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Full text of "T. Lucretius Carus, Of the nature of things"






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T. Lucretius Cafus^ 

OF THE 

Nature of Things. 

Tranflated into Englilh Verfe by 
Thomas Creech, A. M. and 
Fellow of Wadham College 
in Oxford. 



Volume IL 

Containing the Fifth and Sixth Books.' 
Explain'd and Illuftrated with Notes 
and Animadverfions. 



Felix qui ptuit rerum cognofcere cattfof, 
Attfue mettts omnes, & inexorabile Fatum 
Suhjecit jedibus, finphunujue Acherontis avan. 

Virg. 



L N D ti: ^^ 

Printed by John Matthews, for George 
Sawb RIDGE, at the Jy&r^g Fkurs de Ljs in 
Link Britain. MdccxiV- 



.2 D M I ; . i. 



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THE 



PREFACE 




AVING in the Vreface to the fir/i- 
VGlume given 4 he Vublick fo full and 
ample an Account of my Defign^ in pub- 
lining thefe Notes and Animadverfions 
on this Englijh Tranjlation of Lucretius^ 
as likewije of the Helps I made ufe ofy 
and of the Method I have ohferv^d^ in 
this Undertakings which I take to be the chief Bnfinefs of 
a Frefacer^ IJliall not long detain my Header by Way of 
Introdu^ion to this fecond Volume ^ that contains only the two 
la ft Books of my Authour ^ who^ having in thefe two 
Books treated of a great Variety of noble SubjeBs, has 
afforded me a jufi Occafion of fwelling this Volume to almojh 
an equal Number of Sheets with the former, tho^ compu^ 
ting the Number ofVerfes, it contain but little more than 
one Third of the whole Foem of Lucretim ; The Length 
however , if 1 may judge of the Readers SatisfaBion in the 
Ferufaly by my own in the compilings 72^ ill not, I hope, 
feem tedious to him ; and I flatter my felf, that I fljall not 
weary and grow irkfome to thofe, whom it has bem my prin- 
(ipal Study and ^^fg^ ^^ ^^^^ ^0 inflruB and divQrt. 

t a 2 ] wi^^^ 



The Preface. 

When the SuhjeSi of which my Authour was treating 

was nUtmally cirahhed and ahfirufe, as in the two firfi 

Books ^ in which he diffutes chiefly of the Nature and Fro- 

ferties of his APoms ; I thought it not convenient to dwell 

too long upon it ; hut endeavour d only to render it flain 

and intelligible with as much Brevity as the Province of 

an Interpreter y which I had undertaken y would allow: 

But when he came to treat of Things which I judged would 

he more entertaining^ as of the Origine of the JVorld ^ of the 

Motion of the Heavens ; of fhe Sun^ Moon and Stars • of 

the fir fi Meny and of their Manners and Way of Life ; of 

the fir ft Infiitution of Kings y Magiflrates and Laws • of 

the fir B Invention of Arts and Sciences ;> of the Things we 

call Meteors y as Thundery Lightningy Whirlwinds y Earth- 

quakes y ^c. Of the Caufes of Rainy Windy Haily SnoWy 

and Fro ft ^ Of the Flames that are ejeBed from the Bowels 

of Mount z^tna ; Of the annual Increafe of the River 

Nile ; Of the Averni ^ Of certain miraculous Fountains ; 

Of the Load [tone 'j and of the Caufe and Origine ofFlagues 

^nd Difeafes ; Of all whichy as well as of many other 

SuhjeBs of the like Naturey Lucretius has difputed in thefe 

two last Books ; when he camey I fajy to treat of thefe 

Matters y he afforded me a wider Field to inlarge and ex- 

patiate upon ; and I have laid hold of the Opportunity he 

gave mey to illufirate all thofe fever al Suhjeltsy with the 

Opinions of all the mo ft celehratedy as well antient as 

moderny FhilofopherSy concerning them : In which I pre* 

fume I fi] all not be deernd to have tranfgrejs^d the Bounds y 

which were formerly prefcrih'd to an Interpreter y whoy as 

Amr^onim allows y Ne^jue henevolentia duBus conari debet y 

^ua perperam dicuntur confentanea facerCy eaque veluti a 

tripode exciperey neque reBe prodita pravo fenju per odium 

carper e ^ fed eorum effe incorruptus judex y at que auBoris 

fenfum aperire imprimis y - illiufque placita interpret ari ^ 

turn quod alijy €^ ipfefentiat afferre. Befides 'y i can not 

apprebendy hut that it will be acceptable to the Publick to fee 

at one View the different Opinions of the Learned Men in 

fill Aies. on the above SuhkUs \ and this is what I have en- 

aeavoiir d 



The Preface. 

deavour^d to oblige my Readers with in the following 
Sheets, 

I will conclude this Preface with a few Lines in my o'wn 
Vindication^ and then take my League. 

I fore/ee that I ha^e render d my [elf liable to he carfd 
at^ and that I fljall be cenfurd by fomeCriticks, on Account 
offome particular Words ^ and certain Ways of Exfrejjion^ 
which I have confiantly obferz^'d and made ufe of through 
the whole Courfe of this Work ; contrary to the generally 
recei'v'd Cuftom and PraBife of many ^ nay ferhafsofmosfy 
of our frefent Writers. 

I need not be told^ that, in Matter of Sfeech^ when 
Cufiom has once fre^uaird^ we are abfolutely obligd to fub- 
mit to whate'ver it has imfosd upon us • and that it is not 
lawful^ on any Pretence whatfoe'ver^ to refifi the Laws of 
that So'veraign^ I had almofi faid Tyrant of Lanr 

Cui penes arbitrium efi d^ jus ^ norma lo^uendi. 

Horat,, 

But on the other Hand, in Language, as in moft Things 
elfe, there is a good Cufiom and a bad -^ The good ought to 
he the Standard of Propriety and Correclnef of Speech ; and 
the bad ought carefully to be avoided, as the Corrupter of 
it : fo that the main Difficulty lies in difcerning rightly 
between them : But how this may be done is not our prefent 
Bufinef to inquire. 

Dr, Swift y in his Letter to the Lord High Treafurer, 
with good reafon complains. That our Language is extreamly 
imperfeB, that its daily Impro'vements are by no Means 
in proportion to its daily Corrupticns, and that the Pre- 
tenders to polijlj and refine it hanje chiefly multiply^ d Abufes 
and Abfurdities ', and fo far he is certainly in the right: 
but I can not agree with him when he goes on, and fays. 
That in many Infiances it offends agai??fi every Part of 
Grammar : He feems to impute to the Language itfelf the 
Faults of our uncorre^t Writers.. All Languages^ but more 

efpeciall]^ 



The Preface. 

effeclally the modern^ and ours among the refi^ have 
certain Idioms and Proprieties of Speech peculiar to each of 
them^ in which nevertheleJS they offend againfi the general 
Rules of Grammar : Of this fo many Inftances might be 
given, that it is needlef to give any. 

Modern and living Languages are not to be fixd by the 
Standard y nor afcertain'd by the Maxims and Rules of the 
antient and the dead ; and their chief Beauties confift in 
frequent Emancipations from the fervile Laws of antient 
Grammar, A Man may write ungrammatically y and yet 
'write very good Englifh ^ according to this excellent Say- 
ing of ^intiliany Aliud eft grammatice, aliud L,atine 
loqui. 

I now return to what gave Occaficn to thefe Refleciionsy 
andy among feveral other Infiances that my Readers may 
ebfervcy will mention only one or twoy in which I have 
varfd from fame other Writers of thefe Days. Phenomenon 
is a Word that has been introduced into our Language : 
l^ecefity brought it in to avoid a Circumlocution : For 
it is originally Greek y and fignifies an Appearance in 
the Heaven y or in the Air, Now fomCy inftead of Phe- 
tiomenony leaving out the two final Letters y make it Phe- 
fiomeny and fay in the Plural y Phenomens * both which I 
take to be altogether ahfurd : Others y who write Phenome- 
non in the (ingular Number , when they have Occafion to 
ufe it in the Pluraly fay Phenomenay which'i in my Dpi- 
7jiony is contrary to the Analogy if our Language ; and 
others again y in the fame Number y Phenomena^ s, which 
I almofi dare pronounce to be a Monfer in Speech : For my 
own Part, ivhenever 1 have been oblig d to ufe it in the 
plural, I have not fuck to fay, Phenomenonsy rather than 
Phenomena y as it is in the Original : and this I am fure is 
more conformable to the Analogy of our Language^ in 
which the Difference between the Singular and the Plural 
Number y even in the Words borrowed from the learned Lan- 
guagesy confifis not in any Variation of the final Syllabhy 
hut in the Addition of the Letter s to the fingular Number, 
fbw in the folkiping Words ^ ldM% d^athmay Chimera y 



The Preface^ 

CowpendluMy Efithalamlumy whichy together •with tna* 
ny other y we hanje taken from the learned Languages, 
and naturalized in our own, we fay not in the Plural^ 
Idea, Anathemata, Chimera, Compendia, Efithalamia, 
even tho' we have retain d their original Terminations in 
the Singular, hut IdeaSj Anathemas, Chimeras, Compen^ 
diums, Efithalamiums, Befides ^ Since there is no Method 
yet proposed, nor any Rules yet agreed upon, andfetled among 
m, for the afcertaining and fixing of our Language for 
ever, why has not every Man an equal Share of Liberty, 
not only to introduce and fet up a new Word, if there he 
Occapon for it, hut even to ufe one that is already intro^ 
duc^d, in a different manner from the refi of his contempo* 
rary Writers, efpeciaUy fince they themfelves ufe it dif-^ 
ferently from orn 'another I " Licuit, femperque licehit. 
This, I hope, isifufficient to eSccufe, if not to jti[tify, my 
having us'd the Word Phenomenons in the plural Number t 
at leafl it will make it appear to he an Errour^ not of Ig^ 
norance, hut of Judgment , and which I declare my felf 
always ready to recant and re5lify, whenever I can he bet" 
ter informed, and convincd by good Reafons that I am in 
the wrong. 

Again: Nothing is more frequent with our prefenP 
Writers than the following Way of Expreffion : They greedi- 
ly embrace that Do5lrine, be it never fo erromom. This 
Example is taken from one of our moft celebrated Authours 
for Corre^neJS of Style ; neverthelefs I take the Word never 
in that place to be a Barharifm in Speech : It ought to ba 
ever • be it ever fo errmeous : This Way of Exprejjion 
is an Idiom of our Language *, partly elliptick, partly a 
tranfpofition of the Words ^ which, when placd in due 
Order, and without any Word underfiood, will run as 
follows:, How erroneous foever it be. I have not 
Room in this Place to undertake the Difquifiticn of this 
Doubt, nor to give my Reafons at large, why, when^ 
ever I have had Occafion to make Ufe of the like 
Expreffion, I have diffented from mofi of our other Writers, 
and employed the Word ever, rather than never : But this^ 

together 



The P R 1 F A G 



E. 



together with fome Hundreds of Ohftrvationsy relating te^ 
cur Tiative- Language y and -which I have been many Tears 
digefing in my Thought Sy I intend to publijh in a fhorP 
timCy' as an Effay towards the corretiingy improving^ and 
afcertainingofit^ under this Title y Remarks- upon the 
English Tongue. 



.V « -dW-j 




T.mL u c r e- 



C42j] 




T. LucretiusCarus 




Hat Verse can 
a Wing, 



foar on fo fublime 



As reaches his Deferts ? What Muse 

can ling. 
As HE requires? What Poet now 

can raife 
A Aately Monument of lading Praife,^ 
Great as his vaft Deferts, who firft did fhow ^ 

Thefe ufefui Truths ; who taught us firft to know >• 
Nature's great Pow'rs? 'Tismore than Man can dolS 
For, if we view tlie mighty Things he fhow'd, 
His ufefui Truths proclaim, he was a GodI 
ro He was a God, who firft reform'd our Souls, 
And hd us by Philosophy and Rules, 



5 



From 



NOTES. 



Lucretius begins this. Book 
with the Praife of EpieSriiV, and 
not only makes him eq^i?tb the 
Gods, but even proclaims him a 
God ; becaufe, fays he, his Di- 
vine Difcoveries have been more 
beneficial to Mankind, than the 
Inventions of Ceres, or of Bac- 
chus, or than the many glorious 
Exploits of Hercules : fince Men 
n?iight have liv'd happily enough 
without them. But true Wif- 
dom, which Epicurus firft dif- 
cover'd and taught, is of the 
greaceft Utility to Mankind, be- 
caufe it chdces away ail Uneafi- 



nefs from the Mind, and in- 
ftruffts us aright in the Nature 
of all Things, and concerning 
the immortal Gods. 

10. Who iirft.&c] LacHiantius, 
lib. 3. cap. 14. de falsa Sapientii : 
and many others, pretend from 
this Expreflion of LucretiuSjthac 
he did not mean Epicurus, buc 
one of the more antient Philofo- 
phers, as Pythagoras, or Socra- 
tes, or Thales, or fome other of 
the feven Sages : But they are 
evidently miftaken, as appears 
by v. ^o, of this Book, where he 
fay S3 

lii Cuius 



42^ LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

From Cares, and Fears, and melanch oly Night, 
To Joy, to Peace, to Ease ; and fliew'd us Light. 
For now compare what other Gods beftow : y 

15 Kind B^cc H-vs firft the pleafing Vine did fliow ; > 

And Ceres, Corn^ and taught us how to plough. S 

Yet 

NOTES. 



Cujus ego ingreflus veftigia— — 

His Steps I trace — ^ — 

And Cicero certainly had his 
Thoughts on this Paifage, when 
in Tufcul. 4. he fays ; Qi\x qui- 
deni cogitans foleo fa:pe mirari 
nonnullorum infolentiam Philo- 
fophoruni, qui NaturjK cogniti- 
onem admirantur, ejufque In- 
ventori Sc Principi gratias exul- 
tantes agunt, eunique venerantur 
ut Deum ; liberates enim fe per 
COS dicunt gravifllmis Dominis. 
When I refled on thefe Things, 
1 often wonder at the Infolence 
of fome Philofophers,who admire 
the Knowledge of Nature, and 
give Thanks with Tranfport of 
Mind to the Inventour and firft 
Authour of Natural Philofophy, 
owning that he has delivered 
them from moft Tyrannous 
Lords. Thus our grateful Poet 
confeiTes to whom he owes his 
Knowledge in the Nature of 
Things: And indeed, if Epi-i 
curus did deliver the Minds of 1 
Men from Cares, and fears, and I 
Superflition, he jufbly deferv'd 
to be rever'd preferably to any of 
the Heathen Gods. The Words 
of this PaiTage run thus in the 
Original, 

Qui primus vita: rationem inve- 

nit earn, quae 
Nunc appellatur Sapientia' ► 

For WISDOM was the Name 
which the Epicureans, who were 
a iort of Men not burden'd with 
i;oo much Modefty^ gave only to 



their own Philofophy. Horata 
Lib. I. Od. 33. 

Parcus Deorum cultor, & infre- 

quens 
Infanientis dum fapienti^ 
Confultus erro.' 
I 

But the other Philofopbers were 
I content to call their Dodrine by 
\ the Name of the Love of Wif- 
dom : for fo the Word Philofo- 
phy fignifies. 

15. Bacchus, &c.] The Son of 
Jupiter and Semele : He is faid 
to have been the firft that plan- 
ted Vines, and made Wine of the 
Grapes : For which Reafon the 
Poets made him the God of 
Wine : He travel'd over the 
whole Earth, conquer'd the In- 
dies, and was the firft who tri- 
uniph'd ; which he did, riding 
upon an Elephant. The chief 
Badges and Emblems of his 
Power were Tygres and the 
Thyrfus : The Tygres were har-r 
nefs'd to his Car •, and thus he 
was wont to be carry'd about : 
Virg. ^neid. 6. v. 804. 

Nec quji, pampineis vi(f^or juga 

flecfi|tiliabenis, 
Liber,' agens celfo Nifse de ver- 

tice tigres. 

Nor Bacchus, turning from his 

Indian War, 
By Tygers drawn, triumphant 

in his Car, 
From Nifa's Top defcending to 

the Plains, 
With curling Vines around his 

purple Reins. 



Book V. 



LUCRETIUS, 



The Thyrfus, was a Spear or 
Javelin, wrapp'd about with 
Vine-Branches and Ivy ; whofe 
Point ended in the Shape of a 
Cone : Bacchus, and the mad 
drunken Women, his Compani- 
ons, who were call'd Bacchaz, al- 
ways carry'd a Thyrfus in their 
Hands : Moreover, Lucretius, 
in this Place, calls Bacchus by 
the Name of Liber : 

Namque Ceres fertur fruges, Li- 

berque liquoris 
Vicigeni laticem mortalibus in- 

itituilTe, 

Virg. Georg, I. v. 5. 

— — Vos, O clariffima mundi 
Lumina, labentemcceloquic du- 

citis annum. 
Liber & aUna Ceres; veftro li 

munere tellus 
Chaoniam pingui glandem mu- 

tavit arifti, 
Poculaque inventis Acheloia 

mifcuit uvis. 

Upon which the Interpreters fay, 
that the Poet calls Liber and Ce- 
res the Lights of the World, ei- 
ther becaufe they were efteem'd 
to be the Inventours of, and to 
prefide over, the Harveft and 
the Vintage, which are the chief 
Parts or Seafons of the Year^and 
the chief Ornaments of the 
World, iince they fupply Man- 
kind with Meat and Drink : or, 
becaufe by them he means the 
Sun and Moon. And indeed 
Pr^textatus, in Macrobius Sa- 
turnal. lib. i. cap. 18. evidently 
proves, that not only Liber and 
Dionyfiusj which is another of 
the Names of Bacchus ; but that 
Jupiter, and Mars, and Mercu- 
ry, and Hercules too, were the 
Sun ; who was call'd Liber, fays 
he, quod libere vagctur. He 
adds likewife, that Ceres was 
the Moon, and that fojne derive 



427 

her Name a creando, becaufe flie 
conduces very much to the Pro- 
dudion of Things. Bacchus was 
call'd Liber, eirher becaufe he 
made free, and reftor'd to Liber- 
ty the Country of Boeocia, where 
he was born, as we learn from 
Plur. m Qua;ft. Cent, or be- 
caule Wine delivers the Mind 
from Cares, infpires with Cou- 
rage, and occafions a Liberty or 
Frecnefs of Speech. Thus Ho- 
race, Carm. Lib. 3. Od. 21. 
fpeaking to a Cask of Wine : 

Tu lene tormentum ingenio ad- 

mpves 
Plerumque duro : tu fapienti=. 
um 

Curas, 6c arcanum jocofo 
Cojililium retegis Lya'o, 
Tu fpem reducis mentibus anxi- 

is, 
Virefque : & addis cornua pau- 
peri. 

Poll te neque iratos trementi 
Regum apices, neque militum 
arma. 

Of Bacchus fee more, Book IL 
\,6i6. and Book IV. y. ii6^, 

16. Ceres] She was Daughter 
of Saturn and Ops, and Mother 
of Proferpine. She was believed 
to be the fir ft that fow'd Corn, 
and found out the Art of Ufing 
it. Virgil, Georgick I. v. 147. 

Prima Ceres ferro mortales ver^ 

tere terram 
Inftituit. !-. 

For which ;tleaibn they made her 
the Goddefs of Corn ; and hence 
too, as Varro, Cicero, andAr- . 
nobius witnefs, ilie was call'd 
Ceres, as it were, Geres, becaufe, 
touse the very Words of Arno- 
bius, lib. 3. Salutarium femi- 
num fruges gerar. See more, 
B. IL v. 616, 4n4 B, IV. v. 
11(^5. 

18. As 



li 



I 2 



428 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

Yer Men might ftill have liv*d without thefe two : 
They might have liv'd as other Nations do. 
But what Content could Man, what Pleafure find, 
'2,0 What Joy in Life, while Paflions vex'd the Mind ? 
Therefore that Man is more a God than thefe, y 

' That Man, who fhew'd us how to live at Eafe, V 

That Man, who taught the World Delight and Peace. 3 
His ufeful Benefits are rais*d above 
25 A Lc IDES A(5ls, the greateil Son of J f £ ! 

For 

NOTES. 



18. As other Nations do.] Di- 
odorus Siculus, Book III. fays, 
That the Inhabitants on the 
Coaft of the Gulph of Arabia ; 
and of the Countreys of Troglo- 
dytia and South Ethiopia, know 
not the Ufe of Corn or Wine ; 
but that fome of them live upon 
Fifla and Snails, others upon 
Roots, others upon the Leaves, 
Seeds, and Fruits of Trees, and 
others upon Locufts. Mela wit- 
nefles, that the Troglodytes live 
jn Dens, and feed upon Serpents : 
fome of which, fays Pliny, Nat. 
Hift. lib. 31. cap. 2. are twenty 
Cubits in Length. And Faber, 
in his Note on this PaflTage of 
our Authour, fays, that fcarce 
the lixth Part of Mankind do 
yet know what Wheat is. There- 
fore we may well, fays Lucretius, 
live without Corn and Wine, 
but not without W^ifdom : Sa- 
pientia enim, fays Cicero, lib. i. 
de Fin. eft una qua: moeftitiam 
pellat ex animis, qua; nos exhor- 
refcere metu non finat, qua prae- 
ceptrice in tranquillitate vivi po- 
teft, omnium cupiditatum ardo- 
re reftindo : For Wifdom only 
it is that drives away Sorrow and 
Uneafinefs from the Mind, that 
fuffers us not to ft and aghaft 
with Fear ; and by whofe Ad- 
vice we may extinguifli the 
Flame of all inordinate Dcfires, 
and lead our Lives inTranquilli- 
ty, and exempt from all manner 
of Paflion. 



I p. But what Content, &c.3 
Lucretius : 

At bene non poterat fine pure 
pecTtore vivi. 

W^here by puro pe(ftore the Poet 
means a Mind undifturb'd by 
Ignorance, and not obnoxious to 
Errours j a Heart fincere, and 
free from all Anxiety ; for, as 
Elorace fays, 

Sincerum eft nil! vas, quodcun- 
que infundis, acefcit. 

In like manner, without Since- 
rity of Heart and Purity of 
Mind, 'tis impoflible to lead a 
happy Life or to pafs our Days 
in Tranquillity : And Cicero 
teaches us, that the only way to 
acquire this Purity of Mind is 
by the Help of Wifdom, which, 
by delivering us from all Ter- 
rours and Dciires, and from the 
Temerity of all falfe Opinions, 
is the fureft Guide to Pleafure. 
Mentem autem puram ut habeas, 
adhibenda eft fapientia, quic, Sc 
terroribus cupiditatibufque de- 
tracftis, & omnium falfarum o- 
pinionum temeritate direptajCer- 
tiiiimam fe nobis ducem prabeat 
ad voluptatem. i.deFin. 

24. His ufeful, &c.] In thefe 
24. v. the Poet enumerates fome 
of theLabours of Herculesjwhich, 
he tells us, fall as far iliort of the 
Difcoveries of Wifdom, made by 
Epicurus, as the Spul is more ex- 
cellent 



fiook V. LUCRETIUS. 429 

For tell me, how the fierce N e m ^e ^ n Roar 
Could fright us now ? How could th* Arc^di^k Boar, 
The C XET^N Bull, the Plague oi L e rh e's Lakes, 
The poys'nous Hyi>r^ with her numrous Snakes ? 

How 
NOTES. 

cell ent than the Body: For Her- ^ Labours of Hercules, according 
cules did indeed deliver Men ; to the Order in which the chief 
from Monfters, that were de-jpfthem, which are thirty four 
itrudive to the Body ; butEpi-;i-*^ Number, are enumerated, 
curus^ who firft inftruc'ted Men \ Now there haunted in the Ne- 
in the Art of Wifdom, delivered I m^'^n Wood, near Cleone, a 
their Minds from all vain Anxi- \ City of Achaia, in the Countrey 
eties, and reftlefs Defires : He of Peloponnefus, a vaft and ter- 
chac'd from our Souls the Ter- ^ rihle Lion, that did a World of 
rours at which we were ftar tied' ^lifchief; Hercules, not being 
and ftood aghaft ; and diffipated able to kill him either with his 
the Darknefs of Errours, which! Club, or with his Darts, laid 
clouded the Happinefs of Life, j l^old of him, and tore him to 



25. Alcides^' Hercules ; He 
was call'd Alcides from his 
Grandfather Alc^eus, who was 
Father of Amphitryo of Thebes : 
For Hercules was the Son of 
Jupiter , by Alcmena the 
Wife of Amphitryo. Now be- 
fore either Hercules, or Euryf 
theus, King of Mycena;, were 
born, Juno, who knew that the 
Fates had decreed, that whether 
of them came into the World 
lafl, niould ferve the other, con- 
triv'd the Matter fo, that Her- 
cules was born after Euryftheus, 
who, at her Inftigation, com- 
manded Hercules to go upon 
many dangerous Exploits ; but 
he prov'd fuccefsful in all of 
them, therefore was call'd Her- 
culeS;from''H^, Juno and xa^©'. 
Glory, becauie fhe was the Caufe 
ot all his Renown, tho' fore a- 
gainft her Will. Virgil. Rn. 8. 
V. api. 

■ - ut duros millc labores 
Rege fub Euryftheo, fatis Juno- 

nis iniqua: 
Pertulent.— — — . 

26. Nema:an Roar.&c] That 
is the Nemjean Lion. Nem^eus 
magnus hiatus leonis, fays Lu- 
cretius. This IS the iirch of the j Crete by Neptune, wHom Minos 

Kinz 



pieces with his Nails j then took 
his Skin, which neither Stone 
norlron could penetrate,andwore 
it on his Shoulders, as a Badge 
of Honour, Diod. Sicul. lib. 3. 
Plaut. in Perf. Virg. 2En. 8. 
This gave Occafion to the Infti- 
tution of the Nemasan Games, 
which were celebrated every 
third Year in Honour of Hercu- 
les. But fome, particularly Sta- 
tins, will have this Solemnity to 
have been firil inftituted to cele- 
brate the Funeral of Opheltes, 
Son of Lycurgus, and who was' 
kill'd by an Adder. 

27. Th' Arcadian Boar,] This 
was his feventh Labour: for 
Lucretius does not obferve the 
Order : and mentions only the 
chief of them. He ipeaks here of 
the dreadful Boar that hauntecj 
upon the Mountain Erymanthus 
in Arcadia, and laid wafte all 
the Countrey round. Hercules 
took him, and carry'd him to 
Euryftheus, King of Mycenar. 

28. The Cretan Bull,] This 
was his ninth Labour, A Bull 
that infefted the Country about 
Crete : Hercules brought hini 
alive likewife to Euryftheus. 
Some fay this Bull was fent into 



430 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 



30 How could Gertok's Force, or triple Face ? 

How D loM Ed's firy HoRSEjthofe Plagues ofTnR^cE? 
How could the Birds, that o'er th* A rc^d i^k Plains 
With crooked Talons tore th' affrighted Swains, 
Offend us here ? Whom had the Serpent flruck, 
35 Mighty in Bulk, and terrible in Look, 

That 
NOTES, 



King of Crete had offended : o- 
thers, that it was the fame Bull 
which brought Europa , the 
Mother of Minos, into Crete: 
and others, that it was the Bull, 
for Love of which, Paiiphae, the 
Wife of Minos, run mad. 

The Plague of Lerne's Lakes,] 
This was his third Labour. It 
was a Serpent that liv'd both up- 
on Land and in the Water, and 
was call'd Hydra, from vS'ccp. 
Water: It kept for the moft 
part in the Lake Lerna, between 
Mycenae and Argos : and was 
dreadful for having feven Heads ; 
nay, Virgil fays, fifty, if, as 
many believe, it be the fame 
Hydra that A neas faw when he 
deicended into Hell ; 

Quinquaginta atris immanishia- 
tibus Hydra 

Sxvior intus habet fedem. 

^u. 6. V. 57^. 

and others an hundred ; and no 
fooner was one of thenl cut off, 
than two fprouted out in its 
Place : but Hercules kill'd him 
•at length,by fearing the Wounds, 
asfaftashecut off each of his 
Heads. 

30. Geryon] This was the fix- 
teenth Labour of Hercules. Ge- 
ryon, was a King of Spain, hid 
to have three Bodies, either be- 
caufe he govern'd three lilands of 
Spain, the greater and lelFer Ba- 
leares, how call'd Majorca and 
Minorca ; and Ebufus, now Ivi- 
ca i or becaufe he and his two 
Brothers, who were united in the 
ftricfteft Ties of Friend iliip, were 
all flain by Hercukfj who took 



away their Herds of Cattle, and 
brought them into Italy, Pau- 
fan. lib. i. and Diodor. lib. 4. 
Virg. TEn. 8. v. 201 . 

-Nam maximus ultor, 



Tergemini nece Geryonis, fpoli- 

ifque fuperbus, 
Alcides aderat •, Taurofque hac 

vicftor agebat 
Ingentes •, vallemque boves am- 

nenique tenebant. 

31. Diomed'sfiry Horfe,] This 
was the fixth Labour. Diome- 
des was a King of Thrace, who, 
to make his Horfes the more 
fierce and wild, f;d them, as the 
above-cited Diodorus faySj not 
with Oats<and Barley, but wifh 
human Flefli • Hercules took 
him, and gave him to his own 
Horfes to eat. 

32. The Birds, &c.] This was 
the eighth Labour. Thefe Birds 
were call'd Stymphalides, from 
Stymphalus, the Name of a 
Town, Mountain, and Lake in 
Arcadia ; where thefe Birds 
haunted : they were of the Size 
of Cranes -, in Shape like the 
Bird call'd Ibis, which we gene- 
rally interpret a Snipe, and had 
Beaks fo hard, that they would 
enter into Iron : Thefe Hercu- 
les kill'd with his Darts, as Pau- 
fanias and Catullus teftify ; But 
Diodorus Siculus, lib. 4.. fays, 
he frighted them out of the 
Countrey with a great Brafs 
Rattle. 

34. The Serpent, &c.] The 
fourteenth Labour. Hefperus, 
the Brother of 7\tlas had three 
Daughters, ^gle, Arethufaand 
Hefperechufaj who are faid to 

have 



BookV. LUCRETIUS. 4j£ 

That, arm'd with Scales, and in a dreadful Fold, 
Twin'd round the Tree, and watch'd the growing Gold? 
Remov'd as far Sisihc Atl^ an ck Shore, 

De- 

N O r B S. 



have had Gardens planted with 
Trees that bore golden Fruit. 
Thefe Gardens were guarded by 
a vigilant Dragon, whom Her- 
cules flew, by the Command of 
Euryftheus, and took away the 
Apples. Befides the Dragon, Vir- 
gil adds a PriefVefs, and a Tem- 
ple, perhaps of Venus, to whom 
the Apples were confecrated. 

Hinc mihi Maflyl^e gcntis mon- 

flrata Sacerdps, 
Hefperidum templi cuftos, epu- 

laique draconi 
Qux dabat, 6c facros fervabat 

in arbore ramos. 

/Eneid. 4. v. 483. 

And the fame Poet, according to 
the common Opinion, defcribes 
the Situation of the Gardens to 
be in the Mauritania Tingitana, 
now the Kingdoms of Fez and 
Morocco, about the Town of 
Lixa, in the extreameft Weftern 
Part of Africa : According to 
fome, they were in the Conti- 
nent ; according to others, in an 
Ifland. Others place thefe Gar- 
dens of the Hefperides in the 
quite oppofite Parts of Africa, 
that is to fay, in the very Ealt 
of Africa, and on «he Eaftern 
Shore of the Syrtes Major, near 
Cyrenaica : but this Errour is 
fully confuted by Salmalius to 
Solinus. Moreover, fome will 
have itj that the Apples of thefe 
Gardens were only Sheep, whofe 
Fleeces were very valuable, and 
which the Greeks call /«'>'Act, 
as well as they do Mala, Apples. 
Others believe them to have been 
what we call Citrons or Lemons, 
and that Hercules iirft brought 
them from thence into Greece : 
They likewife bsiieve th€ Gar- 



dens to have been the Fortunate 
Iflands.now the Canaries : which 
lie below Lixus indeed, but very- 
near to Mount Atlas, and not 
far from the Shore. Laftly, o- 
thers will have them to be the 
Iflands, which the Antientscali'd 
Hefperides, and Gorgades, or 
Gorgones, now the illands of 
Cape Verd : but thefe lie more 
to the South, at a great Diftance 
from Atlas, towards the Mouths 
of the River Niger, and at leaft 
an hundred and fifty Leagues di- 
ftant from them. And thefe lait 
believe the Dragon to be the tor- 
tuous Sea, that divided the Gar- 
dens from the Continent. Mil- 
ton, defcribing the Garden of 
Eden, gives it Trees 

-Whofe Fruit, burnilTi'd 



Vvith Golden Rind, 

Hung amiable: Hefperian Fa- 
bles true i 

If true, here only, and of deli- 
cious Tafte. 

38. Atlantick Shore,] The 
Weft of Mauritania, which is 
wafli'd by the Atlantick Ocean, 
fo call'd from Mount Atlas, 
which, under feveral Names, ex- 
tends itfelf even to Egypt, and 
dividing all Africa into North 
and South, that is to fay, Mau- 
ritania from the inner Lybia, 
ends in the Weftern Ocean. For 
which Reafon the antient Poets 
comprehended all the People^that 
lay to the South of Atlas, under 
the Name of iEthiopians, and 
diftinguifli'd them by Orien- 
tal and Occidental. The Spani- 
ards call ail this Extentof Moun- 
tains , Montes claros Atlas, 
Brother of Prometheus, Son of* 
Japetusj and King of Maurita- 

ania 



4J2 LU C RET IT} S. Book V 

Defafts unrrod by us, and by the M o o «. 
40 Thofe others too that fell, and rais'd his Fame, t 

That gave him this diffused and lafting Name, S 

And made him rife a God from O e tJs Flame: 



NOTE S. 



nia, being admohifli'd by The- 
mis, that he was in Danger of 
being kill'd by a certain Son of 
Jupiter, would, for that Reafon, 
receive no Stranger into his 
Houfe: and having deny 'd the 
Rights of Hofpitality to Perfeus, 
the Son of Jupiter by Danae, 
Daughter of Acrifius King of 
the Argives,this PerfeuSjby fliew- 
ing him Medufa's Head, chang'd 
him into this Mountain, which 
bears his Kfame : This Fable is 
related at large by Ovid, Metam. 
4. V. (^21. &^ feq. Now Atlas 
was very skilful in Aftrology, 
which gave Occafion to the Fidi- 
on of fupporting Heaven on his 
Shoulders. And Virgil defcribes 
the Mountain as ftill retaining 
the Figure of a Man, ^neid. 4. 
V. 246. where fpeaking of Mer- 
cury, he fays, 



-Jamque volans apicem Sc 



latera ardua cernit 
Atlantis duri, coelum qui vertice 

fulcit : 
Atlantis, cindum affiduecui nu- 

bibus atris 
Piniferum caput & vento pulfa- 

tur & imbri : 
Nix humeros infufa tegit : turn 

flumina mento 
Prsecipitant fenis, Sc glacie riget 

horrida barba. 

Thus tranflated by Dryden. 

— — — And flying thence he fpies 
Atlas, whofe brawny Back fup- 

ports the Skies : 
Atlas, whofe Head, with piny 

Forefts crown'd. 
Is beaten by the Winds, with 

foggy Vapours bound. 



Had 



from 



Snows hide his Shoulders ; 

beneath his Chin 
The Founts of rouling Streams 

their Race begin : 
A Beard of Ice on his large 

Breaft depends. 

39. Defarts untrod by Us^ and 
by the Moor.] 

Quo neque nofter adit quifquam, 
nee barbarus audet. Lucret. 

i.e. Whither none of us Romans 
go, nor any Foreigner dares to 
go : For the Antients, as well 
Greeks as Latines, call'd all 
that were not of their own 
Countrey Barbarians : But I 
think our Tranflatour can hard- 
ly juftify this Expreffion, untrod 
by the Moor, fince the Moors 
are the People that inhabit the 
Countrey of which Lucretius is 
fpeaking. Be that as it will, Ci- 
cero afferts for certain, that even 
in his Days there was no Sailing 
pradis'd any farther than froin 
the Mouths of the Euxine Sea, 
to the Columns of Hercules : 
i.e. than Abyle, now Ceuta, on 
the Africaif Coaft, and Calpe, 
now Gibraltar, on the Coaft of 
Spain. For Hercules, after he 
had laid wafte the Garden of 
the Hefperides, fix'd two Pillars 
on the Mountains Abyle and 
Calpe, as the Bounds of his Tra- 
vels : which two Mountains 
were before contiguous ; but he 
is faid to have parted them, a nd 
by that Means letting in the O- 
cean, to have open'd the Sea of 
Cadiz, now cali'd the Straits of 
Gibraltar. 

40. Thofe others too, &:c.3 
For many other notable Exploits 



435 



fiook V. LUCRETIUS. 

Had they ftill liv*d, what Mifchief had they done ? 

Whom had they torn ? Whom frighted ? Surely none: 
45 For now, ev'n now, vaft Troops of Monsters fill 

Each thick, and darkfome Wood, and fhady Hill : 

Yet who complains, yet who their Jaws endure ? 

For Men may fhun their Dens, and live fecure. 
But had not his Philosophy began, 
50 (What had not Man endur'd, ungrateful Man ?) 

And cleans'd our Souls, what Civil Wars, what Cares 

Would fierce Ambition raife, what pungent Fears ? 

How Pride, Luft, Envy, Sloth, would vex the Mind ? 

There-' 

NOTES. 



are recorded of Hercules. He 
kill'd Bufyris, the Son of Nep- 
tune and Libya, an Egyptian 
Tyrant , of fuch incredible 
Strength, that he could draw an 
Ox about at his Pleafure, and 
who, as well as Diomedes of 
Thrace, fed his Horfes with hu- 
man Flefh : And Ant^us, the 
Son of Neptune and Terra, a 
Giant fixty four Cubits high ; 

^who, as often as he was faint or 
v/eary , if he but touch'd the 
Earth, recovered his full Strength 
again : And Augeas, the King 
of Elis, who refus'd to give him 
what he had agreed forcleanfing 
his Stables of the Filth they had 
gather'd in thirty Years : And 
£ryx, the Son of Venus, with 
whom, he fought at the Coeftus, 
or Hurl-bats : Befides, he Hew 
feveral of the Centaurs, See. 
and was of fignal Service to the 
Gods, in their Wars with the 
Giants, who durft attack their 
Heaven ; for the Earth had pro- 
nounc'd an Oracle, at Phlsegra, 
a Town in Thrace, and the 
Place of the Battel, That the 
Giants could not be deftroy'd, 
without the Help of two Heroes 
or Demi-Gods : Upon which the 
Gods made Choice of Hercules 
and Bacchus ; and by their Afli- 
ftance got the Vicflory : Thus 
Apoilodprus : And hence we fee 
the Vaihnefs of the Fables, in 



teaching that the fame Hercules, 
who flourifli'd about the Age of 
Thefeus and Euryftheus, was al- 
ready among the Gods in the 
Time of the Giants War. 

42. O Eta's Flame] Lucretius 
fays nothing of the Death of 
Hercules, nor of his riling a God 
from OEta's Flame j but fince 
our Trariilatour has thought fit 
to take Notice of it, it will not 
be improper for us to explain it. 
Deianira, growing jealous of her 
Husband Hercules, who, £he 
heard, was fallen in Love with 
lole, fent him a Garment that 
had been dipt in the poyfonous 
Blood of the Centaur Neflus ; 
and which, flie had been infor- 
med, had a Vertue, to make any- 
one , that wore it, in Love with 
her. Hercules had no foonerpuc 
it on, than all his Limbs began 
to burn to that degree, by the 
Force of the poys*nous Dye, that 
unable to refifl: the Violence of 
the Torment, he tore up Trees 
by the Roots, and built himfelf 
a Pile, upon the Mountain OEta 
in Theflaly, then having fee 
Fire to it, threw himfelf into the 
Flames : and being thus purg'd 
from alt the Filth he had contra- 
cted here below, he was believ'd 
to go diredly to Heaven, and 
thusj as Creech fays, 



Kick 



^H€ 



434 ^ ^ ^ ^ '^ T lU S. Book V, 

Therefore the Man, who thus reform'd our Souls, 
5 5 That (lew thefe Monfiers, not by Arms, but Rules, 

Shall we, ungrateful we, not think a God ? 

Efpeciaily fince HE divinely fiiow'd 

What Life the Gods muft live ; and found the Cause 

Arid Rise of Things, and taught us Nature's Laws, 
^o His Steps I trace ; and prove, as Things begun, 

By the fame Laws, and Nature they live on, 

And fail at laft, loofe all their vital Ties ; 

' But chiefly, that the Soul is born, and dies : 

,:And 

NOTES, 



. — ~ He rofe a God from OEta's 
flame. 

Milton, in Paradife Lofl, B. II. 

As when AlcideSjfrom OEchalia 

crown'd 
"With Conqueft, felt th'' cnve- 

nom'd Robe, and tore 
Thro* Pain up by the Roots 

ThefTalian Pines, 
And Lichas from the Top of 

OEta threw 
Into th' Euboick Sea, dec. 

55. But Rules] Epicurus, in 
his Writings, treated not only 
of Phyhcks, but Ethicks like- 
wife: The firft by the Care of 
ILaertius have efcap'd, moft of 
them, from the Rage of Time: 
but of his Ethicks, the little 
that remains, is in his three Epi- 
ftles to Herodotus, Mcsnec^^us 
and Pythodes. 

57. He divinely fliow'd, &C.3 
Faberfays, that Lucretius here 
fpeaksofthe Treatife that Epi- 
curus compos'd 'DTse^^ oo-iothIi^, 
of Holinefs. 

60. His Steps, &c.] In thefe 
40. V. the Poet gives us the Ar- 
gument of this Book, in which 
he will endeavour to prove, that 
the World had once a Beginning, 



and will one Day have an End : 
Then he will defcribe the Rife of 
the World, and of Animals; 
will teach what Animals were 
adually produc'd ; and what the 
Vainnefs of the Poets, and the 
Superftition of the Generality of 
Men have feign'd and believ'd. 
He will tell how Names came to 
be given to Things,and how mu- 
tual Society arofe from Speech ; 
and whence iirft proceeded Reli- 
gion, and the Fear of the Gods : 
Laftly, he will explain the Mo- 
tion of the Heavens, the Cour- 
fes and Revolutions of the Sun, 
the Moon, and other Planets 
and Stars, and will demohftrate, 
that they are whirl'd about by 
, the Force of Nature only, with- 
lout the Helper Affiftance of 
Providence ; For unlefs he can 
make out fuch a Motion of the 
Heavens, and prove it to be 
meerly natural, he owns he Hiall 
not be able to take away all Be- 
lief of Providence : For, as he 
obferves in the fir ft Book, v. 84. 



Long time Men lay opprefs'd 
with flaviili Fear ; 

Religion*s Tyranny did domi- 
neer : 

And, being plac'd in Heaven 5 
look'd proudly down. 

And frighted abjecil Spirits with' 
her Frown. -i! 

64. Sha- 



Bo'ok V. 



LUCRETIUS. 



4U 



And that thofe Shadows, which in Dreams appear, 7 

^5 And Forms of Friends, and perifli'd Heroes bear, > 

Are but loofe Shapes, by Fansy wroughc in Air. j 

Now I muft teach, the World, as Years prevail, 
Muft die; this noble Frame muft fink and fail j 
And how at firft 'twas form'd 9 what curious Blows 7 
70 Made SEED,Earth,Seas,Sun,Heav'n,and Srars,compore:S- 
What living Creatures did, what never rofe. ^ 

How Leagues, and how Society began; 
What civiliz'd the favage Creature, Man. 

Whence fprung that mighty Dread of Pow'rs above, 
75 That Reverence, that awful Fear.and Love, 
Which firft religious Duties did engage ; 
And now fecures their holy Things from Rage. 

How tow'rds both Poles the Sun's fixt Journey be^d?^ 
And how the Year his crooked Walk attends : ^ ' . ^/" 
80 By what juft Steps the wand'ring Lights advance; 
And what eternal Meafures guide the Dance ; 
Left fome fhould think their Rounds they freely go, -p 
• Scatt ring their fervile Fires on Things below, >. 

On Fruits, and Animals, to make them grow, 3 

Or 

NOTES, 



^4. Shadows which in Dreams 
appear, &c.] Which the igno- 
rant Vulgar miftake for Souls 
feparated from the Body ; but 
Epicurus has ihewn them their 
^rrour, by proving that the 
Soul dies with the Body. S^e 
Gafarellus, in his Collecflion, de 
Talifmannis, 

70. Seed,3 The Atoms, which 
Lucretius held with Epicurus to 
be the Principles of aJI Things. 

71. Never rofe,] He means 
ChimxraSj Scyllas, CentaurSj 
Hermaphrodites, Sec. 

77' Holy Things] Lucret. 

Fana, Lacus, Lucos, Aras, Si- 
mulacraque Divumj 

The Temples, Lakes, Groves, 
Altars, and Images of the Gods. 

Sr, Eternal Meafures] Lucre- 
iMrS fays, l^atura gubeni^ns, ^t\4 



means what he calls afterwards 
Fortuna gubernans^v. 108. which 
our Tranilatour there calls 
Chance : And indeed Lucretius 
means nothing elfe in this Place : 
Pliny^ 'cjs true, calls Nature the 
Parent and Maker of all Things ;■• 
And Seneca, lib. 4. de Bensf. 
makes her the God, by whom all 
Things are made and govern'd. 
Quid enim, fays he, aliud eft 
Natura, qnam Deus, Sc divina 
ratio toti mundo ac partibus in- 
fer ta ? But Lucretius was of a- 
nother Opinion, and makes her 
other than God, and means in 
Eifecft nothing more by ruling 
Nature, than the Power and 
Motion of the Atoms,that fortu-^ 
itoully and without Deiign hud- 
dled and join'd themfelves toge-» 
ther into this Frame of ?h? 
World. 

Guide the Dance] The Mo- 
tions of the Planets msy vvell bf 



4? 6 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 



85 Or that fome God does whirl the circling Sun, 
And fiercely lafli the firy Horses on : 
For ev'n thofe few exalted Souls, that know. 
The Gods muft live at Eafe, not look below. 
Free from all meddling Cares, from Hate, and Love 

90 If they admire, and view the World above. 
And wonder how thofe glorious Beings move. 
They are intrapp'd, they bind their flavifh Chain j 
And fink to their religious Fears again ; 
And then the World with heav'nly Tyrants fill, 

95 Whofe Force is as unbounded as their Will. 



De- 



N O T £ 5. 



compared to a Dance, from the 
regular Meafures of them. 

85. Or thatj &c.] Epicurus 
himfelf to Herodotus. Tg jj peiA 

S6. Firy Horfes] The Horfes 
of the Sun are faid to be four in 
Kuniber : Pyroeis, fo call'd 
from '37t)f5 Fire ; Eous, from 
>}6^?5 the Morning -j^^thonjfrom 
di^coy I burn, or I heat ', and 
Phlegon, from ^As^to, I burn, 
lyucretius mentions them not, 
but owes this Verfe to his Tran- 
fiatour. 

87. For ev'n, Sec.'] This and 
the twelve following Verfes are 
repeated in Book VI. v. 51. and 
feqq. And in Book I. v. 78. 
and Book II. v. 6c6. he teaches 
almoit the fame Docflrine. 
. 90, If they admirej Sec."} Ho- 
race, the Epicurean, manifeftly 
tirew from this Fountain, when 
he faid ; 

Nil admirari prope res eft una, 

Numici, 
Solaque quje poflit facere 6c fer- 

vare beatum : 
Hunc folem, & ftellas, & dece- 

dentiacertis 



Tempora momentis, 

formidine nulli 
Imbuti fpecftent. . 



funt qui 



Explain that PafTage of Horace 
by this of Lucretius, and you 
will be more in the right than 
the other Interpreters. Moreo- 
ver this is exactly the Do<ftrine 
of Socrates : and therefore this 
Saying, The Things that are a- 
bove us, are nothing to us, which 
is commonly afcrib'd to Socrates 
by others, is by TertuUian af- 
crib'd to Epicurus : Sed Epicu- 
rus qui dixerat, Quas fuper nos 
nihil ad nos, cum dc ipfe coelum 
afpicere defiderat, folis orbem 
pedaleni apprehehdit, &c, lib. 2. 
ad Nationes. 

94. Heav'nly Tyrants] In the 
fec©nd Book he calls them Domi- 
nos fuperbos, proud, imperious 
Lords. And Velleius, in Cicero, 
1. I. de Nat. Deor. fays the fame 
Thing.Dum Deum rerum autho- 
rem facitis,impofuiftis in cervici- 
bus noftris Dominum fempiter- 
num, quem dies Sc nocfles timere- 
mus.Quis enim non timeat omnia 
providehtem, & cogitantem,& a- 
nimadvertentem, dc omnia ad fe 
per'tinere putantem, curiofum & 
plenum negotii Deum ? By ma- 
king God the Authour of all 
Things, you fet over us an eter- 
nal Lord, of whom we muft 
Day and Night ftand in Awe. 
for who can not but dread a God, 

who 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 

peJuded Ignoranrs ! who ne'er did fee. 
By Reason's Light, what can, what can not be ; 
How ev'ry Thing muft yield to fatal Force ; 
What fteady Bounds confine their natrai Courie. 
loo But now to prove all cbis ; firft caft an Eye, 
And look on all below, on all on high : 
The folid Earth, the Sea?, and arched Sky : 
One fatal Hour ('dear Youth) muft rui;i all ; 
This glorious Frame, that ftood fo long, .muft fall. 



417 



NOTES. 



who overfees all, provides for all, 
thinks of 4II, takes Notice of all 
and believes that all belongs to 
him, in iliort, a meddling, inqui- 
fitive, and never idle God ? 

100. But now, Scc.2 In thefe 
1 9. V. he at length tails upon his 
Subje<ft; which, he fays, is a no- 
ble one indeed, but intricate, and 
to which he ihall find it difficult 
to gain Belief: for Men do not 
eafily give Credit to what they 
are unwilling to believe : and 
who would willingly regard the 
Ruin of the World, of which he 
can not be a Witnefs without his 
own Deftru(ftion? The Poet 
himfelf feems to commiferate fo 
great a Misfortune : 

tria talia texta 
Una dies dabit exitio- — . — v. 95. 

Which he did certainly dread, 
when he faid. 

Quod procul i nobis fledat For- 
tuna gubernans, y, 108. 

A 11- ruling Chance, avert it far 
from us. 

Moreover, upon the Words of 
Lucretius cited above, Tria ta- 
lia, &c. Faber obferves, that O- 
vid pays him a Compliment in 
his own Coin ; 

Carmina fublimis tunc funt pe- 
ricura Lucreti, 



Exilic terras cum dabit una 
dies. 

104. This Frame muft fallj3 
Tljis is deny'd by Ariftotle, 1. 1, 
de Coeio, and by Plato in Ti- 
m.»:us ; tho' they difagree in the 
Manner of it : For Plato fays, 
^he World had a Beginning, and 
that God created it ; but denies 
it will ever have an End ; not 
that it is immortal in its own 
Nature, bup becaufe it would be 
unworthy of the Wifdom of 
God, whofe Workmaniliip it is, 
to diflblve fo glorious a Frame, 
or to fuffer it to be difTolv'd I 
But Ariftotle holds. That what- 
ever has had a Beginning, may, 
and will have an End : but that 
the Heavens never were created, 
and will never be diflblv'd : Nor 
ought Ariftotle alone to boaft, 
that he aiTerted a World uncrea- 
ted and eternal : for before him 
Xenophanes, Parmenides, Me- 
lilTus, Philolaus, Ocellus, Ari- 
fta:us, the Chaldeans, and o- 
thers taught the fame Dodlrine. 
In like manner, not Epicurus a- 
loneof ail the antient Philofo- 
phers, gave the World a Begin- 
ning; for Empedocles, Heracli- 
tus, Anaximander, Anaxime- 
nes, Anaxagoras, Archelaus,Di- 
ogenes, Leucippus, Democritus, 
the Brachmans, the Egyptians, 
and others, were of the fame O- 
pinion j to which Pliny too fub- 
IcribeSj in thefe Words : Nu- 

men 



4;e 



L V C RET lU S. 



Book V. 



105 I know, that this feems ftrange, and hard to prove, 
(Strong hardened Prejudice will fcarce remove) 
And fo are all Things new, and unconfin d 
To Senfe, nor which thro* that can reach the Mind; 
Whofe Notice, Eye, nor Hand, thofe only Ways, 

1 10 Where Science enters, to the Soul conveys. 
And yet ril fing : perchince the foll'wing Fall 
Will prove my Words, and fhew 'tis Reafon all : 
Perhaps thou foon flialt fee the finking World 
With ftrong Convulfions to Confufion hurl'd i 

1 1 5 When ev*ry rebel Atom breaks the Chain, 
And all to primitive Night return again ; 
But Chance avert it! Rather let Reas'n (hew 
The World may fall, than Sense Ihould prove it true: 

But 

J^OTBS. 



men eflTe mundum credi par eft, 
xternutn, immenfum ; neque 
genitunii neque interiturum un- 
quam. Nat. Hift. lib. 2. cap. i. 
Thus Epicurus agreed with us. 
That the World had a Begin- 
ning •, but he err'd in teaching, 
that God was not the Creatout 
of it : And we know, for certain, 
that, In principio creavit Deus 
ccelum & terram. And both 
Epicurus, and the other Piiilo- 
fophers with him, were mifta- 
ken, when they taught, That 
the World was not created out 
of Nothing, but made of a pre- 
exifting Matter, Lucan , in 
Pharfal. lib. i. v. 73. defcribes 
the future DifTolution of the 
World, in the following Ver- 
fes : 

-* Sic cum, compage fo- 



luta, 

Specula tot mundi fuprema coe- 
gerit hora, 

Antiquum repetens iterum Cha- 
os, omnia miftis 

Sydera fyderibus concurrent ; 
ignea pontum 

Aitra petent ; tellus extendere 
iittora nolet, 

Bxcutietque Fretum : fratri con- 
traria Fhc^be 



Ibit, & obliquum bigas agitate 

per orbem 
Indignata diem pofcet fibi : to- 

taque difcors 
Machina divulfi turbabit foedera 
, mundi. 

Which May has not amifs inter- 
preted in the following Verfes : 

So when this Knot of Nature is ' 
difTolv'd, 

And the World's Ages in on? 
Hourinvolv'd 

In their old Chaos ; Seas with 
Skies fliall join. 

And Stars, with Stars confound- 
ed, lofe their Shine. 

The Earth no longer fliall extend. 
its Shore, 

To keep the Ocean out : the 
Moon no more 

Follow the Sun'j butj fcorning 
her old W^y, 

Crofs him, and claim the Gui- 
dance of the Day : 

The falling World's now jarring 
Frame no Peace, 

No League fliall hold, &c, 

109. Thofe only W^ays, &C.3 
For all Men give naoft Credit to 
thofe Things which they fee or 
touch, and Sight is the chief In- 

1^1 



Book V. LTf C R ETIU S. 439 

But now before I teach thefe Truths, more fure 
1 20 And certain Oracles, and far more pure, 

Than what from trembling Ptthi^ reached our Ears • 
I'll firft propofe fome Cure againft thy Fears: 

Left 

HOTES. 



let of Knowledge : Therefore 
Milton, complaining of his be- 
ing blind, fays finely 5 



' ■ Thus with the Year 
Seafons return, but not to me 

returns 
Day, or the fweet Approach of 

Ev'n and Morn, 
Or Sight of vernal Bloom, or 

Summer's Rofe, 
Or Flocks, or Herds, or human 

Face divine : 
But Cloud infteadj and ever- 

during Dark 
Surround me, from the chearful 

Ways of Man 
Cut off, and for the Book of 

Knowledge fair 
Prefented with an univerfal 

Blank 
Of Nature's Works, to me ex- 

pung'd and raz'd ; 
And Wifdom at one Entrance 

quite Hiut out. 

1 19. But nowj&c] But becaufe 
the Folly of the Stoicks, the Ig- 
norance of others, and the Su- 
perftition of the Generality of 
Men had oppos'd many Obje- 
ctions to this Opinion, Lucre- 
tius removes them all, and firfl, 
in 39.v.confutes the StoickSjWho 
held, that the Sun, the Sea, the 
Earth, in fhort, the Univerfe, 
being animated by a Spirit in- 
fus'd thro' the whole, is God. 
Thus Maniiius, lib. i. v. 238. 

Hoc opus immenfi conflrudum 

corpore mundi, 
Membraque naturae diverfd con- 

dita formd 
Aeris, atque ignis, terr«, pe- 

lagique jacentis 



Vis animjB divina regit, facroq; 

meatu 
Confpirat Deus, & tacit^ ratio- 

ne gubernat. 

Which Creech thus renders: 



w 



hich 



To this vaft Frame, in 
four Parts confpire. 

Of diff'rent Form, Air, Water, 
Earth, and Fire, 

United God, the World's al^ 
mighty Soul, 

By fecret Methods, rules and 
guides the Whole ; 

By unfeen PafTcs he himfelf con- 
veys 

Thro' all the Mafs, andev'ry 
Part obeys. 

But thefe Men the Poet defplfes, 
and treats them and their fool- 
ifli Dodrine with the utmofi: 
Contempt and Indignation. 

121. Pythia] See the Note 
upon V. 758. Book I. from 
whence this and the foregoing 
Verfe are repeated. And to what 
is there faid on them, I will here 
add fome farther Particulars 
concerning the Oracle of Apollo, 
who was cali'd Pythius, from his 
killing the Python, a huge Ser- 
pent, which had its Name ^ot> 
<§■ 'CEri/@«r, becaufe he was engen- 
der'd of the Putrefaction of the 
Earth, and fprung from the 
Filth that the Flood of Deucali- 
on had left behind it, Ovid. 
Metam. i. v. 438. 

^ Te quoque, maxime 

Python, 
Turn genuit ; populifque novis, 

incognite Serpens, 
Terror eras : tantum Ipatii de 

monte tenebas : 

Hunc 



44^ 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 



Left Superstition' prompt thee to believe, 
That Sun and Moon, that Seas and Earth muft live ; 

Are 
^4 O T E S. 



Hunc Deus arcitenens, 

Mille gravem telis, exhauftifc pe- 

ne pharetra, 
Perdidit, effufo per vulnera ni- 
gra veneno. 

Kow the Perfon, or Prophetefs, 
who, inftead of Apollo, pro- 
nounc'd the Oracle, and gave 
Anfwer to thofe that came to 
confult the God, was a Maid, 
and the firft that perform'd it 
was Phenomoe, the Daughter 
of Apollo. The Oracle was de- 
livered from a Place in the Tem- 
ple, call'd the Adytum, which 
was the moft fecrec and retir'd 
Part of it, and into which none 
but the Prophetefs was permitted 
to enter : and, according to the 
Dcfcription Strabo gives of it, it 
was a deep and crooked Cave, 
with a Mouth or Entrance but 
indifferently large, and out of 
which the Anfwer of the God 
was thought to aicend, and in- 
fpire the Prophetefs. Over the 
Mouth of this Cave ftood the 
Tripod, upon which when the 
Prophetefs got up, flie was im- 
mediately tranlported with a 
Spirit of Divination ; and then 
gave the Anfwer, fometimes in 
Profe, fometimes in Verfe. Du 
Choul, in his Treatife de la Re- 
ligion des anciens Romains, gives 
us the Form of the Tripod, with 
a Crow fitting on it, as a Bird 
facred to Apollo , and with a 
Harp and Laurel at the Feet of 
it. To which we may add, that 
in Conftantine's Oration- ad Sa- 
crorum coetum, in Eulebius 
there is Mention made> cap. i8. 
of a Serpent alfo twining about 
the Tripod, and of a Diadem 
with which the Prophetefs was a- 
dorn'd. Lee, in the Tragedy of 
Mithridates, defcribes the Ago- 
ny of the Pythian, when, in- 



fpir'd by the God, Hie was about 
^to pronounce the Oracle. 

At Delphi, when the 



glorious Fury 

Kindles the Blood of the projJhe- 
tick Maid, 

The bounded Deity does flioot 
her out, 

Draws ev'ry Nerve, thin as a 
Spider's Thread, 

And beats the Skin out like ex- 
panded Gold. 

And Dryden, in OEdipus, makes 
the old Tirefias fay : 

Now the God iliakes me ! he 
comes ! he comes ! 

I feel him now 

Like a ftrong Spirit, charm'd 
into a Tree, 

That leaps,and moves the Wood 
without a Wind : 

The row zed God, as all this 
while he lay 

Tntomb'd alive, ftarts, and di- 
lates himfelf : 

Heftruggles, and he tears my 
aged Trunk 

With holy Fury ; my old Arte- 
ries burft ; 

My rivel'd Skin.— — 

Like Parchment, crackles at the 
hallow'd Fire: 

I ihall be young again, &c. 

To both of whom Virgil fhcw'd 
the Way, in his Defcription of 
the convulfive Rage of the Cu- 
ma:an Sybil, ^neid. 6, 

124. That Sun, &c.] Pytha- 
goras, Plato, Trifmegiftus, and 
many others of the antient Phi- 
lofophers, imagin'd the World 
to be endow'd with a rational 
Soul, and to partake of the Na- 
ture of the God that made it. 
They were induced to this Belief, 
by confideringthe admirable Or- 
der and Connexion of all the 

Parts 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 

125 Are Gods eternal, and above the Rage, 
And pow'rful Envy of devouring Age : 

NOTES, 



441 
And 



Parts of the Univerfe ; which, 
they were perfuaded, could not 
befuftain'd, but by a Soul in- 
trinfecaily informing, ordering, 
difpofing, and conneding them. 
This Soul Plato indeed did not 
believe to be God himrelf, but 
the Work of the Supream God : 
but Pythagoras and Thales, as 
we learn from Minutius Felix, 
aflerted it to be God himfelf: 
To this Opinion the Hermetick 
Philofophers feem likewife to 
fubfcribe, and explain it in this 
manner: They tell us, that the 
Divine Spirit, which produc'd 
the World out of the firft Wa- 
ter, being infus'd, as by a conti- 
nual Infpiration, into all the 
Works of Nature, and largely 
diffus'd thro' them, by a certain 
fecret and continual A eft, mo- 
ving the Whole, and every indi- 
vidual Part of it, according to 
its Kind, is the Soul of the 
World. Plato, and the old A- 
tademicks, as we find their Opi- 
nion deliver'd by Cicero, in A- 
cad. Qua:ft. lib. i. fay thus of 
it ; The feveral Parts of the 
World, and all Things contained 
in them, are kept together by a 
fcnfitive Nature ; which is en- 
dow'd likewife with perfecl Rea- 
fon : It is alfo fempiternal ; be- 
caufe there is nothing more 
ftrong, by the Power or Force 
of which it can be difTolv'd. And 
this Nature is the Power, which 
is cali'd the Soul of the World : 
Plutarch, de Placitis Philofoph. 
lib. 4. cap. I. teaches, That He- 
raclitus affirm'd the Soul of the 
World to be an Exhalation of 
the humid Parts of it. Varro, 
on the contrary, would have it 
ro be Fire, but means, perhaps, 
the fame Thing with Chalcidi- 
us in the Tim.^us, where he calls 
Vefta- the Soul of the univerfal 



Body : or with Pliny, who af- 
ferts the Sun to be the Soul of 
this World : Hunc mundi toti- 
us efTe animam, ac plane men- 
tern, hunc principale Naturse re- 
gimen, ac Numen credere decet, 
fays he, lib. 2. cap, 6. But the 
Stoicks went yet farther, and 
held. That every one of the Ce- 
leftial Bodies, that have Motion, 
is to be efteem'd in the Number 
of the Gods : and this Opinion 
they grounded on the Conftancy 
they had obferv'd in the Revolu- 
tions of the Heavens, and in the 
Courfes of the Stars; whence 
they concluded their Motion to 
be voluntary, and, confequent- • 
ly, that they are Gods. Thus 
the Stoick Lucilius in Cicero, 
fays, Hanc igicur in ftellis con- 
ftantiam, hanc tantam in tarn 
variis cafibus, in seternitate con- 
venientiam temporum, non pof- 
fum intelligere, fine mente, rati- 
one, confilio : Qu^ cum in fy- 
deribus efTe videamus, non peflu- 
mus ea ipfa in Deorum numero 
non ponere : De Natar. Deor. 
lib. 3. And a little higher he 
fays, Reilat ut motus Aftrorum 
fit voluntarius : quas qui videat, 
non indodie folum, verum etiam. 
impie faciet, fi Deos efle neget. 
But Laclantius retorts their very- 
Argument upon thefe Philofo- 
phers, and fays. That the con- 
itant and fis'd Revolutions and 
Courfes of the celeftial Bodies, 
are an evident Argument that 
they are not Gods : For, if they 
were, they would not be deter- 
min'd to, nor prefcrib'd any cer- 
tain Motions •, but, like Animals 
upon Earth, whofe Will is free, 
would move whereever they lilT:, 
Quid, quod argumentum iilud, 
quo coll.'gunt univerfa ccaeleftia 
Decs effe, in contrarium valet I 
Nam fi Deos efTe idcirco opinan- 
L 1 1 tur. 



44^ 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 



And therefore they, whofe impious Reafohs try, (Sky.> 
(More bold than thofe fond Fools that ftorm'd the > 
To prove the World is mortal, and may die j 3 

That 

NOTES. 



tur, quia certos Be rationabiles 

curfus habent, errant : ex hoc e- 

nim apparet Deos non efre,quod 

exorbitare illis, a pr^eftitutis iti- 

rieribus non licet. C^etertim fi 

Dii efTent, hue atque illuc paflim 

line ulla necsdrtate ferrentur, fi- 

cut an i mantes in terra ; quorUm 

quia liberie funt voluntates, hue 

atque illuc vagantur, lit libuit •, 

& quo quemque nletis duxeritJants, may 

eo fertiir. De Orig. Error, cap. 5.J CafTarion, 



who by their Arguments endea* 
Your to prove the World to be 



mortal, ' equally deferve to be 
punifli'd for their Impiety, as 
were the impious Giants of old^i 
who, in their Way, did likewife 
all they could to deftroy Heaven, 
and durft to wage War with the 
Gods. Whoever defires to be 
fully inftrucfted concerning Gi- 
confult the learned 
who has treated of 



ISlow the Reafon," why Lucreti 
us lailies the Authours of thefe 
Opinions, and treats them with 
fo much Scorn and Indignation, 
is, becaufe their Belief of the 
Soul of the World, prefTes hard 
his impious Hypothecs, concer- 
ning the Divine Providence : 
For, releafe but the Soul from 
that Union, which thefe Philofo 



them at large : I will only add. 
That the antient Heathens drew 
the Occafion of this,and of many 
of their other Fables, from the 
Mofaical Hiftory, which they 
wretchedly profan'd and de- 
prav'd by their childifli Fidions : 
And that too the rather, if it be 
true what Bouldue, a French 
Capuchin, in a Treatife printed 



phershave thus foolillily affign'd, Inot long ago, and intituled, De 
and then to hold a Soul of the Eccleiia ante legem, tells us, in 
World, and an all-ruling Provi-jlib. i. cap. 9. That the Names, 
dence will be all one and thejKaphaim, Emim, Zuzin, and 
fame Thing. others, as he fays, commonly in 

128. Fond Fools] The Giants, Scripture taken for Giants,ought 
who fought againft the Gods at not to be expounded in that 



Phlegra, and attempted to fcale | 
Heaven, by heaping one on ano- 
ther the Hills of that Countrey, 
and of Theiralia.Virgil,Georg.3. 
V. 281. See likewile the Note on 
"Book I. V. 243. To which I add 



Senfe. Then he affirms, that 
the Title of Giant was antiently 
a Name of Honour, by which 
they di {tin guifli'd fuch Perfons, 
as in thofc Days were Reftorers 
of Piety; and that the Aflem- 



that Phlegra was fo call'd ^-ro^jblies of Giants, were Colledges 
-^(oi^lyc^. to burn, perhaps,be-lof Inftrudions in that Age of 



caufe of the Giants' being de-j^he World. Thus he endeavours 
ftroy'd there chiefly by Light- 1^^ prove, that Nimrod was, in 
nine: or, as others, from Batiks ! ^>^t penfe, a Giant, 
ar 
uftathius fays 



of hot Water that arife 



bouts. Eultathius lays, it was 
likewiil' cali'd Pallene ; and that 
the Vv'ickednefs of the Inhabi- 
tants gave Occafion to the Fable 
of the Giants Fight. Now what 
Lucretius here fays, is this : Left 
you iliGuld think, that all thofC;, 



a Man in- 

tl^ei-ea^i ftruded by God himfelf: and 

this he would make good out of 



Methodius. But thefe Aflerti- 
ons of his , and the curious 
Proofs he alledges from their 
Hebrew Titles, are new and da- 
ring Flights of Fanfy. 

130. That 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 

130 That Orbs can fall, the Sun forfake his Light, 
And bury*d lie, like meaner Things, in Night, 
Calling that mortal which is all divine, 
Muft needs be damn'd for their profane Defign. 
For thefe are fo unlike the Gods ; the Frame 

135 So much unworthy of that glorious Name, 
That neither lives, nor is an Animal ^J 
That neither f&els j dull Things, and fenfelefs all. 

j^ o r E s. 



445 



For 



130. That Orbs, &c.] That 
the Heavens are immutable and 
incorruptible, nay, even imma- 
terial, and confequently no ways 
obnoxious to the Cataftrophe 
which Lucretius here alTerts, has 
always been the vulgar Opinion, 
as well as the Belief, of Ariftotle, 
Xenophanes, Averroes, Cicero, 
and indeed of moft of the Philo- 
fophers : And tho' Experience 
itfelfof the vifible Mutations, 
that fomctimes happen in them, 
for Example, the new Star, that 
appear'd in Caffiopeia, in 1 573. 
and vanilli'd the Year following, 
are abundantly fufficient to con- 
vince them, by natural Reafon, 
of the Erroneoufnefs of that O- 
pinion ; yet fome Men are fo gi- 
ven up, even to the moft repro- 
brate Senfe of Ariftotle, that not 
the Divine Authority itfelf can 
draw them from it : as in this 
Point particularly, Suarez, and 
many others, are fo far from be- 
lieving the Heavens to be cor- 
ruptible and mutable, that they 
will allow them to be chang'd 
only accidentally, as they call it, 
and not fubftantially, at thelaft 
Day : Upon which Maldon. on 
St. Matthew, fays very well, 
That he had rather believe 
Chrift, who affirms it, than A- 
riftotle, who denies it. 

134. For thefe, &c.]] In thefe 
2.4. V. he fays. That it is fo far 
from being true. That what he 
is about to teach of the future 
DifTolution of the World, will 
derogate from the power and 



Divinity of the Immortal Gods, 
that, on the contrary, it will e- 
viiice their Dignity, and the Ex- 
cellence of their Nature ; becaufc 
it will help us to diftinguifii be- 
tween what is endow'd with a 
Divine Body, and what is not : 
For what can be more difrefpecfl- 
ful and injurious to the Gods, 
than to declare aloud, that the 
Heavens- the Earth, the Sea^ 
the Sun, the Moojn , and the 
Stars, are endow'd with their 
Immortality, Eternity, and Di- 
vine Underftanding,as they moft 
manifeftly do, who hold them 
to be immortal ? Efpecially, 
fince they are incapable even of 
being animated with the Breath 
of Life : For a Soul can no more 
be in them, than a Tree in the 
Air, a Cloud in the Sea, or a 
Fiili upon dry Ground: And 
as every Thing has a proper 
Place affign'd it, to be produced 
and live in 5 So neither can the 
Soul be produc'd, or exift with- 
out a Body. This Opinion is 
both impious and repugnant to 
true Reafon ; but fince we have 
already fully anfwer'd, in the 
third Bock, all the Epicurean 
Objections againft the Immor- 
tality of the Soul, we will not 
trouble our Reader with the Re- 
petition of them. Befides, the 
Drift of Lucretius is, to prove, 
that Heaven, Earth, Sea, Sec, 
are mortal, and confequently 
will be diffolv'd, and perifli. 

1-^6. Neither] None, not one 

cf them ; we generally fay, nei» 

L U 2 Xhqv 



444 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 



For Life, and Sense, the Mind, and Soul refufe 
To join with all ; their Bodies muft be fit for Ufe : 

140 As Heav'n does bear no Trees; no Stars below ; "7 
As Stones no BLOOD,and Fish no Mountains know; /" 
But each has proper Place to rife and grow : 3 

So neither Souls can rife without the Blood, (cou'd. 
And Nerves, and Veins, and Bones ; for grant they 

145 Then thro' each (ingle Part, as Arms, or Head, 

'Twould firft be fram'd, thence o'er the other fpread ; 
As Water, into Veflpls pour'd, will fall 
Firft to one Part 5 then rife, and cover all. 
But fince 'tis certain, that a proper Place 

1 5 o Is fettled for the Life, and the Increafe 
Of Mind and Soul ; 'tis Folly to believe 
That they can rife without fit Limbs, or live ; 
Or be in flitting Air, or chilling Seas, 
Or Earth, or fcorching Flames. Fond Fanfies thefe ! 

155 Therefore they are not Gods, their Sense divine j 9 
For they are made unfit for that Defign ; > 

Since none with Minds in vital Union join. i^ 

Nor muft we think thefe are the bleft Abodes, 
The quiet Mansions of the happy Gods ^^ 

Their 

NOTES, 



tket: of thenij when we fpeak but 
of two. 

140. As Heav'n, Sec."] You 
will find this and the following 
ji. V. B. III. V. 755. 

144. For grant, Scc.^ This 
and the four following Verfesare 
rejected by Faber, who imagines, 
they were by Miftake brought 
to this Place, together with the 
five preceding Verfes, from the 
third Book, where we find them 
all together ; but his Suppofition 
is without Reafon : For they 
feem to be a Part of this Argu- 
ment, and as much to the Pur- 
pofe as the other Verfes of it. 
For, fays the Poet, if even in our 
Bodies, which are compos'd of 
Veins, Nerves, Blood, &c. there 
be certain and appointed Places, 
where the Mind and the Sgul are 
born, and exift apart by them- 
ielves, it is in vain for any one 



to pretend, that there is a Mind 
and a Soul in the Heavens, the 
Earth, the Sea^ and other Bo- 
dies, that have no Organs what- 
ever. 

1 <^6» For they are, dec."] To 
this Purpofe Velleius, in Cicero, 
lib, I. De Nat. Deor. fays; Qui 
Mundum ipfum animantem fa- 
pientemque efle dixerunt, nullo 
modo animi n^turam intelligen- 
tes viderunt, in quani naturam 
cadere poflit ; They who faid, 
that the World is an Animal, 
and endow'd with Underftand- 
ing, did not in the leaft know 
the Nature of the Mind, nor in- 
to what Nature it can be infus'd. 

158. Nor muft, &c.] Since 
the Gods are immortal, and e- 
ternal, they muft of Necefiity 
have Abodes that are fo too : 
Therefore all Men place the 
Gods in the Heavens, which, 

for 



Uook V. 



LUCRETIUS. 



44T 



160 Their Subftance is fo thin, fo much refin'd. 

Unknown to Sense, nay, fcarceperceivd by Mind: 
' Now fince their Subftance can't be touch'd by Man, t 
They can not touch thofe other 1 hings char can ; J*. 
For whatfoe'er is touch'd, that mu£t be touch'd again. 3 

There-^ 

N O T £ 5. 



for that Reafon, fay they, can 
never be deftroy'd. To this the 
Poet anfwers in thefe 1 1, v. That 
this is only the Invention of Po- 
ets, or of the ignorant Vulgar : 
For the Nature of the Gods is 
too fubtile to touch fuch thick 
Bodies as the Heavens; and 
therefore we muft not believe 
them to be the Manlions of the 
Gods. Nay, fays he, no Part of 
the Univerfe is, or can be their 
Abodes : For whatever has an 
Abode, or is in any Place, both 
touches and is touch'd : For 
Place, and the Thing plac'd, as 
they call them, are Bodies ; and 
Body can both touch and be 
touch'd : But the Gods neither 
touch nor are touch'd; They 
are not touch'd, becaufe their 
Nature is fo fubtile, that it is 
wholly imperceptible to our Sen- 
fes : and therefore we ought to 
believe, that their Abodes are 
anfwerable to their Nature, and 
far different from ours, that is, 
from thofe that are commonly 
aflfign'd to the Gods : that is to 
fay, that they are of fo fubtile a 
Nature, as renders them wholly 
imperceptible likewife to our 
Senfes. But all the Parts of the 
World are perceivable to our 
Senfes •, therefore none of them 
can be the Abode of the Gods, 
And fince the Gods are not 
touch'd, it neceffarily follows 
that they do not touch : 

Tangere enim non quit, quod 
tangi non licet ipfum. Lucr. 

For nothing' can touch, but 
what may be touch'd again. 
Therefore you muft look out 



for fome other Manfions for the 
Gods, than thofe you have hi- 
therto affign'd them. 

Nardius takes Occafion from 
this Argument to prove, that 
Lucretius contradids his own 
Doctrine, and that even accor- 
d:^ig to his own AiTertions there 
cai^i be no Gods : He argues to 
this Purpofe : If the Gods, fays 
he^ of Lucretius are no" where, 
then Lucretius has no Gods : 
for they muft certainly be no- 
thing at all, or they muft be the 
Void : This is evident from 
his own Principles ; For Book I. 
v. 55o.hefays, 

Two Sorts of Beings :iveafon's 

Eye defcry'd, 
And prov'd before, their ^ Dif- 

f 'rence vaftly wide : 
Body and Void, which never 

could agree 
In any one eflential Property : 
For Body, as ^tis Matter, is 

from Place 
Piftincfi ; and Void from Body, 

as 'tis Space. 

Therefore, whatever is, is either 
Place, or a Thing plac'd. 

And to afford a PlacCj 

Is the peculiar Gift of empty 
Space. B. I. v. 490. 

Thus if the Gods are not Bodies, 
they are empty Space, and. alto- 
gether nothing, as was faid be- 
fore. That they are not Bodies, 
Lucretius himfelf can not deny * 
What can neither touch, nor be 
touch'd, is not Body : The Gods 
of Lucretius neither are touch'd, 
nor touch J therefore they are 

not 



446 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

165 Therefore the Mansions of thofe hapby Pow'rs 
Aluft all be far unlike, diftindl from ours .; 
Of fubrile Nature, fuitable to their own : 
All which, by long Difcourfe, I'H prove anon. 
But now to fay this fpacious Worxd began, 

170 By bounteous Heavn contriv'd to pleafure Man; 

And 
NOTES. 



For nothing but ^ then can they be, but a meer Fi- 
ction, an empty Word, to footh 
the credulous Ears of unthinking 
Men ? And fince he is contri- 
ving fome moft tenuious Abode 
for them, what can be more te- 
nuious than the Void, which is 
wholly deftitute of Body f But 
he is officioully about to invent 
fomething yet more fubtile, and 
not unlike their own Nature ; 
that is to fay, Nothing. 

167. Suitable ro their own] 
The fame Difference of Tenuity 
as there is bitween us and the 
Gods, there ought to be like- 
wife between their Abodes and 
ours : and thus by, fuitable to 
their own, he means, that the 
Seats and Manfions of the Gods, 
confift of the fame Principles as 
the Gods themfelves. 

169. But now, &C.3 But, fay 
they,the Gods made this World, 
and decreed it to be eternal. To 
which Lucretius anfwers in 32. v. 
Did they make it for their own 
fake, or out of Love to Man i 
Whoever fays for their own, 
may as well pretend, that to be 
ador'd and worfliip'd by Men is 
of Advantage, and adds to the 
happy State of a God, who is in- 
tireiy blefs'd, and wants nothing : 
And if any one fay for the Sake 
of Man, lee him tell me, what 
I Trouble it would have been to 
us if we never had had a Being, 



not Bodies 

Body can be touch'd or touch. 
He lias confirm'd the minor 
Propofition in this Argument : 

Now fince theirSubftance can't 

be touch'd by Man, 
They can not touch thofe o- 

ther things that can ; 
For whatfoe'er is touch'dsthat 

muft be touch'd again. 

The fupine Idlenefs and Inaction 
of his Gods, made him aware how 
he plac'd them among Bodies : 
And B. L V. 48 <5. he fays. 

What ever is, a Pow'r 

muft own, 
Or fit to a(ft, or to be acSed 

on ', 
Or be a Place, in which fuch 

Things are done ; 
Now Body only fuffersjand a(fis- 

And yet he allows them a Body, 
but fo fubtile, as not to fall un- 
der the Perception of Senfe : 
Perhaps he will fay, with Epicu- 
rus, that his Gods have not a 
Body, but as it were a Body : 
And thus he will fet up a third 
Nature, in Contradiction of his 
own Docirine, 
That 



when he taught, 



m vam 



A third diff'rent Nature 

is fought, 
And ne'er can be found out by 

Senfe or Thought. 

Book. I. y.^91. 



Certainly he will not pretend, 
that his Gods areConjunc'ls, or 
Events of concrete Bodies : What 



not to have a Being? 

To make good his Aflfertion in 
this Place, Lucretius chiefly la- 
bours to prove, that the Gods 
did not make the World for the 
Benefit of Man. Therefore, fays 
he, there is no Reafanj why any 

of 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 447 

And therefore this vaft Frame they toil'd to raife, 
And fit for us, fhould meet with equal Praife 9 
Or be efteem'd eternal, all fecure 
From Ruin, or the Teeth of Time endure 5 
175 And that 'tis impious to defign to prove, n 

What was contrived by the wife Pow'rs above, ^ 

And fix'd eternal for the Man they lovej 



That 



N O T £ 5. 



of us ihould, as in Gratitude for 
fo great a Favour, extol this 
mighty Work, believe it eter- 
nal, and that it v/iil be immor- 
tal : For of what Advantage 
could our Acknowledgements be 
to the Gods, that that Confide- 
ration only ihould induce them 
to make the World for the Sake 
of us, or for our Benefit ? Be- 
iides, what new Thing was there 
to allure the Gods, who enjoy 
the moft perfetft Tranquillity, to 
change, either for their own fake 
or ours, their former Life of 
happy and uninterrupted Repofe, 
and to take upon themfelves the 
Care of Man, and of all created 
Beings, they who, 'till then, liv'd 
in undifturb'd Delights and 
Happinefs? Farther, what could 
it have been the worfe for us, if 
we had never been created .'' For 
he, who has once tafted the 
Sweets of Life, with good Rea- 
fon defires to live on : but they 
who never had a Being, how can 
they be in Love with the Plea- 
fures of Living ? Moreover, how 
could the Gods fabricate the 
World for the Sake of Man : of 
Man, I fay, of whom they had 
no previous Notice, no Model to 
work by?For nothing canbemade 
without an Idea. And whence 
had the Gods firft their Idea 
of creating the World? Whence 
had they their innate Notices of 
the World, by which they xnight 
fee in their Mind, what they 
purpos'd and refolv'd to make ? 
For fince the World was to be 
created of Atoms ^ the Gods 



could by no other Means come to 
the Knowledge of the Power of 
thofe Atoms, nor of what they 
would be able to effed by the 
Change of their Sites, Orders, 
and Pofitions; unlefs Nature, 
by creating the World from the 
fortuitous Coalition of Atoms, 
had afforded them a Specimen of 
it, and unlefs they had experi- 
mented, by the very Rife of 
Things, how great was the Effi- 
cacy of the Atoms. Thus, €o 
far is it from being true, That 
the Gods made this World for 
the Sake of Man, that indeed 
they had no Hand in the Creati- 
on of it ; but, by the Guidance 
of Nature, it was made by a for- 
tuitous Concourfe of Atoms. 

Thus Lucretius begins his Im- 
piety anew, and endeavours to 
raife a Duft, and blind Mens 
Underftandings : And, to fecure 
his _ former Opinion, pretends 
Objed:ions intermixt with Scoits, 
againfl all thofe, who, upon fo- 
ber Principles, and a flrid Search 
into the Order and Difpofitioii 
of Things, were forc'd to confels 
this Frame to be the Contrivance 
of fome intelligent Being, and 
the Produd of Wifdom icfelf. 
And here, agreeable to the E- 
picurean Principles, he fuppofes 
Intereft to be the Caufe of all 
good Nature , and the only 
Spring of Adion, and then pe- 
remptorily demands, what fuit- 
able Returns Man could make 
the Gods for all their Labour, 
or what additional Happinefs 
they could rsceiveif Where he 

makes 



44§ 



LUCRETIUS^ 



Book V. 

That this can die, that this to Fate can bow, y 

And, with bold Reafon, drive to overthrow, ^ 

1 80 And make that mortal they defign'd not fo : ^ 

'Tisfond: For what could Man return again? 
What Profit to the Gods for all their Pain, 
That they fhould work for him ? Why break their Reft, 
In which they liv'd before, fecure and bleft ? 

1S5 What coming Joy, what Pleafure could they view. 
To leave their former Life, and feek a new ? 
For they delight in new, whofe former State 
Was made unhappy by fome treachrous Fate: 
But why Ihould they, who liv'd in perfedt Eafe, O 

190 Who ne*er faw any Thing, but what did pleafe, > 

Be tickled thus with Love of Novelties ? ^ 

Perhaps they lay obfcure, and hid in Night, 
Till Things began, and Day produc'd the Light. 

BeCdes 9 

NOTES. 

makes another wild Suppofition, j evident, as that it is a Perfedion 
which will never be granted, viz. 
That to create, or difpofe, is 
Toil and Trouble to Omnipo- 
tence*, for fuch I have prov'd 
every Eternal and Self-exiftent 
to be. Now let us look a little 
on the immoderate Praiies he be- 
itows on his Epicurus, and ask 
him, what Rewards could Pofte- 
rity give him for his Philofophy, 

how could he receive any Benefit | as all Mens Wifiies and Endea- 
from their Praifes and Commen- 1 vours fufficiently evince, then 
dations ? What then, was his i furely to bellow chat Being, is at 
God Epicurus a Fool, who loft 1 leaft an equal Blelling. And to 
his own Eafe, oppos'd himfelf to I anfwer his impudent Queftion, 
ib many Philofophers, and la- | How the Deity could have his 
bour'd to write almoft infinite | Knowledge ? 'tis fufficient to re- 
turn , That his Method of 
Knowing is not to be meafur'd 
by ours, that he is Omnifcient, 
that being a PerfecTiion, needs 
not any external Impulfe from 



to be fo : for 'tis already prov'd, 
that infinite Perfecf^ion is a ne- 
ceflary Confequence of Self-Ex- 
iftence. But when he endeavours 
to prove* that to Be is no Good 
to Man, what but Laughter can 
be return'd to fuch an idle Oppo- 
fitionof common Senfe ? For if 
to be continued in Being is fo 
great a Good, and fo defireable. 



Volumes, when he had no Mo- 
tive to engage himfelf in all this 
Trouble ? No, Lucretius highly 
efteems him for the Benefits he 
beftow'd on Mankind ; and thusj 
anfwers himfelf, whilft he allows j 
Ungle Benevolence to be a ftrong : 
Motive to Atftion : And this is 



Images 



185. What coming, &c.] Ci- 
cero, lib. 2. de Nat. Deor. fpealcs 



allow'd by general Confent, he | to the fame Purpofe in thefe 
being hated> who looks only on | Words. Quid autem erat, quod 



his own Intereft, and makes that 
the Meafure of all his Deligns. 
And that the Deity is benevo- 
lent in the highefl Degree^ is as 



concupifceret Deus mundum fig- 
nis 8c luminibus^ tanquam Mdi- 
lis, ornare ? Si, ut Deus ipfe me- 
lius habitaretj antea^ videlicet 

tern- 



449 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 

Befides; what Harm, had the Sun idly ran, 
1^5 Nor warm'd the Mud, nor kindled it to Man, ' 
What Harm to us, if we had ne'er began ? 
True : thofe that are in Being once, fliould drive, 
As long as Pleasure will invite, to live ; 
But they, who ne*er had tafted Joys, nor feen^ 
200 What Hurt to them, fuppofe they ne'er had been ? 

Befides: Whence had the Gods their Notice, 
whence their Mind, 
Thofe fit Ideas of the human Kind ? 
What Image of the Work they then delign'd ? 
How did they underftand the Pow'r of Seed, 
205 That they, by Change of Order, Things could breed j 
Unlefs kind Nature's Pow rs at firft did (how 
A Model of the Frame, and taught them how to know? 

For Seeds of Bodies from eternal ftrove, 
And us'd, by Stroke, or their own WEiGHT>to move, 
21 o All Sorts of Union try'd, all Sorts of Blows, 
To fee if any way would Things compofe : 

And 

NOTES. 



tempore infinito, in tenebrisj 
tanquam in gurguftio habitave- 
rat ? Poft au{em, varietate ne 
eum delecftari putamus, quod 
ccelum dc terras exornatas vi- 
demus ? Qux ifta poteft efTe 
obletftacio Deo ? qu^e fi eflet, non 
ci tarn diucarere potuilTet. Why 
was it, that God was fo defirous 
to adorn this World with Lumi- 
naries, and Conftellations, like 
the gawdy Calfock of a Herald ? 
W^as it that he might liys him- 
felf the better ? And had he 
liv'd till then, that is to fay, an 
infinite Space of Time, in the 
Dark, as in a Cabin ? Or do 
we imagine, that at length he 
took Delight in Novelties, and 
therefore cloath'd the Heavens 
and the Earth in all that glori- 
ous Array, in which we now be- 
hold them ? What Delight can 
that be to God ? W^ere it any, 
he would not have been fo long 
without it. 

2or. Whence had, &c,] The 
Kotieej or Knowledge, of all 



This Argument is con- 



Things, proceeds from the Ima- 
ges of Things, that offer them- 
felves to the Mind : Befides, the 
Gods do nothing incdnfiderately ; 
but forefee whatever they refolve 
to do. Now no Images of Things 
could come into the Divine 
Mind ; fince the Things them- 
'felves did not yet exilt. *Tis 
idle therefore to pretend, thae 
the Gods created the Heavens, 
the Earth, the Animals, and all 
Things, 
tain'd in 1$. v. 

208. For Seeds, &c.] In thefe 
8, V. the Poet delivers the Opi- 
nion of Epicurus concerning the 
Creation of the World, which 
he deny'd to be the W^ork of the 
Gods ; but taught, that all 
Things are effetfted by Nature, 
or rather by Chance and For- 
tune, that is, by a fortuitous 
Concourfe of Atoms? For he 
would not allow Fortune or 
Chance to be any Thing, that, 
of it felf, teniper'd and difpos'd 
the Atoms to work thefe Effects 
M m m w5 



4ro 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 



And (o, no Wonder, they at laft were hurl'd 
Into the decent Order of this World ; 
And ftillfuch Motions, (till fuch Wayspurfue,^ 
II 5 As rtiay fapply decaying Things by new. 
For were I ignorant how Beings rife. 
How Things begin; yet Reafons from the Skies,' 
From ev'ry Thing deduc'd, will plainly prove, 
This World ne'er fram'd by the wife Pow'rs above ; 
tioSo foolifh the Defign, contrived fo ill ! "p 

For firft ; thofe Tradls of Air what Creatures fill ? > 
Why Beasts in ev'ry Grove, and fliady HitL > > 

Vaft 
NOTES. 



vjc now behold', but that the A- 
toms themfelves are that very 
Chance : forafmuch as without 
any Premeditation, they meet, 
and mutually cleave to one ano' 
ther, and thus make ait concrete 
Things, juft as it happens, with- 
out any preconceiv'd Defign : 
And thus, as Dryden finely ex- 
prelTes this Opinion of Epicurus, 



The various 

Dance 
JLeap'd into Form , 

Work of Chance. 



Atoms interfering! 



the nobles 



Lucretius too explains it in the 
lame Words, as here, Book I. 
V. 1 02 1, and in this Book, v. 
470. he repeats thefe Verfes a- 
gain. 

216. For were, &C.3 To prove 
the World not to have been 
made by the Gods, the Poet, in 
thefe 34.. V. brings fome Argu- 
ments from the ill-contriv'd 
Frame, Difpofition, and Make 
of it. The Work of an a]}- wife 
Artift, fays he, ought to be per- 
fect in all Points ; not like the 
Earth with Mountains, W^oods, 
Lakes, &c. hideous and dread- 
ful to bshold : Some Parrs of 
it ihould not be chili'd with per- 
petual Froft, nor others parch'd 
with continual Heat : It lliould 
produce Fruits of all Sorts,rather 
than Thorns, Briars, and other 
ufelefs, nay, noxious Plants > 



It fliould be difturb'd with no 
Storms nor Tempefts ; it Hiould 
breed no wild Beafts, nor other 
Animals, that are dangerous and 
deftrudtive to Man : nor fhould 
various Difeafes attend the vari- 
ous Seafons of the Year, and 
fliorten our Days : but all things 
iliould have been made pleafant 
and beautiful, accommodated 
only to the Eafe and Pleafure of 
Man : and thus it would indeed 
have been a Work worthy of a 
wife and bounteous God, 

Thus our prefumptuous and 
daring Poet takes upon him to 
find Fault Vv^ith the Contrivance 
it felf, and, like that proud 
King of Arragon, could, no 
Doubt, have mended the Defign. 
And here, tho' 'tis unreafonable 
to demand a particular Caufe 
and Motive for every Contri- 
vance, lince we are not of the 
Cabinet-Council of Nature, nor 
affifted at her Projecfr, yet his 
Exceptions (no Doubt the beft 
his labouring Wit could invent^ 
are fo weak, fo often anfwered, 
and fo eafily ( on Principles 
grounded on certain Hiftory, 
and infallible Record) to be ac- 
counted for, that there is no need 
to frame a particular Anfwer,nor 
Reafon to fear,that any^the mea- 
neft Reader, can ever be fur- 
priz'd with fuch Trifles. 

221. For firft. Sec."] In thefe 
6. Y. is conuia'd his Erft Argu-^ 

sisnt> 



Book V. LUCRETIUS, 

Vaft Pools take Pare, and the impetuous Tide, 
Whofe fpreading Waves the diftant Shores divide - 
125 Two Parts in three the torrid Zone does burn. 
Or FRIGID chill, and all to Defarts turn. 

N T £ 5. 



4?x 



And 



ment, in which he proves. That 
far the greateft Part of the 
Earth is ufelefs to Man ; foras- 
much as it confifts partly of 
Mountains, Woods, and Rocks; 
and that the Sea and vaft Lakes 
take up another Part of it : as 
alfo becaufe a third Portion of it 
is uninhabitable,by Reafon of the 
violent Heat of the Sun ; and a 
fourth, on Account of its being 
extreamly cold ; that is to fay, 
under the Torrid Zone, and un- 
der the two Frigid Zones. How 
then can it be pretended, that 
this Earth, which abounds with 
fo many Defetfts and Inconveni- 
ences, was created by the Gods 
for the Sake of Man ? 

Thofe Trails of Air what 
Creatures fill ?] Lucretius : 



■ Quantum coeli tegit impe- 

tus ingens, 
Inde 4vidam partem montes, dec. 



Which our Tranllatour has not 
rightly, or, at leaft, has doubt- 
fully render'd. For what Lu- 
cretius fays, is this ; That as 
much of the World as the Hea- 
vens furround or cover, by which 

he means the Orb of the Earth, I Thefe Zones are defcrib'd 
is partly taken up by Mountains,! Virgil, Georg. i. v, 233. 
&c. and therefore is of no life 



mirabili cum celeritate moveri, 
vertique videamus, &c. 

226. The Torrid and Frigid 
Zones.] The Aftronomers divi- 
ded the Heavens, according to 
Latitude, into five Parts, each 
of which the Greeks call'd ZcJvn, 
and the Latines, Cingulum, Faf- 
cia, Plaga : Cicero calls the 
Zones, Maculae, and Orae : the 
Zone, that is in the Midft, bc" 
tween the two Tropicks, beyond 
which the Sun never pafTes, is 
call'd the Torrid Zone. Polybi- 
us divides this Zone into two, 
parted by the Equator ; but in 
this Opinion he is not follow 'd 
by any. The two Zones, that 
are extended, one from the right 

I of the Torrid Zone, towards the 
Ardtick, or North Pole, and the 
other from the left of the Torr 
rid Zone, towards the Antar- 
<ftick,or South Pole, are call'd the 
Temperate Zones. The other 
two, included within the Po- 
lar Circles, are call'd the Frigid 
Zones. Thales is believ'd to have 
been the Inventour of them ; 
but Poflidonius, as cited by Stra- 
bo, afcribes the Invention, the* 
without^Reafon, to Parmenides. 
are defcrib'd by 



to Man, But Creech feems to 
make him complain, that no 
Creatures are produc'd in the 
Air, as well as in the Water, and 
on dry Ground. His Miftake 
proceeded from not enough con- 
fidering what the Poet means by 
Coeli impetus ingens ; the vio- 
lent Whirl of the Heavens. Ci- 
cero, deNatura Deorum, lib. 2. 
Ciim autem impetum coeli ad- 



Quinque tenent coelum Zonx: 

quaruni una corufco 
Semper fole rubens, & torrid^ 

femper ab igni ; 
Qiiam circum extremic dextr^ 

liBvaque trahuntiir, 
Cseruleaglacieconcreta:, atque 

imbribus atris. 
Has inter mediamque, du^e mor- 

talibus xgris 
Munere njoncelTj? Diviim. • > 



M m m2 



Five 



4^2 LUCRETIUS. Book V: 

^nd all the other Fields, what would they breed. 
If let alone, but Bryars, Thorns, and Weed ? 
Thefe are their proper Fruits, this Nature would, '7 
130 Did not laborious Mortals toil for Food ; > 

And tear, and plough, and force them to be good : 3 
IDid they not turn the Clods with crooked Share, 
By frequent Torments forcing them to bear; 
No tender Fruits, none of their own Accord 
235 Would rife to feed proud Man, their fatify'd Lord^ 

Nay 
NOTES. 



Five Girdles bind the Skies : the 
Torrid Zone 

Glows with the pafiing and re- 
pafling Sun : 

Far on the right and left, th' 
Extreams of Heav'n, 

To Frofts, and Snows, and bit- 
ter Blafts, are given. 

Betwixt the Midft and thefe, the 
Gods affign'd 

Two habitable Seats for human 
Kind. Dryd, 

And the fame Aftronomers like- 
wife affign'd five Zones on Earth, 
to anfwer to thofe of the Hea- 
vens t and of thefe Ovid takes 
Notice, Metam. i. v.45- 

Utqueduie dextra ccelum, toti- 

demque finiftrd 
parte fecant Zonjc, quinta eft 

ardcntior illis : 
Sic onus inclufum numero di- 

ftinxiteodem 
Cura Dei j totidemque plaga* 

tellure premuntur : 
Quarum qua; media eft, non eft 

habitabilis *eftu ; 
Kix tegit alta duas : totidem in- 
ter utramque locavit, 
Temperiem dedit, mifti cuin 

frigore flamma. 

Which the fame Dryden thus in- 
terprets I 

And as five Zones th' ^therial 

Region bind. 
Five correfpondent are to Earth 

aflign'd* 



The Sun, with Rays direcfily 
darting down, 

Fire3 all beneath, and fries the 
middle Zone. 

The two beneath the diftant 
Poles complain 

Of endlefs Winter, and perpetu- 
al Rain. 

Betwixt th' Extreams two hap- 
pier Climates hold 

The Temper, that partakes of 
Heat and Cold. 

Nor was it amifs obferv'd by 
thefe A ftronomers , that the 
Parts of the Earth anfwer'd to 
the oppofite Parts of the Hea- 
venSj and partak'd of their Qua- 
lities : tho' fo great has been the 
Wifdom of God in attempering 
all Things, that even direcfily 
beneath the Sun, and where the 
Heats are moft violent, both 
Men and Cattle may live a plea- 
fant and eafy Life : but of this 
the Antienrs were ignorant. 

227, And all, Sec,"] In thefe 
9. v. is contain'd his fecond Ar- 
gument, m which he obferves, 
that the otherParts of the Earth, 
that are cultivated, will not 
produce the Fruits, unlefs the 
Ground be tilled by Men with 
great Toil and Labour : But if 
the Earth were created by the 
Gods, for the Service of Man, 
why does it not bear them Fruits 
of its Q\vn Accord ? 

23^. Nays 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 4^5 

Nay, often too, v»'hen Man, with Pains and Toil 

Has ploughed, and overcome th' unwiiiing Soil, 
, When Flow'rs put forth, and budding Branches fhoor 

Look gay, and promife the much long'd-for Fruit, 
240 The fcorching Svtf, with his too bufy Beams, 

Burns up, or Clouds deftroy the Fruits with Streams. 

Or, chill'd by too much Snow, they foon decay. 

Or Storms blow them, and all our Hopes, away. 
But farther; why fhould Parent Nature breed 
145 Such hurtful Animals? why cherifli, feed 

Deftrudtive Beafts ? Why fhould fuch Monsters grow. 

Did the kind Gods difpofe of Things below ? 

Why Plagues to all the Seafons of the Year belong ? 

And why (houid hafty Death deftroy the Young ? 
250 A Man, when firft he leaves his prim'tive Nighr, 

Breaks from his Mother's Womb to view the Light : 

Like 
N O T £ 5. 



23(5, Nay, often, &c.] Thefe 
8. V. contain the third Argu- 
ment, and fay, that even when 
we expecft to reap the Fruits of 
our Laboursj in the Tillage of 
the Earth, we are often deceiv'd 
in our Hopes, either by Rains or 
Droughts, by Storms, Blights, 
Sec. which is finely exprefs'd by 
Sir R. Blackmore : 

The verdant Walks their charm- 
ing Afpe(ft lofe. 
And ihrivel'd Fruit drops from 

the wither'd Boughs ; 
Flow'rs in their virgin Bluflies 

fmother'd die, 
And round the Trees their fcat- 

ter'd Beauties lie : 
Infeti^ion taints the Air; lick 

Nature fades ; 
And fuddain Autumn all the 

Fields invades ; 
So when the Plains their flowery 

Pompdifplay, 
Sooth'd by the Spring's fsveet 

Breath, and chearingRay; 
If Boreas then, defigaing envious 

War, 
Mufters his fwift-wing'd Legions 

in Ehe Air ; 



And, bent on fure DeftrucRion, 
marches forth 

With the cold Forces of the 
fnowy North : 

Th' op'ning Buds, and fprout- 
ing Herbs, and all 

The tender Firft-born of the 
Spring muft fall ; 

The blighted Trees their bloom- 
ing Honours ilied, 

And on their blafted Hopes the 
mournful Gard'ners tread. 

244. But farther, &c.] in thefe 
6. V. is contain'd the fourth Ar- 
gument, in which the Poet ob- 
ferves, that noxious Animals are 
produc'd and fed, as well on dry 
Ground, as in the Sea : that the 
Seafons of the Year bring Difea- 
fes ; that untimely Death fnatch- 
es many away : To which Evils 
they ought not to be fubjecl;, if 
all Things were created for their 
Sake. 

250. A Man, Sec.'] In thefe 
16. V. he brings his fifth Argu- 
ment. If the Gods, fays he, had 
made the World, the Condition 
of Man would have been better 
than thac of other Animals, yec 

we 



4^4 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 



Like a poor Carcafs, tumbled by the Flood, 
He falls all naked, and befmear'd with Blood, 
An Infant, weak, and deftitute of Food. 
25 5 With tender Cries the pitying Air he fills ; 
A fit Prefage for all his coming Ills : 
While Beafts are born, and grow with greater Eafe; 
No need of founding Rattles them to pleafe j 



No 



N O T £ S. 



we plainly fee it is much worfe : 
and, to weigh the Matter aright, 
Kature feems a kind Parent to 
them, and a crofs Stepmother to 
us. Why, fays Epicurus, in La- 
<flantius, lib. 7. cap. $. did God 
3Tiak€ Man, whom he lov'd, ob- 
noxious to fo many Evils ? Why 
did he make him frail and mor- 
tal ? Cur ergo Deus omnibus 
malis hominem, quern diligebat, 
objecit ? Cur mortalem, fragi- 
lemque conflituit ? Man indeed 
comes into the World naked, 
helplefs, and unarm'd : but Na- 
ture has given him the Advan- 
tage of Hands, which are call'd 
the Organ of Organs. Befides, 
let us fuppofe, that a great E- 
:ftate were given gratuitoufly.and 
for no previous Confideration, 
to a Man that were Lame, muti- 
lated, infirm and difeas'd, would 
itnotbeunjuft to call the Do- 
nour to Account for the Infirmi- 
ty of the Objecfl of his Liberali- 
ty, and to blame him that he 
gave no more ? 

255. With tender, &c.] Pliny, 
lib, 7. fpeaking of the Imbecilli- 
ty of human Nature, fays, Ho- 
m.inem tantiim nudum, & in nu- 
da humo natali die objecit ad 
vagitus ftatim & ploratus, nul- 
lumque tot animalium pronius 
ad lacrymas, atque has protinus 
vit^ principio. Nature produ- 
ces Man only naked, nor of the 
great Number of Animals is any 
more prone to Tears, and that 
too in the very Moment of his 
Birth. But let us hear Dryden's 
Tranilation of this PafTage. • 



Thus, like a Sailor by the Tem- 

peft hurl'd 
AUiore, the Babe is Shipwrecked 

on the World : 
Naked he lies, and ready to ex- 
pire, 
Helpiefs of all that human 

Wants require : 
Expos'd upon unhofpitable 

Earth, 
From the firft Moment of his 

haplefs Birth ; 
Strait with foreboding Cries he 

fills the Room, 
Too lure Prefages of his future 

Doom. 
But Flocks, and Herds, and e- 

v'ry favage Beaft, 
By more indulgent Nature, are 

increas'd : 
They want no Rattles for their 

froward Mood, 
No Nurfe to reconcile them to 

their Food 
With broken Words ; nor win- 
ter Blafts they fear. 
Nor change their Habits with 

the changing Year : 
Nor for their Safety Citadels 

prepare. 
Nor forge the wicked Inftru- 

ments of War. 
Unlaboured Earth her bounteous 

Treafure grants. 
And Nature's laviHi Hands fup- 

ply their common Wants. 

258. Sounding Rattles] Mar- 
tial, lib. 14. Epig. 54' 

Si quis ploratQr collo tibi vernu- 

la pendet, 

Ha^c^quatiat tenera 

itra manUo 

' Hence 



garrula fi- 



4^r 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 

No need of tattling Nurfes bufy Care : 'i 

160 They want no Change of Garments, but can wear ^ 
The fame at any Seafon of the Year. j 

They need no Arms, no Garrifon, or Town, 
No ftateJy Caftles to defend their own. 
Nature fupplies their Wants ; whate'er they cravej 

265 She gives them, and preferves the Life fhe gave. 

But now, fince Air, and Water, Earth, and Fire 
Are Bodies all produc'd, and all expire ; 
Since thefe are fuch, thefe that compofe this Frame, 
The Nature of the Whole muft be the fame : 

27oForthofe, whofe Parts the Strokes of Fate controul, 
If thofe are made, and dy; fo muft the whole. 
Now fince the Members of the World we view. 
Are chang'd, confum'd, and all produc'd anew : 
It follows then, for which our Proofs contend, 

275 That this vast Frame began, and fo muft end. 
But left you think I poorly beg the Caufe ^ 
And that it difagrees with Nature's Laws, 

That 

NOTES. 



Hence we may obferve, that the 
Rattles, which our Nurfes ufe to 
quiet their froward Children, 
are not of modern Date ; efpeci- 
ally, if the Crepitaculum, which 
is the Word our Poet here ufes, 
be the fame with the Siftrum, 
that the Egyptians us'd in the 
Service of the Goddefs Ifis, as, 
by the Defcription Apuleius, 
Metam. lib. 11. gives of it, it 
feems to be : Dextera quidem 
ferebat, fays he, ;ereum crepita- 
culum, cujus per anguftam ia- 
minam in modum baltei recur- 
vatam, trajecf^je mediae pauc^ 
virgulfB crifpante bracbio terge- 
minos jacitus reddebant anguftum 
fonorem. And the Figure of Ifis, 
holding a Siftrum in her Hand, 
which Hieronymus Boflius, de 
Siftro, p. 22. gives us, from 
fome antient Coins of Adrian, 
reprefents it to be very much of 
the fame Form with our com- 
mon Rattles. 

266. But now, &C.3 Having 
f^ly'd the Objed^ions, which the 



Weaknefs of the Stoicks, and 
the Superftition of the Vulgar, 
had rais'd againft his Opinion : 
he now, in thefe 10. v, argues to 
this Purpofe : The Nature of 
the Whole is the fame with thae 
of its Parts : and fince we fee 
that the Parts of the World, 
the Earth, Sea, Air, and Fire, 
are continually chang'd, fome- 
times diminifh'd, fometimes re- 
newed, it muft be confefs'd, thae 
the whole Mafs is equally, and 
alike, mortal. 

268. This Frame] i. e. of the 
Earth, which is compos'd of the 
four Elements, that are call'd by 
Manilius, lib. i. v. 137. Qua- 
tuor mundi artus *, the four 
Limbs, or Members of the 
World : as they are likewife by 
Lucretius, v. 272. of this Book. 

27,5. But left, &c.] Here the 
Poet d em onft rates at large, in 
73. V. That the chief Parrs, and 
iargeft Members of the World, 
Earth, Water, Air and Fire, are 
produc'dj and die, And firft, 

in 



4^6 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

That Water, AiR,that Earth, and Eire fliould ceafe^ 
And fail ; that they can dy, and can increafe ; 

280 Confider ; Earth, when parch'd with bufy Beams, 
And trodden much, flies up in dusky Streams : 
And little Clouds of thick'ning Duft arife, 
Difpers'd by Winds thro' all the low'r Skies: 
And gentle Rivers too, with wanton Play, 

285 That kifs their rocky Banks, and glide away. 
Take fomewhat ftill from the ungentle Stone, 
Soften the Parts, and make them like their own. 
And by what Thing another's fed, and grows, 
That Thing fome Portion of its own muft lofe : 

290 Now fince all fpring from Earth, and fince we call^ 
And juftly too, the Earth, the Source of aH; 
Since all, when cruel Death diffolves, return 
To Earth again, and (he's both Womb and Urn : 
The Earth is chang'd,fome Parts muft fometimes ceafe,' 

295 And fometimes new come on, and flie increafe. 

Befides, 

NOTES. 



In thefe 20. v. he begins with the 
Earth : Many of whofc Par- 
ticles, fays he, are borne aloft, 
and compofe the Air : the Ri- 
vers wafli ofF many more, and 
roll them into the Sea : Then, 
in 16. V. he fays, That new Wa- 
ter is produc'd every Day ; but 
Part of it is chang'd into Air by 
the force of the Sun : and in 
the fubterranean PaiTages another 
Part of it condenfes, and puts 
on the Form of Earth. Then 
in 10. V. he fays, That no Man 
will pretend, that the Air, which 
receives all the Particles, that 
are continually flowing to it from 
all Things, and that repairs and 
renews all thofe Things, is eter- 
nal and immortal : And laftly, 
in 27. V. he aiTerts, That we 
ought to conclude the like alfo 
of Fire, fince the Rays of the 
Sun, who is the fole Fountain 
and Source of all Light and Fire, 
flow out from his Orb, and pe-^ 
rifli every Moment, And there- 
fore we muil be forc'd to allow. 
that the Sun himfelf is repair'dj 



as we fupply a Lamp with Oil, 
to keep the Flame alive, 

280. Confider, &:c.3 Here the 
Poet proves, I, That the Earth 
waftes away, and is renew'd t 
For, fays he, the Sun, by conti- 
nually iliining upon it, bakes and 
dries it up : it wears with being 
trampled on : the Force of the 
Winds blows fome of it into the 
Air : Rains difTolve it : Rivers 
walli it away : it is wafted by its 
own Produdions, and again re- 
newed by them : For, as the 
Earth is the great Mother of all 
Things, fo too flie is their com- 
mon Sepulchre : The Earth 
therefore decays, and is renew'd, 

284. And gentle, dec.'] Out 
Tranflatour is not fo much ob- 
lig'd to his Authour for this 
Thought as to Cowley, who, in 
the ft I Book of his I>avideis,fays : 

'The Streamjwith wan- 



ton Play, 
KifTes the fmiling Banks, and 
glides away. 



* Book V. LUCRETIUS. 4^7 

Befides; ihac Seas, and Rivers wafte and die, 
And ftill incfei(c by conftanc new Supply, (fliow 

What need of Proofs ? This Streams themfelves do 
And in fofc Murmurs bubble as they flow. 

300 But left the Mass of Water prove too great. 
The Sun drinks fome, to quench his nat'rai Heat: 
And fome the Winds brufh ofFj with wanton Play, 
They dip their Wings, and bear fome Parts away: 
Some pafTes thro* the Earth, difFus'd all o'er, 

305 And leaves its Salt behind in ev'ry Pore; 
For all returns, thro* narrow Channels fpread. 
And joins where'er the Fountain fhews her Head ; 
And thence fweet Streams in fair M e^ 2{ d e r s phy^ 
And thro* the Valleys cut their liquid way ^ 

And 

NOTES. 



296. Befides, &c.] In thefe 
16. V, the Poet proves, I Idly, 
That the Water waftes away, 
and is again repair'd : for the 
Sea, the Rivers, and the Foun- 
tains, are continually lupply'd 
with new Waters ; and the 



Becaufe thofe pungent Parts.they 

roll'd before. 
Now ftay behind, and lodge in 

ev'ry Pore. 

308. In fair Meanders play] 
Meander is a great River of the 



Reafon why the Sea does not o-jlefTer Alia, flowing from the 
verflow, is, becaufe the Winds, Fountain Aulocrene, in the grea- 
bruihing over the Surface of its Iter Phrygia : It divides Caria 
Waves, take away fome Part of j from Ionia, and, at the City- 
its Flood, and becaufe the Heat Heraclea, falls into the Myrtoaii 
of the Sun continually licks up i Sea, which is a Part of the i^- 
its Waters : Befide-;, fome Part ! gean, and now cal-Pd Mare di 
of the W^aters of the Sea dives! Mandria, This River is now the 
beneath into the Pores and Chan- 1 Madre, and flows in fo many 
nels ofihe Earth : where, lea- Windings, that it often feems to 
ving behind its Bitternefs and run back towards its Head .- O- 
Salt, it gropes out its blind Paf-j vid. Metam. lib. p. v. 449. 
fage to a fecond Birth j and ftar-l 

ting up in Fountains, creeps from Hie tibi, dum fequitur patriae 
them into Rivers, and from the] curvamine rip^, 
Rivers works its way,and returns Filia M^andri, toties redeuntis 



ag«iin, into the Sea, gliding back- 
wards and forwards with a ne- 
ver-ceafing Courfe. 



eodem, 
Cognita Cyanee, Sec 



305. And leaves it's Salt, Sec.'] Whence, not only all Turnings 
Lucretius himfelf gives the Rea-]and Windings are metaphorical- 



ion of this. Book n. V. 451. 
For when fait Streams through 



ly call'd Meanders : but likewife 
all crafty and wily Counfels : In 
which laft Senfe, Cicero, in Pifo, 
winding Caverns pafs, " | ufes the Word Meander: and 

They rife up fwect,' and bubble; Prudencius, in the Hymn ante 
o'er the Grafs j ' Somn, 

Knn O 



LUCRETIUS, 



Book V. 



3 1 o And Herbs, and Flow'rs on ev*ry Side beftow : 

The Fields all fmile with FLow'RS,where'er they flow: 

But more ; the Air, thro' all the mighty Frame, 
Is chang'd each Hour, we breathe not twice the fame - 
Becaufe, as all Things wafte, the Parts muft fly y 

3 1 5 To the vaft Sea of Air ; they mount on high, > 

And foftly wander in rhe lower Sky : 3 

Now did not this the wafting Things repair. 
All had been long ago dilfolv'd, all Air. 

There- 

NOTES. 



O tortuofe Terpens, 
Qui miJle per Maeandros, 

Fraudefque- flexuofaSj 
. Agitas quieta corda. 

Dion Prufeus fays, that this Ri- 
ver makes no lefs than lix hun- 
dred Windings towards the 
Spring where firft it rif'es. Thus 



in wreathing 



It's wanton Tide 

Volumes flows, 
Still forming reedy Illands as it 

goes : 
And in Meanders to the neigh- 

b'ring Main, 
The liquid Serpent draws it's 

iilver Train. 

Sir Richard Blackmore. 

Moreover, the four Verfes that 
conclude this Argument, are pa- 
raphraftically rendered •, and the 
two laft of them feem to be imi- 
tated from thel'e of Cowley : 

Th' innocent Stream, as it in Si- 
lence goes, 

Frefli Honours, and a fuddain 
Spring beftow: 

Qn both its Banks, to ev'ry Tree 
and Flow'r. 

312. But more, &:c.] In thefe 
lo. V, he proves llldly. of the 
Air^that it fometimes waftes.and 
then again increafes : For the 
Air Js chang'd every Moment : 
Becaxife^ whatever flows fiom 



Bodies, is carry'd into the vaft 
Tracft of Air. But minute Cor- 
pufcles are continually flowing 
from all Things, and are con- 
vey'd into the Air, where they 
fly to and fro without ceafing. 
Now, unlefs the Air conftantly 
reftor'd thele Corpufcles to the 
Bodies from whence they came, 
all Things would by this Time 
have been wafted to Nothing, 
and totally deftroy'd. Therefore 
Bodies are perpetually chang'd 
into Air, and the Air returns a- 
gain into Bodies, 

315. Vaft Sea of Air] This 
feems a bold Metaphor ; and 
yet has the Authority of Lucre- 
tius ; Aeris in magnum fertur 
Mare : and he of Ennius, who, 
in Feftus, fays, Crafla pulvis o- 
ritur ; omne pervolat coeli Fre- 
tnm. And our Cowley not only 
cails rhe Air, a tracldefs Ocean ; 
! but the Sea, the low Sky ; for 
which, he tells us, he has the Au- 
thority of the Scripture it felf: 
Genef. i. v. 6. Let there be a 
Firmament in the Midft of the 
! Waters, and let it divide the 
Waters from the Waters : The 
Paflage of Cowley, of which I 
am fpeakmg, is in that incompa- 
rable Pindarick Ode, which he 
calls The Mufe *, and the rather 
deferves to be tranfcrib'd, be- 
cauf^ he reclaims the Authority 
of our Poet, to juftify one Part 
of his Allegory : 

Where 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 4^9 

Therefore, /ince all Things wafte, their vital Chain ^ 
320 Diffolv'd 'y how can the Frame of Am remain ? L 

Ir rifes from, and makes up, Things again. S 

Befides^ the Sun, that conllant Spring of Light, 
Still cuts the Heav'ns with Streams of fliining White . 
And the decaying old with new fupplies : 
325 For ev*ry Portion of the Beam, that flies, 
Is but lliorc-liv'd, it juft appears, and dies. 

As thus 'tis prov'd. 

For, when an envious Cloud ftops up the Stream, 
The conftant Stream of Light, and breaks the Beam, 
330 The lower Part is loft, and dilmal Shade 

O'erfpreads the Earth, where'er the Cloud's convey 'd,' 

There- 

NOTES, 



Where never Fifli did fly, 
And wich ihort filver Wings cut 
the low liquid Sky ; 
Where Bird with painted Oars 
did ne'er 
Row thro' the tracklefs Ocean of 
the Air, &c. 

322. Befides, &c.i In thefe 27. 
V. he proves, IVthly, That Fire 
periflies, and is again renew'd : 
Of this he brings aa Inftance of 
the Sun, whofe firft Light, fays 
he, totally periflies, and a new 
Light is created in its Place : 
This Truth we know by Expe- 
rience, as often as any Mift in- 
terpofes between the Sun's Orb 
and us. He farther teaches, That 
the like happens in our Lamps 
and Candles, in Lightning, in 
the Moon, and in the other Pla- 
nets -, of all which the firft Light 
dies, and a new Light is conti- 
nually fubftituted in its Room : 
Therefore Light, in which there 
is always fome Fire, dies, and is 
renew'd in all luminous Bodies, 
and confequently the Fire it felf 
iXiufl: periili, and be renew'd 
likewife. And indeed, as to our 
Lights, which are fupply'd and 
fed with fomething fat and hu- 
mid, as Oil, no Man difputes, 
h;-|C th.-?,t they are continually 



chang'd. But Ariftotle, lib. 2, 
Meteor, denies, that the Light 
of the Sun is like our terreftiial. 
Lights : and will have it to "be 
always one and the fame, as be- 
ing never fed with Humidity ; 
for otherwife, a new Sun would 
rife every Day,and be daily new, 
which is both falfe and abfurd. 
Lucretius indeed, in this Place, 
does not pretend to fay, that the 
Sun or the Stars are of a firy 
Nature, or that they are Fire ; 
but is fatisfy'd that Lightjwhich 
always contains fome Fire, peri- 
fhes, and is renew'd daily. He 
will prove by and by, whether 
the Sun be Fire or not ; and, ac- 
cording to the Doclrine of Epi- 
curus, will teach, that the cele- 
ftial Bodies, that is to fay, the 
Stars, are either Fire, or conlift 
of Fire : which he has likewife 
often infinuated elfewhere. 

328. For when, &c.]^ Sir Ri- 
chard Blackmore, defcribing a 
Storm : 

A fuddain Storm did from the 
South arife. 

And horrid black begun to hang 
the Skies : 

Low-bellying Clouds foon inter- 
cept the Light, 

And o'er the Sailors fpread a 
noon-day Night. 

N n n 2 343= Hy- 



46o LUCRETIUS, Book V. 

Therefore there muft be conftant Streams of Rays, 
Since ev'ry Portion of the Beam decays : 
Nor fhould we fee, but all lie blind in Night, 

335 Unlefs new Streams fiow'd from the Spring of LightI 
So from our Lights, our meaner Fires below. 
Our Lamps, or brighter Torches, Streamsdo flow, 
And drive away the Night : they ftill fupply 7 

New Flames ; as fwiftly as the former die, V 

940 New Beams ftill tremble in the lower Sky : ^ 

No Space is free, but a continu'd Rav 
Still keeps a conftant, tho' a feeble, Day ; 
So faft, ev'n HrDR^^'llke, the fruitful Fires 
Beget a new Beam, as the old expires. 

345 So Sun and Moon, with many a num'rous Birth, 

Bring forth new Rays, and fend them down to Earth, 
Which die as faft : left Tome fond Fools believe, 
That thefe are free from Fate, that thefe muft live, 
Ev*n ftrongeft Tow'ns and Rocks, all feel the Rage 

350 Of powVful Time: ev'n Temples viafte by Age: 
Nor can the Gods themfelves prolong their Date, 
Change Nature's Laws, or get Reprieve from Fate : 

Ev'n 

NOTES. 



343. Hydra] See the Note on 
V. 28. of this Book. 

349. Ev'n ftrongeft, &c.] In 
thefe 1 1. V. he confirms the pre- 
ceding Arguments. The Things 
that feem moft folid, feel the 
Strength of Time, and moulder 
away. "Who does not every Day 
fee Towers. Temples, and the 
Images of the Gods faliiug to 
Decay, and dropping to the 
Ground I The Deities them- 
felves can not fupport them. 
Even Rocks c/umble with Age, 
and come tumbling piecemeal 
down from the Mountains : 
Who then will pretend, that 
Things, which are unable to re- 
fift the Injuries of a finite Time, 
have exifted from all Eternity ? 

351. Nor can the Gods, Sec.'] 
Forfome are of Opinion, that 
the Antients believ'd. That not 
only Man.and all created Things, 
as well animate as inanimate Be- 



ings, but that even the Gods 
themfelves were fubject to Fate. 
And the Words of Lucretius, in 
this Place, are, 

Nee fancflum Numen Fati pro- 

toHere fines 
Pofie,ncque adverfus naturae foe- 

dera niti. 

But if the Decrees of Fate were 
unalterable, how came Venus to 
fear, that the Mind of Jupiter 
would ch.ingc, in regard to the 
Trojani? Virgil, Mn. i. v. 241. 



— ■_ — - Qtu-e te, genitor, fenten- 

tia verric ? 
Hoc equidem occafum Troj«, 

triftefque ruinas 
Solabar, fatis contraria fata re- 

pendens. 

Fate therefore feemsto have been 
nothing elfe, than an immuta- 
ble 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 461 

Ev'n Tombs grow old, and wafte, by Years o'erthrown : 
Mens Graves before, but now become their own. 
955 How oft the hardeft Rock difTolves, nor bears 
The Strength but of a few, tho' pow'rfuJ, Years ! 

Now 



NOTES, 



ble Series of Things and Events, 
exifting in the Mind, or in the 
Decrees of Jupiter , and which, 
for that Reafon, he alone knew, 
and alone reveal'd to the Gods 
by his owa Mouth, and to Men 
by Oracles. Thus the Fortune- 
telling Harpy, lEn. 3. v. 251. 

Qu.^ Phcebo pater cmnipotens, 

mihi Phoebus Apollo 
Pra:dixit..— — 

To which I add, that the Anti- 
ents did indeed hold Fate to be 
unalterable, and unavoidable ; 
Fata viam invenient : but in 
fuch a Manner neverthelefs, that 
they believ'd, I. That the Event 
of Fate, tho' it could not be 
wholely prevented, might ne- 
verthelefs be fome what retarded : 
Thus Juno, JE.n. 7. v. 315. 



regnis pro- 



Non dabitur, eflo. 

hibere Latinis : 
Ac rrahere, atque moras tantis 

licet addere rebus. 



Tl. That the Event often depen- 
ded on certain Conditions, which 
being eluded. Fate was eluded 
likewife. III. That the Decla- 
ration of any Fate whatever,whe- 
ther by Jupiter himfelf, or by 
the Oracles, might be ambigu- 
ous : whence ic happen'd. That 
the Gods, as well as Men, often 
ilruggled againit adverfe Fates. 
And this it was that Venus 
ft-ar'd •, that Jupiter had not fpo- 
ken fincerely of the future Hap- 
pinefs of ^neas : becaufe, if he 
had, fhe knew, that it was un- 
.aiterable, and muft of Neceflity 
hfippen : For, as Dryden , in ' 



Palamon and Arcite, 
Chaucer, 



fays after 



The Pow'r, that minifters to 

God's Decrees, 
And executes on Earth what he 

forefees, 
Caird Providence, or Chance, 

or fata! Sway, 
Comes with refiillefs Force, and 

finds, or makes its Way. 

3 ■53. Ev'n Tombs grow old, 
&:c.j Juvenal, Satyr. 10. v. 142. 
to the fame Purpofc, fays, 

Patriam tamen obruit o- 



lim 



Gloria paucorum, Sc laudis ti- 

tulique cupido 
Ha'furi in faxis cineruni cuftodi- 
I bus, ad qua: 
! Difcutienda valent fterilis mala 

robora iicus : 
Qiiandoquidem data funt ipfis, 
quoque fata fepukhris. 

Which Dryden has iin^ely para^?. 

phras'd : 

Yet this mad Chace of Fame, by 

few purfu'd. 
Has drawn Deftruclion on the 

the Multitude : 
This Avarice of Praife in Times 

to come, 
Thefe long Tnfcriptions^crowded 

ontheTomb, 
Should fome wild Fig-tree take 

her native Bent, 
And heave below the gawdy 

Monument, 
W^ould crack the marble Titles, 

and difperfe 
The Characfters of all the lying 

Verfe : 

For 



462 LUCRETIUS, Book V. 

Now if that Rock, for infinite Ages paft, o 

Stood ftill fecure, if it was free from wafte ; S. 

Why fliould it fail, why now diflblve at laft ? 3 

360 Laftly, look round, view that vast Tract of Sky, 
In whofe Embrace our Earth and Waters lie: 
Whence all Things rife, to which they all return, 
As fomedifcourfej the fame both Womb and Qrn: 
'Tis furely mortal all : for that which breeds 

365 That which gives Birth to other Things, or feeds, 

Muft lofe fome Parts ; and when thofe Things do ceafe. 
It gets fome new again, and muft increafe. 

But grant the World eternal, grant it knew 
No Infancy ; and grant it never newj 

Why 

NOTES. 



For Sepulchres thcnifelves muft 

crumbling fall 
In Times Abyl^s, the common 

Grave of all. 

Moreover, that the Graves of 
Men fliould come to-be their own 
Graves, is a Thovight added to 
Lucretius by his Tranflatour. 

^60. Laftly, &:c.] In thefe 
8. V. he confutes thofe, who hold, 
That all Thmgs proceed from 
iEther, or Heaven, and are re- 
iblv'd again into Heaven, and 
yet aiTerc, that Heaven it felf is 
immortal and eternal : For 
whatever is chang'd into other 
Things, and is repair'd and re- 
new 'd by thofe Things, when 
they are diiTolv'd, muft be born, 
and mortal. 

363. As fome difcourfe] He 
means the Poets, who feign'd, 
that Coelus was the raoft ancient 
of all the Gods, and that he mar- 
ry'd his Sifter Terra, the Earth ^ 
whence he was believ'd to be the 
Father of all Things. 

1,68. But grant, 6<:c ] In thefe 
17. V. he afterts, thatthe World 
is new, becaule the moft antient 
of all Hiftories, reach not far- 
ther than the Theban or Trojan 
Wars ; and certainly, if the 
Wodd, far from being ecernal. 



were much older than \vz know 
it to be, we fliould have had 
fome Records of a much older 
Date : And farther, becaufe all 
the Arts are but of late Inventi- 
on, fince Mention is made of the 
Founders of all of them. And if 
the World had had no Beginning, 
all Arts, but efpecially thofe ule- 
ful to Life, would have exifted 
from ail Time. Macrobius, on 
the Dream of Scipio, Book 2. 
chap. 10. argues to the fame 
Purpofe, in thefe W^ords, Quis 
non hinc exiftimet mundum 
quandoque coepilTe, nee longam 
retro hujus xtatem, cum abhinc 
ultra retro duo annorum millia 
de excellenti rerum geftarum 
memoria ne Grxca. quidem ex- 
tat Iiiftoria? Nam fupra Ninum, 
a quo Semiramisfecundum quof- 
dam creditur procreata, nihil 
prxclarum in libris rectum eft : 
Si enini ab initio, imo ante initi- 
um fuit mundus, ut Philofophi 
volunt, cur per innumerabilium 
feriem fteculorum, non fuerat 
cultus, quo nunc utiniur, inven- 
tus ? Non literarum ufus, quo 
folo memorial fulcitur jeternitas ? 
Cur denique multarum rerum 
experientia ad aiiquas gentes re*-^ 
centi a^cate pcrvenit ? Ut ecce i 
GalH vitem, vel cultum ok^c, 

Koma 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 

370 Why then no Wars our Poets Songs imploy. 
Before the Siege oiT h eb es, or that of T j? r ? 
Why former Heroes fell without a Name? 
Why not their Battels told by lafting Fame? 

NOTES. 



46^ 



But 



Roma jam adolefcente, didice- 
runt : aliae verb genres adhuc 
multa ilefciunt, quK nobis in- 
venta placuerunt. Hj2c omnia 
videntur ieternitati rerum repug- 
nare,dum opinari nosfaciunt,cer- 
to mundi principio paulatim iin- 
gula quitque coepiffe. Who can 
believe but that the World had 
a Beginning , and that too 
not long ago , iince, of what 
happen'd above two thoufand 
Years pail, we have no Hiftory, 
not even of any great Actions : 
For before Ninus, who, accor- 
ding to fonie, was Father of Se- 
miramis, nothing memorable is 
recorded in our Books : And if 
the World was from the Begin- 
ning, or, as Philofophers fay, be- 
fore the Beginning ", why, during 
a Succeflion of innumerable A- 
ges, was not the Method and 
Way of Life, which we now fol- 
low, invented ? Why not even 
the life of Letters, which alone 
fecures and eternizes the Memo- 
ry of Things? And why have 
fome Nations had but a late 
Knowledge of many Things ? 
For Inftance, the Gauls^ who 
knew not to till the Vine, nor 
the Olive, tUl Rome was in her 
Age of Adolefcency. And other 
Nations are ftill ignorant of ma- 
ny Arcs and Inventions, that 
have long been in life, and of 
great Advantage to us. Ail which 
feenis to contradidi the Eternity 
of Things, and gives us great 
Ground to believe, that all 
Things began by Degrees, after 
theW^orld had its Beginning. 

371, The Siege of Thebes] 
Which, fays Macrobius, was be- 
fore the Siege of Troy, Howe- 



ver it could be but a little Time 
before, becaufe it is certain, that 
fome Leaders were at the De- 
ftruction of Troy, whofe Fa- 
thers had been at the Siege of 
Thebes. Faber. There were fe- 
veral Cities call'd by the Name 
of Thebes ; but Lucretius fpeaks 
of that in Boeocia, which, as Ifi- 
dorus fays, wa^ built by Cad- 
mus, and of the War between 
the two Brothers, Eteocles and 
Polynices, the Sons of OEdipus, 
by his own Mother Jocafta. Of 
the Trojan War,fee B. I. v. 5iy. 
372. W^hy former Heroes,&:c.3 
Horace feems to give the Reafon 
of this, when he fays, that in the 
Ages, in which thofe Heroes 
liv'd, there wanted Poets to re- 
cord their Fame : 

Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona 
Multi : fedomnes illacrymabiles 
Urgentur, ignotique long4 
Nocfte ; carent quia vate facro. 
And therefore Cowley excellent- 
ly well, (ays : 

Not Winds to Voyagers at 
Sea, 
Nor Show'rs to Earth more ne- 
ceflary be, 

Than Verfe to Virtue,which 
can do 
The Midwife's OiEce, and the 

Nurfe's too : 
It feeds it ftronglyjand it cloaths 
it gay i _ 

And when it dies, with 
comely Pride 
Embalms it, and ere<fls a Pyra- 
mid, 

That never will decay. 
Till Heaven it felf ihall melt 
away. 
And nought behind it ftay. 
And 



4^4 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

But 'tis as I declape ; and thoughtful Man, 
373 Not long ago, and all the World began : 

And therefore Arts, that lay but rude before, "7 

Are polifh'd now, we now increafe the Store, > 

We perfe(ft all the old, and find out more. S 

Shipping's improv'd ; vjc add new Oars and Wings j 
380 And MusiCK now is found, and fpeaking Strings. 
Thefe Truths, this Rife of Things we lately know j 
Great E p i c v rv s liv'd not long ago : 
By my Afliftance young Philosophy 
In Latine Words now firft begins to cry. 
385 But if you think fucceiTive Worlds, the fame 

They now appear, but Earthq^uakes fliook the Frame, 
Or Fire deftroy'd, or Floods fwept all away ; 1 

Grant only this, and you the Caufe betray : > 

This ftrongly proves the World will once decay : \ 

For 



NOTES. 



And pryden in like manner : 

For ev'n when Death dilTolves' 

our mortal Frame, 
The Soul returns to Heaven,' 

from whence it came^, 
Earth keeps the Body ; Verfe' 

preferves the Fame. 

374. But 'tis, &c.] Tt is no: 
ftrange that Arts are new, that 
they are bat lately improv'd and 
refin'dj that is to fay, Sailing, 
Poetry, Mufick, &c. fince the 
World it felf is but of late ftan- 
ding, and was not from Eterni- 
ty, as the Stoicks and Ariftotle 
erroneouily believ'd. 

383. By my Affiftance, &c.3 
Lucretius has feveral times alrea- 
dy been telling us this of him- 
felf : but more particularly, 
Book I. v. 933. and at the Be- 
ginning of the fourth Book. 

38$. But if, &c.] To thefe 
Arguments fome Philofophers 
give this Anfwer : The fame 
Arts flourifh'd heretofore that do 
now : But fometimes Fire de- 
ilroy'd Mankind, fometimes De- 
luges fwept them away,.or Earth- 



quakes fwallow'd them up : and 
hence thofe Arts feem to be new : 
The Poet retorts this Anfwer 
upon them, in thefe 10. v. and 
fays, That no Man of found 
Judgment will pretend, that the 
World, whofe Parts are fome- 
times confum'd by Fire, fome- 
times overwhelni'd with Waters, 
and fometimes Hiaken and fwal- 
low'd up by Earthquakes, can be 
eternal : For the Reafon, why 
we believe a Man to be mortal,is, 
becaufe he is fubjecft to, and at- 
tack'd by, thofe Difeafes, which, 
having liez'd upon others with 
greater Violence, have fwept 
them away. But Ariftotle, on 
the contrary, fays, that there is 
no Fear of the World's being 
dilFolv'd ; nay more, that the 
Deluges and Conflagrations of 
the Earth conduce to the Safety 
of the whole Univerfe ; for he 
held the W^orld to be eternal ; 
which Dodlrine of his is not only 
repugnant to the Chriftian Faith, 
but likewife to the Opinion of 
almoft all the Philofophers 

387. Or Fire deftroy'd, or 
Floods fwept all awayQ The Po- 
et 



Book V. LUCRETIUS, 46^ 

390 For what can ficken thus, can wafte, and fail, 
And perifli all, if ftronger Strokes prevail. 
For thus, fince we can feel the fame Difeafe, •^ 

Same Harms, that other per fhing Things do (ieZe, > 
We think, that we fhall die as well as thefe. 3 

395 Befides : whate'er's immortal, muft be (o, 
Becaufe 'tis solid, 'bove the Pow r of Blow 9 
Whofe Parts no Wedge divides, which know no Pore ^ 
And fuch are Seeds, as I explain 'd before: 
Or elfe becaufe, like empty Space, 'tis fuch 

400 As is fecure from Stroke, and free from Touch ! 
Or elfe, becaufe it can admit no Bound, 
*Tis INFINITE, and knows no Place beyond. 
To which the Seeds may fink : This makes the all 
Eternal ; there's no Place where Seeds may fali, 

405 And breed Confufion here : No Space does lie "^ 

Without the Whole, to which the Parts may fiiejS*- 
And leave the mighty All to wafte and die. 3 

But now the World's not solid, ev'ry Mafs 
Contains, between the Seeds, fome empty Space : 

410 Nor is't like Void; for thoufand Things, if hurl'd 

With mighty Force, can ftrike, and break the Worlis t 
Seeds ruftiing on, may bear fome Parts away. 
Like vi'lent Streams, and fo the World decay : 
Befides, there's Space beyond, to which, the Tie y^ 

41 5 Of Union loos'd, the fcatter'd Parts may fly : (dy ; > 
Therefore thefe HEAv'Nsand Earth can wafte, and 3 

And 
NOTES, 



et alludes to the known Stories 
of Phaethon, who is fabled to 
have fet the World on Fire; and 
of the Flood, that happen'd in 
the Days of Deucalion : The 
firft of them may be feen at 
large in Ovid. Metam. lib. 2. and 
the other in the fame Authour, 
lib. I. See likewife below, v. 
44.0. and V. 445, 

395. Befides, &c.] In thefe 
2i. V. he brings thefame Argu- 
ment againft the Immortality of 
the World, which, B, IH. v, 
776. he brought againft the Im- 
mortality of the Soul : confult 
the Notes upon that Place. No- 
thing, fays he, is eternal, or im- 



mortal, except Bodies perfecTtly 
folid, as the Atoms ; except the 
Void, and the, to Wv, Univerfe» 
But the World is not a Body 
perfectly folid : Nor is it void 
or empty Space ; nor, fince there 
are infinite Worlds, can it be 
pretended, that it is the Univerfe* 

40^. To which the Parts may 
fly,] As if, for the DifTolution of 
any Thing, it were requifite,that 
it iliould go from Place to Place, 
or that Bodies Ihould come from 
fome exteciour Place, and ilrike 
it with fo great Violence, as to 
dilTolve the Thing it felf. 

41^. Therefore, &:c,] In thefe 
5. Y. he draws, from theArgu- 



O o o 



jnents 



466 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 



And therefore orxe began ; for what Can fail. 
And wafte; o'er what the Strokes of Fate prevail, 
Muft be unable to endure the Rage 

420 Of infinite paft Time, and Pow'r of Age. 

But laftly ; fince th' Elements, at Jars, 
Still fight, are ftill engaged in Civil Wars, 
Can not their Battels ceafe, their Wars be done. 
And all the other Parts fubmit to one ? 

425 The Fire prevail, and, with deftrudltve Beams 
Dry Seas, the thirfty Svr^ drink up the Streams ? 
Which now he feems to try, but all in vain j 
For Rivers ftill bring new Supplies an:iain5 
So faft, fo great, as if defign'd to raife 

'430 A Flood, and o'er the Centre fpread the Seas: 
But that's in vain ; the Waters ftill decay, 
The Winds brufli off, and bear, fome Parts away ; 
The Sun drinks fome ; the Stars take fon:ie for Food, 
And feem to threaten more a Drought than Flood : 

Thus 

NOTES. 



jncnts he has brought already, 
this Conclufion ; That fince the 
World will have an End, it had 
a Beginning : and hasnotexifted 
from all Eternity : for what is 
mortal, muft ofNeceffity have 
been born. 

To make this Difputation of 
our Authour more eafy to_ be 
underftood, it will not be im- 
proper to obferve, that there are 
two Sorts of Eternity : from the 
pxefent Time backwards, and 
from the prefent forwards ; 
which the Schoolmen call ^ter- 
nitas a parte ante, and i^ternitas 
a parte poft : Thefe two make 
up the whole Circle of Eternity, 
which the prefent Now cuts as a 
Diameter. Boetius de Confolat. 
Philofoph. lib. 5. defines Eter- 
nity, Interminabilis vit^ tota 
iimul & perfeda pofTeffio : The 
whole and perfeifi" PolTeflion at 
once, of a Being without Begin- 
ning or Ending : And this De- 
finition is foUow'd by Tho. A- 
quinas, and all the Schoolmen, 
who therefore call Eternityj 



Nunc ftans, a ftanding Now, to 
diftinguifli it from that Now, 
which IS a Difference of Time, 
and always flowing. 

421. But laftly, &c.] In thefe 
40. V. he brings another Argu- 
ment, from the continual Fight- 
ing of the Elements, which are 
the four chief Parts of the 
World : For, fays he, fince 
Fire engages with Water, and. 
fometimes the Flame, fometimes 
the Flood prevails, what iliould 
hinder- but that this Contention 
will at laft end in the Dellrucfti- 
on of the whole World ? And 
that great Conflagrations and 
Deluges have happen'd, the Sto- 
ries of Phaethon and Deucalion 
fufficiently evince : for then the 
Earth was defl:roy'd by Fire, and 
overwhelm'd with Water ; and 
tho' the Poets fooliflily fable, 
that the Fire, and thg Deluge, 
broke out and ceas'd at the In- 
tervention of the Gods, yet they 
were indeed only the Eifccfls of 
natural Caufes, 

4.3$' Thus 



Book V. LUCRETIUS, 467 

435 Thus they ftill fight, with equal Force maintain 
The War; now conquer, and now yield again. 

Yet Fire, as Stories go, did once prevail. 
And once the Water too was fpread o'er all. 
The Fire prevaii'd, when the Sun's furious Horfe, 7 

440 Pifdaining P h ^et h on's young feeble Force, > 

Ran thro' the Sky in an unufual Courfe ; 3 

And, falling near the Earth, burnt all below, y 

'Till angry Jove did dreadful Thunder throw, ^ 

And quench'd the hot-brain'd firy Youth in P 0. 



But 



NOTES, 



435. Thus they, &c.] Milton 
defcribes admirably well this 
Fighting of the Elements, and 
perhaps took the Hint from Lu- 
cretius. 

For Hot, Cold, Moift, and Dry, 

four Champions fierce, 
Strive here for Maft'ry ; and to 

Battel bring 
Their Embryon Atoms : They 

around the Flag 
Of each his FaAion, in their fe- 

veral Clans, 
Light-arm'd, or heavy, iliarp, 

imooth, fwift, or flo.v, i 

Swarm populous; unnumber'd 

as the Sands 
Of Barca,orCyrene's torrid Soil, 
Levy'd to fide with warring 

Winds, and poife 
Their lighter Wings. To whom 

thefe raoft adhere, 
He rules a Moment, &c. 

Which a late Authour has hap- 
pily imitated : 

The heavier Seeds rullion in nu- 

m'rous Swarms, 
And crufli their lighter Foes 

with pond'rous Arms : 
The lighter ftrait command with 

equal Pride, 
And on mad Whirlwinds in wild 

Triumph ride : 
None longfubmits to afuperiour 

Pow'r ; 
Each yields, and, in his Turn, is 

Conqi4erquf. 



440. Phaethon] He was the 
Son of Clymene and Sol, the 
Sun: And with much Importu- 
nity obtain'd of his Father, to 
drive his Chariot for one Day ; 
but not being able to guide the 
Horfes, they went out of the 
Road of their daily Courfe, and 
fet Fire to the World : Jupiter 
ftruck him with his Thunder, 
and he fell into the River Eri- 
danus. The Fable is related at 
large by Ovid, Metam. 2. Plato, 
in his Timafus, explains the 
Meaning of this Fable, in Words 
to this Effecfl: : What is com- 
monly reported among us, fays 
he, that in Times long fincepaft, 
Phaethon.the Sun of Sol, having 
obtain'd Permiflion to drive his 
Father's Chariot, and miilaking 
the right Road, itz Fire to the 
Earth, and that he was ftruck 
down, and kill'd with Lightning, 
is faid only figuratively, or by 
Way of Fable : but fignifies the 
Mutation or Decay, as well of 
earthly Things, as of thofe that 
are in the Heavens, and are mo^ 
ved with the Heavens : As alfo 
that Deftnicftion, which, in a 
long Interval of Time, is made 
of all Bodies that are on the 
Earth, by the violent Aflaults 
of the Element of Fire. And 
thus too Ariftotle, lib. 4. de 
Mundo. 

444. Po] The Greeks call'd it 

'Hio^iTctvor, the Latinesj Padus, 

now the Po : a River of Italy, 

Q o o 2 thgt 



468 



LUCRETIU S. 



Book V, 



445 But P HOEBzi s gather'd up the fcatter*d Ray, 
And brought to Heav'n again the falling Day : 
The Horses too, that ran thro' Heav'n's wide Plain^ 
He caught, and harnefs'd to the Coach again : 
They ever (ince, in due Obedience, drew 

450 The flaming Carr. This Greece reports as true. 
Yet 'tis abfurd : But all may yield to Flame, 
If great Supplies of rapid Matters came 
From the vast Mass : for then thofe Seeds muft failj 
And fink again, or Fire muft rain all. 

455 Seas once prevailed, nor could the Towns withftand 
The raging Waves : they fpread o*er all the Land : 

But 
NOTES, 



that rifes in the AlpSjat the Foot 
of the Mountain Vefulus, now 
Monte Vifo, and dividing the 
Cifalpine Gaui, which is now a 
Part of Italy, into the Tranlpa- 
duan and Cifpaduan Gauls, dif- 
gorges it felf, at feveral Mouths, 
into the Hadriatick Sea. Virgil 
calls it the King of Rivers, be- 
caufe it is the largest River of 
Italy. Georg. i. v. 481. 

Proluit infano contorquens vor- 

tice fylvas 
Fluviorum Rex Eridanus- 

And,G. 4.V.372. hedefcribes it at 
the Spring from whence it flows : 

Et gemina auratus taurine cor- 

nuavultu 
Eridanus; quo non alius per pin- 

guia culta 
In mare purpureum violentior 

influit amnis. 

There Po firft iflues from his 

dark Abodes, 
And, awful in his Cradle, rules 

the Floods : 
Two golden Horns on his large 

Front he wears. 
Arid his grim Face a Bull's Re- 

femblaace bears : 
With rapid Courfe he feeks the 

facred Main, 
And fattens, as he rung, the 

fruitful Plain 



4.45. Phoebus] Of Phoebus fee 
B.I. V. 81^. 

447. The Horfes too] The 
Horfes of the Sun, of which we 
have fpoken above, v. 85. 

451. But all, &c.] What Lu- 
cretius here fays, is this : The 
old Greek Poets report this for 
Truth, tho' indeed it is but ari 
idle Fidion : Not but that it is 
poflible that Fire may deftroy all 
Things, if an immenfe Quantity 
of Corpufcles, of a firy Matter, 
were brought down upon the 
Earth, out of the Infinite Space : 
for in that Cafe, unlefs the Pow'r 
and Force of that igneous Matter 
be weaken'd, reprefs'd, and kept 
under by fome Means or another, 
all Things will be burnt, and pe- 
rilh with too much Heat. 

455. Seas once prevail'd] Here 
the Poet alludes to the fabulous 
Flood of Deucalion, which, no 
Doubt, took its Rife from the 
true Flood of Noah, related in 
the Mofakal Hiftory, of which 
it can not be queftion'd, but 
fome Copies were got among the 
Heathens : and as they drew the 
Occaiion of many of their Fa- 
bles Irom thofe facred Writings, 
fo too they wretchedly profan'd 
them by their foolifli Fidions : 
but none has fuffer'd more, in. 
paffing chro' their Hands, than 
this Flood of i^oah i which ha- 

vinsr 



Book V. 



LUCRETIUS, 



469 



But when the numYous Seeds, the mighty Mafs 
Supply'd, were turn*d from this into another Place, 
The Water ceas'd, and the continual Rain : 
460 And Rivers ran within their Banks again. 

Now 

NOTES. 



ving furnifli'd Matter of Specu- 
lation to many of our Chriftian 
Philofophers, who have puzzled 
their Brains to give a rational 
and intelligible Account of it ; 
I prfcfume it vviJl not be taken a- 
mifsj that I here make a Hiort 
Digreffion, to give our Tranfla- 
tour's Opinion concerning that 
Deluge : He obferves, in the 
iirft Place, That the Authour 
of the Theory of the Earth, 
pleads for a univerfal Flood, it 
being inconfiftent with the de- 
monftrated Nature of a Fluid, 
that Water fhould ftand up in 
Heaps, fifteen Cubits above the 
Tops of the higheft Mountains : 
This, fays Creech, I am wil- 
ling to admit, tho' there is no 
Reafon,why Omnipotence might 
not be immediately concern'd in 
it ; fince the Authour of the 
Theory himfelf confefles. That 
the forty Days Rain can not, 
according to his Hypothelis, be 
explain'd by any natural Caufe 
that he can difcover. In the 
next Place, that Authour com- 
pares the Height of the Moun- 
tains, and the Depth of the Sea ; 
and having, as to both, made 
allowable Suppofitions, tho' the 
Courfe of the largeft River ,even 
the Nile it felf, will not prove 
its Head to be above three Foot 
higher than its Mouth, he infers, 
that eight Oceaps wi|l be little 
enough to make an univerfal De- 
luge : The Waters above the 
Firmament are exploded ; the 
Rain would afford but the hun- 
dredth Part of fuch a Mafs of 
Water, unlefs the Showers were 
continual, and over the Face 
Qf the whole Earthy and the 



Drops came down ninety times 
fafter than ufually they do : 
Though a Man would be apt to 
think, from the Expreflions in 
Genefis, The Windows of Hea- 
ven were open'd, that there was 
fomething very extraordinary in 
this Rain, and that ail thofe re- 
quir'd Conditions were obferv'd. 
The Caverns of the Earth, if 
they threw out ail the Water 
they contained, would afford but 
little, in Comparifon of the 
great Store that was rcquir'd ; 
And if the whole middle Region 
of the Air had been condens'd, 
ftill there had not been enough ; 
becaufe Air, being turn'd into 
Water, fills only the hundredth 
Part of that Space, which it for- 
merly poffefs'd. Though all the 
other Ways, by which fome have 
endeavour'd to explain the Flood, 
were demonftrably infufiicient, 
yet this lait, which gives an Ac- 
count of it, from fo natural and 
eafy a Caufe of the Condenfation 
of the Air, deferv'd to be confi- 
der'd a little more : But it is 
the Art of a Difputer, to touch 
chat leaft, which prefles moit on 
the Opinion he would advance. 
For it being allow 'd, that Air, 
by natural Caufes, may be 
chang'd into Water ; and a Va- 
cuum being excluded, itneceiTa- 
rily follows, that as much Air, 
as rifes fifteen Cubits higher than 
the Tops of the Mountains, is 
fufficient to make fuch a Deluge, 
as is defcrib'd to have been in 
Noah's Time : Becaufe where 
there is no Vacuum, there can be 
no Contraction into a lefs Space : 
and every Particle of Matter, 
whatSYQr Form or Schematirm ic 

puts 



470 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

Now I will fing, how moving Seeds were hurl'd. 
How tofs'd to Order, ho w they fram'd the World :j 
How Sun and Moon began ; what fteady Force 
Marked out their "Walk ; what makes them keep their 
46 5 For fure unthinking Seeds did ne*er difpofe (Courfe : 
Themfelves by Counsel, nor their Order chofe : 

Nor 

N O T JS 5. 



puts on, muft, in all Conditi- 
ons, be equally extended, and 
therefore take up the fame 
Koom. But fuppofe a Vacuum, 
or, as it happens in our imperfed 
Oondenfations, that a hundred 
cubical Feet of Air would make 
but one Foot of Water ; yet fure 
the Region is large enough to 
make Amends for this Difpro- 
portion. Now lince Nature is 
fufiicient for Condenfation; and 
fince its Pow'rs may be con fid e- 
rably invigorated for the Execu- 
tion of the Almighty's Wrath, 
why muft it be thought fo diffi- 
cult to explain a Deluge ! And 
why fiiould an excellent Wit 
wafte it felf in fafliioning anew 
World, only to bring that about, 
which the old one would permit 
eafily to be done ? It is above 
the Province of Philofophy to 
make a World : let that be fup- 
pos'd to have been form'd as it is 
reveal 'd ; it is enough for us to 
fearch bywhatLaw sic is prefer v'd; 
and a Syftem, erecfted on this 
Foundation, will be agreeable 
both to Reafon and Religion. It 
is above the Province of Philofo- 
phy likewife, to affign a natural 
Caufe of a fupernatural Effed: : 
But the prying Minds of fome 
Men will, with their Hiort-lin'd 
Plummets, be founding inro the 
unfathomable Depths^of the Di- 
vine Difpenfatioi^s : Kow much 
better thay,who,iirmly believing 
that there was fuch a Flood as 
that of Noah, defcrib'd to us in 
Holy Writ, afcribe it raeerly 
to Omnipotence 5" 



Commanded by whofe Breath, 

th' obfequious Main 
Stood ftill, and gather'd up its 
flowing Train : 
Th' Almighty did the Sea 
divide, 
And, as he rends the Hills, he 

fplit the Tide : 
Benumb'd with Fear, the Waves 
eretfted flood, 

O'er-looking all the diftant 
Flood : 
Mountains of craggy Billows did 

arife, 
And Rocks of lliffen'd Waters 

reach'd the Skies , 
Remoter Waves came rouling 
on to fee 

The Arrange transforming 
Myftery : n 

But they, approaching 
near. 
Where the high Chryftal Ridges 
did appear. 

Felt the divine Contagion's 
Force ; 
Mov'd nothfully awhile,and then 
quite ftopt their Courfe. 

SirR. Blackmore. 

4^1. Now, d^c."] In thefe 29.V. 
The Poet, being about to ex- 
plain how the World began, ex- 
cludes the Gods and Providence 
from having any Hand in it ; 
and afcribcs the whole Work to 
Matter, from whence proceeded 
Chaos, a rude and undigefted 
Heap of Particles, which, being 
driven to and fro, at length came 
together, like with like, and 
thence arofe the Heaven, tha 

Earth, 



Book V. 



LUCRETIUS. 



471 



Nor any Compacfts made, how each (hould move • 
But from eternal, thro* the Vacuum, ftrove. 
By their own Weight, or by external Blows, 

470 All Motion's try'd, to find the beft of thofe. 
All Unions too j if, by their various Play, 
They could compofe new Beings any Way : 
Thus long they whirl'd, moft Sorts of Motion paft,' 
. Moft Sorts of Union too, they join'd at laft 

475 In fuch convenient Order, whence began (Man : 

The Sea, the HeAv'n, and Earth, and Beasts and 
But yet no glitt'ring Sun, no twinkling Star, -j 

No Heav'n, no roaring Sea, no Earth, no Air, C 
Nor any Thing like thefe did then appear : ^ 

But 

NOTTS'. 



Earth , the Sun , the Stars , 
and whatever elfe this World 
contains. This Do<ftrine of E- 
picurus is deliver'd by Plutarch, 
de Placit. Philofbph. lib. i. c. 4. 
in thefe Words : 'O rolvvv aoa 
)U(^ CiWiS\^ '5r£e/t)tsxActa/^£vcy c^v,- 

TOj'j Tooy 'A'Tojutov ccajudTa))'', d- 

Kiva^oJ^'cov, «V TO ouuTO fSTQV\ct crco- 

•sTOiiiixiOLV s;/ov']cc Xj ()(yjJM.rooy ^ 

477, But yet, &c.] Macrobius 
Saturnal. lib. 6. cap. 2. compares 
this Pafiage of Lucretius with 
the following Verfes of Virgil, in 
Silenus, v. 31. 

Naraque canebat uti magnum 

per inane coatfta 
Semina. terrarumque, anim^eque, 

marifque fuiffent, 
Et liquid i fimul ignis: ut his 

exordia primis 
Omnia, & ipfe tener mundicon- 

creverit orbis. 
Tumdurare fojum, & difcludere 

Nerea Ponto 
Coeperit, Qc rerum pauUatim fu- 

mere forraas : 



Jamque novum ut terrx ftupeant 

lucefcere folem ; 
Altius atque cad ant fubmotis nu- 

bibus imbres : 
Incipiant fylva;. cum primum 

furgere, cumque 
Rara per ignotos errent animalia 

montes. 

Which is thus interpretecl '^By 
Dryden : 

He fung the fecret Seeds of Na- 
ture's Frame : 
How Seas, and Earth, and Air, 

and active Flame , . 

Fell thro' the mighty Void ; and 

in their Fall 
Were blindly gather'd in this 

goodly Bail ! 
The tender Soil, then flifTning 

by Degrees, 
Shut from the bounded Earth 

the bounding Seas : 
Then Earth, and Ocean various 

Forms difdofe, 
And a new Sun to the new World 

arofe : 
And Mills, condens'd to Clouds, 

obfcure the Sky, 
And Clouds, difiTolv'd, the 

thirfty Ground fupply : 

' The 



LUCRETIUS, Book V, 

480 But a vaft Heap, and from this mighty Mafs 
Each Part retired, and took its proper Place : 
Agreeing Seeds combin*d ; each Atom ran. 
And fought his like, and fo the Frame began : 
From difagreeing Seeds the World did rife, 

485 Becaufe their various Motion, Weight, and Size,' 
And Figure would not let them all combine^ 
And lie together , nor friendly Motions join : 
Thus Skies, 2nd thus the Sun firft rais'd his Head, 
Thus Stars, thus Seas o'er proper places fpread. 

490 For firft the earthy Parts, a heavy Mafs, 
And clofely twin'd, poflefs'd the middle Place. 

Now 
NOTES. 



The rifing Trees the lofty. 

Mountains grace ; 
The lofty Mountains feed the| 

favage Race, 
■^et few, and Strangers in th' 

unpeopled Place. 

480. And from this mighty 
Mafs, &c.] The Poet here tea- 
ches, That fo long as the Atoms 
were jumbled confufedly one a- 
mong another, neither Earth, 
nor Heaven, nor Stars had yet a 
Being : But when the chief 
Parts of the World began to dif- 
join, and get clear from each o- 
ther, then the Heaven fhone with 
Splendour, the dry Ground ap- 
pear'd, the Waters were gathered 
into one, &c. Thus Lucretius 
will have all Things to have be- 
gun by little and little, not only 
by Reafon of the fundry Impedi- 
ments of the Concourfe of the 
Atoms,but alfo becaufe of their 
different Figures : Whence, fays 
he, it is evident, that the World 
has not exifted from all Eternity. 
He is now going to difpute, fepa- 
rately, of the firft jRife of each 
Part ofit. 

490,491. For firft,&:c.] In thefe 
52. V. he difcourfes of the Rife 
of the Earth, of the Heaven, and 
of the Sun, Moon, and Stars. 
And fince the confus'd and unfa- 
fliion'd Mafs of Matter, muft 



I have been brought into Order 
I by Motion, and lince all Motion 
t proceeds from Weight, the Poet 
IS in the right to inquire what 
I theheaviefl Atoms muftdo.Now 
Epicurus believ'd, that the A- 
toms, being embroil'd, and con- 
, fus'd in a Heap together, did, by 
; their innate Motion, roul and 
: tumble up and down, among one 
I another, till, at length, all the 
I more denfe Atoms, jumbled to- 
i wards the Middle, and all the 
more rare, being extruded and 
fqueez'd away by the thicker, 
flew towards the Circumference. 
Moreover, that of thefe thicker 
Atoms the Body of the Earth 
was compacted, and that it con- 
tain'd within its Bulk fome Seeds 
of Water, which had not been a- 
ble to difentangle themfelves and 
get away, at the fame time with 
the others : But that fome of 
thofe, that had difentangled 
themfelves, did, by Reafon of 
their various Degrees of Tenui- 
ty, retire to feveral Diftances j 
thus fome of them ftopt not far 
from the Mafs of Earth, and 
made the Air : that others 
mounted yet more aloft, and 
compos'd the Sky : and that the 
firy Corpufcles, that were ex- 
truded with the reft, getting 
clear of all of them,combin'dint<? 
thofe Bodies that iliine in the 

Bkfy 



Book V. L U C R ET lU S. 473 

Now as thefe heivy Parts combin'd more clofe, 
Defcending ftill, they vexc with conftant Blows 
The lurking Parts of Sea, of Stars, and Skies,' 

495 And Sun; and fqueez'd them out, and made them rife; 
Becaufe thofe Seeds are fubtile, more refin'dj 
And round, and fmooth, and of a leller Kind 
Than thofe of Earth ; and fo can freely pafs 
The fubtile Pores of the defcending Mafs. 

500 And thus the Parts of Heav n did firft retire. 
And bore up with them num'rous Seeds of Fire : 

As 

NOTES. 



Sky, and are call'd Stars. Laft- 
ly, That the lefler, roundjfmooth 
Corpufcles were fo determined, 
limited , and confin'd to that 
Motion towards the Circumfe- 
rence, that was made by Elifion, 
or by Expreffion from the more 
denfe Corpufcles, that, fdraf- 
much as they went not out of the 
Mafs by parallel Ways, they did, 
in the very ProgreflionjVarioufly 
encounter one another, and mu- 
tually repel'd the Violence they 
receiv'd : which Violence at 
length ceafing, thofe that were 
got fartheft, or moft remote 
from the Centre, became entan- 
gled with one another, and mu- 
tually comprefling each other, 
and holding faft together, did, 
by that Means, create a certain 
Species of the Walls of the 
World : And whatever Cor- 
pufcles came to them there, were 
turn'd back, and reprefs'd from 
them in fuch a Manner,that ftill, 
new Supplies coming up," the 
whole etherial, or celeftial Regi- 
on was aptly made and fabrica- 
ted by them. This perhaps will 
be better underftood, by the 
Comparifon Lucretius himfelf 
ufesto explain it, when he fliews^ 
that this might very well happen^ 
in like manner as when Vapours 
and Exhalations fteam out of 
the Earth and Water, and, being 
carry'd aloft,are there condens'd, 
^ad grow into one Body of 



Clouds, fo as to make, as it 
were, a Cieling, under which 
the Air, that remains vifible to 
us, is contain'd. See Plutarch, 
de Placit. Philofoph. lib. I. c.4. 
491. The middle Place] Tho' 
Epicurus and Lucretius placed 
the Earth in the Midft of the 
World, yet they deny'd the 
Earth to have any Qentre, or 
middle Place, as we have feen, 
Booki. v. 1071. &feqq. Thus 
too Manilius, fpeaking of the 
Earth, lib. i. v. 167, places it iii 
the Midit of the Univerfe : 

Imaque de cuncftis mediam tenet 
undique fedem ; 

Idcircbque manet ftabilis, quia 
totus ab illi 

Tantundem refugit niundus, fe- 
ci tque cadendo 

Undique, ne caderet : medium 
totius 8c imum eil : 

Idlaque contra(flis conliftunt cor- 
pora plagis, 

Et concurrendo prohibent in 

- longius ire. 

Low eft of all, and in the Midft 

it lies, 
Compafs'd by Seas, and covered 

by the Skies : 
The Place does fix it, for, flili 

rifing higher. 
The other El'ments equally re- 

tirCj 



PPP 



Afid 



474 



LU C R E T lU S. 



Book V. 



^s when the Sun begins, his early Race, O 

And views the joyful Earth, with blufliing Face, > 
And quaffs the pearly Dews, fpred o'er the Grafs ; 3 

505 From Earth he draws fome Mists with bufy Beams, 
From wand'ring Waters fome, and running Streams: 
Thefe thin, thefe fubtile Mists, when rais'd on high. 
And join'd above, fpread Clouds o'er all the Sky : 
Juft io the Parts of Heav'n did upward move, 

5 1 o The fubtile JEth er,. thus combin'd above : 
And vaftly wide, and fpread o'er ev'ry Place, 
Contains the reft within her kind Embrace : (Sun ; 

Thus Heav'n : then rofe the Moon, and Stars, and 
Which thro' the Sky with conftant Motions run : 

Becaufe 
NOTES. 



And that, by falling, ftops its 
farther Fall, 

And hangs the midft and low- 
eft of them all : 

Its Parts to no one Point prefs 
jointly down, 

And meet, and ftop each other 
from moving on. Creech. 

See the Note on Book II. v. ^62. 

•5C2. As when, &C.3 Dryden, 
in one of his Defcriptions of the 
Morning , has exprefs'd this 
Thouglit of Lucretius : 

•— — The Sun arofe, with Beams 

fo bright. 
That all th' Horizon laugh'd to 

fee the joyous Sight : 
He, with his tepid Rays, the 

Rofe renews, 
And licks the dropping Leaves, 

and dries the Dews. 

Palam. & Arc. 

513. Thus Heav'n, &€.] Ha- 
ving made the Earth, as the 
Foundation of the whole World, 
and the Sky, the Walls of it, as 
he himfelf calls it ; he, in thefe 
9. v. places the Sun and Moon, 
which are of a middle Nature, 
between the Sky and the Air, as 
being compos'd of Principles 
lighter than thofe of the Air, 



and heavier than thofe of the 
Sky, in the very Confines of the 
Air and Sky, where, he tells us, 
they are in perpetual Motion, as 
the Lungs and Hearts in Ani- 
mals. He takes no Notice of the 
other Planets or Stars, tho' his 
Tranflatour does. But let us hear 
the beft of Poets, and a Chrifti- 
an Philofopher, defcribing this 
Part of the Creation. He fpeaks 
in the Perfon of an Angel : 

'I faw the rifing Birth 



Of Nature from the unapparenc 
Deep ; 

I faw, when at God's Word, this 
formlefs Mafs, 

The World's material Mould 
came to a Heap : 

Confufion heard his Voice, and 
wild Uproar 

Stood rul'd : ftood vaft Infini- 
tude confin'd ; 

'Till, at his fecond Bidding, 
Darknefs fled. 

Light flione, and Order from 
Diforder fprung : 

Swift to their fev'ral Quarters 
hafted then 

The cumbrous Elements, Earth, 
Flood, Air, Fire; 

And the etherial Qiiinteflence of 
Heaven 

Flew upward, fpirited with va- 
rious Form?, 

Thaf 



BookV. LUCRETIUS. 47^ 

5 1 5 Becaufe their Seeds were aU too light to lie y 

la Earth, not Jight enough to rife on high, C 

And pafs the utmoft Limits of the Sky ; ^ 

But, plac'd between them both, the Midst controul 
Certain, but moving Portions of the Whole : 

52c Juft as in Man, fome Parts refufe to ceafe 
From Motion, fome ftill lie diffolv'd in Eafe. 

Thefe Things retir'd, the heavier Parts of Clay -> 
Sunk farther down, and made an eafy Way C 

For flowing Streams, and Caverns for the Sea: 3 

And 
NOTES, 



That roul'd orbicularjand turn'd 

to Stars : 
Each had his Place appointed, 

each his Courfe. 
Thus GOD the Heav'ns crea- 
ted, thus the Earth, 
Matter unform'd and void : 

Darknefs profound 
Cov'red th'^Abyfs ; but on the 

wat'ry Calm 
His brooding Wings the Spirit 

of G O D outfpread, 
And vital "Virtue infus'd, and 

vital Warmth 
Throughout the fluid Mafs j but 

downwards purg'd 
The black, tartareous^ cold, in- 
fernal Drugs, 
Adverfe to Life, then founded, 

then conglob'd 
Like Things to like ; the reft to 

feveral Place 
Difparted, and between fpun out 

the Air ; 
And Earth, felf-balanc'd, on her 

Centre hung. Milton. 

522, 523. Thefe, &c.] But the 
Work is not yet perfe<ft : we have 
hitherto neither Fire, Air, nor 
Water. He tells us therefore, in 
thefe !5.v.firft,That that feculent 
Mafs, that funk together to the 
Bottom, being prefs'd on all 
Sides by the Beams of the Sun, 
and the Heat of the Sky, contra- 
ifted it felf ; Thence exhal'd the 
Sea like Sweat : but the lighter 
Particles, mounting higher,com- 
|sos'4 th? 5-Unients of f ir« <m4 



Air: In the next Place, that 
fome of the Particles of this 
Mafs being more hard and itiff 
than the others, they did not all 
fubfide alike, and hence the hol- 
low Places to receive the Sea,and 
the Channels for the Rivers ; 
and hence too the Lev^el of the 
Plains, and the Turgidnefs of 
the Mountains. 



The Mountains huge 



appear 
Emergent, and their broad bare 

Backs up-heave 
Into the Clouds ; their Tops af. 

cend the Sky : 
So high as heav'd the tumid 

Hills, fo low 
Down funk a hollow Bottom. 

broad and deep, 
Capacious Bed of Waters ; thi^ 

ther they 
Hafted with glad Precipitance, 

up-roul'd. 
As Globes on Dufb, conglobing 

from the Dry ; 
Part rife in cryftal Walls, or 

Ridge dired; 

As Armies, at the Call 

Of Trumpet; 

Troop to their Standard ; fo th§ 

wat'ry Throng, 
Wave rouling after Wave, where 

Way they found ; 
If fteep, with torrent Rapture, 

if through Plain, 
Soft ebbing : nor withftood them 

Rgck or Hill : 



F|>^» 



euc 



47.^ 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 



525 And as, by conftant Blows, the vigorous Sun 
Did ftrike the upper Parts, and prefs them down, 
More Moifture rofe; and then did Streams increafe : 
More Parts were ftill fqueez*d out,and fwell'd the Seas; 
More yRr H E R then, of Air more Parts did rife, 

530 And borne on high, there thicken'd into Skies : 

The Mountains rais'd their Heads ; the humble Field 
Sunk low ; the ftubborn Stones refus'd to yield; 
The Rocks did proudly ftill their Height maintain, 
Nor could all fink into an equal Plain. 

135 Thus Earth at firft was fram'd ; and thus did fall 
The loweft, as the Sediment of all. (Mafs, 

Thence Seas, thence Air, thence jEther, ev'ry 
Djftind from others, took its proper Place : 

All 

NOTES. 



But they, or under Ground, or 

circuit wide, 
With ferpent Errour wand'ring 

found their Way, 
And on the wafliy Ooze deep 

Channels wore, 
Within whofe Banks the Rivers 

now-^ . 

Stream, and perpetual draw 

their humid Train. Milton. 

523. Sunk farther down, &c.] 
Lucret. 

Succidit Sc falfo fuffudit gurgit^ 
foflas. 

Plutarch, de Placit. Philoroph. 
lib. 3. 5(a&' cojtca) to vSco^ Itti- 
rcty sxo/Aotvs T«V \;Krc5i«/a^'«ir to- 
r?ra?. And the fame Authour,lib. 
i. cap. 4. de Placit. Philofoph. 
exprelles this Opinion of Lucre- 
tius more at large : Of thofe 
Bodies, favs he, which funk 
oown.and fettled below,wasmade 
the Earth ; that Part of it which 
wasmoft fubtilcjand of a thinner 
Form and Confiftence, gathered 
round together, and engender'd 
the Element of Water : which, 
bemg of a liquid and flowing 
Nature, ran downwards to hol- 
low Places, that lay low, and 
were capable to receive and hold 

if 



529. ^ther] The Firmament, 
the celeftial Spheres, the Hea- 
vens. They were call'd 7Ether,J^ 
7^ del ^ieiv, from their being in 
perpetual Motion. 

537. Thence Seas, &:c.]] That 
he may the better explain the 
Motions of the Stars, he previ- 
oufly teaches, in thefe 14. v. that 
the moft refplendent and liquid 
j^ther, having mounted higher 
than the inconftant and turbu- 
lent Air, is wholely undifturb'd 
by any manner of Storms, and 
rolls in a conftant and like Moti- 
on : which Motion of the ^ther 
is not in the leaft incredible, 
fince the Euxine Sea does the 
like, and is continually flowing 
into the Propontick, without 
changing its Courfe. 

Thence ^ther] Lucr. inde 
iFther ignifer ipfe. For the An- 
tients believ'd the Stars to be ei- 
ther very Fire, or of a fi.ry Na- 
ture, and therefore call'd the ^- 
ther ignifer, Fire-bearing ; as 
they did likewife fignifer,or ftel- 
lifer, that bears the Signs, or 
Stars. Or elfe the Poet, in this 
Place, defcribes the, Region of 
Elementary Fire, which lies next 
under the Heaven^ as Manilius 
iings^ in thefe excelieiit Verfes: 

Ignis 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 477 

All Fluids, and all differently light, 
540 And therefore reached the lefs, or greater Height. 
Then liquid j£the ^ did the fartheft rear, . j_ 

And lies on fofteft Beds of yielding Air : . , vf 

But yet its Parts ne'er mix,, whilft Winds do blow. 
And rapid Storms difturb a|l here below: , ^^y , 
345 They undifturb'd move round the fteady Pole : ; 
And Sun, and Stars, with conftant Motion roll: 
For that by conftant Turns the Sky may move, 
The conftant Motions of the Waters prove ; 
This Thing the mighty Mafs, the Ocean, fhows ; 
5 50 For that, at fettled Hours, ftill ebbs and flows. ' 

Now 

NOTES. 



Ignis in azjhereas volucer fe fu- 

flulic auras, 
Summaque complexus ftellantis 

culmina coeli, 
Flammarum vallo nature moe- 

nia fecit. lib. i. v. 144. 

Upward the Flame on adive Pi- 
nions fled, 

To Heaven's high Arch it rais'd 
its iliining Head 5 

There ftopt, as weary grown, 
and round the Framej 

For Nature's Bulwark, rais'd a 
Wall of Flame. Creech. 

i 545. The fteady Pole] The 
Pointof the Axle-tree, on which 
Aftronomers imagine the Hea- 
ven to be turned. There are two 
Poles, the North Pole, known 
by a Star call'd Polus Ardicus ; 
:ind the South, call'd Antardi- 
cus, which is invifible to us. 
The Word Pole, comes from 
cTOAeJ'y, to turn. They are like- 
wife call'd, cardines coeli, The 
Hinges of the Heaven ; becaufe 
it being hung upon them, like a 
Door on its Hinges, is roul'd and 
turn'd about. 

547" For that, &c.] Here our 
Tranflatour has miftaken the 
ienfe of his Authour, who fpeaks 
Mjw of the Flux and Reflux of 



the Ocean, but of the Courfe of 
the Euxine Sea. For how can 
that Motion of the Ocean be al- 
ledg'd as a parallel Inftance to 
confirm the one,regular,and con- 
ftant Motion of the Spheres ? 
The Words, in the Original, 
are as follows : 

Nam raodice fluere, atque una 

poflfe sethera nifu, 
Signi£cat Ponti mare^certo quod 

fluit.seftu, 
Unum iabendi confervans ufque 

tenor em. 

Now what led our Tranflatour 
into his Errour, was, in all Ap- 
pearance, his having follow'd 
the Reading of this Paflage in 
the firft Edition of Lambinus, 
in which we read magnum, in- 
ftead of Ponti : Signiiicat mag- 
num mare, &:c. but that Criticlc 
corrected it in his fubfequent E- 
ditions, and reads Ponti mare. 
Fayus hov/ever retains the other 
Lecfiion, and ridiculoufly pre- 
tends to juftify it : But certain- 
ly, whatever that Interpreter al- 
ledges to the contrary, the con- 
ftant Courfe of the celeftial 
Circles, is better prov'd by the 
conftant Motion of the Euxine 
Sea into theBofphorus of Thrace, 
thence into the Propontis, the 
Hellcfpont, &c. without any Re- 

fiuxj 



47B 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V, 



Now learn what moves the St Ails, what mighty 
Force 
Does drive them on ; what Laws confine their Course : 
Firft; If the Orb is mov'd, and whirls, and draws 
The Sun about ; then this may be the Caufe : 
555 Vaft Tracts of Air the diftant SkiES do bound, 
And with a ciofe Embrace encircle round; 
The upper Part of that drives down the SitiES 
From East to West ; the under mak^s them rife 5^^ 
And fo the Whirl's performed. Thus oft a Flood 
560 Turns round a Wheel, and whirls the weighty Wood. 
Or elfe the Orbs may lie at Reft above, 
Steady and fixt, and only Stars may move ; 

Becaufe 

NOTES. 



flux, than by the ebbing and 
flowing of the Ocean. This is 
ib obvious, that to afTert the 
contrary, as Fay us does, feems 
next to an Abfurdity. 

551. No'v learn, &C.3 Lucreti- 
us, when he difpures ot the Hea- 
vens, of the Motions of the 
Spheres, and of thofe Things 
which the Greeks call, /w£T£w^, 
Meteors, never affirms any thing 
for certain : This was thecon- 
flrant Cuftom of the Epicureans. 
who thought they difcharg'd ad- 
mirably well the Part of natural 
Philofophers, if they affign'd on- 
ly any poflible Caufes of the cele- 
Aial Motions : Our Poet does 
the like in thefe 28. v. If fays he, 
the whole Orb be mov'd ; then 
there may be two Airs, one that 
may prefs from above, and drive 
it down to the Well: : and ano- 
ther, that may be faid to bear 
and life it up from beneath ; If 
the Orb be motionlefs,then fome 
rapid Particles of the Sky, ftrug- 
gling to get into the Empty 
Space ; and not able to force 
their Way, and break thro' the 
fl:rong Walls of the World, are 
whirl'd about, and drag the 



Stars with them : Or fome exter- 
nal Air rufhes in,and turns them 
a bout : Or, laftly, the Stars 
move forward of themfelves, in 
Search of proper Food to keep 
alive their fires. 

Cleanthesj in, Cicero de Natu- 
ra Deorum, lib. 2. alledging 
Reafons to evince the belief of a 
Deity, urges, for the laft and 
moft weighty, JEquabilitatem 
motus & convcriionis, &c. The 
Equability of the Motion and 
Converfion of the Heavens, Sun, 
Moon, and Stars : and their Di- 
ftincTtion in Variety, Beauty, and 
Order. The very Sight of which, 
fays he, fufficiently declares them 
not to be fortuitous or cafual. 
For what can be more evidently 
perfpicuous, when we behold and 
contemplate the Heavens, than 
that there is a God, by whofe ex-» 
cellent Providence they are go-? 
vern'd ? Thus Cicero , who, 
from the bare Suggeftion of Na- 
ture, difcover'd the Truth of 
what our obdurate Poet, by Ar- 
guments drawn from the Con- 
templation of NaturejCndeavours 
to difproYCq 



m 



BookV. 



LUCRETIUS. 



479 



O F T H E 



Fixed Stars. 




UcRETius, treating in this Place of the 
Stars, and their Motions, affords us an Op- 
portunity to fay fomething of thofe glorious 
and fplendid Bodies : The Aftronomers di- 
ftinguifli them into two Sorts : The fixed 
Stars, and the Erratick, which laft are like- 
wife eaird the Planets : of thefe we will 
give afliort Account by and by, when our Authour comes 
to treat of the Sun, Moon, 8cc. and will here confine 
our Inquiries only to the firlt Sort, which are called, The 
fixed Stars, becaufe they always obferve, at leaft to us they, 
feem to do fo,the fame invariable Diftance from one another, 
and from the Ecliptick : Hence the Sphere, in which they 
are believ'd to be plac'd, is term*d, d-n-xdr^, inerrans, be- 
caufe of the inviolable Order obferv'd in their Intervals 
or Diftancesfrom one another. The chief Things to be con- 
fider'd of them, not as they are reduced into Signs and Con- 
ftellations, with which we lliall not meddle, but fliall take 
Notice of them only as they are diflindl and feveral mun- 
dane Bodies, diffeminated and difpers'd through the immenfe 
Space of the Ethereal Region, which we call Heaven : The 
chief Things, I fay, that deferve our Obfervation, are, 

I. Their Substance; concerning which the Antients 
differ in Opinion : Zoroafter held them to be of a firy 
Subftance, and fo too did the Stoicks : The Egyptian Phi- 
lofophers, as Diogenes Laertius, in Procem. has recorded 
their Opinion, believ'd, rS^ dd^^^v^^vou, k^-tvi rdr cova^ii 
Tct iTTi yvig yn'i^y that the Stars are Fire, and that by their 
Contemperation all Things are produc'd on the Earth. In 
Orpheus the Sun, Moon, and Stars, are call'd, 'H(pairoz(j 
f^sAjf, the Members of Vulcan. Thales held the Stars to be 
both of an earthy and firy Subftance. Empedocles main- 
tain'd them to be firy, and to confift of that very Fire which 
the ^ther contain'd in itfelf, and ftruck out at its firft Se- 
cretion : The Opinion of Anaxagoras deferves to be men- 
tioned, 



4^0 L U C k E T I U S. Book Vl 

tion'd, for no qther Reafon, than becaufe it is extravagant- 
ly ridiculous : for he affirmed, That the ambient ^ther, 
being of a firy Nature, does, by the impetuous Swiftnefs of 
its Motion, whisk up Stones from the Earth, and that they, 
being fet on Fire, become Stars, and are carry'd from Eaft 
to Weft: Diogenes would have them to be of the Nature 
of Pumice Stones fet on Fire,and that they are as the breathing 
Holes, and Nofcrils of the World, by which it draws in its 
Breath. Xenophanes, That they are Clouds, fet on Fire 
in the manner of Coals, and that they are extinguifh'd by 
Day, and at Night rekindled. Heraclides and the Pythago- 
reans believ'd each Star to be a particular World by it fel^ 
exifting in the infinite ethereal Space, and containing an 
Earth, an Air, and a Sky : and this Opinion is found ia 
the Works of Orpheus : For his Followers affirm'd the 
Stars to be fo many diftindt and individual Worlds. Plato 
held them to confift chiefly of a firy Nature, but fuch, as to 
admit the Mixture of other Elements, as it were, in the Na- 
ture of a Cement to compadt and hold them together. Ari- 
ftotle, and his Followers, alfert them to be of the fame Sub- 
ftance with the Heavens, but only more condens'd ; and 
that they are fimple Bodies, without the Mixture of any E- 
lements. Pliny, and many others, believe them to becom- 
pos'd of the fame Matter as Exhalations and Vapours, and 
confequently to confift of a Subftance partly aqueous,partly 
aerial. Of all thefe Opinions, the moft probable is, that 
the Stars are firy Bodies : This was the Sentiment of the 
antient Chriftian Church, which, in Hymn. Feria fecunda 
ad Vefper. of which Hymn St. Ambrole is faid to be the Au« 
thour, (ings as follows, 

Immenfe coeli conditor. 
Qui mixta ne confunderent 
Aquae fluenta dividens, 
Coelum dedifti limitem. 
Firmans locum cceleftibus, 
Simulque terras rivulis, 
Ut unda iiammas temperet ; 
Terrse folum nee diffipent, &cc. 

Where we find the Reafon, why the Waters are plac'dabov<6 
the Heavens, viz. to reftrain and temper the exceilive Fer- 
vour of the Sun and Stars. And again ; in Hymn. Fer, 
quarca ad Vefper. the fame Church fings, 



Book V, LUCRETIUS. 481 

Coeli Deus farKftiiTime, 
Qui lucidum centrum poll 
Candore pingis igneo. 

And of the fame Opinion are moft of the Fathers, nor only 
of the Latine, but of the Greek Church likewife. Cyrillus 
Hierofolym. Caefar^us, Theodoretus, D. Chryfoftom, Gre- 
gor, Nyilen. Procopius, and Anaftafius Sinaita, all of them 
pofitively aflert the Stars to be of a firy Nature ; and with 
them agree Tertullian, St. Ambrofe, St. Auguftine, Arno- 
bius, Ladantius, Anfelmus, Alcuinus, Beda, 8cc. Befides, 
many of the eminent modern Philofophers and Aftronomers 
concur in the fame Opinion : Induc'd therefore by all thefe 
Authorities, we may reafonably conclude, That the Stars 
are compound, notfimple Bodies; that they are compos'd 
of elementary Matter, form'd into firy Globes ; that they 
confift of folid and liquid, as this terraqueous Globe of 
ours ; and confequently, that they are fubjedt to Alteration 
and Corruption. 

II. Their Light : whether it be innate, and the Gift of 
the Almighty at their Creation : or mutuatitious, and bor- 
row'd from the Sun : which laft is the Opinion of Metro- 
dorus, in Plutarch, de Placit. Philofoph. lib. z. cap. 17. and 
with him agree many of the modern both Philofophers and 
Aftronomers j and it is the Belief of fome at this Day. The 
firft Opinion however feems to be the moft probable ; and 
Macrobius, in Somn.Scip. lib. i. cap. 19. afTerrs the Truth 
of ir, in thefe Words : Omnes ftellas (fcil. fixasj lumioe 
lucerefuo, quod illse fupra folem in ipfo puriifimo xthere 
funt ; in quo omne quicquid eft, lux naturalis &■ fua eft. 
And this agrees with what we faid before touching their 
firy Nature : For there can be no Fire without Light. 
And indeed it feems highly improbable, that the Sun can 
illuminate the fix'd Stars, fince, as Bulialdus, in Aftronom. 
Philolaic. lib. i. cap. 1 1. obferves, the Sun's Diameter, if 
it could be beheld from Saturn only, would appear too lit- 
tle, and afford too weak a Light fufficiently to illuftrate e- 
ven that Planer, much lefs therefore can it impart its Light 
to the fixt Stars, that are remov'd to fo great a Diftance 
beyond it. For this Reafon fome believe each of the fix'd 
Srars to be the Head and chief Part of a diftindl mundane 
Syftem j as the Sun is the Head and chief Part of our 

Qq q vilible 



482 LUCRETIUS. BookV. 

vifible Syftem: And, as the Sun has fevers 1 Planets, con- 
ftituced and carry 'd about him ; fo likewife every one of 
the fix'd Stars has other mundane Bodies, like Planets,dif- 
pos'd and moving around them ; tho' they are invifible to 
us, by Reafon of their great Diftance from our Earth. Arid, 
according to this Opinion, G^lilaso, Dialog. 3. Syftem. 
Cofmic. makes no Scruple to affert, that each of the fix'd 
Stars is a Sun, exadly of the fame Nature with, and per- 
fectly refembling, this of ours ; that it ferves befides to 
illuminate the innumerable other Planetary and Lunary 
Bodies, within their refpedive Syftems : and confequent- 
iy is endow d with innate and original Light. Several o- 
ther of our modern Aftronomers are of the fame Opinion ; 
among them Ricciolus, who, Almageft.nov. lib. 6. cap. 2. 
has thefe Words : Mihi longe probabilior horum (fcil. Bru- 
ni, Galilaei, Renati des Cartes, & Reithaei) opinio videtur, 
quia magis convenit opificis numinis majeftati, ut non uni- 
cam ftellarum a fe ipfa lucentem, fed plures inftar folis ac- 
cenderet: Nee alium fui luminis fontem agnofcerent, 
quam omnium luminum pattern Deum. 

IIL Their Cojlour: which vifibly differs according to 
^he Variety of their Light, as it is blended and attemper'd 
by the different Conftitution of the Matter, or Subftance, 
of which they are compos'd : for fome appear to be of a 
ruddy, others of a leaden Hue : fome of a Gold Colour, 
others of a fiiver white, others pallid, Sec, whence fome 
have pretended to form a Judgment of their feveral Na- 
tures, and accordingly have rang'd them under the feveral 
Planets, of whofe Qualities they imagin'd them chiefly to 
partake ; having Regard to the Proportion of Refemblance 
they bear in their Colours, to thofe of the Planets. 

IV. Their Scintillation: which particularly diftin- 
guillies them from the Planets, which have no fuch Vibra- 
tion, or twinkling of Light; as generally is obferv'd, more 
or lefs, in all the fix'd Stars, at one time more than at ano- 
ther ; and moft when the Wind is Eafterly, as Schikardus 
in Aftrofcop. obferves. Ariftotle afcribes the Caufe of their 
Scintillation to their Remotenefs from our Sight ; which 
Remorenefs is the Reafon, that our Eyes reach them but 
weakly, and with a trembling LafTitude. To this Opinion 
Fontanus, in Urani^, lib. 2, affents, when he fays, 

SciUcec 



BookV. LUCRETIUS, 485 

Scilicet alta illis regio, fedefque repofta?. 
Quo poftquam advenit defelTo lumine vifiis, 
Defeflus tremic ipfe, tamen tremere ipfa videntur. 

But this Reafon is not convincing, fince. If 'it were 
true, the Planet?, Jupiter and Saturn, (hould, by Reafon 
of their great Diftance, in fome meafure affedt our Sight 
with fuch a Trembling or Scintillation ; ^d this we know 
they never do, even in their greateft Altitude. Others 
afcribe the Caufe to Refraction, and imagine this Scintillation 
to arife from the unequal Surface of the fiudtuating Air, or 
Medium, thro' which the Sight palTes : in like manner, 
as Stones in the Bottom of a River, feem to have a tremu- 
lous Kind of Motion, which neverthelefs is only the curl'd 
and uneven Undulation of the Surface of the Water. But 
if this Reafon were true, we fliould not only in the fix'd 
Stdrs, but in the Planets, nay, even in the Moon, difcovep 
fuch a Scintillation. GafTendus, with more Probability, con- 
ceives it to proceed from their native and primigenial 
Light, which, like that of the Sun, fparkles, and ejacu- 
culates fuch quick- darting Rays, that our infirmer Sight can 
not look on them without trembling : To this we may 
add their impetuous and whirling Motion about their own 
Axis ; by which there is caus'd a more fuddain and quick- 
er Variation in thofe fulgid Objects, than the Eye can pur- 
fue. But Scheinerus, in his Mathematical Difquifitions, 
pofitively dilTents from this Opinion. The Scintillation of 
the Stars, fays he, is not their proper Revolution or Con- 
volution, not any interiour exeftuaring Commotion ; no 
tremulous revibrating of the Sun-Beams, proceeding from 
their firft or fecond Motions; no unquiet or unequal Eja- 
culation of their proper Rays; no trembling of the weary'd 
Sight ; not any, nor all of thefe, but only the Intercifion of 
their feveral Species falling upon the Eye ; which Intercifi- 
♦ on is caused by the unquiet Intercurfation of Vapours vafi- 
■ oufly affected. Hevelius, tho' he allow of their Circum- 
gyration about their own Axis, yet he admits it only as an 
afldfting, not as the fole, Caufe of their Scintillation : which 
he imputes rather to a conftant Evibration of lucid Matter, 
era continual Expiration of firy Vapours from thr)fe celefti- 
al Bodies ; even, fays he, as we perceive thofe Fulgurations 
' 9nd Ebullitions in the Body of the Sun, which, the groffer 
'|liey are, andi in the greater Plenty they are ejeded, fa 



484 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

much the greater and more vifible Scintillation they caufe. 
Thefe are the feveral Opinions concerning the Scintillation 
of the Stars. 

V, Their Number : which, according to the Computa- 
tion of Ptolemy, including only thofe that are moft remark- 
able and vifible, and as they are reduc'd to the fix common- 
ly receiv'd Degrees of Magnitude^ amounts to only 1022. 
And Pliny, lib. 2. cap. 4. reckons them to be 1600, But if. 
we refledi on the Number of all the Scars in the Firma- 
ment, as we regard them by the Help of a Telefcope, which 
difcovers many more than the bare liyecan do, we may af- 
firm them to exceed the Number of human Calculation : 
Jordano Bruno fays, their Number is infinite. Ricciolus, 
fpeaking of the Number of the Scars, argues thus, That if 
the Conftellation of Orion take up in the Heavens the Space 
of 5 00 fquare Degrees, as by Experience we know it does, and 
if every fquare Space, whofe Side is but two Degrees, con- 
tains no Icfs than 500 Stars, as Galilxo, by the Alfiftance of 
a Telefcope, obferv'd that it does, there will be found in 
the whole Conftellation of Orion, at leaft 62500 Stars, tho' 
the bare Eye only can not difcover in the whole above 63. 
According to which Proportion, if the reft of the Confrella- 
tions were examined, and if the Difference of the Number 
of Stars, chat appear by the Telefcope, over and above 
thofe difcern'd by the bare Eye, were computed, it would 
amount to above 1 000000 Stars, befide thofe in the Milky 
Way : Nay, fays Ricciolus, Almageft. Nov. Tom. i. 1.6. 
0,413. if any Man fliould reckon them above 2000000, 
the Number would not feem to me improbable, Mihi qui- 
dem. nihil inopinabile finxerit. Some of the Rabbins of the 
Jews will not allow the whole Number of Stars to amount 
to above 12000 : but the Cabalifts admit of no lefs than 
29000 Myriads, which Number Schickardus believes too 
exorbitant ; and imagines, that the whole Extent of the 
Heavens, is not capable of receiving above 2671 2 Myriads, 
even though they were plac'd contiguous to one another : 
but as to this Particular of the Number of the Stars, we 
ought to agree with Schottus, who, in Pr^Iuf. in Firmament. 
Itiner. Ecfcatic. Kircheri, in Schol. i. fays, That it is an 
Arrogance indeed intolerable, to believe that our Sight, 
how ftrengthen'd and alliftcd foever by the Help of Tele- 
fcopes, can difcover all the Stars in iheExpanfe of Heaven ; 
and an extream Piece of Folly, to pretend cg> include th?m 

within 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 48 j 

within the Bounds of any Definite Number; that being 
the Work of the Almighty only, who alone numbers the 
Multitude of the Stars, and calls them all by their Names. 

VI. Their Figure: which is apparently fpherical or 
round; and yet Plutarch, de Placit. Philofoph. lib. a. 
cap. 14. relates the difi'erent Opinions of the Antients, even 
as to this Particular : Cleanthes held them to be pyramidal, 
and that they end in a fharp Cone : Anaximenes would 
have them to be like Scuds, or Nails, fix'd in the chryfcal- 
line Firmament, like Jewels in a Ring. Others imagin'd 
them to be flat, and, as it were, firy and lucid Plates, as 
fo many flat Pictures, not of any Thicknefs or Profundity. 
Scheinerus, and Antonius Maria de Reitha, will have them 
to be of divers Figures or Faces, of a poly-angular Shape ; 
and fuch indeed the larger Sort ofTelefcopes reprefent them. 
Kepler, in Epit. Aftronom. p. 498. defcribes them like fo 
many lucid Points, or Sparkles, calling forth on all Sides 
their Rays of Light: infcmuch that we are to take their Fi- 
gure to be only phyfically fpherical, not mathematically fo : 
for tho*, in the firft Acceptation, they may be faid to be 
round Bodies, yet, according to the later, their Surface may 
be found to be uneven, and to confift of many Angles, or 
Sides. 

VII. Their Magnitude : of which divers Calculations 
have been made by many eminent Aftronomers ; but to 
litde Purpofe : for fo great a Diverfity of Opinions has a- 
rifen among them, partly, becaufe Authours can not agree 
as to the Diftances of the Stars from the Earth, which is 
the fuppos'd Centre of the World ; and partly becaufe of 
the different Eftimates of their apparent Diameters, that 
have been made by the Eye, by Tycho Brahe, and other 
more antient Aftronomers ; and by Telefcopes by the Mo- 
dern : infomuch, that we ought ingenuoufly to acknow- 
ledge with Schickardus, that, veras illarum magnicudines 
vere ignoramus, we are indeed ignorant of their true 
Magnitude, 

VIII. Their Place and Ci&TANCE from the Earth, or 
rather from the Sun : which is a Qiieftion fo hard to re- 
folve, that Pliny long ago pronounc'd it to be no lefs thap a 
Piece of Madnefs to inquire into it : and Ricciclus, Alma- 
geft. Nov. lib, 6. cap. 7. treating cf this Subjed, has thought 

fir. 



48^ LUCRETIUS, Book V,f 

fit, in the Front of his Difcourfe, to lay it down as an un- 
deniable Truth, That Men can not, by any certain and e- 
yident Obfervacion, come to the true Knov/Iedge of the Pa- 
rallax and Diftance of the fix'd Stars . For it is not known, 
whether the Stars are all in the fame fpherical Surface, e- 
qually diftant from the Centre of the World; or whether 
they are plac'd at unequal Diftances ; that is to fay, fome 
higher, fome lower, as the old Stoicks held them to be, 
fuppofing the Diffrence of their Luftre, and of their appa- 
rent Magnitude, to proceed from the Diverfity of their Si- 
tuation, according as they are more or lefs diftant from 
our Sight : Thus Manilius, giving the Reafon why fome of 
the Stars in Orion appear more obfcure than the others,fays, 

Non quod clara minus, {ed quod magis alta recedunt. 

And this Hypothefis has fo great an Appearance of Truth, 
that the learned Aftronomers, Tycho Brahe, Galilseo, and 
Kepler, readily embrace it. And thus we may reafonably 
fuppofe, that their Diftances are as various as thofe of the 
Planets, and that it is fcarce polfible to difcover their true 
Diftance, becaufe our fhorc and feeble Sight, being unable 
to diftinguifh their various Intervals, judges them to be all 
plac'd in the fame concave fpherical Surface. 

IX. Their PROPER Motion: which is twofold : Firft, 
that of Circumrotation about their own Centre, around 
which they are whirl'd with wonderful Celerity ; which, as 
we faid before, is in Part the Reafon of their Scintillation : 
and this Motion is call'd, motus vertiginis. Secondly, their 
Motion of Revolution, from Weft to Eaft : fecundum 
dud:um Ecliptics, in which they are obferv'd to move fo 
very flowly, that they run not through one Degree in the 
Ecliptick looner than in the Space of feventy one Years, 
nineteen Days and twelve Hours, within a Trifle : and 
they compleat not the whole Circle of 360 Degrees, in 
lefs than 15579 Years, which is the Annus magnus Plato- 
ricus^ tho' the Antients computed it to amount to 36000 
Years : And this great Platonick Year, which confifts of 
2'5 579 Sydereal Years, is equal to 25580 equinodi:ial 
Years. And thus I have given a fnort Account of the-naqft 
remarkable Obfervations touching the fe'd Stara. 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 487 

Becaufe the Fires, confin'd to little Space, -y 

Grow fierce and wild, and feek a larger Place, C 

565 And thus thro* the vaft Heav'n begin their Race. ^ 
Or elfe external Air, ©r fubtile Wind 
May whirl them round : Or they may move to find 
Their Nourifhment ; and run where Food invites. 
And kindly calls their greedy Appetites. 

570 For true ; what fingle Force makes Stars to rife 
And fet , what governs thefe our fingle Skies 

Is hard to tell : 

And therefore I, how Stars may move, propole 
A thoufand Ways, and numerous as thole : 

575 And what may whirl the Sun, and pale-fac*d MooN^ 
In all the Worlds ; but can not fix on one, 
Altho* but one rules here ; but which that is 
*Tis hard to point ; it may be that or this. 

And that the heavy Parts fhould end their Racc"^ 

580 And reft ; and Earth polTefs the middle Place, 
Its Weight decay *d; that Pow'rdid weaker grow, 
Becaufe convenient Things were plac'd below. 
That rofe with it, to which 'tis clofely joined ; 
By nat ral Ties, and ftrongeft Bands confin'd : 



And 



NOTES. 



571. Our fingle Skies] The 
Skies, and Stars, that we fee 
move continually, and he calls 
them fingle, becaufe the Epicu- 
reans held a Multitude of Worlds 
to be in the All, or UniYerfe,and 
all of them, like this of ours, or 
even of a greater Extent. 

579. And that, 6ic.] But fince 
Lucretius fo often mentions the 
great Weight of the Earth, it 
may well be inquir'd, why it 
hangs without Motion in the 
Air, and does not rather prefs 
downwards, and fall precipitate- 
ly into the infinite Void ? To 
this the Poet anfwers in thefe 
17. V. Thattho' it have fo hap- 
pen'd, that the Air only is cir- 
cumfus'd around the Earth, yet 
becaufe both Air and Earth are 
bound by natural and kindred 
Ties, and from their very Be- 
ginning are Parts of the fame 
Whole, the Earth is no Burthen 



to the Air ; but having, in a 
Manner, laid afide all its Weight 
and Compreffion, it only fticks 
faft, and cleaves naturally to it : 
But it would not be fo, if this 

I Earth had been brought out of 
another World ; for, in that 
Cafe, it would prefs heavy upon 
this Air with its Weight ; even 
as our Bodies feel a little 
Weight that is not a Part of 

I them, tho' neither the Head, nor 
the other Members are burden- 
fome to one another,becaufe they 
are mutually congeneal, and. 
bound to one another by a gene- 
ral and common Band. Epicu- 
rus to Herodotus fays, t yyiv 
TzS cf,'«g^ l-TToy^ii^j cu^ crvyUy^' 
See the Note on Book II. v. 552. 
584. By natural Ties] Arifto- 
tle will not allow, that the Earth 
is therefore lufpended in the mid- 

j die of the Air, becaufe it is con- 

•geneal, and, as it were, of a Piece 

with 



'4B8 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V 



585 And thus it foftly refts, and, hanging there. 
Grows light, nor prefles down the lower Air, 
Jaft as in Man, the Neck the Head fuftains. 
The Feet the whole; yet not one Part complains 
Of preirmg Weight ; neither is vex'd with Pains : 

590 Yet other Weights impos'd we ftrait perceive, 
Tho' lighter far, contrad our Limbs, and grieve. 
fSuch vaft Import from fim'lar Parts does fpring. 
When one is aptly join'd t' another Thing.] 
So Earth was fafliion'd in its proper Place: 

595 Not made, then thruft into the ftrange Embrace 
Of diff'rent Air, but with the World began; 
" A certain Part of it, as Limbs of Man. 

Befides ; the shaking Earth does often move 
The upper Air, difturbing all above: 

600 Which could not be, unlefs the ftrongeft Tie 
Did clofely join the Earth, the Air, and Sky. 



Thin 



NOTES, 



with it, as Epicurus believ'd 
but fays the Reafon is, becaufe it 
is the heavieft of all theElcments 
And Plato, in Pha»don. will have 
the Eqaability of the Earth it 
lelf, to be the Caufe of its Stati- 
on in the Middle of the Uni- 
verfe : According to whofe Opi- 
nionjOvid Metam. i. v. i2.fays, 

Et circumfufo pendebat in aere 

teJIus 
Ponderibus librata fuis. 

And our Milton in like manner: 

The Earth, felf balanc'd, on her 
Centre hung. 

592. Such vaft, &C.3 This 
and the following Verfe v.'e have 
inftrted to fill up a Lacuna . 
%vhich Creech, having totally 
onaitted this Vcri'e of his Au- 
thour, 

Ufque adeo magni refert, cui 
qua: adjaceat res, 

had left in all the former Edi" 
tions of this Book. i 



598. Befides, &c.] In thefe 
4. V. he brings another Argu- 
ment of the Connexion of the 
Earth and Air : Becaufe, fays he, 
the Thunder, that caufes violent 
Motions in the Air, makes the 
Earth tremble, which it could 
not do, but that they are of a 
Piece. 

Here our Tranrtatour feems 
to have imperfedly render'd 
the Senfe of his Authour, wiiofe 
Words are, 

PrA::crc^ grandi Tonitru concuf- 

ia repente 
Terra, fupra qua: fe funt, concu- 

tit omnia motu. 
Quod facere baud ullk poflet ra- 

tione, nifi eiTet 
Parcibus aeriis mundi CGeloque 

revincfta. 

i. e. Befides, the Earth, when 
ever it is fliaken, on a fuddain, 
hy a violent Thunder, makes 
every Thing that is upon it, 
lliake and tremble : Which it 
could by no means do, unlefs, 
&CQ, Compare this with Creech's 

Trans* 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 489 

Thin fubtile Souls, 'caufe clofely join'd^ do prop 
: The mighty Weight of Limbs, and bear it up : 
What raife the Limbs in leaping, what controul, 
60$ And guide their Motion, but the fubtile Soul? 

Which Ihews the weighty Force of Things refin'd, y 
When ty'd to others of a grolfer Kind ; S- 

As Air to Earth, toourgrofs Limbs the Mind, j 
But farther on : the Sun and Moon do bear 
^io No greater Heats, nor Figures than appear; 

Becaufe 

NOTES. 



Tranflation, and fee his Er- 
rour. 

602. Thin, &c.] But becaufe 
it may feem wonderful, that fo 
fubtile a Body as the Air, fliould 
fupport a Mafs, fo vaftly thick 
as the Earth •, he adds in thefe 
7. V. that the Soul, which is a 
moft fubtile Subftance, fuftains 
our ponderous Body : nay, not 
only that, but even lifts it up, 
and makes it leap from the 
Ground, 

6c\. What raife what 

controul,] Where we muft un- 
derftand the Word Things ; An 
EUipfis, too frequently us'd by 
Creech, tho' hardly allowable in 
our Language, which hates all 
grammatical figures, and loves 
to fpeak plain* What, without 
a Subftantive,is always in the lin- 
gular Number : What raifes, 
what controuls, Sed hoc obiter, 

639. But farther, dec.'] Epicu- 
rus, in the tenth Book of Laerti- 
us, (peaking of the Magnitude of 
the Sun and Stars, fays : that in 
as much as it relates to us to 
judge of it,th€irMagnitude is the 
fame that it appears to be : and 
that as to the Thing itfelf, it is 
fomewhat bigger, or fomewhat 
lefs, or elfe exacftly the fame that 
it feems : infomuch that our 
Eyes lie very little, if they do at 
all. The Poet in thefe 27. V. af- 
ferts the fame thing, and endea- 
vours to prove his AflTertion 
by an Argument taken from! 



Senfe : As we retire from any 
Fire, fo long as we are within 
fuch a diftance of it, that we can 
perceive its Light and Heat, the 
Fire feems no lefs than it doe§ 
when we aren£ar it : But we feel 
the Heat, and perceive the Light 
of the Sun : Therefore the Sun is 
of the fame Magnitude it feems 
to be : Then he adds of the 
Moon, that we diftindtly fee the 
outmoft Verge and face of it : 
And yet we fliould fee it but con- 
fufedly, if it were fo far off, that 
its Diftance took away any of its. 
Magnitude : Laftly, he fays of 
the Stars, that they are not much 
larger, nor much lefs, but rather 
juft as big as they feem ; for 
even the Fires that we fee here 
below at diftance from one ano- 
ther, either by Day, or by Night, 
prefent to our Eyes the like va- 
riety of Sizes. Epicurus writes 
the very fame Do(firine to Py- 
thodes. 

Thus neither Epicurus, nor 
Lucretius after him,affirmM any 
thing for certain concerning the 
Magnitude of the Sun, Moon, 
and Stars ; And indeed fo many, 
and fo various are the Opinions 
both of the Antients and Mo- 
derns, of this Matter, that it is 
impoffible to ground any pro- 
bable Belief upon them ; H^ow- 
ever, I will give fome of their 
Opinions, but rather for Curio- 
fity than Inftrucftion. I. Hcra- 
ditus held the Sun to be a Foot 
K r r broad 1 



490 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 



Becaufe that Space, thro* which the Rays can fly. 
The Heat can reach our Touch, the Light our Eye: 

Can 

NOTES. 



broad : II. Anaxagoras, many 
times as big as the Countrey of 
Peloponnelus. III. Animaxan- 
der, as big as the Earth. IV. Em- 
pedocles, a vaft Mafs of Fire, 
even bigger than the Moon. 
V. Archelaus, the biggeft of all 
the celeftial Lights. VI. Plato, 
never to be conceiv'd, nor found 
out. VII. Cicero, immenfe. 
VIII. The Egyptians, and after 
them Macrobius, eight times as 
big as the Earth. IX. Others, 
whofe Opinion Cicero, Tatius, 
and Philoponus mention, but 
conceal their Names, above eigh- 
teen times as big as the Earth. 
X. Eratofthenes, ieven and twen- 
ty times as big as the Earth. 
XL Cleomedes, near three hun- 
dred times as big as the Earth. 
XI L Ariftarchus, above two 
hundred fifty four times as big 
as the Earth. XIII. Hipparchus, 
SL thoufand and fifty times as big 
as the Earth. XIV. Plutarch 
fays, there were fome who held 
the Sun to be a thoufand feven 
hundred and twenty eight times 
as big as the Earth. XV. Poffi- 
donius, fifty nine Thoufand three 
hundred and nineteen times as 
big as the Earth. What Cer- 
tainty then can be grounded on 
fo many different Opinions ? And 
Archimedes own'd,ic was next to 
impoffible to take the Diameter 
of the Sun, becaufe neither the 
Sight, nor the Hands, nor the 
Organs, by which the Obferva- 
tion is perceiv'd, are fufficient to 
demonftrate it exadly, and there- 
fore no Credit ought to be given 
to them. This roakes Ladanti- 
«s fay, Dementiam efle diiqui- 
rere, aut fcire velle, Sol utrum- 
ne tancus, quantus videtur, an 
multis partibus major fit quam 
©ranis h«c terra : That it is a 



folly to inquire, or be deiirous 
to know, whether the Sun be as 
big as he feems to be, or many 
Times bigger than the whole 
Earth. And the fame Uncertain- 
ty there is likewife concerning 
the Magnitude of the Moon, and 
of the other Planets and Stars. 

But the more modern, both 
Philofophers and Aftronomers, 
tho' their Opinions be indeed 
various, as to the Magnitude of 
this Glorious Luminary, yet 
having grounded them on more 
probable Methods of Obfervati- 
on, have at leaft come nearer the 
Truth, than the Antients, and 
not left us fo much in the Dark, 
nor in fo great Uncertainty con- 
cerning it. It is moit certain, 
that we form a right Judgment 
of the Magnitude of an Objed, 
by the Diftance of one Part of 
it from another, and by the Di- 
ftance of the whole from us : 
For the Diftance of it being firft 
confider'd, we find that the Rays 
from all Parts of the Objecft 
caufe an ImprefTion on the Reti- 
na in the Extremities of more or 
lefs diftant Fibres : Therefore 
the farther diftant thofe Extre- 
mities, fo imprefs'd, are from 
each other, the greater we judge 
the Ob)e<ft to be ; and in like 
manner on the contrary : info- 
much that it is firft neceflary to 
know the Diftance of an Objetft, 
before we can attain to the true 
Knowledge of its Magnitude : 
And therefore whenever we are 
miftaken in the Diftance, we 
muft neceflarily be deceived in 
the Magnitude likewife : And 
confequently, as often as we judge 
an Objed to be farther from us 
than it really is, we imagine it 
to be bigger than it is ; becaufe 
the farther diftant an Objed is, 

the 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 

Can leflen nothing, nor contract the Frame, 
Nor make the Fire appear a milder Flame : 

NOTES. 



491 

Now 



the lefs will be the Space between 
the incident Points of the Rays, 
that make the Impreflion on the 
Retina : And on the contrary, 
as often as we judge the Obje^ 
to be nearer us than indeed it is. 
we fancy it to be lefs than reaily 
it is, becaufe the Space between 
the Points of the Rays, dec. is 
larger. Hence we fee the Rea- 
fon, why it is fo difficult to come 
by the true Knowledge of the 
Sun's Magnitude : For the Di- 
ftance of the Sun from the Equa- 
tor is fo hard to be difcovered, 
that, if we may believe Pliny^ 
to endeavour to find it out, pe- 
ne dementis otij eft, is an Im- 
ployment fit for none but Mad- 
men. Ricciolus lilcewife confef- 



fes, that the Sublimity of the Sun 
has exceeded and baffled hither- 
to the Search and Invefligation 
of all Aftronomers. However 
he himfelf fays, in Almagcft. 
lib. 3. cap. II. That the true 
Magnitude of the Sun may be 
known from its true Semidia- 
meter ; for that, being doubled, 
gives its true Diameter, whence 
its other Species of Magnitude 
are derived, according to the 
Rule of Proportion. This Me- 
thod has been obferv'd by many 
of the raoft learned and judici- 
ous Aftronomers, whofe Opini- 
ons concerning the Sun's Magni- 
tude, may be feen at one View 
in the following Table, 



r r 2 



The 



492 L 


V C E 


. E T lU S. 




Book V. 
1 


1 he true Magnitude of the Sun 
compar'd with the K ar t h. 


The S u nV 


True Di- 

ameter. 


Circum» 

fere nee. 


Area of^ 
itsgrea-\ 
tefi Cir- 
cle, 

■ 


Superji' 

ciss. 


Solidity, 


contains 




,. 






iccording to the fol- 
lowing Authours, 


Simple 
Diam, 
of the 
Earth, 


Simple 
Diam, \ 
of the \ 
Earth, 


Square 
Diam, 
of the 

Earth, 


Square 
Diam, 
of the 
Earth, 


Solidity of 
the Earth, 


Ptolomi€us, Mau'7 
rolycm , Clavi'M, /■ 
ani £arocin£, j 


^ 1 


17 T 


24 


134 


166 I 


Afifiar- "7 more than 
chus ^lefs than 

Alhategiiiui 


6 J- 
7i 


20 i 
22 -f 


30 ^ 
38 c 

26 c 


127 c 

155 G 


2^54 tV 

368 i-. 


5 -h 


T8i 


108 


186 


Coperniciis 


■i u 

1 it 


16 ^ ' 


22 
22 C 
26 


91 G 


161 -f 


Fycho ani Blancanm 


16 -; 


85 

95 ^ 


140 


Longomontanwi 


18 ,v 


196 


■ 


IS 




176 

46 C 

39 

3216 

21 c 

; 

R8< 


706 c 

176 c 


3375 


Lansbergii'A 


7 {i 

7 ° 

64 


24 


434 


BuUaldi'A 


^x 7 


l<,6 c 


343 


l^^endelini/A 




12S64 


262144 


Kircberii^ 


s 


16 


83 Q^ 140 


^^eita . iio o 

> 


3i T- 

ic6 ~;^ 


314 o\ loco 


'kicciohiS 133 X 


3oo«:,6 oSfco 



Of 



Book V. 



LUCRETIUS. 



493 



Of the SUN. 



(tj 




HIS glorious Luminary is in Hebrew cali'd 
Chamah, or Scbernafh, from his Hear, or 
Adon Schemez, i. e. Dominus Sol: By the 
Phoenicians, Baal Schemaim, i. e. Dominus 
Coeli : in Chaldee, Schemfo ; in Arabick, El 
Scheme : By the Greeks, "Hai(^ and 9o?/i(^, 
quail (pc^^ TV /3i«, i. e. Lux vitae, whence the 
Latine, Phoebus, call'd likewife Titan, Apollo, Cor Coeli, 
Dculus Jovis, 2.nd" Ofu.fj.ct 'A(9ip(^;, i. e. oculus aecheris. The 
, Egyptians call'd the Sun, Potiris, which in their Language 
lignifies, the Holy God; and Ofyris, from his vital and 
Icindly Heat: as, on the contrary, Typhon and Seth, from 
I lis violent and deftrud:ive Fervour : and by them call'd like- 
'vife Horus : By the Perfians Mithra ; i. e. Dominus or Dy- 
lefta : by the antient Arabs, Urotalt, i. e. Lucis Deus ; and 
Oufares, or Dai-LTfar, i, e. Deus perluftrans, as Sebedius de 
Dijs German, interprets thole Names. By the Syrians, ac- 
ording to Macrobius, the Sun was call'd Adad, or, as Sca- 
iger and Selden would rather have it, Ahad, or Elhad, i. e. 
mus : or as Pontanus in his Notes on Macrobius, Badad, i. e. 
>olus, unicus. Heraclitus, as Macrobius in Somn. Scip. lib. 
. cap. 20.. <:alls the Sun the Fountain of all celeftial Light and 
leat : Moft of the Antients, as Democritus, Metrodorus, Py- 
hagoras, Plato, 8cc. and of the Moderns likewife,/ as Kepler, 
cheinerus, Rheitas,Bulialdus, Kircher, Ricdoius,8cc. imagine 
he Sun to be a real firy Body, confiftingof true proper Ele- 
mentary Fire, partly liquid, partly folid : The liquid is as 
: were an Ocean of Light, and moves with flaming Billows, 
nd nry Ebullitions : This is manifeft to thofe who regard 
lat moft glorious Luminary, by the help of a Telefcope : 
^he folid Parts are, like the Land in our Terraqueous Globe, 
ividedinto Continents, Iflands, Mountains and Rocks, as if it 
/ere to reftrain the vehement Motion of the exeftuating folar 
)cean, and by the frequent Allifions to repel, diifipate and 
"cak the impetuous Force of it 3 to the end it may wich 

greatg: 



494 LUCRETIUS, Book V. 

greater Efficacy impart its all-produdive Virtue to the Bodies 
on which it beftows Light and Influence. 

It is like wife probable, that within the folar Globe, as in 
this Earth of ours, there are vaft Caverns and Receptacles of 
Fire, that break out of the Suns ignivomous Mountains, in 
like manner as fubterranean Fires are ejedled out of the 
Mountains ^tna, Hecia, and Vefuvius: Befides, the folid 
Parts of the Sun, within whofe Bowels is contained the fluid 
and liquid Fire, like Metal in a Furnace, are thoroughly ig- 
fiify'd, in the fame manner as the Bricks of the Roofs and 
Sides of Furnaces are made red hot, and look of the fame 
Colour as the firy Mafs of melted Matter within them. 

It is farther fuppos*d,^liat the folid Parts of the Sun con. 
fift of a Matter abeftinous and incombuftible, and far bet- 
ter able to refift the Veracity of Fire than this Earth of ours : 
Nay, fuppofing that fome Parts of the Sun here and there 
Ihould be confum'd, and whole Mountains be level'd and 
^vafted, yet there is no neceifity from thence, that the Globe 
of the Sun fliould be totally deftroy^d, no more than is this 
Earth by the frequent Accidents of fuch Kinds of Ruins and 
Decays. Moreover, the Splendour, as well of the fluid, as 
folid Fire of the folar Globe, is evidently fat more bright than 
our Fire or Flame here below : the End for which it was 
made neccfTarily requiring it fhould be fo : Since it may 
reafonably be conjedur'd, to be created for the Fountain of 
Light, if not of the whole World, at leaft of the Planetary 
Syftem. 

It is likewife obferv'd ; that as well this liquid Sea of Fire, 
as that which breaks out of the Caverns and Mountains, 
conftantly exhales fuliginous Vapours, not black and footy, 
like the Smoke of our Fire, but bright and clear ; and that 
thefe Exhalations, condenfing in the ambient ^ther, do in a ; 
manner overcaft the Sun, as Clouds overfliadow the Earth. 
From all which, and from the Evidence of frequent Obfer^ 
vations, lately made by the Help of the T&lefcope, is ma- 
nifeft the Miftake of Ariftotle and his Followers ; who ima^ 
gine the Sun to be an unalterable Subftance, whereas indeed 
he is fubjeifl to divers Changes and Alterations : which not 
only the Generation and Produdlion, but the DifToIution 
and Corruption likewife of feveral Phsenomenons in the Body 
of the Sun, altogether unknown to the Antients, clearly det 

monftrate: 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 49; 

monftrate '.' Among which the moft remarkable are thofe,' 
which Jare Aftronomers call the Maculae folares, and the Facu« 
lac folares. 

The Maculae, or Spots are, they tell us, certain cloudy 
obfcurities appearing upon the Disk of the Sun ; and fuppos'd 
jy fome to be a fuliginous obfcure Matter or Exhalation^ 
bmetimes clofely compadled into one, fometimcs difpers'd 
md diffipated into feveral Parcels, and ifTuing from its fer- 
ment firy Body, by Force of its extream Heat : But whether 
hey are in the Sun itfelf, or fome Space diftant from it, is 
lot certain : However, it is from feveral Obfervations moft 
probable, that they are in the very Body of the Sun, or at 
eaft not far from the Surface of it : They are very irregular 
n their Shapes and Figures, as well in regard to their Form 
IS Size ; and fome of them are more durable than others : 
\nd thofe that have the longeft Duration, are held to be the 
blid Parts of the Sun, and it is believ'd that the rcalbn why 
:hey difcover themfelves in various Figures, and of different 
Magnitudes, is becaufe of the vertiginous Motion of the Sun 
ibout his own Axle, reprefenting them to our Sight in di- 
i^ers Situations. 

The Faculas folares are held to be partly mafTy Globes of 
Fire, that burft out of the ignivOmous folar Mountains 3 and 
which, by reafon of their Brightnefs, fhine amidft the Ma- 
culae, or fuliginous cloudy Vapours, and fometimes difap- 
pear in a fhort fpace of time,fometimes continue long vifible : 
and partly Effervenciesof the exeftuating folar Ocean ; which, 
by reafon of the exceHive innate Fervour of the Globe of 
the Sun, boils up into mighty Waves, like fo many Moun- 
tains of Light, that fcatter and diiperfe the darker Maculae, 
land difcover, as it were a firy Ocean, fluduating and agi- 
tated with framing Billows of exceflive Splendour : But Schei- 
nerus in difquifit. Mathem. defines them thus : Faculss Tunc 
areolae in fole lucidiores reliquo ejufdem corpore : i. e. The 
Faculae are certain fmall Plats, or Quarters in the Sun,bright- 
er than the reft of his Body. Ga!ila;o in Letter. 3.- delle 
Macchie Solari, defcribes them as follows ; In the Face of 
jihe Sun, fays he, there appear certain Marks, brighter thaa 
'the reft, and which obferve the fame Motion as the Macu- 
la: : Nor can it be doubted but that they are inherent in the 
very Body of the Sun j becaufe it is not credible, that there 

can 



^6 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

can be any Subftance more rcfnigfrnt than that pf the Sun 

Laftly, This Obfervation of the Sun's Spots and Lights 
has given Occaiion to Aftronomers to remark, that the 
Sun, befides his Motion of Revolution, diurnal and annual, 
according to the Hypothefis of the Immobility of the Earthy 
has likewife a Motion from Eaft to Weft about his own Axle : 
which Converfion is finifli'd, according to fomc, in the fpace 
of twenty feven Days, or thereabouts : According to Kepler 
and others, in twenty four Hours: but others aflign it a. 
much more wonderful Celerity, particularly Otto de Guer- 
rick, who affirms the vertiginous Courfe of the Sun to be 
compleated in a moments Space. AH which confider'd, to- 
gether with what we faid before of the Sun's Magnitude, we 
may well fay with Lucretius i 

Nam licet hinc mundi patefadtum totius unum 
Largifluum fontem fcatere, atque erumpere flumen 
Ex omni mundo, quo fie elementa vaporis 
Undique conveniunt, 8c fie congeftus eorum 
Confluit, ex uno capite hie ut profluat ardor. 

And conclude with the fame Poet, That it is no wonder 
the Sun difpenfes fo much Light and Heat to the Earth. 

As to the Figure of the Sun, Epicurus affirm'd nothing for 
certain concerning that neither, but only faid, that the vari- 
ous Opinions of feveral Men, of the different Figure of the 
Sun, might for any thing he knew to the contrary, be all of 
them true. Mean while Vis certain that the Opinions difter'd 
concerning the Figure of the Sun likewife : For L the Py^ 
thagoreans, Platonicks, Peripateticks and Stoicks held the 
Sun to be globous. IL Anaximenes believ'd it to be flat^ 
and broad like a Leaf, or Plate of Iron, or other Metal. 
111. Others to be in Shape like a Difh or Platter. IV. Hera- 
clitus would have the Sun crooked, and bending like the Keel 
of a Boat : They gave likewife the fame different Figures to 
the Moon and Stars. The Figure of the Sun is now uni* 
.verfally held to be globous. 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 

6 1 3 Now fince the vig'rous Rays do freely flow 



497 



As far as us, and vific all below; 

Their Fires, and Figures are the fame they fliow 

Nor greater all, nor Jefs^ 

And thus the Moon, 

Whether with borrow'd Rays, or with her own 
6io She view the World, carries no larger Size, 

No fiercer Flames, than thofe that ftrike our Eyes. 

For Objects, farremov'd, at Difl:ance feen. 

When too much hind'ring Air is plac'd between, 

No certain Figure fhow : no Eye can trace 
625 Each Line, each Figure of the diftant Face : 



} 



But 



NOTES. 



6x9' Borrow'd Rays] For jas the San has, but only a mu- 
fome hold the Moon to have no Jtuatitious Light, and borrow'd 



Light but what flie borrows from 
the Sun : but others will have 
her iliine with no Light but her 
own : Lucretius does not decide 
this Controverfy, but only pro- 
pofes each Opinion, 'Tis moft 
probable, and generally believ'd 
however, that the Moon bor- 
rows her Light from the Sun. 
This Opinion is grounded on the 
Opacity of that Planet, which 
indeed proves the Moon to be al- 
together depriv'd of any innate 
or proper Light of her own : 
And this Opacity is demonftra- 
bly prov'd j becaufe in her total 
Eclipfesj ilie wholely lofes her 
Luftre : v;hich, on the contrary, 
if Iliehad any of her own, would 
rather, in the greateft Darknefs, 
become more vifible and confpi- 
cuous : whence it is rationally 
concluded, that all the Light fhe 
has,is from the Sun, and that the 
Moon, as fhe is an opacous, fo 
too file is a denfe Body, fitted, 
and apt to receive and reflecf^ the 
Light of the Sun. Macrobius, 
giving theRcafonjwhy the Moon, 
when file iliines, does not impart 
any Warmth, as weJl as the Sun, 
but only reflecfts the Light, like 
a Looking-glafs, afcribes it to 
Iser having no LigTit of her own, 



from the Sun ; which her being 
plac'd beneath the Sun, evident- 
ly evinces : His Words are thefe, 
Lunam, qu^ luceproprid caret,& 
de fole mutuatur.neceflTe eft fonti 
lumims fui elTe fubjedam: Hxc 
? enim ratio facit lunam non ha- 
bere lumen proprium, c^eteras 
omnesftellas lucere fuo, quod 
Jila; fupra folem locate, in ipfo 
purifiimo icthere funt, in qua 
omne, quicquid eft, luxnatura-. 

iis& fuaeft. , Luna vero, 

quia fola ipfa fub fole eft, & ca- 
ducorum jam regioni luce fu4 
carenti proxima, lucem nifi de 
fuperpofito fole, cui refplendet, 

habere non potuit » Luna 

fpeculi inftar, lumen, quo iilu- 
ftratur emittit ; dc fit accepts 
luci penetrabilis adeo, ut earn de 
fe rurfus emittat, nullum tamen 
ad nos perfercntem fenfum calo- 
ris, quia lueis radius, cum ad 
nos deorigine fui, id eft, de fo- 
le pervenit, naturam fecum ig- 
nis, de quo nafcitur, devehit ; 
cum vero in luna: corpus infun" 
ditur, &: inde refplendet, folam 
refundit claritudinem, non calo- 
rem ; nam &c fpeculum, cum! 
fplendorera de fe vi oppofiti emi- 
nus ignis emittic, folaip ignis li- 
milicudinem carentem fenfu ca- 
S f f loris 



498 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

But fince the Mooi^ prefents a certain Size, y 

A certain Shape, and Figure, to our Eyes, ^ 

*Tis plain, that it appears as great as 'tis. ^ 

Bat farther on : Since all our Flames below, 
630 At Diftance feen, do various Sizes fliow; 
Now lower (ink, now raife their lofty Head, 
And now contraded feem, now farther fpread : 
We may conclude the Stars, when feen from far, 7 
Or fomewhat greater than their Figures are, ^ 

655 Or fomewhat, tho' but little lefs, appear. 3 

But more : no Wonder that fuch vaft Supplies, y ■ 
Such Streams of Rays from this fmall Sun fhouId> 
As cherifli all with Heat, and fill the Skies. (rife, 3 

For we may fancy this the Spring of Fire, 
640 To which the Vapours of the World retire ; 
There gather into Streams, and thence they fall. 
As from the Fountains Head, and fpread o'er all: 

Thus 
NOTES. 



loris oftendit, dec, Tn Somn. Scip. | 
lib, r. cap. ip. and Cicero, lib. 2.1 
de Naturi Deor. is of the f^im 
Opinion. And Feftus,in voce Mu- 
lus, obferves, that the Moon is 
faid to be drawn by Mules, ini 
Regard to her borrow'd Light : 
becaufe, as Mules are not gene- 
rated out of their own Kind.buti 
of a Horfe ; fo the Moon is faid; 
to Hiine, not with her own, but] 
t\otho lumine, as Lucretius in I 
this Place, and after him Catul- 
lus exprefies it, with a Baftar-:! 
Light, which ilie derives from 
the Sun. And Milton, fpeakiii' 
of the Sun, calls him 

.— ■ — r , ' ■ • Great Palace of all 



their 



Light ! 
To him, as to 

other Stars 
Repairing, in their golden Urns 

draw Light ^ 
And hence the Morning-Planet 

gilds her Horiis. 



nitude of the other Stars and 
Planets: of which we have al- 
ready fpoken at large, v. 551. 

6'^6. But more, Sec.'] But it 
feems almofl impoffible, that fo 
much Heat and Light, as are 
diffus'd thro* the whole Sky, im- 
menfe as it is, ihould flow from 
fo fmall a Body as the Sun, if it 
be no bigger than it appears to 
be. To fatisfy this Difficulty, 
Lucretius teaches, in 9. v. that 
we may imagine the Sun to be as 
the perpetual Source of Light 
and Heat : becaufe the Seeds of 
Light and Heat continually flow 
from all Parts of the tlniverfe 
into the Body of the Sun, as into 
a great Foitntain : fo that we 
feel and 



ca. * • I'""'- -"""perceive the Heat and 

Foun.am, Light, nJt of the Sun only, but 

,, „ f of the whole World : To which 

he adds, in 10. v. that perhaps 

the Air, near the Sun, is fet a- 

fire by his Beams : and that ma- 

T r u ■^u*.*.i ^t J ny flry Particles, invifible to us, 
Lefs bright the Moon S>^ ^l^,,^ ^t^„, ^^3 Orb 

Mirrour : v.icii full Face I ^^^^ ,^^^^^ -^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^J 

a ProfulTon of Light and Heat, 
Thus Lucretius, in a Thing fo 
doubtful, dares pronounce no- 



His 

borrowing her Light 
From him, Sec. 

_ 629. But farther, Sec ] In 
thsVs 7. V. he fpeaks of the Mag- 



thing for certain. 



6^2, Diik 



Book V. LUCRETIUS, 499 

Thus have we feen a little Fountain yield 
Vaft fpreading Screams, and fiow o'er all the Field. 
645 Or elfe the Sun might kindle ncighb'ring Air, 
And raife furprizing Heat and Fervour there ; 
Perchance the Air is of convenient Frame,' 
And may be kindled by a little Flame : 
As oft in Straw and Corn fierce Flames prevail, 
650 From one poor falling Spark, and fpread o'er all : 
Or elfe the Sun has fecretftores of H^t, 
Dark, and unfiiining Scores, but vaftly great : 
And thefe increafe the Warmth, thefe move the Senfe, 
And thefe, united, make the Heat intenfe. 
655 How tovi^'rds both Poles the Suns fixt Journey bends. 
And how the Year his crooked Walk attends, 

Why 
NOTES. 

6^2. Dark Stores of Heat] I are tranfcrib'd, Word for Word, 
The Original has, ciccis fervori- ! from Cowley, David, i. p. ip. 
bus, that is to fay, invifible to j of the Folio Edition. The Ori- 
iis : For, as PafTeratius notes, f ginal runs thus : 
ca'cus fignifies not only what | 

does not fee, but aho whatever Nee ratio folis limplex, nee cer- 
is not feen. Csecum non tan- j ta parefcit, 
turn quod non vider, fed etiam ! Quo pacflo seftivis e partibus ^- 
quicquid non videtur. In Pro- I gocerotis, 
pert. lib. 2. Eleg. 27. 1 Brumalcs adeat flexus, atquein- 

^55. How towards, &C.3 Inj de revertens 
Order to explain the annual \ Canceris ad metas vertit fe ad 
Courfe of the Sun, and the folftitialcs. 
monthly Courfe of the Moon, | 

through the twelve Signs of the | Vvhich our Tranflatcur has ren- 
Zodiack, he iirft propofes, in I der'd in the two Veilcs> that fol- 
25. V. the Opinion of Democri- j low thefe of Cowley, 
tus, who taught, that the lower j Both Poles] The South and 
Spheres are roul'd and whirl'd | North Pole,which are two Points 
around by the higheft Orb,call'd j about which the Heavens are 
the Primum Mobile, either roul'd: fo call'd from 'uTo^':^J^ 



fwifter or more flow, according 
to the Diftance of each Sphere 
from that higheft Orb : Thus 



I turn, whence the Latines call'd 
them vertices. The North Pole 
is always vifible to us, and to 



the Sun moves fwifter than the the French, Italians, Sec. The 



Moon ; becaufe the Sun is higher, 
and therefore the Signs more fel- 
dom overtake, and pafs by him, 
than they do by her : Nor is it 
then ftrange, that the Moon 
runs thro* all the Signs in one 



South is never feen by us, but 
by thofe whom we call Antipo- 
des. See above v. 54.5. 

6e,6. His crooked Walk] Cow- 
ley calls the Walk of the Sun 
crooked, by Reafon of the Obli- 



Month, which the Sun goes thro' J quity of the Zodiack,thro' which 
but in twelve. | he makes his annual Revolution, 

The two iirft of thefe Verfes SeetheNoteonv.d^i. 

S f f 2 63S. The 



500 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

Why from the Summers Height he foon declines^ 
And falls to vifit the cold Winter Signs, 

And 

NOTES, 



<^58. The cold Winter Signs] 
The SignSj in matter of Ailro- 
logy, are Afterifms, or Confi- 
gurations of fix 'd Stars: which 
are imaginiary Forms, devis'd by 
Aftrologers^, the better to com- 
prehend and diftinguilli thole 
Stars from one another : Thus 
one Afteriim is calPd the Bear, 
another the Dragon, dec. to the 
Number of forty eight in ail, ac- 
cofding to the antient Aftrolo 
gers *, befides a few lately inven- 
ted by the Difcoverers of the 
South Pole. It is not agreed who 
£rft reduc'd the Stars into Afte- 
rifms, or Conftellations : nor 
is it an eafy Task to reconcile the 
different Morphofes or Figures 
in the feveral Spheres of the 
Chaldeans, Perfians, Egyptians, 
Greeks, Arabians, Indians, Chi- 
nefes and Tartars : of whofe O- 
pinions in this Matter, the rari- 
ous Difference may be feen in 
the Defcription of Abu Maflier, 
commonly call'd Albumazar, in 
Aben Ezra de Decanis Signorura, 
publiili'd by Scaliger , in his 
Note^ onManilius : Of all which 
Salmafius, in Prxfat. ad DJatrib. 
de Antiq. Aftrolog. believes 
thofe of the Greeks, which are 
moft cttmmonly us'd amongft 
us, tobeoflateft DAtet As t6 
the Names of the Scars, it is 
fcarce doubted, but that Adam 
firft impos'd them ; tho all thofe 
Appellations, except lome few 
preferv'd in Scripture, are fince 
utterly loft » Yet moft of the 
Names we now ufe, are above 
two Thoufand Years ftanding,as 
appears by Heliod and Homer. 
They were not however all nam'd 
at one and the fame Time ; 
for fome are of late Denomina- 
tion, particularly that which Co- 
non, Antinous, and others call 



Coma Berenices. Some report 
Aftrseus to be the firft who gave 
names to the Stars : whom fqr 
that Reafon 



■Fama Pa-centem 



Tradidit Aftrorum- 



As Aratus fays in Germanicus : 
and others afcribe it to Mercury : 
~_ i To give the feveral Names of the 
Signs and Conftellations, would 
engage me in too tedious aTask : 
I will therefore confine my felf 
to the two Lucretius here menti- 
ons, which are ^goceros and 
Cancer. 

-SEgoceros, by %hQ Greeks, call'd 
'AiyoKip^, from ai^, a Goat, and 
>t£^s-, a Horn, and ^Aiy'iTrciv ' by 
theLatines, Capricornus •, Hircus 
^quoris by Afdepiadiusand Vo- 
maniis, Pelagi Procella by Vita- 
lis : and thus Horace, 

-Tyrannus 



HefperiiE Capricbrnus undx. 

The Poets fabled, that ^goeerps 
was born of the Goa'tofAmatthea, 
and plac'd by Jupiter among the 
Stars, in Memory of than God's 
having been nourifli'd with the 

_ fame Milk. Some fay, that this 
was made a Conftellation in Ho- 

I nourof ^^gipan, the Son of Jupi- 
ter by the Olenian Goat ; but 
others, with more reafon, that 
jT^gipan was Fofter-Brother to Ju- 
piter, and Son of ./Ega, the Wife 
of Pan, from whence he had his 
Name, And EafTus in Germa- 
nic, from the Authority of Epi- 
menides, writes, that j^gipan af- 
fifted Jupiter in his Wars againft 
the Titans, and help'd him to 
put on his Armour ; for which 
reafon he was honoured vv'ith this 
Cdeftial 



Book V. 



LUCRETIUS. 



foi 



And then returns. And why the nimble Moon 
^^oDoes drive her Chariot fafterthan the Sunj 
And in one Month thro' all the Zodiack go. 
While the grave Sun's a year in walking thro': 

NOTES. 



For 



Celeftial Dignity : He was re- 
prefented half- Goat, half-Fiili, 
the reafon of which, fays the Scho- 
liaft on Aratus, was, hecaufe 
having found on the Sea-iliore, 
the Shell of a Miirex or Purple- 
Fiflij he wound it as if it had 
been a Horn, and fo ftnick a Pa- 
nick Fear into the Titans, whence 
he came to be figur'd with a Tail 
like a Sea-monfter. The Sun en- 
tring into this Sign, makes the 
Winter Solftice. Cancer, by the 
Greeks call'd Kct^ii/v©' , a Crab 
is faid to have been kill'd by Her- 
cules for biting him by the Foot, 
when he encounter'd the Serpent 
Hydra, and to have been made a 
Conftellation at the Intreaty of 
Juno. This Sign is in that Part 
of the Heaven, which the Sun 
reaches about the middle of June, 
and then makes our greateft 
HeatSjlongefl: Days and Summer- 
Solffcice : Moreover, thefe two 
Signs, Cancer and Capricornus, 
are celebrated by the Chaldaick, 
Pythagorean and Platonick Phi- 
lofophers, the firft of them for 
being the Gate by which Souls 
descend into humane Bodies ;the 
laft for being that by which they 
re-afcend into Heaven, whence 
they call Cancer, Porta homi- 
num, and Capricornus, Porta 
deorum. Macrobius in Somn. 
Scip. lib. I. cap. 12. fays, that the 
natural Philofophers call'd thefe 
two Signs, Portas Solis, the Gates 
of the Sun ; and then having 
the reafon of it, he adds : Per 
has portas anim^v de coelo in ter- 
ras nieare, Sc de terris in coelum 
remeare creduntur : ideo homi- 
num una, altera Deorum voca- 
rur : hominum Cancer, quia per 
hunc in inferiora defcenfus eft : 



Capricornus Deorum, quia per 
ilium animaz in propriie immor- 
talitatis fedem, 6c in Deorum 
numerum revertuntur. See like- 
wife, Ccel. Rhodig. Antlq. Lecl. 
lib. 15. cap. 23. and Kircher in 
OEdip. Tfcgypt. Tom. 2. p. 535. 

660. Her Chariot, <3ic.] Ho- 
mer and Ovid make the Moo« 
to be drawn in a Chariot by two 
Horfes, one black, the other 
white ] of which BalHis in Ger- 
manic, gives this reafon, becaufe, 
fays he, (he fometimesjs feen by 
Day, as well as in the Night. 
Others will have her to be drawn 
by Oxen : and therefore Nonnus 
in Dionyf lib. 12. calls her, 

Of both which we have exprefs 
Reprefentations in the Roman 
Coins ; and particularly in thofe 
of the Emprefs Julia Domna, 
See Triftan. in his Commentar. 
Tom. 2. p.ig. 129. She is likewifa 
faid to be drawn by Mules, of 
which we have fpokon above, v. 
61 9. Claudian lib. 3. de laudibus 
Sciliconis, makes her to be drawn 
by Stags in regard of thefwifcnefs 
of her Motion : and fo too Hie 
is reprefented in fevcral Confi-ilar 
and Imperial Coins, thac may 
be feen in Urfinus, Golzius, and 
Gorla:us. 

661. 662. Zodiack] The Zo- 
diack is called by Prolomy Ku- 
JCA©' r^S^v XooSicoVs the Circle of 
Animals, becaufe it is divided in- 
to twelve Signs, all of which re- 
femble, either Men or fome other 
living Creatures, that are de~ 
fcrib'd and mark'd in the Zadi- 
ack at equal Diftances from one 
another By the Latines it is 
call'd Signifer, and by the Greeks 



f02 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 



2jf/^£0(popi^. It is defcrib'd to be 
a Circle, or rather a Zone, obli- 
quely paffing from Eaft to Weft, 
by the Equinodliai and Solftitial 
Points, and parted in the mid ft 
by the Ecliptick, which divides 
it into two Parts, the one Nor- 
thern, the other Southern, both 
which are terminated by the Cir- 
cumferences of two imaginary 
Circles, lefs than one of the 
great CircIsS; and is far diftant 
from the Ecliptick, as is the 
greateft Latitude of any Planet 
from thence. The Invention of 
this Circle is by fome afcrib'd to 
Pythagoras, by others to OE- 
nepides the Chian, and by others 
to Anaximander the Milefian. 
See Plutarch, de Placic. Philo- 
foph. and Pliny, lib. 2. cap. 8. 
Manilius, lib. i. v. <^75. fpealdng 
of the Zodiack, fays, 1 

Nee vifus aciemque fugit, tan- 

tumque notari I 

Mente poteft, ficut cernuntur] 

mente priores ; I 

Sed nitet ingenti ftellatus bal- 

theus orbe, 
Infignemque facit ccelato lumin-e 

mundum. 

Which Creech reoders as follows : 

It is not hid, nor is it hard to' 

find, I 

Like others, open only to the; 

Mind : ' 

For like a Belt, with Studs of 

Stars, the Skies 
It girds, and graces ; and invites 

the Eyes. 



f poetically, making the Zodiack 
a viiible Circle,becaufe the twelve 
Signs moving in it are viiible ; 
but properly fpeaking, as it is 
I taken for a Fafcia or Zone only, 
I it is no otherwife perceptible than 
I by reafon ; and therefore Gemi- 
nus in Ifagog, rightly fays. That 
of all the Circles in the Heavens, 
' only the Via Ladea is perceiva- 
[ ble by Senfe, the others being no 
[ otherwife difcernible than by the 
I Eye of E.eafon.^ Moreover con- 
\ cerning the Zodiack, there are 
,thefe five things that chiefly de- 
fer veto be known. Lit is divi- 
f ded into ^60 Parts or Degrees : 
I each Sign into 30 Degrees •, one of 
I which Degr2es,or thereabouts,the 
I Sun makes or compleats every 
I day, by his primary or own pro- 
■ per Motion, proceeding or going 
; forward from the Weft to Eaft ; 
I and thus in about the fpace of a 
I year he runs through the twelve 
i Signs ; mean while by his fecon- 
Idaiy or common Motion, which 
tlie Latins calls Raptus, a Whirl, 
proceeding from Eaft to Weft,he 
makes the Compafs of the whole 
Earth in the fpace of four and 
twenty hours. 1 1. The Order and 
Names of the Signs are contain'd 
in thefe verfes : 

Sunt Aries, Taurus, Gemini, 

Cancer, Leo, Virgo, 
Libraque, Scorpius, Arcitenens, 

Caper, Amphora, Pifc&s. 



And Scaliger, in his Note on that | 
PaiTage, farther obferves, chat it! 
has this in common with the Ga- 
laxy or Milky Way, that both 
of them are not, like all the 
other Circles of the Sphere, aoV&> 
2r£op//o/, perceivable only to Rea- 
fon, but that they are both of 
them vifible to the Sight like- ^ 
wife, which none of the others j 
are. Yet Manilius feems to fpeak 



Which being moft of them Ani- 
mals, the Circle was from thence 
cail'd Zodiack, from the Greek 
Word '(cvhov, which fignifies an 
Animal, as we hinted before. II J. 
Aries anfwers to the Month of 
March, about the tenth of which 
Month the Sun is faid to enter 
into that Sign, and tjo run thro* 
aJI of it by about the tenth of 
April, at which Time he enters 
into' Taurus : and in like man- 
ner of all the reft. IV. It is caJl'd 
oblique, becaule it is not at an 
equal diftance from each Pole : 

l^.uc 



, 



^0? 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 

For this a thoufand Reafons may be fhown j 
But yet 'tis hard, nor fafe, to fix on one. 

66^ For firft, Democritvs has found the Caufe 
Perhaps, and rightly fettled Natures Laws ; 
For thus he fays : Great Orbs are whirl'd above,' 
And by that Whirl the lower Circles move ; 
And fo the diftant Orbs, that lie below, 

670 Far from this Spring of Motion, move but flow, 

Becaufe the Pow'r ftill lefTens. Thus the Sun y 

Is far outftripc by nimble Stars, that run' C, 

In higher Rounds : much more the lower MooNi \ 
Now fince file's plac'd fo low, fince weak tiie Force, 

675 She can not have an equal nimble Courfe 

With Stars ; fo thefe may overtake the Moon, 
And pafs beyond heroft'ner, than the Sun : 
Thus fhe may feem to move, her walk appear 
Thro' all the Signs, 'caufe they return to her. 

Beddes ; 

NOTES. 



but being carryM crofs the Tor- 
rid Zone, it reaches both the 
Tropicks, and twice divides the 
Circle of the Equator. In the 
firft: Degree of Cancer it touches 
the North Tropick, which is 
thence call'd the Tropick of Can- 
cer : It touches the South Tro- 
pick in the iirft Degree of Ca- 
pricorn, whence that Tropick 
has the Name of the Tropick of 
Capricorn. It cuts the Equator 
in the firft Degree of Aries^ and 
in the firft Degree of Libra. V. 
When the Sun comes to the Tro- 
pick of Cancer, about the tenth 
of June, then is our Height of 
Summer, or Summer-Solftice : 
when about the tenth of Decem- 
ber, he reaches the Tropick of 
Capricorn, then is our Depth of 
Winter, or the Winter-Solftice. 
Thefe Tropicks have their name 
from Tpa-TTO), I turn, becaufe 
when the Sun has reach'd to 
either of them, he turns his 
Courfe back again towards the 
other. Moreover, when the Sun 



reaches to the Se<flion of Aries, 
which he does about the tenth of 
March, then is the Vernal Equi- 
nox ; when he comes to the Se- 
ction of Libra, about the twelfth 
of September, then is the Autum* 
nal Equinox, 

662. While the, &:c.] To the 
fame purpofe Cowley : 

The felf fame Sun 
At once does flow and fwiftly 

run : 
Swiftly his daily Jouj-ney goes. 
But treads his annual with a 

ftatelier Pace ; 
And does three hundred Rounds 

inclofe 
Within one yearly Circles Space, 
At once with double Courfe in 

the fame Sphere, 
He runs the Day, and walks the 

Year. 

66^. Democritus, dfc."] Of him 
See B. 3. V. 356. and v. 104.4. and 
B. 4. V. 335. 

(5So. Belides, 



504 



LU C R E TIU Si 



-«•> 



Book V^ 



^80 Befides; by Turns a conftant Stream of Air, 
At fixt and certain Seafons of the Year, 
Might rnfti from either Part, and make the Sun decline,' 
And fail from Summer to the Winter Sign : 
Or drive it up again, and bring the Rays 

685 And Heat to us, and fhew us longer Days. 

And thus the Moon, thus other Stars may rife. 
And fink again into the Winter Skies, 
Driv'n by thefe two conftant Streams of Air. , 

For Clouds in Storms two difF rent ways do move, 

690 The lower oppofite to thofe above : 

What wonder then the Sun with vig'rous Beams, 
And Stars are driven by two conftant Streams ? 

And Day may end, and tumble down the West, 
And fleepy Night fly flowly up the East 5 , 

Becaufe 
NOTES. 



(?9o. Befides, &c.] In thefe 13. 
V. he introduces twofeveral Airs^ 
waiting on the Sun and Moon : 
by one of which they are fhov'd 
down from Cancer to Capricorn ; 
and by the other heav'd up again 
from Capricorn to Cancer, and 
this at fixt and certain Times : 
And that it may not feem incre- 
dible, he bids us look on the 
different Racks of Clouds, which 
feveral Winds drive feverai Ways. 

Befides thefe and the foregoing 
Opinion, there was a third, 
which Cicero, lib. 3. de Nat. 
Deor. afcribes to Cleanthes, who, 
as if the Sun follow'd his Food, 
would have the Humidity that 
arifes from the Earth, and from 
the Sea to be the Caufe of the 
Summer and Winter Solftices. 
For the Words of Cicero are 
thefe. Quid enim ? Non eU- 
dcm vobis placet omnem ignem 
paftu indigere, nee permanere 
ullo modo polTe nifi alatur ? 
Ali autem Solem, Lunam, 5c re- 
liqua Aftra, aquisalia dulcibus, 
alia marinis ? eamque caufam 
Cleanthes aifert, cur fe Sol refe- 
rat, nee longius progrediatur 
folftitiali orbe, itemq-, bruma- 
li, ne longius difcedat a cibo ? 
For are not you of Opinion that 
&\l Fir« requires Food, and can 



in no wife fubfift, unlefs it be 
nourilli'd ? Nay, that the Sun, 
the Moon, and other Stars are 
fed , fome with frefli, others 
with Sea Water ? And does not 
Cleanthes alledge, that the Caufe 
of the Suns returning from the 
Summer and Winter Solftice, 
and his going no farther is, that 
he may not ftraggle too far away 
from his Meat ? 

6B6. And thus, &:c.] This 
and the following Verfe run thus 
in the Original *, 

Et ratione pari lunam ftellafque 

putandum 'it, 
Qu?^ volvunt magnos in magnis 

orbibus annos, 
Aeribus poflfe alternis a pattibus 

ire. 

Where we may obferve, that our 
Interpreter has totally omitted 
the fecond of thofe Verfes, in 
which the Poet feems to allude 
to the Periods of the Stars, and 
the Revolutions of Saturn, Ju- 
piter, and Mars. 

6S9. For Clouds, &c.] This 
many neverthelefs deny, tho' it 
be certain, fays Faber, that there 
is fcarce any Terapeft of Thun- 
der and Lightning, but thishap^ 
j^ns. 

^93. And Day, &c.] In th^fe' 

9- V" 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 90? 

^95 Becaufe the Sun, having now performed his Round, 
And reach'd with weary Flames the utmoft Bound 
Of finite Heav'n, he there puts out the Ray, 
Weary 'd and blunted all the tedious Day 
By hind 'ring Air, and thus the Flames decay. 

700 Or elfe that conftant Force might make it move 

Below the Earth, which whirl'd it round above. 

And To the conftant Morning ftill may rife. 

And with pale Fires look chro* the lower Skies ; 

*^ Becaulc 

N O T £ 5. 



i 



9. V. he tells us, that Night fuc- 
ceeds the Day, either becaufe the 
Sun, being fatigu'd with the 
length of his Journey^ ffor the 
fetting Sun feems faint and wea- 
ry] is extinguifli'd : Or elfe be- 
caufe he is whirl'd with the fame 
force beneath the Earth by Night, 
as above the Earth by Day. Epi- 
curus in the Epiftle to Pythocles 
contends, that the Rifing and 
Setting of the Sun may be made, 
ycoLT lf^(pouveioiv r\ xs^ yv\gy k^ 
«rctAjv gTrixpu-^iv, or, xotr' ccvot'kp/y, 

702. And fo, &c.] In thefe 
23. V. he teaches, That the Splen- 
dour, which we call the Morn- 
ing, and which before the riling 
pf the Sun adorns the Heavens, 
is occafion'd, becaufe the Sun, re- 
turning from Weft to Eaft, 
pours forth his Rays before he 
appears himfelf : or elfe it hap- 
pens, becaufe the Seeds of Fire, 
that were difpers'd abroad in his 
Journey the Day before, flow to- 
gether in the Eaftern Sky, and 
illuftrate the Earth with a fain- 
ty and glimmering Light, before 
they have form'd and kindled 
up anew the Globe of the Sun : 
And if this Conftancy of the 
Seeds flowing together to one 
Place feem incredible, let it be 
conlider'd, that no lefs a Con- 
ftancy may be obferv'd in 
fcveral other Things. Thus 
Plants flioot forth their Buds 
Ai a iixt and certain Seafon 



of the Year : Thus Children 
breed their Teeth at a certain 
Age, &c. _ 

This laft Opinion, ridiculouj 
as it is, was neverthelefs em- 
brac'd by Epicurus and his Fol- 
lowers : who as Cleomedes, lib. 
2. c. I. witnelTes, held that a 
new Sun arofe daily, and was dai- 
ly extinguifli'd ; and Servius, up- 
on the firft Georgick, fays, they 
did not pretend,thatthe Suncon- 
tinu'd his Courfe thro' the other 
Hemifphere; but that the Orb 
of a new Sun was always made 
in the Eaft ; or, at leaft, that the 
old Sun was repair'd and light- 
ed up anew. For Epicurus did 
not fo much hold the quotidian 
Creation of a new Sun, as the 
daily Renovation of the old : 
To which Opinion Horace, ira 
Carmine Sxculari, feems to al- 
lude, 

Alme Sol, curru nitido diem 

qui 
Promis Sc celas , aliufque _ Sc 

idem 
Nafceris. ■■ ' '■ 

And GalTendus explains this O- 
pinion of Epicurus in thele 
Words : Since the Ocean com- 
pafTes the Earth, the Sun may be 
extinguifli'd by its Waters in the 
Weft, and return all along thro* 
the Waves by the North into 
the Eaft, and rife from thence 
rekindled. Thus GafTendus ♦, bv 
T t t which 



fo^ LUCRETIUS. Book V- 

Beeaufe the Sun rouls round with coftftant Ray, 
705 And, rifing upwards, fhews approaching Day : 
Orelfe beeaufe the Fires, diffolv'd at Night, 
There join again, and fcatter vig'rous Light* 
Thus when the Morning Sun begins to rife. 
Its Flames lie fcatter'd o'er the Eastern Skies, 



The^' 



Jj T jE ^. 



ivKich lieverthelefs he but little 
mends the Matter. Epicurus 
however was not the Authour of 
this ridiculous Opinion : For 
Xenophanes the Colophonian 
held, that the Moon and Stars 
were certain Clouds fet oh Fire, 
and that they were extinguiih'd 
every Day, and rekindled at 
Hight: and that, on the con- 
trary, the Sun was extinguiili'd 
every Night, and rekindled eve- 
ry Morning •, or, to exprefs it 
in the Winds of Minutius Foelix, 
<;^ongregatis . ignium feminibus 
foles alios atque alios femper 
fplendere. Of the fame Opinion 
likewife was Heraclitus, whofe 
faying was, mm(^ va^ l(p' y,fA.i.' 
fyitsi' whence the Proverb in 
Plato, Heracliteo fole citius ex- 
tingtii. And from them Epicu- 
rus receiv'd by Succeffion, Hxre- 
ditateni ftultitia*, as Lacf^antiUs 
calls it, this Inheritance of Fol- 
ly. And yet Pomponius Mela, 
de fitu Orbis, lib. 5. ca^. 6. re- 
lates, that the Rifing Sun, when 
beheld from Mount Ida, looks 
diiterent from what it does, 
when regarded from any other 
Place in the whole Earth : For 
fays he, foon after Midnight, 
many fniail Bodies of Fire are 
feen difpers'd and fcatter'd in the 
Eaft : and as the Day comes on, 
»-hey are fe^n to join by Degrees 
-clofer and dofer together, till be- 
ing coileded into iewer Bodies, 
^\\ of them, from the firft to the 
lail, are kindled into Flames; 
arid thefe Flames, joining into 
«ji?3 «ontra«ri themfeives into a 



round Figure, and come to be a 
vaft Globe of Fire, that feems 
annexed to the Earth ; then it 
decreafes by degrees, but ft ill 
continuing its globous Form ; 
and the more it leflens, it 
grows the more bright and 
fulgid : at length it dilperfes 
the ihades of Night, and, be^ng 
made a Sun, rifes with the 
Day. Orientem folem Idseus 
aliter quam in alijs terris folet, 
afpicit. Ollentahtur namqueex 
fummo vertice ejus fpedantibus 
pen^ a medii no<fle fparfi igne» 
paflim micare, 8c ut lux appro- 
pinquat, ita coire' 3c fe conjuri- 
gere videntur, donee magis, ma- 
gifque collecfli, pauciores deinde, 
ex un^ ad poftremam fiammd 
ardeant ; & cum diei clara lux, 
Sc incendio iimilis affulfit, cogit 
fe, ac rtttundat, Sc fit ingens 
globus •. diu is quoque gran- 
dis, Sc rerris annexus apparet : 
deinde paufattim decrefcens ; 8c 
quantum decrcfcit, eo clarior ; 
fugat noviffim^ hodlem, & cum 
dicjjamfol facftuSjattollitur. Pom- 
pon. Mela lib. 5. de fitu orbis, 
cap. 6. This too is confirm 'd by 
,Diodorus Siculus, whofe Account 
of this Matter we will give be- 
low, V. 711. 
708. The Morning, Scc.^ La-* 

— Rofeam Matuta per 



dret. 



oras 
JEtheris auroram defert^ Sc lumx- 
na pandit. 

Matutii, as Cicero tells us, wii 
the Goddefs Ino, whom the 
Greeks cail'd Leucoihea, and 

the 



LUCRETIUS. 



fo? 



. Book V. 

710 Then gather to a Ball : And this we view 
From IdJ's Top : this Fame reporrs as true." 
Nor is it ftrange that common Seeds of Fire 
Should to the Eastern Quarter ftill retire. 
Still evry Day reti^rn, and make a Sun ; j 

7 1 5 Becaufe a thoufand other Things are done V 

At fet, and conftant Times, and then alone, j 

Thus Trees, at certain Times, thus Shrubs do fiioot 
At certain Times, and bud, and bear their Fruit : 
Thus Teeth in Boys begin, and thus they fall ; 

720 Thus Beards in Youth ; at certain Seafons all : 

Thus Thunder, SNOW,andSTORMS,and Winds appear 
At fixt and certain Seafons of the Year : 
As Things firft happen'd, they continue pn ; 
The Courfe, that Chance firft gave them, ftill they run. 

The 

N O T £ 5. 



the Latines, Matuta j the Daugh- 
ter of Caducus. Ino dea dicitur, 
<]\ix. Leucothea a Grajcis, a 
nobis Matuta dicitur; cum fit 
Caduci filia. De Nat. Deor. 
Lib, 3. And Milton, 

To refalute the World with fa- 

cred Light 
Leucothea wak'd, and withfrefli 

Dews embalm'd 
The Earth : and now the fmil- 

ing Morn begins 
Her rofy Progrefs, . 

711- Ida's Top : 3 There are 
two Mountains of this Name : 
one in Crete, the other in Phry- 
gia, which laft in one Chain of 
Mountains runs thro' the whole 
Countrey of Troas : The Nor- 
thern Part of it reaches to the 
Shore of the Propontick ; the 
Weft to the Hellerpont,the South 
to the Gulph of Adramytteum 
in the iEgean Sea, and the Eaft 
looks over the Place where ftood 
the City of Troy : and in this 
part of it Paris gave his Judg* 
ment of the three GoddefTes. 
This was the higheft Part of all 
the Mounrain, and that of which 
X^i^cresivij ipe^ks : Siirabp calls 



the Top ofit Gargarus. Ofths 
Sun-rifing , beheld from this 
Mountain, Diodorus Siculus, lib. 
17. p. 491. gives the following 
Account. 

v^ rUv rS Kuvor iTrirohm Itt' 

y'iVi^ rlw AKP^y T rcov dyiucov 
yvkTo^ scTM^ct'yo'JsMov'J.a, rot? dx-Vvctg 

o/rs Somv itv^^ TT^elco ^ly^ctmv 
Ts <? yyig ©gi^ov'](^ • Mst' oa/Vox 

'scog cI'v^svsm'J) 'Tf /'7r\£9poy (TictVif^ct, 

K) Tori T ^/Wi^S" g'7r/A0t^«Vtf5', 
TO (pOMV0yl4«V0V T? y-\U fAyZ^^ TTAJf-p 

%cr}iivdZei. Which is as much 
as to fay i A fingular and won- 
derful Thing, happens in this 
Mountain : For, about the rifing 
of the Dog-Star, there is fo grea? 
a Calmnefs of the circumfus'd 
Air on the Top of the Moun= 

T M 2 %mi 



5o8 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

725 The Days may longer grow, and vig'rous Light 
Unwillingly give place to drowfy Night ; 
And fometimes fleepy Night may longer ftay, 
And flowly wake before approaching Day : 
Becaufe the Sun might walk the conftant Rounds 

730 In crooked Paths, and in uneven Bounds j 
Nor into equal Parts the Globe divide, 
Now longer here, and now on th other fide, 



Until 



NOTES. 



tain, that the higheft Part of it 
is above the leaft Breath of 
Wind : and even, while it is yet 
Night, the Sun is feen to rife, 
not in a globous and circular 
Figure, but in a Flame difpers'd 
here and there in fuch a manner, 
that many Fires feem to touch 
the Horizon : but all of them 
3F1 a lliort fpace of time contrad 
themfelves into one Magnitude^ 
which takes up the fpace of about 
three hundred Foot, and at 
length the Day appearing, the 
compleat Magnitude of the Sun 
appears likew'ife, and iliines with 
its accuftom'd daily Light, 

725, The Days, &c.] It has 
always been accounted a wonder- 
ful Thing that the Days and 
Nights lengthen and fhorten fo 
regularly in the Courfe of the 
Year, that the alternate Chan- 



every Obliquity is divided from 
theHorizon into two equal Parts: 
and this is the K eafon that the 
Sun, being twice within the Year 
plac'd in the Equator, makes 
two Equinoxes in all Countreys 
whatever. II. Then he adds in 
4. v. another Reafon, and fays, 
that there may perhaps be certain 
places in the Sky, where the Sun 
finds more or lefs Refiftance, and 
this may retard or haften his 
Courfe. III. He fays it may 
happen, becaufe thofe fires that 
either compofe or kindle the Sun, 
may, at certain Seafons of the 
Year, alTemble and meet more 
flowly in the Eaftern Sky, than 
they do at others. 

The firft of thefe is the true 
and genuine reafon : for the In- 
equality of the Days and Nights 
proceeds from the oblique Pofi- 



ees of the Length and Shortnefs tion and Site of the Zodiack : 



of both of them are exadly va- 
ry'd by Turns both in Summer 
and Winter : Of this the Poet 
afiigns three Caufes. I. It may 
happen, fays he, becaufe the Sun 
makes his Rounds above and be- 
low the Earth more fwiftly at 
fome times than at others ; inaf- 
much as the Ways or Places,thro' 
which he travels, are longer or 
iliorter. This is contained m 17. 
V. in which he likewife defcribes 
the unequal Segments of the di- 
urnal and nocf^urnal Circles in 
the oblique Pofition of the 
Sphere : but from this Rule he 
excepts the .^.quatorj which in 



whence it comes to pafs, that 
they, who have a perpetual Equi- 
nox, that is to fay, thofe that 
live under the iEquator, never 
have the leaft Inequality, but a 
conftant Equality, of Days and 
Nights, becaufe they inhabit un- 
der a ftrait and direcft Sphere : 
But thofe that live towards either 
of the Poles, have their Days 
and Nights longer or iliort- 
er, according as they are more 
remote from the Pole, or nearer 
advanc'd to it. But fuch, as live 
in the moft oblique Sphere, that 
is to fay, under either of the 
Polesj have fix Monshs of conti- 
nual 



^ 



Book V. 



LUCRETIUS. 



Until it comes, and warms with neighboring Rays 
The Line, and meafures equal Nights and Days, 



f09 



The 



■NOTES, 



nual Light, and by turns as ma- 
ny of continual Night and Dark- 
nefs : Therefore 'tis no wonder 
what Pliny, lib. 4. cap. 12. lays of 
them, that they, ierere matutinis, 
meridie metere,occidente fole foe- 
tus arborum decerpere, nocftibus 
in fpecus condi, &c. fow in the 
Morning, reap at Noon, gather 
the Fruits of the Trees at Sun- 
fetj hide themfelves in Caverns at 
Nightj &c. And thus we know. 

Quid tantumoceanoproperentfe 

tingere foles 
Hyberni : vel quae tardis mora 

nocftibus obftet, 

Virg. Georg. 2. v. 481. 

What drives the Chariot on of 

Winter's Light, 
And ftops the lazy Waggon of 
the Njght. 

1 As Cowley exprefles it. 

733. Until, &c.] In this and 
the following fix Verfes Lucre- 
tius defcribes the Equinodial 
Circle •, which by the Greeks is 
call'd, to-M^e^tvo? ; by the Latines 
^quidialis,JEquino^Tialis3iEqua- 
tor, and Cingulum Mundi : and 
by Mariners, it is commonly 
caJI'd the Line. It is one of the 
greateft Circles of the Sphere : 
it's Poles are the fame with the 
Poles of the World j from either 
of which it is equally diftant, 
and divides the Celeftial Globe 
into the northern and fouthern 
Hemifphere. Chriftoph. Cla- 
vius in Sacrobofc. defcribes it by 
an imaginary Line, drawn from 
the Centre of the World, and 
extended to the iirft Point, ei- 
ther of Aries or Libra, and 
thence carry'd about by the diur- 
1^1 Revolution of the ?rimum 



Mobile. Of this EquinocJlial 
Circle thefe Things chiefly de- 
ferve to be obferv'd : 1. That it 
parts as well the Terreftrial as 
the Celeftial Globe, and is 
divided into 3<^o Degrees^ as 
every other greater or lefler 
Circle is, becaufc of the eafy Di- 
vifion of this Number into a 
Moiety, a third, a fourth, fifth, 
fixtli, or eighth *, its fixth, for 
Example, being fixty, which 
Number admits of many more 
Divifions without any Fra- 
dions. II. The Sun, being pofi- 
ted in the Equinodial, makes 
the Days and Nights even, and 
then the Equinodial divides the 
Sphere into the Northern and 
Southern Hemifpheres, whofe 
Poles are the Poles of the World. 
III. Fifteen Degrees of this Cir- 
cle rife hourly on one Part, and 
as many fet every hour on the 
other ; fo that one Degree of it 
rifes every four Minutes of an 
Hour. For which reafon the 
Equinoctial is faid to be theMea- 
fure of the Primum Mobile. IV. 
This Circle iliews the Equinodi- 
al Points, which happen twice 
every Year; i . about the eleventh 
of March, when the Sun enters 
into the firft Degree of Aries : 
2. about the thirteenth of Sep- 
tember, v;hen he enters into the 
firft Degree of Libra. V. It di- 
vides the Zodiack into two Moie- 
ties, the Southern and the Nor- 
thern, and thence the Signs are 
diftinguifh'd into thofe of the 
North and South. VL It is the 
Meafure of Time, and fliews 
what Declination the Stars, or 
the Parts of the Ecliptick have, 
eithern northern or fouthern. 
VIT. Laftly, in this Circle are 
obferv'd the Afccnfions and De- 
fcenfions of the Zodiacal Signs. 
735. Between 



f 10 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

735 The Line lies juft between the North and Sou'th, 
And leaves an equal Diftance unto both, | 

Be J 
NOTES, 



73 5.. Between the North and 
South] That is, between the 
North and South Poles -, Lucre- 
tius fays, Medio curfu flatus A- 
Suilonis & Auftri, which are in- 
eed two Winds, the firfl; of 
which blows from the North, the 
laft from the South, and which 
are commonly taken by Poets for 
the North and South Points or 
Poles of the World. 

73(5. An equal Diftance unto 
both] Lucr. Diftinet scquato coe- 
lum difcrimine metas : where by 
metas, he means the two Tro- 
picks of Cancer and Capricorn, 
which are the utmoft Bounds of 
the Suns Revolution, and which 
he never palTes. They were call'd 
Tropicks from the Greek Word 
<7(fo7r>!i; which fignifies Converfion, 
or Turning ; becaufe the Sun, 
when he comes at thofe Circles, 
turns back again towards the 
jfliquator ; nor ever goes beyond 
thofe Bounds, either to the North 
or South : Hence the Egyptians, 
as Clemens Alexandrinus, lib. 5. 
Stromat. obferves, hieroglyphi- 
cally defcrib'd the Tropicks un- 
der the Figure of two Dogs ^.s 
if they were Guards, deputed by 
Nature, to keep in and reftrain 
the Sun from running beyond his 
Eounds. The fir ft among the 
Greeks, who found out thafe 
Tropicks, is faid to be Thales, 
the Milefian : v/ho likewife writ 
a particular Treatife of them, as 
Eudemus in Laertius wimelTes. 
The Tropick of Cancer is call'd 
T^o-TTiKo^ ^ee.tvoi", i. e. Tropicus 
aeftivus, from the Heat of Sum- 
3ner, which we in this northern 
Hemifphere enjoy, when the Sun 
is neareft to that Circle ; which 



the Sun's greateft Declination, or 
the Obliquity of the Zodiaclc, 
which it touches in the iirft Point 
of Cancer. Its Office, on one 
fide, is to terminate cne Torrid 
Zone, and, on the other, the 
northern Temperate Zone, and 
to make the Summer Solftice and 
longeft Day northward., and the 
Winter Solftice or iliorteft Day 
fouthward. The Tropick of 
Capricorn is likewife defcrib'd ; 
a fmaller Circle, parallel to the 
Equator, whofe Diftance from 
thence h equal to the Sun's great- 
eft Declination, and touches the 
Ecliptick in thefirft Point of 
Capricorn ; on one fide, bound- 
ing the Torrid Southern Zone, 
on the other, the Southern Tem- 
perate Zone ; making the Win- 
ter Solftice or Hiorteft Day 
northward, and the Summer Sol- 
ftice, and the longeft Day fouth- 
ward. Moreover, the Solftic^s 
were fo call'd, becaufe the Days 
do then increafe and iliorten fb 
very flowly, that they can fcarc^ 
be perceiv'd to do either, inlb- 
much that quafi fiftatur Sol: Ths 
Reafon of which cannot be bet- 
ter given, than in the Words of 
Julius Scaliger in Problemat, 
Gellian. Is circulus, quem Sol 
quotidiefignat, non eft circulus, 
fed magis qusedam fpira. Neque 
enim revolutionis finis eodem 
committitur, unde initium ha- 
bnerat : "Major enim diftanti^ 
eft a punclo, unde digrefl'us eft, 
ad pun(ftum, ad quem hor^ vi- 
gind quatuor cum perduxere ; 
ubi propior fit iis fignis, quic 
propius ad ^quinocTiium acce- 
duiit, propter obliquitatem. Ita- 
que cum tenditad folftitia, pro- 



is thus defcrib'd : A fmaller Cir- Pf^\ ^»"^* ?^"?2 reaitudinem^vi^g 



"i 



cJe, parallel to £be.^Quaror,whofei^^;;'^'; K '*"«^'^ folftitia dia.a 
diftanqe from thence is equaUQ, | ^^'^^^^ *^ ^* ^^^^^ ^' ^^ ^^' 



Tfeat 



Book V. tV C R ETIU S. 

Becaiife the Zqdiack is oblique,— • 

Thro' which the Sun his yearly Walk does go," 
And views obliquely all the World below ; 

740 Thus teach Aftronoraers ; and this cOnfefs'd 
A fair Opinion ; probable at leaft. 

Or elfe the Air is thick, and flops the RayJ 
Nor gives the Sun a free and eafy way. 
And this prolongs the tedious winter Night, 

745 The Darkness flowly yields to ling'ring Light. 
Or elfe at certain Seafons of the Year, 
The Flames meet flowly in the Eastern Air, 
And frame the Sun, and make the Day appear. 

K O T E 5^. 



^It 



But 



That Circle, which the Sun de- 
fcribes by his daily Motion, is 
not properly a Circle, but rather 
A fpiral Line : For the end of 
its Revolution does not termi- 
nate in the Point, whence it be- 
gan. For its Diftance from the 
Point, from whence the Sun fet 
forw^ard, to that to which he ar- 
rives by his daily Courfe of 
twenty four hours, is greater 
when he approaches neareft to 
thofe Signs, that are next the 
tquinb(ftial,by reafort of the Ob- 
liquity of his Courfe : But when 
he^' draws near to the folftitial 
Points, there appears fcarce any 
Variation of his Courfe, becaufe 
the Line is then almoft ft rait and 
direcft : whence it is calPd the 
Solfticb. Moreover, Macrobius, 
lib. I. cap. 21. tells us, That the 
Egyptians reprefented the Statue 
of the Sun with his Head fliav'd 
on one fide, and having long hair 
on the other, to ihtimate, by the 
firft, the time of the winter Sol- 
ftice, cum velut abrafis incre- 
mentis, angufti manente exftan- 
tii, ad minimum diei Sol perve- 
neritfpatium : by the later, his 
fummer Solftice, or his fuil- 
grown Splendour, to which he ar- \ 
rives by Degrees, emerging again, I 
from thofe Streights and Dens,; 
which were his abode in the Win- ! 



ter Troplckj into the Summer 
Hemifphere : ex quibus latebris 
vel auguftiis rurfus emergens, 
ad a:ftivum hemifphserium tan- 
quam enafcens in augmenta por- 
rigitur : as the fame Authour 
expreiTes it in the Place above- 
cited. See above, v. ^58. 

737' Zodiack, &c.] Of this fee 
above, v. 661, 

742. Or elfe, &c.] Thefe 4.-W 
contain a fecond Caufe orReafora 
of the Increafe and Decreafe of 
the Days and Nights : But this 
is indeed a weak Argument : For 
how can the Air's being more or 
lefs thick make the Sun rife later 
or fooner ? 

74(5. Or elfe, &:c.] in thefe 3. v. 
he ailed ges a third Reafon, which 
is of equal Force with the laft : 
as if the Days or Nights were 
longer or iliorter, becaufe the 
Seeds of Light flow, and meet to- 
gether, fometimes fooner, fome- 
tjmes later, to repair the decay'd 
Splendour of the Sun. But by 
fubjoining this third Caufe, tho 
Poet feems to obferve, what is 
likewife generally taken notice 
of, that not only the Day and 
the Night, but that the morning 
and the evening Twilight, are 
iometimes fliorter than they are 
at others : For, in an oblique 
Sphere, the Duration, as well of 

the 



512 



LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

But more : the Mgon may ftiine with borrow'd Rays, 



750 Her various Light increafing with the Days, 
As She the farther from the Sun retires, 
And with full Face receives his fcorching Fires: 
When FULL, oppos'd. She, climbing up the East, 
yie\ys him below fall headlong down the West. 



And 



NOTES. 



the Twilight before Sun-rifing, 
as of the Twilight after Sun-fet, 
is unequal throughout the Year ; 
being longer in the Summer, and 
Ihorter in the Winter ; becaufe, 
fince theTwilight either begins in 
the Morning, or ends in the Eve- 
ning, when the Sun is eighteen 
Degreesj perpendicularly taken, 
below the Horizon, the Bows of 
the Compafs or Circuit of the 
Sun, who, with thofe Degrees 
either rifes in the Morning, or 
goes down in the Evening, are 
larger in Summer, and lefs in 
Winter : Befides, this Inequality 
is the greater, the more diftant 
we are from the Equator. And 
yet we may not believe, that the 
evening Twilight is longeft a- 
bout the fummer Solftice and 
ihorteft about the winter : for 
indeed it it is rather fomewhat 
iliorteft of all before the vernal, 
and after the autumnal Equi- 
noxes. But it might feem tedious 
to purfue thele Matters far- 
ther. 

749. But more : Sec."] Here the 
Poet inquires into the Caufes, 
why the Moon changes her felf 
into fo many fliapes : for as Ovid 
Met.am. 15. v. lyi^. fays. 

Nee par, aut eadem nodurn^ 

forma Dianse 
Efle poteft unquam ; femperque 

hodierna fequente, 
Si crei'cit, minor eft ; major, fi 

contrahit orbem. 

Which Dryden thus tranflates. 



Not equal Light th* unequal 

Moon adorns. 
Or in her wexing, or her waning 

Horns : 
For ev*ry Day £ke wanes, her 

Face is lefs. 
But gathering into Globe, Hie 

fattens at Increafe. Dryden. 

Now Lucretius tells us in thefe 
12. v. That if Ihe receive her 
Light from the Sun, if ilie be a 
globous Body, and laftly, if Hie 
make her Rounds below the Sun, 
then they explain aright her va- 
rious and manifold Phafes, who 
fay, that the Moon changes her 
Face according to the different 
Light flie receives from the Sun, 
as ilie approaches nearer to him, 
or retires farther from him. This 
too is the Opinion of almoft all 
the Mathematicians, and of all 
the Poets, efpecialiy of Manilius, 
lib. 2. V. 96. 

Tu quoque fraternis reddis lie 

oribus ora, 
Atque iterum ex iifdem repetis, 

quantumque reliquit, 
Aut dedit ilie, refers ; & fydus 

fydere conftas. 

Which Creech thus renders : 

For as the Moon in deepeft Dark- 
nefs mourns, 

Then Rays receives, and points 
her borrow'd Horns ; 

Then turns her Face, and with a 
Smile invites, 

The full Effufions of hfiv Bro- 
ther's Lights. 

755* D&: 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. yi; 

75 5 And fo her Light decreafe as She goes on 

Thro' diffrent Signs, approaching near the Sun. 

And thus the Phases are explained by all 

That think her Shape is Round, the Moon a Ball^ 

And 
N O T £ ^. 



755. Decreafe as (he goes on] 
For when the Moon is at full, 
ihe goes, as it were, back- 
wards under the Earth towards 
the Sun, and comes up to him : 
whence it is, that flie decreafes 
by Degrees, till being in Con- 
junction with him, ihe become 
inviiible to us. 

75^. Diff'rent Signs, &c.] He 
means that Part of the Heavens, 
which is conceal'd from us be- 
neath the Earth. 

757. The Phafes, &c.] The 
different Changes or Variations 
of the Moon, which the antient 
Greeks call'd ^ctV^r^ and from 
them the Latines, Phafes, or Ap- 
paritiones : The Names of thefe 
Phafes or Appearances, efpecial- 
ly of the four chief and moft re- 
markable, are thefe* The fir ft, 
reckoning her Changes as flie in- 
creafes, is MMvoeiJ^ii", i. e. corni- 
culata, horn'd, or having Horns : 
The new Moon, which happens 
when fhe is about fixty Degrees 
diflant from the Sun. This Pha- 
lis is by the Turks and Arabs 
call'd Nalka, a Horfe-lhoo, be- 
caufe the Moon then refembles 
the Figure of one. The fecond, 
Aix,o^of^{^, i. e. bifecfta, or di- 
midiata, The Half-Moon, when 
ihe is ninety Degrees diftant 
from the Sun : The third3 ^Aju^l- 
xi'P?of, i. e. gibbofa, or dimidio 
orbe major ; which happens at a 
120 Degrees diftant from the 
Sun 'y and the fourth and laft 
XlcLYCTiwivo^, i. e. Totilunis, when 
full, and in oppoiition to the 
Sun, or at the Diftance of 180 
Degrees : and from this laft, 



m a contrary Order, are reckon'd 
her decrealing Changes. And 
thefe feveral Phafes flie inviola- 
bly obferves ; nor are they the 
Work of Chance, as our Poet 
would impioufly iniinuate ; but 
the Ad and Order of Divine 
Providence j as even another 
Poet, tho' a Heathen too, faw 
very well : 

Nee lunam certos excedere lu- 
minis orbes ; 

Sed fervare modura, quo crefcat, 
quove recedat ; 

Nee cadere in terram pendentia 
fydera coelo, 

Sed dimenfa fuis confumere tem- 
pera iignis ; 

Non Cafus opus eft, magni fed 
Numinis ordo. 

Thus render'd by Creech : 

That Light, by juft Degrees, the 

Moon adorns ; 
Firft iliews, then bends, then 

£lls her borrowed Horns ; 
And that the Stars in conftant 

order roul, 
Hang there, nor fall, and leave 

the liquid Pole ; 
'Tis not from Chance ; The 

Motion fpeaks aloud 
The wife and fteady Conducfi of 

a God. 

To which I add this of Statius, 
Sylv. lib. 3. 

Servit & aftrorum velox chorus, 

Sc vaga fervit 
Luna, nee injuir*e toties redit 
orbita lucis. 



II u u 



And 



fH 



L V C R E T IV S. 



And place her circling Orb below the reft : 
"jSo h. fair Opinion, probable at leaft. 

U O T E S, 



Book V* 



Tho* 



And oFM^crobius in Somn. Scip. I 
lib. i.cap. 6. Similibus difpenfa- 
tionibus Hebdflmadum, Luna 
fui luminis vices fempiterna lege 
variando difponit. 

And lince we are upon the Sub- 
je<ft of this Planet, I cannot but 
talce notice of an opinion, which 
is at this day afferted and main- 
^ain'd by feveral, as well Philo- 
fophers as Ailronomers : viz. 
That the Moon is inhabited : 
This Belief they ground on the 
appearance of Mountains, Val- 
leys, Woods, Lakes, Seas and 
Kivers, which, by the help of the 
Telefcope, they difcover in the 
Orb of that Planet. The An- 
tients, as Cicero witneiTes, em- 
brac'd this Opinion long ago : 
Habitari, fays he, ait Xenophanes 
in Lund, earn que efle terram 
multarum urbium dc montium. 
Academ. Quisft. lib. 4. The 
Interpreter of Aratus : eivcu q 

gTT aOTi^S" OlKCLCri CtMcC '^jTOJCL/US^ to 

K) ocTA I-ttI ■y-^s'-, And Plutarch 
De Placitis Philofoph. lib. 2. cap. 
30. reports, That the Pythago- 
reans atfif m the Moon to be ano- 
ther Earth, inhabited in all its 
Parts, even as this Earth of 
ours : and peopled with living 
Creatures fifteen times larger 
than thofe with us : Thefe In- 
habitants the Antients call'd An- 
tichthonss, becaufe they believ'd 
them to dwell in an Earth quite 
oppofite to this of ours. And 
Ehat'rAuthour,in his Treatife, De 
facie^^ orbe Lun^c, iays, That 
there are Caverns in the Moon, 
call'd Penetralia Hecates *, and 
that the upper Parts of that Pla- 
,,-net, which always regard the 
■'Heavens,are the Elyzian Fields t 
That it is likewife inhabited by 
Genii, who not always make 
ihglt Abode shere, biu fome- 



times defcend to Earth, to puniili 
or awe Mankind : Achilles Ta- 
tius in Ifagog. reports alfb the 
like of the Moons being inhabit- 
ed : fo too does Macrobius in 
Somn. Scip. lib. i. cap. 11. in 
thefe Words : Lunam astheream 
terram Phyfici vocaverunt, & 
habitatores ejus Lunares Popu- 
los nuncuparunt : quod ita efle 
pluribus argumentis, qu^e nunc 
longum eft enumerare, docue- 
runt. See more to this purpofe 
in Kepler's Aftronomia optica, 
and particularly in a pofthumous 
Treatife of his, intitul'd, Som- 
nium, five de iunari Aftrologil, 
Now why fliould this Opinion, 
feem extravagant, if it be admit- 
ed, that the Moon enjoys as fa- 
vourable an afpecfl from the Sun, 
as this Earth of ours : tho' the 
Days and Nights there be anfwe- 
rable to our Half- months, in re- 
gard it is skreen'd with Hills and 
Mountains, under which lie deep 
Shades and Valleys, with hollow 
Caves and Recefles, of equal 
Benefit againft the Extremities 
of Heat and Cold : and being 
water'd befides with great Lakes 
and Rivers, and confequent- 
ly fupply'd by Nature with 
all Things necefTary for the fup- 
port of Life ? How then can ic 
reafonably be thought, that Ma- 
ture has conferr'd all thofc Ad- 
vantages and Benefits for no Life 
and End *, and that the Moon is 
made for no other purpofe^ and 
ferves only to refletfl to us the 
Light of the Sun? See more in 
Ifaac Voflius in his learned Trea- 
tife, de Natura &c Propriet. Lu- 
cis, cap. 19. 

After all, it is not agree'd, 
what Kind of Creatures thefe 
Lunary Inhabitan'^s are : How- 
ever Kepler feems fomewhat p0- 
fitive as to shis Point alfo : Con- 
dudenduica 



Book V. LUCRETIUS, ^if 

Tho' PROPER Light the Moon's pale Face fliould filj 
Yer it might fliew the diff'rent Phases ftill : 
Becaufe, as that bright Body rouls above, 
Another dark, unseei^, thick thing might move 
765 Beneath, and ftop the Rays, divert the Streams 
Of falling Light, and turn away the Beams. 

Or elfe, if like a Ball, half dark, half bright, 
Roul'd round its Axle, may affed the Sight 
With diff'rent Phases, and jQiew various Light : 



I 



Notes. 



Now 



cludendum videtur, fays he in 
his Notes, ad appendic. Seieno- 
graph. in Luna creaturas eiTe 
viventes, rationis, ad ordinata 
facienda, capaces. He affirms 
the fame Thing of the other 
PlanctSj nay even of the Sun it- 
felf ; concerning which, in the 
Epilogue to his fifth Book, he 
breaks out into this Expreflion : 
Vel fcnfus ipfi exdamant, ignea 
hie habitare corpora, mentium 
fimplicium capacia, vereque fo- 
lem efCc -zirupoS" vospa fi non re- 
gem, at faltem regiam. Nor 
IS this fo ft range as what fome 
afTert, who maintain the Moon 
to be the Paradife in which our 
firft Parents were created, and 
from whence, for their Tranf- 
greflion, they were expell'd, and 
driven down to this Earth of 
ours. This Hieronymus Vitalis, 
in Lexic. Mathemat. in voce Pa- 
radifus, endeavours to evince, as 
well from Reafon, as from the 
Authorities of feveral of the Fa- 
thers and Schoolmen. He fays 
indeed, That this is new and un- 
heard of, but not therefore to 
be accounted fooliih and abfurd ; 
Fateor, fays he, id novum, fin- 
gulare, & haiflenus inauditum, 
at non per hoc temerarium, atque 
intolerabile dixeris : Then he 
urges in thefe exprefs words', mo- 
do parti tanta rerum notitii, 
luna* facie Telefcopio penitiflime 
obfcrvata, veterum dicftis expen- 
lis, locis fuper hanc terram in- 
yeftig^tis, Paradifuni in Lun^e 



fuperficie collocari, ratio ipi'a 
compeJlit. The Reader may be 
farther fatisfy'd as to this Mat- 
ter in that Authour ; but it is 
time for us to return to Lucretius. 

761. Tho' proper, &c.] In 
thefe 6. v. he afligns another rea- 
fon, and fays, That if the Moon 
do fhine with unborrow'd Light, 
then we muft imagine that ano- 
ther Body, which is opacous and 
totally dark, always moves with 
the Moon, and obftrU(fls an4 
turns away her Beams. 

This is faid to be the Opinion 
of Anaximander ; who never- 
thelefs believ'd nothing like it • 
For tho' he did perhaps fay, That 
the Moon 'iSiov h/^iii c^^g » had 
her own Light. Piut. de Placic. 
Philofoph. lib. 2. cap. 26. and 
28. (=(p(xa-xsv T£ o-ixmw^ivSoeiSyiy 
^■JiMH(pcvV^i^. Laertius,) 



TS 



yet he never fo much as dreamt 
of any other Body, that mov'd 
about with her, and hinder'd and 
obftruded her Light, 

762. Phafes, &c.] See the Note 
above, v. 757. 

767. Or elfe, &c.] In thefe 29, 
V. he propofes their Opinion, who 
held the one Half of the Moons 
Orb to be light, the other Half, 
dark : Now, fays he, if you 
imagin this Opinion to be true, 
imagin likewife fuch an Orb to 
to be turn'd round on its Axle, 
or Centre, and it will prefene 
the different Phafes we behold in 
the Moon. 



^1 w H a 



t\m 



fi6 



LUCRETIUS, 



Book V. 



770 Now turn that half, which the full Light adorns, 
A Quarter now, now dwindle into Horns. 
And this the later BuiBrLom^n SecSt 
Afferts, and the Ch^ldeUk Schemes rejed : 



As 



N O T £ 5. 

This was the Opinion of Bero- 
fiis, a famous Aftronomer in the 
Days of Antiochus Soter, as alfo 
of the Babylonians, who defend- 
ed this Dodlrine againft a* Secft of 
the Chaldean Aftronomers : who 



as Diodorus Siculus, lib. 2. wit- 
nelTes, agreed with the Greeks, 
that the Moon fhines with Light 
that is not her own : but the Ba- 
bylonians held one half of the 
Moons Globe to be luminous 
the other, dark. And that both 
the Chaldeans and Babylonians 
too were very skilful in Aftrolo- 
gy, we have the Teftimonies of 
Diodor. lib. i. de divin. Pliny 
lib. 7. c. 5(5. and many others : 
NayManiliuslib.i.v. 38. teaches, 
That Aftrology was given by the 
Gods to the Kings of the Chal- 
deans : for it was God, fays he, 

Qui fua difpofuit per tempora, 

cognita ut effent 
Omnibus, & mundi facies. coe- 

lumque fupernum, 
lsratura:que dedit vires, fe qua; 

ipfa rechifit, 
Regales amnios prinium dignata 

movere, 
Qui domuere feras gentes Ori- 

ente fub imo, 
Qiias fecat Euphrates, in quas & 

Niius inundat. 

At whofe command the Stars in 

order met, 
Who Times appointed when to 

rife and fet ; 
That Heav'ns great Secrets might 

lie hid no more. 
And Man, intruded, gratefully 

adore : 
Nature difclos'd her felf, and 

from her Springs 
Pure Streams deriv'd overfiow'd 

the Minds of Kings*, 



Kings next to Heav'n, who o'er 

the Eaft did fway. 
Where fwift Euphrates cuts his 

rapid Way j 
Where Nile o'erflowSjand whence 

the Whirl reftores 
The Day to us. and, pafling, 

burns the Moors. 

Creech' 

772. And this, &c.3 This and 
the following Verfe run thus in 
the Original, 

Lit Babylonica Chald^eiim ^0- 

(ftrina refutans 
Aftrologorum artem contra con- 

vincere tendir. 

Upon which Paflage, if Faber's 
Note be true, our Tranflatour 
fcems to be miftaken in the fenfe 
of his Authour : For that Inter- 
preter there fa; s. That by Baby- 
lonica Chaldaeorum ars, our 
Poet here means only thofe Chal- 
d^ans, who follow'd the Hypo- 
thefis of Berofus againit the vul- 
gar Aftrology : What it was, 
fays he, Plutarch teaches, de Pla- 
citis Philofophorum lib. 2. where 
he afierts, That an Eclipfe of 
the Moon is caus'd v!^ rid -arg^V 

i, e. by her turning towards us 
that Part of her Orb which is 
not iiry. Then he fubjoins. that 
the Chaldeans in this Place is 
the Name of a particular Seci:, 
not of the whole People, as 
might be prov'd out of Herodo-^ 
tus. To which I add this of 
Laertius, 'zrotg^t Vi 'Bct^v?>olvioii-y 
VI 'AcraJgiOj? Xct^iJ'owo;, Ft'/Uvocro- 
(p'l^ou r[^^ Iv^ToTf. And with 
this agrees Cicero, lib, 2. de Di- 
vinat, 

OF 



Book V. 



tUCRETIVS. 



J 17 



OF THE , 

Original and Progress 



o F 



ASTRONOMY 



Among the A n t i e n t s. 




USTRONOMY had its Name ^^ -r^ vo^ 
Ttov oisipc^y, becaufe it teaches the Laws and 
Rules of the Motions of the Stars : But the 
Words Aftronomy and Aftrology were an- 
ciently promifcuoufly us'd one for the other: 
For what Plato calls Aftronomy, Ariftotle and 
others call Aftrology. Thus Salmafius in Plin. Exercitat, 
Tom. I. p. 6. fays, That among the Greeks Thales is faid 
firft ctVfOA07>jo-o«, to aftrologize, tho* he never treated of the 
Judiciary Art. In like manner, Pherecydes was call'd an 
Aftrologer, tho* he was only an Aftronomer : and the Nau- 
tical Aftrology of Phocus the Samian, which fome afcribe to 
Thales, treats only of the Aftronomical Science. Manilius, on 
the contrary, calls his Poem Astronomicon, tho* all of it, 
except the firft Book, treat of judiciary Aftrology. But in 
After- Ages this Synonymy was difcontinu'd : for when the 
apotelefmatick Part, which, from the Site and Afped: of the 
fixed Stars and Planets, teaches to divine their Influences, 
as CO the Production of future Events, came to get footing in 
Greece, where antiently only the Meteorologick Part of it, 
which teaches the Motions of the Stars, was known, they 
3iftinguifh'd them, and gave to the firft the Name of Aftro- 
logy, and call'd the laft Aftronomy ; which is properly un- 
derftood^ and defcrib'd to be, The Science, which con- 
templates the Motion, Diftance, Colour, Light, Order, 
Place, Magnitude^ and the like Adjun<its of the Fixed 

Stars, 



5iS LUCRETIUS, Book V. 

Stars, and of the Planets, without any relpecft to the judicia- 
ry Parr. 

And as this Science itfelf, fo the ProfelTours of it too 
were in like manner doubly diftinguifh'd. Plato, in Epi- 
nomideufes the Words 'Arfovo^avles" and 'A^^ovofxoi, indiffe- 
rent Sences : He underftands, by the firft of them, thofe who 
apply themfelves to difcover the Rifing and Setting of the 
Stars, in order to prognofticate concerning the Seafons of 
the Year, and the Temperature of the Air : By the laft of 
them, he means thofe who particularly confine their Studies 
to the Theory of the Planets. 

The Original of Astronomy, fays Gaflendus, proceeded 
from Admiration 3 Originem ipfi ipfa fecit admiratio, In- 
trodud:. Aftronom. For our Forefathers, aftonifh'd at the 
Splendour, Variety and Multitude of thofe glorious Bodies,and 
obferving their conftant and regular Motions, apply 'd them- 
felves to the Study of this Science, and transferred their admi- 
ration into Obfervations, which, in Procefs of time, they 
mark'd down in Tables, or Parapegma's, for the Inftrudlion 
of Pofteriry : And for this reafon Ricciolus, in his Preface to 
the firft Tome of the New Almageft, affirms Astronomy to 
be almoft coeval with the Stars themfelves : And that, to- 
-gether with other Arts divinely infus'd, it was reduc'd into 
Experiment and Pracftice by Adam himfelf, who, according to 
Suidas, was the Parent and Authour of all Arts and Doc- 
trines; rdrn, fays he, -srotv'Ja hv^^fxcula. k, SiSdyfrnlcx,- Befides, 
that Adam particularly inftrudled Seth in this aftral Science, 
and that too by Writing, is the Opinion of all the Jewilh 
and Arabian Dodtours ; and among them, particularly of 
Gelaldinus Arabs, cited by Kircher in Obelifc. PamphiL 
p. 5. if he be the Authour of the Book, which goes under 
the Title of Liber Creationis ; of which fome are in doubt, 
even tho* it be commented upon,as fuch,by Rabbi Abraham, 
and Rabbi Jofeph Ben Uziel : But however that be, Jo- 
fephus, in the eleventh Book of the Jewifli Antiquities, 
writes, that Seth, having been inftru(5:ed in Aftronomy 
by Adam, and knowing that the World was twice to be 
deftroy'd, once by Water, and once by Fire, reduc'd this 
Art to an Epitome, and for the Information and Benefit of 
Pofterity,ingrav'd it on two Pillars, one of Brick,the other of 
Scone; the firft to preferve it from the Fire, thefecond from 
tht DeluQC - which laft Pillar he affirms to have been re- 

mainln^ 



BookV. LUCRETIUS. fi^ 

itiaining in his Days at a PJace call'd Syrias or Seirath, 
which If. VofTius, lib. i . de ^cate Mundi, Itippofes to be the 
Land that borders on Mount Ephraim, not far from Jericho. 

Seth, the Son of Adam, having thus engrav'd on two 
Pillars, the Theory of this celeftial Science, which h^ had 
receiv'd from his Father; and Astronomy being thus brought 
into the World, the fucceeding Patriarchs, who, by reafon of 
their Longevity, had the Opportunity of obferving many 
aftral Revolutions, cultivated and improv'd it : Nay, fome 
of the Jewifli Dodlours, particularly Rabbi Ifaac Abarbenel 
in Diflertat.de longasvitace prim. Patr. goes fo far as to affirm, 
that the Lives of the Patriarchs were, by the Divine Provi- 
dence, miraculoufly prolonged for no other End, than that 
they might apply themfelves to the Study of this celeftial 
Science : in which the moft celebrated for his Knowledge 
is Enoch, whofe Books on that Subjedl are faid to be ex- 
tant to this Day in the Territories of the Queen of Sheba, 
as Vofllus de Scientiis Mathemat. affirms : at leaft they are 
feveral Times cited by Tertullian and Origen. 

It is not certainly known to what Degree of Improve- 
ment this Science was brought before the Flood : but from 
the Teftimony of Origen, citing the above-mention'd Books 
of Enoch, it appears ; That the Stars were then reduc'd into 
Afterifms, under peculiar and diftindl Denominations, con- 
cerning which that Patriarch, who was the Seventh from 
Adam, writ many fecret and myfterious Things. Befides, 
it is evident from Scripture itfelf. That the Year was then, 
as it is now, computed by twelve Revolutions of the Moon, 
to one of the Sun's through the Zodiack : For it is faid ex- 
prefsly in Genefis, That Noah enter'd into the Ark the feven- 
teenth Day of the fecond Month,and went out of it the twen- 
ty feventh Day of the fecond Month of the Year following : 
In the fame Book likewife exprefs Mention is made of the 
feventh and tenth Months : From whence we may with 
good Reafon infer. That the Patriarchs had then the Know-» 
ledge of the Courfes of the Sun and Moon, with their Pe- 
riod?, and, in all Probability, of the other Planets alfo. 

After the Flood, when Mankind came to be fcatter'd 
over the Face of the whole Earth, Aftronomy began to be 
ftudy'd by feveral Nations, who, no doubt, had their firft 
Knowledge of it from Noah and his Pofterity : And hence 
arofe the Conteft for the Honour of its Invention. But 

fince 



^20 LUCRETIUS. Book V, 

^nce ic cannot be deny*d, that Mankind difpers'd themfelves 
out of Aiia into Africk, Europe, and other Parts of the 
World, the Afiaticks may juftly claim to themfelves the 
Glory of it ; and among them chiefly the Babylonians, 
Chaldeans, and Badrians : of whom the moft renown*d for 
their Skill in this Science are Evahdnes, Belus, Zoroafter, 
and Otanes : as alfo Cidenas, Naburianus, Sudinus, and 
Seleucus the Chaldean. 

From the Affyrians and Chaldeans it came to the Egy- 
ptians, being brought thither by Abraham the Patriarch, as 
Eufebius, lib. 9. Prxparat. Evangel, proves from the autho- 
rity of Jofephus, Eupolemus, Artapanus, and others, as 
they are cited by Alexander Polyhiftor : But Eupolemus 
feems to infer that Abraham, before his Defcent into -^gypt^ 
taught it to the Phoenicians. Others however fay, that Mer- 
cury firft taught the Egyptians Aftronomy, and indeed all 
other Arts and Sciences. This is politively aflerted, not on- 
ly by Jamblichus, but by Plato in Phoedrus, where he calls 
him ^ai^e y^/^f^druv, and by Cicero, lib. 3. Divinar. Vide 
etiam Ladtantium, lib. i. cap. 6. There are others who 
attribute the Honour of it to the Egyptians before the Chal- 
deans, who, fay they, were even themfelves firft inftrudled 
in it by the Egyptians : To make good which Affertion they 
produce the Teftimonies of Diodorus Siculus. Bibliothec, 
lib. I. and of Hyginus Fabul. 271. the firft of whom fays, 
that Babylon was a Colony of the Egyptians, founded by 
Belus of Libya, who inftituted there a College of Priefts, 
to the end they might contemplate the Stars in the fame 
manner as tkofe of Egypt : The laft, that one Evahdnes is 
faid to have come from beyond the Seas into Chaldaea, and 
there to have taught Aftronomy. 

But if this Science were known to the Egyptians, before 
it was to the Babylonians and Chaldeans, how comes it to 
pafs, that the Egyptian Obfervations are fo much later than 
thofe of the Babylonians .^ For we fcarce find any of the 
Egyprian to precede the Death of Alexander the Great j 
than which even thofe of the Greeks are earlier : But the 
Babylonian Obfervations were manifeftly made almoft two 
thoufand Years before that lime. And Cicero, lib. i . de 
Divinat. afcribes it firft to the Affyrians : The Affyrians, ut 
ab ultimis audoritatem repetam, fays he, by reafon of the 
Plainnefs and large Extent of their Countrey, which afford- 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. ^21 

ed them on all fides a dear and open View of Heaven, ob- 
terv'd the Courfe and Motion of the Stars : And having 
fram'd a due Calculation of their Revolutions, they from 
tbence made Predi(5tions of future Events : And amongft 
the Aflyrians, the Chaldeans (non ex artis, fed ex gentis vo- 
cabulo nominati) arriv'd to fuch a Perfedion of Skill, that 
they could foretel what fhould h ppen to any one, and un- 
der what Fate they were born : which Arc the Egyptians 
learnt of them many Ages ago. Thus Cicero. 

There are others neverthelefs who deny this Honour both 
to the Chaldeans and Egyptians, aiTigning the Invention of 
Aftronomy to the Ethiopians : of this Opinion is Lucian, 
^"As^My'iA^' But this AfTertion feems of little Weight, it 
being contrary to the general Stream of Tradition, even 
long before Lueian's Time. 

The Africans too pretend to the Invention of Aftronomy ; 
and among them particularly the Mauritanians, who are 
faid to have been inftrudted in that Science by their King 
Atlas, the Son of Libya. 

Aristotle afcribes the Invention of it wholely to the 
Babylonians and the Egyptians : 'Ar/Moi, ^ Ba^v?,mioi, ^^l^ 

cJv 'sroMctV ^isei?. gX^/x*^ -t^ sxotVa rcov (}!s'f'Cov ' And how the 
Egyptians came to be skilful in that Science, Ptolomy, who 
was himfelf of Egypt, gives us this reafon, on f^dmv awoi-A.Sv'^ 

TO?S" AiSvjUOi^, KjTzS tS "Efywa • And why ? S^ioyn^ S^voir/jiOf 
Tg Xj crvvz]oi Kj oAw? tx.&.vo] 'srsg) tcc f^cf.^yf^aUcK,. Of the Babylo- 
nians . he fays, ori rvt -srotf Gtvw k^ tcS rS ''E^/aa cruvouta v'^, Sio Xj 
^jrctf' o,v%lg TO /uct9M/Wct1<x.ov Xj 'Sc^.'Jsf hIocqi' TiTy ecrsfoiv avn^ri^. 

Thus from the feveral Nations before-mention'd, Aftro- 
nomy feems to have been antiently divided into three dif- 
ferent and chief Sed:s, that is to fay, the Aflyrian, under 
which is compfehended the Babylonian and the Chaldaick, 
the Egyptian, and the Mauritanian or Atlantick : Of which 
laft neverthelefs the Romans made no account ; for among 
ihem were enumerated only thefe three Sed:s, the Chal- 
daick, Egyptian and Grecian : Now Eudoxus is faid to 
have been the firft, who from the Egyptians brought Aftro- 
nomy to his Countreymen the Greeks : and Beroius to have 
brought into Greece the Science of Genethlialogy from his 

X X X Countrey- 



522 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

Countreytnen the Chaldeans. Vitruvius, lib. 9. cap. 7. 
Eorum autem invenciones, quas fcriptis reliquerunr, qua fo- 
lercia, quibufque acuminibiis, & quam magni fuerint, 
qui ab ipfa Chalda?orum natione profluxeruntj oftendunt : , 
Primufque Berofus in infula, &c civitate Coa confedit, ibique 
aperuit difeiplinam. And Pliny fays, that the Athenians 
publickly eredted a Statue with a golden Tongue to Bero- 
fus, for his divine Predidions. After him Antipater and 
Achinapolus were reputed famous Genethlialogifts. Of Na- 
tural Caufes and Effeds, Thaies, Anaxagoras, Pythagoras, 
Xenophanrus, and Democritus are efteem'd the moft emi- 
nent Obfervers. After them, following their Inventions, 
and oblerving befides the Rife and Setting of the Stars, and 
the Seafons of the Year, Eudaemon, Callifthus, iVlelo, Phi- 
lippus, Hipparchus, Aratus, 8cc. left to Pofterity their Aftro- 
logicai Prognofticks, in their Tables, which are call'd Pa- 
rapegma's : Of which fee Geminus and Theon in Arati Phsc- 
nom Thus tho* it be certain, that the Greeks deriv'd their 
Knowledge in Aftronomy from the Chaldeans and Egy- 
ptians, yet fo great was their Prefumption, as confidently to 
affirm, that the Invention of it- was due to them, particu- 
larly to the Rhodians, from whom they pretend that the 
Egyptians receiv'd it, as Diodorus Siculus reports in the 
Story of the Heliadre : And laftly, others of them afcribe its 
Original to their Poet Orpheus : but thofe Opinions favour 
too much of the Fable : and therefore we may rather fub» 
fcribe to their Belief, who hold. That Thaies the Milelian 
firft brought Aftronomy into Greece, having . deriv'd his 
Knowledge in that Science from the Egyptians. 

After Thaies, it was improved by Anaximander, Anaxi- 
menes, Anaxagoras, Democritus, Empedocles, Eudtemon, 
, Meton, Eudoxus, and others of the Athenian School, till 
the time that Alexander the Great founded the City of 
Alexandria in Egypt. After which the Ptolemies, his Sue- 
cefTours, having ereded there an Academy for all manner 
of Studies, the Grecian Aftronomy made its retreat thi- 
ther ; and fionrifli'd under thofe Princes in equal Glory 
with the Egyptian : And from thence we hear of the fa- 
mous Names of Autolychus, Calippus, Timochares, Ari- 
ftyllus, Eratofthenes, Conon, Hipparchus, Sofigenes, Theon 
the Elder, Ptolemy, Paulus the Alexandrian, Theon the 
Younger, furnam'd likewifethe Alexandrian, andhis Daugh- 
ter, the excellent;, but unfortunate, Hypatia. 

Ic 



Book V. LUCRETIUS, ^25 

It was long before Aftronomy was introdncd into Italy, 
or had any Profeflburs among the Romans : For tho' Dion 
Prufieus in Orat. 49. affirm, That the Pythagoreans inftrudt- 
cd the Italians in that Science, and that in all Probability 
the Dod^rine of Philolaus, Timseus, Archytas, and others, 
the Fame of whofe Learning had invited even Plato himlelf 
to make a Voyage into Italy, could not have been conceal'd 
from the curious and ingenious Romans; yet that martial 
People, who were more addicted to Arms than Arts, en- 
tertain'd but late and flowly too, thefe fpeculative Studies : 
Nor, to pafs bv the rude Sketches of Numa Pompilius, 
does the Roman Hiftory mention any Perfons, as confi- 
derably knowing in Aftronomy, before Caius Sulpicius 
Gallus, who was Legate to ^miljus Paulus, in the War 
againft Perfes, King of Macedon, and who firft among 
them publifh'd a Treatife of hclipfes. After him, we read 
That Lucius Taruntius, Nigidius Figulus, Varro, and Ci- 
cero apply d themfelves to the Study of Aftronomy : But 
ro none of the Romans is that Science fo much indebted, as 
to their Great Didatour C, Julius Caefar, who, as Lucan 
witneHes, 

Media inter prselia femper 



Stellarum, cselique plagis, fuperifque vacabar. 

And who aflifted by the Egyptian So(igenes, reduc'd the 
Roman Year to the Courfe of the Sun, which we yet re* 
cain ; and writ a Treatife. of the Stars in the Greek Tongue, 
From him the Mathematical Arts, and particularly Aftrono^ 
my, began to flouriOi among the Romans : And after his 
Example, Auguftus C^efar, who was his Nephew and Suc- 
cefTour, encourag'd the Study of it. 

Let this fuffice as a brief Indication of the firft Rife and 
\uthours of Aftronomy, and of the Promoters of it among 
he Antients It would perhaps be too tedious to continue 
he Progrefs of it down to thefe times, and to (hew when, 
low, and by whom it has been improved, and brought to 
hat Degree of Perfedion, to which it is now arrived, 

' ' ' ■ ' II ." ' U i - II i ■ . . I I . I iM L iiii . im II iw^waMi^— a^^Wwa^ij^MB^ 



524 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

As if it could not either way be done, 
775 But powerful Reafons fix d our Choice on one; 

But why the Moons a monthly Round purfue ? 

Why one fo long, not ev'ry Day a new ? 

Why are they fram'd, endure, and always ceafe 

At this {ct Time ? The Caufe is told with eafe j 
780 Since other Things at certain Times appear, 

And only then: Thus Seafons of the Year : 



N T £ 5. 



Firft 



774.. As if, &c.] Herewefeei 
that tho' Lucretius, after Epicu- 
rus, believ'd the iirft Opinion to 
be the moft probable, yet he 
does not condemn the later. And 
thus too Epicurus in Laertius, 
lib. 10. fays, that tho' one Kea 
fon, may feem better than any of j 
the other, for the Solution of 
any . Problem whatever, yet we' 
ought nor therefore immediately 
to condemn all the reft that may 
be given , if they have any 
Appearance of Truth, even 
tho' but one of them can be true. 
77^. But why, ^c] In thefe 
27. v. he propofes the Opinion of 
Epicuru?, who held that the 
Moon is created and dies daily, 
in a certain Form and Figure : 
In like manner a5 he held the 
Sun to be daily extinguilli'd in 



Perceiv'ft thou not the Pro_ 

cefs of the Year 
How the four Seafons in four 

Forms appear, 
Refsrabling human Life in' 

ev'ry Shape they wear ? 
Sprmg firft, like Infancy^' 

flioots out her Head, 
With milky juide requiring to' 

be fed , 
Helplefs,tho' frcili; and want-* 

ing to be led. 
The green Stem grows in Stature 

and in Size, 
But only feeds with Hope the 

Farmer's Eyes : 
Then laughs the child iili Year, 

with Flowrets crown'd. 
And laviflily perfumes the Fields 

around ; 
But no fubftantial Nourifhment^ 

receives ; 



the Welt,, and created again in j Infirm the Stalks, unfolid are 

the Eaft. And that this may be, the Leaves. 

fays he, feveral other Things de- Proceeding omvard, whence the. 

monftrate : For thus, at certain I Year began, 

and inviolable Times, the Sear The Summer grows adult, and> 



fons of the Year follow one ano- 
ther : The Spring precedes the 
Summer ■, the Summer the Au- 
tumn ; the Autumn the Winter ; 
TheWinter^the Spring,&c.Ovid. 
Metam. 15. v. 1^6. defcribes in 
like manner the conftant Succef- 
fion of the four Seafons of the 
Year, and compares them to the 
four Ages of Man's Life. I 
omit the Original for Brevi- 
ties fake, and will only give 
Dryden's Tranllation of it to 
ill nitrate this PalTage of Lucre- 
tius •. ' 



ripens into Man 
This Seafon, as in Men, is moft 

replete 
Vv^ith kindly Moifture, and pro-i 

lifick Heat. 
Autumn fucceeds ; a fober, tepid- 

Age, 
Not froze with Fear, nor boil- 
ing in tjo Rage; i 
More than mature, and tending 

to Decay, 
When our brown Locks repine to 

mix with odious Grt;y. 

Laft 



Book V. 



LUCRETIUS. 



T^r 



Firft Spring, and Ve2{vs kindeft Pow'rs infpire 
Soft Wilhes, melting Thoughts, and gay De(ire j 
And warm F^ vokivs fans ch' amorous Jt^ire 5 



Then 



NOTES. 



Laft Winter fweeps along with 

tardy Pace, 
Sour is his Front, and furrow'd 

is his Face : 
His Scalp, if not diHionour'd 

quite of Hair, 
The ragged Fleece is thin ; and 

thin is worfe than bare. 

782. Venus,] For Venus, the 
Goddefs of Generation accom- 
panies the vernal Seafon ; as Lu- 
cretius himfelf elegantly lings at 
the Beginning of the firft Book ; 
which Drydenhas no lefs elegant- 
ly render 'd in thefe Verfes. 



Delight of humane Kind, ^'and 
Gods above : 

Parent of Rome : propitious 
Queen of Love : 

Whofe vital Pow'r, Air, Earth, 
and Sea fuppJies, 

And breeds whate'er is born be- 
neath the rouling Skies : 

For ev'ry Kind, by thy proliiick 
Might, 

Springs, and beholds the Rcgi- 
. ons of the Light : 

Thee, Goddefs, Thee the Clouds 
and Tempefts fear ; 

And at thy pleafing Prefencedif- 
appear : 

For Thee the Land in fragrant 
Flow'rs is drefs'd ; 

For Thee the Ocean fmilcs 
and fmooths her wavyBreaft 

AndHeav'n itfelf with more fe- 
reneand purerLight is blefs'd. 

For when the riling Spring adorns 
the Mead, 

And a new Scene of Nature 

• ftands difplay'd ; 

When teeming Buds, and cheer- 
ful Greens appear, 

And Weftcrn Gales unlock the 
iazy Year ; 



The joyous Birds Thy Welcome 

firft exprefs, 
Whofe native Songs Thy genial 

Fire confefs : 
Then favage Beafts bound o'er 

their flighted Food, 
Struck with Thy Darts, and 

tempt the raging Flood : 
All Nature is Thy Gift;' 

Earth, Air, and Sea, 
Of all that breathes the vari-' 

ous Progeny, 
Stung with Delight, is goaded 

on by Thee. 
O'er barren Mountains, o'er 

the flow'ry Plain, 
The leafy Foreft, and the li-^ 

quid Main, 
Extends thy uncontroul'd and 

boundlefs Reign. 
Through ail the living Regions 

Thou doft ra.ove. 
And fcatter'ft, where Thou go'It, 

the kindly Seeds of Love. 

See B. L V. I. 

Moreover, our Tranflatour has 
repeated this and the two follow- 
ing Verfes from B. L v. 19. tho* 
his Authour have not. 

784. Favonius, 3 The "Wefr 
Wind, of which Book L v, 21. 
Lucretius here calls it Zephyrus : 
which is likewife a Wind that 
blows from the Equinocftial 
Weft, contrary to the Wind 
call'd SubfolanuSj which blows 
from the Equinoc'^ial Eaft. It 
was fo call'd from t,ca;j(poc^^y 
that brings Life ; becaufe, when 
it blows, all things bud and ilioot 
forth. This Wind was feign'd 
to be the Fore-runner of Venus, 
becaufe it blows chiefly in the 
Spring, with which Seafon Venus 
is faid to be moft delii^hted. 

785. Flora 



526 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

785 Then Mother Flor^^ to prepare the Way, 

Makes all the Field look glorious, green, and gay 5 
And freely fcatters with a bounteous Hand 
Her fweeteft, faireft Flowers o'er the Land: 
Next Heat, and dufty Harvest take the Place, 

790 And fofc Etes iJs fan the Sun-burnt Face. 
Then fweaty Autumn treads the noble Vine, 
And flowing Bunches give immortal Wine : 

Next 

NOTES. 



785. Flora, 3 Lacftantius de 
falla Religione, lib. i. calls 
her Faula : for which Voffius 
there reads Flaura : flie was, as 
Yerrms in the fame Authour 
fays, Scortum Herculis, the Har- 
lot of Hercules : but according 
to others, il\e was a Roman 
Dame, who, by her lewd PraJii- 
ces having heap'd up a great deal 
of Money, bequeathed her Eftate, 
when Ihe dy'd, to the Common- 
Wealth of Rome. This is cer- 
tain, That the Senate made her 
theGoddefs of Flowers, Gardens 
and Meadows: ut pudend^e rei 
quccdam dignitas haberetur, as 
Lacftantius in the Place above- 
cited tells us : They inftituted 
likewife Feftivalsin her Honour, 
call'd Floraliajwhich is confirm'd 
by Ovid; lib. 5. Faftorum : 

Convenere Patres , & (i bene 
floreat annus, 

Numinibus veftris annua Fefta 
vovent, 

And the fame Poet acquaints us. 
that thefe Solemnities were per- 
form'd towards the later end of 



Ireque florefcerent, fays Lacftan-^ 
tins in the fame Place. And in 
thefe Floralia, vile, impudent 
Strumpets were wont to dance 
naked in the Streets to the Sound 
of Trumpets : to which Cu- 
ftom Juvenal alludes , Sat. 6. 
v. 249. 



Dignifllima prorfus 



Florali matrona tubd, 



April : 

Incipij Aprilij tranfis in tempo- 
ra. Maij ; 

Alter te fugiens, cum venit, 
alter, abit, 

Thefe Feftivals therefore were 
inftituted, ut fruges cum arbo- 
ribusj aut vitibus ben? prp^pe- 



790. Etefia's, ] The Etefias 
are Winds, that blow conftant- 
ly for about eleven Days to- 
gether in the Heat of Summer, 
and chiefly after the Rife of the 
Dog-Star. Hence they are call'd 
Etefia, which is as much as to 
fay. Annual, from the Greek 
Word sTor, a Year. Thus Pli- 
ny, lib. 37. cap. 5. & Aul. Gell. 
lib. 2. cap. 18. Strabo calls them 
Subfolani, of v/hich fee above 
V. 78 4. others Weft Winds, and 
others Eaft, and Lucretius in 
this Place makes them North 
Winds ; Etefia flabra Aquilo- 
num. See more E. VI. V. 718. 

792. And flowing Bunches. Sec."] 
Lucr. Graditur fimul Evius E- 
van. Bacchus was call'd Evius 
and Evan, from the Word hvcol, 
which the mad Bacch^ or Bac- 
chides us'd in their Orgies ; 
Ovid. lib. 4. Metam. v. 15. 

Nycfleiiufque, EleleufqueParenSj 
dc Jacchus ^ Ev^n. 

^ ?%}^ The. 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. ^27 

Next roars the fcrong-lung'd Southern Blaft, and 
The infant Thunde,r on his dreadful Wings : (brings 

795 Then Cold purfues, the North feverely blows, 
And drives before it chilUng Frosts, and Snows : 
And next deep Winter creeps, grey, wrinkled, old,' 
His Teeth all fliatter. Limbs all fliake with Cold : 
Therefore no wonder fure the Moon fhould rife 

Soo At certain Times, and that agam fhe dies 

At certain Times 5 fince thouland Things are fhown 
At fixt and conftant Times, and then alone. 

Eclipses may be folv'd a thoufand ways ; 
For if the Moon can ftop defcending Rays 

805 By thrufting her dark self between, and fo 
Bring liiddain Shade, and Night on all below ; 
Then give me Reafons, why there can not be *]! 

Another Thing, too dark for us to fee, J> 

And fit to ftop the Rays, as well as She ? 3 

810 Or, why the circling Sun, in pafling by -p 

Some venomous Places of the neighbouring Sky, >> 
May not grow sick, and pale, and almoft die ? 3 
Thofe paft, grow well, regain his former Light ? 
Thus fometimes make us Day, andfometimes Night^ 

Si 5 And whilft the Moons their monthly Courfes run. 
Within the reach of Earth's dark fliadowing Cone, 

If 
N T E S, 



793. The flrong-lung'd fou- 
thern Blaft, J Lucretius. 

Altitonans Vulturnus3& Aufter 
fulmine pollens. 

Vulturnus, of which Creech 
takes no Notice, is the South- 
Eaft Wind, fays Agell. lib. 2. 
cap. 22. Aufter is the South 
"Wind, and generally blows in 
Autumn. 

803. Eclipfes, &c.] In thefe 
21. V, he treats of the Eclipfes 
of the Sun and Moon : The Sun, 
fays he, is eclips'd, when the 
Moon, or any opacous Body, be- 
low his Globe, interpofes be- 
tween that and the Earth, and 
thus intercepts his Beams, and 1 
hinders thofe Kays of Light from ^ 
coming forward to the Earth.! 



The Moon is eclips'd, when Hie 
happens to be in the ihadow of 
the Earth, or any other opacous 
Body, that is interpos'd between 
her Orb, and the Sun ; Belides ; 
why may not both the Sun and 
the Moon grow faint and licken, 
nay, as it were, fall into a Swoon, 
when they chance to go thro' any 
Places of the Heavens, that are 
infe<ftious to them, and deftruc- 
tive of their Fires and Light ? 
This laft was the Opinion of 
Xenophanes. 

Bi6. Within the reach, Scc,2 
Lucretius. 

Menftrua dum rigidas Coniper- 
labitur umbras. 

That is to fay. While the Moon» 
in her monthly Courfc, pafTes 

by 



SiS LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

If then revengeful Earth can ftop the Light, 
If fhe can hide the fickning Moon in Night : 
Why can not other Things divert the Streams, 
820 The failing Streams of Light, and ftop the Beams ? 

Or 
NOTES. 



by the rigid Shadow of the 
Earth ; which Shadow is of a 
Conick Figure. But fome in- 
terpret Coni to be meant of the 
Earth itfelf , as if it were 
acovoeiSyiSy iliap'd like a Cone, 
becaufe Ariftotle, lib. 2. Me- 
teor, fays, that the Earth is 
Hiap'd like a Tymbrel, and that 
the Lines drawn from its Cen- 
tre make two Cones : but the 
Poet means the Lunar Eclipfe 
is made, by reafon of the Sha- 
dow of the Earth, that ftretches^ 
out in the fliape of a Cone. 

818. The lick'ning Moon,] 
The antient Heathens were of 
Opinion, that Witches, by mut- 
tering fome Charms in Verfc, 
caus'd the Eclipfes of the Moon -, 
which they conceiv'd to be, when 
the Moon, the Goddefs of the 
Earth, was brought down from 
her Sphere by the virtue of thofe 
Incantations :They believed like- 
wife, that in chefc Eclipfes, ilie 
ficken'd and labour'd, as in an 
Agony, and luifer'd a Kind of 
Death : Of this Belief were even 
Stelichoras and Pin3ar, as Pliny 
relates, lib. 2. cap. 12. Milton, 
tho' not of the fame Opinion, 
yet defcribes this foolilli Be- 
lief, 

Not uglier follow the Night- 
Hag-, when, call'd 

In fee ret, riding thro' the Air, 
file comes, 

Lur'd with the Smell of Infant 
Blood, to dance 

With Lapland Witches, while 
the lab'ring Moon 

Eclipfes at their Charms* 

AndiLeein,thp,Tragedyof OE- 
dipus, fpsakingpf chs Mooa in 
Edipfcj 



-'The Silver Moon is all o'er 



Blood 
A i'ettling Crimfon ftains her 

beauteous Face : 
Sound there, found all our In- 

ftruments of War ; 
Clarions, and Trumpets, Silver, 

Brafs, and Ir'n, : ^j 

And beat a thoufand Drums to 

help her Labour. 

The vain Heathens farther be- 
liev'd. That the MoOn being by 
thefe Inchantments brought 
down from Heaven, they were 
at thofe times in danger of loilng 
that celeftial Light : and there- 
fore they made a great Noife by 
beating of brafs VefTels, by ring- 
ing of Bells, founding of Trum- 
pets, whooping, hallowing, and 
the like, to drown the Witches 
Mucterings, that the Moon not 
hearing them, they might be 
render'd ineffedual, and llie fuf- 
fer no hurt. Thus Medea in 
Ovid boafts that fhe could draw 
down the Moon from Heaven : 

Te quoque, Luna, traho, quam 

Tcmefisa labores 
^-ra tuos minuant. ■ 

Metam. 7. v. 207. 
And Tibullus. 

Cantus & e curru lunam didu- 
cere tentat, 

Et facerent, fi non xrn repulfa 
fonent. 

And Statius. 6. Theb. 

-Attonitis quoties divellittir 



aftris 
Soils opaca foror, procul auxili- 

antia gcntes 
^ra crepant. < , • 

And 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 

Or if the Moon fhines with a nat'ral Ray, 
As thro' infedious Air fhe cuts her way, 
Why may not flie grow fick, her Flames decay > 

N O T £ 5. 



^29 



Since 



And Seneca in Hippolytus. 

£t nuper rubuic, nullaque lu> 

cidis 
Nubes fordidior yultubus ob- 

ftitit : 
At nos folliciti lumine turbi- 

do, 
Tracftam ThefTalicis carminibus 

rati, 
Tinnitus dedimus 

And Livy Dccad. 7. 3. (peaks of 
it J as of an ordinary Cuftom, 
in thefe Words : Qualis in de- 
fe(ftu Lun^e filenti no(f^e fieri fo- 
let, edidit clamorem. And Ju- 
venal fays pleafantly enough of a 
loud fcolding Woman, that ilie 
alone was able to relieve the 
Moon out of an Eclipfe : 



• Jam nemo tubas atque ^ra 

Una laboranti potent fuccurrere 

Luna:. Sat. 6. v. 442 



And this abfurd Superftition was 
fo grounded in the Pagans, that 
after many of them were become 
Chriftians, it v^as not quite 
rooted out : not even in St. Am- 
brofe's time, whofe reprehenfion 
of this Piece of Paganifm is ci- 
ted by Turncbus in Adverfar. 
And Maxim us likewife blames it 
in a Homily de Defedu Lunjc. 
And Bonincontrius, who liv'd 
yet feveral Ages later, affirms, 
That he himfelf had feen this 
abfurd Cuftom pradlis'd upon 
the like Occafion, by his own 
Countreymen, the Italians. The 
Turks continue it to this Day, as 
Scaliger affirms : And Plutarch 
in the Life of .Smilius reports. 



(That the Romans, befides their 
Beating of brazen Veflcls, found- 
^ ing of Trumpets, &c. were wont 
to reach up flaming Links and 
Torches towards Heaven, to re- 
fupply, and kindle again the 
Light of the Moon, which they 
believ'd by Charms to be extin- 
guilh'd. Delrius in Senec. Tra- 
goed. fays, he has read, that the 
Indians are wont with Tears and 
Lamentations to bewail this De- 
fe(ft or Deliquium of the Moon, 
believing the Sun had then whipc 
her till flie bled, to which they 
impute the Caufe of her dark 
and fanguine Colour. In Com- 
mentar. ad Hippolyt. pag. 195. 
Vide etiam Turnebum in Ad- 
verfar. lib. 22. cap. 23. and 24. 
And Pincierus in Parerg. Otif 
Marpurg. lib. 2. cap. 37. Of 
this fuppos'd fainting of the 
Moon Wowerus alfo makes men- 
tion in his Pst'gnion de Umbf^, 
cap. 8. towards the End, But 
we may farther obferve, that the 
Arabians believ'd the Moon to 
be in the like Agony, when (lis 
eclips'd the Sun, as appears by a 
Cuftom they obferv'd at their 
new Moon. For keeping holy 
the Day of their Neomenia, or 
New-Moon, and believing it un- 
lucky to have the Moon fuffer 
any Hurt on that Day, they were 
wont, becaufe Ihe might on that 
day ecliple the Sun, the Solar 
Eclipfe happening when theMoon 
is new, to defer the Celebration 
of their Neomenia till the nexc 
Day : or at leaft for fixteen 
Hours, till the Sun was paft the 
Eclipfe. And hence it is that 
the Aftronomers diftinguiUi the 
Neomenia of the Arabians, into 
the Coeleftis , which was the firft 
and natural Timejand theCivilis, 
which was not the true time, but 
Y y y the 



S10 



LUC R E T lU S. 



Book V. 



Since IVe the Motions taught of Stars above, 
825 How Sun, and Moon, and by what Caufe they move 5 
And how, eclips'd, they lofe their gawdy Light, 
And fpread o'er all an unexpeded Night, 
As if they wink'd, and then with open Eyes 
View*d all again, and clear'd the lower Skies : 
S30N0W let's defcend again to new-born Earth, 
And find to what (lie gave the fooneft Birth : 
What fort of Beings, which of all the Kinds 
She firft durft venture to the faithlefs Winds. 

She, firft of all, green Herbs, and Flow'rs did 
855 And fpread a gawdy Green o'er all the Field : (yield. 

And 
NOTE S. 

the Day following, and on which i other the. like ignoble Animals,- 
they celebrated their Neomeniaj what may we not reafonably be- 



to avoid the ill Luck, and im- 
profperous Accidents,which their 
Superftition made them appre- 
hend. See Nicolaus Mulerius in 
his Diatribe de Anno Arabico, 
in the Explication of the Arabi- 
bian Epocha, or the Hegyra. Ub- 
bo Emmius has inferted it in his 
Chronology between the fourth 
and fifth Books. 

824. Since, &c.] Having ex- 
plain'd after his manner the Mo- 
tions of the Sun, Moon, and 
Star?, he defcends from Hea- 
ven to his native Element, 
4-nd in thefe 10. v. tells us that 
tie is, going to defcribe the Rife 
and 6rigine of Things from the 
Earth, the common Parent of 

all. 

834. She firft, &c.] Lucretius 
defcribes the Rife of things from 
the new-form'd Earth in fo live- 
ly a manner, that he feems even 
t^ have been prefent at their 
Birth. And firft in thefe 21. v. 
he tells us, that the Earth firft 
ppoduc'd the Grafs, Herbs, and 
fl<>wers, then the Trees, then 
she kfs perfed^, and laft the moft 
(Excellent Animals. For, fays he, 
fince we fee, that e%'en now, \vhen 
the whole World is decay'd, and 
\yorn out to a great Degree, ilie 
Aiil produces Mice, frogs, and 



licve of her, when both herfelf 
and her Husband ^ther, '^\tere 
in their blooming Age ? 

Here we maty take notice that 
the Order, w^hich Lucretius ob- 
ferves in the Creation of Things, 
differs very little from that,.' for 
which we have a better Authori- 
ty than his : But let us hear a 
Chriftian Poet defcribe the fame 
Thing. 

-Then the Earth, 



Defart, and bare, unfightly, un- 

adorn'd, V 

Brought forth the tender Grafs, 

whofe verdure clad 
Her univerfal Face with pleafant 

Green. . ' 

Then Herbs of ev'ry Leaf, thar 

fuddain flow'r'd, • 

Op'ning their various Colours, 

and made gay 
Her Bofom fmelling fweet : And' 

thefe fcarce blown, 
Forth flouriHi'd thick the clu- 

ft'ring Vine, forth crept 
The fmelling Gourd, upftood 

the corny Reed 
Embattel'd in her Field, and 

th* hurtible Shrub, 
And Bufh, with frizzled Hair 

irnplicit : Lift, 
Rdfe as in Dance the ftately 

Tree's, and fpread 

Their 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. y^\ 

And next the Tree, with fpreading Br^nches^ fhpotjj- 
But clofely fixt, and bound with fteddy Roots. * 

As Bristles, Hairs, and Plumes are firft defign'd 
O'er Limbs of Beasts, and o'er the winged Kind • 
840 So new-born Earth with Herbs and Trees began* 
And then by various Ways bore Beast, and Man : * 
For Heav*n, 'tis certain, did not fafliion all ; 7 

Then Jet the various Creatures downwards fall: > 
Nor Seas produce an earthly Animal, 3 

845 And therefore Parent Earth does jufVly bear 
The Name of Mother, fince all rofe from her : 
She now bears Animals, when foft ning Dew (new ? 
Defcends; when Sun fends Heats, she bears a thoufand 
Then who can wonder now, that then She bore 

850 Far flronger, bulky Animals, and more, 

When both were young, when both in Natures Pride j 
Aluftly Bridegroom He, and She a buxomeBRiDE? 

Firft, of all Animals, in teeming Spring, 
TheFEATHER'DKiNDpeep'dfor[h,andclap'dtheirWing: 

As 

NOTE S. 



Their Branches hung with copi- 
ous Fruit, or gem'd 

Their BloiToms : With high 
Woods the Hills were crown'd, 

With Tufts the Valleys, and each 
Fountain-fide, 

With Borders long the Rivers. — - 

847. She now, &c. Here the 
Poet proves by a Similitude, that 
all Animals did in the Beginning 
proceed from theHumidity ofthe 
Earth, warm'd and impregnated 
by the Heat of the Sun, in like 
manner as we now fee Worms 
and Infedts generated, 

849. Then who, &c.] Lucre- 
tius forefeeing that it might be 
objeded, that perfecfi: and adult 
Animals do not now burft out 
of the Earth, intimates in this 
Place, that the Sun is now grown 
a.difabled Lover, and the Earth 
pad her teeming Time : and thus 
their Vigour being exhaufted, 
they can not now produce Hor- 
fc5^ Lions, &c. nor any of thofe 
i^rge Allinials, wjtiich t|iey did 



in the Beginning of the World, 
when they were both in the 
Prime, and Flower of their 
Age. 

853, 854-. Firil, &c.]In thefe 19- 
V. he fays. That firft of all Ani- 
mals, and that too in the Spring, 
for that was the moft proper 
Seafon, the Birds were batch 'd 
from Eggs, which, as Milton ex- 
prefles it, 

Burfting with kindly Rupture, 

forth difclos'd 
Their callow young : but fea- 

ther'd Toon, and fledge. 
They fum'a their Pens, and 

foaring rh' Air fublime. 
With Clang defpis'd thj? 

Ground : . — . 

For, fays our Poet, they had 
Growth and Strength fufficient 
to go in fearch of their Food: 
Then from certain little Bags 
or Bladders, which he calls 
Wombs, and that iluck to the 
Earth, the other Aniaials, an4 
¥ y y 3 'Me^i 



n^ 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 



855 As even now our tender Insects ftrive 

To break their Bags, get forth, and eat, and live, 



Next 



NOTES. 



Men themrelfes burft forth: 
while for their nourifliment, a 
proper Liquor, very like Milk, 
flowed from the Veins of Mother 
Earth into their infant Mouths ; 
For we ought to believe, that the 
Earth, when fhe brought forth 
her young, had Milk no lefs then 
Women now ad ays, when they 
bring forth their Children. Thus 
the Earth fupply'd them with 
Food, the Temperature of the 
Air was fnch that they needed no 
Garments, and the Meadows, 
thick with Grafs, afforded them 
cafy Beds. 

This firft Manner of the Ori- 
gine of Things Lucretius ex- 
plains according to the Opinion of 
Animaxander,and of feme others 
of the antient Philofophers, as 
we fee in the firfb Book of Dio- 
dorus Siculus, near the begin- 
ning, where he fays, That the 
Earth firft ftiffen'd and grew 
together, when the circumfus'd 
Fire of the Sun had eniighten'd, 
and warm'd it all around : Then, 
when, by reafon of its being thus 
heated, the outmoft Surface of 
it was in a manner fermented, 
feme Humidities fwell'd in ma- 
ny Places, and in them there 
grew certain flimy ft inking Sub- 
dances , involv'd in tenuious 
>lembranes : the like to which 
jnay be feen to this DayinFens and 
Marilies, where the Waters ftag- 
nare, when after cold Weather, 
the Air grows hot on a fuddain, 
and is not chang'd by Degrees : 
Now thofe humid Things , 
'vhich we mention'd before, be- 
ing animated by the Heat, re- 
ceiv'd Nourifliment in the Night 
by thi Mifts that fell from a- 
bove : but in the Day were con- 



folidated and hardened by the 
Heat. Laftiy, When they that 
grew in the Wombs of the Earth, 
had attain'd their due Growth, 
the Membranes, being burft and 
broken to pieces, difclos'd the 
Forms and Shapes of aJl Kinds 
of Animals : And fuch of thefe 
as had the greateft Share of 
Heat, went to the higher Places, 
and became Birds : but fuch of 
them as had retain'd the earthly 
Solidity, were reckon'd in the 
rank of Reptiles, and other ter- 
reftrial Animals: And thofe that 
participated moft of the Nature 
of Maiij ran together to the 
Places, where human Kind af- 
fembled, and which was call'd 
the Place of their Birth. Thus 
far Diodorus. 

854. Thefeather'd Kind, &c.] 
It is queftion'd by fome, whe- 
ther Birds, which are generally 
call'd Genus aereum, and in the 
facred Scripture it felf, Volati- 
lia Coeli, may be properly rec- 
kon'd among terreftrial Ani- 
mals, Ovid, in his Diftribution 
of Animals at the Creation, 
feems not to allow them to be fo. 

Aftra tenent coelefte folum, for- 

mt^que Deorum, 
Ceflerunt nitidis habitandtE pi- 

fcibus unda?. 
Terra feras cepit, volucres agita- 

bilis Aer. Metam. i. v. 73. 

Cicero obferves the like Difpofi- 
tion in the fecond Book of the 
Nature of the Gods, and in Ti- 
mceus : fo too does Ariftotle, as 
he is cited bv Plutarch in 5, de 
Placit. Phi'lofoph. To thefe 
may be added the Belief of 
the antient Greeks, and which 

they 



sv 



BookV. LUCRETIUS. ,,, 

Next Beasts, and thoughtful Man received their Birth : 
For then much vital Heat in Mother Earth, 

Much 
N0TB5. 



they had from the Egyptians, 
That Birds were produc'd before 
the Earth itfelf was form'd, to 
which Ariftophanes in Avibus 
alludes. But Manilius more tru- 
ly places them upon Earth : 
fpealcing of which he fays, 

Hanc circum varias gentes ho- 
minum atque ferarum, 

Aeriarque colunt volucres. • 

lib. I. V. 2-^6. 

Apuleius agrees with Manilius, 
and ends the Controverfy in 
thefe Words : Si fedulo animad- 
vertas, ipf* quoque aves, ter- 
reftre animal, non aerium, per- 
hibeantur ; fcmper enim illis 
vi<flus omnis in terra ; ibidem 
pabulum, ibidem cubile , tan- 
tumque aera proximum terr^e 
volando verberant : iterum cum 
illis fefia funt remigia alarum, 
terra ceu portus eft. That is. 



a Bird without an Egg : for fo 
Cenforinus propofes the Quefti- 
on ; Avefne ante, an ova gene- 
rata fint, ciim & ovum fine ave, 
& avis fine ovo gigni non poflit ? 
de die natali, cap. 14. Difarius 
in Macrobius Saturnal. lib. 7. 
c^- 16. fums up the Arguments 
on both fides, and gives the De- 
cifion, of which the deader may 
there be inform 'd. 

857. NextBeafts, &c.] Mil- 
ton's defcription of the firft 
Beaits rifing out of the Ground 
at their Creation, is fo lively and 
fublime, that it well deferves to 
be tranfcrib'd by way of Illuftra- 
tion, to this Paflage of our Poet. 

The Earth obey'd, and, 



ftreight 
Op'ning her fertile Womb , 

teem'd at a Birth 
Innum'rous living Creatures , 

perfe(fl Forms, 
If you weigh the Matter aright, iLirab'd, and full grown : out of 
Birds may truly be affirm'd to the Ground up-rofe, 
be rather a terreftrial, than an] As from his Lair, the wild Beafl: 
aerial Animal, for they have all where he woni 
their Food from the Earth :lln Foreit wild, in Thicket, 
there they feed, and there they I Brake, or Den : 
reft: when on Wing, they in-! Among the Trees in Pairs they 
deed fan the Air that is next the 1 rofe, they walk'd : 
Earth : but when their Wings The Cattle in the Fields, and 
grow weary, the Earth is their Meadows green : 
refting Place. But as to this Thofe rare and folitary, thefe in 
Qiieftion fee Hieron. Magius, | Flocks 

lib. I. Mifcellan. cap. ult. Jaco-| Paft'ring at once, and in broad 
bus Cruteus Syllog. 3. and Kir-! Herds up fprung 
cher in his Iter. Ecftatic. 2. Dia-^The graify Clods now calv'd ; 
log. 2. cap. 5. I will only add,! now half appear'd 
that another Difficulty, not much ; The tawny Lion, pawing to ge^ 
unlike the former, if either 



of 
them deferve to be call'd fo, has 
puzzled the Brains of Ariftotle, 
Theophraftus, and moft of the 
antient Peripateticks , to wit, 
which were firft created. Birds 
or Eggs,fince neither an Egg can 
be produc'd without a Bird, nor 



free 
His hinder Parts ; then Iprings; 

as broke from Bonds, 
And rampant iliakes his brinded 

Mane : the Ounce, 
The Libbard, and the TygrCi^s 

the Moal 

Ri&l* 



SH 



LUCRETIUS, 



Book V. 



Rifing 5 the crumbled Earth 

about thqm threw 
Jn Hillocks : the fwift Stag from 

under Ground 
Bore up his branching Head : 

icarce from his Mold 
Behemoth, biggeft born of Earth, 

upheav'd 
His Vaftnefs : Fleec'd the Flocks, 

and bleating rofe, 
As Plants : ambiguous between | arboribus efle nati. 



Sea and X^and, 
^he R,iv£r Horfe,and fcaly Cro- 
codile, Sec. Paradife lofb. B. 7. 



In which Paflage that Poet hints 
at two other Ways of the Crea- 
tion of Man : the one from 
Trees, the other from the Earth. 
As to the firft Britannicus fays, 
Quum primi illd jetate in fpelun- 
cis fylvifq; more ferarum, habj- 
tarent, quumq; ex arboribus ve- 
tuftate cavatis, tanquam ex dor 
micilio exirent, putabantur e^ 
Then al- 
of Virgilj 



ledging this Verfe 
JEneid. 8. 315. 



Genfque virdm truncis, & duro 
robore nati, 



Thoughtful Man, &c.] Lu- 
cretius "in this Place fpeaks not 
after the Opinion of Epicurus! he fliews in thofe Words the pro- 
only, but partly too of the| bable Caufeof thie Fi<{iion : that 
Stoicks, who, as Ladantius wit- las they dwelt in Woods, fo they 
nefTeSj believ'd, Homines in om-s feem*d to be born of the Trees : 
nibus Cerris & agris tanqu-am | but furely he forgets himfelf a 
Eungos efle generates: That Men I little, when he- fays ex arboribus 
were born, like Muflirpoms in! vecuftate cavatis, having but jui^ 
^very Field : and partly after the | before faid, prima^ ilia ietat€. 
Opinion of Animaxander, wlioJfoF how then eou'ld the Trees 
the* he held that Men, and a^li have had time to decay and grow 
the other Animals were pro- hollow ? yet A utumnus commits 
duc'd of the Water, yet as Flu- the fame Overfighr. The fe- 
tarch de Plac. Phil. 1. 5. c, ipjcond way, mention'd by Juvenal 
Tays, he taught, that they wer^jof Man's Original, gives juft 
contain^ in tliorny Bags, and 5 Grounds to believe, that tho' 
iJlut up in them, till the Age of | many of the more learned among 
Puberty, and then burfting from I the Heathens had read the Hi- 
fhofe Prifons, they came out | Hory of Mkjfes, yet that they 
Men and Women, already able; either defpis'dv or corrupted, or 
to nourifli themfelves : And'Oppos'd the Inftrucfrion : Wit- 
Jaftly, partly after the Opinion nefs Julian the Apoftate, who irf 
of Archelaus, who in Lacrantias,! a Fragment of an Epiftle pub^ 
i;u - *^^,i,^„ 1 ;„.. X Yifii^^ with, his other Works by 



lib. 2, teaches, homines ortos e 
terra, qua: limum limilem lacfri 
ad efcam eliquaverit, that Men 
were born of the Earth, which 
for their Nourifliraent ooz'd out 
a Slime like Milk. Others had 
yet other Opinions concernirig 
the Original of Mankind : Juve- 
Hal Sac. 6. v., n. 

Quippe aliter tunc oj-ljg noyo, 
coeloque recenti 

Vivebant homines, qui rupta ro- 
bore nati, 

Compofitique luto, nulloshabu- 



Petavius, pag. 534. Sec. feqq. 
delivers it as the Theology of 
the Antient Heathens, that Man- 
kind, increas'd not from two 
Perfons, as Mofes taught, but 
that when Jupiter created the 
World, Drops of facred Blood fell 
down, out of which arofe Man- 
kind, toV oTg Zsf^. cuoa/uei Ttii 
^c(,>70t,, Scil-LYCOX oufJiff^i^ /spsr /Z3:g-i 
(pacTtoi',^ ojv -zzra to rcov oivi)fco7rc>» 
^AdS-'-o-m yiv^* impioufiy urgn 
ing, that other wife the World 
could not have been fo faonin-r 
cre^s'dj. though Women, as he 
" ■•' " ' ' lewdljj' 



BookV. LU C RAX lUS. yj9 

Much moifture lay : And where fit Place was foiwid, 
860 There Wombs were form'd, and fatten d to the Ground • 
In thefe, the yet iniperfed Embryo's lay, -/ 

Thro'chefe, when grown Mature, they forc'd their way, S. 
Broke forth from Night, and faw the cheerful Day : 3 
Then Nature fafhion'd for the Infant's Ufa 
865 Small Breasts in Earth, and fiU'd with Milky Juice: 
Such as in Women's Brcafts fhe now provides 
For future Infants : thither Nature guides 
The chiefeft Parts of Food, and there they meet 
Fit Fcrmeni;, there they grow both white and fwett : 

Earth 



NOTES. 



lewdly adds, had been as fruitful 
is Swine. But what wonder is it, 
:hat Men had fo mean an Opini- 
on of their own Original, who 
believ'd but little better of that 
3f their Gods ? Witnefs Varro, 
>vho in his Fragments, Antiqui- 
catum rerum divinarum, blaming 
rheir fabulous Theology, Mythi- 
:on genus Theologitc/ays, in this 
we find, That one God is born 
out of the Head, another out of 
the Thigh, a third from drops 
of Blood : In hoc enim eft, ut 
Deus alius ex capite, alius ex fe- 
more, alius ex guttis fanguinis 
jnatus. Nor were fome of the 
antient Philofophers lefs ridicu- 
i lous in their Opinions, concern- 
ing the Reparation of Mankind : 
To inftance only in one : Every 
one knows, that there are in the 
Joints of the Fingers little Bones, 
commonly cali'd Seed-Bones : one 
of which, about half as big as a 
Pea, is plac'd in thefirft Jomtof 
the Thumb : This the Arabians 
call Abadara, as Bartholinus ob- 
ferves in his Anatomical Inftitu- 
tions, lib. 4. cap. ult. Now fome 
I of the wife Antients fooliflily 
I held, that out of that Bone, as 
out of Seed, Mankind iliould at 
laft be propagated anew. You 
may find likewife other Opini- 
ons concerning Man's Original, 
in the learned Cenforinus de Die 
nacali, cap 4. v.herc he treats at 



large of this Matter. And if 
you think it worth your while to 
fee this fabulous Rife of the 
World confuted, you may find 
it well done by Firmianus, lib. 2. 
cap. 12. 

8<^o. There Wombs, &c.] La- 
dantius, lib. 2. de Origine Er- 
ror, cap. II. and 12. cites this 
Verfe of Lucretius, and makes 
this Remark upon it. Aiunt cer- 
tis converlionibus coeli : & a- 
ftrorum motibus maturitatem 
quandam extitifle aniraalium fe- 
rendorum : itaque terrain no- 
vam femen genitale retinentem 
folliculos ex fe quofdam in ute- 
rorum fimilitudinem protulifle, 
de quibus Lucretius, lib. 5. 



Crefcebant 
bus apti, 



uteri, terras radki- 



eofque , cum matur^flent , na- 
turd cogente, ruptos animalia 
cajtera profudifTe : Deinde ter- 
ram ipfam humore quodam, qui 
elTet lacti fimilis. exuber^ire, eo- 
que alimento animantes efle nu- 
tritos. Thus coo Cicero lib. i. 
de Leg. & Cenforinus de die Na- 
tali, cap. 2. where he tells us be- 
fides, that Democritus too was 
cf the fame Opinion. 

Faften'd to the Ground :] 
Lucrer. terra: radicibus apti : 
i. e. aifix'd and fticking in the 
E^ri;h, by their Roots. 

872. The 



^;6 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

870 Earth gave the Infants Food ; thin Mists were fpred 
For Cloaths ; the grafly Meadows gave a Bed. 

The Earth, when new, produc'd no raging Cold, 
No Heats, nor Storms : Thefe grew, as (he grew old. 
Therefore out Parent Earth deferves to bear 
875 The Nancie of Mother, fince All rofe from Her. 
Thus for a certain Time Mankind flie bore, 
And Beasts, that fliake the Wood with dreadful Roar, 
And various Kinds of Birds ; and as they flew. 
The Sun, with curious Skill, the Figures drew 
880 On all their Plumes : he well the Art might know. 
He us'd to paint the like on his fair Bow. 

But weary 'd now, and tir'd by length of Time, 
The Earth grows old, and weak 3 as Women paft 

their Prime. 
Time changes all ; and as with fwifteft Wings '7 
885 He palfes forward on, he quickly brings > 

A difF'rent Face, a diffrent Sight of Things : O 

And 
NOTES. 



872. The Earth, &c.] But how 
could thefe infant Animals bear 
the Inclemencies of the Seafons, 
the parching Heat, and the chil- 
ling Cold •, nay, how could they 
live, or even be born, when the 
Sun had bak'd the Earth, or the 
Cold frozen it up ? To this Lu- 
cretius anfwers in thefe 10. v. 
That in the beginning of the 
World there was neither Winter 
nor Summer •, but that the whole 
year was one calm and conftant 
Spring. And certainly the Earth 
is juftly ftyl'd a Mother by all 
the foregoing Ages, fince flie 
firft brought forth Birds, Beafts. 
and then Man, as the Mafter- 
picce of all her Produdlions. 

878. And as, &c.] This Part 
of this, and the three following 
Verfes are added, with how much 
reafon let the Reader judge, by 
our Interpreter to his Authour, 
who only fays, 

Aeriafque fimul volucres varian- 
tibu' form is. 

882. But weary'd, &c.] But 



why does flie produce none of 
thefe Things now ? To this he 
anfwers in 12. v. that the Cir- 
cumftance of Time is changed : 
and the Earth is now paft her 
teeming age. And what wonder 
is it, that the World, being now 
grown cold and difabled, be- 
ing fometimes tormented with 
too much Heat, fometimes per- 
fecuted with too much cold, and 
fallen into the other Inconveni- 
ences of long Life, is at length 
grown fruitlefs and barren ? Dio- 
dorus Siculus, lib. i.fays, That 
the Earth being continually bak'd 
by the Heat of the Sun, grew 
daily more and more conftipa- 
ted and bound up ; infomuch 
that Hie could not at length pro- 
duce any more of the larger 
Kind of Animals, which were' 
then generated by the mutual 
Com mixtion of Animals-of the 
fame Species ; To which Lucre-' 
tius feems here to allude. | 

884. Time, &c.] To this pur-' 
pofe, Ovid Metam. lib. 15. v.' 
235. fays finely: 

Tempu5 



Book V. 



LUCRETIUS, 



SU 



And Nature alters: this grows weak, this ftrong, 
This dies, this, newly made, is firm and young : 
Thus alt'ring Age leads on the World to Fate .- 

890 The Earth is different from her former State : 
And what in former Times with Eafe She bore. 
Grown feeble now, and weak, ^She bears no more, 
And now does that She could not do before. 
Befides : the Earth produc'd a numerous Train 

895 Of Monsters : Thofe her Labour wrought in vain : 
Some without Hands, or Feet, or Mouth, or Eyes j 
Some fhapelefs Lumps, Natures Abfurdities ; 
Dull, movelefs Things, and deftitute of Food, 
Which could not fly the Bad, nor choofe the Good, 

900 A thouland fuch in vain arofe from Earth j 
For Nature, frighted at the ugly Birth, 
Their Strength, and Life to narrow Bounds corifin*d| 
Deny'd them Food, or to increafe their Kind : 
For that one Pow'r a thoufand Things requires ; 

?o5 Almoft as many as its own defires: 

There muft be Food, and Seed, and Organs fit 
For flowing Seed, whilft all the happy Nighc 
The Body lies dilTolv'd in foft delight ; 
That Male and Female may their PowVs impJoy, 

?ioThey muft have Organs fit for mutual Joy. 

But 
NOTES. 



Tempus edax rerum, tuque, in- 
vidiofa vetuftas, 

Dmnia deftruitis : vitiataque 
dentibus x\i 

Paulatirn lentd confumitis om- 
nia morce. 

Thus rendered by Dryden. 

Thy Teeth, devouring Tiro-i ! 

thine, envious Age ! 
Dn Things below ftill exercife 

your Rage : 
With venom'd Grinders you 

corrupt your Meat ; 
A.nd then, at ling'ring Meals, 

the Morfels eat. 

894. Befides, &c.] The Poet 

bere tells us in 38. v. That lince 

Animals were at firft fortuitous- 

y born, '5is reafonable to be- 



lieve, that, in the beginning o£ 
the World, there were innumera- 
ble other Animals produc'd of 
wonderful Kinds and Sizes : but 
that they did not continue long, 
becaufe they were imperfecf^, and 
wanted the means of receiving 
their Food, and the Power of 
Gopulatioa , ^nd engendering 
their Kinds. For all the Ani- 
mals now remaining are pre- 
feirv'd , either by their own 
Power and Induftry, or by the 
Care of Men : Thus the Lion is 
prefer v'd b\ his Strength, the 
Fox by his Craft, the Stag by 
his Swifcnefs 6rc. And thofe 
that are ufeful to Man, as Dogs, 
Cattle, Horfes. Sec, he takes 
care of and defends. But why 
fliould we nounfli imperfed A- 
nimals, and fuch as would be of 
Z z z no 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V: 



But more : thefe Years muft numVous Kinds deface 5 
They could not all preferve their feeble Race : 
For thofe we fee remain, and bear their young, 
Crafc, Strength, or Swiftnefs has preferv'd fo long. 

915 Many their Profit, and their Ufe commends; 
Thofe Species Man prefer ves, kind Man defends. 
Wild Beasts, and Lions Race their native Rage 
Preferves fecure, thro' ail devouring Age. 
Swiftness preferves the Deer, and Craft the Fox,"! 

920 The vig'lanr, faithful Dog, the Horse, the Ox, S 
We Men defend ; we keep the tender Flocks : j 

They fliun wild Beafts, they fly the dreadful Wood | 
They feek for Peace, and much, and eafy Foodj 
Gotten without their Toil : and this we give 

925 For the vaft Profits we from them receive: 

But thofe to whom their Nature gave no Forced 
No Courage, Strength, nor Swiftnefs to the Courfe; 
Whom neither Profit could, nor Ufe commend, 
Thofe Man refus'd to feed, or. to defend : 

930 Thus, doom'd by Chance, they liv'd an eafy Prey 
To all, and thus their Kinds did loon decay. 

But never Centaurs j thefe were never known j 
That TWO fuch Natures lliould combine in one. 

Such 
NOTES, 



no ufe to us ? Creech has omit- 
ted one Verfe in this ArgumenCj 
where the Original has 

Androgynum inter utrum, nee 
Htrumqi & utrinque remotum : 

And indeed it is generally held 
to be fpurious : But whoever in- 
ferted it, leems to have had an 
Eye on th« Androgynes in the 
Banquet of Plato. Heinfius on 
the Phoenix of Claudian reads it 
thus % 

Androgynen inter neutra^ atque 
ab utroque remotam. 

Androgynus is deriV'd from the 
Creek Words, avwp a Man, and 
yvvii^ a Woman, and Signifies a 
Perfon vcho has both Sexes, the 
Male and Female: of which fort 
the Poets. fabled Hermaphrodi- 



tusj the Son of Venus and Mer- 
cury, to be : Cicero, Jib. de Di- 
vin. calls an Hermaphrodite^ fa- 
tale quoddam Monftrum j a cer- 
tain tatal Monfter. 

932. But never, dec.'} He now 
teaches in 47. v. That Nature, 
tho' five had neither Skill nor Ex- 
perience, never brought forth 
inch monftrous Animals , as 
thofe, for which the Poets have 
moft notorioufly bely'd her. And 
firft, fays he in 14. v. Theilalia 
never knew a Centaur : nor can 
a Man and a Horfe be conjoin'd 
in one Body : their different du» 
ration of Life, their Food, their 
Manners, all forbid it. We may 
fay the like of Scyllas, and other 
Monfters of the fame Nature : 
And they who believe the Exi' 
ftence of a Chimjera, do not 
coniider that the Entrails of ^ 

tiow, 



Book V. 



LUC R E T I U S, 



S39 



Lion, or any other Animal may 
be roafted, and confum'd by 
Fire. Whoever therefore holds, 
that miraculous and monftrous 
Animals could be produc'd by 
the Earth, while Hie was yetj 
young, may likewife believe thej 
Rivers of Milk and Gold, and 
the other idle Ficftions of the 
Poets : Rut let him reflecfl too, 
that even at this Day many Seeds 
of Herbs and Trees are contained 
in the Bowels of the Earth, as 
were formerly the Principles of 
all things : yet Trees of feveral 
forts never fpring out of the 
Earth in one Tree, nor different 
Herbs from the Root of the 
fame Plant. 

Centaurs 3 Monftcrs, whofe 
upper Part was like a Man, and 
their lower like a Horfe : The 
Poets feign them to be begot by 
Ixion upon aCloud: ThenceVir- 
gil calls them Nubigena;, Cloud- 
begotten. They were indeed 
People of Theflaly, who liv'd^ 
near the Mountain Pelion, and i 
were call'd Centaurs from >ii/jiO'j,\ 
I fpur, becaufe they were the 
firft who rid Horfes with Spurs, 
and who fought on Horfeback. 
Plin. lib. 7. cap. 5^. Now when the 
ignorant Countrey-People in 
Theffalia faw Men firft a Horfe- 1 
back, they imagin'd them andj 
their Horfes to be all of a piece, | 
and this gave rife to the Fable, i 
SeeB. IV.v. 733. Diodorus lib.l 
5. Ariftotle 2. Phyf. 8. de Hift.j 
Animal. & dc generat. Anim. 4.[ 
Sc 5. cap. 3. deny and condemn? 
all monftrous Mixtures of this] 
Nature. And Ovid himfelf,| 
that great Patron of all manner | 
of Fables, even tho' he have gi-| 
ven a Relation of a Battel be-i 
tween the Lapith^ and the Cen- 
taurs, yet upon better Thoughts 
feems to renounce that Cre- 
dulity : when in Trift. lib. 4. 
f leg. 7, he fays, 

•r- Credam prius era 

Meduf« 
C^or^onis anguineis cinda fu- 

jile CQ,m;s^ 



Efle canes utero fub Virginis : 
efTe Chim^eram, 
A truce qua: flammis feparet 
angue leam ; 
Quadrupedefque homines cum 
pe(ftore pedora juncflos ; 
Tergeminumque virum, ter- 
geminumqj canem : 
Sphyngaque Sc Harpyias, Ter- 
pen tipedefque Gigantes : 
Centimanumque Gygen , fC" 
mibovemque virum. 

Where he feems to deny not on- 
ly Centaurs, but alfo all manner 
of Monfters. Yet Empedodes 
held that there were fuch Crea- 
tures as Centaurs : and Claudius 
C^efar likewife, witnefs Pliny, 
who writes, Hippocentaurum in 
TheiTalia natum eodem die in- 
teriiffe ; & nos principatu ejus 
allatum iJIi ex v^gypto in melle 
vidimus. A Hippocentaur was 
born in ThefTaJia, and dy'd the 
fame Day : and I my felf faw it, 
when by his Command it was 
brought to him in Honey out of 
Egypt. Voiuterranus fays, that 
he had feen a half-Dog : and o- 
thers other Monfters, of which 
Lycofthenes has made a Coi- 
lecftion in his Book de Prodig. 8c 
Oftent. Sometimes Women have 
brought forth Frogs, Serpents, 
Stones, and the like, that had 
been generated in their Womb : 
Such Prod udtions are indeed pre- 
ternatural, and the Eflfecfts of 
Difeafe ; but not therefore to bs 
deem'd impoffible, or reckon'd 
among the Number of Things 
that cannot be. Whether the 
forming Faculty fubmits and 
gives way to the Mother's Ima-^ 
gination, is not our Bufinefs in 
this place to inquire ; no more 
than it is to decide this Qiiefti- 
on ; Whether from the execra- 
ble and unnatural Copulation of 
a Man with a brute Beaft, an 
Animal of a mixt and dubious 
Nature may not be generated, 
Herodotus writes, that in his 
Days a certain Woman us'd pub- 
lickly to couple with a Goat t 
<,\n4 Pliny, lib. 7, cap, 3. wit^ 



j4a LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

Such difagreeing Pow'rs ; abfurd and vain 1 
935 Plain Nonfenfe! Thefe are Creatures of the Brain.' 
A Fool knows this : For Horses oft enjoy- 
Full growth at three Years old ; not fo a Boy 
He fcarce forgets his Teat, and oft at reft. 
As Dreams prefent, he feeks his Nurfes Breaft : 
"940 Then, when the Horse grows old, his Limbs decay. 
And loofen'd Life begins to fly away ; 
The Boy grows ftrong, he feels the Pride of Growth, 
A fturdy, vigorous, gay, and bearded Youth : 
Left you fhould think fuch Monsters apt to grow., 
945 A thoughtful Man above, a Horse below. 

Or ScTLL^Sf whom a num'rous Train entwines 
Of HALF Sea-Dogs, and barks above her Loins : 
Or fuch that live, nor grow an equal Time, 
And which at equal Years not reach their Prime ; 

Whom 

, :^ T £ 5. 



siefTeSjthat Alcippe brought forth 
an Elephant : and that another, 
in the beginning of the Marfian 
War, was deliver'd of a Serpent. 
And the fame Authour in the 
Place abovecited, mentions fe- 
veral other monft'rous Births. 

935. Creatures of the Brain.] 
The Schoolmen call Centaurs, 
and the like imaginary Crea- 
tures, Entia Raticnis ; but they 
are rather Entia Imaginationis : 
Phantaftick Creatures •, that have 
no Exiftence, but in the Imagi- 
nation. 

94(^. Scynas,]There were two of 
this Name ; one the Daughter of 
Kifus, the other of Glaucus, fays 
Faber, and Creech after him, but 
they feem to be both miftaken, 
for flie was Daughter of Phor- 
cus, with whom Glaucus was in 
Love. The Scylla of Nifus is 
faid to have been chang'd into 
the Monfter of that Name,whom 
we have defcrib'd, B. I. v. 74.0. 
and Book IV. v. 735. But Ovid 
Metam. lib. 8. v. 148. fays flie 
was chang'd into a Bjrd. 

At aura cadentem 

Suftinuifle levis , ne tangeret 
a£f|uoraj vifa eft ; 



Pluma fuit : plumis in avem 

mutata vocatur 
Ciris, Sc a tonfo eft hoc nomen 

adepta capiilo. 

Milton in the fecond Book of 
Paradife Loft, defcribing Sin, 
whom he makes the Portrefs of 
Hell-Gate, had certainly an Eye 
on this fabulous Monfter : His 
Words are thefe j 

She fcem'd a Woman to th^e 

Wafte, and fair, 
But ended foul in many a fcaly 

Fold, 
Voluramous and vaft ; a Serpent 

arm'd 
With mortal Sting : About her 

Middle round 
A Cry of Hell-Hounds never 

ceafing bark'd 
With wide CerberianMouthsfull 

loud, and rung 
A hideous Peal : yet, when they 

lift, would creep, 
If ought difturb'd their Noife, 

into her Woinb, 
And kennel there ; yet there ftill 

bark'd, and howl'd, 
Within unfeen : Far lefs abhorr'd 

thanher^ 

" Vex'd 



^41 



BookV. LUCRETIUS. 

950 Whom equal Years not fill with youthful Rage, 
Nor lofe their Strength again at equal Age ; 
Whom neither the fame Kinds of Beauty fire. 
Nor raife foft Thoughts, gay Wifhes, warm Defire ; 
Or thofe that feek, and live by, d iff 'rent Food : 

955 Thus Hemlock kills a Man, for Goats 'tis good. 

Belides ; fince Flames will fcorch the Lion s Breaft, 
And burn, as well as any other Beaft ; 
How could CniMiERAs rife, or how contain 
Three Kinds ; a Lion's Head, a Serpents Train 

960 A Goat, the middle of the fanfy'd Frame, 

And ftill with fcorching Noftrils breathing Flame .^ 

Then he who thinks, that new-made Heav'n and 
Did give to fuch prodigious Monsters Birth, (Earth 
Yet brings no Caufe to prove the Fanfy true, 

9^5 But ftill relies on the poor ftiift, 'twas new • 
May fanfy too, that Streams enrich'd the Seas, 
With golden Waves, that Jewels grew on Trees 
That Man of fuch vaft Force and Limbs did rife,? 
That he could ftride the Ocean, whirl the Skies; 

970 Or any thing mad Fanfy can devife. 



For 



NOTES. 



Vex'd Scylla, bathing in the Sea, and no doubt he took the De^ 

that parts fcription from Homer, 

Calabria from the hoarfe Tri- 



nacrian Hiore, dec, 

955. Thus Hemlock, &c.] In 
like manner the Poet, Book IV. 
V. 6^6, fpeaking of the Plant 
which he there calls veratrum,and | 
which our Tranflatour there calls I 
Hemlock, as he does here the 
Plant which his Authour calls 
Cicuta, I 

Thus Hemlock-Juice pre- 



vails, 

And kills a Man, but fattens 
Goats and Quails. 

See the Note on that PafTage. 

958. Chimseras] This ignivo- 
mousMonfter,that had the Head 
of a Lion, the Breaft of a Goat,, 
and the Tail of a Serpent, the 
Poet himftlf fufficiently expUins: 



See more in the Note on v. 64o» 
B. II, To which I here add, that 
Bellerophontus, the Son of Glau- 
cus, King of Ephyra, is, there- 
fore faid to have kili'd this Mon- 
fter, riding on the Sea-Horfe 
Pegafus, whom Neptune had lent 
him, becaufe he render'd habi- 
table a Mountain of the fame 
Name in Lycia , whofe Top, 
which was wont to throw out 
Flames, was full of Lions, the 
Foot of it ftor'd with Serpents, 
and the fides of it proper for the 
Pafturage of Goats, Ctefias in 
Pliny fays, that the Fire of that 
Mountain kindles wich Water, 
and is extinguiili'd with Earth, 
or with Hay. 

06%. That Man, &c.] Lucre- 
tius; B. I, Y. 2^9. has taugh:, 

why 



542^ 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 



For tho' much Seed lay hid, when thoughtful Man 
And all the various Kinds of Beasts began 5 
Yet nothing proves, that Things of diff'rent Kind^ 
That difagreeing Natures fhould be join'd ; 

975 Since now the Grass, and Trees, and all that grows, 
And fprings from Earth, are never join'd like thofe : 
But each arifing from its proper Caufe 
Remains diftinS, and follows Nature's Laws. 
Then Man was hard, as hard as Parent-Stones ; 

580 And built on bigger, and on firmer Bones : (ftrong: 

The Nerves, that join'd their Limbs, were firm and 
Their Life was healthy, and their Age was long : 
Returning Years ftill faw them in their Prime ; 
They Vvcary'd ev'n the Wings of meaf ring Time : 

'9S5 No Colds, nor Heats, no ftrong Diseases wait. 
And tell fad News of coming hafty Fate ; 
Nature not yet grew weak, not yet began 
To fhrink into an Inch, the larger Span : 
Like Beasts they lay in ev'ry Wood and Cave, 

^9oGath"ring ihe eafy Food, that Nature gave : 

No 

NOTES. 



why Nature could not at the Be- 
ginning create Men of fo vaft a 
nze, 

That while they wade through 
Seas, and fwelUng Tides, 

Th* afpiring Waves fliould hard- 
ly touch their Sides : 

Why not fo ftrong, that they 
with eafe might tear 

The hard eft Flocks, and throw 
them through the Air ? 

But becaufe Things on certain 
Seeds depend 

For their B(;ginning, dec, 

979. Then Man, &c.j Here 
the Poet defcribes at large the 
State of Man, in the beginning 
of the World, their Manners and 
Way of Life : And ilrft in 23. v. 
he teaches, that the iirft Men 
were ftronger in Body, than Men 
Slow are, hy reafon of the innate 
Hardnefs they had inherited and 
consra<fred from their ilubborn 



Mother the Earth : whence they 
were lefs fubjecfl to Difeafes, and 
much longer-liv'd : But no Man 
till'd the Ground, for all ap- 
peas'd their hunger with Acorns, 
Wildj^ngs, and other Fruits like 
thofe. Next he tglis us in 4. v. 
that the Springs and Rivers invi- 
ted them by their Murmurs to 
come and quench their Thirft : 
Then in 1 1 . v. That they had no 
Cloaths, nor Houfes, but that 
Shrubs, and Woods, and Caves 
flielter'd them from Storms and 
Cold : And in 10. v. that they 
had no Laws, no Societies ; but 
Iiv'd by Spoil and Rapine : ma- 
king ufe of the Women in Com- 
mon, whom they either forc'd to 
fubmit to their Defires by 
Strength and Violence, or gain'd 
their tonfent by Flattery and 
Prefents, fuch as Acorns_, Pears, 
and Apples. 

As hard as Parent- Stones Q Lu- 
cretius dc§5 tto where f^y, tha?^ 

the 



f4J 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 

No impious Ploughman yet had learn'd to tear 
His Parents Bowels with the crooked fhare ; 
None planted fruitful Trees, none drefs'd the Vine; 
None prun'd decaying Boughs, none prefs'd the Wine: 
995 Contented they with the poor eafy Store, 

That Sun and Earth beftow'd, they wifii'd no more : 
Soft Acorns were their firft and chiefeft Food, 

And 

JN O r E S. 



the iirft Men ow'd their Origine 
to Stones , and our Tranflatour 
feems rather to allude to the fa- 
bulous Reparation of Mankind 
after the Deluge/rom the Stones, 
which, by command o*" Themis, 
Deucalion and Pyrrha threw be- 
hind them : Of which Ovid Me- 
tam. lib. i. v. 435. 

Inde genus durum fumus, expe- 

rienfque laborum, 
£t documentadamus, qua fimus 

origine nati. 

991. Noimpious, Sec."] This 
Patlage . of our Authour Ovid 
feems to imitate in his Defcri- 
ption of the Golden Age : 

Ipfa quoque immunis, raftroque 

intacJia, nee ullis 
Saucia vomeribus, per fe dabat 

omnia Tellus : 
Contentique cibis, nullo cogente 

creatis, 
Arbuteos foetus, montanaque fra- 

ga legebant 
Cornaque, & in duris harentia 

mora rubetis : 
Et qxxx deciderant patuU Jovis 

arbore glandes. 

The teeming Earth, yet guiltlefs 
of the Plough, 

And unprovok'd did fruitful 
Stores allow : 

Content Vv'ith Food, which Na- 
ture freely bred. 

On Wildings, and on Strawber- 
ries they fed j 



\ Cornels and BrambJc-berrics 
gave the reft ; 
And falling Acorns furniili'd out 
a Feaft. Dryden. 

995. Contented, &c.] Macro* 
bius, lib. <5. Saturnal. cap.i.ob- 
ferves, that Virgil has imitated 
this PafTage of Lucretius, when 
defcribing his happy Countrey- 
man, he fays, 

Quos rami fru(flus, quos ipla YO^ 

lentia rura 
Sponte tulere fui, carpfit. 



Georg. 2. V. 500. 

He feeds on Fruits, which, of 

their own accord. 
The willing Ground, and laden 

Trees afford. Dryd. 

^97. Soft Acorns, ] For the 
chief Food of the firft Men wa$ 
Acorns : Whence Virgil Georg. 
r . V. 147. 

Prima Ceres ferro mcrtales vcr- 

ttr: terram 
Initituit : cum jam glandes at- 

que arbutalacr^ 
Deiicerent f) lv£c, & vicflum Do- 

dona negaret. ' 

Where tho' the Poet fays, that 
the Woods fail'd them, and no 
longer afforded them Acorns, yet 
it is more probable, that they 
contemn'd the ufe of Acorns, 
when they had difcover'd the Art 
of fowing Corn ; Thus Juvenal, 

fpeaking 



544 LUCRETIUS. Book V* 

And thofe red Apples that adorn the Wood. 
And make paie Winter blu{h ; fuch Nature bore,^ 
looo More num'rous then, befides a thoufand more, C 
Which all fupply'd poor Man -with ample Store. \ 
When THIRSTY, then did purling Streams invite 
To fatisfy their eager Appetite : 
As now, in Murmurs loud, the headlong Floods, 
1005 Invite the thirfty Creatures of the Woods : 

And then by Night they took their Rest in Caves^' 

Where little Streams roul on with filent Waves ^ 

They bubble thro' the Stones, and foftly creep, 7 ; 

As fearful to difturb the Nymphs that fleep ; ^ 

101 o The Moss, fpread o'er the MARBLES,feems to weep :3 

Whilft 
N O T £ 5. 



Ipeaking in the Perfon of the old 
Marfians and others, Sat. 14. 
V. 180. 



. . Panem qu^ramus aratro, 
Qui fatis eft menfis j laudant hoc 

numina ruris. 
Quorum ope & auxilio, grat« 

poft munus arifta: 
Contingunt homines veteris fa- 

ilidia quercus. 

998. Red Apples, &c.3 Lucr. 

— Quae nunc hiberno tem- 
pore cernis 

Arbuta Poeniceo fieri matura 
colore. 

Arbutum is the Fruit of the 
Tree call'd Arbutus, the Arbute- 
Tree, a Plant frequent enou'gh 
in Italy ; it has the Leaves like 
ihofe of a Bay-tree, but growing 
very thin, and bears a Fruit as 
big as a middling Plum, red like 
a Cherry, or rather Strawberry, 
bscaufe of its roughnefs, Pliny, 
lib. 15. cap. 24. calls the Fruit of 
this Tree , Poma inhonora , 
Apples of no value : and indeed 
tho'they have a certain Sweetnels, 
they are four withal, and un- 
pleafant to the Tafte, as well as 
Siurtful to the Head and Stomach. 



The Antients delighted much in 
the Shade of this Tree. Horat. 
Nunc viridi membra fub arbuto 
ftratus. Pliny calls the Fruit of 
this Tree Unedines, becaufe, fays 
he, we can not eat above one of 
them, by reafon of their Afperi- 
ty and Sournefs. But he is mi- 
ftaken in making the Unedo and 
the Arbutum to be one and the 
fame Thing : The firft of them 
is the Fruit of the Epimelis, 
which fome interpret to be a fort 
of Medlar-Tree. But the Arbu- 
tum of the Latines, and which 
the Greek call Memxcylon, is 
the Fruit of the Tree, which the 
Latines loiow by the Name of 
Arbutus, and the Greeks by that 
of Coraarus. Thus Galen, lib, 
2. Aliment, plainly diftinguiilies 
between the Unedo and the Ar- 
butum, afcribing the firft to the 
Epimelis, the later to the Coma- 
rus, or Arbutus. Thus Dale- 
campus in lib. prim. Plin. argues 
that Authour of Errour. 

1008. They bubble, &c.] Old- 
ham. 

Hard by, a Stream did with 

fuch Sofcnefs creep, 
As't were by its own Murmurs 

hufli'd afleep. 

And 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 74J 

Whilft other Streams no narrow Bounds contain, 
They break fuch Banks, and fpread o'er all the Plain, 

They knew no ufe of Fire to drefs their Foo» ; 
No Cloaths, but wander'd naked in the Wood : 
1015 They liv'd to fliady Groves, and Caves confin'd, 
Meer fhelter from the Cold, the Heat, and Wind.' 

No fixt Society, no fteddy Laws ; 
No publick Good was fought, no common Cause, 
But, all at War, each rang'd, and fought his Food, 
1 020 By Nature taught to feek his private Good. 
Then to renew frail Man's decaying Race ; 
Or mutual Lust did prompt them to embrace ; 
Or elfe the greater, Vigour, of the Male, 
Or fome few treach'rous Presents did prevail ; 
1025 Some Acorns, Apples fome, fome Pears bellow; 
The Thing the fame, the Price waslefs than now.' 
Then ftrong, and fwift, they did the Beasts purfue^ 
Their Arms were Stones, and Clubs ; and fome they 
And fome they fled : from thofe they fear'd to fight (flew. 
1030 They ran, and ow'd their Safety to their Flight. 

When 
N O T £ 5. 



And the Authour of Hudibras, 

Clofe by a foftly murm'ring 

Stream, 
Where Lovers us'd to loll and 

dream. 

1009. The Nymphs that Sleep:] 
For the Nymphs were fabled to 
dweH in Caves and Dens. Of 
them fee Book 4. v. 589. 
10 14.. No Cloaths,] Lucr. 

•Neque uti 



Pellibus, & corpus fpoliis veftire 
ferarum : 

For, as the Poet will teach by 
and by, the firft Coverings Men 
wore, were the Skins of wild 
Beafts, they kill'd in hunting. 

1026. The, Thing, &c.] This 
Obfervation is the Tranflatoiir's, 
not his Authour'S; who, I be- 



lieve, woirid fcarce have faid io. 
The Prefents Lucretius mentions, 
were of the greateft Value in 
thofe Days : therefore the Price 
was not lefs than now. 

1 027. Then ftrong, &c.] Thefe 
robuft unpolilli'd Mortals fpent 
all their time in hunting wild 
Beafts, whom they purfu'd with 
Stones, Clubs, and fuch like 
Weapons : And when they were 
either weary of killing them, or 
that Night came on, they roul'd 
themfelves up in Leaves and 
Grafs, and ilept contented, and 
with a quiet Mind ; for they did 
not dread, what the Stoicks 
fooliflily believ'd of them , 
when Night had involv'd the 
World in Shade, that Light and 
Day would never return, becaufe 
they hadobferv'd that Viciflltude 
from the firft beginning of Day 
and Night : This is contain'd iix 
15. V. In the 31. V. following the. 
Poet goes on. But, fays he, this 
A 2 a a Life 



546 LUCRETIUS, Book V. 

Whendrowfy Night came on, they naked Jay, 
Spread o*er the Ground like BEARS,and rough as they i 
Their Sleep was found, they wak'd not all the Nighr,^ 
Nor wander'd here and there, whilft Shades affright, L 

1035 Nor viev/d the East with longing Eyes for Light : J 
But all difToIv'd in fweeteft Slumbers Jay, 
Till the bright Sun arofe, and brought the Day. 
For fince they had beheld, e'er fince their Birth, 
The Day and Night by Turns fpread o'er the Earthy 

1 040 They never fear'd the Sun fliould lofe his Light, 
And all lie bury'd in eternal Night. 

The 

n o r E s. 



Lifeof theirs was vext with fome. 
Inquietudes 1 the wild Beafts 
furpriz'd them, when they were 
fleeping : and then it fuddain 
Death was their Portion ; or a 
tedious and painful Life, by 
means of their feftering Wounds ; 
for they knew not yet the heal- 
ing Virtue of Simples : Famine 
kill'd many, and more the ^ve- 
nomous Herbs they ignorantly 
fed on. But that none may thinkj 
that aJl Mankind was, by fo ina- 
ny Ills and Mifchiefs as befel 
them, involv'd in one common 
Ruin, and totally deftroy'd ; let 
it be confider'd, that the wild 
Beafts devoui-'d them only one by 
one, and that few dy'd by poy- 
fonous Herbs, or for want of 
Food, in comparifon of the ma- 
ny Thoufands that fall in a Day 
in our Armies : Befides ; what 
Numbers are now fwaliow'd up 
in the Sea •, how many dy by 
Poyfon, how many by Intempe- 
jrance and Luxury ? 

1031^. But all, &C.3 Manilius 
Is of another Opinion., lib. i. 
V, 66. where fpeaking of the iirft 
Inventours of Arts, he fays ; 

Nam rudis ante illos, nullo dif- 
crimine vita 

In fpeciem converfa operum ra- 
tions carebat, 

E$ ftupefacTta novo pendebat lu- 
mineisi^ndi: 



Turn velut amiffis mcerens, tun?, 

L^ta renatis 
Syderibus, varioffque dies, incer- 

taque no(ftis ' 
Tempora, nee fi miles umbras 

jam fole regreflb, 
Jam propiore, fuis poterat dif- 

cernere caufis. 

Before that Time Life was an 

artlefs State, 
Of Reafon void, and thoughtlefs 

in Debate : 
Nature lay hid in deepeft Kight 

below ; 
None knew her Wonders, and 

none car'd to know : 
Upward Men look'djthey faw the 

circling Light- 
Pleas'd with the Fires, and won- 

der'd at the Sight • 
The Sun, when Night came on, 

withdrawn they griev'd, 
As dead ; and joy'd next Morn, 

when he Jreviv'd : 
But why the Nights grew long 

or Hiort j the Day 
Is chang'd, and the Shades vary 

with the Ray, 
Shorter at his Approach, and lon- 
ger grown 
At his Remove, the Caufes were 

unknown. Creech. 

And with Manilius agrees Stati- 
us, Thebaid. 4. where fpeaking 
of the primitive Arcadians, he 

i%». Hi 



Book V. LUCRETIUS, ^47 

The moft they dreaded was the furious Beast;? 
For he, in Dead of Night, did oft moleft, > 

And lengthen into Death, their flumb'ring Rest. 3 

1045 Sometimes they left their Caves by Night, and fled,^ 
Rows'd from their fofteft Sleep, all pale, half dead, C 
While Boars and Lions came, and feiz'd their Bed. ^ 

Yet fewer dy'd than now : for fingly then 
Each caught within the Limits of his Den, 

1050 "While the Beast tore the living, trembling Food, 
And revel'd in full Draughts of reeking Blood, 
With dreadful Cries he fill d each Wood and Cave, 
To fee his Limbs go down a living Grave. 
Others, that fcap'd with Life, but wounded, groan'd,? 

1055 Holding their Hands on the corrupting Wound, ^ 
While trembling Echo's did reftore the Sound. J 

Not 
N T £ S. 

Hi lucis ftupuifTe vices, nocftifque ■ lugebant, 8>c renatum Isetis ejrci- 
feruntur *" jpiebant aufpiciis. Ita rudiores 

Nubila, & occiduum longe Ti- olim, & qui fimpliciorem vitam. 



tana fecuti 
Defper^fle diem. 

And Dracontius in Hexaemer. 

Nee lucem rem care putat terrena 

propago; 
Aft ubi purpureum furgentem ex 

<equore cernunt 
Luciferum, vibra,re jubar, flam- 

mafque ciere, 
^t reducem fupar aftra diem de 

fole rubentem ; 
Mox revocata fovent hefterna in 

gaudia mences, 
Temporis & requiem nofcentes 

luce diurnd 
Cioeperunt fperar^ diem, ridere 

tenebras. 

And the learned Seldeo, de Diis 
S) ris, Syntagm, 2. confirms their 
Opinions, and believes tKe Ori- 
ginal of the Feftivals, which the 
Anticnts inftituted in Honour of 
Adonis, to have fprung from no 
pther Ground : His Words are 
thefe, Non aliud cogitarunt ; 
qui primum has n^enias inftitue- 
runt, quam foils accefTum &c re- 
f^lVn^^^ ; Quern ut ^mifTwm nunc 



degebant, prius quam ab Aftro- 
nomis leges fyderum didicerant. 

1053. A living Grave.] Lucre= 
tius. 

Viva videns vivo fepeliri vifcera 
bufto; ' "^ 

Upon which Faber obferves, that 
Dionyfius Longinus blames an 
Expreflion lilce this, in Gorgias 
Leontinus, who calls Vulturs, 
the living Sepulchres of Men, 
yv'TTz? i^-^vxpt Ttlfpof However 
he excufes Lucretius, though he 
condemns not the Cenfure of 
Longinus : For, fays he, Gorgias 
was a Rhetorician, in whofe Art 
fuch Defcriptions ought never to 
find Place, tho' in Poetry they 
have much of the Sublime, 

io^6. While trembling. &c.]] 
This Verfe is the Tranflatours, 
not the Poets. 

1057. Not sldll'd, &?.] Lucre- 
tius. 

Expertes opis, ign.^roSj quid yuI-» 
ner^vejlent. 

i, e. They knew not yet the Art 
A a a a 2 ©f 



548 



L u c R E r I u s. 



Book V. 

Not skill'd in Herbs, and now grown derperate. 
With horrid Cries they call'd on hngxing Fate, 
Till Worms increased, and, eating thro' ihe Clay, 
1060 Made PalTage for the Sour, to fly away. 

But then no Armies fell at once, no Plain 
Grew red, no Rivers fwellfd with Thoufandsflain : 
None plough'd the Floods, none fliipwreck'd made their 

Graves ' , 

In Seas, none drank cold. Death among the Waves,i 
1065 But oft the furious Ocean rag'd in vain ;; : 

No mifchief done, the Waves grew mild again: 

No 
N O T'E S, . :: . 



of Medicine, and were ignorant 
of the Remediesj requiliteto heal 
their Wounds. 

1059. Till Worms, &c.] This 
and the following Verfe run thus 
in the Original.. 

Doniciim eos vita privarunt ver- 
minafkva. 

Feftus fays, That Vermina figni- 
£es, the wringing of the Guts, 
when we feel a Pain, as if Worms 
were gnawing them : The Greeks 
call it s"^(pOi ° But perhaps Ver- 
mina may here fignify very 
Worms, that might be engende- 
red in their rankling and corrupt- 
ing Wounds : if fo, our Tranlla- 
tour is fo far in the right j but 
how well their making a PalTage 
for the Soul to fly away, agrees 
with the Doctrine of Epicurus, 
the Reader need not be inform- 
ed. 

1 0^1. No Armies fell] They 
had yet no Wars •, but were 
wholly ignorant of the cruel Arts 
of deftrbying one another : And 
as Ovid fays,,Metam. i. v. 97. 

Nondum prnecipites cingebant 
. oppida fdiTx ; 

Non tuba diredi, non a:ris, ^jcjr- 
nua flexi. 



INon galea;, non 
fine militis ufu 

Mollia fecura; pera 
gentes. ., 



enfis, erant 



^ebant otia 



No Walls wdre yet^ ' ilor Feh'te,, 

nor Moat, nor .Mound ; 
Nor Drum was heard, nor 

Trumpets angry Sound : 
Nor Swords were forg'd : But, 

void of Care and Crime, : ,' 
The foft Creation llept away 

their Time. 

10^3. None, Sec.'] Thus too 
Ovid Metam. i. v. 94. 

Nondum cxd fuis, peregrinum 

ut viferet orbem, 
Montibus, in liquidas pinus de- 

fcenderat undas : 
NuUaque mortales, praeter fua 

iittora norant. 

The Mountain Trees in diftant 

Profpect pleafe. 
Ere yet the Pine defcended to 

the Seas ; 
Ere Sails were fpread new 

Oceans to explore, 
And happy Mortals, iincdn- 

cern'd for more, 
Coniin'd their Wiilies to their 

native Shore. 

And Maniliusj.lib. I. v. 76. 

Immotufque novos pontus fub- 

duxerat orbes : 
Nee vitam pelago, nee ventis 

credere vota 
Audebant, fed quifque fans fe 

nofTe putabat. ^^ ■ i 

^ ^ Non^ 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. ^49 

No Ships were found, nor eould the treach'rous Smile 

Of fmooth-fac'd Waves tempt one poor Man 16 Toil. 

Then Want, now SuRFEiTsbring ahafty Death ; 

1070 Our Bellies fwell fo much, they ftop our Breath. 

^ Then poys'nous Her bs, when pluck'd by Chance, did 

Now Poyson's grownan /\RT,improv*dby Skill" (kill; 

But when they built theirHuTTS, when FiRil)egan, 

• i i--ji*. ' s Any; 

NOT B'Jl^i^^A i 



— <; None refign'd 

'l*"heir Lives to Seas, or Wiilies 

to the Wind •, 
Coniin'd their fearch •, they knew 

;:hemfelves alone, 
And thought that only worthy to 

b^ known. ■"}]' • 

io58. Tempt one poor Man to 
Toil.] For as Seneca li^"' Medea 
fays, 

Audax nimium qui freta primus 
Rate tarn fragili perfida rupit ; 
Terrafque fuas poft terga videre, 
Animam levibus credidit auftris, 

6cc. ':■ 

which the Tragedian took from 
Horace, Od. i. 3. 

Illi robur & ies triplex - 
Circa pedus erat, qui fragilem 

truci 
Commifit pelago ratem 

Primus ; nee timuit pr^cipi- 
tem Africum, &c. 

Thus render'd by Dryden, 

Sure he, whofirft the PafTage 
try'd, 

In harden'd Oak his Heart 
did hide, 

And Ribs of Iron arm'd his 
Side : 

Or his at leaft, in hollow Wood, 

Who tempted iirft the briny 
Flood : 

Nor fear'd the Winds contend- 
ing Roar, 

Nor Billows beating on the 
Shore •, 

Nor Hyades, portending Rain, 

jNor all the Tyrants of the Main 3 



.:3n2i: 



What Form of Death cowld him 

affright J 
Who, unconcerned, with fledfaft 

Sight, 
Could view the Surges, mountain 

fteep,' ' ■ ' • ' 

And Mohfters, rouling in tht 

Deep'? ' ■ ^•— -i^'^^' 

Could thtough the 'Ranks- of 

Ruiri-go,^ ; •' ;■•• ^' ^-■'; 

With Storms above,' ahd^ Rcic^ 

beioW'? ;'";'•• •: • '•- 'i-^;> 
In vain xfi^ =Natirr6*Sii«ife OoM' 

mand. r'- '"^ ■ -'l t-=^^- 'l^-'^T 
Divide the 'Waters " frorii 0| 

Land, ' - 
If daring; Ships, and Men^^MiSf 

phane^--- ^ :--^n?".^ 

Invade th' inviolable Maih'<j '■ '-^ 
Th' eternal Fences overleap'^ "'^* 
And pafs at Will thebouhdleli 

Deep. ' • •" ■■■' ' ■■' 

No Toil, no Hard iliips' can i^- 

ftrain 
Ambitious Man, inur'd to 

Pain ; 
The more confin'd, the more he 

tries. 
And at forbidden Qiiarpy -flieg* 

10^?, Then Want, &:c.] Penti- 
riacibi: Want of Food, The 
next Verfe, Our Bellies, &c. is a 
Thought of our Tranlliitours, 
not of his Authours. 

1073. But when, &c.] We have 
hitherto feen only Men, who 
were wild and favage, who wan- 
der'd in the Woods, and liv'd 
by Spoil and Rapine : But others 
now enter upon the Stage, who 
are mild, gentle, and ftudious of 

civil 



yp LUCRETIUS, Book V 

And Skins of murder'd Beafts gave CLOATHSto Man ; 
JIP75 When one to one confin'd, in chafte Embrace, 
; i Enjoy'd fweet Love, and faw a numrous Race : 
Then Man grew fofc, the Temper of his Mind 
Was chang'd fronn rough to mild, from fierce to kind : 
For us'd to Fire, his Limbs refused to bear 
1080 The piercing Sharpnefs of the open Air ; 

And Lust enfeebled him ; befides, the Child, 
Soften'd by Parents Love, grew tame and mild. 
Then Neighbours, by degrees familiar grown, 
M^de Leagues, and Bonds, and each fecur'd his own : 

And 
NOTE 5. 



cmttrfe." JForby this Time, fays 
tb« Poet in 20. v. that Tempe- 
rature and Calmnefs of the Air, 
■which rejgu'ii when the World 
was in its Infancy, remain'd no 
loRger i but fomctimes piercing 
Cold, and fomctimes fcorching 
Hea,t, together with St9rms and 
Tempefts, pcrfecutcd Ma;iJcind. 
THofp Hardfliips and Inconve- 
niencies weaken'd them by de- 
grees, and forc'd them to the 
Contrivance of building them- 
felv^ Hutts and Houlcs, to iliel- 
ter tneir Bodies from the Incle- 
mencies of the Seafons : They 
dwelt in thefc new Abodes, one 
Manconfin'd to one Woman, and 
were blcfs'd with a numerous 
Offspring, whofe infant fmiling 
Innocence foften'd the rigid Sou r- 
nefs of t|ieir Parents Temper, 
and chang'd their innate fullen 
Rough nefs into Calmnefs and 
Affability. After this, having 
found out the ufe of Fire, they 
becaimcfo tender, that, unable to 
endure any longer their primi- 
tive Nakedncfs, they made thcm- 
felves Cloaths of the Skins of 
Beafts f and grew fo civiliz'd in 
time, that' they cnter'd into 
Friend rtiips and Societies, info- 
much that they, who wcre.deH- 
I0U3 to.be CA'tc rhemfcl'vci, found 
it their bcil way to abftain from 
doii)g Injuries to otliets : Thus 
jPpi] cord prefer v'd Mankind. 
1074.. And SiunS; dec.'] Dio- 



dorus Sic;ulu9, lib. i. fays, that 
the Poets feign'd Hercules to be 
cloath'd with the Skins of Beafts, 
and that he is painted too in that 
Garb, to put Poftcrity in Mind 
of this antient way of Drefs of 
oiir firft Fathers. 

1 08 1. BtfideSj the Child, &€.] 
Lucret. 



■ Puerique parentum 



Bland iti is facile ingcnium fregere 
fuperbum. 

i. c. The Children, by their 
harmless innocent Smiles, eafily 
foften'd the Koughnefs of their 
Parents Temper. This PaiTage 
can have no other Interpretation^ 
tho' Creech makes it fay quite 
the contrary. 

1083. Then Neighbours, Sec."] 
They who endeavour to difgrace 
Religion, uiuaily rcprefentit as 4 
Trick of Stare, and as a politick 
Invention to keep the CredulouJ 
in Awi: •, which however abfurd 
and frivolous, yet is a ftrong 
Argument againft the Atheift, 
who cannot declare hisOpinionsj 
unlcfs he be a Rebel, and a Di- 
fturbcr of the 'Commonwealth : 
The Caufeof God, and his C»^ 
far are the fame, and no Affrone 
can be offered to one, but it re- 
flcds on both ; and tiiatthe Epir 
curean Principles are pernJciou< 
to Societies, is evident from tl;j« 
Account they give of the Rife ol' 

^heixio 



Book V. 



LUCRETIUS. 



yfi 



1085 And then by Signs, and broken Words agreed. 

That they would keep, preferve, defend, and feed 
Defenfelefs Infants, and the Women too, 
As nat'ial Pitt prompted then:i to do. 

The* 

Notes. 



them, Firft then we muft ima- 
gine Men Ipringing out of the 
Earth, as from the teeth of Cad- 
mus his Dragon, (fratres fungo- 
rum, & tuberum, as Bias call'd 
the Athenians, who counted it a 
great glory to be 'AuloX-^ovsr,) 
and like thofe top, fierce, and 
cruel J but being fofcned by na- 
tural Decay, and length of Time^ 
grew mild ; and weary of conti- 
nual Wars, made Leagues, and 
Combinations,formutualDefence 
and Security ; and inveftcd fome 
Perfon with Power to overlook 
each Man's Adions, and to pu- 
nilli, or reward thofe that broke 
or kept their Promifes. Now if 
Societies began ,thus, 'tis evident 
that they are founded on Intereft 
alone, and therefore Self-prefer- 
vation is the only thing that o- 
bliges Subjecfis to Duty, and when 
they are ftrong enough to live 
without the Protecftion of their 
Prince, all the bonds to Obedi- 
ence are cancell'd, and Mutiny 
and Rebellion will neceflarily 
break forth •, for we all know, 
how ambitious every Man is of 
Kule,howpaflrionately hedefires it, 
and how eagerly he follows it, tho' 
ten thoufand Difficulties attendthe 
Purfuit : What if he break his 
Promife, recall his former Con- 
fent, and acft againft the Law 
that was founded on it ? Why 



need he 
got the 



be concerned, if he has 
longc/l 



Sword, and is 
above the Fear of Punihiment ? 
Will not a profpecTt of a certain 
Profit lead him on toVillaiiy ? 
And why rtiould his Confcience 
T:artle at Wickednefs, that is at- 
eiided with Pleafure ? Since all 
he Epicurean Vertues are no- 
nng but Fear, and Inrereft, and 



the former is remov'd, and the 
latter invites. 'Tis true, as Lu- 
cretius fays, ftrange Ddfcoveries 
have been made, and Plutarch 
gives us very memorable Iniian- 
ces : Plots have been defeated, 
but as many prov'd fuccefsful t 
and how weak that fingle Pre- 
tence, how infufiicient to fecure 
Government, is evident from 
the daily Plots, and Contrivan- 
ces, Murders, and Treafons, that 
difturb us ; tho' all the Terrours 
of Religion joyn with thefeFears, 
and endeavour to fupprefs them. 
And therefore thefe Opinions are 
dangerous, and deftruclive of So- 
cieties, and, as Origen fays of his 
Purgatory Fires, sk cIk.iySuuov tt 
rcov roiiiTcov aci(py.reiAv 'ffiSivcroLt 

ctoTv^V « yjy:0-iiu.ov di'cf.Ccx/.veiv tTiot '? 
T^^ fj.oyi? (po^w cucov'ts xo^dcricos 
ndv av^i?!\ov]ct^ IttI otoctov »? xot- 

Yo)lcov y^vaiv. Others, tho' pre- 
tending to better Principles than 
thofe ot Epicurus, yet are alto- 
gether as faulty in ftating the 
Rife of Power; and more abfurd : 
for his Opinion is agreeable to 
his other PolTcions, but theirs 
contradi<fl the Creation they af- 
fert, and the Providence they al- 
low; I mean thofe that declare the 
People to be the Spring and Foun- 
tain of Power, and that from, 
their Confent ail theAuthority of 
the Governour is derived : Sure 
thefe Men never confidered the 
Relation betwixt God and his 
Creatures ; and what an abfolute 

Domi- 



^J* 



LUCvRETIU S. 



Boo* V* 



Tho' this fix'd not an UNivERSAt Peace, 
1090 Yet many kept their. .|:aith,. andJiy'd at Eafe j 

MOT E S. 



Or 



Dominion he has over thofe, to 
whom he firft gave, and ftill con- 
tinues. Being. But let us look on 
Man under that Circumftance, 
ahd then how naked, how di- 
vefted of all Pov/er will he ap- 
pear ? How unable to difpofe of 
himfelf, and fubmit to the Laws 
of his Fellow free Agent ? Uhlefs 
he endeavours, as much as is pof- 
iibk, to difown the Right of the 
Deity, and turns Rebel againft 
the Authour of his Being. For 
how can any one fubmit himfelf 
to another, without the exprefs 
Permiffion of him that has abfo- 
lute Dominion over him ? And 
where is that Permiffion ? Is it 
founded on Reafon or Scripture ? 
Does Benevolence, or Self-pre- 
fervation, the twopropofed Mo- 
tives to Society, fpeak any I'uch 
thing ? And does not Scripture 
expreily oppofe this Opinion I 
Well then, all Power defcends 
from above ; 'tis the Gift of that 
Being, to whom it principally 
belongs, and cjcts Ail^ ^aai^r^-s. 
Kings are from God, is true, 
both in the account of the fober 
Heathen, and good Chriftian : 
and therefore every King, that 
ever was, or is, whether he ob- 
tain the Crown by Succfiffion, or 
Election, (except the Jewilli) 
muft be acknowledged abfolute: 
Liberty and Property of the Sub- 
jects depend on his Will, and his 
Pleafure is Law •, for none can 
confine or limit that Power 
which God beftows, but him 
felf: And therefore to prefcribe 
Laws to the Governour, to 
choofe or refufe him on certain 
conditions, is ro invade the Pre- 
rogative of Heaven, and rebel 
againft the Almighty. Thus 
when God defign'd to limit the 
Power of the JewiHi Monarchy, 



he prefcribes Laws himfelf; but 
fihce he hath not iixt any to o- 
ther Princes, every King, as fuch, 
(for I do not refpecl their parti-^ 
cular Grants to the People,which 
they are bound to obferve) is 
abfolute. , , 

To free this from all Excepr, 
tion, it muft be conlidered that 
the Difcourfe is concerning the 
Origine of Power, which is now', 
fettled in fome Perfons, and by, 
which Communities are govern-! 
ed. The Epicureans ad: very, 
agreeably to their impious Prin-^, 
cipies, when they make Fear arid 
Diftruft the only Motives to. A- 
greement, and the Pa<fls which 
thefcatter'd Multitude agreed to 
be the Foundation of the Power 
of the Prince : it being impoffi- 
ble for them, who had excluded 
Providence, to find any other 
Original : But this Opinion, as, 
deliver'd by them, depending up- 
on their other abfurd and impi- 
ous Philofophy, muft be v/eak 
and irrational ; yet ftill this No- 
tion is embrac'd, tho' not upon 
the fame Motives ; Facftion and 
Anibitionpropagate that Errour, 
wliich was nothing eUe but inno- 
cent Ignorance in the Antients : 
They confidered Man as fingle, 
unable to live with Security or^ 
Comfort, bccaufe his Fellows, 
either oat of Pride, Luft, or Cb- 
vetoufnefs, would endeavour. to 
rob him of his Enjoyments,, 
and his Life too, if it hin- 
der'd them in the Profecution of 
their Wiilies ^ Thus they faw a 
Neceffity of Government,andbe- 
caufe it proceeded from Man's 
natural Imperfections , they 
thought him, that by his Wif- • 
dom, or his Strength, was moft : 
fitted for the Defence and Prefer- 
YAVion of othersj to be as it were 

a Lord 



yn 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 

Or elfc, almoft as foon as ic began, 

The Race had fall'n, this Age ne'er feen a Man. 

Kind 
NOTES. 



il Lord by nature, and born a i or SuccelTive, rules by the fame 
Sovereign : Thus Plutarch, 6 {Authority, as 'tis certain they 

do, becaufe both have Power, and 



ocoC,i^ UojJLiVOi r crooC^eiv di/vct- 

'Tis the iirit and moft funda- 
mental Law, that He that is 
able to proted, is a King by 
Kature to him that needs Pro- 
tedioa : Thus Hiftorians make 
the Eledion of the firft Kings to 
be for their Strength, their Wif- 
dom, or their Beauty : and Ari- 
ftotle peremptorily determines, 
that the Barbarians are Slaves by 
Kature to the Greeks : This was 
innocent enough in them, but 
how can we be excufed, who 
have fuch perfe(fl Knowledge of 
a Creation, who hear Wifdom 



the People can give them none : 
then what is more certain, than 
that all Kmgs, which way foever 
they are inthroned, before they 
have made any Grants to their 
People, are abfolute ? And that 
Xheir Pleafure is Law, for other- 
wife there could be none, that 
Liberty and Property depend up- 
on their Will. ^ -^ ^ "P 



Nam 
neq; 



Nee 
ra 



propri2B 
me, neq: 



telluris 
iJlum, 



quenquam llatuit 



herum 
Natu- 



Nor does Nature provide more 
by her Kings \lZ%^ll^-l^^^ 



proclaim, that 

reign, who made it an Article |. IT.,*''" V/'"""P^es are true, 

in Edward the Vlth's Time, and lows ' L 1 '1 ""'"/^"^ ^«^- 

lows, 35 It docs, becaufe the Peo- 
pie, that cannot beftow the Pow- 
er,have noRight to make Condi- 
tions fonts Exercife, and fet Li- 
mits how far it ihail extend, and 
make fuch and fuch Agreements 
for the Admiflion of the Prince - 
what Harm is there in this inno- 
cent Truth ? For we difcourfe 
only of Kings as they iirft are, 
without anyReference to fuch and 
fuch particular Communities, 
where they have been pleafed to 
limit themfelves ; to grant Privi- 
leges to their Subjeds, and fettle 
Property, and confirmed all this 
with Oaths and engaged their 
Royal Word, and Promife before 
God and Man for their Perform- 
ance. 

Ifuppofe it is granted on all 
hands, that the King is Supreme 
that upon any Pretence whatfo- 
ever It is Treafon to refiil ; and 
To there can be no Fear of Punifh 



now every Day in our publick 
Prayers profefs, that God is the 
only Ruler of Princes ? From 
whence 'tis neceflarily inferr'd, 
that he only bellows the Power, 
for if it came from the Multi- 
tude, what is more evident, than 
that they could make what Con- 
ditions they pleafed, fubjed: them 
to a High Court of Juftice, and 
call them to account, if they 
ad: contrary to their Pleafure ? It 
being certain, and confirmed by 
common PracTtice, that he that 
voluntarily parts from his Right, 
may do it on what Terms he 
thinks fit : Now if it be certain, 
(andDemonftrationproves it)that 
God is the alone Giver of Power, 
if the Prince be, as Plutarch 
and Menander fay, liKcvv'if/.'^v 
X^s" 9si^, a living Image of the 
L>eity, if, as Pliny, qui vice Dei 

crca hominum genus fungeretur, ^^^^ 

And every King,whether Eledive ' ment, no T)7upon7he"K:ing hut 

B b b b ^ his 



^5^4 LU C R ETIU 5. Book V. 

Kind Nature Pow'r of framing Sounds affords 

To Man ; and then Convenience taught us Words: 

1095. As Infants now, for want of Words, devife ^ 

Expreirive Signs : they fpeak with Hands and Eyes; > 

Their fpeaking Hand the Want of Words fuppiies.3 

All 
N T E S- 



his own Gonrcience ; fufficit quod 
Deum expectet ulcorem j yet tho' 
the Law cannot punilh, it can di- 
rect : tho' it is not a Mafter,it is 
a Guide, and fuch a one, as, be- 
caufe of his Oath, he is bound to 
follow : For tho' the People can 
not, He can limit himfelf ; for 
being a rational Creature, and 
intrufted with Power, without 
any particular Rules for the Gui- 
dance of it ; his Keafon is to be 
his Diredor, and therefore accor- 
ding to the Tempers and parti- 
cular Humours of the People, he 
may make Laws, fettle Maxims 
of Government; and oblige him- 
felf to make thofe his Meafures, 
becaufe his Reafon alTures him, 
that this is the beft Method for 
the Prefervation of the Society, 
the Maintenance of Peace, and 
obtaining thofe Ends, for which 
he was intrufted with this Power. 
And iince Princes muft dye, 
and Government being neceflary, 
Succeffion is equally fo.and there- 
fore it may fesm that everyprince, 
owing his Power only to the fame 
Origiiial from which the firft de- 
rived it, is at liberty to confirm 
fuch and fuch Privileges and Im- 
munities, which his Predeceflbrs 
have granted ; yet upon a feri- 
GUs View ofthepremifed Reafon, 
no fuch Confequence will follow •, 
for fince the Predecefi'ors have 
found thefe Laws agreeable to the 
tempers of thePeople,and the only 
%vay to preferve Peace, 'tis evident 
that thofe are rational, and Iince 
he is to ufe his Power according 
to right reafon, there is an ante- 
^dent Obligation on him to af- 
fent to thofe Laws ; and make 
Shofe the Meafures of his Go- 



vernment ; unlefs fome extraor- 
dinary Cafe intervenes, which 
requires an Alteration of thofe 
Laws, and thqn that method of 
abrogating old, and making new 
ones is to be followed, which con- 
ftant Experience hath found Na- 
tional : And fince a Prince can- 
not be bound by any Tyes but 
thofe of Confcience, this Opini- 
on leaves all the Obligations pof- 
fible upon him. 

1093. Kind Nature, &c.] But 
it may reafonably be ask'd, how 
Leagues could be made, and So- 
cieties eftabliili'd among Men, 
who perhaps indeed could think, 
but had not yet learnt to utter 
their Thoughts. To this Lucre- 
tius anfwers, That the firft Men 
were confcious to themfelves of 
their own Powers and niatural 
Faculties; and that they utter'd 
feveral Sounds, as each Obje(f^ 
that they faw, or as any thing 
that they felt, caus'd in them 
either Fear, Joy, Pain, Grief, 
Pleafure, &c : For Nature her- 
fclf compell'd them to this ', and 
theretore Horfes, Dogs, Birds, 
in ihort, all Animals, that have 
Breath, do the like : And thus 
Man too at firft ftamm.er'd only 
imperfecfi: and inarticulateSounds. 
But no Commerce was yet eftar 
blifli'd , they had no mutual 
Communication with one ano- 
ther : Nor indeed could any fuch 
I Thing be, till Names were given 
I to Things : Every Man there- 
fore perceiv'd, that it would be 
ufeful to himfelf and others, to 
agree upon a certain Name foir 
each Thing. Thus all, who were 
encer'd into one Society, agreed 
among themfelves upon the fame 

Names 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 5-^^ 

All know their Powr's; they are by Nature fhown;/ 
Thus tender Calves with naked Front will run, S* 
1 1 00 And fiercely pufli before their Horns are grown. S 
Young Lions fliew their Teeth, prepare their Pa ws; ) 
The Bears young Cubs unfheath their crooked C 
Claws, Q 

While yet their Nails are young, and foft their Jaws. J 
The Birds ftrait ufe their Wings, on them rely; 
1 105 And foon as Dangers prefs, they ftrive to fly. 

Befides; That one the Names of THiNGScontriv'd, 
And that from him their Knowledge all deriv'd, 

•Tis 
N O T £ ^. 



Names of Things : And thus the 
ufefulnefs of calling Things by 
Names, gave occalion for the In- 
vention of Words. But for any 
to pretend, that one Man gave 
Names to all Things, is wretch- 
edly abfurd and foolifli. This 
Difputation Lucretius has in- 
cluded in 6^. v. 

Scaliger, in the firft Book of 
his Poetick, chap. i. obferves, 
That as all our Adions, fo 
Speech too is to be conlider'd un- 
der three diflferent Heads : I, As 
abfolutely neceifary : II. As ufe- 
ful : III. As delightful. The 
firft Kind was that which ferv'd 
as a neceffary Means of Inter- 
courfe between Man and Man, 
barely to underftand one ano- 
ther's Meaning : And fuch we 
may imagine to have been 
that manner of Speech, which 
Ladantius de vero Cultu 
cap. 10. meniionSj and which 
Men, according to the Opi- 
nion of fome of the Antients, 
Ws'd in the beginning of the 
"World, when, as fome belie v'd, 
they only gefticulated their 
Thoughts , and fpoke their 
Meaning by Signs and Nods 
After which, as the fame Au- 
thour fays, and before him Dio- 
?iorus Siculusj lib. i. they made 
Effays of Language, by impof- 
ing diftind^ nominal Notes, or 
Haines upon Uy^^aX ThingSj an<^ 



thus by Degrees they made a 
kmd of Speech. Thus too Ho- 
rat. lib. i. Serm. 3. 

Q.uum prorepferunt primis ani- 

malia terris, 

Mutum & turpe pecus, m 

Donee verba, quibus voces fen- 

fufque notarent, 
Nomjnaque invenere. — — — — ^-" 



The fecond fort of Speech, fays 
Scaliger, was a little more re-^ 
fin'd and poliHi'd, by being a- 
dapted and made fit for Ufe, an4 
Convenience ; and by applying, 
as it were, certain Dimenfions, 
Prefcriptions, and Lineaments to 
the lirft rude Sketch of Lan- 
guage J whence proceeded a cer? 
rain Law and Rule of fpeaking t 
The third fort was yet more po- 
lite, there having been added tQ 
the former the Ornament of Ele- 
gancy, as its Drefs and Apparel, 
Thus Scaliger, of Speech in ge-? 
ncral. 

1 10^. Befides, &c.3 Here Lu-? 
cretius feems to fall foul uporj 
the Chronologer of the Holy 
Scripture, by denying that Names 
were given to Things by the 
firft Man : but thofe V/ritings 
were perhaps unknown to ouj? 
Poet, and he chiefly difputes 
againft the Opinions of Pytha- 
goras and Plato 5 Man^ f^ys I^i;*^ 
1 h ^ fe 3 . 1- . -- 



f y6 lUCKETIUS. Beok V^ 

'Tis fond to think : For how could that Man tell "p 
The Names of Things, or lifp a Syllable, > 

1 1 1 o And not ANOTHER Man do fo as well ? > 

Nay 

NOTES. 



blichus de Se<^. Pythagor. was 
created the moft wife and know- 
ing of all Animals, capable to 
confider things, and to acquire 
Knowledge from them j becaufe 
God had imprinted and beftow'd 
iipon him the plenitude of all 
Realbn, in which are contained 
all the fe^^eral Species of Things 
and the Significations of all their 
Names, and of all Words : Pla- 
to in Cratylus will not allow, 
that any one Man gave Names 
to Things, but that they receiv'd 
their Names from the wifeft and 
moft learned of Men, whom he 
calls ovo/^cts"?pj'ar, and ovofxctjih- 
?«$", the Makers and Impofers of 
Kames, in the giving of which, 
fays he, the higheft Wifdom ma- 
nifeftly appears ; and Cratylus 
adds, that no Man could do it, 
but they, who reflecting on the 
Nature of Things, were able to 
judge of them, and to accomo- 
date, and give to each Thing a 
Name, fuitable to, and expref- 
iive of, its Nature : Lucretius 
was aware of this, and therefore 
inquires in thefe 4.. v. How this 
great Knowledge came to be in 
the firft Nomenclacor, and de- 
ny'd to the reft of Mankind : 
How fliould one Man, fays he, 
be able to give Names to Things, 
and not another? The Anfwei^ 
is ready, tho' it will appear of no 
Weight to Lucretius, who will 
not believe the Creation of one 
Man onlyjfrom whom all the reft 
have defcended ; nor, that when 
Names were firft given to Things, 
there was yet but one Man in the 
"VVorld: And why might not that 



$rft Parent of Manldad; whom M^^^ie Things 



God had infus'd with Knov/- 
ledge, (Creavit Deus fcientiam ii> 
animo, fenfu iraplevit eum, & 
mala &: bona oftendit illi, addi- 
ditqi difciplinam. Ecclef cap. 
17.) Why might he not, I fay, 
being thus inftruded , impofe 
Names on Things ? And that 
too then efpecially, when this 
new created Monarch, on the 
Feftival of his Inauguration, 
call'd an his fubjed Anmials by 
their Names : appellavitque A- 
dam nominibus fuis cuntfta ani- 
mantia *, fays the facred Chrono- 
loger, Genef. 3. Which Text of 
holy Writ Eufebius, Preparat. 
Evangel, lib. 11. cap. 4. reciting^ 
fays, that Mofes meant nothing 
elfe by it, than that a Name was 
given to each Thing, agreeable 
and fuitable to its Nature. And 
fince the Nature of Man is prone 
to learn, and greedy of Know- 
ledge, why might not the reft of 
Men, v;iio came afterwards into 
the World, and convers'd with 
that firft Giver of Names, wil- 
lingly retain them in their Me- 
mory, as they receiv'd them from 
him ? From him, I fay, who, 
not like mute Animals, could 
exprefs only his own Affections, 
his own Defires ; but likewife 
knew and exprefs'd the Nature 
andManners of others. But of the 
Original of human Speech, fee 
LaertJib. 10. Diodor, Sicul. lib. 
r. fub initium, Sc Plato in his 
Cratylus. 

inc. And not, &c.] That is 
to fay. If any one Man could im- 
pofe Names on Things, another 
might, at the fame tintie, do the 



W^' 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. yy7 

Nay more : If others us'd not Words as foon. 
How was their Use, and how the Profit known ? 
Or how could he inftrudt ^nothers Mind ? 
How make them underftaiid what was dcfign*d ? 
1115 For his, being fingle, neither Force, nor Wic *> 

Could conquer many Men, nor they fubmit •• 

To learn his Words, and pradife what was fir. j 
How he perlwade thole fo unfit to hear ? Oj 

Or how could favage they with Patience bear ^» 

1 120 StrangeSouNDsandWoRpsftillrattlingin their Earo 
But now fince Organs fit, fince Voice and Tongue, 
By Natures Gift beftow'd, to Man belong, 

Whac 

NOTES, 



mi. Nay more, SccJ] Tn tViefe 
10. V. the Poet asks *, How that 
firft Nomendator could com- 
pel the reft of Men to learn from 
him what they were to fay ; and 
to retain in their Memory the 
Words he had invented, and the 
Names he had given to things i 
This Argument is of little vali- 
dity : For, befides, as we faid be- 
fore, that the Nature of Man is 
prone to learn, and defirous of 
Knowledge, we Icnow that Chil- 
dren eafily accuftom themfelves 
to pronounce and ipeak by de- 
grees the Words they hear fpoken 
by their Parents, Nurfes, and 
others that are about them : The 
Child, who had been brought up 
by Goats, and never in his Life 
heard a human Voice^bleated like 
that Animal, and fpoke only the 
Language of Goats. Even Par- 
rots, Pies, Starlings, Sec. when 
they are taught, learn to pro- 
nounce human Words articulate- 
ly, meerly by their own Induftry, 
and we obfervethem, conning o- 
ver by themfelve£,and foftly mut- 
tering the LefTons that have been 
taught them : Plutarch de Animal. 
Compar. makes mention of a 
Magpie he had feen in a Barber's 
Shop at Rome, that fung no, lefs 
than nine different Tunes, obfer- 
ving the due Time and Meafure 



in all of them. What Wonder 
then that Man, a Creature en- 
dow'd with Keafon and Under- 
ftanding, fliould learn to imitate 
the Words of his Fellow-Crea- 
ture ? 

1 121. But now, &c.] Here the 
Poet in 35. v. fays, That 'tis 
not furprizing, that any Man, 
to whom Nature had given n 
Tongue and a Voice, could, as 
he thought fit, and according to 
the various Knowledge he had 
conceived of the great Variety 
of Things, diftinguiih and mark 
each of them by a proper Name ; 
efpecially fince even mute Ani- 
mals can, and do exprefs their 
different Paffions and Affedioiis, 
by different Voices and Sounds : 
For they declare and fignifie their 
Pain and Pleafure, and the other 
Affections, that are fubjed: to 
thofe two, by inarticulate indeed, 
but unlike and various, Sounds. 
Why then might not any Man 
mark and denote different 
Things by different Names ? But 
this is not what was done by the 
firft Impofer of Names ? For he 
not only exprefs'd his own Affe- 
cftions ; but the proper Nature, 
and genuine Manners of others, 
by virtue of the divine Gift, the 
Knowledge which the Almighty 
had infuf^d into him, 

' ]|i23. VJH^ 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 



What Wonder is it then, that Man fiiould frame, 

And give each DIFFERENT Thing a diff'rent Name ? 

Ii^5 Since Beasts themfelves do make a difF'rent Noife, 
Opprefs'd by Pains and Fears, or fiird with Joys. 
This plain Examples fhew : When Dogs begin f 
To bend their Backs, and fhew their Teeth,and grin,> 
When hollow Murmurs fhew deep Rage within 5 J^ 

5 igo Their Voice is difPrent when they bark aloud. 

And with flrong Roarings fright the trembling Croud : 
Or when they lick their Whelps with tender Tongue, 
Or when they play, and wanton with their Young, 
Now feem to bite, but never chop their Jaws, 

'1135 Now fpurning, but with tender fearful Claws ; 
Then flatt'ring, foft and tender is their Voice 
Far difFrent from that grating,;howling Noife, 



They 



N T £ 5. 



1123. What Wonder^&c] For, 
ds Faber on this PafTage obferves, 
if the Names themfelves gave 
any Knowledge, rSv (pvatcev, of 
the Natures and Qualities of the 
Things that are cail'd by them, 
and if upon the bare Pronuncia- 
tion of three or four Syllables any 
particular Notice were obtain'd ; 
that indeed would defervedly 
claim our Admiration : but fince 
it depends only upon Ufe, and 
that Ufe upon Chance, Conveni- 
ence, and fcmerimes on the Te- 
merity and Ignorance of the 
meaner and illiterate Part of 
Mankind, Lucretius is in the 
right to fay, that there is no 
^yonder in it. 

1 1 2 5. Since Beafts, &c.] Sextus 
Empiricus, lib. 11. Pyrhon. Hy- 
potyp- feems to be of Opinion;, 
That BirdSjand brute Beafts have 
a particular Language according 
to their dififerentKindstand with 
him agrees Lacftantius, and fays, 
That Speech is proper to Man ; 
and yet we may obferve in Birds 
and Beafts a certain fimilitude of 
Spnsch, and that too, different 
upon different Occafions : To us 
indeed theirVoicesfeem imperfjclj 
and inarciculat? j and fo !;oo per- 1 



haps do ours to them i but theie 
Voices utter Words to them- 
felves, becaufe they underftand 
them. Proprius homini fermo 
eft •, tamen & illis qu^dam fimi- 
litudo fermonis : Nam & dig- 
nofcunt invicem fe vocibus ; dc 
cum irafcuntur, edunt fonum 
jurgio fimilem : dc cum fe ex in- 
tervallo videre, gratulandi oifi- 
cium voce declarant : Nobis qui- 
dem voces eorum videntur incon- 
dite, ficut illis fortaffe noftra? ,* 
fed illis, qui fe intelligunt, verba 
funr. Lactan. de Ira Dei. cap. 7. 
And the credulous Antients firm- 
ly believ'd, that Magicians un- 
derftood the Languages of Birds: 
And Porphyry aflures us, That 
Apollonius Tyanxus could ex- 
pound the Notes of Swallows ; 
or, as Philoftratus fays, the 
Chirping of Sparrows : Tirefias 
like wife is renown'd for his 
Knowledge in the Languages of 
Birds : Apollon. Rhodig. lib. 5. 
mentions one Mopfus , who, 
underftood the Language,s of 
Crov/sand Daws. Pliny lib, 10. 
cap. 49.. relates of Melampus,^' 
that he was inftrucfted to inters 
pret the Tongues of Birds b.y a 
Serpentj that came to him, and 

■'■•■■ ' ■' ■■ }^i 



LUCRETIUS. 



il9 



Book V. 

They make, "when fhut alone, or creeping low. 
Whine, as they ftrive to (hun the coming Blow. 
1,140 The HoR^E with diff'rent Noifes fills the Air, 
When hot and young, he neighs upon his Mare, 
Rous'd by ftrong Love ; or when by fierce Alarms,' 
He SNORTS, and bears his Rider on to Arms. :■. 
Thus Birds, as Hawks, or thole that cut the Flood, 
II 45 Make difTrent Noifes as they eat their Food j > 
Or when they fiercely fight ; or when purfue 
The trembling Prey : Each Passion has a new; 
Sometimes at Change of Ai R,they change iheirVoice 5 
Thus Daws, and om'nous Crows, with various Noife, 
; Affright 

N0T£5. 



lick*d his Ears. But of thk even | 
he hitnfelf feems to queftion the 
Truth : nor does he give much 
Credit to what he reports of De- 
mocritus, who faid, That the 
Blood of feveral Birds, mixt to- 
gether and corrupted, will pro- 
duce a Serpent, of which who- 
ever eats, incelle<rturus fit avium 
colloquia, will underftand the 
Difcourfe of Birds: That the 
SoUthfayers drew their Divina- 
tioas from the Voices of Birds, 
as well as from their Flight, is 
nojcxwious : Virgil /En. 3. v. 359. 

Trojugena, int-erpres Divum, qui 

numina Phoehi, 
Qui tripodas, Clarii lauros, qui 

fydera fentis, 
Rt volucrum linguas, Sc prarpe- 

tis omina penna: : 

And the Birds, from whofe Voice 
they took their Auguries, were 
cail'd, Ofcines, from, os 8c cano, 
finging with the Mouth : and 
thefe were Crows, Ravens, 
Pies, and the like : as the others, 
jfrom svhofe flight they divin'd 
^ture Events, were call'd Prje- 
petes, from, 'ZDffivrarfSi^, flying 
before, as Vultures, Eagles, Sec. 
But befides all ithis, we may pro- 
duce the Authority of fome of 
the JewiHi DoAours, who affirm 
Salomon to have been learned in 



I 



the Languages of Birds :■ Nay, 
they fay, that he fent a.Meflage 
by a certain Bird,to the Queen of 
Ethiopia ; who mttft therefore 
be thought to have beoi as know- 
ing in the Language of Birds as 
himfelf : And in the Alcoran, 
he is made to fay, O homines, in- 
teiligite avium eloquentiam : 
And from the fame Authority 
we learn. That a Lapwing, or a 
Bird caird a Houp, brought him 
the iirft News of the Qiieen of 
Sheba : Of which Notice is ta- 
ken in the Prolegom. in Bibl, 
Poiyglott. But Delrius denies. 
That either Birds or Beafts can 
ufe Difcourfe, becaufe they are 
void of Reafon ; yet he confefles, 
that they have certain Indicati- 
ons, or expreffive Sounds, by 
which they reveal and make 
known their Affedlions and Ap- 
petites ; and which Men,by long 
Obfervationjmay come to under- 
ftand : He adds, that thefe Indi- 
cations of theirs are perfectly 
known to the Devil, and that he 
may inftrucfl Magicians to know 
them as well as himfelf; which 
whether he ever did or not, fays 
he, 1 cannot tell : but, non eft 
incredibile fecilTe, it is not in- 
credible but he has. Delrius 
Difquif. Mag. lib. 2. cap. 19. 

I i4p. Ominous Crows] Crows 
are faid to prognofticate the 

Change 



L U C R E T lU S. 



Book V. 



1150 Affright the Farmers; and fill all the Plain, 

Now calling for rough Winds, and now for Rain. 
Therefore fince Beasts and Birds, tho' dumb, com- 
As various Voices, as their various Sense; (mence 
How eafy was it then for Man to frame, 

1155 And give each difT'rent Thing a difi'rent Name ? 1 - 
, Now for the Rife ofFiREsfwift Thunder thrown j 
Frqm broken fuiph'rous Clouds, firft brought it down t t 

/ For' 

NOTE S. 



Change of Weather, either to 
fair or foul : and to give notice 
of each by their different Croak- 
ing : If they croak often, and 
with a hoarfe Voice, it is a Sign 
of Rain: Virg. Georg. i. v. 381. 



m. . ■ £t e paflu decedens 

- agmine magno 
Corvorum increpuit denfis exer- 
citus alis. 

An4 V. 388. 

Turn cornix rauca pluviam vo- 

cat improba voce, 
Et fola in ficca fecum fpatiatur 

areni. 

But if they croak not above three 
or four times, and wich a flirill 
and clear Voice, it betokens fair j 
Weather. Thiis Virgil in the | 
fame Georgick, v. 410. fpeakingj 
of fair Weather, fays, that i 

Turn liquidas corvi preflb ten 

gutture voces \ 

Aut quater ingeminant : & f^epe • 

cubilibus altis I 

Kefcio qua prater folitum duke- 1 

dine l^ci 
Inter fe foliis ftrepitant : juvat 

imbribus acTtis 
Progeniem parvam , dulcefque 

revilere nidos. 

Seethe Note on v. 89. B. VI. 
115^. Now for, &c.] He has 



before made mention of* Firet 
v. 1073. He now teaches in 15. v, 
That Fire was either thrown 
down to Earth by Thunder : or 
that the Trees, being rudely 
iliaken by ftormy Winds, and 
their Branches growing hot by 
frequent ftriking and dailiing 
againft one another, burft out 
at length into Flames, and firft 
gave Fire to Men, who us'd it 
to drefs their Meat, having ob- 
ferv'd that the Heat of the Sun 
ripen'd and brought their Fruits 
to Maturity, and made them 
more fit for their Service, Anc 
thus another Way of Life, and 
Change of Food, invented b) 
witty Luxury, was firft intro- 
duc'd. 

Caneparius, de Atramentis 
cap. 13. reckons up lix feveraJ 
Ways, by which Fire may be ge- 
nerated and kindled ; viz. Pro- 
pagatione, Putredine, Coitione 
Antispafi, Friiftione & Percuffio- 
ne : by Propagation, Corrupti- 
on, Coition, Antispafis, or con- 
trary K-evulfion, Fridion, anc 
Percuflion : which nevertheief 
he reduces to thefe three Kinds 
Propagation. Coition, and Mo 
tion ; m which the other way; 
are included : For Corruptior 
and Revullion to the contrary 
kindle Fire, by compelling thf 
djfperfed Heat to unite together 
and therefore fall under the Heat 
of Coition : as Fricfiion and Per 
culTion do under that of Motion 

# '■. ii6o, Anci 



Book V. 



LUCRETIUS. 



S6i 



For many Things take Fire, when Lightening fiks. 
And fulph'rous Vapours fill the lower Skies : 
lidoAnd Trees, when Ihaken by a Southern Blaft, 
Grow warm, then hot, and fo take Fire at laft ; 
Their Branches, mingling with a rude Embrace, 

Burft into Flames. • — - 

And thus our Fires might rife from cither Caufe. 

The Sun firft taught them to prepare their Me atj 
Becaufe they had obferv'd his quick ning Hear, 
• Spread o'er the Hills, and ev'ry fliady Wood, 

Ripen'd the Fruits, and made them fit for Food. 
' Hence various Methods they did ftill purfue, 
1 170 And chang'd their former Life, to take a new. 



1165 



NOTES. 



The 



,ii<Jo. And Trees, &c.] This, 
if we may believe fomeAuthours, 
iiappen'd often formerly in Hun- 
;ary : And Lucretius has alrea- 
dy made mention of Trees taking 
Fire by Coliifion, Book I. v. 902, 
See the Kote on that Place : 
Moreover, Vitruvius, lib, 2. cap. 
i. afcribes the Original of our 
;ulinary Fire to this Accident of 
Trees taking Fire in a Tempeft : 
His Words are as follow : Ab 
Tempcftatibus Sc Vencis denfx 
:rebritatibus arbores agicatSB, Sc 
inter fe terentes ramos, ignem 
ixcitaverunt : Which the An- 
cients having obferv'd, took from 
thence the firft Hint of the In- 
vention of their Igniaria : for 
their way of getting Fire was by 
rubing one Stick againft another, 
cill being heated, they catch'd 
Fire, which they fed with dry 
Leaves, or fome other Matter, 
:hat was eafily combuftible : 
Virgil Mn, i. v. 179. 



Sufcepitque ignem 

arida circum 
Kutrimeuta dedit.- 



foliis, atque 



And thefe dry Nourifhments, 
fays Turnebus, in his Notes on 
Theophraftus de Igne, they call'd 
'-X*t=*) i' c. focus ; or^ accord- 



ing to the Scholiaft of Apolloni- 
us, a-oph^y i. e. Strator : Which 
we may compare with our Tin- 
der : The other Parts, which 
were the Sticks, they call'd 
TtfS'Tfov, i. e. Terebrum, and 
thefe ferv'd inftead of our Flint 
and Steel. The Trees, that are 
moft fubje<ft to take Fire in this 
manner, are faid to be the Fig- 
tree, Laurel, Oak, Holm, Tile- 
tree, Ivy and Vine : but above 
all the Laurel. And if we may- 
give credit to Manilius,Fire may 
be got almoft out of every 
Thing. 

Sunt autem cundlis permixti par- 

tibus ignes ; 
Qui gravidas habitant fabrican- 

tes fulmina nubes j 
Et penetrant terras, TEtnamque 

imitantur Olympo, 
Et calidas reddunt ipfis in fonti- 

bus undas : 
Ac filice in dura, viridique in 

cortice fedem 
Inveniunt, cum fylva fibi collifa 

crematur, 
Ignibus ufque adeo Natura eft 

omnis abundans. lib. i, v. 850. 

Which our Trandatour thus ren-t 
ders : 



C c c c 



Fire 



%(yt 



LUCRETIUS. BookV* 

The Wiser, and the Wittier left the Field ; 
And Towns for fafety did begin to build; 

By Nature, Kikgs. — ^^ -^ 

Then Cattle too was fliar'd, and fteady Bounds 
! 175 Mark'd out to ev'ry Man his proper Grounds : 
Each had his proper Share, each what was fit. 
According to his Beauty, Strength, or Wit : 
For Beauty then and Strength had moft Command 5 
Thofe had the greateft Share in Beafts and Land ; 

But 
NOTES, 

That whofoevcr values his eafti 
and quiet, and delires to live hap- 
pily, will, if he be wife, avoid 
the Adminiftration of pubiick 
Affairs: For the Soveraigii Au- 
thority is hard to gain, and 
harder to keep : InfteadofPlea 
fures, it brings Cares and Trou- 
bles ; It is always tottering and 
inconftant ; always attacked b) 
Ambition and Envy, and ofter 
thrown down by Confpiracy. 
■ 1174. Steady Bounds, Scc.^ 
Thus too Ovid. Metam. i, i 



I 



Fire lies in ev*ry Thing ; m 

Clouds it forms 
The frightful Thunder, and de- 

fcends in Storms t 
It pafles thro' the Earth, in ittna 

raves, ^; 

And imitates Heav'ns Thunder 

in its Caves • ., , -r 

In hollow Vales it boils the nhng 

Floods; , 

In Flints 'tis found, and lodges 

in the Woods ; 
For, tofs'd by Storms, the Trees 

in Flames expire, _ 

So warm are Natures Parts, lo 

iiU'd with Fire. 

Creech. 

iiyi.The Wifer,&c.]lnthere 
00 v. he tells us, That to pro- 
vide the better for theit common 
fafety, they gave the Soveraign: 
power to one Man, to whom Na- 
ture had given to excel in Beauty, 
Wit, or Scren£;th ; and had thus 
herfelf declar'd him a King. This 
Monarch fell to building of 
Towns and Towers, to defend 
himfelf and his Subjeds from the 
Infults of their Enemies. He 
governed them at Will ; every 
Thing was done that he com- 
manded, and, 

O Happy Mankind under fuch 
a Prince ^ 

But Avarice and Ambition, foon 
corrupted and overthrew all 
shing? : And fuch is the Condi- 
tion of Priiicssi€¥'n al this Day, 



135- 

Communemque prius, ceu lu- 

mina folis Be auras, 
Cautus humiim longo fignavii 

limite menfor. 

Then Land-marks limited to 

each his Right, 
For all before was common as th« 

Light. Dryd. 

1 178. For Beauty, dec."] It 
was the Cuilom formerly in ma- 
ny Countries to choofe theii 
Kings for the Beauty and Ma- 
jefty of their Perfons : Thi; 
Ari/lotle, lib. i. de Rep. report; 
to be true of the Ethiopiansiwho 
fays he, when they obferve an) 
one, who, in his Looks, refem- 
bles the Images of their Gods- 
immediately conclude, that h^ 
was born to rule over others 
And Xenophou in Symp. fays 
That Beauty is fomething that 
Kature herrdf has itamp'd with 
Koyalty, 



Book V. L 17 CR E T I U S, ^^^ 

1 1 80 But when once Cold was fotlnd, the powerful Ore? 
Saw Light, and Men gap'd after gli rt'r in g Store ; > 
Then Wit and Beauty v.'erd e'fteem'd h^'more, 3 
But Wealth enjoy*d their HonOoir, fie^'d their Place : 
The WISE and BEAuxEbtrs bow to FortuneVAss. 

1 185 But if Men would live up to Reasons Rules, 
They would not fcrape and cringe to wealthy Fools r 

For 

NOTES. 



JLoyalty. Heliogabaltls, though 
but a Boy, was chofen Emperor 
by the Roman Soldiers at iirft 
light of him; as if he had had 
what Euripides calls '^Ejj^(^ &!ljov 
ru^vvi^^ 5 a Countenance that 
deferv'd a Kingdom. Thus 
Dryden ; 

Manly Majefty 



Sate in his Front, and darted 

from his Eyes, 
Commanding all he view'd. 

And in another Place : 

Eyes that confefs'd him born for 

Kingly fway ; 
So fierce they flafli'd intolerable 

Day. 

And Virgil feems to have had 
fomething like this in his 
Thoughts, when he defcribes the 
"difference of Look between the 
li^vful King of the Bees, and the 
tlfurper ; of which Defcription 
that this Note may not ft retch 
too long , I will omic the 
Original, and give only Dryden's 
Tranllation : 

With Eafe diftinguiili'd is the 

regal Race : 
One Monarch wears an open, ho- 

neft Face, 
Shap'd to his Size^ and God- 

Jilce to behold. 
His royal Body iliines with specks 

ofGoid^ - 



And ruddy Scales-: Pop Empire 

he cJeiign'd, 
Is better bornj and of a nobler 

Kind : 
That other looks like Nature 

in Difgrace : 
Gaunt are his Sides, and fuJIen 

is his Face, 
And like this griefly Prince' 

appears his gloomy Race. 

To vvhich I will only add, that 
3r«oeiV.5A^, like a God, is often 
usM by Homer as an Epithec 
for a beautiful Perfon. 

Strength had moft Command] 
For as Varro Margop. fays very 
well ; 

Qiii pote plus viget, pifces ut 

f^pe minutos 
Magnu' comeft j ut aves cnecat 

accipiter. 

1 183. But Wealth, &c.] Thus 
Horace, Sat. 

•Omnis enim res. 



Virtus, fama, decus, divina, hu^ 

manaque pukhris 
Divitiis parent, 3cc. 1 j . 

And Ovid : 

Aurea funt vere nunc f^ecula 5 

plurimus auro 
Venit honos.' . 

And the Authour of Mudibtraa 
in two Words, 



C c c e 2 



fo^ 



5H 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 

For 'tis the greateft Wealth to live content 
With Little : fuch the greareft Joy refent : 
And bounteous Fortune itill affords Supply, 

1 1 90 Sufficient for a thrifty Luxury. 

But Wealth and Pow*r Men often ftrive to gain, 7 
As that could bring them Eafe ; or make a Chain ^ 
To fix unfteady Fortune : all in vain ! J 

For often when they climb the tedious Way, 

1 1 95 And now in reach of Top, where Honours lay; 

QuickStrokes from Envy, orfrom Thunder thrown,^ 
Tumble the bold, afpiring Wretches down : > 

They find a Grave, who flrove to reach a Crown.j^ 
And thus 'tis better, than proud Sceptres fway, 

1 200 To live a (juiec Subject, and obey. 

Thef< 

N O T £ S. 



I 



For Money is the only Pow'r, 
That all Mankind falls down be- 
fore. 

1187. For 'tis, &c.] Who, that I 
reads thefe Lines, can believe that I 
Epicurus was an Epicure : He | 
believed that a wife Man can not | 
be poor: becaufe he lives con-f 
tent with what he has ', and thinks 
it enough, even tho' it be but 
little : He plac'd indeed the chief 
Happinfes of Life in Pleafure : 
and what he meant by Pleafure 
let Cicero teach us : Negat Epi- 
curus jucunde pofTe vivi, niti 
cum virtute vivatur : negat ul- 
1am in fapientem vim eJTb Fortu- 
nx : tenuem vicftum antefert co- 
piofo, &c. Tufcul. QujhA. lib. 
3. And Laertius tells us, that 
Epicurus was often inculcating 
into his HearerSjParfimony^Con- 
tinency, Sparingnefs of Food, and 
Equanimity, or Eaiinefs , and 
Content of Mind in all States 
and Conditions : Whence he had 
often in his Mouth this Saying, 
■JiSis'a. fmohvlcma^? ^TTVKcvjHGiy 01 

The greateft Wealth to live 
content"! Thus too Dryden in the 
Wife of Bath's Tale after Chau- 
cer ; 



Content is Wealth, the Riche; 
of the Mind, 

And happy he, who can thai 
Treafure find ; 

But the bafe Mifer ftarves a- 

midft his Store, 
Broods on his Gold, and gri-' 

ping ftill at more, 
Sits fadly pining, and believes 

he's poor. 

1190. Sufficient, &c.] Ventre 
nihil novi frugalius, fays Juve- 
nal, Sat. 5. V. 6. And it was 
the conftant Obfervation of the 
foberer Heathens, That Nature 
is content with very little : Dip^ 
genes in the Life of Socrates, re- 
lates of that Philofopher, that lie 
was wont to fay. That moil 
Men feem'd to live only to eat ; 
but that for his Part he eat only 
to live. And Plato obfcrves. 
That of all Creatures Man is 
longeft in digefting his Food : 
And that Nature has order'd it 
thus to intimate to us, That ilie 
would not have thofe nobler Oc- 
cupations, of which ilie has ren- 
der'd us capable, and for which 
we were chiefly created, to be in- 
terrupted by too frequent eating. 

And 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. ^65 

Thefe former Kings now murcher'd, they o enhrown 
The Glory of the Sceptre and thp Crown 
Decreased: The Diadem, that Sign of State, 
Now wept in Drops of Blood, the Wearer's Fate • 
1205 Spurn'd by the common Feet ; who fear'd no more ; 
'Tis SWEET to fpurn the Things we fear'd before. 

Thus Monarchy was loft. 

That Sun once fet, a Thoufand little Stars. 
Gave a dim Light to Jealousies and Wars : 
1 110 While EACH among the Many fought the Throne^ 
And thought no Head, like his, deferv'd the .Crow nJ 

This 
JV O T £ 5. 



And as this is a good mo- 
ral Reafon , sfo neither is the 
Phyfical Keafon, which Anato- 
mifts give us, to be contemn'd : 
For they oblerve, That the Ileon, 
one of the Guts, through which 
the Meat muft pafs, and fo call'd 
from eiMcvj I involve, is fix times 
longer than our whole Body, and 
twilled and folded in fuch a 
manner, and withal fo fmaJl, 
that what we eat can not pafs 
through it eafily, and in a fliort 
time. 

1203, Diadem3 Diadems were 
us'd by the antient Kings, as 
Crowns are now, for the Mark 
of Royalty : They are by fome 
faid to be only white Ribbands, 
adorn'd with precious Stones.and 
which they bound about their 
Heads. The Word comes from 
SJ-S^JeTv, to bind about. But 
Pancirollus, from an Epiftle of 
St. Jerome to Fabiola, defcribes 
a Diadem to be a little Cap, 
like half a Football, bound a- 
bout with a white Fafcia or 
Wreath. This PaiTage of St. Je- 
rome is in Epift. 128. de veftitu 
Sacerdotum, where that Father 
calls it rotundum Pileolum, a 
round Cap ; fuch a one as that 
in which UlyfTes is reprefented in 
an arch'd Walk, call'd by his 
Name. The Greeks, fays he, 
call it Tjccg^, and fome, galerus : 
after which he adds, that this 



Pileolum was ty'd oil/ -'to :: the 
back-part of the Head with a 
Ribband, in fuch a manner, that 
it could not eafily flip off : Ita 
in occipitio vitta conftrucfta 
eft, ut non facile labatur ex ca- 
pitc. Yet indeed the Fafcia or 
Vitta itfelf feems rather than the 
Bonnet to have been the Diadem : 
For Marcellinus , lib, 1 5. ac- 
quaints us, that Pompey was 
fufpecfted of Treafon, for wear- 
ing the fafciola Candida about 
his Leg, to hide, as he pretend- 
ed, a Sore : but, fays he, the 
Fafciola Candida being generally 
interpreted a Diadem, it created 
a Sufpicion, that he was aiming 
at the Empire : the rather, be- 
caufe it was not material on what 
part of the Body it was worn. 
See likewife Alexander ab Alex. 
Gen. dier. lib. i. cap. 28. And 
Britannicus fays pofitively, it was 
not Corona, but fafcia : which 
agrees likewife with the Etymo- 
logy of the Word Diadem, which 
we gave before : 

1208. That Sun, &c.] Herp 
the Poet tells us, that the Mci^ 
narchy being abolifli'd , Vio- 
lence, Opprefllon, and Tumults 
began to rage anew, and the Life 
of Man return'd to its primitive 
Savagenefs : However, they at 
length thought fit to create Ma- 
giftrates among themfelves. and 
CO make Laws^ in order to puniili 
" ■ the 



s^ 



LUCRETIUS, 



Book A 



This' made them feek for Laws, this led their Choic 
To Rulers 5 PowV was giv n by publick Voice : 
For Men, worn out, and tir'd by coniiant Strife, 

jCii^S At [aft began to wifh an easy Life ; 

And To fubmitted of their own Accord t 

To rigid Laws, and cheir ELECTED Lord. 1 

For \^ hen each fihgle Man, led on by Rage, ^ 

Grew bloody in Revenge, and ftrove t' engage r : 

■I2ZO His Enemy, 'twas an unpleafant Age. 

Hence Men grew weary of continual Wars, 
Which four'd the Sweet of Life with conftant Fears 
Becaufe diffufive Wrong can fpread o'er all ; 'I 

No State fecure ; nay, oft the Wrongs recoil, > 

jii^Wnh double Force on the Contrivers fall. j 

NOT E 5. 



the Oppreflbrs! And this was an 
Inftance of their Prudence ; For 
the dread of Puniflanient keeps 
Men in Awe, and retains them 
within the Bounds of their Du- 
ty. And let none imagine they 
can violate the Laws with Impu- 
nity, even the' they offend in 
private ; For Confcience herfelf 
IS a Babbler , and many, when 
raving under the Violence of Di- 
feafe, or even in their Dreams, 
have been their own Accufers, 
and betray 'd their fecret Crimes. 
Here we may obferve that, 
Lucretius, from v. 1170. to v. 
1233. has folv'd the following 
Political Problems. 

I, Why Man, who was born 
free, fubje<fted himfelf from the 
very Beginning, to the Obe- 
dience of Kings ? For no Man, 
as Plutarch elegantly argues, is 
by Nature born a Slave. 

Either for the Refpe^ and Re- 
verence they bore to fome Men, 
on account of their Beauty and 
Majeftick Looks : Or by region 
of the fuperiour Strength of 
feme, by which they compell'd 
t>he. Weaker to unwilling Obe- 
dience and Servitude : or for the 
Excsilence of their Wit; which 



eaiilyand juftly acquir'd thetf 
the Command over others. 

IL Why did they confer th 
Government on one Man ? Wen 
there not feveral endowed will: 
equal Qiialiiications ? Befides 
every Man feems in his own Eye 
to be beautiful and wittj 
enough. 

Becaufe they deem'd a Monar; , 
chy to be preferable to a GoVeriv 
menrof many, and believ'd the'y 
fliould live more free under the 
Dominion of one, than of many 
Rulers. 

III. Why did the Beautiful, 
the Strong and the Witty ceaf^ 
at length to reign ? 

The Invention of Gold de- 
thron'd them, for when Men 
grew rich, the foyeraign Autho- 
rity deyoly'd on the moffc 
Wealthy. 

IV. Why did the Kings fall 
at lirft to building of Towers 
and Citadels ? 

Either becaufe they apprehend- 
ed the Tnfults of Enemies, or 
were jealous of their own Suh- 
je(fls, whom they opprefs'd wit> 
too fevere a Slavery. 

V. How came the Kmpf 
Power, with all its. Marks or 



'I 



Jook V. LUCRETIUS. J67 

Nor can thofe Men expedl to live at Eafe, 
Who violate the common Bonds of Peace. 
Tho* now they lie conceal'd from Man and God, 
They ftill muft fear 't will fome time come abroad: 

130 Since fome diseas'd, and fome by Night betray 
The wicked Actions, they have done by Day; 

! ■ Tho' hid in Night ; fcarce Hell fo deep as they. 
Now fing, my Muse, for that's my next Delign,^ 

/ Why ALL do bow to somewhat as Divine ? > 

3,35 Why ev'ry Nation has its proper Shrine ? 3 

Why ALL do Temples build, why Altars raife? 
And why all facrifice on facred Days ? 
How this diffused, this lafting Fame was fpread 
Of Powr's above ? Whence came that awful Dread, 

240 That Parent of Religion thro' the Rout, 
Which forces them to bow, and grow devout ? 

This 

NOTES. 



loyalty, to be at length totally 
ubverted and laid afide? 

"Becaufe nothing reiifts Envy; 
■hich climbs the loftieft Towers, 
ad invades the Palaces of Kings : 
ay, the Favourites of Fortune 
re chiefly expos'd to her Al- 
aults. 

VL Why were Laws firfl: in- 
ented and made ? 

Perhaps for the Sake of Com- 
iicrce : for Man is a fociable A- 
limal, and indigent of mutual 
Offices. Therefore that he might 
lot be perpetually in ArmSjLaws 
lere invented to eftablifli a Rule 
)f common Society, and to re- 
train and keep within certain 
vounds the Pcculancy and un- 
tridled Luft of the Wicked. 

122(5. Nor can, &c.] For, as 
r^^icero fays very truly, fua quem- 
^ue fraus, fuum facinus, fuum 
jcelus, fua audacia de fanitate 
jic mente deturbat, Lib. i. de 
Inib. » 
1229. They ftill, Sec.'] That 

3. as Cicero, lib. i. de iinib. 

v-eating of thefe Things, fays, 
lunquam confidant id fore fcm- 

' :r occultum, let them never 



flatter themfelves, that thefe E- 
normities will lie for ever bury '4 
in Darknefs : becaufe many are 
faid to have betray'd their 
Crimes in their Dreams : and 
others, in the delirious Ravings 
of a Difeafe, have difcover'd 
their abominable AcTtions, that 
had lain a long time conceal'd. 

1230. By Night betray, dec."} 
Thus Book IV. v. 1012. 

Multi de magnis per fomnum 

rebu' loquuntur, 
Indiciique fui fadi perfsepe fur- 

ere. 

Some talk of State Affairs, and 

fome betray. 
The Plots , their treach'rous 

Minds had fram'd by Day. 



1233. Now 
gion, fays he 



fing &c.] Reli- 
and the Fear of 
the Gods, began at the iirft 
Birth of Men : But from whence 
had they their Knowledge of the 
Deities f It is uncertain, whe- 
ther from the Images that flow'd 
from the Gods themfelves, to 
whom Epicurus afcrib'd as it 
were, a Body and Blood} or from 

Images 



^6S 



LU C R E T I U S. 



Book V 



This is aneafy Task : For new-born Man, 
Juft fprang from Earth, when firft this Frame began, 
Divine and glorious Forms defcending came, 
£245 And ftruck his Mind by Day, by Night the fame : 
But then increased, their working Fanfies fhow'd 
Great Limbs and Strength, and fit to make a God 
And thefe they thought had Sense, becaufe they fhook ? 
As Fanfy told, their Limbs, and proudly fpoke ; /■ 
12^0 Their Words were all majeftick, as their Look, j 
Eternal too, becaufe a new Supply, y 

A conftant Stream, where'er they turn'd their Eye, V 
Of Forms came in, and fhew'd the Deity. j 

Nor could they think fuch mighty Things could fail, 
1255 Or pow'rful Blows on fo much Strength prevail. 
And HAPPY too, becaufe no Fear deftroys. 
Nor Dread of fullen Death corrupts their Joys, 

Befides, in Dreams they often feem'd to do 
A thoufand various Things, and Wonders fhow : 
1260 Yet never weary they, but vig'rous ftill j 

Their Strength as much unbounded as their Will, 

Befides they faw the Heav*ns in Order roul 
Their various Motions round the fteady Pole : 

The 

NOTES. 



Images that arofe by chance. 
Novv thofe Images , whatever 
they were, or from whence fo- 
evcr they came, by continually 
itriking the Minds of Men, either 
when they were fleeping or a- 
wake, were the Caufe that Men 
conjecftur'd that fome Subftances, 
like thofe Images, and capable 
of Underftanding , did exift 
fomewhere or other : for the Ima- 
ges feem'd to fpeak, and to move 
their Members : And they be- 
liev'd them immortal too, be- 
caufe the Form of the Images 
was always the fame, and their 
Power and Strength, feem'd to 
be immenfe : And happy like- 
wife, becaufe they were never ter- 
rify'd at Dangers, nor difturb'd 
at the fear of Death : and never 
grew weary, as if they en joy 'd 
eternal Reft. 

1262, Befides, &c.] In ;hefe 



1 1. V. he farther alTerts, that the 
Ignorance of natural Caufes gave 
Rife likewife to Religion. For 
when Men obferv'd the Motions 
of the Heavens, and the VicilTi- 
tudes of the Seafons, when they 
perceiv'd the Hail, the Snow, 
the Winds, the Thunder, the 
Lightning, &c. and could not 
comprehend what fliould be the 
Caufes of all thofe wondrous Ef- 
fects, they concluded that God 
was the Authour of them : For 
to whom could they afcribe the 
conftant and continual Motion 
of the Spheres, rather than to a 
wife Ruler and Lord ? And 
where could they place his A- 
bode better, or with greatfirRea- 
fon, than in the Places from 
whence comes the Snow, the Hail, 
the Thunder, &c i Thus argu'd 
the Epicureans : but much bet- 
ter the Stoicks, who made ufe of 

this 



Book V. LUCRETIUS, <;6<^ 

The Seasons of the Year hyconftant Laws 

i2<^5 ^un round, but knowing noc the nac'ral Caufe ; 
They therefore thought, that Gods muft rule above, 
Poor ihift ! and all at their Devotion move. 
In He av'n they plac'd their SEAT,their ftatelyThrone,-^ 
For there the Sun, the Sta^s, and various Moon, > 

1270 And Day, and Night, their conftant Courfes run i 3 
And Hail, and Rain, and, thro* a broken Cloud, 
Swift LiOHTNiNG flies, and Thunder roars aloud. 
Unhappy Man, who taught, the Gods engage 9 
In thefe j that they are fubjed unto Rage : S" 

1275 A Curfe co theirs, to ours, and future A^e I 



What 



J^ O T E S. 



thi? very Argument, to aflert 
and prove the divine Providence j 
which the others brought to op- 
pofe it. 

Thus Manilius, lib. i. V. 475. 
ipeaicing of the Motions of the 
Scars and Spheres : 

Nee varies obitus norunt, varios- 

que recurfus ; 
Certa fed in proprias oriuntur 

fydera luces •, 
Nacalefque fuos, occafumque or- 

dine fervant : 

And v. 4.83. he adds : 

At mihi tarn praifens Ratio non 

ulia videtur, 
Qua pateat mundum divino nu- 

mine verti, 
Atque ipfum effe Deum j nee 

Forte coifle magiftri, 
Ut voluit credij qui. Sec, 

Which our Tranflatour thus ren- 
ders : 

The Stars ftill keep one Courfe : 

^hey ftill purfue / 

^Heir conftant TracJ^j nor vary 
-Ja anew : 
From one fixt Point they ftart, 

their Courfe maintain. 
Repeat their Whirl, and vific it 

again ; 



A moft convincing Reafonjdrawn 

from Senfe, 
That this vaft Frame is rul'd by 

Providence j 
Which, like the Soul, does ev*ry 

Whirl advance : 
It muft be God: nor was it 

made by Chance, 
As Epicurus dreamt, 8cc. 

1273. Unhappy, &c.] This Be- 
lief of a Divine Providence, Epi- 
curus held to be the fole Caufe of 
all the Anixeties that difturb the 
life of Man : and this Opinion 
of his Lucretius explains in thefe 
25. V. From that Belief, fays he, 
proceeds the vain and caufelefs 
Superftitipn of the greateft Pare 
of Mankind, which is not Piety 
to the Gods. The Pious Man is 
he, who looks into himfelf, who 
explores the Secrets and Power 
of Nature, that he may compre- 
hend the Caufes of all Things, 
and wonder at nothing : This is 
he, who with an undaunted Soul 
beholds the Motions of the Hea- 
vens, and all the other Ph<eno- 
menons of Nature ; becaufe 
he is convinc'd upon certain 
Grounds, that all things here be- 
low happen without the Care 
and Intervention of the Gods.: 
But Ignorance is the Parent of 
Piecy. 

IKd d d Papi- 



f7o 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V, 



"What Grief they biroiu^ht themfelves, tons what Fears? 
To poor Polierky what Sighs, what Tears ? 

Aias I what PiEtv? Alas 1 'Tis none, 
To bend all coverd to a senseless Stone, 
1280 Lie proftrate, or to \xfit evVy Shrlne, 

Or, with fpread Arms, invoke the Pow'rs Divine 

Before 
K O T E S, 



Papicotam crederes Lucretium 
fays Creech on this Paflage. 
Horace Epift. 6. lib. i* 

Kii admirari, prope res eft una, 

IST'imici, 
SoUque quje poflit facere Sc fer- 

vare beatam. 
Hunc foleni, & ftellas, & deqe- 

dentia certis "^^ / _; '^ * ; ' :, 

Tempora m o mentis, funrti til for- 

midine nulla 
Imbuti fpecftent. ' \ ; 

And Virgil. 

-Foelix qui potuit reriim cogno-^ 
fcere caulas, ! ^ 

■ ftrepitumque Acherbntis 

avari. . • 

Subjecit pedibus. ' ■ , 



enim beatam vitaffl in aninii fe- 
curicate, &: in omni vacatione 
^jnunerum pbnioius. De Natur. 
Deor. lib. i. Upon which La«ftan- 
tius fays, that he is apt to believe 
with PofTidonius in the fame Ci- 
cero, that Epicurus did indeed 
believe, that there were no Gods 
at all ; and that, what he faid of 
the Immortal Deities, he faid 
only to avoid th? Cenfure of the 
World : That though he indeed 
confefs'd with his Mouth, f hat 
there wcrc Gods, yet he deny 'd 
thfem in Effe(ft,-by exempting , 
them from all manner of Affe- ' 
cftions, and fjroni all Imployment 
\\>hat£vcr : Dc Ira Dei. cap. 4.. 

1279. To bend, &c.3 Lueret. 
^Verrrer ad lapidem. For the 
Romans were wont in their wor- 
fliip ofthe Images of their Gods, 
to turn their Bodies round to the 
right. Plant, in Curcul. Adt. i, 
v. 70. 

All coyer'd] For the Romans 
likewife worfliipM the Images 
of their Gods, with a Vail hang- 
ing down from their Head, Plauc. 
in Amph. Invocat Deos immor- 
tales, ut libi auxilium ferant, 
manibus puris, capite operto. 
The Realbn of which Ceremony, 
you may fee at large in Plutarch 
ov pi,',wcti)io7s" 'and in the Life of 



1274. Subjecfl unto rage 3 

Velleius in Cicero explains this. 

Opinion of Epicurus, and'giyes 

tls the reafon of it in thefeA/V^tirds : 

Qnx enim nobis Natufa'i'nfor- 

niationem Deorum. ipfoxnm'de- 

dit, eadeni infculpfit in menti-. 

'1>us, ut COS arternos, & beatos 

^haberemus : Qiiod fi ita eft, vere 

expolita eft ilia fentenria ab Epi- 

curo, quod a:ternum beatumque 

£t, id nee habere ipfum negotii 

-quidquam, nee exhibere alteri, 

"itaque neque ira, neqne gratid 

tencri ; quod qua: talia elfeat, im-! Marcellus. See likewife the Inter- 
becilla elTent omnia : Nihil enim \ preters of Minutius Felix, p. 10. 
agit Deus, nullis occupationibus « 1 281. Spread Arms] Lucr.Pan- 
■]eft iniplicatus, nulla Opera moii-|dere palmas; which was a Cu- 
'iur ", fua fapientia & virtute gau-| ftom obferv'd lilcewife in their 
jdet : habet exploratum fore fe I Supplications to the Gods r Virg. 
temper turn in maximis, turn inj j^neid. i. V. 97. 



spternis voluptatibus. Hunc D 
wm rite beatum dixerimus, Yes- 
trum vero laborioiiffiiijum : Nos 



Ingerait, & duplices tendens ad 
fydera palmas. 

12^8. What 



ni 



Book V. LU C k E T lU S. 

Before their Temples, while the Altar flows 
With Blood of Beafts, arvd we make Vows 6n Vows. 
But fure *t^s Piety to viev(/ the Whole; <^ 

1285 And learch all Natuke Wfth aiquiec Sout. 

For when we viev/ the Heavi^js, and how the Sun, 
And MooK, and Stars theitconftant C^tfesrun ;' 
Then Doubts, chat lay opprefs'd with other Cares, 
Begin to raife their Head,' and bring new Fears. 

1190 We doubt : What are there Gods, that rule above, 
At whdfe Dired:ion the bright Stars do niove ? 
For Ignorance in Caufes troubles Man ^' 
And hence we doubt, if e*er the World began. 
If e er fhali end : how long the Orbs fliall roul ; 
^'i95 Haw long- the Stars run tound their fteady Pole ; 
Or if, prefer v'd by Gods, can ft and the Rage, 
And pow'rful Envy of devouring Age. 

What Mind's unfliaken, and what Soul not aw'd. 
And who not thinks tbe angry Gods abroad, (hurJ'd 

1^00 Whofe Limbs not flirinlc, when dreadful Thunder, 
From broken Clouds, fliakes the affrighted World ? 
What, do not Cities, do not Nations fear. 
And think their difmal Dissolution near.> 
Why, do not Tyrants then, and mighty Lords, 

1305 Recall their wicked Deeds, and boafting Words, 

And 

NOTES. 



1298. What Mind, &c.] In 
thefe 28. V. he fays, That Fear is 
another Caufe of Religion : For 
]Vlen, being frighted at Tem- 
pefts. Earthquakes, &c. againft 
which they cMvl^ not ftruggle 
with any ftrength, nor avoid 
'them by any Art or Induftry of 
their own, impIor*d the Aid 
and Afliftance of invifible Pow- 
ers : This was the Beginning of 
Prayers and- yows ; and thus 

Primes in o^be Decs fecit Ti- 
mor. 

put what do Vg^vs avail ? The 
Wind ftiil rages on relentlefs : 
the unpitying^Gods are as deaf 



ind unmov'd as the Temped i 
and Chance alone direift sand go- 
verns all Things. 

1304. Why do not Tyrants, 
Scc.2 Thus Shakefpear in tbq 
Tragedy of King Lear, del^riir 
bing a Tempeit, 



— -— -Mao?s Nature canno^ 

carry 
Th' Affliction, and not fear. Le| 

the great Gods, 
Who keep this dreadful Pothqg 

a'er our Heads, 
Find out their Enemies now, 

Tremble, thou Wretch, 
Thar haft within thee un^ivul-' 
'gedCrinies, 



4> 4 d 4 2 



m- 



572 



LUCRE TIU S. 



Book V. 



And, fear, that now. Revenge is furelyeome ? 
Do they not tremble .at approaching jP(X)pi ? 

Befides, when Winds grow high, when Storms in- 
And fcatter warlike Navies thro* the Seas s;;, . (creare, 
1310 When Men, for Battel arm'd, muft no^ engage 
A ftronger Foe, and fight the Waters Rage; 
Does not the trembling-GEN'RAL prqftrate fall. 
And beg a Calm 0' th' Gods, or profp'rpns Gale ? 
In vain : the Storms drive on ; no Off'rxng faves t 
1 5 1 5 All, fhipwreck'd, drink cold Death anjqng the Waves : 
And hence we fanfy unseen Pow'rs in^ J,bings p 
Whofe Force and Will fuch ftrange Confuijon brings, > 
And fpurns, and overthrows our greateft Kings. 3 
Befides; when Earthquakes fliakc' this mighty 
1320 And^tottring. Cities fall, or feem to fallj ; (Ball, 

What then if Men,, defp/icelefs Men, defpife p 

Theiir own weak felves, and look with anxious Eyes > 
For prefefnt Hedp, and Pit y from the Skies? ? 3 

What Wonder, if they .think fonie Pow'rs: controul, 
1325 And Gods, with mighty Force, dp rule, the- whole ? 
But farther : powrful Gold firft rais'd his Head, 
And Brass, and Jji/A^eRi and ignoble Lead, 

i .yj'ib ■<.-.. When 

N d T E S. 



tinwhipt ofjuflrice r. Hide thee, 

thou bloody Hand ; *■: ; ";, 
Thou,Perjiir'd ; and Thou, fimi- 

lar of Virtue, 
That art inceftuous : Caitiff, to 

pieces iliake, ; 

That under Covert, anid conye-! 

nient Seeming, j 

Haft pracftis'd on Man's Life : 

Clofe pent-up Gui it, .. 
Hive your concealing Continents, 

and cry 
Thefe dreadful Summoners 

Grace. 

132^. But farther, ^c] In 
thefe 3§. v. he teaches how Me- 
tals came firft to be difcovered, 
what ufe they put them to, and 
the value they fet upon themi Ha 
afcribes the iirft Difcovery to the 
burning down of the Woods : No 
matter how, nor why they were 
fet a fire : but the Heat of the 



Flames melted the Metals that 
.wiere difperfed here and there in 
the Veins of the Earth, and made 
them flow into one Mafs : Now 
\vhen Men firlt happen'd to fee 
that glittering Body, they were 
furpriz'd at its Splendour, and 
this it was that invited them to 
handle it, and try what it was 
good for ; And taking notice,that 
the Figure of each Lump of it 
'refembled,and bore a Proportion 
with, the figure of the Hole or 
hollow Place out, of which they 
had talcen it, they concluded, 
that by meking thofe Metals 
again, they might bring them in- 
to what Form they pleas'd ; and 
that they might be made fo thiri, 
as to receive an Edge, and be 
Jliarpen'd : Thus they began to 
make Inftrumentsof eachlortof 
Mietal ; and with them fell to 
cutting down the Vv oodsj cleav'd 

the 



Book V. aL^ V CR^EjrjUS, ^7j 

I, When (hady Woods, on lofty Mountains grown, 
^ jpelc fcofChing Fires ; whetberfrpin Thunder thrown, 
1330 Or elfe by Man's Defign the Flames arofe. 

Who burnt the neighb'ring Woods to fright their Foes: 
Or elfe, delighted all with fruitful Grounds, 
They fought moreMEADows,and enlarg'd their Boundsj 
Or, greedy to increafe their ftore of Food, 
J 33 5. And take theBeafts, they fir'd the fheit'ring W^od: 

r For 
MO T E S. 

nils, firft dircover'a':ri9l(fl^'^^& 
that too in Panchaia. Sec Plin. 
lib. 7. cap; 5<$» and PoLydbre Vir- 
gil, Ubi 2. de Ket. Invent, capo 
^9^ MorepYer, among th^ other 
Metals Xucretias mentions Iron, 
th^o' our Tranflatoiir We's iibt. 
The Authour of the'Da^enfary 
defcribes thefe Mines of Metals 
in the Earth, in Lines worth 
tranfcribing : 

Now thofe profounder Regions 

they explore. 
Where Metals ripen in vaft Cakes 

of Ore : if iHi j; '?^ 

Here, fallen to the Sight, at large 

is fpread .ov 

The dull unwieldyMafs of lump- 

iHi Lead : • :,; 

There, glimm'ring in their dawn- 
ing Beds, are fQen :', 
The more ^fpiring Seeds .of 

fprightly Tin. , /,V 

The Copper S parkier next ia 

ruddy Streaks, 
And in the Gloom betrays., i;s 

glowing Cheeks : .. 

The Silver then, with bright and 

burniih'd Grace, 
Youth, and a blooming Luftre 

in its Face, • .' , 

To th' Arms of thofe more yield- 
ing Metals flies, \'^^ 
And in the Folds of their, .IfJ^" 

braces lies : ' , ■ 

So clofe they cling, fo ilu.bbpTnly 

retire, 
Their Love's more vi'Ifint thaa 

the Chymifts fire. - 



/ ...... .w . . 

fhe Timber ; made Beams, Sec. 
Now becaufe the Inftruments 
and Tools they: had. -made of 
Gj^d^nd of Silver, as being fof- 
teir Metals, were more fubjedl to 
blunt than the others ; thofe firft 
Men fet a gif^ater value upon 
Brafs^ becaufef it was; the more 
iri^ful Metal. Whence the Poet 
takes occafion to fay. That thofe 
wretched Mifers who fit brood- 
ing over their unprofitable Gold 
and Silver, and contemn Brafs 
artdlron, thofe more ufeful Me- 
tals, acft CQntrary to the Di^ftates 
of Nature, who teaches to fet va- 
lue on Things according to the 
Utility and Llfefulnefs of them. 
,^ GoldQ Cadmus, the Phoenici- 
an, is, by fome, faid to have been 
the firft, who difcover'd Gold : 
Others fay, that Thoas firft 
fQUn.d it, and that too in the 
Mountain Pang^eus in Thrace, 
•now call'd Malaca, and Cafta- 
giia : The Chronicon Alexandri- 
num afcribes it to Mercury, the 
Son of Jupiter, or to Picus, King 
of Italy j who, quitting his own 
Country, went into Egypt,where, 
after the Death of Mifraim, the 
Spn of Cham, he was eletfted to 
fucceed him in the Royal Digni- 
ty, and was, for the Invention of 
Gold, caird 0£Oi- x?t^'<'"'(^> the 
golden God. jtfchilus attributes 
the Invention of this and all 
other Metals to Prometheus : 
And there are others who write, 
that either ^aclis, whom Hy£;i- 
nus calls Cjeacus, the Son of jV 
picer, or Sol, the Son of Ocea- 



f33i. Who burnt. 



dec.'] Here 
ws 



L V C R E T I t7 S. 



Book V 



FdMhus Men hunted, whilft no Nets Were found, 
Ndr FOktesTS trembled at the barking Hound : 
Whatever 'twas that gave thefe Ft AMfis their Bi^ch, 
Which burnt the to w'ring Trees, and fcorch'd th 
Earth, 

¥340 Hot Streams of SIlVer, Gold, and Lead, and^ 
As Nature gaVe a hollow prober Place, ('Brass, ^ 
Defcended dowh, and form'd a<jiiT¥T'RiNG Mass. j 
This when unhappy Mortals chanc'd ro fpy, p 

And the gay Colour pleas'd their childifti Eye j S 

J 545 They dug the certain Cause of Misery. Jj 

And then obferving, that it (hew'd the Frame, 
And Figure of the Hollow whence it came ; 
They thought, thefe, meired, would with Eafe recp}ye 
Whatever Shapes the Artist pleas*d to give : , : .. 

jj 3 50 Or drawn to Breadth, or take the keeneit Edge ; 
And fb the Hooil beifram'd, Qr fubtle Wedge, 



o 



N t) r E s. 



we may obferve> that Men wag'd 
Warfitft of all with Fire, hav- 
ing, before the Inventitm of Iron, 
Brafs, or Arms, with which they 
fought afterwards, difcover'd the 
^eftrui^iv'e Force of that Ele- 
ment. 

1340. Hot Screams, &:c.] Ari- 

ilotle in his Treatife ^a^^s^c Gcty- 
•^ctV. a)i«r. fays, that feme Shep- 
herds in Spain, having fee Fire to 
certain Woods, and heated the 
Subftance of the Earth, the Sil- 
ver, that was in the Boweis of it, 
2nelted,and jflow'd together into a 
Heap : ^d that a little while af- 
terwards there happeh'd anBarth- 
quake, which cleav'd the Earth, 
and difclos*d a vaft Qiiaritity of 
Sliver, thdt had flow'd together 
by that means. Thrs'too is eon- 
■firm'd by Strabo, lib. 3. vVhere 
he fays, that the Mines in Artda- 
liifia were difcovered by this Ac- 
cident. So too Athen^Us lib (5. 
c. 4. But of the firft Dilcoverers 
of Metals, confult the Aurh6urj> 
mention 'd, v. 1336. and Georg. 
\%tik)l. lib. I. -de 'Metal. ' '- '• 



1345, They dug, SccJ 
Ovid. Met. I. v, 138. 



Thfti 



ttum ell; in vifcera ter- 



rx. 



Qjiafc^ue recondiderat, Stygiif^yc 

adn'ioverat utiibris, 'T, 

Effodiuntur opes, irritartic'ijfe 

malorum. ^ 

Janique nocens ferrum, ferrd^ue 

nocentius aurum 
Prodierat, prodit bellum, qutiS 

pugnat utroque. 

Thus Englifli'd by Dryden, 

Then greedy Mortah, ' rumni|- 

ging her Store, ' ,;'* 

Dug from, her Entrails 'firil thie 

precious Ore, 
(Whicli next to. Hell the pruderifc 

Gods had laid) 
And that alluring 111 to Si^fit 

difplay'd: 
Then ctirfe^ Sttrel, and mote'K^r' 

curftd'Gold, "''!_ 

Gave Mifchief Birth, and nj^aW; 

thafMffcliief bold> "'/' 

And 



Rook V. L V C R E T I U S. y^^ 

Or other iNSTigiuMENTS, all apt, and good 

To CUT, or CLEAVE, OT SCRAPE, Or JIOLLOW Wood S 

But Gold tbey try'd in vain ; the Metal brojce, 

1 35 5 Or the fofc Ed^e was turn'd at ev ry Stroke : 
This they contemn*d, the blunted Gold delpis'd. 
And feeble Silver •; Brass alone was pri^'d, 

. But now the feeble, and the ufelefs Ore 

Gets all the Honour : Brass is priz'd no more?, 

1360 Thus Time does change the Dignity of Things : 
For forne he bears away with fwifteft Wings, 
And hurls into Contempt ; brings others fortb. 
And gets them new, and ftill preferves their Wprth^ 
WhiUt Cruelty was not improved by Art, 

1 365 And Rag« not furnifti'd yet with Sword nor Dart ; 
With Fists, or Boughs, or Stonbs the Warriours 
Thefe were the only Weapons Nature taught : (fought; 

But 

N O TBS. 



And double De.ith did wretched 
Man invade, , 

By Steel aflfaulted, and by Goldj 
betray'd. 

Milton, in the firft Book of Pa 

radife loft/peaking of Mammon:, 

— — By him firft 

Men alfo, andjb.yhis Suggeftion 

taught, 
RanCick'd the Gen.tre, and with' 

impious I^ands, 
Kifled the JSoWels of their Mo- 
ther Earth; 
For Trcafures better hid. 

1559. Gets all the Honour :]; 
The Authour of the Difpenfary 
fays to the fame Purpofe, 

Gold makes a Patricj^n of a 

Slave ; 
A Dwarf, an Atlas •, a Xherfites, 

brave : 
It cancels ail Def>;cis.-- i 

j And Dry den in Antvphitryo 
mdces Jupiter fay, 



-When I made 



This Gold, I made a greater God 

than Jove, , 

And gave my own Omnipotence 

away. 



13^0. Thus Time, &C.3 To 
the fame purpofe, Dryden 

Thus ey*ry Moment alters what 

is done. 
And innovates fo suSi till then 

unknown : 

For former Things 

Are fet afidejlike abdicated Kings. 

i3<^4.. Whilft, &c.] Since it is 
reafonable to fuppol'e, that the 
veins of Iron, as well as of Braft 
Silver, Lead, &cc. were melted 
by the Heat of thole burning 
Forefts, how comes it to pafs, 
that the Antients fcarce make any 
mention of IroHj but qfcen of 
Brafs ? Becaufe, fays he, in. thefe 
1(5. v. Brafs was a more eafy 
Metal to work ; and there was 
greater plenty of it: Thereforethe 
■Weapons and Tools of Husban- 
dry, that were firft us'd, were 
made of Brafs : ^t length, Iron 
c^ame in Play : a fitter Metal to 
plough and till the jGbubborA and 
harden'd Earth ; and more pro- 
per forche daily increafing rough- 
nefs and cruelty of Man. 

1-^66. With Fifts, &c.] For as 
Cowley fays, David, 5, 



576 



L U C Ft ETIU S, 



Book V 

But when I? lames burnt the Tr^es, and fcorch'd thi 
•Then Brass appear 'dyand Iron fit to wound. (Ground 
1570'BRASsfirft was us'd, becaufe the fofter Ore, 

And Earth's cold Veins contained a greater Store : 
vThus Brass did plough, and braren Trumpets found 
Their Weapons Br ASSj and Brass gave ev'ry Wound : 
Thus arm'd, they, ftrait invade their Neighbours Field 
IB75 And take his Beafts : to arm'd the naked yield : 
' At i'aft> they, melting down the rigid Mafs, 
Made Iron Swords, and then defpis'd the Brass, 
They then began to plough with Iron Shares, 
And Iron Weapons only ferv*d in Wars. 
J 380 Thus Men firft learnd to ride a single Horse ; 
: t? And Avhilft their fleady Leet Hands rul'd the Courfe 

.0 ..... .. ..:,,.. . Thei: 

NO T E S. 
Thefe were the firft rude ArtslOjcVa* ^* , Inh yb cv Ihd 



that Malice try'd. 
Ere Man the Sins of tod much 

Knowledge knew, 
And Deaths by long Experience, 

witty ^rew. 



1^70. Brafs firft, &C.3 
Faft. lib. 4. 



Ovid 



iEs crat in pretio, Chalybs jam 

mafTa placebat : ^ 

Eheu ! perpetuo debuit ilia tegi 



■ tt/Wp' 'EAfeVW, ... 

' 'EMKOUcaVy &C. 



1380. Thus Men^&c.] Having 
made mention oif Wars in tn^ 
preceding Verfe, he takes occa- 
iion to explain in 4.8. v. thof^i 
favage, which we call warlike, 
^ ^ _ Arts of the firft Men, who im- 

jprov'd in Cruelty, and grew dai- 
i372.Thus Brafs, A'c] Hefiod. ]y more and more ingenious to 



*'£p>a)V, K, ^U/J-i^coVy lib. i. v. 149. 
fpeaking of the Brazen Age : 

X*A)C«<r eif7ctC&vio,^£A(Xird ax 

And Euftathius on Iliad i. v. 
23^. x^^^°^ "^ ^ cr/J"M^ov Xiyei 2i^ 
TT <m<LKcu xr'^o-'v 'viyjL-KvM^ dec. 
to which I add this of Athenaeus, 
lib. 6, cap. 4- 'I?of« ta oJtcc k^ 

Tu^ncov • &%* •;(j3L^Y,£y ovtcov r'<Sv 




ly more and more ingenious to 
deftroy. At firft they fought on 
Horfeback^and a Horfe is a tame 
and gentle Animal 1 then they 
join'd two Horfes to a Chariot, 
then four, and arm'd their Cha- 
riots with Iron Bills and Scythes. 
Afcer this wild Beafts were 
brought to the Wars, Elephants 
by the Africans, Lions by the 
Parthians, then Bulls, Boars, &c. 
But Lucretius himfelf does not 
believe all this : only having met 
with thefe Relations in fome 
Hiftories, he mentions them, 
and mingles Truths with Falfi- 
ties. And yet, fays he. they are 
not altogether incredible : for 
what has not witty Rage and 
Cruelty invented ? And what 
kmd of Affiftance and Relief will 

Men 



^,ook V. LUCRETIUS, 5-77 

Their ftronger RIGHT Hands fought .-before they knew. 
Or brought to Wars, a Chariot drawn by two : 

Then 
NOTES, 



Men not embrace and ref ufe, who 
labour under Opprellion, and 

Defpair l r-, ^ , 

To ride a tingle Horie] Sopho- 
cles aicribes the firft Invention 
of the Bridle, and of nding on 
Horfeback to Neptune : Lyfias 
the Orator, to tlie Amazons : 
aitd others, toothers: But Vir- 
gil abfolutely to the Lapithae, 
a People of Theffalia, that in- 
habited the Mountains, Pindus 
and Othrys, and were next Neigh- 
bours to the Centaurs ; Georg. 
1. V. 115. 

Froena Pelethronij Lapithae, gy~ 

rofque dedere, 
Impolici dorfo : atque equitem 

docuere fubarmis 
Tnfultare folo, &c greflfus glo- 

merare fuperbos. 

Thus rendered by Dryden ; 

The Lapithaj add the 

State 
Of Bits and Bridles; taught the 

Steed to bound ; 
To run the Ring, and trace the 

mazy Ground : 
To ft op, to fly, the Rules of 

War to know ; 
T' obey the Rider, and to dasre 

the Foe. 

1353. A Chariot, &c.] The 
iirjEt Invention of Chariots is 
by ^fchylus afcrib'd to Pro- 
metheus, by Cicero to Minerva, 
by the Trezenians to Hippolytus 
and by Virgil to Ericthonms ; 

Primus Ericfthonius currus & 

quatuor aufus 
Jimgere equos, rapid ifque rotis 

infiftere vicftor. 

Georg, 3. Y. 113. 



Bold Eridhonius was the firft 

that join'd 
Four Horfes, for the rapid Race 

defign'd. 
And o'er the dufty Wheels pre- 

fiding fate. Dryd. 

But whether the Poet means that 
Eridhonius, who was King of 
the Athenians, the Son of Vul- 
can and Teilus, who is faid to 
have been Snake-footed, Angui- 
pes, and, to conceal that Defor- 
mity, to have firit invented a 
Chariot ; or that other Eridho- 
nius, the Phrygian, who was the 
Son of Dardanus, Grandfon of 
Jupiter, and one of the Ancef- 
tours of ^neas, is uncertain.. 
Pliny fays the Phrygians firfb 
drove a Chariot with two Horfes, 
and Eridhonius one with four : 
Bigas primum junxit Phryguni 
Natio, quadrigas Ericfthonius. 
Nat. Hift. lib. 7. cap. ^6, Eufe- 
bius in Chronic, makes Tro- 
chilus the Argive, who was Son 
ofCallithea, the Prieftefs of Ju- 
no, to be the firft Inventour of 
Chariots, and with him agrees 
TertuJlian de Spedac. Hovvever 
he is erroneoufly call'd Orfilochus 
by Hyginus, who neverthelefs is 
foilow'd in his Errour by Corip- 
pus in Panegyr. i. as we find by 
thefe Verfes, which Scaliger crt 
Eufebius cites : 

Orfi loch urn referunt primas Jun- 
jliSq quadrigas, 

Et currus armaiTe novos, Pelo- 
pem.que fecundum 

In foceri venifle necem.- , 

But Dempfter, in his Edition of 
Corippus, inftead of Orfilochum 
reads Cecropidem, by which he 
means Ericfthonius, who was the 
£ e e e fourth 



578 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

Then four were join'd, and then the arme0 Cars, 
1385 And caftied Elephants were brought to Wars j 



The 



NO r E s. 



fourth King of Athens ffom 
Cecrops, who founded that Ci- 
ty : Others again will have it to 
have been OEnomauSj the King 
cjf Elis : But Theon, the Scho- 
liaft of Aratus fays plainly, that 
the Conftellation of Heniochus, 
which the Latines call'd Auriga, 
the Charioteer, is, ei^co^or h Bsa- 

prefentation either of Bellero- 
phon or of Trochilus, thefirft In- 
Ventour of the Quadriga. More- 
over, as to the manner of join- 
ing thefe four Horfes in a Cha- 
fiot, the Antients, as they dif- 
fer'd from us, fo they differ'd 
among themfelves likewife : For 
fome Chariots had two Poles, 
one between each pair of Horfes ; 
for the Horfes went jequatA froa- 
te, all a-breaft : fo that all the 
Horfes were t,vyioi, i. e. jugalcs, 1 
yok'd and harnefs'd to the Poles : 1 
Afterwards CIythenes,the Sycio- 
hian, chang'd that manner, and 
made Chariots with one Poleon- 
Iy;fo that the two middle Horfes 
only were jugales ; the other two 
that were outmoft to the right 
and left, had only Reins, and 
the other neceflary Harnefs and 
Traces, and were therefore call'd 
trei^^ofoi, i. e, funales ; and 
thefe were more at liberty than 
thofe caird Jugales. Of the fu- 
nales, Suetonius, in the Life of 
Tiberius, gives us a remarkable 
Example in thefe Vv^ords, Tibe- 
rius, pubefcens Acftiaco Trium- 
ph©, currum Augufti comitatus 
eH iinillreriore funali cquo, cum 
Marcellus, 0<ftavia: filius, dex- 
teriore veheretur : Which Paf- 
fage of that Hiftorian Alexander 
ab AleXvindro undertakes to ex- 
plain, but is miftaken in it ; for 
he fays, that the equi funales are 
fo call 'da funalibusj i, e. a faci- 



bus triumphalibus, &:c. from the 
triumphal Torches, which their 
Riders carry'd in their Hands : 
But of this fee Salmaiius in his 
Plinian Exercitations, Tom. 2. 
pag. 899. where he treats of thefe 
Matters at large. The feveral 
Figures of the Currus quadriju- 
ges may be feen in the Confular 
and Imperial Coins, which we 
find reprefented in Urfinus, Go- 
lizius, and in Panvinius de Lu- 
dis Circeniibus : but above all 
fee Schefferus, who not long ago 
publillied a Treatife upon this 
Subje(ft,intituled de re vehiculari 
Veterum. Tertullian in his Book 
de Spedaculis, acquaints us. That 
Romulus was the iirft, who 
brought the Qu ad riga50r Chariot 
with four Horfes.in ufe among the 
Romans : Pliny makes mention 
of Currus fejuges , Chariots 
drawn by fix Horfes, and fays, 
that the firft of them among the 
Romans was in the time of Au- 
guftus, to whom the Senate de- 
creed a Chariot with fix Horfes, 
as a triumphal Honour, of which 
neverthelefs the Modefty of that 
Prince would not permit him to 
accept. 

1384. The armed Cars,] Of 
them, fee Book HI. v. <^i5. 

1385. Caftled Elephants] Be- 
caufe they carry'd Towers on 
their Backs. Lucretius call them 
Lucas Boves ; and Faber fays, 
that Lucas is there put for Lu- 
canas, as we find Campas for 
Campanas in Plautus : Then he 
adds, that Elephants were fo 
call'd, becaufe the firft time the 
Romans had i&en any, was in 
the War againft Pyrrhus, and at 
Lucanus, now call'd Lugano, a 
Town in the Milaneze, Pliny, 
lib. 8. cap. 6. Elephantas Italia 
primum vidit Pyrrhi Regis hel- 
lo, & boves Lucas appejUvit m 

Lu- 



a"- 



Book V. LUCRETIUS, 5-79 

The Moors firft taught them to endure the Blows 

And break the Ranks, and Order of the Foes. 

Thus Rage invented ftill new Arms for Fight ; 

New dreadful Weapons ftill, and fit to fright : 
1390 Some train'd the furious Bull, and fome the Boar : 

Before the P^ rt h i ^ k Ranks did Lions roar, 
\i With armed Guides fent out to fcour the Plain, 

And fright their Foes : but thefe Defigns were vain : 

Becaufe, when hot in fight, they fiercely fall 
1395 On either fide, and, common Foes to all, 

Con^ 
NOTES. 



Lucanis vifas , anno urbis 
CCCCLXXII. This confirms 
the Opinion of Faber : ButVarro, 
lib. 6. de Lingui Latina, has this 
PafTage : Luca bos Elephas, cur 
ita fit dida duobus modis inve- 
nio fcriptum : Nam in C. JEAii 
Commentario a Lybicis Lucas, 
Sc in Virginii Commentario a 
Lucanis Lucas, ab eo quod no- 
ilri maximam quadrupedem , 
quam ipfi habebantjvocarenc bo- 
vem 'j 6c in Lucanis Pyrrhi 
beJio primum vidiflent apud 
hoftes filephantes, id efb, qua- 
drupedes cqrnutas, (nam qu«! 
dentes multi dicunt funt cornua) ' 
Lucam bovemappeJlaire: Ego ar-j 
bitror potius Lucas a luce, quod! 
longe relucebant ; propter inau- 
ratos regios clypeos quibus eo- 
rum turn ornat a: erant turres. 
But this reafon of Varro's feems 
but weak: And it is cer- 
tain, that P) rrhus firft made ufe 
of them in Lucania, and after- 
wards Hannibal in Africa,againft 
the Romans. Lucretius calls them 
i|ikewife Anguimanos , Snake- 
handed ! for the Probofcis of the 
Elephant is call'd a Hand, in Ci- 
Cero 2. de Natura Deorum : but 
that Hand is, like a Serpent, vo- 
luble and pliable. Milton, 

■ Th' unwieldy Elephant, 
To make them Mirth, us'd all 

his Might, and wreathed 
His licl^e P^obofcis, — » 



13S6. The Moors] The Afri- 
cans, but more paiticularly tha 
Carthaginians, who, as I faid 
before, under their Leader Han- 
nibai,fought againlt the Romans. 

1390. Some train'd, <&:c.] Here 
I the Poet teaches, that in their 
I Wars, they likewife made ufe of 
pulls, Boars, and Lions, to help 

I them to fight their Battels, but 
I that thefe untradiable Beafts often 
'did them more hurt than good ; 
for when the Armies were en- 
gag'd in heat of Adion, thefe 
lavage Animals rag'd not on the 
Enemy alone, but turn'd back 
upon their own MafterSjand, tear^ 
ing th?m to pieces, put all into 
diforder. See the Note on Boole 
in. V. (5i4, 

1 39 1. The Parthian Ranks] 
The Parchians were a People of 
Afia, who long en joy 'd the Em- 
pire of the Eaft. The Countrey 
they inhabited was calPd Par- 
thia, and lay between Media to 
the Weft, and Afia to the Eaft ; 
and between Perfia to the South, 
and Hyrcania to the North j 
It was call'd Parthia, fays Sre- 
phanus, from thefe People, who 
were origmally Scythians, and 
fied ouc of Scythia to the Medes, 
who call'd all Fugitives Parthi, 
and Parchya;i , and thus the 
Countrey, where they fettled, 
was from them call'd Parthia, 
It has now feveral Names. Mer- 
cator cajls it Arach : Alphonfus. 

E e e e 2 Ha^JAi 



^8.o LUCRETIUS, Book V. 

Confus'dly Enemies, or Friends engage, 
Shaking their dreadful Heads, and fir'd with Rage : 
The Horses, frighted with the dreadful Roar, 
Ran o'er the Plain, and would obey no more : 

1400 The Beasts leap'd ontheir Friends, and tore their Face, 
Or iiez'd behind, and with a rude Embrace, 
They bore their wond'ring frighted Friends to Ground j 
Whiift Teeth, and cruel Paws did doubly wound. 
The Bulls grew wild, and with de(trud:ive Force 

1405 They tofs'd, or trod the Men, or gor a the Horse : 
Whole Ranks and Troops fell by the furious Boar ; 
Their Arms, yet whole, blufh'd vvith their Matters 
For tho' the Horses turn'd, tho' oft did rear, (Gore.- 
And ftand a loft, and paw'd the yielding Air : 

141 o Yet all in vain they ftrove to fhun the Wound, 

Their Nerves ail cur, they ftruck the fliaking Ground : 
Thus what feem'd tame at home, grew wild again. 
And fierce, when fcouring o'er the warlike Plain : 
Their Rage was fir'd byTuxMULT^WouNDS^ and Noise,' 

1415 Refus'd to hear their former Masters Voice, 
But fled, much mifchief done, as furious Bulls, 
When the weak Ax defcends, nor breaks their Skulls ; 
They ftart, and fright the Priest, and, bell'wing loud. 
Run frantick round, and gore the pious Crowd. 

1420 *Tis fafer far to fay that this was done 

In fome of all the Worlds, than fix on one : 



Yet 



NOTES. 



Hadrianus, Jexdi ; and Niger, 
Coraflau : For, confifting of'di- 
vers Provinces, it comes likewifc 
to have fundry Names. The 
Parthians were remarkable for 
their Drunkennefs , and From 
them came the Proverb, Parthi 
quo plus biberint, eo plus fitiunt. 
The more the Parthians drink, 
the more they are adry ; nay, to 
be able to drink a great deal is 
efteem'd honourable among 
them : Their Wine was made of 
the Fruit of the Palm-tree, and 
their chief Food was Grafshop- 
pers. Tertujlian fays, they are To 
addi(f^ed to Venery, that they 
mix promifcuouily with their 
own Sifters and Mothers: Theft 
is with them unpuniili'd : They 



neither bailt Temples, nor ere6k-^ 
ed Statues to the Gods ; bu^ 
worfliippsd their King for their 
Deity : However they offer'd Sa- 
crifices in the Mountains to Ju- 
piter, and to Sol, Luna and Tel- 
lus, the Sun, Moon and Earth. 
They held Lying to be the molt 
heinous of all Crimes. 

141 2. Thus what, <3<rc.] In like 
manner an Engliili Poet. 

As Lionsj tho' they once v/ere 

tame. 
Yet if iliarp Wounds their Rage 

inflame. 
Life up their flormy Voices, 

roar. 
And rear th^ Keepers they obey'd 

beforCo Wal/h. 

1423. 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. 

Yet I can fcarce believe but that they knew, 
Before their fad Experience prov'd it rue. 
The Ills of thefe : but that the weaker Side 
I1425 The various Methods of Cokfusion try'd. 
Not hoping to fubdue, but bring fierce Woes 
And Grief^ and Pain upon the Stronger Foes. 



S8i 



But more: The Garments, by theANTi£NTS woi*n, 
Were few d with tender Twigs, or pinn'd vCith Thorn, 
1430 Before they learnt to Weave: the Wheel, the &q,unpj 
Whilft rigid Iron lay within the Ground, - i-- f ' ■ 
Were all unknown ; thole Things did firft begin 
When chat appear'd ; and Men learn *d firft to fpin : 
Becaufe the Wits of Men are finer far, 
[435 And fitter to invent than Women's are; 

Till laugh'd and jeer'd at by the ruder Swains, '7 
They taught the Women, and manur'd the Plains,^ 
And hardened all their Limbs with rougher Pains. 3 
Nature firft taught them how to plant and sow? 
[440 For they obferv'd that falling Seeds did grow: 

They 
NOTES, 



1428. But more, &c.] In thefe 
:i. v.he tells us, That in regard 
\:o the more civiliz'd Arts, their 
firft Care was to cloath them- 
felves, which they did at iirft 
vith the Skins of Beaftsj tagg'd 
:ogether with Thorns, nor few'd, 
lor were the Arts of Spinning, or 
)f Weaving yet difcover'd : Nor 
ndeed was it pofllble they ihould 
3C fo, before the Ufe of Iron, 
V ithout which the Tools for 
spinning and Weaving coald not 
DC made : Nor was Spinning firft 
riracfiis'd by Women , but by 
Men ; they being the more in- 
iuftrious and inventive Sex : 
i:ill at length the fturdy Peafants 
jreproach'd thefe male Spinfters 
for their elfeminate Lazinefs, 
langh'd them from the DiftaflF, 
and brought them to follow the 
more laborious Occupations. 

All Arts are generally diftin- 
pifli'd mto two Sorts : I. The 
illiberal or manual: II. The 
iiberal or ingenuous : Of the firft 
i'^rt the Number is almoft with- 
out Number ; yec both Kinds. 



tho' very imperfecTtly, are re- 
duced each to a feptenary Divi- 
fion, and exprefs'd in the follow- 
mg Diftich : 

Lingua, Tropus, Ratio, Nume- 
rus, Tonus, Angulus, Aftra : 
Rus, Nemus, Arma, Faber, 
Vulnera, Lana, Rates. 

The firft of whichVerfcs exprefs- 
es the Liberal Sciences," viz. 
Grammar, Rhetorick, Logick^ 
Arithmetick, Mufick, Geometry, 
and Aftronomy : The fecond, 
the Illiberal *, as Agriculture, 
Hunting, Arts military and fa- 
brile, Chirurgery, Spinning and 
Weaving, and Arts Nautical : 
Of the firft Inventours of which, 
fee Pliny, Lib. 7. cap. 5(^. Poly- 
dore Virgil, and Garzone in bis 
Piazza Qniverfale : And as to 
the different Efteem and Pra- 
(ftice of thefe Arts among the 
Greeks, and Romans, you may 
confult Aldus Manutius in Qua:- 
fit. per Epiftol. lib 2. cap. ^. 
1439. Nature, &c.] In thefe 

I?. V. 



582 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V. 



They faw them fixt, and bound to fteady Roots, 
Jhen rife, and fpread, and promife noble Fruits : 



Ther 



NOTES, 



1 f . Y. the Poet teaches, that Na- i 
ture herfelf taught them to 
plant '. for they had obferv'd 
that the Acorns, Berries, &c. 
that dropt off the Trees, pro- 
duc'd new Shoots ; and this put 
them upon endeavouring to make 
them do the like : Every one ac- 
cording to his Capacity added 
fome improvement to the Cul- 
ture of the Fields and Gardens : 
And thus by degrees they arriv'd 
io the perfection in which we now 
admire tliem, by the beautiful 
Order, and regular Difpofition 
of Greens, Flowers, and Fruits. 
The Antiquity of Agriculture 
can not certainly be concefted by 
any other Art ; fince the three 
firft Men in the World, were a 
Gardiner, a Ploughman, aiid a 
Grazier : Tho' this be an unque- 
ftionable Truth, yet the Anti- 
ents differ'd in Opinion concern- 
ing the iirft Inventour of it : but 
this variety of Opinions might 
arife from the feveral Perfons 
that firft introduc'd it into feve- 
ral Countreys : Varro, lib, 3. de 
R. R. confelTes it to be the ixioft 
antient of all Arts ; The Egyp- 
tians faid, it was firft found out 
by Ofyris, or Maneros, Jofephus 
attributes it to Cain, as he doss 
Pafturage to Abel. Antiqu. lib. i. 
cap. 3. The Greeks aicrib'd it 
to Ceres, and the Italians to Sa- 
turn. Pliny, lib. 17. cap. 9. 
fays, that King Augeas was the 
iirft who invented manuring of 
Ground byStcrcoration, and that 
he firft inftruded the Greeks in 
that Arc, as Hercules did the 
Italians : who neverthelefs im- 
mortaliz'd, and made a God of, 
their King Stercucius, the Son of 
Faurius ; if he were not rather 
the fame, as fome will have him 
%o he, with Evander> the Arca- 



dian, who firft introduc'd thi 
Worlliip of Faunus, that is t( 
fay, of Pan, or univerfal Na 
ture, into Italy, and taught th( 
Latines the Art of manuring 
Ground, for which he was ho 
nourM by the Name of Stercutius 
Tertullian in Apologet, calls bin 
Sterculus or Sterculius *, and Ser 
vius on TEneid. 8. Sterquiliniu; 
whom he afferts to be the f^m 
with Pitumnus, Brother of Pj 
lumnus: By Macrobius he i 
caird Stercutus, which he prove 
to be one of the Names of Sa 
turn : Saturnum Romani etian 
Stercutum vocj^nt, quod primu 
ftercorefoecunditatemagris com 
paraverit. Saturnal, lib. i. cap. 7 
But as no other Art can difput 
Antiquity with this of Agricul 
turcjio neither can any lay Clain 
to an equal fliare of Dignity : I 
is indeed as Columella, lib. i 
cap. I. calls it, res fine dubita 
tione proxima, & quafi confan 
guinea Philofbphiie , withou ' 
doubt the next Neighbour, am 
the neareft of Kin to Philofophy 
Varro fays the Principles of i 
are the fame with thofe that En 
nius makes to be the Principle 
of the whole Univerfe : Earth 
Water, Air, and the Sun : Am 
Cicero dc fenecftute. fpeaking 
the Pleafures of a Husbandmar 
fays of them, that they feem t 
him to approach very near t 
the Pleafures of a Philofophei 
mihiquidem ad fapienfis vitan 
proxime videntur accedere. T 
be a Husbandman,fays our excel 
lent Cowley, is but a Retrca 
from the City, to be a Philofo 
pher apart from the World 
or rather, a Retreat from th 
World, as it is Man's, into th 
World, as it God's. There ism 
Qche? ftfr? of Lif^, th$t aifords f 



3ook V. 



LUCRETIUS. 



S85 



Then fome began to graft ; and till the Field, 
And found the Trees a better burden yield, 
445 When drefs'd with Care, and in a richer Soil; 
The Fruits increas'd, and did reward their Toil : 
They forc'd the cumbering Wood to narrow Bounds,^ 
Enlarging ftill their Corn, and Pasture Grounds : 

The 
N O T £ 5. 



lany Branches of Praife to a 
'anegyrift • the Utility of it to 
Man's felf ; the Ufefulnefs, or 
ather Necefllty of it, to all the 
eft of Mankind : It's Innocence, 
:'s Pleafure, it's Antiquity,^ it's 
)ignity ; Under all which Heads 
hat Authour has treated of it 
1 his admirable Eflfay of Agri- 
ilture, to which I refer the 
.eader. 

144.3. Some began to graft -,3 
ucrctiiis. Stirpes committere 
imis : by which he exprefles on- 
one of the feveral ways of In- 
tion, and what we call to graff 
eft-wife : Virgil in the fecond 
ieorgick teaches the feveral 
V^ays, by which Trees are pro- 
agated, either naturally, or ar- 
ficially. They may be pro- 
uc'd three feveral Ways by Na- 
ire : 

r. Of their own Accord : as 
le Broom, the Withy, the Pop- 
ir, the Olier, Sec. are. 

II. By their Seed that drops 
y Chance : I fay, by Chance *, 
)r there is a certain way of fow- 
ig that belongs to Art : the 

rees that grow of fortuitous 
;ed, are the Chefnut, the Oak, 
le Beech, 3cc. 

III. By their Root: for the 
herry-tree, Horn-beam, Lau- 

:l, &c. will flioot out young 

'rees from their Roots. 

The fame Poet teaches, that 
rees may be propagated feven 
veral Ways by Art, and the 
iduftry of Men : 

I. By Avulfion : That is to 
y, by plucking up young Shoots, 



Roots and all, from the Bodies 
of Trees, and planting them in 
the Ground. ■ ' ' 

II. By Planting the Stocks, 
that is to fay, the loweft and 
thickeft part of the Trunk, to- 
gether with the Roots : or by 
taking the Stock without any 
Root, and either cutting it into 
a iliarp Point at the lower End, 
or fplitting it at the bottom, 
and then planting it : but the 
general way is to fplit it in form 
of a Crofs : and therefore Vir- 
gil calls fuch Stocks quadriiidas : 



■ Hie ftirpes obruit arvo- 

Quadrifidafque fudes, & acuto 
robore vallos. 

Georg. 2. V. 24., 

III. By Propagation : which 
is chiefly us'd in Vines : and this 
4s done by bending the Shoots or 
Branches in the fliape of a Bow, 
without cutting them off from 
the Mother-Tree, and laying 
down the Top of them into the 
Ground. The Branch fo bent is 
call'd Propago, a Layer. Mil- 
ton defcrib'es this way of propa- 
gating the Indian Fig-treejwhichj 
fays he. 

In Malabar or Decan fpreads her 

Arms 
Branching fo broad and long, 

that in the Ground 
The bended Twigs take Root, 

and Daughters grow 
About the' Mother-Tree ; a pil- 

lar'd iliade 
High over-arch'd, and echoing 

Walks between. 

IV. By 



LUCRETIU S. 



Book \ 



more Twigs into the Ckfc ; In- 



Jh^ Tyrant Wood, that all th? Plains did fill, 
1450 Was now confin'd unto the barren Hill : 

And left the Vales to Olive, Corn, and Vine, 
Thro' whichfmooth Streams in fair Mb^hder^ twine 
Now kifs the tender Roots with wanton Play, 
Now flow again, enriching all their Way 5 
1455 ^^^^ beauteous Pride did all the Valleys fliow, 1 
So taking pretty, as our Gardens now, / 

Where fruitful Trees in decent Order grow. 
'"'^ Thro' all the Woods they heard the charming Noil 
Of chirping Birds 5 and ti-y'd to frame their Voice, 

Ar 
N O T £ S. 

IV^ By taking little Trees or 
Plants, together with the Earth 
that covers them about the Root, 
and tranfplanting them into ano- 
tiher Place. 

v. By cutting off a Sucker from 
a Tree, and planting it, even 
tho' it have no Root. 

VI. By cutting the Stem of the 
Tree without any Root to it, 
but in the middle, and into fe- 
veral Pieces, and planting them. 
This way is chiefly pracxis'd in 
the Propagation of the Olive 
Tree. 

VII. When a Branch, or Twig, 
of one Tree is inferted into ano- 
ther Tree, and that too of a dif- 
ferent Kind, and paffes into the 
Nature of it : This is the true 
Grafting •, which is pradis'd in 
two. Manners: One, which the 
Latines call InStio, i. e. Graft- 
ing within a Cleft made in the 
Top of the Stock; which is the 
ordinary Way now us'd, and pro- 
perly caiL'd Grafting : the other, 
inoculation, call'd likewife Bud- 
ing , and grafting Scutcheon- 
wife: Pliny adds a third way, 
which he calls Emplafi:ratio ; 
which is generally confounded 
with Inocu^latioti : yet there 
fcems to be this difference be- 
tween thefe three Ways of Graft- 
ing : Tixat cali'd Iniition, v^^as 
done by cleaving the Trunk of 
the Tree, and putting one or 



oculation, by making a 
ture between the Bark aiid ~tl 
Trunk, and including in it tl 
Graff, or Twig: And laftJ 
Emplaftration , by taking o 
pare of the Bark of the Stocj 
and fubftituting in its Place tl 
Bud of another Tree, exadly < 
the like Bignds, fo as to fill v 
the Space of the Bark that is t. 
ken away : This is manifeft froi 
Pliny, lib. k^. cap. i^, 18, & 
Whence it is evident, that th 
Art of Grafting has been var 
ouily pradtis'd in different Age; 
And our Gardiners at this D? 
differ from the Method ofVi 
gil, who teaches to make the A '. 
perture in the very Knot c 
Joint of the Stock ; whereas the 
make it either below or abovi 
in that part of the Bark that 
brighceft and fmoothefl. 

1452, Meanders] See abovi 
V. 308. 

1458. Thro' all, &c.] Mufic \ 
too, like all the other Arts, whe 
fir ft invented, was rude and ur 
poliHied i nor was it more i 
firfe than an Imitation of tl 
Chirping and Singing of Bird 
Then having obferv'd,that Reed 
when iliaken by a gentle Gal 
fent forth a whifpering Murmu 
they made themfelves Pipes < 
Reeds : with thefe the penfi\ 
Shepherds were wont to foot 
their Cares , and , when th 
Neighbourhood met to be mcrr] 

the 



Book V. 



LUCRETIUS, 



sSi 



1 460 And imitate: Thus Birds inftruded Man, 

And taught them Songs, before their Art began : 
And while foft evening Gales blew o'er the Plains, 
And fliook the founding Reeds, they taught the Swains : 
And thus the Pipe was fram'd, and tuneful Reed j 
465 And whilft the tender Flocks fecurely feed, 

The harmlefs Shepherds tun'd their Pipes to Love^ 
And A M^ R r L L IS founds in ev*ry Grove. 
Thus Time, and thus fagacious Men produce 
A thouland Things, or for Delight, or Use, 
470 Thefecharni'd the Swains, and thefe were wont topleafe 
^ When Feafts were done ; for then all feek for Eafe : 

Then 
NOTES. 

From whence our Tranflatour 
took the Thought : at leaft he 
had no hint of it frOm his Au- 
thour : Amaryllis is a ficftitioua 
Name, us'd by the Antients In 
their Paftoral Poems, and con- 
tinu'd down to this Day. It is 
deriv'd from the Channels they 
made to convey Water into their 
Meadow Grounds, or to draiti 
them, if too wet : for fuch a 
Conduit the Greeks call'd -^ 

14^8. Thus Time, &:c.] This 
and the following Yerfe air^ re- 
jieated below v. 1535. 

147 1. For then all feek for 
Eafe.] Lucr* 



ley delighted,with their uncouth 
-irs, the whole Company and 
lemfelves. In thefe merry Af- 
mblies they fiirit began to 
lugh and jeft at one another, 
id to trample the Ground with 
nequal Steps : and this laid the 
rft Foundation of Dancing, 
^hus they diverted themfelves, 
id knew no better : nor do our 
lore artful and melodious Airs 
elight us more, than thefe un- 
armonious artlefs Strains of 
leirs did them : But new things 
Iways pleafe, and we grow wea- 
•f of the old : Thus Men began 
y loath their Acorns, and to in- 
ulge their Appetites with more 
slicious Food : Thus they de- 
)is'd their grafly Beds, and in- 
ented eafy Couches and Beds of 
>own : Thus they laid afide 
leir Skins of Beafts, and by De- 
rses cloath'd themfelves in Pur- 
le. This is contain'd in 48. v. 
^i4«52. Soft ev'ning Gales, &c.] 
"he Weftern Winds, fays the 
oet, whittling among the Reeds, 
lught them to make Pipes of 
le Stalks : But of the firft In- 
ention of Pipes, fee Book IV. 

• 595- and Ovid. Metam. 1. 

• 705- 

i4^7.Amaryllis] Virgil Eclog. i. 

ormofam fefonare 4oces Ama- 
xylhda fylvas* 



•Ibjam tiim fiirit drrink _ 



cordj 

which is the Reading of all the 
Copies : but Faber fays, it ought 
to be dtia cordi : a judicious E- 
mendatidn, which our Tranfla- 
tour hits follow'd. Yet Voffius 
on Catullus, p. 167. correds this 
Paflage of bur Poet, and fays ic 
ought to be read, omnia chords : 
For after Men, fays he, have in- 
dulg'd and fill'd themfelves with 
eating, nothing is more delight- 
ful than Mufick, which at tha^ 
time is, tcc 'arotv'lotj 



F f f f 



all Things. 
1472. Theft 



u 



Lu c R E r t us. 



BookV 



Then underneath a loving Myrtle's Shade, | 

Clofe by a purling Stream fupinely laid. 

When Spring with gawdy Flow'rs the Earth has fpreac 

147$ And fweeteft Ros£s grow around their Head • 

Envy'd by Wealth and Pow'r, with fmall Expena 
They oft enjoy'd the vaft Delight of Senfe : 
Then LAUGHING, merry Jests, and Countrey Play; 
And Tales began ; as, once upon a Day ! 

2480 Then pleafant Songs they fung, and wanton grown, 
Each pluck'd, and bound his Flow'rs, and made 
And with uneven Steps they danc'd around ; (Crowi 
Their heavy Leaps ftill fhook the trembling Ground: 
While all the idle Crowd, that flock'd to view, 

i 48 5 Laugh much, becaufe the Tr i cks feem ftrange and new 
And thus they pafs'd the Day in gay DeHght ; 
And watch'd and fed their tender Flocks by Night,' 
No need of Sleep *. that Want the Songs fupply : 
The Noife chac'd Morphevs from their willing Eye 

1490 Thefe now our Wantons ufe 5 with Toil and Paii 
They learn to dance in Measure : all in vain : 
For thefe can reap no Joy, no more Content, 
Than whatthofe earth-born Swains did firftrefent.' 

Fo 

i^ T E S. 



1472. Then underneath, 6^c,3 
'Thisj and the five foIlowingVe'r- 
fes are repeated from B.II. v. 31. 
Cowley from Anacreon : 

Underneath this myrtle Shade, 
On flow'ry Beds fupinely laid, 
With od'rous Oils my Head 

o'erflowing, 
And around it Rofes growing ; 
What Ihould I do, but drink 

away. 
The Heat and Troubles of the 

Day, Sec, 

Compare Creech's Tranilation 
of this PafTage with the Original 
of Lucretius, and with thefe 
Verfes of Cowley, and judge 
from whence he took it. 

1481, Each pluck'd and bound, 
<lic«3 Lucxecius ; i 



Turn caput , atque humer< 

plexis redimire corollis, 
Floribus, Sec. 

Where the Poet alludes to th 
Luxury of his. own Age, wher 
in their Feaftings, they us'd t( 
trim up their Bowls withFlowcK 
and to wear Garlands of Rofe 
on their Heads, and round theii 
Necks: and, in a manner, t( 
wallow in them. Tibullus : 

Et capite Sc coUo mollia fert; 
gerat. 

But of this Cuftom fee at Urg( 
Book III. V. B96. 

1489. Morpheus] The Sun^ 01 
rather the Servant, of Somnus 
the God of Sleep : See Book IV 

V._102<5, 



Book V. LUCRETIUS, ^87 

For while we know no better, but pofTefs 

1495 A PRESENT Good, it does extreamly pleafe: 
The later Good our various Thoughts employs j 
And we contemn the Guft of former Joys. 
Thus Man defpis'd their antient eafy Food, 
Their Acorns, and their Apples of the Wood : 

i5ooWhenCLOATHSwerefound,andotherCov'RiNGsrpreadp 
They fcorn'd their Skins of Beasts, and graffy Bed ; 
The Skins of Beads ; which, furethe first that founds 
Not long enjoy 'd, but by a treach'rous Wound 
He fell: fo highly then, the now defpis'd, 

505 Contemn'd, negledied Skins of Beafts were priz'd. 

Thus Men did fight for Skins: Thofe rais'd their 
But Gold and Purple now are Caufe of Wars : (Cares^ 
The Fault is ours ; for they could only find 
Thefe Skins, as Cloaths againft the Cold and Wjnd ? 

5 1 o But now what harm, if none go proudly dreft 
In Cloth of Gold, or an embroider'd Veft: 
Since Meaner Garments yield as much Defence 
'Gainft Wind and Cold^ as much preferve the Sens^.' 
Then wretched Man's Endeavours are in vain^ 

5 1 5 They fruitlefsly confume their Years in Pain, 

Not 

1^ o r E s. 



[495. It does extreamly pleafe:]' 
^o the fame purpofe Dryden, in 
le Tragedy of Aurenge-Zebcj 
lys finely : 

ris not for Nothing, that we t 

Life purfue ; 
t pays our Hopes with fome- 

thing ftill that's new : 
ach Day's a MiftrefSj unsnjoy'd 

before : 
.ike Travellers, we're pleas'd 

with feeing more. 

1502. Which fu re, &c.] Faher 
lys, that the firft Garment, the' 
ut a worthlefs, undrefs'd Skin of 

Beaft, fo pleas'd thefe Earth- 
|orn Men, that it was the Caufe 
f his Death, who firft invented 
nd wore it, 

1^06. Thus Men, &c.] But 
lis Fighting and Murder for the 
Icin, fays the Poet in 14. v. may 
' ?; in fome meafurej excus'd : be- 



caufe before they had found ous 
the Art of Weaving, Skins were 
all the Coverings they had to de- 
fend their Bodies from the Cold : 
But what Excufe is there for 
Men, who deftroy, and lay all 
things wafte, with Wars and Ra- 
pine, that they may /liine iri 
Gold, and cloach themfefves in 
Purple ? This neverthelefs they 
doj tranfported with an infacia- 
bleThirli: of Avarice and Ambi- 
tion, and becaufe they are igno- 
rant of that true Pleafure, which 
Epicurus taught ; and which is 
not fo greedy after Delights, as 
content with NecelTaries ; 

I5I4« Then, SccJ] For Man 
is feldom contented with a Com- 
petency, and never knows whe^ 
he has enough : nor when to pu5 
aftoptowhat Ovid calls excel- 
lently well : Amor fceleratusha- 
bendi. Thus Manilius begins his 
fourth Boole \ 

f f X f a §uiii 



LUCRETIUS. Book V 

Not knowing how to ufe, or how to meafure 
Their boundiefs Wish, nor Height of real Pleafure; 
.This drives them on into a Sea of Cares, 
And the deftrudive Rage, and Storms of Wars. 
1520 The Sun, ftill running round his yearly Race, ^ 
Shew'd all the Seasons turn'd by conftant Caufe, . 
By certain Order ruFd, and fteady Laws : 
Some liv'd in Castles then, fome built a Town, 
And Land divided, each enjoy 'd his own: 
1525 Then mighty Shies, driv'n by the labVing Wind, ^ 
Flew o'er the Seas, and diftant Nations join'd ; ^ 
]^hilft: Leagues and Bonds the neighb'rin^ Towns I 
combined : 

The 
NOTES* 



Quid tarn follkitis vitain confu- 

minius annis, 
Torquemurque metu, cajcaque 

cupidine rerum ? \ 
JEternifq; fenes curis, dum quse- 

rimus, zevum 
Perdimus; & nuUo votorum fine 

beat! 
yicfluros agimus femper, nee vi- 

vitnus unquam ; 
Pauperiorqlie bonis quifque ell, 

quo plura requirat, 

Kec quod habet memorat ; tan- 
tum quod noil habetj op cat. 

Which our Tranflatour has thus 
render'd. : 

■^hy fliould our Time run. cut 
in ufekfs Years 

Of anxious Troubles^ and tor- 
menting Fears ^ 

Why Hiould deluding Hopes di- 
fturb our Eafe, ' 

Vain to purfue, yet eager tQ pof- 
fefs ^ 

With no Succefs, and no Advan- 
tage crown'd, 

Why fuould we ftill tread pn th' 
unfinifh'd Round i 

^rown grey in Cares, purfue the 
' fenfelers Strife, 
And feeking how to live, €on- 
lusie a Life I 



The more we have, the spieane 

is our Store, 
The unenjoying craving Wretd 

is poor. 

I $20. The Sun. ike."] Men be 
ing convinced by a long Expt 
rience, that the Seafons of tl: 
Year return in a certain Ordei 
and that nothing is imbroil'c 
nothing arrives by Chance, [Fo 
the Ataras that at firft fortui 
ouily jumbled together, are com 
pos'd in fuch a manner, both b; 
the Laws of their own Motio.i 
and by the Powerof Nature, tha 
unlefs fome Caufe from withou 
Iliould hinder and djfturb them 
they will for ever obferve th 
fame Motions] they at lengtl 
embrac'd a conftant and fettlec 
Way of Life : To this end the; 
conftituted Republicks, and efta 
blifli'd Commerce betweenfevera 
Nations. Then Poets, the Au 
thours of Hiftory, were born 
and iaftly the Arts, that are fub 
lervienc to Life , or condu- 
cive to Pleafux-e, were founc 
out : For the Names of the In 
ven tours of them are ftill pre 
fcrv'd, and known, 

1525. Then mighty Ships, &c.' 
The Nations, who are fam'd foi 
the Invention of Navigation 
are, firft the Phceniciars ; from 
whom ie came to the Egyptians 



BookV. 



LUCRETIUS, 



and from them to the Greeks; 

among whom the firft that fail'd 

are faid to be the Cretans. But 

as to the firft Building, and Life 

3f Ships, not to mention Noah's 

Ark, Clemens Alexandrinus a- 

"cribes the Invention to Atlas, 

he Libyan-, T^ll'chylus, to Prome- 

I heus ; and Diddorus, Siculus, to 

STcptune: The Invention like- 

i'iro of Sails is afcrib'd by the 

jame ^fchylus to Prometheus 

' Ifo : by Diodorus to JfEolus •, 

>y Pliny and Paufanias to Dc^da- 

us, and his Son Icarus : by Caf- 

jiodorus, lib. 5. Variar. and by 

jiyginusto Ifis ; who, for that 

I leafon, on the Reverfe of fome 

f the Roman Coins, is repre- 

;nted, holding in her Hand a 

I ail,fweUing with theWind: It is 

!rtain that the Latines ftyl'd her 

»ca Pelagia, as being the Prefi- 

ent of Navigation : To con- 

rm which we find in Gruterus^ 

. 312. the following Infcrip- 

on, 

DIIS MANtBUS SAC; 
SER. SULPITIO AUG. L. 

ALCIMO ^DITUO 
AD ISIDEM PELAGIAM. 

>f the Original and firft EfTays 
f Navigation, Claudian in the 
reface to the Rape of Profer- 
jine : 

ivent^ fecuit primus qui nave 

profundum, 
Ec rudibus remis folicitavit a- 

quas ; 
ranquillis primurn trepidis fe 

credidit undis, 
Xittora fecurq tramite fumma 

legens. 
'tox longos tcntare finus, &lin- 

quere terras, 
,Et leni ccepic pandere vela No- 

I to ! 

ft ubi paulatim pr^eceps auda- 

cia crevi^, 
Cordaque languentem dedidi- 

cere metum ; 



Jam vagus erupitpelago, ccelum- 
que fecutus, 
^geas hyemes, loniumque do- 
mat. 

I52<^. And diftant Nations 
join'd •,] Thus too ManiUas, lib. 

I. v. 87. 

Turn vagus in caecum penetrav it 

navita pontum. 
Fecit Sc ignotis itiner commercia 

terris. 

Which Creech thus renders : 

Thro' Seas unknown the Sailer 

then was hurl'd ; 
And gainful Traffick join'd the 

diftant WQrld. 

The Original of TrafHck is ge- 
nerally afcrib'd to the Phoenici- 
ans : fome indeed , particular- 
ly' Phornurus . or Cornutus , 
de Naturd Dcorum, and Cx- 
far, lib. 6. de Bello Gall, at- 
tribute it to Mercury, whom, 
for that Reafon Arnobius calls, 
Nundinarum, Mercium, Com- 
merciorumque mutator. lib. 3. 
adv. Genres. And that Mer- 
chants us'd to facrifice to him, as 
to the God of Gain, and Preli-, 
dent of Negotiation and Com- 
merce, is confirm'd by Ovid. 
lib. 4. Faftor. v;here, fpeaking 
to Mercury, he fays, 

Te, quicunque fuas profitentu? 
vendere merces, 
Thure datO|,tribuas utfibilucr^ 
rogant. 

This too is confirm'd by that an- 
tient Infcription, that was found 
at Metz. in the Year 1589. and 
is recorded by Philippus Tho- 
mafinus de Denariis, pag. 274. 

MERCURIO NEGOTIATO- 
RI 

SACRUM 
NUMISIUS ALBINUS 
EX VOTO. 

x<2S. Jhca 



S^o 



L U C R E T lU S: 



Book V 



Then Letters found ; and the Poetick Rage 
Firft told the noble Actions of the Age : 

hi O T E S. 



Bu 



1528. Then Letters found ;] 
Cicero fays. That the Invention 
of Letters has circumfcrib'd, in a 
few litteral M^rks, the Sounds 
of the Voice, Which feem'd infi- 
nite : Sonos Yocis, qui infiniti vi- 
debantur, paucis literarum notis 
terminavit. Tufcul. i. Suidas 
calls it, y^iJLiJ.txliv,m (piAoo-o^/ctv, 
the grammatical Philofophy, 
and afcribes the Invention of it 
£0 Prometheus ; others to the 
Phoenicians : Thus Lucan : 

Phoenices primi, fam<e fi credi- 

tur, aufi 
3V4anfuram rudibus vocem figna- 

re iiguris. 

Which Paflage Breboeuf, the 
French Interpreter of that Poet, 
applying it to Cadmus, who 
from the Phoenicians brought 
inofl: of the Letters of the Greek 
Alphabet into Greece, has ren- 
der'd in thefe excellent Verfes. 

Ceft de lui que nous vient cetf 

art ingenieux I 

De peindre la parole, & de par-| 

ler aux yeiix ; I 

Et par les traits divers de figures 

tracees, 
Donner de la couleur^Sc du corps 

aux penfees. 

Which I the rather chufe to take 
notice of, becaufe they are fine- 
ly render'd into our own Lan 
guage by a Perfon of Quality, 
and not till now made publick. 

He that ingenious Art did firil 

defcry 
Of painting Words, and fpeak- 

ing to the Eye ; 
And, by the various Shapes of 

Figures wrought. 
Gave Colour, and a Body to a 

Thought. 

But as to the firid Characlerizers 
of Speech, fee the learned D Jgref- 
iip;vaf. Jcfeph Scaiiger de Liter, 



antiqu. upon Eufebius : and Pe 
tit. in obfervat. lib. 2. c. i. T( 
which I add thefe anonym ou 
Verfes, as they are recorded bj 
Crinitus, and Giraldus, and frorr 
them tranfcrib'd by Gerard, Joh 
Voffius, lib. I. de Arte Gram 
mat. 
Primus Moyfes Hebraicas exara 

vi t literas : 
Mente Phoenices fagaci condide 

runt Atticas : 
Quas Latini fcriptitamus edidil 

Nicoftrata : 
Abraham Syras, & idem reperii 

Chaldaicas : 
Ifis arte non minore protulit 

^gyptias : 
Gulfilas promfit Getarum quas 

videmus literas. 

But the Origine of Letters is; 
with greater Appearance ol 
Truth, referred by others to A- 
dam himfelf : For is it not high- 
ly improbable, that he, who was 
to tranfmit all Learning and 
Knowledge down to his Pofteri- 
ty, Ihould want the neceflfary 
Conveyances and Inftruments for 
fo great a Work ? And this Opi- 
nion is confirm'd by the early 
Mention that is made of Letters, 
even in the Days of Seth, who 
was his Son ; and who no doubt 
receiv'd them from him. I know 
not of what Weight it may feena, 
but I can not omit to take No- 
ticej that, in the Vatican Libra- 
ry at Rome, there is extant, to 
this Day,an antient Picture of A- 
dam, with a Hebrew Infcription 1 
over his Head*, which indeed i 
makes nothing to our prefent 
purpofe : but under his Feet 
there is another in Latinp, con- 
ceiv'd in thefe Words :, 
ADAM DIVINITITS EDO- 
CTUS, PRIMUS SCIENTI- 
ARUM ET LITERARUM, 
INVENTOR= See Lomeier. ^e 
Biblioth= p, iQ= O.f 



Book V; LUCRETIUS. Hi 

O F T H E 

Several "Ways of Wr i t i n g, 

Praftis'd by the 

ANTIENTS 



AVI NG given this ihort Account of the 
fiiH Invention of Letters, it m^ay not be 
•amifs in this Place to give fome Account 
likewife in a Ihort Digreflion, how ,thofe 
Cbaradters of old preferv'd themfelves'from 
Deaths And indeed there is fcarce any 
Matter, capable of receiving the Marks of 

otters, that fome or other of the Antients have not made 

Ce of for that Purpofe. 

The firft Letters that we read of were engrav'd in Stone : 
''itnefs the two famous Pillars of Enoch, one of which 
as yet remaining, even in the Days of Jofepbus ! And 
imblicus confeiTes, that he took the Principles of his my- 
ica: Philofophy from the Pillars of Mercury. Pliny, in 
s Natural Hiftory, lib. 7. cap. 5. acquaints us, that the 
abylonians, and the Alfyrians engrav'd their Laws in Pil- 
rs of Buck, in codlis latenbus. And we know that 
oies writ his on Scone : Horace too makes mention of 
1 is fort of Writing>Qn.Stones ; • ' 

Non incifa notis marmora publicis. 

The Roman .Laws of the twelve Tables were ingraven 
Brafs : and fo too was the League made with the La- 
les, as Livy wicnefles, Decad.r. Lib. i. And Talu«, of 
hom are reported many ridiculous Stories, was, upon no 
I her Ground, feigu'd by the Cretans, to be a Man ' made 

^ "" of 




j9^ I U C R E T I US. Bbok V 

of Brafs by Vulcan, but becaufe he carry 'd about Crete the 
Laws that were graven in Brafs, and put them feverely in 
execution. 

Paufanias, in Boeoticis, makes mention of all the Books o: 
Heliod, that are Intitui'd, "E^ycav xj ii/^ep&y, written in Plate 
of Lead : which fore of Plates Suetonius, in the Life of Ne- 
ro, calls chartam plumbeam, leaden Paper; Bat this Cu 
{torn was in ufe even be/ore the Days of Job ; who him 
felf, chap. 1 9. cries out : Oh that my words were graver 
with an iron Pen, and Lead in the Rock for ever; whicl 
the Interpreters explain, that he would have the leadei 
Plates placed upon Rocks or Pillars. 

They us'd alfoofold to write on Leaves or Plates of Ivo 
ry ; and hence the Books were calfd Libri Elephantini 
and not, as fome imagine from their Bignefs and hug( 
Bulk. Thus Martial. Lib. 14. Epigram. 5. 

Languida ne triftes obfcurent lumina ceraf, 
Nigra tibi niveum licera pingac ebur. 

Waxen Table-Books Were very antient; Fot Proetti 

fent a Letter in one of them by Bellerophon, as Home 

tells us, Iliad. 6. Thefe Table-Books were made of Wood 

cover'd with Wax, on which they writ with an Inftrumen 

of Iron or Brals, and therefore they were call'd Pugillares 

a pungendo, as Aldus Manutius obferves, De qusefitis pe 

Bpift. lib. 2-. Epift. I. Georgius Longus ; de annulis figna 

tofijs, cap. 8. defcribes them to be of a triangular Form 

but Laurentius Pignorius de fervis, p. 116. fays, Pugil 

larium forma fuit oblonga & quadrata, eminenti quadan 

' xnargine circumcirca conclufa, ut vidimus Romse in veter 

'area fepulchrali in hortis Cyriaci Mattheii. The fame Pig 

t^iorius in the fame Book, p. 1 1 7. defcribes likewife th( 

Form of the Roman Graphium, or Stylus ; with whicl 

they us'd to write in thefe waxen Table- Books : It wa 

firli made of Iron, but that being dangerous to ftab with 

and too frequently abus*d in that Practice, was, in afte 

times",^ forbid at Rome , and publickly prohibited t( 

be Vvorn, as Cafaubon notes on Suetonius, lib» i. cap 

8?-. and then Styles of Bone wexe in Ufe : Thefe wen 

made iharp at one end to cut the Letters, and flat at th< 

othei 



I 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. ^9; 

othef, ro deface them ; whence thePhrafc, ftylurh verterc: 
This Stylus was ufually carry d in a licde Cafe, call'd Gra- 
phiarium, as Beroaldus obferves on the fame Place of Sue- 
tonius. As for Slates, and Plates of Wood, it cannot be 
doubted but that they were us'd to wrice upon. 

* tancirollus tells us. That the Longobards, now by Cor- 
ruption call'd Lumbards, at their firft coming into Italy, 
made Leaves to write on, of thin Shavings of Wood, lome 
of which he had feen and read in his Days The Antients 
writ Jikewifc on the Leaves of Palm-trees, fee Pliny, lib. 13, 
:ap. 1 1, and thence Letters are call'd Phoenicean, not froifi 
:he Countrey, but from <po7vi^, a Palm-tree. Yet Guiland- 
lus de Papyro, makes a mighty Buftle to prove, that Palm- 
eaves were never us'd to write upon ; he believes 
;hat Phoenicea, vvbich Pliny there ufes, is not the fame with 
3o?w?„ and would have tis read malvarum, inftead of pal- 
liarum. It is indeed true, that they did antiently write ort 
he Leaves of Mallows likewife, as appears by Ifidorus, and 
he following Epigram of Cinna, which that Auchouf cites : 

H«c tibi Arateis miiltiitn invigilata lucernjs 
Carmina, queis ignes movimiis zethereos, 

Lagvis in aridulo malvas defcripta libello^ 
Prufiaca vexi munera navicula. 

^ut this was not frequent : for the Leaves of Mallows are 

00 foft, to be proper for that Ufe. The Names of thofe 
vho were expell'd the Senate at Athens, were v^ritten on 
^eaves, tho' of what Kind, is uncertain : but from thence 
he Sentence againft them was call'd 'E^tpi-Mor^opnajs- ; and 
he Names of thofe banifh'd by the People, vvere written 
»ti Shells : But at Syracufe, the Names of fuch fentenc'd 
llitizens were written on the Leaves of the Olive- Tree - 

nd thence it was call'd ns'JctAtcr^*^', ^tt^ tv 'ars?a^« hala/' 

jLnd the Cumsean Sybil in Virgil was wont to make ufe of 
'bis fort of Paper : 

1 Fata canir, foliifque hotals Sc carmina mandar. 

iEn. 3. v. 444. 

I Upon which Horteniaus cites Varro to prove, that it was pe- 
culiar to that Sybil, to defcribe the Oracles in the Leaves of 
*alm- trees: But Cerdanus believes it to have bieen the ge- 

^ S$S neral 



f 94 LUCRETIUS. Book V. 

neral Cuftotn of thofe Times, and that they did not yet 
write on the Barks of Trees, or on the Reed calFd Papy- 
rus, or on Parchment. 

Pliny makes mention in feveral Places of Books made of 
Linnen : Thefe were publick Records, and call'd by fomc ,., 
Libri lintei, by others, Linteae Mappse, and Carbafina Vo- 
lumina, Silken Volumes; Claudian. 

Quid carmine pofcat 



Fatidico cuftos Romani carbafus aevi. 

And Symmachus Epiftolan lib. 4. Monitus Cumanos linte«< 
texta fumpferunt : And Pliny fays the Parthians us'd to in- 
terweave Letters in their Cloaths. 

The Antients likewife were wont to write on the thir 
kind of Skin, that grows between the outmoft Bark anc 
the Body of the Tree : And the Paper, which the Chinefes 
and fome Indians ufe to this Day, feems to be made 
that, or fomething like it : And from thence a Book wa 
call'd Liber. 

Having try'd all thefe Experiments, at length they fel 
10 ufe Paper, which they call'd Papyrus, from a Reed 
that Name, that grew in the Fens and marlhy Grounds ii 
Egypt, and of which Paper was made : They likewife 
call'd it Charca, from a Town of that Name in tb< 
Marflies of Egypt, where it grew. Herodotus in Terpfi. 
chore fays. That even in his Days the lonians call'd Paper 
Skins ; becaufe in times paft they were fain to fupply tb< 
Want of Paper with Skins, which fliews the Errour o 
Pliny, in faying, that neither Paper nor Parchment wen 
Qs'd before the Time of Eumenes ; from whofe City Per^ 
gamus, Parchment firft came, and thence was call'd Per 
gamena : But of the Invention, Ufe and Improvement 
Paper and Parchment, fee at large Melch. Guilandin. « 
his Treatife de Papyr. I only add, that the Diphthera 
©f the Greeks were only Skins of Beafts : and that, in whicl 
Jupiter is feign'd to keep his Memorial of all Things, wa 
made of the Skin of the Goat, that gave him fuck: Am 
many are of Opinion, that the famous Golden Fleece wai 
nothing but a Book, written on a Sheep's Skin. Diodorui 
the Sicilian affirms in his fecond Book, that the Annals ol 
Perfia were written on fuch Skins : and many more Au- 
thorities might be produc'd, if they were needful. 



: 



Book V. LUCRETIUS. ^9^ 

1 5 30 But all beyond lies hid in difmal Night, 

And only leen by fearching Reason's Light, (began ; 
Thus Ships, thus Cloaths, thus Wine, and Oil 
And Towns, the Comforts, and Support of Man • 
But better'd all, to due perfedion brought 

1535 ^y fearching Wits, from long Experience taught. 
Thus Time, and thus fagacious Men produce 
A thoufand Things, or for Delight, or Use; 
For cne Thing known does vig'rous Light impart 
For farther Search, and leads to Height of Art. 

NOTES, 



ThePoeticlc Rage, Sec.'] At 
length the Poets, fays Lucretius, 
began to celebrate in their 
Hymns the noble Actions of the 
Heroes of thofe Days : And this 
Cuftom is at this Time obferv- 
ed amongft: the Indians, whofe 
Songs are the only Hiftories they 
have : Laftly the Poet teaches, 
that all the other Arts were in- 
vented and improv'd by the Sa- 
gacity and Experience of Men ; 
infomuch that 'tis hard to fay, 
which of them was firft found 



Thus Time, &c.] This 



out. 

and the following Verfe are re- 
peated from above, v. 141^7. 

1538. For one, &c. ] Thus 
too Manilius, fpeaking of the 
Invention of Arts, fays. 

Semper enim ex aliis alias profe- 
minat ufus. Lib. i. v. 90. 

Which Creech paraphrafes thus : 

New Hints from fettled Arts 
Experience gains, 

Inftrucfls our Labours, and re- 
wards our Pains : 

Thus into many Streams one 
Spring divides, 

And thro' the Valley rouls re- 
frelhin^ Tides. 

Confonant to which is this of 
Columella, lib, lo. 



Ipfa novas artes variaexperientia 

rerum, 
Et labor ofbendit miferis j ufus- 

que magilter 
Tradidit. — 

And Theocritus in Idyl. 21. af^ 
cribes the Invention of ail Arts 
to Want and Neceffity : 

'ATTov'iX, Aio(pav?s, inovA raV ts^- 

vets' lyei^iy 

To which may not improperly 
be apply'd, what Philoftratus, ia 
the Life of Apollonius, as ciced 
by Photius- reports of the Tem- 
ple of Hercules at Gades; where, 
among other Altars, there wa^ 
one dedicated to Penury and 
Art ; to intimate, That as Pe-s- 
nury ftirs up Art, fo Art drives 
away Penury j as Hercules put 
to Flight, and fubdu'd Monfters, 
the Incitements of his Valour, 
See Riccard. Brixian. and Ca- 
faubon explaining this PafTagi? 
of the Prologue to Perfius j 



Magifler artis, ingeniique 

gitor 
Venter, — — 



Ut. 






g 1 



ANIMAD. 



[597 3 




\NIMADVERSION, 

By Way of 

Rec apitulation> 

On the Fifth Book of 

'. U C R E T I U S. 




HAT Lucretius in this Book aflerts from 
V. 60. to V. 461. that the Sun, the Earth, the 
Sea, in a Word, the whole Frame of this 
World has not exifted from all Eternity, nor 
wiH continue to all Eternity, is believ'd in 
general by all pious Men, and Iburd Philo- 
iphers : but his proving this AlTertion by fome probable, 
sid by many ftrong and unqueftionable Arguments, that in- 
ed feems peculiar to Lucretius only : for certainly no 
jonger Proofs, no more cogent Reafons [l always except 
Holy Scriptures] are any where to be found : This makes 
wonder the more, how fo excellent a Wit could infert 
tbfe foolifli Verfes from v. 168 to v. 166. in which he eh- 
cavours to evince, chat God did not create the World : For he 
ljlieves,that God is not generous enough, or rather is too fpight- 
f^land envious, to do any Thing for the fake of Man ; and 
(Jifies, that whatever he does, he does for the fake of 
Inffplf, of his one Eafe and Quiet ; if any Man fhould 



598 ANIMADVERSION, 

give fuch a Charadter of Epicurus, Lucretius would trea i; 
him as an impudent Babbler. In the next place he imagine? i 
that neither God nor Man can have any Notice or Know 
ledge of any Things, but by the Means of Images. Am 
who is this God ? Is it not he whom the Mind of Man pet 
ceives, whom all Nations acknowledge and adore ? In th 
next place, who can bear with him, while he enumeratet 
the Faults, as he calls them, of the World ? All of then 
falfe, and foolifhly invented: And were thefe Defedts ii 
the new and infant World ? Lucretius himielf denies the"| 
wera; and therefore is the more to blame, to impute t\^ 
Decays and flaws in a Building, worn out with Age, to ih 
Fault of the Archited. 

From V. 461. to V. 5 5 r. he defcribes the Rife or Birth ( 
the World ; And among all the Phyfiologers, there is not 
Defcription of it more likely to be true, nor more lively an 
beautiful. The Atoms are mov'd by their own weigh 1 
they meet, this makes them rebound, and according to tt 
difference of the Stroke and Weight, the refilition is mad 
into different Places, where they combine and grow inr 
Bodies. 

Having, as he imagines, freed the Deity from all Cai 
and Trouble, and kept him in Eafe and Quiet, while tl" 
World was making, he proceeds, and from v. 550. to v. 82. 
delineates the Order : and becaufe he does not affign any or 
certain Caufe of the Motions of the Heavens, of Eclipfes, « 
Day and Night, with that pofitivenefs as fome others d( 
he feems to fome to waver in his Opinions : But I infii 
that fuch a Conflancy, as they they call it, in an Epic(i 
rean Phyfiologer, would be very ridiculous : for he pn 
nounces, that all things are made and done by Chance 
and that no Man can determine one, to fay, certain Caufe, ( 
thefe Phasnomenons, fince they may be explain'd in fever; 
Manners. Nor (liould I indeed think a Man worthy < 
Blame, who afTigns feveral Caufes, while among the re 
the only true and certain Caufe is propos'd. Nor can 
imagine a Man could ad more agreeably to his Principle 
or defcribe Chance better: refolving all Philofophy, all 01 
Search, and Inquiry into thofe Matters, into a naked Ma 
BE : nay, often fcarce (landing within the comprehenfi^ 
Bounds of PoiTibility : But to pafs by all the Contradidioi 
that lie in the very Principles, and Beginning of his Hyp 
thesis, let us fuppofe thefe Infinite Atoms, moving in tb 
Infinite j and grant they could ftrike, and take hold, ar 

) fquee: 



on the Fifth BOOK. ^'99 

fqueeze out the lefTer and more agile Parts into Seas, Hea- 
ven, Moon, Stars, 8cc. I ask, why this mighty Mafs of 
Earth as its Nature requires, does not conftantly defccnd ? 
Why is it fix'd and fteady ? Lucretius anfwers ; Becaufe it 
lies in congeneal Matter, and therefore prefles not : but ftill 
the Queftion returns: Why does not this congeneal Matter 
fall, (ince it has Weight, the Epicurean Property of Atoms, 
and that other fit Matter fpread below it ? The De- 
mand conftantly returns. Befides, this Matter was fqueez'd 
out of the Earth by the defcending heavier Particles, and 
therefore the Mafs may prefs, and defcend thro* it : Well 
then ; if this Earth can not be fram'd, neither can any of the 
other Elements ; fince, according to his Defcription, the latter 
depends on the former. And fince he refufes to ftand to any 
one Caufe of the Motion of the Sun, or Stars, it would be 
endlefs to purfue this flying Bubble, and follow him thro' 
all the Mazes of Conceit and Fanfy. Nor will I add any 
thing concerning what he alledges of the Magnitude of the 
Sun, Moon, and Stars, having faid before, that that Opi- 
nion is too vulgar to be regarded. 

Read the reft of this Book, and commiferate a Man of fo 
excellent Parts, who could forget himfelf, and play the Fool 
fo egregioufly : But it is a Fate upon all, who deny a di- 
vine Providence, to reafon fooliflily in Ethicks, andab/urdly 
in Phyficks. Yet in the Defcription he gives us of the 
State of the firft Men, of their Manners and Way of Life, 
we have a perfedt Ima^e of the Manners of all the prefenc 
barbarous and favage Nations : and in thefe Earth-born 
Men of Lucretius, you will eafily difcover the Cannibals^ 
Brafileans, and feveral others of the People of the Weft Indies, 



The E N D of the Fifth Book. 




[601 ] 




T- Lucretius Carus 

O F T H E 

Nature of Things. 



BOOK VI. 




The Argument of the Sixth Book. 

HE firft 57. Verfes of this fixth 
and laft Book of Lucretius 
contain the Praife of Athens, 
in which City the Great Epi- 
curus was born ,• together 
with an Encomium of that 
Philofopher, 11. From v. 37. 
to V. 96. the Poet explains the Argument of this 
Book, in fuch a manner as might reafonably be 
expeded from an Epicurean. IIL From thence to 
V. 451. he proceeds to dive into the very Nature 
of the Things, we call Meteors ; and, that Men 
might learn not to be difmay'd at the Thunder of 
angry Jupiter, he teaches, that Thunder is 
made either by theCollifion, or Corrafion, or DiC- 
ruption of Clouds, when contrary Winds fight 
againft one another : Or, by the Force of Winds, 

H h h h either 



602 A R G U M E N T. 

* 

either ftruggling within the Bowels of the Clouds, 
or driving them with violence againft each other : 
Or^ that it is only the Hiding of Flames, that fall 
from a dry Cloud into a wet : Or^ laftly, that 
Thunder is but the crafting noife of Bodies of 
Bail and Ice, that, meeting violently in the Air, 
are dafh'd to pieces. As for the Lightning, which 
the Latines call'd Fulgur, he fays it is nothing but 
Fire, forc'd out of Clouds, either by their Col- 
lifion, or other Motion : Or the Seeds of Flames, 
that are driven out of Clouds by the Force of 
Winds. And then, as to the Thunderbolt, that 
other fort of Lightning, which the Antients 
call'd Fulmen_, he teaches. That it confifts of a 
fubtile and firy Nature ; That it is conceiv'd and 
bred in thick and high built Clouds ^ That, be- 
ing grown to maturity, it burfts out of the 
Clouds by the Force of Wind^ that either breaks 
through them, dafhes them to pieces, or beats 
from without, with great Violence^ againft them : 
That it confifts of Atoms fo fubtile and minute^ 
that it is borne along the Air with wondrous Ce- 
lerity : and that it is moft frequent in the vernal 
and autumnal Seafons : Then he concludes this 
Difputation with deriding the fuperftitious Do- 
drrine of the Thufcans, and others, who held. 
That Thunder and Lightning are not the EfFeds 
of natural Caufes^ but proceed merely from the 
Will of the ofFendedj angry Gods, and that Ju- 
piter himfelf is the Darter of Thunder. And 
becaufe a Prefter^ or firy Whirlwind, which is 
indeed a fort of Lightning, and all other Whirl- 
winds are certain Kinds of Meteors_, the Poet, 
from V. 4;i, to v. 46 o^ difputes IV. concerning 
them \ and explains the Nature, Caufes, Motions, 
and Differences of them. V. From v. 45:9. to v. 
5g2, he treats of Clouds and of Rain. Clouds 
■ he fuppofes to be made either of the roughelt 
and moft dry Particles of the Air \ or of the 

Steams, 



ARGUMENT. 6oj 

Steams^ Vapours, and Exhalations^ that arife from 
the Earth and Waters. And as to Rain, he fays 
it is generated, either by Compreffion, as they 
term it, or by Tranfmutation : By Compreffion, 
if the Force of the Winds fqueeze the Water 
out of the Clouds ; By Tranfmutation, if the 
Clouds themfelves are changed, and diftil in fall- 
ing Drops of Water. VI. In regard to the other 
Meteors, as the Rainbow, Snow, Wind, Hail, and 
Froft, he difputes briefly of them, or rather only 
mentions them, from v. y 31. to v. ^41. VII. From 
V. 5' 40. to V. 609. he treats of the feveral forts of 
Earthquakes, and of the Caufes of them : which 
he afcribes, either to Hollow Parts of the Earth, 
which, falling in, caufe it to tremble ^ or to the 
tremulous Motion of the Waters, which he fup- 
pofes the Earth to fwim in ; or to fubterraneous, 
and other Winds ; which either fhake the Earth 
in feveral Parts, or drive it to and fro. Vlil. From 
V. 608. to V. 646. he treats of the Sea ; and teaches, 
that the reafon why it does noc increafe^ not" 
withftanding the immenfe Quantity of Water 
that is continually flowing into it, is, either be- 
caufe of the Vaftnefs of the Sea itfelf ^ or becaufe 
the Heat of the Sun dries up its Waters ; or be- 
caufe the Winds, brufliing over them, bear much 
of them away ; or becaufe the Clouds draw 
much Moiffcure from theiii ,• or, laftiy, becaufe 
of the Drynefs of the Earth itfelf, which fucks in, 
and imbibes, the Waters of the Sea. IX. From 
V. 645". to 715'. he inquires into the Caufes of 
the Fires that are ejected out of iEtna ; and im- 
putes them either to the Violence of the Wind, 
or to the exeituation of the Waters of the Sea ; 
which, entring beneath into the Cavities of the 
Mountain, extrude and force out the Seeds of 
Flame, that are engender'd and colleded there,, 
through the Apertures, that are on the Top of 
jt» X. From V. 714. to v. 75^. he treats of the 
1^ h h h z, mwjaX 



^04 ' ARGUMENT. 

annual Increafe of the Nile ; and afcribes it ei- 
ther to the Etefian Winds, that blow full againft 
the Stream of that River ; and thus, hindring its 
Courfe, caufe the Waters to overflow : or to 
Heaps of Sand, which the Sea drives to the 
Mouths of it, and thus choaks them up : or to the 
Rains, and Snows, that fall, and are melted, near 
the Fountain of the Nile. XI. From v. 7;4. to 
V. 851. he difputes of the Averni, and other 
Trafe of the Earth, that are noxious, and even 
deadly, to Birds, Men, Deer, Crows, Horfes, 
&c. XII. From v. 850. to v. 894. he teaches, why 
the Water of fome Wells and Springs is hot in 
Winter, and cold in Summer. Xlll. And thence 
to V. 1006. he explains at large the attradlive 
Power and Virtue of the Loadftone. XIV. Laftly, 
from v. 1006. to the End of the Book, he dif- 
courfes briefly of the Caufe and Origine of Plagues 
and Difeafes ; and concludes his Poem with an 
elegant Defcription, taken from Thucydides, of 
the Plague that rag'd in Athens, and almofl: laid 
wafte and defolate the whole Countrey of Attica, 
in the Time of the Peloponnefian War. 




T. LUCRE- 



I 60S ] 





r.LuCRETlUsCARUS. 



THENS firftgave us Laws, and, 

chang'd our Food ; 
For Acorns, tender Fruit andl 

Corn beftow'd 
On wretched Man : Each was a ' 

mighty Good ! 
But then She taught us how to live at 
Eafe, 
5 She taught the Joys of Life, and Ihew'd us Peace, 

When 
NOTES. 

dance o£ all things necefiary to 
lead a happy and quiet Life, and 
that nevetthelefs they wafted their 
Days in Cares, and Sorrows, and 
Anxieties, apply'd himfelf to in- 
quire into the Origine of this 
great Evil; and at length dil'co- 
ver'd, that the VelTel it felf, thac 
is, the Mind of Man was the 
Caufe of this Calamity : For, as 
whatever things we put into a 
ftinking VeiTel are foon corrup- 
ted and tainted wich the fame ijf- 
fenfive Odour ; In like manner, 
if the Mind of Man be unlincere^ 
and not found, he will never be 
able fo to govern himfelf, as may 
be moft conducive to his own fe- 
licity : In the iirft place therefore 
he fays, that Epicurus was th^ 
Man whoiirftpurg'd andcleans'd 
the Minds of tholsj whom he in- 
truded 



Lucretius, who , throughout 
is whole Poem, is profufely la- 
ifh in Praife of Epicurus *, be- 
ins this fixth and laft Book with 
be Praifes of Athens : which 
;^ity, he declares, Men ought to 
onour and revere, not only be- 
iufe Humanity, Learning, Re- 
gion, the Tillage of the Earth, 
le life of Corn, Laws, and ci- 
il Societies are believ'd to have 
iken Rife there, and to have 
een from thence diftributed 
tnongft all the Nations of the 
larth : [Cicero Orat. pro Flac- 
3. Ab Athenis enim humanitas, 
o(ftrina, religio, fruges, jura, 
jges orta, atque in omnes terras 
liftributaputantur:] but chiefly, 
;ecaufe it was the Place that gave 
lirth to Epicurus, who, when he 
bferv'd Men flowing in Abun- 



6o6 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book VI 



When Epjcv Rvs rofe j when He began. 
That Oracle of Truth, that more than Man ; 
The Fame of whofe Inventions ftitt furviv'd, ' 

And rais'd an everlafting Pyramid, ^ 

I o As high as Heav'n the Top, as Earth the Bafis wide. , 
For He, obferving fome that could lupply 
Contented Nature's thrifty Luxury, 
Happy in Honours, and in Wealth's Embrace, 
And doubly happy in a noble Race, 

1 5 Still groan'd at home ; with Cares and Fears opprefs' 
Each found a fad Difturber in his Breaft, 
Imagin'd ftrait, fome Fault lay hid in Man, 
Whence this Corruption of the Joys began .* 



Becaui 



NOTES. 



ftrucfled in Wifdom, to whofe 
Affedioni he put Stops and 
Bounds of Reftraint ; from whofe 
Minds he expeli'd Terrour ; to 
whom he reveal'd the chief Good, 
and fliew'd the eafy and direcft 
Road, that leads to the Attain- 
ment of it •, to whom he taught 
the Means to obviate all Evils ; 
and laftly, whom he prov'd to 
be tormented with vain Anxie- 
ties, and to tremble, and be dif- 
quieted with caufelefs and empty 
Fears. And this is what the Poet 
fays in the firft 37.V. of this Book, 
'i. Athens] The moft famous 
and antient City of Greeccj fi- 
tuate on the Sea-Coaft of Attica : 
and built by Cecrops, A. M. 
2407. and from him call'd Ce- 
cropia : As to its Name, Athens, 
the Fables fay, that a Conteft 
arifing between Neptune and 
Minerva, which of them iliould 
give the Name to that City, the 
Gods, to compofe the difference, 
were pleas'd to decree, that the 
City ihouU be call'd by the 
Kame of either of them, who 
ihould confer the greateft Benefit 
ion Mankind : The Gods were 
affembled in Judgment, and Nep- 
tune darted his TTrident againft 
the Earth, which opening was de- 
liver 'd of a Horfe, a warlike Ani- 
mal : Minerva ftruck her Spear 
into the Ground^ and ypitarts 
an Olive-Tree, the Embiem of 



Peace ; the Gods decided it : 
favour of Minerva, who nam' 
the City Athene, from her ow 
Name 'A9^m, for fo the GreeJ 
call'd her. 

Firft gave, Sec."] Juftin. li 
2. Cicero pro Flacc. Diodor 
Sicul. lib. 13. Plin. lib. 7. ca 
^d, fay, that the Athenians we 
the firft who taught Men, th 
fed before upon Acorns,to plouj 
the Earth, and to fow Corn : ai 
that they were the firft likewii 
who made Laws, and compell 
Men to quit their favage way < 
Life, and to enter into civil S> 
cieties* 

6. Epicurus] Of whom B. 
V. 88. and the BeginningofB.il 

p. And rais'd, &c.3 This ar 
the following Verfe are tra 
fcrib'd out of Cowley's Ode c 
the Death of Mrs. Phillips. . 
Pyramid is a Figure broad 
bottom, and fmaller and Hiarp 
by degrees upwards, till it er 
in a Point like our Spire-Ste«plt 
It is fo call'd from Ilyfj Fir 
becaufe Flame afcends in th 
Figure. 

1 7. Imagin'd ftrait, Sec."] Th 
and the following Verfe run th 
in the Original. 

Intellexit ibi vitium vas efficc 

ipfum, 
Omniaque ilUus vitio corrumpi 

intus. ,^, 

Whe 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. CpT 

Becaufe his Wish is boundlefs, vaft his Mind ; 

20 The Goods ran thro', and left no Sweet behind : 
Or elfe fome ill Opinion ftill deftroys 
The enrring Good, and ftill fours all his Joys. 
Then He, the mighty He, by pow'rful Rules, 
And true Philosophy reform'd our Souls, 

15 He purg*d away all vain and empty Care, (fear. 

And taught what Man fhould hope, what Man (hould 
The End, at which our A(£^ions aim. He ihow'd, 
And taught an eafy Way to find the Good .* 
What we from CHANCE,or Nature's Force may fear,^ 

30 And taught us how t' avoid, and how to bear, >• 

And prov'd that Man is fondly vex'd with Care. S 

I^or 
NOTES, 

20. The Goods ran thro', Sec."} 
Lucretius here alludes to the Fa- 
ble of Danaides, or Daughters of 
Danaus ; of whom B. III. v. 1005, 
The Allufion is clear in the Ori- 
ginal, tho' obfcure in this Trans- 
lation. 

26, What Man Hiould hope,] 
For Epicurus would have had 
Men fet Bounds to their Defires, 
and content themfelves with what 
the necetlities of Nature requir'd : 
for he faid, that the Things, that 
are neither necefTary nor natural, 
are infinite in Number, and fie 
only for Fools. 

What fear.] He delivered the 
Minds of Men from fear, by pro- 
ving the Soul to be mortal, by 
talcing away all belief of Provi- 
dence, and overthrowing all Re- 
ligion : for he taught that the 
Gods need not be fear'd becaufe 
they can not be angry ; and that 
no Senle remains after Death. 
An Opinion no lefs weak than 
impious. 

29. Chance, or Nature's Force]- 
Epicurus held that all the Ills, to 
which Mortality is fubjecft, hap- 
pen from Chance, or are the Ef- 
fects of Nature : And that all 
the Calamities that attend us, of 
what Kind foever they be, muit 
be afcrib'd to one of thofe two 
Caufes : All is Chance or Na- 
ture ; there is no third to fly to : 

for 



Where by Vas, the Veflel, the 
'oet means the Mind of Man j 
or, in like manner as a Veflel, 
hen it is once imbu'd with an 
nfavoury Odour, corrupts all 
rie Liquors it receives : So Men 
DO, fays the Poet, becaufe they 
ave admitted into their Minds 
be Fear of the Gods, and thcj 
)read of Punifliments after 1 
)eath, do therefore lead their 
.ives in tormesiting inquietudes, 
/bile anxious Cares fluctuate in 
deir uneafy Breafts : From which 
!^ares and Terrours they might 
eliver their Minds , if they 
zould once confider and believe 
hat the Gods are not the Au- 
hors of Things, and thatl)eath 
o them ifi nothing : an impious 
^flertion, but the main Drift of 
•ur Poet. 

19, His Wifh is boundlefs] 
)ryden from Juvenal, Sat. 10. 

uch is the gloomy State of Mor- 
tals here, 

Ve know not what to wiih, nor 
what to fear ; 

Lv'n he, who grafp'd the Words 
exhaufted Store, 

fet never had enough j but 
wifh'd for more ; 

lais'd a top-heavy Tow'r of 
monftrous Height ; 

Vhich, mould'ring, cruHi'd him 
underneath the Wejght ; 



CoS LUCRETIUS. Book VI 

For we, as Boys at Night, at Day do fear 
Shadows, as vain, and fenfelefs as thofe are : 
Wherefore that Darkness, that oerfpreads our Souls 

35 Day cant difperfe, but thofe Eternal Rules, 
Which from firm Premifes true Reason draws. 
And a deep Infight into Natures Laws. 

And therefore I'll proceed. Since then the Sky 
And all that iSj or can be, fram'd on high, 

40 Is MORTAL, once was made, and once muft die j 
Since this is prov'd, now Til go farther on. 
And finifii this fo happily begun. 

The various Wonders of the Lower Air 
Perplex Men's doubtful Thoughts with vexing Care, ^ 

43 And make the Wretches bend with flavifli Fear : ^ 
For Ignorance of Caufes heaves the Mind 
To Powr's above j as Birds foar high, when bline 



7 



? 



JV 



NOTE S. 



for the God of Epicurus, as Ter- 
tullian more than once obferves, 
pene nemo eft, is next to No- 
Body. 

32. For we, Scc.2 You will 
find thefe 6. v. in the fecond 
Book, V. 58. See there the Note 
upon them. 

38. And therefore, See.'] Hi- 
therto has been only the Praife 
ofEpicurus and of Athens. Now 
follows in 58. V. an Explication 
of the Argument of this Book. 
He fays, that having in the pre- 
ceding Book treated of the Be- 
ginning of all Things, and of the 
celeftial Motions, he will now 
difpute of Meteors, and of the 
other wondrous Effeds of Na- 
ture, which Men, who are igno- 
rant of the Caufes of them,afcribe 
t© the Gods : whence proceed, 
Religion, the vain dread of Pow- 
ers above, groundlefs Fears, idle 
Apprehenfions, tormenting An- 
xieties, &:c.Thefe are the Ruin of 
true Piety, and the reafon that 
vain Superftition reigns in the 
Minds of deluded and miftaken 
Man. 

42. So happily begun. 3 Here 
our Tranllatour has wholely 0- 



mitted the three following Vei 
fes of his Authour j 

Quandoquidem femel iniigner 

confcendere currum 
Vincendi fpes hortata eft, atqu 

obvia curfu 
Qu£e fuerant, funt placato cor 

verfa furore. 

And indeed Lambinus utterly n 
jecfts them : and the other Inter 
prefers read them fo variouflj 
and give them fuch different Ex 
plications, as evidently Hiew. 
that, upon the whole Matterjthe 
knew not well what to make 
them ; And for thefe Reafons 
refolv'd not to add them in th 
Text of this Tranflation. 

43.3 Wonders of the lowe 
Air] He means the Meteors 
Thunder, Lightning , Storm; 
Whirlwinds, Rain, Snow, Hai] 
&c. 

47. As Birds foar high whei 
blind.] This Similitude, tho' i 
be not in the Original, is fo per 
tinently apply'd in this Place 
that Lucretius himfclf, were h 
living, would judge it worthy o 

hi"i» A ,TT 

48. W 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS, 6q^ 

We fee Effects ; but when their Causes lie y 

Beyond the Ken of vulgar Reason's Eye, C 

50 We then afcribe them to the Deity. ^ 

For ev'n thofe few exalted Souls, that know 
The Gods muft live at Eafe, nor look below ; 
If they look up, and view the World Above, 
And wonder how thefe glorious Beings move,' 

5 5 They are intrap'd, they bind their flavifh Chain, 
And fink to their Religious Fears again ; 
And then the World with heav'nly Tyrants fill, 
Whofe Force is as unbounded as their Will. 
Deluded Ignorants ! who ne'er did fee 

60 By Reason's Light, what can, what can not, be : 
How all at laft muft yield to fatal Force; 
What fteady Bounds confine their nat'ral Courfe : 
And therefore err. If you refufe to fly 
Such Thoughts, unworthy of the Deity ; 

65 But think they a(5l fuch Things, as break their Eale' 
And oppofite to Joy and Happinefs ; 
Then thou Ihalt furely fmarc, and, fanfying ftill 
The Gods are angry, fear a coming 111 : 
Tho* no revengeful Thoughts their Minds imploy j 

70 No Thirst to punifh Man difturbs their Joy.* 
Yet thou doft think their happy quiet Age 
Still vext with waking Cares, and vi'lent RageJ 

Nor (halt thou vific on the Sacred Days 
Their Shrines with quiet Mind, or ling their Praife.' 

75 Befides, the Images, the Forms, that rife f 

From their pure Limbs, a.nd ftrike thy Reason's Eyes, > 
And conftantly prefent the Deities ; 3 

Thofe 
NOTES. 

thours of them. See B. V. v. 



4S. We fee, &c.] This and the 
wo following Verfes are in B. I. 
. 185. and theyihouldbe repea- 
ed again below after v. 91. of 
his Tranflation , for Lucre- 
iusdoesfoin the Original, but 
i^reech has nevertheless omitted 
hem in that Place. 

51. For cv'n, &:c.] This, and the 
en Yerfes that follow it, are like- 
nCc repeated from B. V, v. 87. 
^ 57. Heav'nly Tyrants, &c.] 
)evere and cruel Gods; whom 
jach Wretches as are ignorant of 
he Caufes of Things, fear and 
idore, as if they were ths Au- 



94. 

60. By Reafon^s, &c.] This 
and the two next Verfes are in 
Book I. V. 99. as weiJ as B. V. 
V. 97. 

71. Yet thou, &c.] Horace in 
like manner : 

Namque Deos didici fecu- 



rum agere jevum, 
Nee fi quid miri faciat Natura, 

Docs id 
Trifles ex alto cceli demittere 

te(fio. 

I i i i 78. Thofe 



6id: Lucretius: Bookvi 

Thofe Images will ftUl difturb thy Mind, 
Strike deep, and wound, and leave Despair behind : 
^o And then how fad thy Life ! What pungent Cares 
Will vex thy wretched Soul ? What anxious Fears ? 

But now to chafe thefe Phantoms out of fight 
By the plain Magick of true Reason's Light j 
Tho' I have fung a thoufand Things before, 
85 My lab' ring Muse muft ling a thoufand more : (flie: 
How Thunder, Storm, and how fwift Lightnin'( 
Singeing with firy Wings the wounded Skies I 
L^ft fuperftitious you obferve the Flame, 
If thofe quick Fires from lucky Quarters eame ; 

O 
f< 6 t E S, 



78. Thofe Images, Sec."] For 
Epicurus foolillily believ'dj that 
a God, who forefees all, protects 
all, and provides for all, muft be 
indeed, a terrible and dreadful 
God : Infomuch, that the Image 
of fuch a God can never enter into 
the Mind of Man, but Anxiety, 
Fear, and Terror will be the im- 
mediate Etfed. 

82- But now, &c.] It is next 
to incredible to believe, to how 
great a degree wilful Ignoj-ance 
and Dulnefs prevail'd among the 
Antients : and that too, even in 
the midft of Athens, the chief 
Seat of Learning. Plutarch, in 
the Life of Nicias, tells us •, that 
they could not difcover the Rea- 
fon of the Eclipfes of the Moon, 
but thought it a Portent that fore- 
boded fome great Difafter. For, 
fays he, Anaxagoras, who Hrft 
treated of the celefbial Phasno- 
fncnons, durft not Difcourfe of 
them in pubiick, but only in pri- 
'V'ate, and with fome particular 
Friends : For neither Natural 
Philofophers, nor thofe they call'd 
Mstsco^oaoVks", i. e. fuch as ar- 
gu'd concerning Meteors',were fuf- 
fer'd among them : they being 
look'd on as Men, who endea- 
Vour'd to limit the Divine Power, 
and to derogate from it, by af- 
(SVibing allThings to natural Cau- 
fes : For which Reafon Protago- 
ras' was bant fli'd, and Anaxago- 
ms ehfot^ri 'wm P'rifon ; but Pedi- 



cles, with much ado, procur' 
him to be fet at Liberty : Socn 
tes was taken off, meerly for th 
Name of a Philofopher ; for h 
was averfe to Studies of that Na 
ture. At length, the Authorit 
of Plato, as well by reafon of th 
Probity of his Life, as for tha 
he fubjedl:ed natural Ejffecfts, t 
more potent and divine Caufei 
wip*d off the Scandal from thol 
Studies, and open'd a way to tn 
Do<fi:rineof the Mathematicki 
Thus Plutarch v who, in the Lif 
of Pericles,farther teaches us,wha 
great Advantages that Atheniaj 
General gain'd by his Acquaint 
ance with Anaxagoras : For hi 
there informs us,- That he deli 
ver'd his Mind from all Superfti 
tion, which flrikes a Terrour in- 
to thofe, who are ignorant of tb 
Caufes of the celeftial Meteors 
and tremble at the Things aboye 
which Confternation, adds th( 
fame Author, the Knowledge 0! 
natural Caufes takes away j and 
inftead of that frightful and dif 
quieting Superftition, infpircs £ 
fecure and quiet Religion, toge- 
ther with good Hope. Thus w< 
fee to what t^nd the Endeavours 
of Lacretitis, in the following 
Difputation, and how much they 
ought to be efteem'd. 

89. Lucky Quarters] This re- 
lates to the Difcipline of theThuf- 
cans : Of which Gicero in the fe- 
con4 Vrook de Divinat. Coelum 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 



611 



in fexdecim partes diviferunt E- 
rufci : facile id quidem fait, qua- 
uor, quas nos habemus, dupli- 
are : poft idem iterum facers, ut 
r eodicerent, fulmenqua ex par- 
e veniflfet. The Tbufcans divi- 
ed the Heaven into fix teen Parts : 
: was indeed eafie for them to do 
3, by doubling the four we have, 
nd then doing the fame again : 
hat they might know by that 
leans, from what Pare comes the 
iightening : But the fame Quar- 
»rs were fometimes reckon'd 
icky, Ibmetimes unlucky, Lucky, 
3 in this of Virgil : 

— — — — Subitoque fragore 
ntonuit lepvum. JPin. 2. v. 692. 

Unlucky, as in this of the fame 
oet, 

Bpe malum hoc nobis, fi mens 

non Ijcva fuilTet, 
)e coelo ta(ftas memini praedicere 

quercus : 
ep^ finiftra cava pr^^dixit ab 

iJicecornix. Edog. i. 

'hus the left fide was ambigu- 
ifly taken by the Romans j of- 
n as a good Omen, often as a 
jd : and the Right, in like man- 
er, was fometimes a lucky O- 
len, fometimes unlucky. But 
hence came the fame Part to 
ave fo different, nay, contrary 
Power ? Was it becaufe, in the 
iterpretation of their Aufpices, 
ley fometimes had regard to the 
lace and Site of the Gods, by 
horn thofe Bodings were given 
lem, and fometimes to that of 
le Augurs, whoask'd thofe To- 
;ns of the Gods ? For the 
iight of the Giver is the Left 
r the Asker or Receiver : 
ome favour this Opinion, and 
round their Belief on the Tefti- 
lony of Plutarch lib. de Qujefti- 
nibus Romanis : But Cicero 
Jggefts another Reafon, for lib, 
. de Divin. he fays, that the 
ireeks and Barbarians take the 
)mens from theRight to be beft, 
5 the Romaics do thofe from the 



in the Affair of Divination, be 
^a.id to fpeak often after their own 
manner, often after that of the 
Greeks. However, it is certain, 
that amongfl the Romans, in au- 
fpiciis, qua: finiftra funt, bene 
eventura putantur; the Aufpices 
on the left were thought to fore^ 
bode good Succefs : as Alexandei! 
ab Alexandro in his Gen. dier. 
lib. 5. cap. 13. & Tiraquel. on 
that place prove at large ; with- 
out omitting the Reafon of it : 
for they acquaint us, that in tak- 
ing their Aufpicia ex coelo, their 
Aufpices, or Omens from Hea-' 
ven, which was the chief kind of 
all ; and on which they molt de- 
pended ; the Thunder or Light- 
ning that came from Heaven, was 
fuppos'd to come from the righe 
Hand of God, when it was on 
the left of the Aufpex, or Sooth- 
fayer : as, on the contrary, when 
it happen'd on his right Side, they 
believ'd it to come from the lefc 
Hand of God ; becaufe, they air- 
ways took it for granted, that 
his Face was turn'd towards th^ 
Aufpex. Thus too Donatus, on 
the intonuit l^evum of Virgil, 
which I cited before, fays, Qiiod 
dixit I*evum, debet profperum in? 
telligi : cujus ratio hxc efl ; la;- 
va in alijs contraria ligniiicant ; 
in facris autem fignis idcircb 
profpera accipiuntur qujc \x\21. 
lunt, quia facrificantis, vel pre- 
cantis latus l?2vum dexteruni eft 
ejus, qui poftulata largitur : So 
likewife in the Omens taken from 
the Voices of Birds, the Rule 
was, that thofe on the left were 
always lucky; femper cantus Of- 
cinis, quum finifter eft, fecundif- 
fimus fuic, fays Alexander ab 
Alex, in the Place above cited : 
Indeed he makes fome Excepti- 
ons to this Dodrine, but deli- 
vers it in general to be true, And 
here we may obfer-ve by the way, 
that of the Birdsj from which the 
Antients took their Auguries, 
fome were call'd Ofcines, and 
from the Voices of th?fe they 
drew their Divinations \ and 
others Pra:petes, from the man^ 



th? Rom^.118 mayj|n9r of whofe fiighc they took 



6iz LUCRETIUS. Book VL 

90 Or with fad Omen fell, and how they burn 
Thro' clofeft Stones, and wafte, and then return. 
And you, my fweeteft Muse, come lead me on 



I'n 



NOTES, 



their Omens : Crows, Swallows, 
Kites, Owls, and fuch like Birds, 
were counted inaufpicious ; and 
others , as Vultures , Eagles , 
Swans, &c. in fome cafes por- 
tended good luckj in others bad : 
but even this depended too on 
which fide the Bird was; and 
fome Birds were held to be lucky 
on one fide, and unlucky on the 
other. A Raven was lucky on the 
I.eft, a Crow on the Right : Cor- 
nix h finiftri, Corvus k dextri, 
ratum facit, fays Cicero, de Di- 
vin. lib. I. But which Auguries 
did the Antient Greeks and La- 
tines take to be left, which fight ? 
For both of them,tho* they f^oke 
differently, yet meant the fame 
thing: that is to fay, the ori- 
ental Omens, or thofe that came 
from the Eaft, did to both of 
them feem to be the beft, for 
this Reafon, becaufe the Begin- 
ning' of Light and Motion is 
from that Part of the Heavens : 
and yet what the Greeks call'd 
right Omens, the Romans call'd 
left. Concerning the Greeks it 
is manifeft from Homer, Iliad. 
12. v. 239. where Hec'tor fays, 
that he values not 



the 



augural 
Birds, whether they go to the 
Right towards the Aurora and 
the^Sun ; or to the left towards 
the dusky Weft : 

EiT iTTi oit} iccai '2D©? >ioo 

> • r ' r, 

'Ob 

As to the Romans, it is evident 
from Varro, who, Epift. Quxil. 
lib. e,. fays, A Deorum fede cum 
ih Meridiem fpec'^es, ad finiftram 
funt partes mundi exorientes, ad 
dexteram occidentes : facftum ar- 
bitror, ut finiftra meliora aufpi- 
cia, quam dexterajelTe exiftimen- 



tur. Feftus Pompeius quotes thi 

PalTage, and mentions others o 

the Antients of the fame Opini 

on : which Pliny, lib. 2. cap. 54 

confirms in thefe Words ; L^eva 

profpera exifttmantur, quonian 

licv^ parte mundi ortus eft 

Now the reafon of the differen 

Appellation is, becaufe, in takin: 

their Auguries, the Greeks turn'* 

themfelves towards the North 

the Romans towards the Soutt 

But to inquire why they did fo 

would engage me into too long . 

Digreffion. 

$>o. Sad Omen] See below,v.375 

92. And you, &c.] The Poe 

invokes his Mufe in thefe 4. v 

of which, our Tranflatour, no 

having fully rendered them 

obliges me to give the Original. 

Tu mihi fupremsB pra:fcripta ac 

Candida calcis 
Current! fpatium prajmonftra 

callida Mufa, 
Calliope, requies hominum, Di- 

vumque \i«oluptas ; 
Te duce ut infigni capiam cum 

laude coronam. 

Whence we fee, that, notwith- 
ftanding what fome imagine, 
that Lucretius never finifli'd his 
Poem,or at leaft writ moreBooks 
that are loft, he never propos'd 
to himfelf to write above fix; 
and that he is now haftening ad 
pr«efcripta Candida fupremar cal- 
cis : which Seneca helps us to ej* 
plain : For that A.uthour, Epift. 
19. teaches. That what in the 
Circus was in his Days call'd 
Meta, the Goal, the Antients 
call'd Calx, becaufe the end of 
the Courfc was often mark'dvvith 
Chalk. Calliope was one of the 
Mufes, fo scaird from kix?\.o^^ 
Beauty, and o^/, ott^, a Voice : 
She was Mother of Orpheus, and 

Pre- 



3ookVI. LUCRETIUS. 6ij 

Vm eager, and 'tis Time that I were gone ; 
Come lead me on, and fliew the Path to gain 

95 The Race, and Glory too, and crown my Pain. 
Firftthen, the dreadful Thunder roars aloud. 
When FIGHTING Winds drive heavy Cloud on Cloud : 
For where the Heav'n is clear, the Sky feren^,^ ,, / , • 
No dreadful Thunder's heard, no Lightning feen; 

00 But where the Clouds are thick, there Thunders 
The furious Infant's born, and fpeaks, and dies, (rife ^ 
Now Clouds are not fo thick, fo clofe combin'd 9 
As Stones ; nor yet fo thin, and fo refin'd •* 

As riling Mists, or fubtile Smoke, or Wind,:,, O 

■..,•-;,.., .For 
NOTES, 



•refident of. HeroickYerfe. See 
. I. V. 932. 

93. I'm eager, Sec. ] This 
'"erfe our Tranflatour ieems to 
ave been fond of: for he repeats 
: from B.I. V. 930. where it is 
lac'd with as little Authority 
irom Lucretius, as it is here. 

96. Firft then, dec."] Lucre- 
ius begins his Difputation of 
/leteors ; and iirft of Thun- 
lers : the various Motions and 
differences of which he explains 
evieral ways : And I. in thefe 
3. V. teaches, that the Noife of 
Thunder is made by the Collilion 
tf Clouds, that are driven and 
lafli'd againfl: one another by 
id verfe Winds. And if it be ob- 
ededj that Clouds are rare and 
hin Bodies, and therefore very 
mproper and unlikely to make 
b great a Noife, the Anfwer is, 
hat the Clouds do not equal 
)tones and Wood in Denfity ; 
ibr on the other hand, arefo rare 
IS Mift, or Smoke : for then m- 
leed they would vaniHi away : 
>utthey are however of a middle 
Mature between both, and denfe 
mough to contain Hail and 
>now. 

I Diogenes Laertius fays this was 
:he Opinion of Epicurus and A- 
^axagoras : and we read in Sto- 
l^^us, that Democritus and the 
'toicks too were of the fame Be- 
icf : Nor docs Seneca oppofe it, 
l-ap. 30- Nat. Qu;eII. where he 



fays, Quid enim non que^iiad- 
modum illifa; manus plaufum 
edunt, fie illifarum inter fe nubi- 
um fonus poteft efCe magnur, 
quia magna concurruht ? BimQ 
even the Hands clapt together 
make a Noife, why iliould not 
the Noife of Clouds dailiing a- 
gainfl: one another be great, fee- 
ing they are great Bodies that 
meet, and ftrike one another ? 
And to one that objected, Nubes 
impingi montibus nee fonum 
fieri, that Clouds ftrike againft 
Mountains, but make no Noife, 
he anfwers : Non quomodocun-^ 
que nubes ijhfa: funt, fonant, 
fed fi apte funt compofitje ad fo- 
num edendum. Averfa: inter fe 
manus coliifa; non plaudunt ; fed 
palma cum palma collasa plau- 
fum facit, the Clouds do not. 
make a Sourd in what manner, 
foever, they are dafli'd againft 
one another, but only when they 
are compos'd in a due manner to 
make a Noife : The Backs of our 
Hands ftruck one againft anc= 
ther, do not make that Sound of 
Applaufe, as when we clap one 
Palm againft the other. This was 
the Opinion of many of the An- 
ticnts, and, if we will give Cre- 
dit to fome of our Philorophers 
at this Day. it is next to Truth. 
98. The Sky ferene,] For the 
Epicureans deny'd that it ever 
thunders, when'the Sky is clear : 
and therefore Horace when he 

was 



6ij^ 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book VI. 



J 05 For then the upper Clouds, like weighty Stone, 
Would fall abruptly, and come tumbling down : 
Or elfe difperfe, like Smoke, and ne'er inclofe 
The hanging Drops of Rain, nor Hail, nor Snow«.^ 
They give the Crack, as oer a Theatre 

iioVaft Curtains, fpread, are ruffled in the Air j 







N O T £ 5. 



was ahout to leave tliat foolifli 
Wifdonij as he caHs it, fays, 

Namque Diefpiter 



Igne corufco nubila dividens, 
Plerumque, per puruni tonantes 
Egit cc^uos, volucremque cur- 
rum. 

109. They give, &:c.] In thefe 
^.v. he explains, by a Compari- 
fon, the Noife that Clouds make 
when they are dafli'd by Winds 
againft one another, and at the 
fame time brings a fecond Ex- 
plication of Thunder. For one 
Single Cloud driven by the Wind, 
is lometimes rent afunder by the 
violence of the Blaft : nor iliall 
we condemn this Interpretation, 
if we compare the Noife that a 
Cloud fo torn makes, with the 
rufflmg of Curtains that are 
hung up.,in a large Theatre ; with 
that of Paper when you tear it 
haftily, or of Cloaths hung a- 
broad, and ruffled by the Wind. 

Nardius obferves that what Lu- 
cretius ill this Place advances, 
that the Noife Okf Thunder 
may be made by the mutual 
Confrication of Clouds , that 
juftle againft one another ; like 
the Noife made by Sails or Cur- 
tains ruffling in the Wind, and 
the like, is altogether improba- 
ble, and agrees but ill with his 
own Doctrine: For having v. 102. 
aflign'd a middle Confiftency to 
the Clouds, he baniflies from 
them that Drynefs and Solidity, 
which of necelfity all fuch bodies 
mult have, as, by their Collifion 
excite a Sound, that can be per- 
teiv'd Ironi far: Egiides, tha: 



fort of Noife, which is made ir 
the Clouds, is not like the mu 
tual Arietation of folid Bodies 
For then one only Noife anfwer: 
to one only Blow : but the Roai 
of Thunder lafts, and is repea- 
ted : Nay, fometimes the Cloucj 
grumbles for a confiderable fpac{ 
of Time : and lince the Poet pre- 
tends, that this is done by con- 
trary Winds that violently drive 
the Clouds againft one another ; 
we add, that when two oppofite 
Winds, fuppofe the North and 
i the South, contend with each 0- 
I ther, no Thunder, but roaring 
I Blafts only are then heard : And 
; this laft Obfervation is ftrong a- 
gainft Lucretius : for it never 
thunders except when the Clouds 
move flowly, at leaft not when 
the Rack drives with Violence : 
and, which is chiefly to be confj- 
der'd, the Clouds grumble, and 
burft out in Thunder, when they 
are not agitated by Winds. 

O'er a^Theatre] The Roman 
Theatres were uncover'd at Top j 
and to keep off the Sun or Rain 
from the Spectators, Curtains 
were fpread over them : as ap- 
pears by what Lucretius himfelf 
fays, BooklV. V. 75. Propertius 
too mentions thefe Curtains, lib. 
2. Eleg. 

Nee finuofa cavo pendebant vel4 
theatro. 

Quintus Catulus was the firft , 
who jntroduc'd the ufe of them,' 
when he dedicated the Capitol j 
and Lentulus Spinter iirft 
brought up the Life of filken 
Curcainsj in the Apollinarian 

Gamesis 






6i^ 



Book Vr. LUCRETIUS. 

Or torn, (for fuch a Sound is often known 
From Thunder's Crack) they give a mighty Groan j 
Or as fpread Cloaths, or Sheets of Paper, fly 
Before the Wind, and rattle thro* the Sky. 

15 But Clouds meet not diredJy ftill, but flidcj 
And rudely grate each others injur'd Side : 
And hence that buzzing Noise we often hear,' 
That with harsh Murmurs fiHs the lower Air j 
Continues long, but with a fofter found ; 

10 At length it gathers Strength, and breaks the Bound.' 
But more, the Thunder, arm'd with pointed Flam^^ 
May feem to fhake the World, and break the Frame ; 

When 
^ O TB $. 



ames. This we have from 
liny, lib. 25. in thefe Words : 
ela in Theatris tantum um- 
ram fecere, quod primus omni- 
tn invenit Q. Catulus, cum Ca- 
tolium dedicaret. Carbafina 
;inde vela primus in Theatrum 
uxifle fertur Lentulus Spinter, 
pollinaribus Ludis. Of thefe 
;urtains fee more, B* IV. v. 75. 
1 1 5. But Clouds, Sec."] In thefe 
V. he gives us a third Explica- 
on of the Noife of Thunder. 
)nietimes the Noife of Thunder 
like a crafliing, or crealcing 
)und •, and this happens when 
le Clouds do not meet full But, 
> we call it, but only rudely 
iftle and Ihock the Sides of one 
lother in an oblique manner, 
rom whence proceeds that clan- 
)ur,which Lucretius calls aridus 
_nus, a dry Sound ; and our 
'ranflatour, ver. 118. a harih 
lurmur. Thus Milton : 



— The Clouds, 

iftling, or pufh'd by Winds, 

rude in their fliock, 

ine the flant Lightning, &c. 

119. Continues, &:c.] Dryden 
j Tro'ilus & Creflida defcribes 
|>is fort of Thunder-Clap. 

j comes like Thunder, grum- 

j blmg in a Cloud 

•fore ?he dreadful Break, &c. 



121. But more, &C.3 Thefe 
8. V. contain the IVth Explica- 
tion. Wind, fays he, pent up ia 
a Cloud, rages to get free i 
Thence proceeds a grumblin 
Noife, till theWind having bur__ 
its Paflage, makes a dreadful 
Roar ; Pliny, lib.2.cap.4,3. favours 
this Opinion, and fays; pofle 
Ipiritum nube cohibitum tonare^ 
naturi ftrangulante fonum dum 
rixetur, edito fragore cum erum-i' 
pat, ut in membrand fpiritu in- 
tentl. That Wind, while it con- 
tinues iliut up in a Cloud, may 
Thunder : becaufe fo long as Na- 
ture choaks the Sound, it makes 
a grumbling Noife, but when 
the Wind frees it paflage, and 
breaks out, it gives a horrid Clap: 
as when we break a Bladder, 
blown hard with Wind, If you 
are difpos'd to laugh, fee Ari- 
ftophanes in Nubibus, A<^ i. 
Seen. 4. Moreover, this was like- 
wife the Opinion of Strato, and 
Diogenes, but chiefly of Leu- 
cippus, Empedocle?, and Arifto- 
tle, who allow nothing but this 
to be the caufe of Thunder. 
Moreover, this fort of Thunder 
which Lucretius explains by the 
burfting of a blown Bladder, 
may yet better be explained by 
the Report of our Cannon, ele- 
gantly defcrib'd by Pontanus in 
Meteor, in thefe Verfes, 



6i6 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book VI 



When e*er a fierce, and ftrong, and furious Wind^ 
In narrow, thick, and hollow Clouds confin'd, 

115 Breaks i;hro* the Prifon with a mighty Noife, 
And flioots at Liberty with dreadful Voice : 
Nor is this ftrange, when one poor Breath of Air, 
That ftartsfrom broken Bladders, founds fo far. 
Again : *Tis Reafon too that Noise fhould rife 

130 When vi'lent Storms rage o'er the lower Skies , 
For thoufand Clouds appear, rough, clofe combined. 
And thick, and able to refift the Wind : 
Thus Noise muft rife, as when the Woods they woun^ 
The vext and injur'dBouGHS figh forth a mournful Sounc 

135 And Winds oft cut the Clouds, and, palling thro*. 
With murm'ring Sound fill all the Air below: 

F( 
NOTES, 



Ut cum frmata manus tormento 

exclufit aheno 
Fumantenti pilaoij verfatque vo- 

iubile iaxum, 
Incluii erumpunt ignes nigranti- 

bus auris j 
Fit tremor, horrendumque fonat; 

turn plurimus ante 
Sternit iter fragor, Sc gemitu 

faxa ida refultant ; 
Disje(rt^que ruunt rproftratis 

moenibus arces. 

And by Milton in Paradife Loft, 

E. yi. 

Jmmediate in a Flame, 



But foon obfcur'd with Smoke, 
all Heav'n appear'd. 

From thofe deep-throated En- 
gines belch'd, whofe Roar 

Embowel'd with outrageous 
Noife the Air, 

And all her Entrails tore, dif- 
gorging foul 

Their deviliili Glut, chain'd 
Thunderbolts and Hail 

Of iron Globes, Sec. 

Kow tho' thefe Implements of 
Mifchief were whokiy unknown 
to the Antients ', yet Epicurus in 
Laertius, lib. 10. ufes almoft the 
fame Comparifon, and fays, That 
Thunder may be made by Wind 
fhm up in iioJIow Clouds, even 



in like manner as our y/effe 
burft with NoifCj when they ai 
heated by included Fire. Mor 
over, Anaximander and Metri 
dorus feem to have been of tl 
fame Opinion ; For they hel 
Thunder to be a Wind conceiv** 
and inclos'd within the Bowels c 
a thick Cloud; and which, breaJ 
ing out with Violence, makes tl 
Noife we call Thunder : an 
that the Lightning is caus'd fc 
the Breaking of the Cloud : I 
like manner, added Anaximenc 
who fubfcrib'd,^ to this Belief, i 
the Sea, when dafli'd and broke 
with Oars, fparkles and fliines. 
129. Again : &C.3 In thefe ( 
V. is contaia'd Explication \ 
We fee, fays the Poet, fom 
Clouds, whofe branchy Edgi 
refemble the Boughs of Tree 
growing out on all fides from tl 
Body : and if Winds get in ; 
mong them, why Ihould the 
not caufe Thunder ? For whe 
a rough Blaft of Wind blov 
thro* a thick Foreft, the ihake 
Branches claih againft one anc 
ther, and make a rattling Noif 
135. And Winds, &C.3 In thei 
6. v. he gives Explication Vl 
The Clouds, fays the Poet, ma 
like wife be broken to'pieces b 
the W'inds, when they beat bar 
upon them : and none can doub 
^ bv 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 617 

For that the Winds may break the Clouds^ and fly^ 
Thro* all Refiftance in the lower Sky, 
'Tis eafy to difcover, fince they break, 

140 And twift our Trees : yet here their Force is weak. 
Befides -, vaft Waves of Clouds feem touVd above. 
And in confus'd and tumbling Order move : 
Thefe, meeting, ftrike, and break, and loudly roar. 
As Billows dafliing on the trembling {hore. 

145 Orelfe hot Thunder falls on Rain, or Snow, 
And dies, and hifTes, as it pafles thro* : 
As v^hen we quench a glowing Mass, the Fires 
Fly off with Noise, with Noise the Heat expires 
But if the Cloud be dry, and Thunder fail, 

150 Rifes a crackling Blaze, and fpreads o'er all; 
As when fierce Fires, prefs'd on by Winds, do (ieze 
Our Laurel Groves, and wafte the Virgin Trees ; 

The 
hi O T E S. 



hnt that Winds can lliatter the 
Clouds, fince we ofcen fee that 
they tear up the ftouteft Trees, 
and tofs their broad Roots into 
the Air. 

14.1. Befides, &c.i Explica- 
tion VII. in thefc 4. v. If you 
like not thefe Reafons, imagine 
the Air to be an immenfe Sea, 
and the Clouds its Waves : Let 
them dafli againft one another : 
and they roar no lefs than the 
VsxtBillowsofa boifterousOcean, 
when they infult the Shores that 
bound them. 

145. Or elfe, &c.] Some Phi- 
lofophers taught that Thunder 
was caus'd by the falling of Stats 
into a wet Cloud , and their 
ftruggling with the Moifture ; 
Now Lucretius for the Vlllth 
Caufe of Thunder, in the Room 
of their Scars, fubftitutes the 
Flame of Lightning, which, fall- 
ing from a dry Cloud into a wet, 
hiiles like red hot Iron, when 
plung'd into the Smithy. This 
was particularly the Opinion of 
Anaxagoras. 

H9- Butif, &C.3 Explication 
IX. That he may be fure to omit 
none of the Caufes of Tlmnder ; 



he now in thofe 6. v. fets the ve- 
ry Clouds on fire ; and pretends, 
that as Laurels and other things 
crackle in the Flames, Clouds 
may do fo too. 

152. Laurel] Pliny, lib* 15. 
ca^. ult. fays that Cato diftin- 
guiili'd between two forts of Lau- 
rel ; the Delphick, and the Cy- 
prian : this laft has a iliort , 
blackifh Leaf, turning up at the 
Edges and indented : The other, 
a very large Leaf, and bears very- 
large Berries, that turn from 
green to red : with this the Vic- 
tors at Delphi, and thofe that 
triumph'd ac Rome were wont 
to be crown'd. Pompeius Ler- 
naeus added a third fort of Lau- 
rel, which he call'd Muftas,qu6d 
Muilaceis fubjiceretur. Lucre- 
tius here calls it Delphica laurus, 
the Laurel being a Tree facrci to 
Apollo, becaufe, as Pliny, Nat. 
Hift. lib. 15. cap. 30. fays, ma- 
ny very fine Laurels grew on the 
Mountain Parnaflus ; and be- 
caufe, as the Interpreter of He- 
fiod fays, cAHftyei tD^^" c/v^aaicf^cr- 
^a\-. Dryden from Chaucer's 
Tale of the Flower and the 
Leaf. 

K k k k The 



6i8 LUCRETIUS. BookVL 

The Leaves all crackle ; SiiE, that fled the Chafe 



Of Ph or b V 5 Love, ftill flies ch^ Flames Embrace. 
N O T £ 5. 



Or 



P'he Laurel is the Sign of Labour 

crown'd, 
Which bears the bitter Blaft,nor, 

iliaken, falls to Ground : 
From Winter Winds it fuffers no 

Decay j 
For ever frelh and fair, and ev'ry 

Month is May ; 
Ev'n when the vital Sap retreats 

below ; 
Ev'n when the hoary Head is hid 

in Snow j 
The Life is in the Leaf, and ftill 

between 
The Fits of falling Snow appears 

the ilreaky Green. 

Virgin-Trees :] Becaufe Daph- 
ne flying from Apollo, to whofe 
Love, ilie would not confent, was 
chang'd into a Laurel. See the 
next Noce. 

153. The Leaves crackle] Pli- 
ny, lib. 15. cap. 30. Laurus ma- 
nifefto abditac ignes crepitu. 
The Laurel, by its crackling in 
the Flames, fliews its natural 
deteftation of Fire. 

She that, &c.] This alludes to 
the known Fable of Phoebus and 
Daphne, who was feiga'd to be 
the Daughter of the River Pcneus 
in Theflalia, becaufe the Banks 
of that Stream abound with 
Laurels. With this Nymph ^ 
Phcjebus fell in Love, and (ht^ re- 
fufing to yield to his Defires,who 
would have oflfer'd Violence to 
her, fled from him, and in her 
Flight arriving on the Banks of 
her Father's Flood, and implo- 
ring his affiftance, was chang'd 
Jnto a Laurel : Her Transforma- 
tion is defcrib'd at large by Ovid. 
Metam. i. and finely tranilated 
By Dryden, as follows : 

Scarce had flie finifli'd, when her 

Feet ilie found 
Benumb'd with Cold, and fa- 

Aen'd to the Ground : 



A filmy Rind about her Body 
grows J 

Her Hair to Leaves, her Arms 
extend to Boughs : 

The Nymph is all into z Laurel 
gone : 

The Smoothnefs of her Skin re- 
mains alofte : 

Yet Phoebus loves her ftill, and, 
Cafting round 

Her Bole his Armsj fome little 
Warmth he found : 

The Tree ftill panted in th* un- 
finiih'd Part, 

Not wholely vegetive, and heav'd 
her Heart. 

He fix'd his Lips upon the trem- 
bling Rind, 

It fwerv'd afide, and his Embrace 
deciin'd : 

To whom the God : Becaufe thou 
canft not be 

My Miftrefs, I efpoufe thee for 
my Tree ; 

Be thou the Prize of Honour and 
Renown \ 

The deathlefs Poet , and the 
Poem, crown : 

Secure from Thunder, and unr 
harm'd by Jove ; 

Unfading, as th' immortal Pow- 
ers above : 

And, as the Locks of Phoebus are 
unfliorn, 

So fliall perpetual Green thy 
Boughs adorn ; 

The grateful Tree was pleas'd 
with what he faid ; 

And fliook the fliady Honours of 
her Head. 

155. Ot 



I 



Book Vl. LUCRETIUS. 619 

155 Or elfe vaft Hills of Hail, and Rocks of Ice, 
May break ; and, tumbling, rattle thro* the Skies : 
For when rough Storms conjoin the Parts of Hail, 
Or fcattcr'd Ice, their Weight muft make them fail. 
Quick Lightning flies, when heavy Clouds rufli on,' 
160 And Itrike as Steel and FLiNa% or Stone and Stone : 

Fcr 
N O T B S- 



155. Or elfe, &:c ] In thefe 
4. V. is contain'd the Xth and laft 
Caufe of the Noife of Thunder : 
When it thunders, Hail, and 
many little Fragments of Ice fall 
in fome places, but chiefly in the 
Northern Climates : Therefore 
that Noife may well be afcrib'd 
to the Breaking into Shivers of 
congeal'd and frozen Clouds. 

To this laft Opinion fubfcribes 
our Countreyman Hobbes, who 
holds Thunder to be the break- 
ing of a Cloud, congeal'd to Ice ; 
and that breaks by the ftruggling 
of inclos'd Air. The Stoicks held 
it to be a Noifc occafion'd by the 
Collifionof two hollow Clouds ; 
and that the Lightning proceeds 
from their Attrition : This I 
hinted before ; and mention it 
in this Place again only to fay, 
that Des Cartes differs not much 
from the Opinion of thefe Phi- 
lofbphers : for he conceives Thun- 
der to be caus'd,when feveral Hat 
Clouds, tabulatorum inftar,fays 
he, like fo many Floors, are dri- 
ven with Violence, the higher on 
thofe below them, and clatter one 
upon another ; and the Light- 
ning to proceed from the Nature 
of Exhalations, that are included 
in the Interftices, or Spaces be- 
tween the Clouds, and which, 
by their falling upon one ano- 
ther, is cruili'd out, and explo- 
ded with Violence. But much 
more confonant to Truth, nay, 
indeed true, is their Opinion, 
who hold Thunder to be, a hot 
and dry Exhalation, of a ful- 
phurousand nitrous Matter, con- 
traded and iliut up in a cold and 
moift CiQud i whence ftruggling 



I to get free, it kindles itfelf by 
the Agitation, and violemly 
breaks forth from its Confine- 
ment. And according to this 
Opinion Cowley fays finely, 

Why Contraries feed Thunder 

in the Cloud ; 
What Motions vex it, till it roar 

fo loud. David. 3. 

159. Quick, &c.] Hitherto of 
Thunder : He comes now to in- 
quire into the Caufes of Light- 
ning, which may be flruck^ouc 
of harden'd Clouds, dafli'd a- 
gainft one another : in like man- 
ner as Fire is out of Iron, Flint, 
or Wood : for we ought to be- 
lieve that fome Seeds of Fire are 
lurking in the Clouds, as well as 
in thofe other Things j fays Lu- 
cretius in thefe 6. \. 

But before we proceed any far^ 
cher, it will be neceffary to ob- 
ferve , that under the general 
Name of Thunder, three feveral 
Things are comprehended : I. 
The Noife : which the Greeks 
call'd B^^vri, the Latines Toni- 
tru, in Englifh, Thunder. II. 
The Corufcation, by the Greeks 
call'd 'As^-TTii, by the Latines 
Fulgur, which anfwers to what 
we call the Lightning. III. What 
the Greeks call Ki^t^vvlg, the La- 
tines Fuiraen, and we a Thun- 
derbolt. I know that the An- 
tients, efpecially their Poets, no 
lefs than we at this Day, often 
confounded thefe three Things, 
taking one of them for the other, 
tho' they are different, as will 
more plainly appear by what iliait 
be faid by and by, when I come 
CO explain the Difftrencc between 
K k k k 2 %he 



620 LUCRETIUS. Book VLi 

For then fmall Sparks appear, and fcatter'd Light 
Breaks fwifdy forth, and wakes the fleepy Night : 
The Night, amaz'd, begins to hafte away. 
As if thofe Fires were Beams of coming Day. 

And 
N O T £ 5. 



the Fulgur and Fulmen of the 
Antients. I now return to Lu- 
cretius, who held, that as in 
Stone, Iron, and Wood, there 
are Seeds of Fire, which by At- 
trition may be forc'd out, and 
ilruck into Sparkles : So in the 
Clouds likewife there are Seeds 
of Fire, that by the Attrition of 
thofe Clouds, caus'd by the vio- 
lent Force of the Wind, may be 
itruck out into Lightning : For 
tho' the Clouds be moift, yet 
Fire may neyerthelefs be genera- 
ted and produced by their Attri- 
tion : This Seneca feems to con- 
iirm, Nat, Qujcft. lib. 2. cap. 
25. & 26, where he fays. That 
neither is Fire produced without 
fome Moifture , nor are the 
Clouds wholely watry, but con- 
tain a Part that may take Fire, 
in like manner as we often fee 
the fame piece of Wcjod burning 
in one Part, and Iputtering out 
Moifture in another : eo modo, 
quo fxps in lignO alia pars ardec, 
alia fudat. Nor is this Opinion 
contradi<fted by Pliny, who, lib. 
2. cap. 42. fays, PoiTe &c attritu, 
dum in pr^eeeps fertur, ilium, 
quifquis eft, fpiritum accendi ; 
polfe & conflictu nubium elidi, 
lit duorum lapidum fcintillanti- 
bus fulgetris. And Seneca, in 
the Place above cited, adds the 
Example of the Wood of Laurel, 
and of Ivy, which by Attrition 
produce Fire. Thus too Demo- 
critus in Stob<eus Eclog. Phyf. 
fays. That Lightning is the Col- 
lifibn of Clouds ; by which Co!- 
liffon, the Corpufcles, that arc 
the efficient Caufes of Fire, be- 
ing by various Confrications, got 
together, and kindled in one Bo- 
^y, arCj^ as it wert:, ftrain'd shro* 



the many Pores and Apertures 
of the Clouds. 

Therefore what the Latines 
call'd Fulgur, is nothing elfe 
than Light emitted from the 
Flame of Fulmen, and diffus'd 
through the Air. Yet Pliny, 
lib. 2. cap. 43, Seneca, lib- 2. 
cap. 16. dc 18. and Ariftotle, lib, 
2. de Meteor, cap. ^. will have 
the Fire of Fulgur to be more 
loofe and rare, inafmuch as it on- 
ly cleaves the Cloud, and va- 
nifhes into Air : but the Fire of 
Fulmen to be more comprefs'd 
and clofe ; becaufe it breaks the 
Cloud with Violence, and feme- 
times dailies againft the Earth. 
But this feems probable only in 
the Corufcations without Thun- 
der : but can not be in thofe that 
are attended, cumTonitu ac ful- 
mine : For fuch Corufcation« 
break the Cloud to pieces, and 
can not be faid to cleave it, but 
rather to fcatter and difperfe it 
on all fides, while the Fulmen 
itfelf is direded to one part only. 
And thus the very moment that 
the Matter of Fulmen is kindled, 
the Fulgur or Corufcation is pro- 
duc'd ; but this Fulgur is mo- 
mentary, becaufe the Flame of 
the Fulmen is fo too : and if the 
Fulgur have fometimes any du- 
ration, the Flame of the Ful- 
men muft of neceflity continue 
the longer. This is manifeft in 
our Cannon : which being iir'd 
in the Night, a Corufcation from 
the Fl^me of the Powder is dif- 
fus'd all around : whence Men 
that ftand at a Diftance eafily 
guefs, that they iliaU foon hear 
the Report.' 

1(52. And wakes the fleepy 
Nighty <5cc,] This and the twQ> 

jiext 



LUCRETIUS. 



6zt 



Book VL 

65 And firft we see the Light, and then we hear 
The Noises : thefe but flowly reach the Ear j 
Becaufe the Images of Things do fly 
More fwift than Sounds, and quickly ftrike the Eye: 
One Inftance clears it ; for, obferve, and fee, 

70 Whene'er a cruel Ax does wound a Tree, 

The Tree ftrait fighs : but if at Diftance fhown,^ 
We SEE the Stroke before we hear the Groaw r 
So whillt the Noise moves flow the winged Light 
Flies Aviftly on, and ftrikes the diftant Sight: 

75 Tho* both arofe at once, that moves the Eyes, 
Before the flow-tongu'd Thunder fpeaks, and dies,' 

But 
N O T JB 5. 

is to the Ears, is true beyond any 
Contradidion ; and the Inftance 
Lucretius brings to prove this 
Ailertion is juft : for nothing i$ 
more certain, than that we fee 
the Motion of the Hatchet, lifted 
up the fecond Time to ftrike, be- 
fore we hear the Sound caus'd 
by the iirft Blow, even tho' wc 
are plac'd but at a fmall diftance 
from the Striker. The reafon of 
which is, becaufe the Materia fub- 
tilis in lucid Bodies, which is the 
Medium by which we fee, con- 
fifts of Particles, that are much 
lefs, and more folid than thofe 
of the Air , the Medium by 
which we hear : And confequent- 
ly the Motion of that fubtile 
Matter is more quick than thae 
of the Air : becaufe more Strength 
is requifite to overcome the Refi- 
ftance of a greater Body, than 
that of a lefs : Befides, the grea- 
ter Body lofes much of its Mo- 
tion, in conquering the Refiftance 
of the Body it meets : Therefore 
the Air, whofe Particles are in- 
tricate, and, like thofe of all o- 
thcr fulphurous Bodies, twifted 
and intangled in one another ; 
and in their Magnitude far fur- 
paffing thofe of the fubtile Mat- 
ter, whofe very Name fuppofes 
fomething the moft minute that 
can be conceiv'd ; therefore, 1 
fav, the Air can not move with 



flit Verfes our Tranflatour has 
dded to his Authour, The 
riioiight feems to be taken from 
Waller's Sea-Fight. 

155. And firft, &c.] But if 
!'hunder and Lightning be both 
lade by the fame Collifion of 
le Clouds, why do we fee the 
lightning before we hear the 
i'hunder ? Becaufe, fays he in 
hefe 12. v. Light is fwifter than 
ound : For common Experience 
vinces, that the Species of a vi- 
•ble Thing is fooner convey'd to 
be Eyes, than the Noife it makes 
5 to the Ears. Thus Ariftotle, 
lb. 2. Meteor, fpeaking of Light- 
ing, fays, y'm"^ j jjl^' r 'S^Mym, 

^Ti^v 24^ TO r o-^jv ^lipov 
' (X)to"»>* The Corufcation is 
nade after the Stroke, and after 
he Thunder ; but it is feen firft, 
lecaufe the Senic of Seein<:' is 
wifcer than that of Hearing : 
^nd in the fame place he brings 
a Inftance of Men rowing a Boat 
a the Water, and fays, that they 
.re feen lifting up their Oars the 
econd time out of the Water, by 
hat time the Noife of the firft 
>troke is heard. 

That the Action of Light is 
uicker than that of Sound ; and 
hat Light is therefore fooner 



onvev'rl trt ^^,o c ^u c j ^^Xs tne /iir can not move with 
^oave) 4 to the Eyes, than Sound l.^y^l Swiftnsfe; as does the Ma- 
teria 



^22 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V] 



But more; a Cloud feems fir*d, a Tempest brings 
Swift, trembling Flames upon his dreadful Wings ; 
When (hut within a Cloud, it feorns the Bound, 

[180 And ftrives to break, and whirls, and tumbles round ; 
And, whirling, hollows out the watry Frame, 
At laft grows hot, takes Fire, and breaks in Flame : 
For Motion caufes Heat : Thus Balls of Lead, 
From Engines thrown, have melted as they fled : 

^85 The Wind grows hot, when loos'd from cold Embraa 
Of prefling Clouds, and gets a larger Space ; 
Strait fcatters Sparks of Fire, which fwiftly fly. 
And fpread quick Lightnings o'er the lower Sky : 
Then the grave Murmur comes : the Light appears 

P90 Before the heavy Sound can reach our Ears. 

Now this is done, when Cloud lies heap'd on Cloud 
Thence Lightning flies, and Thunder roars aloud 

No 
N O T £ 5. 



teria fubtilis, whofe Particles be- 
ing extreamly minute, and folid,) 
and inflexible, muft therefore 
move more nimbly, and retain 
their Motion longer. And this 
is the Reafon that the Senfe of 
Seeing is quicker than that of 
Hearing. 

177. But more, &c.] In thcfe 
14. V. he fays; That if Thunder 
be caus'd by the Winds breaking 
and tearing the Clouds ; Light- 
ning is likewife made by the 
fame Winds, that by the Swift- 
nefs of their Motion grow hot, 
and kindle into Flames, as they 
are agitated and whirl'd about in 
the Bowels of the Clouds. Thus 
Creech interprets this Paflage, 
and fays that GafTendus, and all 
that follow him, are miftaken 
in their Interpretation of it. 
Now to confirm this Opinion 
of Epicurus, we may obferve, 
that feveral of the Antients feem 
to have been of the fame Senti- 
ment : For Heraclitus, as Seneca, 
jib. 2. cap. 5<5. witnefles, held, 
that this Fulguration is like the 
Attempts of our Fires, when they 
begin to kindle, and refembles 
the &rfb uncertain Fiajne, no>v 



dying, now riling again at ever^ 
Puff of the Bellows. And w 
learn from Plutarch de Placit 
Philofoph. lib. 3, cap. 3. tha 
Metrodorus believed, that thi 
Corufcation is produc'dj when 
Cloud is alTaulced and dafli'd t( 
pieces by the Wind. And thef 
Opinions are like theirs, wh< 
hold. That Motion is the Cauf 
of Heat : For we fee man^ 
Thines grow hot by Motion, a: 
Wheels, the Axletrees on whicl 
they are hung, &c. 

183. Thus Balls, &c.] Thisi; 
no truer than what Virgil write: 
of the Arrow of Aceftes, 

Quitamen jcthereas telum cpn- 

torfit jn auras, 
Oftentans artem pariter, arcum 

que fonantem : 

volans liquidis in nu- 



bibus arlitarundo, 
Signavitque viam flammis, te- 

nuefque receffit 
Confumpta in ventos : caelo feu 

faepe refixa 
Tranfcurrunt, crinemq-, volant^ 

fydera dttcuut. iEn, 5. v. 520. 



3ook VI. LU C R ETIU Si ^2} 

Nor muft you think this falfe ; becaufe the Etb, 
When plac'd below, fees Clouds more broad than high : 

95 For, look, and fee, the lab'ring Winds can bear 

Vaft Mountain-CLouD«, and whirl them thro' the Air: 
The labnng Winds then move butflowly on. 
And, as opprefs'd with Burdens, figh and groan.' 
Or when upon a Mountain's loky Head, 

00 We fee the higher Clouds oer lower fpread: 

And, tho'the Winds all hufii'd, they ceafe to move' 
Yet ftill the low are prefs'd by thofe above : ' 

Then you may guefs their Bulk ; how high they rear! 
How vaft thefe real Castles built in Air I 

05 How great, how ftrong their Hollows, where the Wind 
Shut up, grows fierce, and fcorns to be confined. 

But 
N O T £ 5. • 

fends Where indeed they are better ap- 
P^y'd than here : For how come 
the Winds, that,,in the preceding 
Verfe, whirl'd the Clouds thro* 
the Air, which implies a violent 
and fwift Motion, to be able to 
move but ftowly in this, and to 
groan under the Weight of their 
Burthens ? Dennis fpeaking of a 
Row of Oaks, as he calls them, 
fays finely, ' 

The Tempeft fees their Strength, 
and fighSj and pafTes by, 

1203. How high thicy rear !] Sic 
R. Blackmore gives a lively~De- 
fcription of thefe Mountain- 
Clouds in the foJlowing Verfes : ' 

When on their March embat-" 

tcl'd Clouds appear, 
What formidable Gloom their ' 

Faces wear ! 
How wide their Front ! How 

deep and black their Reer ! 
How do their threatening Heads 

each other throng ! 
How flow the crowding Legions 

move along ! 
The Winds, with all their Wings, 

canfcarcely bear 
Th' impending Burden of th* op- 

preflive War. 

205. Ths Wind, &c.] Thus 

aftet 



and 



/ho, fliooting upwards 
his Shaft to iliow 
n Archer's Art, and boaft his 
twanging Bow : 

:haf'd by the Speed, it fir'd, 
and as it flew. 

Trail of foll'w ing Flames af- 
cending drew ; 
indling they mount, 
mark the iJiiny Way, 
crofs the Skies „ as falling 
Meteors play, 

nd vanifli into Wind, or in 
a Blaze decay. Dryd. 

195. Nor muft, &c.] In thefe 
. v. he anfwers the Objedions 
" thore, who pretend that the 
louds , tho' they are broad, 
:t can not be deep or thick e- 
)ugh to contain within their 
5wels, fuch vaft Hollows, as 
uld be capable to inclofe fo 
uch Wind : To which he adds 
Imething of the Winds grumb- 
iig within the Clouds, and then 
irfting out into Flames. 
97. The lab'ring, &c.] For this 
id thefoliowingVerfejOurTranf- 
cour has no Authority from his 
uthour : but has tranfcrib'd 
lem from the Bifliopof Roche- 
er's Plague of Athens, and re- 
mits them again almoft Word 
r WordjY. 109?. of this Book, 



624. 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V 



But roars thro* all the Clouds; as Beasts difdain " 
,The Dens Cofifinement, and the flavifh Chain, | 

And roar to get their Liberty again : 
aio And, feeking "Way, ronls round the watry Frame, 
And gathers num rous Seeds of fubtile Flame, 
And ihefe it whirls, until the fhining Streams 
Break thro* the Cloud, and fliew their feeble Beams 
But more, thefe glaring Fires, thefe Flames, may ri 
ai5 And fall to Earth thro' all the fpacious Skies, 

Becaufe the Clouds hold num rous Parts of Light : 
For if they're dry, their Colour's firy bright : 
For they muft catch, and hold defcending Rays, 
And thus look firy red, and often blaze : 
aio Thefe, prefs'd by Winds, to narrow Place retire. 
And fcatter Seeds that frame the glaring Fire. 

But farther; Lightning often feems to glide 
When Clouds grow rare ; for, as the Winds divid 

T 
N T £ 5. 



after our Poet Virgil fays of the 
Winds, 

llli indignantes magno cum mur- 

mure jnontis 
Circuiti tlauftra fremunt, — 

This way and that th' impatient 
Captives tend, 

And,prefling for Reliefjthe Moun- 
tain fend : 

214. But more, &c.] In thefe 
8. V. he propoi\?s another Caufe 
of Lightning, and fays, that not 
only the Seeds of Fire, agitated 
and whirl'd about in the Clouds, 
may be kindled into Flames, but 
the Clouds themfelves contain 
many Corpufcles of FirCj which 
they receive from the Sun, or 
from elfewhere : and this is evi- 
dent from the bright and flamy 
Colour of fome Clouds : Now 
thefe Corpufcles , or Seeds of 
Fire, being forc'd out by the 
"Wind that drives and comprelTes 
the Clouds together, make the 
Lightning. Ariftotle fays, th^at 
feveral adher'd to this Opinion, 
which neverthelefs he confutes, 



lib. 2. Meteor. Empedocles he 
that this Fire, that catches in t 
Clouds, is kindled by the Beai 
of the Sun : but Anaxagoras v. 
have it defcend from the highi 
^ther, which he holds to 
Fire. 

222. But farther, &c.] Hefi 
in the laft place, that the See 
of Fire that are in the Clouc 
are driven out by the Streng 
and Violence of the Wind : B 
now in thefe 4. v. he fays, that 
they are not driven but in th 
manner, yet they muft of ISI 
ceffity fall down,when the Clou 
grow thin, and break^and open 
themfelves : and that from ther 
proceeds the mild and gent 
Lightning,whof(; Splendour dazl 
the Eyes, tho' no Thunder inra 
the Ear. 

By this Breaking, or rather R 
refadion of the Clouds, and t 
falling down o£ the Atoms th 
make the Lightning without ai 
Thunder or Noife , the Po 
feems to inllnuate the Opinion 
Clidemus, who, as Ariftotle fay 
believ'd Lightning not to be re 
Fire, but only an empty Specie 

th 



Book VL LUCRETIUS. 61^ 

The Clouds tnuft lofe their Seeds ; Thofe fhow tho 
225 But without Thunder filently expire. (Fire 

But now what Seeds the Thunders Parrs compofe. 
Their Stinks, their Marks, and fulphrous Odour 

fliows : 
For thefe are figns of Fire, not Wind, or Rain ; 7 ' 
Nay, oft they burn our Towns, and Men complain •* 
igo Of heav'niy Fires, and angry Gods, in vain. j 

Now, 
N O T £ 5. 

j :h4t is to fay, that the Cloud, be- 1 both fignify Lightning, and the 
lingagitated, and as it were ftrucJc I fole Difference is in the EfFeds 

ind beaten in the humid part of j they produce : Our Tranllatour 
j t, brightens in like manner as too does the like : nay, fomc- 
j :he Sea foams and turns white, if ^'-'- '' ' '"^ . — 

t be beaten with a Rod. To this 

Jurpofe too Anaximenes in Sto- 

)«us alledges the Example of the 

5ea turning bright when the Oars 

;ut the Waves. Thus likewife 

K'enophanes faid, that the Cloud 

>y its Motion conceives the Splen- 
dour, that lightens : And laftly 

Animaxander favour'd this Opi- 

lion, when he faid, that Light- 
ning is only the Wind that turns 

bright by forcing its way thro* 

the blacknefs of the Cloud. j And V. he inveighs againft the 

226. But now, dec.'] Hitherto I Superftition of fuch, as afcribe 
the Poet has treated of the Cor- Thunder to Juffiter j and againft 



times ufes the Word Thunder 
for Lightning, particularly in 
this Verfe ; tho' Thunder pro- 
perly means only the Noife. This 
Diftindion was neceflary to be 
obferv'd in Order to the better 
underftanding of the following 
Difputation ; in which the Poec 
treats of many Things relating 
to Lightning : L Of its Nature : 
II. How it is generated ; IIL Of 
Its Motion : IV. In what Seafons 
of the Year it is moil frequent t 



rufcation of Lightning, which the 
Latines call'd Fulgur : he is now 
going to difpute concerning the 
Fulmen, by which the Antients 
meant the Lightning, that falls 
and does mifchief upon Earth, 
and which in Engliili is call'd a 
Thunderbolt : The French call 
it Carreau de Foudre : which an- 
fwers exadly to our Denomina- 
tion of it : The Greeks call'd it 
Kspstyvoi- ; and Ariftotle defines it 
in thefe Words : to o aVe^^ctv 
cci'ctxupojQgv /Sotei^ dig ct'x6i 'f yiig 



the Thufcans, who drew their 
Auguries from Thunder and 
Lightning: This Difputation 
continues to v. 43 r. and iirfl in 
thefe 18. v. he difputes of the 
Nature of Lightning, and teaches 
that it muft conliit of a firv 
Subftance, becaufe it finges anci 
burns whatever it touches, fets 
Fire to Houfes, dec. But that it 
pierces thro' Walls, that it melts 
Gold, Brafs, and other Mecals, 
that it draws out the Liquor and 
leaves the VelTel intire, mull be 
afcribed to the Swiftnefs of its 
Motion, and the Tenuity and 



i he Lightning, if it continues its Subtilenefs of its Fire, 
^ourfeto, and da_flies upon thej 227. Their Stinks, &c ] 



Earth, is call'd a Thunderbolt ; 
I Lucretius, even in this Difpuca- 
|*»on, confounds the Words Ful- 
|gur and Fulmen, ofcen ufing one 
*prthe other; and indeed they 



For 



things that are blafted by Light- 
ning not only feem burnt, but 
ficain a fulphurous Smeil. 



hill 



234. And 



6i6 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book VI. 



Now thefe celeftial Fires are fram'd above, 
Of Parts refin'd, and thin, and ape to move : 
Too ftrong to be oppos'd, they fcorn a Bound, 
And pafs thro' clofeft Walls, as Voice and Sound : 

155 They fly with Eafe thro' Stone, thro' Gold, and Brass : 
And in one Inftant naelt the ftubborn Mass : 
Nay, oft the Cask intire, the Licluors flow, 9 

Becaufe the pointed. Flames, with fecret Blow, ^ 
Widen the Vessels Pores in paffing thro' : J 

2,40 Which yet the Sun, with all his Beams and Rage, 
And all his Fires can't do within an Age : 
So quick thefe Parts muft move, fo fwifc they run. 
So much excel in Force the vigorous Sun. 

Nov? 

N O T £ S. 



i?3f4. An<S pafs. Sec,"] While the | 
Poet here takes notice of the 1 
wonderful Effects of Lightning, 
he obfervcs the feveral forts of it. 
Ariftotle allows only two ; one, 
which he calls )LciL'?rv6o^\i^y fmoky, 
which occafions the fwarthy Co- 
lour of the Things it blafts : the 
other, ^ct^TT^^Vj clear, to which 
he afcribes its penetration. But 
Pliny, lib. 2 . c. 51. adds a third 
fort, which he calls ficcus, dry : 
whofe Nature, fays he, is tindced 
wonderful, lince by thst VefTels 
are exhaufted of their Liquors, 
and drawn dry, while the VefTels 
themfelves remain untouched : 
Since Gold, and Silver, and Brafs 
are melted by it, while the Bags 
that contain them are not i'o 
much as finged, nor even the 
Wax which feals them in the 
leaft melted, nor the Impreifion 
diforder'd : Nay, what is yet 
jnore ftrange than all this , Mar- 
tia, Romanorum Princeps, fays 
he, i(fla gravida, partu exanima- 
to, ipfa citra uUum aliud incom- 
modum vixic : Martia, a Roman 
Princefg, was ftruclc with Light- 
mng when ilie was big withChild : 
which kili'd the Child within 
Jier ; bisit ihs feseiv'd no ©thex: 



hurt whatever. To which we may 
add what Seneca fays, that it 
melts the Sword without doing 
any hurt to the Scabbard •, and 
all the Iron of a Spear, without fc 
much as fcorching the Wood : 
that it breaks the Veflfel, and 
hardens the Wine, fo that it will 
continue as it were in a Lump, 
and not run away : but that this 
Stiffnefs or Congelation of the 
Liquor lafts not above three 
Days, nee citra triduum rigor 
ille durat, &:c. lib. 2. cap. 31. 
And cap. 52. of the fame Boolr, 
he fays, Yalentiora, quia refi- 
ftunt, vchementius diflipat ; ce- 
dcntia nonnunquam fine injuria 
tranfit : cum lapide, ferroque,& 
duriffimis quibufque confligit , 
quia viam neccffe eft per ilia im- 
petuqu^eratj itaque facit viarn, 
qud effugiat : teneris & rariori- 
bus parcit, quamquam & flam- 
mis opportuna videantur, quia 
tranfitupatente minus farvit : &c. 
But here, fince Lucretius gives us 
this Opportunity, we will, \vith 
Nardius, propofe feveral Que- 
ftions and Problems, relating to 
Thunder and Lightning, and 
give the Anfwers and Soiutioos 
of thesn. 



P R O- 



Book VI. 



LUCRETIUS. 



6ij 



PROBLEMS 

■' CONCERNING 

Thunder and Lightning. 




HY is a Man debilitated, and depriv'd of 
ail his Strength by Lightning, even before 
he is at^ually ftruck by it ? This was the 
Obfervation of Thages, the Thufcan, as 
Ammianus Marcellin. Hb. 1 3. witnefles. 
Becaafe the Blaft is quicker than the 
Bolt : and therefore every Thing is fliaken and blafted, be- 
fore it is ftruck. But that, which blafts, is pernicious, and 
colled:ed out of the Averni, fays Pliny, lib. z. cap. 54. 

2. Why, as 'tis reported, is not he ftruck, who either tirft 
fees the Lightning, or hears the Thunder? Plin. loc. cir, 

Becaufe he provides for his Safety by his Flight : and, as 
Seneca fays, No Man ever fear'd Lightning, without avoid- 
ing it. Nemo unquam fulmen timuit, nifi qui effugit. Nat, 
Quaeft, lib. %. 

3. Why does one fort of Lightning pierce, another dafti to 
pieces, and another burn ? Senec, loc. citat. 

This depends on the Quality of the Thing that is ftruck, 
and on the Matter of which the Lightning is compos'd: 
which Matter, if it be fubtile, and chance to light on a thin 
and unrefifting Body, pierces it through and through : if the 
Matter be more denfe, and meet with a more folid Body, ic 
enters it indeed, but in the Penetration dafhes and tears it to 
pieces : when the Matter is bituminous, it clings to eombu- 
ftible Bodies, and burns them. 

4. Why does it lighten more without Thunder, in the 
Night, than by Day } Plin. lib. i. cap. 54. 

It lightens likewife in the Day-time ; but the Corufcatlons 
are drown'd by the fuperiour Light of the Sun, un'efs they 
b? Vift indeed,' 



628 LV € R E TIU S. Book VI. 

5. "Why is it feen to lighten without Thunder ? Plin. lib. x, 
cap. 54. 

It does thunder, but at too great a Diftance to be heard : 
but if no ObjetSt intercept the Flame, it may be feen at 
the moft renwte Part of the Horizon. 

6. Why is Man the only Animal, that Lightning does not 
always kill outright, tho* it ftrikes any other Creacure dead 
in a Moment ? Plin. lib. cit. 

The Matter of Lightning may be lefs noxious to Man than 
to Brutes : Or perhaps, becaufe his Lungs are fofter and 
more lax, whence coming to breathe without any forcible 
Endeavour, without (training, more feldom, and at longer 
Intervals, he does not fo eafily refpire and iuck in the am- 
bient Infedion : thus too it happens to the Seel-lifli, or Sea- 
Calf. 

7. Why do all Things, that are ftruck with Thunder, al- 
ways fall down and lie on the contrary Part.^ Plin. loc. 
citat. 

The Violence of the Blow tumbles them down in that 
manner. 

8. Why is a Man, who isilruck with Lightning, when he 
is awake, found with his Eyeswmking, or half clos'd ; and 
a Man ftruck when alleep, with his Eyes broad open ? Piin. 
loc. citat. 

This Obfervation is not always true. But when it does 
happen, the reafon is, becaufe the Bodies, blafted by Light- 
ning, grow ftiff in an Inftant, and continue exadkly in the 
fame Site they were in before : The Man awake, with Eyes 
winking and half-fliut for Fear : the Sleeper, waken'd by the 
fuddain Noife. 

9. Why was it not permitted to burn the Body of a Man 
thus (lain ? Plin. loc. citat. 

Becaufe, tho* they held that the purging Fire of the fune- 
ral Pile cleans'd the Soul of its contracSted Filth, yet they 
defpair'd that fo great Pollution would ever be admitted into 
their Society. And this too was the Reafon why the Greeks 
burnt not the Bodies of fuch, as laid violent Hands on their 
own Perfons, Servius in iEneid. 3. Quintil. Declam. 10, 

I o. Why did they efteem it a piece of Religion to bury 
them in the Earth .> Philoftrat. in Heroic. 

Left Beafts and Birds of Prey fliould mangle and devour 
the Body , or the Ferry-man of the Stygian Lake refufe to 
waft oyer the wandering Souls. Plin, loc. cit . 

31. Why 



jDokVI. LUCRETIUS, 62^ 

E 1 1 . "Why are the "Wounds of the Thunder-ftriick colder 
' an the reft of their Body ? Piin. ibid. 

Becaufe the Heat in the other Members is only fuffocatedi 
►jit quite confum'd in the wounded : for all fufFocated Things 
I ng retain their Heat : but fuch as corrupt and wafte by 

•grees, grow ftiff and cold immediately. 

1 2, Why were Men blafted with Lightning never remov'd. 
It bury'd in the very Place where they were ftruck, where- 
cr it happened to be ? 

Becaiife the Law of Numa forbade Funeral Rites to be 
id to a Man kiird by Lightning : which would have been 
fome Meafure done, if the Body had been remov*d, and 
rry'd from the Place where it lay. 

13. Why did they bury the Body of fuch a Man,byheap- 
g up Dirt over it ? 

Becaufe they believ'd that to touch it would offend the 
ods; 

14: Why were the Augurs permitted to handle fuch 
Ddies ? 

Becaufe HoUnefs becomes the Holy. Sacros facra de- 
nt. 

1 5. Why were the Places that were blafted by Lightning, 
:dg'd in and inclos'd around ? 

Left a facred Thing fhould be trampled on unawares* 

16. What means Lucan by this Verfe, 

Inclufum Thufco vener^turcefpite fulmei? ? 

Becaufe the Place was immediately efteem'd SacredJ 

17. For what reafon was it thought foP 

They believ'd that God feem'd to confecrate it to him- 
If, 

1 8. What then was their Opinion of a Perfon who wa^ 
ill'd by Thunder > 

They fcem to have had the fame Opinion of him too : 
)r Artemidorus held that a Man, kill'd in that manner, was 
ot polluted, but ought to be worfliip'd as a God. 

19. Why is the Money melted, and the Bag untouched : 
nd in like manner the Sword, while the Scabbard receives 
Damage .> Seneca in Quaeft. Nat. lib. i. Q.. 31. 

Becaufe of the fubtile Force of the Lightning, which pafle^ 
hrough fome Things ; tho* fuch as are denfe, and refift 
£s Force, it inftantly tears to pieces. 



€30 LUCRETIUS. Book ). 

20. Why are Metals melted by Lightning in a mome s 
time, while the Workmen receive no Damage ? Sen. J • 
citac. 

Becaufe of the Arfenical Spirits, that are in the Lightnii : 
For even the Coiners of Money can render Metals fluid vi i 
a very fmali quantity of Arfenick, 

21. Why does the Wine ftay in a broken Veflel ? Ser . 
ibid. 

Becaufe it is congeaPd by the nitral Spirits. 

22. Why does not that Stiffnefs laft above three Daysr 
Becaufe the remaining fulphurous Spirits, favour'd by 1 

ambient Air, at length overcome the nitral. 

Why is the Wine hurtful, and even pernicious ? Ser 
lib. cir. Q. 3. 

By reafon of the Virulence of the Arfenick, that the W: 
has conceived : For Wines will retain fomething of Sulph 
as we know by Experience in Rhenifh Wines. 

Why is the Venom of Serpents taken away by Lightnin 

Becaufe Lightning confumes it : Thus the Poyfon of Sea; , 
mony abates by the bare Steam of Sulphur : Which, con 
nu'd for fome time, totally takes away its cathartick Virtu« 

Why are fome Things turn'd black by Lightning ? 

Becaufe, being burnt, they retain the footy Marks of t 
Fire. 

Why are fome thifigs difcolour*d ? 

Becaufe there is a lefs Portion of Sulphur in the Ligl 
ning, and a greater of fome other Combuftible : For Fi 
^lone gives Iron a violet Colour, and the Foils that arep 
Sander precious Stones are colour'd by Fire only. 

To all which I add what Nardius relates of the Wife of 
certain Apothecary at Florence, who had been blafted wii 
|Lightning, but was ftill living in his Days, and who, after th: 
Misfortune had happen'd to her, became, of a very cold Ten 
peramenr, as Ihe had been before, to be of a Conftitution 1 
cxtreamly hot, that flie could fcarce endure to wear ar 
Cloaths, tho' ever fo thin : Of which he gives this Reafor 
Becaufe, lays he, that moft fubtile Fire confum'd immed 
ately the fuperfluous Humidity that had been longftagnatin 
in her Members, apd imprinted and left behind \t fome of ii 
own firy Quality. 



LUCRETIUS. 



^Jt 



ook VI. 

Now, how this Force begins, how Thunder flies 

45 With that quick Strength, how thefe fierce Motions rife; 
That break our ftrongeft Tow*rs, our Towns infeft, 
Demolifh Houses, ruin Man and Beast, 
That fplit our Trees, and rage o'er all the Wood, 
I will explain, and make my Promife good. 

50 Firft then j 'tis certain Thunder feems to fly ; 
From dark, thick Clouds, and thofe built vaftly high: 
For when the fmiling HeavVs ferene and clear, 
Or thinly clouded, we no Thunder hear: 
But now ev'n Senfe aflures no Smiles adorn, 

55 No Sky's ferene, while mighty Thunder's born : 
But athick Cloud o er-fpreads Heav ns threat ning Face^ 
As if the Shades of Hell had lefc their Place, 
And fill'd the arched Skies : fo thick the Night, 
So dark the horrid Clouds, and fo affright I 

So Befides j at Sea dark Clouds do often fs.II, 
As Streams of flowing Pitch, and fpread o'er all, 

Faif 
NOTES, 

fays Ariftotle, lib. 2. Meteor, 
cap. ult. For of this dry Exha- 
lation Wind is made in the Air, 
Earthquakes within the Earth : 
Showers, Tempefts, Thunder and 
Lightning in the Clouds. 

25^. Butafhick, 45CC.3 Thefe 
4. V. Lucretius has before in 
Book. IV. V. 172. 

260. At Sea, &c.] Sir R. Black- 
more's excellent Defcription of a 
Storm at Sea, will illuftrate this 
PalTage of Lucretius : 

Now gathering Clouds the Day 
begin to drown ; 

Their threatening Fronts thro' 
aJI th' Horizon frown : 

Their fwagging Womb* low in 
the Air depend, 

Which ftruggling Flames, and 
in-bred Thunder rend : 

The ftrongeft Winds their 
Breath and Vigour prove. 

And thro' the Heav'ns th' un- 
wieldy Tempsfts /lioYe : 

O'ercharg'd wirh Stores of Hea* 
v'ns Artillery, 

They groan, and pant, and la- 
bour up the Sky ; 

Loud 



•24.4. Now how, &c.] In in- 
liring into the Caufe of Thun- 
sr it muft bt obferv'd, that it 
ever thunders but when the Sky 
; over-caft with thick Clouds : 
or unlefs the Clouds were thick, 
nd high-built, fo great a quan- 
ity of Rain or Hail could not 
ill at the fame Time. There 
ire in thofe Clouds you may 
:tiagine a Wind agitated and 
'hirl'd about in a turbulent Mo- 
ion, growing hot with that Mo« 
ion, and forcing out of the 
Clouds many Seeds or Atoms of 
'ire : And that at length the 
Vind itfelf takes Fire, eicher by 
cs o\yn Motion, or by thofe iiry 
^articles, and breaks out with a 
lorrid Roar; and that, by that 
'iolent Eruption, it fo fhakes 
md tears the Parts of the Clouds, 
hat they are all fhiver'd into 
■Tail, or diffoWd into a Shower 
)f Rain. This is contained in 
ji.'v. 

252. For when, &c.] The fame 
Matter compoles Wind, Thun- 
ler. Lightning, and Earthquakes, 
hat IS to fay, a dry Exh^Ution, 



6^z LUCRETIUS. BookV 

Far from the darken'd Sky ; and, fwoln with Rain, • 
And Storms, they draw behind a dreadful Train 
Of Thunder-Cracks, which rage oer all the Main. 

j|€5 Ev*n we on Earth all (hake, with Terrour aw'd, 
We feek for Shelter, nor dare peep abroad. 
Therefore thefe Clouds, that fpread o'er all the Sky,' 
Muft needs be thick, and all built vaftly high : 
For elfe they could not ftop defcending Light, 

$70 Nor check the Rays, and bring fo thick a Night ; 
Nor fijch great Floods, nor fo much Water, yield. 
As fwell our Str eams, and fpread o'er ev*ry Field. 

Thefe Winds and Fires, when fpread o'er all the Sk 
Make Thunders roar, and the wing'd Lightning f 

%1$ For I have taught before that Clouds contain 
A mighty Store of Fire, and much they gain 
From the Sun's Heat, and the defcending Rays, 
Thefe when the Wind has forc*d to narrow Place,' 
And fqueez'd fome Sparkles from the watry Framj 

280 And clofely mixes with the gather'd Flame^ 

NOTES. 



Loud Thunder, livid Flames, 
and Stygian Night, 

Compounded Honours, all the 
Deep affright : 

Rent Clouds, a Medley of 
Deftrucflion fpout ^ 

And throw their dreadful En- 
trails round about : 

Tcmpefts of Fire, and Catarads 
of Rain 

tlnnat'ral Friendlhip make t* af- 
flid the Main : 

This Orb's wide Frame with the 
Convulsion fliakes. 

Oft opens in the Storm, and of- 
ten "cracks : 

Horrour, Amazement and De- 
fpair appear 

In all the hideous Forms that 
Mortals fear. 

166. Seek for flielter,] Sueto- 
nius fays of Tiberius, that he was 
frighted at the Nolle of Thun- 
der, that he ran to hide himfelf 
in Caves and Cellars. 

268. Muft needs, &c.] It is 
therefore evident, that there can 



be no Thunder, except in thic 
and deep-beily'd Clouds, that tl 
Matter that compofes it may 1 
included within them : For vvhi 
Pliny fays to the contrary, d 
tilianis prodigiis Pompeiano e 
municipio M. Herennium decu 
rionem fereno die fulmine icftun 
fuilTe ; and Horace, who. Cat 
min. lib. i. fpealdng of Jupiter 
fays, that; he plerumque per pu 
rum tonantesegit equos, volu- 
cremque currum : Thefe Inftan- 
ces, I fay, are no farther to b( 
credited, than that Thunder ma; 
perhaps have fometimes beer 
heard, and Lightning feen b} 
Perfons, over whofe Head tht 
Sky was clear : but then fome o 
ther Part of the Horizon mufl 
have been cover'd with Clouds 
from which the Thunder and 
Lightning broke out. 

273. Thefe Winds, dec.'] Thfi 
Poet having taught, that Light- 
ning is generated in thick and 
high-biiilc Clouds \ he now in 
thefe 22. V. farther iliews, that 

the 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. (5jj 

It whirls, and then within the Cloud retires • 
And, tumbling, forges there, and points, the Fires : 
This, by the rapid Whirl, or neighbVing Rav, 
Is fir'd ; for Flame is rais'd by either Way. 

285 Thus when the Wind, grown hot, (till whirls around^' 
Or when the furious Flame breaks o*er the Bound, 
Then Thunder, fit for Birth, difToIves the Cloud,' 
And fhews the glaring Fires, and roars aloud: 
The Heav'ns then crack, as if the Orbs would fall,' 

290 And feeble Fear, and Tremblings fieze on all : 

Then Show*rs, as if the Air were chang'd toRAiN,^ 
Fall fwiftly down, and threaten Floods again. 
So great the Thunder-Storms> as if they came 
From the revengeful Clouds to quench the Flame,' 

295 Sometimes external Winds the Clouds divide. 
And break wide Caverns in their injur'd Side. 

Thro! 
N O T JB 5. 



:he Fires and Winds, contained 
within the Clouds, oft produce 
Lightning, which is follow'd by 
I roaring Noife, a Trembling of 
:he Earthj and a violent Shower 
)f Rain, For , iirft, fays he, 
the Clouds contain many Seeds 
dF Fire : Secondly, the Wind 
drives and compels thofe Clouds, 
IS it were, into high Mountains, 
ind by that means fqueezes out 
if the Clouds thofe Particles of 
Fire, by whofe Contad, or at 
eaft by the Violence of its own 
Motion, the Wind itfelf is kin- 
iled into Flame : Thirdly, when 
:hat Wind is thus kindled, the 
Lightning grown mature, cleaves 
:he Clouds, and glares around in 
Ireadful Flailies : Laftly, the 
rhunder roars, the Earth trem- 
sles, Mortals are fiez'd with Con- 
iernation and Difmay, and the 
R.ain falls with fuch Violence, as 
f the Heavens were defcending 
n the Shower. 

287. Then Thunder, &c. ] 
iVlilton in Parad ife Regain'd , 
I^.IV. 

: —Either Tropick now 

■Gan thunder : at both Eni$ of 

H«aY'n the Clouds 



From many a horrid Rife abor-*^ 

tive pour'd ^^ 

Fierce Rain , with Lightning 

mix'd ; Water witb Fire 
In Ruin reconcil'd : l3readful 

was the Rack 
As Earth and Sky would 

mingle. 

And Sir R. Blackmore : 

Heav'ns chriftal BattlementSj to 
pieces daili'd, 
In Storms of Hail were down- 
ward hurl'd : 
Loud Thunder roar'd, red 
Lightning flafh'd, 
Anduniverfal Uproar fiil'd the 
World : 
Torrents of Water, Floods of 

Flame 
From Heav'n in fighting Ruins 
came : 
At once the Hills, that to the 
Clouds afpire ; 
Were wafii'd with Rain, and 
fcorch'd with Fire. 

295. Sometimes, 8cc.2 In thefe 

4. V. he fays, that if the Wind, 

that is pent up in the Cloud, 

can not break thro', it may be 

M m m m affifted 



i 



6^4. LUC RET lU S. Book VI^ 

Thro* thefe the infant Thunder makes its way: 
Thefe Winds call forth the Flames, and they obey, 
^nd fometimes too a Wind unkindled flics j 

Soo But kindles in its Paffage thro' the Skies ; 
Lofing fome heavy Parts it us'd to bear, 
Which could not fwifcly cut the middle Air; 
And gath'ring others of convenient Frame, 
Which join, and fly with them, and raife the Flame : 

305 As Balls of Lead, when (hot with mighty Force, 
Their ftubborn, their ungentle, Parts divorce. 
And, foften'd, melt in middle of their Courfe. 

Sometimes the Fury of the Stroke may raife 
Quick Sparks of Fire, and make a mighty Blaze : 

3 10 For by the Stroke fmall Streams of Light may fpringi 
Both from the ftriking, and the injur'd, Thing : 
As from cold Flint and Steel bright Sparks appear j 

' They fly the Blow, and leap to open Air. 

And thus the CloudS, if of convenient Frame, 

31 5 May well be kindled, and diffolve in Flame : 
Nor can the Winds be cold, becaufe they move 
Thro* fiich vaft Space, ftill tumbling from above : 
For, if not kindled by the Flames they meet. 
Yet fure they mufl come warm with mingled Heat^ 

Tht 
JV T £ 5. 



affifled by other Winds from 
without : and by whatever Means 
the Cloud beopen'd, the Flame, 
that is ripe for Birth, will necef- 
farily fall down. 

299. And fometimes, &c.] 
Lucretius adds two other ways, 
by which Lightning may be 
fiaus'd : the iirlt in 9. v. For un- 
kindled Wind, breaking out of 
a Cloud, may grow hot ahd 
ffake Fire, by the Swiftnefs of its 
Motion, and the Length of its 
Courfe : Nor is this in the leaft 
incredible, ilince a Ball of Lead, 
driven with mighty Force, will 
melt as it flies. Thus the Poet : 
and tho' the Inftance he brings, 
might be. coufirm'd by feveral 
Authorities of the Antient Poets 
find Hiftorians, yet it ought to 
be reckon'd among the Fables of 
Antiquity ; J^feverthekfs no Man 



will deny, but that many Things 
take Fire by the fwiftnefs of their 
Motion. 

305. As Balls of Lead, &c.] 
This inftance the Poet brought 
before V. 183. See the Note upon 
k. 

308. Sometimes, &c.] The fe- 
cond in thefe 12. v. If the Wind 
beat furioufly upon any Thing | 
the Seeds of Fire may flow toge- 
ther upon the Stroke, as well out 
of the Wind, as out of the Thing 
it ftrikes : Thus the Wind takes 
Fire, and Lightning is made. 
But that fuch a Confiuxion o< 
the Seeds of Fire may be made in 
that manner, is evident from the 
ftriking of Flint and Iron : And 
the Obje<i^ion of the Winds be- 
ing cold (tho' even that can by 
no means be granted, by realon 
of the i\^'iftnefs of their Motion)is 

vf 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 6jf 

310 The Thunder's Force comes thus : For, while it lay 
Confin'd in Clouds, it ftrove to break away: 
At laft prevails, and flies with mighty Force ; 
And hence fo great the Strength, fofwift the Course! 
, . As mighty Weights from ftrong Balist^e thrown, 
315 Which break the Walls, and.fliake the frighted Town. 
Befides ; its Parts are fmall, and quick the Blows, 
And therefore meets with nought that can oppofe : 
No Stops can hinder, and no Lets can ftay : 
The clofeft Pores will yield an open Way : 
330 And hence it flies with fuch a mighty Force ; 

And hence fo greatthe Strength, fo quick the Course^ 

Befides 5 all Weights by Nature downward go ; 
But when that Motion is increas'd by Blow, 
The Swiftness, and the Force niuft needs increafe, 
335 And break, whatever dares xefifl:, with Eafe. 

Laftly; 
N O T £ ^. 



©fno Weight : for the Nature of 
Iron is fuU as cold, yet Fire will 
fparkle out when we ftrikeit. 

320. The Thunder's, &c. ] 
Hitherto he has treated of the 
Nature and Generation of Thun- 
der ; he comes now to argue 
cfits Swiftnefs, and Violence of 
Stroke ; which, fays he, may be 
gather'd and explain'd from what 
nas been faid already : For Wind, 
iliut up in a Cloud, rages and 
grows hot ', ftruggle.s on ail fides 
to get out of its Prifon ; and 
therefore, where it findsa PaiTage, 
it muft of neceffity burffc out 
with mighty Force and Vio- 
lence : in 6. v. Befides, it con- 
fifts of fmooth and fmall Par- 
I tides, and therefore pafles thro' 
[the void and empty PafTages of 
the Air"^: in 6. v. Add to this its 
Weight, and that too very much 
increased by Blows : in 4. v. And 
laftly in 8. v. That it falls from 
a great Diftance, and therefore 
every Moment increafes the Swift- 
nefs of its Motion : perhaps too 
it is help'd forward by the Air : 
And what wonder that a heavy 
Body, burfting out with Vio- 
ilen^CQUt Qf a dole Prifon, and 



iTiov'd forward by other B6die.s, 
falls impetuoufly, and daflies to 
pieces all it meets in its way f 

324. Baliftaz] The Balifta was 
a warlike Engine, which the An- 
tients made ufe of in their Wars 
to ilioot Darts or Stones : It wjjs 
call'd Balifta from UctMo;, I caft. 
.^^26. Befides, (Sec] In thefe 6, 
'v, he proves the fwiftnefs of 
Lightning, from the tenuity of 
the Atoms, of which it confifts. 
See B. II. V. 3^5. where the Poec 
has already prov'd, that Light- 
ning is composed of fmooth and 
fubtile Principles : which is the 
Reafon that nothing can with- 
ftand the Violence of its Stroke. 

332. Befides, &c.] In thefe 4.. 
V. the Poet argues for the fwift- 
nefs of Lightning, and the vio' 
lence of its Blow, from the De- 
fcent that is natural to all heavy 
Bodies ; to which if any exter- 
nal Force be added, they defcend 
with yet greater Velocity : But 
Lightning is a heavy Body ; and, 
falling from above, is impeil'd 
by the Force of the Wind 5 
Therefore it is not ftrange, that 
it overturns .and tears to piecci 
whatever oppofes its PalTage. 
Mm mm 3 n^^LiiXlyt 



6i6 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book VI 



Laftly ; fo vaft a Space fince Thunders run. 
Their Swiftnefs muft increafe in tumbling down : 
For Motions ftill increafing run their Race, 
And all by odd Proportions mend their Pace : 

N O T £ 5: 



Oi 



33<^. Laftly, &c.] In thefe 8, v. 
he brings his laft Argument for 
the Celerity and impetuous Force 
of Lightning, from the great 
Diftance firom whence it comes ; 
and fays of it, as Virgil of Fame, 
that 

Mot>ilitate viget, virefqile acqui- 
riteundoj ^n. 4. v. 175. 



<— — — Ev*ry moment brings 
New Vigour to her Flight, new 
Pinions to her Wings. 

It was antiently obferv'd by thofe 
who made it their Study to in- 
quire into natural Things, That 
the Motion of all Moveables is 
the fwifter> the nearer they ap- 
proach to the Place for which 
they are defign*d : infomuch that 
they move fwifteft of all, when 
they are almoft at their Journeys 
End. Thus a Stone gives a hea- 
vier Blow to a Plate of Brafs or 
Tin, for Example, when it falls 
upon it from a great Height, 
than it does, when it drops from 
a lefs I>iftance : according to the 
variety of which Diftance, Ex- 
perience evinces, that the Effed: 
varies likewife ; and that the de- 
fending thing gains a Surplufage 
of Gravity, tho' not of Weight. 
This neverthelefs is deny'd by 
Simplicius, in his Comment up- 
on Ariftotle de Coelo, lib. i. 
cap. 85. where he derides this In- 
creafe of Gravity, and declares 
it a vain Fidion : But we may ask 
him. Why that Stone defcends ? 
Js it not by reafon of its Weight ? 
And fince nothing is done with- 
out Caufe, why does it defcend 
fwifter this Moment than it did 
the lail ? It's fwiftnefs muit in- 



creafe either by fome external 01 
internal Caufe : which laft can b( 
only a more intenfe Gravity : tb 
firft, Lucretius afcribes, as w< 
have feen already in the foregoinj 
Argument, to the additional am 
like Seeds, that the defcendinj 
Stone meets in its paflage, anc 
that help to drive it down witi 
greater Swiftnefs. And, accord 
ing to the Docftrine of Epicurus 
a more proper Solution of thi 
Problem can not be given. O 
thers again afcribe it to a certain 
I know not what, Quality, tha 
the Medium, through which i 
pafTes. imparts to it : and tha 
ftill prefles it more and more 
Others impute it to the natural 
fympathetical and attra<ftiv 
Power of the Centre ; to which 
fay they, all heavy Bodies, th 
nearer they approach, move th 
fwifter : According to which O 
pinion, which is indeed confonan 
to many other Experiments ir 
Nature, Cowley fings. 

And now the violent Weight 

eager Love 
Did with more hafte ib near it: 

Centre move. David. 3 

And if it can not be deny'd, Thai 
the Air, tho' it be light in its owi 
Nature,does neverthelefs defcend 
and infinuate itfelf into the Pore 
of the Earth, as compell'd by i 
certain NeceiTity fo to do, by rea- 
fon of the Impurity it has con- 
traded, then this Queftion is ea 
fy to folve ; For the defcendin^ 
Stone may be faid to be borne 
through the Air, as a Boat tha) 
goes down the River with th( 
Stream : And both of them, the 
Air as well as the Stone move tin 

fw iftei 



Book VI. 



L U.C R E r lU S. 



6ij 



J 40 Or all the Seeds diredt their vi'lent Courfe, 
And ftrike one pare with their united Force: 
Or elfe, as thro' the Air they fwiftly rove. 
Meet Parts which ftrike, and make them fwifter move. 
And when the Pores rec^ve the fubtile Fire, 

^5 The Force flies thro*, the Thing remains intire : 
But when it ftrikes the Substance, then the Mafs 

■\\.. Is broken: Thus it melts ftrong Gold and Brass: 
Becaufe its Parts are thin, aqd fwiftly fly, 
And enter in, and foon diflblvethe Tie* . 

;5o ;Now Spring and Autumn frequent Thunders hear^ 
They (hake the rifing, and the dying Year: 
For Winter yields not Heat enough ; the Wind 
Flies cpld : In Summer, Clouds are too refin d t 
But in thefe middle Quarters all conc^r; 

55 All Caufes join to make the Thunder roar 5 

; Becaufe 

N T £ 5. 



wifter when they are near the 
Centre: For the Air is there 
lore thick and impure ; and 
>nfequently has a greater Pro- 
enfity to tend downwards : Be- 
des, when it is arriv'd on the 
^pniines, as, I may fay, of it's 
ourneys End,^it is fwallow'd up, 
iid ingulph'd af . by a certain 
iolence, and j;5?\parts the fame 
ot to its Companion in the 
ail. 

340. Or all, &C.1 For the Seeds 
£ Thunder, like thofe of other 
Things, wander undetermin'd to 
ny certain Place, but being dri- 
en by that length of Violence, 
re determined, and mov'd in a 
irec't Line. 

344.. And when, &c. "] But 
jghtning does not break inPieces 
1 that it falls upon : for all rare 
odies remain fafe and unhurt, 
ecaufe the fubtile Fire finds a 
ee Paflage thro' their Pores : 
: dilTolves folid Bodies, as Brafs, 
lold, &c. becaufe it ftrikes into 
leir folid Corpufcles, and being 
nee enter'd into their Pores, and 
ot finding a Palfage out, it dif- 
)ins the very PrincigleSj melts 



Metals, and reduces Stones into 
Powder. 

350. Now Spring, dec.'] In 
thefe 22. V. the Poet folves the 
fourth Queftion which we pro- 
pos'd above in the Note on v. 
226. and inquires into the Rea- 
fon, why it thunders more fre- 
quently in the Spring and in Au- 
tumn, than either in Winter or 
Summer ? [ But this muft be ta- 
ken to be meant only of fome 
Countries of Italy ] And the 
reafon is, fays he, becaufe, fince 
Thunder is of a firy Nature, and 
breaks out of thick Clouds, it is 
then moft to be expecfled, when 
the Weather is warm, and not 
altogether free from Cold :^ For 
where there is no Heat, 'tis in 
vain to look for Fire, and where 
there is too much Heat, it fuffers 
not the Clouds to thicken. But 
in the Spring, and in Autumn^ 
the Cold and the Heat are blend- 
ed together : Thence proceed 
Clonds, Winds, Fire, and at; 
length Tumults and Tempefts in 
the Air, and from thein Thun- 
der and Lightning. 

H 



^38 



LU C RET 1 U S. 



Book V 

Becaufe thofe Seafons Heat and Cold engage ^ 
Both neceflary Things for Thunder's Rage ; 
That Parts may difagree, andraifea War, 
And Fires, and rapid Whirls difturbthe Air. 

.360 For, firft the Spring within its Limits holds 
The coming Heats, and the retiring Colds : 
And therefore thefe two Parts, thus oppofite, 
When joined, andmixt, muft ftrive, and fiercely fight. 
But then in Autumn, Summer's Flames retreat, 

3^5 And coming Winter fights the flying Heat. 
Thefe are the troubled Seasons of the Year ; 
The Times that Elements go forth to War : 
What Wonder then if frequent Thunder flies,' 
If frequent Storms difturb the lower Skies 5 

370 Since, fighting, all in doubtful Wars ingage. 

Here HEAT^and FLAMES,there Cold and Waters, rage 

And hence we know the Nature of the Flame j 
And how it works, .and whence the Fury came : 
But not by reading Thvscu^v: Books inquire 

375 The Gods Defign by this celestial Fire j 
Obferve the moving Flame, and thence prefage 
The Kindness of the Gods, or coming Rage : 



N O 

In this Opinion Seneca agrees 
with Lucretius ; and fo too does 
Pliny, lib. 2. cap. 50. where he 
teaches, that it never thunders 
in Winter and Summer, except 
in as much as mitiore hyeme, 
& ieftate nimbofd, Temper quo- 
dammodo vernat, vel autumnat ; 
in a mild Winter, and in a clou- 
dy Summer, the Weather is nei- 
ther violently cold, nor violently 
hot, but partakes in fome mea- 
fure of the middle temperatures 
of the Spring, or of Autumn. 
And he Itrengthens this Argu- 
ment, by inftancing in fome 
Countries, where by reafon of the 
extreara Cold, as in Scythia, or 
of the violent Heat, as in Egypt, 
it never thunders at all. But of 
thefe Matters you may confult 
P. Gaflend. in lib. 10. Laert. de 
Meteorolog. 

370, Doubtful WaFS,3 I^ the 
Spring, and in Auuimnj He^t 



r E s, 

and Cold contend for Mafterf' 
In Summer Heat governs, p 
Cold in Wintei^. ' ; 

372. Andheffife,&c.3Here«l 
Poet infults the College < 
Augurs and Soothfayers at Row 
who pretended to teach Diviii 
tion, as if it had been a Science 
This, fays he, is to know the N. 
ture of Thunder, 6cc. a Scien 
not to be met with in your Booi 
that are made up of nothing bi 
trifling and falfe Conjectures. 

374. Thufcan Books] Tl 
Books that treated of Divinatic 
were composed by the Thufcar 
a People of Italy, whom Tag 
had inftrutfled in that Art t froi 
him thefe Books were call 
Tagetici ; and Macrobius fa 
they were handed about in h 
Days. Of this Tages Cicero giv 
us the following Account. Tag 
quidam dicitur in agro Tarqu 
nienlz , ^unj serra ^raretur, < 

fulc 



jBook VI. LUCRETIUS, C^f 

Or if the Clouds in lucky Quarters fwell ; 
And Thunder break, and with fad Omen fell : 

And 

u o r B $. 



ulcus altius ciTet imprefTus, ex- 
itilTe repent^, &:euin afTatusef- 
"c, qui arabat. Is autem Tages, 
ic ia libris eft Hecrufcorum, 
>uerili fpecie dicitur vifus, fed 
enili fujfle prudenti^. Ejus af- 
>edu cum obftupuifTec bubulcus, 
lamoremq; majorem cum admi- 
atione edidifTec, concurfum ^ik 
ad urn, totamque brevi tempore 
n eum locum Hetruriam conve- 
iiTe : turn ilium plura locutum 
lultis audientibus, qui omnia e- 
js verba exceperinc , literifq; 
landavcrint : omnem autem 
racionem fuifTe earn, qua Ha- 
iifpicina Difciplina contineretur, 
am poftea crevifle rebus novis 
ignofcendis, dc ad eadem iila 
rincipia referendis. Lib. 2. de 
Uvinatione. As they were plough- 
ig in the Tarquinian Field, and 
le Share ftriking deep into the 
r round, one Tages is faid to have 
:artcd on a fuddain out of the 
^arthjind to fpeak to the Plough- 
lan : This Tages, as we find in 
tie Thufcan Books, is faid to 
ave had the Look of a Boy ; but 
He Prudence and Wifdom of old 
.gc. The Peafant difmay'd at 
le Apparition, cry'd out aloud, 
id People flock'd about him, 
ifomuch that in a little time 
le whole Countrey of Etruria 
ere got together in that Place : 
'hen Tages fpoke a great deal 
I the Hearing of many Perfons, 
ho writ down all his Words : 

he SubjedofhisDifcourfe was 
ily the Dodrine of Divination : 
hich afterwards got footing in 
>e World by new Additions of 

nowledge, built en the Princi- 

es he had taught them : Ovid. 

letam. lib. 15. v. 553. 



Cum Tyrrhenu? arator 
tulcm glebam msdiis afpcxitin 



arvis 



Sponte fuS primum, nulloque a- 

gitante, moveri: 
Sumere mox hominis, terrazque 

amittere formam ; 
Oraque Venturis aperire recentia 

fatis : 
Indjgenar dixere Tagen, qui pri« 

mus Etrufcam 
Edocuit gentem cafus aperire fu« 

turos. 

See like wife Lucan, lib. x. v. 530, 
$87, 606, 

-^79* Omen] This Word, as we 
find in fome Authours, feems noc 
to have had originally fo exten- 
five a Signification, as we gene-* 
rally give it. Feftus explains it. 
Omen quafi Orimen, quod ore 
fiat augurium : Now Auguries 
were drawn either from Tokens 
given by the Gods, or by Men s 
and thofe given by Men were pro- 
perly call'd Omens. Cicero iays. 
That the Pythagoreans did noc 
only obferve the Voices of the 
Gods, but of Men likewife, which 
laft they call'd Omens : Neque 
foliim Deiim voces Pythagorei 
obfervabant ; fed etiam homi- 
num, quse omina vocabant, fays 
he, in lib. i. de Divinat. Apuleius 
de Deo Socr. fays ; Ita eft apud 
Platonem ; ne quifquam arbitre- 
tur, omina eum vulgo loquentutn 
capt^ife : And foon after he adds; 
Videmus plerifque ufu venire 
qui nimia ominum fuperftitions 
non femper fuopte corde, fed al- 
terius verbo reguntur : Yet other 
Authours reftrain not the figni- 
cation of this Word to the Voice, 
or Utterance of the Mouth only, 
but extend it to ail the Adtions of 
Life J making it to fignify the 
fame with the av^^oho, of the 
Greeks, who by that Word un- 
derftood the foreboding Signs or 
Tokens of profperous or improf- 
perous Events : Thus, to begin 

with 



^4^ LUCRETIUS. Book VI 

380 And hence we know, how its quick Forces pafs 

^Thro' clofeft Stones, and melt, or break, the Mass .• 

Wha 
N O T fi 5- 



with Ca:far3 we read that Au- 
guftus, contrary to his Cuftom^ 
had put on his left Shoo fir ft, the 
Day that he narrowly efcap*d be- 
ing kiird in a Mutiny of the Sol- 
diers : And Lampridius recounts 
among the Signs of Alexander's 
future Empire, That the Picture 
of the Emperour Trajanus,which 
hung over his Father Philip's ge- 
nial Bed, fell down upon it, while 
his Mother was in Labour of him 
in the Temple : And this Omen 
Feftus and other Authours call 
caducum aufpicium. Spartianus, 
in the Life of Hadrian, fays, that 
while he was fpeaking in Praife 



of Nero, cap. 19. And Tibulln 
elegantly of thefe Stumblings ; 

O quoties ingrelTus iter mihi trj 
ftia dixi 
Offenfum in porta flgna dcdil 
fe pedem ! 

And fuch were the Omens the< 
regarded in going to a Place : bt 
they likewife drew Auguries froi 
Accidents at their Departure ; i 
if any one who went with an It 
tention to go to a certain Plac 
return'd on a fuddain unexpe^ 
ediy, and without executing h 
Deiign : but this took place chiej 



of Antonius, a Prastexta, [a I ly in Sacrifices. Apollonius coi 
r2.«,„« ...^ — u„ .u,. rf^L:ij c cerning the Ceremonies of tl 

Goddefs Trivia^ or Diana isthi 
render'd : 

Sacrifque peracfi 



Gown worn by the Children of 
Noblemen] dropt down of its 
own Accord, and covered his 
Head ; and that a Ring on which 
his Figure was ingrav'd, fell off 
his Finger, of its own Accord 
likewife : Ovid too believ'd in 
Omens, whenhefaid, 



Omina funt aliquid ; modo, cum 
decedere vellet, 
Adlimen digitos reftitit i6ia. 
Kape. 



Pliny too {peaks of thefe Remo- 
ra's, thefe Obftacles, and hin- 
dring Omens, which he calls of- 
fcnfiones pedum ; & Plautus, 
aufpicia & religionem : Ante 
aufpicium commoratum eft : 
In Amphit. And in another 
Place : An religio tibi objecfta ? 
Of like Nature is that, which was 
offer'd to Otho, going againft 
ViceJIius ; when fonie advis'd him 
to defer the Expedition, becaufe 
the Bucklers were not ail ready . 
This Tacitus relates in thefe 
"Words : Fuere qui proficifcenti 
Othoni moras reiigionemquc non 
conditorum anciliiim aixerrent. 
See Suetonius likewife in the Life 



Rurfusabire pyra moneo: coi 

vertere nullus 
Te retro ftrepitufque pedum, fr 

mitufque caninus 
Cogat *, nam facri fiat labor b 

ritus omnis. 



where he feems to imply, thi 
the folemn Myfteries wei 
render'd of no Effed by a Noif 
or any other Interruption. V; 
lerius Max. lib. 3. cap. 5. Nefi 
crificium Alexandri aut concufl 
thuribulo, aut edito gemituin 
pediret : But this was chiefly o\ 
ferv'd in facred Rites ; yet P] 
thagoras gave the like Precautio 
by a perpetual Symbol : ^aS 

(pc-S^. Of which he adds the Re; 
Ton: For the Furies are palTin 
j along. And of greater Momen 
but not unlike this, is the A< 
monilhment of the Authour( 
human Salvation : Qni aratr 



i 



manum applicuit, ne refpiciat 
Moreover, as they nam'd the 



Omen, 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 6^i 

What drives fwift Lightning on, what makes ic flow. 
And all the Harm celestial Flames can do. 

For 
NOTES, 



Omens , religionem objc<ftam , 
fo on the other Hand we learn 
from Plautus, that when they 
lad a Mind to give a favourable 
nterpretacion to an Omen , 
hey caJI'd it, religionem ^ fe 
ejicerc, and the Greeks, ^tto' 
ro^TTHV This might be con- 
irm'd by many Examples ; but 
/e have one illuilrious indeed in 
he Perfon of Julius Caefar, who, 
t his landing in Africa, as he 
!ap'd afliore, happened to fall 
own, and to avert the unlucky 
)men of that Accident, cry'd 
ut, I have thee, Africa. Sue- 
jnius t Cum Caefar Africa o- 
3m rappuliflet, 8c in terram in- 
iIturuscorruifret,dixit,ut infau- 
:um ex cafu omen averteret,Te- 
eoteAfrica.Andlche fame Caelar 
I ways difcover'd an undaunted 
rreatnefs of Soul, and his Mind 
as fo much fuperiour to thefe 
uperftitions , that we no 
here read that any Omen what- 
ver could deter him from any 
ncerprize, or make him delay 
le Execution of any Defign he 
ad refolv'd to attempt. The 
ime Suetonius tells us, that tho' 
he Vidim had efcap'd from the 
iltar, he would not put off his 
■xpedition againft Scipio and 
aba. Licet, fays he, immolan- 
aufugiflet hoftia, profe<f^ionem 
Iverfus Scipionem oc Jubam non 
iftulit. To which Seneca alludes 
I Confolat, ad Marciam, where 
I fays, tarn cito dolorem vicit, 
uam omina folebat. Moreover : 
'he left Parts of the Body, as 
le left Hand, the left Foot, &c. 
re in many Authours, efteem'd 
nlucky : but, on the contrary, 
puleius reprefents them as O- 
lensof good Succefs : and fpeak- 
ig of the Icfc Hand, fays : Quar- 
»? ajquitatis oftend«b«t indici- 



um, dcformacam manum iini- 
ftram porrecfla palmula ; quae 
genuina pigritia, nulla cailiditate, 
nulla folertia prxdita, videbatur 
a^quitati magis aptior quam dex- 
tera. And Macrobius in Satur- 
nal. lib. i. cap. 9. Ideo Apollinis 
fimulacra manu d extra Gratias 

Sortant, arcum cum fagittis fini- 
:ra ; quod ad noxam lie pigrior, 
& falutem manus promptior lar- 
giatur ; Which the following 
Paifage of Catullus at once illu- 
ftrates and explains : 

Haec ut dixit. Amor finiftra a- 

manti 
Dextram fternuit approbatio- 

nem. 

After which he add s : 

Nunc ab aufpicio bono pro- 

fecfti, 
Mutuis aiiimis amant, aman- 

tur. 

But thefe Omens properly re- 
late to the A<f^ions of human 
Life ; And the Antients had be- 
fides Ibmemore occult and fecrec 
Omens , which they took from 
Things, from Days, from Names, 
and even from Places and Cloaths : 
To Things feem to relate the O- 
mens that were taken to be un- 
lucky, as Shipwrecks, and the Re- 
mains of them : and thole Things 
chiefiy which from fome unfor- 
tunate Accidents have given Rife 
to Proverbs ; as Aurum Tolofa- 
num, and Equus Sejanus : which, 
becaufe they are fo well known, 
I purpofely forbear to explain : 
But I can not omit a remarkable 
PafTage in Virgil, which makes 
much to our Piirpofc, and which 
that Poet, who was deeply real 
in the Augural and Pythagoreaa 
N n n n Dc<5kine^ 



L U C R E TI U S> 



Book VI 



DocirinCj has fecretly veil'd with 
this Superftition. For to avoid 
openly to affert, that thore Gifts 
oFTEneas to Dido, as being fav*d 
from the Deftrui3:ion of Troy, 
were unlucky to her, he has infi- 
nuated that they were fo by a 
Circumlocution, in the following 
Verfes : 

Munera pr;eterea Iliacijs erepta 

ruinis 
Ferre jubet, pallam fignis auro- 

que rigentem, 
Ornatus Ar^iwx Helen^e, quos 

ilia Mycenis, 
Pergama cum peteret, inconcef- 

foique Hymenaos, 
Extulerat, Ledas matris mirabi- 

ledonum. ^n. i. \, 6^1, 

And foon after j v. ^83. 

Dona ferens pelago, & flammis 
reftantia Troj«. 

This Statins underftood, and has 
imitated lib, 2. Thebaid* 

Kecmirumt nam tu infauftos, 

donante marito, 
Ornatus Argiva geris, dirumque 

monile 
Hermiones. Longa eft feries, fed 

nota malorum 
i^erfequar, undenovis tarn farva 

potentia donis. 

The Bcltof Pallas too flrengthens 
this Opinion : For i^neas would 
have fpar'd the Life of the pro- 
strate Turnus, had not that un- 
lucky Token, which Turnus had 
taken from the ilain Palias, calPd 
afreili to his Remembrance, and 
renew'd his Grief for, the Lofs of 
liis deareft Friend : 



-=-- Stetft acer in armis 

^neas, volvens oculos, dextram- 

que repreflit : 
£t jam iamque magis cundan- 

€em fleclcre fermo 
Cceperat ^ inf^elix humero Clim 

spparuit ingciis 



Balteus, & notis fulferunt cineu 

la bullis ^ 

Pallantis pueri, vi<ftum quem vul 

nere Turnus 
Straverat, atque humeris inim: 

cum Infigne gerebat. 
I lie oculis poftquam fxvi mom 

menta doloris, 
Exuviafque haufit ; furiis accer 

fus, &: ira 
Terribilis : Tune hie fpoliis ii 

dute meorum 
Eripiare mihi ? Pallas te hoc vu 

nere, Pallas 
Inimolat, & pcenam fcelerato € 

fanguine fumit. 

And Homer, in like manner, d( 
fcribes Achilles fwelling wit 
Rage and Fury , at fight < 
the Arms that Hecftor had take 
from Patroclus, As to the Day 
fuch as were noted for any Qve; 
throw in Battel, or any the lilt 
unfortunate Event, were call' 
religiofi, nefafti, and atri ; of a 
which fee Agellius, lib. i. cap. i\ 
who there fully handles this Mai 
ter : To which I will only ad 
this Paflage out of Tacitus, lib. 
Hiftor. Funefti ominis loco ai 
ceptum eft, quod maximum Poi 
tificatum adeptus Vetellius c 
CeremoniisXV. Cal. Aug.edixi 
fet, antiquitriSinfaufto die Crc 
merenfi Allienliq; dadibus. 
Names, fome were Omens of Pre 
fperity and Diuturnity; other 
of the contrary : CraiTus, Vak 
rius, Macrobius, Lucius, Lucri 
were Names foreboded Good 
Plautus in Perf. Luc. Nomen at 
que Omen quantivis eft preti) 
Dor. Si te eam mihi quoque Lu 
cridem confido fore re. Furius 
Hoftilius, Macer, were ill Names 
Martial, lib. 5. Epigram. 2i 

Qiiineftum pro Decimo, pro Crai 
fo, Regule, Macrum 
Ante falutabat Rhetor Apol 
lonins. 

See like wife Feftus in Lacu Lu 
crino. Nor may we omit Aul 
Gellius, who Lib-, i. cap. 28 

fays : 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 

Forifthefe Bolts were thrown by Gods above, 
{85 Or if they were the proper Arms of Jove j 



64; 



N r B S. 



Why 



ays : Cavenda igitur non im- 
>ropriecas fola verbi, fed etiam 
►ravitas animi, ii ^luis fe nunc 
enior Advocatus adolefcenti fu- 
ter efTe dicat. Places were held 
o be ominous, cither from their 
>Tames, or for their having been 
olluted with dead Bodies, or o- 
herwife: Plautus in Menjechm. 
; lad regard to the Name t Ne 
i aihi Damnum in Epidamno du- 
j ,s. And Petronius : Epidamni 
I "Nomina quaere. As to any Thing 
hat foreboded ill in the Places 
hemfelves, we find a remarka- 
ble Teftimony in Tacitus, An- 
nal. lib. i. where Germanicus 
>urges by Sacrifices the Places 
I vhere Varus had encamp'd with 
lis whole Army : Quid Tiberio_> 
ays he, baud probatum, feu cun- 
ila . Germanic! in deterius tra- 
henti , five exercitum imagine 
:<eforum infepultorumque tarda- 
cum ad pritlia, 8c formidolofio- 
rem hoftium credebat. Neque 
Imperatorem auguratis & vetu- 
ftimmis Casremoniis pr«ditum 
attrecftare feralia debuilTe. Of 
Cloaths or Garments we have an 
In/lance in Q. Curtius, who be- 
liev'd them ominous, and even to 
portend the Change of Empire in 
Alexander, inafmuch as he af- 
fe<f^ed and took delight to wear a 
foreign, or Perfian Drefs : To 
which the judicious TertuUian 
feems to allude : Vides, fays he, 
quafdam & capillu m croco ver- 
tere : Pudet eas etiam nationis 
fu«, quod non Germania aut 
Gallia procreate fint. Ita patri- 
am capillo transferunt. Male ac 
peflime fibi aufpicantur f^ammeo 
capite. Whereby flammeo capite, 
he means that perpetual Fire, 
which in another Place he calls 
ignem jugem. St. Jerome in like 
manner. Ne caput gemmis one- 
f§s, n% ^apillum irir^fesj ^ ^i 



aliquid de Gehenna ignibus au- 
fpiceris. This PafTage is in the 
Epiftle to La;ta, and no doubt 
copy'd after TertuUian. as many 
other Paflages in that Father are. 
384. For if, &c.] Here the 
Poet takes away the Thunder 
from Jupiter, and the other Gods, 
who feem to him not to imploy 
it fo prudently as it were to be 
wifli'd they did : and at the fame 
time he overthrows the whole 
pocftrine ofjithe Tliufcans : for, 
if it be not the Gods who dare 
the Thunder, there can be no Di- 
vination by Thunder : And if 
they do, why do they let the 
Wicked efcape, and often deftroy 
the Innocent ? What docs it avail 
the Thunderer , to launch his 
Bolts upon uninhabited Defarts ? 
What, when he throws his uner- 
ring Shafts into the middle of the 
Sea ? Or upon the bare Tops of 
Mountains, which he does very 
often ? And laftly, why is there 
no Thunder without Clouds ? 
Why does he ftrike down his own 
Temples, and thofe of his Under- 
Gods ? All this the Poet has in- 
cluded in 47. v. in which there 
are many Things fpoken fatiri- 
cally, and many by way of Deri^ 
fion. 

Gods above] For the Thufcaa 
Books taught, that Jupiter gave 
leave to nine Gods to dart Thun- 
der down upon the Earth, Plin. 
lib, 2. cap. 52. Arnobius, p. 122. 
Diis novem Jupiter poteltatem 
jaciendi fui fulminis permifit. 

385. The proper Arms of Jove ;3 
Why Jupiter is faid to be the Au- 
thour of Thunder and Light- 
ning, Pliny-, lib. 2. cap. 20, gives 
this Phvlical Reafon : The Fires 
of the three higheft Planets, fays 
he, falling to the Earth, bear the 
Name of Lightning : but chiefly- 
that of the three , which is plac'd 



644- LUCRETIUS. Book VI 

Why do the daring Wicked ftill provoke, 
Why ftill (in on, lecure from Thunder's Stroke ? 
Why are not fuch (hot thro*, and placd on high, Z 
As fad Examples of Impiety, > 

390 That Men may fin no more, no more defie ? 

An 
N O T £ 5. 



between the two others, that is to I 
fay, of Jupiter : becaufe, partici- 
pating of the exceffive Cold and I 
Moifture of the Circle of Saturn, 
which is above him, and of the 
immoderate Heat of Mars, that 
is next under him, he, by that 
means, difcharges the Superfluity 
of either : And hence it is com- 
monly faid. That Jupiter is the 
Darter of Lightning. But Seneca, 
much better than our Poet, and 
with more Analogy to Truth, 
takes not away the Thunder 
from Jupiter, when he fays, that 
Jupiter indeed is not the Darter 
of 'Thunder : but all Things are 
order *d in fuch a manner, that 
even the Things, that are not 
made by him, are not made with- 
out Caufe and Reafon, which are 
his : The Force and Power of 
them is his Permifllon : For tho* 
he make them not now himfelf,he 
wasthe Caufe,that they are made; 
Interim hoc dico, fulmina non 
mitti i Jove, fed fie omnia dif- 
pofita, utetiam ea, qua: ab iilo 
non fiunt, fine ratione non iiunt, 
quitilliuseft: Vis eorum illius 
permiflio eft : nam etfi Jupiter 
ilU nunc non facit, fecit ut fie- 
rent ; fingulis non adeft, fed fig- 
num, 8c vim, & caufam dedit 
omnibus. Thus Seneca in lib, 2. 
ISTat. Qu?jfl:. 48. who is miftaken 
only in the true Name ofthefirft 
Divine Caufe. Horace ; 

Tu parum caftis inimica mittes 
Fulmina lucis. 

And according to the Doctrine 
of the Tagetick Books , nothing 
was ever blafted with Fire from 
Heaven^ but what had before 



been ftain'd with fome Pollu 
tion. 

^S6. Why do, &c.] Senec 
propofes this Queftion in a fc\ 
Words : Quare Jupiter, aut ft 
rienda tranfit, aut innoxia ferit 
And the laft Exceptions, whic 
Lucretius brings againft Provi 
dence, are drawn from that com 
mon Obfervation ; Good Men ar 
oppreft with Trouble, and Mi 
fery, fubjecfl to all the Rage am 
Violence of the Wicked ; whilf 
the Impious fwell with the Glo 
ries, and revel in the Delights oi 
Life : This has been the Subjecf 
of many follicitous Difquifitions 
Difputes have been multiolied 
and fome have been as induitriou! 
to vindicate the Methods of Pro- 
vidence from all feeming Irr^gu- 
iarities,as others to defame them 
Some have fent us to look for Re- 
tribution in another World, and 
indeed this is an eafie way oi 
folving. the Difficulty, and with 
little Pains deducible from the 
immortality of the Soul, which I 
have already aflerted. But be- 
caufe to look beyond the Grave, 
requires a fliarp and fteddy Eye, 
I fliall obferve the Reafons ofthc 
Philofophers, and propofe what 
Plutarch has excellently deliver'd. 
And here we muft take notice, 
that only that part of the Objec- 
tion, which concerns the prospe- 
rity and impunity of the Wick- 
ed, feems formidable, and con- 
cluding ; for all thofe Men we ge- 
nerally call Good, as their own 
Confcience will tell them, defcrve 
thofe Afflidions which the moft 
miferable have endur*d.Andupon 
this the Poets, Orators, and Hi- 
ftorians have been very copious.^ 



3ook VI. LUCRETlVS. 64? 

And why does heedlefs Lightning blaft the Good, 
And break his Bones, or cruddle all his Blood ? 

Why 
NOTES. 



<rt fjLU 

dare to fay no Gods dired this 

i Whole, 

'>r Villains profperous diftracft 

my Soul. 

s Ariftophanes: and Diago- 
j 1 refolved to be an Atheift, as 
J iipiricus delivers , becaufe he 
« i not fee Vengeance fall pre- 
: icly on the perjur'd Perfon, 
; i confume himj Velleius Pater- 
<j us produces the long and 
«i let Reign of Orcftes, as a con- 
i cing Proof, that the Gods di- 
ll ied him to murther Pyrrhus ; 
J \ approv'd the Acftion : and 
} irtial has contraded all the 
I ce of the Argument into one 
" igram. 



jlos cfle Deos, inane Coelum 
^ ^irmat Selius, probatq; quod fe 
fium, dum negat hjec, videt 
teatum. 

icneca in his Treatife , Cur 

1 Whs bene & Bonis male, cum 

' ffl Providentia, talks much of 

i M Privilege of Sufferings, that 

ffli<ft argues Care, and Kind- 

i and, in fliort, thinks this a 

It Commendation of Vertue, 

,;, T|' Immortal Pow'rs have Sweat 
'ar Virtue plac'd. 

ut this is not the way to an- 

r.0.1 l«r the Demands of an Epicu- 

^ '"1, tofatisfiehis Doubts, who 

rather be accounted a happy 

'^^ ant, than a miferabic Son of 



the Deity, who would not be 
fond of Torments, that he might 
iliow fpedaculum Jove dignum, 
virum fortem cum mali fortuni 
compofitum : who cannot think 
that Fears and Jealoufies are the 
neccflary Produ<fis of irreligious 
Opinions; but makes fuch the 
only Means of obtaining Happi- 
nefs, and perfetft Serenity of Mind : 
who is moft delighted with the 
moft pleaiing Phylick,and would 
think him cruel,who makes ufe of 
Saws and Lances, when a gentle 
Cordial would reftore the Patient 
to his Health ; we muft therefore 
look for other Anfwers, and Plu- 
tarch prefents us with enough, 
fome of which have a peculiar 
Force againft the Epicureans; 
who confefs Man to be a free A- 
gent, and capable to be wrought 
on by Example and Precept. 

Firit then, Quick Vengeance 
does not blaft the Wicked, that 
they themfelves might learn Le- 
nity, and not be greedy to re- 
venge Injuries on others : rlh©* 
-r^v dyti^c^v to ojwojo^^vou 06w • 
'tis the end of goodMen to be li'ke 
God, fays Plato ; and Hierocles 
places the Life of the Soul in this 
Imitation : Here God fets forth 
himfelf an Example, and any- 
noble and generous Mind wpuld 
rejoyce to have the Moft Excel- 
lent for a Pattern of his A(flions t 
Lucretius follow'd Epicurus, be- 
caufe he thought him fo, and the 
reft of his Admirers make his 
fancy 'd Virtues the Ground of 
their Refpea. This, taken by it 
felf, I confofs, is but a weak An* 
Iwer, fince one Thunder-bolt 
would fecure them from doine 
Mifchief, whilft Mercy and For^ 
bearance often exafperate ; and» 
becaufe God holds his Tongue,, 
they thmk he is even fuch a one a< 
themfelves : bus if we confider jc 

as 



6^6 LUCRETIUS. Book V] 

Why GooD^iiid Pious Men thefe Bolts endure ? 
And Villains live, and fee their Fall fecure ? 

Whl 
N T £ ^. 



*sa Confequ«nt of another Rea- 
^n,that is drawn from the Good- 
nefs and Kindnefs of the Deity, 
then it proves ftrong, and fatis- 
fa<ftory. 

The fecond Reafon follows : 
God doth not prefently punifli 
wicked Men, that they may have 
time to become better ; and here 
Plutarch brings Examples of fuch, 
whofe Age was as glorious as their 
Youth infamous : if Miltiadev 
fays he, had been deftroy 'd, whilft 
he a<fted the part of a Tyrant ; 
ifCimonin his Inceft, or The- 
miftocles in his Debaucheries , 
what had become of Marathon, 
Erymedon and Dianium, what 
oFthe Glory and Liberty of the 
Athenians? for as the fame Au- 
thor obferves, «9gy ou f^zyelxou 

SC h%vr/let TO a(pQS^^v bt cwtcu^, 

y.a^ifmos- mSti^ 6ASr«V great 
Spirits do nothing mean, the ac- 
tive Principles that compofethem 
will not let them lie lazily at reft, 
but tofs them as in aTempeft, 
before they can come to a fteddy 
^nd fettled Temper.. 

Thirdly, the wicked are fome- 
times fpar*d to be Scourges to o- 
thers, and execute juft Judgment 
on Men of their own Principles : 
this is the Cafe of Tyrants and 
outragious Conquerous ; fuch 
was Phalaris to the Agrigentines, 
fuch Pompey and C«far to the 
Romans, when Vicfioryhad made 
^m fwell beyond their due 
Bounds ; and Pride and Luxury 
fled from other Countries upon 
the Wings of their Triumphing 
Eagles : Such Alexander to the 
Perfian foftnefs, and , if we look 
9broad,tcn thoufand Inftances oc- 
^ur, and prefs upon us y Qedre^ 



nus, Pag. 334. tells us, that whi 
a Monk enquired of God, wl 
he fuffer'd cruel Phocas, tre 
ckerous to his Emperour Mam 
tins, and an implacable Enemy 
the Chriftians, to obtain the £i 
pire, and enjoy Power as large 
his Malice ? a Voice, ctog^rc 
gave this Anfwer to his Deman 

TCOV )LCthl)tSv]ot)V <M Tjf <BfpM 

becaufe I could find none wo 
to fcourge the wickednefs of l 
Citizens: and Alaricus dedai 
^a \^iMv%s T* cK« 'srofsy/*. 
d^d riff )tct.9' sjto^MV hyx&i / 

"Boo/^cLicav^of^Maov tffoMV' 'tisr 
of my own accord that I atten 
this, butfomething will not 
me reft, but urges me on, ; 
criesy Go fack Rome : and i 
requires, that they fhould not 
only free from Puniihment, 1 
likewife enjoy Wealth,and Pov 
and all the Opportunitiesand 
ftrumentsof Mifchief : and i 
Anfwer is equal to the Objed 
in its greateft latitude, and gi 
Satisfadion to all thofe numer 
little Doubts, which lie in 
great Objecftion, as it was p 
pofed 
Fourthly, The impious are 



I 



I 



prefently confumM, that the I 
thod of Providence may be m ! 
remarkable in their Puniflimi . 
The Hiftory of BefTus and A • 
barzanes in Curtius is an ex • 
lent Inftance of this; and amor l» 
others, Plutarch gives us a 7" 
morableoneof Belfus, who, Vm 
ving kill'd his father, an J 
long time conceal'd it, went ;* 
Night to Supper to feme Frie »>! 
whilft he was there, with '* 
Spear he pulPd down a Swall '^ 
Neft, and kill'd the young Os, 
and the Rsafoji of fu^h a ftn ;« 
* ■ Ac '9 



1 



look VI. 



LUCRETIUS. 



647 



95 Why do they throw them oer a defart Plain, 
Why thro' the empty Woods, and toil in vain ? 
Is it to try their Strength ? or elfe in Plav 
The Wantons (port, and throw J • r £'s Bolts away ? 
Or why, the fenielefs Rocks, they idly wound ? 

DO Why blunt their Father's Bolts againft the Ground ? 
Why does he fuflfer this ? why not prepare. 
And keep his ufcful Arms for Times of War ? 
Left fome Gigantick, impious Rebels rife. 
And unprovided he (hould lofe the Skies. 
5 Why when the Heav'n is clear, no Thunder flics? 
What, when thick heavy Clouds o'eripread the Skies ? 

Does 
NOTES. 



iUon being demanded by the 
I lefts, his Anfwer was j *« :>^ 



>^c 



.^ 



KCtldi^ 



occaiv cag cCTreK" 



111 



1 ')\\!^ r 'orct'?*^ ; do not they 
tr fal(e Witnefs againft me, 
I cry out, that I kill'd my Fa- 
t| r ? Which being taken notice 
and difcover'd to the Magi- 
ate, the Truth appeared, and 
was executed. 

!l great many other Reafons 

ufually mention'd, but thefe 

the principal, and fuppofe 

Liberty of the Will i for if a 

|in follow Fate blindly, he is 

ven on, not perfwaded to a<ft : 

e be an Automatonjand move 

Wheels and Springs, bound 

h the Chain of Deftiny , 'tis 

dent that Fate is the Caufe of 

his Mifcarriagesj and the Man 

more to be blamed for wicked 

:ionSj than a Clock for irre- 

ar Strikings, when the Artift 

I gns it fhould do fo. No Ex- 

Dle can prevail en him, no 

'mifes entice, no Threatnings 

ght him; being as unfit to 

• r himfelf, or determine his 

\ A<rtions, as a Stone in its de- 

. and a piece of Iron may 

b^aid to ad as freely as a Man, 

■ le be led on by Fate, and its 

tion as fpontaneous, if Liber- 

vonfifted in a bare Abffnc? of 

1 >edimenti. 



Uit 



395. Whydo, &C.3 In theft 
10. V. he argues, fecondly, That 
Thunder is the Effe<Ji of natural 
Caufes, and not made by the 
Gods : for if it were, they would 
not be fo lavifli of their Bolts, as 
to throw them into folitary De- 
farts ! Had not Jupitef better 
keep them in ftore to deftroy his 
Enemies, in time of Need f 

405. Why when, &c.j The PoeC 
in thefe 8. v. argues, thirdly,^ 
That Thunder comes not by the 
Will of the Gods, but is made 
by the Laws of Nature : for o- 
therwife, why does it never come 
without Clouds and Noife { Why- 
does it fall alike upon the Seas 
and Earth ? "What Crime have 
the Waters been guilty of, that 
they are thus punifh'd ? 

The Heav'n is clear,] To what 
has been faid of this already in 
the Note on V. ($8. and the Ex- 
ample we gave v. 26^. in the Per- 
fon of M. Herennius, the Decu- 
rion, who was kill'd by Thunder 
in a clear Day, we add this of 
Lucan. lib. i. 

Emicuit caelo taciturn fine nubi- 

bus ullis 
Fulmen. 

And this Diftich, which we find 
in Twlly, de Diyinat. 

Auc 



•648 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book\! 



Does he defcend to take the furer Aim,' 
At nearer diftance then, and dart the Plame ? (thef • 
Why ftrike the Floods ? What mean fuch Bolts i 
'410 Is it to check the Fury of the Seas ? 

Poor weak Defign ! The troubled Waters roar. 
And, vex'd by whirling Flames, ftill rage the more. 

Befides: this Jov e is willing Men fhou'd fly 
Thefe Bolts, or not : if willing, tell me why 
'41 5 The Thunder is too Subtile for our Eye ? 
If not ; why does he (how the threatening Light ? 
And why o'erfpread the Heav ns with Clouds and 

Night ? 
And make a Noise, and give us Time for Flight? 
Befides: how can thefe Flames at once be thrown 
410 To difTrent Parts ? Or is it never done ? 
Does JoyE at once but throw a fingle one ? 

F(i 
NOTES. 



Aut cum terribili perculTus ful- 

mine civis 
Luce ferenanti vitalia lumina 11- 

quit. 

For they held that Thunder, in a 
clear and unclouded Sky, was an 
evincing Proof of a Deity, and a 
certain Prefage of feme extraor- 
dinary Event : Cicero, in great 
Indignation againil: the Atheifts 
of his Days, and fpeaking of this 
Accident, cries out : Negemus 
omnia, comburamus annales, A- 
dla ht^c efle dicamus ; quidvis de- 
nique potius, quam Deos res hu- 
nvanos curare, fateamur ? Lib. de 
pivinat. 

409. Why ftrike, &c.3 Why 
does he throw his Bolts on any 
Thing that is not guilty of fome 
Crime ? Thus Cicero, lib. 2. 
de Divinatione. Quid enim pro- 
ficit, cum in medium mare ful- 
men jacit Jupiter f Quid cum in 
altiflimos montes ? Quod ple- 
rumque fit. Quid cum in defer- 
tas folitudines ? Quid cum in ea- 
rum gentium oras , in quibus 
h«c ne obfervantur quidem ? 
And to the fame purpofe Arifto- 
^haaes, "Nt^iA. If Jupiter's Belts, 



fays he, are aim*d againft the] ■ 
jur'd, how comes it topafs, t J 
neither Simon, Cleonymus, i • 
Theodorus are blafted by t: : 
celeftial Flame ? They, who : 
perjur'd with a Witnefs ! V\ 
does his own Temple, why c . 
Sunion, the Promontory of . 
tica, and why do mighty Oa 
rather feel the Effect of the Fii 
No doubt, becaufe they are 
perjur'd. 

413. Befides, &C.3 In thefe 
V. he, by way of dilemma, p 
pofes two other wonderful An 
ments to deprive Jupiter of 
Thunder. Either he would h. 
us avoid his Bolts, or he woi 
not : If he would, why is 
Thunder fo fubtile, and fo fw , 
that we can not perceive it co • 
ing, and get out of its wa • 
And if he would not, why di 
he give us notice before hand : 
its coming, by overcafting 1 
Air with gloomy Clouds, by 1 
grumbling of his Thunder i & 

419. Befides, &:c.] In thefe 5 . 
he argues fixthly, That Thi* 
der muft be the Effe(ft of Natu , 
fince it thunders in feveral Pla 5 
at the fame time : a Task t 
laborit » 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 64^ 

Fond Fancy 1 For, as Rain, fo Lightning, flics 
To many Parts at once, and breaks the Skies. 
Nay more : Why does he beat the Temples down, 7 
415 Thofe of his Fellow-Gods, and of his own? '> 

Why docs he hurt, and break the facred Stone ? 3 
Why break the curious Statue, fpoil the Grace, 
And wound with iiry Bolts the facred Face ? 
Why does he feldom ftrike the humble Plain, 
430 But blunt his Fires on Hills and Rocks in vain ? 

And 
N O T £ 5* 

laborious for any one Jupiter. I lie vc, that Thunder is produc'd 
But let us hear Seneca delivering by natural Caufes, fince for the 



:he Opinion of the Antients up 
)n this Matter : They did not 
)elieve, fays he, that a Tupiter, 
ike him we worlhip in the Ca- 
jitol, darted his Thunders with 
lis Hand : but they meant the 
Mind and Spirit, who is the Ma- 
cer. Lord and Ruler of this 
vlundane Syftem, to whom every 
■"Tame agrees : TheThufcans too 
herefore held that Thunder is 
ent by Jupiter, becaufe nothing I 



moft Part it falls on the higheft 
Mountains. Doft thou not fee, 
fays Artabanus, the Unkle of 
Xerxes, that God ftrikes with his 
Lightning the largeft Animals 
nor fuffers them to grow infolent, 
and that he leaves the lefs unhurt ; 
Doft thou not fee that his firy 
Darts always throw down the 
moft lofty Edifices, and the tal- 
left Trees ? For God takes de- 
light to deprefs and humble the 



5 done without him. Ne hoc haughty. Herodotus, lib. 6, And 



uidcm crediderunt, Jovem, qua- 
em in Capicolio, &c in c^eteris 
.'dibus colimus, mittere manu 
"ulmina ; fed euudem, quern nos 
ovem, intelligunt, cuftodemre- 
^oremque univerfi, animum, ac 
piritura, mundani hujus operis 
omiiium, & artijficem, cui no- 
nen omne convenit. Idem Etruf- 
is quoque vifum eft : & ideo ful- 
aina ^ Jove mitti dixerunt, quia 
ne iilo nihil geritur. L. 2. Q; 45, 
424. Nay more, &c.3 IntSiefe 
V. he argues feventhly to this 
•urpofe : If Thunder were di- 
eted by the Will of the Gods, 
; it credible they would beat 
own their own ftately Temples ? 
Vould they dafh to pieces fuch 
laborate Statues, the very Ma- 
:er-pieces of Polycletes ? A poor 
iiean-fpirited Revenge ! The Poet 
|peaks this by way of Ridicule. 

429. Why does, arc] In thefe 
!wo yerfes he argues eightly : 
phat i( is but reafonable to be- 



Horace agrees with Lucretius 

Feriant altos 
Fulmina montes : 

Of which Seneca gives a Phyfical 
Reafon, and fays ; That the Tops 
of the Mountains, being oppolite 
to the Clouds, are expos'd to 
ftand the Brunt of every Thing- 
that falls from Heaven ; fo thac 
they intercept the Lightning in 
its Courfe. 

Thus Lucretius concludes his 
Difputation concerning this ama- 
zing Meteor; which made na 
fmall Part of the Religion of the 
Antient Romans, whofe many 
fuperftitious Opinions, concern- 
ing Thunder and Lightning will 
not improperly find a Place here ; 
and therefore I prcmife my k\f^ 
that the Reader will not be dil- 
pleas'd to fee them at one view, as 
I find them coileAed by Nardi- 
us, p. 452. in his 27th accurate 
Animadverfion on Lucretius. 
O o o THE 



/ 



6^o 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book VI 



THE 



Siiperftitious Opinions 



O F T H E 




ANTIENTS 

CONCERNING 

Lightning and Thunder 



H E Romans denv*d thefe fuperftitious Of 
nions from the Thufcans, and, foon imbibii 
the Precepts of this new Religion, they cor 
rnitted them to the Care of certain Prieft: 
who neverthelefs, difmay'd at the Enormi 
of fome Lightnings, did, at the general R 
queft of the People, repair to the Thufcan Augurs, fro 
whom they had their firft Inftrudlions, to be informed wh 
thofe dreadful Sheets of FJame, and Burfts of horrid Thu; 
der portended : For the Thufcans, as Diodorus Siculus, lib. 
cap. 9. witneffes of them, having imploy'd much Time 
fearching into the Caufes of natural Events, and in the Stuc 
6f Theology, were of all Men the moft knowing in the I 
terpretation of Lightning : infomucb, fays he, thar^ even ! 
this Day, almoft the whole World admire their depth of Sc 
cnce, and apply to them to be inftrudfced in the Art of inte 
|)reting that celeftial Fire. Verrius, the Grammarian, r 
iates, that thefe Thufcan Diviners were fent for to Rom 
dnd,, being difaffeded to the Romans, wilfully ordcrd undi 
Sacrifices, and fuch as were difpleafing to the Gods t ar 
that,' by their treacherous Advice, the People of Rome wej 
on unfonanately to remove the famous Statue , 
" "" "^ Horatii 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS, 6^i 

Horatius Cochles to a certain Place, where, being furrounded 
by high built- Houfes, the Sun might never fhine upon It: 
bur, their Treachery being diCcover'd, they were accus'd be- 
fore the People, and, being convided of the Perfidy, were 
put to Death : And upon this Occafion was made this fenary 
yerfe. 

Malum confilium confultori peflimum eft, 

which was fung about by the Boys in all the Streets of 
Rome. This Accident of the Thufcan Augurs increas'd 
the Credit of the Books of the Sybils, which, according to 
Servius on Mn, 6. were kept in the Temple of Apollo, as 
well as of thofe of the Marfians, and of the Nymph Bygois, 
who had writ the Art of Divination, as pra6tis'd by the 
Thufcans. 

We have already fpoken in the foregoing Notes of the 
Matter, of which the Antients held Lightning to confift, 
ind of the manner of its Generation, which 'tis needlefs to 
•epeatin this Place : we likewife have faid already, that the 
La tines often confounded fulgur and fulmen : and how rhey 
:ame to do fo, Feftus teaches in thefe Words : Fulgere Prifcl 
pro ferire dicebant, unde fulgur didiumeft; fulguratum id, 
quod eft fulmine idtum. And they belie v'd there was. no 
Dther difference between them, than only that of more or 
lefs, which among Logicians makes no difference whatever 
Df the Species : And we find a remarkable Paffage in Sene- 
:a, who, after an accurate Diiputation, concludes, by deter- 
mining the Difference between fulgur and fulmen, as foi* 
ows : Ergo, fays he, & utramque rem ignem effe conftar, 
5c utramque rem inter fe meando diftare. Fulguratio eft 
fulmen non in terras ufque perlatum & rurfus licet dicas, 
ulmen effe fulgurationem ufque in terras perdudam. Noti 
id exercendum verba haec diutius pertra^fto, fed uc i(ta 
ognata effe, & ejufdem notse, ac naturae probem. Fulmeq 
:ft quiddam plus, quam fulguratio : vertamus iftud ; ful- 
»uratio eft pene fulmen. Nat. Qus^ft. lib. z. cap. ii. And 
n Quaeft. 57, of the fame Book: Er, ut brevicer dicam, 
iays he, quod fentio, fulmen eft fulgur intentum. : And lib. 
:itat. Quseft. 16. Quid ergo inter fulgurationem 8c fulmen 
ntereft.^ Dicam: Fulguratio eft late ignis explicitus : Ful- 
men eft co^dus ignis, 8c impetu fadus. 



6^2 LUCRETIUS. Book V] 

The Poets, according to their Cuftom, fliadow'd th( 
Nature of either Fire under the Veil of Fables, which ne 
verthelefs Servius accurately explains, upon the followin 
Paffage of Virgil, which I am oblig'd to tranfcribe at iengti 
for the better Underftanding of what follows : 

Infula Sicaniam juxta latus ^oliumque 
Erigitur Laparen, fumantibus ardua faxisJ 
Quam fubter fpecus, 8c Cyclopum exefa caminis 
Antra iEtnaea tonant, validique ipcudibus idus 
Auditi referunt getnitum, ftriduntque cavernis 
Stridlurje chaiybum, 8c fornacibus ignis anhelat : 
yulcani domus 8c Vulcania nomine tellus. 

^n. 8, V. 41^ 

^hich is thus render'd by Dryden : 

Sacred to Vulcan's Name, an Ifle does lie 
Between Sicilians Coaft and Lipare ; 
Rais'd high on fmoking Rocks j and deep below 
In hollow Caves the Fires of ^tna glow. 
The Cyclops here their heavy Hammers deal : 
Loud Strokes and Hiflings of tormented Steel 
Are heard around : the boiling Waters roar. 
And fmoking Flames thro' fuming Tunnels foar. 

This Paflage ''of Virgil is explain 'd by Servius, as follows 
By Vulcan, fays he, is meant Fire, which is call'd VuIcanuJ 
quafi Volicanus, becaufe it flies thro' the Air : For Fire i 
generated in the Clouds: And for this reafon too Home 
fays, that Vulcan was precipitated from the Air upon Earth 
becaufe all Lightnings fall from out the Air : and becauli 
it often lightens in the Ifland Lemnos, therefore Vulcan i 
faid to have fallen upon that Ifland. Vulcanus, ut diximus 
ignis eft, 8c didlus Vulcanus, quafi Volicanus, quod pei 
aerem volar, ignis enim nubibus nafcitur. Unde etiam Ho 
merus dicit eum de mare prajcipitatum in terras, quod o»;ine 
fulmen ab aere cadit : quod quia crebro in Lemnum infulair 
jacitur, ideo in eam dicitur Vulcanus cecidifle. Thus Ser- 
vius: and this Fall of Vulcan is defcrib'd by Milton in the 
following Verfes, 

1, ., i .!« Ir 



l3ook VI. LUCRETIUS. 6^ 

m In Aufonian Land 
Men call*d him Mulciber : and, how he fell 
From Heav'n, ihey fabled, thrown by angry Jove 
Sheer o'er the chriftal Battlements. From Morn 
To Noon he fell, from Noon to dewy Night j 
A Summer's Day : and with the fetting Sun 
Dropt from the Zenith, like a falling Star, 
On Lemnos, th* ^gean Ifle. — — • 

The fame Servius, on the above- cited Paffage, teaches, that 
'^ulcan is faid to be lame, becaufe Flame, by Nature, is 
everftrait : Claudus autem dicitur Vulcanus, quia per na- 
jram nunquam redtus eft ignis. And, what is more than all 
lis; Virgil fays, the Thunder is forg'd in fubterranean 
)averns : 

Hie tunc ignipotens coelo defcendit ab alto : 
Ferrum exercebant vafto Cyclopes in antro,- 
Brontefque, Steropefque, & nudus membra Pyracmon: 
His informatum manibus jam parte polita 
Fulmen erar, toto genitor quae plurima coelo 
Dejicit in terras, pars imperfecta manebat: 
Tres imbris torti radios, tres nubis aquofae 
Addiderant, rutuli tres ignis & alitis Auftri.' 
Fulgores nunc terriftcos, fonitumque, metumque,' 
Mifcebant operi, flammifque fequacibus iras. 

Mn. 8. V.424;, 

Hither the Father of the Fires, by Night, 
Thro' the brown Air precipitates his Flight ; 
On their eternal Anvils here he found 
The Brethren beating, and the Blows go round : 
A Load of poindefs Thunder now there lies 
Before their Hands, to ripen for the Skies : 
Thefe Darts for angry Jove they daily caft, 
Confum'd on Mortals with prodigious Wafte : 
Three Rays of writhen Rain, of Fire three more'j 
Of winged Southern Winds and cloudy Store 
As many Parts the dreadful Mixture frame ; 
I And Fears are added, and avenging Flame. 

Dryd. 

1 lie Phyfiology of which is thus explain'd : Vulcan is faid 
) have a Forge in thofe Places, between Mount ^cna and 



6i4- LUCRETIUS. Book Vl 

the Illand Lipare, that is to fay, between Fire and Wind 
becaufe thofe two Things are very pro|>er, nay neceflarii 
for Smiths : Phyfiologia eft, cur Vulcanus in ipfis locis ot 
ficinam habere fingatur inter -ffitnam & Lipatim, fcilice 
propter ignem 6c ventos, quae apta funt fabris; fays Nar 
dius, in Prolufione de Igne Subterraceo, The feveral Office 
of his Servants, 

Brontefque, Steropefque, 8c nudus membra Pyracmon,' 

their very Nam^s in part declare: For Brontes was fo cair4 
^ r? g)f ov?^>, from Thunder : Sreropes, ^nv '^ ^ipvTrli^f froD 
l^ightning: and Pyracmon, ^VtS wu^^V ^ 7§ axyugjf^, be 
caufe be never ftirs from the burning Anvil : And Virgi 
himfelf more particularly, Georg. 4. v. 170. 

Ac veluti lentis Cyclopes fulmina maiHs 
Cum properant : alij taurinis follibus auras 
Accipiupt, redduntque : alij ftridentia tingunt 
iffira lacu ; gemit impoiitis incudibus iEcna : 
Illi int^r fefe nugna vi brachia tollunt 
In numerum ; verfantque tenaci forcipe ferrUm. 

'As when the Cyclops, at th* Almighty Nod, 
New Thunders haften for their angry God ; 
Subdu'd in Fire the ftubborn Metal lies : 
One brawny Smith the preiling Bellows plies. 
And draws, and blows reciprocating Air j 
Others to quench the hiifing Mafs prepare : 
With lifted Arms they order ev'ry Blow, 
And chime their founding Hammers in a Row : 
With labour*d Anvils ^tna groans below. 
Strongly they ftrike ; huge Flakes of Flame expire : 
^With Tongs they turn the Steel, and vex it in the Fire. 

Dryd 

Moreover: On the antient Marbles, Thunder is figur'd 
Mrith twelve Rays, difpos'd into a Circle j the Rays noi 
ftrait, but bending into feveral Angles ; each of which end; 
in three fliarp-pointed Fangs : Such too is the Figure of thij 
Virgilian Thunder : Of whofe Form Cerdarius thus : It ge 
nerally thunders, either when it hails, or in great Showerj 
of Rain, or when the Air is hot and fultry, or laftly, wher 
ih^. Winds blow : Now by Rain, Imber tortus, Virgil mean; 

Hail 



A^\ t' by aquofie hubcs, greit Showers of Rain : by ignis; 
he li^atcd fiiltry Air, and by Aiifter Blafts of Wind : Fot 
rcmpdts are tnofc frequent when Aufter, the South Wind, 
)Jows, than when any other. 

After this, not ufclefs, but neceflary, Digreflion, it is time/ 

return and keep clofe to our Subjedk : Firft then : The 

^rt and Dodrine of Thunder, according to Seneca, is di- 

ided into three Parts : t. Inveftigatioh. il. Interpretation. 

II. Exoration. The firft Part relates to the Form : the fe- 

ond, to Divination : the third, to the Propitiation and Paci- 

catioB of the Gods; of whom, fays he, we ought to pray for 

pcd Things, and to deprecate from us all manner of Evil : 

3 pray, that they would make good their Promiles : todepre- 

ate, that they would remit their Threats : befides, to im- 

•recate and draw down Thunder On the Heads of our Ene- 

lies : which laft I add to Seneca ; not to give occafion tD 

he learned Muretus, to take in ill part the OmifTion of it. 

The Form, I interpret to l^e the Species and Nature of the 

lightning, together, with whatever elfe can conduce to the 

^hyfical and perfe<St Knowledge of it : in the dilquifition of 

vhich, according to the Thufcans/ its Rife, that is to 

iy, whether it burfts out of the Earth, or breaks from the 

ikies, defervedly claims the firft to be inquired into. Now 

be Thufcans held that the earthly Lightning darts in a ftraic 

Ant ; the aerial, obliquely. It was believ'd to be of great 

vioment too, from what part of Heaven the Lightning 

ame; whither it directed its Courfe, and where it fell. 

•or we muftnot forget what Pliny, lib. 2. cap. 54. teaches j 

ifhat the Thufcans of old divided and quarter'd out the 

-leavens into fixteeu Parts, which they call'd Temples, as is 

•/bferv'd by Varro de Lingua Latina, lib. 3. Nor did they 

ay any fmall Strefs upon this Circumftance : whether the 

Thunder ftruck down the ftrongeft Buildings, and over- 

jurn'd the Towers and Caftles of Kings ; or whether it was 

weak, and vanifh'd inoffeniive in the Air. Its Force and 

/"iolence too was likewife confider'd : that is to fay, whe- 

herit ftruck in an Inftant, or linger'd in its Flight ; and, in 

bme Meafure, gave warning of the Blow : They likewife 

3bfervM the Size and Magnitude of it : w hich they mea- 

ar'd and determin'd by the Events and Effeds it produced. 

iefides, by the Confent of all, there are properly three 

brts of Lightning, which, according to Seneca, are, I. That 

vhich pierces. II. That which fhakes to pieces : And 

11, That which burns : According toSeryius, which blafts, 

which 



6>6 LUCRETIUS, Book VI 

which burns, which cleaves; and according to Feftus 
which burns, which blafts, which pierces : and from heno 
it came to be call'd trifujcum, three-fork'd : untefs we hac 
rather afcribe that Epithet to the three Kinds of Lightnin] 
mehtion'd by Pliri)?, i. e. the dry, the humid, and th\ 
-bright ; which were fo call'd from their Effedts : For th 
dry does not burn, but difllpate : the humid does no 
-burn, but infufcates: and that, which they call'd the bright 
is indeed of a wonderful Nature, as we fhall fee by and by 
I go now to that fortof Lightning that infufcates, or render 
fwarthy the Things it ftrikes : Now this, fays Seneca, eithe 
ftains, or colours: which is thus diftinguifti'd : Thatisfai* 
to be ftain'd, whofe Colour is tarnifh'd, not chang'd : Tha 
to be coloured, whofe Colour is chang'd from what it wa 
-before; as cerulean, or black, or pale, Scd They obferv' 
befides, the manner of the Lightning s coming, and the Nun 
•ber of the Flafhes and Claps ; whether even or odd : an( 
-whether alone, or with Hail or Rain : They had regard be 
fides to the Quality of it, whether it were refplendent an 
glittering ; which, perhaps, is that which Suidas call 
white ; or fwarthy an^d obfcure : And it was of the greate! 
Importance, whether it thundered in a clear or cloudy Sky 
whether in the Night, or by Day : whether in the Morninj 
or the Evening, or at Noon : Andfo much for the Diagnc 
ftick Part : We come now to the Prognoftick or Divining. 
The Prognoftick Dodl:rine of Lightning was, no doub 
contain'd in their Fulgural Books, and the Prieft, or Interpni 
, ter of Lightning, was call'd Fulgurator. The Antients afcribH 
to Lightning and Thunder a Power of foreboding futui 
Events, fuperiour to all other ominous Portents : For wha'j 
€vei= any other Omens might have portended as a fix'd ani 
certain Event, was all taken away and held to be of no EfFenf 
if Thunder chanc'd to intervene : but not on the contrary : ft 
whatever Thunder had portended was unalterable, and coty] 
not be chang'd by the Intervention of any other Omen wh|t 
«ver. It is not certain, who they were that, did at firft 
•ftinguifti Lightning into two forts ; Brutum & Fatidicunl 
Brute and Fatidick, or Fate-fortelling, as they afterwartj 
call'd them : for they held, that, whatever was the Cauj^ 
of Lightning, it was always deftin'd to forebode fome fi . 
ture Event : whether it proceeded from a fortuitous CoM' 
lifion of the Clouds, as the Latines believ'd: or whetb< 
the Clouds fufTer'd that Collifion, by the Command of ^j 
Deity, that Lightning might be ftruckoutof them by thJ 

Mearl 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 6^7 

VIeans, which was the Belief of the Thufcans, who like- 
vife held, that Lightning does not portend, becaufe it is 
jnade, but is n:iade on purpofe that it may portend fome- 
Ihing. But Pliny, lib. 2, cap. 43. fays, That no doubt 
iortuljlb Lightnings do fometimes happen j which, either 
I oreboirnoching at all ; or at leaft if they do, the Know- 
j,edge of what they portend comes not to us. Hence they^ 
vere call'd Brute Lightnings, as coming on noDefign, and, 
s I may fay, upon no Errand whatever. Thefe, fays Se- 
eca, ftrike the Mountains, fall into the Seas, and do no 
lanner of Harm : But the Lightnings that are call'd Fati- 
ick , come from their own Stars, and are deftin'd to fore- 
ode fome unavoidable Event : Of thefe, fays Csecinna, 
lere are thre» forts : which he calls Confiliarium, audrori- 
uis, and flatus: The Confiliarium, or Counfel-giving, pre- 
edcs the Ad:ion, but comes after the Thought : as when' 
/e are confidering in our Minds, whether we fliall do a 
jicain thing or nor, and are perfwaded to do it by a Flafh 
f Lightning, or diffuaded from the Attempt : That of Au- 
lority comes after the Adiion is done, and forebodes whe- 
ler the Event will be profperous or unlucky : That which 
e calls Status, of Station, is when Lightning happens at a 
me when we are in total Inadlion, neither doing, nor even 
linking of any thing : this either threatens, or promifes, or 
dmoniflies : therefore he calls it Monitorium, Monitory : 
le makes no mention of a fourth forr, which was call'd Exe- 
'^; ucivum, the Executive, and that inflids Punifhments on 
* rranfgrefTours : of which anon. 

But before we proceed any farther, it will be necefTary, 
> know from whom thefe Thunders were fent : The Thuf^ 
an Books, as Pliny wicneffes, taught, that nine Gods had 
le Privilege of darting thefe firy Bolts, and that there are 
leven kinds of them ; of which Jupiter launches but three: 
X thefe eleven forts the Romans retained but two : and 
fcrib'd the diurnal to Jupiter, the nodlurnal to Pluto : The 
rft Manubia, as they call'd it, that is. Thunder- bolt of 
upiter, gently forewarns, and is mild : this he fends at his 
wn Pleafure, Vv^heneverhe will : He indeed fends a fecond - 
lut by the Advice of his Council, which confifts of twelve 
Tods, whom he fummons for that purpofe. This Shaft does 
)mctimes do Good : but in fuch a manner that the Good 
: does is always attended with fome Hurt ; Its Chaflife- 
nts avail, but punifh. The fame Jupiter fends alfo a third 
t 'j biu nor wiihout the Advice and Confent of ihe Gods, 
P p p p whom 



6^r LUCRETiVS. Book V| 

whom they callDij Majores, Dij Valentes, ScDij Potcntei 

;^£o) ijLiydhQi^ Srso] xpMffdi, ^ Ssol ^vvM, This Bolt deftroy 
whatever it meets ; it changes and overturns the State cj 
Things, as well publick as private : For Fire fuffers nothin 
to remain in the fame Condition in which it finds ityK^hesj 
plunder the Armoury of Jupiter, (Acron in Horat.) alKarc! 
referving to him the red and bloody Thunderbolts, they a 
iign the white and black co Minerva 



Sclt triile Minerva 



Sydus • Mn, 8. 265. 

Hence Minervales Manubi2e> fays Servius on that PafTage 
Virgil, by the Power of which the Grecian Fleet was driv< 
on the Rocks of the Mountain Capharcus, and perifh 
there. Nor is Pallas idle. 

Prima*' corufcanti fignum dedit ^gide Virgo, 
Fulmineam jaculata facem ' Place. Argonaut 

And (he is the more to be fear'd, becaufe not content wi 
her own, but 



Fulmine irati Jovis 



Armata Sen. Trag. Agamemn,^ 

arm'd with the Thunder of angry Jove, fhe threatens foi 
and exterminates her Enemies. This Privilege Juno e 
vies her, 

Ipfa Jovis rapidum jaculata e nubibus ignem, 
Disjeciique rates, evertitque sequora ventis* 

^n. I. V. 4 

For Minerva could come at the Thunder, when flie woul 
as ftie herfeif boafts in ^fchines in Eumen, 

'£v oS Kspco'vos" '^. V ■ ' ■ 

I alone, of all the Gods, know the Keys of the Magazirf 
"where the Thunder is kept. And Servius, ex Ac^io, obfervt , 
that Juno loo had her Thunder : Hence fhe upbraids Jupit 
for dartifig her Thaaderbolts : 

' M' 



Book VL LUCRETIUS. 6^^ 

. . Mea fulmina torques. Scad us. 

i Thus we have three thundering Gods i Mars was the fourth, 
and his Bolts are red-hot and burning : thofe of Saturn, 
I cruel and execrable, nor are Pluto's more mild: What can 
I we expedl from Vulcan and the Souths Wind, which is faid 
\ to be pollens fulminibus, potencin Thunderbolts? 
I The Romans, loath to weary fo many Gods, gave the 
i Thunder but to two : They aiTign'd the DayrLightning to 
Jupiter, who was call'd Diefpiter, i. e. the Father of the 
. Day : and the Night-Lightning to Pluto : The Lightning 
' which they caird, Fulmen pervorfum, becaufeic was uncer- 
tain whether it happen'd in the Night, or by Day, they gave 
fometimes to the one, fometimes to the other. Befides this, 
they had L their Poftularia Fulmina, which fignify'd the 
Breach of Vows, and the profane Negledl of religious Sa» 
crilices: IL Monitoria, by which they were taught what 
:o avoid. IIL Peftifera, Lightnings, which portended Death 
md Banilhment. IV. Fallacia, which were fatal under an 
ippearance of Good: Thefe gave the Confulftiip to Perfons, 
:o whom that Office would be fatal ; and an Inheritance to 
thofe who were to be ruin'd by getting it. V. Deprecanea, 
which brought a (hew of Danger where there was none, 
VI. Peremptalia, which utterly deftroy'd the threatning 
ii Tokens of other Lightnings. VIL Atteftata, that confirm'd 
|:he Pfomifesof former. VIII. Atterranea, that happen'd in 
:lofe Places. IX. Obruta, by which Things that had been 
[truck before, were ftruck again, before they had been purg'd 
by Sacrifice. X. Regalia, which fell upon the Courts of }u^ 
ftice, or other publick Buildings, or Places, belonging to a 
free City. Concerning the Duration, they fay. That Light- 
tiings are either I. Perpetua, whofe Tokens belong to the 
whole Life : nor does this fort denounce one fingic Thing 
Dnly, but embraces the whole Context and Series of w^hat* 
ever is to happen in the future Age of a Man. Thefe are 
the Lightnings that happen next after the Enjoyment of a 
patrimonial Eftate, and in any new Circumftance or Condi- 
tion of any Man, or City. .11. Finita, whofe Prognoftlcations 
jSxtend only to a certain Day. III. Prorogativa fulmina, 
lare thofe whofe Threats may be delay'd to be executed, but 
can never be wholely averted, or taken away : And fuch 
of thefe as they call'd Privata, becaufe they related only to 
particular Ferfons^ they held could not be delay *d formor^ 
^ ^ ? P P P ^ '" ?^-*^ 



66o LUCRETIUS. Book VI 

than ten Years, except from the Day of firft Marriage, oi 
the Birth -Day : nor the Publica, which regarded Commu 
nities, and civil Societies, for above thirty Years, except ii 
the Dedication of Towns. 

Moreover : We faid before, that the Lightnings, whic 
fly in a diredt Line, burft out of the Earth : Thefe the Thu 
Leans call'd Infera, they are moft frequent in the Wimei 
and are held to be the moft fatal and execrable ; becaui 
they come from a fmall Diftance, and out of a troublon 
Matter. The Syderial and General, which dart obliquel3 
and from thence are call'd Oblita Fulmina, are not alwa^ 
lucky, and the moft unlucky of them are thofe that go froi 
iWeft to North : Thus it is of the higheft Importance, frot 
-whence the Lightning comes, and which way it dired:s i 
Courfe. The moft lucky is that which returns towards the E: 
ilern Parts of the Heavens : Therefore when they come froi 
that Part of Heaven, and incline the fame way again, the 
portend the greateft felicity : We read that an Omen of th 
fort was given to Sylla the Didtator. The others in th; 
part of the World are lefs profperous, if not abfolutely ui 
iucky. They held it unlawful to interpret, or even to inquii 
into fome : unlefs they were fent as Lidications of futu: 
Lvents to a Gueft, or a Parent : The Lightnings that hai 
pen'd on the lefc were efteem'd lucky, becaufe the Eaft is 
the left part of the World : The coming of it was not 
much regarded, as its return: whether Fire rebounded fro 
the Stroke, or whether the Work being perfected, or tl 
Fire confum'd, the Blaft returned back. The Greeks in g 
neral, and fome of the Latines, held the Lightning on tl 
right to prefage good Fortune : Of this we have frequei 
Fxamples in Xenophon, fome in Homer, and many in tl 
Latine Poets : However they all agreed, that none portendc 
good Fortune, except thofe that happen'd in the Day: fo 
afmuch as the nodlurnal were unlucky, from whatever pa 
of Heaven they came. There is a Verfe of Ennius records 
by Cicero de Divinat. lib. a. which makes ro our preil^ 
Purpofe : 

Cum tonult Ixvum bene tempeftate fcrena. 

And tho', as Capitolinus tells us in the Life of M. Antonim 
Pius, the Lightning was innoxious, that in a clear Sky f« 
into the Court of" his Palace, yet it was ominous, and 
Prefage of Deatii to Tirus. Diodorus Siculus, and Suctopii 

' ' hot 



Cook VI. LUCRETIUS, 66i 

)och witnefs in general, that in thofe Days Lightnings were 
i)fcen fecn in a ferene and unclouded Sky : but thole Hifto- 
lianshave neither of them thought fit to particularize any 
)fthem. 

Befides : They had great Regard to the Number of the 
?la(hes : and an even Number leems to portend good For- 
une, rather than an odd : at leaft, it betokens neither Ca- 
amity nor Death : But if the Lightning fell on Temples, or 
^ublick Buildings, or if Men were blafted by it, in either 
)t thofe Cafes, it was judg'd to fignify fome great Misfor- 
ane : To a free City it threaten'd a Kingly Power : and to 
)thers the Subverlion of their prerentState,or total Deftru(5l:i- 
)n. And this, as Cicero in Vatin. obferves, was the reafon, 
hac from the firft Building of the City, it was not permit- 
ed, but even held irreligious, to hold any Aflembly of the 
^eople, or to continue the Sittings of their Courts of Juftice, 
vhenever it happen'd to thunder. And Livy, lib. 5. Decad. 3. 
elates, that Marcellus, being created Conful, was removed 
rem that Office, becaufe it had thundered, when he enter'd 
ipon the Confular Dignity : what would have been done, 
f a Tempeft of Wind and Hail had accompany'd the Thun- 
ler ? Which Accident was held to forebode Calamity : And, 
iven at Rome, as the fame Livy, lib. i o. Decad. 4. affirms, 
L Tempeft only did fometimes make the Senate break up 
\ heir Affemblies : For the Minds of Men had already imbib'd 
he fuperftitious Credulity, that Lightning portended future 
Events, and gave Tokens, not of particular Things only, 
uit denounced in a fucceffive order the whole Series of 
"iiture Fates : and that too by Decrees more plain and evi- 
lenr, than if they had been written in themoft vifibleCha- 
iders : This Seneca teaches, Nar. Qua^ft. 32. lib. 2. 
i^iiny too feems to have been tainted with the fame Superfti- 
tion, for lib. 2. cap. 53. he fays in exprefs Terms, That the 
Science of the Interpretation of Lightnings was improved to 
diat Degree, as was evident from innumerable, both pub- 
lick and private. Examples, that it foretold what (hould 
happen even on a fix'd and certain Day, and whether the 
'i Lightning foreboded the delay, or the total Obftrudlion of 
Fates, already foretold, or reveal'd, or gave Tokens of 
others, that lay till then conceal'd : Wherefore let them be, 
as it has pleas 'd Nature to make them, certain to fome, 
doubtful to others, approv'd by fome, and condemn'd by 

)ihers. Thus Pliny, 

k 



Uz LUCRETIUS. Book Vi 

Ic now remains, that we fay fomething of their Expi I 
tlons, by which they endeavour'd to avert the immine' 
Dangers that threatened them. In the firft Place, the fuJg 
ral Books pronounce. That a Place ftruck with Lighcnir 
ought neither to be regarded, nor trod upon : For whic 
Reafon, fays Ammianus Marcellinus in Jul. ic was lawful 
Jiide or bury the Lightning ; but a Crime againft the Go 
to uncover it. Now the Lightning was then faid to be bury' 
when an Altar was ere(5led over the Place where it b 
fallen : And this Altar had a Hole in the Top of it, open t< 
wards Heaven ; and was call'd Puteal, or Capitium : I 
iVulpianus, Operculum. The Place itfelf Nigidius Figul 
calls Bidental, becaufe two Sheep were facrific'd there ; aft 
which, fays he, ic was immediately deem'd Holy. Ar 
Auguftus confecrated and dedicated to Apollo the Area in tl 
Palace he had bought, becaufe Lightning had fallen in ii 
But Bidental fignifies fometimes the Sacrifice like wife, ar 
fometimes too the Perfon that was ftruck : as in Perfii 
Satir. 2. v. 27. 

Trifte jaces lucis evitandumque Bidental. 

Moreover, to this Cuftom of burying the Lightning, Lues 
alludes, lib. i. 

Difperfos fulminis ignes 



Colligir, 8c terras moefto cum murmure condit. 

^nd the antient Interpreter of Juvenal, on this Verfe, 

Atque aliquis fenior, qui publica fulgura condit. 



Sat.e 



fays. That Lightning is then faid to be bury'd, when th 
Prieft has colleded together the fcatter'd Fires, by which w 
may reafonabiy conjedture, that they meant, when he ha< 
collected together what was fcorch'd by the Lightning ; an< 
confecrated the Place by a certain Prayer, pronounc'd with 
low Voice to himfelf, and by heaping up Earth upon it. Thu 
it had far'd but ill with the Parthian Magicians, if, as Pliny 
Jib. 37. cap. 9. fays they had try'dtofind, by digging for it, th 
Gem^ which is call'd Ceraunia, and feme take for a real Thuri 
derbalt, becaufe it is never found, but in Places blafted witl 
Lightning fince it was not permitted even to look upon fuel 
Fkces. 1 Beii^es^ we Ie§<rn froni Fe^us, t^iar, by an old Law 

y *"' ^ " ' - - ..- - ^\^m 



m 



jBook VI. LUCRETIUS, 66i 

Numa, it was forbid to burn the Body of a Man, who had 
,>een kill'd by Thunder, or to allow him the Rites of Fu- 

leral. Every Man, who was flain by Thunder, was bury'd 
: n the Place where he was ftruck : except, as Quintilian, and 

bmejother learned Men obferve out of Feftus,the Place belong'd 

the Publick. Such Men had this Privilege, that the 
*riefts were permitted to gather up their fcatter'd Members : 
This we have from Seneca, who befides, fpeaking of fuch as 
ipprehenu and tremble at the Danger of Thunder, has this 
emarkable PalTage : Non maximum ex periculis, fed fpecio- 
iflimum fulmen eft. Male fcilicet erit adum tecum, d 
mfum mortis tuse celeriras infinita praeveneric, (i mors tua 
rocurabitur, li tu nunc quoque cum expiras, non fuperva- 
nXf fed alicujus magnse rei fignum es. Lib. 2. Nat, Quaeft- 

1 calce. The Earth was heap'd up, not dug into the 

Ground, as Cornutus is of Opinion, till it rais'd a Monument 

igh enough, to give Notice of the Place to Paffers by; 

lutarch in Symp. 4. Probl. 2. afferts. That the Bodies of 

ien blafted with Lightning, never putrify : for many, 

lys he, neither burn them, nor bury them, but fuffer them 

) lie where they were ftruck ; and hedge in the Place, that 

lofe uncorrupting CarcalTes may remain as a Spedlacle of 

admiration : And for this reafon they foolifhly thought fuch 

erfons to be honoured by Jupiter. But Seneca, Nat. Quaeft. 

b. 2. with more Confonance to Truth, fays, that Bodies, 

ill'd by Thunder, crawl with Worms in a few Days : and 

dds befides, that they were bury'd with the Lightning : 

Vhence the faying, Male tecum agitur, (i cum fulminc 

onderis : The Places were hedg'd about, that they might 

ot be trod on unawares ; and the Bodies were interr'd to 

void the ftench of their Corruption : For it is known by 

Experience, that as well Men as Beafts, are for the moft 

art futfocated by the Blaft of Lightning, not burnt with the 

'ire : and when the innate Heat of the Animal decays, the 

amaining Moifture is prone to Corruption. Yet fome Per- 

ons, ftruck with Lightning, were not bury'd, but only co- 

er'd with a white Garment ; as well becaufe they believ'd 

QC-h Bodies did not putrifie; as that they might be feen by 

he People : who, neverthelefs, were not permitted to look 

t them, except at fome Diftance : for none were permitted 

D come within the Inclofure, but the Priefts. 

I (hall pafs by many things relating to Thunder, but can 
lot omit one, which Pliny mentions, lib. 28. cap. 25. where 
le fays : Fulgetras Poppyfmis adorare, confenfus eft genti- 



um : 



^64 LUCRETIUS. Book V] 

um : All Nations agree in adoring the Thunderbolts, b 
prefTing their Lips dole together, and then, by drawing in tb | 
Air by force, to make fuch a Sound as Horfemen general] 
do, to encourage and put forward their Horfes : for fuch 
Noife the Word Poppyfmus (ignifies : and this was the Ci 
ftom both of the Greeks and Romans in their expiator 
Sacrifices : Some of the Learned add likewife the Clappin 
of Hands, which others neverthelefs take to be only t\ 
Noife that is made, by clofing the Palms of the Hands, ar 
hiiling between the Thumbs. But to proceed : 

When the Portents and Prodigies were uncommon, < 
more than ufually frequent, they confuked the Thufcan Ft 
guratores, or the Sybilline Books, and the City was expiate 
by publick Sacrifices, and Supplications, and by the Cer 
monies they call'd Ledtifternia, i. e. bringing their Beds, c 
which they lay down to ear, into the Temples, where th( 
us'd to feaft themfelves in Honour of the facred Rites ; 
alfo by votive Games, Livy in Decad. 4, lib. i o. gives ; 
Example of the Purgation of the City, after the fall of Ligt 
iiing, in thefe Words : Ob ea Decem-Viri jufli adire libr( 
edidere quibus Diis, 8c quot Hoftiis facrificaretur : Et a fi • 
fninibus complura loca deformata, ad aedem Jovis ut fu 
plicado diem unum efTet. Ludi denique votivi Q. Fuh 
Conf. per dies decern magno apparatu fadi. For to difti 1 
guifh to which God the Sacrifice was due, was not fo eafi 
difcern'd by the Romans, but that they equally facrific 
fometimes to Jupiter and Pluto, when the Lightning ha 
pen'd at a doubtful Time, that is to fay, either in theMor 
ing or Evening Twilight; and this Lightning, as we. fa; 
before, they call'd Pervorfum, Joannes Magnus, in his ¥ 
ftory, lib. 3. cap. 8. relates a ridiculous Cuftom of the Got 
and Vandals ; and which is likewife confirmed by his Kir 
man Olaus Magnus : They tell us, that thofe People, wh' 
they heard the Noife of Thunder in the Clouds, were wc 
to flioot Arrows up into the Air, to exprefs their earneft D 
iire to aiTift their own Gods, whom they belicv'd to be the 
cngag'd in Battel with other Gods: and that, not content ? 
with this foolifli Superftition, they had Mallets of an unufu. 
Weight, bound about with Brafs, and which they held , 
great Veneration, on purpofe that, by their Help, as by t f 
imitative Thunder of Claudian, they might exprefs t ji 
Noife they heard in the Heavens, and which they believ; 
was made by Mallets likewife : And they held it very me « 

torio 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 66f 

torious to be thus prefenr, and affift in the Battles of theic 
Gods. 

It remains only to fpeak of the Lightnings, which the 
Antients call'd Alicia, and thefe were either commanded and 
compell'd from Heaven, or allur'd and obtained by Holy^ 
Rites : Pliny tells us, That Lightning may either be compell'd, 
or implor'd from Heaven, by certain holy Rites and Sup- 
plications ; That there was an old Tradition in Etruria, thac 
it had been obtained by holy Rites, when a Monfter, they 
' call'd Volta, enter'd into the City Volfinii, after having firft 
I depopulated the Countrey round it : And the fame Authour, 
' on the Teftimony of Pifo, whom he calls an Authour of Cre- 
1 dit, fays : that Porfenna, King of the Thufcans, drew down 
Thunder from Heaven : and that, before him, Numa, had 
often done the like : he adds, that Tullus Hoftilius, endea- 
vouring to imitate them, and either not knowing, or for not 
' obferving the due Rites, was himfelf ftruck dead by a Thun- 
( derboit. Extat annalium memoria, facris quibufdam 8c pre- 
f'cationibus, vel cogi fulmina, vel impetrari: VetusfamaHe- 
I cruri?2 eft, impetratum ; Vollinios urbem, agris depopulatis. 
1 fubeunte monftro, quod vocavere Voltam. Evocatum 8< a 
' Porfenna luo Rege, 8c ante eum a Numa fa?pius hoc fadtita- 
! rum, in primo Annal. fuorum tradic L. Pifo, gravis Author : 
'quod imitatum parum rite Tullum Hoftilium, icftum fulmine. 
iLucofque 8c aras, 8c facra habemus : inter qu^ Statores, 8>c 
iTonantes, Sc Feretrios, Elicium quoque accepimus Jovem.- 
Plin. lib. 1. cap. 52. He concludes with making this Re- 
mark : Varia, fays he, in hoc vitas fententia, 8c pro cujufque 
mimo. Imperari Naturae audacis eft credere : nee minus 
bebetis, beneficiis abrogare vires. Thus Pliny. In relation 
:o Numa, Livy relates the Matter at large, in Decad. i. 
Lib. I. where, among many other Things, he tells us, thac 
Numa, in order to allure down Thunder- bolts from the divine 
Minds, ereded an Altar, on the Aventine Hill, to Jupiter 
Elicius : Ad ea (fcil. fulmina) elicienda, ex mentibus divi- 
liis, Jovi Elicio aram in Avcntino dicavit ; deumque con- 
I'uluit auguriis, quse capienda eflent. And that nothing might 
ibe wanting to this Fable, Valerius Antias, as cited by Ar- 
lobius, adverf. Gent. lib. 5. fays, that King Numa, not ha- 
zing the Science of procuring Lightning, and, by the Advice 
)f the Nymph ^geria, being defirous to know it, gave 
i Jhains and Fetters to twelve chafte young Men, and plac'd 
' "m in Ambufcade, near a certain Water, in which Faunus 
i Martius Picus were wont to bathe, with Orders to fur- 

xQ. q q q prize 



6GG LUCRETIUS. Book Vtl 

prize and bind them : This they did, and extorted from them 
the Art of alluring Jupiter, of whom Numa by this mean: 
learnt the Arc of drawing downThunder- bolts out of Heaven 
The Greeks however will not allow this Honour to be firf 
due to Numa, but afcribe it to Prometheus : who, as Serviu 
on the 6th Eclogue of Virgil, relates, by redding long o; 
the Top of Mount Caucafus, difcover'd the Art of allurini 
down Lightning, and taught it to Men : from whence th 
Fable of his having ftoln Fire out of Heaven. Laftly 
thefe Elicia Fulmina were of three forts : I. Hofpitalij 
which Seneca mentions in lib. 2. Nat. Quseft. and thefe b 
Sacrifices compel, or rather, to ufe their milder Exprellior 
invite Jupiter from Heaven : But if his Godfhip fhould haj 
pen to be unwilling, or in an angry Mood, they invite hii 
to their own Coft : and this, fays the fame Seneca, was th 
Misfortune of Tullus Hoftilius, the third King of the R( 
mans, whom we mention'd before. IT. The Auxiliari; 
which were alfo calFd Advocata, but thefe always came f( 
the Good of thofe that call'd them. III. The Imprecatori 
which can not be reckon'd in the Number of Auxiliar 
Lightning : for no Man defires Deftrudtion, or imprecate 
Thunder- bolts on his own Head. After all, Pliny, lib. 28. c. ; 
obferves out of old Auchours,that it was a very difficult Ta; 
to allure down Lightning by Supplications and Sacrifices. Ar 
fo much for the Superftition of the Antients, in regard 
Thunder and Lightning. 



431 . Afj 



Book Vi: LUCRETIUS. 66j 

Aod henct 'tis known, hpw firy Whirl-Winds rife, 
How they defcend, and cut thp threat'ning Skies ; 
For often dark and heavy Clouds increafc. 
And Pillar- LIKE defcend, and reach the Seas, 
435 While all around the troubled Ocean raves, 

Fierce Winds ftill blow, and raife the boiling Waves.' 
And all the Ships, in Reach of Danger tofs'd, 
Are whirl'd with rapid Turns, and wreck'd, and loft. 
This happens when the tumbling Winds, that lay 
440 Confin'd in Clouds, too weak to force a Way, 

Do 
NOTES, 



431. And hence, &c.] Hither- 
to the Poet has been treating of 
Thunder and Lightning : and is 
now about to difpute of another 
Kind of Meteor, calPd Whirl- 
winds : And for the better under- 
ftanding of this Difputation, it 
will be necelTarya with Ariftotle, 
lib. 5. Meteor, and with Pliny, 
lib. 2. cap. 4.8. to diftinguifli be- 
tween the feveral forts of Whirl- 
winds, which the Antients call'd 
by feveral Names, according to 
their feveral Natures : as Ecne- 
phias, Prefter and Typho : For 
iince all thefe Things, Thunder, 
Lightning, Ecnephias, Prefter, 
Typho, and Thunderbolts, are 
only feveral Winds, we ought to 
diftinguifli between them, Firft 
then, if the Wind be thin and 
fubtile, and if it be blown and 
fcatter'd piece-meal here and 
there, it produces Thunder and 
Lightning. If it be more denfe 
and thick, it begets the Tempeft, 
which the Greeks call 'Exvs(f{ctV, 
i, e. a Storm without Rain, a 
Hurricane, as Pliny fays, lib. 2. 
cap. 48. But if the Wind burfting 
out of the Bowels of a Cloud, 
meet with other Winds, breaking 
out of other Clouds likewife, 
and without Fire, it comes to be 
that fort of Whirlwind, which 
the Greeks call'd tl'(p^, of which 
there are two forts, call'd by the 
Latines Vortex & Turbo : Vor- 
;6x, if it ma^e a ^reaj: and roar- 



ing Npife : Turbo, if it make 
none at all, or but a whiftling 
one. But if the Wind, when it 
breaks from the Clouds, takes 
Fire, and kindles into Flame, it 
makes a Prefter, call'd by the 
Greeks 'BrpHS'if, which fignifies, 
inflaming, fwelling, and making 
hot, quafi comburens contacfta, 
pariter & proterens, fays Pliny, 
ia the Place lafl: cited : If the 
Wind, after it breaks from the 
Clouds, do not take Fire ; but 
burfts out in a Flame, it makes 
the Lightning, which the Greeks 
call Kc-^yvoi", a Thunderbolt : 
And laftly, if the Wind can not 
break the Cloud, but forces and 
drags it down upon the Earth, or 
Sea, it then makes the Whirl- 
wind, which the Latines call'd 
Columna, a Pillar. And of thefe 
Whirlwinds the Poet difputes in 
the following 29. v. and feems to 
call the Columna, Vortex, and 
Turbo, all of them certain Pre* 
fters. And iirft in thefe 21. V. 
he explains the Caufe of a firy 
Whirlwind, call'd a Prefter : 
which, fays he, is a Wind impe- 
tuoully whirl'd about, and that 
takes fire by the continuance and 
vehemence of the Agitation, If 
this Wind burft cut of the 
Clouds, and move violently in a 
ftrait Line, It kindles into Light- 
ning only : but if the Cloud be 
fo tough, that it can not break 
thro'3 but bears it down into the 

Q, Si H *1 ^ §s*a 



668 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V: 



Do drive it down j** for then, by flow Degrees, n 

As if fome Hand, or Arm above did prefs, S 

The Pillar-Glouds defcend, and reach the Seas: J 
When this divides, the rufhing Winds engage 

445 The Flood, and make the Waters boil and rage : 
For then the whirling Winds defcend, and bear 
The thick, tough, heavy Clouds thro* all the Air, 
But when they reach the Sea, they break their Bound 
And mingle with the Waves, and, whirling round, 

450 With dreadful Noife, the furious Billows raife. 
And light the Waters with a mighty Blaze. 

Sometimes the whirling Wind might whisk the Air 
And, gathering Parts of Clouds that wander there. 
Might hollow out itfelf a watry Frame, 

455 All like a Prester, but without the Flame : 

From thefe, as Wombs, fierce Whirl-winds taketheii 
And impioufly torment their Parent Earth : (Birch, 

But fince, at Land, the Hills muft flop their Way, 
Thefe Storms are oft'ner feen at open Sea. 

Now 

N o r E s» 



Sea , and , there impetuoufly 
whirling round in the Waves, at 
length takes Fire, it becomes a 
Prefter, the fure Deftrudtion of 
Sailors. 

452. Sometimes, &c.] Prefters 
are feldom felt at Land, but 
chiefly infeft the Sea. There is 
another fort of Whirlwind, which 
is not firy : and this too is a Wind, 
that turns and whisks about with 
violence in a Cloud, and tumbles 
down with that Cloud upon the 
Earth ; where breaking out with- 
out being kindled into Flame, it 
whirls and tumbles down all 
Things where it lights : Neither 
is this fort of Whirlwind frequent 
at Land j for the Hills hinder its 
Defcent, and break its force : 
but at Sea the poor Sailors often 
feel its violence. 

Of this fort of Whirlwind, 
Pliny, lib, 2. cap. 48. Sin vero 
flatus repentini deprelTo finu ar- f 
cTtius rotati nubem effresjerint, ' 
lineigne, hoc eft, line fulmine,! 
Vorticem faciui^t ; which agrees I 



with what Lucretius fays of it 
But whatever he fays of their be 
ing moft frequently felt at Sea 
they are very common in Flo 
rence, and in feveral other Couti 
tries. 

But before wc leave this Subje<fi 
of Whirlwinds, it will not be 
improper to give a fliort Account 
of the Caufe of Wind : The Ori- 
ginal of which is reckon'd among 
the hidden Secrets of Nature ; 
Ariftotle will have it to proceed 
from the Earth *, and defines it tc 
be a dry earthy Exhalation : Me- 
trodorus and Animaxanderheld, 
that it proceeds from the Water t 
of the lame Opinion too is Vitru- 
vius, who, lib. i. cap. 6- fays : 
Ventus eft aeris fiuens unda, cum 
incerta 'motus redundantia ; na- 
fciturque cum fervor olfendit hu- 
morem & impetus fervoris ex- 
primit vim fpiritus flantis : This 
he illuftrates, by the Example of 
^olipila:, Windballs : and iDes 
Cartes pretends to demonftrate 
the Truth of this Opinion in the 

fame 



Book VL LUCRETIUS. 669 

460 Now Clouds combine, and fpread o'er all the Sky,^ 
When little rugged Parts afcend on high, > 

Which may be twin*d, tho' by a feeble Tie. 3 

Thefe make fmall Clouds, which, driv'n on by Wind^ 
To other like, and little Clouds are joined, 
^65 And thefe encreafe by more, at laft they form 

Thick heavy Clouds, and thence proceeds a Storm. 

And thus the lofty Hills may feem to yield 
More Mists and Vapours than the humble Field ; 

Becaufe 
N O T£^. 



ame manner. ^And Salmafius, 
ib. de Anno Climader. afTerts 
he fame Opinion, in the very 
Vords of Vicruvius. There is a 
hird Opinion, which feems to 
ave been more antient than ei- 
her of the former, and according 
D that. Wind is nothing but Air 
ut in Motion : Apuleius de 
lund. is of this laft Opinion. 
Tec enim, fays he, aliud eft ven- 
us, nifi multum & vehemens in 
num coadli aeris flumen : but 
his is not fatisfa<ftory : for, by 
ot affigning the firft Caufe of 
bat Motion, it leaves the Matter 
^ fufpenfe , and undetermin'd. 
rhemoft probableOpinion there- 
3re is, That Wind is an earthy, 
r w atry Exhalation, mix'd with 
iline Spirits) and other Vapours, 
rawn or forc'd out of the Earth 
r Sea, by the Power of the Sun, 
' of iubterranean Fires, which 
:ing rarefy *d by Heat, or con- 
ens'd by Cold, and impell'd for 
iie moft Part by a tranfverfe, but 
imetimes by a dire<fl Motion, 
xagicates, the Earth, Air and 
ea. But of this Subje<ft fee par- 
cularly my Lord Bacon's Trea- 
ife de Ventis : Des Cartes in the 
Mace above cited : GafTendus's 
inimadverfionsonEpicurus. Fro- 
lend. in Meteor. Kircher. in 
lund. fubterran. & Ifaac. Vof- 
us, de motu Marium & Ven- 
orum. 
460. Now Clouds, &:c.] The 
•oet is now going to treat of the 
isncr^tion of Clouds ; which, he 



fays, may be produced three fe- 
veral Ways : And firft in thefe 
7. v. he teaches, that certain 
rough and hooky Atoms, that are 
flying to and fro in the Air, meet 
and join together : Thefe form 
the thin Clouds firft, and thefe 
thin Clouds, condenfing and join- 
ing with one another, make the 
thick and heavy Clouds, 

Anaximenes,^Plutarch, and S6- 
neca held the Clouds to be made 
of the very Concretion, or Con- 
gelation of the Air itfelf : The 
firft of them indeed believ'djthat 
all Things proceed from the Air : 
And Plutarch de Placit. Philof. 
I. 3. c. 4. calls the Clouds ctsp©' 
-arctJtt^'TMlets", thickningsof the Air-- 
and Epicurus in Laertius, d'sp©' 
'srixiicreis-y accumulations, or heaps 
of Air : But Seneca, lib. 2. c.30. 
Spiffitudinem aeris crafli : The 
Thicknefs of grofs Air ; For he 
will not allow, that clear andun- 
muddy Air can thicken and grow 
into Clouds : becaufe it is too 
fubtile, and free from Vapours ; 
by virtue of which only it can 
condenfe into Clouds. Macro- 
bius ; Aer terreni firigoris exha- 
latione denfatus, in nubem cogi» 
tur. In Somn. Scipionis, lib. u 
cap. 22. 

4^7. And thus, &c.] In thefe 
9, V. he obferves, that Clouds fre- 
quently feem to rife from the 
Tops of high Mountains : the 
reafon of which, he fays, is this : 
becaufe ibmc thJA Mifts aad wa- 

try 



'^7^ 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V] 



4 



Becaufe when thin and little Mists arife, 
ij.70 Not thicken'd yet, and wander o'er the Skies, 
AH too refin*d, and fubtile for our Eyes ; 
The Winds do drive them to the Mountain's Head, 
And there the thin and airy Coverings fpread ; 
Which, thick'ning round the Top, there firft appear, 
'475 And feem to rife from that, and fill the Air. 

But farther on; the Seas give vaft Supplies, 
From thefe the greateft Stores of Vapours rife : 
For Cloaths grow wet, expanded near the Shore,' 
And Drops arife, and ftandin ev'ry Pore: 
480 And therefore from the deep and fpacious Floods, 
Great ftores of Mists giay rife, and fram^the Cloud 

Befides 
N O T £ S. 



try Steams, that are too fubtile 
to be feen, are driven up thither 
by the Wind ; where joining to- 

f ether, and growing thick, they 
ecome vifible. Moreover : our 
Tranflatour has omitted the two 
laft Verfes of this Argument, 
which, in the Original, are as 
follows. 

Kam loca dedarat furfum vento- 

fa pate re 
Kes ipfa, & fenfus, montes cum 

afcendimus altos. 

And indeed they are of no great 
Moment *, and therefore I have 
foreborn to tranflate and infert 
them in the Text of this Verfion. 
What they fay is only this : For, 
when we afcend a high Moun- 
tain, the Thing itfelf and Senfe 
demonftrate, ventofa loca fur- 
fum patere, i. e. that the Winds 
tend 'to the htgheft Places, and 
reign there. This is the Inter- 
pretation Creech himfelf gives 
them in his Latine Edition of 
Lucretius. 

47(5. But farther, &c.] In thefe 
6. V, Lucretius propofesa fecond 
Reafon of the Generation of 
Clouds: and thatMatter may not 
be wanting to compofe fuch vaft 
Bodies of Clouds, asarerouling 
up ar^d.down 'xi\ the hix,^ l^e rgif- 



esVapours and Exhalations froi 
the Sea : and then in 10. v. fro: 
the Rivers and other Waters 
nay even from the Earth itfel: 
not, that he believes any eartl 
Particles afcend, as GaiTendus i 
terprets, but becaufe the Eart 
being moiften'd with Dews ar 
Rain , feems to fmoke , at 
breathe forth watry Exhalatior 
which the Particles of Heat, th 
are continually defcending fro 
above, meet in their Afcent, ai 
prefs them into Clouds. T. 
laft Verfe of this Argument 
likewife omitted by Creech in t\ 
Verlion : It runs thus in the ( 
riginal : 

Nam ratio cum fanguine abe 
humonbus omnis. 

And indeed the Interpreters Icnc 
not well what to make of it 
fome place it above, after v. 41 
others below, after v. 531. 
either of which Places it feems 
have but as little to do as hen 
fo that upon the whole Matt£ 
their Opinion feems beft, wl 
will not allow it to be genuir 
and therefore abfolutely re)e<ft 
478. For Cloaths, &c.] Tl 
the Poet has mention'd befoi 



'Book VI. LUCRETIUS. Cjt 

Befides ; the Earth, and Rivers, urg*d by Hear 
Oft breathe fofc Mists, and num rous Vapours fweac: 
Which join, and make thick Clouds, and ftop the Light - 
485 And ftain the glorious Skies with Tuddain Night : 
For the warm vig'rous Rays, with conftant blowis. 
Still beat them on the Back, and prefs them clofe. 

And more : external Matter gives Supplies,' 
And Seeds of Clouds, which fpread o*er all the SkiesJ 
o For I have prov'd the Mass immenfe, the Space 
Is infinite, and knows no loweft Place : 

And 
NOTES, 

ftill defcending from the Hea- 
vens, in a confus'd and turbulent 
manner. And indeed this. Inter- 
pretation feems more confonant 
to Reafon than the other : there- 
fore inftead of, For the warm vi- 
g'rous Rays, &c. read. For the 
defcending' Parts, &c. 

488. And more, SccJ Inthefe 
14. V. as a third Caufe of Clouds, 
he fetches the Seeds of them from 
the infinite Space, and from the 
other Worlds. For Lucretius, 
after Epicurus, believ'd, that the 
Atoms, which afiemble in the 
Concretion of Clouds, came not 
only out of the Air, Water^ and 
Earth, but out of the Void like- 
wife : For having taught, B. I. 
Y.1005. & feqq.That the Space in 
which, out of which, and thro' 
which the infinite Atoms are 
continually flying, is immenfe and 
infinite likewifej what wonder is 
it, if they fupply from that inex- 
hauftible Magazine, a fufficient 
quantity of Seed, for the PrcH 
du<ftion of Clouds ? 

External Matter] That is to 
fay, Matter that comes not only 
from the Sea, nor only from the 
Earth, nor only from the Air, 
but from without ; i. e. from the 
immenfe and infinite Space of the 
Univerie. 

490. I have provM] See B. T, 
V. ^60. Sc feqq. 6c 1050. 8c feqq. 
where the Poet has brought ma- 
ny Arguments to prove the Uni- 



38^. For the warm, &c.] This 
md the following Yerfe in the 
Driginal run thus : 

Irget enim quoque figniferi fu- 

per Ktheris a:ft:us, 
?.t quafi denfando fubtexit cxru- 

la nimbis : 

[n his Interpretation of which 
ve may obferve, that Creech has 
'ollow'd the Opinion of GaiTen- 
^us, and fome others, who in- 
:erpret ittheris xftus to mean the 
j S.ther itfelf, whofe Heat conden- 
fes the Clouds : And this »iuft 
DC explain'd, fay they, to be in- 
;ended of the Antiperiftafis, by 
reafon of which the Region of the 
Clouds grows cold. But ourTran- 
datour, in his Latine Edition of 
Lucretius, has changed his Opi- 
nion, and fays, that this Anti- 
periftafis of theirs, as they call it, 
IV ill avail them nothing : and 
that they alledge a Caufe, by 
which the Clouds may indeed be 
attenuated, but never condens'd : 
And Lucretius himfelf, a few 
Verfes lower, urges the Heat of 
the Sun for one of the Reafons of 
the Liquefaction, and DifToluti- 
on of the Clouds into Rain : 

Aut diirdvuntur folis fuper icSa 
calore : 

lays he, v. 513. And therefore 
Creech explains jetheris a;ftus to 
mean the Uttle Bodies, that ars 



€72 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book Ml 



And how the Atoms thro* the Vacuum rove. 
How quick they meafure Space, and how they move* 
Slow Time admires, and knows not what to call 
495 The Motion, having no Account fo fmall. 

What wonder then, that fuddain Storms fhould rife; 
And hafty Night fpread o'er the lower Skies ; 
Since from the Mass fuch vaft Supplies are hurl'd 
Thro' ev'ry Pore, and Paffage of the World ; 
500 And linger here, and join: or break the Chain, 
And fly thro' the divided Skies again ? 

Now fing, my Muse, how Rain is fpred o'er all^ 
How wat'ry Clouds are join'd, and Showers fall. 

Fir 
-NOTES. 



verfe to be infinite, and that it 
tas no Centre. 

493. How quick, &c.] See B. II. 
v. 1 34.J &c. 

494. Slow Time, &c,] This 
and the following Verfe are tran- 
fcrib'd from Cowley : and repeat- 
ed in this place, from B. IV. 

V. 226. n r^L r 

502. Now fing, &C.J Thele 
30. V. contain a iliort Difputation 
of Rain. Many Seeds of Water 
rife up together with the Seeds of 
the Clouds, and grow bigger to- 
gether with the Clouds, in like 
manner as the Blood, and other 
Humours increafe in proportion 
with our Bodies. For a Cloud 
jnay be fuppos'd to be a Body, 
that contains the Rain, which 
may be compared to the Blood in 
the Bodies of Animals. To thefe 
Seeds of Water and Clouds, add 
thofe Particles of Water that 
the Clouds, like Fleeces of Wool, 
which they feem to refemble, 
draw from the Rivers and Sea. 
And thus when the Clouds are 
full of Water, if they areprefs'd 
cither by the force of the Wind, 
or their own weight, Water muft 
of neceffity be fqueez'd out, and 
drop from them : This in 17. v. 
Then he fays in 4. v. that if the 
Winds rarefy the Clouds, the 
Rain will likewife drop from 
them : and if the Ucat of the Sun 



pierce the Clouds, they will flo 
like melted Wax. That a vi« 
lent hafty Shower is occafion'd b 
a violent Compreflion of tl 
Clouds : in 4. v. and laftly in 
V. that conftant Showers happe; 
when many Clouds are heap' 
upon one another, and when tl 
Earth refolves into Vapours tl 
Rain it has receiv'd, and fends 
up again into the Region of tl 
Clouds. 

Ariftotle and his Followei 
who held that the Elemen 
change from one into anothe 
and fo make a Circle of Gener 
tion, define Rain to be Air co] 
verted into Water, and diftillir 
from a Cloud in Drops. Epici 
rus held that Rain might be g 
nerated two feveral Ways : 1. 1 
Tranfmutation. II. By Con 
preflion. By Tranfmutation ; b 
caufe fuch is the Nature of tl 
Air, that it changes by Condei 
fation into Water : and fuch t( 
is the Nature of a Cloud ; th. 
by the retreat and abfence < 
Heat, and by the acceffion < 
Cold, its Parts are fo tranfpos 
and vary'd, as renders them mo 
apt to flow and fall : This is e: 
emplify'd by Vapours gatherir 
together in a Limbeck, and the 
failing in Drops. By Compre 
lion, when by Wind or Cold tl 
Cloud ii comprefs'd, and tl 
vaporoi 



I 



iBookVI. LUCRETIUS. 67^ 

' Firft, with the Clouds moift Streams of Vapours 

505 From ev'ry Thing ; and fpread o'er all the Skies: (rife. 

And, as in Man, the Moisture, Sweat and Blood 

Grow with the Limbs, increaling with the Cloud. 

And oft as Winds do whirl them o'er the Main, 

The Clouds, like Wool, do dip themfelves in Rain 

y.o To Ihake their Fleeces o'er the Earth again. 

The Rivers, Lakes, and Pools, when ftirr'd by Hear,' 
Breathe forth foft Mists, and numerous Vapours fweac. 

Thefe rife, and fet in Clouds ; and there combin'd. 
Or by the ambient Cold, or driving Wind, 
15 They thence defcend, becaufe the Winds divide. 
Or elfe the Clouds contradl, their injur'd Side j 
Or elfe the upper Clouds prefs thofe below. 
And fqueezc the Water out, and make it flow. 
And when the Wind makes thin the watry FrAMe,^ 
10 Or Rays cut thro' it with a vig'rous Flame, 

The 
NOTES. 



aporous Corpufcles within the 
loUows of it are crowded toge- 
ler ; and thus, by that acceflion 
r Weight, or by the force of the 
'/ind, are driven and fqueez'd 
ut of the Cloud, in like man- 
zi' as Water out of a Spunge. 
rem whence it appears, that the 
)rops of Rain are form'd by Co- 
iition, rather than by Diviiion : 
id that Rain is not, as it is vul- 
arly taken to be, a watry Mafs 
Vus'd from a Cloud, as Water 
LI r of the Rofe of a watering Pot, 
or^asTrepfiades in Ariftophanes, 
oriding this Opinion, fays, does 
: proceed from Jupiter's making 
v^atsr thro' a Sieve : For, if there 
ere any fuch Stagnation of Wa- 
.r in a Cloud, it would fall from 
leuce in a Torrent, or as Water 
oes from Spouts, rather than in 
)rops. Moreover, there are rec~ 
on'd three Kinds of Rain : Stil- 
cidium, Imber, and Nimbus : 
he firft is a mifty Rain : The 
cond more intenfe, and com- 
>^s'd of larger Drops, a fober 
ain : The third, a violent, 
ouring Rain ; 
^ondus fays J 



which, as Fro- 
falls dccumanis 



Guttis : Apuleius de Mundo 
funis up the whole Matter in a 
few Words : Tot diverlitatibus, 
fays he, pluvije cadunt, quot mo- 
dis aer nubium conditionibus co- 
gitur. 

505. From ev'ry Thing] Hip- 
pocrates agrees with Lucretius in 
this Opinion, and lib. de Aer. 
Aqu. & Loc. fays exprefsly, that 
there is Moifture in all Things. 

508. And oft. Sec.'] Here the 
Poet teaches in 5. v. that while 
the Clouds are driven by Winds 
over the Surface of the Sea, or o- 
ther Waters , they, like Wool, 
hung in damp Places, imbibe and 
fuck in the Moifture. 

513. Thefe rife, 6^c. ] In 
thefe 6. v. the Poet mentions one 
of the Ways, by which Rain di- 
ftills from the Clouds : that is, by 
Compreflion : when the Clouds, 
comprefs'd by the Foicc of the 
Wind, or by the great Quantity 
of Water, contain'd within their 
Bowels, let drop the Rain ; as 
W^ater is fqueez'd out of a Spunge, 
by preffing it. 

515*. And when, Src."] Thefe 

4., V. contain the other Way^ by 

R r r r which 



674 LUCRETIUS. Book VI 

The Rain breaks forth, the injured Cloud appears 
Like melted running Wax, and drops in Tears. 

But when the Wind with higher Clouds agrees. 
And their united Force begins to fqueeze, 
525 When both do prefs the Cloud, fwoln big with Raii^ 
Then Storms defccBd, and beat the humble Plain. 

Then conftantSHOw'RS, when wat'ry Clouds, that lie J 
On one another's Back, receive Supply ^ 

From ev'ry Quarter of the lower Sky. i 

530 And when the thirty Earth has drunk the Rain, 
And throws it up in Vapours back again. 

And when the adverfe Sun's bright Beauties flow^ 
And ftrike thick Clouds, they paint the Gawdy Bow. 

An 
N O T £ S. 



tvhich Epicurus, and, after him, 
Lucretius, held, that Rain might 
be made : to wit, by Tranfmu- 
tation, that is to fay, when the 
Clouds, being ftruck and rare- 
fy'd, either by the Force of the 
Wind, or the Heat of the Sun, 
diftil in Rain, as is explain'd a- 
bove, V. 502. 

523. But when. Sec."] Thefe4. 
v. that give the Reafon of a vio- 
lent Storm of Rain, are fuffici- 
encly explain'd in the Note on 
V. 502. and fo likev'Sfife are the five 
that follow them, and affign the 
Caufeof conftant Showers. 

532. And when, &c.] In thefe 
2. V. he tells us, that a Rainbow 
is made by the Beams of the Sun, 
ftriking upon an oppoiite and wet 
Cloud. 

Lu<:retius fays not any thing 
of the various Colours of the 
Rainbow -, a Sub je<ft v</hich ne- 
Terlefs has imploy'd many of the 
Philofophers : and concerning 
which, there are two Things 
chiefly to be inquir'd into ; their 
Kumber, and their Order : As 
to the firfl, Ariftotle difcerns on- 
ly three diilincS: Colours : (poiv/- 
xeior, a light Red, or Saffron, as 
fomefinterpret it : x^ct-poi^,. Green, 
and <sT(>p(pvpi^, Purple, or Vio- 
let, or Cerulean : and thence he 
€ail'd she Rainbow three-eolour'd ; 



but Ptolom^eus calls it fevei 
colour'd, becaufe of the mingU 
Colours that intervene amor 
thofe three chief Colours. Othe 
call it many-colour'd, as if tl 
Number of its Colours coul 
fcarce be diftinguifli'd : When! 
yirgil} ^n. 4.. v. 701. 
Mille trahit varies adverfo fo 

colores. 
A Rainbow is only the Picture 
the light of the Sun, in anopp- 
lite Cloud, moift or wet, and ju 
ready to be dilTolv'd, and fi 
down in Rain : It is in itfelf < 
no colour : and the various C< 
lours that appear, are but R 
flexions of the Light of the Su 
received differently, according 
the Cloud is more or lefs denf« 
this is evident by artificial Rail 
bows. And yet this Shadow, th 
alraofl Nothing, does, by Ri 
fle(flion, fometimes make an< 
ther Rainbow, tho' not fo difliii' 
and beautiful. Sir R. Blackmo 
defcribes a Rainbow poeticali 
and like a Philofopher too j 

Thus oft the Lord of Nature, i 

the Air, 
Hangs Ev'ning Clouds, his fab' 

Canvafs, where 
His Penfil, dipt in Heav'iil 

Colours, made 
Of intercepted Sun-beamS; mix' 

with Shads 

C 



i 



H 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 6j^ 

And how the other Meteors rife and faH, 
535 What Stamps the figur'd Snow, and moulds the Hail.^ 

And 

hi o r E s. 



Of temper'd TEther, and refraA- 
cd Light, 

Paints his fair Rain-bdw charm- 
ing to the Sight. 

There are only four chief Co- 
lours in a Rain-bow. I. A light 
red. II. A yellow, or fafFron. 
[II. A green. IV. A purple. 
Thefe Colours change their Site 
md Order, according to the dif- 
erence of t!ie Rain- bow : for 
:here are two diftincft forts of 
R.ain-bows ; Iris primaria, and 
ris fecundaria *, the primary and 
ecundary Rain-bow : The pri- 
nary Rain-bow is that which for 
he mofi: part appears alone, and 
n which the ruddy Colour is 
'Utmoft, or higheft ; the yellow 
lext, the green the third Colour, 
nd the purple the inmoft, or 
oweft : But the Iris fecundaria, 
»r fecundary Rain-bow, is that 
vhich never appears alone, but 
Iways above, and larger than, the 
»rimary, and has the fame Co- 
ours, but more faint, and quite 
nverted : that is to fay, in the fe* 
ondaryRain-boWjthe purple Co- 
our is the outmoft, or higheft, 
he next to that the green, the 
hird the yellow, and the ruddy 
he inmoft or lowcft. This Rain- 
>ow is not fo diftin(ft and beau- 
iful as the other, of which it is 
leld to be only a Refle<ftion. It 
s agreed by all, that there are 
wo Caufes of the colours of the 
Iain-bow ; the Sun , and the 
ifatry Cloud plac'd againft it : 
tut they do not explain this in 
he fame manner. Metrodorus 
n Plutarch de Placit. Philof. 1. 3, 
. 3. believes, that the Rednefs of 
he Rain-bow proceeds from the 
lieams of the Sun, and the ceru- 
ean Colour from the Cloud. 
Seneca afTents to this Opinion, 
ind ad^Sj that thepther Colours 



are only a mixture of thefe two 
AriftoCle 3. Meteor, will have 
the Cloud to be in the Nature of 
a Mirrour, from which the Beams 
of the Sun,being varioiifly refledl- 
ed, produce the various Colours : 
the light red, becalife they are 
reHecfled from that part of the 
Cloud that is neareft to his Orb j 
the green, becaufe they are re- 
flected from the part that is far- 
ther off; laftly, the purple, be- 
caufe they are fcarce reflected at 
all, by reafon of the yet greater 
Remotenefs of the Cloud ; nor 
does he diftinguifli the yellow 
from the red, only becaufe ie 
grows whitiili, by reafon of the 
Vicinity of the green. Scaliger 
believes the Cloud to confift of 
the Particles of the four Ele- 
ments, and therefore will have 
the upmoft parts of it to turn 
red, when they receive the Light 
of the Sun, becaufe they are liry ; 
the next to become yellow, as 
being aerial, and the third to 
grow green, as holding of the 
Earth. As to the Figure of the 
Rain-bow, it is round ; but it 
would be too tedious to relate the 
various Opinions why it is fo. 
Of this confult P. Gaflendus on 
the tenth Book of Laertius. Anii- 
mad. de Meteorolog. p. 1123. 

534.. And how, &c.i Lucretius 
fays nothing in particular of the 
Caufes of Snow, Wind, Hail, 
Hoar-froft, Ice, Sec. but only 
takes notice in thefe 7. v. thae 
whoever contemplates on thele 
Things, and confiders the Clouds 
and Showers, and at the fame 
time reflecfts on the various Fi-? 
gures and Motions of the Prin^ 
ciples, will eafily be able to com^ 
prehend the Caufes of thefe an4 
the other Meteors , which he 
leaves unexplain'd. 

53s, The Hgur'd Snow, &€»3 
3i r r r 2 PUuyj 



676 LUCRETIUS. Book VI 

And why the Water's Pride and Beauty's loft, 
When rig'rous Winter binds the Floods with Frostj 
'Tis eafy to conceive, if once we know -J 

The Nature of the Elements, or how > 

340 Their tighting Pow'rs muft work, or what they do. j 

And next of Earthquakes. 

Firft then you muft fuppofe the Earth contains 7 
Some Seeds of Winds, fpred o*er its hollow Veins 5 • 
And there, as well as here, fierce Vapour reigns : ^ 

An( 

N O T £ 5. 



Pliny, lib. 17. cap. 2. calls Snow, 
the Foam of celeftial WaterS5\yhen 
they dafli againft one another; 
which, fays Cowley, is ingeni- 
ouily exprefs'd for a Poet, tho' 
but ill defin'd for a Philofopher. 
Ariftotle, and after him, moft 
of our modern Philofophers hold 



which is faid to be always fexai 
gular, fee Kepler, who has wri 
ten a particular Treatife upo 
that Subje(fl. 

Moulds the Hail,] Hail is ja( 
thing elfe but Rain congeaPd i 
its Fall : And this Congelati 
on or Concretion is made n( 



it to be generated of a moift, but far from the Earth, becaufe Ha 



rare and thin Cloud, which, be- 
ing condens'd by cold, does, as it 
falls down, that it may the more 
eafily cut thro' the Air, divide 
itfelf into Flakes, like Fleeces of 
Wool ; To which the pfalmift 
alludes, Qui dat nivem, ficut la- 
Pfal. 147. He gives Snow, 



nam 



like Wool : Yet Bodinus , in 
Theatro Natura;, is of Opinion, 
that the Royal Pfalmi/l refem- 
bles Snow to Wool, becaufe of 
the Warmth it affords to Plants, 



is never feen upon the high Moui 
tains, which are often cover' 
with Snow : Belides ; Hail, tl 
nearer to the Earth the Cloud i 
out of which it falls, is the mo 
triangular or pyramidal in its F 
gure : the higher the Cloud, ar 
the more remote from the Eart 
the rounder the Hail : The re 
fon of which is, becaufe thofe Ii 
equalities, or Angles, are woi 
away, and rounded by the lengi 
of its Palfage, and Defcent thr 



iand vegetables in the Cold oH the Air : And itscongeal'd Har< 
Winter, as woollen Garments do I nefs proceeds from the Antipei 
^o Men, rather than for its fleecy j ftafis of the lower Region of tl 



Similitude. The whitenefs of 
Snow is deriv'd from its efficient 
Caufe, which is Cold ; and alfo 
from the copious Mixture of aeri- 
al Spirits. Anaxagoras affirm'd 
it to be black : and in Armenia 
it is of a ruddy Colour : which, 
as Euftathius on the fecond Iliad 
obferves, is caus'd by the ter- 
reiirial Particles, or Atoms of 
the Soil of that Countrey, which 
abounds with Minium : For thofe 
Particles, mixing with thofe of 
the Air, tinge the Snow, and give 
jt that Hue. Of the wonderful 
^ontex^ure and Figure of Snow, 



Air : and this too is the rcafc 
why Hail falls more frequent 
in Summer than in Winter •, ar 
feldom in the Night, unlefs t 
Night be warm, See more in Fr 
mondus, Meteorolog. lib. 5. cap. 
1 will only add Ariftotles iHior 
but true, Definition of Snow ai 
Hail : Snow, fays he, is a Cloi 
congeal'd, and Hail congeal 
Water. 

541. And next, &c.] Before v 
enter on this Difputation 
Earthquakes, it may not be am 
to take notice of the feveral foil 
of them* Apuleius, lib. i. I 

Mund; 



hook VI. 



LUCRETIUS. 



6j7 



45 And many Lakes, and Pools, and fpacious Caves, 
And fecret Rivers there roll boift'rous Waves : 
For Nature's Laws eommand, and Reason s prove. 
The Parts below refemble thofe above : 

Thefe Things fiippos'd ; when thofe vaft Courts be- 
50 Shall fail, the upper Earth muft tremble too: (low 
For Hills muft fink, and from the mighty Fall 
Quick Tremblings muft arife, and fpread otr all: 

No 
NOTES. 



[undo, reckons up feven feveral 
rts of Earthquakes. I. The 
rft is term'd Epidintes, feu In- 
inator, from l-TTDiMvca, I incline, 
xaufe it moves fidelong ; and, 
us, ftriking at oblique Angles, 
erturns Things by inclination, 
fideward. II, The fecond is 
ll'd Braftes, feu effervefcens, 
om ^^'(o} • I boil ; the iimili- 
de of boiling Water, becaufe it 
ars ail above it in a dire<ft Line. 

I. The third, Chafmatias, from 
io-iucCu:y I gape, becaufe it makes 
i Hiatus er Chafm, in which 
e Place it forces, is fwallow'd 
). IV. The fourth, Rhecfles, 
ompvayw, I break, becaufe it 
rces its way by a Rupture •, tho' 
opens not fo wide a Chafm as 
c former. V. The fifth fort is 
ird Oftes, from &s-/^&j I thruft 
itli Violence : and this both 
akes and overturns. VI. The 
vth, Palmitias, from 'zzrcjMto, 
Hiake, or throb ; this iliakes 
e Ground and Buildings, but 
)t fo as to overturn them. 

II. Thefeventh is call'd My- 
raatias , or Mycetias , from 
-•y.<x.(T/y.ouy I bellow, becaufe it 
akes a roaring Noife. But Am- 
lanus Marcellinus, and, after 
m, Coelius Rhodiginus , al- 
w but four Kinds of Earth- 
>akes. 

Thales and Democrltus afcribe 
e Caufe of Earthquakes to Sub- 
^ranean Winds, that undermine 
- Bowels ofthe Earth, and then 
''ce out their PaiTage : The 



Stoicks attribute it to Moifture, 
rarefy'd into Air ; which ftrug- 
gling for room to get free, and 
meeting with the thick and tough 
Body of the Earth, iliakes it by 
its ftruggling. Others hold that 
Earthquakes proceed from in- 
clos'd Air, or Spirits arifing from 
combuftible Matters, as Sulphur, 
Nitre, Allum, Sal-Armoniack, 
Bitumen, or the like ; which be- 
ing fet on Fire, and confequently 
rarefy'd, caufe the fame Effeds, 
as Gun-powder does in Mines. 
See Fromond. Meteorolog. lib. 4, 
cap. I, 2, 3. and Kircher in his 
Mund. Subterran. lib. 4, cap. 2. 
where thofe Authours treat of 
thefe Matters at large. I now re- 
turn to Lucretius, who, in or- 
der to give a right Explication 
of Earthquakes, flrft fuppofes fe- 
veral Things, which I think no 
Man ever doubted : And iirft, 
fays he, in 8. v. you muft fuppofe 
the Earth to be full of Hollows, 
that thefe Caverns are full of Va- 
pours, into which the Wind can 
eafily rufli : In the next Place, 
that there are many Lakes, many 
broad Pools of Water, and Ri- 
vers too, rolling their Waves with- 
in the Bowels of the Earth. Thefe 
Things being granted •, the Poet 
afligns the firft Caufe of Earth- 
quakes to the Earth itfelf ; and 
in 8. V. more tells us, that one 
Caufe of Earthquakes may be 
this : When any of thofe fubter- 
ranean Cavities are decay'd by- 
length of Time ; and 'tis certain 
they will decay ; the upper part 

of 



6j^ 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V 



No wonder this : while Carts go flowly on, 
Or fwifter Coaches rattle o er the Stone, 
555 Altho* the Weight's not great, the HojjsEsfeel, 
And Ihake at, ev'ry Jumping of the Wheel. 



N O T JB S: 



of the Hollow will fall down : nor' 
<;an it be doubted, but that a 
Trembling of the Earth muft be 
caus'd by fuch a concuffion, fince 
we fee, that when Coaches or 
Waggons go along the Streets, 
the Houfes on either fide are 
iliaken. 
This was the Opinion of Anaxi- 
menes, who in Seneca, lib. 6. fays, 
that the Parts of the Earth, which 
^oifture has loofen'd, or fubter- 
ranean Fire undermin'd and con- 
fum'd, or the Violence of W ind 
has fliaken, or that the length of 
Time has brought to moulder 
and decay, may fall in. But Ari- 
itotle and Plutarch fay, that A- 
naximenes held, that thefe fall- 
ings . in of the Earth could not 
proceed, except from Drynefs and 
Moifture. Epicurus in Seneca, 
lib. 6. cap. 2o. fpeaks of this firft 
Caufe of Earthquakes, in thefe 
"Words : Fortafle aliqua parte 
terrce fubito decidente terra ipfa 
percutitur, & inde motum capit : 
EortalFe aliqua parte terra, velut 
columnis quibufdam ac pilis, fu- 
ilentatur, quibus vitiatis ac rece- 
dentibus, tremitopus impofitum: 
EortafTe calida vis fpiritus in ig- 
nem verfa & fulmini fimilis cum 
magna ftrage obftantium fertur. 
Perhaps, fays he, fome part of 
the Earth faJling down on a fud- 
dain, the Earth itfeif is iliaken, 
and thence is caus'd the Motion : 
Perhaps in fome parts the Earth 
is fupported as with Pillars,which 
being decay'd, and giving way, 
the luperimpos'd Weight trem- 
bles : Perhaps the hot Force of 
Wind is chang'd into Fire, and, 
borne about like Lightning, 
2?iakes a, wide Dgflru^ior^ Qf all 



Things that refift its Para 
And in the fame Authour, lib. 
cap. 5). Anaxagoras holds almc 
a like Caufe of Earthquak 
which^ he fays, are the Effed 
Lightning. 

553. While Carts, &C.3 Sem 
Nat. Qu»ft. lib. 6, cap. 22, 
quando magna onera per vii 
vehiculorum pluriumtradta fui 
(perhaps per Yicos vehiculori 
plurium ordine tracfta funt) 
rotjc majori nifu in falebras in 
derunt , terram concuti ienti 
Afclepiodorus tradit, cum p€t 
e latere montis abrqpta cecid 
fet, a»diiicia vicina tremore c 
lapfa. Idem fub terris fieri ] 
teft, ut ex his, quse impende 
rupibus aliqua refoluta mas 
pondcre Sc fono in fubjacenu 
cavernam cadat , eo vehemen 
us, quo aut plus ponderis I 
buit, aut venit altius : & 
commovetur omne tecftum ca^ 
tx vailis. When heavy Lo« 
are drawn in Carts along t 
Streets ; if the Wheels happert 
plunge into a Hole, you will f 
the Ground tremble. Afck^i 
dorus relates, that a Rockjbrea 
ing off from the fide of a Mou 
tain, iliook down the neighboi 
ing Buildings as it fell. The fai 
Thing may happen in the H< 
lows under-ground : if any 
the impending Rocks break « 
with mighty Weight and Noi! 
and tumble down into the fub; 
cent Cavern, and that too wi 
more violence and impetuofii 
the greater thcWeight is, and t 
higher it falls ; then all t 
Bulk of Earth, that covers th 
Cavity, will bg niOY''4 4' 
^re?^bl€:« 



Jook VI. LUCRETIUS. €79 

Or elfe from arched Caves great Stones may fall,7 ^ 
And ftrike the under Waves, and trouble all ; C 

Thofe agitate, and fhake th* inclofing Ball : ^ 

j 60 For when the LiauoR, as Experience proves. 
Is troubled, all the Vessel fliakes and moves. 

Befides ; when Winds below, with mighty Force 
Againft refifting Caves diredt their Courfe, 

The 
N O T £ 5. ^ 

Earthquakes, when the Earth 
opens and gapes, Water for the 
moft part breaks out, almoit in 
the fame Manner, as it works it 
felf into a Ship that has fprung a 
Leak. But Lucretius believes 
that the Earth iliakes, by realbn 
of huge Pieces of it, that break 
off and fall down into a Cavern 
of Water : as, for Example, a 
Veflel full of Water can not re- 
main without Motion, if the Wa- 
ter it contains, fludtuate ; till 
that Water ceafes its Agitation, 
and be at reft. Thus he feems 
to fpeak after the Opinion of 
Thales, who held that the Earth 
floats in Water, 

562. Befides, &C.3 In thefe 20. 
V. he propofes the Wind as a 
third Caufe of Earthquakes, and 
fays, that the Wind, ruiliing into 
the Caverns of the Earth, makes 
it incline^and, as it were, drives it 
forward : But fince the Blaft is 
not continued on [for if it were 
the whole Earth would fly before 
the driving V^iolence] and iince, 
fometimes meeting with oppofiti- 
on, it is repell'd, and goes back, 
the Earth, after feveral fluctua- 
ting Motions, fettles again in its 
antient former Seat. But by this 
fluctuation of the Earth, Build- 
ings are Iliaken and tumbled to 
the Ground. 

To this fortof Earthquake may 
bereferr'd, that amazing Prodi- 
gy, which Pliny, from the Au- 
thority of the Thufcan Books re- 
lates of two Mountains in the 
Countrey of Modena, which, 
Lucius Marcius and Sextus Ju- 
lius being Confults, met, and 
bmced againft each other , 

making 



^7. Or elfe, ^c] Another 
auie of Earthquakes, and which 
; afcribes to Water, is contain'd 
thefe 5. V. to this Effecft. If 
vaft quantity of Earth fall 
)wn into a great Pool of Wa- 
r, it will caufe an Agitation in 
at Water, and that Agitation 
ay caufe a ftaggering or reeling 
the Earth, that contains that 
ater, as in a VelTeL 
>emocritus, as Ariftotle, lib. 2. 
Rebus Superis witnelTes, was 
Opinion, that the Earth, fince 
abounds with Water, and ad- 
its into its Bowels a great quan- 
:y of Rain, is mov'd and fliaken 
/ it : For, becaufe the Cavities 
in not contain all the Water, 
le Earth fwells and increafes 
th it : and thus the Water, 
Ircing its way into the Earth, 
ufes an Earthquake : and the 
Urth growing dry, and attracft- 
g the Water from the Places, 
I at are full, into thofe that are 
ipty, is mov'd by the Water, 
at changes place, and glides 
pm one into another. Thus 
picurus in Seneca , lib. 6. 
jp. 20. Ergo, ut ait Epicurus, 
Vteft terram movere aqua, fi 
lirtes aliquas eluit & abrafit, 
libus dehit pofle excavatis fu- 
meri, quod mtegris ferebatur. 
ihus in A. Geliius, lib. 2. cap. 
the Poets feign, that Nep- 
me, that is, Water, is the Mo- 
r and Shaker of the Earth : 
o this likewife may be referr'd 
e Opinion of Thales, that the 
irth is fupported by Water, 
id fometimes runs adrift, and 
»ats,like a. Ship, got loofc from 
r Anchor, And indsgd , in 



68o LUCRETIUS. BookV 

The Earth that way inclines: then, fixe before, 
565 Our Houses nod ; the higher nod the more : 

The hanging Beams ftart from the tott 'ring Wall 

"We fly our Houfes, and we dread the Fall. 

And yet fome think the World will ne er decay ; 

The fcatter'd Seeds, diflblv'd, flie all away ; 
570 Tho' thefe few fighting Winds with eafe difplace 

The heavy Earth, and turn the weighty Mass. 

For did thefe ftill rufh on, no Force could ftay 

The coming Ruin j all would foon decay : 



Bi 



NOTES. 



making a dreadful Noife, and 
cafting out Smoke and Fire into 
the Air, and then retiring : he 
adds, that this was feen by rna- 
ny Romans from, the ^milian 
Way. Namq^ue montes duo in- 
ter fe concurrerunt crepitu mag- 
no alTultantes ; inter eos flam- 
ma fumoque in coelum exe- 
unte interdiu ; fpecflante e via 
Emilia magna Equitum Ro- 
manorum familiarumque Sc 
viatorum multitudine, Plin. lib. 
2. cap. 83. Moreover: The fort 
of Earthquake, which Lucretius 
here fpeaks of, is that, which they 
call Epiclintes, or Inclinator : 
and is compar'd to the nodding 
Motion of a VelTel in the Water. 
But AriHotle allows only two 
forts of Earthquakes : which he 
calls a Trembling, and a Pulfi- 
on : The Trembling is compar'd 
to the fliaking that liezes us in a 
Fit of an Ague : The Pulfion, to 
the Beating of the Arteries : 
Kow becaufe this laft feenis to be 
a Succuffion of the Earth, while 
it is iliaken, or an intermitting 
and perpendicular Motion : And 
becaufe the Trembling feems to 
be without IntermiiTion, and a 
lateral, or fidelong Motion j 
t'lerefore fome bethought theni- 
felves of this fort of Earthquake, 
■which they call an Inclination, 
v/hile the Earth inclines and nods 
towards the Horizon, This in- 
clining Earthquake is mention'd 



by Milton in Paradife Loft, B.\ 
As if, fays he. 

Winds under-groundj or Wat< 

forcing Way 
Side long, had pufli'd a Mounta 

from his Seat 
Half funk with all his Pines.— 

572. For did, Sec."] To tl 
purpofe Ovid fpeaking of t 
Winds, fays ; 

His quoque non paflim mun- 
fabricator habendum 

A era perniilit. Vix nunc ob 
ftitur illis. 

Cum fua quifque regant divei 
flamina tradu, 

Quin lament Mundum. 

Met. I . V. 5 

Nor were thefe bluft'ring Bl 

thren left at large. 
O'er Seas and Shores their Fu 

to difcharge : 
Bound as they are, and circUi 

fcrib'd in Place, 
They rend the World, refifti 

where they pafs. Dr) 

And Virgil yet more clofely 
the Senfe of Lucretius i fays, tl 
^olus 

Lu(ftantes ventos, tempeftatefq 

fonoras 
Imperio premit, ac vinclis&ci 

cere fr*^nat, Bin, I. v. « 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 6Si 

Buc fince they prefs but now and then, their Courfe 
575 Now here, now there, now fly with mighty Force, 
^ And, then repell'd, return with weaker Wings, 
The Earth oft threatens Ruin, feldom brings : 
Inclining only from its ufual Plain, 
Then turns, and fettles in its Seat again : 
580 And therefore Houses nod, and feem to fall • 
High,n3oft; low, lefs; theloweft, lead of all. 
Buc more ; the Earth may fhake, when Winds begin 
(Or rais'd without in Air, or bred within) 
To rage thro* hollow Caves, and, whirling round,o \ 
585 Endeavour ftill to force the narrow Bound, > 

At laft break thro*, and leave a gaping Wound. 5^ 

Thus ^ G ^Ef thus P HOEN ici^u Towns did fall. 
The greedy Earth gap'd wide, and fwallow'd all : 

Beiides 

NOTES. 



"Ti faciat, mare ac terras, cce- 

lumq; profundum 
^ippe feranc rapidi fecum, ver- 

rancque per auras. v. 6-^. 

iVTith Pow'r imperial curbs the 

ftruggling Winds, 
ind founding Tempefts in darlc 

Prifons binds : 
i^hich did he not, their unrelift- 

ed Sway 
sT^ouId fweep the World before 

them in their Way : 

arthj Air, and Seas thro' empty 

Space would, roul, 

nd Heav'n would fly before the 

driving Soul. Dryd. 

582. But more, &c.] In thefe 

: . V* he fays, that this Inclina- 

on and fluctuating Motion of 

lie Earth, is often attended with 

I violent Beating, and Succuflion 

*ic : for if the Wind break thro' 

,:e Caverns , and cleave the 

jarth, then Cities, Iflands, Sec. 

gether with all their Inhabi- 

nts,are ingulph'd and fwallow'd 

> in the hideous Chafm : But if 

e Wind do not break ,thro' 
1 sm, there is then only a Trem- 
;ing, or, as it were, a fliudd'ring 

che £»rth, which i^ caws'd by 



the chilling Wind, that is dif- 
fus'd thro' all its Pores. Now 
tho' there feem but little or no 
danger to be apprehended from a 
bare Trembling of the Earth on- 
ly, yet it may be join'd with the 
other forts of Earthquakes : Nor 
can any one be certain, but thac 
the Trembling may be often re- 
peated, and that too v;ith ftiU 
more and moreViolence,fo astoo- 
verthrow the Buildings, and make 
the Earth gape a lit tie. Seneca fays, 
thac Epicurus held Wind to be 
the chief Caufe of Earthquakes, 
Nullam tamen placet Epicuro 
caufam efTe majorem, quam fpi* 
ritum. Nat. Qiiseft. lib. ^* 
cap. 20. 

587. -Sgs] The Name of fe- 
veral Towns. I. in Macedonia, 
not far from the River Halyac- 
mon, and where the Kings of 
Macedonia were bury'd, Plin* 
lib. 4.. c. 10. II. In Cilicia, oa 
the Banks of the River Pyramus, 
now Malmifl:ra , Plin. lib. 5* 
cap. 27. III. In j^olia, Plin. 
lib. 5. c. 50. IV. In Euboea, 
now call'd Negroponte. and from 
which Strabo lays the ^g^an Sea 
took its Name. V- In Lydia* 
VI. In TEtolia. VII. In Locris, 
S f f f Steph, 



6Bz 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book VI. 

Befides, a thoufand Towns, a thoufand Ifles, 
590 Whilft cruel Eddies dimpled into Smiles, 

Have fail'n, all fwallow d by the greedy Main, 
And poor Inhab'tants ftrove for Life in vain. 
But if the Vapour's cold, too weak the Wind 
To force a Way, if by ftrong Bounds confined, 



NOTES. 



* 



Steph. But Lucretius fpeaks ofj Town, is confirmed by Poflido- 
JE^x in Achaia, and which islnius, who in Strabo writes, That 
commonly call'd ^gira, Plin. la City, fituate above Sidon, was 
lib. 4. c. 5. And the Earthquake j totally fwallow'd up by an Earth- 
which the Poet here mentions, is! quake, and that near half of Si 
perhaps the fame, of which Ari- f don itfelf was thrown down. Bu 



ilotle, lib, 2. Meteor, c. 8. and 
fome others of the Antients make 
mention, and fay, that two great 
Towns, noc far from ^gira, and 
whofe Names were Helice and 
Bura, were fwallow'd up by an 
Earthquake : Of which Ovid. 
Mecani. 1 5, v. 2513, 

Si quseras Helicen & Buran, A- 

chaidas urbes, 
Invenies fub aquis ; & adhuc of- 

tertdere nautss 
Inclinata folent cum moenibus 

oppida merfis. 

Phoenician Towers] Lbcretius 
mentions Sidon, a City of Phce- 
nicja, one of the Provinces of Sy- 
ria ; and which was built by the 
Tyrians, who at firft inhabited 
the midil of the Countrey, where 
being afflided with continual 
Earthquakes, they left their A- 
bodesj and built a new City near 
the Sea-fliore. and call'd ic Sidon, 
from the great Plenty of Fiili, 
with which the Sea abounded. 
3For Sidon ia the Phoenician Lan- 
guage fignifies a Fiili. Tyriorum 
gens condita a Phcenicibus fuir, 
terr^e mocu vexati, reli(flo patri£e 
JToIo, AlTyrium ftagnum primo, 
inox mari proximum littus inco- 
luerunt, condita ibi urbe, quam 
a pifcium ubertate Sidona apel- 
faverunt. Nam pifcem Phosnices 
Sidon vocant. Juftin, lib. 18. 
And whst Lucreeius fsys of this 



notwithftanding thefe Authori 
ties, Faber believes, that fome o 
ther Earthquake is meant in thi 
Place. For, fays he, that Paflag* 
of Juftin is taken erroneoully 
For Juftin is not (peaking of tha 
Earthquake, which threw dowi 
the Town of Sidon : but of that 
which did great Mifchief to th 
Phoenicians, not on the Coal 
where Sidon ftood, but in th 
Countrey of the Idumeans : Fc 
the Phoenicians of Juftin are tl 
Idumeans : and Herodotus, PI 
ny, and Dionyfius the Africai 
Witnefs, that they were origina 
ly Inhabitants of the Coaft of tt 
Red Sea : To which he adds, th« ] 
by the Stagnum AiTyrium of Ji 
ftin, is meant that very Seac 
Lake, which in Holy Scripture . 
call'd, the Lake of Gennefaretl 
Sidon is the Port in the Meditei 
ranean, now call'd Sayde. 

58?. Beiides, &rc.2 Pliny, HI 
2. cap. 80. mentions twelve C 
ties of Alia, that v/ere deftroy' 
by an Earthquake, all in on 
Night. The like happen'd n(j 
many Years ago to the City i( 
San Severoin Apulia,now Puglii 
and part of Ragufa was latdl 
fwallow'd up. 

5^c. Whilft cruel, &c.] Ifch 
Verfe were left out, the Senfe <j 
Lucretius would not be interruj 
ted, nor imperfed: : Therefi)i| 
Creech might have left it whei 
he found ic : Cowley, David. 

Tht 



Book VI. LUCRETIVS. 68; 

595 ^^ Tpreads oerall the Pores the Earth contains," 
And brings a fliivVing Cold thro' all the Veins ; 
As when Frost comes, it brings a trembling Chill, 
And makes our Members (kikc againft our Will j 
Then Men begin to fear, and wifely dread, 

600 And fly the Tow'rs that nod their threat'ning Head : 
Or elfe they think the Earth will fail; the Ground 
Will gape, and all fink thro' the mighty Wqimd. 

Ev'n thofe, who think the "World muft ftill endure. 
Eternal ftill, from Fate and Age fecure, 

(605 Yet often, waken'd by the prefent Fear, 
Start all, and think the Diffolution near : 
They think the Earth will link, the "World will fall 5 
And Ruine and Confufion fpread o'er all. 

Now I muft (ing, my Muse, why greedy Seas 

(5io Devour the "Water ftill, yet ne*er increafe ; 

For it feems ftrange, that 'Rivers ftill fliould flow,' 
And run for numerous Years as much as now ; 
And, tho* they daily bring a mighty Store, y 

The fpacious Ocean fhould increafe no more, j> 

615 But ftill be bounded with the former Shore ; 



And 



NOTES. 



The Terrour of tKeir Brows, fo 

rough e'er while. 
Sunk down into the Dimples of a 

Smile. 

'^,96. A Aiv*ring Gold] Lucr. 
Difpertitur, ut horror. Which 
Celfus, lib. 3. cap. 3. fpeaking of 
Feavers, explains : interpreting 
Horrour to be a trembling of the 
wjiole Body, Horrorem voco, 
Jays he, ubi totum corpus intre- 
mit. 

503. Ev'n thofe, &C.3 In thefc 
6. V. he in fults over thofe, who 
believe the World eternal and 
immortal ; even tho' they per- 
ceive the Earth, that great {)art 
of it, to be thus fliaken and im- 
pair'd ; nay, tho' they themfelves 
fear the Diflblution and Ruin of 
the whole Frame. 

609. Now, &c.] Since fo many 
and fo great Rivers are continu- 
ally difcharging their Waters into 



the Sea, why does it not increaft, 
and overflow its Bounds ? Lucre- 
tius anfwers in II. V. I. That 
the Gulph, into which the Ri- 
vers difembogue their Streams, is 
fo vaft, that all their Waters, to- 
gether with the Rain, Snow, 
Hail, &c. feem not to add one 
Drop to the Sea : II. In 9. v. 
That the Sun drinks up a great 
deal of its Moiilure : III. hi 
5. v. That the Winds bruih o^ 
and carrv away no fmall quanti- 
ty : IV. in4. V. That the C loads 
take fomeaway : And V. in 8. v. 
That as the Rivers run into the 
Sea, fo they are reconvey'd from 
thence thro' the hidden Veins of 
the Earth, back to their own 
Springs : Thus the Waters roul 
in a revolving Courfe, and there- 
fore no wonder the Sea does noc 
increafe. 

Thus too the Authour of Ec- 

clefiaf.folves this Queftion: Om- 

? f f f ^ Vi\^ 



684 LUCRETIUS. Book VI 

And yet it is not ftrange : for these, the Rain, 
And all the Moisture that the Clouds contain. 
Scarce feem a Drop, compar'd to fpacious Seas j 
No wonder then the Waves do ne er increafe. 

'4lo Befides; the Sun draws much ; the firy Ray 
Defcends, and forces many Parts away : 
For Senfe affures, that when the bufy Beams 
Prefs moiftend Clouds, the Vapours rife in Streams 
Therefore from fpacious Seas the Rays muftbear 

'^15 More watry Parts, and fcattcr thro' the Air: 

But now, tho* here and there few Parts arife, 7 

Yet a vaft fpacious Mass of Water flies / 

From the whole Sea, and fpreads o'er all the Skies. J 

And then the Winds take fome, with wanton Play 

<53o They dip their Wings, and bear fome Parts away : 
This Senfe declares 5 for often after Rain, r> 

In one fhort Night, if Winds fweep o*er the Plain, > 
The Dirt grows hard, the Ways are dry'd again. 3 
Befides; as Winds drive on the low- hung Clouds, 

635 And make them skim the Surface of the Floods, 
They take fome Drops away ; and thefe compofe 
And fall to JEarth, in Hail, in Rain, and Snows. 

And fince the Earth is rare, and full of Pores,' 
And Waves ftill beat againft the neighb ring Shores, 

640 As Rivers run from Earth, and fill the Main, 
So fome thro' fecret Pores return again : 
Thefe lofe their Salt, and thro' fmali Channels fpread. 
Then join where-e'er the Fountain fhews her Head : 
Hence Streams arife, in fair Me^kd er s play, 

645 And thro' the Vallies cut their liquid way. ; 

Now 
NOTES, 

ma. fiumina intrant in mare, & I creafe, the Poet has given alreaijT; 
mare nbn redundat, quoniam ad j B. V. v, 300. 

629. And then J &c.] This Rea- 
fon too we have feen before, in 
B. V. V. 302. and v. 432. 

<538. And fince,&:c.3 Thislaft 
and true Reafon, why the Sea 
does not increafe, the Poet has 
likewife given already, B. V. 
v. 306, 

6^2. Thefe lofe, Sec,"] This and 
the three following Verfes are re- 
peated from B. V. v. 30$. Con- 
fult the Place, and Notes upon it. 

^44^ Meanders} Of this we have 

Ipoken 



locurn, unde exeunt flumina re- 
vertuntur 5 ut iterum fluant. 
Ecc!. I. And for this reafon 
Homer and the other Poets call 
Oceanus, not only the Origine 
and Parent of all Seas, Rivers, 
Fountains, Lakes, dec. but the 
Gulph and Tartarus of them all 
likewife : For all Rivers flow in- 
to that Abyfs, and from thence 
again derive their Origine. 

670. Befides, &c.] This fecond 
E-eafoDj why^the Sea does not in^ 



Book Vi: LUCRETIUS. 6Sf 

Now next, why ^ r n ^ burns, and why the Flame 
Breaks forth in Whirls, and whence the Fury came : 
For fure *iis fond to think that Flames arife, 
Direded by the angry Deities, 
^5 To wafte fair S icur, and burn, and fpoil 
The Farmer's Hopes, and Fruits of all his Toil, 
Whilft all the neighb'ring Nations ftood amazed/ 
Opprefs'd with anxious Fear, and wildly gaz'd : 
TheHEAv'N, allfpread with Flames,they flock*d to viewj 
$55 And wonder'd what vex'd Nature meant to do. 

But 
NOTES, 



poken at large in the Note on 
B. V. V. 308. 

6^6. Now next, &c.3 Lucretius 
lavJng, as he thinks, fufficiently 
xplain'd the Caufes of Meteors, 
>t Earthquakes, and offome of 
he Pha:nomenons of the Sea, he 
low endeavours to Hiew the Cau- 
es of the other Wonders of Na- 
ure, which he fufpeds may create 
Belief of the Gods, and of di- 
ine Providence. And firit in 
9, v. he difputes of the Fires of 
vlount ^tna, which;, fays he, 
ho' they fometimes burft out 
vith great Violence,and lay wafte 
he llland of Sicily, ou^ht not 
leverthelefs fo much to iurprize 
IS, as to make us fooliflily be- 
ieve they furpafs the Strength of 
!^ature. Some may fay that the 
i^lames are vaft indeed, and their 
^orce wonderful, becaufe they 
ee no other like them ; but in 
nany Things we are deceiv'd, by 
udging over-haft ily of them. If 
ve contemplate the infinite Uni- 
ferie, there is nothing that can 
3e faid to be great, nothing that 
^eferves our Admiration : For 
from that Univerfe may flow- to- 
gether, on a fuddain an infinite 
quantity of the Seeds of Fire, or 
)f Wind, and they, gatheriiig to- 
gether in a Body in Mount ^tna, 
3r in any other Mountain, may 
Illume Strength and Violence, 
|nay caufe Earthquakes, may at 
ength burft out, and fcatter far 
and wide. Smoke, Flame, Aihes, 
ind Coak of Fire. But thefe E- 



ruptions are, as it were, the Di- 
feafes and Convulfions of this 
World : And as the Seeds of Di- 
feafes may be derived, and flow 
out of this World into Man, 
[for we are often in Fcavers, our 
Teeth ake, dec/] fo may they 
likewife out of the Univerfe into 
this World : For, to make a Com- 
parifon, a Man is in refpecft to 
this World, what the World is 
in refpecft to the Univerfe. 

\Stna] Of i^tna, the greatefl 
Mountain of Sicily , and now 
calPd Mongibello, befides what 
is contained in this Difputation, 
and the Notes upon i^, fee B. I. 
y. 742. 

d[5o.Sicily3 An Ifland of Italy, 
and the largeft of all the Ifland s, 
in the Mediterranean Sea : being 
according to the modern Geo- 
graphers, at leaft 700 Miles in 
l-ompafs. See the reft B. I. 
V. 737. 

(554.. Spread with flames] That 
Mount S^tna throws out Fire, 
Flames and Aflies,almoft all Au- 
thours witnefs ; but chiefly St. 
Auftin^ lib. 3. de Civitate Dei, 
cap. 31 , in thefe Words ; Legi- 
mus apud eos, ^tiiejs ignibus ab 
ipfo montis vertice ulque ad lit- 
tusproximum ciecurrentibus ira 
fervifl^e mare, ut rupes exureren- 
tur, &c pices navium folverentur. 
Hoc utique non leviter noxium 
fuit, quamvis incredibiliter mi- 
rum. Eodem rurfus ignium xftu 
tanta vi favilla; icripferunt opple- 
1 tarn qSq Siciliam; ut Cataneniis 

yrbisL 



6S6 



LUCRETIUS. 



BookV] 



But if you look about on ev'ry fide, 
Confider that the Whole's immenfely wide ; 
Then view the arched Skies, and fee how fmall, n 
And mean a Portion of the fpacious All , ^ 

<66o How little Man, compar d to Earth's vaft Ball ! j 
You then will find your Fears and Cares decreafe, 
Your Jealoufies, and Admiration ceafe. 
For who admires to fee a Patient fweat. 
Or hear him groan, when fcorch'd by Feaver s Heai 

J$65 Or when the Foot, or Eye is vex'd with Pains, 
Or any hot Disease fpread o'er the Veins ? 
And this, becaufe there lie vaft Stores of Seed 
In Heav'n, and Earth, all fit, all apt to breed 
Such ftrange and vexing Pains ; or elfe encreale 

[670 The noxious Flame, and feed the ftrong Disease: 
So you may think the Mass fends great Supplies, 
And ftores of Seed thro* all our Earth and Skies,' 

Sufficien 

N O T £ 5. 



urbis tecfia obruta, & opprefla di- 
ruerintj qua calamitate permoti 
mifericopditer ejufdem anni tri- 
butum ei relaxavere Romani. 
"We read, fays he, that Mount 
JEtna has caft out Fires with fuch 
Violence, that they have flown 
even to the Sea-fide, heated the 
Waters of the Sea, burnt the 
Hocks, and melted the Pitch of 
the Ships : This, tho* incredibly 
wonderful, muft have done much 
Dammage. They write befiides, 
that theCountrey round, is fome- 
times overwhelm'd with the vafl: 
quantity of Cinders it throws 
out : and that the Roofs of the 
Houfes at Catana [a City ten 
Miles diftant from ^tna] were 
broken down by the Weight of 
the Cinders, that fell upon them : 
infomuchthat the Romans, com- 
miferating the Condition of the 
Inhabitants, forgave them the 
Tribute of that Year. Thus too, 
the Mountains, Vefuvius in Na- 
ples, Hecla in Illand, and Qin't 
-in Peru, fometimes cjed Coals 
and Flames. Cicero fays, thaCl 
Mount ^tnahas caft out fomuch 
Smoke among the Flames, gj has 



darkened the Couiitrey round t 
that degree, that the Inhabitant 
for two Days together could nc 
know one another. Nos autei 
tenebras cogitemus tantas, quar 
t£B quondam eruptions JEtnx< 
rum ignium flnitimas Region 
obfcuravifTe dicuntur, ut per b 
duum nemo hominem homo at 
nofceret, lib. 2. de Natur^ Dec 
rum. And Pliny the young< 
winefTes in his Epiftles, that h 
Unkle, the preat Pliny, was fvk 
focated by the Smoke, Stones an 
Cinders , that Vefuvius ha 
thrown out. Appian, lib. $. <3 
Bello civili, adds horrid Noife 
and Lucretius takes notice of ^ 
thefe Things, and more, as ^ 
fliall fee by and by. 
666, Or any, &c.] Lucxel 

Exiftit facer ignis, & urit corpo| 

re ferpens 
Quamcunque arripuit partCJlj 

repitque per artus. 

Where the Poet defcribes the Dll 
feafe which the Latines call Sace 
Ignis ; the Greeks, '£pycr/Vs>iOts; 
and wCa Su Ar^hony's fire. C^' 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS^ 687 

Sufficient to raife Storms, to ihake the Frame,^ 
Raife /Etk^'s Fires, and cover Skies with Flame : 

575 For that appears, when Seeds of Flame combine. 
As Rain, and Clouds, when Drops of Water join: 
You'll fay the Fire's too ftrong, the Flame too great: 
A vain ObjeiSiion this, and Fanfy's Cheat : 
Thus he, that views a River, Man, or Tree, 

$80 Or elfe whatever 'tis he chance to fee, 

Strait thinks them great, becaufe, perhaps, he knowi 
No larger Streams, no greater Things than thofe : 
Yet thefe, and all the fpacious Skies controul. 
Are fmalJ, and nothing to the ftiighty Whole.^ 

585 Now why the Flames break forth 

Firft then, this ^th ^s Cave's a mighty one ; 
A fpacious Hollow, and all arch'd with Stone : 



Thi? 



f^ O T E S. 



us, lib. 5. CAp. 20. calls it an 
dcerous Difeafe : Sacer ignis, 
ays he, malis ulceribus annume- 
•ari debet. Virgil. Georg. 3. 



Contacf^os artus facer 



ignis edebac, 

But of this Difeafe, fee at large 
Celfus in the Place above-cited, 
md Paulus ^gineta, lib. 4. cap. 
20. 

<?74, And cover Skies with 
Flame Of the firy Eruptions of 
^tna, Virgil, ^neid. 3, ^v. 571. 

(Interdumque atram prorumpit 

ad sethera nubem, 

iirbine fumantem piceo, & can- 

dente favilla : 
lAttollitque globos flammarum, 

& fydera lambit : 
Jjoterdura fcopulos avulfaque vif- 

cera mentis 

Erigit erudans , liquefadaque 

faxa Tub auras 
Cum gemitu glomerat, fundoqj 

exseliuit imo. 

Thus render'd by Dryden : 



By Turns, a pitchy Cloud ihc 

rouls on high, 
By Turns, hot Embers from 

her Entrails fly. 
And Flakes of mounting 

Flames, that lick the Sky : _ 
Oft fromiher Bowels mafly Rocks 

are thrown, 
And, iliiver'd by the Force, come 

piece-meal down : 
Oft liquid Lakes of burning Sul- 
phur flow ; 
Fed from the firy Springs, that 

boil below. 

But of thefe Eruptions, fee at 
large Cluveriua, de Sicili^, lib. i, 
cap. 2. 

685. Now why, &C.3 In thefe 
30. v. the Poet explains the Rea- 
fon, why the Flames, that are ga- 
ther'd together in the Cavities of 
Mount ^tna, burfl: out with Co 
great Violence : He fays, That 
the Eruption is caus'd by the 
Force of Wind : That the Seeds 
of that Wind come from the in- 
finite Univerfe, and, gathering to- 
gether in the Mountain ^c- 
na, drive out either the Flames, 
that lurk within the Bowels of the 
Mountain^or thofe they ftrike and 

force 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book VI 



■690 



This fwells with Winds, which whirl and tumble there 
(For Wind is nothing elfe but trpubled Air^ 
When thefe, by whirling round the arched Frame, 
Grow hotj and from the Flints ftrike Sparks of Flame 
Then, proud, and furious too, and rifing higher. 
Break forth at Top, in Smoke, and Sparks of Eire : 

B] 
NOTES. 



fbrce out from the vet-y Stones 
of ic : Or elfe, that Wind ruflies 
in at the Hollows, that are at the 
Foot of the Mountain, and whofe 
Entrances are open, when the 
ebbing Sea leaves the Shore (for 
the Sea waflies the Foot of the 
Mountain) and blows out the 
flames. Laftly, he fays, that 
Winds are bred in the very Hol- 
lows of the Mountain. And then 
he tells us, he gives many Rea- 
fons, that among them, one at 
leaft may be true and certain. 

By the Wind that rages within 
the Caverns of ^tna, may be 
underftood the fulphurous and 
bituminous Exhalations, which 
are continually generated, and agi- 
tated within thofe Hollows ; and 
which, when they can no longer, 
by reafon of their great quantity, 
be contain'd within them, break 
their Prifon, and burft out in 
Elames. Thus Trogus in Servius 
on the third ^neid : Nam Si- 
cilia terra cavernofa & fiftulofa : 
Quo fit, ut ventorum flatibus pa- 
teat ; unde ignis concipitur : In- 
trinfeci\s fulphur habet & bitu^ 
men ; in quaz ubi ventus per fpira- 
menta cavernarum incubuit, diu 
lucflatus , ignem concipit : Sic 
^tncE durat incendium. 

6B9. For Wind, &c.] There 
are three Opinions concerning the 
Wind. 1. Ariftotle, Meteor, lib. 
2. and Theophraftus, as Olym- 
piodorus, in i. & 2. Meteor, 
witneilcs, held the Matter of 
Winds to be an Exhalation ari- 
fing out of the Cavities of the 
Earth. And this Opinion mofl: 
of the Philofophers, fince them^ 
have follow 'd, il. Others afcribe 



the Origine of Winds to the Wa 
ter : as Metrodorus, who in PIu 
tarch de Placit. 37. defines Win< 
to be an Ebullition, or violen 
furging of a watry Vapour ; ani 
Vitruvius, who, lib. 3. C <5. call 
the Wind, Aeris fluens unda, cun 
incertd motus redundantia. II] 
And others, held the Wind to b 
only an Agitation of the Air. O 
this Opinion was Hippocratej 
lib. I. de flatibusjwhere he calls i 
a violent Flux and Motion of th 
Air. And with him agree Ani 
maxander in Plutarch 3. de Pla 
cit. Philofoph. 7, Anaxagoras ii 
Laertius, Seneca, lib. 5. c. i. 6 
6. and Lucretius in this Place 
But the Opinion of Ariftotle i 
chiefly followed : And 'tis gene 
rally held, that in thofe Conca 
vities of the Earth, when the Ex 
halations, which Seneca calls fub 
terranean Clouds, overcharge th( 
Place, the moift Vapours turr 
into Water, and the dry int€ 
Wind : and thefe are the fecrei 
Treafures, out of which God i< 
faid in the Scripture to bring 
them. This too is what the 
Poets meant, when they feign'd. 
that ^olus kept the Winds, im- 
prifon'd in a vaft Cave. Thus 
Virgil, -S^n. i. v. ^6. 



. 1 Hie vafto Rex TEoIus 

antro 

Ludantesventos, tempeftatefque 
fonoras 

Imperio premit, ac vinclis Sc car- 
cere fr«nar. 

Upon which Seneca feems too 
critical, when he fays, non intel- 
lexit, nee id quod claufum eft, 



Book VL LUCRETIUS. 689 

By the fame Force, ev'n weighty Mount a ms rife, 
695 And whirling Rocks cue thro' the wounded Skies« 
But more : this hollow, firy Mountains Side 
The Sea ftili wafhes with impetuous Tide, 
And, pafling thro* the Pores, the Flame retires,^ 
The prefling Waters drive the yielding Fires, 
700 And, force them out 5 thefe raife large Clouds of Sand,' 
And fcatter Stones, and Ashes o er the Land. 

And 
NOTES. 



«fie adhuc ventum, nee id quod 
ventiis eft, pofTe claudi : nam quod 
in claufo eft, quiefcit, Sc aeris 
itatio eft : omnis in fuga ventus 
eft. For tho' it get not out, it 
is Wind as foon as it ftirs within, 
and attempts to do fo. Juvenal 
in his fifth Satire defcribes very 
well the South Wind in one of 
thefe Dens : 



the Flames yield to the driving 
Flood, which compels them ta 
belchthemfelves out at thebreath- 
ing Holes on the Summit of the 
Mountain. Our Tranflatour has 
totally omitted the two laft Ver- 
ges of this Argument, which in 
the Original are as follows : 



In fummo funt ventigeni crateres, 

utipfi 
Nominitant, nos quas fauces pet*- 

hibemus Sc ora. 



" ■ Bum fe continet Aufter, 
Dum fedit, &ficcat madidas in 

carcere pennas. 
See more above in the Note on u e. On the Top of the Moun- 
V. 452. where we have already tain, there are certain Crateres, 
fpolcen of the Caufe of Wind for fo the Greeks caU them, Ba- 

f94.. By the fame Force, &C.3 fons or Cifterns, but we, the La- 



Milton in the firft Book of Pa- 
radife Loft : 



^ As when the Force 

Of fubterranean Winds tran- 

Iports a Hill 
Torn from Pelorus, or the iliat- 

ter'd Side 
Of thundering ^tna, whofe com- 

buftible 
And fuel'd Entrails thence con- 
ceiving Fire, 
Sublim'd with min'ral Fury, aid 

the Winds, ^ 

And leave a finged Bottom, all in- 
I volv'd 
In Stench and Smoke. 

696. But more, &c.] In thefe 
S. v. the Poet fubjoins another 
peculiar Caufe, why ^tna vo- 
'snits Flame : and fays, that the 
>ea wafhes the Foot of the Moun- 



tines, call them. Fauces and Ora^ 
Mouths and Jaws. Now the 
Apertures of ^tna were call'dL 
Crateres, becaufe thro' them 
Winds are almoft continually 
iHuing out of the Bowels of the 
Mountain : Of this no Man can 
doubt, if any Credit may be gi- 
ven to Strabo, who, in lib. 6» 
has thefe Words •"Oy?€^'5>^ir/?ov 
eivou r ToTTov, ii^' opoilov • *EiKcl(^m 
re f^iiSl JCAlcLm^^mcu rl Ivvoi^ 
c*cfl<sre, ^^ rf dvliTrYola.S' tc^v ^ 
pxx.SaS' dvi/UioY^ K) <f 3rsp^«oTn']^, 
viv '^d^ottTTcit.v Icvv svMyov 'OToppsjQsr, 

ctv 2!j.Si5<fi9ccpan 'sr^v ctvappJ9^?>'a« 

'StTflCAfV, OTToloV '5rctp£Av!(p9w 'Zc>^'Te* 
£9V* TO p^ i^V iKXHTTOOVf 'TToTiTf^ 



ain J and entering into the Ca- - ,^.- .^, i, ww,vw,--.;> 

'iCKs where the Fire is conceiv'djj "^oTs ^ vrng-y «V elW^v « /y^ 

T C t c Wi 



690 LUCRETIUS. Book V|| 

And thus my Muse a Store of Caufes brings j 
For here, as in a thoufand other Things, 
Tho* by one fmgle Cause th' Effect is done, 
705 Yet fmce 'tis hid, a thoufand muft be (hewn, 
That we may furely hit that fmgle one. 
' As when a Carcass we at Diftance view 
"We all the various Means of Death muft fhew, 
• That in the Number wf may fpeak the true : 
710 For whether he was kill'd by ftrong Disease, 
Or Cold, or Sword, tho't was by oneof thele, 



We 



NOTES. 



yivi§^ r rt^MCMCTH-ov ' that is to 
fay, For that Place can neither be 
approach'd, nor look upon, and 
that he conjecflur'd, even that no- 
thing could be thrown in it, be- 
caufe of the oppofite Blaft of the 
Winds and Heat, that come from 
the Bottom : which, 'tis proba- 
ble comes from far, before it ap- 
proaches the Mouth of the Cra^ 
ter : But if any thing were calt 
in, the Figure it had, when in- 
jeded, would be chang'd long be- 
fore it was thrown out again : Be- 
fides, that it is not abfurd to fay, 
that if the Matter for fome time 
fail, the Wind and Fire ceafe for 
fome time likewife : but that that 
Intermiffion is not fo great, that 
any Man can approach near, and 
place himfelfagainft that Force. 
Apuleius likewife retams the 
Greek Word, and calls the 
jMouths or Apertures, by which, 
Flames, Smoke, Stones, Coals of 
Fire, &c. belch out of this Moun- 
tain, Crateres : Ex^tnse cervici- 
bus quondam effufis crateribus 
fer declivia, incendiodivino, tor- 
s-entis vice, flammarum flumina 
concurrerunt. Apul.lib. de Mun- 
do, pag. 75. Now what Lucre- 
tius fays in thefe two Verfes, is : 
That the Wind enters into the 
Caverns, apt only at the Aper- 
tures in the! Foot of the Moun- 
tain J but is generated ia she 



Mouths, and breathing Holes or 
the Top of it. Nor, indeed, is 
this in the leaft improbable, fincf 
nothing is more certain, than that 
Air ruilies on all fides to Flame, 
and thatWind is thence generated. 
Thus Creech himfelf upon this 
Paffage. 

702. And thus, &c.] In thefe 
13. V. the Poet makes an Excufe 
for his having aflign'd fo man^ 
Caufes : but, fays he, this is the 
fafeft Way of proceeding ir 
doubtful Things : and among 
them all, fome one may, perhaps 
fatisfy the Reader : and laftly 
he confirms this Method by a Si- 
militude. We may obfcrve that 
Lucretius takes no notice of the 
Snows, that are continually lying 
on the Top of this Mountain ; 
It is neverthelefs very extraordi- 
nary, that Snow and Fire ^iliouk 
inhabit fo near each other : and 
many of the Antients mention it 
as fuch : particularly Pindar 

cap. II. 

I. Rapt. 



Od. I. Pyth. Solinus, 
and Claudian, who, in 
Prof^rp. fays J 



Sed quamvis nimio fefvens exu- 
beret jeilu, 

Scit nivibus fervare fidem 5 pari- 
terque favillis 

Durefcit glacies, tanti fecura va- 
poris, 

Arcano defenfa gelu , fumoque 
fideli 

Lambit contiguas innoxia flam- 
ma pruinas. 

ThuJ 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 691 

We can not tell ; and thus it muft be done / 

In other Things, a thousand Reafons fhewn,' ?" 

When Sense determines notour Choice to one. ^ 
715 In Summer Nile overflows ; his Waters drown 
. The fruitful Ear pt's Fields, and his alone : 

Becaufe 
NOTES, 



Thus too Silius Italicus, lib. 14. 

Summo cana jugo cohibet, mira- 

bile di<iiu, 
Vicinam flammis glaciem, xtcv- 

noque rigore 
Ardentes horrent fcopuli ; flat 

vcrticecelfi 
Collis hyems, callidaque nivem 

tegit atra favilla. 

And this Defcription of the 
Keighbourhood of Fire and Snow 
upon Mount ^tna, Cowley has 
imitated from thofe Poets, in his 
Pindarick Ode to Hobbes. 

So Contraries on ^tna*s Top 

confpire ; 
Here hoary Frofts, and by them 

breaks out Fire : 
A fecure Peace the faithful Neigh- 
bours keep : 
Th' embolden'd Snow next to the 

Flame does fleep. 
Tacitus fays the fame of Mount 
Libanus, and ufes the like Ex- 
preffion. Praecipuum, fays he, 
montium Libanumjmirum didu, 
tantos inter ardorcs opacum, fi- 
dumque nivibus ; fliady in the 
jnidft of fuch great Heats, and 
faithful to the Snow : but thefe 
Expreffions are too poetical for 
Profe, and become the Poets, bet-r 
ter than the Hiftorian. See like- 
wife Seneca, Epift. 79. 

715. In Summer, &C.3 From 
the Summer Solftice to the Au- 
tumnal Equinox, the River Nile 
fwells to fuch a degree, that it 
overflows the Countrey of Egypt, 
and 5 covering the Fields with a 
ilimy Mud, manures and renders 
them fruitful, the' without it 
they Avould be barren, and pro- 
duce nothing. A manifeft and 
wonderful Monument of Divine 
Providence! ^gypti in^ol*? a- 



quarum beneficia percipientes, a- 
quam colunt, fays Julius Firmi- 
cus de Err. Prof. Rel. The E" 
gyptiansj perceiving the great Be- 
nefits of this Inundation, worfliip 
the Water. Lucretius, according 
to his Cuftom, affigns natural 
Caufes for the overflowing of this 
River: And iirft in 10. v. fays, 
that the Etelian Winds, which 
blow from the North, repel and 
drive back the Stream of the 
River, that comes from the South, 
and are the Caufe that it fills up 
its Channel, and overflows its 
Banks. Now if it iliould be ob- 
jeded, that the Etefian Wind, 
for Winds are light Bodies, is too 
weak to ftop fo great a Weight of 
Waters, he adds in 5. v. that the 
Sands, which the Sea, being agi- 
tated by thofe Winds, cafts into 
the Mouths of the Nile, choak 
them up, and thus caufe the In- 
undation. To thefe he adds two 
other Caufes : the Rains that fall 
at the Sources of the River, in 
3. V. and the melting of the 
Snows, in 2. v. For all thefe 
Caufes confpiring, will make the 
Nile, or any other River, over- 
flow. 

Thales Milefius held the firft of 
thefe to be the true Caufe of the 
overflowing of the Nile ; nor 
does Philo the Jew, lib. i. de vit. 
Mof. nor Pliny, lib. 5. cap. 9, 
difapprove of his Opinion. Eu^ 
thymenes likewife in Seneca, 1, 4, 
Nat. QuKit. c. 2. afcribes the 
Caufe of the overflowing of this 
River to the Etefian Winds : for 
he believes that the Nile increafes 
by means of the Waters of the 
[. Atlantick Sea, which the Etcfias 
drive into the Channel of the 
River. Thefe are his Words : 
T t t t 3 indQ 



6^% LUCRETIUS. Book VL 

Becaufe the Mouth of that wide River lies 
Gppos'd to North : for when th' Etesias rife 
From heavy northern Clouds, and fiercely blow 
'7ioAgainft the Streams, thefe ftop, and rife, and flow. 
For Northern Winds blow full againft the Streams, 
^Their Spring is South, it boils with Mid-day Beams ; 

Then 
NOTES, 



Inde,Xfrom the Atlantick Sea] 
enim Nilus fluit major, quamdiu 
BtefiJB tempus obfervant; tuna 
enim ejicitur mare obftantibus 
ventis : cum refederint, pelagus 
conquiefcit, minorque difcedenti 
inde vis Nilo eft ; CKterum dul- 
cis man fapor eft, 8c fimiles Ni- 
loticaj bellu£B. But this Reafon 
is good for nothing. For fome- 
times the Nile increafes before the 
JEtelias blow, and decreafes even 
while they are yet blowing : Nay, 
tho* they blow exacftiy contrary 
to the Streams the Nile never- 
thelefs runs into the Sea. Be- 
£des ; why does not the like hap- 
pen to other Rivers that run a- 
gainft the Etefian Winds ? But 
the Truth is, thofe Winds are 
unable to keep back, much lefs to 
repel, the Current of that River. 
In Summer] For the Nile ne- 
ver begins to fwell till after the 
Sun has entcr'd into Cancer : 
v.'hich is about the eleventh of 
June. Thus Manilius, lib^ 3, 
V. 6^0, 

Nilufque tumefcit in 



arva, 

Hie rerum ftatus eft, Cancri cum 
fydere Phoebus 

Jolftitium facit, & fummo ver- 
fatur Olympo. 

The Reafon of which we will give 
by and by. 

The Nile overflows, when with 

exalted Ray, 
In Summer Solftice, Phcebus 

bears the Day 
Thro' Cancer's Sign , and 

drives the higbeft Way. 

Cxetch. 



718. Etefias] Ariftotle, lib. 2. 
de rebus fuperis : oih *Rliaiou 
'srnaai /u^' T^'oTTctf, ^ y.vns Itti' 
roMv- The Etefians blow aftei 
the Solftice, and the rifing of the 
Dog-Star : And this Wind con- 
tinues generally for eleven or 
twelve Days. They are call'd E- 
teflas, from the Greek Word 
'st(^, which fignifiesaYear,aswho 
Ihould fay Annual, becaulethey 
blow conftantly at a certain Sea- 
fon of the Year : Strabo calls them 
Subfolanos, Eaftern Winds ; But 
Pliny, lib. 2. cap. 47. Poft bidu- 
um exortus Canicular Aquilones 
conftantius perflant diebus qua- 
draginta, quos Etefias vocant. 
When the Dog-Star has been two 
Days rifen,the Northern Winds, 
call'd Etefias, blow conftantly for 
fourty Days together. And Lu- 
cretius himfelf fays, v. 720. The 
Etefias bear the northern Va- 
pours ; which iliews the Miftake 
of Fay us, who takes it for a South 
Wind. 

722. Their Spring, &c.] Many 
of the Antients defpair'd, that 
the Source of the Nile would ever 
be difcover'd : Hence Ammianus 
Marcek lib. 22. Origines fontium 
Nili, ficut adhuc fadum eft, po- 
ftcric quoque ignorabunt a'tates : 
Hence too thoie Complaints o£ 
the Poets, TibuJi. lib. i. 

Nile Pater, quanam pofTum te 
dicere caufa, 
Autquibusin terris occuluille 
caput .^ 

Claudianus, Epigr. 

Secreto de fonte cadens, qui fem- 
psr inani 

QuKrendus 



Book VI. 



LUCRETIUS. 



69} 



Du«rendus ratione licet *, nee con- 1 Equinoxial Line. And Voflius, 
tjgit ulli I de ^tat. Mund. and in Melam 



ioc vidilTe caput : 
teAe creatus. 

iad Lucan, lib. 10. 



Lrcanum Natura caput non pro 

didit ulli, 
lee licuit popuUs parvunj te, 

Nile, videre. 

nd again, 

— — — — Ubicunquc videris, 
nxretiSiSc nulli contingit gloria 
"genti 
c Nilo fit la:ta fuo— — — 

ence Homer calls the Nile 
inr'iA ^oloLf^ioif, the River fent 
>\vn from Heaven. And Dio- 
rus, lib. I. tells us, that the In- 
bitantsofMeroecall it in their 
mguage Aftapoda, that is to 



fertur fine | obferves, that before the 



Difco- 



dark or obTcure. Herodo- 

s, after he had travell'd four 

onths in fearch of the Fountain 

this River, ftopt in his Jour- 

y, being told by the Egyptians 
jatit flow'd from beyond the 
iland of Mero. Ptolomy 

liladelphus fent Perfons on 

irpofe to difcover the Source 
I it, but without effe<ft, as Stra- 
witnefTes, lib. 17. and Lucan 
:.s, that Alexander the Great 
lit on the fame Errand, but his 
jefTengershad the like Succefs. 
: iny, lib. 6. c. 6. fays, that Ne- ceal'd its Spring : 
fent two Centurions, and that 

len they came back, he heard 
; sm fay : Ad ulteriora quidem 

rvenimus, ad immenfas palu- 

'S, quarum exitum nee incolas 

iverant, nee fuperare quifquam 

teft. The facrcd Authors be- 

v'd the Nile to arife in the ter- 

ftrial Paradife. Pomponius 

ela thinks it rifes at theAntipo- 

«5. Euthymenes in Seneca, lib. 4. 

• 2. and in Plutarch 4. Placit. i. 

lings it out of the Atlantick 
a 



very of the Indian Ocean, many 
of the Antients were fo ignorant, 
as to believe, that the Nile de- 
riv'd its Source from the utmoft 
Eaft, even from India itfelf. 
With which Errour, not to men- 
tion many others of the Antients, 
Virgil feems to have been taint- 
ed : as appears, Georg. 4. v. 290, 

Quaque pharetratae vicinia Per- 

fid is urget, 
Et viridem ^gyptum nigra foe- 

cundat arena, 
Et diverfa ruens feptem dilcurrit 

in ora, - 
Ufque coloratis amnisdevexus ab 

Indis. 

Thus various were the Opinions 
of the Antients, and none of them 
true ; for the Nile is now know a 
to arife on the South of a great 
Lake call'd Zambre, at the foot 
of the Mountains, calPd th^ 
Mountains of the Moon, Lunsc 
Montes, which arc in the Pro- 
vince of Guyoma, a Countrey 
inhabited by the Ethiopian A- 
byflines. And one of the Titles 
of Prefter John is,King of Guyo- 
ma, where Nile begins : but of 
this the Antients were totally ig- 
norant, infomuch that it was rec- 
kon'd among the famous Pro- 
prieties of that River.that it con- 
'" ' " ■ j: Fontium qui 
celat origin'es. And indeed th^ 
Nile is incomparably the mofe 
famous River in the whole 
World, whether we confider the 
Largenefs of itjand the Length of 
its Courfe, for it runs about 900 
German Miles, or the Things 
that it produces, and its miracu- 
lous overflowing, and returning 
again within its Banks. Seneca, 
lib. 4. Nat. Qua' ft. cap. 11. fays 



cap. II 
it brings botli Water and Earth 
too, to the thirfty and fandy Soil : 
Pliny from a Mountain of | for, flowing thick and troubled, it 
e lower Mauritania : and Pto-j leaves, as it were, all its Lees in 
ny from two Lakes beyond the I the Clefts of the parch'd and 

§2ping 



694 



LUCRETIUS. 



BookV 



Then cuts its way thro* Sah-burnt Negroe's Land, 
And hiffes, paffing o'er the firy Sand. 
715 Or elfe the troubled Sea, that rolls to South, 
Brings heaps of Sand, and choaks the Rivers MoutI: 

The 

N o r B S' 



gaping Ground, atid fpreads the 
dry places with the Fatnefs it 
brings with it ; and thus does 
good to the Countrey two ways, 
both by overflowing and manu- 
xing it : For this reafon Herodo- 
tus calls it *Ep7*?JJtor, the Hus- 
bandman. Tibullus. 

Te propter nullos tellus tua po- 
ftulat imbres ; 

Arida nee pluvio fupphcat 
herba Jovi. 

And Lucan fays that Egypt has 
no need of Jupiter : 

^ Nil indiga mercis 

Aut Jovis ; in folo tanta eft (i- 
ducia Nilo. 

And one in A.thena;us yet more 
bold, calls it the Egyptian Jugi- 
ter, 'AiyMiz Zzv Noas * Nay, 
the Egyptians themfelves call'd it 
ctvl/yUo/^oLS- T? HfcLm , the River 
|:hat emulates and contends with 
Heaven : And even in the Scrip- 
ture itfelf it is call'd abfolutely 
Nachal Mifraim, the River of 
;jEgypt : From whence the Word 
Nile may not unnaturally be de- 
yiv'd, Nahal, Naal,Neel, Neil; 
^s Bahal, Baal, Beel, Bel, ^^hi^ ' 
And Pomponius Mela, lib. 5, 
cap. 10. reports that the Foun- 
tam of Nilus is call'd Nachal by 
the Ethiopians. The learned 
Mauflacus, upon Plutarch de 
Fiuv. and Mont, nominibus, has 
collected the feveral Names that 
were given by the Antients to 
this River. It was firft of all 
caird Oceanus, or, (but as he 
fays, barbaroully ) Oceames : 
then A^tosj or AquiU; and Me- 



las, from its Depth or Profu 
dity, becaufe all deep Wate 
feem black ; or from Melas, t" 
Son of Neptune : Afterwards J 
gyptus, cither from ^gyptt 
the Son of Belus, or of Vulc 
and Leucippes, who threw hii 
felf into it , or 'Si%c to ouy 
^idmv, from fattening of Goat 
From whence likewife the wh( 
Countrey of -^gypt feems to I 
fo nam'd. The Hebrews call 
Gehon, and Schior, the laft 
which fignifies black, or tro 
blous, and from hence perha 
came its Ethiopian Name, Sir 
It was alfo call'd Nas" ; or Ni 
and Triton ; and laft of all 1^ 
lus, either from what we fa 
before, or from Nilus, the Hi 
band of Garmathones, a Que 
of Egypt; or elfe from Nil 
the Son of Cyclops, or Nile 
or Nilefius, Egyptian Princt 
or laftly, and rather than all t 
other, ^Ct^ to ncu vM)i a^yi 
from bringing new Mud or Slin 
By the Latins it was peculiai 
call'd Melo, as is evident fro 
the Teftimonies of Ennius, I 
ftus, Servius, and Auionius. 

723. Sun-burnt Ncgroe*s Lan 
He means ^Ethiopia, in the Sou 
Parts of which Countrey theN 
arifes. Manil, lib, i. v. 44. 

Gentes, in quas & Nil 



inundat. 
Qua mundus redit, dc nigi 
fuperevolat urbes. 

72$. Or elfe, &c.] This real' 
is mention'd likewife by Pom{ 
niusMela; and that too with 
feeming Approbation of it. 

730, " 



liook VI. I U C R E T 1 U Si ^9f 

I Thefeftop the headlong Floods; they ftrive in vain f} 
To force a Way, but weary 'd turn again, > 

And break their Banks, and flow o*er all the Plain. 3 
I 30 Or elfe Rain makes it fwell; th' Etesias bear 
The Northern Vapours thro' the Southern Air : 
The fe thicken'd round ' ~ 

Or elfe the Sun 
Thefe fwell the Ri 

Next 
N O T JB 5. 



vapours thro the southern Air : 
and the Hill, the Rain compofe. 7 • 
melts ExHtopi^n Snows ; ^ 
iver, and the Water flows. 3 



7^0, Or elfe, Sec.'] There were 
iree Parties, who favour 'd this 
pinion. I. Democritus ; who 
:ld, that Exhalations arife from 
le melted Snows in the northern 
;iimates, and being driven by 
e Etefian Winds into Ethiopia, 
ey dafli againft the Mountains, 
here they ftopand thicken into 
a in. This Opinion Lucretius 
re approves. II. The Philo- 
phers of Memphis, now cali'd 
rand Cairo, who, as Diodorus 
itnelTes, held that the Nile 
»ws out of the temperate Sou- 
ern Zone : and that, fince it 

Winter in thofe Countries 
len it is Summer with us, that 
iver fwells by reafon of the fre- 
iei\t Rains that fall near its 
)untain, during the Winter of 
iofe Southern Regions. III. A- 
tharchides, who, as the fame 
iodorus reports, held that the 
ile is increas'd by the great 
ains that are continually fall- 
g all the Summer long in the 
ountains of Ethiopia. And 

ftrengthen the ProbabiHtyof 



this Opinion, he urges, that dur- 
ing the whole Summer, it rainS 
about the River Hydafpes, fnows 
on Mount Caucafu$, and hails in 
many Parts of India. 

733. Or elfe, &c.] This Opi- 
nion is afcrib'd to Anaxagoras, 
who believ*d,that the Kile fwells 
by means of the Snows that are 
melted during the Summer in 
the Mountains of Ethiopia. But 
that this Belief is erroneous, He- 
rodotus gives thefe Reafons : Be- 
caufe thofe Countries are very 
warm, and confequently exempt 
from Snows : Nay, even the very 
Air is always hot : Befides, the 
Sun is very remote from thofe 
Regions, when the Snows muft 
be melted to fwell that River, 

Ethiopian] Ethiopia is a vaft 
Region of Africa, that borders 
upon Egypt : The Countrey of 
the Abyflines. It lies beneath the 
Torrid Zone, extended from the 
Tropick of Cancer to beyond the 

1 Equator. The River Nile cuts 
its way almoft thro' the middle 
of it, as it does thro' ^gypt. 



T O 



€5^ LVCRETIV S. Book V 

O F T H E 

Annual Inundation 

OF THE 

River NILE. 



H E conftant and annual Increafe of the N 
has long and much imploy'd the Thoughts 
the Studious : and that too not without « 
Ton ; for many Things occurred, that def( 
vedly claim'd their Admiration. Amoi 
others, not the leaft is this, that it conftai 
ly overflows about the middle of June, or rather a Day 
two after ; fome pofitively fix it to the time of Sun-rifing 
the feventeenth of that Month : befides, it gives before-hai 
fuch certain Tokens, to what Height the Flood will ri 
that they, whofe Bufinefs it is to difcover it, are never d 
ceiv'd in their Conjedtures, whether they weigh the Sand 
a Balance, or meafure the future Inundation by a Ru 
which they call a Nilofcope. The Event is certain, t\ 
Caufe doubtful : For it is controverted, whether the fwe 
ing of the River is occafion'd by its Mouths being fto 
and choak'd up ; or by the Rains that fall in ^thiopi 
and by the melted Snows of the Mountains of th 
Countrey ; or, laftly, by the Water of the Sea, driven in 
the Channel of the River, by the Etefian Winds : And he 
we may not omit an Egyptian Erudition, which we find 
Horus Apollo, touching the Symbols of the Nile : Tres per: 
Hydrias, nee plures, nee pauciores pingunt, quod triplex e 
eorum fententia fit inundacionis caufa effecirix : unam q« 
dem iEgyptiae terra; afcribunt, qu3e ex kCe aquam prodi 
cit : alteram Oceano, ex quo, inundationis tempore, aqi 
in .ffigyptum exaeftuat : tertiam imbribus, qui, per id tempu 
quo intumefcit Nilus, ad Aultrinas ^thiopise partes contii 




Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 697 

gunt. The Egyptians, fays he, make three Water-pots,' 

neither more nor lefs, becaufe in their Opinion there are 

three efficient Caufes of the Inundation : One of them they 

afcribe to the Land of Egypt, which produces Water out of 

itfelf : another to the Ocean, out of which, at the Time of 

:he Flood, the Water furges into Egypt : the third to the 

[lains, which, at the time when the Nile fwells, happen in 

he Southern Parts of Ethiopia : As to the firft of thefe Rea- 

bns, it is evidently falfe : for the parch'd and thirfty Soil of 

igypt gapes indeed for Moifture ; but in no part of the 

yountrey does the Land ooze out Water : Nor can we judge 

nore favourably of the fecond, when we confider the Dif- 

srence between the Sea- Water, and that of the River Nile : 

ind as for the Rain, which they aflign for the third Caufe, 

i/e will fpeak of that by and by : Mean while we will 

bferve, that thofe Mounds of Sand, with which they; 

am up the River, are foon borne down, and wafh'd away by 

le never-ceafing Courfe of the Stream : and, what is chiefly 

) be confider'd, if any Let or Oppofition whatfoever were 

|ie Caufe, thar the Nile, by retrogreflion, overflow'd its 

anks, the Waters of that River would be obferv'd to rife 

rft in the lower part of the Gountrey, that is to fay, from 

le Mediterranean to Cairo, rather than on the contfary, in 

le more Inland Parts of it : but that it does fo, is allow'd. 

y the unanimous Cenfent of all. We muft therefore travel 

at of Egypt, for the Caufe of this Inundation. No doubt 

ut a plenteous Acceflion of Waters fwells the River, before 

wafhes the Land of Egypt : And this it was that perfuaded 

>me to believe [fee the Note on v. 733.] that the Nile in- 

-eafes by means of the Snows, that melt in Ethiopia. And 

rdeed they are certainly miftaken, who hold with Herodo- 

s, that it never fnows in that Countrey : For they go con- 

ary to Experience and Obfervation : Neither are thofe 

l-hers to be credited, who afferr, that at the Seafon when 

le Nile inundates the Land of Egypt, it is the Depth of 

jointer in Ethiopia. For who can believe that the Snow, 

ihich was congeal'd by Cold, can be diffolv'd by Cold like- 

iife? This would be repugnant to the Laws of Nature, 

iho has ordain'd, that Things congeal'd by Cold, flial] be 

elted by Heat. The third Caufe is aflign'd to Rain, [fee 

le Note on v. 730.] and to this adhere the Authours of 

•eaieft Note, tho' it has been long, and ftrenuoully oppos'd 

ij^ fome of no mean Reputation : They, who call it in Que- 

|ion, objed the great Heat of the Countrey, and the 

U u u u Scarcity 



698 LUCRETIUS, Book VI. 

Scarcity of Vapours: but there are fever al Things, of which 

thele Perfons ought not to be ignorant : The firft is, that, ir 

thofe Countreys, there are two Winters, and as many Sum- 

mers, in the Year ; tho' of unlike Effed: indeed, if compar'c 

with'ours. The Winter is more fevere with us 5 but not fc 

mild with the -Ethiopians, as not to produce Snows in th( 

Mountains, together with conftant Rains, that continue fo 

fourty Days ; as is afiirm'd by the Natives, as well as b] 

Travellers into thofe Parts. This Truth Democritus learnt il 

his Travels, and, as by Tradition, deliver'd it down to Po 

fterity, till at length it became known in Italy, by the Car 

of our Lucretius. Befides : In Summer, the Sun is neare 

to Ethiopia, than it is to us ; and his Rays, tho' trouble 

fome to the Inhabitants, yet fuffer themfelves to be overca) 

by a very thick Mift, that hangs over a certain M®untaii 

which Mariners call Serra Leone, perhaps from the Noife : 

makes : for it generally roars, and from the dusky Mifl a 

moft continually darts out Lightning, together with dreac 

ful Thunder, that is heard fourty Miles around. And a M2 

fter of a Ship, as he was failing to the Illand St. Thoma 

obferv'd, that all this happen'd, when the Sun ftruck perpei 

dicularly on ^Ethiopia. Let fuch then, as objed the Heat ( 

the Countrey, make the moft of that weak Argument : n( 

will they fare better, who deny Vapours to that Regio: 

For they ought to refledt on the Lakes and Rivers, that Afri( 

contains ; and to have fome regard to the Ocean that wafht 

its Coafts : all which may furnifh an immenfe quantity 



Matter for future Rain ^ and then efpecially, when the Sui 
retiring, permits the inferiour Elements to extend their ow 
Bounds: The Mediterranean too conduces fomething to ii 
creafe the ftore, by gratefully fending into Ethiopia a va 
quantity of Clouds, which the Winds, that arife in Greeo 
bear thither: This, Profper Alpinus, who was himfelf a 
Eye-witnefs of it, relates in thefe Words. Cayri, in tot 
fere augumenti fluminis tempore, Etefiae, periiantes fingul 
fere diebus ab orto fole, ufque ad meridiem, multas nub 
fiigras, craflas, pluviofas in altiffimos ufque Libya?, iEthii 
piseque montes, propellunt atque afportant : in quibus Moi 
tibus ha^ concrefcentes, in pluvias vertuntur, quae, ab his 
Nilum cadentes, funt cauf^ ipfius augumenti. Obfervati 
quotidie Cayri, dum fiumen hoc augetur, qua die mult 
nubes fupra ^gyptum verfus Meridiem a feptentrionalibi 
ijs ventis afportat^ tranfierint , mukOm flumen auger: 
at^ue ex contrario^ clara apparente die, nullifque nubibi 



Book VL LUCRETIUS. 699 

in CO coelo apparentibus, pariim crefcere : Et h2ec eos nun- 

quam fallic obfervatio. Lib. i . de Medic, ^gypr. At Cairo, 

fays he, during almoft the whole Time of the fwelling of 

the River, the Etcfias blow aimoft every Day, fr©m Sun- 

rifing till Noon, and bring, and drive before thetn, many 

black, thick and rainy Clouds into the high Mountains of 

^ Libya and Ethiopia : In which Mottntains, thefe Clouds ga- 

j :hering together, are turned into Rains ; which, falling from 

:hence into the Nile, are the Caufe of its Increafe : It is ob- 

ferv'd every Day at Cairo, that fo long as this River is in- 

! :reafing, on what Day .foever many Clouds are brought by 

:hofe Northern Winds, and carry d over iEgypt towards the 

5outfa, the River that Day fwells very much : and, on the 

:ontrary, that in a clear Day, when no Clouds appear in 

he Sky, it increafes but little. And. this Obfervation never 

"ails them. It is credible enough, that when the Clouds are 

:ome into Africa, they are refolv'd into Rain ; not that, as 

Lucretius thought, it is fqueez'd out of them, as Water out 

)f a fpunge ; but becaufe, by reafon of the Cold of the 

i ^lace, the included Fire of the Clouds flies away, or is ex- 

iinguifti'd,- and thenjthe Vapours grow thick, and return 

"i nto their former Nature. But on what Day the Rains be- 

!»in to falJ, and how much time the Waters take up in-theit 

i Courfe, while they are flowing into the Nile, has not been in- 

i:juir'd into, or at leaft is doubtful: But this in our Age we 

know for certain, that thefe Things happen in the Kingdom 

)f Guyoma, which is fubjedl to the Emperour of the Abyilines, 

^ence the great Hofpitality of the Egyptians to the Abyf- 

•ines, that come to fojourn among them ; not fo much out of 

Gratitude, as for Fear of a Famine and general Inundation : 

For the Monarch of Ethiopia, whom we commonly call 

Prefter John, commands the Cataradts of the Nile : for 

which reafon the Emperour of the Turks pays him a yearly 

Tribute, on Condition, that he do not divert the Waters of 

the Nile, nor fufFer them to come in too great a Quantity, 

either of which would be the Deftrudtion of Egypt. Hence 

in the laft Age fprung up a cruel War, as Natalis Comes re-? 

jlates. In the Year 1570. fays he, Selim Emperour of Con- 

jftantinople, who was then at War with the Venetians, re«? 

iceiv'd an unfortunate Piece of News : For David, the Great 

iKing of Ethiopia, whofe Empire extends from the Equino- 

'dtial 5 aimoft to either Tropick, fince many Kings are fubjedt to 

jhim,had begun to deftroy, by an Inundation of the River Nile^ 

lite City Qf Cairo^ and all the neighbouring Countrey of the 

! U U u u % Tufks^ 



700 LUCRETIUS. Book VL 

Turks, together with many other Cities thereabouts : The 
reafon of this Hoftilify was, becaufe Selim ow'd him 400000 
Crowns for two years Tribute : for he paid him zooooo a 
.Year : Now the Gountrey of Egypt has not Rain enough tc 
render the Land fertile ; for it rains there very feldom, anc 
the Soil is of all others the moft fruitful ; and owes its Fer- 
tility to the Waters of the Nile, which are in the Power o 
the King of the Abyflines, who can fend them down in wha 
Quantity he pleafes, and either refrefh the thirfty Land wit! 
a gentle Flood ; or, by cutting certain Dykes, pour in fuel 
an Inundation, as will lay wafte the whole Countrey. Nov 
the Sultan, becaufe he would not pay the Tribute, that wa 
due, levy'd a great Army, and, invading Arabia, put all t 
Fire and Sword. Thus Natalis Comes, Hiftor. lib. 23 
But more prudently Oliris, who, if we may give credit t 
Diodorus Siculus, lib. 6. cap. 2. when he was in the Moun 
tains of Ethiopia, mounded up the Banks on either fide th 
Nile, that the Inundation might not be too great ; and mad 
Sluices to let in only fuch a Quantity of Water, as would b 
neceffary for the Fertility of the Land : The Increafe of th 
Nile therefore is more due to Rains than melted Snows 
whatever Anaxagoras fay to the contrary : And indeed th 
true Caufe of the overflowing of the Nile is only the grez 
Rains, that conftantly fall in -Ethiopia, from about the b( 
ginning of June, to the Month of September: This is teft 
fy'd by Alvarez Fernandus, and many others of late Date 
And, in Confirmation of their Opinion, it is obferv'd, that th 
River Niger fwells at the fame time, and never fails to ir 
creafe, when the Nile does : And that the Rains, which fa 
in Ethiopia, are the Caufe of the fwelling of the River N 
ger, is certain beyond Difpute : Nor was this unknown t 
Pliny, who, lib. 5. cap. 8. fays, Nigro fluvio eadem natui 
qux Nifo. Befides : the Reed Papyrus grows on the Bank 
of both thofe Rivers, and they produce the fame Sorts ( 
Animals. See Galfendus, p. 1084. on the tenth Book ( 
I>iogenes Laertius. 

Profper Alpinus propofes two Problems concerning tl: 
Nile, but defpairs of the Solution of either of them : I. Wh 
that River conftantly fwells the feventeenth of June at Sur 
rifing ? II. How, by weighing the Earth, or Sand of the R 
ver, the Inhabitants foretel the Meafure and Degree of i 
Increafe ? Fof, fays he, in the Month of June, feveral Da] 
hefore the Sun's acceflion to the Tropick, they take feme < 
the Sand of the Rirer, that has been kept and dry'd for 



iook VI. LUCRETIUS. 701 

ivhole Year before ; they weigh this Sand in Scales, and, by 

idding or Cubftrading, make the Number of the Weights 

j nfwer exadly to the Drachms of the Sand : for Ex- 

jmple, let us fuppofe the Sand to weigh three Drachms, 

j/hich they lay by, and keep in a dry Place, clofe {hut up 

n all fides : this they weigh every Day, and obferve it no- 

ling increased or diminifli'd in Weigh'r, till the fcventeenth 

>ay of Juae ; on which Day they find its Weight augmented : 

id from the Weight, more or lefs increased, they foreknow 

at the River will be more or lefs augmented Hkewife : and 

om the Knowledge of the exad: Increafe of the Weight, 

ey know for certain before-hand, how many Cubits the 

iver will fwell that Year : The Caufe whereof, fays the 

tne Alpinus, I can not conceive, can be difcover'd by na- 

ral Principles. His very Words are as follows: Nam 

enfe Junio, ante folis ad Tropicum accelfum, multis diebus 

gyptij terram illiufce fluminis toto integro anno adfervatam, 

ficcatam, arefadlamque accipiunt, quam lance expendunr, 

:iuntque ut ponderum Numerus, addentes, ac fubtrahentes, 

( achmis fedulo refpondeat : ut exempli gratia, terra fit tri- 

; n drachmarum pondere, quam in loco ficco, undique con- 

< ifo reponunt, 8c confervant : quotidieque librantes, ipfam 
« fervant nihil audam, nihilque imminutam pondere effe, uP- 

< e ad diem decimam feptimam menfis Junij, in qua die audam 
i b pondere inveniunt ; ex cujus pondere, muitilm vel parum 
;dto, multilmvelparumflumen illud audum iri praenofcunt : 
; diligentique peraudli ilHus ponderis notitia, quotis eciam 
I abitibus ipfum fit augendum, certo praenofcunr. Quorum cau- 
i; naturalibus principiis pofle cognofci, nullomodo fieri pofie 
oitror. However, it'is not forbid to inquire into this Mat- 
t : Now Seneca acquaints us; that in the tenth and eleventh 
' ^ar of Queen Cleopatra, the Nile did not increafe at all; 
Mich, he alfo tells us, on the Authority of Callifthenes, had 
Ippen'd in former Ages for nine Years together: Of this 
<vid was not ignorant, when he fung : 

Dicitur -^gyptus caruifTe juvantibus arva 
Imbribus, atque annis ficca fuilfe novem." 

It this fuffice for the Inconftancy of its Increafe: and as to 
t! uncertainty of the Time, there was a remarkable Delay 
c'i it in the Reign of the Emperour Theodofius , which 
i recorded by Nicephorus and .^ozomen^ Nor can that be 
imputed to the want of Rain : For the Nile, not long after 

fwell'd 



702 LUCRETIUS. Book V 

fweird to fuch a Degree, that the higheft Parts of Egypt we 
covered with the Inundation : Now tho' thefe Events happ< 
but feldom, yet they are fufficient, if not to deftroy, at les 
to render fufpeded, that generally believ'd Conftancy 
Time : Let us neverthelefs grant Alpinus, what he for fev 
years fucceifively obferv^d with great Diligence and Sedulit 
the rather, becaufe it is not civil to diftruft, or derogate fro. 
the Teftimony of an Eye-Witnefs : The Queftion is : Wj 
the Nile begins every Year to increafe, for themoft part, 
a certain Day ? The Caufe muft proceed from the confta 
and certain Return of the Seafon, which the invariable Cc 
ftitution and Revolution of the Heavens have prefcrib'd ther 
For, fince the Sun is at that time at his remotefc Diftar ; 
from ^Ethiopia, nothing can hinder the Vapours from co 
ing to a Confiftency, nor from condenfing into Rain, becai 
the ambient Air is changed from Hot into Gold, at leaft h 
loft its EtTervefcency. And the Winds, that blow from i 
North, can not there, as they frequently do with us, haft 
the Winter ; for in that fcorching Climate, the Matter of i 
Winds is foon diffolv'd, and their piercing Nature qualify 
immediately. And fo much for the Solution of the firft Pi 
blem : The other is not fo difficult, tho' at firft fight t 
Caufe of it feem obfcure. For the Sand, that has been lo 
kept for the fake of making the Experiment, being gro^ 
thorough dry, and, as I may fay, thirfty, does, when it 
expos'd to the furrounding Air, attradl to itfelf the Moiftu 
with which that Air is newJy grown damp, and the Wei| 
of the dry Body is increas'd in proportion to the Degreef ' 
its Dampnefs : And that the near approaching Waters of i 
Nile taint the Air with humidity, the Sagacity of the Bii 
in Egypt is a pregnant and convincing Proof: For they i 
ver lay their Eggs, except in fuch a place, as they perce: 
before-hand, will not be covered by the Inundation. IW 
indeed, who enjoy a perfed:ftate of Health, are lefs fenfil 
of fuch fmall Mutations of the Air, as neverthelefs bn ' 
Animals feem to have fome Foreknowledge of, and of whi 
even inanimate Bodies give^ foreboding Signs. The Ge( , 
we know, often gaggle, and the Frogs croak in uncertM 
Weather, but not in fettled Fair, which Cinders flicking » 
the Tongs forefhew : The very Snuff of Lamps gives Bodit J 
of Rain, and that too (6 vifible, that even our drudgi! 
Maids perceive them : Virg. Georg. i« v. 590. 



iiook VI. 



LUCRETIUS. 



70? 



Nee nod^iirna quidem carpentes penfa puell^e 
Nefcivere hyemem, tefta cum ardente viderenc 
Scintillare oleum, 8c putres concrefcere fungos. 

It of this fee Aratus, lib; 3. var. led. cap: ii. and chiefly 
icophraftus, in his Book de Indiciis Ventorum, Serenitatis, 
, Pluviae, who firft of any, fays P. Vidtorius, fully adorn'd this 
; bjedt. And no doubt the dry'd Dirt, and Slime of which 
^ 2 were fpeaking, would have imbib'd fome Portion of the 
Limidity, the Day before the Nile overflow'd, had it not 
1 en kept fo clofe : but being once released from that 
1 iftody, it forthwith rufhes into the Embraces of the defir'd 
i oifture, following the natural Propenfity of dry Bodies to 
' ;t. 



5 Next of ih' Ar e'r n i (ing, and whence the Name, 
And whence the Rage, and hurtful Nature came. 
So caird, becaufe the Birds, that cut the Sky, 'j> 1 

If o'er thofe Places they but chance to fly, S- 

By NOXIOUS Steams opprefs'd, fall down, and dy: 3 

Death 
N O T £ 5. 



3 $. Kext J &C.3 Lucretius does 
: acknowledge a beneficent^ but 
:ly denies an angry, God : and 
he takes from the Gods above 
! Ph^nomenons of the Hea- 
is, and of the Air, fo does he 
) from the Powers below fome 
tious Things that pafs for Pro- 
ies upon Earth. For, fays he, 
re are certain places, which we 
i Averni, and that are fatal to 
ds that fly over them, and to 
er Animals, that chance to 
s by them : One of thefe A- 
ni is at Cumai, another near 
nerva's Temple in Athens, 
I a third in Syria : Thefe Pla- 
Men believe to be the En- 
; nces of the Roads that lead to 
11, to the Palace of Pluto, and 
:' t the Mancsj or Souls of the 
■gad, pafs that way to the fubttir- 
ean Abodes. Now the Poet, 
.the may more fully and di- 
i<l^Iy explain the Force and 



ti 



Nature of thefe Places, teaches 
firft, that the Earth contains 
many Seeds, as well noxious as 
wholefome , both to Men and 
other Animals : and then he 
brings a Heap of Examples, to 
prove that the Exhalations, that 
flow from many ThingS5are hurt- 
ful and deadly to many Things : 
Having premis'd this, he comes 
to the Queftion, and lays, that a 
noxious Vapour breathes from 
the Averni ; and either that poy- 
fonous Steams ftrike with fuddain 
Death the Birds that fly over 
them : or that the rifing Exha- 
lation attenuates and drives a- 
way the Air to that degree, that 
the Birds can not fupport them- 

Ifelves, nor fuftain their Flight in 
fo void and empty a Space, and 
that, failing into that "Void, they 
forthvv'ith expire. This is con- 
tain'd in 96. v. 
737- So cali'd, &c.] In thefe 

7, Y. 



-yo4 LUCRETIUS. BookV 

740 Death meets them in the Air, and ftrikes them dead! 
They fall with hanging Wing, and bended Head j 

An 
NOTES, 

7. V. the Poet premifes the Ety- they ftruck dead the Birds th 
mology of the Word Averni, or flew over them. Thus Homi 
rather the Reafon why thefe OdyfH 12. 
Places were fo cail'd. Virgil too 
gives the fame Reafon of the 



Name, and has imitated this Paf- 
fage of Lucretius, in his fixth 
^neid, v. 237. in thefe Verfes. 

Speluncaalta fuit, vaftoqueim- 
manis hiatu/ 

Scrupea, tuta lacn nigro, nemo- 
rumque tenebris j 

Quam fuper haud ullse poterant 
impune volantes 

.Tendere iter pennis *, talis (cfc 
halitus atris 

Faucibus effundens fupera ad con- 
vexa ferebat ; 

Unde locum Graii dixerunt no- 
mine Avernum. 

Which Dryden thus interprets : 

Deep was the Cave, and down- 
ward as it went 
From the wide Mouth, a rocky 

rough Defcent: 
And here th' Accefs a gloomy 

Grove defends •, 
And here th' unnavigable Lake 

extends-, 
O'er whofe unhappy Waters, void 

of Light, 
No Bird prefumes to fteer his 

airy Flight : 
Such deadly Stenches from the 

Depth arife, 
And {teaming Sulphur, that in- 

fe(fts the Slaes. 
From hence the Grecian Bards 

their Legends make. 
And give the Name Avernus to 

the Lake. 

For the Greeks cail'd it "Aopy©^, 
from the privative Particle ctj and 
opv(^, a Bird, becaufe the noxious 
Vapours, that exhal'd from the 
AYe;:ni3 wsie fo poyfonousj that 



KjTe 'ttUhou* 

i.e. 

Where neither DovCj nor ot 
Bird can fly. 

And fo much for the Reafon 
the Name Avernus, which 
tends to all Places, whofe deac 
Exhalations kill the Birds th 
fly over them. 
741. They fall, &c.] Lucreth 

Remigii oblit«B pennarum v( 
remittunt. 

For the Wings do the fame ( 
iice to Birds, as Oars and Si 
to Ships, which are faid to J 
with Sails, as with Wings : Vi 
Mn, 3. V. $20. 

— Velorum pandimus al 

And, on the contrary. Bird: i 
faid to fwim. Virg. ^n. 6» v. 
fpealdng of Daedalus, , 

Prajpetibus pennis aufus leered* 

coelo, 
Infuetum per iter gelidos enji^ 

ad Ardos. 

And in the fame Book, v. i9»k 
find the very Exprelfion of I 
cretins, Remigium alarum : A 
yEn. I. v. 304. fpeakingof M 
cury. 



Volat ille per aera magilfr 

Remigio alarum. -^ 

But not only Virgil after LucI 
tius ; for all the Antient Po ' 

II 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. jo^ 

And ftrike the poif'nous Lake, or deadly Field : 
Such Vapours boiling Springs near Cz>m^e yield; 
In At HEKSf where Ai / N i£ 2j vJs Temple ftands , 

There 
N O T £ .9. 



us'd this Metaphor. Ovid, in his 
Epidles 5 applies it to Men's 
Arms : 



-»Remi3 ego corporis utar. 



I'll ufe the Bodies Oars. 

I See more Book V. v. 3 1 5. 
: With hangingWings, and bend- 
j jd Head :] Lucret. MolU cervice 
! Drofufae : A fine I mage of a faint- 

ngj dying Bird ', and not unhap- 

)ily render'd by our Tranila- 

our. 
743, Such Vapours, dec.'} This 

I erfe runs thus in the Original. 

i^alis apud Cumas locus eft, 

montemque Vefevum, 
)ppleti calidis ubi fumant fon- 
tibus aucflus. 

n which two Verfes the Poet 
eachesj that there is fuch a Place 
c Cumx, and on the Mountain 
efuvius. Cum;E was a City of 
Campania, not far from Puteo- 
, now caird PuzzuoIq, in the 
angdom of Naples : butofCu- 
vx. there are no Footfteps re- 
gaining. The Lake Avernus, is, 
;» this Day cali'd Lago d' Aver- 
o, and lies between Baia and 
uzzuolo. Near this Lake there 
re now to be feen the Remains 
f two Caves*; one on the South 
de of it, ftill cali'd Grotta di 
byila, where dwelt the Cumiean 
ibyl,and feems to be the Mouth 
f that Paflage under Ground, 
hich led from Avernus to Cu- 
iK, but is now ftopt up by the 
iling in of the Earth ; the other 
that, which to this Day leads 
om Puzzuolo to Naples, being 
,,Jg thro' the Mountain Paulily- 
^im, now known by the Names! 
\nt1gnana5 and Conocchia.l 



Now the true Nature of the Lake 
Avernus was this : The Waters 
of it were very clear and deep : 
whence Herodotus, lib. 4. calls 
them cerulean, that is to fay 
black ; for all deep Waters feem 
of that Colour. This Lake was 
furrounded with fteep rocky 
HiJls, cover'd with thick Woods, 
that render'd it inacceflible, ex- 
cept in one Place only : This we 
learn from Strabo, lib. 5. And 
Pliny, lib. 31. cap. 2. acquaints 
us, that all that Trad of Land 
abounded with innumerable 
Springs of hot Water, mixt with 
Sulphur, Alom, Salt, Nitre, and 
Brimftone : But that the Va^ 
pours, which fteam from this 
Lake, are fatal to Birds, is by 
Strabo, in the Place abovecited, 
deem'd a Fable, becaufe of the 
Clearnefs and Tranfparency of 
the Water : of which Ariftotle 
too takes Notice. Vefevus, or 
Vefuvius^is a Mountain of Cam- 
pania, not far from Naples, and 
that vomits out Flame urid. 
Smoke, like ^tna in Sicily. Sir 
R. Blackmore defcribes it thus : 

As high Vefuvius , when the 

Ocean laves 
His firy Roots with fubt^ranean 

Waves, 
Difturb'd within, does in Con- 

vullions roar, 
And cafts on high his undigeft'ed. 

Oar; 
Difcharges malFy Surfeit on the 

Plains, 
And empties all his rich metal- 
lick Veins, 
His ruddy Entrails; Cinders, 

pitchy Smoke, 
And intermingled Flames the 

Sun- beams choa/c. 

744. In AthenS; &c.] In thefe 
X X X X 7,Y. 



no6 



LUCRETIUS, 



Book VI. 



745 There never Crow, nor boading Raven flies, 
Not,.tbo' the fat and oily Sacrifice 
Albre his Smell, and call his willing Eyes. 

N O T £ S, 



Noi 



7 7 tlie Poet fays,' tliere is ano- 
ther Tuch a Place at Athens, at 
the very top of the Tower, near 
the Temple of Pallas. 

Eft & Athens is in moenibus, ar- 

cis iniplb 
Yertice, Palladis ad {empiam 

Tritonidis almae. 

Of Athens, fee the Note on the 
jirft Verfe of this Book. 

Minerva! She was the fame 
with Pallas, who was call d Mi- 
nerva, either from minari, to 
threaten, becaufe flieis painted m 
Armour : or from memini, 1 re- 
member, becaufe ilie is faidto be 
the Goddefsof Memory, or rather 
from the old Word minervo, 1 
admonifh, becaufe ilie gives good 
Advice to Men, as being the 
Goddefs of Wifdom, and of Arts. 
She was cali'd Pallas from the 
Greek Word -u^cIt^co, I iliake, be- 
caufe flie is feign'd to be born out 
of the Brain of Jupiter,^ and 
^rm'd, and brand ifhing a Spear. 
She is faid to be the firit who in- 
dented Building, and even tc 
have built herfelf the Tower atj 
Athens, which was call'd ^-A^o-] 
^ov.Sy becaufe it ftood in the| 
iiigheft Place of the City. Hence 
Yirg. Eel. 2, V. 6i. I 

. Pallas, quas condidit arces, 

Ipfa colat. 

She refus'd to marry with Vul- 
can, and kept her Virginity: 
"whence the fame Virgil, ^.n. 2. 
T. 51. calls her innupta Mmerva. 
She was likewife call'd Tritonis, 
©rTritonia5either from the Greek 
^Ir^y which fignifies a Head, be- 
caufe, as we faid before, Hie was 
produced out of the Head of Jupi- 
ter : or becaufe, in the time of 
iCing Ogygiusj fiie was firft feen 



in the Habit of a Virgin, on th< 
Banks of the Riv^rTritoniThis i 
confirm'd by Pomponius Mela 
lib. I. cap . 7. where, fpeaking 
Triton, th^ Name ofa Lake an( 
River in Africa, not far from th 
Syrtis Minor, he fays, that Mi 
nerva was call'd Tritonis, bt 
caufe, as the Inhabitants 'believ- 
file was born there ; and ths 
they celebrate her Birth-day wit 
ludicrous Sports, of Virgins coi 
tending with one another. Undi 
fays he, Minerva: cognomen ir 
ditum eft , ut incol^ arbitrar 
tur, ibi genit^ : faciuntque < 
fabul^ aliquam -fidem, quo 
quern natalem ejus putant, ludj 
cris virginuni inter fe decertar 
tium celebrant. Thus too Li 
can, lib. p. v. 34.7. 

Torpentera Tritonos adit ill« 

paludem 1 
Hanc 8c Pallas amat : patrio qu 

vertice nata, 
Terrarum primam Libyen, (nai 

proxima coelo eft, 
Ut probat ipfe calor ) tQtv^ 

ftagnique quieta 
Vultus vidit aqu^, pofuitque 

margine plantas j 
Et fe diledi Tritonida dixit i 

und^. 

Or perhaps the Latine Authou 
allude to the Greek Epithet h 
Pallas, who Iliad. 2. v. 157- ^f 
elfewhere, is faid to be di^vid^ 
untam'd, void of Fear, from pi 
vative ct and ^^Vy to trembl( 
74^. Nottho', &C.3 TheR 
ven, fays Lucretius, has fuch i 
Averlion to that Place, that A 
though Sacrifices are offer'd thei 
he will not even then come ne' 
it, tho' the Smell of the tempcir; 
Flem feem to invite his Hung 

toEaft§» „ ^- 

748. Nc 



Book VL LUCRETIUS. 

Not thac he fears M / v b Jt yJs vain Pretence, 
Or banifli'd from her Tiraiin for an Offence ; 

I 750 But 'tis the noxious Vapour drives hicn tlK'UCe. 
A Place, as Story teHs, in Syri^ lies. 
Which if a Horse goes o'er, be groans and dies. 
As if by fuddain Stroke, and vi'ient Blow, 
He fell a Sacrifice to Gods below : 

755 Yet thefe Effects agree with Nature's Laws, 
And ftrid: Obfervers may difcern the Caufe : 
Left you fliould fanfy thefe the Gates of Hell. 



N O T B ^. 



Thac 



748. Not that he fears, S>(c.'] 
Lucretiuj alludes to the known 
Fable of the Nymph Coronis, 
vho, flying from Neptune, who 
vould have offer'd Violence to 
aer, was chang'd by Minerva into 
1 Ravcn, and permitted never- 
:helefs to attend her Train : But 
when that Goddefs had given 
Ericfthonius , ihut up in a 
Basket, in Charge to Pandrofos, 
Herfe and Aglauros, with Orders 
lot to open it^ the Raven faw 
:hem tranfgrefs the Commands 
3f Minerva, and acquainted her 
with it : For which Garrulity, 
(lie baniflied her from her Pro- 
cection and Train. The Fable is 
related at large in Ovid. Me- 
cam. 2. by Coronis herfelf, who 
fays, 

Ada Dsx refero : pro quo mihi 

gratia talis 
Redditur, ut dicar tuteU pulfa 

Minerva. 

; -Mea poena volucres 

Admonuiffe potell, ne voce peri- 

cula qu.icranr. 

751. A Place, &c.] In thefe 
4. V. the Poet fays, there is a 
Place in Syria, that ftrikes dead 
in a Moment any four-rfooted 
Beaft : But Lambinus believes 
the Poet fpeaks of the Plutonium 
in Hierapolis, not far from Lao- 
i.yicea: which is a Cave fo cali'd 
Jvom Pluto, becaufe it was be- 

V i ro he i\\% breathing FJole 



of that infernal God. Strabo, 
lib. 13, defcribes it to be a Hole 
in a hollow place, under the 
Brow of a Mountain , wide 
enough to receive the Body of a 
Man ; but immenfely deep : 
That it is prefent Death to any 
Animal that goes into it : Bulls, 
fays he, led to the Place, drop 
dead immediately : he adds the 
like of Sparrows, that were put 
in at the Mouth of ic. To which 
we add, what is reported of the 
Cave, cali'd Panium, at the Foog 
of Mount Libanus : That it ex- 
hales a Vapour, that caufes like-^ 
wife fuddain Death. 

Syria] Is a Province of Afia, 
and the largeft of that Quarter 
of the Earth. It is generally di- 
vided into four : Syria, AiTyriaj 
Coslofyria, and Leucofyria. 

755. Yet thefe, &c.] Tn thefe 
8. V. he fays, that all thefe 
Things proceed from natural 
Caufes I Therefore the Poets 
falfely taught, that thefe Averni 
are the Gates of the Roads thaf 
lead to Hell : which Fables they 
invented only toftrike a Terrouf 
into eafy Believers : and he pro- 
mifes, that he will explain all 
thefe Matters, and Hiew the na- 
tural Caufes^ of thefe feeming 
wonderful Effecfrs. 

757. The Gates of Hell,] The 
Latine Poets, when they treat of 
the Affairs of their own Cour-s 
trey, make that Avernus, of 
which V. 743. to be the Gate of 
^ 5 :s 5 3 H^W \ 



7o8 



LUC RE T lU S. 



Book VI 



That there the fmutty Gods, SLndM^tt e s dwell ; 
And thro' thofe Places draw the wand'ring Souls, 

760 As Deer fuck Serpents from their lurking Holes : 
But that's abfurd, irrational, and vain : 
Come, underftand the Caufe, for Vl\ explain. 
Firft, Seeds do lie, as I have prov'd before, 
In Earth, of ev'ry Shape a mighty Store : 

765 Some, vital Parts to Men, prolong their Breath,' 
Some apt to breed Disease, and haften Death : 
To other Animals fome Parts are good : 
Some hurt, fome kill, and fome give wholefome Food ; 
And all thefe different Effeds arife 

770 From difPrent Motion, Figure, Shape, and Size. 
A thoufand hurtful Parts thro' Ears defcend, 
A thoufand pafs the Nostrils, and offend: 

NOTES, 



Hell : Virg. ^ncid. 6. v. 126. 

— .Facilis defcenfus Averni. 

And ^neas, with the Sybil, de- 
Icended that way : But when the 
fame Poets defcribe the Affairs 
of the Greeks, they place the 
Gates that lead to the Infernal 
Manfions, in the Caves of the 
Mountain Ta'narus, which is a 
Promontory of Laconia, in the 
molt Southern Part of Pelopon- 
nefus, between the Laconick and 
J4efleniack Gulphs , and now 
call'd Capo Maina : Orpheus is 
faid to have defcended this way : 
Georg. 4. V. 4.(57 : and fo too are 
Hercules and Thefeus in the Here. 
Fur. of Seneca. 

758. The fmutty Gods] The 
infernal Gods : Lucretius names 
Orcus, whom Silius Italicus takes 
for Cerberus , and others for 
Charon : but Cicero de Natura 
Deorum, lib. 3. cap. a^. for Plu- 
to, the Brother of Jupiter, and of 
Neptune ; and to whom by Lot 
fell the Empire of Hell : He ra- 
vifli'd Proferpina, the Daughter 
of Ceres : He was call'd Dis, 
as well as. Pluton , both which 
Names he has from Riches : 



which are faid to be dug outo 
the Bowels of the Earth : for h« 
was call'd Dis by the Latines 
from Divitiaj, and Pluton by th« 
Greeks, from 'sr^ar©-', which 
lignifies the fame Thing. 

Manes] Of the Manes, and the 
feveral Acceptations of the Word 
we have fpoken at large in oui 
Note on v. 52. of B. IlL 

760. As Deer, Sec."] Pliny fays 
that the Breath of Elephant; 
draws Serpents out of theis 
Holes; and that the Breath ol 
Deer burns them. Elephantorum 
anima Serpentesextrahit, Cervo- 
rum item urit. Nat. Hill. lib. 
cap. 53. But if this be falfe. 



II 



the Raillery of Lucretius is not 
the lei's iharp and pleafant. 

7(^3. Firfl Seeds, dec. In the 
following 49. V. the Poet, before 
he demonftrates that all thefe 
Things happen by natural Cau- 
fes, puts us in mind of what he 
taught in the firft and fecond 
Books : viz. that in the Earth 
are contain'd Atoms of many va- 
rious. Shapes : and that by rea- 
fon of the diffimilitudje of their 
Nature, and the different Tex- 
ture of their Figures, fome of 
them are beneficial, othors per- 
nicious 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 709 

A thoufand hurt the Touch, a num'rous Store 
Difturb the Eye, the Taste a thoufand more : 
;775 Befides, on Man, a thoufand Atoms wait. 
And HURTFUL all, and carry hafty Fate : 
Thus often, under Trees fupinely laid. 
While Men enjoy the Pleafure of the Shade, 
Whilft thofe their loving Branches feem to fpread, 9 
3o To skreen the Sun, they noxious Atoms fhed, > 

From which quick Pains arife, and fieze the Head.^ 

Near Helicok, and round the learned Hill, 
Grow Trees, whofe Blossoms with their Odour kill - 
And all thefe hurtful Things from Earth arife, 
85 Becaufe the Parent Earth's vaft "Wombs comprize 
Thofe difF'rent Stores and Kinds of poif'nous Seed, 
Which, fitly join'd, thefe hurtful Natures breed : 

The Snuff of Candles, this is often known, 
Oftends the Nofe with Stench, and makes us fwooa 

Befides 
NOTES. 



i cious to Men : but that (bme 
'them are hurtful to the Eyes, 
hers to the Ears, others to the 
ongue, &c. all which he con- 
rms by feveral Examples, 
777. Thus often, Scc.2 In thefe 
V. he brings Example Ift Of 

I hings that are hurtful to Man : 

I It fays nothing of the Name of 
e Tree, whofe Shade is offen- 
e, Pliny, lib. 17. cap. 12. fays 
at the Shade of the Walnut- 
ree offends the Head, and chat 
> Plants will thrive under it. 
lyus, in his Note on this Place, 

^:es thefe two Verfes of Virgil, 

|:Iog. 10. V. 75. 

I 

'. rgamus; folet elTe gravis can- 
tantibus umbra, 
niperi gravis umbra ; nocent 
&c frugibus umbrae. 

It the iliade of the Juniper is 

ry grateful, being an odorous 

':ee, and that fuffers nothing 

'nomous to grow near it: but 

1: meaning of Virgil was, that 

continue long in the iliade, 

ighc be dangerous, becaufe of 

: cold : and feme Editions 



read not cantantibus, but tiin- 
(ftantibus. And Lucretius means 
the fame Thing, and not the 
iliade of any particular TreCi 
The jQiade of the Box-tree, how- 
ever, is faid to caufe the Head-ach. 

782. Near Helicon, &c.] In 
thefe <^.v.he propofes his lid Ex- 
ample : What Tree he means is 
hard to fay : fom.e fuppofe it to 
be the Box ; of which Pliny, 
lib. 16. cap. 10. but befides that 
the floris odore necare, which are 
the Words of Lucretius, agrees 
but ill with that Tree, why 
fliould he fend us to Helicon for 
a Tree, that is very plentiful in 
Italy. Helicon is a Hill in Boeo- 
cia, not far from Parnafl'us, which 
our Tranflatour here means by 
the learned Hill : and they have 
both of them equal Title to that 
Appellation, being alike facred 
to Apollo and the Mufes. Of 
Helicon, fee more in the Note on 
V. 557. B. IV. 

788. The Snuff, &c.] Illd Ex- 
ample, To which we may add 
what Pliny fays, lib. 7. cap. 7. 
that it often caufes Abortion in 
Women. 

Gur 



7IO 



LUCRETIUS. 



BookV] 



790 Befides a thoufand other Things, that fieze 
The Soul within, ofc make their way with Eafe, 
And fhake the vital PowVs with ftrong Disease. 

So when the Belly's fall, go fit, and ftay, 
And wanton in hot Baths, ftrait flies away 

795 Thy Life, thy Strength, and all thy Pow'rs decay 

NOTES, 



I 

Fron 



Our Tranflatour has omitted 
the IVth Example, which Lu- 
cretius brings of an Ointment 
made of the Teftides of the Bea- 
vor, which by itsnaufeous Smell, 
fays Pliny, makes Women with 
Child mifcarry : But Lucretius 
fays only, that it ftupilies Wo- 
men, and throws them adeep : 
and that if they fmell the Odour 
of it, at the time when they have 
their monthly Difeafe, it makes 
them let fall whatever they hold 
in their Hands. This in the 
Original runs thus : 

Caftoreoque gravi mulier fopita 

recumbit, 
Et manibus nitidum teneris opus 

effluit ei. 
Tempore eo fi odorata eft, 

quo menftrua folvit. 

7P3. So when, &c.] In thefe 
3. V. he brings Example Vth Of 
Bathing : For, fays he, it is 
hurtful to continue long in a hot 
Bath, immediately after eating : 
The Cuftom among the Romans 
was to bathe before Supper : but 
the riotous us'd to bathe them- 
felves alfo after Supper : and this 
they did to procure Digeftion : 
See Pliny, lib. 29. However the 
Phyfician in Perfius advifes his 
Patient not to bathe after eating, 
that being a Cuftom very perni- 
nicious to Health : but the gluc- 
tonoiis Youth refufing to take his 
Advice, paid dear for his Obfti- 
nacy, if the Effects of his Bath- 
ing were truly fuch as they are 
defcrib'd by that Poet, Sat. 3. 
Y. 50* in thefe Yerfes : 



Turgidus hie epulis, atque alb 

ventre lavatur, 
Gutture fulphureas lente cxha 

lante mephites : 
Sed tremor inter vina fubit, call 

dumque triental 
Excutit e manibus ; dentes ere 

puere retedi ; 
Uncfta cadunt laxis tunc pulmen 

taria labris, 6cc, 

Juvenal too, Satyr, i. v. 142 
mentions the Danger of this Pra 
dice of bathine with a full Sto 
mach, and fays, 

Pcena tamen prscfens, cum tu de 

ponis amicf^us 
Turgidus, dc crudum pavonen 

in balnea portas. 

Moreover ; we may farthe 
obferve , that at their Batb 
there were three Cells ; the cold 
the warm, and the hot : all whid 
were Baths of Water : but ii 
fome of their bathing Houfe 
there was a fourth Cell, whid 
they cali'd Laconicum, or cell 
afla, that is to fay, ficca fine lo 
tione : C!L(piS^po,3T/:Qji,ov' and wher 
thefe were, the Places were ra 
ther call'd Balnearia, than Balnea 
according to the Property, 
which, as Marcilius notes, Tully 
lib. 3. ad Q^ Frat. Epift. i. fpealo 
when he calls them , alfa ii 
Balneariis. Horace likewife, an( 
others often mention the Faint 
nefs, that iiezes luch as bath 
themfelves after a full Meal, 

2>q6. fxQX 






iSook VI. L U C R E T 1 U Si 7ir 

From Charcoal deadly Smells the Brain itigage. 
If Draughts of Water not prevent their Rage. 

To thofe whom Feavers burn, the piercing fmcll 
Of vigVous Wine is grievous, Death, and Hell. 
j^o Befides ; obfcrve what Parts the Earth contains^ 
I And how much poif'nous Sulphur fills her Veins. 
Laftly, whilft Men purfue the hidden Store, 
And dig in Mines of gold, or iilverOrej; 
What hurtful Damps, what noxious Vapours rtfe! 
5o5 The wretched Miner o'er th;e Metal dies. 
What noxious Parts from golden Mines es^ale 1 
How foon they fieze, and make the MiNERiSpale ! 
With what quick Force they kill the wretched Slaves ! 
How foon they bury them in pretious Graves I 
3io Therefore thefe noxious Parts muft often rear. 
And fcatter Poison thro' the upper Air. 

Thus hurtful Parts from the Avektu rife^' 
And with ftrong Poisons fill the lower Skies: 
And thefe, as Birds cut thro* the liquid Way," 
> 1 5 Sieze them j and then fome Parts of Life decay : 
Thus they amaz'd on the Av e^ki fall, 
And there the Poisons work, and ruin all : ' 
For firft they make them giddy ; then their Wing 
Grows weak ; they fall into the Poifon's Spring ; 
520 There die; there leave their Souls in deep Defpair,^ 
Becaufe the Poison's fierce, and ftronger there: 

Or 

jsi o r E s. 



^96. From Charcoal, &c.] Ex- 
ample Vlthin 2. V. and Example 
VHth in 2, V. Ukewife, need no 
Explication. 

8oo. Befides, &€,] In thefe 2. v. 
which contain Example Vlllth 
he Poet obferves, that Sulphur 
md all bituminous Matter, whofe 
>teams and Vapours are very of- 
enfive and hurtful to Man, are 
generated in the very Bowels of 
he Earth. 

8o2. Laftly, &c.] In thefe lo.v. 
he Poet brings the IXth and laft 
example : and fays that the 
vlines, in which Metals are dug, 
xhale fuch noxious JDamps and 
V^apours, as often kill the Wret- 
he«, who are condeip.n'd to that 



flaviih Drudgery. Thus from 
thefe Veins of the ^arth, as well 
as from jche other Things above 
mention'd , breathe forth poi- 
fonous and deadly Exhalations. 

So6, What noxious, &c.] It is 
obferved. That all Metals have 
not the fame Smell. Gold, heat- 
ed in the Crucible , is fweet r 
Silver not fo pleafing ; melted 
Brafs ftinks : and the Steam of 
melted Iron is intolerable. 

8 1 2. Thus hurtful, &c»] Jn 
thefe lo. V. he concludes by way 
of Similitude from the Inftances 
above given, That in thefe Pla- 
ces, which are call'd Averni, the 
Earth exhales virulent and dead- 
ly Viip.ours, and fends out iioxi- 

ous 



f 



Tiz 



CjR.ETIUS. 



Book? 



/.preire the conftant rifing Screams difpkce 
The neighb'ring Air, and leave an empty Space : 
Where, when the Birds are come with nimble Force, 

8^5 And ftill endeavour to purfue their Courfe, 

Deceivd they fall, they clap their Wings in vain j 
For no refitting airy Parts fuftain, ^ 

Their Weight does force themonthepoifnous Plain. J 
And while they helplefs in the Vacuum lie, 

830 Breathe out their Soul thro' evry Pore, and die. 

In Summer, Springs are cold ; for Earth contaii 
Some Seeds of Heat within her hollow Veins : 
But when rhe Heat's Increafe, and vig'rous Ray 
Forces aPaflage thro*, they fly away: 

835 Thus as the Summer comes, and Rays begin 

To cleave the Earth, the Streams grow cold within 

B. 

NOTES: 



ous Atoms, which kill the Birds 
as they are flying over thofe 
Places. 

822. Or elfe, &c.] In thefe 
9. V. he adds another, but ridi- 
culous, Caufe, why the Birds 
dropdown dead into the Averni : 
As if the Vapours, that exhale 
from thence, change the Air in- 
to Vacuum, or rather totally ex- 
pdl, and drive it away, fo that 
the Birds can not bear themfelves 
up, nor fupporc their flight in a 
meer Void. 

831. In Summer, &c.3 There" 
are many Things fo excellently 
well accommodated to the ufe of! 
Man, that they are alone fufli-' 
cient to evince a bountiful and 
gracious Providence : Thus in 
Summer Well-water is cold, as 
if it were order 'd fo on putpofe 
to moderate the Heat of that 
Seafon ; and on the contrary, it 
is warm in Winter, to refreili 
and revive us. But Lucretius, in 
thefe 10. V. endeavours to elude 
this Difficulty : and gives this 
natural reafon of that Change : 
In Summer, fays he, the Surface 
of the Earth is rarefy'd by the 
Heat of the Sun ; and the Seeds 
of FiirCj that are contain'd in 5he 



Earth, break out into the Air 
but in Winter the fame Seeds a 
conftrain'd, and, being bound fa 
in the Earth by the Cold of th 
Seafon , are comprefs'd ar 
fqueez'd into Wells ; and then 
proceeds the Warmth of the W 
ter. 

Ariflrotle fays this is caus'd by j 
Antiperifl:afis, i. e. Circumobi 
ftentia, a Reciprocation, and fu 
rounding on all fides, by meai 
of which, where Heat is, then' 
Cold is expell'd : where Col 
thence Heat ; And Cicero, aft( 
the Opinion of the Stoicks, c: 
plains it thus : Omnes igili 
partes Mundi , tangam aucei 
maximas, calore fulta: fuftinei 
tur : quod primum in terras n, 
tura perfpici poteft : nam < 
lapidum conflidu, atque trir 
elici ignem videmus : & recen 
foffione terram fumarecalentcm 
atque etiam ex puteis jugibus 
quam calidam trahi, 8c id max 
mehibernis fieri temporibus,qu(: 
magna vis, tertx cavernis, cor 
tineatur caloris ; eaque hiemef, 
denfior : ob eamqj caufam cak 
rem infitum in terris contine,' 
ardius. Lib. 2. de Nat. Deorun 
Therefore^ fays he, all the fever. 

par 



Book VL LUCRETIUS. 7ij 

But Cold contracfls the Pores to lefler Space,' 
And binds the Seeds of Heat with ftridt Embrace : 
And thefe, fqueez'd from the Pores, with nimble Wings 
^40 Pafs into lower Wells, and warm the Springs. 

Near A mm ks Shrine, as Fame has loudly told, 
A Spring runs hot by Night, by Day 'tis cold : 

Jhis 
N O T JB ^. 



•arts of the World are fupport- 

i by Heat : this is evident from 

le Nature of the Earth itfelf: 

n )r, by ftciking and rubbing of 

:ones,we urge out Fire, and new- 

iig Ground exhales a warm 

noke : beiides, we draw warm 

Izzet out of our Wells, and 

lat too, chiefly in Winter : the 

afon is, becaufe much Heat is 

•ntain'd in the Caverns of the 

dcch : and the Earch becomes 

ore denfe, and contracted in 

inter; and for that reafon 

eps in the more clofely its in- 

te Heat and Fires. There are 

me however, who controvert 

e Truth of this Matter, and af- 

t it to be only a vulgar Errour, 

d not a foiid and certain Ob- 

rvation. But molt are of a 

ntrary Opinion, and affigntwo 

aufes of this Effed : One of 

em they call privative ; the 

' her, pofitive : The firft of 

cm is, by reafon of the depar- 

jre of the Heat, or hot Bodies, 

I or we are permitted to fpeak 

1 LIS in the School of Epicurus, 

• d of Ariftocle too, who will 

It allow, that Accidents pafs 

J )m Subjecfl to Su bjedi] out of 

« i Earth. That innate Heat of 

» ; Earth is occalion'd by Subter- 

1 lean Fires -, and evaporates in 

' mmer, attracfted by the ambi- 

<: Heat : for, according to the 

J)rervation of Hippocrates, like 

' lings refort to like, and na- 

^ ally delight to be together. 

Ui. Near, &:c.] But it may 

^ objected, that tho' the divine 

ver be not in all Springs and 

-ils, it is certainly vilible in 

Fountain, that is at the Tem- 



ple of Jupiter Ammon, of which 
Curtius, lib. 4. Se<ft. 7. fays : 
Ammonis nemus in medio habec 
fontem, aquani folis vocant. Sub 
ortum folis tepida manat ; medio 
die, cum vehementiflimus eft ca- 
lor, frigida eadem fluit ; inclinato 
in veiperum, calefcit j media node 
fervida ex<Bftuat : quoque pro^ 
plus nox vergit ad lucem, mul- 
tum ex nodiurno calore decrefcit, 
donee fub ipfum diei ortum af- 
fueto tempore languefcat : In the 
midft of the Grove of Ammon, 
there is a Spring of Water, cail'd 
the Water of the Sun ; at Sun- 
rifing it flows out luke-warm, ac 
Noon, when the Heat is moft 
violent, it comes out quite cold : 
In the Evening it grows warm, 
again ; at Midnight itgufliesouc 
very hot ; and as the Night wears 
away , and the Morning ap- 
proaches, the Heat it had in the 
Night decreafes, till about the 
ufual time, at break of Day, it 
becomes again barely warm. This 
is coniirm'd by Pliny, lib. 2. cap* 
103. by P. Mela, lib. i. cap. 8. 
in thefe Words : Ammonis Ora- 
culum fidei inclyta: j Sc fons, 

quem folis appellant : Fons 

media no(fte fervet : mox & pau- 
latim tepefcens, fit luce frigid us : 
turn, ut fol furgit, ita frigidior : 
fubinde per meridiem maxime 
riget : funt deinde tepores ite- 
riim *, dc prima no(fi:e calidus : 
atque, ut ilia procedit, ita cali- 
dior : rursiis, ut eft media, per- 
fervet. Nor may we omit the 
Teftimony given by Ovid. Me- 
tam. lib. 15. v. 308. in thefe 
Words : 



Y 



y y y 



Quid! 



714 LUCRETIUS. Book VI 

This Men admire, and think, when Night has fpread 
Her blackeft Curtains o'er our fleepy Head, 
S45 The Sun below does caft his vig'rous Beams, 

And pierces thro' the Earth, and warms the Streams 

Abfurc 
n T B S, 



^ ^ Quid ? non & lymgha fi- 

Dacque, capitque novas ? medio 
tua, corniger Animon, 

ITnda die gelida eft j ortuque, 
obitaque calefcit. 

See IJkevvife Pontanus in Me- 
teor. And Ammianus, lib. 5. 
But this too 3 fays Lucretius, 
is ailed g'd in vain, and figni- 
jies nothing : For tho' they 
are miftaken, that impute the 
caufe of it to the Sun, who, as 
they pretend, when he is beneath 
the Earth, warms thofa Waters 
thro' the Body of the whole 
Earth, thick as it is ; yet the 
reafon may be , bccaufe the 
Barth, being tontradled by the 
Cold of the Night, fqueezes down 
and tranfmita the Seeds of Fire 
into the Water, 



ther either of them be true or no 
if is not worth while to inquire 
fince the Thing itfelf is a mce 
Fidlion : for none of our Hiftc 
rians or Geographers, who de 
fcribe Fountains, pretend tha 
they ever faw this. Yet we ha> 
pretty good Authority for 
Fountain, that was difcover' 
not long ago in the Woods, nea 
Clermont in Auvergne : who 
Waters freeze hard in the Monti 
of July and Auguil -, but neve 
in the Winter. Prope urbej 
Claramontem fons, nuper invei 
tus, dicitur. La Cave de la glace 
Qui fons certe mirabilis : nai 
ejus aqua , JuliOj dc Augufl 
menfibuSjgelu vehementer aftrii 
gitur, minime vero hyeme, fa 
certain Eye-witnefs of it. 



a 

Ammon] Jupiter Ammon ha 

hich by that I ^^ Oracle that was in great K 

means grows warm ; but the fame \ ^o^yn with the Egyptians ar 

Earth,beineloofen'dandfetatli- Africans, and a Temple m L 



being 
berty by the Heat of the Day, re 
ceives, and, as it were, fwallows 
them in again : and thus the Wa- 
ters lofe much of theHeat they had 
m the Night, Befides, that very 
Water, which becomes warm, be- 
caufe the cold and chilling Night 
depreffes and keeps down the 
Seeds of Fire, grows cold again 
the Day ; becaufe the Beams 



of the Sun, darting into the Wa 
ter, and rarefying it, open a free 
Paffage for thofe Seeds to get out 
Into the Air : For the Heat of 
the Sun diiTolves Ice in fuch a 
manner ', sls to releafe and fet 
at liberty the flender Stalks of 
Corn, and other Things of like 
Kature, which by the Cold of 
the Night , were detain'd and 
bound in icy Fetters. This is 
contain^ in 28. v. Thus Lucre 



bia, to the Eaft of the Countn 
of Cyrenaica, to the Weft of ] 
gypc, and to the North of ti 
Garamantes and Nafamones, 
a moift and Palm-bearing So 
tho' all the Countrey round 
moft dry and defart. The Oi 
gine of this is variouily reportei 
the moft common Opinion 
that Liber, or Bacchus, after ' 
had conquer'd all Alia, and v- 
leading his Army thro' the D 
farts of Lybia, was in danger 
perifliing, he and all his Mt 
with Thirft : In this Diftrefj^ 
Ram appear'd to him, and wi 
his Horn Hiew'd him a Foul 
tain of Water: now he fuppo« 
this Ram to be his Father Jupit* 
and therefore ercded a Temd 
to him, and gave him a Ran| 
Head and Horns. He caJl'd hii 



siusaRignstwoCsufesibutwhs- Ammon from the Sand, wJm 



71 r 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS, 

Abfurd and vain ! For Rnce the furious Ray, y 

When, roll'd above, it makes oar warmeft Dav, > 
And beats the open Surface of the Sea, 3 

550 Can raife but little Wamith ; when rou I'd below. 
How pierce the Earth, and heat in palling thto* ? 
Since Sense aflures, that when the Rays do beat, 7 
Our Houses yield us a fecure Retreat ; > 

We lie within, and icorn the Summer's HeAt. 3 

5 5 Then what's the Caufe ? *Tis this ; A spungy Ground, 
And iill'd with firy Seeds, lies al! around : 
This when cold Nights contradb, the Seeds of Fire, 
Squeez'd out, flie off, and to the Spring retire. 
And make it hot : but when the vigorous Ray 

5p Peeps forth, and opens them an eafy Way, 
They leave the cold Embrace, and foon retreat 
To Earth again, and take their former Seat: 
And thus, by Day, it lofes all its Heat. 

Befides, 
NOTES. 



\ 



Gredc'is cljupi^, or -^a^iu/noS' 
t Plutarch, lib. de Hide, feems 
deny this Name to be of Greek 
tra(ftion, and fays it is deriv'd 
'ni the Egyptian Language : 
Kence feme believe that Ham, 
Cham, the Son of Noah, and 

was the firft that cultivated 
Land of Egypt, was wor- 

pp'd under that Name : others 

1 have Ammon to be the Sun ; 
crob. Saturnal. lib. I. cap. 21. 

& Hammonem, quern Deum 
m occidentem Libyes exifti- 

nt, arietinis cornibus fingunt, 
bus maxim^ id animal valet, 
It fol radiis ; nam & apiid 
^cos ^7w T? Jdctfocx^of, appel- 
ir. And to ftrengthen this 
inion, the Hebrew Word 
lima fignifies the Sun and 
it : But whoever it was that 

there woriliip'd under the 
pe of Ammon, Alexander 

Great, when he was in E- 
t, went to this Temple, and 
He the Priefts acknowledge 

1 for the Son of their God. 
^7. Abfurd, &c.] In thefe 
. the Poet confutes their O- 
a«j whp beljevMj th^? the 



Water of the Fountain of A m- 
mon grew cold by Day, and hot 
in the Night, for the fole reafon 
of the Departure, or Acceffion of 
the Sun : And this he proves to 
be impoffible by an Argument, 
k majori, as they call it. For, if 
the Sun can not warm the open 
and naked Body of the Water, 
when he lliines upon it from a- 
bove, much lefs can he imparf 
his Heat to the Waters thro' the 
thick and clofe-compaxfled Body 
of the Earth : For the Heat of 
the Sun muft of neceffity pafs 
through the whole Body of the 
Earth, to warm by Night the 
Waters of that Fountain : And 
yet we fee that even our Houfes 
flielter and prote(ft us from th« 
jSerceft of his Beams. 

855. Then what's, &c.] In thefe 
9. V. he afcribes the firft Caufe of 
the nocturnal Heat, and diurnal 
Cold of the Waters of the Foun- 
tain of Ammon to the Seeds of 
Fire or Heat, that are in the 
Earth about that Fountain, and 
beneath the Water : He explains 
this in the manner that follows : 
The Earth, fays he^ being com* 

X y y y 3 f rer§'4 



7i6 LUCRETIUS. Book VI; 

Befidcs, the Water grows more rare by Day ; 
S65 Its Parts, divided by the piercing Ray, 

So lofe their Eire : as when the Beams arife, y 

And warm the frozen Streams with foft'ning Kifs, S* 

"They melt in the Embrace, and lofe their Ice. 3 

And fome cold Springs light Flax, held o'er tb 

Streams, 

870 The Flax takes Fire, and fcatters feeble Beams : 

/ 
NOTES, 



prefs'd by the Cold of the Night, 
Squeezes out, and tranfmits into 
the Water, thofe Seeds of Heat ; 
by means of which the Water 
grows hot : but, being loofen'd 
by the Heat of the Day, flie re- 
ceives again into her Bowels thofe 
Very fame Seeds, and thus the 
Water becomes cold. 

8<54.. Belides, &c. ] In thefe 
5. V. he refers the fecond Caufe 
to the heat of the Sun : as if it 
were poffible, that the Water, 
which in the Night is made hot 
by the Seeds of Fire, could grow 
cold again in the Day, by reafon 
of the Beams of the Sun penetrat- 
ing into the fame Water, and 
rarefying it in fnch a manner, as 
to open a free PafTage into the 
Air for thofe Seeds of Fire. 

S67. With foft'ning Kifs,] Here 
our Tranflatour had his Eye up- 
on Cowley : who fays ; 

So the Sun's am'rous Play 
Kilfes the Ice away. 

S69. And fome, &c.] In thefe 
25. V. he mentions a Spring, that 
will both extinguifli a lighted 
Torch, if it beplung'd into the 
Waterj and light it again, if it 
be mov'd gently to touch the Sur- 
face of the Water : The reafon of 
which, fays he, is, becaufe there 
are in that Water, or in the 
Barth under it, many Seeds of 
fire, which, breaking out of the 
Water, ftick to the Tow, or 
Torch newly excinguifli'd, and fet 
Fire to them again : Nor is it 
^iQX^ incredible, that Seeds of 



Fire ihould force their way out c 
Water, than that a Spring offref 
Water Hiould rife up in the mic 
die of the Sea : And we evei 
Day fee Candles, Torches, Sc 
that are but juft put out, kind 
again, even before they come 1 
touch the Fire towards whit 
they are mov'd. 

Lucretius mentions neither tl 
Name nor Place of this miraci 
lous Spring : but having ihew 
that there is nothing wonderf 
or divine in the Spring of Jupit 
Ammon, he here attacks t! 
Fountain of Jupiter of Dodon; 
for he never gives any Quarter 
that God. Now not far fro 
Dodona, a City of Epirus, the | 
was a Grove of Oaks facred 
Jupiter, where the Oaks are ft I 
to have pronounc'd Oracles ; th 
others fay the Anfwers were giv 
by two Doves fitting on thij 
Oaks, and one of which flew 
way to the Temple of ApoHo 
Delphi, the other to that of J 
piter Ammon, where they CO 
tinu'd their old Trade of E< 
tune-telling. Pliny, lib. 2. C« 
103. fays, In Dodone Jovis a 
tern Fons, cum fit gelidus, &ii 
merfas faces extinguat, fi eictil 
da! admoveantur, accendit. A I 
Gaflendus, on the tenth Book 
Laertius, page 157. fays, that r| 
far from Grenoble, there is 
ardent Fountain, that will uy 
Fire, if it be touch'd with a^igu 
ed Torch, and continue bui?i 
ing for more than a few Vii 
Pliny, lib. 31. cap, 2. fays, tli|. 
there is a founrain in Ind» 
- caj 






iookVI. LUCRETIUS. 

A Torch is kindled too : the Flames appear. 
And nod at ev'ry little Breath of Air ; 
Becaufe the Water Seeds of Heat contains, 
And many rife from Earths capacious Veins, 
575 And cur the Body of the Streams, and flow. 
Too weak to warm the Waves in pafling thro'. 

notes: 



717 



Be£dcs ; 



alPd Lycos, whofe Water will I Admotis Athamanis aquis accen 

ic-ht a Candle ; and he reports d6re lignum 

he fame Thing of another at Narratur, minimos cum Luna 



ichbatan, which Solinus confirms 
o be true. And fince we are on 
his Subje<ft of wonderful Foun- 
ains, we will mention fome of 
he many, recorded by the An- 
ients, and whofe Effeas, if true, 
re indeed miraculous. There is 
Fountain in the Ifland Cea, 
hat perfectly ftupifiesthofe that 
Irink of its Waters : Plin. lib. 31. 
;ap. 2. Another, near Clitor in 
Arcadia, whofe Water caufes a 
oathing of Wine, Plin. Loc. citat. 
\nd Ovid. Metam. i $. v. 322. 

Clitorio quicunque fitim de fonte 

levirit, 
Vina fugit ; gaudetque meris ab- 

ilemius undis. 

On the contrary, the Water of 
Lynceftis in Macedonia inebri 
ates, fays the fame Poet, lib. citat. 

V. 329. 

Huic fluit effedu difpar Lynce- 

ftius amnis. 
Quern quicunque pariim modera- 

to gucture traxit, 
Haud aliter titubat, quam fi 

mera vina bibiiTet. 

And Plin. lib. i. cap. 103. re- 
ports from Mutianus, that there 
IS a Fountain in the Ifland An- 
dros, whofe Waters have the 
tafte of Wine, and inebriate like- 
wife. The River Athamas in 
Phthia kindles Wood, if it be 
thrown in, in the Wane of the 
Moon : 



receflit inorbes. 

A River at CoIoITjk turns Wood 
into Stone. Plin. lib. 31. cap. 2- 
And Ovid fays the Ciconians 
have a River, that petrifies the 
Bowels of thofe that drink of it : 
and brings a ftony Hardnefs on 
all things that touch the Waters ^ 

Flumen habent Cicones, quod 

potum faxea reddit 
Vifcera, quod tadis inducit mar- 

mora rebus. 

Metam. 15. v. 313. 

But Pliny fays only, that a ftony 
Bark grows over Wood, thrown 
into this River : and that the 
Lake Velinus, npw Lago di Pie 
di Luca, the Rivers Silarus and 
Surius turn Wood or Leaves into 
Stone. Nat. Hift. lib. 2. cap. 103. 
A Fountain at Perperenein Lydia 
turns Earth that is moiften'd 
with its Waters into Stone, Pliny, 
lib. 31. cap. 2. There are two 
Fountains at Orchomenus in Eu- 
boea ; the Water of one of them 
confers Memory : that of the 
other caufes Forgetfulnefs, Plin, 
loco citat. Mutianus witnelTes, 
that there is one at Cyzicus, 
which delivers from the uneafy 
Paflion of Love. A Pool at Sa- 
mofata breeds a fort of Slime, 
that burns when put into Water, 
and is extinguilli'd with Earth. 
Plin. lib. -2. cap 104.. Whatever 
thrown into the Lake Sides 



IS tnrown mto the JLaice iictes or 
Ovid. Metam. 1 5. v. 311. 1 Sideris in India, inilantiy finks 

to 



7iB 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book V 



Befides ; their own quick Force will make them inov 
And pafs the yielding Waves, and join above ; 
As little Streams, that cut their fecret Way, 

880 And rife up fweet i'th* Bottom of the Sea ; 
Beat off the Salt, and the refilling Flooi> 
To thirfty Sailors proves a mighty Good : 
Juft fothefe Seeds of Fire might rife and flow,' 
And cut the yielding Waves, and, pafling thro', j 

885 Strait ftrike, and kindle oily Torch, or Tow ; 



N O T E S- 



Becau! 



to the bottom. Idem, lib, 31. 
cap. 2. The Waters of a Foun- 
tain at Zajna in Africa, render 
the Voice harmonious, Idem, 
lib. 31. cap. 2. There is a Lake 
at Troglodytac, the Water of 
which grows bitter, and then 
again fweet, three times every 
Day, and as often every Night. 
Plin. lib. 31. cap. 2. And many 
other wonderful Stories are rela- 
ted of other Rivers and Waters : 
but I may not omit to mention 
what many now living have ex- 
perimented, and Icnow to be 
true: There are two Baths or 
Fountains at Baia, not far from 
Naples, into one of which, when 
a Dog is thrown, he is imme- 
diately depriv'd of Senfe, and 
feems to be dead : but, thrown in- 
to the other, he comes to himfelf, 
and revives in as little time. 
And from thence the Place is 
call'd Grotto del Cane. 

877. Belides, &c.] In thefe 
17. V. Lucretius argues, that the 
Reafon why the Water of this 
Fountain kindles Tow, &c. may 
be this : Thofe Seeds of Fire, ri- 
ling up to the Surface of the Wa- 
ter, may there be condensed, and 
gather'd together in fuch a man- 
her, as to kindle any Combufti- 
bles, that are apt to take Fire, if 
they be advanc'd to them. Thus 
too Fountains of freili Water 
bubble up in the mid ft of the Sea : 
and as thofe Seeds of freili Water, 
rifing up, join into one Body,and 
flow in 4 Stream of frefl^ Water j 



Co too thefe Seeds of Fire, rifin 
upland combining into one, im 
eafily create a Flame. Thus 
Candlcjuewly extinguifh'd, if pi 
to a burning Taper, or to Fir 
catches again, and is lighted eve 
before it touch the Flame. 

879. As little Streams, dec. 
Thus Alpheus, a River of Pelc 
ponnefus, ^fter it flows into tli 
Sea, is faid to preferve its Wa 
ters unmix'd with thofe of th 
briny Flood, and, flowing in on 
continu'd Courfe, to dive inti 
the Earth, and break out agaii 
at the Head of the Fountain An 
thufa, in the Weft of the Illan' 
Ortygia. Virg. ^n. 3. v. 69^ 
fpeaking of Ortygia, 

Alpheum fama eft hu( 



Elidis amnem, 
Occultas egiffe vias fubter mare 

qui nunc 
Ore, Arethufa, tuo Siculis con 

funditur undis. 
And this the Antients would hav« 
to be true, becaufe in the Olym 
pick Games, which were cele 
brated at Elis every fifth Sum 
mer, the Garbage of the Victim: 
being thrown into Alpheus ir 
Greece, was reftor'd thro' thi 
Mouth of Arethufa in Ortygia 
Plin. lib. 2. cap. 107. Quidain 
fontes odio maris ipfa fubeunt 
vada, ficut Arethufa, fons Syra- 
cufanus, in quo redduntur ja<fta 
in Alpheum. But Strabo- lib. 6, 
explodes this Fiction. This how- 
ever gave occalion to the fabu- 
lous Loves of Alpheiis and Are- 
thufa 



ook VI. 



LUCRETIUS. 



719 



Becaufe thofe Parts are of convenient Frame; 
Hold Seeds of Fire, and fie to raife a Flame : 
Thus take a Torch, but lately dead, and ftrive 
To light the Snuff again, and make it live, 
JO It kindles long before it comes to touch ; 
And fure Experience fhews a thoufand fucb,' 
Which light at distance, ere they reach the Flame: 
And thus this Fountain adts ; the Cause the fame. 
Now fing, my Muse, for 'tis a weighty Caufe, 01 
?5 Explain the Magnet, why it ftrongly draws, >• 

And brings rough Iron to its fond Embrace : 3 

This 
NOTES. 



Ufa. Pliny reports the like of 
e Rivers Lycus and Erafinus ; 
s firft, in Lydia, the other in 
'cadia : which is likewife con- 
tn*d by Ovid. Metam. lib. 15. 
273. 

: ubi terreno Lycus eft epotus 

tiiatu, 

iftit procul hinc, alioque re- 

lafcitur ore. 

modb combibitur^redo modb 
l^urgite lapfus 

hdditur Argolicis ingens Erali- 
1 nus in arvis. 

1US Lycus , fwallow'd up, is 
I feen no more ; 

t far from thence knocks at 
I another Door : 

lus Erafinus dives, and, blind 

in Earth, 

ms on, and gropes his way to 

Pecond Birth ; 

irts up in Argos Meads, and 
iQiakeshis Locks 

ound the Fields, and fattens 
the Flocks. Dryd. 

I394. Now fing, &c.] Thefol- 

|«ing 156. V. contain a Difpu- 

fion concerning the Loadftone. 

id here too/aysCreechjthe Drift 

the Poet is the fame as in all 

other Difputacions; which has 

; been hitherto obferv'd. For 

:rcules is faid to have found 

It this Stone ; and no doubt his 

>dihip is wcil-pkas'd that Men 



lliould hold themftlves oblig'd 
to him for fo great a Benefit •, and 
that the Virtues of that Stone are 
afcrib'd to him. Jupiter has al- 
ready loft his Fountains, and 
why fliould the Poet give Quar- 
ter to the Son, fince he never 
would fpare the Father ? 

In the three firft of thefe Ver- 
fes, the Poet tells us, he is going 
to dilpute of the Virtue or Power 
of the Loadftone : which, tho' 
Lucretius acknowledge but one, 
is known neverthelefs to have 2 
twofold Power, or two different 
Virtues, which are thus diftin- 
guiih'd : I. The Power , by 
which it attrads the Steel to it-, 
felf: IL The Power, by which 
it directs both itfelf and the Steel 
towards the Poles of the World : 
The firft of thefe is call'd its at- 
tra<flive Power, the fecond, its 
Diredive. As to the firft of 
them, tho' it may feem a very 
hard Paradox, nay, even an Ab- 
furdicy, to alTert, that Attradion 
is unjuftly afcrib'd to the Load- 
ftone, and that we Ipeak not pro- 
perly, when we fay,"thatit draws 
and actrads Iron, yet we Hiould 
not want great Authority, nor 
even Experiment itfelf, to con- 
firm this Affertion : For, in the 
firft Place, Renatus Des Cartes, 
in his Principles of Philofophy, 
has thefe exprefs Words : Pr«te- 
rea magnes trahit ferrum, five 
patius magaes Sc ferrum ad in- 

vicem 



L U<: R E T lU S. 



72.0 

vicem accedunt *, neque enim ul- 
la ibi tra<flio eft: This top is 
folemnly determin'd by Cabius : 
Nee magnes, fays he, trahit pro- 
prie ferrum, nee fetrum ad fe 
magnetem provocat ; fed ambo 
pari conatu ad invicem conflii- 
unt : And with thefe Authours 
agrees the Aflertion of Docftor 
Ridley, Phyfician to the Empe- 
pour of Ruflia, and who, in his 
Tra<ft of magnetical Bodies, de- 
fines magnetical Attradion to be 
a natural Incitation and Difpoii- 
tion, conforming to Contiguity ; 
or a Union of one magnetical 
Body with another, and not a vio- 
lent and forcible Attratftion, and 
hauling of the weaker Body to 
theftronger. And this is like- 
wife the Dodlrine of Gilbertus, 
vfho terms this Motion a Coi- 
tion, which, fays he, is not made 
by any attractive Faculty, either 
of the Loadftone, or the Iron, 
but by a Syndrome, or Concourfe 
ofbothofthem : a Coition always 
of their Vigours, and of their 
Bodies likewife, if not obftruded 
by their BuUc or fome other Im- 
pediment : and therefore thofe 
contrary Actions , which flow 
from oppofite Poles or Faces, are 
not fo properly Expulfion and 
Attradion, as fequela 6c fuga, a 
mutual following of, and Flight 
from, each other. 

Moreover ; the foregoing Opi- 
nions are confirm'd by feveral 
Experiments : For, I. if a piece 
of Iron be faften'd to the iide of 
a Bowl, or Bafon of Water, a 
Load ft one, fwimming freely in 
a Boat of Cork, will prefently 
make to it. II. If a Steel, or 
Knife, untouch'd, be offcr'd to- 
wards a Needle that is touch'd, 
the Needle moves nimbly to- 
wards it, and ftrives to unite to 
the Steel, that remains without 
Motion. III. If a Loadftone be 
fil'd very fine, the Powder, or 
Duft of ir, will adhere and cleave 
to Iron that was never touch'd. 
in like manner as the Powder of 
Iron does likewife to the Load- 



BookV 



ftone. And IV. laftly, if 
Loadftone and Steel be plac'd 
two Skiffs, or fmall Boats mat 
of Cork, and within the Orbs < 
their Adivities, neither of the 
will move, while the other ftan* 
^ili ; but both of them, if I m. 
ufe the Expreffion, hoift fail, ar 
fteer to each other j infomui 
that if the Loadftone attract, :] 
Steel too has its Attraction ; b 
caufe, in this Adion, the Allu 
ency is reciprocal , and , beii 
jointly felt, is the reafon, th 
they mutually approach, and ri 
into, each others Arms. Th 
therefore, upon the whole Ma 
ter, more moderate Expreffio 
than are often us'd, would mo 
fuitably exprefs this Adioi 
which neverthelefs fome of t 
Anrients have deliver'd in tl 
moft violent Terms of their La 
guage : Thus St. Auftin calls tl 
Loadftone, mirabilem ferri ra 
torem : and Hippocrates, Ai9( 
oTi r a'lhipov df>7roit>cu ' Lap 
qui ferrum rapit : Galen, diipi 
ting againft Epicurus, ufes ti 
Term, i^neiv, which feems lili 
wife too violent : Ariftotle aioj 
among the Antients fpeaks mo 
warily, and calls it, AiO(^ oi 
T cr/<rMpov XM'«, the Stone th 
moves the Iron, and him Aqu 
nas, Scaliger, Cufanus, and othe 
have follow 'd. 

I return now to Lucretius, ar 
muft firft obferve, that 01 
Tranllatour has omitted tl 
third and fourth Verfes of th 
Argument, in which the Poet e) 
plains how this Stone came to I 
call'd the Magnet : Thefe Verf 
riin thus in the Original : 

Qiiem MagneM vocant patrio c 

nomine Graii ; 
Magnetum quia fit patriis in f 

nibus ortus. 

i. e. which Stone the Greeks ca 
the Magnet, from the Name < 
the Countrey : becaiife it is pr( 
duc'd and found in the Countrey 

inhabite 



Book VL 



LUCRETIUS. 



inhabited by the Magnetes. This 
Countrey is a Region of Lydia, 
and call'd Magnefia, whence the 
Inhabitants had their Name. 
Ariftotle, by way of Excellence, 
calls it barely, ^/G^^, the Stone : 
Some, Hcrculeus Lapis , either 
becaufe Hercules firft difcover'd 
it : or from the City Heraclea, 
where it is faid to be found : or 
laftly from its great Strength, or 
wonderful Power. The Italians 
call it Pietra d* Amante, the lov- 
ing Stone : the Name of the 
Loadftone, by which it is com- 
monly known among us , is a 
Word of Saxon Extrad:ion : but 
the French know it only by the 
Name of L' Aimant, the Lover : 
And this modern Name agrees 
with what Orpheus fings in 
Claudian, Epig. 4. That Iron 
ru flies to the Loadftone, as a 
Bride to the Embraces of the 
Bridegroom. 

Pronuba fit natura Deis, ferrum- 

que maritat 

Aura tenax. 

Flagrat anhela filex, & amicam 

faucia fentit 
Materiem i placidofque chalybs 

cognofcit amores : 
Jam gelidas rupes, vivoque ca- 

rentia fenfu 
Membra feris : jam faxa tuis ob- 

noxia telis, 
Et lapides fuus ardor agir, fer- 

rumque tenetur 
IJlecebris, Sec. 

Now Lucretius, the better toex- 
, plain the attracftive Virtue ofthis 
I Stone, premifes four Heads, or 
i;hief Pofitions, which, tho' he 
bas prov'd them already, yet, be- 
kaufe of the great difficulty of 
:he Task he is now going to 
Undertake, he thinks fit to in- 
culcate here again, I. That cer- 
i:ain Corpufcles are continual- 
' y flowing out of all thmgs ; in 
■ 6. V. II. That no concrete Body 
s fo folid, as not to contain fo.Tie 
mpty little Spaces *, in 23. v. 
II. That the Corvsufdes, that 



721 

I are emitted from things, do not 
agree with all things alike, and 
in the fame manner, and produce 
not the fame Etfeds on them : 
in 14. V. IV. That the void lit- 
tle Spaces are not alike in all 
Things, but differ in Size and 
Figure, and therefore can not 
be fit for all Bodies indifferently : 
in 13. V. This beine premis'd, he 
endeavours to tell the reafon why, 
or the manner how, the Load- 
ftone attrads Iron, or the Iron 
is conveyed to the Loadftone : 
which confifts in this. Many 
Particles flow from the Load- 
ftone, and diflipate the Air ail 
around it : and thus many void 
little Spaces are made : But when 
the Iron is plac'd within the 
Sphere of that diflipated Air, 
there being a great deal of empty 
Space between that and the Load- 
ftone, the Corpufcles of the Iron 
leap more freely forward inta 
that Void, (for the Seeds of alt 
Bodies fly forward on a fuddain 
into empty Space ) and for 
that reafon are carry'd towards 
the Loadftone : now they can not 
tend that way, without dragging 
along with them their coherent 
Seeds, (for the Seeds of Iron are 
moft intricately intangled, and 
twin'd together) and confequent- 
ly the whole Mafs of Iron : in 
1 7. v. But becaufe the Iron moves 
any way, upwards, downwards, 
acrofs, or in any obliquity, with- 
out the leaft diftind:ion, accord- 
ing as it is plac'd to the Load- 
ftone, he teaches in $. v. thac 
this could not be, but by reafon 
of the empty Space that is made 
by Corpufcles that flow from 
the Magnet, arid into which all 
Bodies, that otherwife tend only 
downwards, are protruded in- 
difcriminatelyjby the Strokes and 
Blows of other Bodies. And this 
is in general what Lucretius 
teaches concerning the Load- 
ftone : we will examine his Ar- 
guments apart, in the Order, he 
has obferv'd in the difpofition of 
them 

Z z 2 z 8^7. This 



722 LUCRETIUS. Book VL 

This Men admire ; for they have often feen 
Small Rings of Iron, fix, or eight, or ten, 
Compofe a fubiile Chain, no Tye between : 
^00 But, held by this, they feem to hang in Air, 
One CO another fticks, and wantons there ; 
So great the Loadstones Force, fo ftrong to bear 

In 
N O T E S. 



897. This Mertj SccJ] In thefe 
6. V. he takes notice of the iirft 
Power and Virtue of the Load- 
ftone : and fays. That it draws 
five, or more iron Rings, ad> 
hering one to another. This is 
the Virtue of the Magnet, which 
is caird the Attradive : but of 
the other, the Diredive, he fays 
nothing: nor indeed do any of 
the Antients treat of this lalt 
Power of the Loadftone : The 
Moderns alone have inquir'd in- 
to that Matter : and that too, 
only iince the Invention of the 
Magnetick Needle : which, ac- 
cording to fome. was firft difco- 
ter'd a little more than five Ages 
ago: that is to fay, A. D. 1200. 
At which time Guyotus, a Na- 
tive of Provence in France, writ 
a Poem, which he call'd Mari- 
neta , in Praife of this Inven- 
tion : And hence, fay the French 
Authours, the Flower de Luce, 
which is the Arms of France, is 
every whcre,cven among the bar- 
barous Nations, reprelented at 
one of the ends of that Needle. Pe- 
trus Peregrinus, another French 
man, about three hundred Years 
ago, writ a Treatife of the Mag- 
net, and of a perpetual Motion 
to be made by it : which Trea- 
tife has been preferv'd by GafTe- 
$us : Paulus Venetus, and Alber 
tus Magnus, who fiourifli'd about 
five hundred Years ago, both of 
them, mention this Verticity of 
the Loadftone ; and cite for it a 
Book of Ariftotle's, intitul'd, De 
Lapide : but Cabeus and others 
faclier judge that Book to be the 
Work of fome Arabick Writer, 
%ho liv'd not manyJTears before 



the Days of Albertus. And in- 
deed it is very probable, that the 
Knowledge of the Loadftone? 
polary Power and Direction to 
the North was unknown to the 
Antients : and Pancirollus juftly 
places it among the modern In- 
ventions •, tho' Levinus Lemnius, 
and Coelius Calcagninus are of a- 
nother Belief: but their ftrongeft: 
Argument is only the following 
Paifage in Plautus : 
Hie ventus jam fecundus eft ; 
cape modo verforiam. 

Now the Word verforiam they 
interpret to be the Compafs : but 
according to Pineda, who has 
particularly difcufs'd this Mat- , 
cer, and to Turnebus, Cabeus 
and feveral others, it rather fig- 
nifiesthe Rope that helps to turn 
the Ship, or that makes it tacl? 
about ; for the Compafs fliew« 
that the Ship is turn'd, rathet 
than contributes to its Conver- 
lion. As for the long Expedi- 
tions and Voyages of the Antients. 
which may feem to confirm the 
Antiquity of this Invention, it is 
not improbable,but they were pcr- 
form'd by the help of the Stars, 
by the flight of Birds, or by keep- 
ing near the Shore : for thus the 
Phoenician Navigatours, and Il- 
ly Ifes too, might fail about the 
Mediterranean *, and thus like- 
wife might Hanno coaft about 
Africa, And as to what is con- 
tended, that this Verticity of the 
Loadftone was not unknown to 
Salomon, who is prefum'd to 
have had a Univerfahty of Know- 
ledge, it may as well be averr'd, 



that he knew she 



Art of Typo- 
graphy, 



7i| 



Book Vr. LUCRETIUS. 

In order to the Cause, muft firft be prov'd 
A thoufand things, a thoufand Doubts remov'd 
905 And long Deductions made^; do you prepare 
A ftridt obferving Mind, and lift'ning Ear. 

Firft then 5 from Objects seen thin F'.rms arife, 
In conftant fubtile Streams^ and (brike our Eyes : 

Thus 
NOTES. 



graphy, of making Guns and 
Powder, or that he liad the Phi- 
lofopher's Stone, tho' he fent to 
Ophir for Gold. It can not in- 
deed be deny'd, but that, befides 
his political Wifdom, he was ve- 
ry knowing in Philofophy : and 
perhaps too, as fomc believe, from 
his Philofophical Writings, the 
antieftt Philofophers , efpecialiy 
Ariftotle, who had the affiftance 
of the Acqiiifitions of Alexander, 
colieded many Things worthy of 
Note: yet it muft be granted, 
that if he knew the Ufe of the 
Compafs, his Ships were very 
flow Sailors, fince they made a 
three Years Voyage of it from 
Eziongeber in the Red Sea to 
Ophir, fuppos'd tobeTaptobana, 
or Malaca, in the Indies, which 
is not many Months Sail ; and 
iince too in the fame, or a lefs, 
time, Drake and Cavendifh per- 
form'd their Voyage round the 
Earth. 

Moreover : fomc/are of Opi 
nion, that this directive Power of 
the Loadftone depends upon, and 
is deriv'd from, the two Poles of 
the Heavens : Others from the 
Ardick Pole only : Cardanus, 
J from the Tail of the Bear : Des 
I Cartes, from I know not what 
! tradorious Point, as he calls it, 
and which he imagines to be I 
know not where too, beyond the 
Heavens : Fracaftorius, from cer- 
tain magnetick Mountains under 
|he Ar^tick Pole : Gulielmus Gil- 
bertus, from the Earth it felf, 
I which, as one huge Loadftone, 
■conforms and brings into its na- 
l^ivc and natural Sitejthat is to fay, 
! |oyf'4?4s ^he North an^ Sqiuh, the 



Loadftone itfelf,' as a fmall Earth, 
and the Iron, as its Offspring. 
In regard to the attracflive Vir- 
tue of the Loadftone, the Opi- 
nions likewife are different. Tha- 
les, Ariftotle and Hippias af- 
crib'd It to the Soul, with which 
they held it to be endowM, But 
It is not certain what Hands, or 
what Scnfes Nature has given to 
» this Stone. Cardanus intimates 
that It is only a certain Appetite, 
or Defire of Nutriment, that 
makes the Loadftone fnatch the 
Iron : and according to this Opi- 
nion Claudian Epig. 4. 

Ex ferro meruit vitam, ferrique 

rigore 
Vefcitur : has dulces epulas, hare 

pabula novit. 

And Diogenes Apolloniota, lib. 2^ 
Nar.Quxft. cap. 23. confirms the 
fame Opinion, when he fays, that 
there is Humidity in Iron, which 
the Drynefs of the Magnet feeds 
upon. Others fly to Sympathy, 
and certain occult Qualities. The 
Opinions of Demoeritus, Epicu^ 
rus, and Lucretius, are explained 
in the following Notes. 

903. In order, &c.] In thefe 
4. v. the Poet only teils us, thae 
to give a methodical Account of 
the attradive Power of the Load- 
ftone, it will be necefTary to take 
the Matter higher, and to repeal 
fome of the Maxims, he has 
taught already. 

907. Firft then • &c.] In thefe 
13. V. he premifes I. That Cor- 
pufcles are perpetually flowing 
from all Things : And this 
he has taught before. Book IV, 
V, 4.7. & (eqq. 

Z z ? ? a J07. Thus 



724 



LUCRE T lU S. 



Book VL 



Thus Odours fly from Gums ; a gentle Breeze 

9^° From Rivers flows, and from the neighboring Seas 
Sharp Salts arife, and fret the Shores around : 
Thus all the Air is fill'd with murm'ring found ; 
And while we walk the Strand, and pleas'd to view 
The wanton Waves ; or fqueeze, or mingle Rue, 

9' 5 Or Salt, or bitter Tastes our Tongues furprize : 7 
So that 'tis certain subtile Parts arife ^ 

From all,, and wander in the lower Skies ; J 

And never ceafe to flow, becaufe the Ear, 
And Eye, and Nose ftill fmelJ, and fee, and hear. 

910 Next rU repeat what I have prov'd before. 
No Compound's perfect solid, free from Pore : 
For tho' 'tis ufeful to diretfl our Eye 
Thro' all the Secrets of Philosophy, 
To prove that solid Seeds can never join, 7 

92^5 Unlefs fome empty Space is left between ^ 

It has its proper Force in this Defign. J 

1 hen firft, in Caves the fubtile Moifturc creeps 
Thro' hardeft Rocks, and even Marble weeps: 
And Sweat from ev'ry lab'ring Member flows, 

93^ Anddubborn Hair o'er all the Body grows : 
And Nature drives our Food with curious Art 
Thro' all the Limbs, increafing ev'ry Part : 
Strong Flames divide the rigid Gold and Brass j 
And to a liquid Subftance break the Mafs : 

935 Thro' Silver, Heat and Cold ; and each difdains 
And fcorns a Prifon, tho' in precious Chains : 
This Sense affures ; into a well-clos'd Room 
The Parts of Odours, Sounds, and Heat will come: 
And often, as our fickly Soldiers feel, 

94^ The moift and fubci'e Air creeps thro* their Steel. 

Therefpri 



^ O T E S, 



^09. Thus Odours, &c.] This 
and the ten following Verfes are 
repeated from B. IV. v. 2:?o. & 
feqq. Confult there the Notes 
upon them. 

920. Next,&<:.3 In thefe 23. v. 
he premifes Illy That no Com- 
pound Body is fofolid, as not to 
confift of feme Void : that is to 
fay, as not to contain fome empty 
iittlc Spaces. And this the Poet 



B.I 



has demonftrated at large. 
V. 4.02. & feqq. 

953. Strong Flames, dec."] This 
and the three next Verfes are re 
peated, Word for Word, fron 
B. I. V. 33$. tho' Lucretius varie 
them in the Original : But th' 
Senfe indeed is the fame. 

939. And often, &c.] Thi 
andthe following Verfe run thu 
in the Original, 

' -Q^i' 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 72? 

Therefore 'cis certain, as I prov*d before. 

No Compound's perfedk solid, free from Pore. 

Befides : 

The Parts chat rife from Things, not all alike. 
Nor equally agree to what they ftrike ; 

945Forfirft, the beauteous Sun with vigorous Ray 

Melts Snow, and Ice, and Wax, and hardens Clay : 
Thus Leather flirinks in Fircj but Gold and Brass 
DifTolve ; Flames foften all the rigid Mafs: 
Thus Water ftrengthens Steel, grown weak by Heat, 

^50 But gently foftens Skins, and boiling Meat: 
Leaves of wild Olives yield a fweet Repaft 
To Goats ; to Man a rough and bitter Tafte : 
Thus Pigs fly fweeteft Odours ; thofe, that pleafc 
And tickle Man, offend and poifon thefe ; 

J55 Yet they will roul in Dung, in Filth delight ; 
Tho' fqueamifli Man can fcarce endure the fight, 
Befides : We muft rea^ember, ■ 

Since 
NOTES. 



— — Quin ferri quoque vim pe- 

netrare fuevit, 
Jndique qua circum corpus lo- 

riea coercic, 
vlorbida vis quajcunque extrinfe- 

cus. infinuatur. 

This Paflage has puzzled the In- 

erpreters, and after all, they 

enow not well what to make of 

c : Creech in this Tranflation 

las followed the Opinion of none 

)f them, and indeed difapproves 

:hem all in his Latine Edicion of 

I Lucretius : For, fays he, what 

!:an Lucretius mean by a Coat of 

Mail ? No Man ever believ'd that 

:he infecftious Power of Difeafe 

5yer pierc'd thro' a Coat of 

jVlail. He diilikes alfo all the o- 

|:her Explications given by the 

i'everal other Annotatours to this 

. jPaflfage : which at length he cor- 

iretfts, and inftead of morbida vis, 

ireads fervida vis ; which Ledion, 

ifays he, makes all things plain 

and eafy : For often, when Men, 

irm'd from head to foot, fcal'd 

the Walls of a City, the Refieg'd 

pour'd down upon them melted 



Pitch, Sulphur, fcalding Water, 
dec. the Heat of which pierc'd 
thro' their Armour, and made 
them fenfible of it. This Expo- 
fition feems the mofb natural of 
any that have been given to this 
Paflage, and agrees beft with the 
preceeding Part of the Argument. 
But he is evidently miftaken in 
the Interpretation he gives it in 
this Tranflati(Mi ; and this may 
ferve for one of the many Inftan- 
ces might be given, that he had 
not ftudy'd his Authour fo tho- 
roughly, when'he render'd him in-, 
to Englifli, as afterwards,when he 
cametopubliflihisLatine Edition. 

943. Befides : The Parts, &c.3 
In thefe 14. v^ The Poetpremifes 
IIIlyThat the Corpufcles, which 
flow from Things, do not agree 
with all things, nor aff*e<fl them 
alike, or in one and the fame 
manner. This he has demon- 
ftrated in many Places of the 
preceding Books : but chiefly in, 
the fourth. 

957. Befides : We,&c.] In thefe 
I3.v.he premifesIVly That there 
are differ^t little Spaces^or Pores 

of 



726 



LUCRETIUS, 



Book V| 

Since Things compos'd do num*rous Pores comprize 
Thofe muft have difTrent Shape, and difF rent Size •' 

960 In Animals, are various Organs found, '7 

And each the proper Objects gently wound • S 

One Taste, another Smell, another Sound. S 

Some Things thro' Stones, or Silver, Gold, or Bra^s, 
Some move thro' Wood alone, and others Glass : 

965 And thofe that pafs the fame, not always flow 
With equal Eale, and cut their Paflage thro* : 
And this depends on the Varieties, 
And difF'rence of Pores in Shape and Size, 
Which Things of difTrent Texture ftill comprize. 

970 Thefe Things thus prov'd, I now will fing the Caufe, 
Explain the Magnet, (hew thee why it draws 
And brings rough Iron to its fond Embrace. 

Firit, from the Magnet numerous Parts arife. 
And fwiftly move ; the Stone gives vaft Supplies ; 

975 Which, fpringing ftill in conftant Streams, difplace 
The neighb'ring Air, and make an empty Space; 
So when the Steel comes there, fome Parts begin 
To leap on thro* the Void, and enter in. 



NOTES. 



©f various Figures in all com- 
pound Bodies : From whence it 
comes to pafs, that all things 
can not be adapted to, nor fit, 
and agree with,every one of them : 
This he has prov'd before in the 
fecond and fourth Books : and 
confirms again in this Place, by 
«he fame Examples he there al- 
iedg'd in Proof of this Dotftrine. 
970. Thefe Things, &c.'] In 
thefe 3. V. he concludes; andfays, 
That thefe Things being pre- 
3Biis'd, it is eafy to difcover and 
"underftand, how, and for what 
yeafon the Loadftone attrads 
Iron. And this is what he is go- 
ing next to explain. 

975. Firft, &C.3 Epicurus ex- 
plain'd two feveral ways the at- 
tracftive Virtue of the Loadftone; 
and 'tis ftrange Lucretius has p- 
initted one of theni : or rather 
5t has been loit out of the Textj 
fince what Lucretius has fo care- 
fully premis'd, feems more pro- 
perly adapted to ^hat Cau&jthaB 



to the other that remains, If yoi 
are desirous to know more of it 
fee Gaflendus, Tome II. p. 129 
where you will find many things, 
by which this Dodtrine of Epi<li|i j 
rus is illuftrated, and fully ex- 
plain'd. But to proceed : LK-| 
cretins having premis'd the fdt*B| 
Propolitions above mention*^. ( 
undertakes in this Place to ihe^l 
the Reafon why, or manner hoW, 
the Loadftone attrads the If<mi,J 
and the Iron, on the other Hanf^^ 
is carry 'd and niov'd towards tt 
Loadftone. To this end, in thi 
14. V. he teaches, I. That maf 
Corpufcles flow as well from tfeiel 
Loadftone, as from the IrorV^i 
but the greater Qtiantity, and th«j 
more ftrong, from the Magnefi'S 
Whence it comes to pafs, that tl 
Air is always difpers'd, and d 1*1*1 
ven away to a greater diftantf 
round about the Loadftone, artl 
confequently, that fewer empty | 
little Spaces are made around th<;j 
Irojo, And becauf^, when tt ' 

-' '^ "" lm\ 



3ook VI. LUCRETIUS^ 727 

Bur fince they're twin'd, the foremoft Parts tnuft bring 
^80 The latter on, and fo move all the Ring : 

For Parts of Steel are very ftridtly join'd. 

Scarce any Compounds are fo clofely twin'd. 

No wonder then, that when the foremoft ftrove. 

The other Parts fhould ftir, and all (hould move | 
?85 Which ftill they do, they ftill prefs farther on. 

Until they reach, and join the willing Stone. 
The Steel will move tofeek the Stone's Embrace, 

Or up, or down, or t'any other Place, 

Which way foever lies the empty Space. 
90 Not that the heavy Steel by Nature flies. 

But Blows without will force, and make it rife. 
Befides ; the Air, before the Steel, is rare. 

And emptier than it was, and weaker far ; 

And therefore all the Air, that lies behind 
95 Grown ftrong, and gath'ring like a fubtile Wind^ 

Muft force it on, for ftill the ambient Air 

Endeavours, ftill contends to drive it near: 

But 
NOTES, 



ron is plac'd within the Sphere, 
> they fay, of the Air, that is re- 
lov'd and driven away, there 
luft be a great deal of void 
pace between that and the Load- 
one ; the Corpufclcs of the Iron 
y the more freely into that 
r.pty Space, and therefore necef- 
rily towards the Magnet: But 
lofe Corpufcles of the Iron can 
3t hurry that way in a great 
Kiantity,without dragging along 
ith them the Particles that ad- 
;re to them, and by confequence 
le whole Mafs of Iron. 
987. The Steel, &c.] Thefe 
V. Gaflendus thus explains : 
lafmuch as the Iron tends in- 
fcriminately upwards, down- 
ardsj acrofs, in a Word, any 
ay, according as it is plac'd 
)ove, below, on one fide, &c. 
'the Magnet -, the Poet teaches, 
lat it could not move in that 
anner, but by reafon of the In- 
4<ftion of the Void : ir»to which 
e Corpufcles of the Iron, that 
3uld oiherwife move downwards 



only,are carry*d indifferently,an(} 
without the leaft Diftindiono 
Thus Gaflendus believes, thae 
thefe five Verfes relate to the Ex- 
plication laft above propos'd t 
But I, fays Creech, am of ano- 
ther Opinion : For the whole 
Matter there relates to the Cor- 
pufcles of the Iron leaping for- 
ward into the Void, that is made 
by the Effluviums from the Load- 
ftone : But here, in thefe Verfes, 
the little Bodies are protruded 
into the Void by Blows : 
therefore they more properly be- 
long to what follows. Creech, 
in Edit. Lat. 

992. Befides, &c.] Lucretius 
labours hard to prove, that the 
Motion of the Steel is help'd for- 
ward by the Air, becaule of its 
certain continual Motion and A- 
gitation. And firft in thefe 
10. V. he fays, it is affifted by the 
exteriour Air, which, ilnce it is 
always driving forward, and thac 
too with more Force, the more 
th«r€ is of is, cannot but puihon 

(h9 



728 



L U C R E T I US. 



Book VI 



Bat then alone can move it, when the Space 
Is free, and fit to take the coming Mass. 

1 006 This fills the Pores, and then with fubcile Gales 
Drives on the Steel, as Winds great Ships, and Sails 
Befides ; all Compounds hold fome Parts of Air j 
For ev'ry Compound is by Nature rare: 
This lurking Air, no doubt, wich nimble Wing, 

1005 And conftant Turns, ftill whirls and beats the Ring : 
But, once determin'd forward, keeps the Courfe 
It firft receiv'd, and that way bends its Force. 

But more than this : coy Steel will fometimes move 
And fly the driving Stone, and ceafe to love. 

loio And thus Steel Filings, I have often known. 
In little brazen Pots held o*er the Stone, 
Will ftrive, and leap, as eager to be gone ; 
Becaufe the little brazen Parts, that rear. 
Fill all the Steel's fmall Pores, and fettle there : 

An< 

N T £ 5. 



} 



the Iron into that Place where 
there is leaft Air, and confequent- 
ly moft Void : which muft be 
towards the Loadftone. Then 
in 6. V. by the interiour Air, 
which for the fame reafon, fince 
it always agitates, moves, and 
drives forward, can not but be- 
gin the Motion towards that 
Place, which is render'd moft 
void and empty. 

1008. But more, &C.3 GalTen- 
dus here obferves, that Lucretius 
feems to have feen that Experi- 
ment, in which the Loadftone 
fometimes manifeftly repels, or 
at leaft feems to repel, the Iron : 
What he means is this : It is dif- 
cover'd, that there are in the 
Loadftone two oppofite Parts, 
[]vve now commonly call them 
Poles ; one the northern, the o- 
ther the fouthern, "] to one of 
which, if one End of the Toron 
Keedle be niov'd, it is drawn and 
attradred by it *. and if the fame 
End of the Needle be afterwards 
apply 'd to the other Pole, it leaps, 
and feems to be rcpell'd from it : 
But that great Man, fays Creech, 
indulges himfeif too much in his 



own Opinion : For the Poet pre 
pofes nothing in thefe Verfe 
concerning the Flight of the Iro: 
from the Loadftone, nor do. an 
of the following Examples fpea. 
fully of it : But Lucretius ha 
feen little Rings, and filings c 
fegments of Iron, when put int 
a VefTel of Brafs, move and daiw 
about, if a Loadftone were af 
ply'd to the bottom of the Vel 
fel : and, perceiving this to b 
caus'd by the interpoiitionof th 
Brafs, (tho' the fame will happe I 
{if Glafs, Wood, Stone, or an 
other Subftance be interpos'd) i ; 
thefe 12. V. he gives this Reafo 
of it. That fome Corpufcles ar 
emitted from the Brafs into th 
Filings, or little Bits of Iron, an 
that thefe Corpufcles fo fill u 
the little void Spaces of the Iror 
that the niagnetick Corpufde 
which come afterwards, and ai 
tranfraitted thro' the Brafs, fine 
ing thefe little empty Spaces a! 
ready taken up, heave and driv 
forward the Bits of Iron with i. 
the ftrength they can. 

ID 10. Steel Filings] Lucrctiij 
call them Sarnothracia ferrea 

whic] 



Book VL LUCRETIUS. 729 

1 01 5 And (6 the other rifing Streams, that come 
From Magnets, find no Way, no open Room,' 
And therefore ftrike: thus, flying thro* the Brass, > 
They rudeJy beat, and drive away, the Mass j S 
Which otherwife they'd take to their Embrace. 3 

1020 Befides, no wonder this alone fliould feel 

The Loadstone's Power, and that move only Steel^ 
For fome their Weight fecures, as Gold : and fome 
Their Pores ; they give the Streams too large a Room 9 
And fo they find an eafy paflage thro* , 

1025 And thus the Substance ne'er endures the Blow : 
But Steel, when brazen Parts fill ev'ry Pore, 
And fettle there, when it can take no more. 
It's then prepar'd to take the fubtile Shove 
The Loadstone's Streams can give ; and fit to move* 

1030 Nor is there Friendship *twixt thefe two alone ^^ 
A THOUSAND Things befides, but one to one, ^ 
Agree : Thus Lime will faften only Stone : ^ 

Thiis 

NOTES: 



which were hollow Iron Rings, 
made to open, and in which they 
wore their Amulets : At firft the 
Fiamen Dialis wore them : An- 
nulo, nili pervio caffoque, ne uti- 
tor. At length Servants took up- 
on them to wear them : and, in 
the Age of Pliny, they were laid 
3ver with Gold : Servitia jam 
Terrum auro cingunt : alia per 
fefe mero auro decorant : cujus 
ilicentix origo nomine ipfd in Sa- 
(nothrace, id inftitutum decla- 
rat. Plin. Kat. Hift. Lib. 33. 
:ap. I . 

1020. Befides, Sec.'] It may be 

,isk'd, why a Loadftone doss not 

inake the Filings of other Bodies 

nove in like manner ? The Poet 

caches in thefe 10. v. that the 

eafon is, becaufe they are either 

00 heavy to be mov'd, or if they 

re light, they are then too rare ; 

nfomuch that the Corpufcles of 

he Magnet find a free and open 

'aflfage through them. 

1030. Nor is, &C.J Hitherto 
f che Motion of the Iron to- 



wards the Loadftone, or of its 
Flight from it. Now, as to its 
Adhefion to it, he tells us in 20. v. 
that it ought not to feem ftrange, 
becaufe there is a like Confent, 
and Agreement between other 
Things alfo, which refufe to be 
join'd, or conne<fled, except to 
one certain Thing only. Thus 
Stones are cemented with Plaifter 
and Lime : Boards with Glue ; 
and that too fo ftrongly, that ths 
Flanks themfelves will break, ra- 
ther than the Glue disjoin : Wa- 
ter mingles with Wine, but noc 
with Oil and Pitch : Wool is 
dy'd with the Blood of the Purple- 
filli : and Gold is foulder'd with 
Silver, but not with Lead : which 
neverthelefs foulders Brafs to 
Brafs. And thus the Adhefion of 
the Steel to the Loadftone is made 
in this manner : on the Surface of 
the Magnet there are Hooks ; and 
on the Surface of the Steel little 
Rings, which the Hooks catch 
hold of. 

5 A 1035* Thus 



750 



LUCRETIUS. 



Bt)ok vr. 



Thus Glue, hard Boards; and we may often view 
The folid Table break before the Glue : 
1035 Thus pure and Fountain-Streams will mix with 
But Oil and heavy Pitch refufe to join : (Wine, 
The Purple's Blood gives Wool fo deep a Stain, ^ 
That we can never wafli it out again 



No j pour On ail the Sea, 'tis all in vain. 
K! O r E S. 



SOULDER 



i<333. ThusGluCjlLucr. Glu- 
tine taurino : For the ftrongeft 
Glue was made of the Ears 
and Genitals of Bulls : Glutinum 
pr^ftantiffimum fie ex auribus 
tauronini, Sc genitalibus. Plin. 
Nat. Hift. lib. '28. cap. 17. 

ro3(5. Oil and heavy Pitch3 
Both of them refufe to mix with 
Water ; but differently : For 
Oil rifes above the Surface of the 
Water j therefore Lucretius here 
calls it leve olivum ; but Pitch 
links to the bottom. 

1037. The Purple's Blood] 
The Purple of the Antients was 



call'd purpura ; it was found in a 
white. Vein, running thro' the 
middle of the Mouth, which 
was cut out and boil'd ; and 



becaufe, fays Ariftotle de Color, it 

is, as it were,ctAos" epyov, the Work 
of the Sea; and Plato in Timarus 
defines cc Aap^^v, to be red ming- 
led with white and black. See 
Guil. Tyrenlis, Pontif, lib. 15, 
Belli Sacri, cap. i. where he 
fpeaks of Tyre. The Purple of' 
Africa, a Countrey nearer to the 
Sun, was, as we are told, for that 
reafon, of a violet Colour : the 
Ingredients of which confift of 
much white, and a little red : 
but the common Purple now-a- 
days is, as the beft Artifts tell 
us, a Mixture of a great deal of 



dy'dwiththeBloodofaShell-fim, red, and a little black: yet the 

Tyrian purple is generally held 
to have been more inclining to 
red, which is a certain mixture 
of white and black ; or rather to 
the Blood, us'd in dying, fear let : But this fort of Purple, 
produc'd the Colour nigrantis \ ever iince the fiOiing for the Pur- 
rof^e fublucentem, which Pliny j pura, is, by the taking of Tyre, 



fays is the true Purple, tho' there 
were other forts too of it, as the 
Colour of Violet, Hyacynth, &:c. 
Of this invention, fee Plin. lib, 
5>. cap. 38. and Pancirollus. The 
greatefl Fifliing for thefe Purples 
was at Tyre ; and there was the 
chief ManufacTture and Trade of 
Purple.as likewife the firft Inven- 
tion of it ; which is attributed 
to Hercules TyrmSjwho, walking 
Upon the Shore, faw his Dog bite 
one of thofe Fifli, and oblerv'd 
his Mouth ail Itam'd with that 
excellent Colour, which gave 
Jiim the firft Hint of teaching 
the Tyrians how to dy with it ; 
^rom this Invention of this Co- 



leur is is call 'din Greek «r'A«f5'^5 t vas, by the Deleriptionj whicl 



come into the Power of the 
Turks, has been totally loft : 
Not for want of Materials, for 
the Fiili is ftill to be found \ but 
becaufe the true art of ordering 
it is no longer known. Panci- 
rollus tells us, we may ghefs at 
the Colour of it by the Italian 
July- Flower : and that it was 
not, as fome believ'd, like the 
Amethyft, but rather like the 
Ruby, Pyropus, Or Carbuncle : 
Some will have it to have refem- 
bled the Colour of the Elemen- 
tal Fire ; and others, that of 
what they never faw, the Empy- 
rean Heaven. • But to ghefs what 
rhe Colour of this true Purple 



Book VI. 



LUCRETIUS. 



the Antients have left of it, we 
may call to mind, that Juvenal 
calls it ardens purpura, flaming 
Purple : And we find in Cicero, 
Qui fulgent purpura, who iluue 
in Purple : wiiich Statius yet in;i- 
proves : 

illius e rofeo flammatur purpura 
vultu : 

And many the like Inftances 
might be produc'd from the An- 
tients of the Refulgency of this 
Colour. Some mention an extra- 
ordinary way of dying the purple 
Colour with the Blood of Apes : 
and the Indians make Trial of 
the beft common Purple , by 
dropping fome Oil on a piece of 
purple Silk, which, they fay, will 
not ftain it, if the Purple be 
good : but thefe two Particulars 
I mention only for the Sake of 
their Extravagancy. Whatever 
the Purple of the Antients was, 
our Purple is made of what the 
Druggifts call Turnefol, which 
is a mixture of vermilion and 
blue ByiTe, or Cynnaber. As to 
the antient wearing of Purple, 
Lomazzo,lib. 3. cap. 14. obfcrves, 
that the Kings of Troy, and the 
chief of the Nobility, were wont 
to drefs themfelves in feveral Co- 
jours on the feveral Days of the 
Week, and wore a particular Co- 
lour on each Day ; and that the 
«hief of them was the purple : 
Thus on Sunday they wore yel- 
low, on Munday white, on Tuef- 
day red, on Wednefday blue, on 
Thurfday green, on Fryday pur- 
ple, and on Saturday black. Now 
the reafon, why they drefs'd 
themfelves in purple on Fryday, 
may have been, becaufe that Day 
was facred to Venus, whofe Bus- 
kins are faid to have been red, 
between which and purple, there 
was but little difference, fays the 
fame Lomazzo , in the Place 
-jihove cited. He farther obferves, 
•.iCap.19. of thefamefBook,thatthey 
wore likewifc feveral Colours on 
the Feftivals of xhs leveral 



7?I 

Months of the Year: Iji thofe 
that happen'd in Januairy, they 
wore white, in February adi- 
colour, in March tawny, in April 
dark-green, in May light-green, 
in June xarnation, in July red, 
in Auguft yellow, in September 
blu€, in 0<fl:ober violet, in No- 
vember purple, and in December 
black. Now the Month of No- 
vember was under the Protection 
of Diana amongft the Romans, 
whoderiv'd themfelves ifrom the 
Trojans, and that Goddels, like 
Venus, wore red, or rather pur- 
ple, Buskins : and therefore, for 
the like reafon, it may be con- 
jecftur'd, that they wore purple 
on the Holydays of that Month. 
Befides, in November there was 
a Feftival dedicated to Jupiter, 
and therefore they might proba- 
bly go then drefs'd in purple : 
For many of the Roman Cu- 
ftoms, as well as their pretended 
Original, were deriv'd from the 
Trojans : And laftly, that Au- 
thour takes notice, tihat in fuc- 
ceeding Ages, whenever the Em- 
perour himfelf went into the 
Field, the Standard was of a pur- 
ple Colour. Thus we fee, that 
Purple was antiently the Wear of 
Princes : and therefore honeft 
Umbritius in Juven. Sat. 3. con- 
ceiv'd fo great Indignation, that 
the meaner fort of People began 
to cloath themfelves in that re- 
gal Colour, that he alledges it as 
one of the reafons of his retiring 
from Rome : Horum ego non 
fugiam conchylia ? v. 81. And 
Auguftus, as we find in Sueto- 
nius, in his Life, forbid the pro* 
mifcuous ufe of it : for which 
Tacitus commends that Empe- 
rour, and at the fame time 
gives the Reafon of that Prohi- 
bition in thefe Words : Prjedare 
v«ro prudenterque Ca:far ordines 
civium vefte difcrimiiiavit, uc 
fcilicetqui locis, ordinibus, dig- 
nationibus anteftant, cultu que* 
q^ue difcernerentur, Annal. 2, 
Yet at length. Liberty prevail'd 
at PvOme, and the meaner fort if 
5 A 2 their 



11^ 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book VL 



5o4oSoutDER ignobly weds the golden Mass 

To Silver : proper Soulder Lead, to Brass : 
Befides thefe mention'd, there's a thoufand more : 
But ftay ; what need of fuch a num'rous Store > 
Why fhould I wafte my Time, and trouble thee ? 

5 045 Take all in fhort : Of Things, whofe Pa;r.ts agree, 
Whofe 

N O T £ J. 



their Money could reach it, 
cloath'd themfelves in purple : 
and liv'd as in the Spartan Com- 
monwealthj where, by the Laws 
of Lycurgus, it was forbid to all 
alike, that anyone Man Hiould 
go better drefs'd than another. 

1038. Never waili it out again :] 
Thus Waller ; 

The Fleece, that has been by the 

Dyer Hain'd, 
Never again its native Whitenefs 

gain'd.. 

T04.0. Soulder^ What the Gold- 
fmiths ufe to folder Gold,is call'd 
Sorax, a fort ofChryfocol, which 
is a kind of Mineral, found like 
Sand in Mines of Brafs, Silver, or 
Gold. 

1045. Of Things, &C.3 Here 
Lucretius tells us , that the 
lundure is moft ilrong, and the 
Union molt firm andlafting, be- 
tween Things, whofe parts exacft- 
iy correfpond and fquare with 
one another : Thofe Things, fays 
he, whofe Textures mutually an- 
fwer to one another, in fuch a 
3nanner, that the Cavities of this 
. Thjng agree with the Plenitudes 
of that i and the Cavities of that 
. with the Plenitudes of this, may 
be conjoined moil: eafily, and 
in the ftrideft manner: and fome 
Things may be fo join'd to o- 
thersj as if they were faften'd to- 
gether with Hooks and Rings : 
and in this manner it is, that the 
Loadttone feems to be conneded 
to the Steel. 

Thus pur Poet concludes his 
f)ifpu£ation concerning this v;on- 



derful Stone t which is alone fii^ 
ficient to humble the tow'ring 
Arrogance of prying Man,and to 
baffle and mock his vain Pretence 
to Knowledge ; fince he never 
could attain to the Difcovery of 
what it is,nor of the great Power, 
that the Divine Wifdom has be- 
ftow'd upon it : Well may it be 
ftyPd Herculean, it being infu- 
perable on many Accounts : The 
Antients knew fcarce any thing of 
it jand the modern Philofophers, 
that they might feem to be igno- 
rant of nothing, pretend to ex- 
plain this hidden Secret of Na- 
ture ; but have fail'd in the At- 
tempt, and have only involv'd it 
in yet greater Difficulties : For 
what is more abfurd, or more re- 
pugnant to common Obfervati- 
on, than to imagine to our felves, 
that the whole Earth is compact- 
ed of folid Iron, or than to call 
it the great Loadftone, whofe 
purer Segments do now and then 
by Chance fall into our Hands. 
Is it thus that we philorophife, 
and think it better to pervett 
than fuffer things to lie hid in the 
infcrutable Majefty of Nature ? 
Lucretius endeavour'd to difco- 
ver the Caufe of a molt noto- 
rious Effecf^, viz. Why Iron ruas 
to the Loadftone, and obftinate- 
ly adheres to it ? But fetting Sail 
imprudently, was ihipwreck'd in 
the Port. His firft Afl'ertion is. 
That the Corpufcles of the Load- 
ftone ftrike and chace away the 
Air : but this we know by Ex- 
perience to be falfe : For the Wa- 
ter is not mov'd, when a Load- 
ftone is put under the VefTel that 

contains 



75? 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 

Whofe Seeds, oppos'd to Pores, fecurelylie, 
The Union, there, isftrong, and firm the Tie: 
Others by Rings and Hooks are join'd in one : 
This way combine the loving Steel and Stone. 
1050 Now next 1*11 fing what Caufes Plagues create,? 
What drives a Pestilence, fwoln big with Fate, r" 
To wafte, and lay a Nation defolace. O 

I've 
NOTES. 

why does it incline and move 
one way rather than another ? 
Befides : how ill does what Lu- 
cretius here ailerts, that the Air 
refides in, and fills up, the Pores, 
or open Paflages of concrete Bo^ 
dies, agree with his Dodlrine of 
a Void, which he endeavour'd 
before to perfuade us to believe, 
and which he grounded on thofe 
very Pores of Bodies ? In vain 
therefore has been the Search of 
our Poet into this miraculous 
Secret of Nature, fince it has le d 
him unawares into Arguments, 
that tend to the Confutation of 
that Philofophy, which he has 
been labouring to eftablillv, 

1050. Now, &c.] Hitherto our 
Poet has been disputing of t^e 
Things, that are commonly fai4 
to be, fecundiimnaturam, natu- 
ral : He is now going to try the 
ftrength of his Philofophy ia 
thofe, which by the Phyficiatis 
are call'd, pra^ter naturam, pre- 
ternatural ; and thefe are held to 
be three : I. Difeafe. H. The 
Caufe of Difeafe. IH. The 
Symptom, or^ the Effed:, Acci- 
dent, or Paflion, attending any 
Sicknefs : For Symptom, in the 
general Acceptation of the Word, 
hgnifies whatever happens to aa 
Animal preternaturally : i. e. 
Difeafe, and the internal Cauf^ 
of Difeafe, together with what- 
ever fupervenes in the Difeafe, 
As to what relates to the Caufc 
ofDifeafeSj and their Symptoms, 
Lucretius takes but little No- 
tice : for he difdains common 



rontains it : Neither^' will you 
ind the Air to be mov'd, if, for 
Trial's fake, by the Exhalation 
hat ftcems from a Cenfer, or 
he Vapour of hot Water, you 
ender it fo thick, that from per- 
picuous it become confpicuous : 
or the Smoke will go alike for- 
ward, whether you apply the 
.oadftone, or take it away : and 
1 f no Force be offered to the Me- 
! ium, the Loadftone will ftill 
rrongly attracft the Steel : There- 
)re the Place is not made empty, 
or the Air expell'd : But grant 
le Space to be void : Whence 
roceeds that great fedulity of 
f! he Steel, to fill immediately the 
Macant place? If it be anfwer'd, 
rom the eftabliili'd Order of 
Things, to the end, nothing in 
le Univerfe may be void of Bo- 
y, It may be reply'd, that it 
len overthrows their Opinion, 
ho hold the Void to be the fe- 
Imd Principle of natural Things, 
efides ; Corpufcles flow no lefs 
lom the Iron, than from the 
lagnet : Therefore, if the Ef- 
kviums of the Iron have fiU'd 
ic vacant Space, why is not the 
Jdng ftopt, and why does it ha- 
Kn onward ? If it be anfwer'd, 
lat it is driven forward by ex- 
rnal Air, why is not that Pro- 
fion perpetual, even while the 
Ignet is away ? And whence 
toceeds this Inconftancy, that 
impels the Air to renounce its 
itural Gravity, and move by 
Tcent ? Nor is the internal Air, 
[eluded in the Ring, of any 
freater moment : For fince the 
ron emits Corpufcles oa ali fides, 



! Difeafes ; and is going to treat of 
vPlaeues onlv, and to inauire in- 



'. Plagues only, and to inquire 



t.o> 



7H 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book VI. 



to the Ou(es of them. And here 
we may take Notice, that Phyti- 
cians allow two forts of Difeafes, 
which they call, communes, & 
fparfim vagantes, common Difea- 
fes, and fuch as wander here and 
there, and come not after an or- 
dinary manner : thefe laft Hip- 
pocrates in his Language calls 
c-TTo^hiL^c' The Difeafes they 
call common , are thofe that 
are peculiar and naturally inci- 
dent to one Place or Countrey ; 
for which Reafon they are like- 
wife calPd Endemij, that is to 
fay, regional ; and, becaufe they 
often fieze many Perfons, popular 
or vulgar J but by the Greeks 
iTTih/MKoiy i, e. publick or uni- 
verfal. Now if thefe Difeafes, 
Jbefides that they fieze many Per- 
fons at the fame Time, and in 
one and the fame Place, have 
this to boot, that they kill many 
Perfons likewife, they are then 
call'd a Plague ; by the Greeks 
Tkoifxo^ ; by the Latines Peftis, k 
pafcendo, in like manner as, ac- 
cording to Ifidorus, Peftilentia is 
faid, quafi paftulantia, quod ve- 
luti incendium depafcit, becaufe 
|t confumes and devours like a 
burning Flame. But in the Art 
ofPhyhck, Difeafes likewife ad- 
mit of another Diftintftion ; ta- 
ken from their longer or Hiorter 
Duration : for fome Difeafes are 
lingering , and of Ions Con- 
tinuance ; for which realon, they 
3ire caird Chronicle , from 
X^v(^, Time : Others difpatch 
the Patient in a little time, or 
elfe he recovers, and therefore 
they are call'd acute : I now return 
to Lucretius, who feems to im- 
ply, that the only Tokens of an 
offended and angry Deity, that he 
has left unmention'd, are epide- 
mical Difeafes and Plagues : And 
3f there be nothing wonderful and 
divine in thefe Things neither, 
we may then indeed difclaim,and 
bid adieu to, ail Providence. But 
our Poet tells us, that there is 
r*a need of much Ceremony, nor 



to beat about the Bufh, to dif- 
cover the Caufes of Plagues : 
For, fays he, in 8. v. as in the 
Univerfe, there are many Cor- 
puicles that are healthful to Man, 
and other Animals, lb there are 
many too that are noxious and 
deadly. Now when thefe noxi- 
ous Corpufcles, whether they a- 
rife out of the Earth, or whether 
they fall down from the Skies 
fill the Air, it grows difeas'd and 
infectious *, and thus Plagues and 
Contagions enter into the Boweli 
of Men and other Animals, ll 
we will not allow of thefe foreigi 
Corpufcles, he bids us in 7. v, 
fearch into the Air itfelf, and W' 
Iliall find the Caufe of this grea 
Calamity and Deftru<9:ion ; Fo 
the Air of different Countreys i 
different , and that which i 
healthful to the native Inhabi 
tants, is unhealthful to Foreign 
ers, who are not us'd to it : Am 
this, fays our Poet, in 9. v. i 
the Reafon, that certain Difeaf< 
are peculiar to certain Countrey: 
Then he teaches in 7. v. tha 
when the Air of one Region i 
blown into another, the who! 
Air of the Sky muft of neceflit 
be corrupted : And thus, fa) 
he in 1 2.v. the Springs and Hert 
are infecfted ; or the corrupte 
Air itfelf proves mortal. Laftl) 
he confirms this Difputation, b 
the Example of that memorab 
Plague which happened in Athen 
durmg the Heat of the Pelopor 
nefian War, and defcrVbes it i 
large in 16^. v. 

Here we muft oblcrve, th; 
our Tranflatour has not full 
render'd the Beginning of th 
Difputation ; which in the Ot 
ginal is as follows : 
Nunc, ratio qua: fit morbis, ^i 

unde repent e 
Mortiferam poffit cladem coi 

f^are coorta 
Morbida vis hominum generiji 

cudumque catervis, 
Expediam. 

Ill whif h Verfes the Poet pr(>p 






?ookVI. LUCRETIUS. 7^? 

I've prov'd , that num'rous vital Parts do fill 
The Air : fo num'rous too are thofe that kill. 

1055 Thefe Poysons, whether from the threat'ning Skies^ 
Like Clouds, they fall, or from the Earth arife. 
When {he's grown putrid by the Rains, or fweats 
Such noxious Vapours, prefs'd by fcorching Heats,' 
Infedt the lower Air, and hence proceed 

tc6o All raging Plagues ; thefe all Diseases breed. 

A Traveller, in ev'ry Place he fees, O; 

Or hazards, or endures, a new Disease 1 ^ 

Becaufe the Air, or Water difagrecs. 



How 



N O T £ S. 



»f the Caufes of thofe Difeafes 



es, that he is now going to treat I ter'd, corrupted, or defii'd, in- 
^ "^ " ^ '- —•" " feds almoft all the Animals that 

breathe within the Circuit of it.- 
But whether there be any other 
common Caufes of Difeafes, or 
the Air alone be to blame, we 
will examine by and by. 

1 0^1. A Traveller, Sec."] In 
thefe 7. V. the Poet being about 
to advance a Pofition, that may 
feem incredible to fuch as have 
had no Experience of it, concern^ 
ing the difeas'd and noxious 
Power, that by feme Means or 
other is imparted to the Air, and 
perceptible to none of the Senfes, 
alledges, by way of Example, the 
Inconveniences and Harms, that 
happen to us in an Air, to which 
we have not been accuftom'd, 
even tho' that Air be not in the 
leaft tainted or corrupted : And 
he confirms, that the Air of one 
Climate is different from that 



hat are mortal both to Men, pe- 
udumquecatervis,and to Beafts: 
»f which laft our Interpreter has 
aken no Notice ; tho' it be cer- 
ain,that Plagues are not peculiar 
o Man alone ; but promifcuous 
nd common to Beafts likewife ; 
IS fhall be iliewn by and by in our 
Slote on v. 1087. 

1053. I've prov'd, &c.3 In 
hefe 8. v. the Poet fays, that 
he Caufe of Difeafes may be 
ifcrib'd to the very noxious Na- 
ureof the Airitfelf; and teaches, 
low the Air comes to be morbi- 
erous : For, fays he, many A- 
oms, that bring both Difeafe and 
^eath, are continually flying to 
ind fro in the Air ; as many o- 
hers are likewife, that are health- 
ful and vital, or conducing to the 
vlaintenance and Prefervation of 
.ife : But thofe difeas'd and fick- 
y Atoms fail from without into 
he Air, being either fent from 



of another : for, no doubt, the 
Air, that furrounds Great Bri- 
tain, fays he, is quite different 



bove out of the Sky, or rais'd from the Air of Egypt: nor is 
_ r u ^1 _ _^ -/- .1 the Air in Pontus lefs different 

from that of Gades and Ethio- 
pia : the Truth of which is daily 
experienc'd by fuch as travel into 
foreign Countreys : And from 
this difference of Air proceed the 
different Colours and Complexi- 
ons of Men. 



ip from beneath out of the 
larth, whenever it has contrad- 
d any filthy and unwholefome 
icench, by being drench'd with 
xceflive and unfeafonable Rains, 
nd pierc'd by the fcorching 
>eams of the Sun^ Hippocrates 
00 held the Air that furrounds 
s, to be the moft general and 
ommon Caufe of ail Difeafes : 
or the Air, fays he, varying from j 



Ariftotle too argues 
to the fame purpofe in his Trea- 
tife, De aere, aquis, dc locis. 



:s propcF Nature^ whilft ic is al- 



aquis 

io<^3. Becaufe, a<:c] This Rea- 

I fon is not to be controverted ; for 

the 



llG LUCRETIUS. Book VI 

How diff'rent is the Air of Bi? r r^i ks Ifle, 
lo6y From that which plays upon the wand'ring Nile? 

What different Air does Pou t -vs Snows embrace, 

From that which fans the Sun-burnt Ikdi^ ks Face ? 
And as Men's Shape, or Colour, difagrees, 

So ev*ry Nation has its own Disease : 
1070 The Lepers are to Egypt only known, 

Thofe Wretches drink of Ni l v's Streams alone t 

A T H E H i 

NOTES. 

and change 



the difference of Air, 
©f Water, are often prejudicial 
to Travellers into foreign Coun- 
treys : The banifli'd Ovid there- 
fore had juft reafon to complain, 
that 

Kec coelum ferimus, nee aquis 
aiTuefcimus litis. 

To<^4. How diff'rent , &c. ] 
This, and the three following 
Yerfes run thus in the Original : 

Nam quid Britannis coelum dif- 

ferrc putamus, 
Et quod in /Egypto eft, qua 

mundi claudicat axis ? 
Quidve, quod in Ponto eft dif- 

ferre a Gadibus, atque 
Ufque ad nigra viriim percoda- 

que Geciacalore? 

In which Verfes the Poet con- 
firms by Examples, his laft Ai- 
fercion, concerning the difference 
of Air in different Climates : 
and inftances in the Air of Egypt 
as oppos'd to that of Great Bri- 
tain j from whence Egypt is di- 
it.int the whole Extent of the 
Mediterranean Sea; Befides, by 
Egypt, which is a Countrey of 
Africa, he means the South Part 
of the World, and by Britain the 
North : by Pontus, which is a 
Countrey of Greece, he means 
the Eaft Part of the World -y and 
by the Gades, which are Illands 
in the occidental Ocean, v/here 
Europe is divided from Africa, 
he means the Weft Part of it : 
for he chofe to mention thofe 



four Places, becaufe they were 
the mofte noted, that in his Day: 
were believ'd to be the farthef^ 
diftant from one another : thai 
is to fay, two from the North u 
the South, Britain and Egypt 
which is the Diftance of Lati- 
tude : and two from the Eaft tc 
the Weft, Pontus and Gades 
which is the Diftance of Longi 
tude. 

10^5. Nile] Of this River we 
have fpoken at large in the Nott 
on V. 722. of this Book. 

1066. Pontus] Pontus is a 
Countrey of Afia the lefs, lying 
between Bithynia, Paphlagonia 
and the Euxine Sea. 

10^7. From that,&c.] Lucre- 
tius means the Air of Maurita- 
nia, or Ethiopia , in which 
Countreys the Natives are black. 

10^8. And as, &c.] In thefe 
9. V. the Poet produces Inftances 
of certain Countreys, that are 
obnoxious to certain Difeafes, by 
reafon of the very Nature of the 
Air : Thus, fays he, the Lepro- 
fie is frequent in Egypt only j the 
Athenians are fubjecfl to the 
Gout, dec. 

1070. The Lepers, ^fc] Ga- 
len feems to fubfcribe to this 
Opinion of Lucretius, who be- 
lieves, that the Leprofie is a 
Difeafe,that infefts the Countrey 
of Egypt only : for in his fecond 
Book to Glauco, chap. 13. he 
fays, That in Alexandria, a Ci- 
ty of Egypt, many are afflicted 
with the Leproiie, by reafon of 
the Food they eat, and of the 
Heat of the Countrey ; But in 
Germany 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 7j7 

Germany and Myfia this Difeafei this Difeafe, which was peculiar 
is very feldom known; nor has | to Egypt, hap^en'd to^lieze any 
it fcarce ever appeared among the 
I Scythians, who are Drinkers of 
Milk : Yet it is very frequent at 
Alexandria/or the Reafon above- 
mention'd ; for they feed upon 
boil'd Meal, and Lentils, and 
Perwinkles, and eat many things 
that are dry'd with Salt : nay, 
bme of them eat AlTes Flelh, and 
"omc other things, that breed a 
hick and mclancholick Humour. 
^nd the Air of the Countrey be- 
ng hot, the Motion of the Hu- 
Tiours is driven towards the Skin. 
, Thus Galen. But Celfus, lib. 3. 
ap. 24. is more in the right as 
: o this Difeafe : for, tho' he fays 
ndeed, that it is almoA; un- 
:nown in Italy, yet he own« it 
3 be very frequent in feveral o- 
lier Countreys* In the laft Age, 
lie Leprolie was not uncommon 
1 Germany *, and A. Pareus, re- 



ites, that in Spain, and all over 
Lfrica, there are more Lepers 
lan in the reft of the World ; 
nd more in Guienne, and the 
outh Parts of France, than in all 
le other Parts of that Kingdom, 
f we may believe Pliny, lib. ip. 
jap. 1 5. it was altogether un- 
I nown in Italy, till the Time of 
'ompey the Great ; when it was 
rft brought thither, but foon 
ir'd and extinguifh'd. Yet Hi- 
:ory informs us, that it broke 
ut again in that Countrey, in 
le Days of Conftantine the 
rreatj, who was himfelf afflicted 
ith it ; till, having refus'd to 
lake ufe of the impious Bath of 
uman Blood, that was prefcrib'd 
) him as a Remedy for that 
►ifeafe, he was, in the Lateran 
i^hurch, bath'd in the Fount of 
My Baptifm, by the Roman 
lontif Sylvefter, and cur'd at 
|ice of either Leprofie. Nor is 
I unUkely, but that the Empe- 
i>ur might have been advis'd 
j» that cruel Immerfion in the 
ilood of Infants, by fome Egyp- 
an or other 5 efpecially if what 
'iny fays be true : That when 



of the Kings of that Countrey, 
it was fatal to their Subjects : for^ 
to cure it, they were wont to 
bathe their Thrones in human 
Blood : ^gypti peculiare hoc 
malum, & cum in Reges inci- 
dilTet, populis funebre : quippa 
in balneis folia temperabantuc 
humano fanguine ad medicinam 
earn. Plin. Nat. Hift. lib, ip. 
leap. 16. Mofes in Exod. chap. 9. 
iv. 10. calls it Ulcus inflationum 
germinans in homine ; which Jun* 
& Tremel. explain, erumpens 
multis puftulis, fprouting out 
with many Blains, Sec, This 
Difeafe is one of the Curfes with 
which the Difobcdience to God 
is threaten'd. Deut. chap. j8. 
v. 27, The Lord ihall fmite thee 
with the Botch of Egypt, &c. 
which like wife confirms what Lu- 
cretius here fays : and perhaps 
gave occaiion to the Calumny 
which Trogus Pompeius, Dio- 
dorus Siculus, Tacitus, and other 
Heathens caft upon the Hebrews, 
that they were expell'd out of 
^gypc ft^r being fcabby and le- 
prous ; which miftake was eafy : 
inftead of being difmifs'd for ha- 
ving brought thofe Difeafes upon 
the Egyptians. The Latines call 
it Elephantialisjbecaufe it makes 
the Surface of the Body rough 
with black wannifli Spots, and 
dry parch'd Scales and Scurf, like 
the Skin of an Elephant. It is a 
contagious Difeafe, and incura- 
ble, if not taken in time : for it 
fpreads over the whole Skin, al- 
moft like a Cancer. 

Egypt] This Countrey was fb 
caird from ^gyptus, the Bro- 
ther of Danaus, whom the fame 
^gyptus flew, and reign'd there 
fixty eight Years, It was call'd 
before, Melas, Aeria, A era, Ogy- 
gia, Hephoeftia, Melamboles,and 
by feveral other Names. The 
Hebrews caird it Mifraim and 
Chus. It is divided by Mela 
into two Parts , Delta and 
Thebais : In the Time of Amaiis 
5 B i« 



7 
J 



738 LUCRETIUS. Book Vt 

AVHEns, the Muses Seat, and chief Delight, 
Oflfends the Feet, Ac h ^t^ hurts the Sight : 
And thus in ev'ry Land a new Disease, 
1075 New Pains on all the other Members (ieze. 
And diff rent Air is ftill the Caufe of thefe. 

Thus often when one Countrey's Air is blown 
Into another, and forfakes its own : 
It fpoils the wholesome Air, where-e'er it goes, 
3080 And, like itfelf, makes all unfit for us. 

Thence Plagues arife ; and thefe defcend and paf 
Into our Fountains, tender Corn, and Grass, 

O 
JV T £ 5. 



it had 2000 Cities, and in the 
Time of Pliny 3000. It is bound- 
ed on the Eaft with the Red Sea ; 
on the Weft with Cyrene, on the 
Korth with the Mediterranean, 
and on the South with Habaflia. 

lo/r. Nilus] Of this River 
fee above, in the Note on v. 722. 

1072. Athens] Of this City we 
liave fpoken in the Note on the 
firft Verfe of this Book. 

1073. Offends the Feet] In like 
manner as the Egyptians, fays 
Lucretius, by reafon of the Air 
of their Countrey, were fubjed 
to the Leprofie, fo too were the 
Athenians, for the very fame 
Caufe, fubjetft to the Gout. 

Achaia hurts the Sight] A part 
of Peloponuefus was call'd by this 
Name 5 as was likewife the whole 
Countrey of Greece ; from one 
Achaus, the Son of Jupiter, or 
^uthus, who reign'd there. What 
Lucretius fays of the Countreys 
being hurtful to the Eyes, we 
snuft take his Word for. I know 
nothing to the contrary. 

1074. And thus, &c.] What 
our Poet fays in thefe 3. v. may 
be confirm'd by many Examples : 
The Air of Florence is prejudi- 
cial to the Brain, but very bene- 
ficial to the Legs : and the Air of 
Pifa is diametrically oppofite to 
ghat of Florence, notwithftand" 
Ing that thofe two Cities are not 
ss moii aboTe jfoursy Miles di- 



ftant from each other, fays Nai 
dius. Thus too the Air of Pa 
ris, fays Fayus, is very dangerou 
to Wounds in the Head, &c. 

1077. Thus often, &c.] I 
thefe 4.. V. he concludes, that a 
peftilential Diftempers procee 
from the Inclemency of the Air 
which, being unhealthful to u 
creeps unheeded by us into ou 
Limbs and Bodies, in like mar 
ner as a Mift, or Smoke ; an 
where-ever it enters, it difturl: 
and changes all Things, and cai 
fes us all to fall iick. Or, th« 
when that infetfted Air comes ir 
to our Country, it corrupts th 
whole Air of it ; from whenc 
arifes a regional Diftemper, whic 
fpreadsitfelf thro' many Places. 

1 081; Thence Plagues, &c. 
In thefe 12. v. the Poet, lei 
thofe Seeds of Peftilence Ihoul 
be thought to be grown wear 
with the length of their Journe> 
and to remain pendulous in th 
la2y Air, affigns them fixt an( 
certain Stations, where they fa. 
and fettle : For, fays he, fome c 
them fall into the Waters, other 
on the Fruits of the Earth, ani 
the feveral forts of the Foods c 
Animals : And this is the Rea 
fon^ why a Plague fometimes £ 
qually fiezes both Men and Cat 
tie. Thus he acknowledges th 
Air to be the fole Caufe c 
Plagues* 

■Wh€thg 



Book VL LUCRETIUS. 7j^ 

Whether P l A g UJ^ s are pro- 
mifcuous and qbpctmon to all 

Sorts of A N I xM A L s. 




U R Authours of beft Credit teftify, that 

Murrains, which are Plagues in Chattel, 

precede , accompany, or follow, any pefti- 

lential Mortality in Men. They precede, 

when noxious andfickly Vapours exhale from 

the Earth ; which Vapours the Cattel, as they 

feed, receive lirft into their Bodies^ and are 

iez'd with a deadly Difeafe. A Mortality of this Nature 

was. obferv'd to happen in the Kingdom of Naples, in the 

!fear 1617, when, after exceffive Rains, that had continu'd 

y for many Days together, without almoft any intermilHon, 

ind had laid under Water all the Plains of the Countrey, the 

Cattel eat the Grafs, as it fprung up out of the Ground, 

while it was yet flimy, and full of Mud : this caus'd a pu? 

trilaginous Difeafe in their Jaws and Throats, which foon 

fuffocated and kill'd them : And Neceillty compelling the 

Neapolitans to flaughter fome of thefe infe(5led Cattel for 

the Butchery, whoever eat of the Flefh of them, were feiz'd 

with the fame Difeafe, which by this Means fpread itfelf in 

a ftiort time over the whole Kingdom, and fwept away a 

vaft Number of the Inhabitants. Pliny too mentions a like 

Peftilence, which fell on Beafts one Year, and on Men the 

next ; quse priore anno in boves ingruerat, eo verterat in 

homines, fays he, Nat. Hift. lib. 41. cap. 9. And Siliu§ 

italicus, fpeaking of a Plague, fays, 

Vim primam fenfere canes ; mox nubibus at|is 
Fluxit deficiens, penna labente, volucris j 
Inde feras fylvis fterni — « 

And Ovid to the fame purpofe fings ; 

Strage canum primb, volucrumq; aviumq; boiimq; 
Inque feris fubiti deprenfa pocentia motbi eft. 



740 LUCRETIUS. Book VI ' 

To which I add the following Verfes of Dryden, dcfcribins 
the Plague at Thebes, in his Tragedy of OEdipus : 



The raw Damps 



With flaggy Wings fly heavily about, 
Scattering their peftilential Colds and Rheums 
Thro* all the lazy Air : Hence Murrains follow 
On bleating Flocks, and on the lowing Herds : 
At laft the Malady—— 
Grew more domeftick ; and the faithful Dog 
Dy'd at his Matters Feet ; and next, his Mafter : 
For all thofe Plagues, which Earth and Air had brooded 
Firft on inferiour Creatures try*d their Force, 
And laft they fiez'd on Man, 

Befides ; as the Murrain in brute Beafts often precedes the 
Plague in Man ; fo too, as moft Authours have rightly ob 
ferv*d, it no lefs frequently accompanies it 5 and the rationa 
and irrational Animals mutually impart the Infedtion to on« 
another: Thus Thucydides, fpeaking of the Plague 
Athens, which our Poet is going to defcribe, fays ; That tb 
Birds and Beafts, that ufe to feed on human Flefh, tho' ma 
ny Bodies lay above Ground unbury'd, either avoided tc 
come at them, or, if they tafted, perifh'd : Xct ^ opvitt, k 

Tij^TToS'c/i^, ocra. ccvGfflw'TrtoV avr'Jg^, -TroMoTy a,Ta,<^cay yiyvofxivcov, >) 4; 

•zDf^o- -fi, V) yivad/iiivA (Tjs^DflpsTo. Thucyd. To which he adds. 
That by the Dogs this Effect was feen much clearer, becaufe 
they are familiar with Men : 01 o Kvvi^, fays he, /uaMov al^^i 
^cj-ctp^X^^ 1? >OTD|iai)'ov1©^5 24^ TO ^i^vtTjoaTot'S^. Boccace, in the 
Prooemium to his Decameron, fpeaking of the violent Plague 
thatrag'd in Italy, in the Year 1348. fays exprefsly, and of 
his own Knowledge, that the Nature of the Peftilence was 
fuch, that it imparted its Contagion not only from Man to 
Man ; but that if the Cioaths of a Perfon infeded with that 
Difeafe, or dead of it, were touch'd by any Animal of ano- 
ther Species, it not only infed:ed that Animal with the fame 
Diftemper, but kiU'd him in a very fliort time. Then he 
adds, wiiat he had been an Eye-wirnefs of 5 That the tat- 
ter'd Cloths of a poor Man, who dy'd of that Peftilence, 
being thrown into the High- Way, two Hogs came up to 
them, and after they had, as their Cuftom is, tumbled them 
about with their Snouts, taken them in their Teeth, and 
iliaken them about their Cheeks, they in a very little time, 
^fter fey eral times turtiing round, both dropt down ^^^^,6 up- 
on 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS, 741 

ion them, as if they had eaten Poifon. Dico, Tays he, che 
'di tantaefficacia B la qualita della peftilentia narrata, nello 
j appiccarli da uno all' akro, che non folamente 1' huomo a V 
huomo, ma quefto, che e molto piii, aflai volte vifibilmente 
fece, cioe, che la cofa dell* huomo infermo ftato, b mono di 
ale infermita, tocca da un* altro animale fuori della fpetie 
leir huomo, non folamente della infermi t il contaminaiTe, 
na quello infra breviffimo fpatio uccidefle, di che gli occhi 

I me poco davanti e detto, prefero tra V altre volte 
fatta efperienza, che elTcndo gli ftracci d* un po- 
10, da tale infermita morto, gittati nella via pub- 
battendofi ad eili due porci, e quegli fecondo U 
le prima molto col grifo, 8c poi coi dend prefigli, 
alle guancie, in piccola hora appreflb, dopo alcur 
mento, come fe veleno haveiTer prefo, amenduni 
nal tirati ftracci, morti caddero in terra. Hippo- 
irthelefs will not allow contagious Difeafes to be 
lis and common to all forts of Animals ; for he, in 
e de Flatibus, having ask'd this Queftion, Why 
Diftempers liezc not aH Animals alike, but only 
Species of them ? immediately anfwers ; That 
differs from another Body, one Nature from ano- 
re, and one Nutriment from another Nutriment : 
le fame things alike beneficial or hurtful to all the 
scies of Animals ; but fome things agree with 
lals, better than they do with others ! Therefore, 
\ir is fill'd with fuch Filth and Pollutions, as are 
human Nature, Men only fall fick : but when it 
md oflenfive to any one of the other Species of 
:hen the Difcafe fiezes that Species only. Thus 
es ; and indeed the Propofition he advances is true, 
a Difeafe fiezes one Sort of Animals only, and 
the other fafe and unhurt : But when feveral Sorts 
abour under one common Difeafe 5 that Difeafe 
', proceeded from the like Caufes ; and therefore 
ires in fome Refpedls may be faid to be alike alfo : 
J it is, that contagious Difeafes in brute Animals 
precede, fometimes march hand in hand with and 
follow, peftilential Diftempers in the human Kind. 
therefore is in the right to fay, that Plagues are 
us and common 



irj 



m 



Hominuni generi, pecudumque catervis.' 

Whether 



742^ 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book VL 



Whether the Air be the fole 
Caufe of P L A G u E s. 




U C R E T I U S, as we have already fecn 
is of Opinion, that all infecftious and pefti 
lential Difeafes and Plagues owe their Ori 
gine to the Inquinations and Corruptions 
the Air : But, before him, Hippocrates him 
felf had advanc'd the fame Dodrine : fo 
in his Book de Flatibus, after a long Nai 
ration of the EffecSls that the Air produces, as well in th 
great World, as in the lelTer, the Body of Man, he at lengt 
falls on the Subjed: of Difeafes, all which he affirms to fc 
bred and generated in the Bodies of Animals by Means of tl: 
Air: Firft, fays he, I will begin with the moft commc 
fevorous Difeafe, which accompanies in fome Meafure s 
Difeafes whatever. For there are two forts of Fevers : on 
that [is promifcuous and common to all, and is call 
the Plague : the other, by reafon of unhealthful Diet, is p 
culiar only to fuch as ufe that Diet : but of both thefe Kin( 
of Fevers, the Air is the fole Authour and Caufe : For tl 
common Fever, or Plague, therefore happens to all, becau 
they all breathe the fame Air : and 'tis certain, that the lil 
Air, being alike mingled in like Bodies, muft beget the li] 
Fevers. Thus the great Hippocrates, whofe Authority n 
verthefs is not of fuch Validity, as to command our Alfe 
to this Primacy of the Air in all manner of peftilential E 
feafes: for, let us grant, that a peftilent Fever may 1 
caused by the Air ; will it follow from thence, that eve 
peftilent Fever is fo ? and that they all proceed from the / 
only ? In the firft place, the Logicians allow, that an incj 
finite Propofition, when the Confequent is not of Neceflii 
is not of the fame Force with an univerfal : therefore, tl 
we will admit, that a common Fever is fometimes caus'd 
the Air, there is not any Neceffity, from the Teftimony 
ledg'd, but that we may fubftituce other Caufes of a pefj 
lent Fever, and even of the Plague itfelf. Galen, in jj 
Treatife de diff, Febr. obferves, that peftilential Fevers pil 
cccd fometimes frorn a great abundance of Humours, wbcj 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 745 

ever thofe Humours have acquir*d, from the ambient Air,' 
the leaft tendency to Corruption. And the fame Authour, 
fpeaking of the above-cited Opinion of Hippocrates, fays : 
He was miftaken in afcribing the Caufe of epidemical Dil- 
^afes to the Air only : For, when a Famine raged in Aenus 
n Thrace, all that fed upon Roots, loft the ufe of their Legs j 
ind fuch as eat Vetches, were iiez'd with violent Pains in 
heir Knees. I have known too, continues he, that when> 
1 a Famine, People have been forc'd to eat Corn that was 
lalf- rotten, they have fallen into a common Difeafe, from 
hat common Caufe : and fometimes too, when a whole 
^rmy had been compell'd to drink corrupted "Water, all the 
ioldiers have been alike afflided with a like Difeafe. Thus 
Jalen, who liv*d himfelf at Rome, when, in the Reign of 
lilarcus Antoninus, a raging Plague, that was occafion* d by; 
Famine, defolated that City, and fwept away Multitudes 
f the Roman Citizens. This therefore may fuffice to invali- 
ate the Prerogative, which Hippocrates acknowledges to be 
ue to the Air, of its being the only Promoter of Plagues : fince 
is evident, that unwholefome Food, and vitiated Waters, 
ave no fmall fhare in caufing Epidemical Difeafes. Let us 
Dw inquire, what, how much, and how, the Air contri- 
utes to the communicating, or promoting of a Plague. 
Tho* the Air be not the fole Caufe of a Plague, yet it 
innot be deny'd, but that it is very inftrumental, as well in 
t\ii|ontinuing its Duration, as in bringing it into a Countrey : 
ut an univerfal Plague, generally fpeaking, can owe its 
>rigine to nothing but Contagion : For it muft of neceflity 
2 firft introduc'd, either by Contadt, or what foments and 
li Jierifhes the Infedion. Nor is it in the leaft repugnant to 
irlilds, that a particular Plague is caus'd by the ambient Air 5 
Dtiilpovided it be granted, that fuch an infedious Air comes 
cm a near, not from a far diftant, Countrey : the want of 
[flecfting on which Diftindtion has, perhaps, been the Caufe 
• the Miftake, and Variance of Opinions : For that tainted 
ir, being agitated by the Winds, blended with the im- 
^5Ctfcnfe Mafs of pure Air, and coming from a great Diftance, 
MM^ "0^ retain its antient Pravity ; but the Inquinations, it 
JMid contraded, muft be intirely broken, difpersM, and dif- 
i^QijMv'd; which neverchelefs it can not wholely lofe in a fhorc 
ne, and coming from a moderate Diftance. This is de- 
onftrated by the Example of ftrong Odours, which ftrike 
e Senfe, if they come from a near Place, but not when 
7 come from one that is far diftant : for thofe Vapours, 

being 



3ta 



744 LU C R E T 1 US. Book V] 

being agitated for any length of Time, will be loft and de 
ftroy'd ; and their moft tenuious Subftance will, accordini 
to the Cuftom and Nature of Mixtures, convert and refolv 
into its proper Element. And therefore the Air fucceeds, bu 
not precedes, a Contagion ; and may propagate a Plagu 
peculiarly, and by degrees ; but not bring it univerfally, an< 
all at once, into a healthful and uninfecfled Countrey : In 
(Word, the Sum of all is, that the Air does not begin, bv 
propagates the Contagion, that is already begun ; efpeciall 
when it is tainted with the Pollutions, that proceed from th 
Corruption of infedted Bodies. 



Or other Food, or hang within the Air, 
Held up by fatal Wings, and threaten there : 
1085 So, while we think we live, and draw our Breath, 
Thofe Parts muft enter in, and foil' wing Death. 
Thus Plagues do often fieze the laboring Ox, 
And raging Rots deftroy our tender Flocks : 
And thus the Thing's the fame, if Winds do bear 
1090 From other Countreys an unufual Air, 
And fie to raife a Plague, and Fever here : 
Or if we travel all, and fuck it there. 

A Plague, thus rais*d, laid learned At a eh s wafte 
Thro' ev'ry Street, thro' all the Town it pafs'd, 

Blaftin 
NOTES. 

1089. And thus, &C.3 In this! from this Verfe to the End 
and the three following Verfes, the Book, the Poet gives us 
the Poet fays, that we incur a I Defcription of that memorabl 
like Danger, when we travel in- Plague, which broke out in At 



to a Countrey, whofe Air is un- 



healthy, or difagrees with our loponnelian War ; and laid waft 
Conftitution, as we do, when j that whole Countrey, as well i 



Kature introduces into our Bo- 
dies a tainted and corrupted Air, 



tica, in the firft Year of the Pe 



the City of Athens, the Metro 
polls of it. Thucydides, wh 



or any other new Thing, to which | was himfelf both a Spectator an( 
we have not been accuftom'd, and I Sharer of it, has defcrib'd it ni 
that is hurtful to us. | lefs accurately than elegantly, h 

1093. A Plague, &:c.] Hither- 1 the fecond Book of his Hiftory 
to he has been treating of the I Hippocrates too, who was like 
Corruption of the Air, or the | wife an £ye-witnefs of it, no 
Caufe of a Plague : which is a | only, as a private Man, len 
Difeafe that gains ground in fuch jhis Afliftance, and, for the pub 
a manner, that, arifing for the flick Good, extinguifh'd and pu 
moft part fromfmall Beginnings, jto flight that raging Peftilence 
it increafcs by Degrees, and | for which Reafoji he obtain'd di 
fpreads itfelffar and wide. Now [vine Honours of the Athenians 



Book VI. 



LUCRETIUS. 



74^ 



ios^5 Blading both Man and Beast with poif nous Wind - 
Death fled before, and Ruin ftalk'd behind. 
From Ear PTs burning Sands the Feaver came> 
More hoc than ihofe that rais'd the deadly Flame : 
The Wind, that bore the Fate, went flowly on, 

I loo And, as it went, was heard to figh, and groan. 

At 
NOTES. 



but has alfo left a lively Relation 
©fit in his third Book de Morb. 
Popul. Our Lucretius embrae'd 
thtfame Argument, and, in the 
following Defcription of that 
plague, has copy'd after thofe 
two Authours, but more parti- 
cularly after Thucydides, whom 
he has imitated fo happily, that 
Macrobius Saturnal. lib. 6. cap. 2, 
fays,thatVirgilhas borrow'd from 
him in his fecond Georgick, as 
Ovid molt vifibly has in his 7th 
Metamorph. Now inthefei2. v. 
Lucretius teaches, that the Plague 
of Athens, which he is now be- 
ginning to delcribe, proceeded 
from the fame Caufes, he has 
mentioned already : but Plagues 
generally come from foreign 
Countries, and therefore he fays 
this came from Egypt to Athens ; 
yet according to Thucydides, it 
came from a remoter Diftance j 
for he brings it from Ethiopia, 
which is beyond Egypt. 

Laid learned Athens wafte] 
Lucretius fays, 

Fjnibu* Cecropiis funeilos reddi- 
dit agros. 

JFor Athens was iirft call'd Ce- 
:ropia, from Cecrops, who built 
it, and was the firft King, and 
iLegiflatour of the People of At- 
{rica, whom, fays Suidas, he af- 
jfenabled together, and divided 
them into twelve Tribes ; but 
before his Days they liv'd fcat- 
:er'd up and down in Villages. 

1095. Poif'nous Wind :] This 
Lucretius calls morbifer «ftus : 
>ut what he means by it is un- 
certain ; tho' he f«ems to intend 



that deadly Heat and Strength 
of the Difeaic, which, like a rag- 
ing Fire, conium'd anddeftroy'd 
all it fiez'd on. Therefore by the 
NVord ^ftus may be underftood, 
either the Heat of the Plague ; 
fince a Plague is either a fever, 
or never without a Fever : or 
elfe we may underftand the great 
Abundance of theinfe<ftious'Air ; 
finco the Poet has above imputed 
the Caufe of the Plague to the 
very Corruption of tlie Air ; and 
this feems to have been the Opi- 
nion of our Tranilatour : or 
laftly, and rather than any of the 
other two Explications, we may 
interpret it to mean the vehement 
Heat of the Air ; lince iEthiopia 
and Egypt , from whence the 
Plague came to Athens , are 
Countreys exceflively hot. 

1097. From Egypt's, 6cc. 3 
Thus too Thucydides *, "Hp^ctro 
TO ^ 'ZTptoTOv, &,V >^h-t)y ^ 
*Ai9iO'3*/cts' 4 <x^ 'kiyMa, sTreiU 

i(iw, j{^ l^ tIw BoLaiXia^ ylw ^ 
'moT^viv • £$• tIw 'A^mx'icov iuomv 
^^cLTTivoucof c/ysTTgcrg • It began, 
by report, firft in that part of 
Ethiopia, that borders upon 
Egypt, and then fell down into 
Egypt and Libya ; and into the 
greateft 'part of the Territories 
of the King : It invaded Athens 
on a fuddain. 

1099. The Wind, &c.] Lucre- 
tius has given no Occaiion for 
this and the following Verfe ; 
which are borrow'd from the Bi- 
Hiop of Rochefter's Plague of 
Athens, where in Stanza 4. we 
read, 

5 C The 



746 LU C R E r lU s: Book VL 

At laft, the raging Plague did Am^tis fieze. 
The Plague; and Death attending the Difeare. 
Then Men did die by H^aps, by Heaps did fall. 
And the whole QiXT made one Funeral. 

Fifft,^ 
N O t E S. 



The loaded Wind went (lowly 



on. 



And, as it pafs'd, was heard to 
jSgh and groan. 

lioi. At laft, &c.] Hitherto 
the Poet has been treating of the 
Caufes of Plagues in general ; 
and particularly of that of A- 
thens, which he is about to de- 
fcribe : How the Learned in 
Phyfick tell us, that an infectious 
Bifeafe may be caught three fe- 
■v^ral Ways : the iirft they. call, 
per diftantiani, by which they 
mean, when the tainted or cor- 
rupted Air is breath'd and fwal- 
iow'd by fuch as are at fonie di- 
ftance fronathe Perfonsinfeded : 
thefecond, per contadum, that 
is, when we are near, and touch 
thofe that are viiited with the 
Plague. Hence, as Ovid fays, 

«—— ~Inque ipfos freva medentes 
Brumpit clades j obfuntque au- 
<5toribus artes. 

To which he adds foon after ; 

Qub propior quifque eft, fervit- 

que fidelius aegrum, 
In partem lethi citiiis venit.^ — • — 

The tl^ird they call, per fomi- 
tem, by which they . would have 
tis underftand, when the vitia- 
ted, infetftious Airis.a long time 
|>rererv'd in Cloaths, Wool, &c. 
1 103. Then, &c. ] To the 
fame Purpofe Dryden, defcribing 
the pefolation and Havock of a 
Plaguej fays finely : 

And then a thoufand Deaths at 

once advanc'd, 
An;d ev'ry Dart took PJace : all 



That fcarce a firil Man fell : one 

but began 
To wonder, and ftrait fell a 

Wonder too : 
A third, who fboop'd to raift 

his dying Friend, 
Drop'd in the pious Ad* Heard 

you that Groan ? 
A Troop of Ghofts took Flight 

together there : 
Now Death's grown riotous, and 

will play no more 
For (ingle Stakes, but Families 

and Tribes ; 
With dead and dying Men out 

Streets lie cover'd ; 
And Earth expofes Bodies. M 

the Pavements, .:, ', 

More than flie hides in Graves.jU* 
Between the Bride and Bridef- 

groom have I feen 
The nuptial Torch do comm0a 

Offices 
Of Marriage , and of Death* 

Caft round your Eyes, 
W'here late the Streets were fo 

thick fown with Men, 
Like C2dmus Brood, they jus* 

tied for their Paflage, 
Now look for thofe ere(fled 

Heads, and fee them. 
Like Pebbles, paving all our pull- 
lick Ways. 

Tragedy of OEdipws» 

Die by Heaps,] For it is the 
Nature and Property of a Plaguflj 
grown adult, and 4n the Height 
of its raging, that many Perfons 
iliould be vifited by it at once^ 
and many die of it : But it has 
been difputed by Phyficians, whe^ 
ther it can be cali'd a Plague at 
its firft breaking out, and while 
only one or two are lick f it J 
which fome pofitively affirm, but 

©ihers as ftrgnwoufly deny. ^^ 

can 



Book VI. 



LUCRETIUS. 



747 



1 105 Firft, fierce unufuftJ Heats did fieze the Head ; 
The glowing Eyes, with blood-flior Beams, look'd red 
Like BLAZING Stars, approaching Fate forefliew'd j 
The Mouth and Jaws wer« fiU'd with clotted Blood - 

The 

N O T B S. 



an not indeed be controverted, 
but that there are Definitions of 
Things grown to Perfedion : 
Thus Mankind, while yet in 
their InjfancyjCan fcarcely be faid 
to be indued with Reafon. In 
like manner a Plague, juft break- 
ing out, is not indeed common, 
but will be fo, unlefs it be timely 
prevented : However, it is truly 
a Plague, tho* but ten Perfons 
arefickofit, nay, ifbirtone. 

1 105. Firft, dec."] Here the 
Poet, in 18. V. enumerates the 
ieveral and chief Symptoms and 
Tokens, that were dbferv'd in 
thofe that were vifited v/ith this 
Plague of Athens. I. An extream 
Heat in their Head. II. An In- 
flammation of the Eyes. IIL Ul- 
cers in the Throat, and an Ema- 
nation of Blood from thence. 

IV. A roughnefs of the Tongue, 
and fuch a heavinefs, that they 
cou'd fcarce move it ; together 
with Ulcers ; and putrid Blood 
flowing from thence like wife. 

V. A noifome llinking Breath. 

VI. Fainting Fits, or Swoonings. 
VJI. Dejedion of the Mind. 
VIIL Groans and Complainings. 
1 X. FrequentjConvuliiveyexings, 
or Hickets. 

Fierce Heats, &c.] Thus too 
Thucydides : U^u^rov pSp r? xs- 

^0tA^> Srjp^wctl l%VfM, , Kai Tcov 
o(p9:tA^cvV spf^ /,«<»'] a., >t^ (pAo70i(7{r 
Uiui^vz. They were firft taken 
with an extream Heat in their 
Heads, and with a Rednefs and 
Inflammation of the Eyes. Thus 
fays that Hiflrorian, upon whom 
the Biflpp of Rochefter has para- 
iphras'4 ^s foUQ'":'S3 



Vf»on the Head, firft, the Di- 

As ii bold Conquerour, does 

fieze, 
Begins with Man*s Metropo- 
lis; 
Seeur'd the Capitol, arid then, ic 

knew. 
It cou'd at Pleafure weaker Parts 
fubdue ; 
Blood ftarted thro' each Eye : 
, The Rednefs of that Sky 
Foretold a Tempeft nigh, 

1107. Like blazing Stars, &c.] 
This Verfe our Tranftatour has 
added to his Authour. 

1 1 08; The Mouth, «Stc. ] 
In like manner Thucydides, 
Kctc TO, cvTo^y v\rz <p&.fvy^^ k^ h 
■y^coasa, c^9t)s" cu/uolIcoS'h s^v« i. e. 
And inwardly their Throats and 
Tongues grew prefently Bloody. 
This third is indeed a dreadful 
Symptom , and an infallible 
Mark, that the OEconomy of 
the whole Body was vitiated, 
Mattheus Villanus relates, thar 
in the Plague, which rag'd in 
Italy, in the Year 1348. they wer^ 
affl idled almofl; in the fame man- 
ner ; and that when they were 
fiez'd with the Difeafe, they ei^ 
ther dy'd fuddenly, or the next 
Day, or liv'd but to the third at; 
fartheft. This too is confirm'd 
by GuidoCauliacus,lib.2. cap.5» 
the Pope's Chirurgeon, and an 
Eye-witnefs of it •, who heiides 
voluntarily depofes , that the 
Mortality was lb great in all tha 
Places infected , that fcarce a 
fourth part of the Inhabitant? 
were left alivs. 



748 LUCRETIUS. Book VI. 

The Throat with Ulcers: the Tongue could fpeak 
no more, 
I u o But, overflowed, and drown'd in putrid Gore, 

Grew ufelefs, rough, and fcarce could make a Moan, 
Nay, fcarce enjoy'd the wretched Pow'r to groan. 
Next thro* the Jaws, the Plague did reach the 
Breast, 

And 
NOTES. 

fays Galen, in the Place above- 
cited, hadimbib'd a great abun- 
dance of Humour •, yet that Hu- 
mour being exceeding hot, hin- 
der'd not the Tongue from being 
rough and fcurfy ; as it conftant- 
ly was, by reafon of the too much 
Heat, that exhaled from the Pxx- 
cordia. 

Scarce could make a Moan,] 
This Thought our Tranflatour 
has added to Lucretius, and taken 
it from the B. of R. who, in hi$ 
Plague of Athens, Stanza 11. 
fays, 



Were fH-l'd with clotted Blood] 
Lucretius fays, 

Sudabant etiam fauces intrinfe- 

cus atro 
Sanguine. y 

i. e. And, inwardly, their Jaws 
and Throats fweated out black 
Blood : where the Word, Suda- 
bant, they fweated, is not fpoken 
figuratively, but properly : for 
the Blood was forc*d out per dia- 
pedefim, i. e. by Tranfcolation, 
or Exudation : for fo they gene- 
rally interpret that Wprd, Now 
this fweating, or oozing out, of 
Blood, V7as occalion'd by the 
weaknefs and decay of the reten- 
tive Power, that refides in the 
fmall Veins : befides, the whole 
Mafs of Blood being enormoufly 
vitiated, it ilimulated and urg'd 
Kature to that Excretion. 

1109. The Tongue cou'd fpeak 
no nioif.,'J This fourth Symptom 
of the Athenian Plague, of which 
Thucydides is filent, Lucretius 
has taken from Hippocrates, de 
Morb. popul. lib. 5. capp. 3. 10. 
II. where that Authour repre- 
fents it to be no lefs fatal than 
the former, and fays, it proceed- 
ed from the fame Caufe. 

nil. Grew ufelefs] Lucretius 
fays, motu gravis, heavy in Mo- 
tion '. Galen, in Com, i. takes 
Notice of this Symptom, and 
fays, it was caus'd by the Imbe- 
cjllity of the animal Faculty, 
and the exorbitant Plenty of the 
Humours, that the Tongue had 
jmbib'd. 

Rough] Tho' the Tongue, 



The Tongue did flow all o'er 
With clotted Filth and Gore ; 
As, does a Lion's, when fome 
innocent Prey 
He has devour'd, and brought 

away. 
Hoarfnefsand Sores the Throat 
did fill. 
And ftopt the Paflages of Speech 
and Life : 
No Room was left for Groans 

or Grief: 
Too cruel and imperious 111, 
Which, not content to kill, 
With tyrannous and deadly 
Pain, 
Doft take from Men the very 
Power to complain ! 

I II 3. Next, &c.] What Lu- 
cretins reprefents in thefe 7. v. 
Thucydides relates as follows ; 

Kod 'iv ii -sD-oMw p/ ^'i'(i) aalt^suv^Y i 

IcyypS , xal ottots ?f rUi KapSJAV 
SM\eSi,ouL'i. V, at'^rps^g T cwtIlv, ^ 



Book VI. 



LUCRETIUS. 



749 



And there, the Heart, the Seat of Life, poflefs'd : 
III 15 Then Life began to fail : ftrange Stinks did come' 7 
From evVy putrid Breast, as from a Tomb : > 

A fad Prefage, that Death prepar'd the Room. 3 

The 
NOTES. 



i7r>i«crfltv K) aCrca /jC^- TcuhouTVoo^ct^ 

■i^ydxn^' that is ro fay j Not 

one after, the Pain, together 

vith a mighty Cough, came 

lown into the Breaft : and, when 

t was once fettled in the Sto- 

Tiachj it caus'd Vomit j and all 

nanner of bilious Purgation, that 

^hyficians ever nam'd, came up 

vith great Torment. Lucretius 

akes no Notice, neither of the 

ehement Coughing, which no 

oubt prpceeded from a Con- 

, ulfion of the trachea, or Wind- 

ipe; nor of the other Symp- 

1 oms of Sneezing and Hoarinefs, 

'hich are likewife mention'd by 

rhucydides, "ETreixcc, fays he, 

TTiy'iyViTO. 

1 1 14. The Heart,] He means, 
be Stomach : For here our 
>an(latour has litterally fol- 
)w'd his Authour, who makes 
fe in this Bklace of the Word 
'or, which fometimes lignifies 
le Stomach ; as the kch^SU of 
le Greeks, which fignifies like- 
ife both co.r and ftomachus. 
"hus the Scholiaft, on the fore- 
loing PafTage of Thucydides , 
lys : *0i <m(iLhCMoi Ic^i^oi r s"o- 

ov r <!jr(3vov TV ^jucLyii ' 1. e. 
'he antient Phyficians call'd the 
omach the Heart, and a Pain 
the Stomach a Pain in the 
eart. 

1 1 1 5. Strange Stinks, Sec. 3 
^hen the Difeafe was got down 
to the Stomach, there follow 'd a 
inkingnefs of Brcath,fays Lucre- 
us, like the Stench that exhales 
om dead Bodies : Thus too the 

of R. 



Then down it went into the 

Breaft ; 
There all the Seats and Shops of 

Life polTefs'd : 
Such noifome Smells from 

thence did come, 
As if the Body were a Tomb. 

Now thefe offenfive Smells muft 
have proceeded, either from the 
Putrefaaion of the Humours, or 
of the Lungs ; or rather of both t 
which feems more confonant to 
Reafon, as well as to the Opi- 
nion of Hippocrates, who, Epi- 
dem. 3. 5. 3. relating the 
Symptoms of this Plague, makes 
mention of many putrify'd 
Parts ; Nor can it be doubted, 
but that the infeded Athenians 
were then troubled with a Peri- 
pneumony,by reafon of the great 
Defluxion of vitiated Blood, that 
fell upon the Lungs. Now a 
ftinking Breath is held to be an 
ill Symptom in all Difeafes, bu? 
worft in Epidemical : For, if 
what Gakn, 3. de Pr;:efag. ex 
Pulfib. cap. 4. obferves, be true, 
that whatever is vitiated, does 
not putrify, but that noifome 
Smells ard a certain Mark of Pu- 
ti:efacn:iQn ; a Rottennefs of Hu- 
mours, or of Parts, muft have 
been added, by way of Qver- 
meafure, to this fatal Corrup- 
tion. It has been obferv'd, that 
many, who, when they were in 
Health, had llinking Breaths, 
have dy'd a fuddain Death : the 
Reafon of which was, becaufe 
the whole Subftance of rheii; 
Lungs was by degrees putrify'd : 
but, what a long Catarrji can 
perform in the Courfe of a Man's 
Life, a Plagije m^y accompliih 
all at once, by reafon of its grea- 

tC2 



7f(3 



LUCRETIUS. Book Vl 

The Body weak, the Mind did fadly wait^ 
And fear'd, but could not flie, approaching Fate : 



iV O T £ 5. 



To 



ter Efficacy ? and therefore a 
illnking Breath is certainly a 
dangerous Symptom, in peftilen- 
dai Difeafes. 

in§. The Mind, &c.] What 



Lucretius here Tays of the genera 
Dread, that had liez'd the Athe 
nians, affords us an Opportunity 
to make the foilowing Inqui- 
ry. 




Whether Fear promotes and 
propagates a Plague. 

ONSTERNATIONandDejeaionol 

Mind are never beneficial, not even h 
Health ; but they are prejudicial in all Di 
feafcs, and worft of all in a Plague : Henc 
Lucretius more than once makes mentio; 
of it; and gives us a Handle to inquire 
I. Why is it Co ? And, Ildly, Whether whi 
fome have aflerted be true 5 viz. That the Plague is caugh j 
by bare Imagination only ? To begin with the Laft : They 
who hold the Affirmative, are not content it fhould be grant 
(cd them, that, by the ftrong Apprehenfion of the Patient, ai 
infectious Difeafe may be brought upon him : But they infii j 
iikewife, that it may be imparted to him by *VVitches, 
pther ill-minded Perfons : thefe Opinions fpring from thi 
Belief; that our Fanfy can affedt, and work upon, not oft] 
!y our own Body, but thofe Iikewife of others. Th^' 
Thirgs might pafs for idle Tales, were it not, that, unde 
the Mask atid Difguife of Imagination, were conceaPd tM 
Arts of the fworn Enemy of Mankind, by whofe Perfuafloi 
and AiTiftance, Plagues and Sorceries are fometimes propyl 
gated in the World : I doubt not of the ill, malicious habi< 
of Mind, which his Votaries may have contracted ; buj 
that alone, without his more powerful Aid, to whom, foj 
the horrid Sins of Mankind, is permitted a Power tod(' 
Hurt, is unable to affed: others, j 

The other Opinion, which imputes the Infedlion of j| 
Plague to the fcrong Apprehenfion of the Patient, feems, a 
firft fight, to carry with it a greater SembJarce of Truth 
I^Grno Man eve;; controyencd the Su-engih of Imagination rr-' 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 7f i 

in regard to its Operations on a Man's own Body: thus we 
(hudder, and our very Blood cruddles within us, on the bare 
Remembrance of any horrible Adlion : we rejoice, even 
when the Objed of our Joy is abfent : we grow angry, tho' 
no Man provokes us : lee us butfanfy our felves applauded, 
we exult for Joy : and Nardius relates, that he knew a fanfi- 
*ui filly Woman, who foon experimented in her own Body, 
he Difeafes, under which, fhehad heard, her Acquaintance 
)r Relations were labouring. Siach Things have certain- 
y a relifli of Hypocrify or Madnefs : For what the Stick- 
ers for the Strength of Fanfy fooIijQxly alledge, of I knowr 
IOC what intentional Form, as they term it, that is able to 
ntroduce itfelf into any Matter, that is prepared and made 
eady to receive it, are meer Trifles, and fidlitious pay- 
ireams of fuperftitious Men : For no Man, in his Senfes, 
ver threatens, or heartily wifhes, ill to himfeif : nor does he 
viifully and induftrioufly endeavour to increafe a peftilen- 
lal Difeafe ; but he hates, abhors, and fears it ; which 
ift is, perhaps, the trueft Cauie of the Propagation and 
Continuance of a Plague. 
Fear and Sorrow are powerful Agents, and produce won-'" 
erful EfTeds in the Minds of Men : For, as Galen obferves, 
violent Fear kills immediately ; and one that is lei's Ve- 
ement, but of long Duration^ is no lefs fatal. Fear dejedls 
he Mind, and diminiflies the Strength : even at the firft 
ffault it overwhelms the Spirit, and contradls the Blood, 
auling a Refrigeration and Chilnefs of the exteriour Parts 
f the Body : For thefe Reafons, in fuch as are fiez'd with 
'ear, the Pulfe, as well of the Arteries as of the Heart, is 
ery fmall, and extreamly weak. Vide Galenum, 12. Meth. 
ap. 5. 5. deloc. Off. cap. i. 4. de Ca. PuK cap. 5. 2. dc 
ymp. Caf. cap. 2. de Tre. Rig. cap. 2. 2. de Sympi ca. 
ap. 5. And the faiiie Authour, in his Treatife de Pul. ad 
fyr. and in his fourth de Caf. Pul. cap. 4. accurately di- 
:inguiflies the Difference of Pulfes, according to the Na- 
are and Quality of Fear : In a fuddain and violent Fear, 
e believes the Pulfe to be quick, quivering, diforder'J, and 
nequal : in a Fear of long Continuance, he holds the Pulfe 
3 be little, languid, flow, and rare : This laft fort of Pulfe 
e afcribes like wife to the EfFecStof Sorrow, between which, 
l^ys he, and a Fear of long Duration there is no Difference : 
Ipr in both of them the Strength is impair'd ; and that 
liling, the Pulfes can nor be unlike : becaufe, according 
) the fame Authour^ iii thofe whofe Strength is infirm^ 

andy 



7J2 LUCRETIUS. Book VI 

and^ by reafon of their Ignorance, the Affedions and Paf 
lions of the Mindj forceful and ftrong, the EfTence of thli 
Soul may eafily be dilfoly'd. Now that by the Word Souli 
he means the Life itfelf, is manifeft from what he fays, 12 
Meth. cap. 3. that the Eflence of the Life of Man is cor- 
rupted by the Affections of the Mind ; and that all grea: 
Fears, tho* they do not kill outright, yet they certainly ren 
der the Spirit infirm, and eafy to be dilfoiv'd : but Sorrow 
and Anxiety are hurtful, becaufe they impair the Strength 
And to thefe Opinions of Galen, Lucretius himfelf fub 
ieribes in thefe Verfes : 

Veri^m ubi vehementi magis eft commota metu mens, 
Confentire animam rotam per membra videmus : 
Sudoremque ita, palloremque exiftere toto 
Corpore, & infringi linguam, vocemque oboriri, 
Caligare oculos, fonere aureis, fucddere artus : 
Denique concidere ex animi terrore videmus 
Saepe homines. lib. 3. v. 153 

The Interpretation of which the Reader may find above 
Book III. V. 150. 

Thefe then are the Etfedls, that Fear and Imaginatior 
produce in the Body, they fieze on : and if an infedlious, 
peftilcntial Air meet with a Body, thus ill-difpos*d already, 
that Body will foon imbibe the Contagion, and fall fick ol 
the Difeafe, being unable to ftrugglc againft it, by reafon oi 
the Weaknefs it has already contraded. Rightly therefore 
has Thucydides, taking Notice of the two greateft Miferies 
of the Athenian Plague, the ct9u/u/cc, or Confternation ol 
Mind, and the inevitablenefs of the Contagion, given the 
Preference to the Confternation of Mind, and affign'd it as 
one of the chiefCaufesof the Mortality that rag'd among them. 
AeivorctTov, fays he, 3 tto.vTo^ yiv i? xctxa yi t\ (l^v(u.ia^ o-non t); 

yvco(j.-n, rcro/ViCcj ij.^}^())i 'Zdf^'i<c\]o o-(p£^ aoraV ^ «X ccvt^x,^*' * ^* ^' 

But the greateft Mifery of all was, the Dejedtion of Mind in 
fuch as found themfelves beginning to be fick : for they grew 
prefently defperate, and gaVe themfelves over, without 
making any Refiftance. And in the laft Age, during the 
Siege of Breda, it was obferv'd, that the Plague, which then 
rag'd, either abated or increas'd, as the Minds of the Sol- 
diers were either rais'd with Hope, or deprefs*d with Fear: 
So great are the Effedbs of Confternation of Mind ! 

1120. T€ 



BookVL LUCRETIUS. 7^ 

H20 To thefe fierce Pains were join'd continual Gare, 
Andlad Complainings, Groans, and deep Despair; 
Tormenting, vexing Sobs, and deadly Sighs, ^ I 

Which rais'd Convulsions, broke the vital Ties > 
Of Mind and Limbs, and fo the Patient dies, 3 

Yet 

J<l O r B S. 



1120. To thefe, &:c.] Thefe fo 
many, and fo intolerable 111$ or 
the Body were attended, fays the 
Poet, with a perpetual Anguifli 
of Mind, which occafion'd un- 
manly Groans and Complain- 
i ings : Plutarch, relates of Peri- 
:les, that tho', with unweeping 
^yes, he had beheld the Funerals 
>f fo many of his Friends and 
lelations, yet the Death of his 
inly furviving Son extorted from 
(im fome unwilling Tears : and 
hat the Plague, that malignant 
timate, had by little and little 
orrupted the Body of that mag- 
animous Man, and overcome 
is Fortitude, and Strength of 
lind : For, while he was lan- 
uifliing under that Difeafe, he 
'-lew'd a Friend, that came to vi- 
it him, fome Charms and In- 
hantments, that hung about his 
^eck, and Women had ty^d up- 
n him t which evidently prove 
be Diforder of his Mind, that 
3uld be prevailed on, to conde- 
end tofuch Superftition. Thus, 
lys Plutarch, in his Life. 
1 122. Vexing Sobs, and deadly 
ighs,3 Lucretius fays. Singultus 
■cquens, a frequent Hicket : 
nd for the better Underftand- 
>g of this ninth Symptom, it 
ill be necefTary to recite the 
7ords of Thucydides, relating 
) it, and that are as follows : 
vy'^ T To?> icT^eloaiv z/nTrm^ 
:i'i?5 ojJctCTjMV c/vStS&cra. l%v^gi', 

)?$• /uJ0 /UiloLTOLVTO, Atofpv'Cra.v/ot, 

at is to fay : Moft of them had 
cewifean empty Hicket, which 
ought with it a ftrong Con- 
iKionj and in fome i: ceas'd 



quickly ; but in others was long 
before it gave over. Now, ac- 
cording to the common Opinion 
of Phyficians, the Hicket is a 
Convulfionof the Stomach : but 
Galen, weighing the Matter mora 
narrowly, and confidering, that 
the Mufcles only are convuls'd ; 
and that neither the Ventricle, 
nor the Mouth of it, are either 
Mufcles, or perform the Fundi- 
on of Mufcles, fays, in his third 
Book, de Symj)t. Cauf. cap. 4i 
that the Hicket is onlyadeprav'd 
Motion of the Mouth of the Ven- 
tricle, that endeavours to expel 
what is offenfive and troublefome 
to it ; which could not he want- 
ing in our Cafe : for, the pefti- 
lent Defluxion falling down thro' 
the Throat, and a great Quanti- 
ty of bileous Matter regurgitat- 
ing from the Liver, into the 
Stomach, were certainly offenfive 
to it, and fufficient to caufe the 
Hicket, which was of longer or 
fhorter Continuance, according 
to the greater or lefs Quantity 
and Protervity of the offending 
Matter. But to whom are we 
to give credit; to Lucretius, who 
calls it, frequens fingultus ; a fre- 
quent Hicket ; or to Thucydi- 
des, who calls it, \vy^ nevi, 
an empty Hicket ? Lambinus, 
overcome, perhaps, by the diffi- 
culty of the Matter, as it often 
happens to fuch as meddle with 
the Affairs of others, very bold- 
ly corrects the Hiftorian, and 
gives more credit to a Poet, that 
liv'd long after, than to an Eyc- 
witnefs that writes what he faw. 
The learned F. Paulinus comes 
nearer to the Point, and believes, 
skat the Hicket is faid to be 
5 D empty 



754 

II25 



LUCRETIUS. Book VI. 

Yet touch the Limbs, the Warmth appear'd not great, 
It feem'd but little more than nat'ral Heat 5 

The 
NOTES. 



empty from the Caufe that pro- 
duces it, that is to fay, Exinani- 
tion : for both Hippocrates and 
Galen allow, that there are two 
Caufes of Gonvulfion ; the Re- 
pletion, and the Exinanition, or 
Emptinefs, of the Nerves : and 
the laft of thofe Authours ad- 
inoniilies,that a Gonvulfion, pro- 
ceeding from the Exinanition of 
the Nerves is the worit Symptom 
in a Hicket : but in this Gafe of 
the Plague of Athens, there can 
not be the leaft Ground to fuf- 
ped any Emptinefs •, fince, as we 
faid before, there was a copious 
and continual Defluxion of Hu- 
mours : Befides, it is notorious, 
that there are other Caufes of 
Convuliions, than thofe before- 
mention'd ; and from which it is 
more probable, that the violent 
and laborious Hicket proceeded : 
for why might not they, who 
were vilited with a Plague, have 
a frequent and empty or fruitlefs 
Hicket ? The firil was a Token 
of the Pertinacy of the molefting 
Caufe ; the other, of the ineffedu- 
al Fatigation : For, as Galen, 
5. de Svmpt. Gauf. cap. i. wit- 
Hefles; In Vomits, thofe things 
are thrown up, that are in the 
Cavity and Space of the Ventri- 
cle ; in Hickets, thofe that ad- 
here to the very Body of the Ven- 
tricle, the Difpofition and Moti- 
on being both^alike. As therefore 
what the Phyiicians call Nau- 
fea, is a vain and fruitlefs Vo- 
mit, and confequently the more 
fatiguing *, fo too is a Hicket, 
when nothing is brought up. 

112$. Yet touch, &c.] Inthefe 
18. v. the Poet takes notice of fe- 
deral other Symptoms and To- 
kens, that happen'd to thofe, who 
were vifited with this Plague, 
?irft, fays he, the exteriour 
pAf 6s ©fsheiF Bodies were not hot 



to the Touch, but only warm ; 
yet they look'd fomewhat red, 
and were beflower'd with fmali 
Puftules, as is the Body of thofe 
that have the St« Anthony's Fire : 
neverthelefs they burn'd in- 
wardly to fuch a Degree, that 
they could not endure to wear 
the flighteffc Cloaths, nor any, 
the thinneft Covering upon them 
And it avail'd them nothing to 
expofe their Bodies to the Gold 
and Wind, nor to leap into Ri- 
vers, or go down into Wells ; 
nor could any Quantity of Wa- 
ter quench their Thirft. 

Hippocrates, in 3. Epidem 
c. 34.. fpeaking of this Plague 
fays, that the Fever, which at- 
tended it, was ii)i oijjg^ not acute 
and Galen, 9. de Sympt. Gauf 
cap. 6. fays of Pejftilential Fever 
in general, that they are not vie 
lently hot: Now the Reaforis 
that Phyficians give us, why 
fome Bodies, in pernicious Dif 
eafes, are barely warm ; and thi 
extream Parts of others evei 
cold, are thefe : Some, fay they 
are warm, by reafon of thei 
fmall Provifion of natural Heat 
or becaufe of their Age ; as ii 
the Old, in whom, according ti 
the Obfervation of Hippocrates 
6, Epidem. cap. 19. Fevers ar 
the lefs acute, becaufe, fays he 
their Body is cold : Others an 
warm in Fevers, by reafon c 
their natural Gonftitution ; ha 
ving from their Birth labour'tj 
under a W^ant of Spirits anc 
Blood : Befides ; in fome Dii 
eafes, the like Difpofition is ac [ 
quir'd : fometimes too the Hu 
mours, ftagnating in the outmoi{ 
little Veflels, hinder the inward^ 
ly conceiv'd Heat from break i' 
ing out : and the fame Humour: 
whenever they are heated, d( 
according to the difference of thei , 

Naturs 



I 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 7^^ 

The Body, red with Ulcers, fwoln with Pains, 
As when the Sacred Fire fpreadso'er the Veins. 
But all within was Fire ; fierce FlamevS did burn, 
1 1 30 No Cloaths could be endur'd, no Garments worn ; 

But 
NOTES, 



Kature, impart a different De- 
gree of Heat : for one fort of 
Heat attends an aduft Choler ; 
another a putrifying Phlegm : 
Tepidity is likewife caus'd in a 
malignant Corruption, by rea- 
ibn of the Inwardnefs and Pro- 
fundity of th2 Fire, and the Na- 
ture of the Difeafe, which threa- 
tens Death to the Patient, not by 
manifeft Symptoms, but by a 
clandeftine Corruption of the 
Vv'holc Subftance. The extreani 
Parts and Members of the Body 
are cold and livid in thofe, whofe 
vital Faculty is utterly decay'd, 
and dying away. They likewife 
are cold outwardly, whofe almoft 
total natural Heat is retir'd to, 
and gather'd about, their in- 
flam'd Entrails, in order co fuc- 
cour decaying Nature. And one, 
or more of thefe Reafons concur- 
ring, will caufethe Patient to be 
either barely warm, or even cold, 
outwardly, and to the Touch. 

112S. The facred Fire3 Sacer 
Tgnisj fays Lucretius, by which 
Name the Latines know the Dif- 
eafe , which the Greeks call 
'Epfa/VgActr? and we St. Antho- 
ny's Fire, of which, according to 
Celfus, there are two forts, thus 
defcrib'd by him. Sacer quoque 
ignis malis ulceribus annumera- 
ri debet ; ejusduarfunt fpecies : 
alterum eft fubrubicundum, aut 
milium rubore, atque pallore, 
cxafperatumqiie pcrpuRulas con- 
tinuas, quarum nulla altera major 
eft, fed plurim.^ pe.rexiguct' : Al- 
terum autem efl, in lumm^ cu- 
tis exulceratione, fed fine alt itu- 
dine, latum, fublividurn, inas- 
qualiter tamen, &cc. Celfus de 
Re medica, lib. 6. c^p. 28. But 
in this P^lTage of pur Au- 



thour, we are to underftand the 
firftfortof that Difeafe, which, 
as defcrib'd above by Ceifus, i$ 
an ulcerous Eruption, leddifli, 
or mix'd of pale and red: and 
painful to the Patient, by reafon 
of the continued Puftules or 
Whelks, not one of which is big- 
ger than another, tho' there be 
an infinite Number of them, and 
all extreamly fir.all. Which De- 
fcription of Celfus feems to re- 
present to us the Difeafe, that 
Phyficians commonly call Herpes 
milliaris, from the Figure and- 
Frequency of the fmall Blifters^ 
or Wheals, which, rifing on the 
uppermoft Sldn^and ftanding out 
but very little, are not unlike tp 
Millet Seed, fown or fcatter'd 
thick upon the Ground. The 
Difeafe, which they call Herpes 
only, is likewife a kind of St. 
Anthony's Fire ; and fesms to be 
the fame that Pliny, lib. 260 
cap. II, calls Zofter, and Scri- 
bonius Largus, c. 10^. Zona : 
this Difeafe comes on the middle 
of the Body, and, if it compafs 
it about, is mortal j as, in the 
laft Age, according to J. Langi- 
us, Epill. 32. it prov'd to be to 
the Marquis of ]3randenbur^;h. 
Some call It the Shingles i fome, 
the Running-worm *, and fome, 
Wild-Fire. But the tiryfipelas, 
that afflicfted the infected Athe- 
nians, tho' but a cutaneous Difr 
eafe, muft neverthelefs havebeea 
very troublefome to them, both 
on account of its Filthinefs, and 
becaufc it incommoded them, 
either ftanding or lying down. 

1 129. But ail within, S^c."] 
Thucydides in like manner dc- 
fcribes this outward Tepidity, 
and inward Burning of the in- 
i 5^3 iX^.^i 



7f6 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book VlJ 

But all, as if the Plague that fir'd their Blood, 
Deftroy'd all Virtue, Modefty, and Good, 
Lay NAKED, wifliing ftill for cooling Air, 
Or ran to Springs, and hop'd to find it there : 
1 135 And fome leapt into Wells ; in vain: the Heat, 
Or ftill increased, or ftill remain 'd as great. 



NOTES, 



In 



fecSed inthefe Words. Jictj to 
fjS0 i'i,cti'^i)i cC'/lo^o) aoofjLd} ax 
^ya^v Srsf/^ov j^v, are X^^'^h ctM* 

o*To? arcos c*t*/e/Oj oos:i fiviTZ 

TCJV 'STCLW h^TrjcoV IjJLOiliCaV Xj CTiV- 

31 >'U/^vov ctV£X.^S^. Their Bodies, 
fays he, outwardly to the Touch, 
were not very hot, nor pale ; but 
reddilh, livid, and beflower'd 
with little Pimples and Whelks : 
yet inwardly, they burn'd to that 
Degree, as not to indure any the 
lighteft Cloaths, or linnen Gar- 
ments to be upon them, nor any 
Thing, but meer Nakednefs. 
Thus Thucydides : to which I 
add what Hippocrates, Aph. 48. 
teaches. That in Fevers, which 
have no Intermiffion, it is a fatal 
Symptom, when the outward 
Parts of the Body are cold, and 
the inward burning. 

1 131. As if, &c. ] This 
Thought our Tranflatour has 
not copy'd from his Authour, 
but is beholden for it to the Bi- 
jfliop of Rochefter, who, in his 
Plague of Athens^ Stanza 17. 
' fays J 

So /Vrong the He^t, fo ftrong the 
Torments were, 
They, like fome mighty Bur- 
den, bear 
The lighteft Covering of Air : 
All Sexes, and all Ages do in- 
vade 
The Bounds which Nature 
lay'd, 
The Laws of Modefty, which ilie 
her felfhad jnadej 



The Virgins bluili not, yet un- 

cloath'd appear; 
Undrefs'd they run about, yet 
never fear : 
The Pain and the Difeafe did 

now 
Unwillingly, reduce Men to 
That Nakednefs once more, 
Which perfea Health and Inno- 
cence caus'd before. 

1 1 35. And fome, &c.] Diodorus 
Siculus in the twelfth Book of 
his Hiftory, fpeaking of this 
Plague, fays, that the Sick felt 
fo intolerable a Heat within 
them, that many caft themfelves 
into the very Wells and Foun- 
tains, hoping to cool and refre^i 
their Bodies : But Thucydides 
relates this better, and more con- 
fonantly to Truth. ''Hjjfot, 
fays he, Tg etV 1$ vSco^ "^^XC?' 
o-fpcTr o/jraV fi7r%Vy X) 'sroMol 

^^^yJKei TO T <SErA';OV Xj SAAOSOV 'zzro- 

rov ' That is to fay. They would 
moft willingly have caft them- 
felves into cold Water : and many 
of them, that were not look'd to, 
pofTefs'd with infatiable Thirft, 
ran to the Wells : and to drink 
much or little was indifferent. 
This infatiable Thirft with which 
they were tormented, is finely d^- 
fcrib'd by the B. of R. in the 
Poem a'povecited. Stanza 16. 

The Streams did wonder, that fo 

foon 
As they were from their native 

Mountains gone^ 



iookVI. LUCRETIUS. 7^7 

In vain they drank ; for when the Water came 
Toth' burning Breast, it hilVd before the Flame: 
And thro* each Mouth did Streams of Vapours rife, 
1 140 Like Clouds, and darken'd all the ambient Skies. 
The Pains continu'd, and the Body dead, "^ 

And fenfelefs all, before the Soul was fled : > 

" i.S 

No 



Physicians came, and faw, and fhook their Head 



NOTES, 



They faw themfelves drunk 1 
up -, and fear 

Another Xerxes Army near : 
Some caft into the Pit the Urn, 
And drink it dry at its Re- 
turn : 
Again they drew, again they 

drank ; 
it Rril the Coolnefs of the 

Stream they thank ; 
ut ftraic the more werefcorch'd, 

the more did burn, 
ind, drunk with Water, in their 
drinking fank : 
Some fnatch'd the Waters up ; 
Their Hands, their Mouths 
the Cup : 
They drunk, and found they 

flam'd the more, 
ind only added to the burning 

Store, 
o have I feen on Lime cold Wa- 
ter thrown ; 
Strait all was to a Ferment 

grown, j| 
i.nd fuddain Seeds of Fire toge- 

gether run : 
The Heap was calm and tempe- 
rate before. 
Such as the Finger could in- 

dure ; 
But when the Moiftures it pro- 
voke. 
Then did it rage, and fwell, 

and fmoke, 
md move, and flame, and burn, 
and ftrait to Allies broke. 

= The Heat, 

)r flill increas'd, or ftill re- 
main'd as great, Lucretius 
'.ys, 

ifedabiliter fitis aridii corpora 
m,er(^ns 



TEquabat multum parvis humo- 
ribus imbrcm. 

i. e. fo great and fo unquenchable 
was their Thirft, that a great 
Quantity of Water feem'd to 
them to be but a little Water : 
But fome, in/lead of parvis, read 
pravis ; and then the Senfe muit 
be this : The Malignancy of the 
Humours, which were the Caufe 
of their Thirftinefs, equal'd, and 
at length eluded, the great Plen- 
ty of Water they drank : Hence 
it came to pafs, that they, who 
drank but little, underwent the 
like Danger with thofe who drank 
a great deal : fpr their Thirft 
was not extinguifli'd, tho' they 
drank ever fo much. This lafl: 
Interpretation feems to agree 
beft with the PafTage of Thucy- 
dides next above-cited. 

1 137. In vain, &c.] This and 
the three following Verfes our 
Tranflatour has added, by way 
of Paraphrafe, to his Authour. 

1 141. The Pains, &c.] In thefe 
3. v. he teaches, that no Remedy 
could be found to expel this 
Difeafe ; fo new and unknown 
till then was this raging Pefti- 
lence. Thus too Manilius, fpeak- 
ing of this Plague j 

Qualis ErecTtheos peftis populata 

colonos 
Extulit antiquas per funera pa- 

cis Athcnas, 
Alter in alterius lubens citm fata 

ruebat ; 
Nee locus artis crat medicie ; neq 

YOta Yakbant ; 



Cellera 



7^8 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book VI 



No Sleep, the pain'd and weary'd Man's Delight : 
1145 Their firy Eyes, like Stars, wak'd all the Nighr. 
Befides ; a thoufand Symptoms more did wait. 
And told fad News of coining hafty Fate : 

Diftradec 
N O T £ 5". 



CelTerat officium morbis, & fu- [ 

nera deerant 
Mortibus & lacrimse : feiius de- 

fecerat ignis, 
Et coacervatis ardebant corpora 

niembris. 
Which Sir Edward Sherburne 
thus renders : 
Thro* Eredhean Lands when 

that Plague ftray'd. 
And Athens wafte by peaceful 

Fun'rals lay'd. 
When each contraded others 

Death ; then Art 
No Cure could find, nor PrayVs 

could Help impart : 
Care to the Sick, and Fun'rals 

to the Dead, 
Ev'n Tears were wanting ; thofe 

no Mourners flied : 
The weary'd Flame did from its 

Office ceafe, 
And Heaps of fir'd Bones burnt 

the dead CarcafTes. 

ButifourPoetin this Place, as 
|n others, imitates Thucydides, 
then this is not his meaning : for 
that Hiftorian only fays, that 
whatever Remedy was apply 'd to 
yirocure Sleep to the Sick, they 
were ftill as far from Eafe, and 
the Power to fleep as ever. 

1 1 44. No Sleep,] Hippocrates, 
Epidem 6. fays, that nothing is 
more deftrudive of human Na- 
ture, or impoveriflies, and waftes 
the Spirits, Blood, and Strength 
more, than watching, and want 
of Sleep : truly therefore does 
Ovid fing ; 

Quod caret altern^ requie dura- 
bile non eft : 
yixc reparat vires, fsiTaque- 
msmbra novat. 

Heroidc Epift, ;« 



See the Note on Book IV. v. 905 
And the Phyficians obferving thi 
fatal Symptom, had reafon, a 
Lucretius expreifes it, tacito mul 
fare timore, to mutter to them 
felves for fear : For, being at 
Stand what to do, they went a 
way without prefcribing, and lei 
their Patients in Defpair of R( 
lief. This Symptom too, ani 
the Effe<fts of it, are finely de 
fcrib'd by the BiHiop of Roch. 

No Sleep, no Peace, no Reft, 
Their wand'ring and affrighte 
Minds pofTefs'd : 
Upon their Souls and Eyes 
Hell and eternal Horrour lies ; 
Unufual Shapes, and Images, 
Dark Pictures, and Refem 
blances 
OfThingstocome, and of th 
World below, 
To their diftemper'd Fanfic 

flow, 
Sometimes they curfe, fome 

times they pray 
The Gods atfPve, the God 
beneath ; 
Sometimes they Cruelties anc 

Fury breathe ; 
Not Sleep, but Waking now, wa 
Sifter unto Death. 

Plague of Athens, Stanz. 17 

114^. Befides ; &c.] In theA 
14. V. he mentions many othe 
Tokens of Death, that happen'c^ 
to thofe, who were vifitsd wit! 
this Plague ; and which he ha; 
chiefly taken from Hippocrates 
in Prognoft. For Thucydide: 
fcarce mentions any of them. 

1148- I>i 



iook VI. 



LUCRETIUS. 



7^9 



Diftradted Mind, and fad and furious Eyes ; 
Short Breath, or conftant, deep, and hollow Sighs, 

And 
IJ O T E S. 



1148. Diftra<f^ed Mind,] Lu- 
retius fays, 

'erturbata animi mens in moe- 
rore metuque ; 

n which the Poet intimates, a 
otal Dejcdlion of Mind, occa- 
'on'd by too deep a Senfe and 
i^pprehenfion of the dangerous 
tate they were in, and which was 
levitably follow M by Defpera- 
ion ; and all this was only the 
ecelTary EfFe<ft of their Difeafe : 
'or the atrabileous Blood, that 
/as engender'd by the violent 
v.duftion, irrigated the internal 
•arts of the Difeas'd : and, by 
tie unanimous Confent,and con- 
tant Obfervation of Phyficians, 
klelancholy, Fear, Sorrow, and 
he like, are the necelTary Con- 
bquences of fuch Blood, as well 
s of any other melancholick, ex- 
effive Humour ; I fay, exceffive,: 
^or, tho' Men, in whofe Bodies 
my melancholick Humour pre- 
vails, are naturally inclin'd and 
"abjecft to Grief and Fear ; yet, if 
:hat Humour be not exceflive, 
Imd, either in Quantity or Qiia- 
I ity, tranfgrefs not the Bounds of 
Nature, it never fcduces or over- 
;hrows the Mind. 

Sad and furious Eyes j] In the 
Driginal we read. 

Trifle fupercilium •, furiofus vul- 
tus, 6c acer. 

e. Difconfolate Eyes, and frown- 
ing Eye-brows, together with a 
Scernnefs and Wiidnefs of Look. 
Thefe Symptoms, of which Thu- 
xydides is filent, Lucretius has 
iborrow'd of the Coan Didator, 
Avho, in Coac. Pra:fag. lib. i. 
5e<ft. 2. cap. 3, teaches, that a 
5ood Colour in the Face, with 
1 WiUnefa of Afpe^fij is an ill 



Sign in acute Difeafes ; in which 
too, frowning Eyebrows are a 
Mark of Frenfy. But, as we 
fliall hear by and by, the Con- 
ftitution of the whole Face was 
alter 'd and amifs ; therefore ic 
portended fomething worfe than 
Frenfy. But tho* a frowning 
Forehead prefage a Frenfy in 
acute Difeafes ; becaufe the Blood, 
by reafon of its Corruption is 
degenerated into a plenteous 
Quantity of bileous and melan- 
cholick Humour ; yet it is often 
obferv'd in fome, even when they 
are in perfe(ft Health ; nor does 
it portend any thing dreadful in 
them ; tho' fome are apt to be 
iliy of their Converfation. But 
the Sternnefs and Wiidnefs of 
Countenance, mention*d by Lu- 
cretius, was a moft certain To- 
ken, not of an imminent, but of 
a prefent, Frenfy, occafion'd by 
the Inflammation of the bileous 

I Humour, accompany'd by the 
Corruption that bred it , ei- 
ther in the Prsecordia, or in the 
Brain, that already fympathiz'd 
with the inferior Parts. 

1149. Short Breath, or conftant, 
deep, and hollow Sighs^] Lucre- 
tius fays, 

Creber fpiritus, baud ingenSj ra- 
roque coortus. 

For the better underftanding of 
which we muft take Notice ; 
that the Relpiration in Animals, 
which is truly a mixt Function, 
it being both natural and volun- 
tary, was excellently inftituted 
by provident Nature, chiefly for 
the Refrefliment of the Heart: 
For when flie had made the Heart 
the chief Seat and Refidence of 
the innate Heat, from whence 
that vivifying and lively Power 
is, thro' the Tubes of the Veins 

and 



LUCRETIUS, 



j6o 

and Arteries, as likewife thro' 
invifible Pores, communicated 
to the Body of the Animal, it 
u'as of neceffity, that this Mem- 
ber fliould be hot, and, in fome 
Meafure, inflam'd itfeif, that it 
might fupply with Warmth all 
the other Members* But this 
inSammation would have been 
fatal, or, according to the Na- 
ture of all Fires, a moft certain 
Suffocatioii had enfu'd, had ilie 
not wifely provided againft it, 
as well by the Introdudion of 
cooling Air, as by the Expullion 
and Excretion of the fuliginous 
Vapours, engender'd in the 
Heart ; the firft of which is per- 
form'd by Infpiration •, the laft, 
by what we call Expiration. But 
between both thefe reciprocating 
and alternate Motions two Refts 
or Intervals neceflarily intervene : 
wherefore the chief Differences of 
Refpiration are diftinguifli'd, in 
regard to the Time of the Mo- 
tion, into 

Quick, Moderate, Slow, 
In regard to the Kelts, or Inter- 
vals, into 
Thick, Moderate, Rare : 

And, in regard to the Extenflon 
of the Organs, into 
Great, Moderate, Small. 

Now the Organs of Refpiration 
are the whole Thorax, but chief- 
ly the Midriff; on whofe Mo- 
tion the Lungs are extended eve- 
ry way, and receive the external 
Air: iDUt when the Midriff ceafes 
to move, the Lungs fall down, 
and breathe out the fuperfluous 
Air, together with the fumid no- 
cent Exhalation : and by thefe 
alternate Breathings, the Indem- 
nity of the ever-burning Heart 
is wifely fecur'd. Since therefore, 
by the common Confent of all, 
the vital Faculty and even 
Life itfeif, are chiefly due to 
this Member , it is confo- 
nant to Rcafon, that they, who, 
by Rules of Art, are to judge of 
she Iflue of a Difeafe. and ©f £he 



Book VI I 



State of their Patients, Hiould 
almoft preferably to the Motior | 
of their Arteries, obferVe th< 
manner of their Breathing, whicl 
Nature governs, according as th( 
Heart requires. With good Rea 
fon therefore has Lucretius, enu 
meratihg the fatal Symptoms ol 
thofe who were vilited with this 
Plague, taken Notice of the Dif 
ficulty and Diforder of their Re- 
fpiration, which he expreffes af 
ter the Manner of Phylicians 
making a threefold Diftindliof 
of it. Thefe feveral Diforders o 
their Refpiration he has bor 
rovv'd from Hippocrates, and thi 
firft he takes notice of, is, crebei 
Spiritus, a Thicknefs or Frequen- 
cy of Breathing, which is fpoker 
in regard to the Refts or Inter 
vals : and this, fays Hippocrates 
in Prognoftic. cap. 24.. denotes 
a Pain, or an Inflammation in 
the Parts that are above the Praj- 
cordia : Secondly, baud ingens. 
not great, which admits of a 
double Interpretation^ either that 
in regard to the Extenlion of the 
Organs, their Refpiration was 
moderate, and in due Order ; or 
fmall : both which neverthelefs 
contradict Hippocrates, who, in 
the Place above-cited, fays inex- 
prefs Words, that their Refpira- 
tion was great and ftrong, with 
long Intervals interpofing : How- 
ever, as Galen, in Prog. Com. 
obferves, in the Torment they 
fuffer'd, their Refpiration might 
be both frequent and fmall, Na* 
ture already growing weak, and 
tending to a Decay ; and their 
Organs being difOrder'd with 
Inflammations. Thus too Hip- 
pocrates himfelf, in Coacis Pra2- 
notion. teaches, that a frequent 
and fmall Refpiration betokens 
an Inflammation and Pain in the 
princip2l Parts : now we have 
heard already, that they were af- 
flided with a Peripneumony and 
Frenfy ; wherefore their Refpira- 
tion, as Lucretius fays, might be, 
haud ingens, nor great, but mo- 
derate^ Ota even in the other Ex- 

treum, 



Book VI. 



LUCRETIUS, 



l6i 



1 1 50 And buzzing Ears ; and much, and frothy Sweat,' 
Spread o'er the Neck ; and Spittle, thin with Heat,' 

But 
NOTES. 



tream, fmall, and bdow the due 
Mediocrity, The third and laft 
Difference of their difficult Re- 
l^iratioti, and which Lucretius 
expreiles by rare coortus, a Rare- 
nefs or Seldomnefs of Breathing, 
relates to the Time of the Mo- 
tion, and is explain'd by Ga- 
len, in Com, t. 24. Progn. where 
he teaches, that a Rarenefs of 
Breath, that is to fay, when the 
Refts or Intervals are long, if 
the Refpiration be great and 
ftrong in regard to the Extenfion 
of the Organs, indicates a Deli- 
rium ; if fmall, an Extin<flion 
of the innate, or natural Heat. 

II 50. Buzzing Ears,] Lucre- 
tius fays, 

Sollicit^ porrOj plenvX'que fonori- 
bus aures ; 

Thefe were Tokens that the Hu- 
mours were crept upwards by the 
Ducfl of the Arteries : • and Hip- 
pocrates, in Coacis Pr^efagiis, 
teaches, that Sounds and Noifes 
in the Ears, are a deadly Symp- 
tom in acute Difeafes. 

. -Much and frothy Sweat, 

Spread o'er the Neck ;] Lucretius 
fays, 

Sudorifque madens per collum 
Iplendidus humor. 

And this too he borrow 'd from 
iHippocrates , in Progn. who 
'there teaches, that Sweats are ve- 
ry good in all acute Difeafes, if 
they happen at a critical Time, 
jand intirely allay the Fever : 
That they are good like wife, if 
:hey come from the whole Body, 
md make the Patient the more 
liRly bear his Difeafe : but if 
-hey effe<fl nothing of this, they 
ire not in the leaft beneficial : 
rhas cold SweafSj ijnd fuc-h as 



come only about the Head, Faccj 
and Neck, are the worft of all, 
and, for the moft part, very dan- 
gerous Symptortis. Befides ; thofe 
that labour under Impofthuma- 
tions, efpecially fuch as are caus'd 
by a Pleurilie, or by an Inflam- 
mation of the Lungs, are fubjecfl 
to fweat about the Neck. Thus 
Hippocrates : and from hence we 
fee, that the Peripneumony, or 
Inflammation and Impofthume 
of the Lungs, under which the 
infeded Athenians labour'd, was 
the Caufe of this fatal Symptom. 
1 1 51. Spittle thin with Heat, 
&c.] The Words in the Origi* 
nal are, 

Tenuia fputa, miniita, ctoci coil* 

tincfla colore, 
Salfaque, per l^uces raucas vix 

edita tuiii. 

Which is taken almolt Word for 
Word from Hippocrates, in thd 
Place laft above-cited : where he 
fays, that the worft forts of Spit- 
tle are thofe that are yellow, ot 
of a reddifli Colour; or that 
caufe a violent Coughing, and 
that are thin, and come away in 
little Qiiantity. Now Lucretius 
calls thefe Spittles tenuia, thin, 
which is a Mark of their crudity, 
in regard to their Subflance ; nii- 
nuta, that is to fay, fewer than 
they ought to be, in regard to 
their Qiiantity, croci contincfti 
colore, yellowiih, which was a 
Mark of their bileous Nature 5 
and, falfa, fait, which Quality 
was due to the Corruption of the 
Humours, or to a mixture of fale 
and ferous Humidity : for thefe 
are the Caufes, that Galen him- 
felf, 2. de diff". Feb. cap. 6. af- 
figns, of thefaltnefs of Humours* 
And then the Poet, to iliew us 
I that thefe were not only the Ex- 
s E cremenss 



762 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book VI. 



But fait, and yellow; and, the Jaws being rough. 
Could hardly be thrown up with violent Cough : 
The Nerves contradled, Strength in Hands did fail. 

And 

NOTES. 



erementsof the Brain, that are 
often purg'd away by {pitting, 
and are call'd Spittle, adds, per 
fauces raucas vix editatuffi, i. e. 
that they could fcarce be thrown 
up, by Coughing, thro' their 
hoarfe- founding Jaws : for it is 
the proper Fundtion and folc Bu- 
linefs of a Cough, to ferve the 
Members that are imploy'd in 
Kefpiration, and to extrude and 
throw from thence vjhatever is 
molefcing to them.; And the 
Hoarfnels Lucretius mentions, 
proceeded from the Exafperation 
of the Larinx, occaiion'd by a 
Defluxion of fait Phlegm, which 
likewife fell upon the Lungs, and 
shen caus'd a violent Cough. 

1 1 54. The NerveSj &cc,~} Lu- 
eretius fays, 

In manibus vero trahier nervi — 

This Contrac'rion of the Nerves 
©f the Hands was a fure Token 
of prefent Convulfions, which, 
as we have feen alreadv, proceed- 
ed, according to Thucydides, 
from what he caWs Mjyt, )Li)yi) an 
empty Hicket. See above in the 
iNote on V. 1122. Now a Con- 
"vulfion is an involuntary Con- 
^raiTtion of the Parts, that com- 
^^nunicate and partake with the 
Nerves, proceeding from a pre- 
^-^rnaturai Ciiufe. But whe:her 
fome of our modern Phyficians, 
who diifer from the Antients, in 
afTigning feveral other Caufes of 
Convulhons, than rhofe which 
thefe laft: ailow'd of, be in the 
i'ight, it is not our Bufinefs in 
this Place to inquire. Hippo- 
crates, 8. de Comp. Med. poil- 
$ively afiierEs, Thar there are but 
%vrQ-C,mfQS of C^RTiUilon v vi-iJ^ 



Repletion and Inanition : And 
Galen too, firmly avouches, that 
no third Caufe can be found out: 
for the Siccity or Drynefs, which 
the fame Authour more than 
once affirms to be the Caufe of 
Spafms, is included in, and re- 
duc'd to, Inanition. The Hands 
therefore of the Infecfted were 
convuls'd, by reafon of the Dry- 
nefs and Inanition of the Nerves, 
and of the whole inflam'd Body, 
that was weaken'd and brought 
low by a manifold Evacuation * 
Befides ; an Eryfipelas, from 
whence proceeded a Phrenfy,bad 
iiez'd the Brain, and all its Mem- 
branes •, hence the pernicious Fil- 
thinefs of the corrupted Blood 
was imparted to the Marrow of 
the Spina, or Back-bone, from 
the firll Knuckles or Joints of 
which arife the Nerves of the 
Hands and Fingers. Thus that 
Corruption, falling down, doub- 
led the Difficulties, irritating, 
and filling, or choaking up the 
Ducfls of voluntary Motion! 

Here our Tranilatour has o- 
mitted tht; latter Part of the 
Verfe above-cited, in which his 
Authour mentions another Symp- 
tom, that attended this Difeafe : 
viz. a Trembling of the JointSj^ 

I In manibus vero trahier nervi, 
3c tremere artus. 

Nov/, according to the Definition 
of Phylicians, Tremor eft Symf>- 
toma in adione Isjfa ', and this 
happens when the voluntary mo- 
tive Faculty is deprav'd, by rea- 
fon of its Difproportion to it{ 
own Objecft, \vhich is the Body 
For, fince, in the Concretion o 
Annuals, the Elemenes ©f Fartl 



And 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 76 

1 1 55 And Cold crepe from che Feet, and fpread o'er all : 

N O T i7 5, 

and Water are predominant, and 
lince they are for that Reafon by 
Nature heavy, whatever moves, 
would by natural Inclination al- 
ways defcend, unlefs the motive 
Faculty fuftain'd and kept it up : 
and if that Faculty be ftrong, 
and in due Order, all Things 
are perforni'd aright, and ac- 
cording to the ftritjt Command 
of the Will : but if that Faculty 
be wcaken'd or diforder'd ; then 
there immediately arifes a com- 
plicated Motion, which is cail'd 



Ton; inafmuch a?, by Nature, 
they are both thinofFloHi, and 
abound with Nerves ; yec they 
grow cold befides, by realbn oV 
their Diftance from thewixmzik 
Parts of the Body ; the Heat re- 
treating to, and gathering itfelf 
together in, the Jireail, in al- 
moft all Fevers, except in the 
bileous and burning ; and unlefs 
too the Difeafe be nialagnant, as 
this at Alliens was. Galen, in 
his Comment on Epid^ 3. teaches 
the Caufes of this Coldnefs of 
a Trembling; and that proceeds I their Feet : If the Difeafe, fays 
from the motive Faculty's endea- 1 he, be malignant, the extreain 
vouring to lift up the Member* | Parts grow cold, by reafon of the 
which, at the fame Time, by its | Decay of Strength, and the Great- 
Own natural Inclination, is ftri-jnefs of the Inflammation, thac 
ving to fink down. Galen, in his | attracfls the whole Mafs of Blood 
Treatife, de Trem. Palp. cap. 3,1 to itfelf: for without thefe, the 
brings a very evident Example of Difeafe is never mortal. And the 
this alternate Endeavour of the f fame Awthour, in his Commenc 
Faculty and Member : I prefume, | on thisAphorifm of Hippocrates, 
fays he, you have feen, how a I In great Pains of the Belly, a 
Man's L^gs will tremble, if he Coldnefs of the extream Parts is 
ilrives to run apace with a weigh- 1 an ill Sign, compiizes this whole 
ty Burden on his Shoulders : and j Matter in a few Words, The 
how his Hands too will tremble, .' Coldnefs of the extream Parts, 



if he attempts to lift up, and car 
ry, a Weight fuperiour to his 
Strength. Thus Galen : and this 
ihews the Reafon of the Tremb- 
ling of the Joints, as well in old 
Age, as in Difeafes : Well there- 
fore mi^ht their Limbs and 



fays he, is caus'd by the Violence 
of the Inflammation in the 
Bowels: Itproceeds likewife from 
the Defetftion and Decay of the 
vital Faculty ; which happens 
whenever the natural Heat is ei- 
ther extinguiHi'd, or fuffocated. 



Joints tremble, the Strength of 1 by reafon of the great Quantity 
whofe motive Faculty, info great of it, then chiefly, when it be 
and various a Confticft, was ex- comes cold : It is occaljon'd be 
treamly impair'd, and carry'd fides by ?,ny violent Pain, that 
headlong to utter Deftrudion. 

1 1 55. And Cold, &c.] This 
Verie runs thus in the Original : Kacurc is contracted into itfelf, 

and the Blood repairs to it, aban- 



fiezes the middle Parts of the 
Body ; and by means of which 



A pedibufque nilnutatim fuccc- doning not only 
dere frigus Parts of the Bodv 

Kon dubitabat.' 



the extream 

; as the Feet, 

the Hands, and the Head ; but 

the whole Skin likewife : Thus 

The Symptoms grow ftill more Galen : and hence we lee,why the 

•and more dangerous : for, tho'it natural. Heat, that was attack'd 

cannot be controverted, that the | by fo many Enemies, languiili'd 

Feet are cppl »o,t wirhout Rqa- 1 and decay'd, minutatini; as Lu- 

^ 5 E 2 <?,r?(;4^% 



LUCRETIUS. Book VI. 

And when Death came at laft, it chang'd the Nose, 
And made it Sharp, and prefs'd the Nostrils clofe j 
HoIk)w*d the Temples, forc'd the Eye-balls in ; 

And 
N O T £ 5. 



cretius cxprelTes it, by little and 
little, till at length a Coldnefs 
of the extream Parts fucceeded in 
its Place j and that too, perhaps, 
not without a Lividnefs of Co- 
lour ; both which are fatal To- 
kens in all acute Difeafes. 

11^6. And when, &c.3 Here 
the Poet begins to defcribe the 
Symptoms of an imminent and 
near-approaching Death, which 
difcover'd themfelves in the Face 
of the InfecJled. Now, of all 
the feveral Parts, that compofe 
the human Face, the Preference 
is juftly due to the Nofe and 
Noftrilsj becaufe of the Comeli- 
nefs they add to, or detrad from, 
the whole Structure of the Face : 
according to which Opinion Ho- 
race fung long ago j 

Kon magis efie vclim, quam pra- 

Yo vivere nafo 
Specftandum nigris oculis, nigro- 

que capillo. 

But, tho% as Galen, in his Book 
de opt. fee. cap. 26. truly ob- 
ferves, acuminated Noftrils, and 
hollow Eyes are, in fome, To- 
kens of Death ; but natural in 
pthers : yet in the difeas'd Athe- 
nians, of whom our Poet is 
fpeaking, they were preternatu- 
ral, and proceeded from the 
Force of the Difeafe, which had 
overpower'd the Strength of the 
JBody : Since therefore the Coun- 
tenance of the Sick was very un- 
like, and different from, the 
Afpeci of the Healthy, tho' hut 
in one part of it ; we may well, 
with Hippocrates, in Progn. c. 5. 
©ail it a moft dangerous Sym- 
ptom : For a fliarp Nofe and com- 
^irefs'd Jso.itnlsj on :ni^ny Ac- 



counts, portend the worft that 
can happen. The Nofe itfelf is 
composed of two Subftances ; the 
one cartilaginous, the other bony : 
The bony Part of it remains al- 
ways firm and unfliaken ; nor is 
it expos'd to any Motion or Da- 
mage ; but the cartilaginous or 
griftly Subftance of it is fubjed 
to both : for in the firft place, 
the Wings, or round Rifings on 
either lide of the Nofe are mov*d 
naturally by their own Mufdes : 
of which you may confultat large 
Julius CalTerius, in his accurate 
Treatife, de Fabrica Nafi •, but 
with this Caution never thelefsjuot 
to take the two Mufdes, which 
he lately invented, for the Jani- 
tores, as he calls them, Porteys 
of the Nofe, till Ufe and Expe- 
rience convince us, that we can, 
whenever we lift, comprefs the 
Nofe, and contracft or ftraiten 
the Palfages of it. But that ex- 
tream Part of the Nofe, becaufe 
it is more carneous, and contains 
more Humidity than the other, 
is fooner affeded by Difeafes : 
and what great Neceflity foeveir 
urges, the innate Power of Mo- 
tion is taken away from the Muf- 
des, whenever Nature is over- 
power'd, and worn out by Dif- 
eafe : Hence the Noftrils are com- 
prefs'd *, and, what neceflarily 
follows, the Cartilage and Muf- 
cles of the Nofe being grown dry, 
the globulous Part of it is atte- 
nuated and contracted. 

1 1 58.. HoUow'd, dec.'] The 
Caufes of thefe Events we learn 
from Galen, who, in Comnien?. 
Progn. teaches, that fuch Acci- 
dents proceed, either from fome 
Caufe that waftes and corrup;;s 
the carneous P^rts Qi Ajiimah, 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 76^ 

And chili'd, and harden'd all, and ftretch'd the Skin; 
1 160 They lay not long, but foon did Life refign • 
The Warning was but ihort, eight Days or nine. 

If 

NOTES. 



or from the Weaknefs and De- 
cay of the naturalHeat, which can 
no longer extend icfelf into the 
cxtream Parts of the Body •, but 
remains in little Quantity con- 
fin'd to the Bowels only. Beiides ; 
it always happens in thefe Cafes, 
that fo great a Portion of Blood 



varies a little : for his Words are 

3S follows : Kct/ TO crccjjLO., oaoy isi^ 

^I'/o 01 fcsT^eisoi hoi'lcfjiot %j 



and Spirits flows not to the ex-j*?^, zri Ix^^^^ t; (TW/^sto? * 
treara Parts of the Body, as did j that is to fay : As long as the Dif- 
before, when Nature was fully j eafe was at the Height, their Bo- 
provided with them: for which! dies wafted not, but refifted the 
iveafon, a great alteration of the | Torment beyond all Expectation, 
natural Habit of Body is appa-j infomuch that moft of them dy'd 



rcntly difcern'd in the Face : and 
thefe are the Caufes, that the 
Eyes firft of all are contracted 
and hollow 'd : For, being of a 
fofter Subftance than the other 
Parts, they fwell and protuberate 
when they are fupply'd with a 
fufficient Qiiantity of Spirits; but 
for want thereof, they fink in 
and fubfide. Add to this, that 
the Mufdes of the Temples are 
confum'd and wafted away, by 
the Malignancy, or by the Diu- 
turnity, of the Difeafe •, and dif- 
abled Nature is render'd incapa- 
jbleto repair that Lofs : Hence 
the Temples are hollow'd, and, 
I the jugal Bone being prominent, 
the Eyes feem to be funk within 
;heir Sockets. 

1 1 59. Andchlll'd, Scc.l Thefe 
Effedls, according to Galen, pro- 
ceeded from the lame Caufes we 
mention'd before in the Note on 
y. 1 1 55. where we produc'd the 
Authority of that Authour. 

ii(f>o. They lay^ &c.] In thefe 
two Yerfes the Poet tells us, that 
they dy'd generally the eighth or 
ninth Day after they were taken 
f^l^; fron^ which Thucydi^es 



of their inward Burning, in nine 
or feven Days, and whilft they 
yet had Strength. Whoever delires 
to be fatisfy'd of the Power of 
thefe critical Days, in judging of 
Difeafes, may confult Galen, de 
Crifibus de dieb. decretor. where 
his Curiofity will be abundantly- 
contented. I will only take No- 
tice, that the Peftilence, which 
rag'd in Italy, in the Year 1548. 
was much more violent at the 
time of its iirft breaking out : 
I for, as Guido Cauiiacus relates, 
they dy'd within three Days af- 
ter they fell fick : and the Flo- 
rentine Hiftorian, Mattheo Yil- 
lano, fpeaking of the fame Plague , 
fays ; e morivano, chi di fubito, 
chi in due, e chi in tre di : i. e. 
and they dy'd, fome fuddainly, 
fome in two, and fome in three 
Days. And the Plague that dc- 
folated the fame Countrcy in the 
Year i6'^i. was fcarce lefs vio- 
lent •, for it fnatch'd them away 
in three, or four Days at mol^, 
fay the Authours who have writ- 
ten of it. 



766 LUCRETIUS, Book VI, 

, If any liv*d, and fcap'd the fatal Day, 7 

And if their Looseness purg'd the Plague away, ^ 
Or Ulcers drain'd; yet they would foon decay: 3 
1165 Their Weakness kill'd them: Or their poison'd 
Blood, 
AndSTRENGTHjWith horrid Pains, 'thro' Noftrils fiow'd» 
But thofe that felt no Flux, the ftrong Difeafe 
Did oft defcend, and wretched Members fieze : 

And 

NOTES- 



1162. If any, &c.] Here the 
Poet tells us in 13. v. that if any 
chanc'd to efcape, as indeed feme 
of them did, yet even they were 
forc'd to compound for their 
Lives, with the lofs of fome of 
their Members, either their Eyes, 
or their privy Parts, or Feet, or 
Hands : for the whole Virulence 
of the Difeafe, falling upon thofe 
Parts of the Body, caus'd fo great 
a Corruption, that, for fear of 
Death, they were neceftitated to 
fubmit to an Amputation of 
them. Nay, fays he, fo great 
an Oblivion of all things liez'd 
upon fome, that they knew not 
even their own felves, nor remem- 
ber'd who'they were. 

11(^3. And if, &c.] This too 
Xucretius has taken from Thu- 
cydides, who fays : 'Et iictrpJ^ojsv, 

If, fays he, they efcap'd that 
(their inward Burning) then the 
Difeafe falling down into their 
Bellies, and caufing there great 
Exulcerations, and immoderate 
Loofenefs, they dy'd, many of 
them, afterwards thro' Weak- 
nels. 

11^5. Or their polfon'd Blood, 
&C.3 A Pain in the Head is very 
firequent in ail peitilential Difea- 
fes : nay-, fome have thought fit 
to place it among the forerunning, 
Tokens of an arsoroaching Plaque. 



But the Pain, mentioned by Lu- 
cretius, proceeded not from i 
cold, or vaporous Caufe ; but 
from too great a Quantity of 
corrupted Blood ; which opprcfs'e 
the Head with its Weight; in- 
flam'd it with its Heat, and, by 
its Malignancy, diforder'd the 
Membranes of the Brain. Hence 
Nature, rowzing up to her own 
Relief, endeavour'd to expel the 
offenfive Humour thro' the Paf- 
fagesof the Noftrils, which are 
the proper Emun(ftories of the 
Head : But fince the Blood, be- 
fides its over-abundance, was re- 
pleniili'd with a certain Virulen- 
cy, it grew cxtreamly refracftorj 
and rebellious to Nature, and the 
whole Mafs of it, all at once, 
flow'd to the Place, where it had 
found an open Paflfage ; and there 
di fcharg'd itfelf, even as a rapid 
Torrent, whofe Mound is thrown 
down, pours out all its Waters 
thro' the gaping Breach : No 
Wonder therefore, that, as Lu- 
cretius fays, 

Hue hominis tota: vires, corput- 

que fi achat. 

1167. But thofe. Sec."] The Lofs 
of their Members, which Lucre- 
tius mentions in thefe 6. v. fol- 
lowing, is defcrib'd by the 
Hiftorian, in thefe Words : 



Book VL LUCRETIUS. J67 

And there it rag'd with cruel Pains and Smart j 
1 170 Too weak to kill the Whole, it took a Part : 

Some loft their Eyes, and fome prolong'd their Breath,' 
By lofs of Hands : fo ftrong the Fear of Death 1 

The 
NOTES. 



hixovori ' Schol.) ftfeiT'SVoj'Jo, t&Tv 

r&TCDY Sii(pivyovy eiVt o o' ^ '^^^ 
ifpSctAfdoTv. Thucyd. FortheDif- 
jafe, fays he, which iirft of all 
cook the Head, ( fee above 
V. 1 1 04.) began above, and came 
(Sown, and pafs'd through the 
whole Body : and whoever over- 
came the worft of it, was never- 
thelefs mark'd with the lofs of 
fome of his extream Parts : for 
breaking out both at their privy 
Members, and at their Fingers 
and Toes, many efcap'd with the 
lofs of thefe only : There were 
fome likewife that loft their Eyes. 
Thus Thucydides : Yet it might, 
one would think, have been ex- 
pe<fted, that they, who had had 
fo copious a Difcharge of cor- 
rupted Blood thro' the Noftrils, 
would, for the Future, have been 
exempted from any frefli At- 
tack : but Galenjiib. i. deCrifib. 
cap. 3. folves this Difficulty; 
and teaches : That Bleeding at 
Kofe maybe beneficial, if it hap- 
pen at a due Time ; but that 
orherwife it is rather prejudicial. 
Now the corrupted and virulent 
Humours, that wander'd all over 
the Bodies of the Infecfied, may, 
v'jth reafon he believ'd to have 
fallen upon fome of the Mem- 
bers, rather than upon others; 
and particularly, as Lucretius, 
after Thucydides, fays. 



.in partes genitales cor- 



poris ipfas. 
Of which our Tr^nflAtour takes 



no Notice. But the Reafon, why 
the Corruption fell chiefly on 
thofe Parts, is, becaufe of the 
Familiarity and Sympathy be- 
tween them, and the Members 
that ferve to Refpiration : For, 
we have heard already, that the 
greateft Part of the Difcas'd la- 
bour'd under a Peripneumony,or 
Inflammation of the Lungs, 
which had occafion'd a violent 
Cough ; and in thofe Cafes, as 
Hippocrates fays feveral Times 
of his own Experience, the Mat* 
ter generally difcharges itfelf on 
the privy Parts : therefore it is 
not ftrange, that, for fear of 
Death, thofe Wretches furfer'd 
an Amputation of their Puden- 
da ; and, as Lucretius lings, 

Vivebant ferro privati parte vi- 
rili. 

Of which too our Tranflatour is 
wholely filent. And we may 
ealily believe, that the Defluxion 
of Humours on thofe Parts, oc- 
cafion'd fuch a Corruption, as 
reduc'd Phyflcians to their lall: 
Remedies, Amputation and Fire, 
fince Galen, in his Comment on 
Epidem. 3. firmly avouches^ that, 
even where there is no peftilen- 
tial Infedion, if an Inflamma- 
tion, or an Eryfipelas, fiezes oni 
thefe Parts, they very foon cor- 
rupt, and affecf^ the fuperiour 
Parts of the Body : fo that we 
are neceflitated, fays he, to cut 
away the Putrefaction, and to 
feer the Place, as being the Root 
of the Difeafc. 

1 1 7 1 . Some loft their Eyes, &c,3 
Galen, in Com. Epidem. 3. al- 
cribes the Caufe of this lofs of 
M^mberSj only to the Putre- 

fa<ition 



768 L U C% E T I U S. Book VI 

The Minds of fome did dull Oblivion blot ; 
And they their Adions, and themfelves, forgot. 



I 



N T £ 5. 



And 



laaion of the Humours •, the Na- 
ture of which is to corrupt the 
Parts on which it fiezes. Here 
Lucretius is carp'd at by P. Vic- 
torius, in var. Lecftion. for not 
having, as he pretends, kept clofe 
enough to the Narration of Thu- 
cydides : He is excus'd however 
by Lanibinus ; whom Hierony- 
jrnus Mercurialis, lib. 3. var. 
Ledion. cap. 12. accufes of be- 
ing a Plagiary, in the Defence he 
makes for our Authour. 

1 173. The Minds, &c.] Thu- 
cydides in like manner. T«5- 
X, aviOm i^cLju^ccvi ^%ci'']/5tct ctva- 
Soiv%^ Cvyidvl&L^' Scholi ) t^v 
'nralvloov ouoiio^. )o viy)/ox\(Tct.y <r(^fflg 

That is to fay : And many of 
them, prefently upon their Re- 
covery, were taken with fuch an 
Oblivion of all things whatfo- 
ever, that they neither knew 
themfelves, nor their Acquain- 
tance. Tho' the lofs of Memory 
be not uncommon in acute Dif- 
eafes, yet it is frequent in Chro- 
nical Diftempers, that are of a 
long Duration. It is related of 
Bencdifftus Florettus, a Perfon 
of univerfal Learning, who liv'd 
in the laft Age, that having long 
ftruggled with a Difeafe of eight 
M onths Continuance, he at length 
overcame his Adverfary ; but in 
the Conflicft had intirely forgot 
the Greek Tongue, of which he 
had been a great Mafter ; as like- 
wife the Rules of metrical Num- 
bers in all Languages whatfoever. 
Kor does the Memory decay 
through the Means of Difcafes 
only, but of old Age lilcewife; 
and fometimes too it is loft even 
in the Vigour and full Strength 
of Life, either by external, or 
internal Caufes : Well there- 
fore may we declaim with Pliny, 



Memoria nihil arque fragile eft 
in homine, morborum, & cafiis 
injuria?, atque etiam metus feii- 
tiens ; alias particulatim, aliiis 
univerfim, cap. 24.. There is no- 
thing, fays he, in Man fo frail 
as his Memory ', it being obnoxi- 
ous to the Injuries of Difeafes 
and Accidents, nay, even of Fear : 
fometimes it is loft in Part, fome- 
times totally. We need not there- 
fore be aftonifli'd, that they, 
who were vifited with the moft 
acute of all Difeafes, a virulent 
Plague, loft their Memory. The 
only Caufe of which was the Cor- 
ruption of the Humours, which 
had, as I may fay, laid violent 
Hands on Nature, and alienated 
the Parts from their due Con- 
ftitution. It is indeed hard to 
explain the Manner how this 
comes to pafs : but it is almoft 
generally held, tho' fome few are 
of another Opinion, that lofs of 
Memory proceeds, not only from 
a cold and humid Diftempera- 
ture, but from a dry likewife: 
for Galen, 3. de loc. aff. relates 
of his own Knowledge, that this 
Misfortune happened, through 
Drynefs, to a certain ftudious, fe- 
dentary Perfon, and to a fturdy, 
labouring Peafant. The Biiliop' 
of Rochefter, in the following 
Verfes, finely defcribes thefe Mi- 
feries ofthefurviving Athenians ; 
who had been viliced with tljat 
fatal Peftilence, 

But if thro' Strength, or Heat of 

Age, 
The Body overcame its Rage ; 
The vanquifli'd Evil took from 

them, 
Who conquer'd itj fome Parf^ 

fome Limb : 
Some loft the life of Hands, ot 

Eyes *, 
Some, Arms J fomej Legs; fome. 



Thighs. 



Some 



Book VI. 



LUCRETIUS. 



T 175 And tho* the fcacter'd Bodies naked hy. 



7^9 



Yet Beasts refus'd ^ the Birds fled all away, > 

And us*d their Wings to fhun their eafy Prey : J 

They fled the Stench ; whom Tyrant Hungerprefs'd,? 

And forc'd to tafte, he prov'd a wretched Guest - ^ 

1 80 The Price was Life : It was a coftly Feaft 1 ^ 

Few 
NOTES, 



Some all their Lives before 
forgot ; 

Their Minds were but one dar- 
ker Blot : 

Thofe various Pidlures in the 
Head, 

And all the num'rous Shapes 
were fled : 

And now the ranfack'd Me- 
mory 

Languifli'd in naked Pover- 
ty, 
i And loft its mighty Treafury ; 
I They pafs'd the Lethe Lake, al- 
tho' they did not die. 

Plague of Athens, Stan. 13. 

1 175. And tho', &c.] Inthefe 
i2. v. the Poet defcribes the great 
I Corruption, that attended this 
jPeftilence : and which, fays he, 
iwas fo exceffivc, that even the 
Birds and Bcafts of Prey, but 
:rpecially the Dogs, who had taft- 
?d of the dead Bodies , dropt 
down dead immediately : Nay, 
To noifome was the Stench of the 
Linbury'd Carcaffes, that neither 
in Athens, nor around the City, 
were any ravenous Birds ieen by 
I Day, nor any wild Beafts by 
jNight. In like manner Thucydi- 
:des, Ta ^ ^'pi'Sct ^ T/Z^TrotTct, ooa 
tt\^pco7rct}v doVIs''), ■•3Lro?v^a)'v alTcl<bcov 

viiu S'iz(pe^ipi}o, i. e. The Birds 
ind Beafts, that us'd to feed on 
luman FleHi, tho' many Bodies 
"ay abroad unbury'd, either came 
lot at them ; or, if they tafted, 
Dorifli'd. Thus too the Bifli.op 
3f Rochefter.in the Poem above- 
?itedj Stanza i8, 



Scattered in Fields the Bodies 
lay : 
The Earth call'd to the Fowls to 
take their Flefli away : 
In vain ilie call'd j they came 
not nigh, 
Nor would their Food with their 

own Ruin buy •, 
But, at full Meals, they hunger, 

pincj and die : 
The Vultures afar off beheld the 
Feaft, 
Rejoic'd, and call'd their 

Friends to tafte : 
They rally'd up their Troops 
in hafte : 
Along came mighty Droves, 
Forfook their young Ones, and 
their Groves •, 
Each one his native Mountain, 

and his Neft : 
They come ; but all their Car- 
caffes abhor ; 
And now avoid the dead Men 
more. 
Than weaker Birds the living 

Men before : 
But if fome bolder Fowl the Fleili 
elTay, 
They were deftroy'd by their 
own Prey. 

1 178. They fled the Stench -,3 
Thucydides lays only, that they 
came not near the dead Bodies, 
but gives not the Reafon of it i 
that is to fay, whether it hap- 
pened out of any natural In- 
ftind, which is often obfcrv'd 
in Brutes ; or whether any of 
their Senfes gave them Notice of 
the Danger. But Lucretius takes 
away this Difficulty, and faysj 
that the wary Birds and Beafts of 
Prey were admonilli'd by theit' 
\ F Smell j 



'no LUCRETIUS, Book VI. 

Few Birds appear'd ; no Wing could ferve for Flight: 
The Beasts fcarce dar'd to truft themfelves to Night: 

The 
NOTES. 



Smell, to Iteep away from the I 
dead CarcalTes, uc acrem, fays 
^he, exirent odorem. Now of ail 
thefeither'd Kind, the Vulture 
is faid to have the molt exquifite 
^SmeJl, or even to know betore- 
hand where he iliall find his 
Prey. This is confirm'd beyond 
ail Difpute, if we may credit 
Horus ^gyptius, a very antient 
Authour, who fays-, That, in 
Time of War, Vultures repair 
feven Days before, to a Place 
where a Battel will be fought : 
and even that they haunt chiefly 
about that Part of the Army, 
where the greateft Slaughter will 
bs made. But, allowing this to 
be true, it can not be afcrib'd to 
their Smell, or any other of their 
Senfes, but rather to a prefaging 
Inilind, that Nature has con- 
fer'd upon them : A Credulity, 
which Plautus long ago derided, 
when he faid. 

Quail vulturij tridub prius divi- 

nabant, quo die eiituri lient. 
And indeed, who, but a fuper- 
ftitious Augur, can give credic to 
fo extravagant a Notion ; or 
believe, that Vultures, by their 
Smell, can diftinguilh between 
Bodies that are co die in a few 
Days, or to live a longer time. 
The Truth is, that they gene- 
nerally keep with Armies, be- 
caufe they feed on the Garbage 
and Offals of Beafts, a great 
Number of which are daily 
llain for the Subfiftence of fuch 
a Multitude of Men. 

1 18 1. Few Birds &cO Lucre- 
tius fays, 

Nee tamen omninb temere ijlis 

folibus uila 
Comparebat avis : ■ 

This too is confirm'd by Thucy- 



dides in thefe Words : TsK/^/g^Oj, 
(viz. modb dida vera efle) 

i. e. An Argument that what I 
faid, touching the Birds, is true^ 
was the manifeft Defe(ft of fuch 
Fowl, which were not then feen, 
neither about the Carcalfes, nor 
any where elfe. 

1 182. The Beads, &c.] Lucre- 
tius, to augment the Horrour, 
adds this Circumltance, of which 
Thucydides is filent *, That even 
the wild Beafts hid themfelves in 
their Dens, where neverthelefs 
they dy'd at length of the Infe<fti- 
on : a moft certain Argument, 
that the Difeafe overcame the 
Strength of all mortal Animals; 
and that too not only of the Bo- 
dy, but of the Mind : infomuch 
that its Rage and Cruelty, far 
fur mounted all E^ipreflion of 
Words; as Thucydides obferves, 
and made it appear to be a kind 
of Sicknefs, which exceeded hu- 
mane Nature in the Fiercenefs 
with which it handled every one ; 
and likewife to be none of thofe 
Difcafes that are bred amongft 
us. But from this PaiTage of our 
Authour we may m.ake two Ob- 
fervations : Firft, That a Plague 
is common to all Animals, and 
propagated from Men into 
Beafts ; and, on the contrary, 
from Beafts into Men : Secondly, 
That a peftilential Venom does 
not end with the Life ; but re- 
mains in the dead Body; tho' it 
be not fo virulent by reafon of the 
Want of Heat : But when the 
putrilaginous Heat has fucceedeJ 
in the Place of the natural, ite- 
mits a pernicious and fatal Infedli* 
on, as may be prov'd by many 
Experiments ; This is indeed 

contrc 



I 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. yjr 

The Plague walk'd thro' the Woods ; in ev'ry Den 
They lay, and figh'd, and groan*d,and dy'd, like Men. 
1185 Tiie faithful Dogs did Jie in evry Street, 
An(i dy'd at their departing Masters Feet. 
Diforder'd Funerals were hurry 'd on j 

No 
NOT E S. 



clearer. For To Hobbes has ren. 
der'd it : But why may not thg 
Q^^To (tuvJiow'/ccSJ^, be rather in- 
terpreted^ob convidum, becaufe 
of their eating of the fame fort 
of Food ? For it not only indi- 
cates the Contagion, which is 
the moft potent Propagator of 
PlagueSj even into Men, but a 
certain, 1 know not what, fick- 
ly Preparative, or Analogy, as 
they call it, proceeding from a 
common Food with particular 
Men. Nardius relates, that he 
knew a certain Prince, who was 
taken with a violent Vomiting of 
Blood, that was occafion'd by aa 
external Caufe : this Prince was 
extreamly fond of one of his 
Grey-hounds ; who, not long af- 
ter, of his own accord, and with- 
»^,.v. ^,xvw«.... ^^c,. u. ft.uti ^"^ having receiv'd the leaft 
whom Silius'ltaUrus'lTa^'copy^^^^^ J Hurt, vomited Blood likewife ; 

I till at length he dy'd, waited 
with a long Difeafe, and fwell'd 
with a Dropfie ; all which Acci- 
dents had likewife happen'd to 
his Matter: and, what is yet 
more ft range, the Bowels of both 
of them were obferv'd tobetaint- 



eontroverted by fbme *, but to 
no Purpofe : for their main Ar- 
gument is, the Example they 
dring of venomous Animals , 
which neverthelefs, they fay, re- 
tain no Poifon after they are 
kill'd '. But common Obfervati- 
on abundantly evinces the con- 
trary. 

1 185. The faithful Dogs, &c.] 
It is generally teftify'd by all Au- 
thours, that Dogs have been firft 
infetf^ed with, and, before any 
other Animals, have felt the firft 
Fury of, a coming Plague. Thus 
Homer, in Iliad. H. expofes, 
jiu'iur OLpyov^'y the white Dogs 
firft to the Infedion : And 

Strage canum primb, 

fays Ovid ; Metam. lib. 8. after 



Vim primi fenfere canes.- 



lib. 14, 

And the Reafon, why Dogs feel 

the firft Attacks of a peftilential, 

contagious Difeafe, 

Euftath 

exquifite 

tvhich ^lian 



-u.n yiiuan "^ewiie approves. ; j^^-^^j ^j during the 
Others blame lihe peftilent Ex- j 'J'^ ^^ ^^ \^ However, 
halationsof the Earth, to which, 1 .. ^n -^ 

fay rhey, the Dogs, by reafon of l^'V^'^^^ 
their Proximity to it, are moft \ ^^^J ^^^ 

obnoxious. But the Opinion ofj^. a:.:. 

Thucydides, which wemention'd 
before, feems the moft plaufible. 
'Oi xi^'is> , fays he, yuaMov ouo^u- 

TO ^vv^imIa^:, • which Hobbes 
thus renders. But by the Dogs, 
becaufe they are familiar with 
Mqh,; this £yeiu was feen much 



is moft notorious, how much 

Ceremony the An- 

d more particularly the 

fuperfticious Athenians, v.-ere 

wont to beftow on the Funerals 

of their Dead : Of which we fliall 

have occalion to fpeak more ac 

large on v. 1216. Mean while 

what Lucretius here intimates is. 

That no folem.n Pomp or Rices 

v/ere obferv'd ; that no Friends 

uor Relations attended the deaei 

r, F 2 Bodies 



772 LUCRETIUS^ Book VL 

No decent Mourners, nor a friendly Groan : 
Kegledling others Fates, all wept their own. 

No 
1^ O T E S. 



lies to their funeral Piles ; 
but either fuffer'd them to lie 
abroad unbury'd, or caft them 
carelefslyon the Piles that had 
been prepared for others. This 
tumultuous Diforder of their 
Funeralsjis finely defcrib'd by the 
Billiop of Rochefter, 

Mountains of Bones ^nd Car- 
cafTes 

The Streets, the Market-Place 
pofTefs, 
Threat'ning to raife a new Acro- 
polis. 

The Woods gave fun*ral Piles 
no more ; 

The Dead the very Fire de- 
vour. 
And that almighty Conqu'rour 
over-pow'r. 

The noble and the common 
Duft 

Into each others Graves are 
thruft : 

Ho Place is facred, and no 
Tomb ; 

''Tis now a Privilege to con- 
fume : 

Their Allies no Diftindion 
had : 
Too truly all by Death are equal 

made ; 
And poor Men's Bones the noble 
Urns invade. 



Plague of AtJiens, Stanza 3 



o. 



■: 188. No decent Mourners, &c.] 
Tears and bewailing the Dead 
were no fmall Part of funeral 
jExeguies; whence Servius on Vir- 
gil, 7£n. 11. fays, Sine fietu non 
eft fepulcura ; the Want of Tears 
Being accounted as great a Mis- 
fortune, as even the Deprivation 
©f Funeral itfelf. Therefore Vir- 
gil," in ii^'n. II. joins them as 
alike calamitous -' 



Nos, animje viles, inhumata, in- 
fletaque turba : 

And Ovid, in Metamorph.i i. in- 
troduces the drowned Ceyx ap- 
pearing, and fpeaking thus, to 
Haley one : 

Surge, age, da lacrymas, lugu- 
briaque indue, nee me 

Indeploratum fub inania Tart^- 
ra mitte. 

Which Sandys thus renders ; 

Rife, weep, and put on Black 5 

nor undeplor'd. 
For pity, fend me to the Stygian 

Ford. 

For the Antients believ'd the 
Dead to be comforted and de- 
lighted with the Tears of their 
furviving Friends : And this is 
the realon, that, in the antien^ 
Infcriptions on Tombs, we fo 
frequently find, 

LACRIMAS PQSUIT. 
CUM LACRIMIS POSUIT. 
LACRIMIS ET OPOBAL- 

SOMQ UDUM CONDI- 

DIT, 
TUMULUM LACRIMIS 

PLENUM DEDIT. 

and the like ; of which Quthe- 
rius, de Jure Manium, lib. i, 
gives many Examples. And for 
this Reafon too Manirius, fpeak- 
ing of this Plague, by the want of 
fo mean and ordinary an Obfe- 
quy, aggravates the Miferies of a 
peftilential Mortality, by which 
Mankind is depriv'd of all the 
tender Refentments and BeiiefitI 
of com mife rating Humanity. 
' ' ■••"•", ^ — — Fvnc?4 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 

1 1 90 No common Remedy did Health impart 

To all ; Physick was grown a private Art : 

NOTES. 



77; 



For 



»■ Funera deerant 

MortibuSj & lacrimie : felTos de- 

fecerat ignis ; 
Et coacervatis ardebant corpora 

membris. 

Manil. lib. i. Y.SB6. 

Thefe therefore were a fadder 
(Cind of Funeral than that which 
Virgil, ^neid. II. gives to the 
laughter'd Latines, for they had 
/et Wood to burn them, 

;^«tera confuf^eque ingentem cx- 

dis acervum 
^^ec numero, nee honore cre- 

mant. 

Ipon which lait Words Guthe- 
ius obferves ; Nee numero, nee 
lonore combufti dicuntur, qui 
onfufo lignorum acervo lento 
abantur igni, multis corpori- 
lus fimul congeftis. And this, 
y Macrobius, is call'd tumul- 
uarium funus, and only us'd in 
alamitous Accidents. In which 
Cind of promifcuous Funerals, it 
5 noted by the fame Authour, 
hat it was ufual, to every ten 
vlens Bodies, to add one Wo- 
nans, to make them burn the 
tetter. Of which he likewife 
;ives this Reafon : Quod mulie- 
ifc corpus juvabat ardencesviros, 
on caloris erat^ fed pinguis car- 
is, & oleo fimilis. Vide Ma- 
robium, Saturn, lib. 7. cap. 7. 

II 90. No common Remedy, 
'Cc.'] In thefe 6. v. the Poet re- 
ates, that all the Remedies of 
•hyfick were apply'd in vain : 
jr the Medicaments that fome 
3und Good by, were fatal, and 
rought Death to others. In 
ke 'manner top Thucydides * 



eiTreivy on x?^^ 'ZD^cr(j)££^v')otS' cv(pz' 

gfiAcc'Tr']^, acvjuarl ca/'?ot^)tss" ovhSIv 
SiiCpcLvM 'ZD^V cO/'to, ic)(^vo^ t!:^ h 

Nor was' there 'any, to fay cer- 
tain Medicine, that, apply'd, 
muft have help'd them : For, if 
it did good to one, it did hurt 
to another : nor any difference of 
Body for Strength or Weaknefs, 
that was able to refift it ; but it 
carry'd all away, what Phyfick 
foever was adminiflrred. Thus 
Thucydides : And upon this 
PafTage of that Hiftorian, the 
Bifliop of Rochefter ingenioufly 
Paraphrafes : 

Phyficians now could nought 
prevail ; 
They the firft Spoils to the proud 
Vicftor fall ; 
Nor would the Plague their. 
Knowledge truft, 
But fear'd their Skill, and there- 
fore (lew them firft. 
So Tyrants, when they would 

confirm their Yoke, 
Firft make the chiefeft Men to 

feel the Stroke ; 
The chiefeft and the wifeft Heads, 
left they 
Should fooneft difobey. 
Should firft rebel, and others 
learn from them the Way. 
No Aid of Herbs, or Juices 

Pow'r ; 
None of Apollo's Arts could 
cure. 
But help'd the Plague the fpeedi- 
er to devour. 
Phyfick itfelf was a Difeafe; 
Phyfick the fatal Tortures did 
^ncreafe i 

Pre- 



774 LUCRETIUS. Book VL 

For that, which gave to one frefli Vigour, Eafe, 
And Health, and Strength, and conquer'd the Difeafe ; 

Evr 
hJ O T E S. 



Prefcriptions did the Pains re- 
new : 
And ^fculapius to the Sick did 
come, 
As afterwards to Rome, 
In Form of Serpent : and he 
brought new Poifons with 
him too. 

Plague of Athens, Stanza, i $. 

Common Remedy] The na- 
tural Remedies, that are us'd in 
extinguifliing and driving away 
a peftilential Difeafe, are of two 
forts : for fome are call'd com- 
mon, others particular. The 
common Remedies are Fires, O- 
dours, Firing of Guns, a ftricfl 
Regiment of Life, and what is 
more than all the reft, an avoid- 
ing of the Contagion, together 
with an Extermination and utter 
Deftrudion of all things, that 
may retain and prefervc the In- 
fection, as Cloaths, Bedding, and 
the like : as likewife to aSfent 
from all Company whatever for 
a certain Time. And, whatever 
Lucretius advances to the con- 
trary, Hippocrates is faid to have 
bethought himfelf of a common 
Remedy for this Plague : viz. hy 
burning Piles of fcented Wood 
at the Corners of the Streets. 
The pai'ticuUr Remedies are 
thofe, that are adapted to the 
Conftitution and Habit of Body 
of each Perfon infecfted : and 
thefe in the Cafe of the Athenian 
Plague, as both the Hiftorian 
and our Poet inform us, were all 
tis'd in vain. And indeed, in 
vain hitherto have prov'd ail the 
Cares and Endeavours of Men : 
and the Divine Providence has 
eluded the Attempts of thofe 
bragging Charlatans, who boaft 
©f their Panaceas , Amulets , 
^n4 infallible Remedies againft 



the Plague, and ofcen compels 
them dearly to rue their enor- 
mous Temerity t Not that 1 
would be underftood to mean, 
that the Care of the Sick ought 
to be committed to Fortune on 
ly : for there is an Honour juft 
ly due to Medicaments^ that fup 
port the vital Faculty, and con 
tain ic within its due Bounds ja 
there is likewife to Topicks, v^hei 
Experience has once eftablifl\'< 
and confirmed the Ufefulnefs o 
them. But what I fay is, tha 
the fupream Wifdom has hither 
to deny'd to Mortals, to find ou 
any univerfal and certain Alexi 
cacon for the Plague. An( 
therefore Mattheo Villano,fpeak 
ingofthe Plague that rag'd ii 
the Year i 54.8. fays. That th 
Phyficians, in any Part of th 
World, could not, cither by Na 
tural Philofophy, or by Phyfici 
or by the Art of Aftrology, fin( 
out any Remedy , or certaii 
Cure for it : That fome of then 
indeed , out of Covetoufnefs 
went to viiit the Sick, and gav< 
them their Remedies \ but tha 
by their own Death they evinc't 
the Vainnefs of their Art, leavinj 
their Lives as a Reftitution fo 
the Money they had unjufth 
taken. E i Medici, fays he, ir 
catuna parte del Mundo, pc 
Filofofia naturale, 6 per Fifica 
b per Arte d' Aftrologia, nor 
hebbono Argomento, neveracu 
ra. Alqtianti per guadagnar 
andarono vifitando, e dando lo 
ro argonienti, i quali, per lo 
ro morte, monftrarono 1' artr 
eiTer fida, e non vera t afTai pei 
Cofcienza lafciarono a reftituer( 
i danari, che di cio havevano pre | 
fi indebitamente. 

1 1 92. For that, &C.3 Froir 

what Lucretius, after Thucydi- 

desj fays in th^s and the thret 

followip., 



Book VI. 



LUCRETIUS. 



11 i 



Ev'n the Tame Thing, with equal Art apply 'd, 
1 195 Another took, and by the Physick dy'd. 
All the INFECTED lay in deep Despair, 
Fxpcding coming Death with conftant Fear ; 
Pale Ghosts did walk before their Eyes, and fright : 
No dawning Hopes broke thro' their difmal Night, 
1 200 No Thoughts of Help : This was a grievous III, (kill. 
This (liarpen'd the Plagues Rage j thefe Fears did 

Bcfides, 
NOTES. 



following Verfes, we may gather 
this Obfervation ; that in each 
Plague there is not one only man- 
ner of Corruption, but that it 
differs very much, according to 
the various Difpofitions of the 
Bodies and Humours ; even tho' 
it derives its Origine from one 
and the fame Caufe. 

119^. AU the Infecf^ed, &:c.] 
In thefe 6, v. the Poet teaches, 
That the greateft Calamity of 
all was ; that as foon as they per- 
ceiv'd themfelves fiez'd with the 
Difeafe, they fd\ into a Defpair 
of Recovery, and negledled to 
take Care of themfelves ; a Neg- 
lect, that fometimes is more fa- 
tal than the Force of the Dif- 
eafe. Thus too the^ Hiftorian : 

)t//:6, o-TToTZ Tii- cucSfoiio Kctf^ycoy^ 
•?D^^ :j^ to a>e^'7rJS■ov Iv^v^ TifcCTTo- 
f^ivoi TVi yvco(u.i/\ -aroMM jua^^^ov 

yj-v' Thucyd. That is to fay : 
Bug th,e greateft Miiery of ail 
was the Dejedion of Mind, in 
fucha^ found themfelves begin- 
ning to fall fick : for they pre- 
lently fell into Defpair, and gave 
:hemfelves over without making 
my Refiftance. Now this Con- 
(lernation and Dcjedion of Mind 
jvas prejudicial to them, on a 
ilouble Account ; For, belides 
hat it very much impair'd their 
'trength, it brought with it this 
dditional Mifchief, that, difpair- 
'ig of Recovery, they thought it 1 



to no purpofe to take Care 
of themfelves. And thus the 
Difeafe rag'd uncontroul'd, and 
foon was fatal to fuch as neglect- 
ed the Means of their own fafe- 
ty, and gave themfelves over foe 
loft. And here we might take 
occafion to inquire narrowly into 
a Queftion, which fbme have 
ftarted, viz. Whether an abfenc 
Perfon can catch the Plague by 
the Strength of Imagination ? 
The Affirmative has many Stick- 
lers for it, as may b^ feen hi 
Fab. Paulinus, lib. 1. and the 
Negative is no lefs ftrenuoufly 
aflerted by others : Imagination 
may indeed operate on our own 
Bodies, by reafou of the mutual 
Confent and Sympathy, that each 
Part has to the other. But whac 
Strength can it have to work on 
the Bodies of others ? Who evec 
yet heard of a Pick-pocket, who, 
by the Intenfenefs of his Fanfy 
only, could get the Money out of 
anothers Purfe ? Or of a Hun- 
ger-ftarv'd Wretch, who, by the 
Strength of his Imagination, 
could get into his own Clutches, 
the Bread he faw lying at a Di- 
ftance on a Baker's Stall ? Befides 
in this Cafe of the Athenian 
Plague, both the Hiftorian and 
our Poet exprefsly fay, Thac 
the Difeafe preceded the Dread 
and Apprehenlion of it. 

1 1 98. PaleGhofts, <?tc.] This 
Verfe our Tranflatour has added 
to his Authour. 

12Q2, Bt' 



77^ 



LUCRETIUS, 



Book VI. 



Befides, the fierce Infection, quickly fpread. 
When one poor Wretch was fall'n, to others fled : 



One 



N o r B s. 



1202. Befides, 8cc.2 Here the 
Poet, in thefe 13. v. teaches far- 
ther, that fome, tho' they came 
not to vifit their Friends and 
Relations, or had negleded to 
tend them, caught neverthelefs 
the Contagion, and dy'd like in- 
feded Sheep or Cattel : and, be- 
caufe they had negle(fled to take 
Care of their Friends, they too, 
in their Turn, were negledied by 
them. Thus too Thucydides, 
*'£l££^f Ct(p' gT£f« 2r£g<5i7r«W ctvct- 

£9vMcr;iOV • Jt, r iSTh^fov qi^opgv T^^o 

'J©' ' They dy'd, fays he, like 
Sheep, being infetfied by mutu- 
al Vifitation ; And if Men, for 



Fear, forbore to vifit them, then 
they dy'd forlorn : fo that many 
Families became empty, for want 
of fuch as iliould have taken 
Care of them. Thus Thucy- 
dides : And were there no other 
Teftimony for Contagion to be 
found, than this of that Hifto* 
rian and our Poet, it would be 
abundantly fufficient, evidently 
to convince their Peremptorinefs, 
who obftinately hold, that it was 
unknown to the Antients ; and 
them too, who as pofitively afTert, 
that the Air only is the Caufe of 
epidemical Difeafes *, and will not 
admit of Contagion, except on- 
ly when fubftituted in the Place 
of the Air. But how much they 
are miftakcn will manifeftly ap- 
pear by the following Aniraad- 
verfion. • 



Of Contagion, the chief 
Caufe of a Plague. 



S the Antients were not ignorant of, fo 
they always apprehended, Contagions ; 
whatever fome modern Authours have 
believ'd to the contrary, Lucretius, 
who copies after Thucydides, freely con- 
tscvc^:^^j----- '-'^ifk- Ts ^^^^^ ^" ^^^s Place, That theEfFedts of 
W^^^f^^^iWy^ Contagion are felt from far : and to him 
lublcnbe leveral of the Antients ; as Li- 
vy, lib. 3. cap. 25. . Diodorus Siculus, lib. 14. Dionyfius 
Halicarnaifeus, lib. 10. and Eufebius, lib. 7. but, that they 
afFed, when near at hand, is allow'd by all : for none deny, 
that to tend and touch the Sick, will fpread abroad the Dif- 




eafe, and render it epidemical : Hence Virgil in Georg. 3 



Ne 



Book VL LUCRETIUS. 777 

Ne mala vicini pecoris contagia laedanr. 

And our Lucretius, v. 1241. of this Book, 

Qui fuerant autem prasftb, contagibus ibanr. 

And yet L. Septulius, in Jib. 2. de Pefte, cap. 8. too con- 
fidently affirms, That the third manner of Contagion, which 
as we faid before, the Phyficians call, per fomitem, was 
unknown to the Antients, and never thought of by 
them. But, among many other Teftimonies that might be 
alledg'd, this Miftake of his is evident from the following 
Verfes, with which Virgil concludes his third Georgick : 

Jamque catervatim dat ftragem, atque aggerat ipfis 
In ftabulis turpi dilapfa cadavera tabo : 
Donee humo tegere, ac foveis abfcondere difcunt. 
Nam neque erat coriis ufus ; nee vifcera quifquam j' 
Aut undis abolere poteft, aut vincere flamma : 
Nee tondere quidem morbo, illuvieque perefa 
Vellera ; nee teJas polTunt attingere putres : 
Veriim etiam invifos fi quis tentarat amid:us, 
Ardentes papul*e, atque immundus olentia fudor 
Membra fequebatur : nee longo deinde moranti 
Tempore, conta(5los artus facer ignis edebat. 

Which is render'd by Dryden, as follows ; 

At length fiie ftrikes an univerfal Blow : 

To Death at once whole Herds of Cartel go : 1 

Sheep, Oxen, Horfes fall ; and, heap'd on high,' 

The differing Species in Confufion lie : 

Till, warn'd by frequent Ills, the Way they found, 

To lodge their loathfome Carrion under Ground : 

For, ufelefs to the Currier were their Hides ; 

Nor could their tainted Flefli with Ocean Tides 

Be free'd from Filch : nor could Vulcanian Flame 

The Stench abolifli, or the Savour tame : 

Nor fafely could they fliear their fleecy Store, 

Made drunk with poiPnous Juice, and ftifJ' with Gore,- 

Or touch the Web: but, if the Veft they wear, 

Ked Blifters rifing on their Paps appear, 

And flami;ig Carbuncles ; and noifome Swear, 

And clammy Dews, that loathfome JLiee beget ; 

5 G Tifl 



778 LUCRETIUS. Book VI. 

■Till the flow creeping Evil eats his Way, 
Confumes the parching Limbs, and makes the Life 
his Prey. 

The Antients therefore knew what Contagion is, tho', 
perhaps, they were not fully aware of its great Power, nor 
of the many Ways of its imparting, and fpreading icfelf 
abroad : and this is the Reafon, that this chief Begetter of a 
Plague was then fcarce held to be a Propagator of it. But 
in the lalt Age its Povvrer was fo manifeftly difcover'd, as to 
make the modern Phyficians believe, that true Plagues, or 
thofe Infedtions at lealt, which they call Bubonick, are dif- 
feminated by Contagion only. In Florida, the Seafons of 
the Year, the Fruits of the Earth, the Winds, the Rains, 
j^llc<ime regularly, and at due and confl:ant Times: nor is 
there the leaft fufpicion there of infectious Damps or Exha- 
lations : yet, upon the arrival of an ordinary Fellow, who 
brought thither fome inconfiderable Merchandife from an 
infeded Place, the whole Countrey foofi caught the Con- 
tagion, and elTay'd the Fury of a peftilential Difeafe, till 
then, in thofe Parts, unknown before. Contagious Difeafes, 
unlets a timely flop be put to them, depopulate Provinces 
and whole Kingdoms, by fweeping away their Inhabitants. 
And this Obfervation is one of the Reafons, that, tho' but 
of late Days, Contagion has been held to be the chief 
Inftrument, in beginning, and propagating a Plague. The 
Antients indeed could fcarce be reconcil'd to the fetting a 
private and particular Caufe at the Head of a publick and 
general, or common Effed: : but this Difficulty would not 
have ftartled them, had they refled:ed, that even that Caufe 
may be faid to be common, by whofe Efficacy a Difeafe be- 
comes Epidemical. Pliny, lib. i6. informs us, that they 
either banifli'd the Lepers, or {hut them up, and debarr'd 
them, from all manner of Converfation, that they might not 
infecSl the Sound ; and if, thro' Negligence, this Care was 
at any Time omitted, the whole Society was infedled with 
that moft iikhy Difeafe : of which no common Caufe could 
be affign'd, befides Contagion. We read, that, in the laft 
Age, a Secretary of the Popes Treafury, being return'd from { 
Peru fa to Rome, brought the Itch along with him : which 
foul Difeafe, in a few Days, by that Means fpread itfeli 
thro' the whole City : and that, when Lautrecchus befieg'd 
Kaples, a fmall Number of Harlots, that were in the Campj 
gave che VcEsered Difeafe, till then unknown in thefe Parts 

el' 



Book VL LUCRETIUS. 779 

of the World, to his whole Army ; from vv hence it has fincc 
Ipread itfelfinto Africa, Afia, and all over Europe ; treating 
Foreigners with greater Severity indeed, than its native In- 
dians, among whom it was firft known. And were not 
thefe common Caufes, the firft of which infedled the whole 
City of Rome, the other almoft the whole World ? Then, 
not to dwell too long on fo evident a Matter ; let us call to 
Mind this Maxim of Lucretius : 

Tangere enim, 8c tangi, nifi corpus nulla poteft res. 

lib. 4. V. 305. 

Nothing, but Body, can be touch 'd, or touch. 

Whatever Things • therefore meet, are Bodies ; not a naked 
Quality: But, according to Ariftotle, lib. i. de Generat. 8c 
Corrupt. Things then touch one another, when the extream- 
eft Parts of them are together, be it done at what 
Diftance you will. Contagion thus is not an empty Sound, 
but expreffes the Manner, by which an Infection, by the 
means of Ccrpufcles, that exhale from an infed:ed Body, 
communicates itfelf to one that is found : and, tho' ir not 
unfrequently touches, yet it fometimes imparts its Virulence 
thro* another Medium. 

There are fome neverthelefs, who will not be reconcil'd 
to Contagion : and pretend to compel us to a neceiTity of 
owning, whether we will or not, and againft Truth and 
Obfervation, That a Plague fometimes is bred, without any 
previous Contagion : otherwife it would be perpetual. To 
make this Alfercion good , they bring, for Inftance, a 
Countrey, where a new Plague is broken out ; and ask us j 
Whether it be juft then bred in that Countrey, or brought 
thither from elfewhere ? If we grant the firft, then indeed 
adieu to all Contagion : if the laft, they bid us name the 
originary Place, where it was bred : which would obhge 
us to the fame Con celfion as the former. Therefore, fay 
they. Contagion will propagate, but not begin, a Plague, 
Tho' this be not argu'd amifs, yet ir is not fo conclufive, as 
to hinder us from believing, that the whole Earth is at no 
Time free from a Plague ; and that there are certain Pla? 
,|ces, where the Seeds of Plagues are prefetv'd, in order to 
break out at a certain Time : Ethiopia has an ill Name 011 
chis Account ; nor are Grand-Cairo and Conftanrinople 
much better fpokcn of: nay, almoft all that vaft Extent of 
Landj wliich the Turks inhabit, in fome Part or other of iv. 



7^8o LUCRETIUS. Book VI. 

ever has had, and ever will have, more or lefs, the Plague 
among them : and this too thro' their voluntary negledt : for, 
they think it impious to ftruggle againft Fate. But the 
Reafon, why it does not always rage with the fame Fierce- 
nefs among them, is, the various Difpofition of their Bodies, 
and the different State of the Air. 

It is likewife obfervable, that every contagious Difeafe 
rages with greateft Violence at its firfl: breaking out : but in 
Length of Time grows mild, and abates of its firft Fury. 
Whoever doubts of this, let him compare the Mifchiefs, 
that, heretofore, were caus'd by the Venereal Difeafe, with 
the Harms, that, now-a-days, attend it: let him weigh, 
befides, the Devaftation, that in the laft Age, the Small 
Pox brought upon the Indies, where, at its firft coming, ic 
fwept away, in a few Days, a hundred Myriads of Mexi- 
cans. The Seeds therefore of peftilential Difeafes decay, 
and wear away by Degrees ; till, having found proper Hu- 
mours to work on, and Spirits that make but weak Re- 
fiftance, they break out afrefli, and with greater Violence 
in other Bodies. To this Opinion fubfcribes the learned 
Felix Platerus, who, in his Treatife of the Caufes of Fevers, 
after having made many Obfervations, that well deferve to 
be known and remember'd, argues to the following Purpofe : 
It feems more reafonable, fays he, to believe, that, in like 
manner as other Venoms, which, from the Beginning of the 
World, are innate and natural to certain Bodies, inhere and 
refide in them, fo too this peftilent Venom may lurk, not 
only in the Bodies of fuch, as are viifited with the Plague, 
but of others likewife, who are not yet taken with a Fever; 
or even in Cioaths, or any Thing of like Nature : and that 
it may be imparted and transferr'd from Body to Body; 
not only by mutual Contact, but by the intermediate Air 
intervening, and taking thofe invenom'd Seeds from one 
Body, and wafting them into another. Befides ; a peftilent 
Venom, if it be attracted by Infpiration, chiefly affeds the 
Heart, and kindles a Fever in a Moment : or, if it be 
caught by any other Means, and poflefTes any other Part 
of the Body, it either makes the fame Progrefs to the Heart 
by Infpiration, or thro' fome blind PaiTages ; or elfe it ftays 
for fome time in the Part it firft fiez'd on ; and even in that 
Cafe, tho' it be propagated no farther, and tho' no peftilent 
Fever yet appear, the Body neverthelefs is render'd infecfted 
by that Venom ; which, fooner or later, may affed; likewife 
the Bodies of othsjcs ; And this is the reafoHj that fuch, as fly 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 781 

from infecSted Places into others, that are free from the Plague, 
and ftay there fome time, are often, even after many 
Days, taken firft with the Plague : or, if they are not taken 
themfelves, they may never thelefs infe(5fe others : In like 
manner too Experience teaches, that a lewd Woman, who 
lies with a Man, tainted with the Venereal Difeafe, tho' 
fhe be not yet fo infeded by him, as tobefick of that Difeafe 
herfelf, may neverthelefs infed others, who afterwards lie 
with her, with the fame Difeafe : This too is attefted by 
Fernelius: and therefore we dare confidently affirm, That 
the Seeds of Plagues, like other Venoms, are always refiding 
in certain Bodies, in fome Countrey of the World or other; 
and that they are propagated from thence into other places, 
in the manner above-fpoken : Even as we know for certain, 
that the Venom of the Venereal Difeafe, which is well nigh 
as contagious and noxious, at leaft to Mankind, came firft of 
all, creeping from Body to Body, from the Indies even to 
us ; and now fubfifts no where but in Bodies, and wanders 
by Contagion out of fome into others : Which venereal 
Difeafe, manifefting itfelf in this Manner, refides neverthe- 
lefs, in other Places, in other Bodies ; and, by fome one 
or other of them, is carry *d back again into the fame Coun- 
trey : Thus too the Plague, tho* it have often ceas'd to rage 
for a long Time together, in certain Places, is neverthelefs 
inherent in certain Bodies, in fome Part of the Earth or other; 
and, as is faid above, is, in its due Time, derivd fron:^ 
thence, and breaks out in thofe Bodies, in which it lay dor- 
mant : Infomuch that no Neceffity obliges us to hold, for 
|:his Reafon, viz. becaufe we hear nothing of it, nor where 
It rages, as if it were totally extinguifli'd, and that the whole 
World were free from it ; that therefore when it returns 
again, it is engender'd anew in the Air, and falls down from 
thence upon us : tho', notwithftanding all this, it cannot in 
the leaft be doubted, but that the Air is imbu'd with a ma- 
lignant Quality, with which it may, and does fometimes, 
afied: the Bodies of Animals : in Hke manner as we grant, 
that they are affe(5ted by a peftilent Contagion, proceeding 
from infedled Bodies, and infinuating itfelf into other Bodies, 
in the Method above- mention'd : But that the Origine of 
this Contagion is due to the Air, can in no wife be granted 
for theReafons before given. Thus far Plarerus, with whom 
the generality of Phyficians agree: For the Objecflions, which 
D. Sennertus, in lib. i, de Cauf. Peftil. cap. zi. has brought 
againPt him, are held to be trifling, and of no Validity. 

1204, One 



'82 



LUCRETIUS, 



Book VL 



One kili'd, the Murderer did caft his Eye ^ 

1205 Around ; and, if he faw a Witness by, \. 

Siez'd him, for fear of a Difcovery. 3 

Thofe Wretches too, that greedy to live on ", 

Or fled, or left; infecSted Friends alone, 

Strait felt their Punifliment, and quickly found, 
^210 No Flight could fave, no Place fecure, from Wound : 

A ftrong INFECTION all their Walk attends ; 

They fall as much negledted as their Friends : 

Like rotten Sheep, they die in wretched State; 

And none to pity, or to mourn, their Fate. (Cries ^ 

1 21 5 Thofe whom their Friends Complaints, and piteous 

Did force to come, and fee their Miferies, 

Receiv'd 
N T £ 5. 



1204. One Idll'd, &c.] This 
and the two following Verfes are 
a Paraphrafe of our Tranftatour 
on his Authour. 

1207. Thofe Wretches, &c.] 
Hence we fee, that the faying of 
the Comick Poet has ftill pre- 
vail'd : 

Proximus fum egomet mihi, 

That Charity begins at home, 
as our ill-nacur'd Proverb ex- 
prelTes it, and, confequently, that 
!Men are more careful of their 
own Health^than of that of others. 
To abandon Friends in Sicknefs, 
is a Piece of Cruelty deteftable 
even in Heathens: how much 
inore then is it to be abhorr'd in 
Chriftians ? Yet Guido Caulia- 
cus tells us, that in the Plague, 
thatrag'din the Year 1348. the 
Living, that they might not en- 
danger their Lives by the Con- 
tagion, avoided to come near the 
infected : Infomuch, that whole 
Families dy'd without Atten- 
dance, and were bury'd without 
Priefts : the Father vifited not 
the Son, nor the Son the Father : 
Charity was extinguiHi'd, and 
Hope overthrown. In tantum- 
que, fays he, gentes moriebantur 
line famulis, & fepeliabantur fine 
facerdotibus t , Pater non vifita- 
bat filiiimj nee £lius patrem : 



caritas erat mortua, & fpes pro- 
ftrata. Mattheo Villano acknow- 
ledges this to be true ; and tho'he 
endeavours to lay the Blame on 
the Barbarians, after whofe Ex- 
ample the Chriftians no lefs 
inhumanely abandon'd their 
Friends *, yet he omits not to 
brand them with Infamy, as Men 
guilty of a Barbarity truly de- 
teftable, and till then unheard 
of among the Profeflburs of 
Chriftianity. 

121 5. Thofe, &c.] In thefe 
10. v. the Poet tells us, that fuch 
of them, as came to tend the In- 
fected, were expos'd to a double 
Deftrucftion : For, either they 
caught the Contagion of the 
Sick, and underwent the like 
Fate with them, or elfe, worn 
out with the Fatigue of tending 
them, they at length fell fick of 
the fame Difeafe. But Shame as 
well as Piety excited them to 
ferve their Friends in fo great 
Diftrefs : and thus the moft vir- 
tuous among them expos'd their 
Lives to this Danger, and chiefly 
aflifted their dying Friends. In 
like manner Thucydides : "Ei% 

iJav (T(r)Ojv auTC/})/ iaioxl'S 



^ > 

v^i 



'/(peii 






Book VI. 



LUCRETIUS. 



785 



Receiv'd th' Infectious, and the fatal Breath: 
An inn'cent Murd'rer he chat gave che Death. 
This kind of Death was beft j fo Men did chooVe 

1 220 (A wretched Choice !) this way their Life to lofe : 
Some rais'd their Friends a Pile ; that Office done,' 
Recurn'd, and griev'd, and then prepar'd their own : 
A treble Mischief this, and no Relief: 
Not one but fufler'd Death, Disease, or GriefJ 

1 115 The Shepuerd midft his Flocks, refign'd his Breath - 
Th'infeded Ploughman burnt, and ftarv'd to Death : 

^ O T E S. 



raig Schol.) oAoif Jfa<!f tcov ^ths- 
yiyiOfjSfjoov rzh^j^ii^AiS Vj o< ojjceToi 
i^£;C(Xy«vov, ^{^ 7? 'ZsroMs Kctxa 
)n%dfjS^oi * That is to fay, If they 
forbore not to viiit them, then 
they dy'd themfelves : For, out 
of Shame, they would not fpare 
their own Perfons, but went in to 
their Friends i elpecially after it 
was come to this Pafs, that their 
own Domefticks, weary'd with 
the Lamentations of them that 
dy'd, and overcome with the 
Greatnefs of the Calamity, were 
no longer mov'd with it. 

1217. Receiv'd, 6cc.] Upon 
this Calamity the Billiop of Ko- 
cheller thus paraphrafes ; 

Here others, poifon^d by the 

Scent, 
Which from corrupted Bodies 

went, 
Qiiickly return the Death they 

did receivCj 
And Death to others give : 
Themfelves, now dead, the Air 

pollute the more. 
For which they others curs'd 

before : 
Their Bodies kill all that come 

near ; 
And, even after Death, they all 

are Murd'rers here. 

Plague of Athens. Stanza 19. 

1 2 21. Some rais'd, &c,] This 
and the following Verfe run thus 
in the Orjgmal ; 



Inque aliis alium populum fepe- 
lirefuorum ^ 

Certantes, lacrymis lafli, lu^u- 
que redibant : 

Inde bonam partem in ledlum 
m«rore dabantur. 

i. c. After they had ftriven and 
contended to bury the Bodies of 
whole Families of their Friends 
among thofe of the Friends of 
others, they return'd weary'd. 
with Grief and Weeping : and 
hence moft of them took to theic 
Beds for Sorrow. 

1225. The Shepherd , &c. 3 
The Poet, having laid before 
our Eyes the lamentable and 
tragical Condition of the City 
of Athens, he now brings up- 
on the Stage the Herdfmen, 
Shepherds, and Peafants, who, 
being viliced with this cruel In- 
fedlion, in Want of all NecelFa- 
ries, deftitute of Friends, and 
defpairing of Relief, iluit them- 
felves up, fome of them, in their 
narrow Hutts, where they dy'd 
by Heaps, deftroy'd no lefs 'by 
Famine than the Plague : while 
others, for fear of the Enemy, 
who were laying walle the whole 
Countrey, and deftroying all 
with Fire and Sword, with the 
Difeafe upon them, fled into the 
City, ajid others, whofe Strength 
would not permit them to reach 
thither, lay languiiliing in the 
High- ways, naked, full of UU 
cers, ace, What more dreadful, 

wh^C 



iH 



LUCRETIUS. 



Book VI. 

By Plague and Famine both the Deed was done: 
The Ploughman was tooftrong to yield to one : 
Here dying Parents on their Children caft, 
1230 There Children on their Parents breath'd their laft : 
Th' infeded Ploughmen from the Countrey came. 

They 
NOTES. 



what more difmal, can Imagi- 
nation figure to itfelf ? 

1228. The Ploughman] This 
Obfervation is the Tranftatour's, 
not his Authour's. 

1229. Here dying Parents, &:c.] 
The Bifliopof Rochefterdefcribes 
this Circumftance very patheti- 
cally ill the following Verfes : 

Here, lies a Mother and her 

Child ; 
The Infant fuclc'd as yet, and 

fmil'd, 
But ftrait by its own Food was 

kili'd : 
There Parents hug'd their 

Children laft •, 
Here, parting Lovers laft em- 
braced •, 
But yet not parting neither : 
They both expir'd, and went a- 

way together. 
The Friend does hear his 

Friends laft Cries ; 
Parts his Grief for him, and 

then dies J 
Lives not enough to clofe his 

Eyes. 
The Father, at his Death, 
Speaks his Son Heir, with an in- 

fedious Breath : 
In the fame Hour the Son does 

take 
His Father's Will, and his own 

make : 
The Servant needs not here be 

(lain, 
To ferve his Mafter in the other 

World again ; 
They languifliing together lie ; 
Their Souls away together fly : 
The Husband gafps j his Wife 

lies by : 
Itmuftbe her Turn next to 

die : 



The Husband and the W^ife 
Too truly now are one, and liv^ 

one Life : 
That Couple, who the Gods did 
entertain, 
Had made their Prayers here 

in vain : 
No Fates in Death could them 
divide ; 
They muft, without their Privi- 
lege, together both have dy'd. 

Plague of Athens, Stan. 19 & 20. 

1 23 1. Th' infecflied, &c.] Thus 
Thucydides : 'Ett/Ws Ji' co/VaV 
yWot MOV -ZD^^" ttS '{jA^d^yo/li rmotcf 

las', oiKicov >) a'x 'C^cK.^X'^'^^h 

era^^igsi^WytiEVC'V, o(pSrop(gy ly/yvsjo 

cLMyhoi^ sKeivlo, This is to fay J 
Belides the prefent Afflidion, the 
Reception of the Countrey 
People, and of their Subftance 
into the City, opprefs'd both 
the Citizens, and much more the 
People themfelves, that thus 
came in : For, having no Houfes, 
and dwelling at that time of the 
Year (for it was in the Summer) 
in ftifling Booths, the Mortality 
was now without all Form, and 
dying Men lay tumbling, one up- 
on another^ in the Streets. And 
Tit. Livius defcribes the like E- 
vent in almoft the fame Colours. 
Grave tempus, fays he, dc fortd 
annus peftilens erat urbijagrifque^ 
nee hominibus magis, quam pe- 
cori : &auxere vim morbi ter- 
rores populationis, pecoribus a^ 
greftibufque in urbem teceptis s 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 78f 

They came, and brought with them additional Flame : 

Men 
NOTES. 



Eacolluviomixtorumomnis gene- 
ris animantum, &c odore inlblito 
urbanosj & agreftem confertum in 
arda teda, arftu, ac vigiliis ange- 
bat, minifteriaque invicem, ac con- 
tagio ipfa vulgabatmorbos. lib. 3. 
1232. And brought with them 
additional Flame :J It is highly 
probable, that the great Con- 
courfe of Countrey People, that 
flock'd into the City, for fear of 
the Lacedemonians , who had 
then invaded Attica, and were 
putting all to Fire and Sword, 
was the chief Caufe of this 
Plague ; and that what Lucre- 
tius related before of the City of 
Athens, was fpoken by a certain 
Way of Anticipation, which is 
not unfrequent with Poets j 
as if he had confider'd with him- 
felf, that he fliould not have ex- 
plained the Matter equal to its 
Dignity, if, fetting lefs by the 
Metropolis than the whole Pro- 
vince, he had begun his Narra- 
tion of this Difeai'e by the Coun- 
trey. The Teftimony of Thu- 
cydides, from whom our Au- 
thoiir has taken this Defcription, 
is alone fufficient to juftify this 
Opinion ', which ne verthelefs may 
be confirmed by other undeniable 
Proofs. For, in the firft Place, 
the Athenians would otherwife 
have been very injurious to their 
Prince Pericles, whom, as Plu- 
tarch tells us in his Life, they 
accus'd of having been th« Caufe 
of the Plague, by admitting in- 
to the City, and in the Heat of 
Summer, the great multitude of 
Peafants, and other Countrey 
People ; where they, who had 
been accuftcm'd to Labour, and 
Living in the open Air, led lazy 
and idle Lives, and were crowd- 
ed and fliut up together in nar- 
row and ftifling Habitations : Of 
-all which he had been the Occa- 
iion, whoj during the War, had 



receiv'd thofe, who had fled front 
the Enemy, within the Walls of 
the City, where he took Care to 
find them no manner of Imploy- 
ment, but fuffer'd them, like 
brute Beaftsj inclos'd in narrow 
Grounds, mutually to infed one 
another ; and allow 'd them no 
change of Air, or fcarce the li- 
berty of Breathing. Thus Plu- 
tarch : Now let it be even grant- 
ed, that the Athenians were in 
the W rong as to the Caufe of 
this Plague •, yet they had no 
Pretence of Reafon to lay the 
Blame on Pericles, if Athens was 
afflided with that Peftilence, be- 
fore the Peafants, and other In- 
habitants of the Countrey fled 
thither : But they were not mi- 
ftaken in believing that th« 
Plague had invaded the City by 
the means of thi? new Increafe 
of Dwellers ; for fultry Heat, 
and an impure, corrupted Air 
may favour and promote a 
Plague ; but are altogether un^ 
capable of firft kindling and in- 
troducing a Peftilence. Diodo- 
rus Siculus, tho' he adhere, too 
obftinately indeed, to the then 
commonly receiv'd Opinion of 
th£ ambient Air, yet favours 
our Allertion concerning the Con- 
tagion, by means of the Coun- 
trey People that flock'd into A- 
thens : for, fpeaking of this 
Plague, he fays : That the great 
Multitude of all manner of Peo- 
ple, whoj out of Fear, were fled 
from the Countrey into the 
City, where, by reafon of the 
Narrownels of the Place, they 
were promifcuoufly, and with- 
out any Order.crowded together, 
not without good Caufe, fell into 
Difeafes : for, breathing nothing 
but noifome Stenches, that were 
occafion'd by Filth apd Nafti- 
nefs, and the Air befides being 
grown fultry, *nd almoft fuffo-^ 
» 5 H «ated 



786 



LUCRETIUS. Book VL 

Men fiock'd from ev'ry Part, all Places fill'd: 
"Where Crowds were great, by Heaps the Sick- 
ness kiird : 
1255 Some in the Streets, iomenear the Fountains lay, 
Which quench' d their Flame, but wafli'd their Soul 

away ; 
And fome in publick, half alive, half dead, 
With filthy Cov'rings o'er their Members fpread, 

Did 
K O T E S. 

catedbythe Heat of the Seafon, j 1235- Some in the Streets &c.] 
they receiv'd within their Bowels In like manner T^ucy dicks : 
the conta<^ious Venom. ThusJKca bv rajg o^oig cM,a>MvSSmy 
we fee what is the chief Caufe of |k^ ^'^i tccV xp'''iu$- ctTrc^aix^ ■/f/.i* 
Plagues, and from whence this of Q'y^j'^j^^ ^j ^ uJct'/i^ iTri'ivf^'icf. ' 
Athens took its Origine. Even l-Yhat jg to fay: And they lay 
Lucretius himfelf, whatever he jhalf-dead in the Ways, and about 
faid,tothecontrary, oftheAir, in Lyery Conduit, thro' Defire of 
the beginning of this Narration, h^^^^gr. 'j^e greateft Relief of 
yet in this Place he feems ^o own, L^ jnflaj^'d Heart, is without 
that the pbgae proceeded chiefly |doubt, to breathe in a cool and 
from the Contagion, which the 
Countvey People brought into 
th« City': His Words are as 
follows : 
Kec minimum partim ex agris 

sgroris in urbcm 
Confluxit, languens quern con- 

tulit agricolarum 
Copia, conveniens ex omni mor- 

bida parte. 

There is therefore no Reafon to 
difpute,for the Future, the moft 
antient Prerogative and Eihcacy 
of Contagion, in all Plagues j 
but chiefly, not in this moft me- 
morable Plac^ue of Athens. 

1234. By^Heaps the Sicknefs 
Idll'd :] Thus too the Billiop of 
Kocheilcr ; 



There was no Number now of 
Deatli : 
The Sifters fcarce ftood ftill 
them Tel ves to breathe : 
The SiPcer? now, quire wearyed 

In cutting lingle Thred, 
Began at once to part whole 

Looms : 
One Stroke did give whole 
>Ioul'es Dooms. 
FlagvH^ of Athensj Stan, 21. 



pure Air : but the Heart is al- 
ways inflam'd in a burning Fe- 
ver, with which the Athenians 
were then afflidted : And hence 
proceeded that implacableThirft; 
which made them make what 
hafte they could to the Foun- 
tains : but fome of them, thro* 
Weaknefs, fainted and fell dov/n 
by the Way ; while others, who 
had more Strength, lay near the 
Fountains, fuffocated with the 
great Plenty of Water, they had 
pour'd down into their burning 
Entrails. Now the Fountain 
Callirhoes , that without the 
Walls , broke out in feven 
Streams, and was convey'd in- 
to Athens by as many Pipes, 
fupply'd with Water the upper 
Part of the City : In the lower 
Part of which , towards the 
Pirajeus , there were no Foun- 
tains, but only Wells, as has 
been faid already. 

1237. And fome, &c,] Lucre- 
tius omits nothing, that may 
create Horrour, and provoke 
Commiferation in the Minds of 
his Readers. To this JEnd, he 
now expofes to their Eyes the 

Streeci 



LUCRETIUS. 



7S7 



nains "^ 

ins, > 

^AINS. S 



Book VI. 

Did lie, and rot ; the Skin, the poor Remains 
I 240 Of all the Flesh, the ftarting Bones contai 
• All cover'd o'er with Ulcers, vexc with Pa 

Death now had fill'd the Temples of the Gods : 
The Priests themfelves, not Beasts, are th* Al- 
tar's Loads : 
Now no Religion, now no Gods were fear'd ; 
1245 Greater than all the prefent Plague appear'd : 

All 
NOTES. 



Streets of Athens, thick- ft row 'd 
with dead and dying Bodies, 
half-naked , and half-covcr'd 
with filthy Weeds, and wallow- 
ing, nay, almoft bury'd, in their 
own Corruption. 

1242. Death now, Sec.'] Here 
the Poet teaches, that Neceflity 
had reduc'd the Athenians to 
fuch hard Extremities^ that the 
-ffidiles, whole Office it was to 
take Care of the Temples, had 
permitted thofe that fled into the 
City, to take up their Abodes in 
thofe holy Places ; where, they 
built Tents for themfelves and 
Families, and perhaps too for 
the Cattel they brought with 
them. This Profanation of fa- 
cred Things, and contenipt of 
all Religion, proceeded from the 
higheft Defperation, if we may 
give Credit to Thucydides. who 
relates it as follows : Tec rl 'n^, 
c/v ols: icr'jCy,vm%y v^jipoTj- ^^^ct viv^ 
cwT^ cyV(X'7ro9i'>fcr;toi'T(WV, -xju^Zkh'C^o- 
/HiVH y^ tS ;ia,)c«5 01 cIv^pcottoi hk 

e/j^TTov/o It, i^poTv Kj ocr/it'i' o/no'icog' 
i. e. The Temples alfo. where 
they dwelt in Tents, were all full 
of the Dead, that dy'd within 
them : for, opprefs'd with the 
Violence of the Calamity, and 
not knowing what to do, Men 
grew carelefs of holy and prc- 
phane Things alike. 

124.3. "The Priells them- 
felves. Sec.'] For this Thought 
our Tranflatour i« not {o much 
c.blig'd to his Authour, i»5 ty, the 
Eiilio^ qf Rpchefter^v/ho^Qu this 



Particular, paraphrafes as fol- 
lows : 

The Gods are call'd upon in 
vain : x 

The Gods gave no Releafe unto 

their Pain : 
The Gods to fear ev'n for them.-. 

felvcs began : 
For now the Sick into the Tem- 
ples came, 
And with them brought more 
than a holy Flame, 
There, at the Altars, made 

their Pray'r : 
They facrific'd, and dy'd too, 

there : 
A Sacrifice not feen before ; 
That Heaven, us'd but to the 
Gore 
Of Lambs or Bulls, fliould 
now 
Loaded with Priefts fee its own 
Altars too. 

Plague of Athens, Stan. 29. 

1244. Now no Religion, Sec."} 
Thucydides, after having ac- 
quainted us, that the great Li- 
centiouftieis, which was pracfi:ic'4 
in the City, proceeded, and be- 
gan at fir ft from this Difeafe, 
adds immediately : That what 
any Man knew to be delightful, 
and conducive to Pleafure, th^c 
was made both profitable and 
honourable : Neither the Fear of 
the Gods, fays he, nor Laws of 
Men aw'd any Man : not the 
formei", becaufe they concluded 
it was alike to wcrfliip, or not to 
♦yor/liip, feeing that they all a-r 
S H 2 ; ' lik| 



r88 LUCRETIUS. Book VL 

AH Laws of Burial loft, and all confus'd : 
No folemn Fjres, no decent Orper us'd | 

But 

NOTES. 



like perini*d i not the later, be- 
caufeno Man expeded that his 
Life would laft, till he receiv'd 
Punilhment of his Crimes by 
Judgment .• But they thought 
there was now, hanging over their 
Heads, fome far greater Judg- 
jnent decreed againft them *, and, 
before it fell upon them, they 
thought to enjoy fome little 
Part of their Lives. ''Oli o >i'Jei 

T /lu, Ka 'SrcLvloLVo'^iV TO k CCUTO 

jtsfd ctA£oy, 7VT0 K;, KccAov xa x^ym- 



noOou &{«r ttv r Tj^w^t'^ictv ccv/f- 
SSvou ' -zstoaO A<«^ct> T JjjTw jcco- 

t] "^Tw^cwcrca ' Thus Thucydi- 
des : Upon which PaiTage of that 
Hiftorian the Biihop of Roche- 
iter finely Paraphrales^ and con- 
<^li4des his Poem : 

^yt what, Great Gods ! was 
worll of all, 
Hell forth its Magazines of Lufts 

did call ; 
Nor would it be content 
V^ith the thick Troops of Souls 
were thither fent J 
Into the upper World it 
we»t : 
Such Guilt, fuch Wicked nefs, 
Such Irreligion did increafe. 
That the few Good, who did 
furvive. 
Were angry with the Plague fqr 

fuff'ring them to live, 
l^lqre for the Living, than the 
' " Pe^dj did grieve 5 



Some rob'd the very Dead, 
Tho' fure to be infeded e'er they 

fled ; 
Tho* in the very Ad fure to be 

puniflied ; 
Some, nor the Shrines, nor 

Temples, fpar'd. 
Nor Gods, nor Heavens they 

fear'd, 
Tho* fuch Examples of their 

Pow'r appear'd : 
Virtue was now efteem'd an emp- 
ty Name ; 
And Honefty the foolifli Voice 

of Fame : 
For, having pafs'd thofe tort'ring 

Flames before, 
They thought the Punifliment 

already o'er ; 
Thought Heav'n could have 

no worfe in Store : 
Here having felt one Hell, they 

thought there was no more. 

Plague of Athens, Stan. 31, 

1 24^. All Laws of Burial, &:c "] 
In thefe twelve laft Verfes the 
Poet relates. That the Athenians 
were not content with polluting 
their Holy Places with dead Bo- 
dies, but tranfgrefs'd likewife ail 
their Laws concerning Funerals, 
which they had till then obferv'd, 
and bury'd their Dead, as they 
could , where-ever they found 
Room* Thus too Thucydides, 
'Nojuoi t\ nssd-fiig cri/ve'ja^x.^'^^*''* 
<H? \yjooAo ■'5)^T££9J' irsz)- Tc'f 

vaUo • Now by the unanimous 
Confent of all Authours, the A- 
thenians were of all People the 
moft ceremonious in the Fune- 
rals of their Dead, whom they 
honour'd even to the higheft Su- 
perftition. If any one negletfted 
to pay the Kites o£ Funeral to 

thofe 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 



789 



thofe who wefe flain in War, he 
was punifliM with Death : And 
the Pomp and Expence of Fu- 
nerals grew at length to fuch Ex- 
cefs among them, that Solon was 
forc'd to put a ftop to it by 
Laws : but when this Plague was 
raging at Athens, no funeral 
Rites were obferv'd t For, as the 
Hiftorian, from whoni our Poet 
has taken this PafTage, relates •, 
Many, for want of Things ne- 
ceflary, after fo many Deaths 
before, were forc'd to become 
impudent in the Funerals of their 
Friends : For, when one had 
made a funeral Pile, another, 
getting before him, would throw 
on his Dead, and fet it on Fire : 
And when one was burning, others 
would come, and, having caft 
upon it the Dead they brought, 



go their Way again. Kci -isroA- 
TO av'/yii^ vi^ii t^li^^oivou crcpiaiv^ 

(hct^ovlig ov dfiipoiiv, oLTTyicrav* 
Thucyd. But this Calamity of 
the Athenians will more vifibly 
appear, by giving at large the 
Laws and Ceremonies, that they 
thought themfelves religioufly 
bound to obferve in the Sepul- 
ture of their Dead ; and whicli 
are recorded by Nardius. in the 
following, no lefs learned than 
accurate, Animadverfion on this 
PafTage of our Authour. 



Animadverfion of Joannes 
Nardius, concerning the 
Funerals of the Athenians. 




ICERO, in his Oration for Flaccus, ac- 
quaints us. That Humanity, Learning, Re-, 
ligion, Laws, civil Societies, and the Ufc 
of Corn, began firft among the Athenians, 
and from them were diftributed over the 
whole Earth : Hence Lucretius fays of 
them. 



Et recreaverunt vita,m, legefque rogarunt. lib. 6. v. 3 . 

But nothing feems to have been more antiently pradic'd 

limong them, or more religioufly obferv'd, than the paying 

he juft Dues of Funeral to their Dead; efpecialjy to thofe, 

A'hQ had been jQain in lighting for their Ccracrcy ; Of this 

we. 



790 LUCRETIUS. Book VI. 

we have a famous Example, recorded by Xenophon, lib. i. 
■Ef^m)c£vy and by Valerius Maximus, who cell us, that the 
Athenians condemn'd, and put to Death, ten of their Cap- 
tains, who return'd to Athens after a great Victory they had 
gain'd at Sea over the Lacedemonians, only becaufe they 
had not paid the laft Duties to the dead Bodies of thofe 
that had been kill d in the Engagemen-r, even tho' they had 
this to plead in their Defence, that the tempeftuous Wea- 
ther had render'd it impolTible : Decern Imperacores fuos, 
8c quidem a pulcherrima vidtoria venientes, capitaU judicio 
exceptos necarunt, quod militum corpora, licet, faevitia 
maris interpellante, fepultura? mandare non potuilTent, fed 
in fludi:us, necelficate adad:i, projeciflent, Valer. Max. lib. 9. 
cap. 8. Deterred by this Severity, Chabrias, who com- 
manded the Athenian Fleet, was more wary : For he, ha- 
ving defeated and put to flight the Fleet of the Lacedemo- 
nians at the Ifland Naxos, inftead of purfuing the routed 
Enemy, minded only to gather up the dead Bodies of the 
Slain ; and, fearing the Superftition of the People, chofe 
rather, fays Diodorus Siculus, lib. 1 5. to let the Enemies of 
the Republick efcape, than that their dead Friends ftiould be 
depriv'd of the Rices of Funeral ; otherwife he might eafily 
have deftroy'd the whole naval Force of the Lacedemonians. 
Nicias^ the great General of the Athenians, commanded 
his whole Army to hair, only to bury two of his Soldiers. 
Ifocrates in Panegyr. relates. That Adraftus, King of Ar- 
gos, having been unfuccefsful in a War againft the The- 
bans, and not being able to carry off the dead Bodies of 
the Slain, befought the Athenians, and their King Thefeus, 
to commiferate the publick Calamity of the Argives, and 
to alTift them to compel the Thebans, to allow the Cere- 
monies of Sepulture, to thofe who had been kill'd in the 
Battel : This the Athenians deem'd a juft Caufe of War, 
and the Succefs feem'd to juftify their Opinion : For, taking 
up Arms againft the Thebans on no other Pretence but this, 
they defeated them, and would hearken to Peace on no 
Terms whatever, till the Thebans, by way of Preliminary, 
bad paid the due Rites of Sepulture to the flain Argives. 
Nor may we forget the Piety of Cimon, who, that he might 
bury his Father, who vv^as dead in Prifon, fubmitted to be 
a Prifoner himfelf, and redeem'd the Body at t\ie Price of 
his own Liberty, 

B0. 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 791 

But they extended this Piety not only to thofe, who had 
facrific'd their Blood in Defence of the publick Safety, but 
likewife to their Kindred, and Men of the meaneft Conditi- 
on : whofe Relations thcDemarchus, orChief of the People, 
could oblige to bury the dead Body, by laying a heavy Fine 
on thofe that negled:cd to do fo within a certain time : Thac 
Magiftrate had likewife a Power to limit and fix the Ex- 
pence of a Funeral, as alfo to contrad: himfelf for it with 
the publick Undertakers. Euftachius, in Com. II. ad cal- 
cem, celebrates Pififtratus, for having always two or three 
Servants attending him, whofe whole Bufinefs it was to 
carry Money for him to beflow on the Funerals of the Poor, 
The Charity of Cimon to the dead Poor, who left not 
enough to bury them, and whom he interr'd at his own 
Expence, is likewife extoll'd by iEmilius Probus : and 
Plutarch, in his Life, records of him, that, having with great 
Care and Trouble got together the Bones of Thefeus, he 
brought them to Athens. Nor may we forget a fignal Of- 
fice of Piety, mention'd by Deraoflhenes, adverf. Macartar. 
and enjoin*d b) an Attick Law, which commanded every 
PaiTenger, who happen'd to fee upon the Road a dead Bo- 
dy, tho' of a Perlon unknown to him, to throw at leaft 
three Handfuls of Earth on the Face of the Defurdl for his 
Sepulture, fince at that time he could not have the Means of 
burying him oiherwife. This is attefled likewife by iElian. 
Var Hift. Ub. 5. and by Phocylides, Molchus, Sophocles, 
and Acron. And this Cuflom was fo generally receiv'd 
and deem d fo indifpenfibly neccffary, that it was expedted 
even of thofe, v. ho v^ere going on Bufinefs thatrequir'd the 
greateft Hafte, as Quintilian fays, hb. i. Decad. 5. and 
Horace, Carm. lib. i. Od. 28. alludes to it in thefe exprefs 
Words of Archytas the Philofopher to the Seaman : 

At tu, nauta, vagas ne parce malignus arena?, 

Oifibus 8c capiti inhumato 

Particulam dare. 

Quanquam feftinas, non eft mora longa, licebic 

Lijedto ter pulvere curras. 

Which Creech thus interprets, 

But Seaman, pray be juft ; put near the Land ; 
Bellow a Grave, and hide my Limbs in Sand. 

The* 



^92 LUCRETIUS. Book VI- 

Tho* hafty now, driv'n by a profp rous Gale, 
'Tis quickly done, thrice throw the Sand j and fail. 

Nor, as the Scholiaft on the Antig. of Sophocles informs us, 
were they permitted to throw Clods of Earth, but what 
they call'd x^'o^, Mould, or crumbled Earth : And this Of- 
fice they call'd iTri^dr^eiv 7>?v, or Komv rotAuiu^. They fear'd, 
perhaps, that if they had thrown folid Clods of Earth, they 
would have lain heavy on the dead Body. Let this fuffice 
for the Piety of the Athenians towards the Dead : I will 
now, that I may not feem tedious to the Reader, nor create 
in him a fufpicion of Truth in a Matter fo very obfcure, 
feledt only the moft remarkable Ceremonies, which they 
cbferv'd in Funerals, as I find them recorded in the moft au- 
thentick Auchours. 

Firft then, to begin my intended Difcourfe with what 
was pradlic'd in the laft Agonies of the dying Perfon ; I 
find in Diodorus Siculus and Valerius Maximus, that whea. 
the fick Perfon perceiv'd his End draw nigh, he took a Ring 
off his Finger, and gave it to the Stander by, who was 
deareft to him : Hiftorians report this to have been done by 
Alexander. Then pronouncing thefe laft Words, Vive ac 
vale, (vide Servium in ^neid. 5.) he breath'd out his Soul, 
embracing and killing his beft-belov'd. For they believ'd 
the Mouth to be the Paffage thro' which the Soul went out 
of the Body, and therefore endeavoured to catch it as it fled, 
by holding their Mouth openclofe to that of the Perfon ex- 
piring. Thus Antigone in Euripides, in PhcenifT. fays : O my 
deareft, and my beft belov*d, I will put thy Mouth to mine. 
After whofe Example, perhaps, Anna in Virgil ^n. 4. 
V. 684, 

Et extremus fi quis fuper halitus errat. 



Ore legam.>- 

And Livia in the Epicedium of Albinovanus : 

Sofpite te, faltem moriar, Nero : tu mea condas 
Lumina, 8c excipias hanc animam ore pio. 

Hence, at Rome, as we learn from Seneca in Epift. 30. and 
from the Tragedian of that Name in Here. Fur. it was 
proverbially faid of the Old, who were worn out with Age^ 

that 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 79; 

that their Soul was in their Mouth : Thus the Romans 
dcriv'd this Credulity from the Greeks : And Ariftotle in 
his Treatife de Infp. 8c Reip. fays, That Infpiration is the 
Protafis, and Expiration the Cataftrophe of Life. 

But the Wiflies of the above-mention'd Livia, fuggeft to us 
another Office that was apply 'd to dying Perfons, and which 
the Greeks, in their Language, call'd KOL^ou^eiv raV o99ctX|««V, 
the Latines, condere, or tegere oculos ; to clofe their Eyes. 
This was the Duty of the neareft Relation, or of the deareft 
Friend, who immediately clos'd the Eyelids of his departed 
Relation or Friend : For, as Pliny teaches, lib. 11. cap. 37, 
they held it a Crime againft the Gods to fee the Eyes of a 
dead Perfon. And that the Cuftom, of which we are fpeak- 
ing, was religioufly obferv'd, as a pious Office, that oughc 
not to be negledied, we have the Teftimony of many of the 
Antients : particularly of Euripides in Hecuba, and in Phoc- 
niffa, of Homer. OdyfT. 10. and Iliad, i. and of Plato in 
Socr. While thefe Things were doing, all who were pre- 
fent, call'd with a loud Voice, and by his own Name, the 
Perfon, who was dead, and immediately Vv^ith Wailings and 
Tears ran to embrace the Corps : This we learn from Ser- 
vius on the 4th iEneid, and from Propertius, lib. 4. Eleg. 6 J 
For, as Alcinous, de dodt. Plat. cap. 12. fays, he, who with 
dry Eyes, can behold the Death of his Relations and Friends,' 
has a Mind infenfible, and void of all Affedrion. Hir'd 
Women attended to take Care of the Body, and thefe fliut 
the Mouth of the dead Perfon, while the Body was yec 
v^arm : Yet Crito performed the laft Offices to the con- 
demn'd Socrates, that Women, by their unavailing Laments, 
might not fhake the Conftancy of his undaunted Soul, 
Then they laid out the other Members, and wafh'd the 
Corps with warm Water : becaufe, fays Cicero, lib. i, de 
Leg. they believ'd rhe vital Spirit to be fhut out, and often 
to deceive them ; for which reafon, they were wont to 
wafh the Bodies of their Dead with warm Water : In the 
next Place they anointed the Body with Oil, if the Perfon 
were free, and not of fervile Condition : For Undlion was 
forbid to Slaves by the Laws of Solon ; who like wife pre- 
fcrib'd Bounds to Tears and Mourning ; but to publick in- 
deed, rather than to private: Even he himfelf, as Stoba:us, 
Serm. 276. witnefTes, wept for the Lofs of his Son ; and 
when it was told him, That Weeping would avail him no- 
thing : I know it well, faid he, and for that very Reafon I 
weep. And indeed, 

5 I Quis 



794 



LUCRETIUS. Book VI. 

Quis matrem, niii mentis inops, in funere nati 
Flere verat ? 



fays Ovid, de Remed. Amor. Efpecially when, as the Cu- 
ftom- was, they plac'd the Child, after it was waOi'd and 
anointed, on the Knees of the forrowful Mother, who, 
taking it into her Lap, and cherifliing the cold Limbs in her 
trembling Bofom, cloath'd it at length in its funeral Attire ; 
as we learn from Lucian, de ludru, and from Herodotus 
Muf 5. The Romans call'd the Mother of a dead Child, 
ftinera Mater, and that too very properly, fince the whole 
Funeral, the Lofs and the Grief were chiefly hers : This is 
attefted by Pliny, lib. 1 1. cap. 45, and by Serviusin Eclog.6. 
Confirmed likewife by the Mother of Euryalus, who in 
Virg. ^n. 9. hearing of the Death of her Son, cries out in 
the Bitternefs of Anguiili : 

— = -Nee te tua funera mater 



Produxi, prefiive oculos, aut vulnera lavi, 
Vefte tegens, — ~ — — 

But by the Laws of the twelve Tables, it was forbid among 
the Romans, to take into their Laps, the Body of any, who 
were kill'd with Lightning ; or to allow to fuch the ac- 
cuftom'd Rites of Funeral ; becaufe, according to the Do- 
d:rine of the Greeks, they were efteem'd holy, and worthy 
of Divine Honour : of which vjq have fpoken above, p. 6x9, 
Yide eiiam Artemid, lib. 2. cap. 8. 

The funeral V.efbnent, or Shrowd, was made of fine, 
^\}\te Liniien,. and they call'd it Adtr'^tw ^om • In weaving one 
of thefe, the chafte Penelope imploy'd many Years, to gee 
rid of her importunate Wooers, to whom flie pretended flie 
was making that Winding Sheet for her Husband UlyiTes* 
Thus Homer, OdylT. B. Nor in the Camp of the Greeks 
did any take Offence at Hippodamia and Diomedea, the 
laft of whom Patroclus, when alive, lov'd even to Mad- 
nefs ; and v*^ho, both of them, adom'd his Funeral with( 
the rkheil of Veftments, as Didys Cretenfis has it in lib. 4. 
Nor can we doubt, but that, in Procefs of Time, vjhfti. 
Corruption of Manners had crept in amonlg the Athenians^ 
€ven they too made ufe of coftly DrefTes for their Dead : 
Wg read in JElhn Var. Hiit. cap. 1 6, an4 in Diogenes. 

LaertittS 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 79^ 

Laertius in vit. Socr. that Apollodorus offcr'd Socrarcs, after 
this Philofopher had fwallow d the poilonous Draught, and 
was in his laft Agony of Life, a white Veftmencand Robe : 
and Plutarch, in vita Lyfandri, tells lis, that Philocies, the 
Prsetor of Athens, after having vvafli'd his Body, put on hts 
richeft Robes, and, thus attird, underwent with an un- 
daunted Mind the Death to which his Conquefour Lyfan- 
derhad doom'd him. Certain it is that they adorn'd their 
Dead with Crowtis and Garlands, made of the Leaves of 
Olive ; and fometimes of Parfley, as Suidas reports, that 
pares deliver'd in his Book de Certaminibus : and Lucian 
de Ludu adds, that they ftuck in among the Leaves the 
Flowers that the Seafcn afforded : This Garland was put 
on by the neareft Relation ; and Plutarch relates of Pericles, 
that, tho' he ftrove to retain his Gravity, and labour'd not 
to difcover his inward Anguifti, yet he could not refrain 
from Tears, when he crown d with this funeral Garland the 
Head of his dead Son Patolus. Laftly, they put into the 
Mouth of the deceas'd two pieces of Money, of the value 
of one Fenny each, to pay his Paflage over the River Styx : 
Thus the Expofitour on the Frogs of Ariftophanes, who 
faysbefides, that this Freight-money was in their Mother- 
Tongue caird ActiuVjf ; but theAttickscall'd it Kaf;calov, and 
the Latines Naulum. 

Thefe Ceremonies being thus performed to the Body, it 
then was, by the permiirion of a Law of Solon's, plac'd any 
where within the Doors of the Houfe: and this they call'd 
the Collocation of the Body : but the fame Law commanded, 
that it fliould be carry 'd out to Burial the next Morning 
after. the Collocation, and that too before Day-light. This 
Law was expir'd, or at lead was grown out of ufe, in the 
Time of Demetriws Phalereus : and tho' it was then re^ 
new'd, it hinder'd them not from keeping the Body in the 
Houfe, as the Romans like wife did, for the fpace of (Qven 
intire Days : during which time Frankincenfe, Storax, and 
other Perfumes were continually burning on a little Altar, 
that was plac'd by the Feet of the Corps- And this Cu- 
ftom of keeping the Body thus long was obferv'd for this 
reafon, to wit, becaufe the Prefence of the Deceas'd alle- 
viated the Sorrow of the Mourners, and accuftom'd their 
Mind by degrees to part for good and all with what they fo 
dearly lov'd. For this Reafon the Greeks, when they were 
before Troy, bury'd not the Body of Achilles^ till after they 
{sad kept it f^ventf er? whole Days, 

3 I i Befid^ss 



796 LUCRETIUS. Book VI. 

Befides: Thofe who perform'd the meaneft Offices to 
dead Bodies, as the wafhing and rubbing them with Oils 
and Ointments, and whom the Greeks dall'd KAJccyzu^Tuiy 
and N£;cpo9a'7r'3, and the Latines, Pollindtores, were, as 
P. Vid. lib. 2. var. le<5fc. cap. 7. and Lilius Gyraldus ob- 
ferve, held in fuch Abomination, than they were not per- 
mitted to have Houfes within the Walls of the City : And 
Seneca, lib. 6. de Benefic. fays, that Demades condemn d 
at Athens a Perfon who fold NecelTaries for Funerals ; be- 
caufe it was evident, that he intended, and wifh'd to gain 
by his Bufinefs, which neverthelefs he could not do without 
the Death of many. 

There were feveral Tokens, that gave Notice of a Houfe, 
in which there was a dead Body : before the Door they 
plac'd Boughs of Cyprefs, and a large gor-belly'd earthen 
Pot, fili*d with holy Water, and which was commonly call'd 
'AfVctviov 7ctrct, but by Ariftophanes, oVpctxoy • and that Water 
was always brought from another Houfe : The Hair likewife 
of the Deceased was hung over the Threfhold of the Door: 
And the reafon of all this was, that none might be polluted, 
by going into the Houfe unawares. 

On thefe Occafions the Greek Matrons laid afide their 
ufual Apparel, and mourn'd generally in black, tho* fome- 
times in white : negledting to fet themfelves off with Orna- 
ments, and defpifing their accuftom'd Trim: Their mourn- 
ing Garm>ent was, by the Decree of Solon, call'd 'i^ctTiov* 
They fate by the Corps with dejedled Looks, and weeping 
around the Bier, on which fate the Keeper of the Corfe, 
[capularis cuRos] fome very old Man or Woman, that kept 
always rext the Deceas'd : The Com.panions too of the 
dtzd Perfon ftood around his Body, overwhelmed with 
Grief, together with weeping Virgins, who often beat their 
Breafls with their Hands : And thofe of the weaker Sex 
frequently tore off their Hair for Grief: For it vv^as forbid 
to cut it quite off, except at the Pile or Tomb. It was 
an antient Cuftom too in Mourning to take the Hair off 
their Eye-brows, and to do all things that might teftifie an 
Irkforrenefs of Life, and betray an Anguifli of Mind. They 
fcarce eat at all ; what Nourifliment they took, was of the 
coarfeft Fare : Nor is it improbable, thr.t the Cups they 
drank out of were black : as was the Cuftom at Rome : 
where they were made of Earth that came from Polentia. 
See Martial, lib. 14. Epig. 157, and Euripides in Troad. 

When 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 797 

When the feventh Day approach'd, the Body was, by 
the Friends of the Deceas'd, laid on a high Bier, and plac'd 
with the Feet next the Door ; which laft Cuftom the Scholiaft 
on the fixth Iliad obferves, was not without JMyftery : For, 
fays he, the Dead were laid in that manner, to fignify, 
that they were never more to return to rhe Houfe again : 
But Pliny, lib. 7. cap. 8. gives a better realbn, and fays, 
that as by the Decrees of Nature Man comes into the World 
with his Head foremoft, fo he is carry 'd to his Grave with 
his Feet in that m.anner. This Ceremony was call'd 
nfo9sc7/r, i. e. Collocatio, and was obferv'd for this Reafon, 
that by thus expofing the Body, it might be fecn whether 
any Violence had been ofl'er'd to it : And tho* it was in- 
dulg'd by the Attick Laws, that the Body might be 
plac'd in any part of the Houfe, yet this Collocation, as 
they call'd it, was generally made in rhe Veftibulum, Porch, 
or Entry, and always with the Feet towards the Door: a 
Cuftom frequent enough in our Days. I may not omit their 
foolifh Cuftom of driving away the Flies ; and into which 
they were led, perhaps, by the Example of the officious 
Thetis. See Hom. Iliad. 8. Socrates in Plato, in Minoe, 
takes notice of their obferving an antient Attick Law con- 
cerning the Inferise, or Sacrifices to the Infernal Gods ; by 
which Law it was injoin'd, not to carry the Body out of the 
Houfe, till the Vid:ims were llain; no doubt for the Expia- 
tion of the Deceas'd. And fince we are fpeaking of Laws, 
I will mention the Ordinance of Hippias the Tyrant, wh9 
commanded, fays Ariftotle in OEconom. that for each dead 
Perfon fliould be paid to the Chief Priefts of the Temple of 
Minerva, which was in the Tower of Athens, two Sexta- 
ries of Barley, as many of Wheat, and one Penny in Mo- 
ney. Thefe things compleaced the domeftick Mourning, 
and the firft part of the Funeral ; to which immediately 
fucceeded the fecond in the following Manner. 

According to the Laws of Solon, as Demofthenes affirms, 
but as Tully, of Demetrius Phalereus, in the Hours of 
Morning, that preceded Day-light, efpecially if the Perfon 
dy'd an untimely or fuddain Death, the Body was carry *d 
out of the Houfe : This they call'd y/uz^^ d^-Trcay-yiVi diei rap- 
tum, as if the Deceas'd had not expir'd, bur had been 
fnatch'd or raviili'd away : or becaufe they thought it not 
fit, that the Sun fliould behold fo great a Misfortune, and 
therefore they faid, that they, diem rapuifTe, bad ravifli'd, 
had prevented the Day : The Proccfiion began by a long 

Row 



798 LUCRETIUS. Book VI. 

Row of Torches, whofe Splendour difpeH'ci the Darknefsof 
the Night : and if the Deceased had been kill'd, or had dy'd 
a violent Death, a Spear was borne before the Body : Hoarfe- 
founding Trumpets attended, efpecially at the Funeral of a 
Military Man, or one who had deferv'd well on account of 
his fignal Services to the Republick ; and at the Obfequies 
of fuch, the People were fummon'd to affift. Then came 
the Tvjji^cwxoi, Players on the funeral Pipes, which the 
Greeks by a Word borrow'd from the Phoenicians, call'd 
Tiy^fict], and which, after the Libyan Mood, utter'd a dole- 
ful Sound, that excited the hir'd Women to bewail the 
Dead. Thefe Women the Greeks calFd io((:.i^ou Sr^ifv^i., the 
Diflemblers, and the Principals in the Monruing, tho* they 
Ihar'd not in the Grief. Thcfe the Latines call'd Prseftcae. 
The Chief of them vas call'd 'InAfA^'V^tot, from a fort of 
Song, which they term'd 'ly.M/^t^, or 'Iccas/u^, the Latines, 
Lelfus, Laufus 8c Mortualia, a funeral Dirge. With thefe 
Mercenaries join'd the Virgins and Matrons, that were re- 
lated to the Deceas'd, with their Hair difshevel'd, and be- 
fprinkled with Duft and Aflies, their Face and Bofom bare, 
beating their Breafts, tearing their Face, and each of them 
howling rather than yelling and wailing. But let us heat 
Beilonius, an Eye and Ear-witnefs of the funeral Ceremo- 
nies at this Day obferv'd in Greece. 

The Cuftom, fays he, of bewailing the Dead, which took 
its Rife from the anrient Heathens Howling at Funerals, 
remains among the C riftians, even to this Day. Now the 
Heathens of old vv'ere wont to lament and mourn their Dead 
for many Days : and Greece ftill retains this Ufage, which it 
deriv'd from irs Anceftours. For in all places, by a certain 
promifcuous Cuftom, when any of the Family dies, whe- 
ther it be the H^usband, or any other Relation , for 
whom, according to the Ufage of the Countrey, they are 
obiig'd to mourn, the Women run up and down the Streets 
|)are- headed, with their Hair difshevel'd, their Bofom naked, 
and piercing the Air with their loud Shrieks and Yells : 
gearing likewife the Hair off their Heads, rending theif 
Cheeks, and ftriking their bare Breafts, fometimes with 
one Hand, fometimics with the other: with their right Hand 
ihey tear the left fide cf their Body, and with their left, the 
right : In the fame manner too they tear off their Hair, from 
the left fide of their Head with their right Hand, from the Righfi 
with their Idt : And thus by Turns, fometimes fcarifying their- 
f heeks, fometimes beating the^r Bir^^aflSj and fornetimcs tear- 



Book VI. LUCRETIUS. 799 

ing off their Hair, they perform this Ceremony of Mourning : 
But this Cullom of bewailing the Dead, is permitted only to 
the Women, of what Rank foever they be: For the Men 
are not fuffer'd to bear a Part in this fort of Mourning. I 
know all this to be true, not by Hearfay, or the Writings of 
others, but have often feen it prad:is'd of late in many 
Places of Greece : The lirft Time I was an Eye-witnefs of 
it, was in the Month of March, 1 547. and at Corey ra an- 
tiently, but now called Corfu. 1 had for many Days to- 
gether, before it was light, heard a great Noife, which at 
firft I took to be the Howling of Dogs, fliut up in their 
Kennels . but at length I got out of my Bed to difcover the 
truth of it, and, to my great Aftonifliment, found it to be a 
Company of fcreaming and howling Women. Now that 
they may perform this Yelling the better, they agree among 
themfeives on a Time and Place, when and where they may 
twice a Day mourn and wail the Death of the Deceas'd. 
Moreover, She among thefe Women, who has the beft 
Voice, and fings the ioudeft, begins the Dirge alone, and, 
in a diffonarit Voice from the others, recounts to his Rela- 
tions and Friends the Praifes of the Deceas'd : And if none 
of the female Relations themfeives be capable of perform- 
ing this Office, they hire another Woman to do it. Fof 
in the Towns of Greece there are many Women, whofe fole 
Livelihood it is to wail the Dead : in which they are fo 
artful, that they excite even the unwilling to bear a Part in 
their Cries and Yellings. And flie of all the Women, who 
excels the reft in reciting the Praifes of the Deceas'd, is 
hir'd the deareft. And the other Women, who alTift in 
the Ceremony, barkening attentively to what flie fings, and 
mixing, with hers, their Sighs and Groans, chaunt out the 
funeral Dirge, in the fame doleful Tune. She too, who 
with her Nails fcratches and tears her Cheeks the moft, is 
j wont to receive the greateft Reward. The Virgins, above 
the reft, gain moft Honour by this Dilaceration of the Face. 
Thus P. Bellonius, lib. 2. de medicato funere, cap. 14. 

Some Footfteps of thefe Dirges are ftill remaining in Grae- 
cia Major, the Cuftom of lamenting the Dead in Rhyme 
being not totally abolifh'd. A. Saniorellus, in his learned 
Poftpraxis, feu de curando DefuncSto, records a Dirge, ftill 
frequently us'd by the Councrey People in Calabria : And 
LihusGyraldus wirnefles, that that feminine Cuftom of Yell- 
ing and Screaming, and of tearing their Cheeks and Hair,' 
continu'd among the. Sabines. in his Days, and almofl: 

throughouc 



2qo LUCRETIUS, Book VI 

throughout all Italy. But no where can we find a more 
pathetick and moving Dirge than this in our Lucretius : 

At jam non domus accipiet te Iseta, neque uxor 
Optima : nee dulces occurrent ofcula nati 
Prseripere, 8c tacita pe(5lus dulcedine tangent : 
Non poteris fa<5tis tibi fortibus efle, tuifque 
Praefidio. Mifer, b mifer, omnia ademit 
Una dies infefta tibi tot prsemia vitae. 

Which Dryden thus interprets : 

Alas ! Thou'rc fnatch'd from all thy Houfhold Joys, 

From thy chafte Wife, and thy dear prattling Boys ; 

Whofe little Arms about thy Legs were caft ; 

And climbing for a Kifs, prevent their Mothers hafte ; 

Infpiring fecret Pleafure thro' thy Breaft : 

All theie fliall be no more : Thy Friends, oppreft. 

Thy Care and Courage now no more (liall free : 

Ah Wretch ! they cry : ah ! miferable thee ! 

One woeful Day fweeps Children, Friends, and Wife ; 

And all the brittle Bleffings of thy Life. 

Solon, as Cicero, lib. 2. de Leg. and Plutarch in his 
Life, inform us, forbid indeed by a Law this dilaceration 
of the Cheeks, and beating of the Breafts ; which laft they 
cali'd rspvoTUTT/ct • the People neverthelefs could not be 
prevail'd on to difcontinue that Cuftom : Nor, as the above- 
eited Bellonius relates, were the Venetians of late Days 
more fuccefsful. in the like Injunc5lions they gave to the 
Countreys of Greece, that are fubjed: to their Obedience. 
The Reafon, why the Antients adher'd thus obftinately to 
this Cuftom, was, becaufe they creduloufly believ'd, that 
the Manes, or Ghoftsofthe Dead, were appeas'd and fa- 
tisfy'd with Blood and Milk : Therefore, fays Servius, the 
Women, who aifift at Funerals, beat their Breafts, that they 
may force out the Milk, and all fcarify their Flefli, to 
make themfelves bleed. But becaufe a vaft Concourfe of 
Women, of all Conditions, were wont to flock to the fu- 
neral Houfe, it was forbid by a Law, for any Woman to 
come to a Funeral, except fuch as were Relations of the 
Dead, and fixty Years of Age : Thus the great Refort of 
Men and Women was taken away to leiTen the Lamenta- 
tion. For the Men too fiock'd in Crowds to Funerals : 

and 



Book Vr. LUCRETIUS. 8or 

\nd therefore Pittacus, as Cicero, 2. de Legib. teaches, for- 
bid all manned ot Perfons to attend Burials, except 
the Kindred of the Deceased : which Sand:ion Ariftotle, in 
Eth. 9. cap. II. tells us, was continu'd, and in ufe, in his 
Days. But it is not certain, whether befides the Relations, 
who, clad in Black, and with Veils over their Heads, 
march'd in Order before the Women, the Friends likewife, 
and all who had at any time belong'd to the Family of the 
Deceased, as alfo the Matters of Defence, the Pla