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Georda 





Tobacco 



SB273 

T628 Chapter in America's Industrial Growth 

no. 9 




®l^p i. m. Bill IGtbrarg 




Nortlj (Earolina ^tate Imueraitii 

SB?,73 
T6?,8 
no. 9 



wcers of tobacco in 
about 31,000 Georgia 
n 116 million pounds 

The 59,630 Georgia 
represent 7.5 percent 

ted on the soils of the 
of Georgia tobacco is 
114.1 million pounds 
71. Also important is 
^ and grown on the 
tithwestern part of the 
siaie. More tnan z.o miuion pounds of this type were 
harvested by Georgia farmers in 1971. 

The history and background of this great industrt/ are 
fascinating. This booklet traces that background and 
outlines some of the important crop data that has had 
and will continue to have a significant impact upon the 
people and the economy of Georgia. 




Tobacco History Series 

First Edition 

m 

THE TOBACCO INSTITUTE 

1776 K St, N.W, Washington, D. C. 20006 
1973 



Georgia and 
Tobacco 




ound builders were the first 
known inhabitants of the Georgia region, followed later 
by the Creek and Cherokee Indians. The first Euro- 
peans to dominate the area were the Spanish whose 
influence began to flow into Georgia in 1540 when the 
explorer De Soto is said to have surveyed the area. 

The 17th century and early decades of the 18th were 
marked by an almost continuous struggle between the 
Spanish and the English all along the South Atlantic 
Coast. Gradually, Spanish dominance waned. 



Georgia got her name in 1732 when EngHsh philan- 
thropist James Oglethorpe and his associates received 
a charter to settle the land from King George II. The 
colony was originated as an asylum for debtors, for a 
Lutheran sect which broke away from the established 
church in Austria, and for other persecuted groups. 

On February 12, 1733, Oglethorpe and a party of 
114 settlers landed at Yamacraw Bluff and founded the 
city of Savannah. The new colony was designed as a 
protective bumper for the well settled Carolina colo- 
nies from the still strong Spanish encampment to the 
south. In 1736, Oglethorpe established a fort on St. 
Simons Island near present day Bnmswick as a final 
defense against any potential Spanish invasion. The 
threat of Spanish attack ended in 1742 when Ogle- 
thorpe and his men defeated their rivals at the Battle 
of Bloody Marsh. 

After the colonists settled and the troubles with 
Spain diminished, the people of Georgia got down to 
the business of developing a stable agricultural econ- 
omy. Following some economic difficulties, the plan- 
tation system became a way of life as exports of tobacco 
and of other agricultural commodities helped bolster 
the economy. 

From colonial times to today, tobacco has been the 
livelihood of thousands of farm families in Georgia. Its 
importance has steadily increased since the first seeds 
were planted in the 18th century. 



THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY IN GEORGIA 
TODAY 



Where Tobacco is grown in Georgia 



Vy 



:^ Type 14 



Type 64 




J_he abundant fields 



Flue-cured tobacco has been grown in Georgia for a 
century. The fields of the southern portion of the state 
produced more than 114 million pounds of Bright to- 
bacco, or type 14, in 1971 on 59,598 acres with an 
average yield of 1,935 pounds per acre. Flue-cured 
growth has come a long way since it was first cultivated 
in Georgia. In 1919, for example, Georgia tobacco 
farmers grew 11,621,000 pounds on 23,800 acres. The 
average yield then was 488 pounds per acre. Improved 
technology has enabled the tobacco farmer steadily to 
increase tobacco yields per acre. 



long days and hard work 

But despite improvements in fertilizers and pest con- 
trols, mechanization, in reality, has hardly yet touched 
the fields of flue-cured tobacco. The cultural routine, 
as it has been since colonial days, is dependent on 
patient labor and skilled eyes and hands. Each farmer 
will put in anywhere from 300 to 400 hours of meticu- 
lous labor to produce an acre of tobacco— from prepa- 
ration of seed bed to harvest to market. 

Flue-cured tobacco is influenced probably more than 
any other crop by the soil on which it is grown. Soils 
best adapted to tobacco are sandy or sandy loams. 
These light, sandy soils produce the brightest colored 
leaf. 

The cultivation process begins around the first of 
January in Georgia, when the farmer chooses a good 
site for his plant "bed," perhaps 100 square yards in 




Growing Bright tobacco requires endless hours of 
careful surveillance of the crop. 



size. It is here that he will carefully nurture the seed- 
lings that will be later transplanted into the field. 

The tiny seeds are planted in the bed after the soil 
has been chemically treated and prepared. Around 
mid-March, after the soil is warm enough for good 
plant growth, the seedlings are moved into the field, 
and planted in rows about three and a half to four feet 
apart. Ideally, this should yield about 120,000 to 
140,000 leaves per acre. 

The tobacco farmer at this critical stage must be 
extra cautious because the risk of plant insects is high 
if the proper insecticides are not used. The farmer 
must also keep a close watch on the weather. Excess 
rain and hail are commonplace to south Georgia and 



if the proper precautions, such as a good drainage 
system, are not made, the crop can be easily damaged 
and even destroyed. 



Tc 



opping and suckering 

About nine weeks after the tobacco has been trans- 
planted, seed heads begin to form. The uppermost 
portion of the plant, including flowers and the young- 
est leaves, requires more energy for normal growth. 
If this growth pattern is allowed to go unchecked, the 
lower part of the plant will mature too rapidly and will 
become thin and papery when cured. 

It is for this reason that "topping" the plant is so 
important. When the upper portion of the plant is 
topped, or removed, the plant's energy is redistributed 
toward the lower, more "meaty" sections. 

Also during this period suckers develop on the axils 
of the leaves. These small growths must be removed 
or "suckered" or they will reduce the body of the leaf. 
The recent development of a special chemical treat- 
ment has lessened the farmers' tedious chores by pre- 
venting the growth of suckers. 



riming and curing 

Late in May, many tobacco farmers in Georgia can 
be seen "priming" matured leaves from the plant. As 
individual leaves mature, they are primed, or removed 
from the plant and readied for the curing barn. 



As the leaves are picked from the plants, they are 
strung on sticks about four and a half feet long and 
hung on tiers in the curing barn. The conventional 
barn is wooden, about 16 by 24 feet inside and any- 
where from 16 to 20 feet high. After the barn is filled 
with tobacco, heat is forced in through flues usually 
fueled by oil or gas burners. 

After a few days of continuous care, the leaves will 
have yellowed. The temperature is then gradually in- 
creased to around 170 degrees to "fix the color" and dry 
the leaves, after which the barn doors and ventilators 




Bright tobacco being unloaded from a harvester for 
transport to the curing barn 



are opened to allow the cured tobacco to absorb 
moisture from the atmosphere. 

Bulk curing is a newer method of preparing the leaf 
for market. Although the basic results of curing this 
way are the same as with conventional methods, the 
actual process is quite different. Bulk curing involves 
the passage of conditioned air through tightly packed 
tobacco. The principal reason for changing from the 
conventional method to bulk curing is to save labor. 
Bulk curing also offers a further advantage in that 
humidity, temperature and circulation are more easily 
controlled. With the disappearance of available labor 
for harvesting tobacco, bulk barns are becoming in- 
creasingly popular. 



R 



rom farm to market 

After the tobacco has been cured and removed from 
the curing barn, it is placed temporarily in a "pack 
house" and readied for market. 

By the time the farmer brings his tobacco to market 
he has already graded and separated it according to 
its specific quality, usually determined by the part of 
the plant from which the leaves originated. Tobacco 
is taken to market in standardized burlap sheets, 96 
inches square. These loads of tobacco usually do not 
exceed 200 pounds each. 

The marketing season is opened by intense activity 
on the part of auctioneers, buyers, warehousemen, 
truckers and others who work in and out of the 97 
warehouses operating in Georgia's 23 markets. Georgia 
farmers sold 114,165,000 pounds of flue-cured tobacco 
in 1971 at an average $77.50 per hundred pounds. They 
received a total $88,478,000 for the crop. 



After sale, the tobacco goes either to a processing 
plant for treatment before export to foreign buyers, or 
directly to warehouses where it is aged for a few years 
in preparation for domestic manufacture. The tobacco 
is stored in huge hogsheads, approximately 1,000 
pounds each. The sprawling warehouses collectively 
occupy miles of space in and near the manufacturing 
cities located throughout the South. 



G 



eorgia cigar wrapper 

Tobacco used for cigar wrappers has been abundant 
in Georgia for a long time. It was growing in south 
Georgia long before the Civil War. Today, this type 
62, as it is called, can be found in a small portion of 
the state in the southwest, along the Georgia-Florida 
border. 

Cigar wrapper, or "sumatra" as it has long been 
known, was grown on 630 acres of Georgia soil in 1971 
yielding 954,000 pounds at an average 1,515 pounds 
per acre. Farmers of this special type, in high demand, 
sold their crop for $2,576,000, averaging $2.70 per 
pound. 

Although it is grown in limited amounts, Georgia's 
cigar tobacco makes a significant contribution to the 
cigar manufacturing industry. 



T 



he consumer raarket 



There is an unending flow of tobacco goods across 
retail shelves throughout the state. Georgians buy to- 
bacco products with the confirmed enthusiasm of other 



lO 




Tobacco specialists examining Bright tobacco 
being "bulk" cured 



Americans— the largest consumers of tobacco anywhere 
in the world. A trade estimate of the wholesale value 
of manufactured tobacco distributed within the state 
in 1971 is about $112,296,606. Of this total, cigarettes 
represented over $98.7 million; cigars, almost $10 mil- 
lion and smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco and snuff, 
about $3.7 million. With 31,253 retail outlets selling 
tobacco products, consumers have ready access to the 
products of their choice. Total retail sales of cigarettes 
alone in the state in 1971 came to an estimated $190 
million, including a 20-cent federal and state excise tax 
on each pack. 



11 



s, 



66< 

*moke-fllled" treasuries 



Ever since a federal excise was established on manu- 
factured tobacco in 1862, the various tobacco products 
have been heavily taxed. Cigarettes were included in 
the tax in 1864. The total yield to the United States 
Treasury through June 1972 has been over $62 billion. 

The current federal rate on each package of 20 ciga- 
rettes is eight cents. It was "temporarily" raised from 
seven cents in 1952. 

With the purchase of tobacco as a consumer item, 
Georgians have also contributed vast sums of money in 
the form of revenues to the state treasury. Since 1923 
when the first tax on tobacco products was levied by 
the state, to June 1972, the latest fiscal year of record, 
users have added $644,977,429 to the state's total reve- 
nues—almost $66 million in 1972 alone. 

The current state excise on cigarettes in Georgia is 
12 cents per pack. In addition, cigarette consumers pay 
a three percent sales tax which amounts to about two 
cents extra per pack. 

In all, the tobacco industry is of extreme importance 
to Georgia. Although there is relatively no tobacco 
manufacturing within the state, the growth of the plant 
requires a large labor force for plant cultivation and in 
the related industries that form the composite tobacco 
economy of the state. Types 14 and 62 have helped 
support manufacturers in border states where the to- 
bacco is blended into the finest grade cigarettes and 
cigars in the world. 

It took a very long time for the "Peach State" to 
attain that position. The history of that achievement 
is a dramatic one. 



12 



THE HISTORY OF TOBACCO IN GEORGIA 



J_ obacco's colonial beginnings 

After Oglethorpe and his associates laid the ground- 
work for settling Georgia through the establishment of 
Savannah in 1733, other colonial outposts popped up 
all over the territory during the 18th century. 

Agriculture was the prime source of income for the 
Georgia colonists. At first there was little emphasis on 
tobacco because other Southern markets had already 
been glutted with the product. Instead, the farmers of 
Georgia concentrated during the early and middle parts 
of the 18th century on silk, wine, cotton, hemp, flax, 
potash, medicinal plants, dyestuffs and tropical fruits 
and nuts. Later, before the American Revolution, there 
was an even greater emphasis on rice and indigo. 



lantations take ttie reins 

Oglethorpe and the other creators of the Georgia 
colony had originally designed an ideal, though in- 
feasible, agricultural system that relied on subsidies 
and, in many instances, outright charity to the colonists. 
The landowners to the north, South Carolina plantation 
owners interested in Georgia's fertile soils, were pres- 
suring for adoption of a plantation system with Negro 
slavery. One historian described the pre-plantation 
system well when he expounded: 

The initial settlement of Georgia, essentially a 
philanthropic enterprise, was the most elaho- 



14 



rate project of organized colonization under- 
taken since the operations of the Virginia 
Company of London. The colonization plan 
called for small land holdings, careful safe- 
guards against land engrossment, close settle- 
ment in agrictdtural villages, exclusion of Ne- 
gro slavery, free transport and equipment for 
indigent persons of respectable character, pro- 
vision of a refuge for persecuted Protestants 
of Southern Germany and Austria, prohibition 
of rum and spirits of high alcoholic content . . . 
and development of the economic life . . . on 
the basis of highly intensive tropical and semi- 
tropical crops thus avoiding competition with 
the staples of other Southern colonies . . . 

By 1749, the tide of influence to move to a plantation 
and slave system was too great to withstand. Along 
with the introduction of the plantation system came a 
great increase in population and the sluggish Georgia 
economy picked up considerably. 



c 



olonial tobacco aplenty 

After 1752, when the original trustees of the Georgia 
colony surrendered their charter to the English Crown, 
making Georgia a Royal Colony, the population became 
even more widespread. Tobacco growth became popu- 
lar in the uplands or northern sections of the state. In 
1772, for example, tobacco exports from Georgia 



15 








16 



amount to 176,732 pounds— sent mainly to Britain and 
Scotland for manufacture. 

Colonial Georgia tobacco was considered very hard 
on the land. It was customary then to grow tobacco 
on plots of land until the yields began to decline. At 
this point the fields were abandoned as more fertile 
land was required. In those days, before the Revolu- 
tion, the tobacco was hauled in hogsheads over dirt 
roads and down to the Savannah River, near present- 
day Augusta, where it was loaded onto boats for over- 
seas shipment. There is one road near Augusta which 
is still marked "Tobacco Road." 



K 



rom revolution to constitution 

The people of Georgia were very much involved in 
the revolutionary fervor that spread throughout the 
colonies. In May of 1775 the powder magazine at 
Savannah was seized and the weapons and munitions 
were sent to the Continental Army. In 1776 Georgia 
instructed her delegates to the Continental Congress 
to vote for independence from Britain. 

Georgia sufi^ered heavily during the Revolution. Both 
Savannah and Augusta were occupied by the British 
forces who inflicted much destruction during their stay. 

Fourth of the original 13 states to ratify the Consti- 
tution, Georgia ceded her territorial claims, modern- 
day Alabama and Mississippi, to the United States 
Government on January 2, 1788 at a state convention 
in Augusta. 



17 



JLobacco stabilizes 



Following the Revolution both South Carolina and 
Georgia adopted tobacco as a staple crop and intro- 
duced regular warehouse and inspection systems. 

Thomas JeflFerson noted the potential growth of a 
Georgia tobacco industry in 1782 when he referred to 
the area in his notes as a substitute state for Virginia 
tobacco growth which he believed to be nearly ex- 
hausted: 

. . . But the midlands of Georgia, Jmving fresh 
and fertile lands in abundance, and a hotter 
sun, will be able to undersell these two states 
[Virginia and Maryland]. 

In 1786, one Dioneysius Oliver erected a tobacco 
warehouse in the fork between the Savannah and Broad 
Rivers at Petersburg— believed to be the first tobacco 
warehouse built in the state. By the early 1790's, Geor- 
gia ranked third among the southern states producing 
tobacco. 



E 



nter "King" cotton 

But tobacco growth in Georgia and in other areas 
of the South was soon to be overshadowed by that of 
cotton. In 1793, along with Eli Whitney's creation of 
the cotton gin, came an agricultural revolution in 
America. Georgia tobacco was being eclipsed by the 
state's blossoming cotton industry. 



18 




An old photograph of Savannah marking Yamacraw Bluff, the spot 
where Oglethorpe and his small band of colonists first landed 



Cotton could produce much greater profits for farm- 
ers than any other crop cultivated in the state and 
cotton "mania" raged throughout Georgia successfully 
for a long time. 

In 1818, for example, Savannah exports of tobacco 
amounted to some 1,500 hogsheads. In 1826 total to- 
bacco exports from that port came to only 170 hogs- 
heads. Around 1845 there was some experimentation 
with a Havana-type cigar tobacco. Cigar tobacco 
growth was developed in Georgia around this time and 
made further expansions around the turn of the century. 



19 



B 



l\ie vs. Gray 



The Civil War proved catastrophic for Georgia as 
well as the other Southern states that belonged to the 
Confederacy. Georgia had voted to secede from the 
Union on January 19, 1861. The principal food and 
supply source to the Southern armies, Georgia also sent 
94 regiments and 34 battalions into the War Between 
the States. The War, in turn, brought much destruction 
home to Georgia. In 1864, Union General William T. 
Sherman burned Atlanta to the ground and led his 
embittered march to the sea, which left in its path a 
vast wake of destruction. 



^l 




l""^^^^ 







Sherman's advance, 1864 



20 



J-obacco revives 



But the Georgia economy came to life after the War 
and tobacco growth was an important part of the new 
post-War economy. Tobacco manufacture, though rela- 
tively small-scale, proved rather profitable. In 1870, 
Georgia could claim nine manufacturing facilities, pre- 
dominantly in the northern part of the state, employing 
around 200 people. More than a million pounds of 
tobacco leaf were used that year to make chewing and 
smoking tobacco and snuff valued at about $400,000. 
It was later reported in the Census of 1880 that tobacco 
was being produced in 96 of Georgia's 137 counties, 
although little of it was being grown for the commercial 
market. 

The beginnings of the modern tobacco industry in 
Georgia took shape before the end of the 19th century. 
In 1886, Georgia's Commissioner of Agriculture, J. T. 
Henderson, took steps to promote tobacco by distribut- 
ing 40 pounds of seed for farm trial, and by publishing 
"A Manual of Tobacco Culture for Beginners." By 
1890, Georgia was producing 263,750 pounds of tobacco 
on 800 acres. 



c 



igar tobacco boom 

Growth of "Sumatra," a shade-grown tobacco used 
as a wrapper for cigars, snowballed around 1892 when 
farmers in Decatur County planted 3,500 acres of "Su- 



21 




Battle of Atlanta 



matra." At Waycross, 20 persons formed a stock com- 
pany both to grow leaf and to manufacture cigars. By 
1900, about a million pounds of "Sumatra" were being 
grown on thousands of Georgia acres. Decatur County 
could boast about having the largest shade tobacco 
plantation in the world. 

But the "Sumatra boom," in reality, was not to be 
an indication of a trend. Growth of this type of tobacco 
never really gained enough momentum to become a 
major portion of the state's agriculture. 



32 



K 



lue- cured gets a start 

After the turn of the century the cotton industry 
found itself in jeopardy due to the devastating onslaught 
of the boll weevil, a destructive insect that had already 
ruined millions of dollars worth of Southern cotton. This 
was really the catalytic factor that helped generate the 
flue-cured tobacco industry in Georgia. Without cotton 
as a key source of income, Georgia farmers were lost. 
The boll weevil hadn't hit the state full strength yet, but 
many far-sighted tobacco promoters knew well what 
was in store for the cotton industry. With a thriving 
tobacco crop, the farmers could rebound from any losses 
incurred by the boll weevil. It was the job of these 
pioneers in Georgia tobacco growth to prove that good 
quality and marketable tobacco could be produced in 
the state. 

In 1892, H. H. and W. O. Tift of Tifton set out 50 
acres of flue-cured tobacco. With the help of W. H. 
Snow, a North Carolinian who developed a special 
"Snow" tobacco curing process, they harvested and 
cured the first successful Bright tobacco crop in the 
state. Coincidentally, the very same land the Tifts used 
to plant their tobacco is now the site of the Georgia 
Coastal Plains Experiment Station. In fact, one of the 
Tifts' original curing barns still stands and is being used 
as a storage house. 

In 1909, there was an attempt to establish an auction 
market in Pierce County, but the prices were too low 
and it failed. By 1910 tobacco was being cultivated in 
Coffee, Effingham and many other Georgia counties, but 
all of it had to be marketed in the Carolinas. 



23 



Then, in 1914, the National Land Company per- 
suaded some lawyers to go to Pineora to try to establish 
another market. Tobacco was sold there for about nine 
cents a pound. Due to the poor price situation, the 
Pineora project was abandoned. 

But by 1917, the picture was taking a different shape. 
An auction market was opened in Douglas that year 
that still is one of Georgia's strongest. Despite the fail- 
ure of the Nicholls market the same year, others, such 
as the one at Blackshear which opened in 1919, began 
to spring up throughout the state. Most of these are 
still important markets today. 



A 



n increased demand 

World War I found Americans and other tobacco 
users world-wide increasingly demanding cigarettes. 
Because flue-cured represents an important part in the 
makings of a quality cigarette, the Bright tobacco in- 
dustry in Georgia and throughout the Bright belts took 
a new turn for the better. 

By 1917, manufacturers and growers in Virginia and 
the Carolinas were looking south to Georgia and even 
Florida for an expanded tobacco market. Railroads 
donated seed and tobacco demonstrators throughout 
south Georgia and two tobacco warehouses were 
opened in Douglas. Within a year, 15 counties were in 
the tobacco business full strength and the numbers of 
operating warehouses were multiplying. 



24 



A unique repository of historical back- 
ground on Georgia's flue-cured tobacco in- 
dustry has been assembled by Mr. Fred W. 
Voigt, of Waycross. With assistance of sev- 
eral associates, particularly Mr. Robert Miles 
and Mr. John B. Preston, he has compiled ex- 
tensive tape-recorded interviews of more than 
a score of individuals personally involved dur- 
ing their lifetimes in the creation of this indus- 
try in the state. Without Mr.Voigt's far-sighted 
project, a considerable amount of rich detail 
would be lost to scholars and others interested 
in the subject. 



B 



ids and buyers 



The market at Douglas sold around three million 
pounds in 1918 at an average price of 34.5 cents per 
pound. The success farmers were having with tobacco 
caused an even gieater spread of its growth. 

The boll weevil by this time was creating havcc for 
the Georgia cotton industry, but tobacco was thriving 
as it never had before. The trend of the times was well 
expressed in the December 19, 1918 issue of the Black- 
shear Times when its editor said: 

Every thinking man realized that the Boll 
Weevil has absolutely revolutionized condi- 
tions in this territory and made it impossible 
for us to depend solely on cotton for our 
money crop. The wise thing to do would be 



25 



for every farmer to put in at least five acres of 
tobacco. If we go into tobacco, there is every 
reason to believe that our financial conditions 
will improve. 

A market opened in Blackshear on July 17, 1919 and 
the Times marked the importance of the event: 

Today marked an epoch in the history of 
Pierce County with the opening of the tobacco 
market. . . . Buyers represented all of the 
principal markets of the country and the 
market opened very active with prices ranging 
all the way from one cent to 55 cents. 




Downtown Atlanta today— the industrial and 
cultural center of the South. 



26 



Two weeks later, the Times noted the success of the 
market opening and said: 

The farmers are pleased and it is 'predicted 
that there will he five times as much planted 
on some sections of the county next season. 

In 1919, Georgia produced some 11.6 milhon pounds 
of Bright tobacco and marketed it through ten outlets. 
In 1922, the first brick warehouse was built in the state. 
By 1929 Georgia was producing almost 87 million 
pounds. 



D 



ecades of progress 

Along with the Second World War came an even 
greater demand for American made cigarettes. Im- 
proved technology enabled Bright tobacco farmers to 
produce greater quantities of tobacco for their acreage. 
In 1944, for example, Georgia produced 93.8 million 
pounds of tobacco valued at almost $35 million with an 
average yield per acre of 970 pounds. In 1947, she 
produced about 135 million pounds on 110,000 acres at 
an aggregate value of about $53 million— yielding 1,180 
pounds per acre. 

As a cash crop today, tobacco is second only to pea- 
nuts in Georgia, which has the nation's largest peanut 
crop. The growth of tobacco in Georgia supplies jobs 
for thousands of farmers and workers in transportation 
and other industries closely related to tobacco. Taxes 
from tobacco products help build hospitals, roads and 
schools just to name a few. 

27 



The tobacco industry means a lot to the people of 
the "Peach State." It has a long history of firm en- 
trenchment within the economic framework of Georgia 
from the days of the first colonial settlements to today. 
With hard work and continued enthusiasm on the part 
of Georgia's tobacco farmers, tobacco will remain a 
part of the economy of Georgia for a long time to come. 



28 



Data on the current tobacco industry in Georgia have been supplied 
by the Cooperative Extension Service of the University of Georgia 
College of Agriculture, Coastal Plains Experiment Station, Tifton; 
Economic Research Service and Agriculture Marketing Service, 
United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C; and 
the Tobacco Tax Council, Richmond, Va. 

A special note of thanks is due to Mssrs. Robert Miles of the Univer- 
sity of Georgia's Cooperative Extension Service; to David Newton of 
the Georgia State Department of Agriculture; Fred W. Voigt, Chair- 
man, the Georgia Agricultural Commodity Commission For Tobacco, 
Tifton; and to Miss Virginia Baker, Editor, "The Tobacco Farmer," 
pubhshed by the Georgia Agricultural Commodity Commission For 
Tobacco. 

Material on the history of tobacco in Georgia came from various 
publications and reports made by E. C. W'estbrook, former Cotton 
and Tobacco Specialist of the Agricultural Extension Service, Univer- 
sity of Georgia; A Century of Georgia Agriculture, Willard Range, 
University of Georgia Press, Athens; Georgia, Historical and Indus- 
trial, O. B. Stevens and R. F. Wright (1901); Georgia, Her Resources 
and Possibilities, R. T. Nesbitt ( 1895 ) ; History of Agriculture in the 
Southern United States To 1860 by Lewis Cecil Cray, Volumes I and 
II (1958); The Story of Tobacco in America by Joseph C. Robert 
(1952); Tobacco and Americans by Robert K. Heimann (1960); The 
Bright Tobacco Industry by Nannie May Tilley (1948). 

The quotation on page 2 is from History of Agriculture in the 
Southern United States to I860; the Jefferson quote on page 4 is from 
his own notes made in Paris, 1782 and can be found in the Arents 
Collections, New York Public Library, the Astor, Lenox and Tilden 
Foundations; the page 10 quotes are all from issues of the Blackshear 
Times. 



Termission to quote directly from this booklet is grunted. 

Additional copies will be made available tcithout charge 

upon request to The Tobacco Institute 

1776 K St., N.W., Washington, D. C. 20006