. "t That Tintoretto, as a reward for a 
canvas representing that victory, was endowed with a 
Sanseria bv the Council of Ten in 1574, admits of no 
doubt whatever.;}: But there is no reason to think 
that Titian would have refused a commission for such 
a picture from the Venetian government, if his time 
had not been engaged upon work of a similar nature 
for a more exalted patron ; we shall presently see that 
in 1574, Avhen Tintoretto delivered his canvas to the 
Council of Ten, Titian was composing " A Battle " 
for Philip the Second, w^hich is probably the same 
composition as that of which the following anecdote 
is told by Martinez in his life of Sanchez Coello.§ 

* See the decree in full in Lo- 
renzi, p. .372. 

t Eidolfi, Maray. ii. 205-7. 

J Eidolfi, u. s. But the original 
decree of the 27th of September, 

1574, is in Lorenzi, u. s., p. 391. 
§ See postea, and Titian to A. 
Perez, Dec. 22, 1574, in Ajj- 



Pliili]) tlie Second having written to Titian to prepare 
a canvas equal in size to that of his equestrian portrait 
of Charles the Fifth, sent for Coello and asked him to \ 
sketch the design which Titian was afterwards to use. ^ 
Notwithstanding his aversion to such an order, Coello 
was obliged to obey. Under the special directions of 
his Majesty he represented the king standing with 
his first-born son in his arms, and the boy stretching 
his hands towards an angel, who was to be seen 
descending from heaven Avitli a palm and a crown, 
whilst a prostrate ^loor lay l)Ound in the landscape 
below. Besides this sketch, which measured about 
three palms, Sanchez took sittings from Philip, and 
painted his portrait of life size, and both were sent by 
the shortest road to Titian at Venice. On seeing the 
head and the sketch, and learning what he was 
expected to do with them, Titian was generous 
cnoudi to write back tliat so clever an artist as the 
author of these pieces ought to suffice for the King, 
who from that time forward need never send for 
pictures abroad. But Philip, though he acknowledged 
the compliment, declared that he should like to have 
the work from Titian's hand, and Titian accordingly 
])roceeded to execute it."'- The canvas of " Philip pre- 
sentino- his Son to an Angel," is now in the jMadrid 

* Juscpe Martinez, Discursos 
practiciibles del Nobilisimo Arte 
de la rintura, in Don Pedro de 
Madrazo's Catalogue, u. s., p. 
343. Don Pedro disbelieves this 
anecdote, chiefly because it si)eaks 
of Philip as presenting his " first- 
born " son, when it is clear that 

the picture was painted after the 
battle of Lepanto, and therefore 
more than three j'ears after the 
death of Don Carlos. But Mar- 
tinez no doubt alludes to the 
first-born of Philip's last marriage 
with Donna Anna of Austria. 


JMuseum, and clearly displays the style of Titian in 
liis old age. Its size is within a couple of inches that 
of the portrait of Charles the Fifth at Miihlberg. It 
is done quickly at one painting and without impasting, 
showing that Philip not only ordered the piece, but 
asked Titian to finish it quickly. Two months after 
the Battle of Lepanto, the Queen Anna of Austria 
presented Philip with a son known as the Infante 
Don Fernando. At a; time when all Europe was 
rejoicing over the heroism of Don John of Austria, 
and exaggerating the consequences of his victory, 
nothmg could be more natural than that Philip 
should sua'oest to a painter the theme which forms 
the subject of Titian's composition. The picture is 
full of allusions to that great engagement. Philip 
stands at an altar covered with crimson cloth, his 
frame defended by armour, his legs in crimson hose. 
He holds aloft the naked babe, who stretches his hands 
towards the angel bearing the crown and a palm with 
a scroll inscribed : " Maiora Tibi." At the foot of 
the altar a Turk kneels half naked, with his arms 
bound behind his back, his turban, a kettledrum, 
quiver, and flag, and the crescent and star of the 
Ottomans lying at his feet. But Titian, whether he 
accepted Coello's sketch or not, was iU inclined to 
devote much care to this allegory, and the angel who 
drops from heaven is drawn in a bold but unnatural 
action, whilst the rest of the picture is thrown oif 
with a certain amount of haste. Imperfect as the J 
work appears on this account, the portrait profile of 
Phihp is fine and spirited ; the remaining parts are 

Chap. IX.] 



designed with a playful skill, and the figures are full 
of life-like impulse, as they show themselves strongly 
relieved by trenchant light and shade, and glowing 
with a warm richness of colour.'' 

An artist, even if he has grown grey in his j^ro- 
fession, cannot be expected to put forth his strength 
in a subject dictated l)y others, with the same 
spirit as when the theme is suggested entirely Uy his 
own thought and feeling. The contrast between 
official and original painting at this late period of 
Titian's life is well illustrated by a comparison lie- 
tween the '''Allegory of Lepanto" and the ''Christ 
Crowned witli Thorns" at ^luuidi. In the one we 
detect the artist's want of natural inspiration, in the / 
other we sec Titian labouring for his own satisfaction. 
The "Christ Crowned with Thorns " was not commis- 
sioned by any one, it was not composed for any known 
patron, but remained unfinished in Titian's workroom 
till Tintoretto saw it one day and begged the master 
to give it him as a present. Titian did so, and 
Tintoretto jmt it up in his own atelier as a model of 1 
what a modern picture ought to be. Boschini, who i 
saw it in the hands of Tintoretto's son, justly describes 
it as " a marvel worthy of a place in an academy to 

* This canvas, Xo. 470 in tho 
Madrid Museum, is m. S.'.io h. by 
2.74, and is known to have been 
in the pahico of Madrid at tliu 
death of Philip tho Second. Tho 
king faces to tho left, he turns 
his back to a palatial colonnade, 
on one of tho pillars of which a 
cartello is fastened, bearing tho 

words, "Titianvs Vec. . . . iu. 
.^ques Cces. fecit." The colours, 
originally thin and painted in at 
one sitting, have lost more of 
their richness and cleai'ness than 
other pieces in which the impast 
was more solid. Photograph by 


sliow students all the secrets of art, and teach them 
not to degrade but to imj^rove nature." ''' 

The composition differs from that of the Louvre in 
lighting, and in the setting of some of the dramatis 
personoe. Here the scene is laid in the gloom of a 
passage, lighted in part by the smoky flare of a hang- 
ing lamp of five branches. The man who spits at' the 
Saviour is omitted, and the guard in front to the 
right, instead of kneeling and holding fast the Re- 
deemer's hands, ascends the steps, trailing a battle- 
axe in his left hand, and grasping a wand with his 
right, a youth behind him carrying a bundle of reeds. 
The dress of the man with the battle-axe is varieijated 
and bright, consisting of a green feathered cap, a red 
and green coat, and a lemon coloured sleeve. The 
treatment, though it is partly lost to view under 
accidental injuries and repainting, is similar to that 
of the " Martyrdom of St. Lawrence " at the Escurial, 
the colouring being richer, the action more powerful 
than in the earlier though more finished picture of 
the Louvre. It is impossible to conceive bettei' ar- 
rangement, greater harmony of lines, or more boldness 
of movement. Truth in the reproduction of nature in 
momentary action is combined with fine contrasts of 
lio-ht and shade, and an inimitable richness of tone, 
in pigment kneaded, grained, and varied in surface 
beyond anything that we know of this time. Such 
a combination might have thrown into despair three 
such men as Rubens, Van Dyke, and Rembrandt, two 

* Eicclie Miniere, Preface; Eidolfi, Maraviglie, i. 270. 



of whom certainly studied the picture somewliere, 
since they almost copied it in canvases at Berlin and 
Madrid, whilst the third may have seen it in the 
Netherlands, where tradition says that the canv^as was 
once preserved. The method, too, would be sympa- 
thetic to Eembrandt, being the very converse of that 
observed in the "Allegory of Lepanto," displaying 
impast frequentl}' repeated in heavy and substantial 
coats, tints broken with, pui'e primaries or studdings 
of brilliance, toiTnented into variety of surface, and 
glazed to diversity of tint.* 

Pictures of this merit laid up in store speak highly 
in favour of Titian's fertility and power, but they also 
indicate his wish to keep for display a certain number 
of works of a cood standard. The house in Bui 
Grande, we may remember, was known to all Vene- 
tians as a ])lacc of exhibition for masterpieces, and as 
such was also visited by strangers, whilst Titian 
himself had personally acquired such a popular 
celebrity that princes on their travels and potent 

• This canvas, for a long time 
preserved at Schloissheim, is now 
No. 1329 in the Munich Gallery, 
ami measures 8 ft. "^ h. by o ft. 
7.S. There is, as above stated, a 
tiiiditiou that it came from the 
Motherlands to Bavaria, but the 
history of the picture is altogether 
obscure. Certain it is only that it 
is a genuine Titian. Probability 
akin to certainty exists that it is 
the picture that belonged to Tin- 
toretto, which was sold "to a 
foreigner " by Domonico Tinto- 
retto (Boschini, Miuiero, Preface). 


The surfaces are extensively re- 
painted, ex. gr. the profile of the 
man on the right, the hands of 
the man in the background hold- 
ing a reed in both hands, tho 
head of the man with tho battle- 
axe, the torso of the figure to the 
left, and the right side of Christ's 
head. But some of the restoring 
is spirited, and looks like the 
work of Eubons or Van Dyke. 
See Eubens' adaptation of the 
subject. No. 783 at Berlin, 
Van Dyke's at Madrid, No. 
(old numbering). 

D D 




ministers on journeys of state turned off the road to 
see him. We noted that in 1572, when the Spanish 
minister Antonio Perez expressed a wish to Leonardo 
Donato, the Venetian envoy at Madrid, to possess 
two canvases of Titian, the council asked the French 
ambassador to go and choose what he thought best in 
Titian's paLace;* we recollect that some of the pieces 
which Pomponio Vecelli found after his father's death 
were executed in Titian's very best form. A well- 
known anecdote tells of the coming of Cardinal 
Granvelle and Cardinal Pachcco to the painter's house, 
and asking themselves to dinner, upon which Titian 
flung his purse to a servant and bid him prepare a feast, 
as " all the world was dining with him."t Henry the 
Third of France showed himself not less curious to see 
Titian than anxious to purchase some of his creations. 
When that monarch, on his way from Poland to 
France, was received with honour by the prince and 
people of Venice (June 1574) he stole an hour from 
public festivities to see the painter ; and Titian is said 
to have made him a present of all the pictures of which 
he asked the price. More credible than this un- 
accountable generosity is the contemporary statement 
that Henry offered 800 scudi to Paola Danna for the 
great " Ecce Homo. "J 

Titian at this period was not only hale and hearty 
enouo-h to receive royal visits, but he was still of 
sufficient vigour to write letters, paint pictures, and 
superintend the labours of his disciples. No one who 

* Antea, p. 293. 

t Eidolti, Mar. i. 2V1-2. 

J Morelli's Anonimo, p. 89. 


reads the following despatch to Antonio Perez will 
come to any other conclusion than that he still 
enjoyed all his faculties and an indomitable spirit of 


"I have noted with infinite pleasure the 
contents of your Illustrious Lordship's last letters, and 
rejoice exceedingly to find that my works have in 
some measure met Avath approval from your Lordship, 
whom 1 shall never be too tii'cd to serve. I am also 
thankful for your Lordship's kind oflices both present 
iind future with liis C'atliolic Majesty, and in obedience 
to your Lordship's directions 1 may say that the paint- 
ings, of whicli I liave not as yet had any payment, are 
those set down in the annexed iuclosure. But first I 
sliould advise your Lordship that I have received 800 
scudi of the money paid to Gentile liy the Eoyal 
Chamber [of ^ladrid], and that 300 scudi still remain 
due to me ; but that 1 have had no moneys from the 
Chamber of ^lilan, though I hope from what the Lord 
Ambassador tells me that they will be paid. Mean- 
while I am not neglecting my duty to his Catholic 
Majesty either in respect of the "Battle" or other works 
commenced, and particularly the yresepio, which I 
began on hearing from the painter who came hither 
from Spain to see me the other day that His Majesty 
wished for the " Nativity of our Lord," that being the 
only subject wanting in all his collection. I am also 
reducing to perfection, as far as the season will allow, 
the oth(u- pictures of your Lordship and your Lord- 

D D 2 


ship's wife, which are well advanced. I write also by 
this opportunity to his Catholic Majesty in reference 
to the payment of the pictures sent him in past years, 
inclosing a memorial similar to that which I send your 
Lordship. I pray that your courteous wishes may 
have effect, as, being in want of many things in these 
calamitous times, this will probably l^e the greatest 
favour that I can hope to obtain from your Lordship 
excepting the continuance of your Lordship's good 
grace, of which, though I may not with my humble 
powers show myself worthy, yet I shall neglect no 
occasion to prove myself deserving, having all the will 
to be of service, and so I recommend myself and kiss 
your Lordship'.s hands. 

" Your most Illustrious Lordship's 

" Most obliged servant, 

"TiciANO Vecellio. 

" From Venice, 2'lnd of December, 1574." 

Inclosure in the foregoing. 

" Memorial to his Catholic Majesty by Titian and 
his son Orazio. 

" First, that the Milan pension of my son Horazio 
may be put in balance, in order that he may without 
trouble, fatigue, or interest enjoy the favour done him 
by his Majesty. 

" Itein. — The pictures sent to his Majesty at divers 
times T\dthin the last twenty-five years are these, but 
only in part, and it is desired that Signor Alons 
(Sanchez Coello), painter to his Majesty, should add 
to the list such pieces as have been forgotten here : 

Chat. L^.i TITIAN AND COELLO. 405 

" ' Venus. and Adonis ' [1556]. 

" ' Calisto pregnant of Jove ' [1561]. 

" ' ActcTBon entering the Bath ' [1561]. 

" ' Andromeda bound to the Rock ' [1556]. 

" ' Europa carried off by the Bull ' [1562]. 
j *' ' Christ in Prayer in the Garden ' [1562]. 

" The ' Temptation of the Jews wdth the Coin to 
I Christ ' [1568]. 

I " ' Christ in the Sepulchre ' [1561]. 

" The ' St. :\rary Magdalen ' [1561]. 

*' The ' Three Magi of the East ' [1561]. 

" ' Venus, to whom Love Holds a Mirror " [?]. 

" The ^ Niule,''\\\ih. the Landscape and theSatjT [1567]. 

" The * Last Supper of Our Lord ' [1564]. 

** The ' Martyrdom of St. Lawrence ' [1567]. 

"With many others which I do not remember."* 

This letter is interesting in many respects, as show- 
ing that Sanchez Coello, when he made the sketch of 
the " Allegory of Lepanto " for Philip the Second, did 
not " send " it by the shortest road, but actually took 
it himself. It leads to the conclusion that the " Alle- 
gory " was painted under the name of " The Battle," 
and sent to JVIadrid after Christmas of 1574. It also 
explains the existence of a number of Titian's works 
at ]\Iadrid of which Titian himself had forgotten the 
number and the subjects. There is a fine canvas of 
"Christ bearing his Cross," which deserves to be 
noted as one of these relics, being the counterpart of 
a similar canvas in the Gallery of St. Petersburg. t 

* See letter and inclosure in 

t This picture, No. 487 in the 

Madrid Museum, is on canvas, 
measuring m. 0.67 h. by 0.77. 
It shows the Saviour crowuod 



Equally worthy of remembrance is the large but 
almost ruined "Adam and Eve," with which Eubens 
was so taken that he made a copy of it, by which 
alone the beauty and form of the original are now to 
be appreciated or understood.''" But another important 
feature in Titian's letter is its confirmation of a state- 
ment made by Spanish historians that Sanchez Coello 
made a list of Titian's pictures for Philip the Second 

with thorns, seen to the waist, 
moving to the right under the 
weight of the cross, supported in 
part by a bare-headed bearded 
man in a red and blue di-ess. On 
the beam of the cross are the 
words, "TITIA]STS ^q. a^s. F." 
The man whose head appears at 
the angle of the cross above 
Christ is a portrait given in the 
replica at the Hermitage of St. 
Petersburg as Francesco del Mo- 
saico (Zuccato). The tones at 
Madrid are powerful, the face of 
Christ elevated and regularly 
moulded. For the replica at 
Madrid, see under St. Petersburg, 
in a Hst of genuine extant Titians, 

* This large canvas, m. 2.40 h. 
by 1.86, was obscurely hung in 
the first years of the seventeenth 
ceutuiy in the sacristy of the 
royal chapel at Madrid, where 
Eubens doubtless saw it. (De 
Madrazo's Catalogue, u. s., p. 247.) 
It is now No. 456 in the Madrid 
Museum, having been saved — 
obviously with pains — from the 
great fire of 1734, and restored 
by D. Juan de Miranda (Ibid. p. 
678). To the right Eve stands 
near the apple tree, and holds the 

fruit received from the tempter, 
whose head appears at the junc- 
tion of a bough. To the left 
Adam is seated on a bank, and 
stretches out his hand for the 
apple. The figures are above life 
size, altered in shape and contour 
by restoring. In the left hand 
corner of the foreground are the 
words, " TiTiANVS F.'" Eubens' 
copy, though it is unavoidably 
impressed with his character in 
the rendering of form, still enables 
us to correct the outlines altered 
b}^ retouching in the original 
picture. A quaint addition which 
Eubens has ventured to make is 
a parrot on the tree above Adam's 
head. There is a photograph of 
Titian's "Adam and Eve" by 
Laurent. A variety of the "Adam 
and Eve" was left unfinished, 
according to Boschini, by Titian. 
It belonged to the Procurator 
Morosini. Titian only finished 
the figure of Eve. Tintoretto 
added that of Adam, and a land- 
scape distance was painted by 
Lodovico Pozzo, of Treviso, into 
which animals were introduced 
by Bassano. (Boschini, Carta del 
Navegar, p. 336.) 

Chap. IX.] T1TL\.XS LAST LETTERS. 407 

in 1575.'" Duiiiij; the interval which elapsed between 
the delivery and final examination of this list, Titian 
came very fairly to the conclusion that Antonio Perez, 
Philip the Second, and Coello had forgotten his exist- 
ence, and he accordingly wrote the following letters, 
which are the last that we possess from his hand, one 
<jf them beino; dated but six months before his death, 
in the ninty-ninth year of his age. 

TITIAN TO rniLir the second. 

" Catholic and most Potent King my Signor, 
" Knowins: the creat kindness with which 
your Catholic ^lajesty gave orders that a list should 
be made out of the pictures sent at various times by 
command of your ^lajesty, I now proceed, with the 
confidence of an old servant, to forward a new memo- 
rial of the same, firmly hoping that your Majesty's 
royal and exalted liberality will desire that your 
I\Iajesty's directions for my benefit should be carried 
out, to the end that 1 may, with a more joyful heart, 
attend to the other works dedicated to the glory of 
your Majesty, wdiicli I am now doing in this my last 
a^-e. There is so much ill- fortune in the w^orld now 
that I feel great want of the power and royal liberality 
of a holy prince of the world, such as your Catholic 
jMajesty, whom I pray that God may keep for a long 


" Most devoted humble servant, 

" Titiano Vecellio. 

" From Venice, on Christmas Day, 1575." 

* See Northcoto's Titian, u. s. ii. 242. 


the same to the sa^ie. 

"Your Catholic and Royal Majesty, 

" The infinite benignity with which your 
Catholic Majesty — by natural habit — is accustomed to 
gratify all such as have served and still serve your 
Majesty faithfully, emboldens me to appear with the 
present [letter] to recall myself to your royal memory, 
in which I believe that my old and devoted ser- 
vice will have kept me unaltered. My prayer is 
this : Twenty years have elapsed and I have never 
had any recompense for the many pictures sent on 
divers occasions to your Majesty ; but having received 
intelligence by letters from the Secretary Antonio 
Perez of your Majesty's wish to gratify me, and 
having reached a great old age not without priva- 
tions, I now humbly beg that your Majesty will deign, 
with accustomed benevolence, to give such directions 
to ministers as will relieve my want. The glorious 
memory of Charles the Fifth, your Majesty's father, 
having numbered me amongst his familiar, nay, most 
faithful servants, by honouring me beyond my deserts 
with the title of cavaUere, I wish to be able, with the 
favour and protection of your Majesty, — true portrait 
of that immortal Emperor — to support as it deserves 
the name of a cavaliere, which is so honoured and 
esteemed in the world ; and that it may be known 
that the services done by me during many years to 
the most serene house of Austria have met with grate- 
ful return, thus causing me, with more joyful heart 
than hitherto, to spend what remains of my days in 


the service of your Majesty. For this I should feel 
the more obliged, as I should thus be consoled in my 
old age, whilst praying to God to concede to your 
]\Iajcsty a long and hajipy life witli increase of his 
divine grace and exaltation of your Majesty's king- 
dom. In tlie meanwhile I expect from the royal 
benevolence of your Majesty the fruits of the favour 
I desire, and with due reverence and humility, anel 
kissing your sacred hands, 

" I am your Catholic Majesty's 

** Most liumble and devoted servant, 

" TiziANO Vecellio. 
" From Venice, 27^/* February, 1576." 

Titian's appeal to the benevoh^nce of the King of 
S]>ain looks like that of a garrulous old gentleman 
proud of his longevity, Init hoping still to live for 
many years. Yet, as he himself observed, there was 
much ill-fortune then threatening the world, ill-for- 
tune particularly threatening Venice ; not politically, 
for after Lepanto there was peace between the re- 
public and the Turks ; but a plague was beginning to 
rage which threatened to carry off more people than a 
similar visitation in i.")iU. The seeds of this plague 
had been sown in 1575, when deaths began to occur 
ill increasing numl^ers. In I.ITG the mortality be- 
came so great that a general panic ensued. The fear 
of contagion, though but a s[)ur to exertion in minds 
seasoned with charity or strengthened by feelings of 
<luty, oidy called forth the most abject display of 
.selfishness and cowardice in many classes of the 



community. Such as had the means withdrew to the 
mainland. Those who remained were in danger not 
only of catching the contagion, but if they fell sick, 
of dying for want of attendance. It was fatal to any 
one at the time to fall ill, for whatever his ailing 
might be, he was doomed. In doubt as to the nature 
of symptoms " fathers forsook their sons, sons aban- 
doned their sires, wdves their husbands, husbands their 
wives, and the bodies of the dead were carried un- 
accompanied to the Lazzarettos." * All that human 
ingenuity could discover as a remedy for so fearful an 
evil was attempted by the government of the day. 
Hospitals were established in the islands of the 
lagoons; and at the Lazzaretto Vecchio, towards 
Malamocco, or the Lazzaretto Nuovo, and San Gia- 
como di Palii, between Murano and Mazzorbo, it was 
a familiar sight to see the daily transport of clothes 
and furniture from houses affected by contagion, and 
the destruction of infected apparel by fire.t But 
nothing that care and forethought could devise ap- 
peared to control the plague. It w^ent its way and 
marked its path by the destruction of 50,000 souls in 
a population of 190,000 people. The Venetian Senate 
vowed to build a church to the Redeemer, and then 
pity was extended to the helpless city, which, it is 
said, suddenly reverted to a state of health. | 

Titian had never suffered from any serious or 

* Sansovino, Cose Notabili, 
u. f., p. 32. 

t Cicogna, Isc. Yen., u. s., t. 
495, vi. 549. 

X Sansovino, Cose Notabili, 

u. s., p. 32; and see the history 
of the founding of the church 
"del Eedentore alia Giudecca," 
on the plans of PaUadio in 1577. 


(lanoerous sickuL-ss, nor had lie stood face to face 
with death under any circumstaucurf, yet as he grew 
old he was not unmindful of the common lot of man- 
kind, and he prepared, after the fashion of the age, 
for the disposal of his remains. Tie sent to the 
Franciscans at the Frari and barijained with them for 
a grave in the ehapcl '" Del Crocifisso," paying for 
the privilege of resting in the church so nobly de- 
corated by two of his works with a ])romisc of 
a third great composition of the " Clirist of Pity." 
The friars accepted the otier, and Titian undertook the 
picture, which he nearly finished before he died. But 
ditferences anjse, a (piarrel ensued, and Titian left his 
work unlinishjjj^ and willcfl tliat his cori)S(^ should be 
taken to Cadore and buried in tlie chapel of his family 
at the Pieve.* Pmt tlie nobln canvas of the " Pictii" 
was rescued from loss by tlie pious care of Palma 
Giovine, who fjave some finishiiiLj strokes to it, and 
wrote upon a tablet the well-known lines : — 

" Quod Titiunus inchoutum reliqixit, 
Palma loveronter absolvit 
Dooq. dicavit opus."t 

It is doulttful whether due attention has been 
bestowed on this remarkable piece, the touchstone 
to Titian's art in his very last days, though time 
and repeated restoring have greatly increased the 
ditliculty of distinguishing the labours of the master 
from those of Palma Giovine and his less gifted 

* Tizianello's Anon", and Ridolfi, Mar. i. 'J(J9. f Ridolfi, i. 269. 


The Saviour rests in death on the lap of the Vii'gin, 
who grieves as she supports the head and the stigma- 
tised hand. Joseph of Arimathea kneels to the right, 
looking up at Christ's face, and holding his left arm. 
In tragic action, with dishevelled hair and arms out- 
stretched, the Maodalen comes in to the left and 
wails, whilst an angel on the ground stoops over the 
vase of ointment. A second ansfel hovers in the air 
and bears a lighted torch. The gilt mosaic niche 
behind the group, emblazoned with a pelican stripping 
its breast, is skirted and roofed with marbles, on 
which seven crystal lamps are burning. On marble 
plinths at the sides of the niche are statues of Moses 
and the Hellespontic Sibyl, and on a scutcheon at the 
Sibyl's feet we see the arms of Titian, a set square 
sable on a field aroent, beneath the double eao;le on a 
field Or. A small tablet leanino^ ao-ainst the scutcheon 
contains the defaced portraits of Titian and his son 
Orazio, kneeling before a diminutive group of the 
"Christ of Pity." Tlu'ough the various deposits of 
former ages, fragments of this splendid composition 
may be discerned from which we judge of Titian's 
work in its latest development. Here, as in the 
"Scourging of Christ" at Munich, the touch is massive, 
broad, and firm, telling still of incomparable readiness 
of hand. It is truly surprising that a man so far 
advanced in years should have had the power to put 
together a composition so perfect in line, so elevated 
in thought, or so tragic in expression. We cannot 
tell how far Titian was supplemented by Palma, or 
Palma's strokes were concealed by those of later 


craftsmen. But no injury produced by centuries of 
neglect and destructive ac^encies can conceal from us 
the jxirpose of a modelling carried out with pigments 
of abundant impast, or hide the searching after form 
in primarie.-s kneaded into shape like the clay under 
the tool of a sculptor. Even the subtle rubbings and 
glazes by which life and morbidity were given are not 
as yet all lost. We see the traces of a brush mani- 
pulated by one whose hand never gi'cw weary and 
never learned to tremV)le. The fiijures and faces 
which display their passion before us, are those which 
grew with Titian's gi-uwth from the iVcsh idyllic days 
when the bloom of youth lay on all his canvases, to 
the later period when iiiaturer charms and swelling 
shapes were favourite creations, and the final stao-e 
when a masculine realism prevailed. The Virgin, 
Joseph of Arimathca, and the Magdalen are all types 
which have ripened and expanded to the full. The 
IVIagdalen of the Mantuan "Entombment" and that of 
the Pietil of 157G, are as it were the first and last ' 
rungs of a ladder, the intennediate steps of which 
wo have all seen the master ascending. It may be . 
that looking closely at the "Pietil" our eyes will lose 
themselves in a chaos of touches ; but retiring to the 
focal distance, they recover themselves and distinguish 
all that Titian meant to convey. In the group of 
the Virgin and Christ — a group full of the deepest 
and tiiiest feeling — there lies a grandeur comparable 
in one sense with that which strikes us in the "Pietil" 
of Michaelangelo. To the sublime conventionjdism by 
Avhich P>uonarroti carries us into a preternatural 



atmospliere, Titian substitutes a depth of passion almost 
equally sublime and the more real as it is enhanced 
by colour.* 

And now the time came when the great master 
was to be called away. The plague entered the house 
of Titian at Biri Grande, and on the 2 7th of August, 
1576, he expired in the midst of a population stricken 
with terror and heartless from panic. Swiftly the 
news spread through the city that the greatest of all 
Venetian artists had died. Swiftly the loss was com- 
municated to the supreme authorities. Laws had 
been passed to meet the plague then afflicting Venice, 
which forbade the burial of a victim of the contas^ion 
in any of the churches of the city. This law was 
quickly set aside in Titian's case. He had once 

* The " Pieta," now No. 33 in 
the Venice Academy, was removed 
to that place from the suppressed 
church of Sant' Angelo at Venice. 
It measures m. 3.50 h. by 3.93, 
and is painted on canvas. Injured, 
it is said, by the daubing of one 
Veglio, it was restored in 1825 by 
Signor Sebastiano Santi, whose 
work is easy to recognise in the 
long strip of modern repainting 
which runs down one vertical side, 
along the base, and up the other 
vertical side. Most of the figures 
are more or less injured by re- 
touching, but some of the dra- 
peries, and especially the blue 
mantle of the Virgin and the 
green mantle of the Magdalen, 
are quite darkened by superposed 
pigment. The angel in the fore- 
ground has lost some of Titian's 
contour, as well as much of 

Titian's colour ; and the angel in 
the air is Titian's only in the 
movement. It is a pity that the 
inscription on the tablet with the 
portraits is rubbed away. On 
the pedestals of the statues we 
read, ' ' moises " and ' ' helespon- 
TICA." Moses stands, horned, 
with his right on the tables of the 
law, which rest on the ground, 
with his left holding a small staff. 
Above his head are the words, 
" M0YSH2IEP0N." The sibyl 
supports a large cross, and wears 
a crown of thorns. Above her 
head are the words, " GEOS ANOS 
ENE2TIKH." A line engraving 
by Viviaui will be found in Za- 
notto's Pinacoteca Veneta ; con- 
sult also Boschini, E. Miniere. 
Sest. di S. Marco, p. 93 ; and Za - 
notto's Venetian Guide, u. s. 

CiLVP. IX.] 



desired to be buried at the Frari, and later had 
expressed a Avish that his bones should be taken to 
Cadore. It was ordered that he shoidd find a place 
of rest in the "Chapel of the Crucified Sa^nour" at the 
Frari, for which he had been preparing his last picture. 
On the 2 8 til of August the canons of St. Mark came 
in procession to San Canciano ; the body was taken 
.solemnly to the Frari and laid in the eartli, wherc^ 
now a stately monument, tribute of wonder and ad- 
miration of the latest generation of Titian's admirer.^, 
stands in all the splendour of marble to do honour to 
his memory. W hen Perugino died of }»lague he was 
ob.scurelv buried in a field. Ohirlandaio, who perished 
of the same di.sease, was taken to his rest hurriedly 
and in the dead of nigrht. Titian, a man of greater 
fame than cither, was better treated by his gi-ateful 
countrymen. He was taken to his grave by day, in 
presence of the highest dignitaries of the church, and 
the shell which once held a life so strono; and rcsistini'- 
that it seemed able to withstand all the a.ssaults of 
time, reposes near one of the finest creations of the art 
of all auces, the " .Madonna di Casa Pesaro." " 

The scenes which occurred m Titian's house after 
his death were melancholy beyond description.t It 
is not known whether Orazio was attacked by plague 

* See as to tho facts in the 
text the records in Cadorin, 
Dollo Araoro, pji. 74, 95, & 102 ; 
and compare 15 irghini, Eiposo, 
.Svo, Sionua, 1787 (the original 

edition was publi.shod in 1584), 
vol. iii. p. 80. 

t The comjiany of painters 
])lanuod a grand funeral ceremony 
in honour of Titian, in emulation 



during liis father's lifetime, but lie certainly died of 
tlie contagion almost immediately afterwards, and lie 
died, not in his father's dwelling but in the Lazzaretto 
Vecchio, near the Lido.* No one was left to take care 
of the painter's place. Thieves broke into the house, 
and before Pomponio or the officers of j^ublic security 
could interfere, many precious relics were stolen and 
destroyed.! What was spared besides the master- 
pieces enumerated in the foregoing pages may be 
condensed into a short space. The following list is one 
which cannot pretend to absolute completeness, though 
it may be accepted as very nearly exhaustive : 

Venice Academy : Private IMeeting-hall. — In this hall are 
nineteen panels containing cherubs' heads and the symbols of 
the Evangelists by Titian, originally in the Scuola di San 
Giovanni EvangeKsta at Venice. They are finely coloured, 
of golden tone, and executed with great mastery, but some of 
them — the cherubs especially — are injured by stippling. 
Two of the heads of angels are imitations by the Venetian 
painter, Giuseppe Lorenzi. Titian's orginals are noted in 
their place by Sanso\'ino (Pitt. Ven. p. 284), Ridolfi (Mar. i. 
267), and Zanetti (Pitt. Ven. p. 171). The picture of the 
Evangelist John, in the ceiling, was greatly damaged, and 
sold, according to Zanotto (Pinac. Ven.) to a private collector 
at Turin. Line engravings of the above-mentioned pieces (the 
Evangelist John excepted) are in Zanotto's Pinac. Veneta. 

Ragusa: San Domenico. — "St. Mary Magdalen" between 
*' St. Blaise" and the "Angel andTobit"; in front to the right 

of that whicli the Florentines had 
carried out as a token of respect 
for Michaelangelo. But the times 
were not favora-able for such a 
spectacle, and it was abandoned. 

See Eidolfi, Mar. i. 275. 

* Cadorin, Dello Amore, u. 

t Cadorin, u. s., 97, 98. 


is a kneeling figure of Count Gozzi ; canvas, figures as large 
as life. This picture, of Titian's late time, was seen by the 
authors in the studio of Signor Paolo Fahris, who was engaged 
in restoring it. 

Genoa : Balbi Palace. — At the foot of a wall which 
partly intercepts a pleasant landscape, the Virgin Mary sits 
with the naked infant Christ standing on her knees. She 
looks ^Wth kindly grace at a donor in black silk dress, who 
kneels to the right recommended by St. Dominick. To the 
left is St. Catherine, partly concealed by a carved marble 
screen. Canvas, with figures under life size. This charming 
picture of the time of the l)acchanals is thrown out of focus 
by abrasion, washing, and repainting ; l)ut is still pleasing 
on account of the grace of the attitudes and the beauty of 
the landscape. 

Florence : Pitti. No. 02. — Portrait of a man in black, 
his left hand on his haunch, his right holding a pair of 
gloves ; canvas, half-length, of life-size. This portrait is one 
which ought to have found a place in the life of Titian, being 
one of the finest and grandest productions of his best time. 
But we know iKuther the date of execution, nor the person 
represented. The dress is black silk, showing white linen at 
the neck and wrists, with double sleeves hanging from the 
shoulders. The face is that of a man in the prime of life, 
with short curly chestnut hair and beard. There is life in 
everj' feature of this grand likeness, life in the eye, life in 
the pose, but life displayed in its most elevated form, and 
with all the subtlety of Titian's art in his best days. 

Florence : Pitti. No. 228. — The " Saviour," a bust on 
canvas from the collection of the Dukes of Urbino. The 
Saviour is almost in profile to the left, long hau-ed and 
bearded, in red tunic and blue mantle, his right hand of 
beautiful shape on his breast. The distance is a landscape 
under a sky streaked with cloud. This handsome picture of 
Titian's earlier time, was painted apparently without a 
model, and on that account without the subtle delicacy of 
some of his hotter works. A copy under Titian's name is in 
the Christchurch Gallery at Oxford. The Pitti canvas has 

VOL. ir. E K 


been photographed by the Photographic Company, and by 

Florence: Pitti. No. 80. — "Portrait of Vesalius the 
Surgeon." Canvas, half-length, of life-size. Yesalius here 
is a fat old man with a full beard, seated, resting his elbow 
on the back of a chair, and supporting in the right hand a 
folio. The left hand holding a pair of goggles, rests on the 
arm of the chair. The figure and head are turned slightly to 
the left, the frame being dressed in a black vest and fur 
pelisse. An authentic portrait of Yesalius, by Calcar, 
engraved in " De Humani Corporis Fabrica," printed in folio 
at Bale, in 1543, represents the great anatomist at the age 
of about 40. It is possible that years and fat may have 
changed his appearance to that which marks the Pitti like- 
ness. But the surface of this piece is so injured, that 
hardly anything remains to test the authorship of Titian, 
though fragments here and there would justify any one in 
assigning the picture to him. Under these circumstances, it 
is hardly practicable to give a decided opinion. It may be 
worthy of remark, that the so-called portraits of Vesalius all 
differ in features, ex. gr. Vienna : Belvedere by Morone, 
though assigned to Titian. Vienna : Ambras Gallerj^, 
erroneously ascribed to Tintoretto. Munich : Pinakothek, 
falsely given to Tintoretto and Padua Gallery, attributed to 
Calcar. The Pitti canvas has been engraved in reverse by 
T. Ver Cruys. 

Rome : Doria Palace. 1st Gallery, No. 14. — Portrait of 
a man at a table, on which a jewel is lying. His right hand 
is on the table, which is covered with a green cloth. In his 
left he holds a pocket-handkerchief. The head finely set on 
the shoulders, is turned three-quarters to the left. The hair 
and beard are grey. The figure, a half-length of life-size on 
canvas, is dressed in black silk. Though much repainted, 
there is evidence that this was once a very fine likeness by 
Titian. On the upper part of the brown background we 
read : " mar. polvs, yen." But these letters are a recent 
addition to the picture. The canvas is patched all round 
with strips of new stuff. 


Rome: Dor'ia Palace. 2ncl Gallery, No. 5*2. — "Portrait 
of Jansenius," This is a likeness of a mau iu an arm- 
chair, turned to the left, but lookiuj.^ at the spectator ; on 
canvas, seen to the ancles, and large as life. The man 
wears a dark r^rey triangular cap and a black silk furred 
pelisse, his left hand is on the anu of the chair, his right on 
a book Ijnng on his knee, his elbow on a table covered with 
a Persian cloth. Behind him is a deep crimson hanging. 
The face is long and bony, the eye bright and sparkling, the 
forehead high, the l)eard short, but deep bro\ni, though the 
hair on the temples is turning to gi'ey. Much of the picture 
has been touched up ^^'ith new paint, and particularly so the 
hands and the beard. AMio "Jansenius" may be it is 
impossible to say, but the picture is clearly by Titian. 

Home: ]h)riiJirse Palace. Room X., No. 10. — ''St. 
Dominick; " half-length, on canvas. St. Dominick is stand- 
ing, and points upwards with tlie fore-finger of his right 
hand. With the left he holds the l)lack mantle which winds 
round his waist. The face inclined, and seen at three- 
quarters to the right, is encircled with a nimbus, a ray falls 
on the figure from the left. The track of the brush laying in 
the colour, the bold free touch of Titian, are to be seen in this 
piece, which is executed at one painting with great masteiy. 
The treatment recalls that of the "13aptist in the Desert" at 
the Venice Academy. The eyes glisten with life, and ouo 
sees the bilious humours in the sacks of the lower eyelids. 

Home : Colonna Galleri/. — " Onufrius Panvinius." — Portrait 
of a Franciscan friar seated and turned to the right ; canvas, 
knee-piece, large as life. The head is fine, — in features, 
which are those of an ascetic, the hair of whose tonsure is 
already grey, — in treatment, being painted with strong im- 
pasted pigment without much glazing — in a warm brown 
general tone. On what grounds the name of Panvinius was 
given to this picture, it is hard to say. We have here a fine 
study from nature by Titian in the years of his prime. 
There is no reference in contemporary literature to Titian's 
portrait of a friar. But a letter exists, dated June 1549, in 
which Aretino sends Titian's remembrances to " the Reverend 

K E 2 


father Feliciano at Chioggia," and expresses the master's 
impatience to see him, that he may "paint his portrait and 
hear him preach in St. Mark at the bidding of the Doge." 
(Aretino, Lett. u. s. v. 124), Who this father Feliciana 
may be, whether identical with Bernardino Feliciano, a public 
speaker and professor at Venice during the Dogeship of 
Francesco Donate, Ave cannot at present ascertain. 

Rome: Sciarra-Colonna Palace. — Room 1. The Virgin in a 
room hung with green curtains, stoops over and fondles the 
infant Christ on her lap. Canvas, 1 ft. 9 in. high, inscribed 
on a footstool to the left in gold letters, " titianvs." This- 
is a beautiful little specimen of Titian's art, the right hand 
holding the back of the infant is of a lovely pearly tone 
beautifully contrasting with white drapery. 

Madrid Museum, l:soA63. — "Portrait of a Maltese Knight ; " 
knee-piece, on canvas, m. 1. 22h. by 1.01. This is the 
likeness of a man of about 35, bare-headed, and bearded, 
standing at a table on which a clock lies. The dress is black 
silk trimmed with satin, and the vest is embroidered with a 
large Greek cross. This noble portrait has not yet been 
identified. It has lost some of its delicate finish in the head, 
but is still a very fine example of the master's middle time. 
Particularly admirable is the way in which the black dress is 
detached on the lighter yet still gloomy background. 

Madrid Museum : (not exhibited, but numbered 435, in 

the catalogue of 1845) "Ecce Homo," on panel 3 ft. 7 in, 

square. The Saviour, crowned with thorns, turned to the 

right stands holding the reed in his bound hands. In front 

to the right, a soldier in chain mail with his back to the 

spectator, rests his arm on a parapet of stone, whilst Pilate 

in a red jewelled cap raises his hand and speaks. Just above 

the parapet to the left, the head of a man in an orange cap 

appears, whose outstretched hand raises the fold of Christ's 

red tunic. In the background to the left is a window with 

a lattice of bars. The eye of the last-mentioned figure, a 

fragment of Christ's shoulder, is all that can be seen of the 

original colour in this picture, which appears to have suffered 

irreparable injury from accidents and repainting. But these 


fragments show that the panel was once a fine work of Titian. 
An old and feeble copy of this piece without the soldier in 
chain mail, is No. 694, in the gallery of Hampton Court. A 
duplicate of the latter is catalogued in the Dresden Museum, 
(No. 239) as by Francesco Vecelli. 

Louvre, No. 473. — " L'Homme an Gant ; " canvas, 
m. 1.0 h. by 0.89 half length, of life size inscribed "ticiaxvsf." 
This is a portrait of a young man three quarters to the right, 
bare-headed, dressed in black, the left elbow on a console, 
the hand bare holding a glove, the right hand gloved. The 
black pelisse is crossed over a frilled white shirt. This is a 
noble portrait of Titian's middle period, strongly impasted 
'with pigment of deep ilesh tone. Light and shade are 
'Contrasted with great mastery, the touch is broad and free, 
the hand admirably modelled. This picture belonged to 
Louis the Fourteenth. A copy of it is in the gallery of 
Brunswick signed : " titianvs." lint the signature is merely 
copied, and by no means proves that the picture is a 
duplicate by the painter himself. Photograph by IJraun. 

Louvre, No. 47'i. — Portrait of a man ; canvas, m. LIB h. 
by ().!•('.. I'ortrait of a man in l»lack, the right hand on the 
haunch, the thumb of the left in the l)elt of the doublet. 
The face is turned slightly to the left, and the hair cut 
straight across the forehead. This grand piece also belonged 
to Louis the Fourteenth. It is of the same period as 
" L'Homme au Gant," and suggests the same remarks. It 
is also copied in a canvas of the Brunswick Museum. 
I*hotograph by liraun. 

Louvre, No. 400.— " The Virgin and Child, St. Agnes 
and the Young Baptist;" canvas m. 1.57 h. by 1.60, but 
enlarged with a strip of stuft' at the left side. The Virgin 
sits to the right near a pillar in fnmt of a hanging. The 
infant Christ stands pensive on her lap. She looks round 
at St. Agnes prostrate before her, and presenting with her 
left hand a palm, whilst with her right she caresses the Iamb 
led in to the left by the infant Baptist. The distance is a 
Cadorine landscape. Large developed forms, marked outlines, 
and sliai-p tints create the impression that Titian was assisted 


in this picture by Cesare Vecellio. The colour is rich and 
well modelled, but not so harmonious as usual. This canvas 
was in the collection of Louis the Fourteenth, is engraved in 
Landon, and photographed by Braun. 

St. Petersburg : Hermitage, No. 102. — Canvas m. 1.3 h. by 
1.19, representing Cardinal Antonio Pallavicini, a prelate, 
who died in 1507, but who seems to have been painted 
posthumously by Titian about the time of his stay at Rome 
in 1545. The prelate is seated in a chair in white surplice 
and red cap and cape. His left hand is on the arm of 
the chair, his right on a book on his knee. Through a 
window to the left a landscape is seen. On a pillar behind 
the chair one reads " antonivs pallavicinvs cardinalis s. 
PEASSEDis." The treatment is broad, and the forms are 
largely presented as if under the influence of Michaelange- 
lesque reminiscences. But the colours have less than usual of 
Titian's brilliancy and richness ; whilst the landscape appears 
somewhat leaden. The picture, however, has suflered from 
stippling, which produced opaque and blind surfaces. It comes 
from the Crozat collection, and was engraved in reverse by 
Ai'nold de Jode. (See Farnese collection, jiostea.) 

St. Petersburg : Hermitage, No. 97. — Christ, crowned with 
thorns, bears the cross which he supports with both hands on 
his left shoulder. Behind him Simon of Cyrene. Canvas 
m. 0.89 h. by 0.77. This piece, from the Barbarigo col- 
lection, is supposed to represent Francesco Zuccato under 
the garb of Simon. The face differs from that of the so-called 
Zuccato in the portrait at Cobham. Like others of this class, 
this picture is in Titian's latest style, and executed in his 
broadest manner. It is a duplicate of a canvas at Madrid, 
but injured by restoring and old varnish, the dress of the 
Saviour being altogether renewed. 

St. Petersburg : Hermitage, No. 95. — Christ in benedic- 
tion with the orb in his left hand ; half length, on canvas 
m. 0.96 h. by 0.78. This picture belonged to the Barbarigo 
collection, and is one of the pictures found in Titian's house 
after his death. It is much repainted, but stiU shows the 
treatment of the master's latest time. 


St. Petershurg : Hermitafie, Xo. 94. — Christ crowned with 
thorns, holds a reed between his bound hands. To the left 
in rear, Pilate in red, to the right the executioner. Canvas 
m. 0.06 h. by 0.78, from the Barbarigo collection, and in the 
master's latest manner. But these half-lengths are at best 
coarse and hastily executed. And time has not improved 
their look — the colours being dim from ago, and changed by 

St. I'cttrshimj : Hermitage, (not exhibited). — St. Sebas- 
tian, full length on canvas, bound to a tree, with an arrow in 
the middle of his breast. This figure, largo as life, and once 
no doubt fine, was originally in the Barbarigo collection, but 
is now 80 injured that it cannot be shown. It may have been 
the original example of the " St. Sebastian," once in the 
Escorial, but now lost, of which Kidolfi says (Mar. i. 240), 
that it was painted for Charles the Fifth. 

St. Petersbiini : llrrniitage, No. 1)0. — The Virgin holds 
the infant Christ on her knee, and receives a small vase from 
the kneeling Magdalen on the left ; half lengths on canvas, 
m. 0.98 h. by 0"8*2. This too is a Barbarigo Titian replica, 
with a slight variety, of one at the UtKzi, and ono in tho 
Naples Museum. The colour is rich and the faces are pleasing, 
but the execution seems to have been entrusted in a great 
measure to a pupil of the class of Marco Vecelli, whose forms 
are always fuller, and whose colours are invariably sharper 
than those of Titian. This is an heirloom of tho ]3arbarigo 
family, the original no doubt of a picture in the Farnese Col- 
lection, noted in the Farnese inventoiy of 1G80. (See Cam- 
pori, liacc. n. s. p. 224). 

Drcadrn. Gallery, No. 228. — Portrait of a man carrying 
a palm leaf; canvas 4 ft. 10 h. by 3 ft. 2, a knee-piece, 
originally in the palace of the Marcello family at Venice, 
where, according to the Anonimo (ed. Morelli, p.GG ), there 
was a collection of pictures, some of which were by Titian. 
Tho person represented is tall, bony, and sallow, very bald, 
but with short black hair still visible behind the temples, 
and a short dark beard. He looks to the right though turned 
three-quarters to the left, and sits, dressed in black silk, at a 


table on which a shallow box with a pallet-knife or an apothe- 
cary's spatula is lying. Through an opening to the left a 
landscape is seen. Eound the head, and dimly traceable 
tinder a repainted background, is the line of a circular nimbus. 
The whole surface of the picture has been more or less re- 
touched, but the landscape suffered less than the rest of the 
canvas, and there as well as in small spaces of the flesh, we 
distinguish the hand of Titian. It must have been a fine 
likeness in its day ; so fine that attempts were made to give 
the person represented a name, and this was done by help of the 
following inscription: mdlxi || inm. petrvs aretinvs || ^etatis 


clear that the face was not that of Aretino, clear likewise that 
the inscription was forged, the letters were recently washed over, 
and an inscription as follows recovered : mdlxi. || anno., i. 


c^SARis. The first line is darker in colour than the second 
and third, in which the character also differs from that of the 
fourth and fifth line. The letters are written by a house 
painter, sharp cornered, and crossed at the ends. They are 
probably not of Titian's time ; yet the picture, as above 
remarked, is a fine and genuine work of Titian. 

Munich Gallery, No. 587. — The Virgin sits under a tree 
in a landscape, holding the infant Christ on her knee, who 
turns to look at the boy Baptist on the left. To the right a 
donor in a black pelisse is kneeling. Canvas, 2 ft. 3f h, by 
2 ft. 10. The head and foot of St. John, and the head of the 
Virgin are damaged by abrasion and retouching ; yet the 
picture is still a lovely one of Titian, and the landscape to 
the right, with blue mountains and nearer ranges dotted 
with church and campanile, is beautifully painted. The date 
of this masterpiece may be set dov,Ti as between 1520 and 
1525 ; and the treatment in the style of that period is perfect. 
The profile of the donor, a man in the prime of life, is very 

The same subject, with a figure of St. Catherine in place 
of the donor, is catalogued as a Titian in the Fenaroli collec- 
tion at Brescia. We read the words '.' titia. pin." on a 


corner of the canvas. But the handling is not Titian's, but 
that of an imitator of his manner. 

MuiiicJi Gallery, No. 591. — The Virgin sits in front of a 
building in a landscape at sunset, and holds in her arms the 
naked infant Christ. The movements of the figures are 
grand, and the treatment odiibits Titian still in possession 
of great power, though in the period of his old age. The 
colours are brushed in with bold freedom, and shaded with 
dark tones. l^ut the surfaces are partially rubl)ed down. 
This picture is said to have been brought to Munich from 
Spain ; it measures 5 ft. 8 J h. by 4 ft. 1 . It is signed with 
& dubious signature : ** titiaxvs f." 

A variation of the same motive is in a small Madonna in 
the Sciarra Colonna Palace at Rome. (See (intai). 

Munich (itillcry. No. 407. — Portrait of a man in black 
turned to the right, but looking out to the left, bare-headed, 
with his right hand on a table, his left on a dagger. A white 
«hirt shows its plaits at the breast, the coat is of black silk. 
This noble portrait is painted with great force and finish, 
and looks like one of those aristocratic creations of Titian 
which Van Dyke liked to study, in the gallery of Diisseldorf 
where it was long preserved, it was called erroneously a 
likeness of Aretino (see Georg Forster's Ansichten voni 
Kiederrhein, &c., 8vo. Leipzig, 1808, I*'' Tlicil, p. 77). 

Vienna Gallery. — Portrait of " Titian's Doctor, Parma," 
turned to the left, a beardless old man, with fine gi'ey hair, 
in black silk robes, the left hand grasping the hem of the 
dress at the breast. This masterly portrait is one of the 
noblest creations of its kind, finished with a delicacy quite 
surju-ising, and modelled with the finest insight into the 
modulations of human flesh. Though some of the minute 
details have been removed by abrasion, enough remains to 
produce a magic effect. The hair, where preserved, is of such 
gossamer texture that one fancies it might be blown about 
by the air. Notwithstanding all this the touch and the 
treatment are utterly unlike Titian's, having none of his 
well-known freedom, and none of his technical peculiarities. 
Yet if asked to name an artist capable of painting such a 


likeness, one is still at a loss. A piece was added to the 
bottom of the canvas at no very distant date. This and clean- 
ing, to which we may add some retouching, may have altered 
the picture materially. In its present state the canvas 
measures 3 ft. G h. by 2 ft. 7. It is considered to be 
identical with the portrait mentioned by Ridolfi as that of 
"Parma" in the collection of B. della Nave (Marav. i. 220). 
But this is not proved ; nor is there any direct testimony to 
show that it is by Titian at all (engraved in Teniers' Gallery). 

Vienna Gallery. — Portrait of " Philip Strozzi," the body 
and head turned three-quarters to the left ; the dress, a black 
silk vest, partly covered by a black pelisse with a collar of 
white and black fur. Canvas, 3 ft. 6 h. by 2 ft. 7. The 
hair and short beard are coal black, the complexion bronzed 
and bilious. The right hand at the waist is well preserved. 
There is no proof that the person represented is Philip 
Strozzi. But the picture, though much over-painted (fore- 
head and vest), looks as if it had once (1540) been a fine one 
of the master. The colour is broadly laid down on a plaited 

Vienna Galleri/. — Portrait of "Benedetto Varchi ; " a 
bearded man, whose body is turned to the left, whilst the 
head looks round to the right. The right elbow leans on 
a console ; the left hand holds a richly bound book. Near 
a pillar of veined marble is a fall of burnt-red drapery. 
Here again the person represented is not proved to be 
the Florentine Benedetto Yarchi. But the portrait is fine, 
the glance of the eye is hvely and bold, the attitude grand. 
The colours are stiffly impasted on a coarse canvas. Time, 
circa 1550. Unfortunately there are touches of new paint 
about the face. Canvas, 3 ft. 8 h. by 3 ft. 

Vienna Gallery. — Lucretia striking at herself with a 
dagger. Canvas, 3 ft. 2 h. by 2 ft. 4, half length in full 
front, of a woman with curly yellow hah-, and bare neck 
pointing the dagger in her right hand at her bosom. A 
striped veil on one shoulder, a burnt crimson pelisse with a 
fur collar on the other, a white sleeve, make up the picture, 
which is rubbed down and injured to a considerable extent. 


Some years ago the words : " sibi titl\.nvs pes'xit." -nere 
legible on the dark ground beneath the arm holding the 
dagger. The picture was probably executed in the master's 
later time, if we judge of the fragments still free from 
retouching, but it was not at the best a veiy fine or attractive 

Vienna: I [arrack Collection. — "St. Sebastian," of life size 
in a niche, his hands bound behind his back, looking up to 
heaven ; canvas stretched on panel ; of life size. A white 
cloth covers the hips ; one aiTow pierces the breast, another 
the left leg. The bend of the niche is coloured in mosaic, 
with a line in Greek, of which we read the letters: *'oAy — 
'77105." This picture is corroded by time, the shadows of the 
head and the pigment on the feet and legs being almost 
eaten awav. liut the attitude is finely rendered, and the 
execution seems worthy of Titian. There is a trailition that 
this piece was once in the sacristy of the Salute at Venice. 
But the Harrach collection was brought together partly at 
Naples, and partly in Spain, and it may be that the picture 
is that described in liooks as once existing in the Escorial. 
(See Sir A. Hume's Titian, p. 8'2). 

Casscl Gallcrij, No. 25. — Portrait of a man, full length, 
large as life, on canvas, 7 ft. 2 h. by 5 ft. ;">, in the plumed 
cap of a Duke, standing in a red striped doublet and red 
hose, in a hilly landscape. His left hand is on his haunch, 
his right grasps a spear. At his feet on the right is a dog ; 
on the left a winged Cupid raising aloft a plumed helmet, 
whilst a bow and quiver lie on the ground. Signed to 
the right of "Amor," " titlusYS fecit." This figure is 
stated to be Davalos, Marquis of Yasto, which requires con- 
firmation. It brings to mind Aretiuo's sonnet to Titian's 
portrait of Alva in lo 19 : 

" La effigio ndoraiula doUa paco 
L'imagino tremonda ilcUa gucrra." 

(Aretino, Lottcre, v. If o.) 

But the face is not that of the Duke of Alva, although the 
figure may be that of a Spaniard. The style is that of Titian 


in 1549-50. The treatment is rapid and bold. The sitter 
is a man of fort}^ close cropped, with a short black beard, 
losing itself in the frill of a white shirt collar ; the figure is 
slender and well made. Sword and dagger are belted to the 
waist. Photograph by Gustav Schauer of Berlin. 

London: National Gallery, No. 4. — "Holy Family with 
an Adoring Shepherd;" canvas, 3 ft. 5h h., by 4 ft. 8. 
To the left, under a rocky bank, the Virgin sits on the 
ground with the infant Christ nestling in her lap. St. Joseph 
is seated to the right with one hand supported by a staff. 
He looks at a shepherd kneeling on the right foreground in 
yellowish hose and red jacket. In the distance a blue sky 
with few clouds, a hilly landscape, in which the angel appears 
to the shepherds. This picture, once in the Borghese Palace, 
is painted in Titian's early style, and recalls at once the 
schooling of Giorgione and Palma. But there is more empti- 
ness in the forms than we like to admit in Titian, and much 
in the picture would seem to indicate the hand of Lotto. But 
these are only conjectures, and it is still possible that Titian 
was the painter. The picture was bequeathed to the nation 
by Mr. Holwell Carr. Engraved by J. Rolls. 

Dudley House. — " Virgin and Child." This fine canvas 
was in very much better condition when at Piome in the 
Bisenzio Collection. It represents the Virgin seated on the 
ground near a brown curtain, giving the breast to the infant 
Christ, whose waist is covered with a white cloth. Much of 
the old power and freedom of Titian's later style was visible a 
few years ago, but is now lost in cleaning and repainting. 

Hampton Court, No. 964. — The " Marquis of Guasto and 
Page." Ilnee-piece of life-size on canvas. This is a portrait 
of a captain in armour, turned slightly to the right, with the 
right hand on a table, on which his helmet lies. A bearded 
servant in profile to the right, dressed in striped yellow, ties 
the laces of the breastplate. Here, as at Cassel, it is hard to 
say on what grounds this captain is called Marquis of Guasto. 
Drawing, modelling, and colour are lost in abrasions, and the 
surfaces are so injured that Titian's handling is hardly to be 
recognised ; yet fragments, such as the profile and hand of 

Chap. IX.] GENUINE TITL\NS. 429 

the " page," are worthy of Titiau, who is probably the painter 
of the picture. As regards the person represented, it is 
worthy of remark that the features are not unHke those of the 
Duke of Alva, as painted by Antonio Moro in a picture at 
Windsor Castle ; not unlike those of a portrait erroneously 
ascribed to Titian, but called the *' Duke of Alva," in the col- 
lection of the Duke of Bucdeuch at Dalkeith. "NVe should be 
better able to judge of this matter if we had a clue to Titian's 
original portrait of Alva, or even to the copy of that original 
executed by Rubens. (See Sainsbur}''s Papers, u.s., p. 237.) 
JIdinpton Court GtiUrrif, No. 114. — "Titian's Uncle." 
Portrait of a man, tuniod to the right, standing at a table, 
bare-headed, and dressed in black, with a book in his right 
hand, a piece of fruit in his left. To the left, on a bracket, 
is a statue ; through an opening to the right a tine land- 
scape. Most of the picture is repainted, but fragments of it, 
and particuhirly the landscape, display the bund of Titian 
about his middU' period. The person represented is about 
fifty years old, but on what grounds he is called Titian's 
uncle it is impossil)le to say. 

Cobham JLill. — "Christ in Benediction." Bust on panel. 
Though much injured, this seems to have been a good and 
genuine picture by Titian. The parts about the collar bone 
are the best preserved. An inscription on the panel would 
suggest that it belonged to Domenico lluzzini at Venice, and 
we tind in Bidolti ['Shir. i. 2(51) that this senator owned a 
picture of " Christ in Benediction." 

London : latv I^^orthuick Collection. — Portrait of a lady of 
life-size in a turban, holding in her left hand a fan made 
of feathers. On canvas, 3 ft. 3 h., by 2 ft. 8. Tho 
dress of the lady is Lombard, and recalls that of Isa])ella 
d'Este at the lielvedere of Vienna; the turban yellow with 
whitt^ braiding, the boddice cut square and variegated in 
black, yellow, and green. The shoulder puffs l)lack and 
white and yellow, a chemisette, and a chain round the bare 
neck. The form is full, the bend of the head, seen at three- 
quarters to the left, slightly affected. The treatment is like 
that of Titian, but the surfaces are almost entirely concealed 


by repainting, and tlie result of this is an appearance of feeble 

Late Northwick Collection, No. 872. — " Henry Howard, 
Earl of Surrey." The identity of this portrait is not proved. 
It represents a man of middle age in a black plumed cap, and 
bottle green damasked doublet, with red sleeves. The right 
hand is on a dagger at the belt, the left fondles a dog. Some 
fragments of this canvas, which is almost entirely repainted, 
show a treatment akin to that of Titian. 

Viscount Poicerscourt. — Amongst the pictures exhibited at 
the first Dublin International Exhibition, was one belonging 
to Lord Powerscourt, representing a bare-headed youth of life- 
size to the knees, in a black dress, with his right arm on a 
table strewed with books and papers, with his left hand 
holding a plumed cap ; a chain hangs from his neck and 
supports a medal. Over the dark brown ground to the 
right a hanging of green stuff is falling. The youth is 
about twenty, of agreeable character, and natural. This 
figure may be acknowledged as fairly displaying the' style of 
Titian . 

Omnia Vanitas. — Under this title, two or three pictures 
are preserved, which bear the name of Titian. A drawing 
also exists, from which these pictures seem to have been 
executed. But doubts may be entertained as to its genuineness. 
Equally doubtful is the question whether Titian ever carried 
out in person the pictures representing the subject. 

Diisseldorf Academy. — The drawing represents a female 
lying (with her head to the left) on a couch, half-raised on one 
arm, and looldng up so as to show her face in foreshortened 
profile. At her side to the right is a vase, behind a fall of 
drapery. The drawing is washed in sepia, and outlined with 
a pen on rough paper, and has some of the characters of an 
original Titian. 

Rome : Academy of SanLuca. — The figure above described 
is painted reclining on a couch, with a vase near the shoulder, 
and a crown and sceptre at the feet. In the distance to the 
left a landscape represents Cadorine hills, and above the 
whole is a tablet inscribed " Omnia Vanitas." The canvas is 


much injured by flaying and repainting. It is not bandied 
with the mastery of Titian, but looks as if it had been executed 
by some of his disciples or imitators, perhaps by Cesare 
Vecellio. It is said that this piece was once in the Capitol, 
and was presented by Gregory the Sixteenth to San Luca. 
From it obviously Le Febre took his print of the Omnia 
Vanitas, and if so, the picture was then in the Yidman 
Collection at Venice. The same piece was also engraved by 
O. Saitcr. (C(mipare Sir A. Hume's Titian, p. 05.) 

Glns(j<)w Museum, No. 23G. — The same subject is here 
called " Danae." On the edge of the white couch, besides the 
vase, there are some golden pieces. On the tablet above, 
instead of " Omnia Vanitas," wc read " titlvx cadvihu." 
The execution is very free, the pigment thin, as if some bold 
executant had imitated Cesare Vecelli. The canvas has been 
injured, and the flesh has gained a yellow tinge from time and 
varnish. The signature of Titian is of dubious antiquity. In 
a catalogue of pictures for sale at Venice at the close of the 
sixteenth century, wo find the "Omnia Vanitas." (See this 
catalogue in Stockbauer's Kunstl)estrel)ungou am IJayrischen 
Hof, U.S. vol. viii. of Quellonschriftcn, p. ■V^.) 

Kinrfston Lacij. — Hero is a third replica of the same piece, 
with " Omnia Vanitas " on the tablet. The Hgure is large as 
life, on canvas, liut of uniform tone and thin colour. The 
execution is exactly similar to that of the Glasgow example. 

It is natural that tliere sliould lie a wish on tlic part 
of numerous collectors to assisjn to Titian works of art 
whieli sometimes closely, at others but distantly, recall 
the treatment of the master. Tlie f(jllowino; is a list 
of pictures in which the authors have not been able to 
discern the distinctive marks of Titian's style. 

Venice: Zecca. — " Virgin and Child." This is a fresco on 
the gi'ound floor of the old Zecca, showing a certain form of 
aft'ectation in the attitude of the Virgin, which looks like a 
reminiscence of the Virgin and Child of luaphacl's " jM;i- 


donna di Foligno." The fresco has lost much of its colour, 
and it is impossible to express an opinion as to the author. 

Venice Academy, No. 350. — Portrait of the Procurator 
Priamo di Lezze. This portrait was taken from the Procuratie, 
and patched and restored. The head, with short white hair 
and full heard, is all that is not absolutely new, but even that 
is changed by stippling, and now looks like work from the 
hand of Damiano Massa. Canvas bust in red, m. 0.52 h. hy 

Venice : Prince Giovanelli. — Two pictures in this collection 
are assigned to Titian, " St. Roch and the Angel," which is 
an undoubted picture by Lotto (see Hist, of N. Ital. Painting, 
ii. p. 526), and a " St. Jerom " by Basaiti. (lb. i. 269.) 

Venice : Santa Caterina. — " The Angel and Tobit," on 
panel. The position of the figures and the dog is the same 
relatively as that of Titian's original in S. Marciliano, but the 
style is not the masculine and powerful style of Titian, and 
we may believe that Pddolfi is less correct in assigning it ta 
Titian (Mar. i. 197) than Boschini in ascribing it to Santo 
Zago. (Ricche Miniere, S. di Canaregjgio, pp. 19, 20.) 

Venice : S.S. Ermarjora e Fortunato. — Christ with the 
Orb, on a pedestal between the standing figures of St. Andrew 
and St. Catherine ; a Titianesque panel in the style of Fran- 
cesco Vecelli, or Santo Zago, but not a genuine Titian. (Com- 
pare Boschini, Ricche Miniere, S. di Canareggio, p. 58, and 
Moschini, Guida di Venezia, ii. 361.) 

C adore : {Pieve di) Casa Coletti. — Here is the house once 
inhabited by Tiziano Yecelli, the orator, Titian's kinsman. 
A hall in the basement of the house is painted with arabesques 
and figures, one of the latter an old woman spinning, with a 
cat plapng near her. Renaldis (Pittura Friulana, u.s. p. 65) 
ascribes these wall-paintings to Titian, but they are work of 
a later time. 

Venas iCadore) Church. — The Virgin adoring the infant 
Christ on her knees, between two angels in a landscape ; on 
two canvases at the sides St. Mark and two saints in converse. 
This pretty and gracefully executed picture is by some painter 
of the school of the Vecelli of the seventeenth century. 


Vinir/o CJinreh. — The Virgin enthroned with the Child in 
Benediction erect on her knee ; at h r sides St. John the 
Baptist and St, John the Evangelist ; an angel seated on the 
step of the throne plays the tambourine. This canvas, ^ith 
figures of life-size, is greatly injured by restoring, but is 
clearly not by Titian. (Ticozzi, Vecelli, ii. s. p. 95.) The treat- 
ment })oiuts to a disciple of the schools of Francesco or Cesare 

Doinrfifie : Casa Bcrnaho. — Church standard, representing 
the Virgin and Child between St. lloch and St. Sebastian, 
with an angel on the step playing a taraliourine. This also 
is assigned to Titian, but is executed by an artist of the 
seventeenth century, whose work is almost completely lost in 
subsequent daubing. A copy of this piece, assigned to Orazio 
Vecelli in the church of the Picve at Cadore, is inscribed 
with thf? date of 1047. 

Pozzalc : Church of San Tomniaso. — Church standard, 
with a figure of St. Thomas. The surface of this canvas is 
covered with repaints, but it was never executed by Titian, 
whose name it undeservedly bears. 

Candida Church. — The Virgin and Child enthroned, with 
an angel playing a tambourine, St. Andrew and St. John the 
Baptist, — a set of three canvases in this church, assigned by 
Ticozzi to Titian (Vecelli, p. 1)4), are by Cesare Vecelli. 

Md, in Cadore. — In past years there stood on the high 
altar of the church of Mel an arched canvas, with life-size 
figures of St. Andrew, St. Sebastian, and St. Paul, set on a 
base or prcdella, with hexagonal panels representing the 
Samaritan woman before Christ at the Well, the Resur- 
rection, and the Epiphany, each of these little subjects 
being parted by a square panel containing an angel's head. 
The central piece is now in the choir, a copy of it being in 
the sacristy, where we likewise find halves of the Samaritan 
Woman and llesurrection put together as one picture, 
together with the Epiphany and Angels. According to the 
tradition of Mel, the altar-piece now in the choir is by Titian, 
but the work does not confirm the tradition. It is boldly 

painted, incorrect in drawing, and discordant in tone. In the 
vol.. ir. F F 


white haired central figure of St. Andrew, there is much to 
remind us of Andrea Schiavone. St. Sebastian bound to a 
pillar on the left recalls the school of Paris Bordone. The 
little panels in the sacristy are better than the principal 
canvas. The style of all is that which prevails amongst the 
painters of the Titianesque school at Belluno, and particularly 
that of Niccolo de' Stefani of Belluno. (Compare Ticozzi, 
Vecelli, p. 96, and Beltrame's Titian, p. 33.) 

Cencenighe hy Agordo. — On the high altar of the church of 
this village, a picture of St. Anthony enthroned between St. 
Eoch and St. Sebastian is described as a work by Titian. On 
close examination, it seems to be by a Bellunese disciple of 
Niccolo de' Stefani. 

Lentiai : Santa Maria. — Composite altar-piece. The As- 
sumption between St, Paul and St. John Evangelist and St. 
Peter and a saint in episcopals. Above in half lengths the 
Pieta between four saints. This picture, assigned to Titian, 
betrays the hand of his assistants, and more particularly that 
of Cesare Vecelli, who painted the whole of the ceilings of this 
church in company of Jacopo Constantini in 1578. 

Serravalle : Casa Carneliutti. — The house called Casa 
Carneliutti is that which was inhabited of old by Lavinia 
Vecelli and her husband Sarcinelli. Here the wall of an 
apartment is still covered with remnants of a fresco represent- 
ing a nude female figure in a recumbent position, with a 
basket of flowers near her. She lies with her head to the left, 
her right elbow resting on a white cushion, and her head sup- 
ported by the fingers of her right hand. The left hand, as at 
present seen, is extended horizontally in a somewhat meaning- 
less manner. It is hard to say whether this picture was 
really executed, as alleged, by Titian. The left arm is quite 
modern, the other is retouched. Fragments of old colour 
crop up through the newer flesh tint of the face, showing the 
eyes and features in a difierent form from the present ones. 
Similar discoveries may be made in other parts, and it is 
evident that whoever may have been the author of this 
painting, his work is effectually concealed by that of a later 
and less competent hand. 


San Salvatore di Colalto. — Fragments of frescoes, chiefly 
heads, originally in the canonry of Castions. 1. Titian '? 2. 
Pierio Vuleriano. 3. Urbano Bolzanio. These pieces, though 
assigned to Titian, are painted in the bold manner of Cesare 
Vecelli. A portrait of '* Valeriano," the counterpart as regards 
face and features of the above, is preserved under the name of 
Titian in Casa Palatini at Belluno. It is probably also by 

Belluno: San Slrfatw. — "Adoration of the Mairi." This 
picture, ascribed by Ticozzi (Vec. p. 98) and IJeltramc (u.s. 
p. 33) to Titian, is by Cesare Vecelli. 

FonzuHo : Cusa Ponfr. — The " Nativity" till IbUG in the 
suppressed church of Sun Giuseppe of IJelluno. This canvas, 
assigned by Ticozzi to Titian, is by Francesco Vecelli his 
brother. (See Ticozzi, Vecelli, ii. .s\ p. 73-1, and compare 
Count Florio Miari's Dizionario Bellunese, fol. Belluno, 1843, 
p. 113.) 

Castelddido : Cumi Piloni. — Portrait of Oderico Piloni, 
half length on canvas turned to the left; an old man with a 
grey beard, white frill and brown dress, holding a glove in his 
left hand. This portrait is not by Titian, but probably by 
Cesare Vecelli. — In the same collection, two fragments of 
frescoes, representing a boy of six and a boy of seven years, are 
probalily l)y the same hand. (See Alnwick). 

lU'Unno : Casa Paridni. — Head of a youth : inscribed An- 
tonio (Piloni) on panel ; two heads on canvas of Scipio and 
Gio. Maria (Piloni). These are part of a series of which the 
rest — two in number — namely Ciesar and Paul Piloni, re- 
spectively aged six and three, are in the Casa Agosti at 
Belluno. All these pictures are assigned to Titian, but are 
probably by Cesare Vecelli. 

Belluno : Casa Piloni. — A single head of a female — a fresco 
— is shown in this house, which once belonged to a fresco of 
the rape of the Sabine women, of which there is an engraving 
inscribed: "Opus Titiani Vecelli exiisten^ in atrio, D.D. 
nobilium Comitum Piloni in civitate Belluni, G. G. F." The 
fragment now preserved shows pretty clearly that the painter 
must have been Cesare Vecelli, the treatment being similar 

F F 2 


to that of the wall paintings of Cesare's last period, in the 
Pieve di Cadore and elsewhere. 

Sjnliniherg : CasaMonaco — Portraitof" Guglielmus Monaco 
Bergomensis " with the date mdl, at a table, pen in hand, 
turned three quarters to the right ; on the table is a book with 
the word, "p. f. comedia." The name and date above 
given are on the brown background of the canvas, but they are 
either repainted or modern. The picture itself is erroneously 
assigned to Titian, being by a feeble disciple of Pomponio 

Pat: Casa Manzoni. — Profile bust to the right of a man in 
a black cap, falsely assigned to Titian. The real painter of 
this piece may be Niccolo de' Stefani, whose pictures are 
numerous in the neighbourhood of Pat. 

Rovigo Gallery, No. 8. — Portrait of a bearded man in a 
black cap, pointing with the right hand to a passage in a book 
which he holds in his left. Half length on canvas turned to 
the right. The picture is in too bad a state to warrant an 
opinion. It looks as if it might have been originally a work 
of Bernardino Licinio. 

Rovigo Gallery, No. 2. — " Virgm and Child " a copy of a 
picture by Titian in the Belvedere of Vienna. (See antea, i. 
p. 56.) 

Rovigo Gallery, No. 118. — " Apollo and Daphne." A 
picture by Andrea Schiavone. 

Rovigo Gallery, No. 9.—" Death of Goliath." No. 10, 
"Portrait of Titian by Himself." Both very poor, and 
spurious productions. 

Vicenza Gallery. — "Virgin and Child." Half length in 
front of a landscape, in part concealed to the right by a green 
curtain ; panel, with figures of life size. This picture is more 
in the style of Francesco Vecelli than in the style of Titian. 

Vejvna Gallery. — " Virgin and Child and young Baptist." 
This canvas, with figures of half the life size, was bequeathed 
to the Verona Gallery by Mr. Bernasconi as an original 
Titian. It is however a pretty creation of Cesare Vecelli. 
Photograph by Nay a. 

Feltre : Episcojml Palace. — Portrait of a bearded man at a 


table, on which a pair of gogf,des is lying. The figure is on 
canvas, half-length, large as life and turned to the right. It 
is by Tintoretto and not by Titian. 

Padua: Casa Maldara. — The Virgin with the Child 
naked and recumbent on her lap, in front of a green curtain, 
beyond which to the right a landscape is seen. This canvas, 
with half lengths assigned to Titian, and much damaged by 
restoring, looks like a work of Cesare Vecelli. 

Lovere : Tadini Collection, No. 78. — " Portrait of Gabriel 
Tadino" turned in profile to the left, with a white cross 
and a medal hanging from his neck. On the medal are 
fragments of letters which are all but illegible, and the 
date Mcccccxxxviii ; on the lower part of the picture : 
"GABRIEL TADINO." This may once have been by Titian, 
but is now repainted to such an extent that the original 
pigments are no longer visible. 

No 4()3 in the same collection is a portrait of a man in a 
dark pelisse looking to the right with a paper in his right 
hand, and his left on the hilt of his sword. It is a copy 
imitating Morctto rather than Titian. — No 380 represents 
Titian. A bust with (!) the Order of the Golden Fleece. A 
modem work of the 18th century. No. 34. — "Portrait of a lady 
with a lapdog on her knees." Much injured piece of a time 
subsequent to Titian's death. In the same gallery is a copy 
of the " Woman taken in Adultery," which wo shall find as- 
signed to Titian in Saut' Afra of Brescia. 

hrescia : St. Afra. — ''Christ and the "Woman taken in 
Adultery." The Saviour turns to address one of the Pharisees, 
a bearded man in a turban on the left of the picture, whilst 
to the right the woman bends before him as she stands 
surrounded by her accusers. In the distance a grove and a 
temple. To the left in the foreground two figures stand, 
portraits probably of members of the family for which the 
composition was designed. Canvas, half-lengths of life size. 
This picture is painted in the Venetian manner, but by a pro- 
vincial and not by Titian, and there is a modern polish in the 
colours and a weight in the forms which betray the hand either 
of Pietro Kosa or of Giulio Campi. The latter is probably tho 


author of the picture, which till quite recently hung ahove 
the lateral portal inside St. Afra, hut within the last two 
years has been withdrawn, and has passed into private hands. 
Photograph by Giacomo Eossetti of Brescia, engraving in line 
by Sala. A feeble copy in the Tadini collection at Lovere. 

The same subject with figures in full length and with the 
variety of Christ pointing to the sentence on the stone at his 
feet, which one of the Pharisees stoops to read, was 20 years 
ago under Titian's name in the Casa Pino Friedenthal at 

Brescia: Erizzo-Maffei Gallery, Xo. 21. — Portrait of a 
man in a plumed cap dressed in j^ellow and green damask, 
turned to the left near an opening, his left hand on the hilt 
of his sword. Behind the figure — a half-length of life size 
on panel — is a gi-een curtain. The picture is much repainted, 
but may still be recognised as a work of Moretto. 

Brescia: Erizzo-Maffei Gallery. — Portrait of a grey- 
bearded man, with the left hand on his haunch, in a black 
cap, half-length. This portrait is not by Titian, but by 

Brescia : Fenaroli Collection. — " The Zingara," a woman 
in a black silk mantilla turned to the left near a table with a 
vase on it. In the distance a view of Venice and the lagoons. 
This fine picture is by Savoldo. 

Brescia: Fenaroli Collection. — "Venus and the Organ- 
player." An old copy of Titian's picture in the Madrid 
Museum (now No. 459). 

Bagolino {Province of Brescia) : ParisJt Church of Sail 
Giorgio. — Vu-gin in glory attended by angels and adored 
by a kneeling saint. Below, St. Roch, St. Mark curing the 
shoemaker, and St. Sebastian. Arched canvas with figures 
of life size on the 3rd altar to the right of the portal. This 
picture, though assigned to Titian, is probably by Pietro Rosa 
of Brescia. 

Bergamo : Locliis Carrara Gallery, Xo. 133. — " Virgin 
and Child ; " half-length, on panel. Ascribed to Titian, but 
by Santo Zago. 

Bergamo: Lochis Carrara, No. 111. — " The Return of the 


Prodigal Son." The son kneels before his father, in the pre- 
sence of numerous spectators, in a landscape in front of some 
houses. The style is like that of Andrea Schiavone, but is 
even too hasty to be his. On a scutcheon to the right are 
the arms of the family of Colalto. 

Bergamo: Lochis Carrara, 'So. 132. — A kneeling votary 
before a crucifix in a landscape ; small panel inscribed with 
the date 1518. The treatment is that of a local Brescian 

Fano : Casa Moutevecchio. — Portrait of Julius, Count of 
I\Iontevecchio, in armour and mail, bareheaded, with his 
right hand on a helmet, and his left on the hilt of a sword. 
In the l)a(kground to the left a hilly landscape is represented 
with a fortress, troops, and cannon ; canvas, knee-piece of 
life size. On the old frame of the time is the following 
inscription: '".Julius comes Montisveteris Urbini PrO[veditor] 
armorum reipublicju Plumbiui contra Turcos ct in Tuscia 
contra Sonenses Dux, et locurateues generalis anno mdliii." 
Thin pigments and hasty execution would show that Titian, 
if he painted this picture at all. of which no opinion can here 
be given, produced a portrait beneath his usual powers. 

Genoa: Dnrazzo Palace. — Venus initiates a Bacchante (five 
figures). This is a variety of the composition of which a 
repetition is in the gallery of Munich (No. 524). It is greatly 
injured, but was apparently executed by some imitator of 

Mnde)ia Gallery, No. 114. — Portrait, half-length, of life- 
si/e of a man past the middle age, sitting. He wears a black 
cap, and rests his right arm on a table. This picture, 
purchased at Venice by Francis the Fifth of Modena, is on 
canvas stretched on panel, and little of it except the head 
and shoulders is original. But even this part is much 
damaged, and so a mere rehc of what may once have been by 

Moiloia Gallery, No. 117.— " La Morctta." This is a 
Bolognoso copy of the portrait of the Duchess of Ferrara, 
with the negro page, so often alluded to in these volumes. 
The word " tic . . anys " on the bracing of the sleeve to the 


left can only point to the existence, at some unknown period, 
of an original from which this picture was copied. (See 

Modena Gallery, No. 131. — Portrait-bust of a man in a 
black cap and dress, turned to the left on a green background ; 
canvas m. 0.54 h. by 0.45. This portrait is not by Titian, 
but executed in a manner reminiscent of Cesare Vecelli. 

Modena Gallery, No. 130. — Portrait-bust of a man in 
black with a white shirt-collar ; canvas, m. 0.42 h. by 0.34. 
In the style of Appollonius of Bassano, or some similar 
disciple of the schools of Tintoretto and Bassano. 

Milan : Amhrosiana. — Christ carrying his cross, preceded 
by St. Veronica with the sudarium, and groups of soldiers. 
To the right the Virgin faints in the arms of the Marys. 
This small canvas was once attributed to Diirer, is now 
assigned to Titian, and was probably painted by Cariani. 

Milan : Br era, No. 234. Profile -bust of a bald man with 
a large beard, turned to the right. A picture of the school of 

Milan : Brera, No. 265. — Bust-portrait of a man, profile 
to the left; injured by restoring, but still Titianesque in 

Florence : Uffizi, No. 590. — The Virgin Mary, in a halo 
of cherubs' heads, suppo."+,s the infant Christ erect on her knee. 
He leans his face on hers, whilst the boy St. John to the left 
holds his foot ; canvas, knee-piece. On the Baptist's arm a 
scroll is lying, on which the words are written : "Ecce agnus 
Dei." Too feebly drawn and modelled, as well as too thin and 
raw in its pigments for Titian, this picture is by a follower 
and imitator of Titian, whose treatment is less telling than 
that of the copyist, who painted the same subject in a similar 
form at Bowood. Engraved in the Florentine Gallery. 

Florence : Uffizi, No. 1002. — Virgin and Child between 
two angels, in a glory of cherubs' heads. Panel, knee-piece. 
This picture is not a Venetian, but a Lombard production, 
and therefore not properly assignable to Titian. 

Florence: Uffizi, No. 625. — The Virgin holds the naked 
infant Christ on her lap, whilst St. Catherine to the right 


ofifers him a pomef,Tanate. This composition is but a variety 
of that numljered 96 in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, the 
Saint there being a Magdalen oflering flowers. The picture 
is Titianesque, but in the style of Titian's disciples, and par- 
ticularly of Marco Vecelli. Another but inferior replica we 
shall find in the Naples Museum. Engraved by Picchianti. 

Florence : Pitti, No. 17.—" Marriage of St. Catherine ; " 
canvas. This graceful picture is a curious illustration of the 
habit which painters had of preserving and repeating certain 
combinations of figures. The Virgin holds the infant Christ 
on her lap, and St. Catherine leans over the child and plays 
with it, whilst the boy St. John kneels to the right, and rests 
on the reed cross. Titian painted the principal group early 
in a picture now (No. 635) at the National CialliTv, placing 
the boy Baptist to the left. The replica here under his name 
may have been executed in his atelier, but there are signs 
that it was not handled by himself, but by Cesare Yecelli. 
The figures are too feebly drawn, the colours are too shaq? 
and untransparent, the balance of light and shade is too 
unequal, and the drapery too poor for the master himself. 
The distance is a landscape of trees and hills, where a shep- 
herd in a turban tends his flock. A picture representing this 
subject is noted by Ridolfi (Mar. i. 260) as then existing in 
the Gussoni Collection at Venice. 

Florence: Pitti, No. 83.— Portrait of " Luigi Cornaro '* 
seated and turned to the right. This line likeness is not by 
Titian, but by Tintoretto. 

Jionw : Corsini Pnhicr, No. 55. — "Jupiter and Antiope." 
This is a copy with varieties in the landscape distance of 
Titian's composition at the Louvre, representing the Satyr 
looking at Venus asleep. The style is that of a painter of 
the seventeenth century. 

Rome: Corsini Palace, No. 36. — Bust-portrait of a lady 
with a book in her hand. This, though much injured by re- 
painting, is not a genuine Titian, but a work of a Venetian of 
the seventeenth century. 

Piomc: Corsini Palace, Room 7, No. 30.— "The "Woman 
taken in Adultery." This picture is not by Titian, but 


one of the numerous varieties of the subject by Rocco 

Rome : Corsini Palace, Room 4, No. 28. — " St. Jerom " 
turned to the left, kneeling, with the stone in his right. In 
the foreground is a skull and the Cardinal's hat. This is a 
Venetian picture of the seventeenth century. 

Home : Corsini Palace. — " The Sons of Charles the Fifth." 
Two youths in a room, one to the left leaning on a sword, the 
other to the right offering flowers. Both are richly dressed ; 
canvas, with figures half as large as life. By a painter of the 
seventeenth century, who was surely not a Venetian. 

Home : Sc'iarra — Colonna Palace. — " La Bella di Tiziano." 
This is a fine portrait by Palma Vecchio. 

Rome: Barherini Palace. — "La Schiava di Tiziano." 
This is a j)icture by Palma Vecchio. 

Rome : Colonna Palace. — " Virgin and Child in a landscape, 
with Saints." The Virgin takes fruit from a basket carried by 
an angel, near whom, to the right, is St. Lucy. To the left 
St. Joseph also brings an offering of fruit, and in front of him 
is St. Jerom reading. This is not a Titian, but a picture by 
Bonifazio. Photograph by Alinari. 

Rome : Academy of San Luca. — Bust-portrait of a lady 
with a dog, on panel. This Venetian picture is not by Titian. 
The ruddy flesh tones and bold treatment, combined with 
a certain neglect of drawing, might point to Alessandro 

Rome: Spada Gallery. — Portrait of a man turned to the 
left, with a violin, the handle of which only is visible. This 
canvas, assigned to Titian, is not original, but might be the 
portrait of Battista the violin player, whose likeness, ac- 
cording to Vasari (xiii. p. 36), was executed at Rome by 
Orazio Vecelli. 

Rome : Spada Gallery, No. 31. — Portrait of a man in a 
black feathered cap, turned to the right, and dressed in a 
black pelisse. The left elbow reposes on the pKnth of a pillar, 
on which a crown is placed. On a table before the figure is a 
flute and music. The right hand rests on a book, the edge of 
which lies on the table. This fine picture of the Venetian 


school is hunf^ in a liigli place and in a bad li,tTlit. It looks 
at a distance like a good portrait by Girolamo da Treviso. It 
is painted on canvas, and is of life-size. 

Home : Spnda Gallery, No. 6G. — " Orazio Spada ; " round, 
on copper. If this bust really represents Orazio Spada, who 
was bom in IGGO, it cannot be by Titian. The treatment is 
like that of Scipione Pulzone of Gaeta. 

Rome: Spada Gallery, No. 17. — ''Cardinal Spada and 
his Secretary." No. 51. — " Cardinal Paolo Spada " seated at 
church, turned to the left. None of the Spadas were 
Cardinals till after the death of Titian. Their portraits here 
are not by that master, but in the stylo of Scipio of Gaeta. 

Rome-. Spada Gallery, No. 0.— "Paul the Third." This 
is a copy of Titian's great portrait in the Naples Museum, by 
fi painter of the seventeenth century. 

Rome: Bonjhesc Palaee, Room 11, No. 3. — An angel 
bends to the right over the sleeping infant Christ, which he 
holds on a cushion. To the left the boy Baptist kisses one 
of Christ's feet, and in rear the Virgin kneels with her hands 
joined in prayer in front of a dark hanging. Distance, a 
landscape. Canvas, life-size. A picture similar to this at 
Alnwick Castle is catalogued under the name of Orazio 
Yecelli. The repetition at the Borghese Palace seems 
executed by a German or a Fleming imitating the Venetian 

Rome: Borghese Palace, Room 11, No. 17. — Samson 
bound naked in a niche, the jawbone at his feet ; canvas, 
over life-size. This canvas has been patched at the bottom. 
It is much injured by repainting, yet still imposing, but the 
superposed colour precludes a decided opinion. 

Rome: Doria Palace, 1st Gallery. — "The Sacrifice of 
Abraham." It is curious to find the name of Titian attached 
to a picture which bears all the marks of being a work of 
Rembrandt's contemporary and colleague, Jan Livens. The 
same subject by Livens is in the Brunswick Gallery (No. 515). 
Here the figures are large as hfe. 

Rome : Doria Palace, Room 5, No. 22. — " The Virgin and 
Child, with St. Josei^h, St. Catherine, and Shepherds;" panel, 


with figures one quarter of the hfe size. This picture is 
described as a youthful production of Titian, hut it is nothing 
of the kind. Though injured, it still shows the manner of a 
Trevisan painter of the schools of Palma Vecchio and Paris 

Rojne : Doria Palace, 2nd Gallery, No. 80. — " Titian and 
his Wife ; " half-lengths on a brown background. A lady is 
seated ; her husband to the right rests both hands on her 
shoulder. These are cleverly painted figures in the manner 
of Sophonisba Anguisciola. 

Borne : Doria Palace, 3rd Gallery, No. 10. — " Titian's 
Wife." This likeness of a female is by a painter of the 17th 
century, and does not even distantly recall the portrait No. 80 
of the 2nd Gallery in this palace. 

Rome : Doria Palace, 2nd Gallery, No. 17. — Portrait of a 
man turned to the left, standing and leaning his left hand on 
a book resting on a table. The red flesh tones of the full 
face fronting the spectator remind us of similar work by 

Rome: Doria Palace, 2nd Gallery, No. 57. — Portrait of a 
poet with a sprig of laurel in his right hand. This repainted 
picture is so disfigured by restoring, that no opinion can be 
given in respect of it. 

Naples Gallery : Venetian Scliool, No. 11. — Portrait of a 
lady of twenty, turned to the left, bare-headed, in white muslin 
with bodice, sleeves, and sldrt of green velvet slashed with 
white ; canvas half-length of life size on a brown ground. 
This picture is so injured by restoring and varnish that one 
can only guess that it was once a work of Titian. The 
features resemble distantly those of Titian's "Danae," at 
Naples. The Farnese lily is on the back of the canvas. 

Naples Gallery : Venetian School, No. 21. — Portrait of a 
lady ; half-length, three quarters to the left. She wears a 
light veil, and is dressed in black. In her right hand she 
holds a handkerchief, in her left a yellow glove. Behind to 
the left a bas-relief represents the Judgment of Paris. The 
treatment here is careful, but it is difficult to find in it the 
hand of Titian. 


Naples Gallery : Venetian Scliool, No. 43. — "Virgin and 
Child, with the Magdalen to the left offering the hox of 
ointment." Half-lengths on canvas. This is a copy of a 
picture assigned to Titian in the Hermitage of St. Petersburg 
(No. 9G), and much inferior to the Russian example. It is 
no doubt the same that is found catalogued in the inventory 
of the Farnese collection (1G80). See Campori, Raccolta, 
n. 8., p. 224. 

Naplts Gallery : J'oirtidn Srliool, No. 57. — Profile of a 
young prince in red, embroidered with gold, turned to the 
left, with the right hand on the breast, the left on the hilt of 
a sword. Canvas, m. O.SO h. by O.dO. On a table to the 
left is a crown, and the order of the Goldiii P'leece. This 
picture is altogether daubed over with modern repaint, and 
bailies criticism on that account. On the back of the canvas 
is the Farnese lily. 

Naples Gallery (not exhibited). — " The Allocution." This 
is a copy of the " Allocution " representing the Marquis of 
Vasto addressing his soldiers in the Madrid ^ruseuni — u copy 
not by Titian but interesting as confirming that the portrait 
of the Cassel Museum (see under that head), supposed to be 
a likeness of Del Vasto, cannot represent that general. 

Besides this copy there exists a second in the same place 
representing another general addressing his soldiers. 

Spain: Escorial Saerisfy. — " Christ crucified;" life size on 
canvas. This picture being high up, and in a dark place, 
cannot be properly seen ; apart from these considerations it 
looks as if it had been seriously injured and restored, and if 
a genuine picture, is a feeble one of the master. 

Madrid ^[llseum, No. 472. — " Rest during the Flight in 
Egj'pt ; " canvas 1.55 h. by 3.23. The Virgin rests with 
the child on her lap, under a red cloth hanging between two 
trees. The infant Christ lays his hand in that of Joseph, 
who stands to the right, leaning on his staff. To the left a 
boy presents cherries to the Virgin, whilst a young girl 
further to the left pulls the fruit from a tree. The ass 
grazes in the background, and the ground in front is en- 
livened with two ducks and two rabbits. A picture like this 


is minutely described by Vasari (xiii. p. 42) in the Assonica 
collection in Padua. But Eidolfi, who mentions every other 
Titian in that collection, is silent respecting this one. It 
is fair, on that account, to suppose that the Madrid can- 
vas, which was taken to Spain by Velasquez in 1651 (see 
Madrazo's Madrid Mus. Catalogue, w. s. p. 681), is identical 
with that which Vasari describes. Yet the composition of the 
Madrid canvas is very much below Titian's powers, and the 
technical treatment seems likewise unworthy of him, the style 
being a mixture of that of the disciples of Titian and Porde- 
none such as Zelotti, or Polidoro Lanzani. An engraving, 
the counterpart of this picture in reverse, bears the following 
inscription: "Titian inventor, 1569; Martin Rota." Another 
engraving, the reverse of Eota's, is marked "Julio B. F." 

Madrid Museum, No. 480. — Bust portrait of a man in a 
pelisse trimmed with ermine, turned three-quarters to the 
right. This is a fine portrait by Tintoretto. 

Madrid Museum, No. 481. — Bust portrait of a bearded 
man in a dark coat, turned to the left and seen at three- 
quarters. This fine portrait of a young man is not quite as 
finely modelled or as powerfully touched as it would have 
been by Titian. It betrays the comparatively lower art of 

Madrid Museum, No. 486.—" St. Margaret ; " half-length 
canvas, m. 1.24 h. by 0.93. The Saint raises her arms in 
terror before the dragon, who twines his form on the fore- 
ground. In her left hand she holds the cross. This figure, if 
animated in movement, is not executed with the full power of 
Titian, but may have been thrown ofi" mtli the help of Titian's 
assistants. The surfaces are here and there seriously 
damaged. This picture was in the sacristy of the Escorial. 

Stockliolm : Royal Palace, No. 265. — Full-length of the 
" Duke of Urbino " in a black plumed cap ; the right hand 
on the haunch, the left leaning on the pommel of a double 
handed sword. Behind, to the left, a red curtain, to the 
right an opening through which a landscape is seen ; on the 
foreground to the left, a dog. This picture is so much 
daubed over that no opinion can be given respecting it. 


Stockholm : Jloyal Palace. — Portrait of a little girl of four 
years of age ; full-length, wdtb a basket of fruit, inscribed : 


. . . 1518. Panel of the seventeenth century, not even by a 

Stockholm: Ii(ji/al Value. — Portrait of the Duchess 
of Ferrara with a negro page. This is a copy of the picture 
engraved by Sadcler (sec antca, vol. i., p. 18G), of which 
there is a copy in the Modena Gallery, and another in posses- 
sion of the painter, Signor Schiavone, at Venice. But none 
of these copies dates earlier than the eighteenth century. 

Stockholm : Royal Palace, Xo. 102. — Bust of a man 
turned to the left. ^Inch injured by repainting, and not 

Stockholm: Royal Palace. — "Don Carlos as a Boy;" canvas, 
of life-size. A boy of six or seven years old is here repre- 
sented accompanied by a dog. The style is not that of 
Titian, l)ut that cither of Pantoja de la Cruz or of Sanchez 

Dresden Muxciim, No. 22;3. — The infant Christ on the 
Virgin's knee is supported on the left by St. John the 
Baptist, and presented to the adoration of St. Paul, Mary 
Magdalen and St. Jerom. Half-lengths of life-size on a 
panel measuring 5 ft. h. by G ft. 10. The clouded sky, 
upon which the face of the Virgin and the heavily bearded 
St. Paul are seen, is intercepted to the left by a green 
hanging, to the right by a plinth and colonnade. The 
Magdalen is in profile to the left, splendidly dressed in white 
and green. St. Jerom behind her in red, looks up at the 
crucifix, which he holds in his hand. This celebrated picture 
is very brilliant and highly coloured in sharp bright tones. 
It is executed at one painting, on a canvas primed with 
white gesso, the light ground of which is seen through the 
flesh tints. The drawing is resolute without being correct. 
Most like Titian in cast of form as well as in type and 
colour, is the infant Christ, whose oblong head is thrown 
against a lozenge-shaped halo of rays. The Virgin's face 
distantly recalls that of the "Assunta" of the Frari. But 


neither her shape nor that of the Saviour is as lovely as we 
should expect from Titian. Though gracefully posed, the 
Maofdalen is not without affectation, and a curious dis- 
harmony is apparent between a profile of small features and a 
bust and frame of large dimensions. The coarse face of 
St. Paul, the colossal build and wild air of the Baptist, are 
in contrast with the sleekness of the Virgin. The whole 
piece is a mixture of Titian and Sebastian del Piombo. The 
technical handling, the mould of form, the bold but imperfect 
folding of the drapery, are all things that point to another 
hand than Titian's. The modelling is not subtle enough for 
the great master. We miss his delicate transitions of half 
tone, his transparent shadows, which are here replaced by 
bold dark planes of pigment. No doubt some of these 
appearances may be due to restoring, for the panel is not 
free from retouches, and the profile of the Magdalen has been 
ground away, whilst the face of St. Paul was made opaque 
and hea\y. Still the character of the painting is clear 
enough, and it seems rather to be a fine firstling work of 
Andrea Schiavone when in Titian's atelier than a master- 
piece of the consummate artist, Titian. Originally in the 
Casa Grimani at Venice ; it was engraved by Jacob Folkema, 
and lithographed by Haufstiingl. 

Dresden Museum, No. 231. — Portrait of a lady in a dress 
of madder- red stuff, with narrow sleeves, the left hand on the 
brown cloth of a table, the right holding a marten boa, with 
a golden clasp. Knee-piece, on canvas, 4 f. 9 h. by 3 f. 1|. 
This picture is of a peach-red tone, unrelieved by shadow, 
but injured by stippling. Yet it is still sufficiently well pre- 
served to display the manner of Bernardino Licinio. The 
hands are fairly preserved. Originally in Modena ; it was 
restored at Dresden in 1826. Lithographed by Hanfstangl. 

Dresden Museum, No. 227. — Portrait of a lady in mourn- 
ing with a veil and rosary. Knee-piece, on canvas, 3 f. 8 h. 
by 3 f . 1 ; from the Modena collection. Here again we have 
the name of Titian covering the treatment of an imitator of 
Tintoretto and the Bassanos. Engraved by Basan. 

Dresden Museum, lHo. 234. — " The Angel and Tobit." 


Canvas, 6 f. b, by 4 f. 1. Tbis is a copy of Titian's picture 
in San Marziale at Venice by a Venetian. 

Dresden Museum, No. 22G. — Portrait of lady, ber auburn 
bair plaited witb pearls, her tbroat bare, a strinf:^ of pearls 
round ber neck, bare amied in a red plain dress witb a laced 
bodice. She holds with both bands a Greek vase. Tbis 
canvas, 3 f. 8 h. by 3 f. 1 is so completely covered over with 
modern repainting? that it is bard to say whether it was ever 
an ori;?inal by Titian. It may be a work of one of Titian's 
pupils, Enj^raved by Felice Polanzano. Lithographed by 

Dresden Museum, No. 224. — •■ I'he Virgin and Child, and 
St. Joseph adored by a kneeling donor, bis Wife and Child." 
Tbis is not an original Titian. l>ut work of a disciple. (See 
antea, note to vol. i.. p. 188.) Frdiu the Modena Collection, 
engraved liy Jac. Folkeraa (aim. 17')2) and K. Fessard. 
Lithogrupbcd by llimfstiingl. Canvas, 4 f. 1 li. liy ") f. 1). 

lirilui Museum, No. 102. — " Epiphany."' wood. 1 f. T.j h. 
by 2 f. li. No. 1()4.— "The Visitation," wood, 1 f. (i| h. 
by 1 f. fij. No. ICH. — "The Epiphany." wood, IQi in. h. 
by 1 f. 2. No. 171.—" The Epiphany." wood, lOJ. in. by 
1 f. 3. No. 172.—" The Circumcision," wood. 1 f. OJ b. 
by If. 6|. Sketches, in themst'lvcs spirited, and Titiancsque 
in style, partake of the character of the school of Titian 
and ]}onifa/,io, and more particularl}' of that of Schiavoue 
or Santo Zago ; the best is No. 102, the poorest No. 172. 

Berlin Museum, No. 170a. — " Parable of the Steward;" 
canvas, 10 in. h. l>y 2 f. 03- ; signed " Titianus." The 
steward comes into the room, and the rich man sits at the 
table. Through a doorway to the left, the steward talking 
to the debtors. No. 170b., companion to 170a. — " Parable 
of the Vineyard." The owner of the vineyard stands witli 
his back to the spectator, pointing to the busl)andmen, and 
sending out two servants on the left. In the distance to the 
left a group stands round a changer's table. These are 
]»retty and clever sketches of a pleasant tone in the style of 
Lorenzo Lotto. 

Berlin Museum (not exhibited). — Portrait of a doge seated 

vnr,. II. (5 


and turned to the right. This picture on canvas, half-length 
of life-size, was purchased as a Titian, but is a fine example 
of Tintoretto. 

Berlin Museum, No. 159 and No. 160. — Wood, each 
2 f. 2^ h. by 2 f. 3g-. The first of these panels represents two 
figures of Eros wrestling, the second two figures of Eros also 
wrestling in the presence of a third, who is seated, holding 
an apple. They are freely executed with a brush full of 
liquid pigment, but in a rubby and sketchy manner. The 
shadows are dark and slightly opaque. The treatment is 
very like that of Schiavone. 

Berlin Museum, No. 202. — The Virgin enthroned between 
St. Peter and Paul on the right, and St. Francis and Anthony 
of Padua on the left. An angel plays a guitar at the foot of 
the throne, and two angels above support the folds of a green 
curtain. Distance landscape. Canvas, 8 f. 11 h. by 6 f. 3. 
There are several points in this picture which preclude the 
authorship of Titian ; the hea\'y cast of form and coarse 
extremities, bricky untransparent tone, opaque shadow, and 
sharp drapery tints. The execution is like, but beneath 
that of Damiano Mazza or Lodovico Fiumicelli, pupils of 

Cassel Gallery, No. 23. — Cleopatra naked to the Avaist, 
lying insensible on a couch in a grotto. To the right, 
through the opening of the cave, are figures of Roman 
soldiers, and close to the shore of the INIediterranean, galleys 
lying at anchor ; canvas, half-length of life-size. The right 
hand of Cleopatra on the blue lining of her coverlet is fine ; 
equally so the left, the fingers of which grasp the coverlet. 
A snake winding under the armpit to the bosom explains 
the subject of the picture, which is a well painted though 
not well preserved specimen of the art of Cesare Vecelh. The 
head and right arm are particularly injured. Photographed 
by G. Schauer of Berlin. 

Cassel Gallery, No. 20. — Canvas Imee-piece representing 
a lady turned to the right, holding a cross in the right, a 
book in the left hand. This is a much injured picture 
recalling the manner of Padovanino. 


Cassel Gallery, No. 24. — Portrait of a lady in black in a 
liat. The raw pigments disfigured by retouching were not 
laid on by Titian. 

Cassel Gallerj/, No. 2*2. — Virgin and Child adored by a 
kneeling man, St. Joseph and St. Catherine attending. 
Background landscape. This picture has no claim to the 
name of Titian, which it bears. 

lininswirk MiiseiDii, No. 227. — " Cleopatra ; " panel. 
This is not a Venetian picture. No. 10. — A girl in a 
feathered hat ; bust on canvas. This looks like a Spanish 
picture by a follower of ^lurillo. 

/vc Rincrl.rr Collection, Wiirzhnr;!. — The Virgin under a 
tree, on which a green drapei-y is hanging, adores the infant 
Christ on her knee. Two angels bend in adoration at the 
sides. Distance, a mountainous landscape and a city. This 
beautiful composition is not executed in the manner of 
Titian, but betrays the feebler handling of Polidoro Lanzani. 
When in possession of Mr. Artaria at Mannheim, the picture 
was engi'aved by Anderloni. and so became widely known. It 
is on canvas, m. 0,10 h. by O.T)!. 

Mai/cnre (iallvrji. No. 182. — A JJacchanal, in which a 
man is seated drawing wine from a cask, whilst two females 
are sleeping and one dancing, and a man in the foreground 
presents his back to the spectator. In the distance to tho 
left, a man holds a cup aloft, and another cames a standard ; 
on a wall to the right, we read : ** titiani." This picture is 
by some unknown artist of the eighteenth century. 

Darmstadt Museum, No. 519. — Portrait of a nobleman, 
bareheaded, bearded, turned three-quarters to the right, his 
right hand on his haunch, in a black silk dress trimmed with 
silk. On the dark ground to the right are the words : 


not a Titian, but a fine though not uninjured Tintoretto. 

Sfuttiiardt (hdlcri/, No. 10. — The Virgin sits in a land- 
scape and presents the infant Christ to the kneeling St. 
Jerom, behind whom the lion couches. To the left St. 
Piosalie takes flowers from a basket at her side ; canvas, 

1 f. 7 li. by (>. f. 7.5. This picture is a duplicate of one 

G (; 2 


catalogued in the Museum of Glasgow as a copy from Titian 
(No. 159). It is gi-eatly disfigured by repaints, but still 
sbows some reminiscences of Palma Yecchio and Titian. It 
may be by Polidoro Lanzani. 

Stuttgardt Gallery, No. 162 ; canVas, 2 f. 4^ b. by 1 f. 8. 
— The Virgin giving tbe infant Christ flowers out of a basket. 
Eepainted copy or imitation of some Titianesque picture. 
No. 148. — The same subject in another form is likewise a 
spurious Titian. 

Stuttgardt Gallery, No. 94. — Much injured canvas, by a 
follower of the manner of Schiavone and Bonifazio. The 
subject is the Virgin holding the Child, who gives the ring to 
St. Catharine. 

Stuttgardt Gallery, No. 205. — Bust of a young man. Not 

Stuttgardt Gallery, No. 187. — Shepherds and their flocks 
in a landscape, at eventide. This is a picture altogether out 
of the sphere of Titian's practice. 

Munich Gallery, No. 450. — The Virgin adoring the infant 
Christ on her lap. St. Anthony the Abbot, to the right, 
supports one hand with his staff and takes the foot of Christ 
with the other. To the left is St. Jerom, with St. Francis in 
front of him, bending before Christ. Distance a landscape. 
Though this canvas is handed down to us as a genuine Titian, 
having been, we may believe, in the Van Uffel Collection at 
Antwerp in the seventeenth century (Ridolfi, Mar. i. 259), the 
execution is not that of the great Venetian master. Notwith- 
standing hea\'y repainting, we still discern the style of an 
artist much akin to Francesco Vecelli. What distinguishes 
the treatment from that of Titian is a certain affectation of 
grace, a combination of small features with large thick-set 
forms, unctuous medium, and a reddish uniformity of flesh- 
tint. Amongst the parts more evidently disfigured by re- 
touching we should note the head and hand of St. Anthony, 
and the foot of the Infant, and the hands of St. Francis, and 
the sky. The picture is on canvas, and measures 3 f. 2 h. 
by 4 f.'s^. 

Munich Gallery, No. 524. — "Venus initiating a Bac- 


chante." This canvas is a reminiscence of the " Education 
of Cupitl " at the Borghese Palace and the Davalos " Alle- 
gory " at the Louvre. The sharp contrasts of the colours 
and the developed forms of the figures show it to he a pic- 
ture of a date subsequent to Titian's time. A similar subject 
similarlv treated ^\•ill be found in the Durazzo Palace at 

Munich Gdllrri/, No. 480. — Portrait of a noble with his 
right hand on a long wand of office ; his left on the handle of 
his sword ; half-length, turned to the left, and dressed in a 
dark pelisse. This is a splendid portrait, injured by repaint- 
ing, but originally by Tintoretto. 

Mimich Gallery, No. 1*24. — Portrait l)ust of a man in full 
front behind a parapet on which are the ciphers mdxxiii. 
This portrait, long held to be Titian, is now catalogued 
under the name of Moretto ; but in spite of restoring still 
looks like a work of Paris liordone in his earlv style. 

Pnifiue Kiinstvcrcin, No. 37. — " Portrait of the Duchess 
Anna Catharina Gonzaga ; " canvas, representing a life-sized 
figure of a little girl in white. She stands near a table, on 
which she lays one hand holding a rose. Near her on the 
table a little dog and a book. In the upper corner to the 
right, a curtain. Inscribed: "anna catherina gonzaga, ann. 
jx JiENS . . . MDLXXV CAL. MAI. This picture is neither good 
in itself nor is it by Titian. 

Prague Kunstvcrcut, No. 51. — Portrait of a man in a 
black silk dress and cap at a table, holding a music-book. 
Though much repainted, this piece still recalls the manner 
of Paris Bordone. 

Vienna Gallenj. — "Christ and the Woman taken in 
Adultery ; " canvas, 3 f. 3i h. by 4 f. 2. On the left, Christ 
is mo\'ing away, but looks round to the right as he hears the 
charge. His hair is dark and long, his beard close cut, his 
complexion l)lanched, his features full and plump. The 
tunic, which should be red, is washed down to the grey pre- 
paration, and the right hand, lying on the breast, is partially 
lost in a chalky after-tint. Close to the right of Christ, and 
staring, as with one hand he holds up the scroll engrossed 


with a copy of the law, an old grey-beard appears ; next him, 
to the right, a man pressing forward grasping the arm of the 
adulteress, his face in profile looldng at the Sa-s-iour. Be- 
neath the green pigment which tints the cap on his head are 
traces of red and sweeps of brush indicating an ear. This 
man's dress is of a reddish-brown. He drags the adulteress- 
towards the Sayiour whilst his companion at the other side, 
holding the woman by the skirt, moves away in an opposite 
direction, presenting his back, clad with a gown of indistinct 
yellow. Between the two the adulteress, with bare throat 
and bosom, her white under- garment surging up out of a grey 
bodice, advances with downcast head and eyes. In rear of 
her, two men show their heads above the press — one to the 
right in shadow against the sky, one to the left half concealed 
by the dark fall of drapery which relieves the form of Christ 
and the lawj^er. The whole composition has an unfinished 
and sketchy aspect, with traces of corrections half carried out, 
thin washy pigments, and impast touches here and there. A 
strip added to the canvas above and below seems to counter- 
balance the loss of strips cut off the vertical sides of the 
picture. The questions which arise in respect of this piece 
are multifarious. Is it a genuine Titian? Was it ever 
finished ? Is it a finished picture injured and but partially 
retouched ? A copy of the piece in its original form assigned 
to Varottari, but probably by his sister, Chiara Varottari, 
exists in the GaUery of Padua; canvas, m. 0.98 h. by 1.50. 
Here the colours are preserved. The dress of Christ is red 
and blue, the mantle held up and passing through the fingers 
of his right hand. The man dragging the adulteress forward 
wears a red cap and a red mantle with a striped lining. The 
bodice of the adulteress is green, the gown of the man on the 
right red, over green slashed hose. The head of the man in 
rear to the left of the girl is not concealed in any part by 
the curtain. The whole of the shoulders of Christ and of the 
man at the opposite side of the composition is seen. If it be 
correct to assume that the Paduan duplicate is a copy of the 
original at Vienna, it is clear that the latter has been cut 
do^^'n, washed away, and retouched. If we inquire whether 


the Vienna canvas is an original Titian or not, there is some 
reason for thinking that it is not so, the forms being much 
below those of Titian in elevation, and the style of rendering 
less grand. The execution, too, looks more modern, whilst 
the arrangement betrays none of the consummate skill which 
we acknowledge m the master. It may be presumed that the 
Vienna example was an imitation of Titian by Varottari, 
altered by some unfortunate subsequent manipulation. The 
attempt at restoring betrays the hand of a Fleming, whose 
style is not very far removed from that of Van Dyke. The 
presumption that Varottari originally executed the picture at 
Vienna is strengthened by such of his pictures as are met 
with in galleries ; for instance, his copy of Titian's " Salome 
v.ith the Head of the Baptist," No. 287 in the Paduan Gal- 
lery, and the head of a female, No. 343 in the Museum of 
Dresden, There is an cngi-aviug of the Vienna example in 
Teniers' GalleiT work. Photograph by Miethke and "NVawra. 

Vienna GdUcr/i. — Portrait of a young girl of twenty ; on 
canvas, 5 f. h. by 2 f. 1. The girl, in full front view, wears 
a dark claret-coloured dress with a jewelled girdle, a boa is 
wound round her wrist, and in her left hand she holds a pair 
of gloves. Her auburn hair is plaited and twined round her 
head. The surface has been rubbed down to such an extent 
that the flesh parts look empty and feeble ; and this may 
cause the impression at present derived from the picture, that 
it is not an original Titian but a canvas by Andrea Schiavone. 
The gloves in the left hand arc repainted. 

Vienna Gallery. — Portrait of a sculptor; canvas, 2 f. 8 h. 
by 2.2. Profile view of a man in a black silk dress on grey 
ground. He turns to look at the spectator, and holds in 
l>oth hands a small torso. This was long considered to be a 
jiortrait of the surgeon Vesalius by Titian. But no likeness 
can be discovered between it and the half-length engraved 
in the Anatomy of Vesalius, and the painter is not Titian 
Itut Morone. Krafft (Hist. krit. Catalogue, v.s.) and 
AVaagen (Kunstdenkmiiler in Wien) cling to the identity of 
Vesalius, but suggest the authorship of Calcar, which cannot 
be sustained. 


Vienna Gallery. — Portrait of a man in a black cap and 
black silk dress with his left hand on the hilt of his sword ; 
canvas, 3 f. G h. by 2 f. 7. This picture has been damaged 
by repainting, but fragments, such as the ear and hand, dis- 
play a treatment different from that of Titian. 

Vienna Gallenj.—'' ChriBt with his Hand on the Orb," 2 ft. 
7 h., 1 ft. lOL The figure is seen nearly in full front and 
down to the breast, on a dark ground. There are reminis- 
cences in this piece of Titian and Bonifazio, but it is too 
feeble for either. The outlines are in part re-touched, but 
one still traces the hand of a modern of the class of Padova- 
nino. There is a duplicate of this work in the Hermitage at 
St. Petersburg ; supposed to have been in the collection of 
Rubens. (See Krafft's Catalog.) 

Vienna Gallcnj. — " Amor playing a Tambourine ; " on 
canvas 1 ft. Q\ square, a naked boy seated in a landscape, 
bought in the Netherlands by the Archduke Leopold William, 
and engraved in Teniers' Gallery work. All the surface glaz- 
ing having been removed, the flesh looks white and stony, and 
unrelieved by shadow of any kind. It is hard under these 
circumstances to say more than that the picture is not by 
Titian. The landscape is certainly more like the work of a 
Fleming than that of a Venetian. 

Vienna Gallery. — "Adoration of the Kings." Wood 1 ft. 
10 h. by 1 ft. 6. This is probably the original sketch of 
«n altar-piece by Cesare Vecelli in San Stefano of Belluno, 
which many judges have held erroneously to be an original 
Titian. (Compare Krafft, u.s., and Waagen's Kunstdenk- 
maler, p. 211.) 

Vienna Gallery. — " Jacob's Dream;" on canvas, 3 ft. 5 h., 
by 5 ft. 3. Under a black stormy sky and to the left of a 
group of high trees, the ladder is seen stretching from the 
ground into the clouds. There are figures on the foreground 
of shepherds and cattle. This is not a Titian, but a charac- 
teristic work of Pedro Orrente, a Spaniard who vras born at 
Montealegre, and died in 1644 at Toledo. Orrente studied 
under Domenico delle Greche at Toledo, and from him 
probably acquired a partiality for the works of Bassano, which 


he successfully imitated. His lauclscape eifects are described 
as "worthy of Titian," and this is true of the "Dream of 

Vienna Gallery. — Portrait of a jeweller iu three difterent 
views. Busts on canvas, 1 ft. 7 h. by 2 ft. 5. This picture 
is by Lorenzo Lotto. 

Vienna: Academy of A)ii<, No. 383. — "Winged Cupid" 
with the quiver slung to his shoulder, the bow in his hand, 
seated in a landscape. This smiling child is plump in form 
and hastily painted on canvas, lint the surface of the whole 
work is altered by washing and re-touching, and doubts may 
well be entertained as to its genuineness. 

Vienna: Czcruin Collection. — "The Duke Alfonso of Fer- 
rara kneeling before an angel, who presents a green cloth, on 
which the crucitied Saviour is depicted." Background, land- 
scape. This panel — 2 ft. G h. by 2 ft. 1) — is not by Titian, 
l)ut by Paris Bordone. 

Vienna: (^zernin Collrcticn. — "The Magdalen." Half 
length, with the arms crossed over the bosom, a book and a 
vase in front. This is not a genuine Titian, for whom it is 
much too tasteless and coarse. 

Menna : Lichten)itci)i Collection, No. 300. — " The Virgin 
and Child, attended by St. John the Baptist and St. Catherine." 
Half lengths on canvas, m. 0.05 h. by m. 0.94. The Virgin 
sits to the right with the infant Christ on her lap in front of 
a red curtain. To the left St. John, bareheaded in a green 
tunic, next him St. Catherine in profile. A very bright little 
picture of the early period of Andrea Schiavone. Finely 
photographed by Miethke and Wawra. 

St. Petcmbuni : Ilcrniitayc, No. 93. — "Virgin and Child," 
half length, in a niche, on panel but transferred to canvas. 
With the exception of the forehead and mouth of the Virgin 
most of the surface of this work is defaced. If by Titian 
at all, it is a picture of his early period. 

»S7. Petershtur/ : Leuchtemhcry Collection, No. 82. — The 
Virgin, seated on the ground, is turned to the right, and 
holds on her knee the infant Christ, who gives a hand to the 
kneeling St. Paul. To the left, St. John the J^aptist is 


seated. Distance, trees and landscape. Canvas 2 ft. 4 h. by 
3 ft. 10.4. This picture shows a mixture of the styles of 
Palma Yecchio and Titian. The contours recall Pordenone. 
The colour is uniform and of a ruddy tinge ; the total 
impression is that of a work by Bernardino Licinio. The 
head of the Virgin, looking round at the Baptist, is injured ; 
that of the Baptist equally so. 

St. Petersburg: Leu chtemherri Collection. — Portrait of a 
man turned to the left, standing near an opening through 
which a landscape is seen, with an open folio on a table 
before him. He wears a cap and is heavily bearded. The 
left hand clings to the hem of his coat ; canvas 3 ft. 2 h. 
by 2 ft. 7^. This picture looks most like the work of a 
Bergamasque of the stamp of Cariani. 

St. Petersburg : Leuchtemherg Collection. — The Virgin sits 
at the foot of a stone plinth, with St. George holding his 
lance on the right, and St. John the Baptist on the left 
sitting and giving his hand to the infant Christ, who lies on 
his mother's lap. Canvas, 2 ft. 9.4 h. by 3 ft. 8|. This is 
a graceful picture by Paris Bordone. 

St. Petersburg : Lazareiv Collection. — " Ecce Homo be- 
tween two Soldiers;" half lengths, on canvas, of life-size. 
This is an imitation of Andrea Schiavone in the manner of 
Pietro della Vecchia. (But Compare Waagen, Hermitage, 
p. 429, who inclines for Tintoretto.) 

St. Petersburg: Collection of Count Paul Stroganoff. — 
" The Virgin in Lamentation " (bust, turned to the left), 
wringing her hands, a white veil on her head. This canvas 
looks like an imitation of Titian by a painter not an Italian. 

Louvre, No. 475. — " A Knight ei the Order of Malta ; " 
canvas, m. 0.60 h., by 0.51. Bust of life-size, three-quarters 
to the left. The man has a red beard and a pelisse with a 
collar of white fur spotted with black. The treatment is not 
that of Titian. The rawness of the tones and thinness of the 
pigment recall Calisto da Lodi or some similar imitator of 
the pure Venetian manner. 

Louvre, No. 463. — " Christ between a Soldier and Execu- 
tioner." Wood, round, m. 1.14 in diameter, Christ is 


almost in proiilc, with bis hands bound behind bis back. 
The behneted soldier in armour is on the left, the executioner 
on the right. This is a fine work in the style of Scbiavone. 

Louvre, No. 407. — " The Council of Trent." This is a 
Titianesque sketch of prelates with a guard of officers and 
soldiers listening to a bishop. The style is that of Andi'ea 

Louvre, No. 474. — Portrait of a man half length ; can- 
vas, m. 0.01) b. by 0.82. This portrait represents a bare- 
headed nobleman with a long beard, bis left elbow on the 
plinth of a column, his right on the hilt of his sword. It is 
a grand creation in the style of Pordenone rather than in the 
manner of Titian. 

lioucn Miisi'tini, No. 857. — Portrait of a man turned to 
the left, in a black cap. The ])laitod shirt falls into a square- 
cut vest ; canvas, m. U.47 h. l>y 0.85. This injured picture 
is retouched, and possii>ly taken from some older picture ; 
but whether of Titian or another artist it is bard to determine. 
Li the same collection is an old and poor copy of the " Christ 
of the Tribute Money " at Dresden. 

Lomhm : National Gallcr//, No. 32. — "The Rape of 
Ganymede." This octogou canvas, 5 ft. 8 in diuuictcr, 
may have been executed from one of Titian's designs. It 
was probably painted by Domenico Mazza. (llidolti Mar. i. 
2'.)0.) It represents Ganymede carried upon the back of the 
eagle. Engraved by G. Audran, D. Cunego and J. Outrim ; 
it was once in the Colonna palace at Rome, and in remote 
times, perhaps, in the collection of Francesco Assonica. It 
Avas brought to England in 1800 by Mr. Day, passed into the 
bands of Mr. Augerstei% and was bought for the nation in 
1824. It has been frequently restored, and once by Carlo 
Muratta. (See Catalogue of the National Gallery.) 

London : National Gallery, No. 3. — " A Concert," on 
canvas. Five figures, half length, 3 ft. 2 h., by 4 ft. 1. 
This picture was in the Mantuan and Whitehall Galleries, 
and also belonged to Mr. Angerstcin. It is almost a coun- 
terpart of a similar piece in the Brunswick Gallery, and 
is far below Titian's powers, betraying rather the band of 


Schiavone or Zelotti, than that of a better master. Engraved 
by H. Danckerts, J. Groensvelt, and J. Garner. (Compare 
Bathoe's Catalogue, and Darco, Pitt. Mant. ii. 160.) 

Late Northivick Collection, No. 52. — " Portrait of Bra- 
maute ; " half length on canvas, 3 ft. 2 h. by 2 ft. 4. 
This is the likeness of an old grey-bearded man, in a pelisse, 
with a pair of goggles in his right, and gloves in his left 
hand. He leans one elbow on a table — ground, brown. 
There is reason to think that this was a very faithful portrait 
of some one, but some one that is not Bramante. The 
features are the exact counterpart of those of Oderico Piloni, 
painted by Cesare Yecelli, and still preserved in the Villa 
Piloni near Belluno. To the question whether this is a 
portrait by Titian or his nephew, the answer may be that it is 
too good for Cesare, though but moderately good for Titian. 
But we may think Cesare in his early time and under the 
direction of his uncle, might paint such a likeness, and it is 
to be observed that the face of Piloni is younger than it 
appears in Cesare's canvas. 

Late Northivick Collection, No. 107. — " The Virgin and 
Child with St. John the Baptist and the Magdalen presenting 
a Chalice." This picture, on wood, is a group of half-lengths 
ascribed to Titian, but with some marks of the treatment of 
Palma Vecchio. 

London : Lahoucliere Collection. — The Virgin and Child 
in a landscape, with St. Joseph and the ass and St. Anthony 
the Abbot reading a book on the left. In front, to the right, 
the boy Baptist runs up holding the lamb and the reed cross, 
and behind a bank a boy is peeping. The scene is laid in a 
landscape of hilly character, with nutnerous figures at various 
distances. This richly toned and agreeable piece is not by 
Titian, but by Paris Bordone. It was formerly at Stratton. 
The figures are about half the life-size. (Compare Waagen, 
Treasures, ii. 419.) 

London : Mrs. Butler- Johnstone, lateMunro. — " St. Jerom," 
a small canvas, is wrongly assigned to Titian, being painted 
in the manner of the Bassani and Paolo Veronese. 

London : Mrs. Butler- Johnstone, late Munro. — Virgin and 


Child, with the young Baptist and St. Joseph, on panel, once 
assigned to Giorgione, now called Titian, is in the style of 

Loiuhm : Lord Yarhorouf/Jt, No. 47. — The Virgin and 
Child hetween St. Anne and Elizabeth, and St. Catherine and 
an aged male saint in a landscape. This pictiu'e, on panel, 
with figures of half the life-size, is either a copy from an 
original by Bonifazio, or an imitation of that master. 

Loudon : A}>diij llouar. — " Or|iheus charming the Beasts 
>nth Music,"' upright canvas ascribed to Titian, is quite in 
the style of Padovanino, the principal figure being seen almost 
in back view. The picture as a whole corresponds in many 
respects with a similar one in the Gallerj- of Madrid (No. 310), 
which l)elonged to (^neon Isabella Farnese. and was for many 
years held to be by 'I'itian, Itut is now properly catalogued as 
a work by Varottari. 

London Mr. //o//b/v/.— Portrait of "A Duke of Milan," 
with a falcon in his left hand, and a dog looking up to the 
falcon. l''ull face ; figure to the knees on dark-brown ground. 
This portrait, on canvas, is Titianesque in style. A more 
decided opinion would require a renewed examination. 

London : Mr. J I nl ford. — Female portrait, full face, on 
canvas, with one hand the lady plays with pearls. She 
wears a hat. This is a thinly painted Venetian picture, but 
not a genuine Titian. 

Loudon : GroHvenor House, No. 108. — " Christ and the 
"Woman taken in Adultery ; " canvas 4 ft. 4 h. by 5 ft., 
with twelve figures of life size seen to the knees. This large 
jucturc of the same class, reminds us of one once in Sant' 
Afra at Brescia, and there called Titian, though it was ob- 
viously by a Brescian painter. The florid style, sharp colours 
;ind conventional treatment, recalling Schiavone on the one 
hand and the Brescian works of the Ilosas on the other, point 
to Lattauzio Gambara as the real author of this piece. (Ex- 
hibited 1871, at the Royal Academy.) 

No. 110 in this collection is a copy of the female in the 
])icturc of the Louvre called " Titian and his Mistress." 
London : Karl Dudhy. — A nude goddess on a couch, much 


in the character of the Venus in Titian's "Venus and Adonis," 
reposes on a bank covered with a red cloth, behind which two 
men are spectators, one of whom holds a mirror to the goddess. 
Distance, a landscape with a flock. This canvas, with figures 
large as life, is not by Titian, but displays some of the pecu- 
liarities common to the disciples of the mixed school of Titian 
and Pordenone. It is probably by Giulio Campi. 

London : Lord Coicper. — " Portrait of Calvin." This is a 
bust of a man in a black cap, with a white shirt-frill, in- 
scribed in Roman letters with the name of Calvin and the 
date 1530. The treatment is not even Venetian. 

London : Lord Mnhneshury . — " The Duke Alfonso of 
Ferrara and Laura Dianti; " half-lengths on canvas, 2 ft. 11 h. 
by 2 ft. 5. A bearded man in profile, dressed in blue 
with a feathered toque on his head, is looking up at a lady 
with her neck and bosom exposed, her hair golden, and partly 
covered by a turban headress. He holds a ring on her finger 
and presses his right hand to his heart ; she leans a hand on 
his shoulder. This canvas, once in the Fesch Collection, is 
said to have been brought from Venice by General Bonaparte, 
in 1796. It is probably by Pietro della Vecchia, the clever 
imitator of Giorgione, under whose name this piece was sold 
(July 1, 1876) in London for £367 10s. It is almost need- 
less to say that the male figure does not represent Duke 
Alfonso of Ferrara. 

London : Lord Malmcshury. — " Liicretia." This piece, 
called a Titian but really a copy by a Bolognese artist of a 
canvas assigned to Titian in the Gallery of Hampton Court 
(see that heading), was sold by auction in London on the 1st 
of July, 1876, for £47 5s. 

London : Marquis of Bute. — Portrait of a lady, on canvas 
to the knees, large as life, and turned to the left. The hair 
is dressed with jewels, a collar with pearls over a red dress, 
and pufied sleeves. In the distance a pillar. Here we have 
the technical treatment, not of Titian, but of Bernardino 
Pordenone, whose manner is more akin to that of Paris Bor- 
done than to that of Titian. 

London : Marquis of Bute. — Portrait of a grey-bearded 


  — ~~*" — " " " "     » ' 

man, turned to the left, in a black beret cap and pelisse, near 
a table. Much injured canvas of the late Venetian School. 

London: Lord Ashhurton. — Herodias' dauijhter followed 
by an old man, and carr}"in']j the head of the Baptist on a 
plate. School of Ijcruardino Licinio or Beccaruzzi of Cone- 

London : Stajfnrd Ilousr, No. 18. — " Education of Cupid ; " 
canvas, with three tipures of the size of life. Venus to the 
left, with a sweep of yellow drapery round her hips, is standing 
in a grove of trees, and looking on as Cupid reads in a music 
book held up to him by Mercury. The left hand of Venus 
is on Mercury's shoulder. He is seated with the winged cap 
on his head, the caducens at his back. Cupid's liow and 
arrows arc on the ground. This picture belonged to Queen 
Christina, who hold it to be a genuine Titian. (Campori, Rac- 
colta, p. 339.) It passed into the Orleans Collection, at the 
sale of which TiOrd (lower bought it for t'800. The picture 
is Titianesquo indeed, but in the style of Schiavone, to whom it 
should be assigned. 

London : Stafford Jlonsr, No. 20. — St. Jerom in the 
wilderness, his head resting on his left hand, his body turned 
to the left. This canvas rei>resents the saint of the full size 
of nature. It is quite as much in the style of Schiavone as 
the "Venus nnd Mercury." 

Londoti : Stafford IFoiinf, No. 36. — Portrait of a cardinal. 
Here we have the brush-stroke of a Bolognese of the seven- 
teenth century. 

DnUdch Gallen/, No. 81.—" The Infant Jesus." Neither 
this nor any other picture assigned to Titian in this gallery is 

Hampton Court, No. 44. — Portrait of a man in armour, 
with a sword belted to his waist and a black cap on his head. 
Half length on a brown ground, and turned three quarters to 
the left. This piece, on canvas, is of the Venetian School, 
but not by Titian. The treatment points to a follower of 
the schools of Tintoretto and Bassano. 

Hampton Court Gallcrii, No. 405. — Panel with figures 
liiilf the life size. The Virgin, turned to the left, is seated 


in a landscape, plucks a flower with lier riglit hand, and 
holds a similar one in her left. The infant Christ lying in 
her lap also holds a flower. In the distance to the right, the 
angel accompanies Tobit with the dog. In the foreground is 
the scutcheon of some noble family. This picture corre- 
sponds to the description of one noted by Ridolfi (Mar. i. 
262) in the Reinst collection. Reinst's pictures we know 
were in part purchased by the Dutch States, to be presented 
to Charles the Second. The panel is injured, and the head 
of the Virgin is retouched, but the drawing is less clever and 
appropriate, the execution less skilful than Titian's, and we 
can scarcely err in assuming that the author is Santo Zago, a 
pupil of Titian. Engraved by Yischer. 

Hampton Court Gallery, No. 111. — " Ignatius Loyola." 
Knee-piece on canvas of a man turned to the left, bare-headed 
in black with his right hand on a table on which is written ; 
" AN XXV. 1545." Dark ground. The attitude is Titianesque, 
but the treatment is feeble, and although the surfaces are 
much damaged by time and retouching, the picture should 
rather be assigned to a disciple of Paris Bordone than to 
Titian. The inscription too is suspiciously renewed. En- 
graved in oval by Vignerson. 

Hampton Court Gallery, No. 118. — "Portrait of a Gentle- 
man ; " canvas bust of life size. The head is in profile and in 
the style of a later Venetian, such as Sebastian Ricci. 

Hampton Court Gallery, No. 124.— " Portrait of Titian." 
A copy. 

Hampton Court Gallery, No. 706. — Virgin and Child 
adored by St, Catherine and John the Baptist. This piece is 
not by Titian. It recalls the manner of Palma Vecchio. 

Hampton Court Gallery, No. 410. — " The Death of 
Lucretia ; " canvas, with a full length, half the size of life, of 
Lucretia, nude, standing with a sword in her right hand, with 
W'hich she is preparing to stab herself. A long red drapery 
floats about the head and shoulders. In the background is a 
landscape. This figure has none of the grace or tone of 
Titian's creations. The coarse herculean form, and a flush 
of brown tinting, point to a Venetian disciple of the master. 


Yet the picture is doubtless identical with that described in 
the Ashmolean catalogue (Bathoe, u. s.) as follows : " A 
Mantua piece by Titian, a standing Lucretia holding with 
her left hand a red veil over her face, and a dagger in her 
other hand to stab herself, an entire figure half so big as 
the life, 3 ft. 2 h. by 2 ft. 1." This piece was appraised 
and sold by order of Cromwell for £200 ; but reappears in 
the catalogue of James the Second's collection (No. 480 of 
Bathoe's catalogue). A copy of it was in the collection of 
Lord Malmcsl)ury (see under that head). A similar picture 
ascribed to Titian is noted in a Mantuan inventory of the year 
1027. (See Darco, ii. p. 155.) 

Hampton Court Gallery, No. 70. — " Alessandro de' 
Medici." This is a bust portrait on canvas of a man turned 
to the left, with his hair parted in the middle and l)rushed 
behind the cur. A slight moustache fringes the upper lip, 
the chin is beardless, tiie vest is cut low and shows a frilled 
shirt. Over all lies a dark brown pelisse with a fur collar. 
The right hand is on a book bound in red, lying on the para- 
pet in front. That this portrait was engraved by Peter de 
Jode and A. Jjoncnfant as '* Giovanni I3occaccio " by Titian, 
hardly helps us in identifying the person portrayed. The 
modelling of the head is lost in retouches, and the forehead 
and temples are especially injured. For this reason it is im- 
possible to decide whether the picture is by Titian or not, or 
to determine to which of his disciples it can be assigned. 

Hampton Court Gallery, No. 213. — " David and Goliath," 
a small panel, is apparently by a feeble disciple of the school 
of Schiavouc. 

Manchester ExJiibition, No. 210. — A portrait of Yerdi- 
zotti, property of Mr. Francis Edwards. This picture was 
clearly painted after Titian's time. 

No. 228. — " Girl making Lace," property of Mr. Richard 
Baxter (photographed) ; canvas, with the figure of the girl 
turned to the left, a little dog at her side, on her lap a lace 
cushion. Work of some painter of a later time than that of 

No. 231.—" The Dog of Charles the Fifth; " property of 

V«M,. II. H II 


J. Smith Barry, Esq. This is a Bolognese, not a Venetian 

No. 241. — "Marriage of St. Catherine," property of G. P. 
Grenfell, Esq, The style of this picture is aldn to that of 
the Venetian Pohdoro Lanzani. 

Blenheim. — "St. Nicholas" and "St. Catherine," of life 
size, on canvas, — two figures copied from Titian's "Madonna" 
of San Niccolo de' Frari now at the Vatican, and painted in 
reverse, — seem the work of a German copyist of the stamp of 
Christopher Schwarz. 

Blenheim. — " St. Sebastian," of life size, with his right 
arm over his head. The figure, covered at the hips with a 
cloth, is seen in full front in a landscape. This is a fine 
picture without the masculine strength and power of Titian. 
It has been injured by repainting. 

Christchnrch : Oxford. — "The Duke of Alva;" canvas, 
half-length large as life. The figure, bare-headed and in 
black, wears the collar of the Golden Fleece, and stands near 
an opening through which a landscape is seen. The left 
hand on a table is fairly executed in the Venetian manner, 
but the rest of the picture is utterly ruined by repainting, 
and it is impossible to recognize the style of Titian. 

The " Virgin and Child," half-length, assigned to Titian, 
is a very feeble and not genuine production. 

Chatsirorth, seat of the Duke oj Devonshire. — " St. John 
the Baptist preaching in the Wilderness." The Saint to 
the right under a tree speaks with outstretched arm to a 
crowd seated in the centre of the picture ; near him the lamb 
is resting. To the left several women are standing. In the 
distance Christ is seen approaching. Distance, hills and sky. 
This is a fine spirited sketchy piece of Andrea Schiavone's 
best time. Some dulness of tone is due to retouchins: and 
old varnish, and the sky especially is repainted. The canvas 
is large, but the nearest figures are under a quarter of life 
size. (Compare Waagen's divergent opinion in Treasures, 
iii. 347.) A picture with this subject was once in the 
Muselli collection at Verona. (See Campori, Raccolta di 
Cataloghi, p. 187.) 


Cliatsworth. — A girl presents fruit to her father and 
mother, the latter standing in the foreground at the side of 
the former, who is seated. This canvas, with figures to the 
knees, is by Paris Bordone, to whom it is properly ascribed 
by Dr. Waagen. (Treasures, iii. 351.) 

Chatswortli. — The Virgin and Child with St. Joseph in a 
landscape. The boy St. John approaches from the right. 
This picture is not by Titian, but by a painter of the seven- 
teenth century. 

Chatsnorth. — "A Mastiff Dog and Cubs." This large 
canvas, originally in the Coraaro Palace at Venice, was 
acknowledged by Sir Joshua Pieynolds as a genuine Titian. 
It is much repainted, yet still displays the hand of an artist 
of the seventeenth contur}' such as Philip Pvoos or Benedetto 

Lnnfiford Casth', No. 133. — Full-length of a man standing 
near a pillar on the top of which his helmet is lying. On the 
helmet he rests his hand, the head being turned to look at 
the spectator. On the ground to the right is a book. This 
picture, ascribed to Titian, is by Morone. 

Lonriford Castlr, No. 146. — Half-length of a sculptor with 
his hand on the head of a statue. The face is that of a 
young man. The painter is not Titian but Tintoretto. 

Boicood. — The Virgin is seated with the infant Christ 
standing on her lap. She gives the Child some fruit, whilst 
the young liaptist on the left holds up a scroll inscribed with 
the words " Ecce Agnus Dei." A glory of rays and cherubs' 
heads surrounds the group. This is a duplicate -w-ith varieties 
of a similar piece (No. 590) at the Uffizi in Florence, where 
the Baptist holds the foot of the infant Christ, and the 
Virgin is not presenting a fruit. The style is easily recog- 
nised in both pictures as that of Marco Vecelli. The Bowood 
duplicate corresponds to the description of a canvas noted by 
Kidolfi (]\Iarav. i. 262) in the Vidman collection at Venice. 
(Compare also Sansovino, Ven. Descritta, p. 376.) 

Alnwick. — Portrait of an admiral in a feathered cap and in 

armour seen to the knees at three-quarters to the left, with 

the left hand on a chiselled dagger, and the right on a helmet 

II II 2 


resting on a table. This likeness, of life-size, was originally 
in the Barberini, then in the Camuccini, collections in Rome. 
It looks more like a Morone than a Titian. 

Almcick. — "Portrait of a Member of the Barbarigo 
Family" {?). The treatment is too thin and empty for Titian, 
and recalls Morto da Feltre or Pellegrino da San Dauiele. 

Ed'mhurgh : JRoyal Institution, No. 65. — "Adoration of 
the Magi ; " on canvas, 7 ft. 9 h. by 6 ft. This picture was 
formerly in the Palazzo Balbi at Genoa, and is clearly a work 
of Bassano. 

Edinburgh : Royal Institution, No. 157. — A landscape on 
panel, 6 ft. 6 long, by 1 ft. 3. Bought from the Duke of 
Vivaldi Pasqua. This is a Flemish and not a Venetian 

Edinhurgli : Ttoyal Institution, l^o. 1G6. — Panel, 1 ft. 7 h* 
by 1 ft. Sj. Virgin, Child, and St. Catherine presenting 
flowers. This picture, ascribed to Titian, is nearer the level 
of Polidoro Lanzani, though feeble even for him. 

Longniddy, scat of the Earl of Wemyss. — A girl initiated 
to the mysteries of Venus. Near her to the right Venus and 
the boy Cupid with an arrow. A satyr behind raises aloft a 
basket with a couple of doves ; and another a bundle of fruit. 
The same theme is worked in another way in a picture 
assigned to Titian at Munich (see Munich), of which this is a 
variety. But the execution here is very modern. 

Dalkeith Palace. — " The Duke of Alva in Armour ; " half- 
length on canvas. The body is turned to the right, the face 
to the left. The right hand holds a helmet, the left is in the 
act of pointing. This is not a genuine Titian, though a 
careful and interesting picture and probably a true likeness of 

Portrait of a little giii in leading strings, with a dog near 
her. To the right is the hand, arm, and part of the figure of 
a person holding the strings. The distance is architecture. 
The name of Titian is not justified. The treatment is that 
of a Bolognese craftsman. 

Hamilton Palace, near Glasgow. — Philip the Second stand- 
ing with the emblems of his dignities, near a pillar at the 


entrance to a temple. Near him to the right the kneeling 
figure of Fame. This canvas, with figures of life-size, seems 
to have been executed by a German or Fleming who had 
some personal intercourse with Titian. The forms are too 
poor and slender, the dra\\-ing and modelling are too trivial, 
for the great master, the colour too liquid and thin. Profuse 
ornament reveals a taste foreign to the Venetian school. 

Jlamilton Pulace. — Half-length on canvas of an admiral in 
armour, with one hand on his hip, the other near a helmet 
resting on a table. The figure is turned to the right. In 
the background is a pillar ; and a red curtain partially 
intercepts a view of a galley floating on the sea. The style 
is that of Paolo Veronese. 

IlaiidUon Palace. — Full-length of life size on canvas of a 
captain in armour. He stands near a table, on which his 
right ai-m reposes. Near the arm a helmet. This picture, 
once under the name of Giorgione, is now called a Titian, 
and reminds us of Morone, but it is injured and unworthy of 
any one of the artists named. 

I lionilton Palace. — Portrait of an old man seated and 
turned to the left. His hair and beard are white, his features 
are dry and bony ; on the book we read "L. Cornaro m. sua. 
. . . 1566." According to the chronologies Luigi or Alviso 
Cornaro of Padua died in 1565. If this signature be 
genuine, he died a year later than is generally supposed. 
(See vol. i. of this Life, p. 130.) The picture is not by Titian, 
but by an imitator of Tintoretto and Bassano. 

Hamilton Palace. — Portrait of a man in a dark pelisse and 
bare-headed. This bust on canvas, though carefully painted 
by a Venetian artist, is not a genuine Titian. 

Dnhlhi International Exhibition. — Portrait of a friar facing 
and looldug at the spectator whilst pointing at a human 
skull. This picture, though assigned to Titian, is by an 
artist of the class of Gaspar de Grayer, that is, by a follower 
of Van Dyke and Rubens. 

In the same exhibition, No. 67, was a portrait of a man in 
a plumed cap and rich dress called Cesar Borgia, and assigned 
to Titian. The picture is not genuine. 


The following is a list of pictures noticed in books 
as works of Titian. A few of the pieces registered 
may be identical with some of those noted in fore- 
going pages, but there is no means of proving their 
identity : — 

Venice : S. Andrea della Certosa. — Christ carrying his 
cross. This piece was seen by Sansoviuo (Veu. clesc. p. 79), 
hut must have been removed before the middle of the 
seventeenth century, as Boschini does not notice it. Gesuati. 
— Pope Urban gives the dress of his order to the heato 
Colombini. This was a canvas on the organ shutter of the 
Gesuati assigned by Yasari (xiii. 110) to one Jacopo 
Fallaro, but by Boschini (Miniere Sest di D. Dure, p. 19) to 
Titian. S. Fantino : Scuola. — St. Jerom. (Vas. xiii. 29.) 
This picture perished by fire. S. Gio. e Paolo. — Virgin and 
Child, S. Anna, and other saints. This monochrome, origin- 
ally on the tomb of the Doge Trevisani, was seen by Zanetti 
(Pitt, Ven. p. 169) in a room of the convent, and has since 
been missing. Casa Pisani. — Portrait of a lady. (Vas. xiii. 
43.) Casa C. Orsetti. — Two portraits and Christ at the 
column. (Kidolfi, Mar. i. 263.) G. B. Rota. — Virgin. 
(Kidolfi, Mar. i. 268.) B. della Nare.—l. Virgin, Child, 
and Saints. 2. Christ and the Woman taken in Adul- 
tery. 3. Portraits. (Ridolfi, Mar. i. 263.) Casa Zuan 
Antonio. — •Yenier. Two half-lengths of men assaulting each 
other. (Anon. Morelli, p. 73.) Casa Giovanni Danna. — 
Virgin and Child, with portraits male and female, including 
children. (Vas. xiii. 21 ; Sansov. Ven. desc. p. 212.) Casa 
M. P. Servio. — St. Jerom. (Anon. 89.) Casa Orimani a 
Santa Maria Formosa. — Portrait of Cardinal Domenico 
Grimani. (Cicogna, Isc, Ven., i. 190.) Casa Grimani a S. 
Ermagora. — Portrait of a Senator. (PJdolfi, Mar. i. 220.) 
Virgin and Saints. (lb. i. 260.) Casa Assonica. — 
Portrait of Francesco Assonica. (Vas. xiii. 43.) Casa 
Odoni. — Virgin and Child, young Baptist and a female 
saint in a landscape. (Anon. Morelli, p. 62 ; and see National 


Gallery, antca, i. p. 208.) Sif/iior Cristofon Orohoni (seven- 
teenth century). — Christ crowned with Thorns with a Soldier. 
2. A Woman with auburn Hair, (liidolli, Mar. i. p. 375.) 
Girolamo e Francesco Contarini. — Portrait of Charles the 
Fifth. (Ridolli, Mar. i. 456.) Casa AVoyj.— Portrait of 
Zuanne Paim with his back to the spectator. (Anon. ed. 
Morelli, 79.) Palazzo dell' Abate Grimani. — The Flight into 
Egypt. (Sansov. Yen. desc. 375). llenicr Cull. — St. Sebas- 
tian bound to the column. — Portrait of a lady with blonde 
hair, dressed in blue. Portrait of a widow with a beautiful 
hand called Clelia Farnese, wood. St. Francis, full length 
in a landscape, holding a cross. (See Reinst Coll.) Piound of 
an angel ilyiug in air having struck a man who lies on the 
ground with a sword and shield. (Campori, Piacc. 443.) 
Sifjnor Bernardo Giunti. — A ^lale Portrait. (Kidolfi, Mar. i. 
262.) Casa Frnnreschi. — St. Sfl)astian. (llidolli, Mar. i. 263.) 
Casa Gussoni. — The Virgin and Child and an aged man in a 
black vest with his hand on his haunch. (Ridolli, i. 260.) 
Portrait of Cardinal Ippolito d' Este. (lb.) Half length of 
a female with two men in armour, (lb.) Casa Francesco 
Contarini. — The Virgin and Child. (Anon. ed. Morelli, 230 ; 
Ridolfi, ]\Iar. i. 260; Tizianello's Anon. 11.) Casa Malipiero 
a San Saviuele. — The Virgin and Child. (Ridolli, Mar. i. 
262.) Portrait of Caterino Malipiero, who died in a naval 
encounter in 1571. (lb.) licinst Cull. — Portrait of a 
Senator. St. Francis in tears looking at a crucifix in his 
hand, with a landscape distance. (Ridolfi, i. 262.) Barharigo 
Coll. — Pan and Syrinx. This picture was still in the Bar- 
barigo collection in 1845. 

Viccnza : Casa Ner/ri. — Virgin and Child seated with the 
boy St. John, St. Joachim and St. Anna. Half length of 
the Saviour. (Mosca, Descr. di Vicenza, 8vo, Vicenza, ii. 74.) 

Padua : Monsif/nor Bonjio. — Magdalen. (Ridolfi, Mar. 
i. 259.) Palace of the Dogaressa Grimani. — Christ bearing 
his cross, near him the executioner with a dagger at his side, 
(lb.) Casa Galcazzo Orolugiu. — Female with an orb of 
crystal in which a small child is seen, a youth with snakes 
in his hand and a monster with fruit. (lb.) 


Mantua Palace in 1527. — 1. Virgin and Child with a donor 
and his two sons. 2. Lucretia. 3. Nativity. 4. Virgin, 
Child, and St. Catherine. 5. A naked boy. 6. A 
dishevelled woman and a boy with an orb. (Darco, Pitt. 
Mant. ii. 154—163.) 

Verona: Casa Miiselli. — 1. Virgin and Child, to whom 
St. Catherine kneels and gives the ring ; at the other side the 
boy St. John ; half lengths, a httle under size of nature. 2. 
Virgin and Child caressed by the young Baptist ; at the side 
St. James. Figures of more than one braccia. 3. Charles the 
Fifth in a brocade dress with a pelisse of ermine, holding a 
sceptre, and one hand on the hilt of his sword, more than half 
length of life size. 4. A Magdalen with dishevelled hair ; 
life size. 5. Portrait of a man without a beard wearing a 
cap leaning his head on one hand ; life size. G. Virgin and 
Child turned to St. Catherine, who gives the ring ; St. Joseph 
holding the Child ; 1 braccia and j h. by l^^. 7. Virgin with 
the Child turned towards a saint kneeling with her arms 
crossed over her breast with St. Anna and St. .Joseph at the 
sides (the Child and Virgin's mantle injured). 8. Landscape 
with St. John preaching ; ascribed to Titian because Hke his 
style in the trees and figures, size I5 braccia h. by 1|. (See 
Chatsworth.) 9. A Venus lying on the ground, her head on 
her arms, and Amor at her feet ; " ascribed to Titian." 10. 
Portrait of a jeweller — according to Ridolfi, Pietro de' Bene- 
detti — at a table on which are lying tools and a gilt helmet 
surmounted by a white eagle holding in its beak a column and 
a medal inscribed with the name of Sigismund Augustus, 
King of Poland. Distance, architecture and landscape. 11 
and 12. Portraits of a man without a beard in the black dress 
of a prelate, and a bearded man with one hand on a pedestal 
and a bundle of letters in the other, dressed in a pehsse, both 
2 braccia square. (Campori, Raccolta di Cataloghi, pp. 178 — 
92 ; Eidolfi, Mar. i. 252—258, ii. 238 ; and ScanelH, Micro- 
cosmo, 222.) Moscardo Coll. (1672). — 1. Portrait of a man 
with jewels in his hand. 2, Portrait of a captain in armour. 
3. Portrait of an old man. 4. Virgin, Child, and John the 
Baptist. 5. Sacrifice of Cain and Abel. 6. The Virgin and 


Child on the ass with St. Joseph. 7. Venus, Mars, and 
Cupid. (See the Curtoni Colh) 8. A head of the Virgin. 
9. A nude Venus. 10. Head of an old man. 11. Christ 
crowned with thorns. 12. Small portrait of the Doge Sebas- 
tiano Venier. (Note . . del Museo Moscardo, 4to, Verona, 
MDCLXXii.) Cdsa P. Curtoni. — Virgin and Child with St. 
Catherine and the Baptist. The same subject with full 
lengths. The Sanour. A bust of St. Sebastian. Lot and 
his daughters. Fragment with a likeness of a doge and two 
other half lengths. Venus, Mars, and Amor. Venus. Venus 
and Amor (bis). Jove hurling thunderbolts. Sacrifice of 
Calchas. A SatjT. Portrait of a Senator. A doge of 
Venice. Shepherds with an ox. Virgin and Child with 
St. Joseph. Virgin and Child, St. Josei)li, and St. John. 
Virgin and Child, St. Joachim and another saint. Head of 
an old man. Head of a youth. Figure of Troy. Death of 
Hector. (Ridolti, Mar. ii. 304, and Campori, Raccolta di 
Cataloghi, pp. 201—2.) 

Frrrnru : Cduonki Coll. (1G32). — 1. liust of Christ 
crowned with thorns carrying his cross. 2. Magdalen re- 
pentant. 3. Virgin, St. Anna, St. Joseph, the infant Christ, 
and liaptist both playing with the lamb, all in a landscape. 
4. Virgin raising the covering of the infant Christ, before 
whom a shepherd kneels with a bound lamb. Behind him a 
shepherd taking oft' his cap and holding a bagpipe, and close 
by a peasant with a pair of fowls and two dogs. Seated near 
the Virgin is St. Joseph, asleep. 5. Virgin, Child, and St. 
Joseph, half length, large as life. G. Titian's portrait by 
himself. (Campori, Raccolta di Cataloghi, pp. 108, 115 — 16, 
121 and 120.) Coccajmni Collection (1G40). — Virgin and 
Child, and St. John with the lamb. (Campori, Race, di Catal., 
p. 150.) A nude Venus. (Ridolfi, Mar. i. 257.) Cardinal 
of Fcrrara. — 1. Sacritice of Iphigenia. 2. Sacrifice of Helen. 
8. Fountain of Chastity. (Ridolti, Mar. i. 2G8 — 9.) 

Parma : Farnese Coll. (1G80). — 1. A man in red, with his 
head turned to the left, an ink-bottle and a pen are on the 
table. (Campori, Cataloghi, p. 209.) 2. Lucretia in red 
with a landscape to the left. (lb. p. 210.) 3. Portrait of a 


female seated with a bust of Charles the Fifth near her. (lb. 
211.) 4. A shepherd in a dress of skins. (lb. 220.) 5. 
Portrait of a man full length in armour to the Imees, the left 
hand on a helmet on a pedestal. (lb. p. 229.) C. Portrait of 
a woman at a table on which are a skull, a mirror, a comb 
and scissors. She is dressing her hair with both hands. 
Her dress yellow. (lb. 231.) 7. A woman in black, her 
right hand with two rings on the fingers lying on her bosom. 
Auburn hair, antique collar, and girdle of gold buttons. (lb. 
233.) 8. A woman pointing with her right hand at her face, 
dressed in a black veil which covers her head and part of her 
shoulders. (lb. 233.) 9. A man in a black dress and cap, and 
a collar round his neck with the order of the Golden Fleece, 
holding a paper in his right hand, which is alone visible. (lb. 
235.) 10. A female in gi-ey with a pearl hanging from a 
golden braid in her right hand. Her dress and sleeves 
flowered white ; her hair blonde. (lb. 236.) 11. Portrait 
of a cardinal in a red cap, a ring on his right hand 
which rests on the arm of a chau-, and in his left a prayer- 
book, distance landscape. (lb. p. 25.) This description 
exactly suits the Cardinal Palla"sicini of the Hermitage at 
St. Petersburg. 

Modena : Count Giulio Cesare Gonzaga di Novellara 
(1676).— St. Peter Martyr. (Camp. Cataloghi, p. 204.) 

Bevilaequa Coll. — Virgin and Child, St. Joseph and 
the boy Baptist and tw^o angels in glory. (Ridolfi, Mar. i. 

Milan : Domenico Pclosi. — Virgin and Child adored by St. 
Thomas Aquinas. (Ticozzi, Vec. 136.) 

Borne: Aldohrandinl Palace. — 1. Two shepherds playing 
the flute in a landscape. 2. Virgm and Child, St. Jerom, 
and St. Lawrence. (Ridolfi, Mar. i. 257.) Palazzo Giustiniani. 
— The Virgin and Child and young Baptist. (lb. i. 258.) 
Collection of Prince Pio of Savoy (1742). — 1. Virgin and 
Child. 2. Danae and boy. 3. Nude Venus recumbent. 4. 
Nude Venus recumbent with a boy and a soldier. 5. Venus 
nude on a couch, Cupid, a man playing an organ, and a little 
dog. (Citadella, Notizie relative a Ferrara, u. 8. p. 566.) 


Scanelli notes the Pio collection and its Titians in the Micro- 
cosmo, p. 221. Card'uuil S/ondrato (1595). — 1. Christ at 
the column, half lenf,^h. 2. A Virprin, Child, and a man 
carrying fruit (Coradusz to Emperor Eudolph the Second, 
in L. Urlich's article in Zeitschrift, f. 1». Kunst, u. s. v. p. 49.) 
Savelli Coll. (1650).— Portrait of Charles the Fifth. (Campori, 
Cataloghi, p. 105.) Coll. of Cardimd d'Kste (1624).—!. 
A landscape with St. Jerom. "J. A St. Jorom on panel. 
3. Duke Alfonso the First (copy). (Campori, Race, di Catal. 
63, 71.) 

Genoa : C<dlection of the Darin FamUi/. — Adonis. (Anon. 
Tizianello, p. 5.) 

London : J)nkc of Somerset (seventeenth century). — 
Venus, orifjinally in possession of Daniel Nys. (Sainsbuiy 
Papers, n. s. p. 274.) Collection of the Earl of A run del. — 
Portrait of Constahle de liourhon. This portrait is only 
known by Vorstermann's print, showin^j a man in a rich 
dress with a jewelled toque on his head, and a helmet on a 
table before him; the face seen at three quarters to the rifjht, 
the whole inscribed : " Screnisi. Caroli Ducis Jiorboniie . . . 
Connestabilis vera effif^ies in presentia Caroli V. Imperatoris 
depicta a Titiano, qu.T latent Londini, tire. . . . Sculpta, 
Vorstemiann." Beneath the portrait : " omnis salvs in ferro 
EST," and on the background, '' Obyt. Roma, 1257." 

Antwerp: Van Vffel Coll. — 1. Death of Pyramus, with 
Amor breaking his weapons. 2. The Virgin adoring the 
infant Chiist with St. Jerom in cardinals, St. Francis and 
the archangel Michael. 3. St. Jerom in prayer in a cave. 4. 
Ecce Homo. 5. Portrait of Aretino. 6. Portrait of a 
Greek patriarch. 7. A jeweller with a string of pearls. 8. 
Virgin and Child, St. John and St. Joseph. (Piidolfi, i. 

Jliihcns' Coll. — Psyche with a bottle in her hand. (Saius- 
bury Papers, u. s. p. 230.) 

Lisbon (sixteenth century). Christ scourged. (Vas. xiii. 

PortraitH. — Tasso's mistress, (llidolti. Mar. i. 255.) Siuistri. 
(Vas. xiii. p. 41.) Marquess of Pescara. (lb. 38.) Niccola 


Crasso and Luigi Crasso. (Ridolfi Mar. i. 131, 253.) Andrea 
Doria and Gastaldo. (Lomazzo, Trattato, p. 636.) Aretino 
and his daughter. (Ridolfi, Mar. i. 228.) Cardinal Gonzaga 
(Vas. xiii. 31.) Paul Manutius. (Aretino, Lett. i. p. 236.) 
Don Carlos. (Vas. xiii. 37.) Titian and his confessor. 
(Ridolfi, Mar. i. 120.) Martin the sculptor as a j'oung man. 
(lb. 263.) A shaven man with jewels in his hand. (lb. 
263.) Girolamo Miani. (Cicogna, Isc. Ven. v. 375.) 
Mistress of G. B. Castaldo. (Bottari, Raccolta, v. 59.) Del- 
fini, belonging to the sculptor Danese. (Vas. xiii. 42.) 
Gio. Francesco di Rubeis, a bishop. (Flaminio Cornaro, in 
Cicogna, Iscr. Ven. iv. 137.) Marco Mantova Bena^ddes. 
(Anon. Morelli, p. 152.) Monsignor Bonfio. (Ridolfi, Mar. 
i. 259.) Portrait of Cardinal Ardinghello. (Borghini, Riposo, 
iii. p. 89.) Julius the Second. (Vas. xiii. 32.) Sixtus the 
Fourth. (lb.) Marini q. Francesco Garzoni. (Cicogna, 
Iscr. Ven. vi. p. 892.) Hannibal the Carthaginian. (Urbino 
inventory in Gotti's Gall, di Firenze, p. 334.) Giulia Gonzaga. 
(Campori, Race, di Cataloghi, p. 148.) Cardinal Accolti. (Vas. 
xiii. p. 42.) N. Zono. (lb.) Dame Gattina. (Ridolfi, 
Mar. i. 219.) Francesco Filetto and his son. (Vas. xiii. 
42.) Girolamo Fracastoro. (lb. ; Ridolfi, Mar. i. 252, and 
Brognoli, 210.) Torquato Bembo and his wife. (lb.) 

Titian is reputed to have been jealous alike of his 
pupils and of his own brother Francesco. Ridolfi 
indeed says that when Titian saw an altar-piece 
completed by Francesco Vecelli for a Cadorine church, 
he trembled for his own fame, and diverted Fran- 
cesco's activity into a new channel.''' But it is hard 
to reconcile this statement with that of Vincenzo 
Vecelli, which tells of Titian's affection for the truant 

* Eidolfi, i. 285. 

CiLVP. IX.] 



who once gave up painting for the profession of 
arms."'' We may believe that if Francesco Vecelli 
at last preferred the ease of country life at Cadore, 
it was because he felt and acknowledged his own 
inferiority. The earliest picture with which his name 
is connected is that which represents the Vii'gin 
and Child, between St. Roch and St. Sebastian in the 
Gen ova Chapel at the Pieve di Cadore, a tempera on 
canvas dubiously assigned by Tizianello's " Anonimo " 
to Titian and Francesco.t Though injured by re- 
painting in oil, this firstling work is quite in the 
character of that shown in the galler}' of Vienna as 
one of Titinn's juvenile efforts. It bears the impress of 
a Venetian composition carried out by an independent 
craftsman wlio seorns to swear fealty to any one 
master. It displays a decorous and well calculated 
arrangement of figures, appropriate action, good pro- 
portion and careful outline. Light and shadow are 
fairly distributed, and drapery aceurately studied. 
Smooth finish and some inequality in the mode of 
realizing form, testify to the youth of the artist. 
The Virgin is large and plump, the Child on her lap 
small and puny, St. Sebastian, to the right, is tall, 
slender and dry, whilst St. Roch, leaning on his staff 
and showing the plague-boil, is more developed, and 
recalls a similar figure in Titian's altar-piece of St. 
Mark at the Salute.j If Francesco Vecelli painted 

* See antra. 

t Tizianello, Anonimo, p. 7. 

X This picture is not on panel , 
as Tizianello's Anon, asserts, but 
on canvas, and the figures, of full 

length and under life size, are in 
a landscape. Many parts are 
daubed over with oil pigment, 
and the Virgin's mantle is almost 
black from this cause. The can- 



this picture in the earliest years of his career, he 
began with almost as much promise as Titian himself. 
In later days it appeared that he was not of the wood 
of which great painters are made ; for when he 
produced in 1524 the Madonna with saints at San 
Vito di Cadore, his style had acquired its full expan- 
sion, yet showed vastly below that of Titian's. Here 
again unhappily the canvas is patched at the top, 
enlarged at the bottom, and retouched in many of the 
most salient places ; but what remains of Francesco's 
original conception and execution tells as much as 
any creation can reveal of the stuff in the creator 
himself. The Virgin sits on a throne in front of a 
green curtain between four saints, of whom two are 
bishops — Modestus and Gottardus ; the third, to the 
right, is St. John the Baptist with the lamb at his 
feet, and the fourth St. Vitus, who recommends the 
Imeeling figure of a priest. The step of the throne 
is partly covered by a cartello on which we read 
" F. V. P." [Francesco Vecelli pinxit ?] mdxxiiii. At 
this date, let us recollect, Titian had finished the 
" Madonna of San Niccolo de' Frari," and was com- 
pleting the "Madonna di Casa Pesaro." Francesco 
must have had before him his brother's portrait of 
Baffo, so strong is the reminiscence of that master- 
piece in the patron of the San Vito altar-piece. But 
the treatment, though it be Titianesque, is inferior to 
that of Titian. The grouping is skilful, the action of 

vas is now in the choir, to the 
left of the high altar. It was 
stoien in 1853, and recovered for 

VOO fr. at a village near Mestre 
in the same year. 

Chap. IX.] 



the personages telling enough, the drawing is bold, and 
the finish sufficient, but the figures are mere models, 
thrown off Axith freedom of hand, but without accuracy 
of detail or breadth of touch, and without tlie subtlety 
or delicacy of Titian in its wide stretches of uniform 

An earlier altar-piece in the parish church of Sedico 
on the highroad between Belluno and Feltre — if 
shown to have been executed l)y Titian's brother — 
would prove that Francesco in his first form was 
.sim[tler and more distrustful of conventional ease 
than in l.";24. The Virgin enthroned with two boys 
in the foreground playing pijx' and tabor, and angels 
flying with tiie crown of glory above the \'irgin's 
head ; — the dead Christ with a seraph above, St. Se- 
bastian and St. Roch fidl length, and St. Nicholas and 
St. Anthony half length at the sides, make up one of 
those combinations of i)anels which were still much 
prized in the Alpine country north of Venice at the 
opening of the eighteenth century, an altar-piece in 
which, under a mixture of styles recalling Titian 
and Palma Vecchio, we apparently discern the true 
type of Francesco Vecelli's art before he ventured on 
imitations of his l)rotlier's bolder and more impulsive 
style. Figures of youthful shape and short stature, 
unctuous pigment uniformly spread, but not without 

* This canvas is now at the 
buck of tho high altar, having 
boon removed from its original 
placo and sent to tho painter 
Bortani, at Venice, to be "re- 
stored" in 1780. The upper 

cuiTe of tho picture and its base, 
with two angels on tho altar step, 
are modern additions, and much 
of tho rest of tho surface is re- 



sharpness of tint, careful and blended treatment are 
distinctive features of the picture, which is the work 
of an artist unable or unwilling to apply the subtle 
methods of impasting, glazing, and breaking which are 
so familiar to us in the technical handling of Titian.'^'" 
That Francesco Vecelli, in the opening years of the 
sixteenth century, should have been employed to paint 
altar-pieces for country churches whilst his abler 
brother was busy on works of magnitude at Venice, 
seems natural enoucrh when we consider the relative 


value of their productions. It may indeed be pre- 
sumed that Titian and Francesco at this time lived 
together, dividing the town and country practice 
between them. But Francesco was not left without 
commissions even in Venice, though we may think he 
received them chiefly after 1524. He painted a fresco 
of the Resurrection in the well of the staircase leading 
from the Ducal Palace into the cathedral of St. Mark, 
from which much of the colour has now disappeared, 
but in which the outlines and action of the Redeemer 
and guards are suflicient evidence of the painter's 
resolution in drawing the human form on a large and 
muscular scale. t He then produced the "Annunciation'^ 
for San Niccolo di Bari now in the Venice Academy, 
which displays novelty and elevation of feeling, espe- 
cially in the action of the angel pointing to heaven 
and in the face and expression of the Virgin.J 

* The side panels are all dis- 
figured by vertical splits, but tbey 
are clean splits, which do not 
affect the painting materially. 

t Boschini, E. Min. S. di S. 

Marco, p. 54. 

J No. 523 at the Venice Aca- 
demy ; canvas, m. 2.37 h. by 1.85. 
Boschini (Min. S. di Castello, 
p. 11} describes this picture, 


In 1528 he completed for the SciioLi de' Zoppi a 
processional standard on which there were two 
figures of cripples symbolizing the duties of the 
brotherhood, and an angel and Vii-gin annunciate. 
He also delivered at some uncertain date a church 
standard for San Stau at Venice and a similar work 
for the brotherhood of the Bombardieri, with a Viririn 
of !N[ercy on one of its sides.* P^ut the most im- 
portant labours with which he was connected about 
this time were tlie frescos decoratinn; tlio cloisters and 
sacristy of San Salvatore of W'liice, and tlic pictures 
of "St. Theodore" and "St. Augustin," with the 
"Resurrection"' and "Transfiguration" on the shutters 
of the organ set uj* in l.l^O above the lateral portal, 
of wliich Sansovino was tlic an-hitect.t Boschini in 
attempting to gauge the comparative merits of the 
Vecclli, says that the work of Francesco at San 
Salvatore was so fine that it micfht have been con- 
founded with that of Titian ; J and there is no doubt 
that he showed more power, more freedom of handling, 
and greater spirit in these than in any other works of 
his that arc now extant. But there is no denying at 
the same time that his creations lack distinction, 
whilst his figures are marked by strained action and 
overweight of muscle ; and it is very probable that the 

which is now greatly injured by 
repainting. The Virgin kneels 
at a desk and looks up at the 
augel flying down. Above the 
alcove to the right two boy angels 
arc flying. To the left is a land- 
scape. Engraved in line in Za- 
notto's rinac. Venota. 

 Boschini, Ricche Miniere, S. 
di S. Marco, pp. 94, 95. Ridolfi, 
Mar. i. 2S1. 

t Eoschini, E. M. S. di. S. 
Marco, p. 105 ; Ridolfi, Mar. i. 
284 ; and the Guides of Selvatico 
and Zanotto. 

X Boschini, Miniere, Preface. 




qualities wliicli Boscliini detected in these pieces 
were such as Francesco could only display when in 
company or in partnership with his abler and more 
gifted brother.* He certainly never improved after 
he left Venice for Cadore ; and of all the pictures 
attributable to him in Cadorine or Bellunese churches^ 
none equal in power those of San Salvatore ; as the- 
list which follows will sufficiently show. 

Fonzaso near Belluno : Casa Ponte. — " The Nativity ; " 
canvas, with figures under life size. The infant Christ lies 
on a cushion in the middle of the foreground, adored by 
the Virgin (right), St. Joseph (in rear), and two shepherds 
(left) . In a hut to the right are the ox and the ass ; and in 
the sky above a landscape. Three angels sing " Gloria in 
excelsis." Very little of the original surface in this canvas 
remains free from repaints. Ticozzi assigns it to Titian 
(Vec. pp. 73 — 5), but Count Florio Miari, in the Dizionario- 
Bellunese (4to, Belluno, 1843, p. 143), affirms that it is by 
Francesco, and in this he receives confirmation from records 
discovered by Doglioni. (Compare Lanzi, Roscoe's transla- 
tion, Bohn's ed. 1847, ii. 167.) The picture was originally 
painted for San Giuseppe of Belluno, a church suppressed 
in 1806. (Miari, u. s.) It is a Titianesque creation, which is 

* The best of these four can- 
vases is that of St. Theodore, who 
stands in armour, lance in hand, 
before the prostrate dragon, in 
front of a temple ; an angel of 
Titianesque type, but heavier in 
shape and more rotund than 
Titian's, flying in the air and 
carrying a palm leaf. The op- 
posite canvas represents St. Au- 
gustin reading from a book held 
■up to him by a priest, in front of 
two kneeling canons. Here again 
"we see Titian's feeling in the 

execution, but the canvas is- 
heavily repainted. Worse pre- 
served, and more seriously da- 
maged by re-touching, are the- 
' ' Transfiguration " and ' ' Eesur- 
rection," where, however, the- 
weight and unwieldiness of the 
figures are more striking than 
ever. So far as one can judge of 
colour dimmed by time, varnish, 
and suj^erposed pigment, it was 
deep, but rather sharp than glow- 
ing. The shadows particularly- 
are verv dark. 


all that can now lie said of it. A small copy called an 
original sketch, as much repainted as the altar-piece itself, is 
shown in the Casa Par]:ani at Belluno. 

Berlin Museum, No. 173. — Arched panel with figures of 
life size (8 ft. ".» h.. hy 4 ft. 9^), representing the Virgin and 
Child enthroned in a church, attended l>v St. Peter and 
St. Jerom, and two angels on the foot of the throne plaj-ing 
the ^iol and tambourine. This picture was once in Santa 
Croce of lielluno (Doglioni, Notizie di I^elluno, 8vo, Belluno, 
181G, p. 3() : Miari. //. .v. 141, and Cadorin, Dello Amore, 
p. 61), and was bought hy Mr. Solly. It is remarkable for the 
short stature of the ligures. and their coarseness of type. The 
execution is Titianesijue, but not of a high class, and it is 
probable that Francesco was assisted in his labours by a 
lielluuese artist, such as Francesco degli Stefani. The altar- 
piece is injured by restoring, and this is particularly the case 
with regard to the figure of St. Peter. The colour of the flesh 
tint is uniform and Hushed with red. The drawing and 
chiaroscuro are alike defective. The church of Santa Croce 
was suppressed in 180(3, and subsequently demolished. 

Venice Anidemi/, No. 41G. — "Rest during the Flight into 
Egyjit ; " canvas, m. 1.00 b. by 1.51. The Virgin Mary 
sits with the infant Christ on her lap in a hilly landscape ; 
near her, likewise seated, is St. John the l^aptist, and in the 
distance St. Joseph with the ass. If this be a genuine 
canvas by Francesco, of which one can hardly give a decided 
opinion on account of repainting, it is beneath his usual level. 

(Jrin(i(> CJiurch. — Canvas, originally arched, now enlarged 
to a rectangle. Christ as a gardener appears to the ]\Iagdalen. 
An angel leans on the side of the sepulchre, out of which 
another angel is leaping. The best part of the picture, and 
that most like Francesco, is the kneeling INIagdalcn in profile. 
The Saviour to the left is long, lean, and false in action. 
The angels are heavy and grotesque. The whole piece 
makes the impression of a work of the close of the Kith 
centuiy, but this may be due to the spotty and daubed 
condition of the surface. (Ilidolfi, Mar. i. 285.) 

Modena GdJlcrij, No. 133. — Half-length on canvas of a 

J I 2 


bearded man in a brown cap and black pelisse with a fur 
collar. His left band on a parapet in front grasps a glove. 
Tbis picture was doubtless a fine one before it was injured by 
repainting. It is quite in the feeling of Titian's school, and 
may well be by the artist to whom it is assigned. It may be 
tha^ this is the portrait described by Ticozzi (Vecelli, p. 262) 
as a portrait of "a Duke of Urbino " once in possession of 
the Marquis Antaldi at Pesaro. (Size, m. 6.80 h. by 0.67.) 

Dresden Museum, No. 239. — " Pilate presents Christ to 
the people;" canvas, 3ft. h. by 2 ft. 0^. Christ with his 
arms bound is seen to the hips in front of Pilate, who stands 
in a red cap and dress to the right, whilst the gaoler to the 
left raises the Saviour's dress and gives him a reed. This 
picture, of the 17th century, is similar to one at Hampton 
Court, copied, with the exception of one figure in the right- 
hand foreground, from a canvas of Titian at Madrid. 

Venice : SS. Ermagora e Fortunato. — Christ with the 
orb, on a pedestal between St. Andrew and St. Catherine. 
This panel, ascribed to Titian (see aiitca), may be a work of 
Francesco Vecelli's youth. But it also recalls the manner of 
Santo Zago. 

Vicenza Gallery. — " Virgin and Child;" half-length of life 
size. This panel, ascribed to Titian, is executed with 
decisive but neglectful ease, and produces the impression of 
an early work by Francesco Vecelli. 

Titian, towards the close of a long and glorious life, 
disposed of almost all he possessed in favour of Orazio 
Vecelli, his second and favourite son. But Orazio 
survived his father's death by a few months only, and 
died in 1576 at the plague lazaretto in Venice 
without distinguishing himself as an independent 
artist.* We saw how constantly he served as Titian's 
assistant. When he painted pictures w^iich passed 

* See antea, and Cadorin, Dello Amore, 55. 

CiiAi-. IX.] OE.VZIO A'ECELLI. 485 

into circulation as his own lie no doubt had advice 
and help from his father in producing them. In 
every case it was Titian wlio gave life and breath to 
the clay kneaded by his son. It was commonly 
asserted in I.jGG that the "Battle of C'astel Sant' 
Angelo " composed for the Hall of Council in competi- 
tion with Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese by Orazio, 
*' was done with the assistance of Titian."* Numerous 
works of less compass were probably ushered into the 
world under simihir conditions ; and it is a melan- 
choly confession to make — we fail to distinguish the 
work of Drazio from that of the school generally, and 
can only suggest that where the style of Titian is not 
strongly impresscfl on })icturi's of a Titianestjue 
character, we have to jtresunie the co-operation of 
Orazio, thoujjh we cannot atlirm that he was not 
assisted or even superseded on occasion by Girolamo 
di Titiano, Cesare or Marco Vecelli. 

The only pictures iu existence, the authorship of which is 
undoubtedly assignable to Orazio Vecelli, are the shutters of 
the altar iu 8au ]:5ia<,'io of Calalzo near Cadore, a set of 
canvases painted on both sides with figures of Sts. Peter, 
Paul, Vitus, and Anthony the abbot, backed by the four 
subjects of the Annunciation, Circumcision, Nativity, and 
Epiphany. None of these pieces are free from extensive 
abrasions and ovei-painting, but such as they are, they show a 
regular but formal and lifeless style of composition, whilst 
they display defective modelling, inequality of balance in 
light and shade, and absence of transitions. It is curious to 
obseiTC that in spite of these drawbacks the pictures have a 

• Vasari, xi. '.i22-'<i. Lorenzi, p. 320. The picture perished in the 
fire of 1 .577. 


Titianesque air ; but this only proves that Orazio, who must 
have been familiar with every turn of Titian's thought and 
every trick of his brush, was in practice unable to use any of 
his advantages. In the "Annunciation " we see Mary turned 
to the right and Imeeling at a desk, but twisting round to 
look up at the angel flying down from the clouds to the left. 
Behind this subject is a fine St. Peter. The " Circum- 
cision " is a composition of six figures, with the Virgin to the 
right, Simeon to the left, St. Joseph in rear, between both ; 
the infant, a coarse and heavy nude. St. Anthony is at the 
back of the canvas. Similar heaviness of shape is apparent 
in the "Epiphany," where the king kneels to the right and the 
Virgin sits to the left with the infant on her knee, and in the 
"Nativity," where the child lies on the foreground to the left. 
Behind the "Epiphany" is St. Vitus. Most of the drapery in 
all the canvases is repainted. Orazio's receipt for payment 
is dated February 4, 1566.* 

As a portrait painter at Rome, Orazio was praised by 
Vasari.f A specimen of his art in this branch is to be found 
in an altar-piece representing the Virgin adoring the child on 
her Imees, in the church of Sorisole near Bergamo. At the 
sides of this picture there are half-length portraits of the Doge 
Lorenzo Priuli and his wife Zilia Dandola, the Doge Girolamo 
Priuli, and an unknown member of the Priuli family whose 
initials are "Pz.P." carrying a compass and square in his hand. 
Girolamo Priuli succeeded his brother Lorenzo as Doge in 
1559, and died in 1567 ; and one of the portraits must for 
that reason have been executed after 1559 ; yet on a tablet 
above the Madonna we read the words: "op. or. v. 1556." J 
It may be that the portraits were taken at difi'erent periods. 
In any case the canvas is a school piece with every evidence 
of being by a disciple in Titian's workshop — a disciple who 
lacks neither skill nor individuality, but who certainly has 
neither the spirit nor the power of Titian himself. 

At Vienna, we find a portrait assigned to Orazio represen- 

* Jacobi MS. 

f Vasari, xiii. 36. 

J Itmaybethatthisinscriiitioii 
is more iq( dein than the picture. 

<:n.\p. IX.] CES.\JIE YECELLI. 487 

ting a bearded man in a black cap and pelisse, with the 
thumb of his left hand in his belt, and his right on a paper 
lying on a table. On the brown background we read : " 1538 
NATvs AXNOS 35." It is sufficient to recall the fact that 
Orazio Yecelli was a schoolboy in 1534,* and could not paint 
a picture four years later which displays mature if not ex- 
traordinary power. The Virgin adoring the infant Christ, 
whose foot the boy Baptist kisses, whilst an angel supports 
it on Mary's lap, is a picture attributed to Orazio at Alnwick. 
The original of this composition in the Borghcse Palace at 
Rome is apparently by some transalpine student of late 
Venetian art. 

Conte Vecelli, gi-audfather of Titian, had a In-other 
named Antonio, whose son Ettore was tlie father of 
Cei=?are Veeelli, the painter. Cesare Vecelli was a 
native of Cadore.+ Accordini;^ to the death re<]jister 
of San Moisc, at V^eniee, he died on the 2nd of March, 
Kjui, at the age of eighty,J and we infer from this that 
he was twenty-seven years old when he attended Titian 
at Augsliuro-, in l.")48. The baptismal register of San 
jNIoise contains the names of Cesare's children, born in 
1.579 and 1590, Titian-Fabrizio and Cecilia, by Lam-a 
^loro, niece of Piero Moro, " scudiere " or " donzello " 
{es(pure) of the Doge Alvise Mocenigo. A letter 
from Piero Moro, addressed to " liis nephew " at 
Cadore, on the 3rd of October, 1570, shows that 
Cesare lived habitually in his uncle's house at 
Venice. § 

* Soo Titian to Veudranio, iu | J Cicogna, Isc. Ven. vi. 887. 

Ticozzi, Vecelli, u. s., p. ;JOS. § lb., and registry of San 

t Piero Moro to Cesare Ve- Moisc', in a letter from Abate 

colli, from Venice, Oct. ;J, 1570, Cadorin to Dr. T. Jacobi, in MS. 

in MS. Jacobi of Cadore. I Jacobi at Cadore. 


The earliest record of Cesare Yecelli's practice is a ducal 
privilege giving him the monopoly of the issue of a print of 
the " Adoration of the name of Jesus," on the 28tli of October, 
1575.* The next is an authentic proof of his activity as a 
monumental draughtsman, in a series of paintings in the 
parish church of Lentiai, between Belluno and Feltre, where 
a panelled ceiling is covered with twenty episodes of the life 
of the Yirgin certified in one place (the Presentation in the 
Temple) with the name " CiESAK vecelivs," and in another 
Tvith the following inscription : "c^sar vecell, pinxit et ia^*^' 
coNSTANTiNi iwENis D. c. 1578." Cesare also covered the 
ribbings of the panelling with gospel subjects in monochrome, 
— all of which is in part abraded, in part injured by time, 
neglect, and retouching. The most notable features in these 
compositions is a general appropriateness of distribution of 
groups, and of figures, and good perspective lines. The 
human form is always cast in a large, muscular, and fleshy 
mould which produces an exaggerated impression of weight 
and herculean strength. The handling is rapid and bold, the 
pigment copious, the flesli tint deep in tone and relieved with 
dark shadow remijiiscent of Schiavone and Tintoretto rather 
than of Titian. Cesare was clearly a man of great skill who 
stood in the same relation to Titian as Giulio Romano stood 
to Raphael. He was an enterprising yet on the whole a shallow 
disciple of a great master. In an earlier form than that 
which distinguishes the ceiling pieces of the church of Lentiai,. 
Cesare, in conjunction perhaps with other artists of the 
following of Titian, probably helped to execute one or two of 
the vrorks of art which decorate the church in question, and 
principally the pictures of the high altar, still assigned to 
Titian, which hang in one frame on the walls of the choir- 
Here we have the Assumption of the Yirgin on lines 
similar to those of Titian's great composition in the cathedral 
of Yerona, a Christ in the tomb supported by two angels, 
reminiscent of the same subject in the church of Sedico, and 
figures in full and half length of several saints, amongst which 

* In full in MS. Jacobi of Cadore. 


we note, iu the tirst class, St. Peter, St. Paul, St. John Evan- 
gelist, and a bishop, iu the second, St. George, St. Anthony, 
St. Mary ^lagdalen, and a female with the palm and crown 
of martyrdom. The date of the transfer of these pieces to their 
present position is given in an inscription on a framing of the 
period : " ad. mdcclxxxxiv." The canvases are all so rotten 
as to threaten the very existence of the pigment upon them. 
But enough is visible to show that the treatment is Titian- 
esque, though made up of various elements suggesting recol- 
lections of Francesco, Marco, and Ccsare Vccelli. In almost 
all the tigures we shall notice energetic character, bold move- 
ment, and varied expression, combined with shape of a large 
and tleshy kind ; — work tolling of Titian's intervention iu the 
execution, if not directly, at any rate indirectly by means of 
assistants, at whose head Cesare Vecelli may have been. 
Another large canvas in the same editice, " Christ supported 
in death by ihv ^larys," bears the initials of Cesare C. V. P. 
with the addition: "refeclvto sotto il s'' anduea cristixi." 
Though in u very bad state it leads to a natural inquiry 
whether Cesare was not at some period of his life under the 
influence of the school of Parmegianino, to which Schiavone 
at one time was so partial. Judging from these productions as 
the result of a series of visits of Cesare Vecelli to Lentiai 
between 1552 and 1578, wo become very fairly acquainted 
with his style ; and venture to assign to him several pictures, 
of which it will be sufficient to give the locality, the subject, 
and the probable dates. 

Candide in Cadorc. — The parish church of this village 
boasts of an altar-piece assigned to Titian, representing the 
Virgin enthroned with the infant Christ in benediction on 
her knee. A yellow damask curtain behind the throne in- 
tercepts the sky and a landscape of hills. On the marble 
floor at the Virgin's feet an angel plays the tambourine. On 
side canvases are the figures of St. John the Baptist and St. 
Andrew, both about a quarter of the size of life, and in a very 
bad state of preservation. Though it has become dark from 
restoring and old varnish (the sky, the curtain, the Virgin's 


mantle and the tambourine being daubed with new paint) the 
Madonna of Candide gives a fair idea of what Cesare Vecelli's 
art may have been in its first development. It combines the 
weight of Pordenone with Titianesque contours, but displays 
coarse types and a certain crude depth of colour which points 
to an artist who strove to imitate Titian's tone without apply- 
ing Titian's subtle method of producing it. It appears from 
the papers of the notary Bartolo Gera Doriga at Candide 
that the picture was purchased at Conegliano in 1649 for 435 
ducats from " Signer Zuane Pigatto, a carver." 

Verona Museum, No. 450. — An illustration of the form 
observed in the altar-piece of Candide may be found in a 
picture in this museum, of the Virgin adoring the infant 
Christ on her knees, whilst the boy Baptist leads his lamb to 
her presence. The scene here is laid in a rich landscape of 
wood and hills. This graceful piece, with figures half the 
size of life, was attributed to Titian by Dr. Bernasconi, who 
bequeathed it to the gallery of Verona. But it is at best a 
fair example of Cesare, a low toned and somewhat crudely 
coloured canvas in fair preservation. (Photograph by Naya.) 

Padua Maldura Coll. — The Virgin, half length, holds the 
infant Christ recumbent on her lap. A green curtain behind 
her conceals in part the distance of sky and landscape. This 
canvas is attributed to Titian, and though repainted in several 
places, still shows a certain richness of tone. But the puffy 
outline and uniform flesh tint point to Cesare Vecelli, and 
the di'apery is quite too conventional for any but a pupil of 

Vienna Gallery. — The "Epiphany"; panel, 1ft. 10 h. by 
1 ft. 6, under Titian's name. The Virgin Mary sits to the 
right under the shade of a penthouse attended by St. Joseph. 
The infant Christ on her knee gives the blessing to one of 
the kings prostrate before him. To the left are the two com- 
panion kings with their suite on the foreground of an Alpine 
landscape enlivened by a calvacade of knights. The realism 
which characterises this piece is akin to that of Titian's old 
age, or to that of Paolo Veronese or the Bassanos. The 
treatment is rapid and effective, the colours being laid on with 

Cir-vr. IX.] CESARE ^-ECELLT. 491 

deep toned unctuous pigments, and effect being given at last 
by strongly picked out lights. (Engraved in Teniers' Gallery 
work.) Dr. Waagen, it may be observed (Vornebmste Kunst- 
denkmiiler in Wien, p. 211) follows Kraft't (Hist. Kritiscb. 
Catalog) in tbinkiug tbat tins panel is a copy from '" Titian's 
altar-piece at Bt'lluno." But it is probably tbc original sketch 
by Cesaro for the altar-piece of Belluno. 

Belluno: S. Strfdiio. — Arched canvas with figures of Hfe 
size ; the; subject is an exact counterpart of that in the sketch 
at Vienna. The landscape is a view of the Alps as seen from 
the military hospital or Casa dei (xesuiti at Belluno, and the 
arras of the families of Piloni and Persicini are on scutcheons 
at the corners of the foreground. Tlic ])icture is disfigured 
by extensive repaints, but amidst the patches of daubing some 
fragments of tlie original painting are apparent which point 
to the technical handling of Cesaro Voci-lli. Nor is there any 
reason why he should not have painted the picture, which 
Giorgio Piloni (Hist, di Belluno, 4to, Venice, IHOT, p. 1C)[) and 
Ticozzi (Vecelli, ]). 1)8) assign to Titian, since he says himself 
in his work on costume tbat he was well acquainted with the 
family of the Piloni, with whom be lived for some years, 
having written his book at Casteldardo, their country seat 
near Jielluno. Is it necessary to recapitulate the features of 
Cesare's style which are apparent here? — the large fleshy forms, 
the brown-tinged flesh tints, and dark alu-upt shadows, the 
defective modelling and absence of transitions. A small copy 
of the altarpiece is called a " Sketch by Titian" in the Casa 
Pagani at Belluno; together with this is a copy of the "Pieta" 
on the altar-piece of Lentiai. 

Casteldardo : V'dhi of tJie Piloni fa mill/ near Belluno. — 
Portrait of an old man with a grey beard in a dark dress 
with a white frill, seated near a windoAv, inscribed in the 
right hand corner " odoricivs tilonvs i. v. [juris utriusque] 
ASCKSSOR ET ANTiQV.viuvs." This fine portrait is executed 
with great freedom in the style of Tintoretto or of Titian in 
his old age. It represents Oderico at about 70 years of age, 
and as he was born in 1503, its date would be 1573. (Genea- 
logical tree of the Piloni, and registers of the cathedral of 


Belluuo, examined for the authors by Professor D. Francesco 
Pellegrini of Belluno.-) The flesh tints are of a low brownish 
tinge, but spare in ijigment, defective in modelling, in fact, 
in the style of Cesare Vecelli. The hand is injured by scaling; 
and part of the canvas was folded back on a new framing 
so as to conceal some of the letters of the inscription. A 
counterpart of this portrait will be found catalogued as a like- 
ness of Bramante by Titian in the North wick collection. 
]3ut in the Northwick example, which is also by Cesare, 
Oderico is not so old as at Casteldardo. In this villa again 
two fragments of fresco are presented, heads of boys aged six 
and eight respectively. They are portraits, probably by 
Cesare, of Cesar and Scipio Piloni, of which there are 
likenesses in oil in the Casa Agosti, and Casa Pagani at 

Belluno: Casa Pagani. — Portrait of a boy on panel, three 
quarters to the left, bust, inscribed antonivs an. xiiii. D". of 
a boy on canvas three quarters to the right : ' ' ioan*^^ maria. 
AN. X." D". of a boy full face : " scipio. an. viii." (From the 
tree of the Piloni family and notices of Professor Pellegrini, 
«.. s.) These busts must all have been done for Oderico Piloni, 
the children's father, in 1552. They are injured here and there 
by abrasion, but painted carefully and minutely in a warm 
rosy flesh tone, but not without meaningless uniformity* 
Though assigned to Titian, they are far beneath his powers, 
especially at the period above indicated. In the same style 
two other portraits of the series are in — 

Belluno: Casa Agosti. — Bust on canvas, full face, inscribed 
"PAVLVS AN. iiii." and Cesare in profile: " a^SAR. an. vi.'' 
The probable author of these works is Cesare Vecelli, who is 
likewise to be considered the painter of a fresco of the Rape 
of the Sabine Women, of which a fragment is preserved — a 
head of a female of life size, three quarters to the right, look- 
ing up — in Casa Piloni at Belluno. We may add to the list 
of Cesare 's works the following : 

Cedola, nearBelluno: Parish Church. — The Virgin and Child 
enthroned between St. John Evangelist and St. Jerom, with 
two boy angels on the step of the throne, inscribed : " c.^sar 


VECELrv'S F. 1581." Canvas with figures of life size. — Two 
an<,'els iu prayer are flying at the sides of the throne. 

Tai : S. CinuUdo. — Virgin and child enthroned hetwecn 
St. Candidus and St. Oswald ; an angel playing an instrument 
at the foot of the throne ; inscrihed : " c.t.s. vec. f." — Figure 
of St. Apollonia inscrilied : " s. roLOXiA. ora. pro. no. 1582 
c. V. F." St. Maurice inscribed : " s. mavritio ora pro so. cjf.s. 

V. F." 

But even such curt notices as these would take up too much 
space, and it will be enough to mark as work of Cesare the 
following : VinKjo. — Virgin and Child between St. Anthony 
and St. Margaret. Ctistiotis Church. — The Assumption, in- 
scribed on the canvas folded beneath a lU'W framing with the 
date of 1585. lielluno : S. linccn. — The same subject as at 
Castions, in the same form. Ca.^tel Colalto. — Fragment of 
portraits in fresco, from the canonry of Castions. (See antea, p. 
435.) Jidluno CathedrnL — The Virgin in (ilmy. with the 
Podesta Giovanni Loredano kneeling on the foreground before 
St. Sebastian, St. Gregory the Great, and another saint — an 
altar-piece proved by local records tohave been executed in 1584. 
lielluno: San Stcfano. — Meeting of Abraham andMelchizedek. 
Ccneda Cathedral. — Virgin and Child enthroned between St. 
Roch antl St. Sebastian, with a kneeling patron in front to 
the right, who is supposed to be one of the Sarcinelli related 
by marriage to Titian. Cadorc: Picve. — Organ shutters with 
the Annunciation, St. Peter, and St. Paul. The "Last Supper" 
of 1585, 14 ft. G h. by 14 br., on the lines of Titian's " Cena" at 
the Escorial. The Virgin and Child with St. Mark, and 
allegorical figures, emblematic of Venice and Cadore, 1599. 
Padola CJiurch. — Pope Sylvester. 

In 1579, Cesare Vecelli christened his second son Titiano 
Fabrizio, after his teacher Titian and his brother Fabrizio. 
Fabrizio was a painter whose death, as proved by notarial 
records (MS. Jacobi of Cadore), occurred in Venice in 1576. 
lie left but one picture behind, which shows the degeneracy 
of his race. It represents allegorically Justice, ]\Iercy, and 


Virtue, and was painted in 1542 for the Comuue of Cadorc, 
where it still remains. There is hardly a reminiscence of the 
Titianesque in this feehle work, the style of which we trace in 
pictures scattered about in Cadoriue churches, i. c, the 
Eternal, St. Lucy, and St. Apollonia, in San Kocco of Perarolo, 
the Assunta, a single figure of the Virgin, in a choir of 
cherubs in Sant' Orsola of Vigo. 

The best artist of the name of Vecelli, after Cesarc, is 
Marco, the son of Titian's cousin and bosom friend, Toma 
Tito Vecelli. Marco is said to have been bom in 1545, and 
to have died in 1611.* He was assistant to Titian in his 
old age, and acquired the style of his master at that period, 
which he varied with imitation of Orazio Vecelli. His Avorks 
after Titian's death are so numerous that a fair description of 
them would require considerable space. But of this they 
are certainly unworthy. The earliest composition certified by 
his name, and accompanied by a date, is the " Virgin in Glory" 
with St. Anthony, attended by St. Lucy and St. Agatha, in 
the Chiesa di Cristo at Pieve di Cadore, ordered in 1584, and 
paid with 31 lire. (MS. Jacobi.) The latest is the " Martyr- 
dom of St. Catherine" of 1G08 in the choir of the church 
of Pieve. But the best is the votive " Madonna " of the Doge 
Leonardo Donato (1606 — 11), in the Sala della Bussola in 
the public palace at Venice, and the " Charity of St. John the 
Almsgiver," with a portrait of Doge Donate, in San Giovanni 
Elemosinario at Venice. It may suffice, to characterise 
Marco's style, to say that it has some of the elements peculiar 
to Andrea Schiavone and Palma Giovine, though it is inferior 
to both. 

The last descendants of the Vecelli family who cultivated art 
are Tizianello, the son of Marco, whose edition of Titian's life 
by an anonymous writer has been often quoted in these pages. 
and Tommaso, who was Tizianello's cousin, having been the 

* Eidolfi, Mar. ii. 342 ; Ticozzi, Vecelli, 289-96. 


son of Marco's brother Graziano. The contribntions of both 
these painters to the art of their country' are too uninteresting 
to be noticed. It is only necegsary to saj' that Tizianello was 
sentenced to two years' imprisonment by the Inquisition in 
1635, and was still living when Kidolii wrote his Maraviglie 
in 164G * 

Tommaso Vecelli was born at Pieve di Cadore on the 14th 
of December, 1587. One of his pictures in the Pieve of 
Lozzo in Cadore, a "Last Supper," is inscribed ^Nith his name 
and dated 1G19. 

 See Cicogna, Isc. Yen. vi. OJl ; and Eidolfi, Maniv. ii. 343. 


[UiipubliKlied.] ir)37, 3 Settembre. 

Benkdetto Agnello al Duca Federico Gonzaga. 

M. Ticiano in' ha detto che fra otto di alia pii'i lunga mi dara tre 
<liiadri ilc imjteratori da niandare a V. E. et che andara drieto finendo 
jjdi idtri, quali promette di dare molto presto. 

Venetia, 3 Settembre, 1537. 

(Copied by Canon Bi-aghirolli in the Archives of Mantua.) 

[Unpublished.] 1537, 9 Settembre. 

Benedetto Agnello al Duca Federico Gonzaga. 

Ho visti) li trt' <(ua(lri de imperatori che fa M. Ticiano, li quali sono 
molto belli et in terminu che penso poterli mandare a V. E. fra sei over 
otto di. 

Venetia, alii 9 Settembre, 1537. 

(Copied by Canon BraghiroUi in the Archives of Mantua.) 

lUnpuhlished.] 1538, 13 Agosto. 

Il Duca Federico Gonzaga a Benedetto Agnello. 

Vi diciamo che dobbiati far intendere a Titiano per parte nostra che 
noi siamo per parti rsi per Casale al principio di Settembre, et sel 
potesse venire inanti la partita nostra con li quadri delli Imperatori, mi 
saria di graiidissima soddisfazione, e lo vederessimo volontieri quand 
'anco non gli havessi comoditii, forse perche li f[uadri non fossero forniti 
al tempo detto, di venirci, che alnu-nci usi ogni sollecitudine accio che 
alia tornata nostra tutti siano forniti. 

Mantue, alH 13 Agosto, 1538. 

(Copied by Canon BraghiroUi in the Archives of Mantua.) 



[Unpubluhed.] 1538, 23 Agosto. 

Bknedetto Agnello al Duca Federico Gonzaga. 

Ho detto a M. Ticiano quanto la E. V. m' ha fatto scrivere de li 
Im])eratori ; egli dice che non attenderii ad altro et che saranno finiti al 
ritorno di V. E. di Casale. 

Perche altre volte V. E. cercava di havere im ritratto del signer 
Tiirco, ho voliito dirli che M. Ticiano hora n' ha fatto uno cavato se non 
me inganno da ima medaglia et da un altro ritratto, qual si dice di 
iiiolti che sono stati a Costantinopoli esser tanto simile al natnrale, che 
pare il medesimo Turco vivo, pcro volendone V. E. uno la me ne fara 
dar aviso che M. Ticiano ha detto che lo fara subito. 

Venetia, 23 Agosto, 1538. 

(Copied by Canon Braghirolli in the Archives of INIantua.) 

[Un2mblished.] 1538, 27 Agosto. 

Il Duca Federico Gonzaga a Benedetto Agnello. 

Non mancate di sollicitar presso a Tiziano li nostri quadri, et di piii 
pregatilo per parte nostra a fame \in retratto del Tnrco, come il se vi 
ha oflerto di fare, che 1' haverenio gratissimo. 

Mantue, 27 Augusti, 1538. 

(Copied by Canon Braghirolli in tlie Archives of Mantua.) 

[Unimhlished.] 1538, 3 Settembre. 

Benedetto Agnello al Duca Federico Gonzaga. 

Ho fatto intendere a M. Ticiano quanto la E. V. m' ha fatta scrivere 
delli Imperatori e del ritratto del Turco ; egli dice che non mancara, 
ma che volendo V. E. esser ben servita bisogna che la faccia a quello da 
la pensione che non gli dia molestia, perche ogni di lo fastidisce con 
lettere domandandogli denari, et che per non haver modo de pagarlo, 
tanto e il fastidio che ne ha che non puo operar cosa che li stii bene. 

Venetia, 3 Settembre, 1538. 

(Copied by Canon BraghiroUi in the Archives of Mantua.) 

[Un^nMished.] 1538, IS Settembre. 

Benedetto Agnello al Duca Federico Gonzaga. 

M. Ticiano ha in bonissimo essere il ritratto del Turco, et da 
speranza de finir anche presto li quadri di Imperatori, ma dubito che la 


cosa andra piii in longo Ji quel che egli dice ; la causa e che il signor 
Duca d'Urbino lo mena seco a Pesaro, ove S. E., dice di voler audar 
que-sta settimana ad ogni raodo. 

Venetia, 18 Settembre, 1538. 

(Coi>it'd by Canon BraghiroUi in the Archives of Mantua.) 

[Unjnifilisheil.] l.')38, 20 Settembre. 

If. Duca Federico Goxzaga a Benedetto Agxello. 

Ni ac'ria grato d' aver pn-.-^to il ritratto del Turco che fa Tiziaiio, e 
peri) soUicitatelo. ne disi)iace ben che ne sia interotta I'opera delli nostri 
iinporatori e pen') parendovi coUecitarli pres.-<o al predetto Tiziano inanti 
.>«i i>arti. 

Mantue, 2i) Ottol>re, 153S. 

(Copied by Ciinon P.rnghirolli in tlie Aichivis of Mantua.) 

[UtipnUishai] .")th .TiuiL', l.'}42. 

Adi .') Ziigno 1542, Vexezia. 

lo Titian VfciUio ho ricei)uto dix la niagnificenzia di Ms. Donienego 
Justinian p nonn- it. S. Comunita Ducati diuse a lire sei e soldi (|uattro 
P ducato p capara di far una palla p la gesia nova d Serravalle. 

(Copied from the original in the Archives of Senavalle.) 

[Unpublished.'] 23rd Oct. 1542. 

Titiano at, Podesta di Serravai.le. 

MA(i<^'' et Cl«" Sig",— Jo disidcro suinamcnte servire vril ]\rag''" et 
quosta Sp'^ Comunita circha la pala gli iinpromossi e al iircsL'ute in buon 
termine del modello, se (picllo non mancheni de [illegible] conoscerette 
co' 1' effetto V affetione et amore gli porto, et essendo el spatio di d" pala 
troppo grande, jo gli voria far un fornimento attorno di mezzo pie p 
bada come e qui di sotto. V" Sig" adoni[. mi rescrivoru el suo parere. 

Di Venm:/ia, alii xxiii Ottubrio, moxlii. 

Di y. S. Titiano. 

[( >n the back of the sheet is a drawing of the area of the altar-piece.] 

(Copied fii'in tlie original in the Archives of Serravalle.) 

K K 2 


[Unpublished.] 1542, Venice. 

M° Titiano "VeceUi pictore in Venezia A havere per la pictura d' una 
Pala da esser da lui fatta come consta p iino scritto sopra cio fabricato 
Due. dosento ciuquantada essergli dati in li ter"' infiasti . . . [illefj;il)l('] 
due. 50, et iinita I'opera due. 50, et il resto L 200 al anno alu feste de la 
S* Pasqua d la Resurezione come in ditto scritto se contiene. Yal. 
1. 1550. 

M" Tizian VeceUi Pictore effa D.D. adi 13 9^''", 1542 per conto in 
la Ostaria di L. Zuan Batta Franzaso . . . due. cinquanta Val. 1. 310. 

(Copied from the original in the Aixhives of Serravalle.) See 1548. 

\_Unpublislied.'] 1544-75, Castel Roganzuolo. 

[The following Memoranda were made for Dr. Taddeo Jacobi, of 
Cadore, by Gio. Antonio Nicolai, curate of Domegge, after an examina- 
tion of the parish registers of Castel Roganzuolo. But it is necessary to 
state that Beltrame (Tiziano Vecellio, u. s., pp. 48 & 66) disputes the 
correctness of the earliest of these dates, and states that the contract is 
of 1549, and the price 100, and not 200 ducats, 

1544. Titian contracts to paint an altar-piece in three parts for 200 
ducats, and finished it in September of the same year, without asking 
for any earnest of payment. [The contract gives no instructions as to 
subject, as might be inferred from Ciani, Storia del Popolo Cadorino, ii. 

1546. A deed Avas signed by which the Fabbriceria admits its 
indebtedness, and binds itself to liquidate in eight successive years, by 
delivering annually 5 measures (stara) of wheat at the price of Lire 8 
per staro, and 16 measures (conzuoli) of wine at the rate of Lire 55 per 
measure. The Fabbriceria also undertakes to carry stones "of Fre- 
gona," for the building of the Casino planned by Titian in Col di 
Manza, and furnish manual labour at the rate of 4 soldi per man jier 
diem. The account closed at the expiration of the time, leaving the 
Fabbriceria still in debt to the amount of 26 lire, which were jmid in 
cash. The following entries are from the books of the Fabbriceria : — ] 

Page 59. " Noto fazo io Celso S. Fiore como in questo giomo che 
sono adi 13 Marzo, 1555. Mg. Tician Vicelio a fatto saldo co' il Zurado 
de Castel, Zandomenego barazuol, Dona barazuol, Piero Tomasela 
niariga, et altri homini de la villa li quali U restano debitori g conto d 
la palla lire dosento e trenta una. Val L. 231 

Io Celso soprascritto f. nome d Ms. Ticiano fece il soprascritto saldo 

Page 60 contains all the items of the carriage of 2O0O of bricks, 1000 
filabs (tavole), and a cartload of " coluna" (?), all for Lire 46. Further, 


in ifarch, 1557, 333 copi (I) for Lire 10, and Lire 15 lor the carriage of 
the same to Col di Manza. 

Page 188. Contract of Orazio \'ecellio -with the men of Castel Rogan- 
zuolo for a gonfalone, to compiise one tigure on each side, namely, 
St. Peter and St. Paul. Paynuiits were to In* made by the signers of 
the contract and the priest (pinvani)) ; :2o ducat.s were paid in advance, 
and are acknowledged by Orazio. The contract is dated August 10, 
1575. No otlier notice of this gonfalone, or its e.xistence, was obtain- 
able at Roganzuolo. 

Titian, in an income-tax riturn of 1566, notes the possession of ten 
fields and a cottage at Col de Manza. (See Cadurin, DuUo Amore, u. s., 

p. ;.i.) 

[UnpublUluJ.] 1544, Venice, 

[Sinianca-s Estado Leg" N" 131 S, In. 42.] 
S. C. Mata_ 

Al SOr Don Diego di Mendoza hn cunsignato li dui ritrati della 
Ser"" Imperatrice, ne i (jualli ho fatto tutta la diligentia che mi e 
statta po.ssibile. Haveria voluto portarle jo se la longheza dil 
viag^'io et 1' eta mia nu 1 conceiUs.sen ; prego a V. Ma" mi mandi a dir 
li falli et mam lianieiiti, rimandanclomeli in dietro aceio clii li emendi ; 
et non consents V. Ma'" ch' un altro mctta la man in essi. Nell resto mi 
riporto a ([uello che dira il S"' Don die^o circa le cose mie, et basciando 
imhinevolmenti li piedi et man della Ma" V. nella bu[L']ona gratia di 
cs3a huniiliiiente mi racco''". 

Da N'kneha, alii 5 di Ottob. d 1545.* 

Humilli-ssimo et pptuo servo della Ma" V". 

Sobre. Alia S. C. Ma" del Imperador mio Seiior. 

Altar-piece of Seiravalle. 
[Unpublished.] 1548—1553 [see 1542]. 

"Di ult" Genaro, 1548. M" Francesco Vecellio f" (fratello) del so- 
prascritto M" Ticiano Pic"' da M. Antonio Panzetta Sindico per conto, 
ut supra a la presentia del Mag'" Do. Polo P«a Due. 30 v[ale]. 

L[ire] 186 

Como appar nel ricever sul scritto. 

• This (late should bo 1544 ; ami 1545 is probably an error of the copyist. 


Adi 9 Marzo, 1548. Ricevete M. Francesco soprascritto del Mag*^" 
M. Kiccolo Baldii\, li (jiiali haveva coiitato la Ecc. nob. Dofnco Gins- 
tiniuno a conto ut supra Lire cento venti c|uatro, cioe appar in una tra 
de man di detto M. Francesco et sottoscritto dal Mag" posta . Lire 124 

II d. d. per resto de pivl havuto da Antonio de Marchi, como lui disse, 
et appar alia partita del detto Antonio a c[arta] 47 lire diese , Lire 10 

II d. d. de 24 April, del 50 per con. dal S' Domcnego Justinian 
D° et Sindico appar da suo ricever sottoscritto de nome de D' Francesco 
suo fratello in filza, et alia partida di D. I\L Domenego in questo a C. 
63 Lire 372 

II d. d. del 16 Zugno, 1552, per cons, da M. Anloiiici da Yenezia 
Sindico, quali havere M. Celso da Sanlior suo nepote et Procur. de M. 
Francesco fratello de detto ^I. Titian, como in la procura appresso de 
M. pred" como appar da ricever appresso al pred° M. Antonio in fin del 
suo lib" della Sistrada della Fabbric* de S'° Andrea, lire dusento. 

Lire 200 

D. d. dei 23 Febro, 1553, j? . . . [illegible] ut su})ra li liavuti il 
sopranominato M. Celso Procurator ajipar ut sujjra di suo ricever lire 
cento et diese . . . L. 110 

D. d. Dei 20 Marzo, 1553, per cent, ut supra li havuti il sunominato 
M. Celso appar ut supra R"^ Lire trenta otto . . . Lire 38 

Sotto il di p° [rimo] Zugno, 1552. 

Per concessi per la Sentenza arbitraria nasciuta tra la Spet. Comunita, 
et lo Agent, di M. Titian sojuasto como nel Libro a c. 19 . Lire 200 

Lire 1550 

(Copied from the books of the Church of SerraA'alle for the late 
Dr. Taddeo Jacobi of Cadore.) 

1548, Ceneda. 


AT Augsburg. 
Illmo Rmo Monsignor mio, — 
Havendo io inteso Y. S. Illma esser gia partita di Roma et ritomata 
alia Corte di Sua Mta la occasione del lator presente qual e Messer 

Titiano Pittore et il primo huomo della Christianita, ho voluto fargli 
riverentia con questa mia supplicandola voler havere per raccomandato 
il dito ilesser Titiano in tutto quello gli potra far favore, utile et 
comedo, lo vogli fare quanto alia persona mia propria, che la mi fark 
singiilarissimo piacere. Esso messer Titiano viene de li chiamato da S. 


M*^ per far qualche opera. Altro nou mi resta, salvo raccomandarnu 
alia buona gratia cli V. S. Ill"*, supplicandola a volersene servir ili lue 
in ogni occorrenza sua cuiue <li uno mininn) servitore. 

Di Ceneda il vi Genaro del mxlvhi. 

Di V" S. Ill"* e R"- 

Servitor, Hieronimo della Torre. 

Ab extra. All 111"" et R"" S'* il Si}^' Cardinal cli Trento Sig' mio 

(Copied from the Colex Mazzettiano, iv. 1306, at Trent, but once 
printed in the Calendario Trentino for 1854, by T. Gar and B. Malfatti.) 

[Unpuhliihed.] 1548, Inspruck. 

Titian to Kino Ferdinand. 

6kr'> et poTEN»»f' Re, S"R S"* clementissimo ; Ix-nche vostra Rej^ia 
MaestA D. sua rcf,'al bonta me ha fatto },Tatia «lu; del h-gnanie clie io 
comduro ju-r aiini tre die del datio me sia rimesso [word illegible here] 
cento al imno nou di meno S"' ^^Tatio"" sollicitando <iui la expi-ditiuue 
me pareiio <jui li consiglicri de la camera dilficultar la litientia de 
tagliare ; in la selva detta mrbolt impero che V. M'" in la dispositione 
de la sua aiguoria non ne fa meutione at dicano che la selva sia dedicata 
al uso tie le minere, il the mi anno fastidito al(|Uanto iiij)eroche non mi 
jiersuadeva die dovessino detti consiglieri re.-istere al online di V. 
M^"' tiiito piu the Io non son homo da fame marchantia nia solu per 
mio servitinetfabriche et ho servito et servo V. M**' com tanta diligentia 
ot fede (|ualle sevi certha in imo sviscerato servitore, et come ben quei^ti 
S'' ne possono se vcdeno se dar buona testimonianza si che humilmeute 
eupplico V. M'" at cometer che non me enpedistono al tagliar in detta 
selva tanto pii\ che altri per il passixto lurno tagliatto tome ben se puol 
justifichare et apreso de la quale non sono minere vicine a venti miglia 
tedeschi et pii\ et i)uoi facendomi V. M" gratia in cio non li sai-o ingrato 
sei-vitore ma me attbrzaro cum tute mie forze et super di recognocela. 

Li retrati di le 8er°"= figliole fra duj zorni sarano finite et jo li com- 
durt) a Yenetia dove che li tom ogni diligentia et mio saper li forniro et 
com presteza mandarli a V. M'" et (piell visti die le arano mi rendendo 
zertto che la M^ii V'" mi farano molto mazor gratia che no e questa che 
la me anno fatto et a V. M*''^ humilmente me recomando. 

De Ispruch ali xx di Otob. de 48. 

D. V. :MtA 

el fidel Servitor, 

Titian o. 


[On tlie margin of this letter is the following partial translation inta 
German by one of the secretaries of the King.] 

— " imd hab als ain trewer dienner gedient iind noch dienne wie dan 
des Si) di heixn Camerrat, wo si wellen, guette Khuiidschafft geben 
nnigen. Daraiif siippliciert Er iindterthanigst, di Khu[nigkliche] M' 
[Majestat] welle berethen, das Er nit verhindert werde in dem berurten 
waldt holtz zu hawen. Sonderlick weill auch andere hievor darin holtz 
zu hawen vergundt worden sey. Wie man soliches woll darbringen vnd 
justificiren muge, und auch dabei biss in 20 meill wegs khain perckh- 
werck sey. Solches welle Er in vndterthenigkeit mit allem vleyss zue 
dienen sich befleissen. Di entwerfung der Kliu [nigklichen] M' geliebt- 
sten Tochter werde innerhalb zwaien tagen vertig, und Er wels mit gen 
7ennedig fueren, daselbst gar fertigen, vnd alsdan auffs peldist Iwev 
Khu M' zueschigken und versiht sich, wan Ir Khu M'dieselben besehen, 
werden Ime nit allain die sender ain merere gnad gnedigst beweissen." 

(From the original, 1867, in possession of ]\Ir. Rudolph Weigel at 

[ Unpublished. J 

1550. Milan Pension. 

1550. Ind" viiL 3 Felib" Ferdinandus Gonzaga Caesa* maiestatis 
Capitanus gentis et Locumtenens, &c. 

Stii Rever. et Mag'^' nobis dilectissimi. Ne tempori defectu No- 
bilis Titianus Vecelius cujus est presentibus inserta suplicatio remaneat 
privatus benef" Pensionis a Coes* Maiestate ei concessanim (?), eum ad 
V03 remittimus, ut ad petendum approbationem memoratorum pri-^nlegio 
nunc ipsum admittatis, allegato tempori lapsu non obstante modo earn 
intra mensem petat. 

In MiLANO alii 3 di Febb° 1550. 

Ferdinandus Gonz*, m. p. 
V. Taberna, T. Royonos. 

Stt° Reverend' et Mag"' D. Presidi et Senatoribus Cesarei Senatus 
Mediolani nobis dilectissimis. 

(Copied from authentic extracts last in possession of Signor Luigi 
Mozzi of Serravalle.) 

1550 — 1551, Augsburg. 

Armentas de la Casa de D. Phelipe de Austria, Principe de Espana. 

" A Tiziano 60 escudos de oro, 19 Dec. 1550. 

" A Tiziano Yezelli pintor 200 due. de Merced 6 hebr. (February) 


" A Ti9iano Vezelli 30 due. para pagar ciertas colores que se han 
traido de Venef;ia para mi semcio 6 hebr. 1551." 

(From the Archives of Simanca-, in the Gazette des Beaux Arts for 
1869, i. p. 88.) 

[UnpMhhed.] 1552, Venice. 

[Simancas, Arch. Estado Leg" 1336.] 

Titian to thk Prince of Spain. 

MoLTO alto et molto P0DER080 siONORE, — Essendouii nouainente 
peruenute alle nmni vna Regina di Persia du la maueraet qualitacom' e 
r \v) ininifdiate iudicata degna di coniparere a 1' alta presenza di vostra 
Altezza, Et co>i di subito I'lio inuiata a K-i con CDmmissione, sino che 
ceitu mie altre opcre si asciuganu, che riverenttiuenle in nonie mio 
faccia alcune anibusciate al' Altezza Aostra, acconijiagnando il Paesaggio 
et 11 ritratto di S'" Margarita mandatoui per avanti jut il signor Am- 
bassiidor Varga.s racomandato al Vescovo Segnvia. Et cosi il nostro 
signor Iddio guardi et pros]:K*ri la niolto alta et niolto podorosa iicrsona 
e stato di vostra Altezza con ogni felicitii et jjrosperita secondo chel 
ileuotissimo penio di vostra Altezza Titiano desidura. 

Di Venetia, alii 11 clc Ottnbrio, 1552. 

Molto alto et niolto i)odero3o signor 

Senio di V. A. die bascia li suoi piedi, 

Titiano Vecellio. 


Titian (ni<l I'hilii) of Spain, 1553. 

[Simancas, Estado Leg" 1330.] 

Titian to the Prince of Spain. 

Molto alto et tutente Skjnor, — 
Ebbi la lettera dc V. Altezza de 12 decembre tauto gratiosa et 
fauorabile die essendo uecchio mi son ritornato jiouane de modo che V. 
Altezza ha fatto miraculo in me, ma non e marauigla ([uando non e 
altra cosa il grande essere di vostra Altezza et tutte le sue actione alia 
([uale desiderii tanto seniire die per solo (juesto iiavero cara la uita gia 
dedicata et consacrata a V. Altezza, et cosi non puo uscir ne per bocca 
ne per ctiore senon il grande Filippo mio signor in testimonio dello 
quale (interim che metto al online le pocaie) niando ... * V. Altezza 
se stesso per uno seruidore del Signor Imbasador Vargas . . . t ha fatto 

Here is a rent in the paper. t Rent in the paper. 


con me tanto huon offitio che per <|uesto in.sieiue con li altri tanti 
grancli fauori et quelo die Don Giouanni de Benanidos mi scrise bascio 
li piedi de V. Altezza la ([ual Dio conserui per intiniti anni, et mi lascia 
uedere anzi clie mora. 

Di Venetia, a li 23 Marzo, 1553. 

Molto alto et molto potente signer Lasia li Piedi de V'* 
Altezza suo umile, 


[On the back of this letter is the following minnte in the hand of 
Philip of Spain.] 

" Para Italia a 18" de Junio, 1553. 
Con Don Antonio de bineros de Madrid. 

A Ti^'iano. 

Amado y fiel nuestro, — 
Con Ortiz criado del embaxador de Venet^'ia icciljimos una carta 
Tuestra y el retrato que con el nos embiastes que es como de vue.stra 
niano y por el cuydado (|ue tumistes dello os damos muclias gra^ias y 
assij podeis tener cierta nostra voluntad para lo que se os offresciere 
como es razon." 

[Un2}ublished.] 1553, Brussels. 

[Simancas, S"" di Estado Leg" 1321, f" 123.] 

Charles the Fifth to Francesco Vargas. 

Aqui se ha dicho que Ticiano era fallecido, y auncpie no habiandose 
despues couiirmado no deue ser assi, todaiiia nos dareis auiso de la 
verdad y si ha acabado ciertos retractos que lleuo a cargo de liazer 
quando partio de Augusta o los terminos en que los tiene. 

De Brusellas, ultimo de Mayo, MDLiij. 

[Unjmhh'shed.] 1553, Venice. 

[Simancas, S"^ de Estado Leg" 1321, f" 22.] 

Francesco Vargas to Charles the Fifth. 

Ticiano es vivo y esta bueno y no poco alegre por saber que V. Mg'"* 
se acueroa del el me hauia hablado antes del quadro de la Trinidad e yo 
solicitadolo y assi eutiende en el y dize que lo dara acabado en todo 
Septiembre. Helo uisto y parexeme que sera obra digna del, como lo 
es un quadro que tiene ya al cabo para la serenissima Reyna Maria de 
la aparicion en el huerto a la Magdalena. El otro quadro dize que es 


una tabla de Nuestra Seuora ygual del ecce homo »|ue V. Mg""* tiene y 
que por no liauersele eniljiado el taniauo como se le dixo no esta hecho 
que en viniendo \o porua por obra. 

Venecia, ultimo de Junio de lo53. 

1554, Venice. 
Titian to the Duke of Mantua. 

Air Eccelh-ntis-simo ed Illustrissimo Signorv e Padrone 
niio ortservandissinio, 

II Si;,'iinr Duca l)i Mantova. 


VANiJi.ssiiio, — Da poi rlie nacqui, die soncj niolto anni, sempre sono 
stato servitore dell' Illustrissima (Jasa di V. Ecc, servendola in quello 
clie per me si \m!<, e piac<iue, tra gli altri, all' Ecc. del Signer Diua 
Federico padre suo mostranni niolti si-gni d' aniore, facendnini tra gli 
iiltri grazia del beneticio di S. Maria di Meldule iK-r un inio tigliu, 11 
quale, Hicconie io vorrei, mi par non sia molto inclinato ad esser uomo 
di Cliieaa, eppero hu pensato di collocare quel beiielicio in persona atta 
a reggerl(j ed ofliriarlo con satisfazione di V. Ecc. e mia : e questa e uu 
mio nipotc, al cjuale lo daro, avi-ndone la buona grazia di V. Ecc, alia 
quale n<in vorrei dispiact-iv in cosa alcuna, e sjueialmente in (juesta 
cli' io riconosco ed ho dalla lllustris.s. sua Casa. Eppero supjdico lei a 
contentarsi di questa mia delibi-razioiif, tenendomi jut (piell' obligate 
servitore die suno stato alii suoi inaggioii, e siiro aiidie a lei lindic avn* 
\'it{X. E a quella umihiniite Ijacio la mano, che il Signore Iddio le doni 
ogni felicitii. 

Di Venezia, alU -Id Aprile, l.")54. 

Di V. Ecc. 

Devoto Servitore, 

TiziANo Vecellio, I'ittore. 

(Reprinted from Canon Braghirolli's Lettere Inedite.) 

[Unpublished.] 1554, Venice. 

[Simancas, Estado Leg" 133G. ] 

Titian to Charles the Fii"tu. 

Sacratissima Cesauka Maesta,— 
Mi Fu gia assignato per ordine di V. C. M. una i)i'oui.sione in ^lilano 
di ducento V * I'anno et dipoi una tiatta di ga-ani iiel regno di Napoli ; 

• Scuti. 


nella quale mi trouo hauer speso centenara di scuti in mantenere un 
uno homo nel regno ; et nltimaniLaite mi fu concessa una naturalezza in, 
ispagna in persona de un niiu ligliuolo di scuti 500 Fanno di pensione le 
qual cose tutte non hauendo mai hauuto effetto alcuno per colpa della 
mia mala sorte, ho noluto liora dime una parola a V. M. C. con cpiesta 
carta sperando cliel liberalissimo animo del maggior Imperator christiano 
che fosse mai non vorra patire clie i suoi ordini non siano eseguiti da i 
suoi ministri, et per che se tale esecutione hauesse effetto in questo 
tempo tornaria in me il beneficio opera di charita trouandomi in qualche 
necesita per essere stato infermo et per liauere maritata una mia figliuola ; 
ho supplicato la Regina celeste che interceda gratia per me ap])resso di 
V. M. C. col ricordo della sua imagine che hora le viene inanzi con 
quello addolorato effetto che le ha saputo esprimere nel uolto la qualita 
de miei trauagli. Mando anchora a V. C. ]\I. la sua opera della Trinita, 
et nel uero se non I'ossero stati i miei trauagli I'havei fornita et mandata 
molto jjrima, anchora che pensand(j io di sudisfare a V. M. C. non mi 
son curato di guastare due et tre nolte il lauore di molti giomi per 
ridurla al termine di mio contento onde iii ho posto piu tempo che non 
si conveniva ordinariamente. Se io hauero sodisfatto a V. M. C. mi 
terro assai felice, se ancho no la supplico ad accettare lardente mia uolonta 
in servii-la, la quale non stima altra gloria in questo mondo che il com- 
piacerla : alia quale con tutta la deuotione et humilta del cor mio bascio 
la inuittissima mano. 

Di Vexetia alii x de Settembre, M.D.Liiij. 

II ritratto del Signor Vargas posto nella opera, ho fatto di comando 
suo : se non piacera a V. M. C. ogni pittore con due pennellate Io potra 
conuertire in altro. 

Di V. M. C. 

Humilissimo seruo, 

TiTiANO, Pittore, 

[Uiqyuhlished.] 1554, Venice. 

[Suuancas, S"» de Estado Leg" 1322, f" 191.] 

Francesco Vargas to Charles the Fifth. 

A V. Mg"*, ho embiado los dos quadros grande y pequeiio de Ticiano, 
partieron de aqui quatro dias ha. El se ha detenido mucho en hazerlos- 
y no es ]3oco hauer hecho con el los acabase pero todo se le ha de j^er- 
donar por la voluntad y deseo que tiene de servir a V. Mag**, y bondad 
de ellos que cierto el mayor es obra de grande estima. Nuestro seiior la 
imperial persona y estado de V. Mag** guarde y prospere por largos- 
tiempos con acrescentamientos de mas reynos y senorios. 

Di Venecia xv de Octubre, 1554. 


[Unpublished.] 1554, Reggio & S. Andrea del Fabbro. 

Precis of a power drawn on the 29th of October, Iml. XII. 15o4, at 
Reggio, by the notary Erasmus <[■" Petri Je Burgo, in the house of 
Canon P. Fr. Martelli of Reggio, and in the presence of the same as well 
as of Signor Paolo 4"' Giovanni de' Bocchiani, citizen of Reggio. 

In the terms of this power Signor Nicoh'j Talamin, priest of Reggio 
and rector of the parisli cliurch of Sant' Andrea del Fabljio, in tlie 
diocese of Treviso, appoints to be his proxy, special, general, and iiTe- 
vocable, Signor Tiziano Vecelli, pictor pnedanis, layman, living at 
Venice, and then absent, authorizing him to claim all incomings and 
returns, present, p;Lst, and future, of the benefice above-named, and 
dispose of tlie same at his pleasure, without further accounting for the 
i>&nie, and with tlie faculty of transferring his powir to one or more 
pro.\ie8, and, in fact, to t;ike the plact- of the original liolder, who pro- 
mises .solemnly never to interfere or make any claim whatever. The 
power concludes as follows : " Ego Enusmus cj. Dni P'' de Burgo civis 
Regis pub S. A. Not. Regiensis suprascr' uibus dum sic agerentur inter- 
fici, ea<|. sic fieri villi et audivi, ac rogatus scripsi ; ideo in prrcmis- 
8orum fidem hie me subscripsi signumn. meum tabellionatus apposui 

This power was read and copied from the registers of Sant' Andrea 
del Fabbro for the family of Filomena at Sen-avalle ; the same registers 
containing a record of IT).")?, from which it appears that at that date, 
Pomponio Vecelli was incumbent of the ])arish. The original precis of 
the above-mentioned documents, aa taken from the genuine papers, is 
now in possession of Signor Luigi Mozzi of Serravalle. 

The following record also gives account of the incumbency of 
Pomponio : — 

"Estimo di Mestre, 1558, 19 Genu", Villa di Quero (on the Piave, 
province of I'cUuno). El I'enef' al prisente posseduto da xMons""' Pom- 
ponio i" di M. Titiano e\c° pittore stu nel coitivo ed una casa di muro 
coperta di copi." 

[Unpid)lishcd.] London, 1554. 

[Simancas, S''» de Estado Leg" 1498, i" 17.] 

The Prince of Spain to Francesco Vargas. 

El quadro de Adonis que acabo Ticiano lia llegado aqui y me paresce 
de la pcrficion que dezis aunqiie niuo maltratado de nn doblez que haya 
al traues por medio del, el (pial se deuio liazer al cogelle, verse ha el 
remedio que tiene los otros quadros que me haze le dad prissa che los 
acabe y no me los embieis sino auisadine quando estimieren liechos para 
<iue yo OS mande lo que .sc haura de ha/.er dellos. 

From London, December G, 1554. 


[UnjmUished.] 1555, Adi 20 Marzo, Venice. 

Lavinia's Marriage. 

Al nome sua cli lo Eterno Iddio et de la Gloriosa Vergine Maria et df 
tutta la Corte Celestial, et in buona vent . . . 

El se dichiara come in <[uesto giorno si fa fratello et concluso matri- 
monio fra il Sp" M. Cornelio, figlio del g-^ M. Marco Sarcinello, Cittadino 
Cenetensi subabitanti in Serravalle, da una parte, et la discritta Madonna 
Lavinia, fiola del Sp" ]\I. Tiziano Vecellio, pittore di Cadore subabitanti 
Venezia, da I'altra, si come comanda Iddio et la santa Madre Giesia p 
parole et ptti et 5 conto dote il Sp" M. Titiauo suo padre sopraditto> 
11 promette et se obbliga a dar al pfato M. Cornelio due 7 mille e quat- 
trocento al ()04 & due 7 In questa forma 23 al dar de la man due 
7 sei cento al 004 ^ due 7 et il restante dctratto il valor et ramontar delli 
beni mobeli p uso de la ditta sposa li promette a dar in tanti contanti ^ 
tutto I'anno (155G) mile cinquecento e cin(|uanto sie qualli siano in tutto 
P lo amontar et suma delli p detti due 7 mille e quattrocento ut sujira. 
La qual dote il pfatto ^I. Cornelio con Madonna Caliopia sua madre 
simul et insolidum togliono et accettano sojira tutti li suoi beni imti et 
fut'. Li ([uali obbligauo in ogni caso et evcnto di restituir et assicurar 
la ditta dote. Et cosi il pfato M. Titian a manutenzion della sopra- 
ditta dotta promette et obbliga tutti li suoi beni piiti et fut' usque ad 
integram satist'actionem, et cosi I'una parte et I'altra di sua mano si 
sottoscriveranno g caution delle sopradicte cosse cosi promettendo esse 
parti p se et suoi eredi quanto ut supra continetur et osservatur. 

Et lo JuANXE Alessakdrino ]:)E Cadori pgado dalle parte. 

lo Titian Vecellio saro contento et aftermo et approbo quanta 
si combina nell' oltrascritto contratto. 

Jo Cornelio Sarcinello son contento et affirmo et aprobo 
quanto se contien nell' oltrascritto contratto. 

1555, Adi 19 Zugno in Venezia. 

1>: lo Cornelio Sarcinello soprascritto dal Sior Titiano soprascritto, mia 
Socero, schudi cinquecento e cinquantacinque d'oro a 1. 6,414 I'uno quali 
sono Ducati siecento d'oro a 1. G04 I'uno et questi ricejiuto per parte et 
a bon conto di dota promessa, et ut supra. 

1556, Adi 12 Settembrio in Venezia. 

11 lo Cornelio Sarcinello dal S"'' Titiano soprascritto, mio suocero, in 
xmo fi.1 de perle et ori et contado p 1' amontar di sesto della dota promes- 
sami et cosi son pago et contento. 

(Copied from the original in 1864, in possession of the heirs of Dr. 
Pietro Carnieluti of Serravalle.) 


[Unjyitllished.] 1556, Brussels. 

[Simancas, S''" de Estado Log" 1498, f" lo7.] 

Phiup the Second to Titian, 
El Rey, 

Aniado nuestro vuestra carta de vij de Mar^o lie recibido y -sisto por 
ella conio tcneis aiabada'* alguna" pintiiras r|ue iios he mandado liazer 
de <iiie he liolgado mucho y os tengo eii seruicio el cuydado y diligencia 
que en ello aueys vsado. Bien i[uisiera que me huuierades scripto 
particularinente (juales eran estas pinturas que teneis acabadas y pues el 
dano que recibio el Adonis st- le hizo a^ui quando lo dcscogieron para 
verle. Y agora las pinturas que nie embiaredes estaran libres de correr 
este peligro yo os encargo mucho que luego en recibiendo esta embolnays 
muy bien las pinturas «|ue tumieredes acabadas de manera que se puedan. 
traer sin que reciljan dafio en el camino y las entregueys al Embaxador 
francisco de Vargas a fpiien yo scriuo y mando ([ue eon el jirimer correo 
que viniere si ser pudiere, o por la mejor via y manera ([ue le paresciere 
me las enibie con la mayor breuedad (^ue sea posible. Vos hareys de 
niancraqui- ]ior lo fjUe se tumiere de hazer de vuestra parte no se difiera 
este que en ello me hareys mucho seruicio. 

De lo <iue toca a vuestras cosns me auisareys si se han complido 
pon|ue a no Imuesse heclio yo mandare scriuir al (lui|ue Dalua de 
manera que se cumplan. 

I)i I'.RUSSEiAS a iiij" de Mayo de m.d.lvj. 

Yo EL Rey. 


[Unpublishi'il.] 1556, Brussels. 

[Simancas, S"» de Estado Leg" 1498, f" 108.] 

Philip the Second to Francesco Vargas. 

El Rey, 

Francisco de Vargas del nuestro consejio y nuestro embaxador. 
Ponpie yo escriuo a Tiriano lo que vereys por la coi)ia de su carta, <iue 
ira con esta para i[ue os de algunas pinturas mius que tiene acabadas, yo 
OS encargo y niaudo <|ue dandole mi carta luego las cobreis y me las 
encamineis a buen recamlo con el primer correo que viniere, si se 
pudieren traer por la posta sin recibir daiio o por la mejor uia y manera 
que OS paresciere para <|ue yo las tenga aij^ui con breuedad, que (piauto 
antes me las embiaredes, tanto mas plazer y seruicio me hareys. 

De Brussellas iiij" de ^layo m.d.lvj. 

Yo EL Rey. 


[Unpublished.] 1558, Yenice. 

Church Standard of St. Bernardino. 

'•1558, 11 Giugno, fu fatto far il stendardo per metter aU' abati il 
giomo della festa di S. Bemardin, da Tizzian "\'eceUio, Cadorin, pittore 
famoso, e costi scndi 17 Veneziani come in libro Cassa Veccliio a carta 
8 e 9 il quale si conserva in nostro Oratorio," — AxcluTio di San Giobbe. 

(MS. in Morelli's and Cicogna's annotated copy of MorelU's 
'•' Anoninio," now m tbe Venice Library.) 

[Unpublished,] 1559, Brussels. 

[Simancas, S^ de Estado Leg^ 650, P 121.] 

Phtlip the Secoxd to CorxT de Lrrjf a. 

Ticiano YeceUi, que reside en Venecia, mi embio al principio del 
mes de Xoviembre del ano de Ivij vn quadro que el aula acabado para 
mi con gran cnydado y perfection en que auia un Ckristo en el sepulckro 
con otras cinco figura? y reniitiola por mano de garcia bemandez 
secretario de mi eml:>axador en Tenefia a Lorencio Bordogna de Tassis 
maestro de postas de Tiento el qual lo recibio y encamino con la estafeta 
ordinaria, segun La scripto, pero basta boy no ba llegado a mi poder ni 
se ba podido auer rastro del, por mncbo que se ba procurado, y porque 
yo gueriia questa eosa se llegasse al cabo, assi para que parezia el dicbo 
quadro, como para que se sepa en quien ba estado la rruindad y sea muy 
bien castigado, vi encargo mucbo que aunque sea diciendolo a su Mag"* si 
05 paresciere que sera menester veais de bazer la diligencia posible, que 
escriuiendo vos sobrello en mi nombre al maestro de postas os dara bos 
de como quando y aquien lo entrege, para que me lo truxesen y saber de 
aquel que lo recibio aquien lo dis y assi de vno por los maestres de postas, 
que paresce es el mejor medico que puede auer, porque desta manera se 
uendra al fin a entender en quien quedo o de otra que alia jurgaredes 
ser mas a proposito a tal quel dicbo quadro se baUe y auisareisme de 
lo que in ello se biziere porque bolgare de saberlo. 

De BRrssELAS a 20 de Enero, 1559. 

[Unpuhlished.'] 1559, Venice. 

[Simancas, S"^ de Estado Leg* 1336.] 

TrriAX TO Phtup the Secoxd. 

IXVITISSIMO Cathouco Re, — 
Ho gia tomite le due poesie dedicate a V. M", 1' una de Diana al fonte 
popragiunta da Atbeone, V altra di CalLsto pregna di Gioue spogliata al 
fonte per comandamento di Diana dalle sue ninfe. Pero quando parera 
a V. M- di baverle, queUa comandi per cui eUe se le babbiamo a 
mandare j accio cbe di quelle non auuenga quelle che auuenne del 


Ckristo morto nel sepolcro, il quale si smarri per uiaggio. Spero che 
1' opere saranno tali, che se mai cosa alcuna delle niani mie le e paruta 
degna deUa sua gratia, queste non le pareramio indegne. Dopo le 
liauer mandato queste, mi daro tutto a fomir il quadro del Cliristo nell' 
horto et 1' altre due poesie gia iucominciate, 1' una di Europa sopra il 
Tauro, 1' altra di Atlieone lacerato da i cani suoi. Nelle quaK opere io 
niettero medesmamente tutto quelle poco di sapere che iddio mi ha 
donato, et che e stato e sara sempre dedicate a i servigi di V. M*^* se cosi 
le piacera fin ch' io reggero queste m^embra per il carco de gli anui 
homai stanehe il qual peso hen che da se sia grauissimo nondimeno mi 
si alleggerisce non so a che modo miracolosamente ogni uolta ch' io 
ni' aricordo d' esser uiuo al mondo per servirla e far la cosa grata. 

Fo sapere ancora a Y. M. come la mia trista foi-tuna non mi ha dopo 
tanto tempo, trauagli, e fatiche per cio fatte, coneeduto ancora di poter 
godere un poco delle prouisione mie, le quali mi si doueuano pagare per 
le cedule di Y. M. da gli agenti suoi di Genoua che ad altro non so 
dame la colpa che alia mia eattiua sorte, poi che la benignita sua mi e 
stata serapre tanta cortese in fargli solleciti a questo pagamento et nondi- 
meno il suo seruo Titiano e a quel di prima senza alcun godimento di 
quelle. Pero humilmente la supplico a far fare quella deuita prouisione 
che a questo le parera piu opportuna. Et a Y. M. con ogni termine di 
riuerenza offerendo et raccomandandomi le bascio la reale e CathoHca 

Di Yexeha, aUi 19 di Giugno del 59. 

Di Y" M" Catholica 

Humilisstmo Seruo, 

Titiano Yecellio, PHtore. 

\^Unpublishcd.'\ 1559, Yeniee. 

[Simancas, Estado Leg" 1336.] 

• Assassinaiion of Orazio Vecelli. 
Titian to Philip the Secohtd. 


La maluagita di leone Aretino suo seruo indegno e dell' honorato 
uome di caualiere e di scultor Cesareo e cagione che douendo scriuere 
alia M. Y. di oose a lei piii grate e piaceuole, hoggi io dispensi I'ufficio 
della penna nello scriuerle et le sue cattiue owrationi et le mie querele, 
Essendo questa quadragesima passata Oratio suo seruitore et mio figliuolo 
andato a Milano in uece mia per esser io stato chiamato dal Duca di 
Sessa et non pot-endoiii andar come all' hora mezo infermo, et quelle che 
importa piii, come impedito nelle pitture di Y. M. e occorso che il detto 
Oratio dopo I'hauer ispedita aleuna facendetta scodesse le pensioni mie 
di Milano assignatemi gia dalla munificentia et liberalita della gloriosa 
memoria di Cesare suo genitore, et che mi se doueano pagare per comau- 



damento di V, M. della quale egli portaua le lettere d' ispedittione. 
Donde sapendo esso Leone Aretino della esattione di tali jjrouisioni 
mosso da Diabolico instinto si mette in pensiero di assassinaiio, e torgli 
la iiita per torgli il danaro. Et quella sera ch' egli haueua destinato 
di far qnella sua impressa mostrandosi a lui Oratio piii de mai cortese et 
allegro in uolto 1' inuita e prega a restar in casa sua per poter eseguir poi 
comodamente quanto liaueua disegnato il suo mal animo. Ma ricusando' 
esso Oratio di uolerui rimanere, 1' inimico di Dio et il scelerato suo 
figliuolo gia bandito dalla Spagna per lutherano fu sforzata dal suo 
crudele appetito di dar' opera con alcuni compagni pari sui inanzi al 
dessinato tenij)o al pensato assassinamento et mostrandogli tuttauia di 
far careze mentre egli di casa sua si uolea partire ecco uno de i ribaldi 
riuersargli la cappa in testa, et tutti insieme esserli attorno con 1' espade 
e con i pugnali nudi in mano. Doueche il pouero Oratio colto nel capo 
air improuiso, come quello che del tradimento nulla sapeua, ne si 
poteua imaginare, se ne casco tutto stordito in terra, e riceue j)rima che 
mai si risentisse appresso alia prima sei altre acerbissime ferite. Et 
sarebbe restato del tutto morto se iin seruitore ch' era con lui, il quale 
per portar I'uori di casa all' hora certi quadri gia si partiua, non si fosse 
uolto a dietro, et non hauesse messo mano alia spada sgridando a i 
traditori ; da i quali resto uulnerato anch' egli di tre ferite miseramente. 
Tal che se non fosse stata questa posa di difesa che per lo grido da i 
uicini udito fu cagione di leuar all' assassino la speranza del desiderato- 
guadagno gli' haurebbe con i compagni traditori spogliati e priue della 
uita e de i danari insieme nel mezo della 111"'^ citta di Milano et in 
casa sua propia. sotto pretesto di arnica hospitalita in ricompenso de i 
tanti e tanti beneficii da me et da tutti i miei riceuuti nel tempo delle 
sue maggior calamita la qual cosa solamente fa ch' io prendo e dolore 
e marauiglia grandissima et non per ch' io stimi esser impossibile che 
succedi un tale effetto uerso alcima persona per man d' un tale percio h' io 
conosco bene la sua maluagia natura ; per la quale e in bando di tutta 
il dominio de' Venetiani per mandatario et fu condannato al foco del 
duca di Ferrara per falsario di monete ; donde poi il suo diauolo il fece 
fuggire per adoperarlo come suo istrumento in altri catiui portamenti, 
come fece in Eoma donde fu condannato finalmente sotto Papa Paulo 
III. alia morte per altri enormi delitti como si fara chiaramente uedere 
alia maesta uostra per li process! che le manderemo le qual tutte pene 
il tristo caualiere per sua mala uentura ha fuggite, perche la M. V. 
hauesse occasione di hauer con tante altri meriti appresso la M'" di Dio 
questo ancora di punir ella o far punire un tal scelerato il quale s' imagi- 
naua di uoler col priuar noi della uita, priuar la M. V. di quella seruitu 
che da noi tutti se le deue per uoler diuino. Per che se esso Oratio fosse 
restato morto io le giuro per la mia fede, che dal dolore io che tutta la 
uita e la speranza mia ho coUocata nella sua salute in questa mia impo- 
tente uecchiezza, sarei restato ancora priuo da spirito e conseguentemente 
di poter seruire al mio inuitissimo Re Cattolico per seruir il quale io mi 
repute di uiuer felice e fortunatissimo. Pero supplico alia M. V. per 


quella uirtti che la rende tanto ammirabile al mondo et accetta a Dio 
ch' ella si degni di esegiiir quella giustitia in questo caso, clie alia 
accerbita di quello et alia sua infinitabonta si richiede o facendo scriuere 
al Duca suo luogotenente di Milano ouero ad altri nel territorio de quali 
questo ribaldo si ritroui o comandando ella stessa quanto le par che 
meriti il piii scelerato huomo del mondo. Et alia buona gratia di V. M, 
humilmeute raccoraandandomi le bacio la Reale e Catholica mano. 
Di Venetia alii 12 di Giuglio, m.d.lviiij. 

D. V. M. 

Humilissimo seruitore, 

TiTiANO Vecelio. 

[Unpublished.'] 1559, Venice. 

[Simancas, S"'' de Estado Leg" 1323, f" 262.] 

Secretary Garcia Hernandez to Philip the Second. 

Ticiano tendra in perfecion los dos quadros de Diana y Calisto dentro 
de XX porque como son grandes y de mucha obra quiere satisfazer a 
algunas cosillas que otros no mirarian en ellas, juntamente con estos me 
dara otro de Christo en el sepulchro mayor que el que embiaua a V" M** 
que tiene las figuras enteras y otro pequeno de una turca o persiana 
hecho a fantasia que todo es ex™". 

Estos quadros con los vidros cristalinos para hazer las vedrieras que 
todo sera acabado a un tiempo y los vasos de vidro que he comprado 
para beuer agua y para beuer vino de la manera que escriuo al S"° 
Gonzalo Perez los embiare muy bien empacados al embaxador de 
Genoua con persona de recaudo como V. Mag"* me manda, para la paga 
de lo qual no he tornado dineros a cambio porque la hare de los que yo 
tengo de vra. ma"* cuya S. C. y real persona y estado guarde y prospere 
nuestro seiior por largos tiempos con acrescentamiento de mas Reynos y 

De VENE5IA iij de Agosto, 1559. 

[Unpublished.] 1559, Venice. 

[Simancas, Estado Leg" 1336.] 

Titian to Philip the Second. 

Inuitto et Catholico Re, — 
Mando a V. M'* le pitture che sono Atteone, Calisto et 11 Saluator 
nostro nel sepolchro in luogo di quello, che gia si smarri per uiaggio 
et m' allegro che oltra che questo secondo e di forma piii grande che non 
era il primo egli mi sia nel resto ancora riuscito meglio assai che non 
fece queir altro et manco lontano dal nierito infinito di V. M. il qual 
miCTlioramento in buona parte attribuisco al dolore della perdita del 

L L 2 


primo clie mi e stato nel far questo et gli altri quadri niedesimameiite 
un gagliardo stimolo a sforzarmi di rifar quel danno con doppio 
auantaggio. Se contra la sua aspettatione et il creder mio ho indugiato 
si lungamente a finirle et mandarle (clie nel uero confesso esser tre anni 
et pill clie li ho cominciato) non lo ascriua V. M'" a niia negligenza che 
anzi potrei dire con uerita di non liauer atteso gran fatto ad altro come 
il suo secretario Garcia Hernando clie continuamente benche non 
bisognasse a cio m' ha senipre sollicitato ne puofar fede, ma diaue prima 
la colpa alia quantita dell' opera che ricercanano ancc quantita di tempo 
et poi air ardente desiderio ch' io tengo di far cosa che sia degna di V. 
M"* dal che procede che io non m' appago mai delle niie fatiche, ma cerco 
sempre con ogni mia iudustria di polirle et di aggiunger loro qualche 
cosa ; et perche disgratia non debb' io piii che a tutte le altre cose del 
iiiondo studiare a ben servire V. M'*. Perclie anzi non debb' io come faccio 
hauer cio per solo fine proposto alia mia uita restante rifructando la 
seruitii d'ogui altro Prencipe per seruir lei sola ? Qual pittore antico o 
moderno si puo uantare et gloriar piii di me essendo da un tal Ee beni- 
gnamente detto et dalla mia propria uolonta consacrata a seruirlo 1 Io 
certo me ne tengo tanto buono et do ad intendere a me stesso d' esser da 
tanto che oso dire non hauer inuidia a quel famoso Apelle cosi caro ad 
Alessandro Magno et dicolo con ragione impero che s' io considero alia 
dignita del signore da noi seruito non so vedere qnal altro sia o fosse 
mai dopo lui piii a lui simile di V. M. in tutte quelle parti che sono 
marauigliose et degne di lode in nn gran principe ; quanto poi alle per- 
sone vostre benche nel uero il mio poco ualore non sia di gran lunga 
da esser paragonato alia eccellenza di quel singolare huomo a me basta 
pero che si come egli fu in gratia del suo re cosi io parimente mi sento 
essere in quella del mio. Percioche 1' authorita del suo benigno giudicio 
congiunto alia magnanimita ueramente Reale che usa meco di continuo 
mi fa simile et forse anco da piii che non fu Apelle nella opinione degli 
huomini. Onde io per dimostrarmi grato a V. M. per tutti quel modi ch' 
io posso imagiiiarmi le maiide oitra gli altri quadri anchora il ritratto di 
quella che e patrona assoluta dell anima mia et che e la uestita di giallo 
della quale nel uero benche sia dipinta, non potrei mandarlo i^iii cara 
et pretiosa cosa. Ma eccomi testinionio grande della humanissima et 
gentilissima natura di V. M. poi che ella porge ardire a me, che son 
rispeto al suo alto grado cosi bassa persona di giuocar con lei per letere 
et cio basti quanto alle pitture. Scrissi i di passati alia M. V. in 
materia del brutto assassinaniento fatto in Milano da leone Aretino a 
mio figliuolo Horatio et delle mortal feiite dateli supplicandola a farlo 
meritamente castigare secondo il costume della sua giustitia. Si formo 
bene processo contra lui et fu usata instanza grandissima da mio figliuolo 
da poi clie fu guaiito per la gratia di N. S. Dio perche fosse spedito, et 
per cio fu necessitato anchora a spender molti delli daiiari scossi in 
Milano dalla cortesia di V. M"' ma quel tristo e tanto cauilloso et fiiuorito 
per il nome che spende indegnamente di statuario di V. M. et per il 
contrario mio tigliuolo mentre fu in Milano forestiero et poco conosciuto 


die le cose si sono tirate e tirano tuttauia in liingo et anderanno facil- 
mente in fumo con macchia et infaniia della ginstitia e tanto piti qiianto 
mio figliuolo e tomato a casa ne e alcuno in Milano cbe si possa opporre 
alle astutie et opere et fauori di quel reo liuomo. Per la qual cosa prego 
humilissimamente et aflfettuosissimamente la M. V. che ci degni far 
scriuere a quell' lUustrissimo Senate che debba espedire un caso di cosi 
mala natura com' e questo con quella esemplar giustitia che si coniiiene, 
mostranda che ella me habbia nel numero de suoi serui. II suddetto 
mio figliuolo Horatio (che me I'hauea dimenticato) le manda insieme 
con li miei i:n suo quadretto con un Christo in croce da lui dipinto. 
Degnisi V. M. d' accettarlo come un picciolo testimonio del gran desiderio 
ch' ha de imitar suo padre nel seruirla et farle cosa grata et a lei con 
tutta la inclination del cuor mio insieme con lui raccomandandomi le 
bascio la Reale et Catholica mano. 

Di Venetia, a xxvij di Settembre, m.d.lviiij. 

Di Tostra Maesta Catholica 

Huniilissimo et diuotissimo seruo, 


[Unpublished.] Venice, 1559. 

[Simancas, S"" de Estado Leg" f° 245.] 

Garcia Hernandez to Philip the Second. 
Minute of despatches of Sept. 27 and Oct. 11, 1559. 

" Que hauia remitido a Genoua los vidrios, vedrieras y retratos de 
Ticiano conforme a lo que V. M"* le embio a mandar." 

" El Ticiano escribe en una de 23 (22) de Setiembre los quadros que 
le embia a V. M'^ y uno de mano de Horatio suo hijo que es al que 
leon Aretino hizo dar las heridas, y supplica a V. M*^ con istancia mande 
escriuir con la misma al senado que Je hagan justicia conforme a la 
fealdad del delicto." 

[Unpiiblished.] Venice, 1560. 

[Simancas, Estado Leg" 1336.] 

Titian to Philip the Second. 

Serenissimo e Catholico Ee, — 
Id mandai molti giorni sono a V. M. le pitture che io feci di suo 
ordine, E non hauendo insino a questo di inteso cosa alcuna, sono 
indoto a dubitare o che V. M. non le habbia hauute ; overo che piaciute 
non le siano, la qual cosa se cosi fosse mi sforzerei rifiaccendole di far si 
che V. M. ne rimanesse sodisfata. Stimo che di gia haura inteso la 


ofFesa a me fatta da Leoue scultore nella persona di mio figliuolo il 
quale mio figliuolo non e maucato da lui di leuar di uita in Milano 
senza veruna cagione con brutto assassinameuto insino nella propria 
casa. La cui morte, se come costui disidero e cercava, fosse seguita 
senza dubbio ne sarebbe anche seguita quella del suo seruitor Titiano 
clie lo ama quanto padre del amar figluolo uirtuoso e giouene buono et 
innoceute. Que in contrario Leone e conosciuto persona cattiua e 
scandalosa si come quelle clie per le sue maluage opere in Roma fa 
condannato a perder la testa, e poi per gratia fatagli alia galia : e sbandito 
per monetario di Ferrara e di Veuetia per altre ribalderie simile e di 
altri luoghi. E si pi;o atribuire a gran uentura cbe Cesare di gloriosa 
memoria che fu principe di tanto giudicio gli fece fauor di riceuerlo per 
scultore il quale hauesse a rappresentar la sua imagine trouandosi per la 
Italia dozzine di scultori clie ne sanno piii di lui ma rendendomi certo 
che la giustitia di V. M. non lasciera impunito un delito tale quantunque 
egli si confido ne i fauori di molti Prencipi della corte di V. M. a tale 
che gli par di poter commeter qualunque sceleratezza senza esser punito, 
faro qui fine baciando humilmente le mani a V. M. Catolica che Iddio 
la esalti e prosperi sempre. 

Di Venetia, a 24 di Marzo, 1560. 

Di V. Catolica Maesta 

Humil Seruitor. 

(Not signed.) 

[Unpublished.] Venice, 1560. 

[Simancas, Estado Leg" 1336.] 

Titian to Philip the Second. 

Inuitissimo e Potentissimo Ee, — 
Sono hoggi mai sette mesi che io mandai a V. M. le Pitture che mi 
furono da lei ordinate e non hauendo insino a qui hauuto auiso del 
ricapito mi sarebbe singolar gratia a intender se elle sono piaciute, che 
quando non fossero piaciute al perfetto giudicio di V. M. mi afaticherei 
col riforniarne di nuoue, di emendare il j)assato errore e quando le fossero 
piaciute mi porrei con migliore animo a finii- la fauola di Gioue con 
Europa e la historia di Christo nell 'orto, per far cosa che non riuscisse 
del tutto indegna di si gran Re. Le cedule delle quali V. M. mi fece 
gratia per i danari assegnati a mia mercede in Genoua V. M. sara ragua- 
gliata che non hanno hauto efi"etto onde pare che ella che so vincer 
potentissimi e superbi niniici con I'inuitissimo suo ualore non sia obedita 
da suoi ministri in guisa che io non ueggio come posso sperar di ottener 
giamai questi danari diputatemi dalla detta sua gratia. Pero humil- 
mente la suplico che con la Sua Regal Maesta uoglia uincer la ostinata 
insolenza di costoro o commettendo ch' io tosto fossi sodisfatto da loro o 
uolgendo a Venetia o doue piti le piace la espedition del pagamento in 


modo clie la sua liberalita producesse nel suo liumil sernitore il frutto da 
lei ordinate. Mi astringe anco la diuotion mia a ricordarle che V. M 
sia seruita di commetter die siano dipinte a memoria de posteri le 
gloriose et immortali uittorie di Cesare. Delia quali io disidero di 
■essere il primo a fame alcuna per segno di grato animo uerso i niolti 
benefici riceuuti da sua Maesta Cesarea e da V. M. Catolica onde mi 
sara singolar fauore che ella mi degni di farmi intendere il lume, 
secondo la qualita e condition delle sale o camere nelle quali haura a esser 
riposta. Et in buona gratia di V. Catolica Maesta humilmente mi 

Di Venetia, alii 22 di Aprile, mdlx. 

Di y. Catolica Maesta 

Humil Seruo. 

(Not signed.) 

Date of Francesco VecelWs death. 

Cadore, 1560. 
Deed of May 21, 1560, drawn by Toma Tito Vecelli, and signed at 
Pieve di Cadore before Gio. Alessandrini, notary, and Giovanni de Lupi 
of Valvasono, in which Orazio Vecelli, acting for his father on the one 
hand, and Lazaro and Dionisio quondam M. Burei of Nebbiii on the 
other, come to terms as to the contested ownership of land sold under 
conditions of re-purchase by the late {fu) Francesco Vecelli. 

[The deed, of which the foregoing is a description, is on parchment, 
and was transcribed by Dr. Taddeo Jacobi of Cadore. It shows that 
Francesco Vecelli was at this time dead, and it so far confirms the notice 
of his death conveyed by the funeral oration of Vincenzo Vecelli, 
publicly read as alleged at Cadore in 1559.] 

[^Unpublished.'] Venice, 1561. 

[Simancas, Estado Leg" 1336.] 

Titian to Philip the Second. 

Serenissimo e Catolico Re, — 
Ho inteso per lettere del Delfino che a V. M. Catolica sono piaciiite 
le pitture che io le mandai cioe la poesia di Diana alia fonte, la fauola 
di Callisto, il Christo morto e i Re d'Oriente di che ho presso quella 
contentezza che si ricerca al desiderio ch' io ho di servirla riputando a 
graudissima felicita che le cose mie piacciano a un tanto Re. Hora 
ringratio da capo V. M. de i due mila scudi di i quali gia tre anni sono 
ella mi fece gratia commettendo che mi fosser pagati in Genoua ancora 
che la sua molta liberalita uerso me non habbia hauuto luogo onde il 
non esser V. M. stata obedita me le stato cagione di non picciol danno 


percioclie appoggiandomi sopra la speranza cli questi danari comperai 
una possessione per sostegno di me e di niiei figliuoli la qual mi e poi 
conuenuto com mio grau dispendio uendere et alienare. Supplico 
adunque humilmente la V. Altezza che poi clie con la grandezza del suo 
liberale animo s'e degnata di farmi merce di detti due mila scudi i quali 
per maluagita della mia fortuna non ho potuto hauere sia seruita di 
commettere che mi siano pagati qui in Venetia. E per interceditrice di 
questo lio apparecchiato una pittura della Maddalena la quale la si 
appresentara uinanzi con le lagrime in su gli ocelli e supplicheuole per 
li bisogni del suo diuotissimo seruo. Ma per mandarle questa, aspetto 
da V. M. esser raguagliato a cui debbo consegnare accio non uadano di 
male come e auenuto del Cristo in tanto apparecliiero il Christo nel 1' 
horto la poesia della Europa e le prego quella felicita che merita la sua 
real corona. 

Di Venetia a 2 di AprUe mdlxi. 

Di V. Catholic Maesta 
. Humil Seruo, 


On the bottom of the sheet is the I'ollowing memorandum in Philip 
the Second's hand : 

" Paregome que he ordenado ya esto y se ha escrito si pasen a erase y 
acordadme lo que aqui dice." 

[Unpublished.] Venice, 1561. 

[Simancas, Estado Leg" 1336.] 

Titian to Philip the Second. 

Inuitissimo Catholico Ee, — 
Poi che merce della singular benignita della M. V. ho par al fine 
riscosso il pagamento delli danari di Genoa hora uengo con questa ad 
inchinarmele humilmente e renderle quelle gratie che da me si ponno 
maggiori e poi che (per) quello io sono in parte sgrauato di alcuni miei 
trauagli, spero di poter spendere piii quietamente e largamento il resto 
del uiuer mio in seruitio di V. M. mio solo siguore, al quale io mi sento 
devotissimo et obligatissimo insieme. Vero e ch' io ho hauuto di tal 
pagamento dugento ducati manco di quello che la M. V. haueua 
ordinate per le prima sue cedule non essendo speciticato nell' ultima 
che mi si douesse pagar tal danaro in tanti scudi d'oro donde e 
auuenuto che ho hauuto a ragion di ducati. Pero se cosi piacesse alia 
sua dementia di far dechiarire questo io haurei il supplemento che mi 
sarebbe di non picciolo giouamento. Io sto in aspettando che la M. V. 
anchora mi mande a commettere a cui debba consignare il quadro della 
S'* Maria Maddalena il quale gia molti giorni le ha promesso et fornito 
in mode che se la M. V. si e mai compiaciuta d' alcuna delle opere mie 


di questa non si compiacera meno. Quella potra clunque mandar a 
suo piacere persona fidata acciocche egli non si sniarrisca como ho inteso 
che e auuennto del Ckristo morto et de altri quadri gia molti di sono. 
In tanto andro riducendo a compimento il Christo neU horto, I'Europa 
et altre pitture clie ho gia disegnato di fare per V. M. alia quale humil- 
mente offerendo e raccomandandomi bacio la Eeale e Catholica mano. 

Di Venetia alii 17 d' Agosto, mdlxi. 

Humil Seruo, 


[The following memo, is on a slip attached to the above]. 

Lo que dize Tigiano en una carta de xvii de Agosto, 1561. 

1°. Supplica a V. M"" mande que le sean pagados dozientos escudos 
que se le que dan deuiendo de los dos mill escudos que V. M"* le mando 
pagar in Genoua (jue se le descontaron per no dezii' en la cedula scudos 
de oro in oro. 

2°. Que a quien manda V. M. que entregue la Magdalena que esta 
acabada para que benga a buen recaudo. 

3". Que queda haziendo otros quadros que contentaran mucho a V. M"". 

[On the margin in the king's hand]. 

1°. Yo mandare darlos aqui que sera de menos embarago, y se lo haveis 

2". Entreguela a garci heruandez y al se escriba que me la embia a 
buen recado y que me embie de aqueUas vidrieras que embio los otros 
dias otras tantas cajas y de la misma manera no se me acuerda que 
orden se tubo en la paga dellos para que la misma se tenga agora y 
escreuilde vos que os ainse de lo que cuestan particularmente porque 
quiero ver quanto mas es que las de aca. 

3°. A Ticiano que de priesa a estos cuadros que dice y los entregue 
tambien al secretario y que sembien a muy buen Recado y embiesele 
carta para que desde Genoua los embien al mismo Recado. 

[U7ipublished.] Madrid, 1561. 

[Jacobi MS.] 

Philip the Second to Titian. 

Don Philippe per la gracia de Dios Rey de Espaiia, etc. Amado 
nuestro. Holgamos de entender por vuestra carta de xvii de Agosto que 
tenniesedes ya acabado el quadro de la Magdalena, y que vos estime esse 
del tan satisfecho del como dezis, porque desta manera tenemos por 
cierto que deve estar en toda perfection, y porque sendo tal quetriamos 
mucho tenerle aca con brevedad, y bien travado, osemcargamos que vos 
de vuestra mano lo adreseis, y pongeis de manera, que no se pueda 
daiiar en el camino,y que lo ensegnais al secretario Garci Hernandez mi 
criado, que ay reside, que yo le ombis a mandar y me lo encamine a 


recaudo, y al mismo envegareis los otros quadi'os de Christo e nel huerto, 
y la Eiiropa, y los Irmas, como los fueredes acabando porque el tambien 
me los vaga ombiando, y reciboie mucho plazer, y servicio, en quo os dels 
en ellos toda la mayor prissa que sen pudiere. 

He visto lo que desis, que per nos essere specificado escudos de oro 
en la cedula de los dos mill, que os mande librar en Genova sees dieron 
doziento menos y porque mi volontad fue, y es que se os paguen enter- 
iimente los dichos dos mill escudos mandave que a qui seos den luego 
los dicos dozientos, que faltaron parag". 

Seos remitan de Madrid a xxii de Octubre, 1565 [1561]. 

A Tergo. A su mag. Ticiano, 

[Unimblished.] 1561, Venice. 

[Simancas, S"* de Estado Leg" 1324, f" 10.] 

Garcia. Hernandez to Philip the Second. 
S. C. R. M.,— 

Luego que recebi la letra de V. M"^ de xxij del passado di la suya a 
Ticiano con que holgo infinito, el quadro de la Magdalena aunque 
escrivio que estaua acabado, todauia labia en el, en dandomelo que sera 
<Ientro de ocho dias lo embiare al Marques de Pescara con la letra de 
V. M"" que me paresce el mas gierto y breue camino encargandolo muy de 
veras a algun correo como es de creer que lo hara, dizen los que se 
entienden del qties la mejor cosa que ha hecho Tigiano en los otros dos 
([uadros trabaja poco a poco como hombre que pasa de ochentos anos, 
•tlize que para hebrero los terria in orden y que los embiara a V. M'' con 
el Ambaxador Venegiano que ha de partir entonces, yo lo solicitare 
perche no se pierda tan buena occasion. V. Mag"* sera seruido mandar 
c|ue se le paguen 400 V""* ciiie ha de auer del entretenimiento que V. M"* 
le haze merced de dos auos passados que como viejo es un poco codicioso 
y con ello terua mas cuidado, cayas tiene el cargo y recaudo para los 
cobrar del Tesoro. 

Las vedrieras de cristal se estan haziendo y se acabaran al fin deste 
mes y luego las embiare a Genoua al Embaxador Figueroa con la letra de 
V. M** yran en dos caxas con otra de vasos de vidrio para beuer vino y 
por beuer agua y le escreuire y solicitare hasta que se hayan embarcado 
porque las otras con los quadros estuuieron alii un ano y de loque 
costaren con lo demas que gastado en seruigio de V. Mag*" embiare la 
quenta, cuya S. C. R. persona y estado guarde y prospere nuestro senor 
per largos tempos con acrecentemiento de mas Reynos y senorios. 

De Venecia, xx de Nouiembre, 1561, 

S. C. R. M'' 
Criado de V. M'' que sus reales pies y manos besa, 

Garcia Hernandez. 


lU7ipublished.'\ Venice, 1561. 

[Simancas, Estado Leg" 1336.] 

Titian to Philip the Second. 
I. C. E. - 
Sogliono tutti i sudditi e fedeli seruitori d' alcun prencipe dar a certo 
tempo alcuna cosa al loro signore e testimonio della loro fedelta ogni 
anno continuamente ; pero anch' io in queste giorni che si suol dar la 
raanza altrui in segno dell' affettione che si porta alia persona a ciii si 
dona, hora clie ho fornito 11 tjuadro delia S'* M. Maddaleua lo mando alia 
M. V. come cosa della quale maggiore non puo uscire dalle mie picciole 
ibrze consignatolo al Secretario Garzia Hernando, si come ella mi ha 
commesso per sue lettere. La il. V. si degnera dunque di accettarlo e 
goderlo per favorire il suo fidelissimo seruitor Titiano come una arra 
della deuotion mia uerso lei, della qual deuotione ella contemplera 
r esempio da quella che espressa nel uolto di questa santa uerso Dio et 
cosi le potra esser una uiua memoria dinanzi a gli occhi catholici e 
benigni del buono affetto mio mentre andro riducendo a compimento 
r aitre pitture che gia sono in buon termine con quell' amore e caldezza 
d' animo, la quale ha fatto destinare tutta la mia uita al seruitio suo. Et 
alia buona gratia, &c. 

Di Venetia, il primo giorno di Dicembre, 1561. 

Di V. M. C. 

Humilissimo, &c. 

Titiano Vecellio. 

[Unpublished.] Venice, 1561. 

[Simancas, S"» de Estado Leg" 1324] 

Garcia Hernandez to Philip the Second, 

El quadro de la Madalena me dio Ticiano y lo embio al Marques de 
Pescara con la letra de V. Mag'* es de creer que le mandara da buen 
recaudo. Las vedrieras iran a Genoua con la primera conduta que ya 
estan en orden y son muj' Ijuenas. 

De VENE9IA, xij de Diciembre, 1561. 

Nuestro Senor, tfec. 

Garcia Hernandez. 

Same to the Same, 

Venice, 1562. 

[Simancas, S"» de Estado Leg" 1324, f" 169.] 

Ticiano acabara presto otro quadro pequeno que haze para V. M'' el 
«[ual embiare al maestro de postas de Milan por donde yra mas seguro y 


breuemente y le screuire que lo hago por mandado de V. Mag^ y que lo 
encamine con el primer correo que de alii se despachare. 

De Veneqia, x de Aliril, 1562. 

Nuestro Seiior, &c., 

Garcia Hernandez. 

l^Unpuhlished.] Venice, 1562. 

[Simancas, Estado L" 1336.] 

Titian to Philip the Second. 

Serenissimo e Catholico re, — 
Ho finalmente con I'aiuto della diuina bonta condotto a fine le due 
pitture ch' io cominciai per la Catholica M* V. I'una e il Christo che ora 
nell' orto I'altra la poesia di Eiiropa portata dal Toro le quali io le 
mando. E posse dire che elle siano il sogello delle niolte altre che da 
lei me furono ordinate e che in piu uolte le mandai. E benche quanto 
all' ordine che dalla V. Catholica M" mi fu imposto non mi resto a far 
altro ; e che io mi sia deliberate per la mia uecchia eta di riposar 
quelli anni, che dalla M'' di Dio rai saranno conceduti, nondimeno ha- 
uendo dedicate quelle ingegno ch' e in me a seruigi di V. M* quando io 
cenesce come spero che queste mie fatiche all' ottimo sue giuditio siano 
grati, perro similmente tutto le spatie della uita che mi auanza in far 
niolto spesse alia V. M* Catholica riverenza con qualche mia nueua pit- 
tura afFaticandemi che 1' mio penello le apperti a quella sodisfattione ch' 
ie desidero e che merita la grandezza di si alto Re e faro tanto che 
V. M^' mi comandi, andro facendo una imagine di nostra signora col 
bambino in braccie sperando di adoperarmini in guisa che quella nen 
piacera meno delle altre pitture e nella buona gratia di V. M" humil- 
mente, &c., 

Di Venetia, a xxvi di Aprile, mdlxij. 

Deuotissimo humil seruo, 


[Unpublished.] Venice, 1562. 

Titian to Vecello Vecelli of Cadore. 

.... P.S. — Horatio vi manda il vostro quadretto d' Adonis, il qi;ale 
e bellissime, e lo godrete per fino che si attende a fornir 1' altro di nostra 

Alii comandi vostri 

TiziANO Vecelli. 
Di Venezia, 24 Maggie, 1562. 

[Copied from the original in possession of the late Dr. Taddeo Jacobi 
of Cadore.] 


[Unpublished.] Venice, 1563. 

[Simancas, Estado Leg" 1336.] 

Titian to Philip the Second. 

Inuitissimo et potentissimo Ee, — 
Dopo molti inesi ch' io non ho fatto liumil riuerenza alia M* V. 
eccetto che con 1' aiiimo come faccio contiiiuamente, hora son uenuto a 
farlo con queste letere, spinto dalla infinita allegrezza cli' io sento della 
sua gloriosa vittoria la quale nostro signor degni per sua bonta di 
crescer maggiormente di giorno in giomo a gloria del rnio gran Re et ad 
utile di Cliristianita ; et per montrar alia M. Y. quanta sia la mia deuo- 
tione uerso di lei et quanto di continuo desidero et mi afi'atico di piacerle 
seruendola coniunque io posso, le faccio insiememente intendere che 
quantunque non mi reste piii a far cosa alcuna di quelle che ella gia si 
degnu di comandarmi nondimeno son per ridurre a compimento fra 
poclii giorni un quadro di pittura gia sei anni da me incominciato con 
intentione che V. M. Catholica dopo molte pitture di fauulosa inventione 
godesse di mia mano una materia historica di deuotione per ornamento 
de alcuna sua sala, et questa e una cena di nostro signore con li dodici 
apostoli di larghezza di hraccia sette et de altezza di ([uatro et piu ; 
opera forse delle piii faticosse et importanti ch' io liabbia fatto per V. 
M., la quale quanto prima sara fornita le inuiaro per quel mezi die le 
piacera di comraettermi. In tanto siipplico humilmentc la M. V. per la 
•sua alta pieta che auanti ch' io mora ella mi faccia gracia di sentir 
<pialche consolatione e frutto di quella tratta di formenti di Napoli gia 
tanto tempo concessami dalla gloriosa memoria di Cesare suo genitore ; 
et oltra di questo di alcuna pensione che a lei piacesse per dar effetto a 
(piella naturalezza di Spagna che gia mi fu donata nella persona di mio 
figliuolo degnandosi anchora d' esser seruita che per alcnna sua efBcace et 
ualida cedula indrizzata al Duca di Sessa io possa riscuoter le niie ordi- 
narie prouisioni dalla camera di Melano, le quali mi restauo di gia piti 
di quatro anni ch' io non ho scosso pur un quatrino acciocche con 
(pialche opportuno tratenimento io possa sostentarmi in questa mia 
ultima uecchiaia mentre io mi sforzo con uiuer lietamente di j)roluiigar i 
termini della morte solamente per potcr seruir il mio gran signore, alia 
cui &a., 

Di Venetia, il xxviij giomo di luglio, mdlxiij. 

Di V. M. Catholica 

Denotissimo humil seruo, 
Titian© Vecellio, pittor. 


l^Unpublished.'} Venice, 1563. 

[Simancas, S"» de Estado Leg° 1324, i" 193.] 

Garcia Hernandez in account with the Spanish Government. 

Cuenta de lo que costaron los vidrios y vedrieras y colores que ha 
emMado Garcia Hernandez a su Ma"^. 

(Inclosure in despatch of G. H. to Philip the Second, dated Venice, 
Oct. 1, 1563.) 

Lo que se ha gastado en Vene9ia en los vidrios y vedrieras 
que Garcia Hernandez ha embiado a su Mag"" y por 
su mandado es lo siguiente : 

En V de Octubre de 1559 embie a Genoua quatro caxas 
de vasos de vidrio para bever agua y para beuer vino 
y dos de vedrieras de christal lustradas para ventanas 
costaron las vedrieras que fueron 450 piezas ciento y 
uno que suman ....... 320 V°'* 

Costaron las caxas y ponerlas en orden con el da(,"io quinze 

escudos . XV V*"* 

Gastaronze en Ueuar estas caxas a Genoua con otros dos 
en que fueron los quadros de Christo en el sepulchro 
y Diana y Calisto que embio Ti§iano a sn Mag"^ veinte 
y cinco escudos y quinze que di a un hombre que 
Ueuo cargo dellas y consinarlas al embaxador 
Figueroa e que se detuno un mes, y cinco escudos que 
pague a Ti§iano que gaste en poner en orden los 
quadros suman quarenta y cinco escudos. . . . xlv V°* 

En primero de Agosto de 1560 pague a Ticiano tres 
escudos que gasto en poner en orden el quadro de los 
tres reyes que embie a su M"* con los embaxadores 
venegianos ........ W] „ 

En XV de Diciembre del dicho anof pague a Ticiano dos 
escudos que gasto en poner en orden el quadro de la 
Magdalena que embie por uia del Marques de 
Pescara per orden de su M"* ij >r 

En XV de Septiembre de 1561 pague por dos ongas de 
azul ultramarino y otros colores que compro Ticiano 
por mandado de su M"^ treinta y ocho escudos . . [blank.] 

En XV de hebrero de 1562 compre 450 piezas de 
vedrieras lustradas por mandado de su M'' costaron 
ciento y noventa y seis escudos cxcvj „ 

Pague por las caxas y caxetas en que fueron algodon, 

dagio y otras cosas trece esc^ xiij ,,. 

* Escudos. 

+ This date is wrong. It is clear from the correspondence that the Magdalen 
was sent to Spain in 1561. 


Pague a un hombre que las lleuo a Genoua con los 
cuadros de Christo en la oracion y la Europa que 
Ti9iano embio a su Mag"* veinte y 9mco escudos y 
cinco que se gastaron en poner en orden los dichos 
quadros suman ........ xxx V* 

En XX de Mar90 de 1563 com pre seis centas pieijas de 
vidrieras de christal lustradas y una caxa de vases de 
vidrio para beuer agua y para beuer vino costo todo 
con da9io caxas y conduta hasta Genoua trezientos e 
dezisiete escudos y medio cccxvij 5 „ 

Que suma todo nuevegientos y setenta y nueve escudos y 

medio de oro DccccLxxix^ ,, 

Garcia Hernandez. 

lUnpuhlished.] Venice, loGS. 

[Simancas, Estado Leg" 1336.] 

Titian to Philip the Second. 


Non hauendo gia molte e molte man di lettere mandate insieme con 
le pitture a V. M. hauuto mai da lei risposta alcuna, io temo grande- 
mente che le pitture mie non le siano state di sodisfattione o che '1 sua 
seruo Titiano non le sia piu in gratia come gli pareua di esser prima. 
Pero mi sarebbe oltra mode caro di esser certo o dell' una cosa delF 
altra perche sapendo le intentione del mio gran Re mi sforzarei di far si 
che per auentura cessarebbe ogni cagione delle mie doglianze dunque le 
infinita benignita di V. M. si degni de esser seruita ch' io resti consolato 
al meno di ueder il suo sigillo se non sue letere che le giuro per la deuo- 
tione mia uerso di lei che se queste fia sar^ possente a giunger diece anni 
di piu a questa niia ultima eta j^er seruir la M. del mio Catholico Signore 
oltra che questo sara un eccitamento a mandarle con piu lieto e sicuro 
animo la cena di Christo con gli apostoli della quale altre uolte le ho 
scritto. Questa pittura e un quadro lungo braccia otto et alto cinque et di 
corte sarii fornita. Pero la M. V. si degnara similmente di esser seruita ch' 
io sappia a cui douerlo consignare accioche la materia di questa deuotione 
possa esser a V. M. un testimonio della mia uerso di lei. Et perche delle 
ante altre mie pitture mandate fin hora a V. M. non ho hauuto mai pur 
un minimo danaro in pagamento io non ricerco altro dalla sua singolar 
benignita e dementia se non che al meno mi sieno pagate le mie pro- 
uisioni ordinarie dalla camera di Milano per comandamento di V. M. di 
quella maniera che la sua benignita sa imponere quando uuol souueuir 
efficaceniente i suoi deuotissimi seruitori. Della qual cosa siipjilicaiKlo 


humilmente V. M. Catholica et dedicandole il resto di questa mia ultima 
uecchiezza in suo seruitio mi raccomando in sua buona gratia. 

Di Venetia, il 6 giomo di Dicembre del mdlxiij. 

Di V. M. Catholica 
Humil seruo, 


[Unpublished.] Barcelona, 1564. 

[Simancas, S"» de Estado Leg" 1325.] 

Philip the Second to Garcia Hernandez. 


Barcelona, March 8, 1564. 

A Tigiano respondo a dos cartas que me ha escripto lo que vereis que 
serabien que vos se lo declareis porque lo entienda mejor (sobre loque a 
el le toca escriuo a Milan y a Napoles tan encarescidamente que tengo 
por ^ierto se cumplira lo que alii ha de hauer y assi se lo podeis dezir y 
con esta yran las cartas) que vos le ayudareis a encaminallas y yo por 
aca escriuire lo mismo encargando el cumplimiento dello. 

Y porque el me escriue que tiene acabada \'na pintura de la cena de 
Christo nuestro seiior de vna grandeza que deue * cosa rara y siendo de 
su mano y que yo le auise como me la ha de embiar le scriuo que dan- 
doosla a vos me la encarainareis yo os encargo mucho que vos la recibais 
del como os la diere empacada y de manera que no pueda recibir dano 
la embieis d Genoua a mi Embaxador para que desde alii me la encamine 
con las galeras 6 en algun nauio que venga a alicaleo cartagena que en 
ello me seruireis. 

[Unpuhlished.'] Barcelona, 1564. 

[Simancas, Estado Leg" 1336.] 

Philip the Second to Titian. 

A Ticiano. Barcelona, March 8, 1564, 

Don Phelippe, &c., 

Amado nuestro, — Dos cartas vuestras he recibido la postrera de vj de 
deziembre la qual no ha sino quatro o cinco dias que Uego y he holgado 
con ella mucho por saber que teneis salud y que siempre atendeis a 
liazer cosas que me deu contentamiento como lo sera la pintura de la 
cena de Christo y en tal grandeza y perficion como sera de vuestra mano 
y assi os tengo en seruitio lo que en esto haueis trabajado que yo terne 
dello la memoria que es razon la pintura podreis dar a gargi hernandez 

So in the original. 


muy bien en ordea y puesta de manera que no reciba diuo en el camino) 
en lo que toca a vuestras cosas escribo a napoles y milan como os dira 
gargi hernandez y me pesa que no se cumpla con vos como es razon 
pero yo lo mandare de manera que no aya falta que en esto y en todo 
conoscereis siempre la voluntad que os tengo. 

De BAR9EL0XA. ' 

[Unpuhlislied.] Barcelona, 1564. 

[Simancas, Estado Leg" 133G.] 

Philip the Second to the Viceroy of Naples. 

Al Visorey de Napoles, — 
Auiendo cntendido que no se cumple bien a Ticiano Vecellio Pinter 
Veneciano vna trata de grano de que el Emperador mi senor y padre 
que esta en gloria le hizo mer9eo en esse Reyno muchoz auos ha y desse- 
ando yo que en esto no aya falta assi pon^ue se cumpla la voluntad de 
su mag'' como 03 razon como por la que el temo y yo tengo a Ticiano 
por los agradables serui^ios que nos ha hecho y nos haze os lo aueinos 
(^ue vido dar a entender por esta y encargaroz y mandaros que 
luego que se os de veais la patente o cedula que el dicho Ticiano 
tiene de su Mag'' que aya santa gloria y proveais y deis tal orden en la 
execucion y cumplimiento della assi de lo passado como en lo poruenir 
que el tenga causa de quedar contento y que no sea menester scriuiros yo 
otra vez sobrello (porquo demas de ser esta mi uoluntadme hareis en ello 
muy arcepto seruicio y como tal os lo escriuo tambien en otra carta de 
negocios de la data desta como nereis) la qual restara al presentante. 

Datum en Barcelona a viij" de Margo, 1564. 

[Unpublished.'] Barcelona, 1564. 

[Simancas, Estado Leg" 1336.] 

Philip the Second to the Duke of Sessa. 

Al Gouernador de Milan, — 
Ya deueis saber como Tir;iano Vecellio Pintor Veneciano tiene 
^ierta prouision ordinaria consignada en essa nuestra camara y porque el 
nos ha hecho y haze tan agradables seruicios que holgaria yo muclio que 
le fuese mejor pagado (|ue hasta ac^ui pues segun he entendido se le 
deuen mas de quatro anos que por mucho que lo ha instado y prociirado 
no los ha podido cobrar segun entiendo os he querido escriuir esta para 
encargaros y mandaros cjue luego f^ue la rocibais veais el priuilcgio 
cedula que el dicho Tigiano tiene de la dicha su prouision y averignado 
lo que en virtud de ella se le deue de lo corrido deis tal orden que con 
eft'ecto se le pague todo aquello a el a su procurador sin que en ello 
aya falta ni dila9ion de qualesquier dineros desa nuestra camara ordi- 



narios o extraordinarios y en falta de ellos de algun otro expediente de 
que a vos alia os parerea que se podra mejor cnmplir y con mas breiie- 
dad lo que assi liuuiere de auer el dicho Ti9iano y para lo porvenir 
dareis assi mismo tal orden que a sus tiempos y tandas del ano se le deu 
sus pagas sin que se le alarguen ni sea menester que yo os escriua mas 
sobre ello que esta es mi voluntad y de que sere muy seruido. Datum &c, 

Barcelona, a 8 de Margo de 1564. 

[Unpublished.] Venice, 1564. 

[Simancas, S"" de Estado Leg" 1325.] 

Garcia Hernandez to Philip the Second. 

S. C. R. M.,— 

A Tigiano di el despaclio que vino con la carta que V. Mag** mando 
scriuirme en viij" del pasado que lo estimo en lo que es razon, lo de 
Napoles es cosa vieja y no se acuerda, como estan viejo, donde tiene los 
recaudos de la merced que el Emperador de gloriosa memoria le liizo 
en hallandose le dii'e lo que ha de hazer y en esto y en lo demas le ayudan 
y encaminare como V. Mag"* me manda, el se contentaria por agora 
conque se le pagase lo que ha de hauer en Milan a lo qual emhiara 
persona propria tambien suplica a V. Mag'' sea seruido mandar que se 
le pague lo que ha de hauer en essa corte del entretenimiento que V. 
Mag'' le haze merged en cada vn ano. 

El quadro que haze para V. Mag"* de christo nuestro sehor en la cena 
es muy grande y no esta acabado como el escriuio dize que trauajara de 
tenerlo en perfection por todo mayo y yo lo soligito y solicitare cada dia 
hasta que lo acabe y en estando en orden bien empacado como conviene 
lo embiare al Embajador de Genoua como V. Mag** me manda. 

En xxiiij" del passado remiti al dho Embaxador tres caxas con 700 
vidrieras todas de vna grandeza que el secretario Gonzalo Perez me 
scriuio en xxvj de agosto passado embiasse para seruigio de V. Mag"* y 
escreui que las encaminasse con la primera ocasion que se offresciesse 
V. Mag** sera seruido mandar que se le scriua lo mismo. 

En xxj de julio del ano passado embie a Genoua entre otras dos caxas 
con 600 vedrieras de tres tamanos para V. Mag'' y el secretario GonQaiO 
perez me serine que no resgibio mas de la vna con 300 menos quatro y 
la otra se deuio quedar por descuydo en Genoua porque todas se 
descargaron en la duana y mostraron y consinaron a francisco de vgarte 
secretario del Embaxador figueroa como V. Mag'' mandara ver por la 
copia de la certifigacion que dello dio que embio a Gonzalo perez supplico 
a V. Mag'' le mande scriuir que la busque y embie a buen recaudo y que 
lo de mejor de aqui adelante que por el passado. 

El coste de las 700 vedrieras que vltimamente embie a Genoua sacare 
a pagar al Thesorero Dominego de Orbea como V. Mag'' me manda a quien 
suplico humilmente sea seruido mandar que se cumpla con quien lo 


liuuiere de hauer y mande que se paguen los 929 escudos y medio de oro 
con mas el cambio f[ue costaron los vidros y vedrieras y colores y otras 
cosas que embie los aiios passados para seruicio de V. Mag"* que aunque 
V. Mag'' ha mandado que se paguen, no tienen auiso los mercaderes que 
aqui los han. de hauer que se hayan pagado. 

Assi raismo suplico <i V. IMag"* mande que se pague lo que he de hauer 
de mis quintus hasta en fin del ano de 62 que lo he mucho menester para 
pagar lo que deuo aqui. Juan de Trillanes esta en la corte del Empe- 
rador negogiando de voluer a seruir a su Mag"* en constantinopla y 
prin^ipalinente per seruir a V. Mag"* segim me escriue pero hasta los 2 
deste no liauia liauido resolucion. Nuestro seiior la S. C. R. persona y 
estado de V. Mag"* guarde y prospere por largos tiempos con acrescenta- 
miento de mas Reynos y seiiorios. 

De Venecia, xvj de Abril, 1564. 

S. C. R. M., 
Criado de V. M. <[ue sua reales pies y manos besa, 

Garcia Hernandez. 

[Unpithlisked.] Venice, 1564. 

[Simancas, S"" de Estado Leg" 1325.] 

Garcia Hernandez to Philip the Second. 

Venecia d 11 de Junio de 1564. 

Tigiano labra con diligencia en el quadro grande de Christo nuestro 
seiior en la gena que haze para V. Mag"* pero aunque se de mucha prisa 
no lo acabara en tres meses, yo le solicito y solicitare hasta que le acube, 
antiyer me dio vn retrato de la Serenisima Reyna de Romanes bien 
empacado, el qual con la ocasion deste correo embio d Don Gabriel de la 
Cueua, para que lo remita d V. Mag*' con la primera buena ocasion y le 
escriuo que tengo orden de V. Mag'' de hazerlo assi V. Mag'' sera seruido 
mandarlo escriuir que tenga dello cuydado, sino lo embiare antes. 

[Unpuhlished.] Madrid, 1564. 

[Simancas, S"" de Estado Leg" 1325.] 

Philip the Second to Garcia Hernandez. 


July 15, 1564. 

A Tigiano dircis que le tengo en seruigio la diligengia que vsa en 
acabar el (|uadro de la c;ena de Christo nuestro Redentor y la que vso en 
el retrato de la Reyna mi hermana que tengo por gierto sera tan perfecto 

M M 2 


como las otras cosas de su mano y el auerlo vos remitido a don Gabriel 
de la Cueua fue muy bien porque el me lo embiara a recaudo y con este 
correo le hermandado scriuir sobrello y sobre lo que mas ocurriere que 
me hayais de remitir por su mano, que lo hazeis por mi orden y que lo 
reciba y embie todo de manera que A'enga con seguridad y bien tratado y 
en esta misma substancia se serine taiubien al Embaxador figueroa para 
que en lo venidero ponga mas deligencia que por lo passado que ya 
scriuio que se liauia hallado la caxa de vidrios que faltaua que se hauia 
quedado alia i^or inaduerten9ia. 

[Unpublished.] Madrid, 1564. 

[Simancas, S"" de Estado Leg" 1325.] 

Philip the Second to Garcia Hernandez. 


August 31, 1564. 

Los quadros que remitistes a don Gabriel de la Cueua ban llegado aqui 
bien tratados y me ban contentado mucbo y assi lo direis a Ti(;iano, 
encargandole de mi parte que en los que tiene entre manos se de la mayor