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Full text of "A topographical dictionary of England"

TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



OF 



ENGLAND, 



COMPRISING THE 



SEVERAL COUNTIES, CITIES, BOROUGHS, CORPORATE AND MARKET TOWNS, 



PARISHES, AND TOWNSHIPS, 
AND THE ISLANDS OF GUERNSEY, JERSEY, AND MAN, 



WITH 



HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL DESCRIPTIONS 



AND EMBELLISHED WITH 



ENGRAVINGS OF THE ARMS OF THE CITIES, BISHOPRICS, UNIVERSITIES, COLLEGES, CORPORATE TOWNS, 
AND BOROUGHS; AND OF THE SEALS OF THE VARIOUS MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS. 



BY SAMUEL LEWIS. 



IBirttiOtt, 



IN FOUR VOLUMES. 
VOL. III. 



LONDON: 
PUBLISHED BY S. LEWIS AND CO., 13, FINSBURY PLACE, SOUTH. 



M.DCCC.XLV. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



OF 



ENGLAND. 



LACK 

-L^ACEBY (Sr. MARGARET), a parish, in the union of 
CAISTOR, wapentake of BRADLEY-HAVERSTOE, parts of 
LINDSEY, county of LINCOLN, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from 
Great Grimsby ; containing 755 inhabitants. The pa- 
rish is intersected by the road between Caistor and 
Grimsby, and comprises 2037a. 2r. 31p., of which about 
1300 acres are arable, TOO pasture, and 30 woodland ; 
the surface of the country is undulated, and very beau- 
tiful, and the soil is a rich loarn, well watered, and 
fenced, and capable of producing every kind of grain. 
The village is on the banks of the Laceby beck, which 
intersects the parish, and abounds in fine trout ; a new 
bridge was built over it in 1841. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 12. 0. 10. j patron and 
incumbent, the Rev. John Birkett : the tithes have been 
commuted for 535, and the glebe comprises 19 acres, 
with an excellent parsonage-house, erected near the 
church, at the expense of the Rev. J. Birkett, in 1834. 
The church is an ancient structure, with a handsome 
tower, and a very neat interior, containing about '240 
sittings. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. 
Sarah Stamford, in 1720, built a school-house, and 
endowed it with 70 acres of land, under the will of 
Philip Stamford, dated 1712 ; the income is 02, partly 
applied to apprenticing boys. 

LACEY-GREEN, a chapelry, in the parish of 
PRINCE'S-RISBOROUGH, hundred of AYLESBURY, county 
of BUCKINGHAM, 3 miles (S. S. E.) from Great Missen- 
den ; containing 926 inhabitants. See RISBOROUGU, 
PRINCE'S. 

LACK-DENNIS, a township, in the parish of GREAT 
BUDWORTH, union and hundred of NORTHWICH, S. divi- 
sion of the county of CHESTER, 3f miles (E. S. E.) from 
Northwich ; containing 33 inhabitants. 

LACKFORD (ST. LAWRENCE), a parish, in the union 
and hundred of THINGOE, W. division of SUFFOLK, 
6 miles (N. W. by N.) from Bury St. Edmund's ; con- 
taining 193 inhabitants. It is bounded on the north by 
the river Lark. The living is a rectory, valued in the 
king's books at 19. 10. 5. j net income, 271 j patron, 
Sir Charles Kent, Bart. Here is a national school. 
VOL. III. 1 



L A D B 

LACKINGTON, WHITE (Sr. MARY), a parish, in 
the union of CHARD, hundred of ABDICK and BUL- 
STONE, W. division of SOMERSET, 1^ mile (E. N. E.) 
from Ilminster ; containing 283 inhabitants. It com- 
prises 1465a. 3r. lip. } the soil is generally productive, 
and there are quarries of stone, which is raised for 
building and for burning into lime. The Chard canai 
passes through the parish. The living is a discharged 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 7. 10. ; patron 
and appropriator, Prebendary of White Lackington in 
the Cathedral of Wells. The prebendal tithes have been 
commuted for 288, and the vicarial for 220 j the 
prebendal glebe contains 38 acres, and the vicar's glebe 
comprises 1 acre. The church is an ancient structure, 
in the decorated English style, with a square embattled 
tower, but has been much defaced by injudicious altera- 
tions and enlargements. There is a parochial school, 
supported by subscription. A daughter of the Rev. Mr. 
Gyllet recently bequeathed 100 to the vicar, the interest 
to be distributed annually among the poor. 

LACOCK, county of WILTS. See LAYCOCK. 

LACON, a township, in the parish and union of 
WEM, Whitchurch division of the hundred of NORTH 
BRADFORD, N. division of SALOP ; containing 84 inha- 
bitants. 

LADBROKE (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union of 
SOUTHAM,, Southam division of the hundred of KNIGHT- 
LOW, S. division of the county of WARWICK, if mile 
(S.) from Southam ; containing 252 inhabitants. This 
parish, which is situated on the road from Oxford to 
Coventry, comprises 1928a. 3r. 27/>. : limestone is plen- 
tiful, and is quarried for burning into lime, and for build- 
ing and road-making. The living is a rectory, valued 
in the king's books at 13. 10. j patron and incumbent, 
the Rev. Arthur Turner : the tithes have been commuted 
for 438. 5., and the glebe comprises 40 acres. The 
church is a handsome structure, in the later English 
style, with a square embattled tower, surmounted by a 
lofty and elegant spire, and contains several monuments, 
chiefly to the Palmer family. A school is supported by 
the rector. 

B 



LAIN 



LAMA 



LADOCK (Sr. LADOGA), a parish, in the union of 
TRXJRO, E. division of the hundred of POWDER and of 
the county of CORNWALL, 7 miles (N. E.) from Truro ; 
containing 857 inhabitants. This parish, which derived 
its name from the saint to whom its ancient church is 
dedicated, is situated on the road to Falraouth, and com- 
prises 4842 acres, whereof 2121 are common or waste. 
Iron- ore is found of very superior quality, and the pro- 
duce of a mine discovered within the last few years is 
sent to Swansea to be smelted, and is found to make 
the best steel. At Trevilian, about three miles from the 
village, is an arm of the sea, navigable to Falmouth, by 
which coal, timber, and every requisite supply are easily 
obtained ; the high road passes through the village, 
which is neatly built and pleasantly situated ; and the 
small hamlet of Pessick is remarkable for the beauty of 
the scenery by which it is surrounded. A fair is held 
on the 10th of May. The living is a rectory, valued in 
the king's books at 18; patron and incumbent, the 
Rev. Henry Ware : the tithes have been commuted for 
700, and the glebe comprises 52 acres. The church 
is a handsome structure, in the decorated English style. 
There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The Rev. 
John Elliot, in 1763, left 5 a year for teaching children; 
and two schoolrooms have been erected on the glebe 
land by the present incumbent, for the education of all 
the children of the parish at the expense of their 
parents. 

LAGNESS, a hamlet, in the parish of PAGHAM, 
union of WEST HAMPNETT, hundred of ALDWICK, rape 
of CHICHESTER, W. division of SUSSEX; containing 
103 inhabitants. 

LAINDON (Sr. NICHOLAS), a parish, in the union 
of BILLERICAY, hundred of BARSTABLE, S. division of 
ESSEX, 4 miles (S. by E.) from Billericay ; containing, 
with the chapelry of Basildon, 568 inhabitants. This 
paris'h, which obtained, from the clayey nature of the 
soil, the appellation of " Laindon-Clay," comprises 2372 
acres, whereof 26 are waste ; it forms a tract of flat 
marshy land, which has been rendered arable, producing 
abundant crops. The living is a rectory, valued in the 
king's books at 35. 6. 8., and in the gift of the Bishop 
of London : the tithes of Laindon and Basildon have 
been commuted for 800 ; the glebe of Laindon com- 
prises 30 acres, and that of Basildon 23 acres. The 
church, situated on rising ground, is an ancient edifice, 
with a tower of wood and a small spire, and consists of 
a nave, with a south aisle and chancel. About two miles 
distant is the chapel of Basildon, a handsome edifice 
with an embattled tower surmounted by a spire, and 
serving as a chapel of ease to the mother church. A 
national school is endowed with 20 per annum. 

LAINSTON, an extra-parochial district, formerly a 
parish, in the hundred of MANSBRIDGE, union of NEW 
WINCHESTER, Romsey and S. divisions of the county 
of SOUTHAMPTON, 3 miles (N. W.) from Winchester} 
containing 96 inhabitants. This place comprises by 
computation 155 acres of freehold land, of which about 
110 are arable, 40 pasture, and the remainder wood. 
Lainston House, built in the reign of Charles II., and in 
a style corresponding to the palace which that monarch 
had partly erected at Winchester, is now occupied by 
Dr. Twynam, as a private asylum for insane persons ; 
the house, which is replete with every accommodation, 
is situated in an ample demesne of 40 acres, richly 
2 



wooded, and is approached by three lofty avenues of 
trees, of which the central is about half a mile, and the 
lateral about a quarter of a mile each in length. Near 
the hou?e are the remains of the ancient church, now a 
ruin, and in which the original piscina is still preserved ; 
the inhabitants attend divine service in the church of 
Sparsholt. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in 
the king's books at 2. 13. 4. ; net income, 34 ; patron, 
Sir F. H. Bathurst. 

LAITH-KIRK, a chapelry, in the township of LUNE- 
DALE, parish of ROMALD-KIRK, union of TEESDALE, 
wapentake of GILLING-WEST, N. riding of YORK, 9 miles 
(N. W.) from Barnard-Castle. The hamlet is situated to 
the west of the Lune, and near the confluence of that 
river with the Tees, which passes on the north. The 
chapel is an ancient edifice. 

LAKE, a tything, in the parish of KINGSBURY- 
EPISCOPI, union of LANGPORT, E. division of the hundred 
of KINGSBURY, W. division of SOMERSET; containing 
30 inhabitants. 

LAKE, a tything, in the parish of WILSFORD, union 
of AMESBURY, hundred of UNDERDITCH, Salisbury and 
Amesbury, and S. divisions of WILTS, 2| miles (S. W.) 
from Amesbury ; containing 74 inhabitants. 

LAKENHAM, county NORFOLK. See NORWICH. 

LAKENHEATH (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union 
of MILDENHALL, hundred of LACKFORD, W. division of 
SUFFOLK, 5f miles (N.) from Mildenhall ; containing 
1579 inhabitants. It is bounded on the north by the 
Little Ouse, which is navigable; and comprises 10,918a. 
37p. The soil is in some parts tolerably fertile, but a 
very considerable portion is marsh and fen land. The 
living is a discharged vicarage, with Undley, valued iti 
the king's books at 4. 18. ll. ; net income, 136; 
patrons and appropriators, Dean and Chapter of Ely. 
There are places of worship for Huntingtonians and 
Wesleyans. George Goward, in 1744, founded a school, 
and endowed it with land producing 20 per annum. 
An allotment of 154 acres of fen has been set apart for 
the poor ; and a sum exceeding 50, arising from bene- 
factions, is annually distributed among them. 

LALEHAM (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union of 
STAINES, hundred of SPELTHORNE, county of MIDDLE- 
SEX, 2 miles (S. S. E.) from Staines ; containing 612 
inhabitants. This parish, which is pleasantly situated 
on the bank of the river Thames, and intersected by a 
branch of the Coin, comprises by computation 1290 
acres, of which by far the greater portion is arable ; the 
soil is rich and fertile ; the surface is generally flat, and, 
in those parts near the river, subject to occasional inun- 
dation. The surrounding scenery is enlivened by the 
seat of the Earl of Lucan, in which are two rare and 
beautiful pillars of verde antique, brought from Italy by 
the present peer. The living is annexed to the vicarage 
of Staines ; impropriator, G. Hartwell, Esq. The church 
is a small ancient structure, in the Norman style, with 
a low brick tower. Mrs. Reeves, in 1679, bequeathed 
some land, the income to be distributed to the poor. 

LAMARSH (HOLY INNOCENTS), a parish, in the 
union of SUDBURY, hundred of HINCKFORD, N. division 
of ESSEX, ~\ miles (N. E. by E.) from Halstead ; con- 
taining 404 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded 
on the east by the river Stour, is about twenty miles in 
circumference ; the surface is very unequal, rising con- 
siderably in some parts, and in others greatly depressed ; 




LAMB 



LAMB 



the soil is various, but generally fertile, a large portion 
being a rich sandy loam, producing abundant crops. 
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
12. 0. 2|., and in the gift of John Sperling and Wil- 
liam Dowries, Esqrs. : the tithes have been commuted for 
385, and the glebe comprises 94 acres. The church is 
a small low edifice of great antiquity, with a circular 
tower, the walls of which are of unusual thickness. 

LAMAS, county of NORFOLK. See LAMMAS. 

LAMBCROFT/a hamlet, in the parish of KELS- 
TERN, union of LOUTH, Wold division of the hundred 
of LouxH-EsKE, parts of LINDSEY, county of LINCOLN ; 
containing 40 inhabitants. 

LAMBERHURST (Sr. MARY), a parish, in the union 
of TICEHURST, partly in the hundred of BRENCHLEY 
and HORSEMONDEN, lathe of AYLESFORD, W. division 
of KENT, but chiefly in the hundred of LOXFIELD CAM- 
DEN, rape of PEVENSEY, E. division of SUSSEX, 15 miles 
(S. W. by S.) from Maidstone ; containing 1572 inha- 
bitants. The parish is situated on the road from Lon- 
don to Hastings, and comprises 5426a. 3r. 3p., of which 
a considerable portion is wood ; the soil is generally a 
sandy clay ; the surface is hilly, and the low lands are 
watered by a copious brook. There were formerly ex- 
tensive iron- works in the parish, at which the balus- 
trades for the cathedral of St. Paul were manufactured, 
from ore found in the neighbourhood ; but they have 
been discontinued. A fair for cattle is held on the 6th 
of April, and is numerously attended. The living is a 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 12. 10. 5.; net 
income, 401 ; patrons and appropriators, Dean and 
Chapter of Rochester. The church is in the decorated 
English style, with a square embattled tower, sur- 
mounted by a low spire, and contains some ancient 
monuments to the Scotney family, whose sepulchral 
chapel adjoins the soutli aisle : on the repair of the 
church in 1840, a beautiful arch was discovered be- 
tween this chapel and the chancel, evidently of greater 
antiquity than the present church. Here is a place of 
worship for Baptists. Dame Elizabeth Hanby, in 1712, 
bequeathed a rent-charge of 6 for instruction ; and 
there is a national school. At Scotney Castle is a 
mineral spring of the same quality as the celebrated 
springs of Tonbridge-Wells. 

LAMBETH (ST. MARY}, a parish, and newly-en- 
franchised borough, in the E. division of the hundred 
of BRIXTON and of the county of SURREY ; separated 
from Westminster by the river Thames, and containing, 
115,888 inhabitants, of whom 41,377 are in Lambeth 
Church district. The name of this place, in the earliest 
records Lambehith, and in Domesday book Lanchei, is 
variously written by the ancient historians, and, accord- 
ing to Camden, implies a muddy station, or harbour ; 
by other antiquaries it is supposed to have been origi- 
nally Lambs Hithe, and to have denoted a haven belong- 
ing to some ancient proprietor of that name. Canute, 
on his invasion of London, in 1026, is said to have cut 
a trench through the parish, in order to convey his 
fleet to the west of London-bridge, of which Maitland, 
in his History of London, affirms that he discovered 
evident traces ; but the origin of these trenches is by 
others attributed, with greater probability, to a tempo- 
rary diversion of the course of the river, for the erection 
of London-bridge. The manor was given by Goda, 
sister of Edward the Confessor, to the see of Rochester, 
3 



one of whose bishops, Gilbert de Glanville, finding the 
buildings of his see greatly dilapidated, erected at Lam- 
beth, in 1 197, a mansion for himself and his successors, 
which, being afterwards exchanged for other lands with 
Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, became the 
archiepiscopal residence. Archbishop Boniface having 
obtained from Pope Urban IV. the grant of a fourth 
part of the offerings at Becket's shrine, and permission 
to rebuild his house at Lambeth, laid the foundation of 
the present PALACE, which has been at various times 
enlarged and improved by his successors. Many of the 
metropolitan councils were held in the chapel of the 
palace while it belonged to the see of Rochester j in 
1100, Archbishop Anselm convened an assembly to 
take into consideration the propriety of the marriage of 
Henry I. with Maud, daughter of the King of Scotland, 
who had taken the veil, though not the vows, as a nun. 
After the exchange, a council was held here by Arch- 
bishop Peckham, at which a subsidy of one-fifteenth 
was granted by the clergy for three years ; and in 1282, 
the same prelate convoked a synod, at which all the 
bishops of the realm assisted, to deliberate upon the 
state of the Church of England, of which complaints 
had been made at Rome by the Bishop of Hereford. 
In 1381. the followers of Wat Tyler, after having bar- 
barously put Archbishop Sudbury to death, attacked 
the palace, burnt the furniture and books, and de- 
stroyed all the registers and public papers. Henry VII. 
was, for some days previous to his coronation, sumptu- 
ously entertained in the palace by Archbishop Bour- 
chier ; and Catherine of Arragon, on her first arrival in 
England, remained there with her attendants for some 
days prior to her marriage. The palace was completely 
furnished by Queen Mary, for the reception of Cardinal 
Pole, whom she occasionally visited during his primacy ; 
and Queen Elizabeth, during the time of Archbishops 
Parker and Whitgift, was a frequent guest at Lambeth, 
where she sometimes remained for several days. Prior 
to the Reformation, the archbishops had a prison in the 
palace, for the confinement of offenders against the 
ecclesiastical laws. To this prison Elizabeth committed 
the Catholic bishops Tunstall and Thirlby ; the Earl of 
Essex, previously to his being sent to the Tower ; the 
Earl of Southampton, Lord Stourton, Henry Howard, 
brother of the Duke of Norfolk, and various other 
persons. 

In 1641 Archbishop Laud was attacked by a puri- 
tanical mob of 500 persons, who assailed the palace at 
midnight ; but having received intimation of their de- 
sign, he had so fortified it as to preclude their doing 
further injury -than breaking the windows. After the 
impeachment of Laud, an ordinance was issued by the 
house of commons, for removing the arms from Lam- 
beth palace, which was carried into effect by Captain 
Roydon at the head of 200 infantry and a troop of 
horse ; and in November following, Captain Brown 
entered to take possession of the palace for the parlia- 
ment. It was subsequently converted into a prison by 
the house of commons, and among the prisoners con- 
fined there were the Earls of Chesterfield and Derby ; 
Sir Thomas Armstrong, who was eventually executed at 
Kennington for having taken part in Monmouth's re- 
bellion j Sir George Bunkley, and some others. The 
palace, being afterwards put up for sale, was purchased 
by Thomas Scott and Matthew Hardy, the former of 

B 2 



LAMB 



LAMB 



whom, secretary to Cromwell, sate in judgment at the 
trial of Charles I., and was hanged as a regicide at 
Charing-Cross. Upon the Restoration, Lambeth palace 
reverted to its rightful owners, and became the resi- 
dence of the archbishops. It has at various times 
afforded an asylum to learned foreigners, whom the 
intolerant spirit of their own countrymen compelled 
to abandon their native land ; among these were the 
early reformers, Martyr and Bucer, the learned Antonio 
de Dominis, Archbishop of Spalatro, and numerous 
others. 

This venerable pile of building, which has lately un- 
dergone a very extensive repair, and to which consider- 
able additions have been made by the present arch- 
bishop, Dr. Howley, is situated on the south bank of 
the river Thames, and exhibits in its architecture the 
styles of various ages. The principal entrance, through 
an arched gateway, flanked by two square embattled 
towers of brick, leads into the outer court, on the right 
hand of which is the great hall, rebuilt after the civil 
war by Archbishop Juxon, and now converted into a 
library by the present archbishop. It is a lofty struc- 
ture of brick, strengthened with buttresses, and orna- 
mented with cornices and quoins of stone ; the interior 
is lighted by ranges of lofty windows, and by a double 
lantern turret rising from the roof, which is finely 
arched, and richly ornamented with carved oak ; in one 
of the windows are some heraldic devices in stained 
glass, and over the fire-places, at each end, are the 
arms, richly emblazoned, of Archbisop Bancroft, the 
founder of the library, and of Archbishop Seeker, by 
whom it was augmented. Beyond the library is the 
chapel, which is by far the most ancient part of the 
building ; it is in the earliest style of English architec- 
ture, lighted on the sides by triple lancet-shaped win- 
dows, and by an east window of five lights. The 
ancient painted glass, containing a series of subjects 
from the Old and the New Testament, the repairing of 
which was, on his trial, imputed as a crime to Arch- 
bishop Laud, was afterwards destroyed by the Parlia- 
mentary Commissioners ; the roof, which is flat and 
divided into compartments, is embellished with the 
arms of that prelate. A massive oak screen, richly 
carved, separates a portion of the western extremity 
from that part of the chapel which is fitted up for divine 
service. Underneath the chapel is a spacious crypt, the 
roof of which is finely groined j and to the west of it is 
the Lollard's tower, a lofty qua*e^ embattled structure 
of stone, similar to that of the chapel, and formerly used 
as a prison. The guard-room has been taken down, 
and rebuilt for a banquet hall ; it is of Bath stone, and 
in the later English style ; the original oak roof, of 
similar character to that of the library, has been care- 
fully preserved ; the hall is lighted by a range of four 
lofty windows, and parallel with it is a picture gallery 
of equal length, the whole forming a prominent and 
interesting feature in the new edifice. From the first 
court a handsome archway on the right leads into the 
area in which the additional buildings have been erected. 
These form a fine range, also in the later English style, 
consisting of an elegant arched entrance between two 
lofty octagonal embattled turrets, and surmounted by 
an oriel window, to the right of which is another richly 
canopied ; the front towards the garden is also deco- 
rated with embattled turrets and several oriel windows, 



one of which is of very large dimensions and elegant 
design ; this portion of the building contains the 
state apartments, lodging-rooms, and the various 
offices requisite for the household establishment. The 
gardens and park, comprising thirteen acres, are taste- 
fully laid out, and through the latter is a pleasant 
carriage road to the palace. Carlisle House, formerly 
the residence of the bishops of Rochester, and at that 
time called La Place, was given by Henry VIII. to 
Aldridge, Bishop of Carlisle, and, after having been 
for many years occupied as a private academy, has 
almost disappeared in the recent improvements of the 
parish, and only some portions of the outer walls are 
remaining. 

LAMBETH, originally a detached village, is now in 
fact united with Southwark, and forms a suburb of the 
metropolis. The great road from London to Ports- 
mouth passes through the parish, by Vauxhall ; a new 
road, leading from Waterloo-bridge to Newington, is 
connected with the preceding, and with other roads 
diverging into the counties of Kent, Sussex, and Hamp- 
shire ; and the Southampton railway has its terminus 
at Nine-Elms, near Vauxhall-bridge, where a station 
has been erected on the bank of the Thames, com- 
municating with the various steam-boats on the river. 
There are two establishments for supplying Thames 
water to the district, namely, the Lambeth water-works, 
situated in Belvidere-road, and the South London water- 
works at Vauxhall-bridge ; and a very extensive reser- 
voir has been constructed on Brixton-hill, for sup- 
plying that neighbourhood. The place was formerly 
celebrated for its medicinal well, of which the memorial 
is preserved in the name of a public-house called the 
Fountain ; and for its numerous places of public re- 
sort, the principal of which were Cupar's-gardens, and 
Spring-gardens, now Vauxhall, the latter of which con- 
tinued to be a place of fashionable amusement until 
Sept. 1841, when it was sold by auction for 20,200: 
a portion of the ground will be laid out in building, but 
the principal part is still reserved for public gardens, 
and was re-opened on 7th July, 1842. In the parish 
are also Astley's amphitheatre, near Westminster- 
bridge, and the Royal Victoria theatre, in the Waterloo- 
road. Lambeth, extending for a considerable way on the 
bank of the river, and connected with the opposite 
shore by Waterloo, Westminster, and Vauxhall bridges, 
is admirably situated for the carrying on of extensive 
works of every kind ; and, in addition to what may be 
considered as the general trade of the place, there are, 
on the largest scale, lime, coal, and timber wharfs ; iron 
and other foundries ; saw-mills ; manufactories for 
axle-trees, carriages, patent buoys, floor-cloth, Morocco 
and Spanish leather, pins, varnish, saltpetre, soap, 
starch, whitening, and patent-shot (of which the lofty 
towers form conspicuous objects on the bank of the 
river) j potteries of stone and earthenware, glass-works, 
distilleries, ale and beer breweries, vitriol and other 
chemical-works, and vinegar-works. There is also a very 
extensive establishment for making steam-engines, and 
almost every other kind of machinery ; besides artifi- 
cial stone works, and numerous other establishments of 
various kinds. The parish is within the jurisdiction of 
a court of requests held in the borough of Southwark, 
for the recovery of debts under 5, and is likewise with- 
in the limits of the New Police act. By the act of the 



LAMB 



L A M B 



2nd of William IV. cap. 45, a district of 5708 acres was 
constituted a borough, with the privilege of sending two 
representatives to parliament j the right of election is 
vested in the 10 householders, and the returning officer 
is annually appointed by the sheriff for the county. 

The LIVING is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
32. 15. 7^- ; net income, 2277 ; patron, Archbishop 
of Canterbury. The church, adjoining the palace, and 
rebuilt in the latter part of the fourteenth century, is a 
spacious structure, in the early and de-corated English 
styles, with some later insertions, and having a square 
embattled tower of freestone, with an octagonal turret 
at one of the angles. The interior comprises the chapels 
of the Howard and Leigh families, subsequently erected, 
and contains numerous ancient and interesting records. 
In one of the windows of the nave is the figure of a 
pedler with his dog, painted in glass, supposed to be the 
rebus of a person named Chapman, who is thought to 
have given a piece of land to the parish, which is called 
Pedler's Acre, formerly producing two shillings and six- 
pence per annum, but now more than 200. Among 
the interments are those of Archbishops Bancroft, 
Seeker, Tenison, Hutton, and Cornwallis ; of Tunstall, 
Bishop of Durham ; Thirlby, Bishop of Ely ; and other 
distinguished prelates ; also several of the Howards, and 
other illustrious families. There is a curious monu- 
ment of Colonel Robert Scot, and one of Elias Ash- 
mole, who presented to the University of Oxford the 
museum which is distinguished by his name ; and of 
the numerous tombs in the churchyard are those of 
William Faden, the original printer of the Public Ledger j 
and John Tradescant, the primary collector of the Ash- 
molean Museum. The burial-ground in High- street was 
consecrated in 1705. Four district churches were 
erected in the parish in 1824, by aid of the Parlia- 
mentary Commissioners, who granted one moiety of the 
cost, and a loan of the other moiety, to be repaid by a 
rate on the inhabitants. St. John's, in the Waterloo- 
road, built at an expense of 15,911, is a handsome 
structure, in the Grecian style, with a tower of two 
stages, of which the upper is surmounted by a neat spire, 
terminating in a ball and cross ; it has a fine portico of 
six columns of the Doric order, supporting an entabla- 
ture and triangular pediment. St. Mark's at Kenning- 
ton, St. Matthew's at Brixton-Causeway, and St. Luke's 
at Norwood, are described in the accounts of those 
places. The four livings are all district incumbencies, 
in the patronage of the Rector of Lambeth ; net income 
of St. John's, 483. St. Mary's district church, at Lam- 
beth-Butts, erected in 1828, also by a grant from the 
Parliamentary Commissioners, at an expense of 7634, 
is a neat edifice, in the later English style, with a cam- 
panile turret surmounted by a spire : the living is a 
perpetual curacy; net income, 170; patron, Rector of 
Lambeth. An additional church, dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity, to which a district has also been assigned, was 
erected in 1839, on a site given by the Archbishop, by 
grants from the Diocesan Society and the Metropolitan 
Churches' Fund, aided by subscriptions ; it is a neat 
edifice of brick, in the early Norman style, with a tower, 
and contains 1200 sittings, of which 200 are free. The 
living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the 
Rector. Another church was erected in Carlisle- street, 
and consecrated in 1839, containing 1000 sittings, 
whereof 500 are free ; and at Park-road, a church, in 
5 



the later English style, with a tower and spire, was 
completed in 1841, at an expense of 4819, by the 
Church Commissioners ; it contains 1230 sittings, of 
which 5/2 are free. There is a chapel of ease to the 
rectory, at Stockwell ; and Carlisle chapel in Kenning- 
ton-lane, St. Matthew's at Denmark Hill, and the chapel 
at South Lambeth, are proprietary Episcopal chapels. 
Her Majesty's Commissioners lately made a conditional 
grant for a new church in the Waterloo district ; and 
there are places of worship for Baptists, Wesleyans, 
Welsh Methodists, Swedenborgians, Independents, and 
others. 

A parochial school for boys is supported by subscrip- 
tion and a fund of nearly 1200 in the three per cents., 
and is held in a schoolroom neatly rebuilt, on ground 
belonging to the see of Canterbury ; a parochial school 
for girls, established in 1780, is maintained by subscrip- 
tion and a fund of 400 in the three per cents. Arch- 
bishop Tenison, in 1715, founded a girls' school, of which 
the endowment, augmented with subsequent benefac- 
tions, produces about 350 per annum. Richard Law- 
rence, in 1661, gave two houses, with ground attached, 
for which foundation, a neat and commodious building 
was erected in 1808, in the York-road, in which chil- 
dren are instructed. St. John's school, in the Water- 
loo-road, was rebuilt by subscription, at an expense of 
2200, to which George IV. gave 100, and the National 
Society a similar sum. The Eldon School, on the road 
to Wandsworth, was instituted in 1830, for the instruc- 
tion of children, and the training of young men to act 
as teachers, on the national system ; the building, which 
is in the later English style, was erected in commemo- 
ration of Lord Chancellor Eldon, at the expense of 
Charles Francis, Esq. The Licensed Victuallers' school, 
for children of deceased and indigent members of that 
society, is a spacious modern edifice, with a lofty portico 
of four Corinthian columns. The asylum for female 
orphans, and for the reception of deserted females, the 
settlement of whose parents cannot be found, was insti- 
tuted in 1758, and incorporated in 1800, and is under 
the patronage of Her Royal Highness the Duchess of 
Cambridge : the buildings occupy three sides of a quad- 
rangle, in the central range of which is a handsome 
chapel; and there are 140 children in the school. The 
General Lying-in Hospital, for the reception of patients 
from any part of the kingdom, and for the delivery of 
out-patients at their own habitations in the metropolis 
and its environs, was instituted in 1765, and incorpo- 
rated in 1830. The Royal Universal Infirmary for chil- 
dren, in the Waterloo-road, is supported by subscrip- 
tion, and is under the patronage of Her Majesty. The 
Benevolent Society of St. Patrick, which has a fund of 
25,000, and is also maintained by donations, was insti- 
tuted in 1784, for the relief of distressed Irish families 
in London and its environs, and for the education of 
their children ; and a handsome and capacious building 
was erected in Upper Stamford- street, in 1820, at an ex- 
pense of 8000, comprising two schoolrooms, with a 
house for the master and the mistress, committee-rooms, 
and other offices. Sir Noel Caron, in 1623, gave a rent- 
charge of 28 for the maintenance of an alrnshouse, for 
the support of seven aged widows, which has been aug- 
mented by an appropriation of a part of large sums of 
money bequeathed by Thomas, Earl of Thanet. Alms- 
houses have also been erected in Coldharbour-lane, for 



LAMB 



LAMB 



eight widows ; and there are numerous and extensive 
charitable bequests for distribution among the necessi- 
tous. In the arrangements under the Poor Law Amend- 
ment act, the parish is not united to any other. 

LAMBLEY, a parish, in the union of HAI/TWHISTLE, 
W. division of TINDALE ward, S. division of NORTHUM- 
BERLAND, 4| miles (S. W. by S.) from Haltwhistle ; 
containing 249 inhabitants. This place is of considerable 
antiquity, and in the reign of John, a Benedictine nun- 
nery, dedicated to God, St. Mary, and St. Patrick, was 
founded here, either by that monarch or by Adam de 
Tindale, which, in 1296, was burnt by the Scots, who 
plundered and laid waste the neighbourhood ; the esta- 
blishment was subsequently restored, and continued to 
flourish till the Dissolution, when its revenue was valued 
at 5. 15. 8. The parish is situated on the South Tyne, 
and comprises 2854a. 2r. 10p., of which 368 acres are 
arable, 221 meadow, 175 woodland, and 10S9 pasture, 
with a tract of common containing 1000 acres by com- 
putation. The surface is rugged, and the scenery wild, 
but the banks of the river are well wooded, and in some 
parts beautifully picturesque ; the prevailing timber is 
oak, ash, elm, and sycamore ; the soil is generally light, 
and the chief produce oats, barley, and potatoes. The 
Allgood family are the possessors of the estate that be- 
longed to the ancient monastery. The living is a dona- 
tive, in the patronage of R. L. Allgood, Esq. The church, 
repaired a few years since, by subscription, is an humble 
edifice, standing at the south end of the village of Har- 
pertown, and about a quarter of a mile from the site of 
the monastery, which occupied a charming seclusion, on 
a haugh, upon the left bank of the Tyne. On Castle 
Hill, the site of an old fortress, are vestiges of a deep 
rnoat, and lower down the river have been discovered 
some large coffins of oak, black as jet. 

LAMBLEY (HOLY TRINITY), a parish, in the union 
of BASFORD, S. division of the wapcntake of THURGAR- 
TON and of the county of NOTTINGHAM, 5f miles (N. E.) 
from Nottingham ; containing 983 inhabitants. The 
parish comprises by measurement 2092 acres ; the soil 
in some parts is a reddish marl, resting on clay, and in 
others of lighter quality ; the surface is hilly, and the 
surrounding scenery boldly varied. The village, which 
is extensive, is situated in a deep vale, sheltered by 
ranges of hills rising in the form of an amphitheatre. 
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
10. 16. 3. ; net income, 476 ; patron and incumbent, 
Rev. A. D. Flamsteed, of Lambley House. 

LAMBOURN (Sr. MICHAEL), a market-town and 
parish, in the union of HUNGERFORD, hundred of LAM- 
BOURN, county of BERKS ; containing, with the tythings 
of Blagrave, Bockhampton, Eastbury, Hadley, and Upper 
Lambourn, 2595 inhabitants, of whom 388 are in 
Upper Lambourn, and 1333 in the town of Chipping- 
Lambourn, 5 miles (N.) from Hungerford, and 68 (\V.) 
from London. This place formed part of the dower of 
Ealswitha, queen of Alfred the Great, and continued in 
royal demesne under Edward the Confessor ; after the 
Conquest it was given to the baronial family of Fitz- 
warren, at whose instance a market and three fairs were 
granted to it by Henry III. The town is pleasantly 
situated in a hilly district ; the inhabitants are supplied 
with water from wells, and in the centre of the town is 
an ancient cross, consisting of a tall pillar, approached 
by a circular ascent of steps, and surmounted by an 
6 



ornamented capital, supposed to have been originally 
the figure of a sphynx, but now nearly obliterated. The 
market is on Friday ; and fairs are held on May 12th, 
October 14th, and December 4th, chiefly for cattle. The 
parish comprises 14,425a. 3r. 4p. ; the soil is partly 
good corn land, and partly down land, which, since the 
inclosure, has been under tillage ; the low grounds are 
watered by a river which takes its name from the town, 
and which, during the summer, affords an abundant 
supply, but during the winter months is nearly dry. The 
living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
10. 11. 10|. ; net income, 154; patron, Dean of St. 
Paul's : the impropriation belongs to Mrs. Clark. The 
church is an ancient and handsome cruciform structure, 
in the early English style, with a square embattled tower ; 
in the interior are two chantry chapels, in one of which 
the inmates of some adjoining almshouses assemble every 
morning for prayers. A church was built and endowed 
at Lambourn- Woodlands, in 1837, by the Misses Sey- 
mour, of Speen : the living is a perpetual curacy, in the 
patronage of the founders, who presented, as first in- 
cumbent, the Rev. John Bacon, grandson of the cele- 
brated sculptor of that name. A national school has 
also been established, and is chiefly supported by the 
Misses Seymour. There is a place of worship for Wes- 
leyans. A school was erected in 1735, by Organ Hip- 
pisley, Esq., and endowed with a small rent-charge ; 
and another was founded in 1792, by John Serjent, and 
endowed with a messuage and rent-charge of 11. On 
the north side of the church is ail hospital, established 
in 1502, for ten men ; and some ancient almshouses, 
now called Place Almshouses, were rebuilt in 1827, by 
the Rev. Henry Hippisley. 

LAMBOURN, or LAMBOURNE (Sr. MARY AND ALL 
SAINTS), a parish, in the union and hundred of ONGAR, 
S. division of ESSEX, 5 miles (N. N. W.) from Rom- 
ford ; containing 904 inhabitants. The parish is inter- 
sected by the river Roding, and comprises by measure- 
ment 2437 acres, of which 737 are arable, 1296 pasture, 
118 wood, 229 forest, and 24 common ; the soil is heavy, 
but the substratum light, and rather inclining to chalk. 
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
14, and in the patronage of Corpus Christi College, 
Cambridge : the tithes have been commuted for 600, 
and the glebe comprises 34 acres. The church, a neat 
rustic building, consists of a nave and chancel, with a 
leaden spire j in the chancel are three windows of stained 
glass, and a fourth contains five pieces of curious and 
valuable old painting ; near the altar is a tablet to the 
memory of Wynnyffe, who, nearly two centuries since, 
was rector of Lambourn and Bishop of Lincoln. A 
chapel of ease was* built in 1833, in the village of 
Abridge, where are also a place of worship for Wesky- 
ans, and a national school. Two schools are partly sup- 
ported by subscription. Spencer, who was a soldier in 
the army of Pope Adrian, in his wars against the Duke 
of Milan, and who, in 1370, was made Bishop of Nor- 
wich, lived in the parish. 

LAMBRIGG, a township, in the parish, union, and 
ward of KENDAL, county of WESTMORLAND, 6| miles 
(E. N. E.) from Kendal ; containing 143 inhabitants. A 
vein of copper-ore was formerly worked. 

LAMBROOK, EAST (ST. JAMES), a chapelry, in 
the parish of KiNGSBURY-Episcorr, union of LANG- 
PORT, E. division of the hundred of KINGSBURY, W. di- 



LAME 



LAMM 



vision of SOMERSET, 6 miles (S. by E.) from Langport; 
containing, with the hamlet of Middle Lambrook, 374 
inhabitants. This place is bounded on the east by the 
river Parret. The living is a perpetual curacy, valued 
in the king's books at 6. 6. 8. ; net income, 157 ; 
patron, Vicar of Kingsbury-Episcopi. A neat parson- 
age-house has lately been erected. There is a place of 
worship for Independents. 

LAMBROOK, WEST, a tything, in the parish of 
KiNGSBURY-EpiscopT, union of LANGPORT, E. division 
of the hundred of KINGSBURY, W. division of SOMERSET, 
6$ miles (S.) from Langport ; containing 192 inha- 
bitants. 

LAMBTON, a township in the parish ajid union of 
CHESTER-LE-STREET, N. division of EASINGTON ward 
and of the county of DURHAM, 1^ mile (N. E.) from 
Chester-le-Street ; containing 120 inhabitants. The 
township, which is situated to the north of Little Lum- 
ley, and skirted by the road from Chester-le-Street, over 
the river Wear, to Houghton-le- Spring, comprises 634 
acres of productive grass land. LambtonHall formerly 
stood here, and was the residence of the Lambton family 
until the death of William Lambton, Esq., at the close 
of the eighteenth century ; a considerable portion of the 
beautiful park, five miles in circumference, which sur- 
rounds the modern edifice of Lambton Castle, at Har- 
raton, extends into this township. Just within the 
entrance to the park is the site of an ancient chapel ; 
and near it Worm Hill, of which tradition says that it 
was once occupied by a formidable serpent, which was 
cut to pieces by some hero of the Lambton family, cased 
in armour set with razors for the purpose. The Durham 
Junction railway passes to the south-east of the place. 
A girls' school is supported by the Earl of Durham. 
Two brine springs, from which salt is made, issue from 
the bottom of two coal-pits in the township. 

LAMERTON (ST. PETER), a parish, in the union of 
TAVISTOCK, hundred of LIFTON, Tavistock and S. divi- 
sions of DEVON, 2^ miles (N. W.) from Tavistock ; con- 
taining 1288 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the 
road from Tavistock to Launceston, and comprises 5488 
acres, of which 1147 are common or waste. Manganese 
is wrought extensively ; slate is quarried for exportation, 
and good building-stone is found in abundance. Colla- 
combe, an old mansion built in the reign of Elizabeth, 
and since converted into a farm-house, has a large 
transom window, containing 3200 panes of glass. The 
living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
13. 2. 1., and in the gift of J. H. Tremayne, Esq. : the 
tithes have been commuted for 397. and the glebe 
comprises 20 acres. The church, which formerly be- 
longed to Tavistock Abbey, is a handsome structure, in 
the later English style, with a lofty square embattled 
tower, and contains an interesting monument to Thomas 
Tremayne and his wife, with their eight sons and eight 
daughters. Divine service is also performed in a licensed 
schoolroom, four rniles from the church, by a curate ap- 
pointed by the vicar. There are places of worship for 
Bible Christians ; and national schools are supported by 
subscription. 20 per annum were bequeathed to the 
poor by the late Arthur Tremayne, Esq., of Sydenham. 
Rowe, the poet, was a native of the place. 

LAMESLEY, a chapelry, in the parish and union of 
CHESTER-LE-STREET, Middle division of CHESTER ward, 
N. division of the county of DURHAM, 3 miles (S.) 
7 



from Gateshead ; containing 2262 inhabitants, of whom 
1846 are in Lamesley township. This chapelry includes 
the townships of Lamesley, Ravens worth, Kibbles worth, 
and Hedley, and comprises by computation 6648 acres, 
of which two-thirds are arable land ; the surface is 
undulated, the soil principally clay, and suited to the 
growth of wheat, and the scenery pleasing and diversi- 
fied. Ravensworth Vale, in which the castle of that 
name stands, is greatly admired for its beauty, being 
well wooded, and having the river Team flowing through 
it. There are extensive coal-mines, and several quarries 
for grindstones and for building ; and iron-stone is 
found in some parts contiguous to the coal. The Team, 
or Eighton-Moor colliery, of which Baron Ravensworth, 
as lord of the manor, is sole proprietor, is now held 
under lease by William Wharton Burdon, Esq., and has 
been leased by his family since 1795, previously to 
which time it was wrought by Lord Ravensworth : the 
original site was on the west side of the Team rivulet, 
where several of the old pits are yet to be seen, but the 
present " winning" is on the east of the stream ; about 
230 workmen are employed. The living is a perpetual 
curacy; net income, 138, which includes 20 per 
annum, being a commutation for petty tithes and Easter- 
offerings ; patron and impropriator, Lord Ravensworth. 
In 1843, a glebe-house was erected in the Elizabethan 
style, on a site given by his Lordship. The chapel 
existed before 1286, when the collegiate church of 
Chester was founded, which possessed the patronage 
till the Dissolution, and in which Lamesley formed the 
second prebend: the edifice was rebuilt in 1759 ; a 
tower was added in 1821, and a vestry a few years since. 
At Eighton-Banks are two small places of worship for 
Wesleyans. A girls' school on the national plan near 
Ravensworth Castle, has an endowment of 21 per 
annum by Lady Ravensworth ; and there is a school in 
the village of Lamesley, endowed by Lord Ravensworth 
with 30 per annum. A boys' school at Eighton- 
Banks is maintained by subscription, aided by 10 
annually from the same noble lord ; and a girls' school 
at this place is aided by 10 from Lady Ravensworth. 
An almshouse was erected near Lamesley, in 1838, at 
the expense of her ladyship, for eight aged persons, who 
are supported by her bounty. 

LAMMAS (ST. ANDREW), a parish, in the union of 
AYLSHAM, hundred of SOUTH ERPINGHAM, E. division 
of NORFOLK, 3 miles (N. W. by N.) from Coltishall ; 
containing, with the parish of Little Hautbois, 299 in- 
habitants, of whom 257 are in Lammas. These united 
parishes comprise by estimation 829 acres, of which 
647 are arable, 150 pasture, and the remainder wood- 
land. The village and church are picturesquely situated 
on the east bank of the navigable river Bure, which 
bounds the parish on the north and west. The living is 
a discharged rectory, with that of Little Hautbois united, 
in the gift of the Rev. W. H. Marsh : the tithes of the 
two parishes have been commuted for 240, and the 
glebe consists of 36 acres. The church of Lammas is 
an ancient structure, in the early and later English 
styles, with a square embattled tower ; the font is hand- 
somely sculptured, and in the chancel are neat monu- 
ments to the Marsh and Chandler families. There is a 
place of worship for the Society of Friends ; also a school, 
supported by subscription. The church of Hautbois has 
been entirely destroyedjbr many years. 



L AMY 

LAMONBY, a township, in the parish of SKELTON, 
union of PENRITH, LEATH ward, E. division of CUMBER- 
LAND, 8 miles (N. W. by W.) from Penrith ; containing 
246 inhabitants. Here is a quarry of firestone. 

LAMORRAN (ST. MORAN), a parish, in the union 
of TRURO, W. division of the hundred of POWDER and 
of the county of CORNWALL, 4 miles (S. W. by W.) from 
Tregony ; containing 99 inhabitants. The parish is 
bounded on the south by the navigable river Fal, and 
indented by a creek of that river, to which it gives name. 
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 6, 
and in the gift of the Earl of Falmouth : the tithes have 
been commuted for 153, and the glebe comprises 42 
acres, with a house. The church is an ancient edifice, 
situated on the border of Lamorran Creek, with a de- 
tached tower mantled with ivy and concealed by foliage j 
it is supposed to be part of a monastery or cell which 
once existed here. 

LAMPLUGH (Sr. MICHAEL), a parish, in the union 
of WHITEHAVEN, ALLERDALE ward above Derwent, W. 
division of CUMBERLAND, 9 miles (E. N. E.) from White- 
haven ; containing, with the townships of Kelton, Mur- 
ton, and Winder, 645 inhabitants, of whom 190 are in 
the township of Lamplugh. The parish is bounded on 
the east by Loweswater and Crummockwater, and com- 
prises 4S76a. 2r. 39p., of inclosed land, and 1475 acres 
of common. Two branches of the river Marron have 
their sources here. There are extensive quarries of lime- 
stone, and some of freestone. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 10. 4. 7-, and in the gift 
of John Lamplugh L. Raper, Esq. : the tithes have been 
commuted for 300, and the glebe comprises 2 acres. 
Richard Briscoe, Esq., in 1747, gave a rent-charge of 
12, partly to the poor, and partly for instruction. Near 
the ancient hall is a mineral spring, the water of which 
is powerfully astringent. 

LAMPORT, a hamlet, in the parish of STOWE, 
union, hundred, and county of BUCKINGHAM ; contain- 
ing 76 inhabitants. 

LAMPORT (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union of 
BRIXWORTH, hundred of ORLINGBURY, N. division of 
the county of NORTHAMPTON, 8f miles (N.) from North- 
ampton ; containing, with the hamlet of Hanging- 
Houghton and the chapelry of Fax ton, 342 inhabitants. 
The parish comprises by computation 2646 acres, and, 
with Faxton, 4421, of which by far the greater portion 
is rich pasture j about 50 acres are strong wheat land 
and about 400 red turnip soil. The surface is varied ; 
the village is situated on a hill, commanding some 
pleasing views, but the greater part of the parish is 
seated in a valley. There are some quarries of stone 
for building and for road-making. The living is a rec- 
tory, valued in the king's books at 48. 2. 6. j net 
income, 1085 ; patron, Sir J. Isham, Bart. The tithes 
were commuted for corn-rents, under an act of inclosure, 
in 1794 ; the glebe comprises 53 acres. The church is 
an ancient structure. At Faxton is a chapel of ease. A 
school was endowed by Sir Edmund Isham, who, in the 
year 1762, gave 1500 for this purpose, and for the 
benefit of the poor ; and there is a fund of 66 per 
annum, arising from 41 acres of land, assigned on the 
inclosure in lieu of other land purchased by a bequest of 
Sir Justinian Isham, in 1670, for apprenticing boys. 

LAMYATT (ST. MARY AND ST. JOHN), a parish, in 
the union of SHEPTON-MALLET, hundred of WHITE- 
8 



L A N C 

STONE, E. division of SOMERSET, 2 miles (W. by N.) 
from Bruton ; containing 255 inhabitants. It comprises 
by measurement 1000 acres : there are quarries of stone 
for building, and for the roads. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 12. 4. 2. ; patron and in- 
cumbent, the Rev. J. G. Copleston : the tithes have been 
commuted for 200, and the glebe comprises 43 acres. 
The church is an ancient structure, in good repair. A 
school is supported by the rector. 

LANCASHIRE, a maritime county, situated on the 
western coast, and bounded on the north by Cumber- 
land and Westmorland, on the east by Yorkshire, on the 
south by Cheshire, and on the west by the Irish Sea : it 
extends from 53 20' to 54 25' (N. Lat.) and from 2 3' 
to 3 13' (W. Lon.), and contains 1831 square miles, or 
1,171,840 statute acres. Within the limits of the county 
are 289,184 houses inhabited, 23,639 uninhabited, and 
3680 in the progress of erection ; and the population 
amounts to 1,667,054, of which number 814,847 are 
males, and 852,207 females. The name of this county 
is a contraction of Lancaster shire. Its early British in- 
habitants were the Setantti, a tribe of the Brigantes ; 
under the Roman dominion it was included in the pro- 
vince called Maxima Ccesarie.nsis, and on the conquest by 
the Saxons it formed part of the kingdom of Deira. It 
is in the province of York ; and under the ecclesiastical 
arrangements, pursuant to the act of the 6th and 7th of 
William IV., cap. 77, the deanery of Furness and Cart- 
mel is to be placed in the diocese of Carlisle, and the 
remainder of the county will be in the new diocese of 
Manchester : the total number of parishes is 66. For 
civil purposes it is divided into the hundreds of Amoun- 
derness, Blackburn (Higher and Lower), Leyland, Lons- 
dale (north and south of the Sands), Salford, and West 
Derby. It contains the borough, market, and sea-port 
towns of Lancaster and Liverpool ; the borough and 
market towns of Ashton-under-Line, Blackburn, Bolton, 
Bury, Clitheroe, Manchester, Oldham, Preston, Rochdale, 
Salford, Warrington, and Wigan ; the market and sea- 
port towns of Poulton-in-the-Fylde and Ulverstoue; 
and the market-towns of Burnley, Cartmel, Chorley, 
Colne, Dalton, Garstang, Haslingden, Hawkshead, 
Hornby, Kirkham, Middleton, Ormskirk, Prescot, and 
Todmorden. Under the act of the 2nd of William IV., 
cap. 45, the county was divided into two portions, called 
the Northern and Southern Divisions, each sending two 
representatives to parliament j and each of the boroughs 
returns two members, except Ashton, Bury, Clitheroe, 
Rochdale, Salford, and Warrington. The county is 
included in the northern circuit : the assizes for the 
southern division are held at Liverpool, and those for the 
northern at Lancaster, where are also held the quarter- 
sessions for the hundred of Lonsdale, on the Tuesdays in 
the first whole week after Epiphany, Easter-Sunday, the 
festival of St. Thomas a Becket, and October 1 1th. The 
quarter-sessions for the hundreds of Amounderness, 
Blackburn, and Leyland, are held at Preston, on the 
Thursdays following the days above-named ; for the 
hundred of Salford, at Salford, on the Mondays follow- 
ing ; and for the hundred of West Derby, at Kirkdale, 
near Liverpool, on the Monday fortnight after they 
commence at Salford. The court of Annual General 
Sessions is holden at Preston, on the Thursday next 
after the feast of St. John the Baptist, and afterwards 
by various adjournments until the multifarious causes 



LANG 



LANG 



within the peculiar cognizance of the court are deter- 
mined. The county gaol is at Lancaster ; and there are 
county houses of correction at Manchester, Kirkdale, 
and Preston. 

Prior to and under the Norman dynasty, Lancashire 
was probably distinguished as an HONOUR, and was of 
the superior order of seigniories. It was given by Wil- 
liam the Conqueror to Roger de Poictou, who in turn 
bestowed various parts of it upon his followers ; but in 
the Norman survey the lands between the Kibble and 
the Mersey are described as the property of the king, 
having been forfeited by the defection of that nobleman. 
The Honour of Lancaster was, however, restored {o him 
by William Rufus, in whose reign he again forfeited it by 
rebellion ; and this princely inheritance was transferred 
to Stephen, Count of Blois, who, on ascending the throne, 
bestowed it upon his son, William de Blois, Earl of Mon- 
taigne and Boulogne; and, on the death of this nobleman, 
Richard I. assigned it to his brother John, afterwards 
King of England. Henry III. first gave the honour and 
estates to Ranulph, Earl of Chester, from whom they 
descended to William de Ferrers, who married Agnes, one 
of the earl's daughters : they were forfeited to the crown 
by Robert de Ferrers, grandson of William, who had 
taken part with Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester. 
Henry then presented them to his son Edmund, and from 
him they descended to Thomas, second Earl of Lancaster, 
who was beheaded at Pontefract for rebellion in the reign 
of Edward II. In the 1st of Edward III., the estates 
were granted to Henry, brother of Thomas, and his son 
Henry was created Duke of Lancaster in the 25th of this 
monarch's reign. John of Gaunt, Edward's son, having 
married Blanche, daughter of Henry, Duke of Lancaster, 
the title was revived in his favour. Edward III., in the 
year 1363, advanced the county to the dignity of a 
PALATINATE, with all the powers and privileges apper- 
taining thereto, under the authority of the duke ; and 
the duchy has now for ages been annexed to the crown. 
The county palatine and the duchy of Lancaster, with 
regard to extent, are quite distinct, as there are various 
estates forming part of the duchy in twenty-five other 
counties in England : a considerable share of ecclesias- 
tical patronage is attached to the duchy, as is also the 
appointment of sheriffs for the county palatine. The 
peculiar jurisdiction and proceedings of the courts of 
law in the county palatine are the result of those privi- 
leges granted to its former dukes, who had, in fact, sove- 
reign authority within the limits of their dominion. But 
by the 27th of Henry VIII. the privileges of counties 
palatine were abridged, and it was enacted that all writs 
and processes should be made in the name of the king, 
but should be tested or witnessed in the name of the 
owner of the franchise. All writs, therefore, must be 
under the seal of the respective franchises ; and the 
judges who preside in this county palatine have a special 
commission from the duchy of Lancaster, and not the 
ordinary commission under the great seal of England. 
The court of chancery of the duchy has cognizance of 
matters of an equitable nature, relating either to the 
county palatine or the duchy, and of all questions of 
revenue and council affecting the ducal possessions ; it 
is also a court of appeal from the chancery of the county 
palatine. The court of chancery of the county palatine 
is an original and independent court, as ancient as the 
50th of Edward III. The court of common pleas is an 
VOL. III. 9 



original superior court of record at common law, having 
jurisdiction over all real actions for lands, and in all 
actions against corporations within the county, as well 
as over all personal actions where the defendant resides 
in Lancashire, although the cause of action may have 
arisen elsewhere ; its returns are on the first Wednesday 
in every month. 

The SURFACE of the county is very irregular in form, 
owing to the deviousness of its boundaries on the land 
side, and the indentation of its coast by numerous bays 
and estuaries. It is naturally divided into two grand 
districts, the high, mountainous, heathy tract of the 
northern and eastern parts, and the low level country 
which spreads out to the south and west ; and for 
greater clearness may be subdivided into the following 
districts, viz., the hilly and high heathy division, com- 
prising different mountainous ridges which rise in suc- 
cession on the south-eastern border of the county, 
throughout the whole of which the land is almost in- 
variably of the high moory freestone kind, and generally 
produces a coarse black heath, except only where the 
vales intervene ; the steep fell, or High Furness division, 
situated north of the Sands, the latter being the exten- 
sive flat tracts of the bay of Morecambe, which are 
always dry at low water ; the elevated craggy limestone 
division, of which the greater portion lies chiefly in the 
north-western part of the county, with small tracts in 
the Furness districts, and at the two Kellets, also at 
Chipping and Clitheroe towards its eastern border ; the 
valley land division, including the various valleys formed 
by the hills that constitute the two first divisions, in 
which the land is mostly of an excellent quality ; the 
Mersey, or southern, division, a fertile and level tract 
lying between that river and the Ribble, and stretching 
from the sea-coast eastward to some distance above the 
town of Oldhani; the Ribble and Fylde division ; the Lune 
and flat limestone division; the Low Furness division; 
and the moss or peaty division, including the different 
tracts called mosses, which are found in both of the 
grand natural divisions of the county, but are by far 
the more extensive in the flat district. Besides these 
districts there are divers tracts of sandy marsh land, 
bordering on the sea-coast, chiefly towards the northern 
extremity of the county, which are exposed to occasional 
inundations of the tide. 

The principal SOILS are loams of various kinds, clay, 
sand, and peat earth, chiefly resting on substrata of 
freestone, whin-stone, or limestone rocks, fossil coal, 
marl, gravel, and sand. It has been computed that a 
little more than one-fourth of the surface is under tillage : 
the principal tracts of arable land lie towards the west- 
ern border of the county, including those of the Fylde, 
the banks of the Lune, and Low Furness, most of which 
are excellent wheat lands : on the eastern side of the 
county the grain chiefly cultivated is oats, of which great 
quantities are also grown in all the corn districts. The 
most common Crops are wheat, barley, oats, beans, and 
potatoes ; but a greater proportion of oats than of any 
other grain is grown, much oaten bread being consumed 
by the population of the northern and eastern parts of 
the county. Great attention is bestowed on the cultiva- 
tion of potatoes, which are extensively grown in all 
parts : onions are grown to a considerable extent in the 
neighbourhood of Middleton, Stretford, and other places 
near Warrington. Very fine crops of clover are culti- 



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L A N C 



vated, the seed being generally sown with wheat. By 
far the greater part of the county is under Grass, a vast 
quantity of hay being requisite for the consumption of 
the horses and cattle belonging to the inhabitants of the 
towns ; and a considerable extent of grass land is occu- 
pied as bleaching-grounds. In the greater part of the 
county, and more especially in the eastern and northern 
parts, are large tracts of pasture land of inferior and 
unimproved condition, on which young stock are reared 
and kept. The most extensive dairy pastures are on 
the strong soil north of the Kibble, the produce of which 
is principally cheese, and in different parts of the Fylde : 
there are many small dairy-farms in the eastern part of 
the county, and in the vicinity of all the large towns 
are kept numerous and extensive dairies for supplying 
the inhabitants with milk. In the northern and eastern 
parts are many extensive, mountainous, and moory 
tracts of land, provincially called " fells," which support 
vast numbers of sheep throughout the greater part of 
the year : on Furness fells it is reckoned that not less 
than 50,000 sheep are kept during the summer months. 
Near all the large towns are plots of considerable extent 
applied to the growth of vegetables and fruit, more espe- 
cially in the neighbourhood of Liverpool, where the hor- 
ticultural fields are very extensive, affording not only an 
ample supply for that town, but a great quantity of 
vegetables for the shipping : considerable quantities of 
dried herbs are shipped for the coast of Africa, and 
onions also are exported. 

The quantity of waste mountain land is computed at 
about 62,000 acres ; and that of the mosses and marshes 
at about 36,000, of which '20,000 are contained in the 
mosses, and the remainder in the marshes, the latter 
being mostly on the western coast. The woodlands are 
chiefly in the more central part of the county, in the 
vicinity of Garstang, on the banks of the Wyre, the 
Ribble, the Lune, and some other rivers, and in the 
parks of several of the nobility and gentry. The prin- 
cipal coppice woods are in the northern part, the land 
on which they grow being generally steep and rocky, 
and unfit for any other purpose ; their chief produce is 
hoop-wood, charcoal, props for the coal-mines, and oak- 
bark. Various modern plantations have been made in 
different parts j the alder-tree is in great request in the 
manufacturing districts, on which to hang cotton-yarn 
to dry, the wood acquiring a fine polish by use, and not 
splintering from exposure to the weather ; the bark is 
used in dyeing. The chief MINERAL, productions are 
coal, copper, lead, and iron. The strata of coal for the 
most part seem to lie in three distinct parallel ranges, 
extending across the county from south-west to north- 
east : in some places they are at a very great depth, 
while in others they approach close to the surface, and 
they also vary greatly in thickness and quality, even in 
the different shafts of the same colliery : coal of a black, 
compact, and marbly appearance, called " cannel coal," 
is found chiefly at Haigh, near Wigan. The principal 
tract in which copper is found to any great extent is 
among the rugged barren mountains in the northern- 
most part of High Furness, approaching the border of 
Cumberland, where the ore obtained is of the yellow 
sort, and yields comparatively but little metal. Lead- 
ore is chiefly found in the north and east parts of the 
county, but it is nowhere obtained in great quantities ; 
and there are also some veins of black-lead. The only 
10 



part where iron-ore is found in sufficient quantities to 
be worked is in the liberty of Furness. The county 
produces an abundance of slate, flag-stones, limestone, 
and freestone. The blue slate quarries are very numer- 
ous, but are chiefly in the rocky mountainous tracts 
of the northern part of High Furness : slate of a lighter 
colour and very inferior quality is raised at different 
places, south of the Sands, where flag-stones are ob- 
tained. Quarries of freestone are wrought in most 
parts south of the Sands : the best sort of stones for 
sharpening scythes are found and prepared at Rainford. 
Small tracts of limestone exist in different parts, and 
numerous quarries are worked. 

The pre-eminence of the Lancashire MANUFACTURES 
over those of the other districts in England where 
the inhabitants are similarly engaged, has long been 
known and acknowledged. These manufactures are 
various ; but that of cotton in its different branches is 
by far the most important, and is one of the most ex- 
tensive in the world. Manchester is its grand centre, 
and from that town it has spread over the adjoining 
and more northern parts of the county, as well as into 
the adjacent counties on the east and south. The steam- 
looms are chiefly employed in the production of print- 
ing-cloth and shirting; but they also weave thicksets, 
fancy cords, dimities, cambrics, and quillings, besides 
silks, worsted, and woollen broad-cloths. Inkles, tapes, 
and checks, with woollens, flannels, baizes, and linens, 
all rank among the manufactures of this county, and 
have each their proper seat. The silk trade, which had 
formerly flourished to a considerable extent, but fell 
into decay in consequence of the rapid growth of the 
cotton business, has of late been revived, and is now 
carried on with increased activity. The spinning and 
manufacture of cotton prevail at Manchester, Oldham, 
Colne, Burnley, Haslingden, Preston, Accrington, Bury, 
Middleton, Ashton, Bolton, Chorley, Blackburn, Heap, 
Stayley, Wigan, Eccles, Bacup, Chowbent, Rochdale, 
&c. ; calico-printing and bleaching at Manchester, Black- 
burn, Bolton, Bury, Accrington, and Chorley ; muslins 
are made at Manchester, Bolton, Chorley, and Preston j 
and fustians at Manchester, Oldham, Bury, Bolton, 
Warrington, and Heap. The manufacture of woollen 
goods is extensively pursued at Manchester, Bury, 
Bacup, Newchurch, Rochdale, and Heap ; flannels are 
made at Manchester, Rochdale, and Haslingden. There 
are several hat-manufactories at Manchester, Oldham, 
Rochdale, Denton, Bolton, Audenshaw, Howley Hill, 
Colne, and Wigan. Paper is made at Manchester, 
Bolton, Blackburn, Farnworth, Ashton, and Warrington. 
Lancaster, the county town, possesses comparatively 
but little of the above manufactures, its chief trade 
being in the manufacture and exportation of mahogany 
furniture and upholstery. At Warrington are large 
manufactories for pins, glass, and other articles j but 
the principal branch of business is the making of sail- 
cloth. At Ulverstone and Caton are establishments for 
the working ofjlax ; and at the former town some checks 
are manufactured. There are many iron-works and nail- 
manufactories in different parts ; the principal works of 
this kind are those for smelting iron-ore, in that portion 
of the county which lies north of Lancaster Sands ; 
where also, on the banks of the Leven, are powder-mills. 
Glass and earthenware establishments are very numerous, 
the largest being at St. Helen's and Warrington ; and 



L A NC 



LANG 



in the south-western part of the county, watches, watch- 
movements, and watchmakers' tools are made to a con- - 
siderable extent and in great perfection. The commerce 
of Lancashire, like its manufactures and in conjunction 
with them, has risen with unexampled rapidity, and 
attained an importance unequalled by that of any other 
county, Middlesex alone excepted. A great part of its 
foreign commerce, of which Liverpool is the grand me- 
dium, consists in the exportation of its manufactures, 
together with the woollens and cutlery of Yorkshire, 
the produce of the salt-mines of Cheshire, the earthen- 
ware of Staffordshire, and the hardware of Wawick- 
shire, which are poured into this great western empo- 
rium, and thence forwarded to America and the West 
Indies, Africa, and the East Indies, and to the Con- 
tinent of Europe, exclusively of the vast, trade with 
Ireland. 

The RIVERS and streams are very numerous : the 
Mersey, the Kibble, and the Lune or Loyne, are the 
largest ; and next in magnitude are the Irwell, the 
Douglas, the Wyre, the Leven, the Crake, and the Dud- 
den, all of which to some extent are navigable. Pur- 
suant to an act of parliament, obtained in 1720, the 
Mersey was made navigable for barges of from 60 to 70 
tons' burthen, by the aid of an artificial cut from the 
south of Warrington to some distance above that town, 
as far as the mouth of the Irwell, which latter river in 
like manner is rendered navigable up to Manchester : 
the tide flows up the Mersey as far as the vicinity of 
Warrington, where it is stopped by a weir. The Ribble 
is navigable for vessels of small burthen nearly as high 
as Preston, up to which the tide flows : in 1838 an act 
was passed for its improvement. The Lune is navigable 
for small vessels to Lancaster, but ships of great burthen 
cannot pass higher than Glasson Point. The Douglas, 
in 1727, was made navigable from the Ribble as high as 
Wigan, under the provisions of an act obtained in 1719 ; 
and the navigation was improved at a later date by the 
substitution, in a part of its course, of an artificial cut 
for the natural channel of the river. The Wyre is navi- 
gable for small vessels up to Poulton. In the northern 
part of the county are several sheets of water, of which 
Coniston Lake is the largest ; and there are also others 
of smaller size, commonly called " tarns." The system 
of artificial INLAND NAVIGATION had its origin in this 
county, in which it is very extensive : the first attempts 
were in rendering navigable the rivers above-mentioned, 
after which an act was procured, in 1755, for making 
Sankey brook navigable, and in 1761 another act was 
obtained, which provided for the extension of the same 
line. The present navigation is called the Sankey canal, 
and runs entirely separate from the brook, except at one 
spot, about two miles below Sankey bridge, where it 
crosses it on a level ; at the distance of about 9 
miles from its termination in the Mersey it divides into 
three branches, to the extremity of the longest of which 
the distance from the Mersey is llf miles. In 1758 
and 1759 the magnificent plans which have rendered the 
name of the Duke of Bridgewater so celebrated in the 
history of canal navigation, began to unfold themselves, 
an act having been passed in the former year empower- 
ing that nobleman to construct a canal from Worsley to 
Salford, and also to Hollin ferry on the Irwell ; and an- 
other in the latter year, permitting him to deviate from 
that line, and carry the canal from Worsley across the 
11 



river Irwell to Manchester. The formation of this canal 
was the work of that eminent self-taught engineer, 
James Brindley. The duke also procured an act for the 
formation of a branch canal, which extends from Long- 
ford bridge, in the township of Stretford, to the river 
Mersey at Runcorn Gap, a distance of more than 29 
miles, passirfg through part of Cheshire, in a line parallel 
with the course of that river ; and another branch has 
been cut, from the main line at Worsley to Leigh, pur- 
suant to an act passed in 1795. The Leeds and Liverpool 
canal, upwards of 127 miles in length, and one of the 
greatest works of the kind in the kingdom, was com- 
menced in 1770: there is a branch from it to Wigan, 
which, when first completed, afforded to Liverpool a new 
and plentiful supply of coal, and caused a considerable 
exportation of that article from the port. Different 
alterations and improvements have been made in the 
canal, under the authority of various acts of parliament, 
one of which, passed in 1794, gave the company the 
power of navigating a part of the Lancaster canal, then 
newly formed ; and pursuant to an act obtained in 
1819, a navigable cut was made from the canal near 
Wigan to the Duke of Bridgewater's canal at Leigh. In 
1791, an act was passed for the formation of a canal to 
connect the towns of Manchester, Bolton, and Bury, 
which, passing through a district abounding with coal 
and other mineral productions, and the inhabitants of 
which are extensively engaged in manufactures, has 
become a great medium of traffic with Manchester : the 
branches to Bolton and Bury commence at Little Lever, 
and there is a cut, called the Haslingden Extension canal, 
made under an act obtained in 1793, which unites it 
with the Leeds and Liverpool canal. The canal from 
Manchester to Ashton-under-Line, for which an act was 
procured in 1792, has a branch from Fairfteld to the New 
Mill, near Oldham, from which there is a cut to Park 
colliery ; and there is also a branch from this canal to 
Stockport, in Cheshire. The Rochdale canal was con- 
structed with some short collateral cuts, under an act 
passed in 1794, and connects the Duke of Bridgewater's 
canal at Manchester with the Calder navigation at 
Sowerby Bridge, near Halifax. In the same year also 
was obtained an act for constructing the Huddersjield 
canal, which has its western extremity at the Ashton- 
under-Line canal, and its eastern at Sir John Ramsden's 
canal to the Calder. The Kendal and Lancaster canal, 
for the formation of which an act was procured in 1792, 
enters this county near Burton, and after a very circui- 
tous course crosses the Lune, a little above Lancaster, 
by a magnificent aqueduct, whence it proceeds to Gar- 
stang and Preston, where is a railroad about two miles 
in length, across the Ribble, and soon afterwards com- 
municates with the Leeds and Liverpool canal. The 
Ulverstone canal is a short cut, about a mile and a half 
in length, from that town to the navigable channel of 
the Leven. 

The RAILWAYS also hold an important place among 
the facilities of communication. The principal of these 
is the Liverpool and Manchester railway, constructed 
under an act of parliament obtained in 1826, empower- 
ing the company to raise a capital of 637,500, which 
has been since increased to 1,832,375 ; the whole, 
from the station at Liverpool to its terminus at Man- 
chester, is 31 miles in length. It has branches to 
several collieries along the line of its progress, and 

C2 



LANG 



others connecting it with the Kenyon and Leigh Junc- 
tion, the Warrington and Newton, the Wigan branch, 
and the St. Helen's and Runcorn Gap railways. It was 
opened for the conveyance of goods and passengers in 
Sept. 1830, and in 1839 an act was passed, enabling the 
company to raise 208,000 for its further extension, by 
connecting it with the Manchester and Leeds and the 
Manchester and Bolton railways. The Bolton and Leigh 
railway, 7^ miles in length, was begun with a capital 
of 44,000, subsequently increased to 170,500, and 
was opened for the conveyance of minerals, merchan- 
dise, and passengers, in June, 1831. The Warrington 
and Newton railway was constructed under an act em- 
powering the company to raise a capital of 73,000, 
afterwards augmented to 93,000 ; the line is 4^ miles 
in length ; it was opened in 1833, and in 1835 was 
united with the Grand Junction railway. The Wigan 
branch railway, diverging from the Liverpool and Man- 
chester railway at Parkside, and extending to the town 
of Wigan, is 7 miles in length, with a branch of 3 miles, 
and was completed at an expense of 87,500, in 1832. 
The St. Helen s and Runcorn Gap railway, chiefly for the 
conveyance of coal, is 12 miles in length ; the original 
capital, 120,000, was afterwards increased to 150,000, 
and the line was completed at a cost of 220,000. The 
Manchester and Bolton railway is 10 miles in length, 
worked by locomotive engines ; it was commenced with 
a capital of 204,000, since augmented to 650,000, 
and was opened for passengers and general traffic in 
May, 1838. The North Union, or Preston and Wigan, 
railway, 15^ miles in length, which was begun with a 
capital of 250,000, increased since its union with the 
Wigan Branch Company, to 730,000, was opened in 
October, 1838. The Manchester and Birmingham rail- 
way, 38^ miles in length, commenced with a capital of 
2,100,000, subsequently augmented to 2,800,000, was 
partly opened in 1840. The Lancaster and Preston 
Junction railway is 20 miles in length ; the original 
capital, 250,000, was afterwards increased to 458,000 ; 
it was opened for passengers and general traffic in June, 
1840, and it is in contemplation to extend it to Carlisle, 
and thence to Glasgow. The Preston and Wyre railway, 
19^ miles in length, was commenced with a capital of 
100,000, subsequently augmented to 400,000, and was 
opened to the public in July, 1840. The Manchester and 
Leeds railway, 50^ miles in length, was begun with a 
capital of 1,300,000, afterwards increased to 2,599,000, 
and was opened in October, 1840. The Bolton and 
Preston railway, commenced with a capital of 506,000, 
will be 14^ miles in length. The Sheffield, Ashton-under- 
Line. and Manchester railway, 40 miles in length, and 
the Kenyon and Leigh Junction railway, 2^ miles in 
length, both of which are now in progress, pass through 
the county. 

Eight Roman Stations, according to Whitaker, were 
established within the limits of the county during the 
administration of Julius Agricola in Britain, viz., Ad 
Alaunam and Bremetonacce, in the north, which are 
conjectured to have been at Lancaster and Overborough 
respectively ; Portus Sistuntiorum, in the west ; Reri- 
gonium and Coccium, about the centre, the latter sup- 
posed to have been at Blackrod, or Ribchester ; Colonea 
in the east, supposed to have been at Colne ; and Vera- 
tinum and Mancunium in the south, the latter having 
been at Manchester, from which place several ancient 




Arms. 



roads diverged to the different stations in its vicinity. 
The number of Religions houses prior to the Reformation 
was twenty-one, including three hospitals and the college 
of Manchester: the principal remains of conventual build- 
ings are those of the abbeys of Whalley, Cockersand, 
and Furness, the last of which ranks among the most 
interesting monastic remains in the kingdom. Of an- 
cient castles, the chief remains are those at Clitheroe, 
Dalton, Gleaston, Greenhalgh, Hornby, and Lancaster, 
of which the last is the most remarkable and entire, 
being now used as the county gaol. Of ancient domes- 
tic architecture there are numerous remains, of which 
Hulme Hall, on the bank of the Irwell, near Man- 
chester, and Speake Hall, on the Mersey, near Liver- 
pool, are the most curious and perfect specimens, 
though now fast falling to decay ; among the more dis- 
tinguished modern seats are Knowsley Hall, Ashton Hall, 
and Heaton House. The most remarkable ancient earth- 
works are at Aldingham, Overborough, and Brierscliffe. 

LANCASTER (ST. MARY), 
a parish, comprising the bo- 
rough, port, and market- 
town of Lancaster, having 
separate jurisdiction, partly 
in the hundred of LONS- 
DAI.I., south of the Sands, 
and partly in that of 
AMOUNDERNESS, N. divi- 
sion of the county of LAN- 
CASTER ; the whole con- 
taining 24,149 inhabitants, 
of whom 14,089 are in the 
borough, 240 miles (N. N. W.) from London. This 
place is supposed to have been the Ad Alaunam of the 
Romans ; and the discovery of coins, urns, fragments 
of earthenware, calcined bones, votive altars, sepulchral 
lamps, and other Roman antiquities, confirms the pro- 
bability of its having been occupied as a station by that 
people. After the departure of the Romans from Britain, 
it was destroyed by an incursion of the Picts and Scots, 
and continued in a state of desolation till the time of 
the Saxons, by whom it was restored, and, from its 
situation as a fortress near the river Lune, called Lun- 
ceastre, from which its present name is deduced. In 
the seventh century, according to the same author, it 
had risen to such importance as to be made the capital 
of the county, an honour, which it still retains ; but 
it suffered so much injury during the Danish incursions, 
that in the Norman survey, it is noticed only as a 
vill, or berewic, included in the manor of Halton. At 
the time of the Conquest it was given by William to 
Roger de Poictou, who is supposed to have enlarged 
and adapted for his baronial residence the ancient castle, 
of which the western tower is erroneously said to have 
been built by Adrian, in 124, and that facing the town 
by the father of Constantine the Great in 305 : the 
beautiful gateway tower was erected by John, Earl of 
Morton and Lancaster, who, after his accession to the 
throne, gave audience to the French ambassadors, and 
received the homage of Alexander, King of Scotland 
(whom he had subdued), in this castle. John of Gaunt, 
the fourth son of Edward III., having succeeded to 
the title of his father-in-law, Henry Plantaganet, Duke 
of Lancaster, erected that tower in the castle which 
has obtained the name of John of Gauut's chair. On 



L A N C 



L ANC 



the accession of this prince to the dukedom, in the 
year 1376, the county was constituted a palatinate. 
Separate courts for this independent jurisdiction are 
still opened at Lancaster, but they adjourn to Preston, 
and business is chiefly transacted there and in the 
duchy court at Westminster. In 1322 and 1389, the 
town was burnt and plundered by the Scots ; and in 
the wars of the houses of York and Lancaster it was 
nearly depopulated, in consequence of the resolute 
adherence of the inhabitants to the cause of the Lan- 
casterians. During the parliamentary war it suffered 
severely ; and, in 1699, an accidental fire destroyed a 
considerable portion of the town, which also, in the 
rebellion of 1745, participated in the agitations that 
then disturbed the peace of the kingdom. 

The TOWN is pleasantly situated on the acclivities of 
an eminence crowned with the stately towers of the 
castle, and on the southern bank of the river Lune, 
over which a handsome stone bridge of five elliptical 
arches has been erected, at an expense of 12,000, con- 
necting the town with the township of Skerton, about 
half a mile to the east of an ancient bridge now in 
ruins, which had been built over the narrower part of 
the river, near St. George's quay. With the exception 
of a few which are spacious, the streets are usually nar- 
row ; but considerable improvement has been made in 
the appearance of the town, and the houses, built of 
freestone found in the neighbourhood, and covered with 
slate, are in general handsome ; in various parts of the 
town are some noble mansions, and in the environs, 
which abound with varied and interesting scenery, 
are several elegant villas. The public baths are conve- 
niently arranged and provided with every requisite ac- 
commodation ; and assemblies are held in a suite of 
rooms well adapted to the purpose. A book society, 
called the Amicable, which was instituted in 1769, has 
accumulated a library of 4000 volumes ; and a mecha- 
nics' library was opened in 1824. A society for pro- 
moting the fine arts, by the purchase of paintings by 
the most eminent living artists, was established in 1820 ; 
and in 1835 a Literary, Scientific, and Natural History 
Society was founded, to which a museum is attached. 
The theatre is now used as a Temperance Hall. The 
PORT is subject to much inconvenience from the diffi- 
culty of the navigation of the Lune, arising from the 
accumulation of sand in its channel, and an elevation 
in its bed, called Scaleford, probably the remains of 
a Roman ford across the river, which renders it inacces- 
sible to vessels of large burthen. A dock, however, 
was constructed, in 1787, at Glasson, nearly five miles 
down the river, capable of sheltering 25 merchantmen, 
which discharge their cargoes by lighters at St. George's 
quay, on which a custom-house, a neat edifice with an 
Ionic portico, was erected in 1764. The foreign trade 
is chiefly with America and the West Indies j and 
it has also a very considerable coasting trade. The 
number of vessels of above 50 tons, registered at this 
port, is 54, and their aggregate burthen 5309 tons. 
There is a good salmon fishery on the river Lune, whicb 
also abounds with trout : the fishery extends from a 
place called Denny Beck to Scaleford, a little below St. 
George's quay, in this town, and prior to the Reforma- 
tion belonged time immemorially to the abbot and con- 
vent of Furness, subject to a claim to a third draught, 
in part of it, and to an alternate draught in all the other 
13 



parts, by the prior of the church of St. Mary in Lancas- 
ter. The principal manufactures are mahogany furniture 
and upholstery (for exportation), cordage, sail-cloth, and 
cotton goods, for which last there are three factories in 
the town, in two of which 200 power-looms are em- 
ployed : cotton, worsted, and silk yarn are also spun to 
a considerable extent in Lancaster, and its vicinity. 
The Lancaster canal opens a communication with the 
mining district, and supplies the neighbourhood with 
coal and other necessaries : about a mile to the north- 
east it is carried over the river Lune by an aqueduct of 
stone, consisting of five semicircular arches, each 70 
feet in the span, erected at an expense of 48,000, under 
the direction of Mr. Rennie. The Lancaster and Preston 
railway commences near the south entrance of the town, 
where the principal station has been erected, a handsome 
structure inclosing six acres, containing the requisite 
arrangements. The line proceeds hence by Scotforth 
and Gulgate, at which latter place is a viaduct 265 
feet in length, supported on six semicircular arches, and 
then advances east of Garstang, and west of Claughton 
Hall, and, crossing the Preston road, near Barton Lodge, 
joins the North-Union railway at Dock-street, Preston, 
its terminus. The line is 20 miles in length, forming an 
important link in connecting the metropolis with Scot- 
land ; it was commenced with a capital of 250,000 
joint-stock, and 208,000 loan, and opened to the pub- 
lic in June, 1840. The market-days are Wednesday 
and Saturday ; the fairs, which are chiefly for cattle, 
cloth, cheese, and pedlery, and continue for three days 
each, are on May 1st, July 5th, and October 10th. 

The first CHARTER granted 
to the borough was in the 
4th of Richard II., by John, 
Earl of Morton, afterwards 
King John, who bestowed on 
the burgesses similar liber- 
ties to those enjoyed at 
Bristol. In the year 1199, 
also, King John conferred 
upon the town " all the li- 
berties which the burgesses 
of Northampton had the 
day that King Henry died," 
instead of those of Bristol ; and this charter was con- 
firmed by several subsequent sovereigns, one of whom, 
Edward III., allowed the mayor and bailiffs the privi- 
lege of having the pleas and sessions held here to the 
exclusion of every other place in the county. Other 
charters were granted by James I. in 1604, and by 
Charles II. in 1665 and 1684, but were suspended by 
that obtained in the year 1819, under which the corpo- 
ration consisted of a mayor, recorder, seven aldermen, 
twelve capital burgesses, twelve common-councilmen, 
two bailiffs, a town-clerk and clerk of the peace, and 
others. By the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., 
cap. 76, the government is now vested in a mayor, six 
aldermen, and eighteen councillors, and the borough is 
divided into three wards, being co-extensive with the 
township of Lancaster, with the exception of the pre- 
cincts of the castle. Ten justices have been appointed 
by the crown, who hold a petty-session several times in 
the week. The freedom is obtained by birth and ap- 
prenticeship to a freeman. Among the privileges may 
be reckoned an interest in the tract of ground called 




Corporation Seal. 



L ANC 



LANG 



Lancaster Marsh, consisting of 210 acres, inclosed in 
1795, the rents of which are divided amongst eighty of 
the oldest resident freemen, or their widows. The 
borough, of which the ancient limits comprise 1862 
acres, first exercised the elective franchise in the 23rd of 
Edward I., and continued to make returns till the 1st of 
Edward II. : it afterwards intermitted till the reign of 
Edward VI., since which time it has regularly sent two 
members to parliament. The boundary of the borough 
has been extended under the Reform act ; the mayor is 
returning officer. The quarter-sessions for the county 
are held at the castle. There is a court of record for 
the recovery of debts to any amount; and a court for 
the hundred of Lonsdale is held on the first Wednesday 
in every month, for debts under 40s. The court of 
pleas and county assizes for the whole of the county 
palatine were formerly held here, twice in the year, 
before the judges on the northern circuit, but fhe busi- 
ness of the assizes has been divided, and that for the 
northern division only is now transacted in Lancaster. 
The general quarter-sessions for the hundred of Lons- 
dale are held in the town, which is also the place of 
election for the northern division of the shire. The 
town-hall is a neat building, erected in 1781, at an 
expense of 1300, and embellished with full-length por- 
traits of William Pitt and Admiral Lord Nelson, painted 
by Mr. Lonsdale, a native of the town, and presented by 
him to the corporation. The borough prison is a small 
edifice, for the temporary confinement of prisoners, who 
are subsequently sent to Lancaster Castle. The remains 
of the ancient castle are used as the county gaol, and 
additional buildings have been erected upon a very ex- 
tensive scale, at an expense exceeding 140,000. The 
entrance, through a gateway of beautiful design, over 
which is a statue of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, 
is flanked by octagonal towers, and leads into a spacious 
court-yard inclosed with embattled walls and strength- 
ened with towers ; opposite to the entrance is the ancient 
square keep, a building of prodigious strength, to the 
north of which are the shire-hall and courts, with the 
room for the grand jury, and other apartments. The 
hall is of a semicircular form, and elegantly and com- 
modiously arranged for the business of the assizes : the 
nisi prius court, in which are full-length portraits of 
Colonel Stanley and Mr. Blackburn, presented by the 
late Sir Robert Peel, Bart., exhibits some architectural 
beauty ; and in the crown court is an equestrian por- 
trait of King George III., painted by Northcote, and 
presented to the county by James Ackers, Esq., when 
high sheriff. The Castle hill and terrace afford a fine 
promenade, commanding extensive views of the sur- 
rounding scenery, which is most richly diversified. 

The parish comprises by measurement and computa- 
tion 54,120 acres, of which about 11,000 are arable, 
18,000 pasture, 7000 meadow, 1120 woodland, and the 
remainder uninclosed common. It includes the chapel- 
ries of Bleasdale, Gressingham, Overton with Sunder- 
land, Stalmine with Staynal, and Over Wyersdale ; also 
the townships of Aldcliffe, Ashton with Stodday, Bulk, 
Caton with Littledale, Fulwood, Heaton with Oxcliffe, 
Middleton, Myerscough, Preesall with Hackensall, 
Quernmoore, Scotforth, Skerton, and part of Thurn- 
ham ; and the hamlets of Bare, Poulton-le-Sand, and 
Torrisholme. The LIVING is a vicarage, valued in the 
king's books at 41 5 net income, 1/09 ; patron, Oli- 
14 



ver Marton, Esq. ; impropriators, Duke of Hamilton, 
the Vicar, and others. The church, to which the pri- 
vilege of sanctuary was anciently attached, was originally 
erected by Roger de Poictou, who founded a Benedict- 
ine priory here, as a cell to the abbey of St. Martin de 
Seez, in Normandy, which, on the suppression of alien 
priories, was by Henry V. annexed to the abbey of Sion, 
in Middlesex : the present edifice is in the later English 
style, and contains some fine specimens of screen-work 
and carvings in oak, which are thought to have been 
brought from Cockersand Abbey, on its dissolution. 
St. John's district church was built by subscription, in 
1755 : the living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 
203 ; patron, Vicar of Lancaster. St. Ann's district 
church was erected in 1796, at the expense of the Rev. 
Robert Housman : the living is a perpetual curacy, in 
the patronage of the Vicar, with a net income of 155. 
A church has been recently erected, and dedicated to St. 
Thomas ; and there are chapels in the several townships. 
Places of worship have been built for Baptists, the 
Society of Friends, Independents, Wesleyans, Primitive 
Methodists, Presbyterians, and Roman Catholics. The 
free grammar school existed prior to 1615, at which time 
Randall Carter, of London, bequeathed 10 per annum 
for an usher. The Blue-coat charity school, established 
in 1770, has been incorporated with a national school 
for boys, for which a spacious stone building was erected 
in 1817, by subscription, at an expense of 1100, and 
which in that year was endowed by Mr. Matthew Pyper, 
one of the Society of Friends, with 2000 Navy five per 
cent, annuities. A national school for girls was built in 
1820, by subscription; a Lancasterian school, and a 
charity school for girls, established in 1/72, are sup- 
ported by similar means; and a school, opened in 1820, 
is maintained by Roman Catholics. Gardyner's alms- 
houses, founded in 1485, are appropriated to four aged 
men. Penny's almshouses were founded by a bequest 
from William Penny, Esq., in 1715, and endowed with 
land yielding a rent of about 340, for twelve aged men 
or women; and eight houses were founded in 1781, by 
Mrs. Anne Gillison, who endowed them with land and 
money producing about 40 per annum, for unmarried 
women. There are numerous charitable bequests for 
distribution, of which the most considerable is that of 
William Heysham, M.P., who, in 1725, left an estate 
producing 256 per annum, for the benefit of eight poor 
men ; and there are also several for the relief of pri- 
soners for debt confined in the castle. The county 
lunatic asylum, on Lancaster Moor, was established in 
1816, and is a spacious quadrangular structure of stone, 
with a handsome portico of the Doric order, and, with 
the gardens and grounds, occupies five acres of land ; 
it was erected at an expense of 75,000, including the 
furniture, and the magistrates of the county lately re- 
solved to expend 9000 in additional buildings. A dis- 
pensary was instituted in 1781 ; and a house has been 
fitted up as an infirmary. The reigning sovereign en- 
joys the title of Duke of Lancaster. 

LANCAUT (ST. JAMES), a parish, in the union of 
CHEPSTOW, hundred of WESTBURY, W. division of the 
county of GLOUCESTER, 2 miles (N.) from Chepstow ; 
containing 16 inhabitants. This place, which is a dis- 
tinct parish, but within the manor of Tidenham, is ro- 
mantically situated on the left bank of the Wye, by 
which it is formed into a beautiful peninsula, opposite 



L ANC 



LAND 



the grounds of Piercefield, commanding a delightful 
view of the various windings of the river between Tin- 
tern Abbey and Chepstow, and of the highly picturesque 
scenery on its banks. The living has generally been 
held with the rectory of Wollastou. The church is an 
ancient structure, and contains a curiously- sculptured 
leaden font, supposed to be of the 10th century. 

LANCHESTER (ALL SAINTS), a parish, and the 
head of a union, chiefly in the W. division of CHESTER 
ward, N. division, but partly in the N. W. division, of 
DARLINGTON ward, S. division of the county of DUR- 
HAM ; comprising the townships of Benfieldside, Billing- 
side, Burnop with Hamsteels, Butsfield, Collierly, Con- 
side with Knitsley, Cornsay, Ebchester, Esh, Greencroft, 
Healyfield, Holmside, Ivestone, Kyo, Lanchester, Lang- 
ley, Medomsley, and Satley ; and containing 7783 in- 
habitants, of whom 579 are in the township of Lan- 
chester, 8 miles (N. W. by W.) from Durham. This 
place, which occupies the site of a principal Roman 
station, is supposed by Camden, Gale, and Hunter, to 
have been Longovicum, and by Horsley, Glambanta or 
Glanoventa, considered the most perfect Roman station 
in the kingdom ; more modern writers regard it as 
Epiacum. The period of its origin is uncertain, but its 
restoration is ascribed to the Emperor Gordian ; it stood 
on the line of the Watling-street, and was successively 
garrisoned by a portion of the twentieth legion, the 
Varduli, and the Ligones. The station occupied an 
eminence half a mile eastward from the village : the 
rampart, inclosing a cultivated area of eight acres, is in 
most parts quite perfect ; and numerous coins, altars, 
monuments, and other relics, especially a plate of solid 
gold with an inscription to the god Mars, have been dis- 
covered at different periods, several of which are pre- 
served in the library at Durham. The parish comprises 
by computation 41,890 acres, of which upwards of 
16,000 acres of common land were divided in 1773 ; the 
chief portion is held under the see of Durham. The 
village, though now but small and straggling, was once 
of considerable magnitude and importance ; it lies in a 
warm sheltered vale, watered by the Smalhope burn, 
and the road from Durham to Shotley-Bridge passes 
through it. Petty-sessions are held once a fortnight, 
and a court for the recovery of debts under 40s. twice a 
year. The LIVING is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 
123; patron, Bishop of Durham; impropriators, T. 
Cookson, Esq., and others. The tithes were commuted 
for land in 1773. The church is a venerable structure, 
in the early English style, and consists of a nave, aisles, 
chancel, south porch, and tower at the West end, sur- 
mounted by an embattled parapet, with crocketed pin- 
nacles at the angles : the chancel, of which the arch is a 
fine specimen of the transition from the Norman to the 
early English style, is 44 feet in length, by 15 in 
breadth, and has on the east side three tall lancet win- 
dows, the centre one with a portion of stained glass ; 
on the south side are two windows of double lights, and 
a third of three lights ; and on the north a window of 
two lights : the interior contains five ancient stalls, an 
elegant piscina, several sculptured decorations, and some 
.interesting monuments. It was made collegiate, for a 
dean and seven prebendaries, by Bishop Anthony Beke, 
about 1283, and valued at the Dissolution at 49. 3. 4., 
and in the Lincoln Taxation at 90. 13. 4., per annum ; 
the dean's house occupied a plot of ground surrounded 
15 



by a fosse, a little northward from the church, but there 
are no vestiges, excepting the carved oak seats, under 
an arch in the northern wall of the chancel, and the pis- 
cina on the south side of the altar. There is a place of 
worship for Wesleyans ; and at Brooms is a Roman 
Catholic chapel. A national schoolroom was erected in 
1824. William Russell, Esq., of Brancepeth Castle, in 
1811, founded almshouses at Cornsay, for 12 men and 
women, and a school for 20 children of the township, 
and endowed them with property now producing 180 
per annum. The poor law union of Lanchester com- 
prises 18 chapelries or townships, and a population of 
9969 persons. 

LANCING, a parish, in the hundred of BRIGHTFORD, 
rape of BRAMBER, W. division of SUSSEX, 2 miles (W.) 
from Shoreham ; containing 781 inhabitants. This 
parish, which is bounded on the east by the river Adur 
and Shoreham harbour, and on the south by the English 
Channel, comprises by measurement 2524 acres, whereof 
1476 are arable, 566 meadow and pasture, 424 sea and 
fresh-water beach, and 14 plantations. Its soil is chiefly 
a rich loam intermixed with sand, but in that portion 
forming the downs generally chalk ; the scenery, which 
is enriched with wood, is finely varied, and Lancing 
House, the seat of Sir James Martin Lloyd, Bart., is a 
handsome residence seated in a demesne tastefully laid 
out. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the 
king's books at 6. 9. 4. ; patron, Bishop of Lincoln ; 
impropriator, Sir J. M. Lloyd. The great tithes have 
been commuted for 767. 14., and the vicarial for 176, 
and the glebe comprises 6 acres. There is also a rent- 
charge of 61. 8. 6., payable to the rector of West Grin- 
stead. The church is an ancient structure, partly Norman, 
and partly in the early and decorated English styles ; the 
interior is neatly arranged, and has been repewed, by 
which 114 additional sittings have been obtained. A 
school-house has been erected on a site given by Sir J. 
M. Lloyd, who also contributed largely towards its 
erection. Vestiges of a Roman pavement, with some 
small altars, lavatories, and a greet number of coins, 
have lately been discovered on Lancing Down. 

LANDBEACH (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union 
of CHESTERTON, hundred of NORTHSTOW, county of 
CAMBRIDGE, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Cambridge ; con- 
taining 468 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from 
Cambridge to Ely, and comprises 2207. lr. 27/>. The 
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 10. 1. 3., 
and in the gift of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge : 
the tithes were commuted for land in 1807; the value 
of the glebe is 633 per annum. The church is a hand- 
some structure, in the later English style, with a square 
embattled tower, surmounted by an elegant spire ; on 
the tower are some sculptured devices, of which the 
emblems of the Crucifixion, and a shield with two keys 
in saltier, are discernible. There is a place of worship 
for Baptists. Robert Masters, B.D., author of the His- 
tory of Corpus Christi College, of which he was a fellow, 
was rector of this parish. 

LANDCROSS (HOLY TRINITY), a parish, in the 
union of BIDEFORD, hundred of SHEBBEAR, Great Tor- 
rington and N. divisions of DEVON, 2| miles (S. by E.) 
from Bideford; containing 120 inhabitants. It is situ- 
ated on the river Torridge, and intersected by the road 
from Bideford to Torrington, and comprises by measure- 
ment 331 acres. There are quarries of stone, which is 



LAND 



LAND 



used for building and also for the roads. The living is 
a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at 
5. 4. 0^., and in the gift of Lord Rolle : the tithes 
have been commuted for 63, and the glebe comprises 
8 acres. General Monk, afterwards Duke of Albemarle, 
was baptized here in 1608. 

LANDEWEDNACK (ST. LANTY), a parish, in the 
union of HELSTON, W. division of the hundred of 
KKRHIER and of the county of CORNWALL, 10^ miles 
(S. S. E.) from Helston ; containing 431 inhabitants. 
The parish contains within its limits the Lizard Point, 
the most southerly point in Great Britain, from which 
ships leaving the Channel date their departure, and near 
which are two lighthouses. The number of acres is 
about 1000, nearly one-half of which quantity is pro- 
fitable land, and the remainder of very inferior quality, 
being chiefly poor and unproductive downs ; the surface 
is flat, with some gentle undulations, and the surround- 
ing scenery is of bold and rugged aspect. A pilchard 
fishery is carried on to a considerable extent at Lande- 
wednack cove, in which several boats and scans are 
employed during the season. Slabs and mantel-pieces 
are made from the rocks, and are susceptible of a high 
polish. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in 
the king's books at 11. 16. 10^., and in the gift of 
P. Vyvyan Robinson, Esq. : the tithes have been com- 
muted for 253. 11., and the glebe comprises 14 acres. 
The church is an ancient edifice, with a fine Norman 
doorway on the south side, and contains a curious font. 
There is a place of worship for Wesleyans j also a 
national school. 

LANDFORD (ST. ANDREW), a parish, in the union 
of ALDERBURY, hundred of FRUSTFIELD, Salisbury and 
Amesbury, and S. divisions of WILTS, 7 miles (E. byS.) 
from Downton ; containing 255 inhabitants. It is 
situated on the road from Salisbury to Southampton, 
and comprises 1689. 2r. \6p., of which 773 acres are 
uninclosed common, and the remainder good arable, 
pasture, and meadow land. A stream which has its 
rise within the parish, flows into the Southampton water. 
The substratum contains iron-ore, but no mines have 
been opened. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 4. 3. 9., and in the gift of the Countess Nel- 
son : the tithes have been commuted for 220, and 
the glebe comprises 58a. 2r. 3Q/>. The church is a very 
ancient structure, with a tower surmounted by a cam- 
panile turret of wood ; the northern entrance is under 
a fine Norman arch. A parochial school is supported 
by subscription. Bishop Davenant, who purchased the 
manor-house, is supposed to have resided here occa- 
sionally. 

LANDGUARD-FORT, in the parish of FELIXSTOW, 
union of WOODBRIDGE, hundred of COLNEIS, E. divi- 
sion of SUFFOLK, 12 miles (S. E. by S.) from Ipswich, 
and l mile (E. S. E.) from Harwich, which see. Here is 
a chapel for the garrison. 

LANDICAN, a township, in the parish of WOOD- 
CHURCH, union, and Lower division of the hundred, of 
WIRRALL, S. division of the county of CHESTER, 
5| miles (N.) from Great Neston j containing 67 in- 
habitants. 

LANDKEY (HOLY TRINITY), a parish, in the union 

of BARNSTAPLE, hundred of SOUTH MOLTON, South 

Molton and N. divisions of DEVON, 2^ miles (E. S. E.) 

from Barnstaple; containing 774 inhabitants. This 

16 



parish, which is situated on the road from Barnstaple to 
South Molton, comprises by computation 2400 acres : 
limestone of good quality is abundant, and there are two 
quarries of considerable extent. The living is a perpe- 
tual curacy, with that of Swimbridge annexed ; net in- 
come, 179 ; patron and appropriator, Dean of Exeter. 
The church contains a handsome monument to one of 
the Acland family. At Herford, in the parish, was an- 
ciently a chapel. Here is a place of worship for Wes- 
leyans ; also a small school supported by charity. 

LANDMOTH, with CATTO, a township, in the pa- 
rish of LEAK, union of NORTH-ALLERTON, wapentake 
of ALLERTONSHIRE, N. riding of YORK, 4 miles (E. by 
S.) from North-Allerton ; containing 56 inhabitants. 
The township comprises by computation 600 acres, in- 
cluding Cotliffe, a long precipitous cliff and boldly rising 
acclivity on the east of the Codbeck rivulet. The land 
is set out in farms. 

LANDRAKE (ST. PETER), a parish, in the union of 
ST. GERMANS, S. division of the hundred of EAST, E. 
division of CORNWALL, 4 miles (W. N. W.) from Saltash ; 
containing, with the chapelry of St. Eruey, 893 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 812 are in Landrake. The parish is 
bounded on the east by the Lynher river, which is 
crossed by a bridge. Here are fairs for cattle on Feb- 
ruary 4th and June 29th, and minor fairs on the first 
Wednesday in February, and the first Wednesday in 
September. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued 
in the king's books at 18. 12. 4. j net income, 282 ; 
patron and impropriator, Viscount Valletort. The 
church is remarkable for the loftiness of its tower, which 
is a picturesque object for several miles round. There 
is a chapel of ease at St. Erney. A charity school 
was founded in 1703, by Sir Robert Jeffrey, Knt., who 
endowed it with lands now producing about 72 per 
annum j and there are five almshouses, with a small 
endowment. 

LANDULPH (ST. DJLPE), a parish, in the union of 
ST. GERMANS, S. division of the hundred of EAST, E. 
division of CORNWALL, 5 miles (N.) from Saltash ; con- 
taining 550 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded 
on the south and east by the navigable river Tamar, 
comprises by survey 2086 acres ; a considerable portion 
of marsh land has been reclaimed by an embankment 
constructed by Mr. Arnold. The substratum contains 
much mineral wealth, and the lead and silver mines of 
Beer-Alston extend into the parish. Packet-boats sail 
three times in the week from Cargreen, the principal 
village, to Devonport. The living is a rectory, valued in 
the king's books at 20. 3. 6., and in the patronage of 
the Crown : the tithes have been commuted for 328, 
and the glebe comprises 42 acres. The church is an 
ancient structure, in the early and decorated English 
styles ; there is much curious carved work on the seats, 
which are of the time of Henry VII., and the edifice also 
contains a monument with an inscription, giving an 
account of the pedigree of Theodore Paleologus, a lineal 
descendant of the last Christian emperors of Greece, who 
died in 1636, and was interred here. There is a place 
of worship for Wesleyans ; and a school-house has been 
erected in union with the National Society. Here is a 
mineral spring, formerly in much repute. 

LANDWADE (ST. NICHOLAS), a parish, in the union 
of NEWMARKET, hundred of STAPLOE, county of CAM- 
BRIDGE, 4 miles (N. N. W.) from Newmarket ; contain- 



LANE 



LANE 



ing 29 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy; 
net income, 20. The church is in the shape of a cross, 
and contains six beautiful marble monuments to the 
Cotton family. The remains of the ancient manor-house, 
now tenanted, exhibit a specimen of the domestic archi- 
tecture of the sixteenth century, and are surrounded by 
a wide and deep moat. 

LANE AST (Sr. GALWELL), a parish, in the union of 
LAUNCESTON, partly in the N. division of the hundred 
of EAST, and partly in the hundred of LESNEWTH, E. 
division of CORNWALL, 7 miles (VV.) from Launceston ; 
containing 320 inhabitants. It comprises 2262 acres, of 
which 600 are common or waste. The living is a per- 
petual curacy ; net income, 55 ; patrons, J. K. Leth- 
bridge, Esq., and the family of Cock. The impropriate 
tithes have been commuted for 113. A small school 
is supported by subscription. 

LANE-END, a district parish, in the union of 
WYCOMBE, hundred of DESBOROUGH, county of BUCK- 
INGHAM, 4 miles (N.) from Great Marlow ; containing 
about 1400 inhabitants. The district, until recently, 
formed part of the parishes of Great Marlow, West 
Wycombe, Fingest, and Hambleden, and was assigned 
to the church of Lane-End by the ordinary, the Bishop 
of Lincoln, who made it for ecclesiastical purposes a 
parish. The church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, 
was built in 1832, at an expense of nearly 3000, 'de- 
frayed by J. Meggatt Elwes, Esq., and was endowed 
with a glebe-house and garden, and a revenue of 100 
per annum, by the late Rev. H. C. Ridley, rector of 
Hambleden, and his friends ; patron, the Rector of 
Hambleden. 

LANE-END, with LONGTON, a chapelry and market- 
town, in the parish and union of STOKE-UPON-TRENT, 
N. division of the hundred of PIREHILL and of the 
county of STAFFORD, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from Newcastle- 
under-Lyme ; containing, exclusively of Longton, 1952 
inhabitants. This place, which is situated at the southern 
extremity of the district called " The Potteries," and on 
the road between Newcastle and Uttoxeter, has risen to 
opulence and importance, in consequence of the flourish- 
ing state of the earthenware and china manufacture 
established here within the last few years. It consists 
of spacious and well-built streets, and contains many 
neat houses and public buildings, supplied with water 
from several springs on an eminence about a mile to the 
south-east, where a large reservoir has been formed by 
the Duke of Sutherland, the proprietor of the works. 
Here'is a subscription library, established in 1807 ; and 
a newsroom was opened in 1833. An indurated clay, or 
soft stone, found between a hard marl and iron-stone 
rock, and containing siliceous and argillaceous earth, 
with magnesia and lime, has the property of burning 
white, and has been used by Mr. Turner in the manufac- 
ture of china similar to that of India. Of this clay the 
first table service called " stone china" was manufactured 
by that gentleman, who obtained a patent for using it 
for that purpose. Brown limestone, coal, and iron- 
stone, are found in abundance, with manganese, and 
coloured marl and clay ; and there are extensive collieries 
in both Lane-End and Longton, and in the vicinity. 
The Trent and Mersey canal passes about two miles 
westward from the town, from which there is a railway 
communication. The market is held on Saturday for 
provisions, of which the supply is very good ; and there 
VOL. III. 17 



are fairs for woollen-cloth, hardware, and pedlery, on 
February 14th, May 29th, July 22nd, and November 1st. 
There were formerly two market-houses, one at the 
upper, and the other at the lower, extremity of the town ; 
the former is disused, and the latter, which has been 
enlarged, and over which a public room has been erected, 
is now exclusively appropriated to the use of the market, 
and is called the Union Market. 

The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, 154; 
patrons, certain Trustees appointed under an act ob- 
tained in 1792 ; 'appropriator, the Rector of Stoke. The 
chapel, a neat brick edifice with a tower, built about 1760, 
by Mr. John Bourne, has been enlarged, and is now 
capable of accommodating 1200 persons, including 450 
free sittings, for which the Incorporated Society granted 
800. By an act of parliament, relating to the rectory 
of Stoke, passed in 1827, provision is made for the fur- 
ther endowment of the chapel, on its separation from the 
parish and conversion into a district rectory ; also for 
endowing a new church at Longton with not less than 
10,000, nor more than 15,000, at the option of the 
patron of Stoke rectory, from the proceeds of tithes to 
be sold and invested in land. Dr. Woodhouse, the late 
rector, likewise gave 1000 (with its accumulations 
until appropriated) towards providing a parsonage- 
house for the minister of the new church, besides allot- 
ting to national schools at Lane-End and Longton a 
portion of the yearly income arising from his munificent 
donation of 3000 to national schools in the parish of 
Stoke. The church at Longton, dedicated to St. James, 
in the later English style, with a tower, was erected in 
1834, at an expense of 9633. 16.; it will accommodate 
more than 1900 persons, and has been endowed and 
converted into a district rectory, prior to which it was 
a chapel of ease to the mother church. There are places 
of worship for Baptists, Wesleyans, Independents, Cal- 
vinistic Methodists, Methodists of the New Connexion, 
and Roman Catholics. A charity school was founded 
in 1760, and endowed by Mr. Bourne with property pro- 
ducing 66 per annum, which sum is applied towards 
the support of a national school. 

LANEHAM (ST. PETER), a parish, in the union of 
EAST RETFORD, and within the liberty of SOUTHWELL 
and SCROOBY, N. division of the county of NOTTING- 
HAM, 6f miles (N. E. by E.) from Tuxford ; containing 
385 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the 
east by the river Trent, comprises by measurement 1704 
acres ; the soil is clay, with considerable portions of 
marsh ; the surface is generally flat, and the lands are 
in good cultivation. The living is a discharged vicarage, 
valued in the king's books at 5. 3. 4. ; net income, 
56 ; patrons and appropriators, Dean and Chapter of 
York. The tithes, with some trifling exceptions, were 
commuted for land and a money payment, under an act 
of inclosure, in 1772; and the remainder have been 
commuted under the recent Tithe act, the appropriate 
tithes for a rent-charge of 36, and the vicarial for 5. 
The church is a small ancient structure. 

LANE-HEAD, a hamlet, in the parish of HUTTON- 
MAGNUM, union of TEESDALE, wapentake of GILLING- 
WEST, N. riding of YORK, 8 miles (N. N. W.) from 
Richmond ; containing 36 inhabitants. The hamlet is 
situated nearly a mile south of the village of Hutton. 
Here is a large quarry of limestone, which is burned into 
lime, and esteemed of superior quality for tillage ; it is 



LANG 



LANG 



on the property of Sir Clifford Constable, Bart., who is 
lord of the manor. 

LANERCOST-ABBEY (T. MARY MAGDALENE), a 
parish, in the union of BRAMPTON, ESKDAL.E ward, E. di- 
vision of CUMBERLAND, 2^ miles (N. E.) from Brampton; 
containing, with the townships of Askerton, Burtholme, 
Kingwater, and Waterhead, 1582 inhabitants. This 
place is identified as the site of the Roman station Am- 
boglana, where was posted the Cohors Prima jElia Daco- 
rum, and of which considerable vestiges remain. The 
area, which occupies an extensive plain, from which is a 
precipitous descent to the river Irthing, is 120 yards 
from north to south, and SO from east to west ; and 
several votive altars have been found, dedicated to Jupi- 
ter Optimus Maximus, and other Roman deities. A 
fragment of the Roman wall is yet standing at Harehill, 
about five yards in length, and ten feet high ; and there 
are numerous indications of Roman occupation. The 
abbey of Lanercost was founded in 1169, by Robert de 
Vallibus, Lord of Gillesland, for a prior and monks of 
the order of St. Augustine, and dedicated to St. Mary 
Magdalene. It was frequently visited by Edward I., and 
was partly destroyed by fire in 1296, but was restored 
and continued to flourish till the Dissolution, when its 
revenue was estimated at 79. 19., and the site was 
granted to Thomas, Lord Dacre, a descendant of the 
original founder. In 1716 the priory estate reverted to 
the crown, under which it is now held on lease by the 
Earl of Carlisle. The remains, which are beautifully 
situated on the north bank of the river, consist chiefly of 
the conventual church, of which the nave has been appro- 
priated as the church of the parish, part of the cloisters, 
refectory, and other buildings. In 1311, Robert Bruce 
lay with his army encamped here for three days. 

The parish is bounded on the east and south by the 
Irthing, and intersected by the Kingwater and several 
smaller streams ; it comprises by computation 30,000 
acres, of which about two-thirds are pasture, and the 
remainder arable and woodland. Its surface is pleasingly 
varied, and in many parts highly picturesque; the soil in 
the lower lands is a rich loam, alternated with sand, and 
the steep banks that inclose the vales of Kingwater and 
Irthing produce fine crops *>f grain ; the substratum 
abounds with limestone. The living is a perpetual cu- 
racy ; net income, 107 ; patron and impropriator, Earl 
of Carlisle. The tithes were commuted for land in 1802. 
The church is principally in the early English style, with 
Norman portions, of which the western doorway is a 
highly-enriched specimen : in the transepts, which are 
roofless, and covered with a profusion of ivy, and other 
plants, are several tombs of the Howards and Dacres, 
much disfigured by exposure to the air ; and in part of 
the ancient cemetery, which has been converted into 
gardens, are numerous monuments, and stone coffins 
scattered among the trees. Within the parish, and about 
seven miles from Lanercost, is Gilsland Spa, of which a 
description is given under GILSLAND. 

LANGAR (Sx. ANDREW), a parish, in the union, 
and N. division of the \vapentake, of BINGHAM, S. divi- 
sion of the county of NOTTINGHAM, 10^ miles (E. S. E.) 
from Nottingham ; containing 309 inhabitants. This 
parish, including the chapelry of Barnstone, comprises 
3825a. 3r. 5p. ; the soil is fertile, and the surface highly 
picturesque. Langar Hall, once the seat of Admiral 
Howe, is a handsome residence, finely situated. The 
18 



living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
10.7. 11.; net income, 208 ; patron, J. Wright, Esq. 
The tithes were commuted for land, on the inclosure of 
the parish ; the glebe comprises 345 acres. The church, 
which is near the Hall, is a large cruciform edifice, with 
a richly-ornamented tower, and has several monuments 
of the Lords Scroope, one of which, in memory of Lord 
Scroope, who died in 1609, and his lady, is remarkably 
elegant ; it also contains a handsome monument'to the 
memory of the distinguished officer, Admiral Earl Howe, 
who died August 5th, 1799, and was buried here. There 
is a chapel of ease at Barnstone. 

LANGBAR, with NESFIELD, a township, in the pa- 
rish of ILKLEY, Upper division of the wapentake of 
CLARO, W. riding of YORK, 8| miles (E.) from Skipton; 
containing 210 inhabitants. The township comprises 
by computation 1730 acres of land, chiefly the property 
of the Duke of Devonshire. The hamlet is situated on 
the northern acclivities of Wharfdale. There is a place 
of worship for Wesleyans. 

LANGCLIFFE, a township, in the parish of GIG- 
GLESWICK, union of SETTLE, W. division of the wapen- 
take of STAINCLIFFE, W. riding of the county of YORK, 
1 mile (N.) from Settle ; containing 664 inhabitants. 
The township lies in a beautiful and fertile valley, 
bounded by Stackhouse and Langcliffe Scaurs, and com- 
prises by computation 1890 acres, including part of Win- 
skill hamlet. The lands are divided among several pro- 
prietors, and the population is chiefly employed in the 
cotton and paper manufacture ; two large cotton-mills 
are situated on the banks of the Ribble, in the neigh- 
bourhood, and a paper-mill likewise stands on that 
river. This place was formerly parcel of the possessions 
of Sawley Abbey, and for a century and a half the pro- 
perty of the Dawsons, a family highly distinguished in 
point of alliances and personal desert. Whitaker gives 
a copy of verses, printed in 1690, by William Dawson, 
containing an account of a village which was destroyed 
by the Scots in the reign of Edward II., and supposed 
to be the parent of the present village; and in confirma- 
tion of this, foundations of houses under Winskill have 
been met with, when draining some lands there. The 
township, with the other possessions of Sawley Abbey, 
was found by inquisition of the 1st and 3rd of Elizabeth, 
to belong to Henry, son and heir of Sir Arthur Darcy, 
Knt., from whose descendants the manor was purchased 
by the inhabitants. Langcliffe Place, the seat of William 
Clayton, Esq., and Langcliffe Hall, that of Mrs. Swale, 
are handsome mansions. In the village is a school-house, 
licensed by the Bishop of Ripon for divine service. Ro- 
man coins have occasionally been discovered. 

LANGDALE, GREAT and LITTLE, a chapelry, in 
the parish of GRASMERE, union and ward of KENDAL, 
county of WESTMORLAND, 5 miles (W.) from Ambleside; 
containing 442 inhabitants. Fine blue slate, much of 
which is sent to London and other parts, is obtained in 
the mountains on each side of the river Brathy ; the 
loftiest of these pikes, called Harrison Stickle, rises 
2400 feet above the level of the sea. Within the cha- 
pelry is Elter-water, near which is a gunpowder- mill ; 
and there are several smaller lakes, and the two beau- 
tiful waterfalls of Colwith Force and Skelwith Force. 
The living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 7 1 ; pa- 
tron, Rector of Grasmere. The chapel is situated at 
Great Langdale, and another once stood at a place now 



LANG 



LANG 



called Chapel-Mire, in Little Langdale. The tithes have 
been commuted for 46. 10. A school was erected in 
1824, by the Gunpowder Company, in consideration of 
ground granted to them for the establishment of their ' 
manufactory. On a hill called Wreyuose are three 
shire-stones, marking the point at which the counties of 
Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancaster meet and 
terminate. Henry Bickersteth, Esq., was raised to the 
peerage, January 23rd, 1836, by the title of Baron 
Langdale : his lordship is Master of the Rolls. 

LANGDALE, a township, in the parish of ORTON, 
EAST ward and union, county of WESTMORLAND, 3^ 
miles (S. E.) from Orton; containing 123 inhabitants. 
The township is situated between those of Tebay and 
Raisbeck, and comprises 7702 acres, of which about 5000 
are common or waste. It is a mountainous district ex- 
tending to the borders of Yorkshire, and anciently be- 
longed to the priory of Walton, in that county, to which 
it was granted by Henry II., and on the dissolution of 
which the manor was sold to the Wharton family ; it 
is now the property of the Earl of Lonsdale. Bishop 
Barlow, a learned divine of the seventeenth century, 
was born here. 

LANGDON, a tything, in the parish, union, and 
hundred of BEAMINSTER, Bridport division of DORSET ; 
containing 332 inhabitants. 

LANGDON, EAST (Sr. AUGUSTINE), a parish, in 
the union of DOVOR, hundred of CORNILO, lathe of ST. 
AUGUSTINE, E. division of KENT, 3f miles (N. N. E.) 
from Dovor ; containing 316 inhabitants. The living is 
a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at 7 ; 
net income, 126 ; patron, Earl of Guilford. A fair for 
toys and pedlery is held on Old May-day. 

LANGDON-HILLS (ST. MARY AND ALL SAINTS}, a 
parish, in the union of ORSETT, hundred of BARSTABLE, 
S. division of ESSEX, 13 miles (E. by S.) from Romford ; 
containing 288 inhabitants. This place is situated on a 
fine tract of elevated ground, rising gradually by a gentle 
slope from the north to its highest point, but in all other 
directions abrupt and steep. From the summit of the 
range, the loftiest in the neighbourhood, and from which 
the parish partly takes its name, are some extensive 
prospects, the hills and coast of Kent, as far as the Med- 
way, being visible in clear weather. The parish com- 
prises 1775a. 2r. 24p., of which 1120 acres are arable, 
474 pasture, and 113 woodland. The living is a dis- 
charged rectory, valued in the king's books at 10. 3. 9.5 
net income, 245 ; patrons, Dean and Chapter of St. 
Paul's, London. The church is an ancient edifice, con- 
sisting of a nave and chancel, with a small chapel on the 
north side of the latter, and has been enlarged. The 
parish of West Lee, about a mile distant, was, after the 
destruction of its church, united with this parish. 

LANGDON, WEST (ST. MARY], a parish, in the 
union of DOVOR, hundred of BEWSBOROUGH, lathe of 
ST. AUGUSTINE, E. division of KENT, Similes (N.) from 
Dovor; containing 119 inhabitants. It comprises by 
computation 700 acres, of which about 50 are pasture, 
and the remainder arable. The living is a perpetual 
curacy, endowed with a portion of the rectorial tithes, 
which have been commuted for 32. 9. 6. ; patron, 
Archbishop of Canterbury ; impropriator of the remain- 
.der of the rectorial tithes, the Owner of Langdon Abbey : 
the glebe 'comprises 4 acres. The church is in ruins. 
An abbey for White canons, dedicated to the Blessed 
19 



Virgin Mary and St. Thomas the Martyr, was founded 
here in 1192, by William de Auberville, and at the Dis- 
solution had a revenue estimated at 56. 6. ; it is stated 
to have been the first religious house dissolved by 
Henry VIII. There are some remains, forming a pic- 
turesque ruin. 

LANGENHOE (Sx. ANDREW), a parish, in the union 
of LEXDEN and WINSTREE, hundred of WINSTREE, N. 
division of ESSEX, 5| miles (S. by E.) from Colchester; 
containing 161 inhabitants. The parish comprises 1874 
acres, of which 16 1 are common or waste; it is bounded 
on the east by the navigable river Colne ; the soil is 
generally a strong loam, producing average crops. The 
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
14. 13. 4., and in the gift of the Earl Waldegrave : 
the tithes have been commuted for 480, and the glebe 
comprises 30 acres. The church is an ancient edifice, 
with a tower of stone ; the east window of the chancel 
is decorated with numerous armorial bearings. There 
is a small national school. 

LANGEVIEW. See LLANGEVIEW. 

LANGFIELD, a township, in the ecclesiastical dis- 
trict of HEPTONSTALL, parish of HALIFAX, union of 
TODMORDEN, wapentake of MORLEY, W. riding of 
YORK, 11^ miles (W. by S.) from Halifax; containing 
3284 inhabitants. The township is partly situated in 
the picturesque vale of Todmorden, and comprises by 
computation 2620 acres, a large portion of which is 
common or moorland belonging to the freeholders, who 
depasture it in lots proportioned to the extent of their 
freeholds. There are quarries of good building-stone. 
The township includes the hamlets of Stoodley and 
Mankinholes, and also contains within its limits some 
scattered dwellings, forming a kind of suburb to 
the town of Todmorden. Its surface is boldly undu- 
lated, and the surrounding scenery is strikingly diver- 
sified. On the moor are two capacious reservoirs, one 
of which covers fifty- three acres of ground, for the 
supply of the canal and the various mills in the neigh- 
bourhood 5 and on a commanding eminence in the ham- 
let of Stoodley, called Stoodley Pike, a lofty column was 
erected in 1814, by subscription, to commemorate the 
restoration of peace throughout Europe. A fair for 
sheep is held at Lumbutts on the llth of September. 
There are places of worship for dissenters. 

LANGFORD (ST. ANDREW), a parish, in the union 
and hundred of BIGGLESWADE, county of BEDFORD, 2^ 
miles (S.) from Biggleswade ; containing 840 inhabit- 
ants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the 
king's books at 8, and in the patronage of the Crown j 
net income, 240 ; impropriator, M. E. Welby, Esq. 

LANGFORD (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
FARRINGDON, partly in the hundred of FARRINGDON, 
county of BERKS, and partly in that of BAMPTON, county 
of OXFORD, 3^ miles (N. E. by E.) from Lechlade ; con- 
taining, with the tything of Little Farringdon, in Berks, 
and the township of Grafton and hamlet of Radcutt, in 
Oxfordshire, 707 inhabitants. It is said that the bound- 
ary line of the two counties divides the church and 
churchyard. For electoral purposes the whole parish is 
attached to Oxfordshire. The living is a vicarage, valued 
in the king's books at 21. 19. 4|. ; net income, 349; 
patron, W. Vizard, Esq. ; appropriators, Dean and Chap- 
ter of Lincoln. The tithes were commuted for land and 
a money payment, under acts of enclosure, in 1808 and 

D2 



LANG 



LANG 



1810. The church has been repaired, and 140 free sit- 
tings have been provided, the Incorporated Society 
having granted 80 in aid of the expense. There is a 
chapel of ease at Little Farringdon. 

LANGFORD (ST. GILES), a parish, in the union 
of MALDON, hundred of THURSTABLE, N. division of 
ESSEX, l^mile (N. by W.) from Maldon; containing 257 
inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the 
south by the Chelmer and Blackwater navigation, is 
about six miles in circumference. The living is a 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 10. 4. 9., and 
in the gift of J. E. Wescomb, Esq. : the tithes have been 
commuted for 270, and the glebe comprises 32 acres. 
The church is a small ancient edifice. A school is con- 
ducted on the national plan. 

LANGFORD (ST. ANDREW), a parish, in the union 
of SWAFFHAM, hundred of SOUTH GREENHOE, W. divi- 
sion of NORFOLK, 6% miles (N. N. E.) from Brandon ; 
containing 57 inhabitants. It comprises 14050. 12/>., of 
which about 892 acres are arable, 366 pasture, meadow, 
and heath, and 130 woodland. The living is a discharged 
rectory, with that of Ickborough united, valued together 
in the king's books at 10. 2. 8| ; net income, 238; 
patrons, Lords Berners and Ashburton. The tithes have 
been commuted for 120, and the glebe contains 2 
acres. The church is chiefly in the early style, and 
consists of a nave and chancel, separated by a decorated 
Norman archway ; the chancel contains a splendid 
monument to the Garrard family. 

LANGFORD (ST. BARTHOLOMEW), a parish, in the 
union, and N. division of the wapentake, of NEWARK, 
S. division of the county of NOTTINGHAM, 3f miles (N. 
N. E.) from Newark; containing 146 inhabitants. This 
parish, which is bounded on the west by the river Trent, 
comprises by computation nearly 2QOO acres. Its soil 
on the west side, which is principally meadow land, is 
strong ; in the middle portion, a fine turnip soil, on a 
substratum of gravel; and on the east, a cold wet 
gravel and a tenacious clay. The surface is generally 
flat, but the village, irregularly built upon an eminence 
overlooking the river, has a picturesque appearance. 
The living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 40 ; 
patrons, Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. The Fosse-road crosses the parish. 

LANGFORD, a hamlet, partly in the parish of 
BURRINGTON, hundred of BRENT with WRINGTON, and 
partly in that of CHURCHILL, hundred of WINTER- 
STOKE, union of AXBRIDGE, E. division of SOMERSET, 
5 miles (N. N. E.) from Axbridge. It is situated on 
the road from Bristol to Axbridge, and is divided 
into Upper and Lower Langford, in which latter is the 
village. 

LANGFORD-BUDV1LLE (Sr. JAMES), a parish, in 
the union of WELLINGTON, hundred of MILVERTON, W. 
division of SOMERSET, 3 miles (N. W. by W.) from Wel- 
lington ; containing 608 inhabitants. It comprises 1?50 
acres, of which 176 are common or waste. The living 
is annexed to the vicarage of Milverton. The church 
contains a monument to William Bacon, ancestor of the 
celebrated sculptor. 

LANGFORD, LITTLE (ST. NICHOLAS), a parish, in 
the union of WILTON, hundred of BRANCH and DOLE, 
Salisbury and Amesbury, and S. divisions of WILTS, 5% 
miles (N. W.) from Wilton ; containing 37 inhabitants. 
It is situated on the river Wiley, near the road to Bath, 
20 



and comprises 900 acres, by measurement. The living is 
a rectory, valued in the king's books at 7. 13. 4., and 
in the gift of the Earl of Pembroke : the tithes have 
been commuted for 145, and the glebe comprises 9 
acres. The church is plain, with a south porch, over 
which is some ancient sculpture. 

LANGFORD, STEEPLE, or GREAT (ALL SAINTS), 
a parish, in the union of WILTON, hundred of BRANCH 
and DOLE, Salisbury and Amesbury, and S. divisions of 
WILTS, 5f- miles (N. W.) from Wilton ; containing 626 
inhabitants. It is situated on the river Wiley, and 
upon the road to Bath, and comprises 3935 acres. A 
fair for sheep and horses is held on the 4th of October, 
upon the site of an old British camp named Yarnbo- 
rough Castle. The living is a rectory, valued in the 
king's books at 34. 0. 7^-> and in the gift of Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford : the tithes have been commuted 
for 720, and the glebe comprises 45^ acres. There 
are some trifling benefactions for distribution to the 
poor. 

LANGHALE (ST. STEPHEN), a parish, in the union 
of LODDON and CLAVERING, hundred of LODDON, E. 
division of NORFOLK, 6 miles (N. N. W.) from Bungay. 
The living is a rectory, united to that of Kirstead, and 
not valued in the king's books. 

LANGHAM (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
LEXDEN and WINSTREE, Colchester division of the 
hundred of LEXDEN, N. division of ESSEX, 5 miles 
(N. N. E.) from Colchester ; containing 816 inhabitants. 
This parish, which is bounded on the north by the navi- 
gable river Stour, and is supposed to have derived its 
name from the great length to which it extends, com- 
prises 2971a. Ir. 38p. of good land. The living is a 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 17- H. 0^., and 
in the patronage of the Crown, in right of the duchy of 
Lancaster : the tithes have been commuted for 629. 4., 
and the glebe comprises 63 acres. The church is a 
small ancient edifice with a tower, and consists of a 
nave, south aisle, and chancel. There is a place of 
worship for Baptists ; and a school has been esta- 
blished, which is conducted on the national system. 

LANGHAM (ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL), a parish, in 
the union and soke of OAK HAM, county of RUTLAND, 
2 miles (N. W.) from Oakham ; containing 591 inhabit- 
ants. It comprises by measurement 2809 acres, of 
which 601 are arable, 1368 pasture, 16 woodland, 81 
roads and waste, and the remainder meadow. Good 
stone is quarried for building and for the roads. The 
Oakham and Milton canal passes through the parish. 
The living, with that of Brooke, is annexed to the vicar- 
age of Oakham. The church is a very handsome struc- 
ture. There are places of worship for Independents and 
Wesleyans. A school is supported by a bequest of the 
Rev. H. Forster ; and a girls' school has been built, 
and is supported, by the Countess of Gainsborough. 
The poor have bequests amounting to 49. 16. per 
annum. 

LANGHAM (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
STOW, hundred of BLACKBOURN, W. division of SUF- 
FOLK, 3 miles (E. by S.) from Ixworth ; containing 
293 inhabitants. It comprises by admeasurement nearly 
1000 acres, and is chiefly the property of Joseph Wilson, 
Esq., whose seat, Langham Hall, is pleasantly situated. 
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
5. 16. 10., and in the patronage of the Crown : the 



LANG 



LANG 



tithes ahve been commuted for 252, and the glebe 
comprises 52 acres. The church, within the grounds of 
the hall, is in the decorated English style, consisting of 
a nave and chancel, separated by a richly-carved screen. 
A national school is supported by Mr. Wilson. Ten 
acres of land are let in small allotments ; and there is 
a farm of 1 1 acres, of which the rent is laid out in cloth- 
ing for the poor. 

LANGHAM, GREAT, or BISHOP'S (Sr. ANDREW), 
a parish, in the union of WALSINGHAM, hundred of 
HOLT, W. division of NORFOLK, 2 miles (N. E.) from 
Blakeney; containing 383 inhabitants. This parish, 
which includes also that of Little Langham, comprises 
I692a. I7p., whereof 150 acres are pasture, 100 wood- 
land, and the remainder arable ; the soil is of a mixed 
quality, and in some parts rather light, resting on a sub- 
stratum of marl ; the surface is gently undulated, and 
the lower grounds are watered by a tributary stream 
falling into the river Stiffkey. The living is a dis- 
charged vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
4. 10.2.; net income, 146; patron and appropriator, 
Bishop of Norwich. The tithes of Great and Little 
Langham were commuted for land in 1815; the glebe 
of this parish comprises 101 acres. The church is 
chiefly in the later English style, with a square embattled 
tower, and contains a Norman font. There are no re- 
mains of the church of Little Langham. 

LANGHAM- ROW, a hamlet, in the parish of MUM- 
BY, union of SPILSBY, Marsh division of the hundred of 
CALCEWORTH, parts of LINDSEY, county of LINCOLN ; 
containing 7 1 inhabitants. 

LANGLEY, achapelry, in the parish of HAMPSTEAD- 
NORRIS, union of WANTAGE, hundred of FAIRCROSS, 
county of BERKS, 3^ miles (S.) from East Ilsley. The 
chapel has long been desecrated. 

LANGLEY, a township, in the parish and union 
of LANCHESTER, W. division of CHESTER ward, N. 
division of the county of DURHAM, 5 miles (N. W.) 
from Durham ; containing 81 inhabitants. This place 
was, very probably, the residence of Henry, Lord 
Scroop, temp. Henry VIII., and the occasional seat of 
his descendants, who held the estate till the death of 
the Earl of Sunderland, in 1630, when it passed by 
marriage to the Marquess of Winchester, in whose 
family it remained till, in the middle of the last century, 
it was sold to the Lambtons. The township comprises 
about 2500 acres, and is situated on the road from 
Durham to Lanchester. On the bank of the river 
Browney are the ruins of an ancient castellated man- 
sion, formerly belonging to the Scroops, and part of 
which has been converted into a farm-house. The view 
from it over the vale of the Browney is wild and varied, 
and in front, to the east, the cathedral rises majestically 
over the Durham hills. 

LANGLEY (ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST), a parish, 
in the union of SAFFRON-WALDEN, hundred of CLAVER- 
ING, N. division of ESSEX, 4 miles (W. by N.) from 
Newport ; containing 448 inhabitants. It comprises 
I6l7a. 2r. 27p., of which 807 acres are arable, 500 pas- 
ture, 260 woodland, and 50 waste. The living is an 
endowed vicarage, annexed to Clavering ; impropria- 
tors, Governors of the Hospitals of Christchurch, 
Bethlehem, and St. Thomas, London. The great tithes 
have been commuted for 152, and the vicarial for 
153, and the glebe comprises 47 acres. The chapel, 
21 



a very ancient edifice, was enlarged by the addition of a 
chancel during its appropriation to the priory. There is 
a place of worship for Baptists j also a small national 
school. 

LANGLEY, a hamlet, in the parish and union of 
HITCHIN, hundred of HITCHIN and PIRTON, county of 
HERTFORD; containing, with Missenden, 170 inha- 
bitants. 

LANGLEY (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
HOLLINGBORNE, hundred of EYHORNE, lathe of AYLES- 
FORD, W. division of KENT, 4 miles (S. E.) from Maid- 
stone ; containing 294 inhabitants. It comprises 1263a. 
Ir. 24p., of which 923 acres are arable and pasture, and 
340 woodland, exclusively of about 60 acres of heath 
and waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 6. 19. 9^. ; net income, 390, with a house ; 
patron, P. Pusey, Esq. The church is an ancient struc- 
ture. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. 

LANGLEY (ST. MICHAEL), a parish, in the union of 
LODDON and CLAVERING, hundred of LODDON, E. divi- 
sion of NORFOLK, 1 mile (N.) from Loddon ; containing 
323 inhabitants. This place was distinguished at an 
early period as the site of an abbey, founded and 
liberally endowed, in 1 198, by Robert Fit z- Roger Helke, 
for Praemonstratensian canons ; the establishment flou- 
rished till the Dissolution, when its revenue was re- 
turned at 128. 19. 9.; there are considerable remains 
of the conventual buildings. The parish is on the navi- 
gable river Yare, and comprises 2723 acres, of which 
475 are common or waste ; the scenery is pleasingly 
diversified. Langley Park, the seat of Sir W. B. 
Proctor, Bart., is a stately mansion, with a portico of the 
Doric order ; in the grounds is an ancient cross. The 
village is pleasantly situated, and the inhabitants had 
formerly the privilege of a market, granted in the reign 
of John. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 
50 ; patron and impropriator, Sir W. B. Proctor, 
whose tithes have been commuted for 400. The church 
is a handsome structure, with a square embattled tower, 
and is remarkable for the beauty of its windows, which 
were all embellished with richly-stained glass by the late 
Sir T. B. Proctor ; in the chancel are several neat monu- 
ments to the Beauchamp and Proctor families. Schools 
are supported by Sir W. B. Proctor and his lady. 

LANGLEY, a chapelry, in the parish of SHIPTON- 
UNDER-WHICHWOOD, union of CHIPPING-NORTON, hun- 
dred of CHADLINGTON, county of OXFORD, 5 miles (N. E.) 
from Burford ; containing 68 inhabitants. A palace of 
King John was formerly situated here, and a portion of 
the walls is still remaining. There is a quarry of rough 
marble, which is susceptible of a very high polish. 

LANGLEY, a chapelry, in the parish of ACTON-BUR- 
NELL, union of ATCHAM, hundred of CONDOVER, S. divi- 
sion of SALOP, 6^ miles (W.) from MuchWenlock ; contain- 
ing 83 inhabitants, and comprising 1487 acres, tithe-free. 

LANGLEY, a township, in the parish of HALES- 
OWEN, union of BROMSGROVE, Hales-Owen division of 
the hundred of BRIMSTREE, county of SALOP ; contain- 
ing 802 inhabitants. 

LANGLEY, a tything, in the parish of WIVELIS- 
COMBE, union of WELLINGTON, W. division of the hun- 
dred of KINGSBURY and of the county of SOMERSET; 
containing 1499 inhabitants. 

LANGLEY, a tything, in the parish of ELING, union 
of NEW FOREST, hundred of REDBRIDGE, Romsey and 



LANG 



LANG 



S. divisions of the county of SOUTHAMPTON ; containing 
617 inhabitants. 

LANGLEY, a hamlet, in the parish of CLAVERDON, 
union of STRATFORD-UPON-AVON, Henley division of 
the hundred of BARLICHWAY, S. division of the county 
of WARWICK, 4| miles (S. E. by E.) from Henley-in- 
Arden ; containing 179 inhabitants. It contains 991 
acres of tolerably good land, and is watered by a small 
branch of the river Avon. 

LANGLEY, a tything, in the parish of KINGTON 
ST. MICHAEL, union of CHIPPENHAM, N. division of 
the hundred of DAMERHAM, Chippeuham and Calne, 
and N. divisions of WILTS, 2^ miles (N.) from Chip- 
peuham ; containing 601 inhabitants. A small school 
is supported by subscription. 

LANGLEY, ABBOT'S (Sr. LAWRENCE), a parish, 
in the union of WATFORD, hundred of CASHIO, or liberty 
of ST. ALBAN'S, county of HERTFORD, if mile (E. by 
S.) from King's-Langley ; containing 2115 inhabitants. 
Here are some corn and paper mills. The Grand Junc- 
tion canal passes through the parish, and the London 
and Birmingham railway within less than a mile of the 
church. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in 
the king's books at 15, and in the gift of Sir J. Filmer, 
Bart., who is impropriator : the great tithes have been 
commuted for 856. 17. 6., and the vicarial for 315; 
there are 7 acres of glebe. The church, partly Norman, 
and partly in the later English style, has a square tower 
surmounted by a short spire, and contains some hand- 
some monuments, among which is one to Chief Justice 
Raimond. A national school is endowed with 10 per 
annum, and a school of industry for girls, with 8 per 
annum ; and there is another school, supported by 
charity. Nicholas de Breakspear, who first instructed 
the Norwegians in Christianity, and the only Englishman 
ever raised to the popedom, was born in the parish, 
though the place from which he took his name is situ- 
ated in the adjoining parish of St. Michael ; he assumed 
the title of Adrian IV., and was poisoned in 1159, in the 
fifth year of his pontificate, by a citizen of Rome, whose 
son he had refused to consecrate bishop. 

LANGLEY-BURREL (Sr. PETER), a parish, in the 
union and hundred of CHIPPENHAM, Chippenham and 
Calne, and N. divisions of WILTS, If mile (N. by E.) 
from Chippenham ; containing 626 inhabitants. The 
parish is situated on the Oxford road from Chippenham 
to Bath, and through the centre of it, to the summit of 
Wickhill, extends a causeway more than three miles in 
length, supported on 60 arches, and carried over the 
river Avon and across the adjoining meadows. It was 
constructed at the expense of Maude Heath, to whom a 
monument, with the figure of a female sitting, has been 
erected, in commemoration of her munificence ; and the 
causeway has been since continued on the London road 
from Chippenham to the foot of Derry Hill, an additional 
length of three miles. The Great Western railway 
passes through the parish. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 12. 7. 3. ; net income, 
386 ; patron and incumbent, Rev. R. Ashe. A national 
school is supported by subscription. 

LANGLEY-DALE, with SHOTTON, a township, in 
the parish of STAINDROP, union of TEESDALE, S. W. 
division of DARLINGTON ward, S. division of the county 
of DURHAM, 4 miles (N. W.) from Staindrop ; containing 
1S5 inhabitants. The township comprises 4685o. 2r. 
22 



17/>., of which the soil is fertile, though in many parts 
wet, from its proximity to the moors. The smelting- 
works established here, at the Gaunless lead-mill, are 
owned by the Duke of Cleveland, and leased to Messrs. 
Stagg and Sherlock. The land is tithe-free, with the 
exception of a farm of 59 acres, the tithes of which have 
been commuted for a rent-charge of 7, payable to the 
Duke of Cleveland, as impropriator. There is a place of 
worship for Wesleyaus ; and a small school is partly 
supported by his Grace. Here is an ancient tower, for- 
merly an out-post belonging to Raby Castle. 

LANGLEY, KING'S (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the 
union of HEMEL-HEMPSTEAD, hundred of DACORUM, 
county of HERTFORD, 19 miles (W. S. W.) from Hert- 
ford ; containing, with the hamlet of Chipperfield, 1629 
inhabitants. A priory, or house for friars-preachers, was 
founded here by Roger, son of Robert Helle, or Helke, and 
afterwards enlarged and more liberally endowed by the" 
munificence of the kings Edward I., II., III., and IV. j 
it possessed, in the 26th of Henry VIII., a revenue of 
150. 14. 8. Queen Mary restored it for a prioress 
and nuns, but it was totally suppressed in the 1st of 
Elizabeth. The parish comprises 3461 acres, of which 
182 are common or waste. A large paper manufactory 
affords employment to about 50 persons. The Grand 
Junction canal passes through the parish, in excavating 
for which a human skeleton and jawbones, of gigantic 
size, were found in 1S20, and an ancient sword and a 
spear in 1822. One of the second-class stations on the 
London and Birmingham railway has been established 
here. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's 
books at 8 ; patron and appropriator, Bishop of Ely. 
The appropriate tithes have been commuted for 600, 
and the vicarial for 220 : the appropriate glebe com- 
prises 95 acres, and the vicarial 5 acres. The church 
is of flint and stone, with a square embattled tower sur- 
mounted by a short spire, and has been enlarged, and 
galleries built ; it contains the tomb of Edmund de 
Langley, fifth son of Edward III., and Duke of York, 
who was born at a royal palace here, and was buried in 
1402, in the church of the priory, from which, at the 
Dissolution, his tomb was removed to the parish church. 
About five years since, a chapel was erected and en- 
dowed by subscription at Chipperfield common, where 
the poor are occasionally christened and buried. 

LANGLEY, KIRK (Sr. MICHAEL), a parish, in the 
union of BELPER, hundred of MORLESTON and LIT- 
CHTJRCH, S. division of the county of DERBY, 4f miles 
(W. N. W.) from Derby ; containing, with the township 
of Meynell- Langley, 647 inhabitants. The living is a 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 12. 2. 1.; net 
income, 318; patron, Godfrey Meynell, Esq. The 
church was nearly destroyed by a violent tempest, in 
1545. A school-house, erected in 1750, was endowed 
in 1752, by the Rev. John Bailey, rector, with land 
now let for 12 a year, and again, in 1*68, with a rent- 
charge of 5. 

LANGLEY-MARISH (S T . MARY), a parish, in the 
union of ETON, hundred of STOKE, county of BUCKING- 
HAM ; comprising a portion of the market-town of Coin- 
brook, and containing 1844 inhabitants. The Great 
Western railway passes through the parish, a short dis- 
tance north of the church. The living is annexed to the 
vicarage of Wyrardisbury ; impropriator, W. Nash, 
Esq. The old chapel of St. Mary, which forms the 



LANG 



LANG 



chancel of the church, was erected in the time of Ed- 
ward I., and contains three stone stalls and a piscina, 
and there is also a curious chapel, built for a pew by 
Sir John Kederminster, in 1613, and attached to the 
estate of Langley Park. Here is a place of worship for 
Independents ; and a national school for girls is sup- 
ported by subscription. Sir John Kederminster founded, 
in 1649> almshouses for four people, and endowed them 
with property producing 52. 2. per annum. Henry 
Seymour erected others for six inmates, in support of 
which Captain Henry Seymour, in 1733, bequeathed 
30 per annum. 

LANGLEY, MEYNELL, a township, in the parish 
of KIRK-LANGLEY, union of HELPER, hundred of MOR- 
SES-TON and LITCHURCH, S. division of the county of 
DERBY 5 containing 122 inhabitants. The manor took 
its name from an ancient family who possessed it so 
early as the reign of Edward III., and from whom it 
passed, by successive female heirs, to the families' of 
Bassett and Cavendish. In the year 1669, William 
Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, sold it to Isaac Meynell, 
citizen of London, whose only daughter and heiress 
conveyed it to the Cecils, by whom the lands were sold 
to another branch of the family of Meynell. There are 
now several owners. 

LANGLEY-PRIORY, an extra-parochial liberty, in 
the hundred of WEST GOSCOTE, N. division of the county 
of LEICESTER ; containing 9 inhabitants. A priory of 
Benedictine nuns, in honour of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, was founded in the beginning of the reign of 
Henry II., by William Pantulf and Burgia his wife ; 
the revenue, at the Dissolution, was estimated at 
34. 6. 2. 

LANGLEY-WOOD, an extra-parochial liberty, in 
the union of ALDERBURY, hundred of FRUSTFIELD, 
Salisbury and Amesbury and S. divisions of WILTS ; 
containing 15 inhabitants. 

LANGMERE, a hamlet, in the parish of DICKLE- 
BTJRGH, union of DEPWADE, hundred of Diss, Eastern 
division of the county of NORFOLK ; containing 109 in- 
habitants. 

LANGO, a district chapelry, in the parish, union, 
and Lower division of the hundred, of BLACKBURN, N. 
division of the county of LANCASTER, Similes (S. W. by 
S.) from Clitheroe j containing 988 inhabitants. This 
place is supposed to have been the scene of a battle that 
occurred between Wada, a Saxon duke, and one of the 
murderers of Ethelred, and Ardulph, King of Northum- 
berland, in the year 798, in which the former was de- 
feated, and his army put to flight. The chapelry is 
bounded on the east by the river Calder, and in other 
parts by the Ribble, and comprises about 1800 acres ; 
the soil is cold and wet, and in some places are pits of 
marl, sunk to a great depth ; also quarries of stone, 
principally used in draining. The inhabitants are partly 
employed in hand-loom weaving. The living is a per- 
petual curacy j net income, 125; patron, Vicar of 
Blackburn. The church, a very ancient structure, con- 
tains some interesting details ; in the south wall of the 
chancel is a piscina of elegant design ; and inserted in 
the north wall is a font of one single stone, beautifully 
enriched with tracery. There is a Roman Catholic 
chapel. A school for the instruction of the poor is 
supported by an endowment of land ; and two school- 
rooms have been built. 
23 




Corporation Seat. 



LANGPORT-EAST- 
OVER (ALL SAINTS), an in- 
corporated market-town, and 
a parish, having separate ju- 
risdiction, and the head of a 
union, locally in the hundred 
of PITNEY, W. division of 
SOMERSET, 4^ miles (W. S. 
W.) from Somerton, and 
130 (W. S. W.) from London, 
on the great western road ; 
containing 1172 inhabitants. 
This place, in the Domesday 
survey called Lanporth, is of great antiquity, and is sup- 
posed to have derived its name from the Saxon words 
long, extended, and port, a town, from the length of its 
principal street. It was a royal burgh in the time of 
William the Conqueror, and contained 34 resident bur- 
gesses ; and in the civil war in the reign of Charles I., 
being considered a commanding station, it was well gar- 
risoned, and alternately in the possession of the royal 
and the parliamentary forces. In July, 1644, the former 
were compelled to abandon the place, from the result of 
an engagement here, in which 300 men were killed, and 
1400 made prisoners. The TOWN is situated on the river 
Parret, which is navigable for barges, near its junction 
with the Yeo and the lie ; at the western entrance a 
very ancient bridge of ten arches crosses the river, and 
there are nine other bridges, which are repaired from 
the funds of the corporation. At the eastern approach, 
on the old lines of fortification, is an arch thrown over 
the road, which supports a building called the " Hang- 
ing Chapel," formerly devoted to religious uses, but 
during Monmouth's rebellion, the place of execution. 
The principal part of the town is on an eminence, and 
commands some pleasing and extensive views ; but that 
portion near the river, lying low, is subject to frequent 
inundations. Since 1800, the general appearance of the 
whole has been much improved by the erection of many 
new houses, and the inhabitants are supplied with excel- 
lent water from an adjacent well. A considerable traffic 
in coal, culm, iron, timber, salt, corn, &c., is carried on 
with London, Bristol, and various other places j and 
several boats, of from eight to fourteen tons' burthen, are 
constantly employed between this town and Bridg- 
water. The market is on Saturday ; and fairs are held 
on the Monday before Lent, the second Wednesday in 
August, the last Monday but one in September, and the 
last Monday in November, for cattle. 

The government is vested, by a renewed charter of 
James I., in the year 1617, in a corporation consisting 
of twelve chief burgesses, including a portreeve, justice, 
and two bailiffs, assisted by a recorder, town-clerk, ser- 
jeant-at-mace, and other officers. The portreeve, justice, 
and recorder, are justices of the peace ; the portreeve is 
coroner for the borough and clerk of the market, and 
his predecessor is justice. The corporation are empow- 
ered to hold a court of record before the portreeve, re- 
corder, and bailiffs, every Tuesday, for pleas not exceed- 
ing the value of 40s. The town-hall, which is a neat 
edifice, was erected about 1733. The borough sent 
members to parliament in the reign of Edward I., but 
the privilege was not subsequently exercised. The 
parish comprises 171a. \p., chiefly pasture. The living 
is a discharged vicarage, united to that of Huish-Epis- 



LANG 



LANG 



copi : the impropriate tithes have been commuted for 
15, and the vicarial for 70. The church is an ancient 
structure, in the early English style ; in the eastern 
window, amongst other representations in stained glass, 
are those of the Twelve Apostles ; the edifice recently 
xinderwent new internal arrangement and decoration. 
There is a place of worship for Independents. The free 
grammar school, founded about the year 1675, by Thos. 
Gillett, has an income of 70 per annum ; a national 
school was erected in 1827. An hospital for lepers, 
dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, stood here previously 
to 1310. The poor law union of Langport comprises 
29 parishes or places, and contains a population of 
18,109. 

LANGPORT- WESTOVER, a hamlet, in the parish 
of CURRY-RIVELL, union of LANGPORT, hundred of 
ABDICK and BULSTONE, W. division of SOMERSET; 
containing 171 inhabitants. 

LANGPORT- WESTOVER, a tything, in the parish 
of HUISH-EPISCOPI, union of LANGPORT, E. division 
of the hundred of KINGSBURY, W. division of SOMER- 
SET ; containing 66 inhabitants. 

LANGRICK-FERRY, an extra-parochial place, in 
the union and soke of HORNCASTLE, parts of LINDSEY, 
county of LINCOLN ; containing 22 inhabitants. There 
is a place of worship for Methodists. 

LANGRICK-VILLE, a chapelry, in the union of 
BOSTON, soke of HORNCASTLE, parts of LINDSEY, county 
of LINCOLN; containing 218 inhabitants. Langrick- 
Ville was, with six other districts, created a township, 
by act of parliament, in 1812, on the occasion of a very 
extensive drainage of about 14,000 acres of Wildmore, 
and the eastern and western fens. A chapel was conse- 
crated in 1818, of which the living is a perpetual curacy ; 
net income, 91 ; patrons, certain Trustees. 

LANGRIDGE (ST. MARY MAGDALENE), a parish, in 
'the union of BATH, hundred of BATH-FORUM, E. divi- 
sion of SOMERSET, 4 miles (N. by W.) from Bath ; con- 
taining 109 inhabitants. This place is distinguished as 
the scene of a sanguinary though indecisive battle 
which occurred on Lansdown Hill, at the extremity of 
the parish, between the royalist and parliamentarian 
armies, in 1643, and which is commemorated by a mo- 
nument, erected on the spot, to Sir Bevill Grenville, 
who fell in that engagement. The parish comprises 647 
acres, of which 32 are common or waste ; the soil is 
rocky, and the surface diversified with hill and dale ; the 
scenery is in parts enriched with wood, and the lower 
grounds are watered by a rivulet, which bounds the 
parish. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in 
the king's books at 5. 19. 4., and in the gift of William 
Blathwayt, Esq. : the tithes have been commuted for 
112, and the glebe comprises 25 acres. The church 
is an ancient structure, with a square tower, and con- 
sists of a nave and chancel, between which is a highly- 
enriched Norman arch ; there is also a Norman arch of 
plainer character in the south porch. In rebuilding the 
rectory-house, a few years since, several stone coffins 
and skulls, and a silver-mounted battle-axe, were dis- 
covered. 

LANGRIGG, with MEALRIGG, a township, in the 
parish of BROMFIELD, union of WIGTON, ALLERDALE 
ward below Derwent, W. division of CUMBERLAND, 7 
miles (W. S. W.) from Wigton ; containing 262 inha- 
bitants. 

24 



LANGRISH, a tything, in the parish and hundred 
of EAST MEON, union of PETERSFIELD, Petersfield and 
N. divisions of the county of SOUTHAMPTON ; contain- 
ing 22 ( 2 inhabitants. 

LANGSETT, a township, in the parish of PENI- 
STONE, union of WORTLEY, wapentake of STAINCROSS, 
W. riding of YORK, 5 miles (S. W. by W.) from Peni- 
stone ; containing 303 inhabitants. It is bounded on 
the west by the county of Chester, and comprises by 
computation nearly 4400 acres, chiefly a mountainous 
tract of moorland, for the inclosure of which an act 
was obtained in 1 820 ; but the greater portion is still 
uncultivated, affording only rough pasture. The princi- 
pal sources of the river Don are within the limits of the 
township. 

LANGSTONE, with TRE-VAN, a township, in the 
parish of LLANGARRAN, union of Ross, Lower division 
of the hundred of WORMELOW, county of HEREFORD ; 
containing 104 inhabitants. 

LANGSTONE, a parish, in the union of NEWPORT, 
division of CHRISTCHURCH, hundred of CALDICOT, 
county of MONMOUTH, 4^ miles (E. by N.) from New- 
port ; containing, with the chapelry of Llanbeder, 220 
inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 
1200 acres, of which 350 are arable, 800 pasture, and 
50 woodland ; the soil in the southern and western 
portions is chiefly clay, resting upon limestone, and in 
the northern and eastern of a light sandy quality. 
Llanbeder comprises about 200 acres. The scenery is 
beautifully diversified, and the northern part of the 
parish, through which runs the road from Chepstow to 
Newport, commands a fine view of the Severn, and the 
counties of Devon and Somerset. Limestone is quar- 
ried for burning, and also for tomb-stones and paving. 
The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 4. 1. 0. ; net income, 158; patron, Mon- 
tague Gore, Esq. : the glebe comprises 50 acres. The 
church is an ancient structure, partly in the early and 
later English styles. 

LANGTHORNE, a township, in the parish and 
union of BEDALE, wapentake of HALLIKELD, N. riding 
of YORK, 3f miles (N. W. by N.) from Bedale ; con- 
taining 115 inhabitants. The Duke of Leeds, who is 
proprietor of most of the district, has a large brick and 
tile manufactory here. 

LANGTHORP, a township, in the parish of KIRBY- 
ON-THE-MOOR, wapentake of HALLIKELD, N. riding of 
YORK, a mile (N. W.) from Boroughbridge ; contain- 
ing 304 inhabitants. The township is separated from 
Boroughbridge by the river Ure, and contains an exten- 
sive brewery, a large mill for flour, a mill for crushing 
bones, and an oil-mill. The Baptists have a place of 
worship. 

LANGTHWAITE, with TILTS, a township, in the 
parish and union of DONCASTER, N. division of the 
wapentake of STRAFFORTH and TICKHILL, W. riding 
of YORK ; containing 25 inhabitants. This place, called 
in Domesday book Langetovei, occupies a detached situa- 
tion, being separated from the parish of Doncaster by 
that of Arksey ; it adjoins Adwick-le-Street, and com- 
prises about 400 acres, exclusively of 400 acres in an 
adjoining portion of ground called Tylse, or Tilts, also 
in the parish of Doncaster. 

LANGTOFT (Si. MICHAEL), a parish, in the union 
of BOURNE, wapentake of NESS, parts of KESTEVEN, 



LANG 



LANG 



county of LINCOLN, 2 miles (N. N. W.) from Market- 
Deeping ; containing 778 inhabitants. The parish com- 
prises by computation 1857 acres ; the soil in the higher 
grounds is a brown, and in the lower a rich black, loam ; 
the surface is generally flat, and the lands have been 
much improved by draining. The living is a discharged 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 5. 5. 7^- ; net 
income, 288 ; patron, Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Bart. ; 
impropriators, Heirs of the late R. Parker, Esq. The 
tithes were commuted for land in 1801 ; the glebe com- 
prises 133 acres. The church is a handsome struc- 
ture, in the later English style, with a square embattled 
tower, surmounted by a spire at the west end of the 
north aisle ; the nave is lighted by a fine range of 
clerestory windows, and there are some portions of 
earlier date. A school is partly supported by a trifling 
endowment. Rachel Hyde, in 1707, bequeathed funds 
now accumulated to 450, for the purchase of a free- 
hold estate for the poor. 

LANGTOFT (ST. PETER), a parish, in the union of 
DRIFFIELD, wapentake of DICKERING, E. riding of 
YORK ; containing, with the chapelry of Cottam, 688 in- 
habitants, of whom 647 are in Langtoft township, 6 miles 
(N. by W.) from Great Dri (field. The parish is on the 
road from Driffield to Scarborough, and comprises, ex- 
clusively of Cottam, 3140 acres, of which the soil is 
generally very good ; the scenery is open and bold, and 
on the wolds very wild and bleak. The village is pic- 
turesquely situated in a valley. The living is a dis- 
charged vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of Cottam 
annexed, valued in the king's books at 8 ; net in- 
come, 354 ; patron, Archbishop of York ; impropria- 
tor, Rev. E. Gibbons. The tithes were commuted for 
land in 1801 ; there are 300 acres of glebe. The church 
is an old structure, with a square tower, and contains 
an ancient font. There is a chapel of ease at Cottam, 
in which divine service is performed monthly. The 
Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists have places of 
worship. Peter of Langtoft, a celebrated monk and 
historian, was born here. 

LANGTON, a township, in the parish of GAINFORD, 
union of TEESDALE, S. W. division of DARLINGTON 
ward, S. division of the county of DURHAM, 8 miles 
(N. W. by W.) from Darlington ; containing 99 inha- 
bitants. This place, under the appellation of Langadun, 
was one of the vills surrendered by Bishop Aldhune to 
the earls of Northumberland j it long formed part of 
the estate of the Nevills, was included in their forfeiture, 
and is now the property of the Duke of Cleveland. The 
township comprises 106la. 2r. : a magnesian limestone 
quarry is in full operation. Langtou- Grange was for 
some years the residence of the Countess Dowager of 
Darlington. The vicarial tithes have been commuted 
for 61. 16., and the impropriate for 118. 2. 9., 
payable to Trinity College, Cambridge. 

LANGTON (Sr. MARGARET), a parish, in the union 
of HORNCASTLE, wapentake of SOUTH GARTREE, parts 
of LINDSEY, county of LINCOLN, l mile (W. by S.) 
from Horncastle ; containing 177 inhabitants. The pa- 
rish, of which the greater part is in the duchy of Lan- 
caster, comprises 908 acres of land, with a subsoil of 
strong white clay, burnt as a substitute for lime. 
The river Witham, which communicates with the 
Horncastle canal, passes by one extremity of the pa- 
rish. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in 
VOL. III. 25 



the king's books at 7. 19. 4|., and in the gift of the 
Bishop of Lincoln : the tithes were commuted for 
land in 1767 ; the glebe comprises 172 acres, valued 
at 276, exclusive of 5 acres attached to the rec- 
tory-house, which has been nearly rebuilt by the pre- 
sent incumbent. The church is a plain modern edi- 
fice. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. Two 
almshouses were founded, and endowed with 27 acres of 
land, by the Rev. Willoughby West, in 1691. 

LANGTON (ST. PETER), a parish, in the union of 
SPILSBY, hundred of HILL, parts of LINDSEY, county 
of LINCOLN, 3| miles (N. by W.) from Spilsby ; con- 
taining 194 inhabitants. This parish, which has been 
the residence of the Langton family for more than seven 
centuries, comprises by computation 1261 acres : a soft 
kind of limestone, called calc, is found. The living is a 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 10. 12. 3^., 
and in the gift of George Langton, Esq. : the tithes 
have been commuted for 340, and the glebe comprises 
30 acres. The church is a handsome modern structure, 
of the Ionic order of Grecian architecture. There are 
three tumuli, and some slight vestiges of a Roman 
road. 

LANGTON (ST. GILES), a parish, in the union of 
HORNCASTLE, E. division of the wapentake of WRAGGOE, 
parts of LINDSEY, county of LINCOLN, 1^ mile (E. S. E.) 
from Wragby ; containing 262 inhabitants. The living 
is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
4. 13. 4. ; patrons, alternately, and joint impropria- 
tors, Earl Manvers and C. Tumor, Esq. The tithes 
have been commuted for 331. 12. 6., and the glebe 
comprises 32 acres. 

LANGTON, with BONGATE, a township, in the 
parish of APPLEBY-ST. MICHAEL, EAST ward and union, 
county of WESTMORLAND, l mile (E.) from Appleby, 
containing 618 inhabitants. Langton, or Long Town, 
once a populous place, was almost destroyed by the 
Scots, in the reign of Edward II. At Kirkbergh was 
anciently a church. 

LANGTON (ST. ANDREW), a parish, in the union of 
MALTON, wapentake of BUCKROSE, E. riding of YORK ; 
containing 328 inhabitants, of whom 256 arc in the 
township, 3^ miles (S. S. E.) from Malton. The parish 
includes the township of Kennythorpe, and comprises 
by computation 3080 acres, of which about 600 are 
sheep-walk on the wolds ; the scenery is picturesque, 
and the soil of various kinds, being clayey in the valleys, 
and on the hilly parts of a lighter nature. The village 
is neat and pleasant, situated on a bold acclivity rising 
from a small rivulet, and contains Langton Hall, a hand- 
some mansion, the seat of Lieut. -Col. Norcliffe, who is 
lord of the manor, and chief proprietor of the soil. The 
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 17- 4. 7; 
and in the patronage of the Crown ; net income, 460. 
The church is a neat structure, built on the site of a 
more ancient edifice, in 1820, at a cost of 600, and 
contains 300 sittings, all free. There is a place of wor- 
ship for Wesleyans ; and a national school was built in 
1841. 

LANGTON, CHURCH (ST. PETER), a parish, in the 
union of MARKET-HARBOROUGH, hundred of GARTREE, 
S. division of the county of LEICESTER, 4 miles (N. by 
W.) from Harborough ; containing 86*9 inhabitants. 
The parish comprises by computation 4000 acres, and 
includes the township of East Langton, and the chapel- 

E 



LANG 



LANG 



Ties of Thorp-Langton, Tur-Langton, and West Lang- 
ton. The living is a rector)', valued in the king's books 
at 48. 13. 4. ; net income, 989 ; patron, the Rev. 
William Hanbury. The church is an ancient and 
stately structure, in the decorated English style, of 
remarkably light and elegant design, but much out of 
repair. There are chapels at Thorp and Tur-Langton, 
and a place of worship for Independents. A school on 
the Hanbury foundation, endowed with 500 per an- 
num, has lately been opened ; and there is also a school 
for the townships of East and West Langton, supported 
by a rent-charge on land bequeathed by three ladies. 
The Rev. William Hanbury, for many years rector of 
the parish, and equally remarkable for his benevolence, 
and his taste for the cultivation of trees, of which he 
had extensive plantations, in 176*7 bequeathed the 
profits arising from their sale at different periods, to 
trustees, for the erection of a splendid church in the 
parish, and for the endowment of colleges, schools, 
hospitals, and literary and charitable institutions of 
every description ; but it was expressly ordered that 
the funds should be suffered to accumulate till they 
amounted to 10,000 or 12,000 per annum. In 1837, 
the funds had realized 6421. 10. 10., and the annual 
income of the charity was 574. Previously to the 
foundation of the school above noticed, the only branch 
of the bequest that had come into operation, was, a gift 
of beef to the parish, which has been continued since the 
year 1773, arid is distributed annually among all the poor 
of the several townships. The accumulation is still in 
progress. 

LANGTON, EAST, a township, in the parish of 
CHURCH-LANGTON, union of MARKET-HARBOROUGH, 
hundred of GARTREE, S. division of the county of 
LEICESTER, 3 miles (N.) from Harborough ; contain- 
ing 288 inhabitants. 38 per annum, the rent of 20 
acres of land, allotted under an act of inclosure, in 
1792, in lieu of common right, are applied to the repair 
of the highways. Thomas Staveley, an antiquary and 
church historian, was born here in 1626. 

LANGTON, GREAT, a parish, in the union of 
NORTH-ALLERTON, wapentake of GILLING-EAST, N. 
riding of YORK ; including the township of Little 
Langton, and containing 252 inhabitants, of whom 160 
are in Great Langton, 5 miles (W. N. W.) from North- 
Allerton. It comprises by computation 1550 acres, 
whereof 750 are in Great Langton township. The few 
houses here that give name to the parish, are so near the 
brink of the river Swale, that they are in frequent danger 
of being swept away. The living is a discharged rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 6. 10. 10. j net income, 
294 ; patron, the Rev. T. M. Hunt. The church is a 
small edifice, without aisles or tower, and stands in a 
retired situation about half a mile from the village. 
The old rectory-house, and two acres of glebe, are said 
to have been washed away by the river. A boys' school 
is supported by Mrs. Lawrence and the Rev. Dr. Drake, 
and a girls' school by Mrs. Drake. 

LANGTON, HERRING, a parish, in the union of 
WEYMOUTH, hundred of UGGSCOMBE, Dorchester divi- 
sion of DORSET, 5 miles (N. W. by W.) from Weymouth ; 
containing 260 inhabitants. This place, which suffered 
much from an inundation of the sea in Nov. 1824, is 
bounded on the south-west by the Backwater, which 
separates it from the remarkable tongue of land called 
26 



the Chesil Bank : this singular sheet of water is covered 
with a profusion of aquatic birds of every kind, and 
there are not less than 100 swans on it, the property of 
the Earl of llchester. The parish comprises 902 acres, 
of which 320 are common or waste ; the soil is gene- 
rally clay, alternated with sand, but beds of shells to a 
considerable depth abound in various places, and there 
no soil of any kind is found. The surface is hilly, and 
the surrounding scenery is characterised by features 
rather of boldness than of beauty ; there arc some quar- 
ries of limestone, and granite of excellent quality is 
found. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the 
king's books at 7. 2. 11., and in the alternate patronage 
of the Crown, in right of the duchy of Cornwall, and 
Isaac Sparks, Esq. j net income, 126. The church 
has been enlarged. 

LANGTON, LITTLE, a township, in the parish of 
GREAT LANGTON, union of NORTH-ALLERTON, wapen- 
take of GILLING-EAST, N. riding of YORK, 4^ miles 
(W. by N.) from North -Allerton ; containing 92 inhabit- 
ants. It comprises about 800 acres, and lies to the 
south-east of Great Langton. Langton Lodge is a neat 
mansion on the bank of the Swale. 

LANGTON -LONG-BLANDFORD (ALL SAINTS), a 
parish, in the union of BLANDFORD, hundred of PIM- 
PERNE, Blandford division of DORSET, f of a mile 
(E. S. E.) from Blandford-Forum ; containing 202 in- 
habitants. The parish comprises by computation 1100 
acres ; the soil is chiefly chalk, alternated with clay, the 
former occurring in the arable, and the latter in the 
pasture, lands j the surface is diversified with hills, and 
the lower grounds are watered by the Stour. The living 
is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 13. 10. ; net 
income, 379 ; patron, J. T. Farquharson, Esq. The 
church, an ancient edifice, had formerly a chantry in 
honour of St. Mary and St. Thomas, and an hospital for 
lepers existed here in the reign of Edward I. A small 
school is supported by subscription. 

LANGTON-MATRAVERS (S T . GEORGE), a parish, 
in the union of WAREHAM and PURBECK, hundred of 
ROWBARROW, Wareham division of DORSET, 9 miles 
(S. E.) from Wareham ; containing 762 inhabitants. 
This parish, which is bounded on the south by the 
British Channel, and situated on the road from Ware- 
ham to Swanage, comprises by measurement 2250 acres 
of arable and pasture in nearly equal portions, with a 
little wood, and 83 acres of common or waste ; the 
scenery is bold and romantic, and the upper lands com- 
mand some fine views of the Channel and the Isle of 
Wight ; the soil is a heavy clay. The living is a rec- 
tory, valued in the king's books at 14.8. 9.5 patron 
and incumbent, Rev. John Dam pier : the tithes have 
been commuted for 380, and the glebe comprises 18 
acres. The church was, in 1838, nearly rebuilt on a 
larger scale, at an expense of 900, by subscription ; it 
had formerly a chantry for the use of the small priory 
of St. Leonard, at Wilcheswode, which was founded be- 
fore the time of Edward III. There is a remarkable 
oblong tumulus within the parish. 

LANGTON, THORP, a chapelry, in the parish of 
CHURCH-LANGTON, union of MARKET-HARBOROTJGH, 
hundred of GARTREE, S. division of the county of 
LEICESTER, 3f miles (N. by E.) from Harborough con- 
taining 160 inhabitants. 28, the rent of an allotment 
of 13 acres, under an inclosure act, in 1792, are applied 



LANG 



L ANL 



to the repairs of the highways. The chapel is dedicated 
to St. Nicholas. 

LANGTON, TUR, a chapel ry, in the parish of 
CHURCH-LANGTON, union of MARKET-HARBOROUGH, 
hundred of GARTREE, S. division of the county of 
LEICESTER, 5 miles (N. by W.) from Harborough ; 
containing 350 inhabitants. The chapel is dedicated to 
St. Andrew. 

LANGTON, WEST, a chapelry, in the parish of 
CHURCH-LANGTON, union of MARKET-HARBOROUGH, 
hundred of GARTREE, S. division of the county of 
LEICESTER, 3|- miles (N. by W.) from Harborough ; 
containing 71 inhabitants. Here is a school with a 
small endowment. Walter de Langton, lord high trea- 
surer of England, a favourite of Edward I., was born 
here. 

LANGTON - WOODHOUSE, an extra - parochial 
place, adjacent to the parish of APLEY, in the W. divi- 
sion of the wapentake of WRAGGOE, parts of LINDSEY, 
union and county of LINCOLN ; containing 7 inhabit- 
ants. 

LANGTREE, a parish, in the union of TORRING- 
TON, hundred of SHEBBEAR, Great Torrington and N. 
divisions of DEVON, 3^ miles (S. W.) from Great Tor- 
rington ; containing 94 1 inhabitants. The parish is 
situated on the road from Torrington to Holsworthy 
and Launceston, and comprises 4594 acres, of which 
322 are common or waste ; the soil is various, in some 
parts fertile, and in others coarse and of inferior quality ; 
the arable lands produce fair crops of wheat, barley, and 
oats, and the pastures are generally good : the prevail- 
ing timber is oak and pine. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 29. 1. 3., and in the 
gift of Lord Rolle : the tithes have been commuted for 
510, and the glebe comprises 64 acres. The church is 
an ancient structure, containing some rich specimens of 
architectural beauty. There was formerly a chapel at 
Cross Hill, in the parish. 

LANGTREE, with STANDISH, a township, in the 
parish of STANDISH, union of WIGAN, hundred of LEY- 
LAND, N. division of LANCASHIRE, 4 miles (N. W. by 
N.) from Wigan ; containing 2565 inhabitants. 

LANGWATHBY. See LONGWATHBY. 

LANGWITH (ST. HELEN), a parish, in the union 
of MANSFIELD, hundred of SCARSDALE, N. division of 
the county of DERBY, 6 miles (N. by W.) from Mans- 
field ; containing 194 inhabitants. It comprises by 
measurement 1360 acres, of which 230 are woodland, 
and the remainder chiefly arable ; the surface is diver- 
sified with hill and dale, and the scenery enriched with 
wood, principally oak, ash, and elm. The living is a 
discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at 
4. 0. 2^., and in the gift of the Duke of Devonshire, 
who supports a school : the tithes have been commuted 
for 195, and the glebe comprises 44 acres. The church 
is a small ancient structure, and appears to have been 
originally of larger dimensions. A school is supported 
by endowment. 

LANGWITH, a township, in the parish of CUCK- 
NEY, union of WORKSOP, Hatfield division of the 
wapentake of BASSETLAW, N. division of the county of 
NOTTINGHAM, 7f miles (S. S. W.) from Mansfield ; con- 
taining 443 inhabitants. The township consists of 1295 
acres. The village is pleasantly situated near the source 
of the river Poulter, and has a beautifully romantic ap- 
27 



pearancc ; near it is Langwith Hall, once the occasional 
residence of Earl Bathurst. 

LANGWITH, a township, in the parish of WHEL- 
DRAKE, union of YORK, wapentake of OUSE and DER- 
WENT, E. riding of YORK, 5 miles (S. E. by E.) from 
York; containing 40 inhabitants. It comprises 718 
acres, of which 168 are common or waste ; the lands 
are set out in farms. The tithes have been commuted for 
51. 13. 8. 

LANG WORTH, a township, in the parish of BAR- 
LINGS, wapentake of LAWRESS, parts of LINDSEY, union 
and county of LINCOLN ; containing 251 inhabitants. 

LANHYDROCK (ST. HYDROCK), a parish, in the 
union of BODMIN, hundred of PYDER, E. division of 
CORNWALL, 2f miles (S. by E.) from Bodmin ; contain- 
ing 263 inhabitants. Lanhydrock House, which is ap- 
proached from the river Fowey by a fine avenue of trees 
about a mile in length, and under an archway, was gar- 
risoned for the parliament in the civil war, and sur- 
rendered to the loyalists under Sir Richard Granville, 
in Aug. 1644 ; it is an embattled structure of granite, 
forming three sides of a quadrangle, in the style that 
prevailed in the early part of the seventeenth century. 
The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the 
Hon. Anne Maria Agar. The church is a small elegant 
fabric, with an embattled tower, and a few years since 
underwent a thorough repair at the expense of the Hon. 
A. M. Agar, the original style of the building being pre- 
served. There is an ancient cross in the churchyard. 

LANIVET, a parish, in the union of BODMIN, hun- 
dred of PYDER, E. division of CORNWALL, 2| miles 
(S. W.) from Bodmin ; containing 1 149 inhabitants. It 
comprises 5008 acres, of which 600 are common or 
waste. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 24 ; net income, 667 ; patron and incum- 
bent, Rev. William Phillipps. In the churchyard is an 
ancient Maltese cross. Here is a place of worship for 
Wesleyans. About a quarter of a mile from the church 
are considerable remains of a Benedictine monastery, 
called St. Bene't's, supposed to have been a nunnery 
subordinate to some foreign house. There are certain 
lands, part of its former possessions, producing an in- 
come of about 150 per annum, which is applied in aid 
of the poor rates, with the exception of about 17 to a 
school. 

LANLIVERY (ST. EREVITA), a parish, in the union 
of BODMIN, E. division of POWDER hundred and of 
CORNWALL, l mile (W. by S.) from Lostwithielj con- 
taining 1809 inhabitants. It is situated on the road 
from Plymouth to Falmouth, and intersected by the 
river Fowey, and comprises 6814 acres, of which 563 
are common or waste land. Granite of very good qua- 
lity is quarried extensively for the use of the dockyards 
of Plymouth and Portsmouth. The living is a vicarage, 
valued in the king's books at 18. 6. 8.; patron, Ni- 
cholas Kendall, Esq. ; impropriator, Earl of Mount- 
Edgcumbe. The rectorial tithes have been commuted 
for 372. 10., and the vicarial for 304. 10., and the 
glebe comprises 1 5 acres. The church is a handsome 
structure of granite, in the later English style, with a 
lofty square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles, and 
consists of two spacious aisles, separated by a central 
range of clustered columns. There are two places of 
worship for Wesleyans ; and a school is supported by 
subscription. 

E 2 



L A N T 



L A P L 



LANOVER. See LLANOVER ; and the same with 
regard to other places, having the prefix LLAN. 

LANREATH (Sr. MARNARCH), a parish, in the union 
of LISKEARD, hundred of WEST, E. division of CORN- 
WALL, 6 miles (W. N. W.) from West Looe; containing 
651 inhabitants. The parish comprises 4560 acres, of 
which 400 are common or waste ; the soil is various ; 
there are some fertile portions of arable and pasture 
land, and others of very inferior quality. The river 
called Herod's Foot, and the lakes of Ball and Trebant 
Water, are within the parish. Fairs for cattle are held 
on Whit-Tuesday, Nov. 18th, and the third Tuesday 
after Shrovetide. The living is a rectory, valued in the 
king's books at 32, and in the patronage of John Bul- 
ler, Esq. : the tithes have been commuted for 522, and 
the glebe comprises 70 acres. The church is a hand- 
some structure, in the later English style, with some 
Norman details, and contains a curious Norman font, 
and an elegantly-carved screen in good preservation, in 
one of the panels of which is a portrait in oil of Richard 
II. There are places of worship for Calvinists and 
Wesleyans. A national school is supported by sub- 
scription, and a weekly and Sunday school by the rector. 
Some remains exist of a Roman encampment on Bury 
Down. 

LANSALLOES (ST. ALWYS), a parish, in the union 
of LISKEARD, hundred of WEST, E. division of CORN- 
WALL, 6 miles (W. by S.) from West Looe ; containing 
828 inhabitants. It is bounded on the south by Lanti- 
vet bay, and comprises by measurement 2774 acres, of 
which 80 are common or waste. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 18; patron and incum- 
bent, the Rev. William Rawlings : the tithes have been 
commuted for 500, and the glebe comprises 7 acres. 
The church is a neat structure. There is an episcopal 
chapel, erected in 1839, at the expense of the Rev. W. 
Rawlings, by whom a school is supported. 

LANTEGLOS (ST. LANTY), a parish, in the union 
of LISKEARD, hundred of WEST, E. division of CORN- 
WALL, 2 miles (E.) from Fowey ; containing, with the 
township of Polruan, 1269 inhabitants, of whom 549 are 
in the township of Lanteglos. This place is separated 
from the town of Fowey by the river and harbour of the 
same name, for the defence of which there is an old 
castle, corresponding with one on the opposite shore. 
The fishing village of Polruan had anciently a market 
and a fair, and appears to have been of some importance, 
having furnished one ship and sixty mariners to the 
fleet before Calais, in the reign of Edward III. Barton 
manor-house, in the parish, garrisoned for the par- 
liament, sustained much injury in the civil war, and 
ultimately surrendered to Sir Richard Granville, who 
placed in it a garrison for Charles L, that monarch 
having narrowly escaped being shot here, whilst inspect- 
ing the harbour from a fine promenade in the grounds. 
The parish comprises 2773 acres by computation ; the 
soil is various, partly a shelving slate, and partly good 
corn land ; the surface is very irregular, rising into 
hills of precipitous elevation, and the lower grounds are 
watered by numerous springs. The copper-mine of 
Wheal Howell was discovered within the last twenty 
years, and is now in operation. The living is a vicar- 
age, endowed with a portion of the rectorial tithes, and 
valued in the king's books at 14.7- !; patron, and 
impropriator of the remainder of the rectorial tithes, 
28 



Lord Granville. The impropriate tithes have been com- 
muted for 315, and the vicarial for 225, and the glebe 
comprises 8 acres. On the brow of a hill behind the 
village are the remains of an ancient chapel dedicated to 
Christ, serving as a landmark. 

LANTEGLOS cum CAMELFORD (ST. SANTY AND ST. 
ADVENT), a parish, in the union of CAMELFORD, hun- 
dred of LESNEWTH, E. division of CORNWALL, l mile 
(W. S. W.) from Camelford ; containing 1541 inhabitants, 
of whom 836 are in Lanteglos. This parish, which is 
intersected by the river Camel, comprises by measure- 
ment 3562 acres ; the surface is very hilly, and the soil 
for the greater part is shallow and slaty, with some por- 
tions of good meadow land on the banks of the river. 
A slate quarry is in full operation. The living is a rec- 
tory, with that of Advent annexed, valued in the king's 
books at 34. 11. 3., and in the patronage of the Crown, 
in right of the duchy of Cornwall ; net income, 474. 
The church is a very handsome structure, with a lofty 
tower, and contains 500 sittings. There are places of 
worship for Wesleyans, and an endowed school on the 
national system. Near Castle Gough are some remains 
of earthworks. 

LANTON, a township, in the parish of KIRK-NEW- 
TON, union of GLENDALE, W. division of GLENDALE 
ward, N. division of NORTHUMBERLAND, 5 miles (N. W. 
by W.) from Wooler ; containing 83 inhabitants. It is 
situated on the north side of the Glen river, and also 
north of the road from Kirk-Newton to Wooler ; the 
houses are few and scattered. 

LAPAL, a township, in the parish of HALES-OWEN, 
union of BROMSGROVE, Hales-Owen division of the 
hundred of BRIMSTREE, county of SALOP ; containing 
351 inhabitants. 

LAPFORD (ST. THOMAS a BECKET), a parish, in 
the union of CREDITON, hundred of NORTH TAWTON, 
South Molton and N. divisions of DEVON, 5 miles 
(S. E.) from Chulmleigh ; containing 706 inhabitants. 
The parish comprises 3580 acres, of which 438 are 
common or waste. Serges were formerly manufactured 
to a considerable extent, but about the year 1 820, the 
factory was taken down. Bury Barton House, now a farm 
building, was anciently a splendid mansion, the property 
of the late Admiral Bury* ; there are still some remains 
of the chapel. A fair is held on the Monday after the 
festival of St. Thomas tl Bccket. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 15. 1. 105. ; patron and 
incumbent, the Rev. John Arundel Radford. The church 
is a very ancient structure, with a richly-carved oak 
screen. There is a place of worship for dissenters j and 
a parochial school is supported by subscription. 

LAPLEY (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union of 
PENKRIDGE, W. division of the hundred of CUTTLE- 
STONE, S. division of the county of STAFFORD, 3f miles 
(W. by S.) from Penkridge ; containing, with the chapelry 
of Wheaton-Aston, 952 inhabitants. The living is a 
discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
5. 12. 85.; net income, 124; patron and impro- 
priator, S. Swinfen, Esq. The great tithes have been 
commuted for 300, and the vicarial for 200, and the 
glebe comprises 22 acres. In 1669, Joan Scutt gave 
10 per annum for instruction. Here was anciently a 
priory of Black monks, subordinate to the abbey of St. 
Remigius at Rheims : all that now remains is the church, 
a large fabric, with a noble tower. 



L A II T 



LASH 



LAPWORTH (Sr. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
SOLIHULL, Warwick division of the hundred of KING- 
TON, S. division of the county of WARWICK, 3| miles 
(N. N. E.) from Henley-in-Arden ; containing 729 in- 
habitants. It comprises 2810 acres, of which 30 are 
common or waste. The Stratford-on-Avon canal passes 
through. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 9. 9. 7. ; and in the gift of Merton College, 
Oxford : the tithes have been commuted for 350, and 
the glebe comprises 68 acres. The church contains spe- 
cimens of the early, decorated, and later English styles ; 
the tower and spire are on the north side of the north 
aisle. There is a place of worship for Independents ; 
and two schools are partly supported by the proceeds of 
benefactions, amounting to 412 per annum, which are 
applied to various benevolent purposes. 

LARBRICK, with LITTLE ECCLESTON, a township, 
in the parish of KIRK HAM, union of the FYLDE, hundred 
of AMOUNDERNESS, N. division of the county of LAN- 
CASTER, 4^ miles (E. N. E.) from Poulton ; containing 
199 inhabitants. There is a chalybeate spring. 

LARK- STOKE, a hamlet, in the parish of ILM ING- 
TON, union of SHIPSTON-ON-STOUR, Upper division of 
the hundred of KIFTSGATE, E. division of the county of 
GLOUCESTER, 4 miles (N. E.) from Chipping-Campden ; 
containing 18 inhabitants. 

LARKTON, a township, in the parish of MALPAS, 
union of NANTWICH, Higher division of the hundred 
of BROXTON, S. division of the county of CHESTER, 8^ 
miles (N. by W.) from Whitchurch j containing 53 in- 
habitants. 

LARLING (ST. ETHELBERT), a parish, in the union 
of WAY LAND, hundred of SHROPHAM, W. division of 
NORFOLK, 2 miles (N. W. by N.) from East Harling ; 
containing 205 inhabitants. . The parish, sometimes 
called Larlingford, comprises about 1400 acres 5 the soil 
is light, and in some parts sandy, and the lower grounds 
are watered by a river which divides this parish from 
that of Snetterton. The living is a rectory, valued in 
the king's books at 10. 0. 2^., and in the gift of Lord 
Colborne : the tithes have been commuted for 209, 
and the glebe comprises 40 acres. The church is an 
ancient structure, in the early English style, with an 
embattled tower and a south porch, in which is a highly- 
enriched Norman arch. 

LARTINGTON, a township, in the parish of Ro- 
MALD-KIRK, union of TEESDALE, wapentake of GILLING- 
WEST, N. riding of YORK, 2 miles (W. N. W.) from Bar- 
nard-Castle; containing 188 inhabitants. This place, 
which is situated in the vale of Teesdale, belonged in the 
16th century to the family of the Maires, from whom it 
passed by marriage to the Lawsons, of Brough, near 
Catterick, and from them to its present proprietor, 
Henry Thornton Maire Witham, Esq., who is lord of 
the manor. The township comprises 5299 acres, of 
which 3438 are common or waste ; a considerable por- 
tion is within the ancient forest of Stainmore. The 
surface is finely diversified with hill and dale, and inter- 
sected by deep rocky glens, well wooded, through which 
have been formed extensive rides of several miles, abound- 
ing with romantic features ; the soil near the banks of 
the Tees is a rich loam, which assumes a less fertile 
aspect as it gradually recedes from the river towards 
the moorlands, which are stocked with grouse. A large 
quantity of moorland has been inclosed, and brought 
29 



under profitable cultivation, by the present proprietor, 
and the pastures are good ; the short-horned breed of 
cattle has attained great perfection, and on the several 
farms much attention is paid to the improvement of live 
stock. The woods are extensive and well managed ; and 
the more elevated lands, crowned with thriving planta- 
tions, add much to the beauty of the landscape. 

Lartington Hall, the seat of Mr. Witham, is a spacious 
mansion, situated on the bank of the Tecs, in a richly- 
wooded park ; the pleasure-grounds command some 
fine views of that river, combining a variety of interest- 
ing scenery, and the house and demesne have been much 
improved by the late and present proprietor. Attached 
to the hall is a Roman Catholic chapel, in which service 
is daily performed ; the interior is embellished with a 
painting, in imitation of sculpture, by Le Brun. In 
1831, Mr. Witham, who is distinguished for his love of 
geological research, laid the foundation-stone of a build- 
ing which has been completed as a museum, and con- 
tains an extensive collection of geological and minera- 
logical specimens ; it is open to public inspection at all 
times, and visited annually by numerous amateurs and 
professors of that science, for the promotion of which he 
has published a treatise on the internal structure of 
vegetable fossils, the study of which he has successfully 
reduced to method. The building is 63 feet in length, 
and of proportional breadth and height, and is of hand- 
some architecture, with a highly-ornamented ceiling ; 
the walls are hung with splendid mirrors, and adorned 
with a valuable and well-chosen collection of paintings 
by the most esteemed masters of the Italian and Flemish 
schools, and with others of more modern date. A beau- 
tiful clock was presented to Mr. Witham in 1838, by 
2098 of the inhabitants of Barnard- Castle, in testimony 
of his attention to the interests of the town, and his 
exertions to promote infant education, and diffuse useful 
knowledge among the humbler classes. The village, 
which is situated on the western acclivity of the dale, 
consists of two ranges of neatly-built houses. The tithes 
have been commuted for 55. 13. A school was founded 
in the year 1686, by John Parkins and Francis Applebye, 
Esqrs., who endowed it with 100, and it has also an 
endowment of 7 per annum by William Hutchinson, to 
which the lord of the manor adds an annual gratuity, 
raising the master's salary to 20. 

LARTON, with NE\VTON, a township, in the parish 
of WEST KIRBY, union and Lower division of the hun- 
dred of WIRRALL, S. division of the county of CHESTER, 
8 miles (W. N. W.) from Great Neston ; containing 53 
inhabitants. 

LASBOROUGH (Sr. MARY), a parish, in the union 
of TETBURY, hundred of LONGTREE, E. division of the 
county of GLOUCESTER, 4f- miles (W. by N.) from Tet- 
bury ; containing 12 inhabitants. It comprises by com- 
putation 994 acres, of which 714 are arable, 220 sheep- 
walks, and 60 woodland. The living is a discharged 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 7. 12. 5.; patron, 
Edward Estcourt, Esq. 

LASH AM (-Sr. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
ALTON, hundred of ODIHAM, Basingstoke and N. divi- 
sions of the county of SOUTHAMPTON, 4 miles (N. W. by 
W.) from Alton ; containing 284 inhabitants. It com- 
prises by computation 1587 acres, of which 1330 are 
arable, 57 meadow, and 200 woodland ; the surface is 
varied, and the scenery of pleasing character; the soil is 



LAST 



LATH 



principally a red clay ; the chief crops are wheat, oats, 
and barley, and the prevailing timber oak and beech. 
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
6. 18. 9., and in the gift of G. P. Jervoise, Esq. : the 
tithes have been commuted for 350, and the glebe 
comprises 81 acres. A national school is supported. 

LASKILL-PASTURE, a township, in the parish and 
union of HELMSLEY, wapentake of RYEDALE, N. riding 
of YORK, 6 miles (N. W. byN.) from Helmsley ; contain- 
ing 94 inhabitants. This is a small township, consisting 
of four farms, and lying on the east side of Ryedale. 

LASSINGTON, a parish, in the Lower division of 
the hundred of DUDSTONE and KING'S-BARTON, union 
and E. division of the county of GLOUCESTER, 3 miles 
(N. W.) from Gloucester ; containing 82 inhabitants. 
The parish is bounded on the north and east by the 
river Leadon, and comprises about 520 acres, nearly 
two-thirds of which are of a light sandy soil, and the 
remainder a stiff clay, with some good dry meadow land. 
The Herefordshire and Gloucestershire canal runs pa- 
rallel with the Leadon, which falls into the western 
branch of the Severn, near an ancient camp, where both 
rivers are crossed by the same bridge. The living is a 
discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at 6. 10., 
and in the gift of Sir B. W. Guise, Bart., and the Bishop 
of Gloucester and Bristol, the former having two pre- 
sentations, and the latter one : the tithes have been 
commuted for 119, and the glebe comprises 8 acres. 
The church is a small plain edifice. A parochial school 
is supported by subscription. The petrifaction called 
Astroites, or Star-stone, is met with in a hill in the 
neighbourhood. 

LASTINGHAM (Sr. MARY), a parish, in the union 
of PICKERING, wapentake of RYEDALE, N. riding of 
YORK ; comprising the townships of Appleton-le-Moors, 
Farndale East-side, Hutton-le-Hole, Lastingham, Rose- 
dale West-side, and Spaunton ; and containing 1463 
inhabitants, of whom 175 are in the township of Last- 
ingham, 7 miles (N. W.) from Pickering. A Benedictine 
monastery was founded here, in honour of the Virgin 
Mary, about 648, by Cedd, Bishop of the East Saxons, 
and flourished until 1080, when the monks removed to 
York. The parish is intersected by the small river 
Dove, and comprises by computation 19,200 acres, of 
which 8000 are common or waste ; 406 acres are in the 
township. The whole, with the exception of Farndale 
East-side, forms part of the manor of Spaunton, of 
which the Darley family, now represented by Henry 
Darley, Esq., of Aldby Park, have for a considerable 
period been the lords. The soil is of various qualities, 
and though there are some tracts of open moor and un- 
cultivated land, much of it is fertile and productive. In 
Rosedale township are several beds of coal. The living 
is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
17. 7- 6., and in the patronage of the Crown ; net in- 
come, 215. The church is a small and very ancient 
edifice, supposed to have belonged to the monastery ; 
underneath the choir is a vaulted crypt, of which the 
massive cylindrical columns and sculptured arches ex- 
hibit fine specimens of Norman architecture, and other 
portions are in a later style ; the east end is circular, 
and at the west end is a low tower. There are chapels 
of ease at Farndale East-side and Farndale High-Quarter ; 
and at Appleton-le-Moors and Hutton-le-Hole are places 
of worship for Wesleyans. A school is conducted on 
30 



the national plan. John Jackson, the celebrated painter, 
was a native of this place. 

LATCHFORD, a chapelry, in the parish of GRAP- 
PENHALL, union of RUNCORN, hundred of BUCKLOW, 
N. division of the county of CHESTER, 1^ mile (S. E.) 
from Warrington ; containing 2361 inhabitants. Latch- 
ford had anciently two weekly markets and two fairs, 
granted in the fourteenth century. The Duke of Bridge- 
water's, the Mersey, and the Irwell canals pass through 
the parish. A cotton-manufactory has been established. 
The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, 181; 
patron, W. Hall, Esq. The chapel, dedicated to St, 
James, has been rebuilt, and contains 400 free sittings, 
the Incorporated Society having granted 400. 

LATCHFORD, a hamlet, in the parish of GREAT 
HASELEY, union of THAME, hundred of EWELME, county 
of OXFORD, 2 miles (W.) from Tetsworth ; containing 
32 inhabitants. 

LATCHINGDON (ST. MICHAEL), a parish, in the 
union of MALDON, hundred of DENGIE, S. division of 
ESSEX, 5^ miles (S. by E.) from Maldon ; containing 372 
inhabitants. It is bounded on the north by Latchingdon 
Creek and the river Blackwater, and on the south by the 
navigable river Crouch, and comprises 3672 acres. The 
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 37, 
and in the gift of the Archbishop of Canterbury : the 
tithes have been commuted for 900, and the glebe 
comprises 44 acres. The church is a small ancient edi- 
fice. A school, conducted upon the national system, is 
supported by the rector. 

LATHBURY (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union 
of NEWPORT- PAGNELL, hundred of NEWPORT, county of 
BUCKINGHAM, f of a mile (N.) from Newport- Pagnell j 
containing 127 inhabitants. The parish, which is nearly 
surrounded by the river Ouse, comprises 1000 acres by 
computation ; the soil is chiefly of a gravelly nature, 
and the surface is undulated. The living is a perpetual 
curacj', valued in the king's books at 5. 6. 8. ; net 
income, 68 ; patrons and appropriators, Dean and 
Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. In the chancel of 
the church is a handsome pavement of black and white 
marble, the gift of Margaret, daughter of Sir H. Andrewes, 
Bart. The learned Dr. Chelsum, celebrated for his de- 
fence of Christianity against Gibbon, held the living. 
An ancient monastery formerly occupied the site of the 
present manor-house. 

LA.THOM, a township, in the parish and union of 
ORMSKIRK, hundred of WEST DERBY, S. division of the 
county of LANCASTER, 3| miles (N. E. by E.) from 
Ormskirk ; containing 3262 inhabitants. This place was 
anciently the seat of the Lathom family, of whom Robert 
de Lathom, in the reign of Edward I., received the grant 
of a weekly market and an annual fair, and whose baro- 
nial mansion, Lathom House, equally remarkable for its 
extent and magnificence, and formidable for its strength, 
afterwards became so conspicuous in history. The manor, 
in the reign of Henry IV., was conveyed by marriage 
with the daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Lathom, 
to Sir John Stanley, ancestor of the earls of Derby, of 
whom Thomas, the first earl, entertained Henry VII. 
in his baronial castle here, at that time in its full splen- 
dour. This noble castle, which had eighteen towers, 
and was surrounded by a fosse eight yards in breadth, 
and accessible by a drawbridge, defended by a lofty 
gateway tower, was frequently besieged by the parlia- 



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L A U Cr 



mentary forces during the reign of Charles I., of whose 
cause its owner was a resolute supporter. On the 28th 
of February, 1646, during the absence of the earl, it was 
besieged by General Fairfax with a force of 3000 men, 
but was heroically defended by the Countess of Derby, 
who, with her retinue of 300, in several destructive 
sallies, killed 500 of the assailants, and maintained pos- 
session till, on the arrival of the royalist army under 
Prince Rupert, the enemy thought proper to retire. In 
the following year the castle was again besieged by 
General Egerton, at the head of 4000 parliamentarians, 
to whom, after a protracted and obstinate resistance, it 
was finally surrendered for want of ammunition j after 
being plundered it was dismantled, and the fortifications 
were demolished. Upon the Restoration, Lathom House 
again became the residence of the Stanley family, and in 
1730 was conveyed by marriage with Henrietta, daughter 
and heiress of William, Earl of Derby, to John, the 
third Earl of Ashburnham, by whom it was sold ; and 
it was subsequently purchased by Sir Thomas Bootle, 
Knt., -who restored and nearly rebuilt the ancient man- 
sion, in a style commensurate to its former splendour, 
and by whose niece it was conveyed by marriage to 
Richard Wilbraham, Esq., father of Lord Skelmersdale, 
the present proprietor. The mansion is spacious, and 
contains numerous stately apartments, and a domestic 
chapel, lately improved at a cost of 1200 ; the park, 
which is nearly four miles in circumference, is tastefully 
embellished. The township comprises 7917 acres, of 
which 4383 are arable, 1286 meadow, 1894 pasture, and 
229 woodland. The chapel, dedicated to St. John, is a 
neat structure, the living of which is a perpetual curacy ; 
net income, 178; patron, Vicar of Ormskirk. The 
great tithes have been commuted for 1001. 6. 8. The 
free school at Newburgh, in the township, was erected 
in the year 1714, by the Rev. Thomas Crane, who en- 
dowed it with an estate at Dalton, which, with subse- 
quent benefactions, produces 52 per annum ; it is con- 
ducted on the national plan, and a school-house has 
been erected by Lord Skelmersdale, in which the chil- 
dren are instructed at his lordship's expense. At La- 
thom Park is an ancient almshouse, with a chapel. Here 
is a saline chalybeate spring. 

LATIMER, ISELHEMPSTEAD, or EASTMANSTED- 
LATIMER, a chapelry, in the parish of CHESHAM, union 
of AMERSHAM, hundred of BURNHAM, county of BUCK- 
INGHAM, 3 miles (S. E. by E.) from Chesham ; contain- 
ing 250 inhabitants. This place, with the surrounding 
estate, belonged, in the reign of Edward III., to Simon 
Beresford, on whose attainder it reverted to the crown, 
and was given to William and Elizabeth Latimer, from 
whom it derived its name. The ancient house has been 
almost entirely rebuilt, in the Tudor style. The living 
is a donative of very ancient date, endowed with the 
rectorial and other tithes of a portion of the parish of 
Chesham, and valued in the king's books at 5. 6. 8. ; 
net income, 101 ; patron, Hon. C. C. Cavendish, who 
and the Duke of Bedford are the impropriators. A 
chapel in the Elizabethan style, built by the Hon. Mr. 
Cavendish, was opened for divine service in 1842. 

LATTON (ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST), a parish, in the 
union of EPPING, hundred of HARLOW, S. division of 
ESSEX, l^mile (W. S. W.) from Harlow; containing 303 
inhabitants. It is bounded on the west by the river 
Stort, and comprises 1566 acres, whereof 174 are com- 
31 



mon or waste. The living is a vicarage, endowed with 
the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at 
7 ; patron and incumbent, Rev. J. Arkwright : the 
tithes have been commuted for 355, and the glebe 
comprises 113 acres. The church is an ancient struc- 
ture, with a square embattled tower. Here was a priory 
of Black canons, founded in the fourteenth century, and 
dedicated to St. John the Baptist: some remains of -the" 
conventual buildings have been concerted into a barn, 
and contain specimens in the decorated style. 

LATTON (ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST), a parish, in the 
union of CRTCKLADE and WOOTTON-BASSET, hundred of 
HIGHWORTH, CRICKLADE, and STAPLE, Cricklade and 
N. divisions of WILTS, 1^ mile (N. W. by N.) from 
Cricklade; containing 379 inhabitants. The living is a 
vicarage, with which that of Eisey is annexed, valued in 
the king's books at 9. 3. 4. ; net income, 380 ; patron 
and impropriator, Earl of St. Germans : the tithes were 
commuted for land and corn-rents in 1801. The church 
is a neat structure. A national school is supported by 
the earl and the incumbent. A tessellated pavement 
was discovered in 1670. 

LAUGHTERTON, a hamlet, in the parish of KET- 
TLETHORPE, union of GAINSBOROUGH, wapentake of 
WELL, parts of LINDSEY, county of LINCOLN ; contain- 
ing 174 inhabitants. 

LAUGHTON (ST. LUKE), a parish, in the union 
of MARKET-HARBOROUGH, hundred of GARTREE, S. di- 
vision of the county of LEICESTER, 5% miles (W. by N.) 
from Harborough ; containing 180 inhabitants. The 
parish is situated on the north of the road leading from 
Harborough to Lutterworth, and comprises 1109 acres. 
From Laughton hills, celebrated in the annals of fox- 
hunting, are fine and extensive views of the surrounding 
country. The Grand Union canal passes about a mile 
from the village, and along the southern boundary of the 
parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 10. 10. 5. ; net income, 247 ; patron, Charles 
Humfrey, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land, 
under an act of inclosure, in 1778, and under the recent 
Tithe act for a rent-charge of 100. 11. 9.; the glebe 
comprises 25 acres, with a good house. The church is 
an old and very small edifice, the two side aisles of which 
are said to have been pulled down many years since ; it 
contains a monument to Colonel Cole, who served in 
the reign of Charles I. 12 acres of land, let in small 
allotments to the labouring poor, and producing 10 
per annum, are applied to the use of the parish. 

LAUGHTON, a parish, in the union of BOURNE, 
wapentake of AVELAND, parts of KESTEVEN, county of 
LINCOLN, if mile (S. by E.) from Falkingham ; con- 
taining 73 inhabitants. The living is a vicarage, united 
to the rectory of Falkingham. The church has long 
been in ruins. 

LAUGHTON (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union 
of GAINSBOROUGH, wapentake of CORRINGHAM, parts 
of LINDSEY, county of LINCOLN ; containing, with the 
hamlet of Wildsworth, 483 inhabitants, of whom 336 
are in the township of Laughton, 6 miles (N. E. by N.) 
from Gainsborough. This parish is situated on the 
river Trent, and comprises 4482 acres, of which about 
two-thirds are arable, and the remainder pasture, with 
434 acres of common or waste ; the soil is various, in 
some parts a stiff clay, and in others a shifting sand. 
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at 



LA UN 



LA UN 



12 j net income, 159; patron, Hugo Meynell Ingram, 
Esq. The church is a very neat structure. An addi- 
tional church was built in 1839, in the hamlet of Wilds- 
worth, chiefly at the expense of the late Lady William 
Gordon ; it contains 100 sittings, all of which are free. 
There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A school 
was founded in the reign of James I., by Roger Dalyson, 
D.D., who endowed it with a rent-charge of 20 j a 
new school-house was built for it in 1821, principally at 
the cost of the Marchioness of Hertford. 

LAUGHTON, a parish, in the union of HAILSHAM, 
hundred of SHIPLAKE, rape of PEVENSEY, E. division of 
SUSSEX, 6 miles (S. S. E.) from Uckfield ; containing 
850 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the 
road from Lewes to Hastings, has been for ages the pro- 
perty of the Pelham family, earls of Chichester, whose 
ancient manorial mansion, Laughton Place, erected in 
1534, is still remaining. There are some quarries of 
Sussex marble, which is susceptible of a very high 
polish, and is applied to various uses. The living is a 
discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
9. 11. 3.; patron and impropriator, Earl of Chiches- 
ter : the great tithes have been commuted for 645, 
and the vicarial for 255, and the glebe comprises 6 
acres. The church is a handsome structure, in the early 
English style, with a square embattled tower, and some 
insertions of a later date ; it contains the family vault 
of the Pelhams ; it was new-pewed in 1827, and a gal- 
lery was erected in 1831. A school is conducted on the 
national system. 

LAUGHTON-EN-LE-MORTHEN (ALL SAINTS), a 
parish, in the unions of ROTHERHAM and WORKSOP, S. 
division of the wapentake of STRAFFORTH and TICKHILL, 
W. riding of YORK, 6 miles (E. S. E.) from Rotherham ; 
containing 742 inhabitants. This place, during the 
wars between the houses of York and Lancaster, suf- 
fered greatly from the Lancastrian party, in an attack 
made upon it by the Baron of Mowbray and his adhe- 
rents, who greatly injured the town, and nearly destroyed 
the church. The parish comprises by computation 3685 
acres, most of which is fertile land in good cultivation ; 
the surface is varied, and the scenery in parts enriched 
with wood. Laughton Hall, the ancient seat of the 
Butler family, is a spacious mansion, commanding ex- 
tensive views. The village is situated on an eminence, 
and is large and neatly built. The living is a discharged 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 6. 13. 4. ; net 
income, 200, with a glebe of 4 acres, and a glebe-house, 
erected in 1842 ; patron and appropriator, the Chan- 
cellor of the Cathedral of York. The church is a hand- 
some and stately structure in the early and decorated 
English styles, with a square embattled tower sur- 
mounted by a lofty crocketed spire, rising together to 
the height of 180 feet, and forming a conspicuous and 
beautiful object in the landscape for many miles round ; 
the interior contains various rich details ; the reading- 
desk is an eagle of wood, highly gilt. There is a place 
of worship for Independents. A parochial school is en- 
dowed with 3 acres of land, and 13 per annum from 
bequests ; and there are several benefactions for distri- 
bution among the poor. 

LAUNCELLS (ST. ANDREW), a parish, in the union 
and hundred of STRATTON, E. division of CORNWALL, 
1| mile (E. S. E.) from Stratton ; containing 855 inha- 
bitants. The parish comprises by measurement 6184 
32 




acres, of which 350 are common or waste ; the Bude 
canal passes through it from west to east. The living is 
a vicarage, valued in the king's books at 10. 10. 10. ; 
patron and impropriator, L. W. Buck, Esq. : the great 
tithes have been commuted for 280, and .the vicarial 
for 220, with a glebe of 15 acres. The church is an 
ancient structure, with a lofty embattled tower, crowned 
by pinnacles ; part of the floor is laid with tiles curiously 
figured, and in the south aisle is an altar-tomb with the 
recumbent effigy of John Chamond, who died in 1624. 
There is an almshouse for four persons ; and a school is 
supported by subscription. 
LAUNCESTON (ST. 
MARY MAGDALENE), a bo- 
rough, market-town, and 
parish, possessing separate 
jurisdiction, and the head 
of a union, locally in the N. 
division of the hundred of 
EAST, E. division of CORN- 
WALL, 20^ miles (N. E. by 
E.) from Bodmin, and 213 
(W. S. W.) from London j 
containing, exclusively of 
those portions of the bo- Seal and Arms. 

rough which extend beyond the limits of the parish, 2460 
inhabitants. The ancient name of Launccston was Dun- 
heved, the Swelling hill : it was also called Lanstepha- 
don, or Church Stephen Town. Its present appella- 
tion seems to be a contraction of Lan-cester-ton, or 
Church Castle Town ; the word Llan signifying a 
church in the British language. The manor and 
honour, which had a very extensive jurisdiction, be- 
longed from time immemorial to the carls of Cornwall, 
who had their chief seat at Launceston Castle ; it WHS 
given by William the Conqueror to his half-brother, 
Robert, Earl of Montaigne, whom he made Earl of Corn- 
wall. The church of St. Stephen, (within which parish 
is the borough of Newport, adjoining to Launceston, 
and considered as part of it,) was made collegiate, before 
the Conquest, for Secular canons, and King Henry I. 
gave it to the church of Exeter. Reginald, Earl of 
Cornwall, was a great benefactor to the college, and 
used all his influence with King Stephen to remove the 
bishop's see from Devonshire to Cornwall, and consti- 
tute this the cathedral j but it was successfully opposed 
by William Warlewast, Bishop of Exeter, who, being 
then resident at Lawhitton, on his first triennial visita- 
tion, suppressed the college of Secular canons, and in 
its stead founded a priory of Augustine monks, in the 
parish of St. Thomas, about half-way between St. 
Stephen's and the castle. The CASTLE of Launceston 
passed with the earldom, and was annexed to the duchy 
of Cornwall by act of parliament. Hubert de Burgh, 
who had large possessions in Cornwall, was made 
governor of the castle, and sheriff for the county, by 
King John. It has since passed by grant into the 
hands of the Duke of Northumberland, who was there- 
upon made constable of Launceston. From its strong 
position, and its situation at the entrance into the 
county, this castle was an important post during the 
civil war of the 17th century. It was at first in the 
hands of the parliament, and under the governorship of 
Sir Richard Buller, who, on the approach of Sir Ralph 
Hopton with the king's forces, quitted the town and 



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fled. In 1643, Sir Ralph was attacked by Major-Gene- 
ral Chudleigh, without success. In August, 1644, the 
place was surrendered to the Earl of Essex, but fell into 
the hands of the royalists again, after the capitulation 
of the earl's army. In 1645, the Prince of Wales so- 
journed for some time in Launceston. In November of 
the same year, the town was fortified by Sir Richard 
Granville, who, being at variance with Lord Goring, 
another of the king's generals, caused proclamation to 
be made in all the churches of Cornwall, that if any of 
Lord Goring's forces should come into the county, the 
bells should be rung, and the people rise to drive them 
out. Shortly after, Sir Richard having refused to take 
the chief command of the infantry under Lord Hopton, 
as generalissimo, was committed to the prison of Laun- 
ceston. Colonel Basset being then governor, surren- 
dered the place to Sir Thomas Fairfax, in March, 1646. 
In the time of the Commonwealth, the castle and park 
were put up to sale by the government, and purchased 
by Robert Bennet, Esq., but on the Restoration they 
reverted to the crown. 

The TOWN, which abounds with many objects inter- 
esting to the antiquary, is pleasantly situated near the 
western bank of the Tamar, on a steep ascent, at the 
foot of which is the little river Kinsey. On the summit 
of a hill is a high conical rocky mount, partly natural, 
and partly artificial, upon which the keep of the ancient 
castle, with a Norman gateway, and part of the outer 
walls, is standing. Traces of the wall that surrounded 
the town yet exist ; and the old South-gate, still re- 
maining, is used as a place of temporary confinement 
for prisoners, prior to their removal to the county gaol 
at Bodmin. There are many good houses, and the 
town is rapidly improving and increasing, but the streets, 
which are macadamized, are in general narrow. It is 
lighted with gas ; and the inhabitants are well supplied 
with water, which is brought by pipes from Trenibbett, 
or Dunheved Green. On the north side of the church 
is a pleasant promenade, shaded by an avenue of trees, 
and commanding a fine prospect over the adjacent 
country ; and there is another on the green below the 
castle. Two book clubs and three subscription libraries 
are supported. Some years since, a philosophical in- 
stitution, with a good apparatus, was established ; and 
lectures are given, during the winter, in a public sub- 
scription room at the head of the town. There is also, 
in the centre of the town, a room of large dimensions, 
occasionally used for concerts, &c. An extensive manu- 
facture of serges was formerly carried on, but it has 
for several years been on the decline. A branch of the 
Bude canal has been brought within four miles of the 
town, and promises materially to improve the general 
trade ; and in 1836, an act was procured for making a 
railway from Tremoutha haven. The markets are on 
Wednesday for butcher's meat, and on Saturday for 
corn and provisions of all sorts. Fairs are held on 
Whit-Monday, July 5th, Nov. 17th, and Dec. 6th, for 
cattle ; and on the first Thursday in March, and the 
third Thursday in April, for cattle of all sorts, free of 
toll. There are likewise three cattle-fairs in the parish 
of St. Stephen, on May 12th, July 31st, and September 
25th, An act for erecting a market-house, and for the 
regulation of the markets, was passed in 1840. 

Launceston was constituted a free BOROUGH in the 
reign of Henry III., by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, who 
VOL. Ill 33 



granted various privileges to the burgesses, and a piece 
of ground on which to build their guildhall, to be held 
of him and his heirs by the annual tender of a pound of 
pepper. Since that time the town has received several 
charters, and those by which it was governed until the 
passing of the Municipal act, were bestowed by Queen 
Mary and Charles II., the former in 1556, and the latter 
in 1683. By the above act, the controul is vested in a 
mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors, the mayor 
and late mayor being magistrates for the borough, con- 
currently with the county justices. The town first re- 
turned members to parliament in the 23rd of Edward 
I. : under the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, 
it now sends one : the mayor is returning officer. Petty- 
sessions for the Northern division of the hundred of 
East are held here, on the first Friday in every month. 
The assizes for the county, once held wholly in this 
town, and for more than half a century here alternately 
with Bodmin, were, in 1838, entirely removed to the 
latter place. An act for the recovery of small debts 
was passed in 1841. A private house between the 
church and the tower was purchased by the corporation 
in 1810, for the transaction of public business, and is 
now called the Mayoralty Room. The South-gate, re- 
paired some years since, is used as the town prison. 

The parish comprises by computation 1100 acres; 
the soil is generally of a loamy quality, and in the neigh- 
bourhood of the town the meadows are rich ; the sub- 
soil is rock, alternated with clay, and from the preva- 
lence of mineral springs, an opinion was once entertained 
that mines existed, but every attempt to find them has 
failed. The LIVING is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 
116; patrons, Mayor and Corporation ; impropriator, 
Duke of Northumberland, whose tithes have been com- 
muted for 34. 7- The church was erected about the 
year 1540, by the munificence of Sir Henry Trecarrell, 
Knt., on the site of a decayed chantry, and was made 
parochial in the early part of the sixteenth century ; it 
is in the later English style, built with square blocks of 
granite, and covered with a profusion of beautiful orna- 
ments ; the tower is of different materials, and appa- 
rently of much greater antiquity. A series of square 
blocks of granite is continued round the building on the 
outside, upon each of which is a single letter, on a 
shield, the whole forming the following congratulatory 
dedication : " Ave Maria gratia? plena, Dominus tecum. 
Sponsus amat sponsam ; Maria, optimum parte melegit." 
" O quam terribilis ac metuendus est locus iste ! vere aliud 
non est hie nisi domus Dei, et porta cceli." On the south 
side is the principal entrance, over which are the figures 
of St. George and the Dragon, and St. Martin, on horse- 
back, cutting off the skirts of his coat with his sword, 
to clothe a cripple who is represented as begging and 
with crutches. At the east end within a recess on the 
outside, is a recumbent figure of Mary Magdalene. The 
interior of the church is light and uniform, and the altar 
is embellished with two superb paintings, representing 
Moses and Aaron ; there is a fine organ, and the ceiling 
is ornamented with elaborately carved oak. There are 
numerous stately and interesting monuments, and in 
the north aisle is a splendid monument of marble, reach- 
ing from the floor to the ceiling, and displaying a pro- 
fusion of chaste and elegant sculpture, to the memory 
of Granville Piper and Richard Wise, Esqrs. There 
are places of worship for Independents, Wesleyans, and 

F 



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LAVE 



other dissenters. The grammar school was founded by 
Queen Elizabeth, and endowed with 16 per annum, 
chargeable on the estates of the duchy of Cornwall, to 
which an augmentation of 10 per annum was made 
in 1685, by George Baron, Esq. : after having been 
shut up for some years, it was lately re-opened, and 
the corporation rebuilt the school-house. There are 
also a national and a British school. Here was for- 
merly an hospital for lepers, dedicated to St. Leonard ; 
the income, amounting to about 25 per annum, is 
vested in the corporation for charitable uses. The poor 
law union of Launceston comprises twenty-one parishes 
or places, of which nineteen are in Cornwall, and two 
in Devon; and contains a population of 16,746. Over 
the entrance to the White Hart inn is a fine Norman 
arch, said to have been removed thither on the demo- 
lition of the priory. Launceston gives the title of 
Viscount to the reigning sovereign. 

LAUNCESTON-TARRANT, county of DORSET. 
See TARRANT, LAUNCESTON. 

LAUNDE, an extra-parochial liberty, in the hun- 
dred of EAST GOSCOTE, N. division of the county of 
LEICESTER, 6|- miles (W. N. W.) from Uppingham ; 
containing 38 inhabitants. A priory was founded here 
in the reign of Henry I., by Richard Basset and Maud 
his wife, for Black canons of the order of St. Augus- 
tine ; the revenue, at the Dissolution, was valued at 
510. 16. 5. The chapel and burial-ground are still 
preserved. 

LAUNTON (Sr. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
BICESTER, hundred of PLOUGHLEY, county of OXFORD, 
if mile (E.) from Bicester ; containing 619 inhabitants. 
It comprises by measurement '2800 acres, of which the 
greater portion is pasture. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 11. 9. 4^. ; net income, 
618 ; patron, Bishop of London. A school with a 
small endowment is further supported by the Countess 
of Jersey. 

LAURENCE, ST., a parish, in the union of the ISLE 
of THANET, hundred of RINGSLOW, or ISLE of THANET, 
lathe of ST. AUGUSTINE, E. division of KENT, |- of a 
mile (W.) from Ramsgate ; containing 2694 inhabitants. 
The parish comprises 3244 acres, of which 65 are com- 
mon or waste ; it is bounded on the south by Pegwell 
bay, which is celebrated for shrimps, and much re- 
sorted to by visiters from Ramsgate and Margate, for 
whose accommodation there is an excellent inn, com- 
manding a fine sea-view. The village is situated on a 
hill, upon the road from Ramsgate to Canterbury ; and 
a pleasure-fair is held in it on the 9th of August. In 
1826, Ramsgate was separated from this parish by act 
of parliament, and made distinct. The living is a vicar- 
age, valued in the king's books at 7; net income, 
180 ; patron, Archbishop of Canterbury, who, with 
the Dean and Chapter, is appropriator. The church is 
very ancient, particularly the tower, which is of Saxon 
architecture ; it was one of the chapels belonging to 
Minster, but made parochial in 1275. His late Majesty 
William IV. erected a tablet to the memory of Admiral 
Fox, who is buried here, as is also Lady Augusta 
Murray. The remains of a small chapel in the village 
have been incorporated into a dwelling-house. 

LAV ANT, EAST and WEST (ST. MARY), a parish, 
in the union of WEST HAMPNETT, hundred of ALBWICK, 
rape of CHICHESTER, W. division of SUSSEX, 2^ miles 
34 



(N.) from Chichester ; and containing 370 inhabitants. 
The parish comprises by computation nearly 3000 acres, 
of which more than one-half is arable, and the remainder 
pasture, woodland, down, and common ; the scenery is 
of pleasing character, and the river Lavant flows through 
the parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 20. 18. l., and in the gift of Lord Wil- 
loughby de Broke : the tithes have been commuted for 
483, and the glebe comprises 38 acres. The church 
is a very ancient structure, of which the chancel has 
been rebuilt, and the tower, which is of brick, was added 
at the close of the seventeenth century ; at the west 
end is a fine Norman arch. 

LAVANT, MID, a parish, in the union of WEST 
HAMPNETT, hundred of WESTBOURN and SINGLETON, 
rape of CHICHESTER, W. division of SUSSEX, 2f miles 
(N. by W.) from Chichester ; containing 279 inhabit- 
ants. It is situated on the road from London, via Mid- 
hurst, to Chichester, and comprises 1000 acres by com- 
putation. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 
52 ; patron and impropriator, the Duke of Richmond. 
The church is a neat structure, in the later English 
style, and contains a handsome monument to Lady 
Mary May, whose figure is beautifully sculptured in 
white marble. 

LAVENDON (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
NEWPORT-PAGNELL, hundred of NEWPORT, county of 
BUCKINGHAM, 2f miles (N. E.) from Olney ; containing 
691 inhabitants. Here was formerly a market on Tues- 
day, granted to Paulinus Peyore in 1248, but now dis- 
used ; and a fair is held on the Tuesday before Easter. 
The living is a discharged vicarage, with that of Cold 
Brayfield annexed, valued in the king's books at 6 ; 
net income, 194; patron, Sir G. N. Noel, Bart. The 
tithes were commuted for land and a money payment 
in 1801. An abbey of Praemonstratensian canons was 
founded in the reign of Henry II., by John de Bidum, 
and dedicated to St. John the Baptist, the revenue of 
which, at the Dissolution, was valued at 79. 13. 8. 

LAVENHAM (.ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL), a market- 
town and parish, in the union of COSFORD, hundred of 
BABERGH, W. division of SUFFOLK, 18^ miles (W. 
by N.) from Ipswich, and 61 (N. E.) from London; con- 
taining 1871 inhabitants. The town, which is remark- 
ably healthy, occupies the declivities of two hills rising 
gradually from the river Brett, and consists of several 
small streets ; the houses are in general of mean appear- 
ance ; the inhabitants are well supplied with water. 
The manufacture of blue cloth formerly flourished, 
under the direction of several guilds, each of which had 
its separate hall ; at present, wool-combing and spin- 
ning, but only on a small scale, are carried on, and the 
women and children are employed in platting straw for 
bonnets. The market, now almost disused, is on 
Tuesday : the market-place is a spacious area, contain- 
ing a stone cross. Fairs are held for horses and cattle 
on Shrove-Tuesday, and October llth, 12th, and 13th; 
the former is well attended, but the October fair, which 
was once for the sale of butter and cheese, and the 
hiring of servants, is no longer frequented for such pur- 
poses. Lavenham was formerly governed by six capital 
burgesses, styled headboroughs, elected for the last 
time in 1775. 

The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
20. 2. 11., and in the patronage of Caius College, 



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L A V E 



Cambridge : the rectorial tithes have been commuted 
for 850, and the impropriate for 37 : there are 144 
acres of glebe. The church was rebuilt in the reign of 
Henry VI., partly by the De Veres, earls of Oxford, 
who formerly resided here, and partly by the family of 
Spriiig, wealthy clothiers. It is an eminently beautiful 
structure, in the later English style ; the body is of rich 
workmanship, having a most elaborate open-worked 
parapet, and the tower is a structure of massive gran- 
deur. The entrance is by a porch, supposed to have 
been erected by John, the fourteenth earl of Oxford, and 
much enriched ; over the arch is a finely-sculptured 
double niche, and on each side of the niche are three es- 
cutcheons, each bearing quartered coats of the arms of the 
De Vere family. In the church are, a curious mural 
monument to Allaine Dister, a clothier of the town, 
and another of alabaster and marble to the Rev. Mr. 
Copinger. There are places of worship for Indepen- 
dents and Wesleyans. The free school was founded in 
1647, by Richard Peacock, with an endowment of 5 
per annum, augmented, in 1699, by Edward Colman, 
with 16 per annum. A national school is supported 
by the proceeds of a bequest of 2000 three per cent, 
consols., by Henry Steward, in 1806 ; and some alms- 
houses, rebuilt in 1836, are inhabited by forty aged 
persons. The Rev. George Ruggle, author of a Latin 
comedy, entitled Ignoramus, and other dramatic pieces, 
was born at Lavenham, in 1575. 

LAVER, HIGH (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union 
and hundred of ONGAR, S. division of ESSEX, 4 miles 
(N. N. W.) from Chipping-Ongar ; containing 478 inha- 
bitants. It comprises by computation 1500 acres ; the 
soil is principally a strong clay, forming excellent corn 
and grazing lands ; the surface is generally level, and in 
addition to numerous springs, the grounds are watered 
by a copious brook which flows through the parish. The 
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
14. 1. 8.^ net income, 370 ; patron and incumbent, 
Rev. Philip Budworth. The church is an ancient edifice, 
consisting of a nave and chancel, with a tower sur- 
mounted by a spire of wood. Here is a small national 
school. The celebrated John Locke resided at the 
mansion-house of Otes, in the parish, then the pro- 
perty of the Lords Masham, during the last two years 
of his life ; he died in October, 1704, and was interred on 
the south side of the churchyard j over his remains is a 
black marble tomb, inclosed within iron rails, and on the 
wall of the church is his epitaph in Latin, composed by 
himself. 

LAVER, LITTLE (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union 
and hundred of ONGAR, S. division of ESSEX, 5 miles 
(E. by S.) from Harlow ; containing 128 inhabitants. 
It comprises 894 acres, of which 20 are woodland, and 
the remainder chiefly arable, with a small portion of 
pasture. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 15. 10. 5. ; net income, 261 ; patron, 
Robert Palmer, Esq. The church is a small ancient 
edifice, with a central tower surmounted by a small spire 
of wood. Here is a national school. 

LAVER-MAGDALEN (ST. MARY MAGDALENE), a 
parish, in the union of EPPING, hundred of ONGAR, 
S. division of ESSEX, 5 miles (N. W. by N.) from 
Chipping-Ongar; containing 217 inhabitants. The pa- 
rish derives the affix by which it is distinguished from 
other places of the same name, from the dedication of 
35 



its church ; it is pleasantly situated in the south-west- 
ern extremity of the district, and is remarkable for the 
salubrity of the air. The living is a rectory, valued 
in the king's books at 16. 12. 1. ; net income, 281 ; 
patron and incumbent, Rev. W. J. Burford, D.D. The 
church is a small ancient edifice, with a nave and 
chancel. 

LAVERSTOCK (ST. ANDREW), a parish, in the union 
of ALDERBURY, partly in the hundred of ALDERBURY, 
and partly in that of UNDERDITCH, Salisbury and Ames- 
bury, and S. divisions of WILTS, 1 mile (N. E.) from 
Salisbury ; containing 539 inhabitants. The parish is 
situated in a fertile country, and comprises I674a. 3r. 
22j. ; the views, in which the adjacent city with its 
venerable and beautiful cathedral forms a conspicuous 
and interesting feature, are romantically picturesque. 
Laverstock House, for the reception of insane patients, 
has been long distinguished as one of the first establish- 
ments in which the mild and social system of treatment 
was practised with success. The living is a rectory 
not in charge, annexed to the commonalty of the Vicars- 
Choral of the Cathedral of Salisbury : the tithes have 
been commuted for 680. The church is an ancient 
structure, in the Norman style, and contains some, 
monuments to the Bathurst family, who are buried 
here. 

LAVERSTOKE (ST. MARY), a parish, in the hun- 
dred of OVERTON, Kingclere and N. divisions of the 
county of SOUTHAMPTON, 2f miles (E. N. E.) from Whit- 
church ; containing 123 inhabitants. It comprises 
about 1500 acres ; the surface is finely undulated, and 
the lower grounds are watered by the limpid stream 
of the river Test, which has its source within two 
miles ; the soil is chiefly clay, on a substratum of 
chalk. A very extensive manufactory of the paper used 
for the notes of the Bank of England has been esta- 
blished. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 8. 10.; net income, 61; patron, William 
Portal, Esq. 

LAVERTON, a hamlet, in the parish of BUCKLAND, 
union of WINCHCOMB, Lower division of the hundred 
of KIFTSGATE, E. division of the county of GLOUCES- 
TER ; containing 208 inhabitants. 

LAVERTON (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union and 
hundred of FROME, E. division of SOMERSET, 3| miles 
(N.) from Frome ; containing, with the tything of 
Peart, 199 inhabitants. It comprises 1108 acres by 
computation ; the soil in the western part is a strong 
clay, and in the eastern a light red loam ; the surface is 
undulated, and the low grounds are watered by a brook 
which flows into the river Frome. The living is a 
discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at 
6. 18. 6|. ; net income, 277 ; patron, Bishop of 
Bath and Wells. A small school is supported. 

LAVERTON, a township, in the parish of KIRKBY- 
MALZEARD, Lower division of the wapentake of CLARO, 
W. riding of YORK, 6^ miles (W. by N.) from Ripon ; 
containing 487 inhabitants. The township comprises 
6707 acres, of which 3992 are common or waste land : 
the village consists chiefly of scattered houses. Rent- 
charges, as commutations for the tithes, have been 
awarded, amounting to 196.4.8., of which 73. 17. 
are payable to the vicar, and 122. 7- 8. to Trinity 
College, Cambridge. A school-house was built by Mrs. 
Lawrence, lady of the manor, in 1S32. 

F2 



LA VI 



L A W H 



LAVJNGTON, or LINTON (Sr. PETER), a parish, 
in the union of GRANTHAM, wapentake of BELTISLOB, 
parts of KESTEVEN, county of LINCOLN, 4 miles (S. W. 
by W.) from Folkingham ; containing 329 inhabitants. 
The parish, including the township of Osgodby and the 
hamlets of Hanby and Keisby, comprises 4152o. 3r. 
Osgodby Hall, once the residence of Sir W. Armyne, 
Knt., is now a farm-house ; and at Hanby was formerly 
a mansion belonging to the family of Manners. The 
living is a vicarage, endowed with a portion of the 
rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's books at 
14.7. 1- ; net income, 514 ; patron, and impropriator 
of the remainder of the rectorial tithes, Sir G. Heathcote, 
Bart. : the glebe comprises 15 acres. The church is a 
neat ancient structure, with a lofty spire. Here is a 
school, endowed with 10 per annum by Mrs. Parnham, 
in 1721. 

LAVINGTON, EAST, or MARKET (Sr. MARY), a 
market-town and parish, in the union of DEVIZES, hun- 
dred of SWANBOROUGH, Devizes and N. divisions of 
WILTS; containing 1616 inhabitants, of whom 1115 are 
in the town, 6 miles (S.) from Devizes, and 90 (W. by S.) 
from London. The town is situated in a fertile valley, 
at the base of the chalk hills which form the northern 
boundary of Salisbury Plain, and consists principally of 
one street : the trade is chiefly in corn and malt. The 
market is on Wednesday ; and a fair takes place on 
August 10th. The living is a vicarage, valued in the 
king's books at 14. 2. 6. ; net income, 300 ; patrons 
and appropriators, Dean and Canons of Christ-Church, 
Oxford. The church stands on a lofty eminence, from 
which circumstance the town is popularly termed 
Steeple-Lavington. There are two places of worship 
for Independents. The learned and laborious antiquary, 
Dr. Thomas Tanner, Bishop of St. Asaph and author 
of the Notilia Monastica, was born here in 1674, his 
father having been vicar of the parish ; and at his 
death, in 1733, he bequeathed 200 for the benefit of 
the poor. 

LAVINGTON, WEST, or BISHOP'S (ALL SAINTS), 
a parish, in the union of DEVIZES, hundred of POT- 
TERNE and CANNINGS, Devizes and N. divisions of 
WILTS, l| mile (S. W. by S.) from East Lavington; 
containing 1595 inhabitants. This place was for many 
generations the property of the Dauntsey family, of 
whom William Dauntsey, a younger son, was alderman 
of London in 1542; it afterwards became the pro- 
perty of Sir John Danvers, by marriage with the grand- 
daughter and heiress of Sir John Dauntsey, Knt., and 
was subsequently sold to the late Duke of Marlbo- 
rough. The village suffered greatly from a destructive 
fire in 1689. The parish is situated on the road from 
Devizes to Salisbury, and comprises some very rich 
land, whereof a portion is laid out in market-gardens, 
from which large quantities of excellent vegetables are 
sent to Bath, Salisbury, and other markets. A soft 
chalkstone is quarried, and burnt into lime ; blocks of 
green sandstone are frequently raised for building ; 
and on the downs, considerable quantities of flints are 
dug for road-mending. The living is a vicarage, valued 
in the king's books at 11. 16. 3. ; patron and appro- 
priator, Bishop of Salisbury. The great tithes have 
been commuted for 1325, and the vicarial for 360, 
and the glebe comprises 17 acres. The church is an an- 
cient and spacious structure, in the early English style, 
36 



with a square embattled tower ; the interior contains the 
sepulchral chapel of the Dauntsey family, which is a 
beautiful specimen of the later English style. William 
Dauntsey, alderman of London, founded and endowed 
an almshouse and grammar school, the latter open to 
all children of the parish ; and there is also an alms- 
house for three poor women, who receive Is. per week 
each from the lord of the manor. A school-house for 
100 girls has recently been erected. The neighbourhood 
abounds with tumuli, camps, and other relics of Roman 
and British antiquities. 

LAWFORD (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union and 
hundred of TENDRING, N. division of ESSEX, 1^ mile 
(W.) from Manningtree ; containing 868 inhabitants, 
and consisting of 27690. lr. 4p. The living is a rec- 
tory, valued in the king's books at 15, and in the gift 
of St. John's College, Cambridge : the tithes have been 
commuted for 720, and the glebe comprises 35 acres. 
The church, situated on elevated ground commanding 
an extensive prospect, is an ancient edifice, with a 
tower of stone, and consists of a nave and chancel, the 
interior walls of which are elaborately ornamented with 
sculpture. In 1723, John Leach bequeathed a rent- 
charge of 22. 4., for teaching children, and clothing 
poor persons. 

LAWFORD, CHURCH (ST. PETER), a parish, in 
the union of RUGBY, Rugby division of the hundred of 
KNIGHTLOW, N. division of the county of WARWICK, 
4 miles (W. N. W.) from Rugby ; containing 333 inha- 
bitants. The London and Birmingham railway passes 
through the parish, which is situated on the left bank 
of the river Avon, and consists of 1747 acres : the por- 
tion occupied by the railway is returned at the annual 
value of 1200. The living is a rectory, with the vicar- 
age of King's-Newnham united, valued in the king's 
books at 11. 15. 5. j net income, 196 ; patron, Lord 
John Scott. 

LAWFORD, LITTLE, a hamlet, in the parish of 
NEWBOLD-UPON-AVON, union of RUGBY, Rugby division 
of the hundred of KNIGHTLOW, N. division of the county 
of WARWICK, 4 miles (W.) from Rugby ; containing 34 
inhabitants, and comprising 410 acres. It is situated 
on the right bank of the river Avon, and is skirted by 
the Oxford canal. 

LAWFORD, LONG, a hamlet, in the parish of 
NEWBOLD-UPON-AVON, union of RUGBY, Rugby division 
of the hundred of KNIGHTLOW, N. division of the county 
of WARWICK, 2^ miles (W. N. W.) from Rugby; con- 
taining 625 inhabitants. It comprises 1578 acres, and 
is intersected by the London and Birmingham railway, 
which here approaches close to the left bank of the 
river Avon. A school is supported by subscription, for 
the benefit of the poor. 

LAWHITTON (ST. MICHAEL), a parish, in the union 
and parliamentary borough of LAUNCESTON, N. division 
of the hundred of EAST, E. division of CORNWALL, 2| 
miles (S. E. by E.) from Launceston ; containing 487 
inhabitants. This place was anciently the occasional 
residence of the bishops of Exeter, one of whom ob- 
tained for the inhabitants a weekly market and a fair, 
which are now discontinued. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 19- 6. 8., and in the gift 
of the Bishop : the tithes have been commuted for 360, 
and the glebe comprises 90 acres, with a house. A school 
is supported by subscription. 



L A W II 



L A X T 



LAWKLAND, a township, in the parish of CLAP- 
HAM, union of SETTLE, W. division of the wapentake of 
STAINCLIFFE and EWCROSS, W. riding of YORK, 3 
miles (N. W. by W.) from Settle ; containing 364 inha- 
bitants. The township is situated on the road from 
Settle to Kirkby-Lonsdale, and comprises, with the 
hamlet of Eldroth, 4220 acres, chiefly meadow and pas- 
ture, of customary freehold tenure in the manor of 
Lawkland, the property of Thomas Ingleby, Esq., whose 
seat, Lawkland Hall, is a noble mansion of the time of 
Elizabeth, and contrasts favourably with many modern 
erections in the style of that age. Crow-nest Scarr is 
a very remarkable and singular range of rocks : good 
stone is quarried in the vicinity. The chapel at Eldroth, 
formerly a chapel of ease to the mother church, is still 
in a measure used for divine worship, and also for a 
school, which is endowed with 2a. Ir. of land, and 
6. 10., for the instruction of six free scholars. The 
tithes are in lease, in trust for the landowners, for 
three lives. 

LAWLEY, a township, in the parish and union of 
WELLINGTON, Wellington division of the hundred of 
SOUTH BRADFORD, N. division of SALOP ; containing 
173 inhabitants. 

LAWLING, a chapelry, in the parish of LATCHING- 
DON, union of MALDON, hundred of DENGIE, S. division 
of ESSEX, 5^ miles (N. W.) from Burnharn. 

LAWRENCE, ST., a parish, in the union of MAL- 
DON, hundred of DENGIE, S. division of ESSEX, 3 miles 
(S. W. by W.) from Bradwell-near-the-Sea ; contain- 
ing 176 inhabitants. It comprises 203 la. 3r. 7p., of 
which 91 acres are common or waste land ; the soil 
is in some parts a heavy clay, in others lighter and 
more easily pulverized ; the surface is hilly, and the low 
lands are watered by the Blackwater river, which is 
navigable, and bounds the parish on the north. The 
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 18. 6. 8., 
and in the patronage of the Crown : the tithes have been 
commuted for 550, and the glebe comprises 7 acres. 
The church is a plain ancient edifice, pleasantly situated 
on a hill. 

LAWRENCE, ST., KENT. See LAURENCE, ST. 

LAWRENCE, ST., a chapelry, in the parish and 
union of PRESTON, hundred of AMOUNDERNESS, N. 
division of the county of LANCASTER, 5^ miles (W. N. 
W.) from Preston. 

LAWRENCE, ST., a parish, in the liberty of EAST 
MEDINA, Isle of Wight division of the county of SOUTH- 
AMPTON, 8-f- miles (S. S. E.) from Newport ; containing 
114 inhabitants. The parish consists of a narrow dis- 
trict, extending about a mile and a half along the sea- 
coast, and forming part of a romantic tract called 
Undercliff; it comprises by measurement 300 acres, of 
which about 20 are in plantations, chiefly of juniper 
trees, 50 meadow, and the remainder arable land in 
good cultivation. The living is a discharged rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 4; net income, 106; 
patron, Earl of Yarborough. The tithes are held by the 
earl and the rector, and that portion of them belonging 
to the latter has been commuted for 84 ; the glebe 
comprises 18 acres. The church is an ancient structure, 
in the early English style, and is only 25 feet in length, 
and 12 in width, within the walls. In a field near it 
are the remains of a chantry. A national school is 
supported by subscription. 
37 



LAWRENCE, ST., ILKETSHALL, county of SUF- 
FOLK. See ILKETSHALL, ST. LAWRENCE. 

LAWRENCE - WESTON. See WESTON, LAW- 

RENCE. 

LAWSHALL (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union 
of SUDBURY, hundred of BABERGH, W. division of SUF- 
FOLK, 6| miles (S. by E.) from Bury St. Edmund's j 
containing 925 inhabitants, and consisting by survey 
of 2998 acres. The living is a rectory, valued in the 
king's books at 20. 2. 8., and in the patronage of the 
Dowager Lady Middleton : the tithes have been com- 
muted for 700, and the glebe comprises 29 acres. In 
1S26, two schoolrooms were erected. The remains of 
a Roman station, considered to have been Cambretonium, 
not far from the source of the river Bret, are clearly 
visible. 

LAWTON, CHURCH (ALL SA INTS), a parish, in the 
union of CONGLETON, hundred of NORTHWICH, S. divi- 
sion of the county of CHESTER, 6 miles (S. by E.) from 
Newcastle - under -Lyme ; containing 622 inhabitants. 
The parish is situated on the great road to Liverpool, 
and comprises 1452a. 2 Ip. Its substratum contains 
coal of good quality, of which mines were formerly in 
operation ; and there are some brine-pits from which 
salt is made, and in which about thirty persons are 
employed. The Trent and Mersey canal passes through 
the parish, and is here joined by the Macclesfield canal. 
The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 9. 2. 7-, and in the gift of C. B. Lawton, 
Esq. : the tithes have been commuted for 260, and the 
glebe comprises 37 acres, with a house. The church, 
supposed to have formed part of an ancient abbey, of 
which it occupies the site, has been rebuilt ; it is, with 
the exception of the tower, of handsome elevation, and 
has a Norman porch on the south side. Schools are 
supported by Mr. Lawton ; and there is a place of wor- 
ship for Wesleyans. 

LAXFIELD (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union 
and hundred of HOXNE, E. division of SUFFOLK, 7 miles 
(N. by E.) from Framlingham ; containing 1172 inha- 
bitants, and the parish consisting of 3630 acres by ad- 
measurement. The living is a discharged vicarage, 
annexed to that of Cratfield, and valued in the king's 
books at 9. 13. 4. : the impropriate tithes have been 
commuted for 617. 10., and the vicarial for 220 ; the 
glebe comprises 14 acres. The church is a very spacious 
and handsome structure, with a lofty square embattled 
tower ; the chancel was rebuilt by Lord Huntingfield, 
in 1827. There is a place of worship for Baptists. A 
free school was founded in 1718, by John Smith, who 
endowed it with the proceeds of his estates ; the income 
exceeds 200 per annum. Ann Ward, in 1721, devised 
a rent-charge of 30 for teaching children, and for other 
charitable purposes ; the town lands produce 80 per 
annum, and there is a house, called the Guildhall, for 
the poor. A corn market is held during the winter 
months on Monday. 

LAXTON (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union of 
UPPINGHAM, hundred of CORBY, N. division of the 
county of NORTHAMPTON, 7^ miles (N. E. by E.) from 
Rockingham ; containing 136 inhabitants. The parish 
comprises 1297a. 2r. 35p. The living is a perpetual 
curacy, in the patronage of Lord Carbery. 

LAXTON, or LEXINGTON (ST. MICHAEL), a parish, 
in the union of SOUTHWELL, South Clay division of the 



L A Y C 



LAYS 



wapentake of BASSETLAW, N. division of the county of 
NOTTINGHAM, 2f miles (S. S. W.) from Tuxford ; con- 
taining, with the hamlet of Moorhonse, 642 inhabitants. 
The parish comprises by measurement 3955 acres, of 
which 1245 are open fields and common, 1 18 woods and 
plantations, and the remainder principally arable ; the 
soil is chiefly a strong clay, with some tracts of black 
vegetable mould. The village, which is considerable, 
and situated on a gentle acclivity, appears to have been 
formerly a place of some importance, having given the 
title of baron to the family of Lexington. The living is 
a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
11 ; patron and impropriator, Earl Manvers. The 
great tithes have been commuted for 387. 16., and 
the vicarial for 225. 2. 6. ; the glebe comprises about 
one acre of ground, attached to the house. The church 
is a spacious structure, in the later English style, with 
a lofty tower, and was once replete with ancient and 
handsome monuments to several distinguished families. 
The chapel, which has been long used as a schoolroom, 
has been cleared out, and three effigies of crusaders, in 
full armour, have been removed into the chancel of the 
church, where are various others. At Moorhouse is a 
chapel of ease. There is a place of worship for Inde- 
pendents ; and a parochial school is supported by sub- 
scription. William Chappell, Bishop of Cork and Ross, 
in Ireland, who died in 1649, and was eminent for his 
piety and learning, was born here. 

LAXTON, a chapelry, in the parish and union of 
HOWDEN, wapentake of HOWDENSHIRE, E. riding of 
YORK, 3f- miles (S. E. by E.) from Howden ; containing 
266 inhabitants. It comprises about 1500 acres of 
land, and is situated to the north and east of the river 
Ouse, which makes a very considerable bend in the 
vicinity : the village is well built. The living is a per- 
petual curacy ; net income, 39 ; patron, Vicar of 
Howden. The chapel has ample accommodation for the 
inhabitants ; the chancel is of stone, but the nave and 
tower are built of brick. There is a place of worship for 
Wesleyans. 

LAYCOCK (Sr. CYRIACK), a parish, in the union 
and hundred of CHIPPENHAM, Chippenham and Calne, 
and N. divisions of WILTS, 3f miles (S.) from Chip- 
penham ; containing 1/80 inhabitants. An abbey for 
nuns of the order of St. Augustine was founded here 
in 1229, by Ela, Countess Dowager of Salisbury, and 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St. Bernard ; it con- 
tinued to flourish till the Dissolution, when its revenue 
was returned at 203. 12. 3. ; the remains have been 
converted into a private residence. The Countess of 
Salisbury, during her widowhood, held the shrievalty of 
the county of Wilts, in the reign of Henry III. ; and in 
a room in which the records are kept, is a copy of the 
charter sent to her as such by that monarch, for the 
use of the knights and military tenants of the county. 
A weekly market and an annual fair were granted to 
the abbey, but the former has long been disused, 
and fairs are now held on July 1st and December 21st. 
The parish comprises 3546 acres, of which 46 are com- 
mon or waste. The living is a vicarage, valued in the 
king's books at 8. 4. 2. ; patroii and impropriator, 
W. H. F. Talbot, Esq. : the great tithes have been com- 
muted for 341. 10. 6., and the vicarial for 325, and 
the glebe comprises 7 acres. The church contains 
several monuments to the family of Montague, -who 
38 



formerly resided at Lackham House, in the parish. 
There is a place of worship for Independents. 

LAYER-BRETON, a parish, in the union of LEX- 
DEN and WINSTREE, hundred of WINSTREE, N. divi- 
sion of ESSEX, 6 miles (E. by S.) from Kelvedon ; con- 
taining 290 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 
933 acres, of which 803 are arable, 90 pasture, and 40 
heath. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 7 ; net income, 288 ; patron, Rev. R. W. 
Sutton. There are places of worship for the Society of 
Friends and Independents ; and a school is conducted 
on the national plan. 

LAYER-DE-LA-HAY, a parish, in the union of 
LEXDEN and WINSTREE, hundred of WINSTREE, N. 
division of ESSEX, 4^ miles (S. W. by S.) from Col- 
chester ; containing 73 1 inhabitants. The parish com- 
prises 2577 acres, of which 59 are common or waste ; 
it is the most easterly of the three parishes of the name. 
The land is generally wet, and in some parts is a light 
soil, well adapted for turnips, and in others a very 
shallow loam. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net 
income, 82 ; patron, Sir G. H. Smyth, Bart. ; impro- 
priator, J. Pearson, Esq., whose tithes have been com- 
muted for 680. The church is a plain edifice, with a 
stone tower. There is a national school. 

LAYER-MARNEY (S T . MARY), a parish, in the 
union of LEXDEN and WINSTREE, hundred of WINS- 
TREE, N. division of ESSEX, 5 miles (E. by S.) from 
Kelvedon ; containing 256 inhabitants. It comprises by 
measurement 1900 acres, of which about 100 are wood- 
land and plantation, and the remainder chiefly arable. 
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books 
at 15. 3. 4., and in the gift of Quintin Dick, Esq. : the 
tithes have been commuted for 466, and the glebe 
comprises 3 acres. The church is principally in the 
later English style, and contains several fine monuments 
of the Marney family. In an ancient brick edifice, 
about 50 yards from the church, William de Marney, 
in 1330, founded a college for a warden and two chap- 
lains. 

LAYHAM (Sr. ANDREW), a parish, in the union 
and hundred of COSFORD, W. division of SUFFOLK, l 
mile (S. by E.) from Hadleigh ; containing 549 inhabit- 
ants, and consisting of 2488a. 2r. 29p. The living is a 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 16. 0. 7^., and 
in the gift of St. John's College, Cambridge : the tithes 
have been commuted for 800, and the glebe com- 
prises 7 1 acres. 

LAYMORE, a tything, in the parish and hundred 
of CREWKERNE, union of CHARD, W. division of SO- 
MERSET ; containing, with part of Black-Down hamlet, 
and the hamlets of Horn, Ash, and Greenham, 208 in- 
habitants. 

LAYSTERS (ST. ANDREW), a parish, in the union 
of LEOMINSTER, hundred of WOLPHY, county of HERE- 
FORD, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from Tenbury ; containing 226 
inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the east by a 
part of Worcestershire, and intersected by the road 
from Tenbury to Leominster, and comprises by mea- 
surement 1977 acres. Its soil is generally a moderately 
tenacious clay, resting on a bed of coarse limestone ; the 
surface is finely undulated, and the surrounding scenery 
diversified. The grain produced is of excellent quality, 
and the breed of cattle in much repute. The living is a 
perpetual curacy ; net income, 335 j patron, Thomas 



L A ZO 



LEA 



Elton Miller, Esq. ; impropriator and incumbent, the 
Rev. J. K. Miller. An ancient ecclesiastical establish- 
ment here was connected with the priory of Sheen, in 
Surrey ; and there are still some vestiges of the build- 
ings on a farm called the Cinders, which is partially 
surrounded by a moat. 

LAYSTHORPE, with EAST NEWTON, a township, 
in the parish of STONEGRAVE, union of HELMSLEY, 
wapentake of RYEDALE, N. riding of YORK, 3^ miles 
(S. S. E.) from Helmsley ; containing 82 inhabitants. 
The township, which comprises by computation 860 
acres, is situated south of the river Rye, and the road 
from Gilling to Helmsley passes on the west. 

LAYSTON (Sr. BARTHOLOMEW}, a parish, in the 
union of BUNTINGFORD, hundred of EDWINSTREE, 
county of HERTFORD, f of a mile (N. N. E.) from Bunt- 
ingford ; containing 1187 inhabitants. The living is a 
vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of Buntingford 
annexed, valued in the king's books at 14. 16. 2. ; net 
income, 149 ; patron and impropriator, William Butt, 
Esq. The church is situated in the fields, about half a 
mile eastward from the town of Buntingford, in the 
centre of the site of the ancient village of Layston, which 
has totally disappeared ; it is used only for the solemni- 
zation of marriages, the parishioners resorting to the 
chapel at Buntingford, on account of its greater con- 
venience. There are two small endowments for instruc- 
tion. See BUNTINGFORD. 

LAYTHAM, a township, in the parish of AUGHTON, 
nnion of HOWDEN, Holme-Beacon division of the wa- 
pentake of HARTHILL, E. riding of YORK, 8 miles (N.) 
from Howden ; containing 109 inhabitants. It com- 
prises by computation 1270 acres, the property of 
various persons ; the river Derwent passes on the west, 
and the road from Duffield to Holme on the south. 

LAYTON, with WARBRICK, a township, in the parish 
of BISPHAM, union of the FYLDE, hundred of AMOUN- 
DERNESS, N. division of the county of LANCASTER, 2^ 
miles (S. W.) from Poult on ; containing 1968 inhabit- 
ants. Rent-charges, as commutations for the tithes, 
have been awarded amounting to 241. 4., of which 
1. 4. are payable to an impropriator, 38. 3. to the 
perpetual curate of Trinity Chapel, South Shore, and 
201. 17- to the impropriate curate of Bispham, who has 
also a glebe of 4 acres. Two schools are supported by 
subscription. 

LAYTON, EAST, a township, in the parish of 
STANWICK ST. JOHN, union of RICHMOND, wapentake 
of GILLING-WEST, N. riding of YORK, 10 miles 
(E. N. E.) from Darlington ; containing 117 inhabitants. 
The township comprises by computation 1010 acres of 
land : the village is situated on the crown of a fertile 
eminence commanding extensive views. The clergymen 
of the adjoining parishes officiate here alternately in a 
small chapel. 

LAYTON, WEST, a township, in the parish of 
HUTTON-MAGNUM, union of RICHMOND, wapentake of 
GILLING-WEST, N. riding of YORK, 4f- miles (S. E. by 
E.) from Greta-Bridge 5 containing 88 inhabitants. It 
comprises about 730 acres, partly the property of Lord 
Rokeby. The village, which is small, is seated on an 
eminence, and lies on the road from Greta-Bridge to 
Hartforth. The lands are partly in farms. 

LAZONBY (ST. NICHOLAS}, a parish, in the union of 
PENRITH, LEATH ward, E. division of CUMBERLAND ; 
39 



containing, with the chapelry of Plumpton- \Vall, S91 
inhabitants, of whom 570 are in the township of La- 
zonby, 7 miles (N. N. E.) from Penrith. The township 
comprises 7980a. Ir. 1/p., of which 3888a. 2r. 20p. are 
arable, 1 140a. 2r. 35p. woods and plantations, 62a. 2r. 
7p. meadow and pasture, and 2S88a. Ir. 35/>. waste. 
The village is situated on the west bank of the river 
Eden, and the surrounding country is pleasing. There 
are good quarries of freestone, and one producing stone 
for millstones. The living is a vicarage, endowed with 
a portion of the rectorial tithes, and valued in the king's 
books at 13. 1. 3. ; net income, 551 ; patron, Bishop- 
of Carlisle : the impropriation of the remainder of the 
rectorial tithes belongs to the poor of the chapelry of 
Witherslack, Westmorland. In Baron Wood is a lofty 
rock, wherein is an artificial cave, called Giant's Cham- 
ber, or Samson's Cave. The great Roman road passes 
from north to south, and another intersects the parish 
in a direction towards Salkeld Gate. At Castle Rigg 
are the ruins of a moated building ; and upon the fell, 
urns, containing bones and ashes, were discovered some 
years since. There are also several cairns. 

LEA, a township, in the parish of BACKFORD, union 
of GREAT BOUGHTON, Higher division of the hundred 
of WIRRALL, S. division of the county of CHESTER, 
4 miles (N. N. W.) from Chester; containing 115 in- 
habitants. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for 
29, and the appropriate for 62, payable to the Bishop 
of Chester. 

LEA, a township, in the parish of WYBUNBURY, 
union and hundred of NANTWICH, S. division of the 
county of CHESTER ; containing 68 inhabitants. The 
tithes have been commuted for 50. 10., of which 9 
are payable to the vicar, and 41. 10. to the Bishop of 
Lichfield. 

LEA, county of DERBY. See DETHWICK-LEA. 

LEA, a tything, in the parish of ALMONDSBURY, 
Lower division of the hundred of THORNBURY, union of 
THORNBURY, W. division of the county of GLOUCES- 
TER ; containing 57 inhabitants. 

LEA (-ST. JOHN), a parish, in the union of Ross, 
partly in the hundred of ST. BRIA YELL'S, county of 
GLOUCESTER, and partly in that of GREYTREE, county 
of HEREFORD, 4^ miles (E. S. E.) from Ross 5 contain- 
ing 209 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on 
the road from Gloucester to Ross, and included within 
the electoral boundary for the county of Hereford, com- 
prises 66la. 2r. 12p. Building-stone is found in several 
parts of the parish, but there is no regular quarry. The 
living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 68 ; patron, 
Vicar of Linton. The church is an ancient structure, 

LEA, with ASHTON, INGOL, and COTTAM, a town- 
ship, in the parish and union of PRESTON, hundred of 
AMOUNDERNESS, N. division of the county of LAN- 
CASTER, 3^ miles (W. by N.) from Preston j containing 
710 inhabitants, of whom 273 are in the hamlet of 
Lea. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for 
235. 0. 10f., and the vicarial for 13. Here is a 
Roman Catholic chapel. A school was endowed in 
1784, by S. Neeld ; the property consists of a farm- 
house and 25 acres of land, producing 82. 10. per 
annum. 

LEA (ST. HELEN), a parish, in the union of GAINS- 
BOROUGH, wapentake of CORRINGHAM, parts of LIND- 
SEY, county of LINCOLN, 2 miles (S. S. E.) from Gains- 



LE A C 



LEAK 



borough ; containing 198 inhabitants. Gypsum is found 
under the marl in the parish. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 9. 4. 2., and in the gift 
of the Rev. Sir C. J. Anderson, Bart. : the tithes have 
been commuted for 392. 8. 10., and the glebe com- 
prises 42 acres. Here are some fish-ponds and a moat, 
the remains of a Cistercian nunnery founded in 1180, at 
Hevening, in the parish, by Reyner Evermue ; it was 
dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and at the Dis- 
solution had a revenue of 58. 13. 4. 

LEA (Sr. GILES), a parish, in the union and hun- 
dred of MALMESBURY, Malmesbury and Kingswood, and 
N. divisions of WILTS, l|- mile (E. S. E.) from Malmes- 
bury ; containing, with the hamlet of Cleverton, 446 
inhabitants. The parish is situated near the river Avon, 
and comprises by measurement 1691 acres, of which 
312 are arable, 1332 pasture, and 10 woodland; the 
soil of nearly one-half is a sandy loam, and of the other 
a tenacious clay. The living is annexed to the rectory 
of Garsdon ; the impropriate tithes have been com- 
muted for 30, and the vicarial for 188. 9., and the 
glebe comprises 44 acres. The church is a very ancient 
structure, supposed to have been erected before the 
Conquest, and appears to have been partly rebuilt at a 
remote period ; it contains 200 sittings, half of which 
are free. 

LEA-BAILEY, a tything, in the parish of NEW- 
LAND, union of Ross, hundred of ST. BRIAVELL'S, W. 
division of the county of GLOUCESTER, 4^ miles (S. E.) 
from Ross ; containing 135 inhabitants. 

LEA-HALL, a hamlet, in the parish of BRADBORNE, 
hundred of WIRKSWORTH, S. division of the county of 
DERBY, 4^ miles (N. N. E.) from Ashbourn ; containing 
22 inhabitants. 

LEA-MARSTON (ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST), a parish, 
in the union of MERIDEN, Atherstone division of the 
hundred of HEMLINGFORD, N. division of the county of 
WARWICK, 4 miles (N.) from Coleshill ; containing 278 
inhabitants. The parish is situated on the banks of the 
river Tame, and contains 1422 acres of a productive 
soil ; and in the neighbourhood the Derby railway 
branches Off into two lines, one leading to Birmingham 
and the other to Hampton-in-Arden, where it joins the 
London and Birmingham railway. The living is a per- 
petual curacy ; net income, 99 ; patron and impro- 
priator, C. B. Adderley, Esq. : the tithes were com- 
muted for land in 1775. A school with a small endow- 
ment is further supported by subscription. 

LEA-NEWBOLD, a township, in the chapelry of 
BUERTON, parish of ST. OSWALD, CHESTER, union of 
GREAT BOUGHTON, Lower division of the hundred of 
BROXTON, S. division of the county of CHESTER, 
6 miles (S. S. E.) from Chester ; containing 42 inhabit- 
ants. The vicarial tithes have been commuted for 
31. 

LEACH, with MARLSTON, a township, in the parish 
of ST. MARY, CHESTER, union of GREAT BOUGHTON, 
Lower division of the hundred of BROXTON, S. division 
of the county of CHESTER, 2 miles (S. W.) from Ches- 
ter; containing 148 inhabitants. 

LEACROFT, with HEDNESFORD, a township, in the 
parish of CANNOCK, union of PENKRIDGE, E. division 
of the hundred of CUTTLESTONE, S. division of the 
county of STAFFORD, 6 miles (S. E. by E.) from Penk- 
ridge ; containing 532 inhabitants. Here is a con- 
40 



siderable manufactory for edge-tools; and coal is 
raised. 

LEADENHAM (ST. SWITHIN), a parish, in the union 
of SLEAFORD, wapentake of LOVEDEN, parts of KKSTE- 
VEN, county of LINCOLN, 12 miles (N.) from Grantham ; 
containing 598 inhabitants. This parish, which is on 
the road from Grantham to Lincoln, comprises by mea- 
surement 3470 acres. The village is pleasantly situated 
amidst scenery of a picturesque character, and the air 
is highly salubrious. The living is a rectory, valued 
in the king's books at 29- 12. 8%., and in the gift of 
Mrs. Bernard Smith, with a net % income of 700 : the 
tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 
1/78. The church is partly in the decorated and partly 
in the later English style, with a tower and spire of 
graceful proportions ; part of the ancient rood-loft is 
remaining, and there are three piscinse in a very perfect 
state : the building has been repaired and beautified, 
and embellished with an east window of painted glass, 
at the expense of the Rev. T. Brown. There is an en- 
dowed school ; and a field, called the " Church grass," 
containing 52 acres, has been allotted for the repair of 
the church, and the relief of the poor. In the centre of 
the village is Nun's Close, supposed to have been the 
site of a convent. 

LEADEN-ROOTHING. See ROOTHING, LEADEN. 

LEAD-HALL, a township, in the parish of RYTHER, 
Upper division of the wapentake of BARKSTONE-ASH, 
W. riding of YORK, 5 miles (S. S. W.) from Tadcaster; 
containing 54 inhabitants. The township comprises 
about 700 acres. In the village is an ancient chapel of 
ease, in which divine service is performed twice in the 
year. 

LEADON, a township, in the parish of BISHOP'S- 
FROOME, union of BROMYARD, hundred of RADLOW, 
county of HEREFORD. 

LEADON, HIGH, a hamlet, in the parish of RUD- 
FORD, union of NEWENT, Lower division of the hundred 
of DUDSTONE and KING'S-BARTON, E. division of the 
county of GLOUCESTER, 5 miles (E. S. E.) from Newent ; 
containing 105 inhabitants. 

LEAFIELD, a chapelry, in the parish of SHIPTON- 
UNDER-WHICHWOOD, union of CHIPPING-NORTON, 
hundred of CHADLINGTON, county of OXFORD, 4 miles 
(N. W. by N.) from Witney ; containing 737 inhabit- 
ants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, 
55 ; patron, Vicar of Shipton ; appropriator, Preben- 
dary of Shipton in the Cathedral of Salisbury. The 
chapel was founded in the reign of Elizabeth by Sir 
Henry Upton, and dedicated to St. Michael ; it has 
been enlarged, and contains 250 free sittings, the In- 
corporated Society having granted 250 in aid of the 
expense. A national school-house was built in 1839. 
There are two barrows in the parish, one of which was 
opened in 1828 ; and ancient coins have been dug up. 
Lord Churchill appropriates several acres of land for 
the encouragement of spade husbandry, at a nominal 
rent, which has considerably benefited the place. 

LEAGRAM, with BOWLAND, a township, in the pa- 
rish of WHALLEY, union of CLITHEROE, Lower division 
of the hundred of BLACKBURN, N. division of the county 
of LANCASTER, 9 miles (W. N. W.) from Clitheroe; con- 
taining 273 inhabitants, of whom 141 are in Leagram. 

LEAKE (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union of THIRSK, 
chiefly in the wapentake of ALLERTONSHIRE, but partly 



LEAK 



LE A M 



in the wapentake of BIRDFORTH, N. riding of YORK ; 
comprising the chapelry of Nether Silton, and the town- 
ships of Borrowby, Crosby, Knayton with Brawith, 
Landmoth with Catto, Leake, and Gueldable ; and con- 
taining 1235 inhabitants, of whom 7 are in Leake town- 
ship, 6 miles (N.) from Thirsk. This was anciently a 
town of considerable importance, but was destroyed 
about the time of the Conquest, and the only remains of 
its former buildings are, the church, and mansion of the 
Danby family, now a farm-house, in which are some in- 
teresting and valuable paintings on the panels in one of 
the rooms. The parish comprises about 2830 acres. 
The living is a vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of 
Nether Silton annexed, valued in the king's books at 
16; net income, 320) patron, the Bishop of Ripon. 
The church is an ancient structure, partly Norman, and 
partly in the early English style, with a tower, on the 
front of which is a sun-dial rudely carved : in the 
churchyard several stone coffins have been dug up at 
different times, supposed to have contained the remains 
of Saxon or Danish warriors. 

LEAKE (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union of BOS- 
TON, wapentake. of SKI RBECK, parts of HOLLAND, county 
of LINCOLN, 7^ miles (N. E.) from Boston ; containing 
1859 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measure- 
ment 7044 acres ; the soil is various, in some parts 
richly fertile, and in others marsh and fen ; the lands 
have been materially improved by draining, and consi- 
derable portions of marsh have been brought into profit- 
able cultivation. A spacious canal, or drain, for carrying 
off the water from the fens, is made available for the 
purpose of navigation to Boston. The living is a dis- 
charged vicarage, valued in the king's books at 13. 6. 8., 
and in the patronage of the Governors of Oakingham 
and Uppingham grammar schools and hospitals, who 
are also impropriators. The tithes were commuted for 
land and a money payment in 1810 ; the income of the 
benefice, which was augmented in 1841, with 52 per 
annum, by a grant of 1200 from the patrons, and 400 
royal bounty, is now 210, with a glebe-house. The 
church is an ancient structure, built at different periods. 
There are two proprietary episcopal chapels, for the ac- 
commodation of the fenny districts ; also places of wor- 
ship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans ; and in 
the adjoining parish of Wrangle is a school, endowed 
for the instruction of children of both parishes, by the 
Rev. Thomas Allenson, who also bequeathed funds for 
distribution among the poor. The Rev. Jacob Conington, 
vicar, in 1718, left 40 acres of land, producing 98 per 
annum, to his successors, for morning service every 
Wednesday and Friday in the week, and on all holydays 
throughout the year. 140 per annum, arising from nu- 
merous benefactions, are distributed among the poor; and 
10, the produce of land bequeathed by Simon Clarke, 
in the 44th of Elizabeth, are paid to a widow. There 
are some remains of two religious houses. 

LEAKE, EAST (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union 
of LOUGHBOROUGH, S. division of the wapentake of 
RUSHCLIFFE and of the county of NOTTINGHAM, 4|- 
miles (E.) from Kegworth; containing 1057 inhabitants, 
and consisting of 2400 acres. Nearly one-half of the 
population are employed in the manufacture of cotton 
stockings. Limestone of good quality is quarried for 
manure, and there are some pits of gravel and sand. 
Statute fairs are held at Candlemas and Martinmas. The 
VOL. III. 41 



living is a rectory, with that of West Leake united ; net 
income, 719; patron, Marquess of Hastings. The 
tithes were commuted for land and money payments in 
1798; the glebe comprises 460 acres. The church is a 
handsome structure, in the later English style. There 
are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. A free 
school was founded and endowed with land, about 1731, 
by John Blay : the income is 48 per annum. A girls' 
school is partly supported by the Rev. Dr. Halcombe. 

LEAKE, WEST (ST. HELEN), a parish, in the union 
of LOUGHBOROUGH, S. division of the wapentake of 
RUSHCLIFFE and of the county of NOTTINGHAM, 2f- 
miles (E.) from Kegworth; containing 208 inhabitants, 
and consisting of 1400 acres. The living is a rectory, 
united to that of East Leake, and valued in the king's 
books at 25. 4. 7- : the tithes have been commuted for 
130, and the glebe comprises 10 acres. The church is 
a very ancient structure, with an open campanile turret. 
A school is partly supported by the rector. 

LEAMINGTON-HASTINGS (ALL SAINTS), a pa- 
rish, in the union of RUGBY, Southam division of the 
hundred of KNIGHTLOW, S. division of the county of 
WARWICK, 4^ miles (N. N. E.) from Southam ; contain- 
ing, with the hamlets of Broadwell, Hill, and Kytes- 
Hardvvick, 509 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated 
on the river Learn, comprises by computation 3220 acres 
of fertile land. Limestone is abundant, and the blue 
lias kind crops up to the very surface. The Warwick and 
Napton canal passes through the parish, on the southern 
side. The living is an endowed vicarage, valued in the 
king's books at 20 ; net income, 695 ; patron, E. 
Sitwell, Esq. The church is an ancient structure. A 
parochial school on the national plan is supported by 
the produce of land granted at the inclosure of the parish. 
Eight almshouses are endowed with estates left by Hum- 
phrey Davis, and two were endowed with lands purchased 
with a bequest by Dame Wheler. There was anciently 
a chapel at Broadwell. 

LEAMINGTON-PRIORS (ALL SAINTS), a parish, 
and fashionable watering-place, in the union of WAR- 
WICK, Kenilworth division of the hundred of KNIGHT- 
LOW, S. division of the county of WARWICK, 2^ miles 
(E.) from Warwick, and 90 (N. W.) from London ; con- 
taining 12,864 inhabitants. This place derives its name 
from the river Learn, on which it stands, and from its 
having originally belonged to the priory of Kenilworth. 
It is beautifully situated in a fine open vale, surrounded 
by gentle acclivities richly clothed with wood ; and the 
river Learn, over which is a handsome stone bridge con- 
necting the old with the new town, and the river Avon, 
wind through the adjoining meadows. From an incon- 
siderable hamlet, consisting only of a few cottages, it has, 
on account of the celebrity of its mineral springs, risen 
with unprecedented rapidity, within the present century, 
into a large and populous town ; and the peculiar mild- 
ness of the temperature, and the salubrity of the air, 
contribute greatly to augment the number of its perma- 
nent residents. The mineral springs are of three kinds, 
viz., sulphureous, saline, and chalybeate : the water of 
the sulphureous spring, according to the analysis of Dr. 
London, contains sulphuric acid, magnesia, chlorine, 
soda, and lime, and the gases are oxygen, azote, car- 
bonic acid, and sulphuretted hydrogen. The saline water 
contains chlorine, lime, sulphuric acid, magnesia, silica, 
peroxyde of iron, and soda, and the gases are oxygen, azote, 

G 



LE A M 



LEAS 



and carbonic acid : the chalybeate water differs from the 
saline chiefly in the proportion of its several ingredients. 
The spring first discovered, and now called the Old Well, 
is described by Camden, Speed, and Dugdale ; its water 
was analyzed in 16S8, and it was recently inclosed by 
the Earl of Aylesford, who erected a neat pump-room 
over it, containing a marble fount, from which a pipe is 
conducted on the outside of the building, for the use of 
the poor. The second spring, where Smith's baths now 
stand, was discovered in 1784, by Mr. Abbots, who 
erected six warm baths, a cold bath, and shower baths, 
with dressing-rooms adjoining. The Imperial Fount 
and Marble Baths, in Clemens-street, contain a complete 
arrangement of hot, cold, sulphureous, vapour, fumigat- 
ing, and shower baths, with jets d'eau for topical appli- 
cation, and a pump of sulphureous, saline, and chaly- 
beate water, with every requisite accommodation and 
attendance. Wise's baths, at the corner of Bath-street ; 
Robbins' baths, near the bridge ; and various similar 
establishments, are all arranged with due care; and there 
is also a bathing establishment for the gratuitous use of 
the poor. The principal baths, however, are at the 
Royal Spa, a handsome stone edifice, with a colonnade 
of the Doric order extending the whole length of the 
front, and having, at each end, entrances leading re- 
spectively to the gentlemen's and ladies' baths ; the 
pump-room, which forms the centre of the building, 
contains an orchestra, in which a band performs during 
the hours of attendance. This structure forms one of 
the chief ornaments of the town, and is situated on the 
bank of the Learn. In proportion to the number and 
rank of the visiters are the hotels provided for their ac- 
commodation, all of which are fitted up with a consider- 
able degree of taste and elegance; and there are nume- 
rous private boarding and lodging houses. 

The town is well paved, and lighted with gas, under 
the direction of commissioners appointed by an act ob- 
tained for local purposes ; and the inhabitants are amply 
supplied with water. The streets are spacious, and in- 
tersect each other at right angles ; the houses are hand- 
some, and fronted with Roman cement, and many of 
them display elegant specimens of Grecian and other 
styles of architecture. A town-hall was lately erected. 
The public library and reading-rooms, in Bath-street, 
form a well-built edifice, with a colonnade of six Ionic 
pillars, supporting an entablature, and resting upon a 
piazza ; contiguous to the principal reading-room is a 
small orchestra, which is generally used in the winter 
season ; above the reading-rooms and library is a spa- 
cious assembly-room ; the card and refreshment rooms 
are equally splendid, and the whole suite is admirably 
adapted either for public or private meetings. The 
Upper Assembly-rooms, in the Union Parade, consist of 
a ball-room, at the end of which is a fine organ ; 
attached are card and refreshment rooms, and the entire 
range is completed by a library and reading-room. The 
Warwick races, which are held in March and Sept., 
attract numerous visiters ; and the Warwickshire hunt 
has become equally celebrated. The Rauelagh gardens 
contain a choice collection of plants and flowers. The 
market, which is on Wednesday, is* abundantly supplied 
with provisions. The Warwick and Napton canal passes 
through the town ; and the Grand Junction and Oxford 
canals afford a facility of water conveyance to all parts 
of the kingdom. The parish consists of 1072 acres of 
42 



productive land. The living is a discharged vicarage, 
valued in the king's books at 6. 10.; net income, 255; 
patron, Rev. Henry Wise ; impropriator, Earl of Ayles- 
ford. The church, an ancient structure in the decorated 
English style, with a tower, was lately considerably en- 
larged, and a spire added to it, and though it has under- 
gone many recent alterations, it still retains externally 
much of its original character. An episcopal chapel, in 
the upper part of the town, erected at the expense of the 
vicar, is professedly after the Norman model, and in 
many respects the details of that style have been imi- 
tated. St. Mary's chapel, erected in 1839, is a hand- 
some structure, in the later English style, with a square 
embattled tower crowned by pinnacles ; the interior is 
adapted for a congregation of 900 persons. There are 
places of worship for Baptists, Independents, Wesleyans, 
and Roman Catholics ; the last having, in a niche over 
the entrance, a full-length figure of St. Peter. A na- 
tional school is supported by subscription ; and an hos- 
pital, occupying a site given by the Earl of Aylesford, 
who is lord of the manor, was recently erected on the 
London road, by the munificent donations of the Rev. 
Dr. Warneford, aided by subscriptions. There are 
various bequests for the poor. 

LEAP, a tything, in the chapelry of EXBURY, parish 
of FAWLEY, union of NEW-FOREST, hundred of BISHOP'S- 
WALTHAM, Southampton and S. divisions of the county 
of SOUTHAMPTON, ll miles (E. by N.) from Lyming- 
ton. The village is nearly opposite to Cowes, in the Isle 
of Wight. 

LEARCHILD, a township, in the parish of EDLING- 
HAM, union of ALNWICK, N. division of COQUETDALE 
ward and of NORTHUMBERLAND, 6 miles (W. S. W.) 
from Alnwick : containing 35 inhabitants. It lies one 
mile west from Edlingham, and consists of lands set out 
in farms. The road between Morpeth and Wooler runs 
at a little distance on the west. 

LEARMOUTH, a district, in the parish of CARHAM, 
union of GLENDALE, W. division of GLENDALE ward, N. 
division of NORTHUMBERLAND, 2 miles (S.) from. 
Coldstream. It includes East and West Learmoutb, 
Tithe-Hill, and Hagg, and comprises 2200 acres, of which 
the whole is arable, with interspersions of woodland ; 
the surface is undulated, and the soil a good loam, with 
light turnip ground : there is a whinstone quarry, over- 
laid with freestone. The river Tweed bounds the dis- 
trict on the north for a quarter of a mile. The hamlet 
of West Learmouth is situated near the bourne to which 
it gives name, and though now very small, was once a 
thriving village, but it became almost depopulated by 
the system of throwing a number of small farms into 
one of great extent. East Learmouth lies at the junction 
of four roads. There is an old burial-ground, now neg- 
lected. In an adjoining marl-pit were found, some years 
since, several large stag-horns, and a curious oaken pad- 
dle, such as the South Sea islanders use. A mineral 
spring here is impregnated with iron. 

LEA SINGH AM, NORTH (Sr. JOHN THE BAPTIST), 
a parish, in the union of SLEAFORD, wapentake of FLAX- 
WELL, parts of KESTEVEN, county of LINCOLN, 2f miles 
(N. by W.) from Sleaford ; containing, with the hamlet 
of Roxholme, 472 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, 
united, in 1726, to the rectory of South Leasingham, 
and valued in the king's books at 10. 15. 5. The 
church has been demolished. 



L E A T 



L E A V 



LEASINGHAM, SOUTH (Sr. ANDREW), a parish, 
in the union of SLEAFORD, wnpentake of FLAXWELL, 
parts of KESTEVEN, county of LINCOLN, 2 miles (N. N. 
W.) from Sleaford ; containing 397 inhabitants. The 
living is a rectory, with that of North Leasingham 
united, valued in the king's books at 13. 2. 8^. ; net 
income, 924; patron, Sir J. Thorold, Bart. The tithes 
of South Leasingham have been commuted for 640, 
and the glebe comprises 40 acres. A small school is 
supported partly by charity. 

LEATHERHEAD (ST. MARY AND ST. NICHOLAS), a 
parish, and formerly a market-town, in the union of 
EPSOM, Second division of the hundred of COPTHORNE 
and EFFINGHAM, W. division of SURREY, 12 miles 
(E. N. E.) from Guildfoid, and 18 (S. W. by S.) from 
London containing 1740 inhabitants. This place, 
anciently called Leddrede, comprises 3507 acres, of 
which 416 are common -Or waste ; it is pleasantly situ- 
ated on the river Mole, over which is a bridge of four- 
teen arches, built of brick. The vale through which 
the stream flows, in its course to Reigate, is bounded 
on each side by a range of steep eminences, on the 
declivities of which are numerous elegant seats, with 
fine parks and plantations; and the scenery in the 
neighbourhood is highly beautiful. The trade of the 
town is inconsiderable : there are a tanyard and 
brewery ; and a fair is held on Oct. llth, in a field to 
the north, chiefly for the sale of horses and pigs. The 
living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's 
books at 14. 6. 0. ; patrons, Dean and Chapter of 
Rochester. The church is a cruciform structure, said 
to have been founded by Edward I. ; the nave and 
aisles are in the early, the chancel in the decorated, and 
the tower and north transept in the later, English style ; 
the east window is ornamented with stained glass, and 
there is a fine screen. The Independents have a place 
of worship. A free school, endowed with 30 per an- 
num, principally from bequests by John Lucas and 
David White, has merged into a national school, for 
which a school-house was erected hi 1839. Several 
benefactions have been made for distribution among the 
poor. Judge Jeffreys resided in a house in the town, 
now the property of Col. Spicer. 

LEATHLEY, a parish, in the Upper division of the 
wapentake of CLARO, W. riding of YORK ; containing, 
with the township of Castley, 382 inhabitants, of whom 
272 are in the township of Leathley, 2^ miles (N. E. by 
E.) from Otley. This parish, which is situated on the 
north side of the vale of the river Wharfe, comprises by 
admeasurement 1839 acres, chiefly the property of F. H. 
Hawkes, Esq., lord of the manor ; the surface is varied, 
and the village neatly built. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 7. 2. 8^., and in the 
patronage of the Crown ; net income, 302. The 
church, which appears to have been erected about 400 
years, affords, from its peculiar situation, when viewed 
at a distance, a pleasing object in the picturesque 
scenery. There is a place of worship for dissenters. A 
free school, and almshouses for four persons, were 
founded in 1769, by Mrs. Anne Hitch, who endowed 
them with 12 per annum for the master, and 4 for 
each of the almspeople, and 2 are received for repairs, 
making in the whole 30 ; the school and master's 
house form the centre, and the apartments for the alms- 
people the wings, of a handsome range of building. 
43 



LEATON, with WOOLASCOTT, a township, in the 
parish of ST. MARY, SHREWSBURY, hundred of PIM- 
HILL, N. division of SALOP, 4 miles (N. N. W.) from 
Shrewsbury; containing 2*7 inhabitants, of whom 254 
are in Leaton. The tithes have been commuted for 
157. 10., payable to the grammar school at Shrews- 
bury. 

LEAVELAND (ST. LAWRENCE), a parish, in the 
union and hundred of FAVERSHAM, Upper division of 
the lathe of SCR AY, E. division of KENT, 4 miles (S. by 
W.) from Faversham ; containing 100 inhabitants. It 
contains 300 acres, of which about 15 are in hop plan- 
tations. A fair is held in Whitsun-week. The living is 
a discharged rectory, united to that of Badlesmere, and 
valued in the king's books at 4. 

LEAVENING, a township, in the parish of ACKLAM, 
union of MALTON, wapentake of BUCKROSE, E. riding 
of YORK, 6^ miles (S.) from Malton ; containing 434 
inhabitants. It comprises about 1180 acres of land, 
broken into abrupt and occasionally picturesque undu- 
lations, and the property of various owners : the village, 
which is considerable, is situated upon a pleasant accli- 
vity at the western foot of the wolds. The tithes were 
commuted for land and a money payment in 1804. 
There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists 
and Wesleyans ; also a school, to which Lady Middle- 
ton contributes 20 per annum. 

LEAVINGTON, CASTLE, a township, in the parish 
of KIRK-LEAVINGTON, union of STOCKTON, W. division 
of the liberty of LANGBAURGH, N. riding of YORK, 2f 
miles (S. E. by E.) from Yarm ; containing 46 inhabit- 
ants. The manor and estate, which, at the time wheu 
the Domesday survey was taken, were demesne of the 
crown, continued in the possession of the successive 
sovereigns till the reign of Edward I., when they were 
granted to the Meinells, who held the lands till the time 
of Edward III., since which the property has passed 
through various families. The township is on the 
western side of the river Leven, and comprises 1006a. 
17p., of which 532 acres are arable, 389 meadow and 
pasture, 77 wood, and 6 roads and waste. On a large 
and steep eminence, of conical form, rising from the 
river side, and now called Castle hill, was anciently a 
castle, the residence of the Meinell family. The hill, on 
the west, south, and south-west, is nearly upon a level 
with the adjoining fields, from which it is guarded by a 
deep trench ; the sides on the east, south-east, and 
north, are almost perpendicular, and rise from the 
bottom to the summit, a height of about 200 yards 
above the river ; and the crown of the hill is a plain of 
40 paces in diameter, defended by a breastwork of earth 
of considerable height, forming a circle 200 paces round, 
with an opening or entrance on the south. The tithes, 
which belong to the Archbishop of York, have been 
commuted for 54, those of hay and corn of the 
greater part of the township being covered by a modus. 
Here are the Druidical remains of Ravenscarr. 

LEAVINGTON, KIRK (ST. MARTIN), a parish, in 
the union of STOCKTON, W. division of the liberty of 
LANGBAURGH, N. riding of YORK; containing, with 
the townships of Castle-Leavington, Pickton, and Low 
Worsall, 483 inhabitants, of whom 233 are in the town- 
ship of Kirk-Leavington, 2 miles (S. S. E.) from Yarm. 
This place, formerly called Leventon, and in Domesday 
book Lentune, or "the town upon the river Leven," was 

G2 



LECH 



L E C K 



once the inheritance of the crown, and was bestowed by 
the Conqueror upon the Unices, who held under the 
king, and continued proprietors until about the time of 
Richard I., or John, when the estate passed to the 
Percys, with whom it remained up to the reign of 
Henry VIII., since which time the lands have been 
owned by different families. The place suffered greatly 
in the incursion made by the Scots, under the command 
of Sir James Douglas and the Earl of Murray, in the 
12th of Edward II., and on this account the inhabitants 
were exempted in the following year by that monarch 
from paying his taxes. The parish is on the road from 
Yarm to Thirsk, and is bounded on the west by the 
river Tees, and on the east by the Leven, which 
flows through a picturesque dale : the township com- 
prises 2 133a. Ir. 35p., of which 1170 acres are arable, 
782 meadow and pasture, 20 woodland, and 160 roads 
and waste. The soil is chiefly a strong fertile clay, 
more favourable for corn than grass ; the level grounds 
near the Tees, at Worsall, and on the border of the 
Leven, at Castle-Leavington, consist of a deep rich 
loam ; about Pickton the soil is rather inferior. From 
various situations are fine views of the Cleveland hills. 
The living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 63 ; 
patron and appropriator, the Archbishop of York, whose 
tithes have been commuted for 428. The church is a 
small ancient edifice. The poor have about 8 per an- 
num, the rent of two cottages and an acre of land, be] 
queathed by William Hall, in 1792. 

LECHLADE (ST. LAWRENCE), a market-town and 
parish, in the union of FARRINGDON, hundred of 
BRIGHTWELLS-BARROW, E. division of the county of 
GLOUCESTER, 28 miles (S. E.) from Gloucester, and 75 
(W. by N.) from London ; containing 1300 inhabitants. 
The name is derived from the little river Leche, and the 
Saxon word ladean, to empty ; that stream, which rises 
near Northleach, falling into the Thames below St. 
John's bridge, in the parish. The town, situated on the 
margin of the Thames, and on the road from Cirences- 
ter to London, is neatly built, and consists principally 
of two long and wide streets ; the inhabitants are sup- 
plied with water from wells. Its commerce formerly 
depended chiefly on the transit of commodities, particu- 
larly Wiltshire and Gloucester cheese, brought hither 
for conveyance to the metropolis by the Thames, which 
becomes navigable at this place, where also the canal 
terminates which unites this river and the Severn ; but 
the traffic has within the last few years been diverted 
into another channel. The market, for which a grant 
was obtained by Richard. Earl of Cornwall, brother of 
Henry III., is held on Friday, but is almost disused : a 
fair, however, for cattle and toys on September 9th, is 
much frequented. A constable and a tythingman are 
appointed at a triennial court leet held by the lord of 
the manor. 

The parish comprises 3542a. Ir. "p. ; the pastures 
are rich, and the dairy-farms under good management ; 
the surface is pleasingly varied, and the surrounding 
scenery abounds with interest. The living is a vicarage, 
endowed with the rectorial tithes, and valued in the 
king's books at 12. 13. 4. j patron and incumbent, 
Rev. Edward Leigh Bennett, whose tithes have been 
commuted for 710. The church is a handsome struc- 
ture, in the later English style, built about the middle 
of the fifteenth century, at the joint expense of the 
44 



vicar, the inmates of Lechlade Priory, and the inhabit- 
ants of the parish ; the spire is remarkable for its sym- 
metrical beauty ; the interior was new-pewed and 
beautified in 1 829. There are a place of worship for 
Baptists, and a national school ; and benefactions, 
amounting to about 80 per annum, have been made to 
the poor. In a meadow near St. John's bridge formerly 
stood a priory of Black canons, dedicated to St. John 
the Baptist, which was founded by Richard, Earl of 
Cornwall, in the reign of Henry III., and the revenue of 
which, on its suppression in 1473, was applied to the 
foundation of a chantry in the parochial church. There 
was also an hospital on or near the bridge, founded by 
Peter Fitz-Herbert, about the time of Henry III. To- 
wards the end of the last century, a subterraneous 
structure was discovered in a meadow in the vicinity, 
with brick pillars and mosaic pavement, supposed to 
have been a Roman bath, from which circumstance it 
has been conjectured that this was a Roman town, to 
which a vicinal road extended from Cirencester. There 
is a mineral spring. Thomas Coxeter, an eminent anti- 
quary, was born here in 1689. 

LECK, a chapelry, in the parish of TUNSTALL, union 
of LANCASTER, hundred of LONSDALE, south of the 
Sands, N. division of the county of LANCASTER, 2 miles 
(S. E. by E.) from Kirkby-Lonsdale ; containing 288 
inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net in- 
come, 60 ; patron, Vicar of Tunstall ; impropriator, 
W. C. Wilson, Esq. 

LECKBY, with CUNDALL, a township, in the parish 
of CUNDALL, wapentake of HALLIKELD, N. riding of 
YORK, 6 miles (N. byE.) from Boroughbridge; contain- 
ing 188 inhabitants. The township, which comprises 
by computation 2120 acres, is situated on the western 
side of the river Swale. The hamlet is about a mile 
north from Cundall. 

LECKFORD (Sr. NICHOLAS), a parish, in the union 
of STOCKBRIDGE, hundred of KING'S-SOMBOURN, An- 
dover and N. divisions of the county of SOUTHAMPTON, 
If mile (N. N. E.) from Stockbridge j containing 231 
inhabitants. The parish comprises 2200 acres, chiefly 
arable, with some excellent pasturage for sheep ; the 
surface is varied, and the scenery in some parts pictu- 
resque. The village is situated near the Andover canal, 
which passes through the parish, affording facility of 
conveyance for the produce of the chalk-pits, of which 
there are several in operation. The living is a dis- 
charged vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
8. 16. 10^., and in the patronage of the Prebendary of 
Leckford in the Cathedral of Winchester : the prebend, 
or sinecure rectory, valued in the king's books at 9, is 
in the gift of St. John's College, Oxford. The rec- 
torial tithes have been commuted for 400, and the 
vicarial for 142. 10.; there are 30 acres of rectorial, 
and one of vicarial glebe. The church is an ancient 
edifice. 

LECKHAMPSTEAD, a chapelry, in the parish of 
CHIEVELEY, union of NEWBURY, hundred of FAIRCROSS, 
county of BERKS, 5^ miles (S. W.) from East Ilsley j 
containing 3/2 inhabitants. It comprises 1742a. Ir. 
29p., of which 22 acres are common or waste. The im- 
propriate tithes have been commuted for 118. 10., and 
the vicarial for 100, and there is a glebe of nearly 13 
acres. A school is endowed with the sum of 14 per 
annum. 



L E C K 



L ED B 



LECKHAMPSTEAD (ST. MARY), a parish, in the 
union, hundred, and county of BUCKINGHAM, 3^ miles 
(N. E. by N.) from Buckingham ; containing 505 inha- 
bitants. The parish comprises 2522a. 2r. l6/>., of which 
1921 acres are meadow and pasture, 334 arable, and 
266 woodland ; the surface is finely undulated, and the 
scenery enriched with wood ; the low lands are watered 
by a brook that issues from Whittlebury forest ; the 
substratum abounds with limestone, which is quarried 
for building. A branch canal from Buckingham passes 
through the parish, and communicates with the Grand 
Junction at Cosgrove. The living is a rectory, valued 
in the king's books at 15. 13. 4., and in the gift of H. 
W. Beauclerk, Esq. : the tithes have been commuted 
for 517> and the glebe comprises 79 acres. The 
church contains an octagonal font, ornamented with 
representations of the Crucifixion, St. Catherine, &c., 
rudely executed in basso-relievo. A school for boys 
was endowed by John Smith, Esq., with 15 per an- 
num, in 1801. There is a chalybeate spring. Wycliffeis 
said to have held this living with that of Lutterworth. 

LECKHAMPTON (ST. PETER), a parish, in the 
union and hundred of CHELTENHAM, E. division of the 
county of GLOUCESTER, 2 miles (S. by W.) from Chelten- 
ham ; containing 1770 inhabitants, and consisting by 
survey of 1560 acres. There are quarries of stone of 
good quality, both for building and for burning into 
lime, for the conveyance of which facilities are afforded 
by a branch of the Gloucester and Cheltenham railway, 
which passes through the parish. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 18. 13. 4. ; net income, 
356 ; patron, H. N. Trye, Esq. The tithes were 
commuted for land in 1778 : the glebe comprises 170 
acres. An additional church, dedicated to St. Philip, 
was consecrated in May, 1840 ; it is a neat structure, 
and contains 800 sittings, half of which are free. A 
national school is supported by subscription. 

LECKONFIELD (ST. CATHERINE), a parish, in the 
union of BEVERLEY, Hunsley-Beacon division of the 
wapentake of HARTHILL, E. riding of YORK, 3 miles 
(N. N. W.) from Beverley ; containing, with the hamlet 
of Arram, 347 inhabitants. This place is memorable as 
the residence of the Percy family, earls of Northumber- 
land, whose stately castle, falling into decay, was taken 
down in 1600, to furnish materials for the repair of 
their castle of Wressel ; the site, comprising an area of 
about 4 acres, is now a rich pasture, but parts of the 
moat by which it was surrounded may still be distinctly 
traced. The manor, on the death of the llth earl with- 
out issue male, passed to his daughter's son, Algernon 
Seymour, Duke of Somerset, and from him to Sir Chas. 
Wyndham, Earl of Egremont, and is now the property 
of Col. Wyndham. The parish comprises about 4000 
acres, and a considerable portion is let to cottagers, in 
small allotments of 3 or 4 acres, by the lord of the 
manor, at a moderate rentj the surface is pleasingly 
varied, and the scenery in many parts picturesque. The 
village is neatly built, and the scattered hamlet of 
Arram, about a mile and a half to the east of it, extends 
nearly to the river Hull. The living is a perpetual 
curacy ; net income 48 ; patron and impropriator, Col. 
Wyndham. A parochial school was built in 1784, and 
is supported by subscription. The Rev. Robert Machell, 
the present incumbent, is a descendant of the family of 
Machell, one of whom accompanied Earl Percy from the 
45 



north to the castle of Leckonfield, in which, in the reign 
of Henry VII., he had a chamber always appointed for 
his use. 

LEDBURN, a hamlet, in the parish of MENTMORE, 
union of LEIGHTON-BUZZARD, hundred of COTTESLOE, 
county of BUCKINGHAM, 3 miles (S. W. by S.) from 
Leighton-Buzzard ; containing 169 inhabitants. 

LEDBURY (ST. MICHAEL), a market-town and pa- 
rish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of RAD- 
LOW, county of HEREFORD ; containing, with the town- 
ship of Parkhold, 4591 inhabitants, of whom 4549 are 
in the town, 15 miles (E. by S.) from Hereford, and 120 
(W. N. W.) from London. This place derives its name 
from the river Leden, which intersects the parish from 
north to south. The manor at the time of the Con- 
quest belonged to the bishops of Hereford, to whom 
it had been given by Edwin the Saxon, and who had 
formerly a park called Dingwood and an episcopal 
palace, of which there are now no remains. Queen 
Elizabeth gave other lands to the bishops in exchange 
for the manor, which was bestowed by James I. upon 
his son Charles I., who sold it to the citizens of Lon- 
don, from whom it was purchased by the predecessors 
of the present proprietors. Edward II., when made 
prisoner by the Earl of Leicester in the castle of 
Lan Stephen, was conveyed to this town, and lodged 
for some time in the Bishop's palace previously to his 
confinement in Berkeley Castle. During the civil war 
in the reign of Charles I. the Earl of Leven besieged 
and took a small garrison of royalists at Canon-Froome 
in the neighbourhood ; and on the '22nd of April, 1646, 
the parliamentary forces, under Col. Massey, were at- 
tacked and routed at Ledbury by Prince Rupert, who 
had fixed his head-quarters here : on this occasion 100 of 
the enemy were killed, and 27 officers and 400 others 
made prisoners. 

The TOWN, which stands at the eastern angle of the 
county, and at the southern extremity of the Malvern 
hills, is situated on a declivity, and consists of three 
continuous streets, of which the central is the principal, 
and is detached at each end from the northern and 
southern portions of the line by smaller streets crossing 
at right angles. The streets are macadamized ; the foot 
way in the high-street is paved with flags, and the in- 
habitants are indifferently supplied with water brought 
from reservoirs in Coninger wood. In the more ancient 
parts the houses are composed of timber and brick, 
with projecting stories ; but those of more modern erec- 
tion are handsomely built of brick. A subscription 
reading and news-room has been established, and is 
well supported ; there is also a circulating library with 
an extensive collection of volumes, and assemblies are 
held during the season in the ball-room of the Feathers' 
inn. Races take place in August ; and a temporary 
theatre is opened by an itinerant companj^ of comedians. 
The manufacture of silk and broad-cloth was carried on 
to a considerable extent during the reigns of Elizabeth 
and James I., but has declined. There are some malt- 
ing establishments, and some tanneries ; but the chief 
trade is in cider, of which very great quantities are made 
in the parish and vicinity ; and in cheese, for which the 
town is the best mart in the county. The canal from 
Gloucester to Hereford passes through the town, and 
adds materially to the benefit of the district. The 
market is on Tuesday, for poultry, butter, and pedlery j 



LE DB 



LED S 



and fairs are held on the Monday after Feb. 1st, Mon- 
day before Easter, May 12th, June 22nd, Oct. 2nd, and 
the Monday before Dec. 21st, for cattle, pigs, &c. The 
market-house is an ancient edifice of timber and brick, 
supported on sixteen strong oak pillars ; the lower part 
is used as a butter and poultry market, and the upper 
part as a store-room, and also as a national school. The 
parish is divided into five parts, the Borough, Wall 
Hills, Ledon and Haftield, Wellington, and Mitchell and 
Netherton ; the last four form the Foreign of the manor, 
for which courts leet and baron are held annually, when 
the constables for the town are chosen ; the borough is 
called the Denizen, and has likewise a court leet and 
baron. Petty-sessions for the hundred are held every 
Wednesday. Ledbury sent members to two parlia- 
ments in the reign of Edward I., but surrendered the 
elective franchise subsequently, on the plea of poverty. 

The parish comprises, according to survey, 8324 acres, 
in the highest state of cultivation ; much of the land is 
laid out in orchards and market-gardens, and great 
quantities of fruit and vegetables are raised for the sup- 
ply of the surrounding district. There are some quar- 
ries of excellent limestone, which is used for building, 
and also for burning into lime ; and a grey marble is 
found in abundance, and quarried extensively. The 
LIVING is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
14. 12. 6. : the rectory is divided into the two portions 
of Overhall and Netherhall : the Bishop of Hereford 
appoints to the portions and to the vicarage. The tithes 
have been commuted for 250 each to the prebendaries 
of Netherhall and Overhall, 52. 10. to the Dean and 
Chapter of Hereford, and 400 to the vicar. The 
church is a spacious and handsome structure, exhibiting 
some fine specimens of Norman architecture, particu- 
larly the door in the centre of the west front, and the 
chancel, on the north side of which is a chapel, dedi- 
cated to St. Catherine, of decorated character ; the north 
porch is in the early English style, as is also the tower, 
which is detached from the church, and surmounted by 
a well-proportioned spire, about 60 feet in height. Over 
the altar is a painting of the Lord's Supper, copied from 
an original of Leonardo da Vinci, by T. Ballard, Esq., a 
native of the town, and student of the Royal Academy ; 
and at the east end of the south aisle, a new window is 
ornamented with the figures of Faith, Hope, and Cha- 
rity, in stained glass. There are also mimerous ancient, 
highly interesting, and beautifully sculptured monu- 
ments ; some very antique sculptures, and much carv- 
ing in good preservation. A district church has been 
erected at Wellington Heath, by private munificence. 
Here are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, 
Plymouth Brethren, and Wesleyans ; also a national 
school, supported by subscription ; a girls' school, main- 
tained by endowment; and a small boys' school, en- 
dowed with 3.11. per annum. 

The hospital of St. Catherine was established in the 
thirteenth century, by Hugh Foliot, Bishop of Hereford, 
and endowed originally for six widowers and four 
widows : the revenue was valued at the Dissolution at 
32.7. 11. It was refounded by Elizabeth, in 1580, 
for a master, seven widowers, and three widows. The 
increase of funds enabled the trustees to erect a new 
hospital in 1822, from a design by Mr. Smirke, in- 
tended to comprise twenty-four dwellings for as many 
brethren, twelve of which have been completed, at an 
46 



expense of 5888 ; the building is of handsome design, 
erected with grey marble raised in the parish. Morn- 
ing service is performed in a chapel adjoining the hos- 
pital, twice in the week, by a chaplain. There are 
several almshouses for poor persons ; and a dispensary 
was established in 1824. The union of Ledbury com- 
prises 22 parishes or places, of which 21 are in the 
county of Hereford, and one in that of Worcester, the 
whole containing a population of 12,899. At Wall 
Hills, about a mile from the town, is a camp, supposed 
to have been originally British, though subsequently 
occupied as a Roman station, containing an area of 
about 30 acres ; a smaller camp at Haftield was pro- 
bably used as a temporary position. Within the parish 
is also a part of the famous Beacon camp, considered by 
some antiquaries as one of the fortresses constructed by 
Caractacus, when this part of Britain was invaded by 
the Romans under Ostorius Scapula. At Ledbury died 
Jacob Tonson, an eminent bookseller, whose epitaph was 
closely copied by Dr. Benjamin Franklin, for his own 
tombstone, and has been often recorded in print. 

LEDSHAM, a township, in the parish of NESTON, 
union and Higher division of the hundred of WIRRALL, 
S. division of the county of CHESTER, 6 miles (N. W. 
by N.) from Chester; containing 81 inhabitants. It 
comprises 790 acres, of which 26 are common or waste. 
The tithes have been commuted for 72. 15., of which 
1. 5. are payable to an impropriator, 1. 10. to the 
vicar, and 70 to the Dean and Chapter of Chester. 

LEDSHAM (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the Upper 
division of the wapentake of BARKSTONE-ASH, W. riding 
of YORK ; containing, with the township of Fairburn 
and part of Ledstone, 1061 inhabitants, of whom 340 
are in the township of Ledsham, 4^ miles (N. W. by N.) 
from Ferry-Bridge. This parish, which is near the 
great north road, comprises by computation 5150 acres; 
the soil is in some parts fertile, in others luxuriantly 
rich, but in more very indifferent land ; the surface is 
boldly diversified, and the scenery beautifully pictu- 
resque. The substratum abounds with coal and lime- 
stone of excellent quality, of which several mines and 
quarries are in operation. The village is pleasantly 
situated in a vale near the source of a rivulet. Facility 
of conveyance is afforded by the Aire and Calder rivers, 
which bound the parish ; and the Leeds and Selby, and 
North-Midland railways pass in the immediate vicinity. 
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's 
books at 7- 4. 2. ; net income, 397, with a glebe- 
house ; patron, Rev. Charles Medhurst. The church 
contains a splendid monument to Lady Elizabeth Hast- 
ings and her two sisters. She is represented as seated 
on a sarcophagus reading a book of devotion, and the 
statues of her sisters Frances and Ann are on pedestals 
by her side : opposite is a monument of Sir John and 
Lady Lewis, the grandfather and grandmother of Lady 
Elizabeth. Schools for 20 boys and 20 orphan girls, 
the latter also fed and clothed, were liberally endowed 
by Lady Elizabeth. An hospital for five aged bachelors 
and six unmarried women was founded in 1670, by Sir 
John Lewis, who endowed it with 60 per annum ; the 
endowment was augmented by Lady E. Hastings, with 
a rent-charge, which has been increased by her trustees, 
and by benefactions, and the present income exceeds 
152 per annum ; the building was repaired in the year 
1816. 



LEE 



LEE 






LEDSTONE, a township, partly in the parish of 
LEDSHAM, Upper division of the wapentake of BARIC- 
STONE-ASH, and partly in the parish of KIPPAX, Lower 
division of the wapentake of SKYRACK, W. riding of 
YORK, 5 miles (N. W.) from Ferry-Bridge ; containing 
259 inhabitants. The township comprises by computa- 
tion nearly 2000 acres - } the soil is extremely fertile, and 
the surface beautifully varied, and embellished with 
wood. Ledstone Hall is a handsome mansion, anciently 
the seat of the Witham family, and subsequently of 
Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford. After the at- 
tainder of the earl, the property was purchased by Sir 
John Lewis, Bart., and from him descended, through 
Granville H. Wheler, Esq., to the present possessor, the 
Rev. Charles Medhurst. The Hall, now occupied by 
Henry Ramsden, Esq., is beautifully situated on an 
eminence, and surrounded by an extensive park, in- 
closed with a stone wall ; it was honoured on the 29th 
Sept., 1806, with the presence of the Prince of Wales 
and Duke of Clarence, who paid a visit to Michael 
Angelo Taylor, then resident here. The York and 
North-Midland railway passes through the township. 

LED WELL, a hamlet, in the parish of SANDFORD, 
union of WOODSTOCK, hundred of WOOTTON, county of 
OXFORD, 4^ miles (N. E.) from Neat-Enstone ; con- 
taining 205 inhabitants. A fine sand, used in the manu- 
facture of glass, is found in the vicinity. Here was 
formerly a chapel, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene. 

LEE (ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST), a parish, in the union 
of AMERSHAM, hundred of AYLESBURY, county of BUCK- 
INGHAM, 2^ miles (N.) from Great Missenden ; contain- 
ing 142 inhabitants. It comprises by measurement 461 
acres, of which about 281 are arable, 125 meadow, 5 
woodland, and 50 uninclosed waste ; the soil is a wet 
cold clay, and the surface is level, but considerably ele- 
vated. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 
50 ; patron, Henry Deering, Esq. The church was 
formerly a chapel of ease to the rectory of Weston- 
Turville. 

LEE (ST. MARGARET), a parish, in the union of 
LEWISHAM, hundred of BLACKHEATH, lathe of SUTTON- 
AT-HONE, W. division of KENT, 7 miles (S. E. by E.) 
from London ; containing 2360 inhabitants. This pa- 
rish, which within the last few years has very much in- 
creased in population, formerly consisted only of a few 
detached houses. A very handsome range of buildings, 
called Lee Park, has been recently erected, consisting of 
villas on both sides of the road, with grounds tastefully 
laid out, and forming one continuous line with Black- 
heath Park. Great additions have also been made to 
the village, and in various parts of the vicinity are ele- 
gant mansions. The parish is within the jurisdiction of 
the Greenwich court of requests for the recovery of debts 
not exceeding 5. The living is a rectory, valued in 
the king's books at 3. 11. 8., and in the patronage of 
the Crown : the tithes have been commuted for 407, 
and the glebe comprises 39 acres. The ancient church, 
with the exception of the tower, was taken down, and 
the present edifice erected on the site in 1814 ; it is 
built of flint and stone, and has a neat cemetery contain- 
ing several handsome monuments, the most conspicuous 
of which are those of the great astronomer, Edmund 
Halleyj the comedian, William Parsons; the amiable 
Lady Dacre ; and Sir Samuel Fludyer, Bart., who, as 
lord mayor of London in 1761, gave a sumptuous ban- 



quet to George III. and his royal consort. Some indi- 
cations of insecurity in the structure having appeared, 
it was deemed advisable to prepare for the probable re- 
sult, and on the 17th of July, 1839, the foundation- 
stone of a new church was laid, and the building, which 
is an elegant specimen, in the early English style, with 
a lofty and graceful spire, was completed at an expense 
of 8000, and consecrated on the llth March, 1841. 
The interior is chastely and beautifully arranged ; the 
windows are embellished with stained glass, and the 
central east window, of which the design is taken from 
the " Five Sisters" in York Minster, is finely executed - T 
it is adapted for a congregation of 1000 persons, and 
forms an interesting feature in the landscape. There is 
also a chapel of ease in the parish. The Blackheath 
proprietary grammar school, in connexion with King's 
College, is a handsome building ; and the Lee Park pro- 
prietary grammar school is also a good edifice, after the 
model of the Propyleum of Athens. A national school 
has been erected. Christopher Boone, in 1683, founded 
and endowed an almshouse for six persons, with a 
chapel attached, and a school for twelve children ; the 
endowment produces about 71 per annum. Behind 
Boone's almshouses are those endowed by the Merchant 
Tailors' Company for 29 widows of freemen ; the houses 
are built of white brick, ornamented with stone. 

LEE, a tything, in the parish and union of ROMSEY, 
hundred of KING'S-SOMBOURN, Romsey and S. divisions 
of the county of SOUTHAMPTON ; containing 156 inha- 
bitants. 

LEE-BOTWOOD (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union 
of CHURCH-STRETTON, hundred of CONDOVER, S. divi- 
sion of SALOP, 4 miles (N. N. E.) from Church-Stretton j 
containing 233 inhabitants. The parish is situated in a 
flat valley between the Caer-Caradoc, Lawley, and Long- 
mynd hills, which form the south-western boundary of 
the hundred ; and comprises 1286a. 2p. A considerable 
portion of the land is rough pasture ; there are quarries 
of limestone of very good quality, both for building and 
for burning into lime ; and coal is found, and some 
mines are in operation. The surface is varied, and the 
lower grounds are intersected by a brook called the Rae, 
increased by numerous smaller streams from the hills. 
The village is on the road from Shrewsbury to Ludlow. 
The living is a perpetual curacy, with that of Longnor 
united ; net income, 135 ; patron, Archdeacon Corbett : 
the tithes have been commuted for 105. The church, 
which is an ancient structure, once belonged to the abbey 
of Haughmond. 

LEE-BROCKHURST (ST. PETER), a parish, in the 
union of WEM, Whitchurch division of the hundred of 
NORTH BRADFORD, N. division of SALOP, 2f- miles (S. E. 
by E.) from Wem ; containing 165 inhabitants. It com- 
prises 579a. Ir. 33p. Sandstone of suitable quality for 
building and other purposes is found, and for its con- 
veyance facilities are afforded by the river Roden, on 
which the village is situated. The living is a perpetual 
curacy ; net income, 72 ; patron and impropriator, 
John Walford, Esq. 

LEE, CHAPEL, an extra-parochial liberty, in the 
parish of EAST TILBURY, union of ORSETT, hundred of 
BARSTABLE, S. division of ESSEX ; containing 1 1 inha- 
bitants. 

LEE, ST. JOHN, a parish, in the union of HEXHAM, 
S. division of TINDALE ward and of NORTHUMBER- 



LEED 



L E E D 



LAND, 1| mile (N. N. E.) from Hexham; containing 
1947 inhabitants. This is an extensive parish, consist- 
ing of the townships of West Acomb, Anick, Anick- 
Grange,Bingfield,Cocklaw,Fallowfield, Hallington, Port- 
gate, Sandhoe, and Wall, and comprising by computa- 
tion 15,000 acres ; the soil is in general good, and the 
surface varied and picturesque ; it is rich in mines of 
coal and lead, and well-watered by the Tyne and the 
northern branch of that river. The parish contains 
several villages and hamlets, but no village of its own 
name. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 
280 ; patron, T. W. Beaumont, Esq. : the impropria- 
tion belongs to the Misses Smith and the family of 
Errington. The church, dedicated to St. John of Bever- 
ley, and situated on a fine eminence on the northern 
side of the Tyne, was anciently noted for an annual pro- 
cession made to it by the monks of Hexham ; the east 
end was rebuilt in 1819, and the west end, with the 
spire, in 1842, total cost of re-erection, 1400, raised 
by subscription, aided by 200 from T. W. Beaumont, 
Esq. It contains 400 sittings, of which 100 are free. 
There are chapels of ease at Bingfield and Wall. Mary 
Vernol, in 1771. conveyed a piece of ground in the cha- 
pelry of Bingfield for building a school-house, which she 
endowed with a rent-charge of 10. 

LEE-WARD, a township, in the parish and union 
of ROTHBURY, W. division of COCIUETDALE ward, N. 
division of NORTHUMBERLAND, 3| miles (S. S. E.) from 
Rothbury ; containing 91 inhabitants. It is the pro- 
perty of the Duke of Northumberland. 

LEEDS (Sx. NICHOLAS), a parish, in the union of 
HOLLINGBORNE, hundred of EYHORNE, lathe of AYLES- 
FORD, W. division of KENT, 5 miles (E. by S.) from, 
Maidstone ; containing 675 inhabitants. The parish is 
said to have derived its name from Ledian, councillor to 
Ethelbert II., who built a fortress here in 978. Subse- 
quently, in 1119, a priory of Black canons, in honour 
of St. Mary and St. Nicholas, was founded by Robert 
de Crepito Corde, alias Crevecceur, or Crouchheart, 
Knt., the revenue of which, at the Dissolution, was 
362. 7- 7- The abbey church was equal in beauty to 
a cathedral, and the monastic buildings, remains of 
which still exist, were of correspondent size and gran- 
deur. Leeds Castle, one of the most stately in the 
kingdom, is seated in a beautiful park, and surrounded 
by a moat : the buildings, which are entirely of stone, 
are ranged round a spacious quadrangle, and, though 
they exhibit the architecture of different periods, pro- 
duce, as a whole, a most striking and noble effect. The 
structure has two ancient gateways, a grand hall, and a 
magnificent suite of apartments : there are also the re- 
mains of the inner vallum, of the keep, and various other 
detached parts, said to have been erected by the Creve- 
coeurs, by William of Wykeham, and by Henry VIII. 
George III. and his royal consort were entertained here, 
in their excursion to Coxheath Camp, in 1779. It has 
lately been very extensively repaired, and the style that 
prevailed in the time of Henry VII. has been adhered 
to, being that which was most prominent in the remains 
of the ancient edifice. The living is a perpetual curacy, to 
which that of Broomfield is united} net income, 163 ; 
patron and appropriator, Archbishop of Canterbury. 
The church has at the west end a remarkably low square 
tower, and contains some good monuments to the Mere- 
dith family. 
48 




Present Seal and Arms. 



Former Seal and Arms. 



LEEDS (Sr. PETER), a parish and liberty, in the 
W. riding of YORK, comprising the market-town and 
borough of LEEDS, which has a separate jurisdiction, 
though locally in the wapentake of SKYRACK ; and con- 
taining 152,054 inhabitants, of whom 88,741 are in the 
town, 24 miles (S. W. by W.) from York, and 194 (N. N. 
W.) from London. This place is of great antiquity, and 
is supposed to have been the site of a Roman station 
connected with that of Cambodunum,an opinion in some 
degree corroborated by the discovery of traces of a 
Roman road, and other ancient remains in the vicinity. 
After the destruction of Cambodunum, by Cadwallo, a 
British prince, and Penda, King of Mercia, it was made 
a royal vill, and obtained the Saxon appellation of Loidis, 
though from what source does not clearly appear, but 
from which its modern name is obviously derived. 
During the heptarchy a memorable battle took place 
here, between Oswy, King of Northumbria, and Penda, 
the pagan King of Mercia, who, in 655, had invaded 
Oswy's territories, in which Penda, with many of his 
vassals, was slain, and numbers of his forces, in their 
attempt to escape from the field of carnage, perished in 
the waters of the river Aire, which had at that time 
overflown its .banks. At the time of the Conquest, the 
manor of Leeds was given to Ilbert de Lacy, who erected 
a baronial castle here, which was besieged by Stephen, 
King of England, on his route to Scotland, and in which 
Richard II., after his deposition, was for some time 
confined, previously to his removal to the Castle of Pon- 
tefract, in which he was inhumanly murdered. During 
the war in the reign of Charles I., numerous skirmishes 
between the contending parties took place in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood, and that monarch resided for a 
short time at Red Hall, a mansion of brick, so called 
from the colour of that material, situated in that part of 
the borough now called Guildford-street. In 1643, the 
town was taken by the parliamentary forces under 
General Fairfax, who had marched from Bradford to 
besiege it, and to whom, after an assault of two hours, 
it surrendered. After the battle of Marston Moor, in 
1643, the Scottish troops halted here ; on which occa- 
sion Charles L, who was then a captive at Red Hall, re- 
fused the opportunity offered to him by a female servant 
of the house to effect his escape in disguise : her fidelity, 
however, was amply acknowledged and rewarded after 
the Restoration, on the production of a token given to her 
for that purpose by the unfortunate monarch. In the 
reign of William III., Thomas, Marquess of Carmarthen, 



LE ED 



L E ED 



was created Duke of Leeds, and the title is still in- 
herited by his descendants. 

The TOWN, which is more celebrated as the principal 
seat of the woollen manufacture, than either for its anti- 
quity or historical importance, is pleasantly situated on 
the acclivities and summit of a gentle eminence rising 
from the north bank of the river Aire, over which are 
five bridges. Leeds bridge, consisting of five arches, 
forms the principal avenue to the south entrance, but 
is Inadequate to its purpose, the nature of the ground 
and the surrounding property presenting great obstacles 
to improvement ; Wellington bridge, a handsome struc- 
ture of one noble arch, 100 feet in span, was erected in 
IS 18, at an expense of 7000, from a design by Rennie, 
and affords communication with the townships of Wort- 
ley and Armley. Victoria bridge, connecting Sandford- 
street with the Holbeck road, was completed in 183S, 
at a cost of 8000, and is a handsome and substantial 
structure of one arch, 80 feet in span, and 45 feet in 
breadth, between the battlements ; during its erection it 
withstood the shock of an overwhelming flood without 
injury; it extends the navigation of the Aire, and 
affords an uninterrupted line of inland communication 
between the eastern and western seas. The other two 
are Suspension bridges, one constructed in 1829, at an 
expense of 3950, by Messrs. Hartop and Co., of the 
Milton iron-works, and forming a direct communication 
between Hunslet and the road to York on the east, and 
the other communicating with Holbeck and the western 
part of the town. A sixth bridge, of stone, and very 
commodious, to be called Crown-Point bridge, is in course 
of building under an act of parliament, about 500 yards 
below Leeds bridge, opening a communication between 
Hunslet-lane (the London entrance) and the eastern 
precincts ; it will cost, with approaches, at least 20,000, 
and several of the owners of property in its vicinity who 
have acted with great liberality, will be rewarded by the 
increased value of land and houses resulting from the 
erection. The streets in the more ancient parts of the 
town are inconveniently narrow, but in other parts spa- 
cious and well built ; Briggate, the principal street, is 
more than 600 yards in length, ascending in a direct 
line from the old bridge, by a gradual rise, to St. John's- 
street, and forming one of the widest and handsomest 
thoroughfares in the north of England. From St. John's 
church, the town extends towards the west by a gentle 
slope, on which are many good streets, squares, and 
public buildings ; and eastward, towards the Sheepscar 
beck, which receives the waters of the Gipton stream, 
and flows southward through a populous district, and 
falls into the river Aire about a quarter of a mile 
below the parochial church. Considerable improvements 
have been made, under acts of parliament obtained in 
1809 and 1815, by which the town is well paved, lighted 
with gas, and amply supplied with water, formerly con- 
veyed from Addle into three capacious reservoirs, from 
which it was distributed to the houses of the inhabitants ; 
but now brought from Eccup, near Harewood, about six 
miles north of the town, by a company incorporated by 
parliament, in 1840, and for which works at Headingley 
and on Woodhouse Moor were constructed in 1841. In 
1842 an act was obtained, very ample in its provisions, 
relating to lighting, paving, improvement, and police ; its 
administration is in the hands of the town-council, and 
a board of works has been constituted, which will be 
productive of great public benefit ; in the same year an 
VOL. III. 49 



act was also passed for providing additional parochial 
burial-ground, which was much wanted. The houses 
are in general neatly built of brick, and roofed with 
grey slate; and in various parts are elegant mansions, 
and handsome ranges in the modern style, of which 
Park-place has some ground in front, tastefully laid out 
in parterres and shrubberies. Park-square, Hanover- 
square, and Woodhouse- square are also similarly in- 
closed and planted. The town is rapidly increasing in the 
west and north-west, particularly in the district of Little 
Woodhouse, which affords excellent sites for building. 

The Leeds Subscription Library, in Commercial-street, 
was first instituted in 1768, at the recommendation of 
Dr. Priestley, and has now one of the most extensive 
collections, literary and scientific, in the north ; the New 
Subscription Library in Park-row, the New Library, and 
the Young Man's Library, have all valuable collections ; 
and there are also a Parochial Library, a Church of Eng- 
land Library, containing chiefly books on divinity, and 
libraries connected with some of the dissenting places 
of worship. The Theatre, a plain edifice of brick, erected 
in 1771, is opened occasionally by the York company of 
comedians. The Assembly Rooms over the White Cloth 
Hall were built in 1775, and the Music Hall in Albion- 
street, in 1792 ; they are both neat buildings of brick, 
and the latter is often appropriated to various other uses. 
The Public Baths in Wellington-street, a handsome range 
in the Grecian style, erected in 1820, under the superin- 
tendence of Mr. Chantrell, at an expense of 6000, are 
conveniently arranged, and comprise hot, cold, shower, 
and vapour baths, with others artificially prepared, and 
possess the properties and temperature of the Matlock 
and Buxton waters. The Literary and Philosophical 
Society was established in 1 820, and a building of stone, 
erected by Mr. Chantrell, in the Grecian style, at a cost 
of 6500, and containing a library, lecture-room, and 
museum, is appropriated to the use of the members. 
The Mechanics' Institution and Literary Society, which 
possesses no fewer than 800 members, is composed of 
two societies until recently distinct, namely, the Me- 
chanics' Institute, founded in the year 1825, and the 
Literary Institution, established in 1834, which were 
combined in one under the above title, in 1S42. It has 
a library of more than 5000 volumes, arranged in a hand- 
some saloon, used for lectures and as a reading-room for 
the members, and which contains also a valuable philo- 
sophical apparatus : there are likewise several class- 
rooms. The building was purchased a few years since, 
principally with the proceeds of a successful exhibition. 
The Commercial Buildings, a spacious structure of stone, in 
the Grecian style, were erected in 1826, at an expense of 
34,000, under the superintendence of Mr. Clark, archi- 
tect, and are used as an exchange for the merchants and 
manufacturers of the town ; the buildings contain also 
numerous other apartments, among which are a news- 
room, well supplied with daily journals and periodicals, 
and an elegant room for public meetings and exhibitions. 
A Museum of natural curiosities was established in 
1827, by Mr. Calvert, and contains more than 15,000 
specimens. A Masonic Hall has been opened in Sterne' s- 
buildings, Briggate. A School of Medicine for the 
benefit of practitioners and their pupils, has been insti- 
tuted, of which the sessions commence in October, and 
close in April ; and there is also a Floral and Horticul- 
tural Society, which, after having been discontinued for 
some years, \vas re-established in 1837. 

H 



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The SUBURBS comprise several villages and hamlets 
connected with the town by long ranges of factories in 
some parts, and in others by series of detached villas of 
pleasing and picturesque appearance. The environs 
abound with numerous handsome mansions, the seats 
of merchants and families of distinction ; and the sur- 
rounding country is rich in interesting features. On the 
northern acclivity of Airedale, between Headingley and 
Burley, are Botanical Gardens, comprising an area of 20 
acres, embellished with appropriate buildings, interspersed 
with several sheets of water, and richly planted with every 
variety of foreign and indigenous specimens, tending to 
illustrate science. Nearly adjoining Woodhouse Moor, 
is the General Cemetery, for the interment of persons of 
all religious denominations, which was opened to the 
public in 1835, and occupies an area of 10 acres, pur- 
chased at a cost of 4000, by a company of 50 share- 
holders, who expended more than 11,000 in the re- 
quisite buildings and arrangements j it is situated on a 
gentle acclivity, commanding a fine view of the town 
und of the picturesque vale of the Aire. The grounds, 
which are enclosed with a wall twelve feet in height, are 
beautifully laid out, and are adapted for 14,000 graves, 
in addition to the vaults and catacombs ; in the centre 
is a chaste and elegant chapel in the Grecian style, for 
the performance of the funeral service ; and on one side 
of the principal entrance, through a portal of good de- 
sign, are the residences of the chaplain and registrar, 
and on the other the house for the sexton and keeper. 
The Cavalry Barracks, at the north entrance to the town, 
were erected iu 1820, at an expense of 28,000, and 
occupy an area of 1 1 acres ; the buildings are of brick, 
and form a very complete establishment, comprising 
spacious grounds for exercise and parade, with stabling 
for several troops of horse. 

To the great extent and variety of the MANUFACTURES 
carried on in the town and neighbourhood, and parti- 
cularly to that of woollen-cloth, which has within the 
last few years been brought to a high state of perfec- 
tion, may be attributed the present prosperity of the 
West riding of the county. The pre-eminence obtained 
by the cloth manufactures of the town over its once 
more successful competitors, Halifax and Bradford, is 
not of more ancient date than the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, since which period the rapidity of its, 
progress, more especially during the last thirty years, 
has been altogether unprecedented. Formerly, only the 
coarser kinds of woollen-cloth, distinguished from those 
of the west of England by the appellation of Yorkshire 
cloths, were manufactured here ; but since the intro- 
duction of machinery, and particularly since the great 
improvements introduced by Mr. William Hirst, a native 
of this place, cloths have been produced equalling, and 
in some instances surpassing, those of the western 
counties, in fineness of texture, and brilliancy and per- 
manency of colour 5 and superfine black and blue cloths, 
made from wool carefully selected, have been sold for 
5 per yard. Many extensive factories have been esta- 
blished, in some of which the whole process, from the 
first breaking of the wool to the finishing of the cloth 
for the consumer, is performed by machinery propelled 
by steam. The principal branches of the manufacture 
are, superfine broad and coarse narrow cloths, ladies' 
pelisse cloth and shawls, and carpets, with Scotch cam- 
lets, and a variety of other stuffs. The worsted manu- 
facture is also carried on here and in the vicinity to a 
50 



considerable extent ; but the chief quantities of stuffs 
are purchased in the rough state at Bradford and Hali- 
fax by the Leeds merchants, to be dyed and finished 
here, and afterwards sent to all parts of the kingdom. 
In the town are likewise several spacious factories for 
spinning /lax, and the making of canvas, sacking, linen, 
thread, and other articles, with numerous fulling-mills, 
dye-houses, and other establishments connected with the 
wopllen, worsted, and linen manufactures. In the im- 
mediate vicinity are large manufactories for croicn and 
flint glass, and glass bottles, and an extensive pottery, 
the reputation of which procures for its wares a great 
demand in every part of the kingdom ; fire-bricks and 
tobacco-pipes, also, are made in great quantities, for which 
clay of excellent quality is obtained in the parish. 
There are several large iron-foundries, and works for the 
manufacture of steam-engines, and machinery of all kinds j 
and on the banks of the Aire are numerous mills for 
grinding corn, crushing rapeseed and dye-woods, with 
mills for fulling cloth, and the manufacture of tobacco 
and snuffs, in which a very good trade is carried on. 
The business of the clothing manufacture is chiefly trans- 
acted in the Cloth Halls, of which that for the sale of 
coloured or mixed cloths, was built in 1758, and is a 
spacious, neat, quadrangular structure, 127| yards long, 
and 66 yards wide ; the area is divided into six compart- 
ments, called streets, each containing two rows of stands 
for the exposure and sale of the goods ; in 1810 an ad- 
ditional story was built on the north side, principally for 
the sale of ladies' cloth in an undyed state. The White 
Cloth Hall, of nearly the same dimensions as the former, 
was built in 1775. The halls are open for business 
every Tuesday and Saturday morning ; the Mixed Hall 
at half-past eight in the summer, at nine in the spring 
and autumn, and at half-past nine in the winter, and the 
White Hall immediately after the former is closed. The 
time allotted does not exceed one hour and a quarter, in 
which short interval business to a large amount is 
frequently transacted ; but the progress of the factory 
system has of late years materially diminished the busi- 
ness done in the cloth halls. 

The river Aire, which passes through the southern 
part of the town, is navigable to the Humber ; and the 
Leeds and Liverpool canal, constructed in 1777, joins 
the Aire, and opens a direct line of navigation between 
Hull and Liverpool, and the principal towns in the 
kingdom. This canal, for which the first act was ob- 
tained in 1770, was not completed to Liverpool till 
1816 ; the whole length is 128 miles, the average breadth 
72 feet, and the depth 5 feet 5 the number of locks 
from Leeds to the summit is 44, and the rise 411 feet 
4\ inches, and the number of locks from the summit to 
Liverpool 47, and the fall 433 feet 3 inches. It com- 
municates with the Kibble by the Douglas navigation, 
and a branch from Wigan to Leigh connects it with the 
Bridgewater canal. The Aire and Calder Navigation 
Company have extensive ranges of warehouses and a 
commodious wharf, from which fly-boats pass daily to 
Goole. The North- Midland, or Leeds and Derby railway 
completes the communication between the manufactur- 
ing districts of Yorkshire, and the midland counties and 
London j its principal station is in Hunslet-lane, and is 
an appropriate range of building, comprising offices for 
the company's use, and also for the companies of the 
Manchester and Leeds, and the York and North-Midland, 
railways, with waiting-rooms for passengers, carriage- 



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sheds 300 yards in length, &c. In the front is a hand- 
some arcade with two gateways from Hunslet-lane, with 
a central gateway for waggons proceeding to the docks 
at the northern extremity, and on the opposite side two 
other gateways for passengers arriving by the trains ; 
the erection of the buildings cost 14,000, and contigu- 
ous to them is a depot for goods, built at an expense of 
7000, the whole occupying an area of 14 acres. The 
Leeds and Selby railway, which forms a portion of the 
great transverse line from Liverpool to Hull, has its 
station in Marsh -lane, which includes also an extensive 
depot and all the requisite appendages ; near its com- 
mencement, it passes under a tunnel, at Leeds, 700 yards 
long, 22 feet wide, and 17 feet high, cut through strata 
of shale and coal measures, with some portions of rock. 
The line, which was opened to the public in 1840, was 
completed by a company with a joint-stock capital of 
210,000, and a loan of 130,000. In 1839, this rail- 
way was let to the York and North-Midland Company 
on a thirty years' lease, and the management was trans- 
ferred to the directors of that undertaking, and the prin- 
cipal station for passengers removed to Hunslet-lane, 
though the original station is still partially used for 
heavy goods and coal. A railway to Manchester quits 
the North-Midland line at Normanton, near Wakefield, 
and was opened in the year 1840, under the designation 
of the Manchester and Leeds railway. 

The MARKET days are Tuesday and Saturday, the 
former principally for corn, and the latter for provisions. 
The corn market is held in the Corn Exchange, a hand- 
some building in the Grecian style, completed in 1828, 
at an expense of 12,500, raised in shares of 50 each ; 
the front in Briggate is ornamented with Ionic columns 
supporting an entablature and a cornice, with a pediment, 
surmounted by an elegant campanile turret. In a niche 
between the columns is a marble statue of Queen Anne, 
originally presented to the corporation by Alderman 
Mifner, and placed in front of the ancient moot hall, 
which once stood conveniently in the centre of Briggate. 
Part of the building is appropriated as an hotel, in the 
rear of which is a spacious court, surrounded by a piazza, 
where the corn is sold by sample. The Central Market 
is a spacious edifice at the corner of Duncan-street, com- 
menced by a proprietary of shareholders, and completed 
in 1827 at an expense of 35,000, from a design of 
Mr. Goodwin, of London ; the principal front is divided 
into three compartments by fluted columns of the Ionic 
order and anta? of corresponding character, support- 
ing an entablature, on which are inscribed the words 
"Central Market," and surmounted by a triangular 
pediment. The interior is divided into three ranges of 
stalls, and a gallery extends round three sides of the 
area, of which the fourth is occupied by a bazaar. The 
South Market, extending from Hunslet-lane to Meadow- 
lane, was erected in 1824, after a design of Mr. Chantrell, 
at an expense of 14,500, and is a handsome structure in 
the Grecian style, appropriated for the sale of leather ; the 
interior comprises a spacious area arranged in streets, 
with regular shops for the sale of leather, and a semicir- 
cular range of building for other general wares, in the 
centre of which is a circular market-house, crowned 
with a dome resting on pillars of the Doric order. The 
Wholesale Carcase Market, called " Leadenhall," in Vicar- 
lane, is a well-arranged area, \vith slaughter-houses under 
ground, sufficiently capacious for the slaughter of 150 
beasts, exclusively of calves and sheep ; it is amply 
51 



supplied with water, and kept perfectly clean. The New 
Shambles and Fish Market were erected in 1826, on ground 
purchased at a cost of 6000, and are conveniently 
arranged for the purpose in two streets, Cheapside and 
Fleet-street ; above the central row of shops is a bazaar 
80 yards in length, formerly let in shops to dealers in 
various kinds of fancy articles. The Free Market for the 
sale of vegetables, fruit, hay, cattle, and pigs, which is 
about to be enlarged, at present occupies an area of 
nearly 10,000 square yards, purchased in 1823 by the 
commissioners, under a special act of parliament ; it is 
under excellent arrangements, and though originally 
intended to be free, as its name implies, the parties fre- 
quenting it pay moderate tolls, producing from 1200 to 
1400 a year, now, by the new improvement bill, under 
the controul of the town-council. Fairs are held on 
July 10th and llth for horses, and on November 8th and 
9th for cattle ; and eight fairs are held annually for 
leather in the South market-place. 

The town received its first CHARTER of incorporation 
in the second year of the reign of Charles I. : this 
having been forfeited, a new charter was granted by 
Charles II., in the 13th of his reign, under which the 
inhabitants were governed by a mayor, 12 aldermen, 
and 24 assistants, a recorder, deputy recorder, town-clerk, 
coroner, clerk of the market, and other officers. Since 
the passing of the Municipal act, however, the borough 
has been divided into 12 wards, and the corporation 
made to consist of a mayor, 16 aldermen and 48 coun- 
cillors ; the total number of magistrates is 30, but 
a few have not qualified. The recorder holds quarterly 
courts of session for the borough ; and the Michaelmas 
sessions for the West riding also take place here. Petty- 
sessions for the borough are held every Tuesday and Fri- 
day, and for the several parishes in the wapentake of 
Skyrack by the magistrates of the riding weekly. The 
borough justices sit daily for the examination of offenders, 
and the regulation of police affairs, two attending in 
rotation ; and a court baron for the recovery of debts not 
exceeding 15, within the honour of Pontefract, is held 
every fortnight. The police force consists of a chief con- 
stable and about 100 men. An act was obtained in 
1839 for exempting the inhabitants of the manor from 
the obligation of grinding their corn and malt at the 
king's mills, upon paying an adequate compensation to 
the lessee, for which purpose 13,000, and a sum for 
attendant expenses, have been raised by rates on the 
owners and occupiers. The Court house is an elegant 
building, in the Grecian style, consisting of a centre and 
two wings, erected in 1813, from a design by Mr. Taylor. 
The central front is decorated with a lofty portico of 
four Corinthian pillars, supporting an entablature and 
cornice surmounted by a triangular pediment, enriched 
with appropriate designs sculptured in bas-relief; the 
principal entrance opens into a spacious vestibule, on 
one side of which is the rotation office, so called from 
the magistrates sitting in rotation at petty-sessions, and 
on the other the rooms appropriated to the magistrates 
of the West riding. There are also apartments for the 
watch committee, the grand jury, and barristers, com- 
municating with the sessions hall, which is well arranged 
for the purposes of the court and for the transaction of 
the public business ; on each side is a gallery over the 
spacious area, which is also used for town meetings. The 
basement story, which is arched with stone, and sur- 
rounded by an arcade, comprises a police-office, a guard- 

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room, a room for military stores, an armoury, an engine- 
house, and apartments for the keeper of the prison, 
which occupies an area in the rear of the building. The 
Prison contains thirteen cells and one airing-yard, but. 
prisoners -after conviction are removed to the Wakefield 
house of correction j the construction of a more com- 
modious and better adapted gaol has very lately been 
commenced. The town, during the usurpation of 
Cromwell, sent a member to the house of commons, but 
the privilege was afterwards discontinued till the 2nd of 
William IV., when the elective franchise was conferred, 
and the inhabitants were empowered to return two re- 
presentatives to the imperial parliament ; the right of 
election is vested in the 1 householders of the borough ; 
the number of registered voters is 6298, and the mayor 
is returning officer. 

The PARISH comprises by computation 21,760 acres ; 
the soil is generally fertile, and much of the land is in a 
very high state of cultivation ; the substratum is rich in 
mineral produce, and the abundance of excellent coal 
found in various parts, has contributed greatly to the 
establishment of the extensive works and factories to 
which the place is indebted for its distinguished pros- 
perity. Within the limits of the parish are the chapelries 
of Armley, Beeston, Bramley, Farnley, Chapel-Allerton, 
Headingley with Burley, Holbeck, Wortley, and Hunslet ; 
also the township of Potter-Newton, and part of the 
townships of Seacroft and Temple-Newsom. The LIVING 
is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at 38. 0. 2. j 
net income, 1257, with a good glebe-house; patrons, 
twenty-five Trustees ; appropriators, the Dean and 
Canons of Christ-Church, Oxford. The Parochial church, 
dedicated to St. Peter, supposed to have been originally 
built on the site of a more ancient structure, in the reign 
of Edward III., and enlarged in the reigns of Henry VII. 
and VIII., was entirely rebuilt by subscription in 1838- 
40, at an expense of 28,000, after a design by Mr. 
Chantrell. It is a spacious and handsome cruciform 
structure, in the transitional style from the decorated 
into the later English, with a lofty square embattled 
tower rising from the north transept. The interior is 
finely arranged, and contains some ancient monuments 
preserved from the old church, and several of modern 
date, among which is one by Flaxman, in statuary mar- 
ble, to the memory of Captains S. Walker and R. 
Beckett, who fell in the battle of Talavera. There is 
also a fine full-length monumental statue by Parke, raised 
by subscription, of Michael Thomas Sadler, Esq., M.P. 
for Aldborough and Newark, an eminent linen merchant 
of this town, who introduced into parliament a bill for 
limiting the labour of children in factories to ten hours 
per day, and to whose exertions and example is owing 
the turn which legislation has taken in behalf of the in- 
dustrious classes. 

At the close of the year 1843, a plan was proposed by 
the Rev. Dr. Hook, vicar of Leeds, for the division of 
the parish and vicarage into numerous distinct and 
separate parishes and vicarages, nnder the authority of 
an act of parliament, to be obtained and carried out by 
the Ecclesiastical Commissioners ; and at a meeting of 
the commissioners, held on the 9th of January, 1844, 
they assented to the general principle of the intended 
arrangements, reserving the details for future considera- 
tion. The plan includes within its scope, the formation 
of new parishes for ecclesiastical purposes, the incum- 
bent of each to be a vicar, and to receive all tithes, 
52 



moduses, and similar payments, now received by the 
vicar of Leeds. Churchwardens, with the usual full 
powers, will be chosen in each new parish ; marriages 
and all other offices will be performed in every church, 
as in ancient parish churches ; parsonage-houses and 
schools will be provided ; and the nave or body of each 
church will become free and wholly unappropriated. 
All patronage, also, now vested in the vicar, will be 
placed in the hands of the bishop of the diocese, subject 
to the power which the commissioners will possess of 
assigning part of it to other parties, in consequence of 
superior benefit arising from such a course. 

The church dedicated to St. John, was built in 1634, 
at the expense of John Harrison, Esq., who endowed it 
with a house and eighty-four acres of land, now pro- 
ducing 322. 10. per annum, of which he appropriated 
one-ninth part for the repair of the church, and the 
residue for the minister. It is a neat structure, in the 
later English style, with an embattled tower crowned 
by crocketed pinnacles ; the walls, originally of perish- 
able stone, have been rebuilt at an expense of 1500, 
with stone of more durable quality ; the founder was 
buried in the church, under a monument of black 
marble. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the joint 
patronage of the Vicar of Leeds, the Mayor, and the 
three senior Aldermen ; net income, 375. The church 
dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was erected in 1721, at a 
cost of 4563, of which 1000 were given by Lady 
Elizabeth Hastings, and the remainder raised by sub- 
scription ; it was endowed with 80 per annum, by the 
Rev. Henry Robinson, nephew of the founder of St. 
John's. It is in the Grecian style, combining the Ionic 
and Doric orders, with a tower of two stages, of which 
one is of the Corinthian and the other of the Ionic order ; 
there is a monument to Mr. Robinson, recording his 
charitable benefactions. The living is a perpetual curacy ; 
net income, 300 ; patrons, the Vicar, the Recorder of 
the borongh, and the Minister of St. John's. The church 
dedicated to St. Paul, was erected in 1793, chiefly through 
the exertions of the Rev. Miles Atkinson, a late vicar of 
Kippax, who, with the assistance of numerous friends, 
raised the structure, at an expense of 10,000, on a site 
given by Dr. Wilson, Bishop of Bristol, who laid the 
first stone ; it is a neat edifice of stone, with a handsome 
Ionic portico supporting an entablature and pediment. 
The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, 133; 
patron, since the death of the late incumbent, the Vicar 
of Leeds. The church dedicated to St. James, was for- 
merly a place of worship belonging to the Countess of 
Huntingdon's Connexion, from whom it was purchased 
by two clergymen of the Established Church, and after- 
wards by a recent incumbent, and was consecrated by 
the late Archbishop Markham ; it is a plain octagonal 
building, neatly arranged. The living is a perpetual 
curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Leeds. 

The church on Quarry Hill, dedicated to St. Mary, 
was erected in 1824, at an expense of 10,456, granted 
by the Parliamentary Commissioners; it is a handsome 
structure in the later English style, with a square em- 
battled tower, and contains 2000 sittings, of which 
nearly half are free. The living is a perpetual curacy ; 
net income, 45 ; patron, the Vicar. Christ- Church, in 
Meadow-lane, was erected in the same year as St. Mary's, 
at an expense of 10,951, from the same funds ; it is an 
elegant structure in the decorated English style, with a 
lofty square embattled tower, strengthened by buttresses, 



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and crowned with crocketed pinnacles, and contains 
about 2000 sittings, of which one-halt' are free. The liv- 
ing is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 65 ; patron, 
the Vicar. The church dedicated to St. Mark, in the 
populous suburb of Woodhouse, was erected in 1825, 
at an expense of 9000, parliamentary grant, and is a 
handsome structure in the later English style, with a 
square embattled tower ; a district has been assigned, 
including Woodhouse and the adjoining parts of Head- 
ingley and Potter-Newton, and the living is a perpetual 
curacy} net income, 140; patron, the Vicar. The 
church at Mount Pleasant, dedicated to St. George, was 
erected for the accommodation of the inhabitants of the 
north-western suburbs, in 1837, at an expense, including 
its endowment, of more than 12,000 ; it is a neat and 
commodious structure, in the early English style, with a 
tower surmounted by a lofty spire. A church dedicated 
to St. Luke, was erected in North-s reet, in 1841, at a 
cost of 1300, raised by subscription ; it is a neat struc- 
ture in the early English style, and contains 450 sittings, 
of which 300 are free ; underneath, is a schoolroom. 
The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the 
Vicar of Leeds. A benevolent individual having resolved 
to build a church at St. Peter's Bank, at his own ex- 
pense, for which purpose he has given 5000, the first 
stone of an edifice, to be dedicated to the Holy Cross, 
was laid 14th September, 1842. Churches or chapels of 
ease have been erected at Armley, Beeston, Bramley, 
Chapel- Allerton, Farnley, Hunslet, Headingley, Hoi- 
beck, Kirkstall, and Wortley, all of which are described 
in the articles on those townships. There are also nume- 
rous places of worship for Baptists, the Society of 
Friends, Independents, Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, 
Methodists of the New Connexion, Female Revivalists, 
members of the Scottish Church, Unitarians, and Roman 
Catholics ; many of the buildings are spacious and ele- 
gant, and several of them possess organs of unusual tone 
and power, as well as the parish church. 

The Free Grammar School was originally founded in 
1552, by Sir William Sheafield, who endowed it with 
land on the condition that the inhabitants should erect a 
school-house, which was subsequently fulfilled by John 
Harrison, in 1624, at his own expense; the school-house 
was enlarged in 1692, by Godfrey Lawson, mayor, and a 
dwelling was erected for the master in 1780, by the 
trustees, since which other additions have been made. 
The original endowment, augmented by subsequent bene- 
factions, now produces above 2000 per annum ; and 
the school is conducted by a head master and second 
master, with assistants, and is open to all boys of the 
parish for instruction in the classics and mathematics, 
and writing. It has the privilege of sending a candidate 
for one of Lady Elizabeth Hastings' exhibitions to 
Queen's College, Oxford, and is entitled, with the schools 
of Haversham and Halifax, to one of the four scholar- 
ships of 80 per annum, founded by the Rev. T. Milner, 
in Magdalen College, Cambridge, tenable till the holder 
takes the degree of M.A. ; and also, in failure of a can- 
didate from the school of Normanton, to one of the two 
scholarships founded by Mrs. Frieston, in Emanuel Col- 
lege, Cambridge. A Parochial School for girls, of whom 
eighty are clothed and instructed, is supported by a por- 
tion of the produce of lands bequeathed for charitable uses, 
and amounting to 40 per annum ; an appropriate build- 
ing was erected in 1815, at an expense of 1000. A 
53 



National central school, in which about 450 children of 
both sexes are taught, was opened in 1812, and is main- 
tained by subscription; and of some other national schools 
in various parts of the town, is a factory school at St. 
Peter's Bank, one of the first of the kind undertaken by 
the National Society ; the school-house, erected in 1840, 
at a cost of 1700, contains five rooms, and is capable of 
receiving 1000 children. A Lancasterian school and a 
Model Infants' school are likewise carried on, and a Church 
of England Commercial school, a large and well-conducted 
establishment ; and there are also schools in connexion 
with several of the dissenting congregations. 

The General Infirmary, founded in J771 is a neat 
edifice, forming three sides of a quadrangle, and contains 
accommodation for more than 150 in-patients ; it is 
furnished with an arrangement of cold, warm, and medi- 
cated baths ; the wards are well ventilated, and a piece 
of contiguous ground, comprising 4000 square yards, 
purchased at a cost of 1500, and presented to the in- 
stitution in 1817, by Richard F. Wilson, Esq., has been 
appropriated as a garden for exercise in the open air. 
The charity is supported chiefly by subscription and 
collections, averaging 2500 per annum, and by the 
dividends on 3000 three per cent, consols, bought with 
the amount of various bequests ; the usual number of 
in-patients is about 1600, and of out-patients, 3000, 
annually. The House of Recovery, a building of brick, 
was opened in 1804, for the reception of patients in 
contagious fever, and is maintained by voluntary sub- 
scriptions and donations ; it is under the care of a 
board of subscribers, a matron, aud resident apothecary, 
and is visited gratuitously by two physicians aud two 
surgeons. In April, 1844, it was resolved, at a public 
meeting, to erect a more commodious edifice, to cost 
6000. The Dispensary in North- street was esta- 
blished in 1824, and is supported by subscriptions and 
occasional benefactions, averaging about 600 per an- 
num. The General Eye and Ear Infirmary, in Kirkgate, 
was commenced in 1821, and, with the assistance of a 
small subscription, and the gratuitous aid of three sur- 
geons, has produced great benefit among the poor. The 
Stranger's Friend Society, established in 1790, by the 
dissenters chiefly, dispenses about 350 annually in 
visiting and relieving the sick poor ; and the Church of 
England District Visiting Society, established in 1S34, 
distributes upwards of 500 annually among the poor, 
without distinction of country or creed. Eight houses 
were bequeathed in 1643, by Josias Jenkinson, Esq., for 
the reception of aged persons, but without any funds for 
keeping them in repair ; they have been rebuilt, partly 
by a bequest of 500 by John Blayds, Esq. ; and the 
rent of a farm, left to the poor by the founder, has been 
appropriated to their endowment, from which each of the 
inmates derives a payment of 5 per annum. Harrison's 
Hospital, comprising originally 30 almshouses, to which 
12 have since been added, were founded in 1653, by- 
John Harrison, Esq., who endowed them with lands 
producing 80 per annum ; the endowment has been 
augmented by subsequent benefactions from Mrs. Cathe- 
rine Parker, Mr. Joseph Midgley, Arthur Iken, Esq., 
and others ; and the buildings, which occupy a large 
quadrangular area, afford an asylum to 64 aged women, 
who receive 12 per annum each, in quarterly payments. 
Houses for 10 aged widows were founded in 1729, by Mrs. 
Mary Potter, who endowed them with 2000, to which 



LEEK 



LEEK 



400 were added by Mrs. Barbara Chantrell ; these 
sums, with subsequent benefactions, produce an income 
from which each of the inmates receives 12. 12. per 
annum. Mrs. Rachael Dixon bequeathed houses and 
premises in trust to the vicar of Leeds, and the minister 
of St. John's, of which she appropriated the rents to be 
equally divided among three widows of clergymen of the 
Established Church. 

In the neighbourhood are several chalybeate and other 
mineral springs, of which that at Holbeck has properties 
resembling the water of Harrogate, but less strongly 
impregnated ; it is in high repute, and is brought daily 
to Leeds for sale. On the declivity of Quarry Hill were 
vestiges of a Roman camp, the trenches of which are 
now covered with buildings ; and Roman coins, and 
other relics of antiquity, have been found at various 
times in the immediate vicinity. In Briggate are some 
slight remains of the chantry chapel of St. Mary Magda- 
lene, founded in 1470, by the Rev. William Evers, vicar 
of the parish ; and on a formerly sequestered but now 
much frequented spot, upon the bank of the Aire, about 
3 miles from Leeds, are the picturesque ruins of Kirk- 
stall Abbey, which see. Among the distinguished Natives 
or Residents of the town and neighbourhood have been, 
Hartley, author of the Observations on Man ; Smeaton, 
the celebrated engineer, and builder of the Eddystone 
lighthouse ; Thoresby, the eminent antiquary ; Dr. 
Priestley, the natural philosopher ; Joseph and Isaac 
Milner, eminent theologians ; Dr. James Scott, author 
of three of the Seatonian prize poems, and a writer in 
the Public Advertiser under the signature of Anti- 
Sejanus ; and Benjamin Wilson, F.R.S., an eminent 
landscape painter. The place gives the title of Duke to 
the family of Osborne. 

LEEK (Sr. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR), a market- 
town and parish, and the head of a union, in the S. 
division of the hundred of TOTMONSLOW, N. division of 
the county of STAFFORD ; containing 1 1,576 inhabitants, 
of whom 707 1 are in the town, 23 miles (N. N. E) from 
Stafford, and 154 (N. W. by N.) from London. This 
place, which is of great antiquity, and has been styled 
"The Capital of the Moorlands," subsequently to the 
Conquest became the property of the earls of Chester, 
one of whom obtained for it the grant of a market from 
King John, and it was eventually given to the monks of 
the abbey Dieu la Croix, in the parish. In 1745, the 
troops of the Pretender marched through it on Decem- 
ber 3rd, in their advance to Derby, and returned on the 
7th of the same month. The TOWN is pleasantly situ- 
ated on an eminence on the road from London to Man- 
chester ; the streets are spacious, well paved, and lighted 
with gas ; and the inhabitants are supplied with water 
by means of pipes from the springs on Leek Moor. 
The curious phenomenon of a double sunset occurs here 
at a certain time of the year, owing to the relative po- 
sition of a rocky mountain westward from the town. 
The principal business is the silk manufacture, which 
has long been in a flourishing state, and has of late 
years been so considerably extended that several very 
extensive mills have been erected for twisting and doub- 
ling the silk. The articles in silk and mohair, for which 
the town is chiefly celebrated, are sewing-silks, twist, 
buttons, ribbons, ferrets, galloons, handkerchiefs, shawls, 
sarcenet, and broad silk. An immense quantity of 
buttons covered with worsted stuff are also manufac- 
54 



tured, affording employment to many hundred women 
and children in the surrounding villages, who are en- 
gaged in sewing the cloth upon moulds. A considerable 
quantity of cheese is made in the neighbourhood j and 
there are some valuable mines of coal, lead, and copper, 
in the adjacent hills, some of which were worked before 
the year 1680. The Caldon branch of the Trent and 
Mersey canal passes within half a mile of the town, and 
near it runs the river Churnet. In 1806, the old market 
cross, which stood at the foot of the market-place, was 
taken down, and a town-hall erected on its site, at a 
cost of 250. Petty-sessions for the Northern division 
of the hundred are held at the Swan inn, on alternate 
Wednesdays. The market is on Wednesday ; and 
there are fairs, chiefly for cattle, on the Wednesday be- 
fore February 3rd, Easter-Wednesday, May 18th, Whit- 
Wednesday, July 3rd and 28th, and the Wednesday 
after October 10th : the principal cattle-fair is that on 
the 1 8th of May. Courts leet and baron are held by 
the lord of the manor, at which a constable is ap- 
pointed. 

The LIVING is a discharged vicarage, valued in the 
king's books at 7. 9. l. ; net income, 218; patron, 
Earl of Macclesfield : the tithes were commuted for land 
in 1805. The church, a very ancient structure, in the 
later English style, has a tower with eight pinnacles, 
and stands on an eminence which commands a very 
extensive prospect : in the interior are several neat 
mural monuments to the Daintry and other families ; 
and in the churchyard stand the remains of a pyramidal 
cross, adorned with rude imagery and fret-work, sup- 
posed to be of Danish workmanship. There are places 
of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, 
Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans, and a Roman 
Catholic chapel, adorned with some fine old paintings 
brought from a convent at Lisbon, by the nuns of 
Aston Hall, near Stone. A school, erected at the ex- 
pense of the Earl of Macclesfield, in the beginning of 
the last century, is endowed with Q. 13. 10. per an- 
num. Eight almshouses for single women, not under 
60 years of age, were founded and endowed by Elizabeth 
Ash, in 1676, with a rent-charge of 40, and additional 
benefactions make the total income 78 per annum. 
Very munificent donations have been made from time to 
time in aid of the poor, and the annual sum of 290 
arises from them. The union of Leek comprises 19 
parishes or places, and contains a population of 21,307. 
There are some remains of Dieu la Croix Abbey (now 
corrupted to Dieulacres), which was founded by Ranulph 
de Blundeville, Earl of Chester, in 1214, in honour of 
St. Mary and St. Benedict, for Cistercian monks, and 
valued at the Dissolution at 243. 3. 6. per annum. 
The ruins have been dug up and used in erecting barns 
and stables ; but the shafts of the chapel columns are 
left standing to the height of several feet : the exterior 
walls of the farm-buildings are decorated with many 
fragments of arches and capitals, and in one of them 
is a stone coffin with a crosier and sword carved upon it. 
Thomas Parker, first Earl of Macclesfield, who became 
lord high chancellor, and president of the Royal 
Society, was born in 1666, at Leek, where his father 
practised as an attorney. 

LEEK-FRITH, a township, in the parish and union 
of LEEK, N. division of the hundred of TOTMONSLOW 
and of the county of STAFFORD, 5 miles (N. by W.) from 



LEES 



LEGS 



Leek ; containing 926 inhabitants. John Stoddard, in 
1673, bequeathed a rent-charge of 10, to teach 20 poor 
children. 

LEEK-WOOTTON. See WOOTTON, LEEK. 

LEEMAILING, a township, in the parish and union 
of BELLINGHAM, N. W. division of TINDALE ward, S. 
division of NORTHUMBERLAND, 1 mile (W. N. W.) from 
Bellingham ; containing 325 inhabitants. The town- 
ship comprises 4274 acres, and is bounded on the north 
by the North Tyne river, which sweeps round two-thirds 
of it, high and rugged rocks skirting portions of it in 
the opposite direction ; the land is mostly heath and 
sheep-walks, but such parts of it as are in cultivation 
produce good crops. There are lime and freestone quar- 
ries, and iron-ore is found, the remains of a furnace for 
smelting which, worked in the reign of William III., 
are visible. Hesleyside, in the township, has been in 
the possession of the Charltons from the time of 
Richard II., who is recorded to have lent the sum of 
100 to an ancestor of the family: the Hall is a hand- 
some structure of white freestone, commanding a varied 
prospect, and embracing the picturesque scenery along 
the vale of the Tyne ; one of the wings was burnt down 
many years since, but has been rebuilt with additions ; 
attached is a neat Roman Catholic chapel. Lee Hall, 
the residence and property, with the surrounding lands, 
of Robert Charleton, Esq., is beautifully situated near 
the river, which abounds with trout. 

LEEMING, a chapelry, in the parish of BURNES- 
TON, union of BEDALE, wapentake of HALLIKELD, N. 
riding of YORK, 2 miles (E. N. E.) from Bedale ; con- 
taining, with the townships of Exelby and Newton, 682 
inhabitants, of whom 347 are in Leeming. The chapelry 
comprises 22980. 2r. 18;?., of which 1295 acres are 
arable, 952 meadow and pasture, and 74 woodland and 
plantations ; its surface is generally flat, and the scenery 
possesses few attractions, but the soil is fertile, and the 
arable grounds are in good cultivation. Newton House, 
a sporting seat of the late Duke of Cleveland, lord of 
the manor, and owner of a considerable portion of the 
lands, is now the property of the Dowager Duchess. 
The village, which is of ancient appearance, is situated 
on the great Roman road, here called Leeming-Lane, 
and now so little frequented that grass is growing on its 
surface ; and the river Swale bounds the township on 
one side. The petty-sessions for the division, formerly 
held here, have been now removed to Bedale. The old 
chapel, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, was rebuilt 
by subscription, and consecrated by the Bishop of 
Ripon, in 1839 ; it is a neat building of brick, in the 
later English style, and has an east window embellished 
with stained glass ; it is fitted up with open benches, 
and contains 300 sittings, of which 200 are free, in con- 
sideration of a grant of 200 from the Incorporated 
Society. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the pa- 
tronage of the Vicar of Burneston ; net income, about 
84, but capable of considerable increase. A school 
adjoining the chapel is supported by subscription ; and 
bequests by Ralph Cowley in 1670, and Thomas Isles in 
1684, together amounting to 7 per annum, are appro- 
priated to the poor. 

LEES, a hamlet, in the parish and union of ASH- 

TON-UNDER-LINE, hundred of SALFORD, S. division of 

the county of LANCASTER, 85 miles (N. E. by E.) from 

Manchester. This place is situated in the heart of a 

55 



manufacturing district, on the road from Oldham to 
Huddersfield; and the population is chiefly employed 
in the numerous factories in its immediate vicinity, 
the establishment of which has given importance to the 
place. Fairs are held in the spring and autumn. The 
living is a curacy; net income, 131; patron, Rector 
of Ashton. The chapel, dedicated to St. John, is a neat 
edifice of stone, erected in 1742. There is a meeting- 
house for Wesleyans j and a national school for girls 
has been established. Near the village is a chalybeate 
spring, called Lea Spa. 

LEESE, a township, in the parish of SANDBACH, 
union of CONGLETON, hundred of NORTHWICH, S. divi- 
sion of the county of CHESTER, 2^ miles (N. E.) from 
Middlewich j containing 151 inhabitants. The impro 
priate tithes have been commuted for 43. 0. 10., and 
the vicarial for 28. 2. 3. 

LEFTWICH, a township, in the parish of DAVEN- 
HAM, union and hundred of NORTHWICH, S. division 
of the county of CHESTER, 1 mile (S.) from Northwich ; 
containing 2001 inhabitants. A national school has an 
endowment of 10 per annum. 

LEGBOURN (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union 
of LOUTH, Marsh division of the hundred of CALCE- 
WORTH, parts of LINDSEY, county of LINCOLN, 3 miles 
(S. E. by E.) from Louth; containing 461 inhabitants. 
The parish comprises by computation 3500 acres, of 
which about 100 are woodland, and the remainder ara- 
ble and pasture, in equal portions ; the surface is level, 
the soil chiefly clay, producing good wheat and beans ; 
and the scenery of pleasing character. The living is a 
perpetual curacy, in the gift and incumbency of the 
Powley family ; net income, 84 ; impropriator, H. R. 
Allenby, Esq., of Kenwick House : the tithes were com- 
muted for land and annual money payments in 1780, 
when 167 acres were assigned in lieu of the small tithes. 
The church is an ancient and handsome structure, in 
the early English style, consisting of a nave, chancel, 
and aisles, with a tower. There are places of worship 
for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists. A priory of 
Cistercian nuns, in honour of the Virgin Mary, was 
founded here before the reign of John, by Robert Fitz- 
Gilbert : at the Dissolution its revenue was 57. 13. 5., 
and the site, now occupied by a modern mansion, was 
granted to Sir Thomas Heneage. 

LEGH, HIGH, a township, in the parish of Ros- 
THERNE, union of ALTRINCHAM, hundred of BUCKLOW, 
N. division of the county of CHESTER, 6| miles (E. S. 
E.) from Warrington ; containing 982 inhabitants. The 
township comprises by measurement 4170 acres, of which 
1000 are arable, 3030 meadow and pasture, and 140 
woodland. There are two chapels very near each other ; 
one, which is in the grounds of G. Cornwall Legh, Esq., 
and is a donative, in the presentation of that gentleman, 
was built in 1581, though some part of it is of an earlier 
date ; and the other was erected by the late Egerton 
Leigh, Esq., and is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 
160; patron, E. Leigh, Esq. A school, built in 1717, 
is endowed with 9 per annum ; and there is a school 
for girls, supported by Mrs. Cornwall Legh. 

LEGSBY (Sr. THOMAS THE APOSTLE), a parish, in 
the union of CAISTOR, W. division of the wapentake of 
WRAGGOE, parts of LINDSEY, county of LINCOLN, 3| 
miles (S. E.) from Market-Rasen ; containing 326 inha^ 
bitants. The parish comprises 286 la. 2r. 21p. inclusive 



LE I C 




Seal and Arms. 



of the hamlets of Collow and Bleasby. The village, 
which is small, is situated on the acclivity of a pictu- 
resque valley. The living is a discharged vicarage, 
valued in the king's books at 6. 4. 2. ; net income, 
104 ; patron and impropriator, Sir J. Nelthorpe. The 
church is an ancient thatched building, without tower 
or steeple. Sir J. Nelthorpe, Bart., in 1669, bequeathed 
the tithes of hay at Bleasby, now under composition for 
15, to the incumbent, for an afternoon sermon on 
every Sunday ; and a moiety of his endowment of the 
school at Glandford-Brigg is appropriated to the poor 
of this parish, jointly with the poor of Fullsby, in the 
parish of Kirkby-upon-Bain. There is a place of wor- 
ship for Wesleyans. 

LEICESTER, a borough, 
market, and county town, 
having separate jurisdiction, 
and the head of a union, in 
the S. division of the county 
of LEICESTER, 97 miles (N. 
N. W.) from London ; con- 
taining 48,167 inhabitants. 
Leicester, which had nou- 
rished from remote anti- 
quity as the principal town 
of the Coritani, was, upon 
the conquest of Britain by 
the Romans, made one of their stipendiary cities, and 
is clearly identified with the Ratce of Antoninus, and the 
Ratiscorion of Richard of Cirencester. That it was a 
Roman station of considerable importance is evident 
from the remains of a temfle, supposed to have been 
dedicated to Janus, and from numerous tessellated pave- 
ments and other relics of Roman antiquity which have 
been discovered in the vicinity, and of which a beautiful 
specimen has been recently found in a fragment of pave- 
ment 20 feet in length, and 17 in breadth, divided into 
octagonal compartments of great variety, ornamented 
with wreaths, and formed of tesserae of exceedingly 
small dimensions worked into a regular pattern. By 
the Saxons it was, from its situation on the river Lear, 
now the Soar, called Legerceastre, of which its present 
name is simply a contraction. Under the heptarchy 
the place belonged to the kingdom of Mercia, and was 
for about two centuries the see of a bishop whose suc- 
cessors removed to Dorchester, and finally to Lincoln. 
In 874, the Danes, having overrun this part of the 
kingdom, seized upon Leicester, which they constituted 
one of the five great cities of their empire in Britain, 
and retained it till Ethelfleda, daughter of Alfred, and 
widow of Ethelred, Duke of Mercia, who, after her hus- 
band's death, continued to govern the province, rescued 
it from their possession, after a successful encounter, 
in which the Danes were defeated with considerable 
slaughter. At the time of the Norman Conquest, the 
castle, which had been nearly destroyed in the Danish 
wars, was rebuilt, and entrusted to Hugo de Grente- 
maisnel, on whom William bestowed the greater part of 
the town ; but in the disputed succession to the throne, 
after the death of William, Hugo, embracing the cause 
of Robert, Duke of Normandy, in opposition to William 
Rufus, the castle was demolished by the partisans of 
the latter, and remained for some time in ruins. In the 
reign of Henry I., Robert de Mellent, being created Earl 
of Leicester, repaired, enlarged, and fortified the castle, 
56 



which he made his baronial residence ; but his son, 
Robert le Bossu, and grandson, Robert Blanchmains, 
having taken part in the rebellious cabals formed against 
Henry II., Leicester was besieged by the king's forces 
under Richard de Lucy, and fell into the hands of the 
king. The king's forces having entered the town, set 
fire to it in several places, razed the walls, and destroyed 
the fortifications ; and, having ultimately reduced the 
castle, which held out for a considerable time, de- 
molished it entirely. The earl (Blanchmains) was taken 
prisoner at the battle of Fornham, but afterwards re- 
gained his liberty and the favour of his sovereign. His 
father, Robert le Bossu, founded the monastery of St. 
Mary de Pratis, near the town, in which, having assumed 
the habit of a monk, he spent the remainder of his life. 
A royal mint, which was established at Leicester in the 
reign of Athelstan, and situated near the North bridge, 
was maintained here till the commencement of this 
reign. 

In the reign of John, Robert Fitz-Parnel, Earl of Lei- 
cester, obtained from that monarch a charter of incorpo- 
ration and many privileges, which were afterwards ex- 
tended and confirmed by Henry HI., at the solicitation 
of Simon de Montfort, then Earl of Leicester, who, 
rebelling against his sovereign, and engaging in the 
baronial wars of that reign, was slain at the battle of 
Evesham. Upon the death of Montfort, Henry III. con- 
ferred the earldom of Leicester on his second son, 
Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, whose grandson, Henry, 
made this place his principal residence, and under him 
and his two immediate successors the castle was restored 
to its former strength and magnificence. After the ac- 
cession of the house of Lancaster to the throne, Lei- 
cester was frequently visited by the sovereigns of that 
family. A parliament was held here by Henry V., and 
another by the Dukes of Bedford and Gloucester, during 
the minority of Henry VI. In the conflict between the 
houses of York and Lancaster, the castle is supposed to 
have suffered severely ; and in the reign of Richard III. 
it had become so dilapidated, that when that monarch 
was at Leicester, a few evenings prior to the battle of 
Bosworth Field, he preferred to sleep at an inn in the 
town. During the parliamentary war the town suffered 
materially; it was taken by storm by the royal army, in 
May, 1645, but was retaken by the republican forces 
under Fairfax, in June following, prior to which orders 
had been issued by Charles I. to pull down what re- 
mained of the castle, and to dispose of the materials. 
The remains are intermixed with the various buildings 
that have been erected on or near the site ; the most 
conspicuous and complete portion of them is a beautiful 
arched gateway tower, called the magazine, from its 
having been purchased by the county as a depot for the 
ammunition of the trained bands, in 1682. 

The TOWN is pleasantly situated nearly in the centre 
of the county, and on the banks of the river Soar, over 
which are four bridges, named respectively North, West, 
Branston, and Bow bridges ; the first a handsome struc- 
ture erected in 1796, the others ancient buildings, re- 
cently repaired. The principal thoroughfare, extending 
from south to north, is upwards of a mile in length, 
and there are many other spacious streets : the houses, 
which, within the last half century, have been much 
improved, are chiefly built of brick and roofed with slate ; 
the town is paved, lighted with gas, and supplied with 



L E I C 



LEI C 



water from a public conduit in the market-place, and 
from wells in various parts. A promenade, called the 
New Walk, which extends nearly three-quarters of a 
mile in length, in a south-eastern direction, was formed 
about the year 1785 ; the ground was given by the cor- 
poration, and laid out by subscription ; it affords, in 
many parts, some pleasing views of the town, and of the 
hills of Charnwood Forest, which abound with beauti- 
ful scenery. In the environs several handsome villas 
have been recently erected. The town library, esta- 
blished by the corporation in 1632, consists chiefly of 
theological works. The public rooms, in Wellington- 
street, consist of a hall, a room used as a mechanics' 
institute, a newsroom, and other apartments. A new 
theatre was erected in 1837 ; and assemblies are held, 
during the winter, in a suite of rooms in a building ori- 
ginally erected for an hotel, and purchased by the county 
for the accommodation of the judges of the assize, and 
for the meetings of the county magistrates : the ball- 
room is elegantly painted by Reinagle, and lighted on 
assembly nights by eight splendid lustres, and branches 
held by statues, after designs by Bacon. A very hand- 
some edifice has been recently erected in Belvoir-street 
as a general newsroom and library, at an expense of about 
6000, from the designs of Mr. Flint; it contains a 
gallery used for the library, and committee-rooms, and 
apartments for the librarians. Races are held in Sep- 
tember, on the south-east side of Leicester, where a 
grand stand has been erected, and every means adopted 
for the improvement of the course ; and on the north- 
east side of the town is an extensive inclosed cricket- 
ground. An agricultural society, which has been esta- 
blished for many years, holds its meetings in October. 

The staple manufacture, that of worsted and cotton 
hosiery, has been established for more than two cen- 
turies ; the number of frames in the town and county is 
about 14,000, and the number of persons employed in 
the frame- work knitting, worsted-spinning, wool-comb- 
ing, and dyeing, about 30,000. In addition to the 
manufacture of hose, of which a great quantity is ex- 
ported, there are manufacturers of lace, cotton, thread, 
ropes, and twine, stocking-frames, needles, and pipes, 
and several woolstaplers. Situated on a great northern 
road, Leicester has every facility of land carriage to 
London, Manchester, Nottingham, Derby, and other 
towns 5 and in 1791 an act of parliament was obtained 
for opening a communication with the Loughborough 
canal, and through that with the various lines of navi- 
gation connected with the Trent, the effect of which has 
been to introduce the coal of Derbyshire by the cheaper 
conveyance of water carriage. The Leicester and Swan- 
nington Railway, principally for the conveyance of coal, 
granite, paving stones, and other articles from the col- 
lieries and quarries near Ashby-de-la-Zouch to Leicester, 
whence they are sent to London and other places, and 
also for a few passengers, was commenced under an act 
of parliament in 1830, empowering the company to raise 
a joint-stock capital of 140,000, and 35,000 by loan ; 

I the line was completed at an expense of 175,000, and 
was opened to the public in July, 1832. The most im- 
portant means of communication, however, is that de- 
rived from one of the principal intermediate stations on 
the Midland-Counties' railway, established here on a 
very extensive scale with the waiting-rooms for pas- 
sengers detached from the main line. The market, 
VOL. III. 57 



which is on Saturday, is particularly celebrated for the 
quality of the butchers' meat : the fairs, principally for 
horses, cattle, sheep, and cheese, are on Jan. 4th, March 
2nd, the Saturday before Easter, May 12th, which lasts 
for three days, June 1st, July 5th, Aug. 1st, Sept. 13th, 
Oct. 10th (for three days), November 2nd, and Decem- 
ber 8th. 

Leicester is a BOROUGH by prescription. King John, 
in the first year of his reign, granted a charter, which 
was extended by succeeding sovereigns, and renewed, 
with all former privileges and immunities, in the 41st of 
Elizabeth, and by which the government was vested 
in a mayor, 24 aldermen, and 48 common-councilmen, 
assisted by a recorder, town-clerk, high bailiff, steward, 
chamberlain, and subordinate officers. The corporation, 
however, by the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., 
cap. 76, now consists of a mayor, 14 aldermen, and 42 
councillors ; the borough, which comprises 2126 acres, 
is divided into seven wards, the municipal and parlia- 
mentary boundaries being co-extensive, and the number 
of magistrates is 24. The freedom is inherited by all 
the sons of a freeman born after the father has taken up 
or been admitted to his freedom, and acquired by servi- 
tude : among the privileges are, exemption from toll in 
all the fairs of England, and the liberty of depasturing 
cattle in certain grounds near the town. The elective 
franchise was first exercised in the 23rd of Edward I., 
since which time the borough has returned two mem- 
bers to parliament. ; the mayor is returning officer. The 
recorder holds quarterly courts of session for offences 
not capital ; and a court of record, for the recovery of 
debts to any amount, was formerly held by prescription, 
confirmed by charters of Elizabeth and James I. ; the 
recorder is sole judge, but no court has been held for 
some years. There are petty- sessions at the Exchange 
every Monday and Friday ; and one of the magistrates 
attends at the guildhall every morning for hearing night 
cases. This being the county town, the assizes and 
general quarter-sessions are held in it ; and it is also 
the place of election for the southern division of the 
county. The guildhall is a building of rude character, 
of which the hall is embellished with portraits of Sir 
Thomas White, lord mayor of London, and founder of 
St. John's College, Oxford ; and Sir John Vaughan, 
Knt., one of the judges of Her Majesty's court of ex- 
chequer, and late recorder of the borough. The county 
rooms, appropriated as the judges' lodgings, and to the 
weekly meetings of the county magistrates, were origin- 
ally built by subscription as an hotel, and were pur- 
chased in 1819, under an act of parliament, for the use 
of the county ; the building contains an elegant and 
spacious assembly-room. The court-house, for holding 
the assizes and quarter-sessions for the county, was 
formerly the great hall of the ancient castle. The 
borough gaol, nearly in the centre of the town, was ori- 
ginally the gaol for the county, but, on the erection of 
a new county gaol, was purchased by the borough 
magistrates, who have made considerable alterations 
and improvements. The county gaol, situated on a com- 
manding eminence near the entrance to the town from 
W T elford, was erected at an expense of 50,000 j and the 
county house of correction was built about thirty years 
since. 

The old borough, which comprised 325 acres, con- 
sisted of the PARISHES of All Saints, containing 4608 j 



LEI C 



LEI C 



St. Leonard, 466 j St. Martin, 2889 ; and St. Nicholas, 
1501 j and parts of the parishes of St. Margaret and St. 
Mary, the former wholly containing 31,249, and the 
latter 8406 inhabitants. The living of All Saints is a 
discharged vicarage, with those of St. Clement's, St. Mi- 
chael's, and St. Peter's united, the churches of which are 
demolished, valued in the king's books at 6. 13. 5., St. 
Clement's and St. Michael's being not in charge ; it is 
in the patronage of the Crown, and the net income is 
148. The church is an ancient structure, combining 
various styles, with a tower on the north side of the 
north aisle ; the chancel is modern, but in various 
parts of the church are some fine old portions inter- 
mixed with later insertions ; the interior contains a 
font of curious device, and some fine carving in wood. 
The living of St. Leonard's is a vicarage, valued in the 
king's books at 23. 8. 6. j net income, 40. The 
church was demolished during the parliamentary war, in 
1645. The living of St. Margaret's is a vicarage, with 
the chapelry of Knighton ; net income, 440 ; patron 
and appropriator, Prebendary of St. Margaret's in the 
Cathedral of Lincoln. The church is a beautiful struc- 
ture, combining portions in the early, decorated, and 
later English styles, with a tower ; the interior contains 
some wooden stalls and seats richly carved, and among 
the monuments is an alabaster tomb of Bishop Penny, 
previously abbot of the neighbouring monastery of St. 
Mary de Pratis, from which it was removed at the 
period of the Dissolution. In the churchyard is the 
tomb of Andrew, Lord Rollo, decorated with military 
trophies. The living of St. Martin's is a discharged 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 6. 13. 4., and 
in the patronage of the Crown ; net income, 140. The 
church is a venerable cruciform structure, partly in the 
Anglo-Norman, early English, and later styles, with a 
tower rising from the centre, supported on four semi- 
circular arches, opening into the nave, chancel, and tran- 
septs ; the lower part of the tower is in the Norman 
style, surmounted by a spire of later date. The interior 
was despoiled of its ornaments by the parliamentary 
troops, who converted it into barracks during their oc- 
cupation of the town, but it has been restored with due 
regard to its ancient character ; the chancel is decorated 
with three stone stalls under the south-east window, 
and it has a noble organ, built by Snetzler, and a fine 
painting of the Ascension, by Francesco Vanni, pre- 
sented by Sir William Skeffington, Bart. The living of 
St. Mary's is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's 
books at 8, and in the patronage of the Crown j net 
income, 221. The church is an ancient structure, 
combining almost every variety of style, from, perhaps, 
the Saxon to the worst period of the debased English ; 
the tower, which is surmounted by a lofty spire, is situ- 
ated at the west end of the south aisle, and detached 
from it ; the spire was erected in 1783, at the expense 
of 300, in the place of one destroyed by lightning. On 
the south side of the old chancel are three fine Norman 
stalls, with double shafts and enriched mouldings ; and 
on the south side of the Hungerford chantry, or present 
chancel, are three early English stalls, highly orna- 
mented ; the font is of curious and beautiful design, and 
the oak roofs, which are exquisitely carved, are in good 
preservation. The living of St. Nicholas' is a discharged 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 3. 11. 3., and 
in the patronage of the Crown ; net income, 115. The 
58 



church is in the early Norman style, with a tower be- 
tween the nave and the chancel, and is said to have 
been partly built with the materials of a Roman temple, 
of which a considerable fragment still remains in a wall 
adjoining the churchyard. A district chapel, dedicated 
to St. George, was erected in the parish of St. Margaret, 
by grant from the Parliamentary Commissioners, in 1826, 
at an expense of 14,964, from the designs of Mr. 
Parsons ; it is a handsome edifice, in the later English 
style, with a tower surmounted by a spire, the view of 
which from one of the principal streets has been ob- 
structed by the injudicious erection of a schoolroom in 
the churchyard. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net 
income, l60j patron, Vicar of St. Margaret's. Trinity 
church, erected at the expense of F. Turner, Esq., after 
a design by Mr. Sydney Smirke, is a neat structure : the 
living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the 
Vicar of St. Margaret's. Christchurch, recently built by 
subscription, is also a handsome edifice, and was con- 
secrated in July, 1839. There are places of worship for 
Baptists, the Society of Friends, Huntingtonians, Inde- 
pendents, Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, and Unita- 
rians, and a Roman Catholic chapel j the last a good 
edifice, in the early English style. 

The Free Grammar school was founded by Thomas 
Wigston, and was refounded, and a new school-house 
erected by the corporation, in 1575. There are two 
exhibitions of 6 per annum to Lincoln College, Oxford, 
established by Mr. Thomas Hayne, for boys of the school j 
an annuity of 4 per annum to be paid to two poor boys 
so long as they should continue in the school ; and an 
exhibition of 6 per annum to Oxford or Cambridge, 
tenable for five years, founded by Henry, Earl of Hunt- 
ingdon. Two proprietary schools, one called the Col- 
legiate, and the other the Leicester Proprietary School, 
have been erected by subscription ; the Collegiate, in the 
English style, is supported by members of the Esta- 
blished Church, and the Proprietary, of the Tuscan order, 
with a very fine portico, belongs to dissenters. A 
Green-coat charity school was founded by Gabriel New- 
ton, alderman, and was rebuilt in 1808 ; and there are 
several national and other schools. The Old Trinity 
Hospital was founded in 1330, by Henry, Earl of Leices- 
ter and Lancaster, who endowed it originally for 50 
infirm and aged men, and five women to attend on them, 
also for a master, four chaplains, and two clerks. In 
1354, the foundation was greatly augmented by his son, 
Henry, Duke of Lancaster, who engrafted on it a colle- 
giate church, or Collegium Novi Operis ; and it was fur- 
ther extended by John of Gaunt, son-in-law of Duke 
Henry. The establishment eventually consisted of a 
dean, twelve prebendaries, thirteen vicars-choral, three 
clerks, six choristers, one verger, one hundred poor men, 
and ten nurses and other attendants. There are at pre- 
sent in it about ninety men and women. An hospital 
for a master, confrater, twelve aged men, and twelve 
aged women, all unmarried, was founded and dedicated 
to St. Ursula, in the latter part of the fifteenth century, 
by William Wigston, merchant-stapler, and mayor of 
Leicester, and others. The hospital of St. John the Bap- 
tist, founded in 1235, for a master, brethren, and sisters, 
was given by Queen Elizabeth to the corporation, it 
having been previously converted into a hall for wool ; 
in the reign of James I. they placed in it six poor 
widows. An hospital for five aged widows was founded 



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in 1703, by Mr. Bent, alderman of the borough; and 
in 1710, another was founded by Mr. Matthew Simons, 
for six aged widows. Almshouses in Vauxhall-street, 
founded and endowed by Miss Mason, for four women, 
were recently erected, at an expense of 363. The late 
John Johnson, Esq., erected, in 1792, five neat houses, 
which he called the Consanguinitarium, and intended as a 
residence for .five of his needy relatives, assigning for its 
support an income of more than 60 per annum. The 
female asylum, in the New Works, was established in 
1800, by the exertions of the late Rev. Thomas Robin- 
son, for the maintenance, and instruction in household 
business, of sixteen orphan girls. The infirmary, at the 
southern extremity of the town, was erected in 1771, and 
is supported by subscription ; the building, which is 
plain, consists of a centre and two wings ; attached is a 
house of recovery from fever, or other contagious dis- 
eases, added in 1820. Adjoining the infirmary was for- 
merly the county lunatic asylum, towards the erection and 
support of which Mrs. Topp bequeathed 1000, and Mrs. 
Ann Wigley 200 ; but this institution having become 
inadequate to the purpose for which it was established, 
a more capacious structure has been recently built by the 
county magistrates, on an eminence to ,the south-east of 
the town ; it will accommodate about 100 patients, and 
the expense was defrayed, partly by subscription, and 
partly out of the county rates. Sir Thomas White be- 
queathed a portion of the rents of certain estates, which 
have since accumulated to upwards of 16,000, to be 
lent for nine years, without interest, in sums of 50, 
subsequently enlarged to 100, to the inhabitants of 
Leicester ; and there are various other charitable bequests 
for distribution among the poor, amongst which is the 
produce of a grant, by Charles I., of 40 acres of land in 
the forest of Leicester. The union of Leicester com- 
prises the whole of the town parishes, and the townships 
of New Works and Castle- View, and contains a popula- 
tion of 50,932. 

Among the Monastic Establishments anciently existing 
here, was a collegiate church, founded long before the 
Conquest, within the precincts of the castle, and which 
was, with the city and the castle, destroyed in the wars 
during the reign of the Conqueror, and refounded in 
1107, .by Robert de Mellent, Earl of Leicester; the 
greater portion of its revenue was transferred to the 
abbey of St. Mary de Pratis, but it continued, under 
the designation of St. Mary the Less, till the Dissolu- 
tion, when the remaining part of it was valued at 
24. 13. 11. The abbey of St. Mary de Pratis was 
founded in the year 1 143, by Robert le Bossu, Earl of 
Leicester, for regular canons of the Augustine order, 
and dedicated to St. Mary ; here that earl ended his 
days, and the establishment became possessed of great 
wealth, and was frequently visited by several of the 
kings of England and other illustrious personages, 
among whom was Cardinal Wolsey, who, lodging here 
on his route to London, after his disgrace, died within 
its walls, and was buried in the church : at the Dissolu- 
tion its gross revenue was 1062. 0. 4f. : the remains 
consist chiefly of the outer walls, on which is an inscrip- 
tion curiously worked in bricks of different colours. In 
the north part of the town was an hospital for lepers, 
founded in the reign of Richard I., by William, son of 
Robert Blanchmains, Earl of Leicester. In the north- 
western part was a convent of Franciscan or Grey friars, 
59 



founded in 1265, by Simon de Monttbrt, in the church 
of which was interred the body of Richard III., after his 
death at the battle of Bosworth Field. In an island in 
the Soar was a house of Black friars, founded in the 
reign of Henry III., and dedicated to St. Clement, by 
one of the earls of Leicester ; and here was also a 
priory for Canons Regular of the order of St. Augustine, 
dedicated to St. Catherine, which remained till the Dis- 
solution. Of the Roman relics the most curious are, a 
tessellated pavement, found in a cellar nearly opposite 
the town prison, in 1675 ; another, discovered a few 
years since, in Jewry- Wall-street ; and a milliary, or 
Roman mile- stone, discovered in the year 1771, on the 
side of the Fosse-road leading from Leicester to Newark, 
in Nottinghamshire, and about two miles from the town. 
This stone, which has given rise to much archaeological 
research, was removed to the town by the corporation, 
and is placed in Belgrave Gate, on a square pedestal, 
with a column above it, surmounted by a cross ; from, 
the inscription on it, it appears to have been erected in 
the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, and it is said to be 
the oldest that has been discovered in this country. 
About a quarter of a mile south of the infirmary are the 
ancient artificial embankments, called the Rawdykes, 
supposed also to be of Roman origin ; and among 
smaller remains is an abundance of coins, of which it is 
supposed that a complete series might have been formed 
from Nero to Valentinian. Dr. Richard Farmer, the 
learned author of an essay on the learning and genius of 
Shakspeare, was a native of the town. Leicester gives 
the inferior title of Earl to Marquess Townsend ; and 
the late T. W. Coke, Esq., of Holkham, in the county of 
Norfolk, was raised to the peerage by the title of Vis- 
count Coke and Earl of Leicester, by patent of creation, 
dated August 12th, 1837- 

LEICESTER-ABBEY, an extra-parochial liberty, in 
the hundred of WEST GOSCOTE, N. division of the 
county of LEICESTER, 1 mile (N.) from Leicester; con- 
taining 22 inhabitants. It takes its name from the 
abbey of St. Mary de Pratis, which was founded within 
its limits, and which is described in the article on LEI- 
CESTER. 

LEICESTER-FOREST, an extra-parochial liberty, 
in the union of BLABY, hundred of SPARKENHOE, S. 
division of the county of LEICESTER; containing 106 
inhabitants. 

LEICESTERSHIRE, an inland county, bounded on 
the north-west by that of Derby, on the north by that 
of Nottingham, ou the east by Lincoln and Rutland, on 
the south-east by Northampton, and on the south-west 
by Warwick. It lies between 52 23' and 52 58' 
(N. Lat.), and 40' and 1 37' (W. Lon.), and includes 
804 square miks, or 514,560 statute acres. Within its 
limits are 44,774 inhabited houses, 3273 uninhabited, 
and 449 in the course of erection ; and the population 
amounts to 215,867, of whom 105,616 are males, and 
110,251 females. The county, which derives its name 
from the principal town, formed part of the territory of 
the Coritani, and, subsequently, of the Roman division 
of Britain called Flavia C&sariensis ; under the Anglo- 
Saxons, it was a central portion of the powerful king- 
dom of Mercia. It suffered severely from the incursions 
of the Danes, who, landing on the eastern coast, laid 
waste the whole county as far as Leicester, which town, 
having finally fallen into their possession, became, on 

12 



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their peaceable establishment in this part of the king- 
dom, one of their five principal cities in England. 
Leicestershire was formerly included in the diocese of 
Lincoln, but under the act of the 6th and 7th of William 
IV., cap. 77, it has been transferred to the diocese of 
Peterborough, in the province of Canterbury. It forms, 
exclusively of some peculiar jurisdictions, an arch- 
deaconry, comprising the deaneries of Akeley, Chris- 
tianity, Framland, Gartree, Goscote, Guthlaxton, and 
Sparkenhoe, and containing 213 parishes. For civil pur- 
poses it is divided into the hundreds of Framland, Gar- 
tree, East Goscote, West Goscote, Guthlaxton, and 
Sparkenhoe. It contains the borough and market-town 
of Leicester ; and the market-towns of Ashby-de-la- 
Zouch, Market-Bosworth, Market-Harborough, Hinck- 
ley, Loughborough, Lutterworth, Melton-Mowbray, and 
Mountsorrel. Under the act of the 2nd of William IV., 
cap. 45, the county was formed into the northern and 
southern divisions, each sending two representatives to 
parliament ; and two members are returned for the 
borough of Leicester. The county is included in the 
midland circuit, and the assizes and quarter-sessions 
are held at Leicester, where stands the county gaol. 

The general SURFACE is a continuance of gently rising 
hills, with a few precipitous declivities, so that almost 
the whole is available for cultivation. The highest 
grounds are some of the summits of the Charnwood 
Forest hills, which consist of barren rocks, projecting 
abruptly above the surface, and composed of a kind of 
granite ; and these peaks, though their elevation is not 
more than 800 or 900 feet above the level of the sea, 
command some of the most extensive and beautiful views 
in the kingdom. About 240,000 acres of land are under 
occasional tillage. A considerable quantity of wheat is 
grown, but barley is the favourite grain crop ; and oats 
are cultivated to a great extent, on account of the num- 
ber of horses bred and kept in the county. About half 
the inclosed land consists of permanent grass, and the 
natural meadows on the banks of the rivers and brooks 
are very numerous and extensive, and frequently of ex- 
cellent quality. In various parts are good dairies which 
produce large quantities of cheese ; and Stilton cheese, 
the richest and highest-priced thick cheese produced in 
Great Britain, is made in most of the villages about 
Melton-Mowbray : it obtained its name from the first 
maker of it, resident at Wymondham, near Melton- 
Mowbray, having supplied an inn at Stilton, where it 
first became generally known and esteemed. The county 
has long been distinguished for the improvement of every 
species of live stock. The Mineral Productions are, iron- 
stone, which is plentifully found on Ashby Wolds, and 
has been smelted and cast into pigs and utensils for 
various purposes, at the works by the side of the Ashby 
canal; lead-ore, which is found of a rich nature in the 
fissures of the limestone obtained at Staunton-Harold, 
and is smelted ; coal, of which there are mines at Cole- 
Orton, the Lount, and Ashby Wolds ; slate, which is 
raised in large quantities of a rather thick and heavy, 
but firm and durable, quality, at Swithland, to the east 
of Charnwood Forest ; limestone, of which the Bredon 
quarries are excavated in an isolated rock of consider- 
able extent, having a slight covering of earth, and of 
which there is some in extremely high request at Bar- 
row-upon-Soar, producing the famous Barrow-lime ; and 
freestone, which exists in most parts, as does also clay 
60 



suitable for bricks. The red granite from the rocks at 
Mountsorrel furnishes a valuable material for macadam- 
izing the roads. The principal Manufactures are those 
of woollen-yarn, worsted, and stockings, which prevail not 
only in Leicester, Hinckleyj and other towns, but also 
in the principal villages throughout most parts of the 
county ; indeed, the number of persons employed in 
trade here is to the agricultural class nearly as seven to 
four, and of these a very large proportion are employed 
in the manufacture of wool into stockings, principally 
at Leicester, Hinckley, and Loughborough, both for the 
London market and exportation. At Loughborough, 
Hinckley, and Ashby, hats are manufactured. The mak- 
ing of machine lace, introduced of late years, is carried 
on to a considerable extent, principally in the towns and 
neighbourhoods of Loughborough, Leicester, and Ashby j 
and at the two first are several malt-kilns. Cheese is a con- 
siderable article of exportation, it being computed that not 
less than 1500 tons are annually conveyed down the Trent, 
for the consumption of the metropolis and the navy. 

The principal Ricer is the Soar, which, with the aid of 
different artificial cuts, has been made navigable from 
the Trent, into which river it empties itself near Sawley 
in Derbyshire, up to several miles above Leicester, a 
distance of above twenty miles. The Ashby canal was 
first designed to communicate with the navigable chan- 
nel of the Trent, below Burton, and with that view was 
constructed so as to be navigable for barges of sixty 
tons' burthen ; but the money subscribed, amounting to 
180,000, having been expended, the line from Ashby 
to the Trent, on which are a tunnel and several locks, 
was abandoned, and railways substituted on the high 
grounds. The canal is navigable from Ashby Wolds to 
the Coventry canal, in which it terminates, for boats of 
24 tons' burthen, being such only as can float on the 
Coventry canal. The line of the Leicester navigation is 
down the valley of the Soar, to the Trent, being some- 
times along the channel of the Soar, and at others car- 
ried from it by means of locks into a new channel, as 
before stated. The Melton canal is carried from the 
Leicester Soar navigation along the valley of the Wreke, 
to Melton-Mowbray, whence it has been continued to 
Oakham : the Grantham canal, from the Trent below 
Nottingham to Grantham, passes through the north- 
easternmost part of the county ; and the Union canal, 
from the navigable channel of the Soar, near Leicester, 
was designed to pass by way of Market-Harborough, 
and join the Nene at Northampton, and also to commu- 
nicate with the Grand Junction canal ; but its progress 
towards its completion was arrested by unfavourable 
circumstances. The iron railways attached to the Ashby 
canal extend about twelve miles from that navigation, 
by the town of Ashby, to the Lount colliery, Cole-Orton, 
Ticknall, and the Cloud hill lime-works ; they were 
constructed at an expense of 30,000, and along the 
line are various embankments and deep excavations, for 
the purpose of preserving the level, or an uniform 
ascent or descent, besides a tunnel about a quarter of a 
mile in length. The Midland- Counties' railway proceeds 
in a direct course nearly north from Rugby, and enters 
this county near Great Claybrook, whence it passes by 
the town of Leicester, near which is a small tunnel ; 
after passing through another tunnel at Redhill, it is 
carried over the Trent by a beautiful viaduct of three 
iron arches, each 100 feet span, and branches off to 



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Derby and Nottingham. The Leicester and Swannington 
railway is noticed in the article on Leicester, which see. 

The Roman stations within or close to the limits of the 
county were, Rate at Leicester ; Vernometum, on the 
northern border, supposed to have been at Willoughby; 
and Venones, near High Cross ; besides which there was 
the celebrated station of Manduessedum, at Mancetter, 
on the borders of this county and Warwickshire. The 
principal remains of Roman buildings have been found 
at Leicester ; and other miscellaneous Roman remains 
have been discovered at Rothley, Wanlip, Harbo- 
rough, Burrow, and Catthorpe. The ancient Watling- 
street first touches Leicestershire at Dove bridge, on the 
Avon, whence it proceeds in a north-easterly direction 
towards the Anker, near Mancetter, where it quits for 
Warwickshire, after having formed the south-western 
boundary of the county for a distance of upwards of 20 
miles. The Fosse-road from Lincolnshire, enters near 
the Roman station Vernometum, and joins the Watling- 
street at High Cross ; its course may be distinctly 
traced, more particularly on the eastern side of the 
county, and near the village of Narborough. The Via 
Devana, from Colchester to Chester, enters near Cot- 
tingham, and joins the Fosse at Leicester, which, how- 
ever, it soon leaves for Grooby, whence it proceeds by 
Ashby to Burton -upon-Trent; it is visible on a hill be- 
tween the parishes of Cranoe and Glooston, and in 
different other parts of its course. Another ancient road, 
which the Rev. T. Leman, in his account of the Roman 
roads and stations in Leicestershire, calls the " Salt 
Way," and considers of British origin, entered the 
county from Lincolnshire, in its way to the salt-works 
at Droitwich, and is visible in some parts of its course 
over Charnwood Forest. The number of Religious houses, 
prior to the Dissolution, was thirty-one, including three 
colleges, six hospitals, three commanderies of the Knights 
Hospitallers, and one alien priory j the principal remains 
are those of the abbey of St. Mary de Pratis, near Lei- 
cester, of Ulverscroft priory, and of Grace Dieu nunnery. 
There are but few remains of ancient castles ; the chief 
are the picturesque ruins of the castellated mansion of 
Ashby, the most ancient portions of which are of the 
reign of Edward IV., and of Kirby Castle. Among the 
numerous elegant seats that adorn the county, the most 
distinguished are, Belvoir Castle, the seat of the Duke of 
Rutland, and Donnington Park, that of the Marquess of 
Hastings. There are medicinal springs at Ashby-de-la- 
Zouch, Burton-Lazars, Dalby-on-the-Wolds, Gumley, 
Neville-Holt, Leicester, and Sapcote. 

LEIGH, a tything, in the parish of WIM BORNE- 
MINSTER, union of WIMBORNE and CRANBORNE, hun- 
dred of BADBURY, Wimborne division of DORSET, 1 mile 
(E.) from Wimborne Minster ; containing 574 inhabit- 
ants. There was anciently a chapel here. 

LEIGH, a chapelry,in the parish and hundred of YET- 
MINSTER, union of SHERBORNE, Sherborne division of 
DORSET, 6 miles (S. by W.) from Sherborne ; contain- 
ing 396 inhabitants. 

LEIGH (Sr. CLEMENT), a parish and sea-port, in 
the union and hundred of ROCHFORD, S. division of 
ESSEX, 4 miles (S. W.) from Rochford ; containing 
1271 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the bank 
of the river Thames, and includes an island called Leigh 
Marsh, and the eastern extremity of Canvey island j 
61 



the grounds rise gradually from th6 river to a consider- 
able elevation, commanding beautiful views of the sur- 
rounding country ; and the variety of the scenery, and 
the numerous pleasant rides and walks, render the place 
a favourite resort during the summer for the company 
visiting Southend, in its immediate neighbourhood. A 
considerable trade in shrimps employs about 200 per- 
sons and nearly 100 boats; and a fair is held on the 
second Tuesday in May. A small port is formed here 
by a channel from the Thames towards South Benfleet ; 
a custom-house has been erected, and vessels of 180 
tons come up with coal to the quay. The living is a 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 15 ; net income, 
284 ; patron, Bishop of London. The church, situ- 
ated on the summit of a hill, is a spacious and hand- 
some structure, with a lofty tower, and contains some 
ancient monuments. Here is a meeting-house forWes- 
leyans ; and a national school is supported by Lady 
Olivia B. Sparrow. 

LEIGH (ST. JAMES), a parish, in the union of 
TEWKESBURY. partly in the Lower division of the hun- 
dred of WESTMINSTER, but chiefly in the Low?r divi- 
sion of that of DEERHURST, E. division of the county of 
GLOUCESTER, 4 miles (W. N. W.) from Cheltenham ; 
containing, with the hamlet of Evington, 489 inhabit- 
ants. The parish is situated in the vale of Gloucester ; 
the surface is nearly level, but richly embellished with 
timber, of which oak and elm are the prevailing kinds ; 
the soil is a blue clay, and the chief crops are wheat and 
beans ; the pastures are rich, and the lands are watered 
by the river Severn, and intersected by the Coombe hill 
canal. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in 
the king's books at 7. 16. 3. ; the patronage and im- 
propriation belong to the Crown, and the net income of 
the incumbent is 247. The church is an ancient 
structure. A British and Foreign school has been esta- 
blished ; and there are several bequests for distribution 
among the poor. 

LEIGH (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union of SEVEN- 
OAKS, partly in the hundred of SOMERDEN, but chiefly 
in that of CODSHEATH, lathe of SUTTON-AT-HONE, W. 
division of KENT, 3| miles (W.) from Tonbridge ; con- 
taining, with the hamlet of Hollanden, 1245 inhabit- 
ants. The parish, from various ancient records, appears 
to have been formerly of considerable importance, and to 
have included a portion of thatof Penshurst. It comprises 
4659a. 3r. 15p. ; the soil is a retentive clay, with a sub- 
stratum of sandstone rock ; the prevailing timber is 
oak; about 150 acres are hop plantation, and about 70 
orchard grounds. The manufacture of gunpowder is 
carried on in some mills belonging to Messrs. Burton. 
The river Medway flows through the parish, and the 
South-Eastern railway nearly bisects it, passing through 
an excavation to the extent of 513,420 cubic yards, cut 
through a stratum of hard marl, in the removal of every 
1000 yards of which 100 Ib. of gunpowder were em- 
ployed ; the soil has been used in forming the embank- 
ment of the river. The village is situated on the road 
from London to Penshurst ; and a fair, chiefly for plea- 
sure and pedlery, is held there on the 16th of June. The 
living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
9. 18. 9. ; patron and incumbent, Rev. T. May ; im- 
propriators, Sir J. S. Sidney, Bart., and others. The 
great tithes have been commuted for 555, and the 



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vicarial for 510. 15. ; the glebe comprises three acres. 
The church, which contains some ancient tablets, had for- 
merly a chantry, but it was suppressed by Edward VI. 
A national school is supported by subscription. There is 
a mineral spring possessing properties similar to, and 
even more powerful than, the water of Tonbridge 
Wells. 

LEIGH (ST. MARY), a market-town and parish, and 
the head of a union, in the hundred of WEST DERBY, 
S. division of the county of LANCASTER, 46 miles 
(S. S. E.) from Lancaster, and 197 (N. W.) from Lon- 
don ; containing 22,229 inhabitants, and comprising the 
chapelries of Astley and Atherton, and the townships of 
Bedford, Pennington, Tyldesley with Shakerley, and 
West Leigh. The name of this place is pure Saxon, 
and synonymous with the English word Lea, a field or 
pasture. The manufactures of Lancashire are eminently 
indebted to the ingenuity of Thomas Highs, a reed- 
maker at this place, who, in 1764, constructed the first 
spinning-jenny, and, in 1767, invented the water-frame, 
afterwards improved and extensively introduced by Sir 
Richard Arkwright. The manufacture of cambrics, 
muslins, and fustians, is carried on, that of the first 
being the most considerable ; and the general trade of 
the place has much improved of late years, chiefly in 
consequence of advantages derived from a branch of the 
Duke of Bridgewater's canal, which here forms a junc- 
tion with the Leeds and Liverpool canal. One of the 
principal intermediate stations on the line of the Bolton 
and Leigh, and the Kenyon and Leigh Junction, rail- 
ways, is also situated here. Coal and limestone are 
found, the latter of which, when burnt, is used in 
making a very excellent cement, impervious to water. 
The market is on Saturday ; and fairs are held on April 
24th and 25th, and on December 7th and 8th, for cattle, 
pigs, pedlery, &c. A court baron for the manor of 
Pennington, and a court for the manor of West 
Leigh, are held annually by their respective lords ; and 
the petty-sessions for the Warrington division of the 
hundred of West Derby take place here. The parish 
comprises 11,969 acres, of which 2767 are arable, 8304 
pasture, and 150 woodland. The living is a discharged 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 9 j net in- 
come, 27 lj patron, Lord Lilford. The church is an 
ancient stone edifice, consisting of a nave, chancel, and 
two side aisles, terminating in sepulchral chapels. 
There are chapels of ease at Astley and Atherton : in 
1 825, a church was erected by subscription, aided by a 
grant of the Commissioners, at Tyldesley, a handsome 
structure of stone, with a spire ; and in 1840, a church 
was erected at Bedford. There are places of worship 
for Independents, Wesleyans, Swedenborgians, and 
Roman Catholics. The free grammar school was en- 
dowed in 1655, by Piers Rancars, with a rent-charge of 
5, which, with subsequent grants, produces an annual 
income of 25. The poor law union of Leigh comprises 
eight chapelries or townships, and contains a population 
of 26,588. 

LEIGH, a hamlet, in the parish of ASTHALL, union 
of WITNEY, hundred of BAMPTON, county of OXFORD ; 
containing 191 inhabitants. 

LEIGH, a tything, in the parish of PITMINSTER, 
union of TAUNTON, hundred of TAUNTON and TAUNTON- 
DEAN, W. division of SOMERSET, 4 miles (S. S. W.) 
62 



from Taunton. There is a place of worship for Wes- 
leyans. 

LEIGH, a tything, in the parish, liberty, and union 
of HAVANT, Fareham and S. divisions of the county of 
SOUTHAMPTON ; containing 547 inhabitants. 

LEIGH (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union of 
UTTOXETER, S. division of the hundred of TOTMON- 
SLOW, N. division of the county of STAFFORD, 5f miles 
(W. N. W.) from Uttoxeter; containing 1012 inhabit- 
ants. The parish, including the township of Field, com- 
prises 7037a. 39p., of which about one-third is arable, and 
very little wood, though hedge-row timber is abundant j 
the surface is varied, the soil clay, and the scenery gene- 
rally of pleasing character. It is intersected by the 
river Blithe. Park Hall, an ancient mansion, is sur- 
rounded by a moat. The living is a rectory, valued in 
the king's books at 14. 0. 5., and in the gift of Lord 
Bagot : the tithes have been commuted for 688. 15., 
and the glebe comprises 69^ acres, with a house. The 
church is an ancient cruciform structure, mostly in the 
decorated English style, with o. square embattled tower 
rising from the centre ; the south aisle has three monu- 
ments to the Ashenhurst family, and an altar-tomb, of 
the date 1523, to Sir John and Lady Aston, with their 
recumbent effigies. A free school was endowed by 
Stephen Spencer, in 1620, with lands now producing 
about 72. 15. per annum j and other schools are sup- 
ported by W. Evans, Esq. 

LEIGH (Sr. BARTHOLOMEW), a parish, in the union, 
and First division of the hundred, of REIGATE, E. divi- 
sion of SURREY, 3 miles (S. W.) from Reigate; contain- 
ing 495 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 2988a. 
Ir. 23p., of which 1965 acres are arable, 504 meadow 
and pasture, and 116 woodland. The living is a per- 
petual curacy, valued in the king's books at 15. 10.5., 
and in the patronage of the Dendy family ; net in- 
come, 146. The church is in the early English style ; 
on the floor of the chancel are several figures, scrolls, 
and shields in brass, principally memorials of the Ar- 
derne family. 

LEIGH, a chapelry, in the parish of ASHTON- 
KEYNES, union of CRICKLADE and WOOTTON-BASSETT, 
hundred of HIGHWORTH, CRICKLADE, and STAPLE, 
Cricklade and N. divisions of WILTS, 3^ miles (W. by S.) 
from Cricklade ; containing 299 inhabitants. The tithes 
have been commuted for 280, and there is a glebe of 
above 45 acres. 

LEIGH, a township, in the parish and hundred of 
WESTBXJRY, union of WESTBURY andWHORLWELSDOWN, 
Westbury and S. divisions, and Trowbridge and Bradford 
subdivisions, of WILTS ; containing 1380 inhabitants. 

LEIGH (Sx. EDBURGH), a parish, in the union of 
MARTLEY, Lower division of the hundred of PERSHORE, 
Worcester and W. divisions of the county of WORCES- 
TER, 5 miles (W. by S.) from Worcester ; containing, 
with the chapelry of Bransford, 2011 inhabitants. The 
parish comprises by measurement 6180 acres, of which 
the surface is finely varied ; it is situated on the right 
bank of the river Teame, and intersected by the road 
from Worcester to Hereford. The living is a rectory and 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 13. 9. 4^.; 
patron and impropriator (except of one hamlet), Earl 
Somers : the impropriate tithes have been commuted 
for 695, and the rectorial for 330, and the glebe com- 



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prises 20 acres. The church is an ancient structure, 
chiefly in the Norman style, with later details, and con- 
tains a monument to Sir Walter Devereux. There is a 
chapel of ease at Bransford. The Huntingtonians and 
Wesleyans have places of worship ; and an income of 
59, arising from bequests, is appropriated to the sup- 
port of a school, and other charitable purposes. 

LEIGH, ABBOT'S (HOLY TRINITY), a parish, in the 
union of BEDMINSTER, hundred of PORTBTJRY, E. divi- 
sion of SOMERSET, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Bristol ; 
containing 366 inhabitants. This place formerly be- 
longed to the abbot of St. Augustine in Bristol, from 
which circumstance it derived its name. After the 
battle of Worcester, Charles II. was concealed in the 
old manor-house, which has since been replaced by an 
elegant mansion called Leigh Court, commanding fine 
views of the Bristol Channel, Gloucestershire, and the 
Welsh hills. The living is a perp'etual curacy, annexed 
to the vicarage of Bedminster : the great tithes, which 
belong to St. Mary's College, Winchester, have been 
commuted for 75, and the small tithes for a like sum. 
A girls' school is supported by Mrs. Miles. 

LEIGH-DE-LA-MERE (ST. MARGARET}, a parish, 
in the union and hundred of CHIPPENHAM ; Chippen- 
ham and Calne, and N. divisions of WILTS, 4f- miles 
(N. N. W.) from Chipperiham ; containing 113 inhabit- 
ants, and consisting of 1400 acres by computation. At 
this place Alfred encamped on the night before his 
attack upon the Danes at Edindon ; and near a field, 
called Courtfield, is a garden surrounded by a moat, 
supposed to be the site of a palace of one of the Saxon 
kings. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 8, and in the gift of Joseph Neild, Esq. : the 
tithes have been commuted for 236, and the glebe 
comprises 47 acres. The church is a small ancient 
edifice. The living was held by a brother of Bishop 
Latimer. 

LEIGH, HIGH, CHESTER. See LEGH, HIGH. 

LEIGH, LITTLE, a chapelry, in the parish of 
GREAT BUDWORTH, union of NORTHWICH, hundred of 
BUCKLOW, N. division of the county of CHESTER, 3^ 
miles (N. W. by W.) from Northwich ; containing 387 
inhabitants. The Grand Trunk canal passes in the 
vicinity. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 
125 ; patron, Vicar of Great Budworth. Rent-charges, 
as commutations for the tithes, have been awarded, 
amounting to 131. 10., of which 1. 10. are payable 
to an impropriator, 10 to the vicar, and 120 to the 
Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church, Oxford. The chapel 
is an ancient building, repaired in 1664. Here is a 
place of worship for Baptists. 

LEIGH, NORTH, a parish, in the union of HONI- 
TON, hundred of COLYTON, Honiton and S. divisions of 
DEVON, 3f miles (W. N. W.) from Colyton ; containing 
252 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the 
king's books at 10. 9. 7., and in the gift of James 
Jenkins, Esq. : the tithes have been commuted for 
169. 10. A small Sunday school was endowed by the 
late Rev. Mr. How. 

LEIGH, NORTH (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union 
of WITNEY, hundred of WOOTTON, county of OXFORD, 
3^: miles (N. E. by E.) from Witney ; containing 617 
inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued 
in the king's books at 9. 2., and in the patronage of 
the Crown ; net income, 147 3 impropriators, Govern- 
63 



ors of Bridewell Hospital. The church, an ancient 
structure, contains a chantry chapel with some frag- 
ments of painted glass, and a monument to William 
Lenthall, Esq., who was father of the speaker of the 
house of commons in the reign of Charles I., and died 
in 1596; also two recumbent figures in alabaster, the one 
a knight, in complete armour, and the other a female 
sumptuously attired, the effigies of Sir William Wilcote 
and his lady. There are, besides, many handsome mo- 
numents to the Perrot family, of whose mansion near 
the church only the dove-cote and some of the offices 
are remaining, mantled with ivy. About half a mile to 
the south of the Akeman-street, which passes by the 
northern boundary of the parish, the remains of a 
Roman villa were found in 1813. 

LEIGH, SOUTH (ST. LAWRENCE), a parish, in the 
union of HONITON, hundred of COLYTON, Honiton and 
S. divisions of DEVON, 2f- miles (W. by S.) from Coly- 
ton ; containing 357 inhabitants. The living is a rec- 
tory, valued in the king's books at 1 1. 8. 9., and in the 
gift of Charles Gordon, Esq. : the tithes have been 
commuted for 220, and there are 30 acres of glebe. 
The Rev. James How, in 1816, gave 100 stock towards 
the support of a Sunday school ; and the Rev. Thomas 
How gave the same sum for providing clothing for the 
poor. Near Wiscombe House is Blackbury Castle, one 
of the most perfect Roman encampments in the county ; 
and immediately opposite to it is a long line of intrench- 
ments, called Kingsdown. There are also numerous 
barrows. 

LEIGH, SOUTH, a chapelry, in the parish of STAN- 
TON-HARCOURT, union of WITNEY, hundred of WOOT- 
TON, county of OXFORD, 2|- miles (E. S. E.) from Wit- 
ney ; containing 326 inhabitants. The chapel is dedi- 
cated to St. James. 

LEIGH-UPON-MENDIP (ST. GILES), a parish, in 
the union of FROME, hundred of MELLS and LEIGH, 
E. division of SOMERSET, 5^ miles (W.) from Frome ; 
containing 619 inhabitants. The living is annexed to 
the rectory of Mells. 

LEIGH, WEST (ST. PETER), a parish, in the union 
of BARNSTAPLE, hundred of FREMINGTON, Braunton 
and N. divisions of DEVON, 2^ miles (N. E. by N.) from 
Bideford ; containing 526 inhabitants. This parish, 
which is situated on the road to Barnstaple, comprises 
by computation 2300 acres. Many of the females are 
employed in glove-making, for the manufacturers of 
Torrington. Stone of excellent quality for building is 
quarried extensively, and can be conveyed by the river 
Torridge, which flows in a direction parallel with the 
road, and is navigable for vessels of 300 tons' burthen 
to Bideford. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued 
in the king's* books at 8. 2. 1.; net income, 159; 
patrons, Dean and Chapter of Exeter ; impropriator, 
R. N. Incledon, Esq. : the glebe comprises 45 acres. 
The church is an ancient structure, containing some 
handsome marble monuments to the Cleveland and 
Willett families j many of the old oak seats, elaborately 
carved, are still preserved. A school is supported by 
the vicar and others. 

LEIGH, WEST, a township, in the parish and union 
of LEIGH, hundred of WEST DERBY, S. division of the 
county of LANCASTER, 1^ mile (N. N. W.) from Leigh, 
near the road to the town of Wigari ; containing 3005 
inhabitants. 



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LEIGH-WOOLEY a tything, in the parish of GREAT 
BRADFORD, union and hundred of BRADFORD, West- 
bury and N. divisions, and Trowbridge and Bradford 
subdivisions, of WILTS ; containing 1511 inhabitants. 

LEIGHLAND, a chapelry, in the parish of OLD 
CLEEVE, union of WILLITON, hundred of WILLITON 
and FBEEMANNERS, W. division of SOMERSET, 5 miles 
(S. W. by W.) from Watchet. The living is a perpetual 
curacy ; net income, 40 ; patron, Vicar of Old Cleeve. 
The chapel is dedicated to St. Giles. 

LEIGHS, GREAT (Sr. MARY), a parish, in the 
union of CHELMSFORD, partly in the hundred of 
CHELMSFORD, S. division, and partly in that of Wi- 
THAM, N. division, of ESSEX, \\ miles (S. S. W.) from 
Braintree ; containing, with the hamlet of Chatley, 765 
inhabitants. The parish is intersected by the road 
from London to Norwich, and comprises about 3000 
acres of land, formerly in pasture, from which circum- 
stance it is supposed to have derived its name ; the soil 
is various, consisting in some parts of hard gravel, and 
in others of a sandy loam of tolerable fertility. The 
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 25 .7. !> 
and in the patronage of Lincoln College, Oxford : the 
tithes have been commuted for 865. The church is a 
very ancient edifice, with a round tower of flint and 
stone, surmounted by an octangular spire of wood. 
Various benefactions have been made for the benefit of 
the poor. On the side of the road from Braintree to 
Chelmsford was formerly a hermitage, now converted 
into an inn. 

LEIGHS, LITTLE (ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST), a 
parish, in the union and hundred of CHELMSFORD, S. 
division of ESSEX, 5^ miles (S. W. by S.) from Braintree; 
containing 182 inhabitants. A priory of Black canons, 
in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. John the 
Evangelist, was founded here in the reign of Henry III., 
the revenue of which, at the Dissolution, was estimated 
at 141. 14. 8. : the gate-house, which still remains, is 
in the later English style. The parish comprises about 
500 acres of land, of which the soil is various, but the 
predominating character a sandy loam resting on a 
substratum of clay, in many parts very fertile. The 
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 9, 
and in the gift of Sir S. Stewart : the tithes have been 
commuted for 380, and the glebe comprises 15 acres. 
The church, which is about half a mile from the road to 
Braintree, is a small edifice with a shingled spire, and 
contains SOUK- ancient monuments. 

LEIGHTERTON, with BOXWELL, a parish, in the 
union of TETBURY, Upper division of the hundred of 
GRUMBALD'S-ASH, W. division of the county of GLOU- 
CESTER, 4^ miles (W. S. W.) from Tetbury j containing 
334 inhabitants. There are parochial churches at Leigh- 
terton and Boxwell, but the two places are consolidated 
both as regards ecclesiastical and civil affairs. 

LEIGHTON, a township, in the parish, union, and 
hundred of NANTWICH, S. division of the county of 
CHESTER, 3|- miles (N. E. by N.) from Nantwich; con- 
taining 237 inhabitants. 

LEIGHTON, a township, in the parish of NESTON, 
union, and Higher division of the hundred, of WIRRALL, 
S. division of the county of CHESTER, 1 mile (N. E.) 
from Parkgate ; containing 374 inhabitants. 

LEIGHTON (Sr. MARY), a parish, in the hundred 
of LEIGHTONSTONE, union and county of HUNTINGDON, 
64 



10 miles (W. N. W.) from Huntingdon ; containing 448 
inhabitants. The parish comprises by computation 3000 
acres, of which about one-half is arable, and the re- 
mainder, with the exception of 30 acres of woodland, 
meadow and pasture ; the soil is chiefly a stiff clay. A 
cattle-fair is held on the 1st of May. The living is a 
discharged vicarage, in the patronage of the Prebendary 
of Leighton in the Cathedral of Lincoln, valued in the 
king's books at 7 ; net income, 90 : the glebe com- 
prises 70 acres. The church, which had fallen into a 
state of ruinous dilapidation, was rebuilt in 1626, by the 
patron, and is a neat edifice, containing 300 sittings, of 
which nearly all are free. A national school-house has 
been built by the proprietor of the parish. Some remains 
exist of an ancient mansion belonging to the Clifton 
family. There is a chalybeate spring, formerly in high 
repute, but now not much noticed. 

LEIGHTON (Sr. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
ATCHAM, Wellington division of the hundred of SOUTH 
BRADFORD, N. division of SALOP, 5^ miles (N. by W.) 
from Much Wenlock ; containing 403 inhabitants. The 
living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's 
books at 7. 12. 6. ; net income, 218 ; patron and in- 
cumbent, Rev. Robert Maddock; impropriator, Thomas 
Kennersley, Esq., by whom a small girls' school is 
supported. 

LEIGHTON-BUZZARD (ALL SAINTS), a market- 
town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hun- 
dred of MANSHEAD, county of BEDFORD j comprising 
the chapelries of Billington, Eggington, Heath with 
Reach, and Standbridge; and containing 6053 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 3965 are in the town, 20 miles (W. S. W.) 
from Bedford, and 42 (N. W.) from London. The ad- 
junct to the name is either derived from Dosard, the 
name of a family in the county, who were knights of 
the shire in the reign of Edward III., or from Beau 
desert, the prevailing opinion being in favour of the 
latter. It is believed to be the Lygean burgh of the 
Saxon Chronicle, which was taken from the ancient 
Britons in 571, by Cuthwulph, the brother of Ceawlin, 
King of Wessex. The town is situated on the eastern 
bank of the river Ouse, and consists of one wide street, 
branching off to the right and left at its upper extremity j 
the inhabitants are supplied with water from wells. 
Near the market-house is an elegant cross of pentagonal 
fonn, in the later English style, said to have been 
erected more than 500 years j the entire height, from 
the base to the top of the vane, is 38 feet ; the upper 
story is divided into five niches, each of which contains 
a statue. A considerable trade is carried on in timber, 
iron, lime, brick, corn, &c. ; and several females are 
employed in making lace and straw-plat. The Grand 
Junction canal, which passes near the town, and is navi- 
gable for vessels of 80 tons, affords the means of com- 
munication with the northern counties ; and at a short 
distance on the western side of the Ouse is a station of 
the London and Birmingham railway, which here runs 
through a slightly curved tunnel 2/2 yards in length. 
The market, which is one of the oldest in the county, is 
on Tuesday, and is amply supplied with cattle, corn 
(which is toll free), lace, straw-plat, &c. Fairs are held 
on February 5th, the second Tuesday in April, Whit- 
Tuesday, July 26th, October 24th, and the second Tues- 
day in December, the first of which is remarkable for an 
extensive sale of horses. The town is under the juris- 



L E I N 



LEL A 



diction of the county magistrates, who meet on the 
market-day, in a room over the market-house ; and 
courts leet and baron are held at Whitsuntide and 
Michaelmas, by the lessee of the manor, under the Dean 
and Canons of Windsor. 

The parish comprises about 8990 acres, of which 
2S55a. 2r. 28p. are in the township of Leighton, includ- 
ing 170 common or waste : an act for inclosing lands 
was passed in 1843. The LIVING is a vicarage, with the 
perpetual curacy of Standbridge annexed, in the patron- 
age of the Prebendary of Leighton -Buzzard in the Ca- 
thedral of Lincoln (the appropriator), valued in the 
king's books at 15; net income of the two, 193. 
The church, which was formerly collegiate, is a large 
cruciform structure, principally in the early English 
style, with various additions and insertions of a later 
character, and has north, south, and west porches, to- 
gether with a fine massive tower, surmounted by an 
octagonal stone spire, rising from the intersection ; the 
western door is a curious specimen of iron-work ; within 
the edifice are several ancient monuments, and a portion 
of good screen-work. There are chapels in each of the 
four hamlets of the parish ; and the Baptists, Society of 
Friends, and Wesleyans, have meeting-houses. A Lan- 
casterian school is supported by subscription, and a 
smaller one by the lord of the manor. In 1630, alms- 
houses for eight women were founded and endowed by 
Edward Wilkes, Esq., and an additional endowment 
was bequeathed by Matthew Wilkes, Esq., in 1692 ; 
the estates belonging to the charity produce about 200 
per annum. The poor law union of Leighton-Buzzard 
comprises 15 parishes or places, 10 of which are in the 
county of Buckingham, and 5 in that of Bedford ; and 
contains a population of 13,945. In the time of 
Henry II. there was an alien priory at Grovebury, in 
the parish, subordinate to the abbey of Fontevrault, in 
Normandy ; also a house of Cistercian monks, a cell to 
Woburn Abbey. About half a mile from the town are 
the remains of an extensive circular camp. 

LEINTHALL, EARLS, a chapelry, in the parish of 
AYMESTREY, union of LEOMINSTER, hundred of WIG- 
MORE, county of HEREFORD, 7 miles (S. W.) from 
Ludlow; containing 170 inhabitants. The living is a 
perpetual curacy; net income, 64; patron, Vicar of 
Aymestrey. The chapel is dedicated to St. Andrew. 
A charity school has a small endowment ; and there is 
an almshouse. 

LEINTHALL-STARKES (ST. MARY MAGDALENE), a 
parish, in the union of LUDLOW, hundred of WIGMORE, 
county of HEREFORD, 6 miles (S. W. by W.) from Lud- 
low ; containing 147 inhabitants. The parish consists 
of 993 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net in- 
come, 53 ; patron, Sir W. R. Boughton, Bart. ; appro- 
priator, Bishop of Hereford. A school is endowed with 
14 per annum, the bequest of Thomas Allen, Esq., in 
1704. 

LEINTWARDINE (ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL), a 
parish, in the union of LUDLOW, hundred of WIGMORE, 
county of HEREFORD ; including the townships of 
Brakes, Heath with Jay, Kington, Leintwardine, Marlow, 
Walford with Letton and Newton, Whitton with Trip- 
pleton, and Adforton with Stanway, Paytoe, and Grange ; 
and containing 1568 inhabitants, of whom 454 are in 
the township of Leintwardine, 9 miles (W. by S.) from 
Ludlow. The parish is situated at the northern extre- 
VOL. III. 65 



mity of the county, where it borders on Shropshire, and 
near the confluence of the Teme and the Clun ; and, 
from the quantity of fine fish, particularly graylings, 
with which these rivers abound, it is much resorted to 
as a fishing-place. It comprises about 8000 acres, and 
is intersected by the road from Presteign to Ludlow. 
There are quarries of limestone. A fair is held on the 
4th of April. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued 
in the king's books at 7. 15. 8.; net income, 180; 
patron and impropriator, Earl of Oxford. The church is 
a large structure, once famous for a profusion of stained 
glass, of which the windows still display some beautiful 
fragments, representing crowns, lions, fleurs-de-lis, the 
arms of Mortimer, &c. The Right Hon. Robert Har- 
ley, afterwards Earl of Oxford and Mortimer, founded a 
free school, in the reign of Anne, and endowed it with 
land now producing about 36 per annum ; and Salwey 
Cockram, Esq., in 1 774, bequeathed the interest on 100, 
for instruction. The ancient forest of Mocktree, which 
has long been disafforested, is in the parish, and forms 
part of the demesne of Downton Castle. 

LEIRE (ST. PETER), a parish, in the union of 
LUTTERWORTH, hundred of GUTHLAXTON, S. division 
of the county of LEICESTER, 4 miles (N. N. W.) from 
Lutterworth ; containing 406 inhabitants. The parish 
comprises 1074a. 2r. I8p. ; the soil is loamy; about 
two-thirds are pasture, and the remainder arable, and 
the lands are watered by a small rivulet called the 
Soar. The Midland- Counties' railway passes through 
the parish, in which an excavation has been made, to 
facilitate its progress, of more than 600,000 yards in 
length, and 62 feet in depth, and also an embankment 
40 feet in height, and containing 430,000 cubic yards ; 
3700 men, 370 horses, two locomotive engines, and one 
fixed engine, were all employed in the construction at 
the same time. The living is a rectory, valued in the 
king's books at 9. 14. 9. ; net income, 292 ; patron, 
Lord de Grey. The tithes were commuted for land and 
annual money payments in 1779 ; the glebe comprises 
143 acres. The church is a neat ancient structure. The 
school-house was built in 1814, in commemoration of 
the peace, and the rent of a small meadow is paid to the 
master; from the same fund 6. 10. are distributed in 
clothing, and 10. 10. in blankets, to the poor. 

LEISTON (ST. MARGARET), a parish, in the union 
and hundred of BLYTHING, E. division of SUFFOLK, 
4 miles (E. by S.) from Saxmundham ; containing, with 
the hamlet of Sizewcll, 1177 inhabitants. This place 
was the seat of a monastery of Praemonstratensian 
canons, founded in 1 1 82, and endowed by Ranulph de 
Glanville, in honour of the Virgin Mary ; the establish- 
ment continued to flourish till the Dissolution, when its 
revenue was returned at 181. 17. l. ; there are con- 
siderable remains. The parish is bounded on the east 
by the North Sea, and comprises 4893 acres ; the sur- 
face is varied, and the scenery of pleasing character. 
The living is a perpetual curacy, in the alternate patron- 
age of Christ's Hospital and the Haberdashers' Company, 
London ; net income, 376. The appropriate tithes 
have been commuted for 435, and the glebe comprises 
30 acres. Two schools are supported by private 
charity. 

LELANT, UNY (Sr. EWNY), a parish, in the union 
of PENZANCE, W. division of the hundred of PENWITH 
and of the county of CORNWALL, 3 miles (S. E.) from 

K 



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St. Ives ; containing 2012 inhabitants. This place is 
bounded on the north by St. Ives' bay, and on the east 
by Hayle harbour and river j and nearly opposite to 
the church, when the tide is out, carriages can cross to 
St. Ives, by Hayle, from Truro and the east, thus saving 
a distance of several miles. The parish comprises by 
computation 32*4 acres j the soil near the sea-shore is 
sand, resting upon a substratum of granite, which abounds 
throughout, and forms the substance of the various hills. 
Tin is abundant, and within the parish are the mines of 
Wheal Reeth and Wheal Speed, both in operation ; a 
species of fine yellow clay, also, is found. A fair for 
cattle is held on August 15th. The living is a vicarage, 
with those of St. Ives and Towednack annexed, valued in 
the king's books at 22. 11. 10. ; net income, 441 ; 
patron, Bishop of Exeter ; impropriator, W. Praed, Esq. 
The impropriate tithes of Uny-Lelant have been com- 
muted for 250, and the vicarial for 205 ; there are 9 
acres of glebe. The church is surrounded by banks of 
sand : in the churchyard, and on the outside of it, are 
ancient crosses. There are two places of worship for 
Wesleyans, and a national school. 

LELLEY, a township, in the parish of PRESTON, 
union ofSniRLAUGH, Middle division of the wapentake 
of HOLDERNESS, E. riding of YORK, 8 miles (E. N. E.) 
from Hull ; containing 136 inhabitants. This place has 
always been attached to the seigniory of Holderness, as 
a member of the manor of Burstwick. It comprises 
about 800 acres, belonging to several proprietors : the 
hamlet is situated on the road between Preston and 
Humbleton, and about two miles to the north-east of 
the former village. The tithes were commuted for land 
and a money payment in 1769. 

LEMINGTON, a village, chiefly in the township of 
SUGLEY, but partly in that of NEWBURN-HALL, parish 
of NEWBURN, union and W. division of CASTLE ward, 
6. division of NORTHUMBERLAND, 5 miles (W.) from 
Newcastle. It is a populous place, situated on the 
north bank of theTyne river, and contains the extensive 
works of the Tyne Iron Company for the manufacture 
of pig and bar iron, castings of all kinds, &c. ; also the 
large crown-glass works of Messrs. Joseph Lamb and 
Company ; and three staiths where coal from the Wylam 
and Walbottle collieries is put into keels, to be shipped 
at Newcastle and Shields. Vessels of 40 or 50 tons' 
burthen can lie alongside, and every facility is afforded 
for the conveyance of merchandise. Lemington House 
stands at the foot of a fine eminence on the west side of the 
village, and is the residence of Harrison Colbeck, Esq. 

LEMINGTON, LOWER, a parish, in the union of 
SHIPSTON-UPON-STOUR, Upper division of the hundred 
of TEWKESBURY, E. division of the county of GLOUCES- 
TER, 2 miles (N. E. by N.) from Moreton-in-the-Marsh ; 
containing 53 inhabitants. The parish comprises 7S6. 
3r. 24p. : the railway from Moreton to Stratford passes 
through it. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net in- 
come, 45 ; patron and impropriator, Lord Redesdale. 
The church is a very small structure. Two closes, pro- 
ducing 12 per annum, bequeathed by Dr. Juxon, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and 146. 3. 1. three per cents., 
by his descendant, Susanna, Dowager Countess Fane, 
producing 4. 6. 2. per annum, are appropriated to the 
poor. The ancient Fosse-way passes through this place, 
which, from the coins frequently discovered, seems to 
have been a Roman station. 
66 



LEMMINGTON, a township, in the parish of ED 
LINGHAM, union of ALNWICK, N. division of COQUET- 
DALE ward and of NORTHUMBERLAND, 4f miles 
(W. S. W.) from Alnwick ; containing 125 inhabitants. 
It comprises about 2060 acres, the whole of which, with 
the exception of 300 acres of moor, and 70 of wood, are 
arable land, the property of William Pawson, Esq., of 
Shawdon ; the surface is undulated, and the scenery 
very pleasing, embracing a fine view of the rich vale of 
Whittingham, watered by the Lemmington burn. Good 
freestone is wrought, and there is a land-sale colliery, of 
which the produce is of middling quality. The Hall, a 
fine modern mansion of hewn freestone, is beautifully 
situated, and surrounded by plantations. 

LENBOROUGH, a hamlet, in the parish, union, 
hundred, and county of BUCKINGHAM, 2 miles (S.) from 
Buckingham ; containing 56 inhabitants. 

LENCH, ATCH, a hamlet, in the parish of CHURCH- 
LENCH, union of EYESHAM, Lower division of the hun- 
dred of BLACKENHURST, Pershore and E. divisions of 
the county of WORCESTER, 5^ miles (N.) from Evesham j 
containing 82 inhabitants. It is situated on the borders 
of Warwickshire, and comprises 656 acres. 

LENCH, CHURCH, a parish, in the union of EVE- 
SHAM, partly in the Lower division of the hundred of 
BLACKENHURST, and partly in the Upper division of 
that of HALFSHIRE, Pershore and E. divisions of the 
county of WORCESTER, 5f miles (N. by W.) from Eve- 
sham ; containing, with the hamlets of Atch-Lench, and 
Sheriff's -Lench, 393 inhabitants. The parish is situated 
on the borders of Warwickshire, and comprises 2530 
acres, of which 757 are in the township of Church- 
Lench. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 9. 11. H)A.. and in the patronage of the 
Crown : the tithes have been commuted for 117- 1. 6. j 
there is a glebe-house, and the glebe contains 75 acres. 
The Baptists have a place of worship. 

LENCH, ROUSE (Sr. PETER], a parish, in the 
union of EYESHAM, Middle division of the hundred of 
OSWALDSLOW, Pershore and E. divisions of the county 
of WORCESTER, 7 miles (N. by W.) from Evesham ; 
containing, with the hamlet of Radford, 280 inhabitants. 
The parish is situated on the borders of Warwickshire, 
and comprises 1431a. 2r. 6p. ; the surface is varied j 
the soil in the higher grounds is a rich loam, and in the 
lower a marl ; the substratum is clay, used for brick- 
making, for which there is a kiln. The living is a rec- 
tory, valued in the king's books at 9. 0. 5. ; net in- 
come, 346 j patron, Sir W. E. R. Boughton, Bart. 
The tithes were commuted for land and a money pay- 
ment in l/78j the glebe comprises 299 acres. The 
church is an ancient structure, in the Norman style, of 
which it displays some interesting details ; it contains 
some monuments to the Rouse family. 

LENCH, SHERIFF'S, a hamlet, in the parish of 
CHURCH-LENCH, union of EVESHAM, Lower division 
of the hundred of BLACKENHURST, Pershore and E. 
divisions of the county of WORCESTER, 4^ miles (N. by 
W.) from Evesham ; containing 83 inhabitants. It con- 
sists of 1117 acres of rather an inferior quality of soil, 
lying on the borders of Warwickshire. 

LENCH-WICK, a chapelry, in the parish of NOR- 
TON, union of EVESHAM, Lower division of the hundred 
of BLACKENHURST, Pershore and E. divisions of the 
county of WORCESTER, 2f miles (N.) from Evesham ; 



LENT 



LEOM 



containing 162 inhabitants. The chapel, which was 
dedicated to St. Michael, has been demolished. 

LENHAM (Sr. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
HOLLINGBORNE, hundred of EYHORNE, lathe of AYLES- 
FORD, W. division of KENT, 10 miles (E. by S.) from 
Maidstone ; containing 2214 inhabitants. The parish 
is situated on the road from London to Folkestone, and 
comprises 6948a. 2r. lp., of which 3497 acres are arable, 
1825 pasture, 800 woodland, 160 hop plantations, and 
46 garden-ground. There are quarries of Kentish rag- 
stone, which is burnt as a substitute for lime, and is 
also used for building, and repairing the roads. Fairs 
for horses and cattle are held on the 6th of June and 
C 23rd of October. The living is a vicarage, valued in 
the king's books at 13. 15. 2|. ; patron, T. F. Best, 
Esq. ; impropriator, G. Douglas, Esq. The great tithes 
have been commuted for 1205, and the vicarial for 
670 ; the glebe comprises 1 1 acres. The church is a 
handsome structure, with a western tower, and contains 
sixteen ancient stalls, a stone confessional, and other 
relics of antiquity. There is a place of worship for 
Independents. John Foord, in 1766, founded a school, 
and endowed it with 300, now applied in aid of a 
national school. In 1622, Anthony Honywood, Esq., 
erected and endowed six almshouses for widows. 

LENTON (HOLY TRINITY), a parish, in the union 
of RADFORD, S. division of the wapentake of BROXTOW, 
N. division of the county of NOTTINGHAM, l| mile 
(S. W.) from Nottingham ; containing 4467 inhabitants. 
This place was granted by William the Conqueror to his 
son William Peveril, who, in the reign of Henry I., 
founded a Cluniac priory here, in honour of the Holy 
Trinity, which, being subordinate to the abbey of Cluny, 
was, on the suppression of the alien priories, made de- 
nizen, and continued to flourish till the Dissolution, when 
its revenue was returned at 417. 19. 3., and in the 
5th of Elizabeth the site and remains were granted to 
John Harrington. The parish, which takes its name 
from the small river Leen, is beautifully situated in the 
vale of that river, near its confluence with the Trent, and 
comprises 5970 acres, of which 3409 are in Bestwood 
Park, the property of the Duke of St. Alban's, a de- 
tached portion of the parish five miles distant from the 
village of Lenton, and 261 at Isen-Green, nearly two 
miles distant ; the two last portions are chiefly arable, 
and the lands in Lenton are principally rich meadows, 
with some good corn land, and several acres of garden- 
ground. The substratum contains coal of good quality, 
of which a seam five feet in thickness is now being 
worked by Lord Middleton, whose handsome seat, Wol- 
laton Hall, is in the parish. 

The village is spacious and well built, and the inha- 
bitants are chiefly employed in the manufacture of lace, 
but there are also a large bleaching establishment, a 
starch manufactory, a leather factory, two steam flour- 
mills, two others driven by water, and two extensive 
malting establishments. The Nottingham and Crom- 
ford canal passes through the village, and is here joined 
by a cut called the Trent navigation, on which are some 
small wharfs ; and the Midland-Counties' railway runs 
for nearly a mile and a half through the parish. Fairs 
for cattle are held on the Wednesday in Whitsun-week, 
and November llth. The Peverel court, of which the 
jurisdiction extends over parts of the counties of Derby, 
Nottingham, and Stafford, and which was granted by 
67 



charter of William the Conqueror, and confirmed by 
charters of Charles II. and Queen Anne, is held here 
every Tuesday, for the recovery of debts not exceeding 
50, under the superintendence of a steward, deputy 
steward, judge, prothonotary, and capital bailiff; and 
attached to it is a prison for the confinement of debtors. 
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's 
books at 9. 2. 5^. j net income, 150, chiefly from 
land commuted for tithes in 1767 and 1796 ; patron 
and impropriator, the Crown. The church, a very an- 
cient structure, formerly belonging to an hospital dedi- 
cated to St. Anthony, contains 200 sittings. An addi- 
tional church, of which the first stone was laid in June, 
1841, has been erected at an expense of 5000, princi- 
pally contributed by Francis Wright, Esq., of Lenton 
Hall, a handsome seat in the parish, and his family ; 
it is a noble structure in the later English style, and 
has 900 sittings. There are places of worship for Bap- 
tists and Wesleyans. A commodious national school 
has been built at a cost of 2000, almost exclusively by 
Mr. Wright ; and an infant school has been erected, and 
is supported by the Misses Wright, of Lenton Firs. 
There are scarcely any vestiges of the ancient priory, 
but several stone coffins, a curious Norman font, a cru- 
cifix, and some other relics have been dug out of the 
ruins. 

LEOMINSTER (ST. PE- 
TER AND ST. PAUL}, a parish, 
and the head of a union, in 
the hundred of WOLPHY, 
county of HEREFORD ; com- 
prising the borough of Leo- 
minster, which has separate 
jurisdiction ; and containing, 
with the townships of Brier- 
ley, Broadward, Cholstrey, 
Eaton, Hide with Wintercott, 
Ivington, Newtown, Stag- 
batch, Stretford with Henner, 




Seal and Arms. 



andWharton,49l6 inhabitants, of whom 3892 are in the 
borough, 13 miles (N.) from Hereford, and 137 (W. N. 
W.) from London. This place, according to Leland, 
partly derives its name from a minster, or monastery, 
founded here about 660, by Merwald, King of West 
Mercia, who is also said to have had a castle, or palace, 
about half a mile eastward of the town. A fortress was 
standing on the same spot in 1055, when it was seized 
by the Welsh chieftains, and fortified. At the time of 
the Norman survey, the manor, with its appurtenances, 
was assigned by Edward the Confessor to his queen, 
Editha ; and in the reign of William Rufus, the fortifi- 
cations were strengthened, to secure it against the in- 
cursions of the Welsh. In the reign of John, the town, 
priory, and church, were plundered and burned by Wil- 
liam de Breos, Lord of Brecknock ; and in the time of 
Henry IV. it was in the possession of Owain Glyndwr, 
after he had defeated the Earl of March. In the next 
century, the inhabitants of the town took a decisive part 
in the establishment of Mary on the throne, for which 
service she granted them a charter of incorporation, in 
the year 1554. The monastery founded by Merwald 
having been destroyed by the Danes, a college of pre- 
bendaries, and, subsequently, an abbey of nuns, were 
established ; but these institutions were destroyed pre- 
viously to the time of Edward I., who endowed the 

K2 



LEOM 



LEON 



abbey of Reading with the monastery of Leominster, to 
which it afterwards became a cell : its revenue, at the 
Dissolution, was 660. 16. 8. 

The TOWN is situated in a rich and fertile valley on 
the banks of the river Lugg, which bounds it on the 
north and east ; the Kenwater and Pinsley, two smaller 
streams, pass through the town itself, and three other 
rivulets within half a mile. The streets are paved, and 
lighted with gas, and the inhabitants are well supplied 
with water from springs ; several of the houses are in 
the ancient style of timber and brick, the beams being 
painted black, and ornamented with grotesque carvings. 
There are a public reading-room, or subscription library, 
and a theatre. Near the town is a good race-course, 
where races take place about the end of August, arid an 
agricultural society holds its meetings here. The manu- 
factures chiefly consist of gloves and flannel, both on 
the decline : the wool produced in the neighbourhood is 
excellent, and the cider and hops are in high estima- 
tion. The market is on Friday ; and fairs are held on 
Feb. 13th, the Tuesday after Mid-Lent Sunday, May 
2nd, July 10th, Sept. 4th, and Nov. 8th j besides which, 
there is a great market on the Friday after Dec. 1 1th. 
A neat market-house, for the sale of grain, was erected 
in 1803. The CHARTER of incorporation granted by 
Queen Mary was confirmed and extended by several 
subsequent sovereigns, who vested the government in a 
bailiff, chief steward, recorder, and 24 capital burgesses, 
with a chamberlain, town-clerk, two serjeants-at-mace, 
and other officers. The borough is now, however, under 
the controul of a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve 
councillors, elected agreeably to the act of the 5th and 
6th of William IV., cap. 76, and the number of magis- 
trates is six. The town has sent two members to parlia- 
ment since the 23rd of Edward I. : the right of election 
was formerly vested in the bailiff, capital burgesses, and 
other inhabitants paying scot and lot, in number about 
734 ; but, by the act of the 2nd and 3rd of William IV., 
cap. 64, the limits of the ancient borough were enlarged, so 
as to include, for elective purposes, the 10 house- 
holders of the entire parish. The mayor is returning 
officer. A court of record is held for the trial of causes 
every Monday, the proceedings in which have been as- 
similated to those of the superior courts at Westminster. 
Petty-sessions for the Lower division of the hundred of 
Wolphy take place here ; and there is a court, leet an- 
nually. The town-hall, or butter-cross, was built in 
1633, and is a singular edifice of timber and brick, 
supported by curiously carved pillars of oak. A gaol 
was erected in 1750. 

The parish extends over 7284 acres, of which 784 are 
in the ancient borough. The LIVING is a discharged 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 10. 3. 8., and 
in the patronage of the Crown ; net income, 230. 
The church is a spacious and irregular structure, exhi- 
biting specimens of every style of Norman and English 
architecture ; the tower at the north-west angle, is of 
Norman character at the base, and of a later style in 
the upper stages ; the western doorway, which is ex- 
tremely beautiful, is ornamented with pillars and reced- 
ing arch mouldings. The windows are in the 'decorated 
and later English styles ; the massive pillars in the 
north aisle, supporting round arches surmounted by 
Norman arcades, are particularly curious. The south 
side, which is modern, is appropriated to the perform- 
68 



ance of divine service ; the altar-piece is a painting of 
the Last Supper, from Rubens. There are places of 
worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Moravians, 
and Unitarians. A free grammar school, founded by 
Queen Mary, is partly supported by an endowment of 
20 per annum ; and there is a national school. An 
almshouse for four widows was founded and endowed 
by Hester Clark, in 1735. The poor law union of Leo- 
minster comprises 25 parishes or places, and contains a 
population of 14,393. This place confers the title of 
baron upon the Earl of Pomfret, who is styled Baron 
Lempster, that having been the ancient name of the 
town. 

LEOMINSTER (Sr. MARY MAGDALENE), a parish, in 
the hundred of POLING, rape of ARUNDEL, W. division 
of SUSSEX, 2 miles (S. S. E.) from Arundel ; containing, 
with the tything of Warningcamp, anciently a chapelry, 
785 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the 
road from Worthing to Portsmouth, via Arundel, and 
bounded on the west by the river Arun, was the seat of 
a priory of Benedictine nuns, established by Roger de 
Mortimer, Earl of Arundel, in the reign of William the 
Conqueror, which, on the suppression of alien priories, 
was granted to Eton College ; and at Pynham de Calceto, 
or the Causeway, a priory of Black canons was founded 
by Adeliza, second wife of Henry I., which continued 
till the Dissolution, when its revenues, amounting to 
43, were given to Cardinal Wolsey, for the endowment 
of his intended colleges. The living is a vicarage, valued 
in the king's books at 9. 1. 3., and in the patronage of 
the Provost and Fellows of Eton College (to whom the 
impropriation belongs), on the nomination of the Bishop 
of Chichester : the great tithes have been commuted for 
3*5, and the vicarial for 350 ; the impropriate glebe 
comprises 5 acres. The church is an ancient structure, 
in the early English style, with a lofty square embattled 
tower. Richard Wyatt, Esq., of Court Wyche, in 1822, 
bequeathed 5000 three per cents., to be applied to the 
erection and endowment of a school after the death of 
his lady, which took place in 1839. There is a chaly- 
beate spring on the Causeway Hill. 

LEONARD, ST., a chapelry, in the parish of ASTON- 
CLINTON, union and hundred of AYLESBURY, county of 
BUCKINGHAM, 3 miles (E. by S.) from Wendover ; con- 
taining 178 inhabitants. The living is a donative ; net 
income, 38 ; patrons and impropriators, Sir J. D. King, 
Bart., and others, as trustees. The chapel is endowed 
with lands producing 170 per annum. 

LEONARD, ST., a parish, in the union of ST. 
THOMAS, hundred of WONFORD, Wonford and S. divi- 
sions of DEVON, \ a mile (S. E.) from Exeter ; contain- 
ing 1129 inhabitants. Here is an institution for deaf 
and dumb children for the four western counties. The 
living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books 
at 4. 19. 4^., and in the gift of Sir Thomas Baring, 
Bart. : the tithes have been commuted for 162, and 
the glebe contains 2 acres. In the churchyard was for- 
merly a hermitage. The mansion called Mount Radford, 
erected in the sixteenth century, was garrisoned during 
the parliamentary war. 

LEONARD'S, ST., ON SEA, a parish, in the union of 
HASTINGS, chiefly in the hundred of BALDSLOW, but 
having a detached portion adjoining the town of WIN- 
CHELSEA, in the hundred of GUESTLING, rape of HAST- 
INGS, E. division of SUSSEX, \\ mile (W.) from Hast- 



LEON 



L ESB 



ings, and 62 (S. E. by S.) from London ; containing 768 
inhabitants. This place is situated on a most beautiful 
bay on the south coast, screened from the northern and 
eastern gales by lofty cliffs, of which parts have been 
cut away at an incredible expense, to allow for the site 
of this interesting town, which was commenced in 1828, 
by the late James Burton, Esq., and since that period 
has become a fashionable and well-frequented watering- 
place. A range of buildings facing the sea, called the 
Marino, in a simple style of Grecian architecture, ex- 
tends for nearly three-quarters of a mile, with a sea-wall 
and fine esplanade in front, along which is continued 
the high road from Dovor, through Hastings, to East- 
bourne and Brighton. In the centre of the esplanade is 
an elegant edifice, containing the Royal-baths, with re- 
freshment-rooms, and a library with a reading and news 
room, a post-office, and a bank ; and opposite to this 
range, is the Royal Victoria and St. Leonard's hotel, 
which has a handsome frontage of nearly 200 yards in 
length, commanding a fine view of the sea, and contain- 
ing hot and cold baths, with every accommodation for 
families and visiters. There are also the Conqueror's 
and the Harold hotels, both liberally patronised. In 
addition to the lines of building, are numerous pleasing 
villas in detached situations ; and in a natural ravine of 
considerable extent are the subscription gardens, taste- 
fully laid out, and abounding with shrubs and plants of 
luxurious vegetation ; in the grounds is a large flat 
stone, called the Conqueror's table, on which William I. 
is said to have dined, on his landing near Pevensey. 
Between the subscription gardens and the hotel are the 
assembly-rooms, a handsome structure, with a portico 
of the Grecian-Doric order at each extremity ; the ball- 
room is nearly 70 feet in length, of proportionate breadth, 
and 30 feet high, and attached to it are card and billiard 
rooms. A society for the practice of archery, designated 
the Queen's St. Leonard's Archers, hold occasional 
meetings on a ground tastefully embellished, and on the 
17th of August contest for a prize given by Her Majesty. 
At the eastern entrance of the town is an elegant arch- 
way of the Doric order, and near it are some good 
houses, recently erected, named the Grand Parade, with 
an hotel, called the Saxon hotel. The Hastings and St. 
Leonard's races take place at the latter end of Septem- 
ber, on a race-course about a mile to the west of the 
town, and are generally well attended. 

The town is well paved, lighted with gas, and amply 
supplied with water, under an act of parliament ob- 
tained in 1832, for its general improvement. A conve- 
nient market-place has been erected ; and it is proposed 
to form a line of railway to this place by a branch from 
the London and Brighton railway, through Lewes. The 
mildness and softness of the air and its equability of 
temperature, combined with the influence of a marine 
atmosphere, render the place a desirable residence for 
invalids affected with pulmonary disease ; and the ad- 
vantages of a bracing atmosphere, found in the more 
elevated portions, and equally exempt from the bleak- 
ness of the eastern, and the humidity of the western, 
coasts, are equally favourable in cases of debility. Her 
Majesty, with the Duchess of Kent, passed the winter of 
1834-5 at the place, and occupied a residence since 
named Victoria House ; the Princess Sophia Matilda 
also occupied the house now called Gloucester Lodge, 
and in 1 837 Her Majesty the Queen Dowager passed the 
69 



winter here. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the 
patronage and incumbency of the Rev. C. W. Leslie. 
The church, of which the first stone was laid by the 
Princess Sophia in 1831, is a handsome structure, in 
the early English style, most picturesquely situated on 
the cliff; it contains 700 sittings, without galleries, of 
which 200 are free. The windows are embellished with 
stained glass, in which the arms of the Princess Sophia 
and other contributors are emblazoned : and there are 
some good monuments, among which is one to Mr. 
Burton, the founder of the town, with his profile in 
white marble inserted in a slab of dove marble. Here 
are places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans. 
A national school was built in 1834. 

LEPPINGTON, a chapelry, in the parish of SCRAY- 
INGHAM, union of MALTON, wapentake of BUCKROSE, 
E. riding of YORK, 8 miles (S. by W.) from Malton ; 
containing 110 inhabitants. The Carey family formerly 
possessed a castellated mansion here, and a member of 
it was created Baron Carey, of Leppington, in 1622, but 
the title became extinct about the period of the Restora- 
tion. The township comprises by computation 1210 
acres, the property and manor of Earl de Grey. Gyp- 
sum is obtained near the Derwent ; and about eighteen 
inches below the surface, is a stratum of petrified shells 
and other marine productions four inches in thickness. 
In the village is a chapel of ease to the church of Scray- 
ingham ; and the Wesleyans have a place of worship. 
Foundations of the old mansion still remain ; and many 
Roman coins have been found in the neighbourhood. 

LEPTON, a township, in the parish of KIRK-HEATON, 
union of HUDDERSFIELD, Upper division of the wapen- 
take of AGBRIGG, W. riding of YORK, 4 miles (E. by S.) 
from Huddersfield ; containing 3875 inhabitants. This 
township, which is on the Wakefield road, comprises 
1578a. 3r. 7p. The villages of Great and Little Lepton 
are pleasantly situated, and neatly built, and the inha- 
bitants are chiefly employed in the manufacture of 
woollen- cloths and fancy goods, which is carried on also 
in the different hamlets of the township. Richard Beau- 
mont, Esq., in 1703, left 10 for apprenticing children. 

LESBURY (Sx. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
ALNWICK, partly in the S. division of BAMBROUGH 
ward, and partly in the E. division of COO.UETDALE 
ward, N. division of NORTHUMBERLAND ; containing, 
with the townships of Alnmouth, Bilton, Hawkhill, and 
Wooden, 1108 inhabitants, of whom 404 are in the 
township of Lesbury, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Alnwick, 
on the road to Warkworth. This parish, which is on 
the river Aln, and bounded on the east by the sea, com- 
prises by computation 3Q47 acres ; it contains good 
quarries of lime and freestone. Lesbury House is the 
picturesque residence of Edward Thew, Esq. The vil- 
lage is pleasantly situated on the banks of the Aln, over 
which is a neat bridge, and the surrounding scenery is 
agreeably diversified ; about two miles below the village, 
the river falls into the ocean at Alnmouth, where consi- 
derable quantities of grain are shipped for the London 
and other markets. There is a very extensive flour- 
mill. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the 
king's books at 8. 2. 10., and in the patronage of the 
Crown ; net income, 326 ; impropriators, S. Ilderton 
and J. Cookson, Esqrs. The tithes for the townships of 
Alnmouth, Hawkhill, and Lesbury, have been com- 
muted for 727. 18. 11., of which 484. 4. 5. are pay- 



LETC 



LETH 



able to the impropriators, and 298. to the vicar ; 
there are about 5 acres of glebe. The church is a very 
ancient structure. At Alnmouth is a place of worship for 
Wesleyans ; and a school is endowed with land producing 
6 per annum. Perceval Stoekdale, author of seve- 
ral volumes of poetry, and the intimate friend and asso- 
ciate of Johnson, Garrick, and Goldsmith, was vicar of 
the parish. 

LESNEWTH ($T. KNET), a parish, in the union of 
CAMELFORD, hundred of LESNEWTH, E. division of 
CORNWALL, 5f miles (N. by E.) from Camelford ; con- 
taining 137 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 
2700 acres ; the soil is fertile, and well adapted both for 
arable and pasture ; the surface is hilly, and the lower 
lands are watered by several brooks. The living is a 
discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at 
8; net income, 190 ; patron, Sir John Yarde Duller, 
Bart. 

LESSINGHAM (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the 
TTJNSTEAD and HAPPING incorporation, hundred of 
HAPPING, E. division of NORFOLK, 3 miles (N. E.) from 
Stalham ; containing 241 inhabitants. This place is of 
considerable antiquity, and in the reign of William Rufus 
a priory was founded here, as a cell to the abbey of 
Okeburn, in Wiltshire, at that time the chief of the alien 
priories dependent on the abbey of Bee, in Normandy ; 
on the suppression, it was granted to Eton College, 
and subsequently to King's College, Cambridge. The 
parish comprises 63Qa. 2r. 2/>., of which 567 acres are 
arable, and 57 pasture. The living is a discharged rec- 
tory, consolidated with that of Hempstead, and valued 
in the king's books at 6 : the tithes have been com- 
muted for 235, and the glebe contains upwards of 21 
acres. The church is a handsome structure, in the de- 
corated English style, with a square embattled tower, and 
contains a Norman font, and part of an ancient carved 
screen, separating the chancel from the nave. A national 
school is supported by subscription. 

LESSNESS, a chapelry, in the parish of ERITH, 
union of DARTFORD, hundred of LESSNESS, lathe of 
SUTTON-AT-HONE, W. division of KENT, 2 miles (N. 
N. W.) from Crayford. There is a place of worship for 
Baptists on Lessness-heath. An abbey for Black canons, 
in honour of St. Mary and St. Thomas the Martyr, was 
founded here in 1178, by Richard de Lucy, chief jus- 
tice of England, and some time regent of the kingdom, 
who assumed the habit, and shortly after died in the 
house ; its revenue at the Dissolution was estimated at 
186. 9., and was granted to Cardinal Wolsey, towards 
the endowment of his colleges. 

LETCHWORTH, a parish, in the union of HITCHIN, 
hundred of BROADWATER, county of HERTFORD, 2^ 
miles (N. E. by E.) from Hitchin ; containing 108 inha- 
bitants. It comprises by computation nearly 1000 
acres ; the soil is a strong clay, in some parts inclining 
to loam ; the surface is hilly, and the surrounding 
scenery pleasingly diversified. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 11. 1. 10^., and in the 
gift of the Rev. J. Allington : the tithes have been com- 
muted for 240, and the glebe comprises 42 acres. 

LETCOMB-BASSETT (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the 
union of WANTAGE, hundred of KINTBURY-EAGLE, 
county of BERKS, 3 miles (S. W. by S.) from Wantage ; 
containing 293 inhabitants. It comprises by measure- 
ment 1562 acres, of which about 20 are pasture, 9 
70 



woodland, and the remainder arable. The living is a 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 15. 0. 2. ; net 
income, 215 ; patrons, President and Fellows of Cor- 
pus Christi College, Oxford : the tithes were commuted 
for land and a money payment in 1772. There is a 
place of worship for Wesleyans. The ancient Ikeneld- 
street crosses the Vale of White Horse, in the parish. 
Dean Swift, during his residence at the rectory in 1714, 
wrote his pamphlet entitled Free Thoughts on the Present 
State of Affairs, printed in 1741. 

LETCOMB-REGIS (ST. ANDREW), a parish, in the 
union of WANTAGE, hundred of KINTBURY-EAGLE, 
county of BERKS, 2 miles (S. W. by W.) from Wantage ; 
containing, with the chapelries of East and West Chal- 
low, and the township of Letcomb-Regis, 1030 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 446 are in the township. The parish 
comprises about 4350 acres, of which 2389a. 2r. 34p. 
are in the township ; the land is chiefly arable. A 
branch of the river Ock, and the Wilts and Berks canal, 
pass through the parish. The living is a discharged 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 10. 13. 7. ; net 
income, 200; patrons and appropriators, Dean and 
Chapter of Winchester. The church is an ancient 
structure. There are chapels at East and West Chal- 
low ; and here is a school endowed with 8 per annum. 
On the summit of the chalk hills to the south of the 
village, is a very large quadrangular intrenchment, 
called Letcomb Castle, with singular earth-works ; 
about a mile north of it, the Roman Ikeneld-street 
crosses the Vale of White Horse. 

LETHERINGHAM (Sx. MARY), a parish, in the 
union of PLOMESGATE, hundred of LOES, E. division of 
SUFFOLK, 3 miles (N. W.) from Wickham-Market ; con- 
taining 1 64 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the 
river Deben, and comprises 1143a. 9p. ; the soil is 
various, in some parts light, and in others a rich loam ; 
there are some fertile tracts of meadow on the banks of 
the river. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the pa- 
tronage of the Rev. O. S. Reynolds, with a net income 
of 42: the tithes have been commuted for 122. 3. 
The church consists of a nave and tower ; the former, 
being in a ruinous condition, was restored about 60 
years since ; there are some slight remains of the chan- 
cel, which once contained numerous handsome monu- 
ments of the families of Wingfield and Naunton. A 
national school has been established. Here was a small 
priory of Black canons, a cell to the monastery of St. 
Peter, in Ipswich ; it was dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin, and at the Dissolution had a revenue of 
26. 18. 5. Sir Robert Naunton, author of the Frag- 
menta Regalia, on obtaining possession of the abbey, 
built a large house near its site, of which part has since 
been pulled down, and the rest converted into a farm- 
house. 

LETHERINGSETT (Sx. ANDREW), a parish, in the 
union of ERPINGHAM, hundred of HOLT, W. division of 
NORFOLK, l| mile (W. by N.) from Holt; containing 
273 inhabitants. This parish comprises 853a. 2r. 12p., 
of which 686 acres are arable, 43 meadow and pasture, 
and 125 woodland : the village is pleasantly situated in 
the deep and well- wooded vale of the Glavin, and on 
the road from Fakenham to Holt. On the bank of the 
river is an extensive brewery. The living is a dis- 
charged rectory, valued in the king's books at 12; 
patron and incumbent, the Rev. C. Codd : the tithes 



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have been commuted for 245, and the glebe comprises 
27 acres. The church is an ancient structure, chiefly 
in the decorated English style, with a circular tower, 
and contains a Norman font and other interesting de- 
tails. 

LETTON (ST. PETER), a parish, in the union of 
WEOBLEY, partly in the hundred of STRETFORD, and 
partly in that of WOLPHY, county of HEREFORD ; con- 
taining, with the township of Hurstley, 224 inhabitants, 
of whom 119 are in the township of Letton, 6f miles 
(S. W. by W.) from Weobley. This parish, which is 
situated on the left bank of the river Wye, and inter- 
sected by the road from Hereford to Hay, comprises 
1 1 96 acres of a fertile soil. The living is a rectory, valued 
in the king's books at 6. 15. J\. ; patron and incum- 
bent, the Rev. Henry Blissett : the tithes have been 
commuted for 230, and the glebe contains 20 acres. 

LETTON, a township, in the parish of LEINTWAR- 
DINE, union of KNIGHTON, hundred of WIGMORE, 
county of HEREFORD, 5f miles (E. S. E.) from Knigh- 
ton ; containing, with the townships of Newton and 
Walford, 213 inhabitants. Here is a national school. 

LETTON (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union of 
MITFORD and LAUNDITCH, hundred of MITFORD, W. 
division of NORFOLK, 1 mile (S. E. by E.) from Ship- 
dhani; containing 154 inhabitants. The parish com- 
prises 1255a. 27/>., of which 735 acres are arable, 435 
meadow and pasture, and 77 woodland ; the soil is 
extremely rich, and the dairy-farms have long been 
celebrated for excellent butter ; the surface is varied, 
and the prevailing scenery of pleasing character. Let- 
ton Hall, the seat of T. T. Gurdon, Esq., lord of the 
manor, is a handsome mansion of white brick, beauti- 
fully situated in a well-wooded park abounding with 
oaks of venerable growth ; within the grounds are the 
ruins of the parish church, the site of which is inclosed 
with a plantation of thorn ; near the entrance lodge is 
the source of one of the tributaries of the river Yare. 
The living is a rectory, consolidated with that of Cran- 
worth, valued in the king's books at 7. 14. 7., and in 
the patronage of Mr. Gurdon : the tithes have been 
commuted for 198. 14. 

LETWELL, a chapelry, in the parish of LAUGHTON- 
EN-LE-MoRTHEN, union of WORKSOP, S. division of 
the wapentake of UPPER STRAFFORTH and TICKHILL, 
W. riding of YORK, 5 miles (S. W. by S.) from Tick- 
hill j containing 129 inhabitants. This chapelry com- 
prises 1100 acres, the property of H. Gaily Knight, 
Esq., M.P., who is lord of the manor ; the surface is 
pleasingly diversified, and the scenery embellished with 
timber of luxuriant growth, of which some groups in the 
hamlet of Langold are noticed by Repton as the most 
beautiful in the country. The family seat of the Knights, 
an ancient house, was taken down by the present pro- 
prietor, when he removed his residence, a few years 
since, to the mansion at Firbeck ; but the offices, with 
the gardens and pleasure-grounds, in the latter of which 
is an extensive lake, are still remaining, and retain their 
character as one of the most agreeable demesnes in this 
part of Yorkshire. The chapel, dedicated to St. Peter, 
originally a small structure, erected in the early part of 
the 16th century, has been greatly improved and em- 
bellished at the expense of Mr. Knight, who, in 1841, 
inclosed the chapelyard with a substantial wall, and 
gave it to the parishioners as a burying-ground, for 
71 



which purpose it was consecrated by the Archbishop of 
York. The living, a perpetual curacy, was in 1841 an- 
nexed to that of Firbeck ; net income, 60 j patron and 
appropriator, the Chancellor of the Cathedral of York, 
under whom the tithes, which have been commuted for 
220, are held on lease by Mr. Knight. This gentleman, 
after his travels in Spain, Sicily, Greece, Egypt, and 
Syria, published a volume of poems on various subjects, 
an "Architectural Tour in Normandy," "Hannibal in 
Bithynia," the "Normans in Sicily," and recently a 
work on the " Ecclesiastical Architecture of Italy," 
splendidly illustrated. 

LEV AN, ST., a parish, in the union of PENZANCE, 
W. division of the hundred of PENWITH and of the 
county of CORNWALL, 9 miles (S. W.) from Penzance ; 
containing 531 inhabitants. The parish comprises 2100 
acres, of which 700 are common or waste. The living 
is a rectory, united, with that of Sennen, to the rectory 
of St. Burian : the tithes have been commuted for 250. 
The church is situated in a secluded dell, opening at the 
lower extremity to the sea ; the interior contains speci- 
mens of curious carved work, and there are some 
ancient crosses in the churchyard. Here is a place of 
worship for Wesleyans ; and a national school is sup- 
ported by subscription. Overhanging the sea, at the 
western extremity of the parish, are the celebrated 
rocks, or lofty piles of granite, called Castle Treryn, on 
the summit of one of which the remarkable block termed 
the Logan, or Rocking Stone, supposed to weigh about 
90 tons, is so nicely balanced as to be moved to 
and fro by a single individual. In 1820, though con- 
sidered almost the greatest curiosity in Cornwall, some 
sailors dislodged the mass; but this mischievous act 
exciting a general feeling of indignation, steps were 
shortly afterwards taken to replace it in its old position, 
secured by chains. About a mile and a half to the east 
of Castle Treryn is Cape Tolpedn -Pen with, separated 
from the main land by an old stone wall ; and in it is 
the Funnel Rock, which is excavated nearly perpendicu- 
larly, and resembling an inverted cone. There is a well, 
called St. Levan's ; and an ancient oratory remains in 
the parish. 

LEVEN (ST. FAITH), a parish, in the union of 
BEVERLEY, N. division of the wapentake of HOLDER- 
NESS, E. riding of YORK ; containing, with the township 
of Hempholme, 999 inhabitants, of whom 890 are in the 
township of Leven, 7 miles (N. E.) from Beverley. This 
place is of considerable antiquity, a church being men- 
tioned as existing here at the time of the Norman sur- 
vey, when the manor was in the possession of the 
church of St. John de Beverley, which establishment 
retained it till the Dissolution. The parish is situated 
on the road from Hull to Bridlington, and comprises 
5525 acres, of which about 4500 are arable, 20 wood, 
and the remainder pasture ; the land has been im- 
proved by draining, and is in profitable cultivation. The 
village, which is large and well built, consists of two 
streets crossing at right angles, with several detached 
houses. A canal to the river Hull, three miles and a 
half in length, and navigable for vessels of sixty tons' 
burthen, was opened in 1802, and has a considerable 
traffic in corn, lime, coal, &c. Petty-sessions are held 
every Thursday. The living is a rectory, valued in the 
king's books at 16. 13.4.; net income, 1190; pa- 
tron, Rev. G. Wray : at the inclosure, in 1791, a yearly 



L E V E 



L E V 



modus and 136 acres of land were given in lieu of part 
of the tithes, and there is a handsome parsonage-house. 
A new church, in the centre of the village, was erected 
in 1844, and the old edifice has been taken down. 
There are places of worship for Independents, Wes- 
leyans, and Primitive Methodists ; and a good parochial 
school is supported by subscription. The ancient stone 
rood was dug up in the churchyard in 1836; it is in 
fine preservation, and is probably of the time of the 
15th century. 

LEVEN-BRIDGE, a hamlet, in the parish of 
STAINTON, union of STOCKTON, W. division of the 
liberty of LANGBAURGH, N. riding of YORK, 2 miles 
(E.) from Yarm. It is situated on the road from 
Stokesley to Yarm ; the surface of the land is elevated, 
and the soil a good clay, producing fine wheat ; the 
river Leven passes through the hamlet, in which is a 
corn-mill. 

LEVENS, a chapelry, in the parish, union, and 
ward of KENDAL, county of WESTMORLAND, 5^ miles 
(S. S. W.) from KENDAL,; containing 993 inhabitants. 
On the eastern bank of the river Kent, which is crossed 
by a bridge on the Kendal road, is Levens Hall, the 
venerable mansion of the Howards, embosomed in a 
fine park, and crowned with towers, which, overtopping 
the highest trees, command extensive prospects on 
every side. The entrance hall contains various relics 
of ancient armour ; one of the apartments is hung with 
splendid Gobeline tapestry, and most of the other rooms 
are decorated with oak wainscotting exquisitely carved, 
and costly hangings of the richest colours. In the park 
are the ruins of a circular edifice, called Kirkstead, said 
to have been a Roman temple dedicated to Diana. 
There is also a petrifying spring, termed the Dropping 
Well ; and above the park is Levens Force, a pictu- 
resque waterfall of the river Kent, formed by the dam 
erected to work the powder-mills at Sedgwick. A 
handsome chapel, with a low tower surmounted by an 
octagonal spire, has been erected and endowed by the 
Hon. Col. and Mrs. Howard, who have also built a par- 
sonage-house : the patronage is vested in Mrs. Howard. 
A school for girls was established by that lady, who 
pays for their education ; and another school, erected 
in 1825, by Col. Howard, is supported at his expense. 

LEVENSHULME, a township, in the parish of 
MANCHESTER, union of CHORLTON, hundred of SAL- 
FORD, S. division of the county of LANCASTER, 4 miles 
(S. E.) from Manchester; containing 1231 inhabitants. 
LEVER, DARCY, a chapelry, in the parish and 
union of BOLTON, hundred of SALFORD, S. division of 
the county of LANCASTER, 2 miles (E. by S.) from 
Great Bolton ; containing 1700 inhabitants. There is 
an aqueduct of three arches across the Irwell at this 
place. Coal is obtained. 

LEVER, GREAT, a township, in the parish of 
MIDDLETON, union of BOLTON, hundred of SALFORD, 
S. division of the county of LANCASTER, 1 mile (S.) 
from Great Bolton ; containing 657 inhabitants. 

LEVER, LITTLE, a chapelry, in the parish and 
union of BOLTON, hundred of SALFORD, S. division of 
the county of LANCASTER, 3 miles (E. S. E.) from Great 
Bolton ; containing 2580 inhabitants. Coal is obtained 
here. The living is a perpetual curacy ; patron, Vicar 
of Bolton; net income, 141. The chapel is dedicated 
to St. Matthew the Evangelist. There is a place of 
72 



worship for Wesleyans. Lever Hall, an ancient build- 
ing, was formerly occupied by Bishop Bridgeman. 

LEVERINGTON (ST. LEONARD AND ST. JOHN THE 
BAPTIST), a parish, in the union and hundred of Wis- 
BECH, ISLE of ELY, county of CAMBRIDGE, 2 miles 
(N. W.) from Wisbech ; containing, with the chapelry 
of Parson-Drove, 1954 inhabitants. It comprises 7871 
acres, of which 329 are common or waste. The living 
is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 25. 0. 1\. ; 
net income, 2099 ; patron, Bishop of Ely. A school 
is endowed with 40 per annum from the town lands. 
An act for inclosing waste was passed in 1841. 

LEVERSDALE, a township, in the parish of IR- 
THINGTON, union of BRAMPTON, ESKDALE ward, E. 
division of CUMBERLAND, 7 miles (N. E.) from Carlisle ; 
containing 438 inhabitants. A school is partly sup- 
ported by endowment. 

LEVERTON, NORTH and SOUTH (Sr. HELEN), 
a parish, in the union of BOSTON, wapentake of SKI R- 
BECK, parts of HOLLAND, county of LINCOLN, 5f miles 
(N. E. by E.) from Boston ; containing 687 inhabitants. 
The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 16. 6., and in the alternate patronage of the 
Crown and the Executors of the late Incumbent ; net 
income, 759 : the tithes were commuted for land and 
a money payment in 1810. There is a place of worship 
for Wesleyans. Sixty-one acres and a half of land in 
the parish produce 100 per annum, distributed among 
the poor, but by whom given is not known. 

LEVERTON, a hamlet, in the parish of CHILTON- 
FOLIATT, union of HUNGEKFORD, hundred of KINWARD- 
STONE, Maryborough and Ramsbury, and S. divisions of 
WILTS, though locally in the hundred of KINTBURY- 
EAGLE, county of BERKS, 1 mile (N.) from Hungerford ; 
containing 30 inhabitants. 

LEVERTON, NORTH (ST. MARTIN), a parish, in 
the union of EAST RETFORD, North-Clay division of 
the wapentake of BASSETLAW, N. division of the county 
of NOTTINGHAM, 5^ miles (E. by N.) from East Retford ; 
containing 344 inhabitants. The parish is situated on 
the river Trent, which here separates the counties of 
Nottingham and Lincoln ; and comprises 1513a. Ir. 12/>., 
whereof 881 acres are arable, 600 meadow and pasture, 
and 32 wood. Its surface is level, and the soil chiefly 
clay, with some rich meadow land on the margin of the 
river. The living is a disc barged vicarage, in the patron- 
age of the Prebendary of North Leverton in the Collegiate 
Church of Southwell, valued in the king's books at 5 j 
net income, 200. The tithes were commuted for land 
in 1795 ; the glebe comprises 80 acres. The church is 
an ancient structure, with a/ square embattled tower. 
There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. 

LEVERTON, SOUTH (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in 
the union of EAST RETFORD, North-Clay division of 
the wapentake of BASSETLAW, N. division of the county 
of NOTTINGHAM, 5^ miles (E.) from East Retford ; con- 
taining, with the chapelry of Cottam, 451 inhabitants, 
of whom 362 are in the township. This parish, which 
is situated on the river Trent, comprises by computation 
2500 acres ; the soil is chiefly clay, and towards the 
river a loam alternated with sand ; the surface on the 
western side rises gradually to a considerable eminence, 
commanding some fine views over Lincolnshire, and em- 
bracing its town and cathedral. The living is a vicarage, 
valued in the king's books at 6. 13. 4.; net income, 



LEW 



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134 j patron, Dean of Lincoln ; impropriator, G. V. 
Vernon, Esq. The tithes were commuted for land in 
1795, when 57 acres were allotted to the vicar, in addi- 
tion to an old glebe of 10 acres. The church is an 
ancient structure, and at Cottam is a chapel of ease. 
There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A grammar 
school was founded in 16*91, by John Simpson, Esq., 
and endowed with a rent-charge of 20. 

LEVESDON, a hamlet, in the parish and union of 
WATFORD, partly in the hundred of CASHIO, or liberty 
of ST. ALBAN'S, and partly in the hundred of DACORUM, 
county of HERTFORD, 3 miles (N.) from Watford ; con- 
taining, with the hamlet of Cashio, 1548 inhabitants. 

LEVINGTON, county of CUMBERLAND. See LIN- 
TON, WEST. 

LEVINGTON (Sr. PETER), a parish, in the union 
of WOODBRIDGE, hundred of COLNEIS, E. division of 
SUFFOLK, 5^ miles (S. E.) from Ipswich ; containing 2 14 
inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the 
south by the navigable river Orwell, comprises 1033a. 
<2r. 4p. The village is pleasantly situated ; and there is 
a small hamlet called Stratton Hall. The living is a 
discharged rectory, united to that of Nacton, and valued 
in the king's books at 6. 1. 8. Almshouses for six 
persons were founded and endowed agreeably with the 
will of Sir Robert Hitcham, Knt., and are under the 
superintendence of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. Sir 
Robert, who was attorney-general to James I., was born 
here. 

LEVISHAM, a parish, in the union and lythe of 
PICKERING, N. riding of YORK, 6 miles (N. N. E.) from 
Pickering; containing 168 inhabitants. The surface is 
a remarkably hilly moorland, and the soil of much 
variety, and some of it very good ; it is red and sandy 
for the most part, with a little clay in the romantic 
valley of Newton-Dale, situated to the north-west. 
The substratum is limestone, of which, and of freestone, 
some of excellent quality is worked for building and for 
lime, and was used on the Whitby and Pickering railway, 
which runs for three miles through the parish, and at a 
distance of about three-quarters of a mile from the 
village. There is a flour-mill in operation. The living 
is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at 
7. 8. 1^. ; net income, 1 C 20 ; patron, incumbent, and 
impropriator, the Rev. Robert Skelton, who is also lord 
of the manor, and owner of most of the soil. The 
church, a neat edifice, in a secluded part, was rebuilt 
in 1802 j and a chapel in the village is about to be 
rebuilt. A free school was built by subscription, about 
1799, and is aided by 11 per annum, bequeathed by 
John Poad, in 1785, and now paid out of certain lands 
in Normanby township. The poor have about three acres 
of woodland, replanted in 1820, when the old timber 
was sold for 84. St. John's well is a sulphureous 
spring of petrifying power, reputed to be good in scor- 
butic complaints. 

LEVNS, county of WESTMORLAND. See LEVENS. 

LEW, a hamlet, in the parish and union of WITNEY, 
hundred of BAMPTON, county of OXFORD, 3f miles 
(S. W.) from Witney; containing 195 inhabitants. A 
chapel has been erected. 

LEW, NORTH (S T . THOMAS a BECKET), a parish, 

in the union of OAKHAMPTON, hundred of BLACK 

TORRINGTON, Black Torrington and Shebbear, and N. 

divisions of DEVON, 4 miles (S. W. by S.) from Hather- 

VOL. III. 73 



leigh; containing 1051 inhabitants. The living is a 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 27. 8. 9., and 
in the patronage of the Crown; net income, 342. 
Two schools are supported by subscription. At Red- 
cliffe or Rutleigh, within the parish, are the remains 
of an ancient chapel ; and near it a quarry of excellent 
freestone. 

LEWANNICK (ST. MARTIN), a parish, in the union 
of LAUNCESTON, N. division of the hundred of EAST, 
E. division of CORNWALL, 5 miles (S. W. by W.) from 
Launceston ; containing 733 inhabitants. This parish, 
which is bounded on the north and north-east by the 
river Inny, comprises by measurement 4000 acres, 
whereof 176 are common or waste; the surface is hilly, 
and the scenery in many parts interesting. The soil is 
various, in some places a rich loam, and in others lighter ; 
a considerable portion is in pasture, and large herds of 
cattle, chiefly of the North Devon breed, are reared. 
The substratum abounds with stone of superior quality 
for building and other uses ; at Pollyfont is a valuable 
quarry of remarkably fine freestone, which is also used 
for mantel-pieces, and, when polished, is of a rich green 
colour with black veins ; there is also a quarry of ex- 
ceedingly hard slate. The living is a vicarage, valued 
in the king's books at 7. 18. 9., and in the patronage 
of the Crown : the impropriate tithes, belonging to Miss 
Hockin, have been commuted for 225, and the vicarial 
for 185, and the glebe is valued at 60 per annum. 
The church is a handsome structure, in the later English 
style, with a lofty square embattled tower crowned by 
pinnacles. There are places of worship for Baptists, 
Bryanites, Independents, and Wesleyans ; and a national 
school. 

LEWES, a borough and 
market-town, and the head 
of a union, in the rape of 
LEWES, E. division of SUS- 
SEX, 7 miles (N. E. by E.) 
from Brighton, 38 (E. by N.) 
from Chichester, and 50 (S. 
by E.) from London ; con- 
taining 9199 inhabitants. 
This place, which occupies 
the eastern extremity of the 
South Downs, is supposed 
to have derived its name 




Seal and Arms. 



from the Saxon Leswa, signifying pasture, and by some 
antiquaries is thought to have been the Mutuantorris, or 
Mantuantorris of the Romans ; an opinion resting more 
on the presumed necessity for an intermediate station 
between those of Anderida Portus, in Pevensey, and Ad 
Decimum, near Bignor, than upon any conclusive evi- 
dence. Numerous remains of Roman antiquity have at 
various times been discovered, consisting of rings, paterte, 
urns, fibula?, and coins, forming a regular series from 
the reign of Tiberius to the time of Constantine ; and at 
the village of Glynd, about three miles from the town, 
the vestiges of a Roman ford may still be traced. Dur- 
ing the time of the Saxons, the spot was regarded, from 
its elevated and commanding situation, by the inhabit- 
ants of the adjacent country, as a place of refuge from 
the frequent incursions of the Danes, and at a very early 
period formed a part of the royal demesnes. A castle 
was built about the year 890, by Alfred, and in the reign 
of Athelstan, the town, which was strongly fortified, 

L 



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LE WE 



had attained to such consideration, that two of the 
royal mints were established here hy order of that 
monarch. From this period, it steadily advanced in 
importance ; in the reign of Edward the Confessor, 
it obtained the privileges of a borough, and had a mer- 
chants' guild, and it continued to increase in prosperity 
till the Conquest, when it was granted by William I. to 
William de Warren, who had married his daughter 
Gundreda, and who rebuilt the castle, which he made 
his principal residence. This splendid structure occu- 
pied an area of 790 feet in length and 396 in width, 
inclosed with lofty walls, of which those on the north 
side formed part of the fortifications of the town; it 
had within the area two strong keeps raised on artificial 
mounds, of which the western has been preserved, and 
is of quadrangular form, with hexagonal turrets at the 
angles ; the principal gateway, affording an entrance 
from the high street, is still remaining, and displays 
features both of Norman and of later styles of archi- 
tecture. 

A Cluniac priory was founded here in 1078, by Wil- 
liam de Warren and his wife, which became the principal 
establishment of that order in England, and of which 
the prior was high chamberlain of the abbot of Cluny, 
and his vicar-general in England, Scotland, and Ireland ; 
the establishment, which was dedicated to St. Pancras, 
flourished till the Dissolution, when its revenue was 
valued at 1091. 9. 6. ; there are but very trifling re- 
mains of the structure, the chief portions having been 
removed to make room for the erection of the street and 
crescent to which it has transferred its name. An 
hospital, dedicated to St. Nicholas, was erected in 1085, 
by the same founder, who endowed it for 13 poor breth- 
ren and sisters ; a portion of the wall only is remain- 
ing. In 1264, a sanguinary battle took place here, 
between Henry III., assisted by bis brother Richard, 
Earl of Cornwall, and the confederated barons under 
Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, in which the 
royal forces were at first victorious. Prince Edward, 
the king's son, having broken the enemy's line, threw 
them into disorder ; but confident of victory, pursuing 
the fugitives too far, the forces of the barons rallied, 
and, making a fresh charge, entirely defeated the royal 
army ; took the King and the Earl of Cornwall pri- 
soners, whom they confined in the castle ; and com- 
pelled the king to sue for peace, and to deliver his son 
as a hostage for the fulfilment of the conditions, which 
were concluded on an eminence adjoining the town, 
distinguished by the appellation of the " Mise of Lewes." 
Not less than 5000 men are said to have fallen in this 
battle, most of whom were buried on the spot, and over 
whose remains were raised several of the tumuli on the 
downs. The town had the honour of a visit, in 1830, 
from His Majesty William IV. and his queen, Adelaide, 
who, attended by the Duke of Cambridge and the Prin- 
cess Augusta, were entertained at the Friars, the resi- 
dence of Nehemiah Wimble, Esq. 

The TOWN is principally situated on an acclivity, rising 
from the western bank of the river Ouse, over which is a 
stone bridge of one arch, erected in 1727, to replace a 
bridge of wood that had been destroyed by a flood, 
and widened in 1829 by the addition of a footpath on 
each side. This bridge forms a communication with the 
vill of Cliffe, so called from its position under an im- 
pending cliff of chalk, and of which the site is supposed 
74 



to have been anciently covered by the sea. The streets 
are regular and well built, containing many handsome 
houses ; and the town is paved, lighted with gas, and 
watched, under a local act obtained in 1806, and supplied 
with water under an act passed in 1833. About the 
year 1821, considerable improvement was made in the 
White Hill road, which passes through a valley near the 
town, by lowering the hill on each side, and filling up 
the valley with the materials, thus forming a causeway 
between 30 and 40 feet high ; and the principal street in 
the vill of Cliffe was widened in 1828, and greatly im- 
proved under an act for lighting and watching this part. 
On the south side of the town is Southover ; and the 
environs extend to the South Downs, a chain of chalk 
hills, rising like an amphitheatre to the mean elevation 
of about 500 feet, and covered with the rich herbage 
which gives to the South Down mutton its admired 
flavour. Assemblies take place occasionally in the 
town-hall, and races are held on Easter-Monday, and in 
the month of August ; the former, called Hunter's races, 
were established in 1829. The race-course, formerly 
one of the finest four-mile courses in the kingdom, has 
been reduced in extent to 2f- miles ; it has a commodious 
stand, erected in 1772. A book society was established 
in 1785, and now possesses a library of several thousand 
volumes, many of them scarce works ; the society con- 
sists of 100 members, admitted by ballot, on paying 
6. 6. towards the general fund, and an annual sub- 
scription of 1. 5. A mechanics' institute was founded 
in 1825, and the building formerly the theatre has been 
appropriated to its use. The trade consists principally 
in grain and malt ; there are several large breweries and 
iron-foundries, a paper manufactory, and a yard for 
building ships. The river is navigable from a distance 
of some miles above the town to the sea, and greatly 
facilitates the trade of the district. A market for corn 
is held every Tuesday, and for live stock every Tuesday 
fortnight : the present market-house for provisions was 
completed in 1793. There are fairs on May 6th for 
cattle and pedlery, July 26th for wool, Whit-Tuesday 
for cattle, and September 21st and October 2nd for 
sheep, the number of which brought for sale at each of 
these fairs exceeds 50,000. A show of fat cattle takes 
place about Christmas. 

Lewes is a BOROUGH by prescription, and was for- 
merly a county of itself; the government is vested in 
two constables and two headboroughs, who are chosen 
annually, by a jury of burgesses, at the court leet of the 
lord of the manor. The town is within the jurisdiction 
of the county magistrates, who hold petty-sessions every 
Tuesday ; the spring and summer assizes for the county 
are held here, and also the general quarter-sessions for 
the eastern division of the county, which comprises the 
rapes of Lewes, Pevensey, and Hastings ; and there are 
likewise intermediate sessions for the trial of prisoners. 
The county court for the recovery of debts under 40s. 
is held alternately here and at Chi Chester. The borough 
sends two members to parliament ; the boundaries of 
the elective borough comprise an area of 738 acres, and 
the constables are the returning officers. In 1812, a 
handsome assize hall was erected, the expense of which, 
including the purchase of the ground and other property, 
was 15,500; it comprises an extensive entrance hall, 
with record-rooms, a room for the petty-sessions, two 
courts of judicature, and a room for the judges and ma- 



LE W E 



L E W E 



gistrates ; above those are, a spacious and elegant apart- 
ment for the grand jury, a council chamber, &c. In 
1793, a house of correction for the eastern district was 
built, on Mr. Howard's plan, to which a southern wing 
was added in 1817, and very considerable additions have 
been recently made, to adapt it to the improved system 
of prison discipline. The town is the place of election 
for the eastern division of the county. 

The borough anciently comprised ten or eleven pa- 
rishes, but these have been reduced to four. In the 37th 
of Henry VIII., the parishes of St. Andrew, St. Mary in 
Foro, St. Martin, and St. Michael, were united, and now 
form the parish of St. Michael, containing QSS inhabit- 
ants. The living is a discharged rectory, with the rec- 
tory of St, Andrew's annexed, valued together in the 
king's books at 17. 5. 10., and in the patronage of the 
Crown; net income, 116. The church, which was 
partially rebuilt and modernised in 1755, retains some 
good portions of later English architecture ; a gallery 
has been erected, and 87 free sittings provided, towards 
which the Incorporated Society granted 80 ; among 
others, there is a splendid mural monument to the me- 
mory of Sir Nicholas Pelham, Knt., and Anne, his wife. 
The parish of St. Anne consists of the united parishes of 
St. Peter Within and St. Mary West-out, the latter being 
without the ancient borough, and contains 777 inhabit- 
ants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued for 
both in the king's books at 19. 13. 6^., and in the pa- 
tronage of the Crown : the impropriate tithes have been 
commuted for 193. 10., and the rectorial for 130. 
The church, formerly that of St. Mary's, is partly Nor- 
man, and partly of the early English architecture j it 
contains a curious font 5 the boundary line of the ancient 
borough passes through the chancel. The parish of St. 
John under the Castle is of very considerable extent, but 
a small part of it only is within the borough, the re- 
mainder lying principally in the hundred of Swanbo- 
rough ; it contains 2502 inhabitants. The living is a 
rectory, to which that of St. Mary Magdalene's was an- 
nexed in 1539, valued in the king's books at 3. 11.3. ; 
net income, 250 ; patron and incumbent, Rev. Peter 
G. Crofts. The church was of considerable antiquity, 
but, being much too small, was taken down, and rebuilt 
in 1840, chiefly by subscription, aided by grants from the 
Incorporated Society and the Chichester Diocesan Asso- 
ciation ; it is a handsome structure in the later English 
style, and contains 1013 sittings, of which 602 are free. 
On the outer wall of the new church have been placed 
the remains of a monument formerly in the churchyard, 
assigned to Magnus, son of Harold II., with an inscrip- 
tion mostly in Anglo-Saxon characters. The parish of 
All Saints was anciently formed from a union of the 
parishes of the Holy Trinity, St. Peter the Less, and St. 
Nicholas, and contains 2123 inhabitants. The living is 
a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at 7 ; 
net income, 206 ; patron, Charles Goring, Esq. The 
church, with the exception of the old tower, was rebuilt 
in the year 1805. The precinct of the castle is extra- 
parochial, and is not rateable within the borough, nor 
subject to any ecclesiastical jurisdiction. There are places 
of worship for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Inde- 
pendents, Wesleyans, and Unitarians. 

The parishes of St. Thomas in the Cliff e, with 1545, 
and St. John Southover, \vith 1229 inhabitants, although 
without the limits of the ancient borough, may be con- 
75 



sidered as forming part of the town of Lewes ; they are 
included in the present parliamentary boundary, as is 
also part of the parish of South Mailing. Southover 
parish comprises 550 acres, of which 400 are meadow, 
122 arable, and 28 houses and gardens. A constable 
and two headboroughs for the hundred of Ringrner, of 
which the Cliffe is the most populous part, are chosen 
annually at the court leet of Earl De la Warr. The 
living of St. Thomas is a discharged rectory, in the pa- ' 
tronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury, valued in the 
king's books at 5. 12. 6. ; net income, 130. The 
church, dedicated to St. Thomas a Becket, contains a 
fine altar-piece, and an organ, formerly in the chapel of 
the Duke of Chandos, at Canons. There are places of 
worship for Independents and Huntingtonians, the 
founder of which latter sect, William Huntington, was 
interred here. The living of the parish of Southover is 
a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at 
6. 12., and in the patronage of the Crown; net income, 
30, with a glebe-house and 4 acres of land. The 
church, dedicated to St. John the Baptist, is chiefly in 
the decorated English style, and contains the tomb of 
Gundreda, daughter of William the Conqueror, and wife 
to the first Earl de Warren, which is of black marble, 
finely sculptured with foliage, and bears around its edge 
a laudatory inscription in Norman characters. In an- 
cient records Southover is called a borough, and it still 
has its distinct high constable and other officers. The 
manor was an appendage of the monastery, on the dis- 
solution of which it came into the possession of the 
crown, and was given to Lord Essex : after his attain- 
der it again reverted to the Crown, and was granted by 
Henry VIII. to his divorced queen, Anne of Cleves, 
who, according to tradition, took up her residence here, 
in a very ancient building situated on the south side 
of the street. 

The free grammar school was founded originally at 
Southover, in 1512, by Agnes Morley, who endowed it 
with a rent- charge of 20, together with a house and 
garden, for a master and an usher; and this endowment 
was subsequently increased by various legacies, par- 
ticularly that of Mrs. Mary Jenkins, in 1709, who left 
a house, gardens, and appurtenances for the master, 
and the sum of 1533. 16. 1. Belonging to the borough 
is an exhibition to either university for four years, left 
by the Rev. George Steere, " to a poor scholar, the son 
of parents residing in or near Lewes," the annual value 
of which is about 35. Evelyn, author of Sylva, and 
John Pell, the celebrated mathematician, were educated 
here. The poor law union of Lewes is limited to the six 
parishes above enumerated, with the addition of South 
Mailing, and contains a population of 9552. There are 
many interesting antiquities in and near Lewes. The 
Castra, or earthworks, on the summits of the Downs, of 
remote date, are still remaining ; and tumuli are scat- 
tered in various parts, in which have been found skeletons, 
urns, ashes, amber beads, and occasionally warlike instru- 
ments. Of the ancient castle, the principal feature is 
the gateway, which has an inner arch of Anglo-Norman 
masonry, of the thirteenth century, and was defended by 
two machicolated towers and two portcullises. Of the 
once extensive priory of St. Pancras, said to have covered 
an area of 40 acres, only a very small portion remains, 
the chief parts having been removed in the recent im- 
provements of the town. A portion of the walls of St. 

L 2. 



LEWI 



LEXD 



Nicholas' hospital is yet standing ; and also part of the 
exterior walls of an hospital dedicated to St. James, 
which has been converted into a barn. Here was also 
a monastery of Grey friars, of which the memorial alone 
is preserved in the name of a modern mansion on the 
site, called the Friars. The town walls were erected 
during the residence of the Earls of Warren and Surrey, 
and may still be accurately traced; apart of the western 
portion is standing, and vestiges of other parts are visible. 
In Southover is an ancient mansion, erected in 15*2, 
with part of the materials of the priory, and in which 
are preserved three of the beautifully inlaid doors once 
belonging to that establishment. Among the natives of 
Lewes may be mentioned Richard Russel, Esq., M. D. 
and F.R.S., who, by his writings on the efficacy of the 
sea water at Brighton, laid the foundation of the pros- 
perity of that fashionable bathing-place. Many varieties 
of vegetable and animal organic remains have been found 
in the chalk formation of the vicinity, and are fully illus- 
trated by Gideon Mantcll, Esq., in several geological 
publications. 

LEWISHAM (Sr. MARY), a parish, and the head of 
a union, in the hundred of BLACKHEATH, lathe of SUT- 
TON-AT-HONE, W. division of KENT, 6| miles (S. E.) 
from London, on the road to Tonbridge ; containing 
12,^76 inhabitants. The name is a slight corruption of 
the Saxon Lewesham, "the dwelling among the meadows," 
anciently written Levesham. The parish, including the 
greater portion of the hamlet of Blackheath, the whole 
of Sydenham, Forest Hill, Brockley, Loampit Hill, and 
Loat's Pit, comprises by computation 5500 acres ; the 
snil is extremely rich, and the surface pleasingly varied. 
Its convenient distance from the metropolis, and its 
beautiful situation, have rendered it a favourite place of 
residence ; and the neighbourhood is thickly studded 
with gentlemen's seats, many of which are splendid man- 
sions, and with numerous handsome villas, the country 
residences of opulent merchants. The village, which is 
on the river Ravensbourn, extends about a mile along 
the high road, and consists principally of one street ; the 
inhabitants are supplied with water from a stream rising 
at the upper end of the village, and flowing through it. 
The Surrey canal passes through the parish. The county 
magistrates hold a weekly session on Monday ; and the 
parish is within the jurisdiction of the court of requests 
at Greenwich, for the recovery of debts not exceeding 
5. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books 
at 23. 19.2.; net income, 946; patron, Earl of Dart- 
mouth. The church, rebuilt in 1774, is a handsome 
edifice, with a square tower at the west end ; a portico 
on the south side is supported on four Corinthian 
columns ; the altar is placed in a circular recess. It 
sustained considerable injury from a fire, but has been 
restored. Two episcopal chapels have been erected on 
that part of Blackheath which is in the parish, viz. Dart- 
mouth chapel, partly rebuilt and enlarged by Lord Dart- 
mouth in 1839, and Dartmouth-Place chapel; the former 
in the patronage of the vicar of Lewisham, and the latter 
in that of his lordship. There are also episcopal chapels 
at Southend and Sydenharn, the latter of which was 
formerly a meeting-house for Presbyterians, of which 
Dr. John Williams, author of the Greek Concordance, 
was many years minister ; and a district church, dedi- 
cated to St. Bartholomew, was recently erected at Syd- 
enham by subscription, aided by a parliamentary grant : 
76 



the living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the 
Vicar. There are places of worship for Independents 
and Wesleyans. The Rev. Abraham Colfe, in 1656, de- 
vised certain estates in trust to the Leathersellers' Com- 
pany, for the foundation of two schools, one for the 
classical instruction of 31 sons of the laity in the hun- 
dred, and one son of each incumbent in this and the 
hundred of Chiselhurst ; the other for the education of 
3 1 boys of Lewisham. According to the Charities' Com- 
missioners' report in 1818, the income was 342, out of 
which the company pay 50 per annum to six alms- 
women, agreeably to the will of the donor. A school 
for girls was instituted in 1699, to which Dr. George 
Stanhope, Dean of Canterbury, bequeathed 1 50, and 
Mrs. Stanhope 50, which sums, with subsequent bene- 
factions, produce a salary for the mistress of 20 per 
annum ; the school is conducted on the national system. 
Two national schools, one in the village, and the other 
at the north end of the parish, are maintained by sub- 
scription, and two infants' schools at the expense of the 
vicar. The poor law union of Lewisham comprises 7 
parishes or places, and contains a population of 23,013. 
Here was formerly a Benedictine priory, a cell to the 
abbey of St. Peter, at Ghent ; it was suppressed in the 
time of Henry V., and the site granted to the prior and 
convent of Sheen. Dr. Stanhope, who distinguished 
himself as a theological writer, was presented to the 
vicarage in 1689, and was buried here in 1728. Lewis- 
ham confers the inferior title of Viscount on the Earl of 
Dartmouth. 

LEWKNOR (Sr. MARGARET), a parish, in the union 
of THAME, partly in the hundred of DESBOROUGH, 
county of BUCKINGHAM, but chiefly in that of LEWK- 
NOR, county of OXFORD, 3 miles (S. S. E.) from Tets- 
worth ; containing, with the chapelry of Postcombe, 
847 inhabitants, of whom 221 are in Lewknor Uphill. 
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's 
books at 11. 17.; net income, 320; patrons and 
impropriators, Warden and Fellows of All Souls' Col- 
lege, Oxford. The church is an ancient structure, partly 
in the Norman style, and contains some interesting 
monuments and a beautiful effigy in stone ; it is the 
burial-place of the Scroop family, and also of the 
Fanes, whose mansion and estate of Wormesley are 
partly in the parish. There is a chapel of ease at Ash- 
ampstead ; and a national school is supported. 

LEWSTON, an extra-parochial liberty, in the hun- 
dred of SHERBORNE, Sherborne division of DORSET, 4 
miles (S.) from Sherborne ; containing 7 inhabitants. 

LEWTRENCHARD (ST. PETER), a parish, in the 
union of TAVISTOCK, hundred of LIFTON, Lifton and 
S. divisions of DEVON, 8 miles (E. by N.) from Laun- 
ceston ; containing 527 inhabitants. It comprises 2500 
acres, of which 244 are common or waste. Quarries of 
slate and limestone of good quality are worked. The 
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
9. 13. 9., and in the gift of W. Baring Gould, Esq. : 
the tfthes have been commuted for 265, and the glebe 
consists of 56 acres. The Rev. W. Romaine, author of 
the Life, Walk, and Triumph of Faith, was minister of 
the parish. 

LEXDEN (Sr. LAWRENCE), a parish, in the union 
and liberties of COLCHESTER, N. division of ESSEX, l 
mile (W.) from Colchester ; containing 1454 inhabitants. 
It is situated on the road from Maldou to Colchester, 



L E YB 



L E Y L 



and comprises 2312a. 10p., of which 1767 acres are 
arable, 443 pasture, and 37 woodland. The living is a 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 12, and in the 
patronage of the Executors of the late Rev. J. R. 
Papillon : the tithes have been commuted for a rent- 
charge of 660, and the glebe comprises 29 acres of 
land. The church was rebuilt in 1820, and 330 free 
sittings were provided, towards which the Incorporated 
Society granted the sum of 500. A national school, 
erected in 1817, is supported by a bequest of 20 per 
annum by the late Mrs. Rawstorn, and by subscrip- 
tions. Roman antiquities of various kinds are fre- 
quently discovered ; and before the inclosure of the 
heath, in 1S20, evident traces of an encampment, sup- 
posed to have been Danish, might be seen. The great 
rampart from the marshes to the river Stour passed 
obliquely through the parish, and considerable remains 
of it are still visible. 

LEXHAM, EAST (ST. ANDREW), a parish, in the 
union of MITFORD and LAUNDITCH, hundred of LAUN- 
DITCH, W. division of NORFOLK, 8 miles (N. N. E.) 
from Swaffham ; containing 236 inhabitants. It com- 
prises 11QO acres, of which 866 are arable, 257 pasture 
and meadow, and 67 woodland. The Hall is a hand- 
some mansion, situated in a small well-wooded park. The 
living is a discharged rectory, united to that of Litch- 
am in the year 1742, and valued in the king's books 
at 8. 6. : the tithes have been commuted for 205. 
The church is an ancient structure, with a circular 
tower, overspread with ivy, and contains a piscina 
of beautiful workmanship, on the south side of the 
chancel. A school on the British and Foreign system 
is supported. 

LEXHAM, WEST (ST. NICHOLAS), a parish, in the 
union of MITFORD and LAUNDITCH, hundred of LAUN- 
DITCH, W. division of NORFOLK, 2 miles (S. S. E.) 
from Rougham ; containing 124 inhabitants. It com- 
prises about 1200 acres, of which 1114 are arable, and 
76 meadow and pasture, with some woodland. The 
living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 5. 11.8., and in the gift of Lord Wodehouse : 
the tithes have been commuted for 188, and the glebe 
comprises 58 acres. The church is an ancient struc- 
ture, with a circular tower, and appears to have been 
originally larger than at present ; on the south side 
of the chancel a double piscina was discovered in 
1842, which had been long concealed tinder a coat of 
plaster. 

LEYBOURNE (ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL), a parish, 
in the union of MALLING, hundred of LAUKFIELD, lathe 
of AYLESFORD, W. division of KENT, 5 miles (N. W. 
by W.) from Maidstone ; containing 255 inhabitants. 
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
17- 13. 4., and in the patronage of Sir Joseph Henry 
Hawley, Bart., of Leybourne Grange : the tithes have 
been commuted for 275, and there are 180 acres of 
glebe. The Rev. James Holmes, in 1775* conveyed to 
trustees u schoolroom and a dwelling-house in the parish, 
with the interest of 1000 four per cent, consols., for the 
education of children. Here are considerable remains 
of an ancient castle, consisting of a gateway, flanked 
by circular towers, various arches, walls, &c., and 
traces of the moat by which it was surrounded ; part 
of the ruins has long been converted into a dwelling- 
house. 

77 



LEYBURN, a market-town, and the head of a 
union, in the parish of WENSLEY, wapentake of HANG- 
WEST, N. riding of YORK, 46 miles (N. W. by W.) from 
York, and 236 (N. N. W.) from London ; containing 
829 inhabitants. The town is pleasantly situated in a 
fertile and picturesque district, and consists principally 
of one long and well-built street, the houses of which 
are of a superior and durable stone, and of modern ap- 
pearance, many of them having been erected in the 
present century. There are a circulating and a sub- 
scription library. A large elrn-tree formerly stood in 
the centre of the town, and served as a market-cross, 
but it was cut down in 1821. Leyburn attracts many 
visiters on their way to the lakes of Westmorland and 
Cumberland. The surface towards the north-west rises 
in bold undulations to the lofty moors of Wensleydale 
and Swaledale, and in the midst of the beautiful scenery 
surrounding the town, is the striking and celebrated 
walk called Leyburn Sparol, a magnificent natural ter- 
race, commanding, among many others, fine views of 
the ruins of Middleham and Bolton Castles, the former 
of which places is now connected with Leyburn by a 
suspension bridge across the Ure, on the site of the old 
ferry. The soil in the vicinity comprises stiff clay and 
gravelly loam, but consists principally of a light lime- 
stone, having in some parts deposits of lead and coal. 
Petty-sessions are held on the last Friday in every 
month. The market is on Friday; and there are fairs 
on the second Fridays in February, May, October, and 
December, noted for large sales of cattle. A small 
chapel of ease was erected in 1836, at the cost of the 
Hon. T. O. Powlett ; a national school is supported by 
subscription, and various benefactions have been made 
for apprenticing children, and other purposes. The 
poor law union of Leyburn comprises 41 parishes or 
places, containing a population of 9957- 

LEYLAND (ST. ANDREW), a parish, in the union of 
CHORLEY, hundred of LEYLAND, N. division of the 
county of LANCASTER; consisting of the chapelries of 
Euxton, Heapey, and Hoghton, and the townships of 
Clayton-le- Woods, Cuerden, Leyland, Wheelton, Whit- 
tle-le-Woods, and Withnell ; and containing 14,032 in- 
habitants, of whom 3569 are in the township of Ley- 
land, 4^ miles (N. W.) from Chorley. The parish com- 
prises about 17,950 acres, of which 3533 are in Leyland 
township ; of the latter number, 371 are common or 
waste. A considerable manufacture of cotton is carried 
on. At Golden-Hill is one of the intermediate stations 
on the line of the North-Union railway. The petty- 
sessions for the division are held once in five weeks, on 
Monday. ShaweHall, the seat of William Farington, Esq., 
contains a choice museum of natural curiosities, and a 
collection of valuable paintings, some of which were 
found in the ruins of Herculaneum. The living is a 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 1 1 j net income, 
400 ; patron, T. J. Baldwin, Esq. ; impropriators, 
several proprietors of land. The church, originally 
erected without a single pillar, was rebuilt and enlarged 
in 1817, and contains several marble monuments; ad- 
joining the chancel is an ancient chapel belonging to the 
Faringtons. A place of worship for Wesleyans was erected 
in 1814. Near the churchyard, a free grammar school 
was founded by Queen Elizabeth, with an endowment 
of 3. 18. per annum, in aid of which the Rev. Thomas 
Armetriding, in 1718, bequeathed 250; the annual 



L E Y T 



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income, with subsequent benefactions, amounts to about 
30. Another school is endowed with 13 per annum ; 
and there is also a school, erected in 1785, by the late 
Mr. Balshaw, and endowed by him with lands now 
producing an income of 230 ; it is in union with the 
National Society. An almshouse for six persons was 
founded in the year 1607, by William Faringtorv, Esq., 
and further endowed in 1665, by John Osbaldeston, 
Esq. 

LEYSDOWN (ST. CLEMENT), a parish, in the 
union, and liberty of the Isle, of SHEPPY, Upper divi- 
sion of the lathe of SCRAY, E. division of KENT, 9 
miles (E. by S.) from Queenborough ; containing 310 
inhabitants. It comprises 2182a. 2r. 3 lp., of which 
816 acres are arable, 1357 pasture, and 9 woodland. 
The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's 
books at 10. 10.; patron and appropriator, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. The great tithes have been com- 
muted for 394, and the vicarial for 265 ; the appro- 
priate glebe contains 15 acres, and the vicarial 5. The 
church is a neat modern edifice, erected near the site of 
a more ancient and spacious one, the ruins of which are 
still visible. Here is a national school. 

LEYTON, LOW (ST. MAUY), a parish, in the union 
of WEST HAM, hundred of BECONTREE, S. division of 
ESSEX, 6 miles (N. E.) from London ; containing 3274 
inhabitants. This place derives its name, which appears 
to be a contraction of Lee town, from its situation on the 
river Lea. It is supposed by Camden and others to be 
the site of the ancient Durolltum ; but whether or not, 
it is evident that here was a Roman station ; various 
pavements, foundations of buildings, consular and impe- 
rial coins, and other Roman antiquities, having been 
repeatedly discovered, particularly near the manor- 
house. The parish contains, in the rural district, about 
1700 acres, of which 150 are marsh, about 250 waste, 
and nearly the same number in the occupation of 
nursery-men and market-gardeners ; the remainder is 
good profitable land in a high state of cultivation ; the 
soil is gravelly, and the grounds abound with fine springs 
of water. The village, which consists of one single 
street, extending nearly from the forest to Stratford, 
and lighted with gas, is situated on a gentle ascent, 
rising gradually from the western bank of the river 
Lea ; the hamlet of Leytonstone now comprises nearly 
one-half of the inhabitants of the parish. The Northern 
and Eastern railway passes through this place, and at 
the Lea-Bridge road is one of the intermediate stations 
on its line ; the booking-offices and other arrangements 
form a handsome elevation in the Italian style. 

The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the 
king's books at 7. 12.; net income, 534; patron, 
and impropriator of one-third of the rectorial tithes, 
J. Pardoe, Esq. ; impropriators of the remaining two- 
thirds of the rectorial tithes, Executors of R. James, 
Esq. The impropriate tithes have been commuted for 
369. 14. 6., and the vicarial for 399. 15. The church, 
a plain brick edifice, with a tower at the west end, was 
repaired and enlarged in the seventeenth century, and 
again in 1822 : the chancel contains some elegant mo- 
numents of the family of Hickes, and of that of Sir 
Robert Beachcroft, lord mayor of London in 1721 ; also 
one of Mr. John Wood, who travelled over several parts 
of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America ; and one to the 
memory of the antiquary and biographer, the Rev. John 
78 



Strype, who was vicar of Leyton from 1669 till his 
death, which took place in 1737, at the age of 94 ; he 
rebuilt the vicarage-house, and was a liberal contributor 
to the church and parish. A chapel of ease was erected 
at Leytonstone, in 1750, by subscription ; and another 
has also been built, in which are 350 free sittings, the 
Incorporated Society having granted 500 in aid of the 
expense. Within the parish are places of worship for 
Independents and Wesleyans. In 1697, Robert Ozler 
bequeathed 300 for the erection, and a rent-charge of 
12 for the endowment, of a free school for a certain 
number of children of Leyton and Walthamstow ; and 
there are national schools at Low Leyton and Leyton- 
stone. Almshouses for eight widows were founded in 
1653, by John Smith, who endowed them with 20 per 
annum, to which subsequent benefactions have been 
added. Sir Thomas Rowe, or Roe, an able statesman 
and ambassador, was born at Low Leyton about the 
year 1580 ; and Edward Rowe Mores, Esq., a dis- 
tinguished antiquary, lived long in a house called Etloe 
Place. 

LEZANT (Sr. BREOCK), a parish, in the union of 
LAUNCESTON, N. division of the hundred of EAST, E, 
division of CORNWALL, 4 miles (S. by E.) from Laun- 
ceston ; containing, with the hamlet of Trewarlet, 905 
inhabitants. This place formerly belonged to the Mana- 
tou family, of Trecarrell House, of whom Ambrose 
Manaton had the honour to entertain Charles I. on his 
entrance into Cornwall, on the 1st of August, 1644. 
The parish is bounded on the east by the river Tamar, 
and on the south by its tributary the Inney, and com- 
prises 3892 acres, of which about 400 are woodland, 
233 common or waste, and the remainder chiefly arable. 
The surface is varied, and the scenery beautifully pic- 
turesque, especially on the banks of the Inney, at Tre- 
carrell and Carthamartha ; the substratum abounds 
with mineral wealth, and near Landew is a lead-mine 
in operation. The living is a rectory, valued in the 
king's books at 32 ; net income, 406 ; patron, Bishop 
of Exeter. The church contains several ancient monu- 
ments. There were formerly chapels at Trecarrell and 
Landew ; the former, of which there are some remains, 
was dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, and the latter to 
St. Bridget, near the site of which is an old well. Here 
is a place of worship for Wesleyans ; and a school is 
supported by subscription, for the instruction of the 
children of the poor. 

LEZIATE, a parish, in the union and hundred of 
FREEBRIDGE-LYNN, W. division of NORFOLK, 5 miles 
(E.) from Lynn; containing 172 inhabitants. It com- 
prises 1469a. 2r. 29p., of which 670 acres are arable, 
462 meadow and pasture, 67 woodland, and 104 com- 
mon or waste. The living is a rectory not in charge, 
annexed to that of Ashwicken : the tithes have been 
commuted for 280, and the glebe contains two acres. 
There are some slight remains of the ancient church of 
Leziate. 

LIBBERSTON, or LEBBERSTON, a township, in the 
parish of FILEY, union of SCARBOROUGH, PICKERING 
lythe, N. riding of YORK, 4 miles (N.) from Hunmanby ; 
containing 153 inhabitants. The township comprises 
by computation 14 SO acres, the property of various 
families : the village, which is small and straggling, is 
on the road from Filey to Cayton, and about two miles 
and a half westward of the former place. 



LI CH 



LI CH 




Arms. 



LICHFIELD, a city and 
county of itself, and the head 
of a union, in the S. division 
of the county of STAFFORD, 
16| miles (S. E. by E.) from 
Stafford, and 118 (N. W. by 
N.) from London ; contain- 
ing 6761 inhabitants. This 
place, called by 'BedeLitidfeld, 
and by Ingulphus and Henry 
of Huntingdon Lichfeld, both 
implying " the field of the 
dead," is supposed to have 
derived its name from the traditionary martyrdom of 
more than 1000 Christians, who are said to have been 
massacred here in the reign of the Emperor Diocletian : 
an allusion to this event appears in the corporation seal 
of the city ; and a spot within its precincts, in which 
they are said to have been interred, still retains the 
appellation of the Christian field. During the hep- 
tarchy, it appears to have been distinguished by the 
kings of Mercia, of whom Peada, son-in-law of Osweo, 
King of Northumbria, having been converted by the 
preaching of Cedd, a hermit, who had a cell near the 
site of St. Chad's church, is said to have erected the first 
Christian church here in honour of that recluse, who had 
been assiduous in his efforts to convert the Mercians to 
Christianity, and afterwards became their bishop. In 
the reign of Offa, this see not only obtained the prece- 
dence of all the Mercian bishoprics, but through the 
interest of Offa with Pope Adrian, was made the archi- 
episcopal see, and invested with the greater part of the 
jurisdiction of Canterbury. Eadulph was appointed 
archbishop of Lichfield in 789, and had for his suffra- 
gans the Bishops of Worcester, Hereford, Leicester, 
Sidnacester, Elmham, and Dunwich ; but, in 803, Leo 
succeeding to the pontificate, restored the primacy to 
Canterbury, and Eadulph, stripped of his supremacy, 
died in 812. At the time of the Conquest, Lichfield, 
notwithstanding the distinction which it enjoyed under 
the Saxon kings, -was but an inconsiderable place ; and 
in 1075, when the council decreed that episcopal sees 
should no longer remain in obscure towns, Peter, Bishop 
of Licedfeld, transferred his see to Chester, where it 
continued till it was removed by his successor, Robert 
de Limsey, to Coventry, whence it was, in 1148, re- 
stored to Lichfield, by Roger de Clinton, who began 
the church and fortified the castle, of which latter 
there is not the slightest vestige. At what time, or by 
whom, the castle was originally built, has not been 
clearly ascertained ; but it is, upon very good autho- 
rity, asserted that Richard II., after his deposition 
from the throne, was detained here as a prisoner, on 
his route to the tower of London. During the parlia- 
mentary war, Lichfield embraced the royal cause, and 
Charles I., after the battle of Naseby, slept for one 
night in the Cathedral Close, which, in 1643, Sir Richard 
Dyott, with some of the principal gentlemen of the 
county, under the command of the Earl of Chesterfield, 
fortified against the republican forces by which the 
town was besieged, under Lord Brooke and Sir John 
Gell, the former of whom, having stationed himself in 
the porch of an adjoining house, was shot, by a member 
of the Dyott family, from the battlements of the cathe- 
dral. The attack being continued by Sir John Gell, the 
79 



garrison surrendered on honourable terms, and the par- 
liamentarians retired, leaving a body of troops, who, in 
the following month, were repulsed by Prince Rupert : 
and the royalists kept possession of the town till its final 
surrender to the parliament. During these conflicts the 
cathedral suffered material injury; its rich sculptures 
were destroyed, it was converted into stables by the 
parliamentarian troops, and, in 1651, it was set on 
fire, and, by order of parliament, left to neglect and 
decay. 

The CITY is built in a pleasant and fertile vale, within 
two miles of the Roman station Etocetum, and about 
the same distance from Offlow Mount ; another station 
at Swinfen. The houses in the principal thoroughfares 
are handsome and commodious j the streets in general 
are well paved, and the town is well lighted, and amply 
supplied with water. Certain property, called the 
Conduit Lands, was granted in 1546 to trustees, by the 
brethren of the guild of the Blessed Mary, in Lichfield, 
" for the common wealth of the city and town," and for 
keeping in repair the conduit pipes and pumps, provid- 
ing fire-engines, and defraying other charges incidental 
to supplying the city with water from the springs at 
Aldershaw, which are about one mile and a half from 
the city : the property consists of about 340 acres of 
land, and produces nearly 600 per annum. In the 
environs are mimerous elegant seats and villas. A 
mechanics' institute was established a few years since, 
and is held in a room of the guildhall ; the Rev. Mr. 
Law, the president, has endowed it with books and 
natural curiosities, and also contributes liberally towards 
its support. A permanent library is maintained by 
subscription, and there is also a newsroom. A small 
theatre, in which Mrs. Siddons made her first appear- 
ance after her marriage, is open during the races, and 
occasionally at other times ; and an amateur concert, 
called the Cecilian Society, has been established nearly 
a century. The races take place in September, when a 
queen's plate of 100 guineas is run for on the first day ; 
the course is on the road to Tamworth, about two miles 
from the city. Lichfield is not a place of much trade ; 
there are extensive coach and harness manufactories, 
and two factories for spinning worsted thread. The 
Wyrley and Essington canal runs within a quarter of a 
mile, and joins the Fazeley and Birmingham line about 
three miles distant. The railway from Manchester, 
via Stone, to Rugby, passes by Pows- mill, three-quarters 
of a mile distant, where is a principal station, with a 
new approach direct to the market-place. The market 
is on Friday, and there are cattle-markets on the first 
Monday in every month, for cattle, sheep, bacon, and 
cheese ; the charter fairs are on Shrove-Tuesday and Ash- 
Wednesday, and there are others on the 10th of January, 
and first Tuesday in November. The market-house is 
a commodious building, occupying the site of the ancient 
market-cross ; in the centre is a colossal statue in stone 
of Dr. Samuel Johnson, erected in 1838, and presented 
by the Rev. J. T. Law, chancellor of the diocese. 

The city was anciently GOVERNED by a guild, at the 
head of which were a master and four wardens, assisted 
by a council of twenty-four brethren. This guild, estab- 
lished in 1387, was dissolved in the 2nd of Edward VI., 
who granted to the inhabitants a charter of incorpora- 
tion, which was confirmed and enlarged by Mary and 
Elizabeth, the former of whom erected the city into 



LI C H 



LI C H 




Corporation Seal. 



a county of itself. Subsequent charters were conferred 
by James I. in 1623, and by Charles II. in the 16th of 
his reign, tinder the latter of 
which the corporation con- 
sisted of two bailiffs and 
twenty - one brethren, as- 
sisted by a recorder, stew- 
ard, town-clerk and coroner, 
sheriff, and two serjeants-at- 
mace. The government is 
now vested in a mayor, six 
aldermen, and eighteen coun- 
cillors, under the act of the 
5th and 6th of William IV., 
cap. 76; the city is divided 
into two wards, the municipal and parliamentary boun- 
daries being co-extensive ; a sheriff is appointed by 
the council, and the number of magistrates is seven. 
Two chief constables are chosen by a jury of burgage 
tenants, at their court leet, held on St. George's day ; 
and several petty constables at the great portmote court 
on the 22nd of July. The freedom of the city is in- 
herited only by the eldest sons of freemen, and acquired 
by servitude in one of the seven trading companies of the 
Cordwainers, Smiths, Saddlers, Bakers, Weavers, Tailors, 
and Butchers. The city first exercised the elective fran- 
chise in the 33rd of Edward I., and continued to make 
regular returns till the 27th of Edward III., from which 
period it ceased till the time of its incorporation by Ed- 
ward VI., who restored the privilege ; two members are 
sent to parliament, and the sheriff is the returning officer. 
The recorder holds quarterly courts of session, and also a 
court of record weekly, for the recovery of debts to any 
amount above 40s. ; there is a sheriff's court every 
month, for the recovery of debts under that amount, 
and the justices preside at a petty-session weekly. The 
guildhall is a neat edifice of stone, ornamented with a 
pediment in front, in the tympanum of which are the 
city arms ; the hall is spacious, and well adapted to the 
purposes of the several courts, and underneath is the 
common gaol for the city. Formerly an annual f6te, 
called the Court of Array, took place on Whit-Monday 
in the guildhall, whence it was immediately adjourned 
to an eminence named Greenhill, where a temporary 
bower was erected ; the expense was defrayed by the 
corporation. This ceremony is supposed by some to 
have been instituted by King Osweo, to commemorate 
a victory obtained by him over Penda ; but others, with 
more probability, ascribe it to an act passed originally 
in the reign of Henry II., ordaining the high constable 
in each town frequently to inspect the arms of the 
inhabitants. It is still kept up with some difference, 
but the expense is now defrayed by subscription. The 
town is the pbice of election for the southern division of 
the county. 

Lichfield was an EPISCOPAL SEE jointly with Coven- 
try, and after the demolition of the abbey and conventual 
buildings at Coventry, became the sole seat of the 
diocese : the jurisdiction extends over the counties of 
Derby and Stafford, and a considerable part of the 
county of Salop, and comprehends 4Q 1 benefices. The 
ecclesiastical establishment consists of a bishop, dean, 
precentor, chancellor, treasurer, the archdeacons of 
Salop, Stafford, and Derby, fifteen prebendaries, five 
minor canons, an organist, six choristers, and other 
80 



Arms of the Bishopric. 



officers. The bishop has the patronage of the archdea- 
conries, the chancellorship, the canonries, and twenty- 
one benefices, with an income 
of 4500 per annum. The 
Dean and Chapter, consisting 
of the precentor and fifteen 
prebendaries, have the pa- 
tronage of the minor canon- 
ries, nine benefices, with an 
income of 1311, of which 
one-fifth part is paid to the 
dean, and the remainder di- 
vided equally among the ca- 
nons. The minor canons 
form a corporation of twelve 
members, including five minor canons, an organist, and 
six choristers, with an income of 770, equally divided 
among them, with the exception of the choristers, who 
have each 2 per annum less than the minor canons. 
The Cathedral, which had been reduced during the par- 
liamentary war to a state of extreme dilapidation, was 
restored by Dr. Racket, on his preferment to the united 
sees of Lichfield and Coventry in 1661, to its original 
state of splendour and magnificence ; various improve- 
ments have subsequently been made, and the choir has 
been greatly enlarged, under the superintendence of Mr. 
Wyatt, by the removal of the screen in front of the 
Lady chapel. The prevailing character of the edifice is 
that of the early English, approaching very nearly to 
the decorated style of English architecture ; the west 
front is magnificently rich, and the spires of the western 
towers are in beautiful combination with the lofty cen- 
tral spire ; the east end is hexagonal, and the whole ex- 
terior is highly ornamented in various parts with statu- 
ary and sculpture of exquisite design and elaborate 
execution ; the interior presents various styles, with 
several later insertions. The transepts display consider- 
able portions in the Norman character, and the choir, 
which deviates from the line of the nave, is in the de- 
corated English style ; it is richly ornamented, and 
lighted with windows of beautiful tracery : the bishop's 
throne, and the prebendal stalls, are fine specimens of 
tabernacle-work. St. Mary's chapel, built by Bishop 
Langton, is an edifice of elegant design, lighted with 
nine lofty windows, of which the three at the east end 
are more rich in their tracery, and are ornamented with 
stained glass brought by Sir Brooke Boothby from the 
dissolved abbey of Herckenrode, in the bishopric of 
Liege ; in the central window on one side is a painting 
of the Resurrection, by Egginton, from a design by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds : in this chapel was the rich shrine of 
St. Chad, which was demolished at the Dissolution. 
Among the monuments that escaped the ravages of the 
parliamentary troops are those of Bishops Langton and 
Pattishull. There are, also, a monument to Dr. John- 
son ; a bust of Garrick ; a mutilated statue of Captain 
Stanley, and a monument of exquisite beauty, by Chan- 
trey, to the memory of the infant children of Mrs. 
Robinson, considered as a master-piece of sculpture, 
and which is unrivalled for beauty of design, intensity 
of feeling, and force of expression. A passage from the 
north aisle leads to the chapter-house, a decagonal 
building of great elegance, of which the finely-vaulted 
roof is supported on a clustered central column. Above 
it is the library, instituted by Dean Heywood, in which 



LI C H 



LIDD 



are the gospels of St. Chad, a Koran taken at the siege 
of Huda, and a folio edition of Chaucer, richly illumi- 
nated. The bishop's palace, on the north-east side of 
the Close, is a spacious edifice. 

The city comprises portions of the PARISHES of St. 
Mary, of which that part in the borough contains 2634 
inhabitants ; St. Chad, containing 2036 ; and St. Mi- 
chael, containing 1887 ; and the liberty of the Cathedral 
Close, which is extra-parochial, with 190 inhabitants. 
The living of St. Mary's is a discharged vicarage, with 
Statfold annexed, valued in the king's books at 10; 
net income, 458 ; patrons and appropriators, the Dean 
and Chapter. The church is a modern edifice, erected 
on the site of an ancient structure described by Leland 
as " right beautiful." The whole parish of St. Chad, 
including the villages of Elmhurst and Curborough, 
comprises by measurement 2488 acres ; the rural por- 
tion of it is in general land of good quality, and in a 
state of profitable cultivation. The living is a per- 
petual curacy ; patron, Vicar of St. Mary's : net income, 
179. The church, by far the oldest in Lichfield, was 
rebuilt on the site of an ancient one erected by Bishop 
Headda, in honour of St. Chad, and near his hermitage. 
The parish of St. Michael comprises by computation 
10,400 acres, of which by far the greater portion is 
arable; about 2000 acres are common, a part of which 
has been recently inclosed, and the remainder, with the 
exception of a little woodland, is meadow and pasture. 
The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the 
Vicar of St. Mary's, with a net income of 154; ap- 
propriators, the Dean and Chapter. The church, a 
plain edifice in the later English style, situated on 
Greenhill, contains a tablet, with an inscription by Dr. 
Johnson, to the memory of his parents ; the church- 
yard comprises from six to seven acres, and is the 
principal cemetery of the city. At Burntwood and 
Wall, in this parish, are chapels of ease, both erected by 
subscription. There are places of worship for Inde- 
pendents, Wesleyans, and Kilhamites, and Roman Ca- 
tholics. The free grammar school appears, from a small 
endowment payable out of the exchequer, to have been 
founded by Edward VI. ; the school-house was erected 
in 1692, at the joint expense of the corporation and the 
feoffees of the Conduit Lands. The master receives 
from the latter 35 per annum, and the usher 10, from 
funds devised by Henry Beane, in 1546, for this and 
other purposes ; the premises are also kept in repair by 
.the feoffees. There are only six free scholars on the 
foundation, each of whom receives an annuity of 1 . 6. S., 
granted by Dean Walker to six scholars of the former 
school, in St. John's hospital, now transferred to this 
school. An English free school was founded in 1677, 
by Mr. Thomas Minors, who endowed it with a mes- 
suage for the school-house, and rents amounting to 
about 30 per annum. Andrew Newton, Esq., in 1801, 
bequeathed in aid of this charity the reversion of the 
dividends on 3333. 6. 8. three per cent, consols. ; and 
the annual income is now upwards of 135. Hum- 
phrey Terrick, Esq., in 1652, left a messuage, the rental 
of which, amounting to 9 per annum, is appropriated 
in aid of a national school. 

St. John's hospital was founded in the reign of Henry 

III., by one of the bishops of the diocese ; and, in 1252, 

Randulph de Lacock, canon of Lichfield, endowed it 

with lands at Elmhurst and Stichbrook, for the mainte- 

VOL. III. 81 



nance of a priest, and the support of the poor and in- 
firm. It was visited by the bishops of Lichfield for 
many years, but fell into neglect and decay, from which 
it was retrieved by Bishop Smyth, who was translated 
to the see in the reign of Henry VII. ; that prelate re- 
built the premises in 1495, and formed the statutes by 
which it is at present governed. There are thirteen 
almshouses, apartments for the master and other officers, 
and a chapel; the last was enlarged in 1829, by the 
erection of a gallery and north wing, at the expense of 
the master of the hospital, and an organ was purchased 
by subscription ; it has now a numerous and respectable 
congregation. An hospital for women was originally 
founded in 1424, by Bishop Hay worth, and endowed in 
1504 by Thomas Milley, one of the canons residentiary, 
with lands, producing, with subsequent benefactions, an 
income of about 380, for the maintenance of fifteen 
aged women and a few out-pensioners. An institution 
for the benefit of widows or unmarried daughters of 
clergymen of the Church of England in the diocese, was 
founded by the above-named Mr. Newton, who endowed 
it with 43,333. 6. 8. consols., the dividends on which, 
amounting to 1238. 13.8., are distributed in annual 
pensions of 50 each, among 20 individuals, who must 
be upwards of 50 years of age : the buildings of the in- 
stitution, situated in the Close, contain apartments for 
16 persons. There are also donations and bequests, 
amounting to 1000 per annum, for distribution among 
the poor. The union of Lichfield comprises 29 parishes 
or places, with a population of 24,127. Among the 
monastic establishments was a convent of Grey friars, 
founded in 1229, by Alexander, Bishop of Lichfield ; it 
was burnt down in 1291, and being rebuilt, subsisted 
till the Dissolution ; the remains are now let on lease, 
and the rents appropriated to charitable uses. Several 
relics of antiquity are preserved in Mr. Green's museum, 
among which is the wooden lintel or doorway, pierced 
by a ball which killed Lord Brooke, the parliamentary 
officer, during the siege of the cathedral. There is a 
chalybeate spring ; and some good specimens of agate, 
in a state of decomposition, are found in the vicinity, 
where a fine sort of clay for pottery is also met with. 
Elias Ashmole, the antiquary, and founder of the Ash- 
molean museum at Oxford ; Dr. George Smalridge, and 
Dr. Thomas Newton, both distinguished as theological 
writers ; and the celebrated Dr. Samuel Johnson, were 
natives of this place : and among the residents were 
Garrick, Dr. Darwin, author of The Botanic Garden, and 
his ingenious biographer, Miss Seward. Lichfield gives 
the title of Earl to the family of Anson, created in 
1831. 

LIDBROOK, a hamlet, in the parish of NEWLAND, 
union of MONMOUTH, hundred of ST. BRIAVELL'S, W. 
division of the county of GLOUCESTER ; containing 42 
inhabitants. Iron and tin works, said to have been the 
first established in the kingdom, furnish employment to 
a part of the population. Coal and timber are brought 
from the Forest of Dean, by means of a railroad con- 
structed from the Wye to the Severn. There is a place 
of worship for Baptists. 

LIDDIARD-MILLICENT (ALL SAINTS), a parish, 
in the union of CRICKLADE and WOOTTON-BASSETT, 
hundred of HIGHWORTH, CRICKLADE, and STAPLE, 
Swindon and N. divisions of WILTS, 3 miles (N. N. E.) 
from Wootton-Bassett : containing 564 inhabitants. The 

M 



L IDD 



L I D N 



road from Cricklade to Wootton-Bassett passes through 
the parish. The land is pasture, with the exception of 
a small portion of arahle and wood ; the surface is in 
general flat, and the soil rich. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 17. 4. 4^. ; net income, 
495 ; patrons, Master and Fellows of Pembroke Col- 
lege, Oxford. The church is in the later English style. 

LIDDIARD-TREGOOZE (ALL SAINTS), a parish, 
in the union of CRICKLADE and WOOTTON-BASSETT, 
hundred of KINGSBRIDGE, Swindon and N. divisions 
of WILTS, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Swindon ; contain- 
ing 960 inhabitants. This place has, from the time of 
the Conquest, been the property of the family of St. 
John, viscounts Bolingbroke, whose mansion and park 
are near the church. The parish is situated on the road 
from Oxford to Bath, and comprises by admeasurement 
5400 acres, of which 300 are arable, 350 woodland, and 
the remainder pasture. The Wilts and Berks canal and 
the Great Western railway pass through the parish. 
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
10. 5. 5., and in the gift of Lord Bolingbroke: the 
tithes have been commuted for 603. 18. 5., and the 
glebe comprises 90 acres. The church is an ancient 
structure, in the later English style, partly erected or 
rebuilt in 1653, by the St. John family, to whom it con- 
tains several splendid monuments. A parochial school 
is supported by Lord Bolingbroke and the rector. 

LIDDINGTON (ST. ANDREW), a parish, in the 
union of UPPINGHAM, hundred of WRANDIKE, county 
of RUTLAND, 2| miles (S. by E.) from Uppingham ; 
containing 589 inhabitants. The parish comprises by 
computation 2240 acres ; the soil is various, but the 
greater portion a dark stiff clay, and tolerably fertile : 
the surface is diversified with hills. The village is plea- 
santly situated in a valley watered by the river Welland, 
near which are some rich meadows. The living is a 
discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
8. 2., and in the patronage of the Prebendary of Lid- 
dington in the Cathedral of Lincoln, the appropriates 
The great tithes have been commuted for 216. 11., 
and the vicarial for 221. At Caldecott is a chapel of 
ease. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. In 
1721, Mary Parnham bequeathed 200, to be laid out 
in land, and the rental applied in educating children. 
A palace formerly belonging to the bishops of Lincoln, a 
fine structure in the early English style, consisting of a 
large hall with painted windows, has been converted into 
an hospital for a warden, twelve brethren, and two 
nurses ; the charity was founded in 1600, by Sir Thomas 
Cecil, Knt., Lord Burghley, and is called Jesus' Hos- 
pital. 

LIDDINGTON (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union 
of HIGHWOP.TH and SWINDON, hundred of KINGS- 
BRIDGE, Swindon and N. divisions of WILTS, 4 miles 
(E. S. E.) from Swindon; containing, with the tything 
of Coate, 454 inhabitants. The parish comprises by 
measurement 2736 acres, and is traversed by the road 
from London to Newbury and Hungerford : there are 
several chalk quarries. The living is a discharged 
vicarage, with a sinecure rectory, the former valued in 
the king's books at 14, and the latter at 17; the 
Duke of Maryborough presents to the rectory, and the 
Rector to the vicarage. The tithes were commuted for 
land, under an act of inclosure, in 1776 ; and a com- 
mutation has taken place under the recent Tithe act, 
82 



for a rent-charge of 221 : the glebe contains 60 acres, 
and an excellent house was built by the vicar, in 1833. 
The church is very ancient, with a tower, and has a 
roof, in the interior of timber-frame work. The Wes- 
leyans have a place of worship. In this parish, roman- 
tically situated in a dell, and encompassed by a moat, 
is an old mansion, an interesting specimen of the Eliza- 
bethan style ; and on Beacon Hill was a large circular 
work, called Liddington Castle. 

LIDGATE (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
NEWMARKET, hundred of RISBRIDGE, W. division of 
SUFFOLK, 6f miles (S. E. by E.) from Newmarket; 
containing 450 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 15. 10. 5.; net income, 
473 ; patron, Duke of Rutland. Near the church is a 
spacious and lofty mount, with some remains of exten- 
sive intrenchments, probably the site of a strong castle, 
of unknown origin. Lydgate, the poet, was born at 
this place, from which he took his name. 

LIDLINGTON, or LITLINGTON (ALL SAINTS), a 
parish, in the union of AMPTHILL, hundred of RED- 
BORNESTOKE, county of BEDFORD, 3| miles (W. by N.) 
from Ampthill ; containing 926 inhabitants. The liv- 
ing is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books 
at 11; net income, 88; patron and impropriator, 
Duke of Bedford. The church contains an ancient 
tomb, with a brass effigy, in armour, of one of the 
Goldingtons, who possessed the manor of Goldington, 
in the parish, in the 15th century. Here is a place of 
worship for Wesleyans ; and a school for boys has a 
small endowment. 

LIDNEY, or LYDNEY (ST. MARY), a market-town 
and parish, in the union of CHEPSTOW, hundred of 
BLEDISLOE, W. division of the county of GLOUCESTER, 
20 miles (S. W. by W.) from Gloucester, and 123 (W. 
by N.) from London ; containing, with the chapelry of 
Aylburton, 1885 inhabitants, of whom 1146 are in the 
town. This place, which is situated on the road from 
Gloucester to Swansea, is by some writers supposed to 
have been the Roman station Abona ; and though it 
may not be satisfactorily identified with that particular 
station, there are positive evidences of its occupation by 
the Romans. In Lydney Park are the remains of a 
Roman villa, and of two camps ; near the western bor- 
der of the larger camp is a Roman bath, still tolerably 
perfect ; and fragments of tessellated pavement, urns, 
statues, coins of Adrian and Antoninus, and a silver 
coin of Galba, have been found near the spot. An an- 
cient mansion called Whitecross, erected by Sir William 
Winter, vice-admiral of England in the reign of Eliza- 
beth, was, in the civil war of the 17th century, fortified 
and garrisoned by Sir John Winter, a distinguished 
royalist, who defended it against repeated attacks by 
detachments from the parliamentary forces stationed at 
Gloucester, but at last set fire to and deserted it, having 
first despoiled the forest. The manufacture of tin plates 
is carried on to a great extent, and in connexion with 
it are iron-works. Limestone is quarried. The trade 
of the town is principally in the export of coal, and is 
greatly facilitated by the river Severn, which forms the 
eastern boundary of the parish ; the Severn and Wye 
railroad terminates here, and a canal with a basin con- 
nects it by means of locks with the river. The market 
is on Wednesday ; and fairs are held on May 4th and 
November 8th. The living is a vicarage, with St. Bri- 



L I G H 



LI L B 



avell's and Hewelsfield annexed, valued in the king's 
books at 24. 6. 8. ; patrons and appropriators, Dean 
and Chapter of Hereford. The great tithes have been 
commuted for 420, and the vicarial for 680 ; the 
glebe comprises 2 acres. The church is a spacious plain 
structure, with a beautiful spire. At Aylburton is a 
chapel of ease ; and the Baptists have a place of wor- 
ship. There are some chalybeate springs. 

LIDSEY, a hamlet, in the parish of ALDINGBOURN, 
union of WESTHAMPNETT, hundred of Box and STOCK- 
BRIDGE, rape of CHICHESTER, W. division of SUSSEX, 
5^ miles (E. S. E.) from Chichester ; containing 772 in- 
habitants. It is situated on the Portsmouth and Arun- 
del canal. 

LIDSING, or LIDGEN, a vill, in the parish of 
GILLINGHAM, union of MEDWAY, hundred of CHATHAM 
and GILLINGHAM, lathe of AYLESFORD, W. division of 
KENT, 4 miles (S. S. E.) from Chatham ; containing 44 
inhabitants. Here is a chapel of ease. The vicarial 
tithes have been commuted for 100, and there is a 
glebe of 10 acres. 

LIDSTONE, a hamlet, in the parish of CHURCH- 
ENSTONE, union of CHIPPING-NORTON, hundred of 
CHADLINGTON, county of OXFORD, l mile (W. N. W.) 
from Neat-Enstone ; containing 161 inhabitants. 

LIFTON (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
TAVISTOCK, hundred of LIFTON, Lifton and S. divisions 
of DEVON, 4 miles (E. by N.) from Launceston ; con- 
taining 1784 inhabitants. The manor and lordship 
were, by original grant of Edward VI., vested in the 
ancestors of W. A. H. Arundell, Esq., the present pro- 
prietor. The parish is watered by the rivers Tamar, 
Gary, and Lyd, of which the last flows into the Tamar, 
a little below Lifton park ; the surrounding scenery is 
agreeably diversified. Mines of manganese are worked. 
Fairs are held on the 14th of Feb., the first Thursday in 
June, and October 28th. The living is a rectory, valued 
in the king's books at 31. 2. 11. ; net income, 423 ; 
patron, Mr. Arundell. The church has been embellished 
with a new altar-piece and with the royal arms, both 
presented in 1831, by the patron, at an expense of 
200 ; it contains some rich monuments to the family 
of Harris, of Hayne. Two schools are partly supported 
by charity. 

LIGHTCLIFFE, a chapelry, in the parish and union 
of HALIFAX, wapentake of MORLEY, W. riding of YORK, 
3| miles (E.) from Halifax. This chapelry, which is 
included in the township of Hipperholme cum Brig- 
house, and in the manor of Wakefield, is on the road 
from Halifax to Leeds. Mr. Lamplugh Wickham, 
and Messrs. Ripley and Holland, have each a neat resi- 
dence. There are some quarries of good stone for 
building. The chapel, dedicated to St. Matthew, is a 
neat edifice with a campanile turret, situated on an 
eminence, and has been rebuilt since its original founda- 
tion in 1529 : the living is a perpetual curacy ; net in- 
come, 120 ; patron, the Vicar of Halifax. There are 
places of worship for Independents and Wesleyans ; 
and a Sunday school is supported by subscription. In 
1829, in a gravel-pit near the chapel, were found seve- 
ral consular and imperial silver coins, and some gold 
British coins of Boadicea, in excellent preservation, and 
many of them extremely rare. 

LIGHTGRAVE, or LEEGRAVE, a hamlet, in the pa- 
rish and union of LUTON, hundred of FLITT, county of 
83 



BEDFORD, 3 miles (N. W. by W.) from Luton ; contain- 
ing 41 1 inhabitants. 

LIGHTHORNE (Sr. LAWRENCE), a parish, in the 
union of SOUTHAM, Kington division of the hundred of 
KINGTON, S. division of the county of WARWICK, 4 
miles (N. by E.) from Kington ; containing 384 inhabit- 
ants. It is intersected by the road from Warwick to 
Banbury, and comprises 2025 acres. The living is a 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 14. 17. 3^., 
and in the gift of Lord Willoughby de Broke, who sup- 
ports two schools : the tithes have been commuted for 
327; there is a glebe-house, and the glebe contains 
118a. 2r. 33p. 

LILBOURN (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union 
of RUGBY, hundred of GUILSBOROUGH, S. division of 
the county of NORTHAMPTON, 4 miles (E. S. E.) from 
Rugby ; containing 279 inhabitants. The parish is 
situated in the eastern part of the county, on the con- 
fines of the counties of Warwick and Leicester, and com- 
prises 16670. 3r. 28p. The village is on the line of the 
ancient Watling-street, and is supposed to have been 
the Tripontium of the Romans ; vestiges of a castle may 
still be traced. The inhabitants are partly employed in 
the stocking manufacture. The living is a discharged 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 6, and has a net 
income of 127, arising from 65 acres of glebe, allotted 
at the inclosure in commutation of tithes ; it is in the 
patronage of the Crown, and the impropriation belongs 
to Miss Downes, the Misses Arnold, and J. Arnold, Esq. 
There is a place of worship for Wesleyans ; and a paro- 
chial school is supported partly by the proceeds of land 
allotted at the inclosure. At Roundhill, about half a 
mile from the village, bones and skulls have been 
found . 

LILBURN, EAST, a township, in the parish of EG- 
LINGHAM, union of GLENDALE, N. division of COCIUET- 
DALE ward and of NORTHUMBERLAND, 4f miles (S. E. 
by E.) from Wooler ; containing 80 inhabitants. The 
township is bounded on the east by the river Till, and 
comprises about 900 acres of land, of a dry gravelly 
soil ; about two-thirds are arable, and the remainder 
pasture and moor ; the surface is hilly and undulated ; 
and an inferior kind of stone is quarried. This place is 
the property of A. J. Baker Cresswell, Esq., of Cress- 
well, and is in the occupation of John Gray, Esq. The 
vicarial tithes have been commuted for 55. 7. 6., with 
a glebe of 28 acres, and the impropriate for 122. 12. 4. 
In 1768, on the removal of a heap of stones, the base 
and fragments of a cross, with four rows of steps, were 
discovered beneath. 

LILBURN, WEST, a township, in the parish of 
EGLINGHAM, union of GLENDALE, N. division of Co- 
QUETDALE ward and of NORTHUMBERLAND, 3^ miles 
(S. E. by E.) from Wooler; containing 226 inhabitants. 
It is situated on the Newcastle and Wooler road to 
Edinburgh, and comprises about 2000 acres, mostly 
arable, including 200 of woodland; the soil is rich, 
producing excellent and abundant crops ; and the 
scenery embraces the Cheviot hills on the west, and on 
the east those of Chillingham. The Lill river runs 
through the township, and abounds in trout. With the 
exception of 26 acres belonging to the vicar, the place 
is the property of Edward John Collingwood, Esq. Lil- 
burn Tower, a fine stone mansion in the Elizabethan 
style, was built in 1834, near the site of a border tower, 

M 2 



LILL 



LIMB 



from a design of Mr. Dobson's, at a cost of 25,000. The 
impropriate tithes have been commuted for 262. 11. 7., 
and the vicarial for 130. 7- At the west end of the 
village, near the remains of the ancient mansion, are those 
of a chapel of ease. 

LILFORD (Sr. PETER), a parish, in the union of 
OUNDLE, hundred of HUXLOE, though locally in that of 
POLEBROOK, N. division of the county of NORTHAMP- 
TON, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Oundle ; containing, with 
the hamlet of Wigsthorpe, 133 inhabitants. It com- 
prises 1807a. Ir. 14/>., and is intersected by the road 
from Thrapstone to Oundle, and bounded by the river 
Neue. The living is a vicarage, annexed to the rectory 
of Thorpe-Achurch, and valued in the king's books 
at 7. 12. 3|. A school is supported by Lord Lilford, 
who derives his title from the place. 

LILLESHALL (ST. MICHAEL), a parish, in the 
union of NEWPORT, Newport division of the hundred 
of SOUTH BRADFORD, N. division of SALOP, 3 miles 
(S. S. W.) from Newport ; containing, with the town- 
ships of Donnington-Wood and Muxton, 3851 inhabit- 
ants. A branch of the Donnington-Wood, or Marquess 
of Stafford's, canal terminates in the northern part of 
the parish. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued 
in the king's books at 6. 17. 11. ; net income, 322 ; 
patron and impropriator, Duke of Sutherland. A 
school is supported by subscription, and a school for 
girls by the Duchess of Sutherland. About 1145, an 
abbey for regular canons of the order of St. Augustine 
was founded here, which at the Dissolution had a 
revenue of 327. 10. 

LILLEY (ST. PETER), a parish, in the union of 
HITCHIN, hundred of HITCHIN and PIRTON, county of 
HERTFORD, 4 miles (N. E. by N.) from Luton, contain- 
ing 475 inhabitants. The village is situated on the road 
from Hitchin to Luton, and the inhabitants are chiefly 
employed in the platting of straw. The living is a 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 19. 8. 9. ; net 
income, 340 ; patrons, Master and Fellows of St. 
John's College, Cambridge : there is a glebe-house, 
with 30 acres of land. The Wesleyans have a place of 
worship. 

LILLINGS AMBO, or EAST and WEST, a town- 
ship, in the parish of SHERIFF-HUTTON, wapeutake of 
BULMER, union and N. riding of YORK, 9| miles 
(N. N. E.) from York ; containing 208 inhabitants. 
The township, which comprises by measurement 1530 
acres, is divided into the hamlets of East and West 
Lillings, and is situated at the head of the Foss naviga- 
tion. Lilling Hall stands to the east of East Lillings. 
The tithes for West Lillings were commuted for land in 
1769. 

LILLINGSTONE-DAYRELL (S T . NICHOLAS), a 
parish, in the union, hundred, and county of BUCKING- 
HAM, 4 miles (N.) from Buckingham ; containing 187 
inhabitants. It comprises 2223a. lp., of which 200 
acres are arable, about 400 woodland, and the remainder 
meadow and pasture ; the surface in some parts is hilly, 
commanding extensive prospects, and the lower grounds 
are watered by a brook that flows through the parish ; 
the soil is clayey and deep. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 7. 9. 7., and in the gift 
of Richard Dayrell, Esq., whose ancestors have been 
patrons upwards of 500 years, and have resided here 
for eighteen generations : the tithes have been com- 
84 



muted for 278. 8. 6., and the glebe comprises one 
acre. 

LILLINGSTONE-LOVELL (ST. MARY), a parish, 
in the union of BUCKINGHAM, hundred of PLOUGHLEY, 
county of OXFORD, though locally in the hundred and 
county of BUCKINGHAM (to which it is attached for 
electoral purposes), 4f- miles (N. by E.) from Bucking- 
ham ; containing 140 inhabitants. It comprises by 
measurement 1223 acres, of which 280 are arable, 827 
meadow and pasture, and 108 woodland. The living is 
a rectory, valued in the king's books at 8. 9- 4^., and 
in the patronage of the Crown : the tithes have been 
commuted for 177, and the glebe comprises 39 acres. 

LILLINGTON (ST. MAR-TIN), a parish, in the union, 
and hundred, of SHERBORNE, Sherborne division of 
DORSET, 3^ miles (S. by W.) from Sherborne ; contain- 
ing 191 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 10. 12. 3^. ; patrons, Mr. 
and Mrs. Gordon. 

LILLINGTON (ST. MARY MAGDALENE), a parish, 
in the union of WARWICK, Kenilworth division of the 
hundred of KNIGHTLOW, S. division of the county of 
WARWICK, 1 mile (N.) from Leamington ; containing 
272 inhabitants. It comprises by computation 1381 
acres : sandstone of soft texture is found, and is quar- 
ried for building purposes. The living is a discharged 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 5. 13. 4. ; pa- 
tron and impropriator, the Rev. Henry Wise : the tithes 
have been commuted for 167, and the glebe consists of 
40 acres. The church is an ancient structure, combin- 
ing various styles of English architecture. A parochial 
school, conducted upon the national system, is sup- 
ported by subscription. 

LILLISDON, a tything, in the parish and hundred 
of NORTH CURRY, union of TAUNTON, W. division of 
SOMERSET, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Taunton ; containing 
238 inhabitants. 

LILLY, a hamlet, in the parish of CATMERE, union 
of WANTAGE, hundred of COMPTON, county of BERKS, 
5 miles (W. by S.) from East Ilsleyj containing 74 in- 
habitants. 

LILSTOCK (Sr. ANDREW), a parish, in the union 
of WILLITON, hundred of WILLITON and FREEMAN- 
NERS, W. division of SOMERSET, ll miles (N. W.) from 
Bridgwater; containing 48 inhabitants. The parish is 
bounded on the north by Bridgwater bay, in the Bristol 
Channel, and contains limestone of excellent quality 
for building, which is extensively quarried. The living 
is annexed to the vicarage of Stogursey : the tithes were 
commuted for land in 1803. 

LILWALL, with PEMBERS-OAK and CHICKWARD, a 
township, in the parish and union of KINGTON, hundred 
of HUNTINGTON, county of HEREFORD ; containing 380 
inhabitants. 

LIMBER MAGNA (ST. PETER), a parish, in the 
union of CAISTOR, E. division of the wapentake of YAR- 
BOROUGH, parts of LINDSEY, county of LINCOLN, 5^ 
miles (N. by E.) from Caistor ; containing 480 inhabit- 
ants. The parish comprises 50260. 3r. IQp. ; the sub- 
stratum is chiefly chalk of hard texture, which is quarried 
for dressing the arable lands before frost, and also burnt 
into lime for manure. A statute fair is held on the first 
Monday in May. The living is a discharged vicarage, 
valued in the king's books at 9. 18. 4., and in the pa- 
tronage of the Crown ; net income, 623 ; impropriator, 



LIME 



L I N B 



the Earl of Yarborough : the tithes were commuted for 
land and corn-rents in 1812. The church was given, in 
the time of Henry II., by Richard de Humct, constable 
of Normandy, to the Cistercian abbey of Aulnay or 
Aveny, in Normandy, the abbot and convent of which 
established a cell here ; this cell at the suppression of 
alien priories, was sold to the Carthusians of St. Anne, 
near Coventry. There is a place of worship for Wes- 
leyans. Robert Smith, Esq., in 16*26, bequeathed pro- 
perty now producing 10 per annum, for distribution 
among the poor. The mausoleum of the Earl of Yar- 
borough is in the parish. 

LIMBER PARVA, a hamlet, in the parish of 
BROCKLESBY, union of CAISTOR, E. division of the 
wapentake of YARBOROUGH, parts of LINDSEY, county 
of LINCOLN, 7 miles (N.) from Caistor ; containing 49 
inhabitants. 

LIMBURY CUM BISCOTT, a hamlet, in the parish 
and union of LUTON, hundred of FLITT, county of BED- 
FORD, 2| miles (N. W. by N.) from Luton ; containing 
316 inhabitants. 

LIMEBROOK, a township, in the parish and hun- 
dred of WIGMORE, union of LUDLOW, county of HERE- 
FORD ; containing 178 inhabitants. 

LIMEHOUSE (ST. JNNE), a parish, in the union of 
STEPNEY, Tower division of the hundred of OSSULSTONE, 
county of MIDDLESEX, 1 miles (E. by S.) from London ; 
containing, with part of Ratcliffe hamlet, 21,121 inha- 
bitants. This place, which is situated on the north bank 
of the Thames, was formerly a hamlet belonging to 
Stepney, from which parish it was separated in 1730. 
It consists principally of a number of narrow streets 
and irregular buildings, diverging from the principal 
thoroughfare. There are several respectable houses ; 
and among the numerous shops, warehouses, and manu- 
factories, are some spacious and well-built structures, 
though many of the buildings are of an inferior descrip- 
tion. The streets are partly paved, and lighted with 
gas. Here are a manufactory for sail-cloth and ropes, 
an extensive bleaching-ground, and large manufactories 
for articles in iron, particularly chain-cables, anchors, 
tanks, and all kinds of machinery. Ship-blocks are also 
made, and there are various other trades connected with 
shipping; ship-building is carried on at Limehouse 
Hole. At the eastern extremity of the parish are the 
West India Docks, which extend across the river to 
Blackwall. The northern dock, for unloading ships, 
covers thirty acres, and is capable of accommodating 
300 West Indiamen ; the southern, for unloading out- 
ward bound vessels, covers twenty- four acres, and will 
admit 200 ships ; the former was opened in 1802, and 
the latter in 1805. They have extensive ranges of build- 
ing in which foreign goods are deposited previous to the 
payment of the duty. A canal from the river Lea, called 
the New Cut, intersects the parish and joins the Thames, 
superseding the circuitous navigation round the Isle of 
Dogs ; and the Regent's canal likewise passes through 
it, on the line of which, just before its junction with the 
Thames, is a basin capable of admitting vessels of from 
200 to 300 tons' burthen. On the south side of the 
Commercial-road is a tram-road, from the West India 
Docks to Whitechapel, constructed at an expense of 
nearly 20,000. The London and Blackwall railway 
also crosses the parish. The living is a rectory not 
in charge; net income, 714; patrons, Principal and 
85 



Fellows of Brasenose College, Oxford. The church, 
which is one of the fifty erected pursuant to an act 
passed in the reign of Queen Anne, is a massive structure, 
with two Angular turrets at the east end, and a square 
tower at the west end, built after a design by Nicholas 
Hawksmoor, one of the pupils of Sir Christopher Wren. 
There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. A charity 
school for boys, a school for girls, and a national school 
are supported by subscription. 

LIMINGTON (Sr. MARY'), a parish, in the union of 
YEOVIL, hundred of STONE, W. division of SOMERSET, 
1^ mile (E. S. E.) from Ilchester; containing 342 inha- 
bitants. It is situated on the river Yeo, and comprises 
by measurement 1560 acres. Several of the younger 
females are employed in glove-making. The living is a 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 21. 6. 5^., and in 
the gift of Wadham College, Oxford : the tithes have 
been commuted for 410, and the glebe comprises seven 
acres. The church is a handsome structure in the later 
English style, and contains the effigy of Sir Richard 
Gyverney, founder of a chantry here, of which the chapel 
has a stone roof richly groined ; on a pew in the chancel 
is the cipher of Cardinal Wolsey, whose first preferment 
was the incumbency of the parish, presented to him by 
the Marquess of Dorset. A national school, a hand- 
some building, was erected in 1834, by subscription. 
There are some remains of an ancient camp. 

LIMPENHOE, (ST. BOTOLPH), a parish, in the union 
and hundred of BLOFIELD, E. division of NORFOLK, 5^ 
miles (S.) from Acle ; containing 186 inhabitants. The 
parish is bounded on the south by the navigable river 
Yare, and comprises about 1080 acres; it is intersected 
by the Norwich and Yarmouth railway. An act was 
passed in 1840, for inclosing certain portions of land. 
The living is a discharged vicarage, annexed to the rec- 
tory of Southwood, and valued in the king's books at 
6. 13. 4. ; patron and impropriator, J. F. Leathes, Esq. 
The church is an ancient structure in the early English 
style, with a low square tower, and an enriched Norman 
doorway. There is a place of worship for Primitive 
Methodists. 

LIMPLEY-STOKE. See STOKE, LIMPLEY. 

LIMPSFIELD (ST. PETER), a parish, in the union 
of GODSTONE, First division of the hundred of TAND- 
RIDGE, E. division of SURREY, 5 miles (E. N. E.) from 
Godstone ; containing 1344 inhabitants. It is situated 
on the road from Croydon to Maidstone, and contains 
some chalk-pits. The living is a rectory, valued in the 
king's books at 20. 0. 5., and in the gift of W. L. 
Gower, Esq. : the tithes have been commuted for 694. 
The tower of the church stands near the middle of the 
south aisle, and is surmounted by a wooden spire. A 
national school is supported by subscription. 

LINACRE, with BOOTLE, a township, in the parish 
of WALTON-ON-THE-HILL, union and hundred of WEST 
DERBY, S. division of the county of LANCASTER, Si- 
miles (N. by W.) from Liverpool ; containing 1962 in- 
habitants. 

LINBRIGGS, a township, in the parish of ALLEN- 
TON, union of ROTHBURY, W. division of COQUETDALE 
ward, N. division of NORTHUMBERLAND, 11 miles (W. 
by N.) from Rothbury ; containing 62 inhabitants. This 
is a large township, consisting for the most part of fine 
green hills, and divided into stock farms. Bygate Hall, 
Makendon, Loungesknow, and Birdhope are all good 



L I N C 



LING 



sheep lands. The river Coquet, near the spot where the 
Ridlee burn joins it, is crossed by a bridge ; and several 
fine brooks run through the glens in the neighbourhood, 
and join the river. 

LINBY, or LYNDBY (ST. MICHAEL), a parish, in the 
union of BASFORD, N. division of the wapentake of 
BROXTOW and of the county of NOTTINGHAM, 7|- miles 
(N. N. W.) from Nottingham; containing 2*1 inhabit- 
ants. The parish comprises by measurement 1474 acres : 
limestone of good quality is quarried for building and for 
burning into lime. There are two ancient crosses, one 
at each extremity of the village. The living is a dis- 
charged rectory, valued in the king's books at 4. 9. 9^., 
and in the gift of R. F. Wilson, Esq. : the tithes have 
been commuted for 280, and the glebe comprises 30 
acres. The church is a neat plain structure, of small 
dimensions. 

LINCH, a parish, in the union of MIDHURST, hundred 
of EASEBOURNE, rape of CHICHESTER, W. division of 
SUSSEX, 6 miles (N. N. W.) from Midhurst ; containing 
70 inhabitants. The manor is described in the Dooms- 
day survey under the name of Lince, and at the time 
when that record was compiled, there were two ministers 
here, with a church. In the 1 6th century, the place was 
parcel of the estates of the Dukes of Norfolk : it after- 
wards became the property of Viscount Montague, and 
now belongs to the family of Poyntz. The parish may 
be divided into the two portions of Woodman's Green, 
situated in a well-wooded district on the road from 
Midhurst to Liphook, and Linch Farm, the latter occu- 
pying about 700 acres at the base of the downs, and 
consisting of a fertile soil of chalk marl. The church 
formerly stood at the latter place, but falling into a 
very dilapidated state, the present edifice was built at 
Woodman's Green, and there are now no remains of the 
old structure. Woodman's Green is within the limits of 
the borough of Midhurst, under the Reform act. The 
living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 3. 12. 8^. j net income, 57 ; patrons, the 
family of Poyntz. 

LINCHMERE, or LYNCHMERE, a parish, in the 
union of MIDHURST, hundred of EASEBOURNE, rape of 
CHICHESTER, W. division of SUSSEX, 2 miles (E.) from 
Liphook ; containing 280 inhabitants. Linchmere was 
held as of the honour of Arundel, by William de Perci, 
at an early period, and afterwards became the property 
of the family of the Fitzalans j Sir William Fitzwilliam 
subsequently owned the place, and it has since descended 
as part of the Cowdray estate. No mention of Linch- 
mere occurs in the Doomsday survey. It is situated ou 
the confines of the county, bordering upon Hampshire 
and Surrey, and comprises by admeasurement 2096 
acres, of which 905 are woodland, 715 arable, 182 mea- 
dow and pasture, 24 gardens and orchards, and about 
250 waste ; the surface is varied, and the scenery finely 
embellished. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net in- 
come, 60 ; patron and impropriator, Rev. R. H. Baker. 
The church is chiefly in the early English style, and 
occupies an elevated site commanding rich prospects. 
The priory of Shulbrede, about half a mile from the 
church, in a sequestered spot, was founded by Ralph 
de Arderne, about the beginning of the reign of Henry 
III., for five canons of the order of St. Augustine ; 
at the Dissolution the revenue was valued at 79. 15. 6. : 
there are some remains, now converted into a farm-house. 
86 



LINCOLN, a city and 
county of itself, and the 
head of a union, locally in 
the county of LINCOLN, of 
which it is the chief town, 
132 miles (N. by W.) from 
London ; containing within 
the city and ancient liberty 
16,172 inhabitants, of whom 
13,896 are in the city. This 
place was founded by the Bri- 
tons, on the summit of a hill 
near the river Lindis, now the 




Arms. 



Witham, from which it derived its name, and has been 
distinguished, from a remote period of history, as a city 
of considerable importance. After the invasion by the 
Romans, that people made it one of their principal sta- 
tions in this part of the island, and established here a 
colony, which, in reference to the ancient British name 
of the place, they called Lindum Colonia, to which, 
through all the variations and contractions in its ortho- 
graphy by the Saxons, Danes, and Normans, the pre- 
sent appellation, Lincoln, may be distinctly traced. The 
Roman city was in the form of a parallelogram, defended 
by strong walls, and intersected at right angles by two 
streets, at the extremities of which were four gates, of 
which the northern, now called Newport gate, partly 
remaining, forms one of the most interesting relics of 
Roman architecture in the kingdom : it consisted of 
three archways ; the central arch is formed of large 
rough stone apparently laid without mortar ; one of the 
lateral arches is built up, and the other open. To the 
south-west of the gate is a considerable angular frag- 
ment of a Roman building, supposed to have been the 
mint ; and there are various portions of the original 
fortifications, besides the remains of a bath and a suda- 
torium. After the departure of the Romans from Britain, 
Lincoln was made the capital of the kingdom of Mercia 
by the Saxons, in opposing whom, Vortimer, who had 
greatly signalized himself, was slain and interred here. 
During the repeated encounters which had previously 
taken place, the city had suffered great injury, and, for 
the security of its new inhabitants, it was substantially 
repaired : that part without the gate of Newport, which 
had been originally occupied by the Britons, was entirely 
rebuilt, and fortified with walls and a moat. In 786, 
the Danes took the city by assault, but it was retaken 
by the Saxons ; and during these conflicts, which were 
resumed with extreme obstinacy, the northern suburb 
was completely destroyed. At length, on the subjugation 
of the Danes by Alfred the Great, tranquillity was re- 
stored ; but under his successors the invaders renewed 
their attacks, and ultimately, in the partition of the 
kingdom between the contending parties, Lincoln, with 
the rest of the kingdom of Mercia, came into the pos- 
session of Canute. 

At the time of the Conquest, a castle was erected 
here by William the Conqueror, which occupied nearly 
one-fourth part of the Roman city, and to make room 
for the erection of which, not less than 240 mansions 
were taken down. In Domesday book the city is stated 
to have contained 52 parishes j and it became the occa- 
sional residence of several monarchs, who contributed 
greatly to adorn it with a variety of splendid buildings, 
the numerous vestiges of which, in various parts of the 



LI N C 



L I N C 



town, convey but a faint idea of its former grandeur 
and importance. In 1 140, the castle was surprised by 
the forces of a party in the interest of the Empress 
Matilda, and subsequently besieged by Stephen, aided 
by the inhabitants ; but the Earl of Gloucester coming 
to its assistance with a powerful army, Stephen was 
made prisoner ; and being afterwards exchanged for the 
earl, who was subsequently captured, he regained his 
liberty, and, after his restoration to the throne, cele- 
brated the festival of Christmas here, in 1144. Henry 
II., on the death of Stephen, after being crowned king 
of England in London, underwent the ceremony of 
coronation a second time at Wigford, a little to the 
south of this city. John, in the third year of his reign, 
received here the homage of David, King of Scotland, 
and, during his struggle with the barons, the inhabitants 
remained steadily attached to his cause, and withstood 
the attempts of the opposing army for a considerable 
time ; but the city was captured at last by Gilbert de 
Gaunt, afterwards created Earl of Lincoln. The castle 
was retaken by a party of royalists, after having been 
defended for nearly twelve months; but falling again 
into the hands of the barons, John, while marching to 
attack it with a powerful army, lost all his carriages in 
crossing the washes. After the death of this monarch, 
his son, Henry III., assisted by the inhabitants of Lin- 
coln, who adhered firmly to the royal cause, continued 
the war with the barons, who, assisted by Louis, the 
Dauphin of France, laid siege to the city, but were vigor- 
ously repulsed by the inhabitants ; many, endeavouring 
to escape, were drowned in the river Witham, and several 
others were taken prisoners. The castle, after remaining 
for a considerable length of time in the possession of 
the crown, came into that of the celebrated John of 
Gaunt, who made it his summer residence, and is said 
to have erected a palace here. Edward I. held parlia- 
ments in Lincoln, in 1301 and 1305 ; Edward II., in 
1316 and the year following; and Edward III., in the 
first of his reign : it was visited by Henry VI., who 
held his court in the bishop's palace ; and Henry VII., 
after the battle of Bosworth Field, spent three days 
here, where he made a splendid procession, and offered 
up public thanksgiving for his victory over Richard III. 
During the parliamentary war, the inhabitants embraced 
the royal cause, and the city was alternately in the 
possession of the contending parties, from both of whom 
it sustained considerable injury, more especially in its 
ecclesiastical edifices, which, during their occupation of 
the city, were converted into barracks by the soldiers of 
Cromwell's army. Among the disastrous events which 
have befallen Lincoln may be recorded the great storm 
in 701, which occasioned the destruction of 120 houses 
and many public buildings. In 1110, an accidental fire 
nearly consumed the whole city; and in 1185 it was 
greatly damaged by an earthquake. It may also be 
mentioned, that on the 27th of July, 1255, eighteen 
Jews were executed for the alleged crime of crucifying 
a child, and many more were murdered by the enraged 
mob. 

The CITY is pleasantly situated on the summit and 
declivities of an eminence rising from the river Witham, 
the suburbs extending for a considerable distance along 
the vale to the north and south. In the upper part the 
streets are narrow, and the buildings, with the exception 
of those connected with the cathedral, are of rather 
87 



mean appearance; the lower part consists principally of 
one spacious street, and, under an act of parliament 
recently obtained, many judicious alterations and im- 
provements have been effected. It is paved and lighted 
with gas, and is supplied with water from three public 
conduits, of which that near St. Mary's church, Wig- 
ford, is an elegant building, in the later English style, 
decorated with a pierced parapet ; and that near the 
High bridge is ornamented with a handsome obelisk, 
erected in 1763. The city library, established in 1814 ; 
the new permanent library ; St. Martin's parochial 
library, founded in 1822 ; and the medical library, in- 
stituted in 1825, are well supported : and there are two 
newsrooms, and several book societies. The theatre 
is opened in September, October, and November ; and 
assemblies are held in the city and county assembly- 
rooms. The races take place in September ; a hand- 
some stand has been recently erected on the course. 
In various parts of the town are the remains of the nu- 
merous monastic and other establishments which for- 
merly flourished here ; of these, the remains of John of 
Gaunt's palace are distinguished by a beautiful oriel 
window, and a building said to have been the stables 
belonging to the palace, has a finely-enriched Norman 
arch, with some interesting details of early English 
architecture. Of the castle, which occupied the south- 
eastern angle of the Roman city, very little remains, 
except part of the outer walls, which were seven feet 
thick, and the gateway tower : the site has been appro- 
priated to the erection of the county gaol. 

At the time of the Norman survey, Lincoln was dis- 
tinguished for its COMMERCIAL importance, and Edward 
III. conferred a charter upon the weavers, prohibiting 
the exercise of that trade within twelve leagues of the 
city ; but this decree, in 1351, was abolished by another, 
called " the statute of cloths," and in the following year, 
on the removal of the staple of wool from Flanders, it 
was established in this town, to which was also granted 
the staple of lead and leather. From the time of 
Edward III., however, till the commencement of the 
eighteenth century, the trade of the town gradually de- 
clined, and there are now no manufactures, the business 
being principally in corn and wool. The Fosse-dyke, a 
Roman work of considerable benefit to the interests of 
Lincoln, which Henry I. deepened, having again become 
unnavigable, from the accumulation of sand in its chan- 
nel, the corporation in 1741 granted a lease of two- 
thirds of it for 999 years, at a rent of 50 per annum, 
and of the remaining third, for 99 years, at 25 per 
annum, to Mr. Ellison, of Thorne, by whose spirited 
exertions it was cleared from its obstructions, and re- 
opened in 1745. It was widened and made deeper in 
1826, and at present forms a line of communication, 
twelve miles in length, from the Witham to the Trent, 
completing the navigation from Boston and the eastern 
coast to the Humber and the Ouse, and to the several 
canals in the counties of Derby, Nottingham, Stafford, 
and York. The market, on Friday, is held for corn in a 
spacious square, called Corn Hill, in the parish of St. 
Mary ; for butter and poultry, in a neat building near 
the church of St. Peter's-at- Arches, erected in 1736; 
for butcher's meat, in handsome and spacious shambles, 
erected by the corporation in 1774, adjoining Butchery- 
lane, and divided into convenient compartments ; for 
fish, at the High bridge ; and for cattle in the Beast- 



LI NC 



LI N C 




square, on the south of the city gaol. The spring 
markets are on the Thursday before the fifth Sunday in 
Lent, and every alternate Thursday till the April fair 
(which commences on the third Tuesday in that month, 
and continues four days) ; the Friday in Easter-week, 
July 5th, the Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday after 
September 12th, October 6th, and November 28th. A 
market for fat-cattle is held every other Wednesday ; 
and there are statutes for hiring servants, on the 1st, 
2nd, and 3rd Fridays after old May-day. 

Lincoln has from an early 
period enjoyed many privi- 
leges by prescription, and 
was formerly governed by 
a portreeve. At what pe- 
riod it was originally con- 
stituted a CORPORATION does 
not appear from any record. 
The oldest charter granted 
by the crown to the city, at 
this time in existence, is one 
by Henry II. ; and numerous 
others were bestowed by va- Corporation Seal. 

rious succeeding sovereigns prior to that of the 4th of 
Charles I., which until 1836, was the governing charter. 
In the reign of Edward IV., the city, with the parishes of 
Branston, Waddington, Canwick, and Bracebridge, was 
erected into a county, under the designation of the 
" City and County of the City of Lincoln ;" but these 
four parishes, by the act 6th and 7th of William IV., 
cap. 103, "for making temporary provision for the 
boundaries of certain boroughs," ceased to be liberties 
of the city, and were assigned to the county at large ; 
and the parishes of St. Mary Magdalene and St. Paul, 
and part of the parish of St. Margaret, formerly in the 
wapentake of Lawress, are now included in the muni- 
cipal borough. The controul is vested in a mayor, 
6 aldermen, and 18 councillors, agreeably with the pro- 
visions of the Municipal Corporations' act ; the borough 
is divided into two wards, called Minster and Bridge, 
and, being a county of itself, a sheriff is appointed by 
the council : the number of magistrates is twelve. The 
freedom is inherited by all the sons of a freeman, or 
acquired by servitude ; among the privileges is that of 
depasturing a greater number of cattle on the common 
lands than a non-freeman. The city first exercised the 
elective franchise in the 49th of Henry III., since which 
time it has continued to return two members to parlia- 
ment : the right of election was once vested in the free- 
men generally, whether resident or not, but is now in 
accordance with the Reform act : the sheriff is return- 
ing officer. A court of record, called the Foreign Court, 
at which the steward or his deputy presided, was for- 
merly held every alternate week, for the recovery of 
debts to any amount, but it has nearly fallen into disuse. 
There is a court of quarter-sessions ; and petty-sessions 
are held weekly in apartments adjoining the city gaol. 
A court of requests is held by commissioners appointed 
by an act passed in the 24th of George ll., for the 
recovery of debts under 40*. ; and there is a court leet 
twice a year. The guildhall is an ancient embattled 
structure, rebuilt in the reign of Richard II. ; the south 
front consists of a fine arched gateway, flanked with 
two round towers. In a niche in the eastern tower is a 
statue of the angel Gabriel holding a scroll, and in a 
S8 



corresponding niche in front of the western tower is 
a statue of the Virgin Mary treading on a serpent j 
above the gateway, and in front of the towers, are the 
city arms and others. The sessions-house for the city 
is a neat brick edifice, erected in the New road, in 1809 ; 
and behind it is the city gaol and house of correction. 
The assizes for the county are held in the new county 
hall, an elegant structure, erected in 1823, after a de- 
sign by Smirke, at a cost of 40,000. Petty-sessions 
for the parts of Kesteven are held here on the first 
Friday in every month, at the Rein-Deer inn ; those 
for the parts of Lindsey are held every Friday at the 
"Judges' Lodgings," a handsome mansion, erected on 
the Castle hill, at the expense of the county. The 
county gaol stands on the south side of the area inclosed 
within the castle walls ; the buildings are constructed 
on the plan of Mr. Howard. The city is the place of 
election for Lindsey. 

Lincoln was erected into 
a SEE in the reign of Wil- 
liam Rufus, when, in pur- 
suance of the decree of a 
synod held at London, for 
the removal of all episcopal 
sees to fortified places, Re- 
migius, Bishop of Dorches- 
ter, fixed upon this city as 
the seat of that diocese, and 
purchased lands for the erec- 
tion of a church, an episco- 
pal palace, and other requi- 




Arms of the Bishopric. 



site buildings. Having built the church, Remigius died 
previously to its consecration, and his successor, Robert 
Bloet, completed his design, beautified the cathedral, and 
increased the number of prebends. The diocese, which 
was originally very extensive, was, in the reign of Henry 
II., curtailed by the separation of a part, to form that 
of Ely ; and in the reign of Henry VIII. it was further 
diminished by the separation of districts for the sees of 
Oxford and Peterborough ; but it is still one of the 
largest in the kingdom, its jurisdiction extending over 
the counties of Lincoln, Buckingham, and Nottingham, 
and part of Hertford, and comprehending 1057 benefices. 
The ecclesiastical establishment consists of a bishop, 
dean, preceptor, chancellor, sub-dean, five archdeacons, 
thirty-four prebendaries, four vicars, eight vicars-choral, 
organist, seven poor clerks, eight choristers, seven Burg- 
hurst chanters, &c. The bishop has the patronage of 
the five archdeaconries, the chancellorships of the church 
and diocese, the canonries, and 54 benefices, with the 
alternate patronage of three others, and an income of 
4000. The Dean and Chapter, consisting of the dean, 
precentor, chancellor of the church, and sub-dean, have 
the patronage of the minor canonries, and 27 bene- 
fices, with the alternate patronage of one other, and 
an income of 6986, which is equally divided. The 
minor canons form a corporation, with an income of 
115. 

The CATHEDRAL, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is 
situated on the summit of the hill, near the castle. The 
original buildings, soon after their completion by Bishop 
Bloet, were greatly injured by an accidental fire, and 
repaired by his successor, Bishop Alexander, who, to 
prevent the recurrence of a similar calamity, covered the 
aisles with a vaulted roof of stone ; the pressure of this, 



LIN C 



LI N C 



however, being too great for the strength of the walls, 
St. Hugh, a subsequent bishop, rebuilt the church in the 
reign of Henry II., and it has been since embellished 
and enlarged by various succeeding bishops. The pre- 
vailing character of this noble building is the early 
English style, intermixed occasionally with the decorated 
and later styles ; the form is that of a double cross. 
The west front is partly Norman, intermixed with the 
richest character of the early English : the doorways 
are moulded and decorated with sculpture and statuary ; 
over the central entrance are statues of several of the 
kings of England, and above is a fine window, highly 
enriched with tracery : the western towers are of Nor- 
man character in the lower stages, and of early English 
in the upper. A lofty and magnificent tower rises from 
the intersection of the nave and the principal transepts, 
and was formerly surmounted by a spire, which, in 
1547, fell down and greatly damaged the roof: there 
were also spires on the western towers, which were 
taken down in 1807. The nave, of which the roof, as 
well as the roofs of the aisles, is vaulted, and supported 
on piers of peculiar richness, and arches of graceful 
form, is spacious, and lighted by a range of clerestory 
windows. At the end of the north transept is a fine 
circular window of the early English character ; and at 
the extremity of the south transept is one of the most 
beautiful specimens of a decorated circular window ex- 
tant. The choir, which is separated from the nave by 
an elaborately carved stone screen, is remarkably rich 
in its embellishments, and beautiful in its style ; the 
east window, of eight lights, is a fine composition of 
flowing tracery, of the decorated character, and over the 
altar is a good painting of the Annunciation, by the Rev. 
W. Peters, R.A. ; the piers and arches which support 
the roof are in the richest character of the early English 
style, and the bishop's throne and the prebendal stalls 
are beautiful specimens of tabernacle- work, highly orna- 
mented. The Lady chapel, and some smaller chapels 
adjoining it, are peculiarly elegant. Among the nume- 
rous monuments are some of exquisite design ; under 
an arch, to the south of the Lady chapel, and in the 
south aisle, are those of Bishops Russell and Longland, 
whose effigies are finely sculptured. In the north-west 
tower is the celebrated bell called Tom of Lincoln, of 
which the weight is nearly five tons, and the tone pecu- 
liarly excellent. Three sides of the cloisters are yet re- 
maining in their original state, and exhibit a specimen 
of the decorated style ; and on the fourth side is the 
library, of later erection, containing an extensive collec- 
tion of books, and some curious Roman antiquities. In 
the centre of the quadrangle, and at some depth below 
the surface, a beautiful tessellated pavement was dis- 
covered a few years since, over which a covering has 
been placed, to protect it from injury. On the east side 
of the cloisters is a passage leading to the chapter-house, 
an elegant building in the form of a decagon, of which 
the finely-vaulted roof is supported on a single pillar in 
the centre. There are some remains of the episcopal 
palace, and of the conventual buildings connected with 
this extensive establishment, which, in grandeur, beauty, 
and antiquity, holds a prominent rank among the eccle- 
siastical edifices in the kingdom. 

Lincoln formerly contained 52 parochial churches, of 
which number 34 were destroyed prior to the time of 
Edward VI. It comprises at present the PARISHES of 
VOL. III. 89 



St. Benedict, with 693 inhabitants ; St. Botolph, 7*27 ; 
St. John Newport, 205 ; St. Margaret-in-the-Close, 330; 
St. Mark, 445 ; St. Martin, 2283 ; St. Mary-le-Wigford, 
912; St. MaryMagdalene-in-the-Bail, 613 ; St. Michael- 
on-the-Mount, 1135; St. Nicholas Newport, 1053; St. 
Paul-in-the-Bail, 492; St. Peter-at-Arches, 548; St. 
Peter-in- Eastgate, 658; St. Peter-at-Gowts, 875; and 
St. Swithin, 2634. The living of St. Benedict's is a 
perpetual curacy ; net income, 90 ; patron, Prebendary 
of North Kelsey in the Cathedral. The church is an 
ancient building, retaining some portions of Norman 
architecture. The living of St. Botolph's is a perpetual 
curacy; net income, 116; patron and appropriator, 
Prebendary of St. Botolph's in the Cathedral. St. Johns 
Newport is a vicarage not in charge, united to that of 
Dunholme. The original church has long been demo- 
lished ; a new one, a handsome structure of Lincoln 
stone, has been recently erected, and a diocesan school, 
for which a neat building in the Elizabethan style has 
also been erected, has been established in the parish. 
The living of St. Margaret' s-in-the- Close is a perpetual 
curacy, united to that of St. Peter's-in-Eastgate : the 
church was taken down in 1778, and soon afterwards 
rebuilt. St. Mark's is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 
80 ; patron and appropriator, Precentor of the Cathe- 
dral. St. Martin's is a discharged vicarage, valued in 
the king's books at 4. 13. 4.; net income, 138; 
patron, Prebendary 'of St. Martin's in the Cathedral. 
St. Mary's Wigford is a discharged vicarage, valued at 
5. 3. 9- ; net income, 115; patron, Prebendary of 
Gretton in the Cathedral. The church retains consi- 
derable portions of its ancient Norman character. St. 
Mary Magdalene' s-in-the- Bail is a discharged rectory, 
valued at 5; net income, 120; patrons, the Dean 
and Chapter. St. Michael' s-on- the- Mount is a perpetual 
curacy; net income, 116; patron, Precentor of the 
Cathedral. The church is of comparatively modern 
erection. St. Nicholas' Newport is a vicarage not in 
charge ; net income, 89 ; patrons and appropriators, 
the Dean and Chapter. The church has been demolished. 
St. Paul' s-in-the- Bail is a discharged rectory, valued at 
2. 5. 10.; net income, 68; patron, Archdeacon of 
Lincoln. St. Peter' s-at- Arches is a discharged rectory, 
valued at 5. 12. 8^., and in the gift of the Crown ; 
net income, 59. The church has been elegantly rebuilt 
as the corporation church, and is fitted up in an appro- 
priate style. St. Peter's-in-Eastgate is a perpetual curacy, 
with that of St. Margaret-in-the-Close, united in 1778 ; 
net income, 147; patrons, the Precentor, and the 
Prebendary of Haydor in the Cathedral, alternately. 
The church has been rebuilt. St. Peter' s-at-Gowts is a 
perpetual curacy ; net income, 64 ; patron, the Pre- 
centor. The church is an old edifice, and has consi- 
derable vestiges of its ancient Norman character. St. 
Swithin's is a perpetual curacy ; patron, the Precentor ; 
appropriators, the Dean and Chapter ; net income, 138. 
The church is of modern erection. There are places of 
worship for General and Particular Baptists, the Society 
of Friends, the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, 
Independents, Wesleyans, Primitive Methodists, Unita- 
rians, and Roman Catholics. 

The free grammar school was founded in 1583 : a 
school, formerly maintained by the Dean and Chapter, 
in the Cathedral Close, has been united to it, and is 
supported partly by the Dean and Chapter, who appoint 

N 



LING 



L I NC 



the head-master, and pay two-thirds of his salary, and 
partly by the corporation, who pay the remainder : the 
premises form a portion of the old Franciscan priory, 
which was fitted up for use in 1583, by the founder of 
the school. A Blue-coat school was established in 1602, 
by Richard Smith, M. D., who granted lands at Potter- 
Han worth for its support ; a free school in the Bail was 
endowed with lands producing 12 per annum, by Mr. 
Wilkinson, under the direction of the governors of the 
Blue school ; and a national central school was opened 
in 1813. The county hospital, a handsome brick build- 
ing, was erected in 1?69 ; the lying-in hospital was in- 
stituted in 1805 ; and the lunatic asylum, a spacious 
edifice, with a portico of the Ionic order, was built in 
1820, at an expense of 15,000. There are various other 
establishments, and numerous benefactions for the relief 
of the poor, among which may be noticed a bequest by 
John Smith, Esq., of lands now producing 600 per 
annum ; a legacy by Lady Margaret Thorold, of Marlston, 
in the year 1731, of 1500 South Sea annuities, for the 
purchase of land now yielding 60 per annum ; and the 
great tithes of Glemham, bequeathed by Sutton, founder 
of the Charter-house, London. The union of Lincoln 
comprises eighty-seven parishes or places, with a popu- 
lation of 36,110. Among the many Monastic Establish- 
ments that anciently existed here, were, a nunnery founded 
prior to the erection of the cathedral, and the site of 
which is occupied by the dean's house ; an hospital for 
lepers, near the city, founded by Remigius, first ^bishop 
of Lincoln, or, according to other authorities, by Henry 
I., of which, in the reign of Edward III., the revenue was 
30 ; a priory of Gilbertine canons, founded by Robert, 
second bishop of Lincoln, and dedicated to St. Catherine, 
of which, at the Dissolution, the revenue was 270. 1.3.; 
a priory of Benedictine monks, dedicated to St. Mary 
Magdalene, and a cell to the abbey at York, founded 
prior to the reign of Henry II., of which the remains, 
now called Monks' house, about half a mile to the east 
of the city, consist of the walls of several apartments 
and a small chapel ; a house of Franciscan friars, of un- 
certain date; and houses of Carmelite and Augustine friars, 
the former founded in 1269, and the latter in 1291. 
Within the Close, a college of priests to officiate at the 
altar of St. Nicholas, in the cathedral, was founded in 
1355, by Sir Nicholas de Cantelupe ; and there were 
various other establishments, of several of which traces 
may be distinctly perceived in the city and its environs. 
The Jew's house is an ancient edifice of curious design, 
and belonged to Belaset de Wallingford, a Jewess, who 
was hanged in the reign of Edward I., for clipping the 
coin. Near Brayford water are some vestiges of a fort 
called Lucy Tower, between which and the castle was a 
subterraneous communication ; and in the city is a cha- 
lybeate spring of considerable strength. Lincoln gives 
the inferior title of Earl to the Duke of Newcastle. 

LINCOLNSHIRE, a maritime county, bounded on 
the north by the broad estuary of the Humber ; on the 
east, by the North Sea, and by the wide arm of it called 
the Walsh; on the south, by the counties of Cambridge, 
Northampton, and Rutland ; and on the west, by those 
of Leicester, Nottingham, and York. It extends from 
52 40' to 53 43' (N. Lat.), and from 21' (E. Lon.) 
to 57' (W. Lon.), and contains 2748 square miles, 
or 1,758,720 statute acres. Within its limits are 72,964 
houses inhabited, 2246 uninhabited, and 454 in progress 
90 



of erection ; and the population amounts to 362,602, of 
which number 181,758 are males, and 180,844 females. 
The county was anciently included in the territory of 
the Coritani, and, subsequently, in the Roman division 
of Britain called Britannia Prima ; and, from the Roman 
remains still in existence, it is evident that those con- 
querors not only considered the district of importance, 
in the state in which they found it, but also made con- 
siderable efforts towards removing the natural disadvan- 
tages which have in a great degree disappeared before 
the more successful exertions of later ages. During the 
Anglo-Saxon era it formed a part of the kingdom of 
Mercia ; its northern portion, the division of Lindsey, 
having been wrested from that kingdom by Edwin of 
Northumbria. Christianity seems to have been intro- 
duced here soon after the conversion of that sovereign, 
by the Romish missionary, Paulinus, who, according to 
Bede, after completing the great work of conversion in 
Northumbria, came into the northern part of Mercia, 
and converted Blecca, then governor of Lincoln, and 
baptized many people of this district in the river Trent. 
The see of Sidnacesler, which is known to have com- 
prised the district or province of Lindsey (although the 
site of Sidnacester itself is a subject of dispute among 
antiquaries), was established in 678, and continued until 
the latter part of the eleventh century, when St. Remi- 
gius, the nineteenth bishop, transferred it to Lincoln. 
This part of the English territory, owing to its locality, 
was particularly exposed to the incursions and ravages 
of the Danes, who wreaked their sanguinary fury upon 
it with especial frequency and violence. 

Lincolnshire is included in the diocese of Lincoln, and 
province of Canterbury, and comprehends the arch- 
deaconries of Lincoln and Stow, each containing several 
deaneries, and together comprising 609 parishes. It is 
divided into three grand " Parts ;" namely, Liudsey, 
which is by much the largest, including nearly one-half 
of the county ; Kesteven, which forms the south-western 
part ; and Holland, the south-eastern ; and each of 
these districts is subdivided into several hundreds or 
wapentakes. The county contains the city of Lincoln ; 
the borough and market towns of Boston, Grantham, 
Grimsby, and Stamford ; and the market-towns of Al- 
ford, Barton-upon-Humber, Bolingbroke, Bourne, Cais- 
tor, Donington, Epworth, Falkingham, Gainsborough, 
Glandford-Brigg, Holbeach, Horncastle, Kirton, Louth, 
Market- Deeping, Market -Rasen, Sleaford, Spalding, 
Spilsby, Long Sutton, Swineshead, Tattershall, Wain- 
fleet, and Wragby. Under the act of the 2nd of Wil- 
liam IV., cap. 45, four knights are returned for the 
shire, two being for the Parts of Lindsey, and two for 
the Parts of Kesteven and of Holland ; two citizens are 
returned for the city of Lincoln, and two burgesses for 
each of the boroughs, except Grimsby, which sends only 
one. Lincolnshire is within the Midland circuit, and 
the assizes are held at Lincoln, where stands the county 
gaol. Quarter-sessions are held at Boston and Spald- 
ing, for the Parts of Holland ; at Bourne and, by ad- 
journment, Sleaford, for those of Kesteven ; and at 
Kirton, Louth, and Spilsby, for those of Lindsey. The 
houses of correction are at Bourne and Falkingham, for 
the Parts of Kesteven ; at Kirton, Louth, and Spilsby, 
for Lindsey ; and Spalding, for Holland, with the excep- 
tion of the wapentake of Kirton and Skirbeck, the 
house of correction for which is at Skirbeck. 



L I N C 



LING 



The discriminative features of the SURFACE of Lin- 
colnshire are strongly marked by nature, and consist of 
the lowland tracts, comprising about 776*, 960 acres ; the 
heaths, about 118,400 j and the Wolds, about 234,880. 
Contiguous to the sea, in the southern part, spreads a 
vast extent of low ground, much of which was once 
marsh, but is now become, by means of the exertions 
made during a period of almost 200 years, one of the 
richest tracts in the kingdom. The soils, besides other 
varieties in different situations, include clay, sand, loam, 
chalk, and peat, which are all found in extensive dis- 
tricts, and nearly all the variations extend in length 
from north to south. The extreme flatness of the Lin- 
colnshire coast, together with the slight fall of the 
rivers in the lower part of their course, and the conse- 
quent sluggishness of their waters, which terminate in 
estuaries at its two extremities, occasioned the forma- 
tion, in remote ages, of very large marshes, occupying 
the whole eastern side of the county, and forming up- 
wards of a third of its area. The improvement of these 
marshes attracted even the attention of the Romans, by 
whom works were constructed to carry off the super- 
abundant waters ; and since that period numerous un- 
dertakings have been accomplished under legislative 
enactments and commissions, made in different reigns, 
from the Anglo-Saxon era to the present time. The 
effect of these, by cleansing the channels and improving 
the outfalls of rivers, by constructing canals, sluices, and 
drains, and by raising embankments, has been to con- 
vert about 180,000 acres of unprofitable fens into firm 
and excellent arable and grazing land, a vast portion of 
which may be classed amongst the richest and most 
productive in the kingdom. Rape is very extensively 
cultivated, more especially in the fens and lowlands, and 
is chiefly applied to the feeding of sheep. The wood 
grown is upon the deep rich loams, and frequently on 
the saline maritime levels ; and as the plant thrives best 
on soil that has been under grass, pasture land is com- 
monly broken up for its cultivation. The common arti- 
ficial grasses are red and white clover, trefoil, lucerne, 
and sainfoin, with various kinds of hayseeds. Onions 
are cultivated in the Isle of Axholme. But the rich 
grazing lands of Lincolnshire are its distinguishing fea- 
ture, in an agricultural point of view ; they are to be 
found on a loamy clay, sometimes very stiff, but of un- 
common fertility, and occupy a considerable portion of 
the county. The tides which come up the Trent, Ouse, 
Don, and other rivers that fall into the Humber, being 
exceedingly muddy, have given rise to the peculiar 
practice of warping, which is performed by letting in the 
water over the level lands on their banks, at high tide, 
whereby the muddy particles, provincially called warp, 
are deposited, and then permitting it to run off again at 
the ebb, by means of canals and sluices. 

The two principal breeds of cattle are the Lincolnshire 
short-horned and the Leicestershire long-horned, the 
former of which is generally preferred. In the vicinity 
of Falkingham is a dun-coloured breed, said to have 
been originally brought from the Isle of Alderney ; and 
in different parts are a few cattle of other breeds and 
crosses. The chief objects of the farmers being breed- 
ing and fattening, there are no dairies except for private 
use and the supply of the neighbouring markets with 
butter. The two prevailing kinds of sheep are the 
native Lincoln and the Leicester, the latter of which has 
91 



become very general : it is computed that not less than 
2,400,000 sheep are usually kept in the county. A 
considerable number of horses is bred, especially in Hol- 
land fen ; about Normanby, Barton, &c., many saddle 
and coach horses are reared, and on the Wolds some 
of the finest blood horses in the kingdom, greater 
attention being paid to them here than even in York- 
shire or Durham. Many thousand acres are occupied as 
rabbit warrens in the county ; and numerous flocks of 
geese are kept in the low fenny tracts, though not to the 
same extent as formerly. Few branches of manufacture 
are carried on, and those only to a limited degree. A 
good deal of flax, however, is spun and woven into linen 
in the neighbourhood of Normanby and Barton ; and 
in Holland Fen the female population spin flax, and, 
about Falkingham, flax and hemp. At the port of Gains- 
borough, besides the ship-building, which is an im- 
portant branch of business, a considerable quantity of 
rope and coarse hemp sacking is made. 

The principal Rivers are, the Trent, the Welland, the 
Witham, and the Ancholme. The Trent, after having 
separated the tract called the Isle of Axholme from the 
great body of the county, unites with the Ouse in form- 
ing the large estuary of the Humber, and is navigable 
up to Gainsborough for merchant vessels of considerable 
burthen, and for barges in all the rest of its course along 
the border of Lincolnshire. The Welland enters the 
county on the south, and divides into two branches, one 
of which proceeds south-by-east to Wisbech, in the 
county of Cambridge, apparently in the natural channel 
of the stream ; while the other continues a sluggish 
course through an artificial bed to Spalding, below which 
town, after having been enlarged by the waters of the 
Glen, it empties itself into Foss-dyke Wash, to the 
south of Boston. The Witham rises near South Witham, 
about ten miles north of Stamford, and falls into the 
ocean at Boston Deeps : from Boston, upwards towards 
Lincoln, much of its present channel is artificial, made 
to improve the navigation, and the drainage of the adja- 
cent fens. The Ancholme rises in the Wolds near Mar- 
ket- Ra.sen, and empties itself into the Hurnber, from 
which it has been rendered navigable as high as Bishop- 
bridge. The large bay, or estuary, called the Wash, into 
which the rivers passing through the immense tracts of 
fen land in the south-eastern parts of the county are 
disembogued, is for the most part extremely shallow, 
and full of shifting sands. An artificial navigation was 
cut in 1788, along the course of the Witham, from Bos- 
ton to Lincoln, whence it is continued by the Foss-dyke 
canal to the Trent ; and a canal from the river Witham, 
at Sleaford, to Boston, was finished in 1796. The Grant- 
ham canal, completed also in 1796, at an expense of 
about 100,000, extends from Grantham, through the 
north-easternmost part of Leicestershire, to the Trent, 
near Holme -Pierrepoint, being 33 miles in length. The 
Ancholme cut, which drains the Ancholme level, is navi- 
gable from Bishop-bridge to the Humber, at Ferraby 
sluice. A navigable canal has also been formed from 
Horncastle to the river Witham, at Dog-dyke, near 
Tattershall j and another from Louth to the sea, at 
Tetney." 

The Roman stations were, Ad Abum, supposed to have 
been at Winterton ; Aquis, at Aukborough ; Bannoval- 
lium, at Horncastle, or Ludfordj Causennce, at Ancaster, 
or Great Ponton : Crococolana, at Brough ; Lindum, at 

N2 



L I ND 



Lincoln ; and Vainona, at Wainfleet. Remains of Ro- 
man buildings, and various miscellaneous relics of that 
people, have been found on the sites of these different 
stations ; and some of minor importance have also been 
discovered at Scampton, Torksey, Stow, Gainsborough, 
Caistor, Well, Gedney-Hill, Whaplode, Pinchbeck, Slea- 
ford, Little Ponton, and Denton. The British Ermin- 
street, which was afterwards used by the. Romans, enters 
the county to the west of Stamford, and about five miles 
to the north of Lincoln has a branch diverging from 
it in a north-westerly direction to Doncaster : another 
branch from the Ertniu-street, about six miles north of 
Stamford, proceeded towards Ad Pontem, in its way to 
Southwell and Bawtry. The Fosse-way, beginning on 
the coast, not far from Ludborough, is visible from 
Ludford to Lincoln, and forward to Brough, and beyond 
that place in its course towards Newark. The British 
road called the Salt-way, branched from the Ermin- 
street near Ponton, and ran by Denton into Leicester- 
shire. There are remains of other British trackways, 
particularly of one running from Horncastle towards 
Caistor and the Humber. The Old Sea Bank is sup- 
posed to have been constructed by the Romans, to pro- 
tect the district of South Holland from inundation ; and 
the large drain called the Car-dyke, signifying the " fen 
dyke," is also ascribed to the same people ; it extends 
from the river Welland, on the south side of the county, 
to the Witham, near Lincoln, and is sixty feet wide, with 
a broad flat bank on each side. Prior to the Reforma- 
tion, there were 108 religious houses, including five alien 
priories, five houses of the Knights Templars, five col- 
leges, and fourteen hospitals ; the principal remains are 
those of the abbeys of Bardney, Barlings, Crowland, and 
Swineshead, of Semperingham Priory, and of Thornton 
College. The most remarkable ancient castellated build- 
ings remaining, either wholly or in part, are the castles 
of Tattershall, Torksey, Lincoln, and Falkingham ; and 
there are similar remains at Hornrastle, Caistor, Somer- 
ton, Stamford, Scrivelsby, Bolingbroke, Pinchbeck, and 
Pilham ; to which may be added Moor, Kyme, and 
Hussey towers. Of the castles of Bourne and Sleaford, 
only the earthworks now exist. There are ancient 
encampments near Brocklesby, Hibalston, Broughton, 
Roxby, Winterton Cliffs, Aukborough, Yarborough, 
South Ormsby, Burwell, Stamford, Gainsborough, 
Winteringham, Humington, Ingoldsby, Castle-Charlton, 
Burgh, Brough, and Barrow. In the parishes of Tet- 
ney, Fulstow, and the vicinity, are some blow-wells, or 
flowing pits of clear water, about thirty feet in depth, 
the discharge of which is very powerful. The division 
of Lindsey gives the title of Earl to the family of Bertie j 
and that of Holland confers the dignity of Baron upon 
the family of Fox. 

LINDALE, a chapelry, in the parish of CARTMEL, 
union of ULVERSTONE, hundred of LONSDALE, north of 
the Sands, N. division of the county of LANCASTER, 
3 miles (N. E. by E.) from Cartmel. The living is a 
perpetual curacy ; net income, 7 1 ; patron, Earl of 
Burlington. The church has been rebuilt, and contains 
115 free sittings, the Incorporated Society having 
granted 125 in aid of the expense. Here is a national 
school for boys. 

LINDEN. See BIGGE'S-QUARTER. 

LINDETH, or LINDRETH, with WARTON, a town- 
ship, in the parish of WARTON, union of LANCASTER, 
92 



hundred of LONSDALE, south of the Sands, N. division 
of the county of LANCASTER, 4f miles (W. S. W.) from 
Burton-in-Kendal ; containing 633 inhabitants. 

LINDFIELD (Sr. JOHN THE BAPTIST), a parish, in 
the union of CUCKFIELD, hundred of BURLEIGH-ARCHES, 
or BURARCHES, rape of PEVENSEY, E. division of SUS- 
SEX, 3f miles (E. by N.) from Cuckfield ; containing 
1Q39 inhabitants. The parish is on the river Ouse, and 
comprises 5826a. 3r. Zip. The village, in which is a 
post office, is pleasantly situated on the road from Lon- 
don to Brighton ; the river is navigable for barges to 
Ryebridge, and the London and Brighton railway passes 
within a mile to the west of it. A corn-market is held 
on Monday ; and there are fairs for sheep and cattle on 
the 1st of April and 12th of May, and for lambs on the 
5th of August. The living is held by an impropriator, 
who pays a small stipend to a curate, which is aug- 
mented by subscription. About two-fifths of the parish 
are tithe-free ; the impropriator receives about 500 
per annum. The church is in the decorated and later 
English styles. There is a place of worship for Inde- 
pendents 5 also a school of industry, founded by Wil- 
liam Allen, Esq., of London, for the instruction of chil- 
dren in the art of agriculture, and in various trades. 
Here are several chalybeate springs. 

LINDHURST, an extra-parochial place, in the union 
of MANSFIELD, wapentake of BROXTOW, S. division of 
the county of NOTTINGHAM ; containing 10 inhabitants. 

LINDLEY, a hamlet, in the parish of HIGHAM-ON- 
THE-HILL, hundred of SPARKENHOE, S. division of the 
county of LEICESTER, 5^ miles (W. by N.) from Hinck- 
ley ; containing 76 inhabitants. Here are the ruins of 
an ancient chapel. William Burton, the Leicestershire 
antiquary and historian, and his brother Robert, author 
of the Anatomy of Melancholy, were natives of this place, 
the former born in 1575, and the latter in 1576. 

LINDLEY CUM QUARMBY, a chapelry, in the parish 
and union of HUDDERSFIELD, Upper division of the 
wapentake of AGBRIGG, W. riding of YORK, 2 miles 
(N. W.) from Huddersfield ; containing 2881 inhabit- 
ants. The chapelry comprises 1403a. Ir. 28p., of which 
about 30 acres are woodland, and the remainder, with a 
trifling exception, pasture ; the surface is elevated, com- 
manding views of Huddersfield and the surrounding 
country ; the substratum abounds with good building- 
stone, which is extensively quarried. The village is 
large and well built, and the inhabitants are chiefly 
employed in the woollen manufacture, for which there 
are four large establishments, belonging respectively to 
Messrs. Sykes, Broadbent, Fox, and Hepworth. A dis- 
trict church, dedicated to Stephen, was erected in 1830, 
at an expense of 2700, granted by the Parliamentary 
Commissioners ; it is a handsome structure, in the later 
English style, and contains 800 sittings, of which one- 
half are free. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net 
income, 150, with an excellent glebe-house in the 
Elizabethan style, erected in 1838, at an expense of 
1200 ; patron, the Vicar of Huddersfield. The site 
for the church and cemetery was given by John Thorn- 
hill, Esq., lord of the manor. There are places of wor- 
ship for Baptists, Kilhamites, and Wesleyans. A school 
endowed with 100 by Mr. Samuel Haigh, was rebuilt 
in 1817, at an expense of 130 ; and there is also a 
national boys' and girls' school, built in 1832, at a cost 
of 400. 



LINE 



LI N F 



LINDLEY, a township, in the parish of OTLEY, 
Upper division of the wapentake of CLARO, W. riding 
of YoRK,3f miles (N. E. by N.) from Otley $ containing 
140 inhabitants. The township comprises by computa- 
tion 1760 acres, wholly the property of F. H. Fawkes, 
Esq. The village consists of a few scattered houses, in 
the vale of the Washburn rivulet, on the banks of which 
are some corn-mills. Here are considerable remains of 
an ancient hall, the seat of the Palmes family, who are 
interred in Otley church, and to whom is a very ancient 
monument tracing their pedigree to the 13th century. 

LINDRICK, an extra- parochial liberty, in the Lower 
division of the wapentake of CLARO, W. riding of YORK, 
2|- miles (W. by S.) from Ripon ; containing 17 inhabit- 
ants. It comprises by computation 800 acres, divided 
into two well cultivated farms. The appropriate tithes 
have been commuted for 8. 10., payable to the Dean 
and Chapter of Ripon. 

LINDRIDGE (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union 
of TENBURY, Lower division of the hundred of Os- 
WALDSLOW, though locally in the Upper division of 
that of DODDINGTREE, Hundred-House and W. divi- 
sions of the county of WORCESTER, 5 miles (E.) from 
Tenbury ; containing, with the chapelries of Knighton- 
upon-Teame and Pensax, 1815 inhabitants. This parish, 
which is situated at the western extremity of the county, 
and bounded on the west by Shropshire, and on the 
south by the river Teame, comprises 6168 acres, of 
which 2486 are in the township. The living is a vicar- 
age, valued in the king's books at 26. 12. 11. ; patrons 
and appropriators, Dean and Chapter of Worcester : the 
great tithes have been commuted for 479, and the 
vicarial for 600, and the glebe comprises 107 acres. 
There are chapels of ease at Knighton and Pensax. 

LINDSELL, a parish, in the union and hundred of 
DUNMOW, N. division of ESSEX, 4 miles (S. E. by S.) 
from Thaxted ; containing 393 inhabitants. The living 
is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
8; net income, 134; patrons and impropriators, 
Executors of the late S. Algar, Esq. The church, a 
small ancient edifice, consists of a nave and chancel, 
with a steeple on the south side. 

LINDSEY (ST. PETER), a parish, in the union and 
hundred of COSFORD, W. division of SUFFOLK, 4 miles 
(W. N. W.) from Hadleigh ; containing 290 inhabitants, 
and comprising 1246a. \r. Qp. The woollen manufac- 
ture was formerly carried on ; and an article made here, 
was, for its peculiar quality, distinguished by the name 
of " Linsey Woolsey." The living is a perpetual curacy, 
with that of Kersey, annexed; net income, 112; 
patrons and impropriators, Provost and Fellows of 
King's College, Cambridge, whose tithes have been com- 
muted for 320. On a farm called the Chapel Farm, 
are the remains of an old chapel, dedicated to St. James, 
now used as a barn ; and on the same estate is an 
ancient encampment. 

LINEHAM (ST. MICHAEL), a. parish, 'in the union 
of CRICKLADE and WOOTTON-BASSETT, hundred of 
KINGSBRIDGE, Swindon and N. divisions of WILTS, 4^ 
miles (S. W.) from Wootton-Bassett ; containing 1317 
inhabitants. The parish is situated near the river Avon, 
and on the road from Bristol and Bath to London, and 
comprises by measurement 4000 acres, of which one- 
half is arable, and the other pasture. There are some 
quarries of stone, used for inferior building purposes, 
93 



and for the roads. The Wilts and Berks canal passes 
within less than half a mile, and the Great Western 
railway in the immediate vicinity. Fairs, chiefly for 
cattle, are held at Click, at Michaelmas and Lady-day. 
The living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 58 ; 
patron and impropriator, G. W. Heneage, Esq. : the 
glebe comprises 3 acres. The church is an ancient 
structure. There are places of worship for Primitive. 
Methodists and Lady Huntingdon's Connexion ; and 
a school is endowed with 24 acres of land, producing 
32 per annum. In the neighbourhood is a farm- 
house, which occupies the site of Bradenstoke priory, 
founded about 1142, by Walter d'Eureux, or de Sares- 
biria, for Augustine monks, and dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin. 

LINES1DE, a township, in the parish of ARTHURET, 
union of LONGTOWN, ESKDALE ward, E. division of 
CUMBERLAND, 3 miles (E. S. E.) from Longtown ; con- 
taining 128 inhabitants. The township lies at the 
confluence of the Esk and Line rivers, and is intersected 
by the Hallburn rivulet. A school has a small endow- 
ment. 

LINFORD, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union 
of RINGWOOD, N. division of the hundred of NEW 
FOREST, Lymington and S. divisions of the county of 
SOUTHAMPTON ; containing 24 inhabitants. 

LINFORD, GREAT (ST. ANDREW), a parish, in the 
union of NEWPORT-PAGNELL, hundred of NEWPORT, 
county of BUCKINGHAM, if mile (\V. S. W.) from New- 
port-Pagnell ; containing 474 inhabitants. The parish 
is situated on the Ouse, and comprises 1787a. 2r. fip., 
of which 371 acres are arable, 1185 pasture, 118 mea- 
dow, on the banks of the river, and 78 woodland. Its 
substratum contains limestone, which is quarried chiefly 
for the roads, but beneath it is a layer of firmer texture, 
impervious to the effect of atmospheric influence, which 
might be well used for building purposes. Many of the 
females are employed in making bobbin-lace. The 
Grand Junction canal, and the Newport- Pagnell branch, 
both pass through the parish ; and the Wolverton sta- 
tion on the London and Birmingham railway is within 
two miles. The living is a rectory, valued in the 
king's books at 20. 0. 2., and in the gift of H. A. 
Uthwatt, Esq., lord of the manor : the tithes have been 
commuted for 400, and the glebe comprises 27^ acres. 
The church is a neat structure, in the later English 
style, with a north porch, of which the roof is elegantly 
groined. There is a place of worship for Independents. 
In 1702, Sir William Pritchard bequeathed a rent-charge 
of 24 in support of an almshouse for six persons, and 
another of 10 for instruction; and Lady Pritchard 
subsequently left a sum of money for apprenticing boys, 
and clothing the almspeople. In the clay formation 
on which the parish is situated, are found various fossils ; 
and on the lands of Mr. Uthwatt, is a copious spring 
strongly impregnated with sulphuretted hydrogen gas, 
similar in its properties to the Harrogate water. Dr. 
Richard Sandy, otherwise Napier, presented to the rec- 
tory in 1 589, was held in superstitious reverence for his 
skill in the sciences of physic and astrology. 

. LINFORD, LITTLE (ST. LEONARD), a parish, in 
the union of NEWPORT-PAGNELL, hundred of NEWPORT, 
county of BUCKINGHAM, 2^ miles (W. by N.) from 
Newport-Pagnell ; containing 64 inhabitants. The parish 
is situated on the Ouse, and is principally grazing land, 



LING 



LINK 



with some rich meadows on the banks of the river. 
The living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 66 ; 
patron and impropriator, Rev. P. Knapp, lord of the 
manor. The church was formerly a chapel of ease to 
the vicarage of Newport-Pagnell : the inhabitants bury 
at Haversham. 

LING (Sr. BARTHOLOMEW), a parish, in the union of 
BRIDGWATER, hundred of ANDERSFIELD, W. division of 
SOMERSET, 6 miles (S. S. E.) from Bridgwater; con- 
taining, with part of the hamlet of Boroughbridge, 422 
inhabitants. The parish comprises 140Qa. 35jo. ; the 
river Parret flows on the north-east, and the Tone on 
the south-east, over the latter of which a neat bridge 
has been erected. The Isle of Athelney, celebrated as 
having given shelter to Alfred the Great in his retreat 
from the Danes, but now no longer an island, is situ- 
ated in the parish ; and a small obelisk, with a com- 
memorative inscription, has been erected on the spot 
by the owner of the land. A fair is held on the second 
Monday in August. The living is a discharged vicar- 
age, valued in the king's books at 10. 8. 4.; patron 
and impropriator, Hill Dawe, Esq. : the great tithes have 
been commuted for 85, and the vicarial for 36, and 
the glebe comprises 30 acres. The church is an ancient 
structure. A church has been erected at Boroughbridge, 
to which a district was assigned in 1840. A national 
school is supported by subscription. At Athelney, 
about 888, Alfred founded a Benedictine abbey, which 
he dedicated to Our Saviour and St. Peter, and the 
revenue of which, at the Dissolution, amounted to 
209. 0. 3^. ; many architectural remains, bones, and 
other relics have been dug up on the site of the con- 
ventual buildings, which appear to have been both ex- 
tensive and magnificent. 

LINGARTHS, a township, in the parish of AL- 
MONDBURY, union of HuDDERSFiELD, Upper division of 
the wapentake of AGBRIGG, W. riding of YORK, 5^ 
miles (S. W. by W.) from Huddersfield; containing 801 
inhabitants. The township comprises 526a. 36p., the 
property of the Earl of Dartmouth, who is lord of the 
manor ; the surface is hilly, affording good moorland 
pasture, and the substratum abounds with stone of ex- 
cellent quality for building and paving. The village is 
small, the surrounding scenery pleasing, and the town- 
ship contains part of the village of Slaithwaite, in which 
most of the population reside. 

LINGEN (ST. MICHAEL), a parish, in the union of 
KNIGHTON, hundred of WIGMORE, county of HERE- 
FORD, 4 miles (E. N. E.) from Presteign ; containing 
285 inhabitants. It is situated in the northern part of 
the county, near the borders of Radnorshire, and com- 
prises 2283 acres ; the road from Presteign to Ludlow 
intersects the parish, which is also watered by a branch 
of the river Lug. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net 
income, 70 ; patrons, the Trustees of the late Rev. 
Thomas Wynn. There are some vestiges of an ancient 
religious house. 

LINGFIELD (ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL), a parish, 
in the union of EAST GRINSTEAD, First division of the 
hundred of TANDRIDGE, E. division of SURREY, 6 miles 
(S. S. E.) from Godstone ; containing 1S66 inhabitants. 
The parish is separated from the county of Kent by the 
river Eden, and comprises by measurement 9008 acres, 
of which 4000 are arable, 4000 meadow and pasture, 
and 1008 woodland. The living is a perpetual curacy 5 
94 



net income, 150 ; patron and impropriator, Robert 
Ladbroke, Esq. The church, which was founded by 
Reginald, Lord Cobham, in the reign of Henry VI., con- 
sists of a nave, side aisles, and chancel, with a tower 
surmounted by a spire at the west end of the south 
aisle, and is in the early English style ; in the interior 
are some curious monuments, and several brasses. 
There are places of worship for Baptists and Indepen- 
dents ; and a parochial school is chiefly supported by 
subscription. In the 9th of Henry VI., Reginald, Lord 
Cobham, had licence to found a college here, and to 
make the parochial church collegiate ; he built the col- 
lege at the west-end of the churchyard. At the Dis- 
solution the revenue was valued at 79. 15. 10. ; the 
buildings remained till about the time of George I., 
when they were pulled down, and a farm-house was 
built on part of the ground. At Starborough was a 
castle, which was fortified and embattled in the reign of 
Edward III. by Reginald, Lord Cobham, and was gar- 
risoned by the parliament during the civil war, shortly 
after which it was demolished ; the moat, which re- 
mains, forms a handsome sheet of water to the present 
mansion erected by Sir James Burrow, and considerably 
enlarged by Sir Thomas Turton. On part of the site of 
the castle, Sir James built a large room, over some of 
the ancient vaults, with the stones on the spot : from 
the top, which is embattled, is a fine view of the sur- 
rounding country. In Plaistow-street, near the church, 
is an old obelisk of stone of two stories. , 

LINGWOOD (ST. PETER), a parish, in the union 
and hundred of BLOFIELD, E. division of NORFOLK, 2f 
miles (W. S. W.) from Acle ; containing 473 inhabitants. 
It comprises 661 acres, of which the surface is well 
wooded, and the scenery of pleasing character. The 
living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 55 ; patron 
and incumbent, Rev. E. Goddard, whose tithes, as im- 
propriator, have been commuted for 256. 15. 6. The 
church is chiefly in the later English style, with a square 
embattled tower. There is a place of worship for Pri- 
mitive Methodists. The population includes 102 persons 
in the workhouse here. 

LINKENHOLT (ST. PETER), a parish, in the union 
of ANDOVER, hundred of PASTROW, Andover and N. 
divisions of the county of SOUTHAMPTON, 7f miles 
(S. E.) from Great Bedwin ; containing 109 inhabitants. 
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
7. 0. 5.; patron and incumbent, Rev. J. M. Colson, 
LL.B., whose tithes have been commuted for 168, and 
who has a glebe of 4 1 acres. 

LINKINHORNE (ST. MELLOR), a parish, in the 
union of LISKEARD, N. division of the hundred of EAST, 
E. division of CORNWALL, 4 miles (N.W.) from Calling- 
ton; containing 1525 inhabitants. It comprises 6000 
acres, of which 800 are common or waste. On Caer- 
nadon, or Carraton, downs, in the parish, Charles I. drew 
up his forces, in 1644, the day after he had entered 
Cornwall ; and here he was joined by Prince Maurice. 
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
13; net income, 312; patron, Rev. Mr. Kempe ; im- 
propriators, W. Cawsey and J. T. Coryton, Esqrs. Here 
are the remarkable rocks called the Cheese-wring and 
the Hurlers, and also Sharp Tor, from which is a very 
fine view. A free school was founded and endowed with 
the interest of 705, by Charles Roberts, and is con- 
ducted on the national system. 



L INS 



LINT 



LINLEY (5T. NICHOLAS), a parish, in the union of 
MADELEY, and within the liberty of the borough of 
WENLOCK, S. division of SALOP, 4$ miles (N. W. by N.) 
from Bridgenorth ; containing 111 inhabitants. The 
living is a rectory not in charge, united to that of 
Broseley. 

LINMOUTH, a township, in the parish of WOOD- 
HORN, union of MORPETH, E. division of MORPETH 
ward, N. division of NORTHUMBERLAND, 7^ miles 
(E. N. E.) from Morpeth ; containing 31 inhabitants. 
The township, which comprises about 300 acres, derives 
its name from its situation near the influx of the river 
Line into the ocean. In 1240, John, son of Robert Rue, 
held this place by military service; and in the llth of 
Edward III. the Countess of Pembroke conveyed it to 
John de Denton, burgess of Newcastle ; since which 
date possessions have been held by various families, in- 
cluding those of Eure, Horsley, Watson, Atkinson, and 
Bradford. It is now the property of Mr. Bradford 
Atkinson, of Angerton. In 1822, a spermaceti whale, 
61 feet in length, and 37 feet in circumference, came on 
shore at the mouth of the river, and was harpooned ; it 
produced 9 tuns and 158 gallons of oil, which were 
claimed by the admiralty as a droit of the crown. 

LINOP, with INGRAM and GREENSHAW-HILL, a 
township, in the parish of INGRAM, union of GLENDALE, 
N. division of COQUETDALE ward and of NORTHUMBER- 
LAND, 8 miles (S. S. W.) from Wooler ; containing 92 
inhabitants. In the township is Linop Spout, or Rought- 
ing Linn, a cataract, the precipice of which is 48 feet 
high, and the basin 7 feet in diameter, and 15 feet in 
depth. About three miles to the north-west are the 
Cardlaw cairns, some sepulchral monuments of the ear- 
liest inhabitants of the island. In the vicinity are 
foundations of an ancient British town ; and a British 
road passes near the place, in its course to Langley 
ford. 

LINSHEELES, a township, in the parish of HALLY- 
STONE, union of ROTHBURY, W. division of COQ.UET- 
DALE ward, N. division of NORTHUMBERLAND, 1 1^ miles 
(W. by N.) from Rothbury 5 containing 98 inhabitants. 
It is situated on the south side of the river Coquet, at 
the confluence of the Redlees burn, and about a mile 
and a half west from Alwinton. 

LINSLADE (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
LEIGHTON-BUZZARD, hundred of COTTESLOE, county of 
BUCKINGHAM, 2 miles (N. by W.) from Leighton-Buz- 
zard; containing 883 inhabitants. This place in the 
reign of Henry III. belonged to William de Beauchamp, 
to whom, in 1251, that monarch granted the privilege of 
a market on Thursday, and a fair on Lady- day to con- 
tinue for eight days. It was the resort of numerous 
pilgrims to visit a holy well, till, in 1299, they were pro- 
hibited by Oliver Sutton, Bishop of Lincoln, who sum- 
moned the vicar for having encouraged the practice for 
his own emolument. The parish comprises by compu- 
tation 1648 acres, of which 660 are arable, 853 pasture, 
and 32 woodland : the Grand Junction canal and the 
London and Birmingham railway pass through it. The 
living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 65 ; patron 
and impropriator, W. Pulsford, Esq. 

LINSTEAD (Sr. PETER AND ST. PAUL), a parish, in 

the union of FAVERSHAM, hundred of TEYNHAM, Upper 

division of the lathe of SCRAY, E. division of KENT, 

3 miles (S. E.) from Sittingbourne ; containing 1050 in- 

95 



habitants. It comprises 18060. 2r. 2p., of which about 
1260 acres are arable, 200 pasture, 200 woods, and the 
rest orchards, gardens, &c. A fair for horses and cattle 
is held at Greenstreet, in the parish, on May 1st. The 
living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
8. 3. ll. j net income, 216; patron and appropria- 
tor, Archdeacon of Canterbury. Bartholomew Fowle, 
the last prior of St. Marie Overie, was a native of this 
place, and received from it the additional name of 
Linstead. 

LINSTEAD MAGNA (ST. PETER), a parish, in the 
union and hundred of BLYTHING, E. division of SUF- 
FOLK, 4f miles (W. by S.) from Halesworth ; containing 
92 inhabitants, and comprising 1286 acres. The living 
is a perpetual curacy, endowed with a portion of the 
tithes ; patron, the Rev. E. Holland ; impropriator, Lord 
Huntingfield. The impropriate tithes have been com- 
muted for 315, and those of the perpetual curate for 
82. The church is a handsome structure, in the later 
English style, with a square embattled tower. 

LINSTEAD PARVA, or LOWER LINSTEAD (ST. 
MARGARET), a parish, in the union and hundred of 
BLYTHING, E. division of SUFFOLK, 3^ miles (W.) from 
Halesworth ; containing 205 inhabitants. It comprises 
554 acres, of which 31 are common or waste. The 
living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with a portion of 
the tithes, which have been commuted for 77. 10. pay- 
able to the impropriator, and 48 payable to the curate, 
whose total net income is 86 ; patron, the Rev. J. 
Sprigge ; impropriator, Lord Huntingfield. The church 
is in the later English style, and contains a curiously 
sculptured font. 

LINSTOCK, a township, in the parish of STANWIX, 
union of CARLISLE, ESKDALE ward, E. division of CUM- 
BERLAND, 2| miles (N. E. by E.) from Carlisle ; contain- 
ing 220 inhabitants. Here was once a castle, which, till 
1229, was the only palace of the see of Carlisle. About 
1293, Bishop Halton entertained Johannes Romanus, 
Archbishop of York, in it, with a suite of 300 persons, 
during his visitation ; and, in 1307, Edward I. kept his 
court here for six days. The edifice was repaired and 
modernised in 1768 ; the ancient square tower is still 
remaining. A little north-eastward of Linstock is 
Drawdykes Castle, originally erected with the materials 
of the Roman wall, which crossed its site, and partially 
rebuilt in the seventeenth century, by John Aglionby, 
Esq., recorder of Carlisle, who placed on the battlements 
three Roman stone busts, which yet remain : this an- 
cient seat is now used as a farm-house. 

LINTHORP, a township, in the parish of MIDDLES- 
BOROUGH, union of STOCKTON-UPON-TEES, W. division 
of the liberty of LANGBAURGH, N. riding of YORK, 
1| mile (S. S. W.) from Middlesborough ; containing 246 
inhabitants. The township, which comprises 1300 acres, 
in the district called Cleveland, is situated on the river 
Tees, and includes the hamlet of Ayresham, and the mo- 
dern village of Newport. It constitutes a part of the 
manor of Acklam, and as the lands here are not men- 
tioned in Domesday book, they may be presumed to 
have been included under the survey of that place. 
Thomas Hustler, Esq., of Acklam Hall, is lord of the 
manor, and chief owner of the soil. On the river is a 
ferry, with a wharf having extensive granaries : the 
road between Stockton and Guisborough lies to the 
south. 



LINT 



LINT 



LINTHWAITE, a chapelry, in the parish of AL- 
MONDBURY, union of HUDDERSFIELD, Upper division of 
the wapentake of AGBRIGG, W. riding of YORK, 4 miles 
(S. W. by W.) from Huddersfield ; containing 2710 in- 
habitants. The chapelry consists of the chief part of 
the township of Linthwaite and a small portion of that 
of South Crossland. The township of Linthwaite is on 
the Huddersfield and Manchester road, and between the 
two branches of the river Colne, and comprises by com- 
putation 1300 acres, principally the property of Sir 
Joseph Radcliffe and W. Walker Battye, Esq. The 
inhabitants are chiefly employed in the numerous mills 
and factories established for the manufacture of woollen- 
cloth, which is carried on to a great extent ; and there 
are several large quarries of stone, of good quality for 
building and other purposes. Facility of conveyance is 
afforded by the Manchester canal, which passes through 
the township. The chapel, now a district church, dedi- 
cated to Christ, was erected in 1828, at an expense of 
3000, raised by subscription, aided by the Parliamen- 
tary Commissioners ; it is a handsome structure, in the 
later English style, with a square embattled tower 
crowned with pinnacles and surmounted by a spire, and 
contains 800 sittings, of which 200 are free. The living 
is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of 
Almondbiiry, with a net income of 1 50 ; impropriators, 
the Governors of Clitheroe grammar school. There are 
places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans. At Milnes- 
Bridge, which is chiefly in this township, though not 
now included in the chapelry, is a national school, sup- 
ported by subscription, and held in a building licensed 
by the bishop for divine service. The Slaithwaite baths 
are partly situated here. 

LINTON (Sr. MARY), a market-town and parish, 
and the head of a union, in the hundred of CHILFORD, 
county of CAMBRIDGE, 10 miles (S. E. by E.) from 
Cambridge, and 48 (N. byE.) from London; containing 
1838 inhabitants. This town, which is situated on the 
road from Cambridge to Colchester, has been much im- 
proved of late years, and an act for inclosing waste lands 
was passed in 1838. The market, granted in 1245 to 
William de Lay, is on Thursday ; and there is a fair on 
July 30th, for sheep. Courts leet are held occasionally 
by the lords of the manors. The living is a discharged 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 10. 13. 4., and 
in the gift of the Bishop of Ely : the appropriate tithes, 
belonging to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, have been com- 
muted for 780, and the vicarial for 260 ; the appro- 
priate glebe comprises 84 acres, and the vicarial 9 acres. 
The church has a fine embattled tower, and a gallery 
has been lately built, containing 120 free sittings ; in the 
interior are several monuments. There is a place of 
worship for Independents. The poor law union of Lin- 
ton comprises 22 parishes or places, 20 of which are in 
the county of Cambridge, and two in that of Essex, the 
whole containing a population of 12,958 : the union 
workhouse cost 6500, and is capable of accommodating 
200 paupers. An alien priory, subordinate to the abbey 
of St. Jacutus de Tusula, in Brittany, was founded in the 
time of Henry III. ; at its suppression, its revenue was 
valued at 23. 8. 10., and it was granted by Henry VI. 
to Pembroke Hall. At Barham, in the parish, a priory 
of Crouched friars, a cell to the monastery of Welnetham, 
in Suffolk, was established in the reign of Edward I. 
Several Roman coins have been dug up. 
96 



LINTON, a township, in the parish of CHURCH- 
GRESLEY, union of BURTON-UPON-TRENT, hundred of 
REPTON and GRESLEY, S. division of the county of 
DERBY, 5^ miles (S. S. E.) from Burton ; containing 
253 inhabitants. It comprises 883a. Ir. 14/>., arable and 
pasture, in nearly equal portions ; the soil is fertile, and 
the pastures are extremely rich ; the chief produce is 
corn, cheese, and fat-cattle, for which the place is cele- 
brated. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. 

LINTON, or LYNTON (ST. MARY), a parish, includ- 
ing the sea-port of Linmouth, in the union of BARN- 
STAPLE, hundred of SHERWILL, Braunton and N. divi- 
sions of DEVON, 14 miles (E. by N.) from Ilfracombe ; 
containing 1027 inhabitants. This parish, which is 
situated on the most northerly point of the Devonshire 
coast, comprises two manors, the lords of which, in the 
time of Edward I., had the power of inflicting capital 
punishment. The village is on an eminence westward 
of an opening towards the Bristol Channel, and is sepa- 
rated from the adjoining parish by the river Lyn, over 
which is a bridge of one arch. About a mile westward 
from Liuton is the Valley of Rocks, the bed of which is 
about three-quarters of a mile in length, but not above 
100 yards in width ; the acclivities on each side exhibit 
huge masses of fixed and detached rock, and at the 
western extremity of the vale, which is terminated by a 
cove, or inlet, is an isolated mass of great magnitude, in 
the form of a cone, partly intercepting the view of the 
Channel. Within a short distance to the east, by the 
sea-side, near the junction of the East and West Lyn 
rivers, is Linmouth, formerly a fishing-town of some 
consequence, but now possessing only about a dozen 
fishing-boats. Turbot, soles, cod, herrings, and oysters, 
are still caught upon the coast, and snipped to Bristol 
and elsewhere. Several sloops, of from 50 to 100 tons, 
are employed in the coasting trade ; limestone, coal, and 
culm are the principal articles of importation, and bark 
and grain the chief exports. There is a small pier, 
erected by the lord of the manor, at which the steamers 
from Bristol to Ilfracombe call in passing. Both at 
Linton and Linmouth are numerous lodging-houses for 
the accommodation of visiters ; and in the neighbour- 
hood are some elegant private residences. There is a 
plentiful supply of excellent water; and the river Lyn 
abounds with trout. The lord of the manor holds a 
court leet and baron at Linton soon after Easter, when a 
portreeve, tythingman, and ale-taster are appointed. 
The parish comprises by measurement 7160 acres, of 
which 3287 are arable and pasture, 310 woodland, and 
the remainder mountain and common. The living is a 
perpetual curacy, with that of Countisbury annexed ; 
net income, 108; patron, Archdeacon of Barnstaple. 
The tithes of Linton have been commuted for 270, and 
the glebe comprises 102 acres : attached to the curacy 
is a glebe of three acres. The church, an ancient struc- 
ture, in the early English style, with a tower, was 
enlarged by the addition of aisles, in 1817 and 1833, 
and now contains 600 sittings. There is a place of 
worship for Independents; and a national school is 
supported. 

LINTON, a hamlet, in the parish of CHURCHAM, 
Lower division of the hundred of DUDSTONE and 
KING'S-BARTON, union, and E. division of the county, 
of GLOUCESTER, If mile (W. by N.) from Gloucester; 
containing 31 inhabitants. 



LINT 



LINT 



LINTON, a township, in the parish and union of 
BROMYARD, hundred of BROXASH, county of HERE- 
FORD, 3 miles (S. E.) from Bromyard ; containing 610 
inhabitants, including the inmates of Bromyard union 
workhouse in the township. The township is situated 
on the borders of Worcestershire, and comprises 2433 
acres, of which 260 are common or waste. A court leet 
was formerly held, but was discontinued some time 
since. 

LINTON (Sr. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
NEWENT, hundred of GREYTREE, county of HEREFORD, 
5 miles (E. by N.) from Ross ; containing 750 inhabit- 
ants. The parish comprises 2595 acres, and is situated 
on the borders of Gloucestershire, which bounds it on 
the east. The living is a vicarage, endowed with the 
rectorial tithes, valued in the king's books at 8. 10., 
and in the gift of St. John's College, Oxford : the tithes 
have been commuted for 525, and the glebe consists of 
68 acres. There is a place of worship for Baptists ; also 
a school, endowed by Edward Goff, Esq., in 1813. 

LINTON (ST. NICHOLAS), a parish, in the union and 
hundred of MAIDSTONE, lathe of AYLESFORD, W. divi- 
sion of KENT, 4 miles (S.) from Maidstone j containing 
900 inhabitants. The parish comprises by measurement 
1300 acres, of which 550 are arable, 420 meadow and 
pasture, 170 hop plantations, 100 garden and orchard, 
and 60 woodland ; the surface is boldly undulated, and 
the scenery pleasing. The village is situated on the 
range of hills that bound the weald on the north ; and 
within half a rnile of it is Coxheath, an extensive plain, 
on which 15,000 soldiers were encamped, and reviewed 
by George HI., in 1778, but which has been inclosed 
and cultivated, producing hops of excellent quality. 
The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
7. 13. 4. ; patron and impropriator, Earl Cornwallis : 
the great tithes have been commuted for 220, and the 
vicarial for 325. The church contains some monuments 
worthy of notice, particularly one lately erected to the 
memory of Viscount Brome, only son of the present Earl 
Cornwallis : during a thunder-storm, about the end of 
November, 1838, the spire was struck by the electric 
fluid, which destroyed a part of it. In 1813, John Bowles 
bequeathed 200, the interest to be applied to instruction. 
A school-house for girls was recently erected by Lady 
Cornwallis j and some handsome almshouses have been 
built and endowed by his lordship, whose seat is in the 
parish. The poor-house for Maidstone union, a large 
brick building, calculated to hold 600 paupers, with a 
spacious chapel attached, is situated here. 

LINTON, county of LINCOLN. See LAVINGTON. 

LINTON, a hamlet, in the parish of WINTRINGHAM, 
union of MALTON, wapentake of BUCKROSE, E. riding 
of YORK, 7^ miles (E.) from Malton. This place is said 
to have been the site of a monastic cell belonging to the 
monks of Scarborough : it consists of farm land the 
property of Sir Tatton Sykes, Bart. 

LINTON, a township, in the parish of SPOFFORTH, 
Upper division of the wapentake of CLARO, W. riding 
of YORK, If mile (W. by S.) from Wetherby ; containing 
169 inhabitants. The township comprises by computa- 
tion 1030 acres, chiefly the property of the Hon. George 
Wyndham, who is lord of the manor. The village is 
situated on the north side of the vale of the Wharfe. 
A rent-charge of 257. 10. has been awarded as a com- 
mutation for the tithes. There is a place of worship for 
VOL. III. 97 



Wesleyans ; and a Sunday school is in connexion with 
the Establishment. 

LINTON (ST. MICHAEL), a parish, in the union of 
SKIPTON, E. division of the wapentake of STAINCLIFFE 
and EWCROSS, W. riding of YORK ; containing, with the 
townships of Grassington, Hebden, and Threshfield, 
2060 inhabitants, of whom 303 are in the township of 
Linton, 9 miles (N.) from Skipton. This parish, which 
is situated in the beautiful valley of the river Wharfe, 
comprises about 11,110 acres, divided into several 
manors, of which, with the exception of Hebden, the 
Duke of Devonshire is lord. Of the lands, a consider- 
able portion is hilly moor, affording in some parts tolera- 
ble pasture j the substratum contains mineral produce 
of various kinds, of which the principal in operation is 
lead. The population is chiefly employed in the lead- 
mines of Grassington, and in the manufacture of cotton 
and worsted goods. The living is a rectory in medieties, 
each valued in the king's books at 16, and in the pa- 
tronage of the Crown; net income of each, 185, ex- 
clusive of the glebes, which comprise 30 acres each. 
The church formerly contained two pulpits and two 
reading-desks : it was originally a Norman building, of 
which some parts remain, but it has undergone various 
repairs at different periods, especially in the reign of 
Henry VIII. ; the west window is a good specimen of 
the decorated style. The free grammar school was 
founded in 1672, by the Rev. Matthew Hewitt, who en- 
dowed it with 20 per annum for the master, 10 for 
the usher, and 50 for four exhibitions to St. John's 
College, Cambridge. The hospital for six women was 
founded and endowed with a house, and 240 acres of 
land, now producing 270 per annum, by Richard 
Fountain, Esq., in 1721 ; 16 per annum are paid to 
each of the inmates, and 20 to the chaplain j 12 are 
applied to the apprenticing of children, and 70 are ap- 
propriated to relatives of the founder. There are some 
other small bequests for distribution among the poor. 

LINTON-UPON-OUSE, a township, in the parish of 
NEWTON, union of EASINGWOULD, wapentake of BUL- 
MER, N. riding of YORK, 9 miles (S. S. W.) from Easing- 
would ; containing 299 inhabitants. It comprises by 
computation 2030 acres of land, chiefly the property of 
University College, Oxford. The village is neat, and 
pleasantly situated on the north side of the river Ouse, 
and about a mile west of the village of Newton. There 
is an ancient Roman Catholic chapel ; also a school with 
a small endowment. 

LINTON, WEST, a township, in the parish of 
KiRK-LiNTON, union of LONGTOWN, ESKDALE ward, E. 
division of CUMBERLAND, 3 miles (S.) from Longtown ; 
containing 567 inhabitants. 

LINTZ-GREEN, a township, in the chapelry of 
TANFIELD, parish of CHESTER-LE-STREET, union of 
LANCHESTER, Middle division of CHESTER ward, N. di- 
vision of the county of DURHAM, 8 miles (S. W. by W.) 
from Gateshead ; containing, with the township of 
Beamish, 2671 inhabitants. The ancient manor or vill 
of Lintz appears to have included the present estates of 
Lintz- Green, Lintz Hall, and Lintzford, and probably 
other separate freeholds. Lintz-Green lies on the ex- 
treme western verge of the chapelry of Tanneld, divided 
from that of Medomsley by the Pontop burn; Lintz 
Hall is a little to the south ; and Lintzford northward on 
the Derwent. At Low Friarside, to the west of Gibside, 

O 



L I SC 



LI S 



was formerly a small chapel, whereof some remains are 
still standing, in the middle of a large pasture field, near 
the river. 

LIN WOOD (Sr. CORNELIUS), a parish, in the union 
of CAISTOR, S. division of the wapentake of WALSH- 
CROFT, parts of LINDSEY, county of LINCOLN, 2^ miles 
(S. by E.) from Market- Rasen ; containing 226 inhabit- 
ants. This place was formerly the residence of the 
Lynwoods, of whom William, who died in 1446, was 
bishop of St. David's, and keeper of the privy seal under 
Henry VI. The parish is tolerably extensive, and in- 
cludes a rabbit warren of 250 acres, and a large wood ; 
the farm-house and cottages are of recent erection. The 
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 16. 4. 2., 
and in the patronage of the family of Gordon : the tithes 
have been commuted for 380, and the glebe comprises 
95 acres. The church is a neat structure, of which the 
windows are profusely ornamented with stained glass : 
the church land consists of 6 acres, awarded at the in- 
closure. A. school is supported. 

LINWOOD, a hamlet, in the parish of BLANKNEY, 
union of SLEAFORD, Second division of the wapentake 
of LANGOE, parts of KESTEVEN, county of LINCOLN; 
containing 55 inhabitants. It comprises about 700 acres 
of land, and is situated three miles to the east of the vil- 
lage of Blank ney. 

LINWOOD, an extra-parochial liberty, in the union 
of RINGWOOD, N. division of the hundred of NEW 
FOREST, Lymington and S. divisions of the county of 
SOUTHAMPTON; containing 14 inhabitants. 

LIPHOOK, a post-town, in the parish of BR AMSHOTT, 
hundred of ALTON, Petersfield and N. divisions of the 
county of SOUTHAMPTON, 4^ miles (W.) from Hasle- 
mere ; containing 242 inhabitants. It is near the Sussex 
border, and on the London and Petersfield road. 

LIPWOOD, a township, in the chapelry of HAYDON, 
parish of WARDEN, union of HEXHAM, N. W. division 
of TINDALE ward, S. division of NORTHUMBERLAND, 7f 
miles (W.) from Hexham ; containing 648 inhabitants. 
This place, which is an ancient member of the barony of 
Langley, occupies an elevated situation, and is bounded 
on the north by the Roman Pratentura. The surface is 
diversified, and the scenery of pleasing character. Grin- 
don lake, a fine sheet of water in the township, is fed 
by the rivulet called Knag burn, which rises to the north 
of the Roman wall, and in the winter greatly overflows 
its summer boundaries ; it abounds with perch, and a 
boat is kept on it by the governors of Greenwich Hos- 
pital, to whom it belongs. Lipwood House is a hand- 
some villa, erected about the year 1829, by the late 
Thomas Coates, Esq., whose family at that time held 
lands in the township. 

LISCARD, a township, in the parish of WALLASEY, 
union, and Lower division of the hundred, of WIRRALL, 
S. division of the county of CHESTER, 12 miles (N. by 
E.) from Great Neston ; containing 2873 inhabitants. 
It comprises 896 acres, of which 260 are common or 
waste. The plan of a new town having recently been 
designed, many houses have been erected, and it has 
now become a place of resort for sea-bathing ; the popu- 
lation of the township has in consequence trebled during 
the last ten years. Rent-charges, as commutations for 
the tithes, have been awarded, amounting to 115, which 
sum is equally divided between the rector of Wallasey 
and the Bishop of Chester. 
98 




Seal and Arms. 



LISKEARD (Sr. MAR- 
TIN), a borough, market- 
town, and parish, having 
separate jurisdiction, and the 
head of a union, locally in 
the hundred of WEST, E. 
division of CORNWALL ; con- 
taining 4287 inhabitants, of 
whom 3001 are in the bo- 
rough, 18 miles (S. S. W.) 
from Launceston, and 225 
(W. S. W.) from London. 
The ancient name of this 
town was Liskerrett, derived probably from two Cor- 
nish words signifying "a fortified place." It was 
formerly amongst the possessions of the earls of Corn- 
wall, and was, by act of parliament, annexed to the 
duchy in the reign of Edward III. The castle, of 
which there are still some vestiges, was occasionally 
the residence of Richard, Earl of Cornwall and King 
of the Romans. In 1643, during the civil war, a 
battle was fought near this place, between the royalists, 
under Sir Ralph Hopton, and the parliamentary forces, 
in which the latter were defeated, and the royalist army 
marched into Liskeard the same night. The king, on 
his entrance into Cornwall, in 1646, halted here on 
August 2nd, and remained until the 7th. The TOWN is 
one of the most ancient and considerable in the county; 
it is irregularly built, chiefly on steep hills at the upper 
extremity of a valley ; the streets are well paved and 
lighted, the inhabitants are supplied with excellent water, 
and the air is very salubrious. The tanning of leather 
is carried on to a considerable extent. Facility for water 
carriage has been afforded by the canal from Liskeard 
towards Looe, a distance of six miles, which was recently 
completed, and terminates about one mile west of the 
town, where are coal- wharfs and lime-kilns. This is one 
of the four coinage or stannary towns ; but no coinage 
has taken place for some time, the practice having been 
abandoned. A handsome market-house for poultry, fish, 
and vegetables, was erected in 1822 ; and there are but- 
chers' shambles beneath the town-hall. The market, on 
Saturday, is abundantly supplied with provisions of all 
kinds, and great annual markets or fairs for the sale of 
cattle are likewise held. The town-hall is a good struc- 
ture on granite arches and columns, erected in 1707, and 
is surmounted with a clock. 

Liskeard was made a free BOROUGH in 1240, by 
Richard, Earl of Cornwall, who conferred on the bur- 
gesses similar privileges to those enjoyed by the towns 
of Launceston and Helston ; and several charters were 
afterwards bestowed, under the last of which, granted 
by Elizabeth, and dated the 26th of July, 1587, the cor- 
poration consisted of a mayor and nine capital, and an 
indefinite number of inferior, burgesses, aided by a re- 
corder, town-clerk, two serjeants-at-mace, and other 
officers. The government is now vested in a mayor, 
four aldermen, and twelve councillors, elected under the 
act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., cap. 76, and the 
number of magistrates is four, who assemble on alter- 
nate Mondays for the despatch of business. The borough, 
which first sent representatives to parliament in the 
23rd of Edward I., formerly returned two members, but 
was deprived of one by the act of the 2nd of William 
IV., cap. 45, when an enlarged district was incorporated 



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with the borough for elective purposes ; the limits, pre- 
viously including 2387 acres, now extend over an area 
of 81 15 acres, embracing the old borough and parish of 
Liskeard, with part of the parish of St. Clear. The 
mayor is returning officer. There is a small town prison. 
The parish is intersected by the river Looe, and com- 
prises by measurement 7126 acres ; the soil is various, 
but generally fertile, and in some parts a deep rich loam; 
the surface is very hilly, and the surrounding country 
strikingly diversified. The living is a vicarage, valued 
in the king's books at 18. 13. 11^. ; net income, 303; 
patron, Rev. F. J. Todd. The church stands on an emi- 
nence at the eastern entrance of the town, and is a spa- 
cious and handsome edifice of fine large slate-stone, with 
a low embattled tower, which was erected in 1627 > it 
contains several monuments, among which is one raised 
by Captain Martyn and his brother officers, to Lieut. 
James Huntley, who fell in a gallant attack on a squa- 
dron of Russian gun-boats in the Gulf of Finland. An 
episcopal chapel was opened at Dubwalls, in 1839. 
Amongst other lands of smaller value, a tenement called 
Lanseaton, now let for 50 per annum, is vested in the 
wardens for the repairs of the church. There are places 
of worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, 
Wesleyans, and Association Methodists. A school was 
founded by the trustees of the Rev. St. John Eliot, who 
died in 1760, and was endowed by them with 5 per 
annum. A British and Foreign school was erected in 
1 835 ; and a diocesan classical and commercial school 
has been recently established. The poor law union of 
Liskeard comprises 26 parishes or places, with a popu- 
lation of 26,484 : a workhouse has been built near the 
town for 350 persons. A great part yet remains of the 
conventual buildings belonging to the nunnery of Poor 
Clares, founded here, and endowed by Richard, Earl of 
Cornwall ; it is called " The Great Place," and has been 
converted into dwelling-houses. 

LISSETT, a chapelry, in the parish of BEEFORD, 
union of BRIDLINGTON, N. division of the wapentake of 
HOLDERNESS, E. riding of YORK, 7^ miles (S. S. W.) 
from Bridlington ; containing 132 inhabitants. The 
earliest owners of this manor on record are the family 
of Monceaux, and among subsequent proprietors occur 
the families of De la See, Boynton, Hildyard, Beverley, 
and Dent : the manor-house, an old brick building, is 
now occupied by a farmer. The township comprises 
about 1150 acres : the village, situated on the road to 
Hull, has been of late years much improved, and wears 
an appearance of neatness and respectability. The living 
is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rector of 
Beeford. The chapel, dedicated to St. James, is an 
humble edifice of ancient date, some parts being pro- 
bably as old as the 12th or 13th century. 

LISSINGTON (Sx. JOHN THE BAPTIST}, a parish, in 
the union of CAISTOR, W. division of the wapentake of 
WRAGGOE, parts of LINDSEY, county of LINCOLN, 4^ 
miles (S.) from Market-Rasen ; containing 186 inhabit- 
ants. The parish is on the Rasen and Wragby road, 
and comprises by measurement 1530 acres, including a 
portion of the common of Lissington Pasture, which is 
also in the three adjoining parishes of Buslingthorpe, 
Friesthorpe, and Wickenby ; the surface is level, and the 
soil chiefly clay. The living is a vicarage, valued in the 
king's books at 12. 17. 6.5 patrons, Dean and Chapter 
of York. The vicarage is endowed with the rectorial 
99 



tithes, with the exception of a small sum, payable to 
the Dean and Chapter ; they have been commuted 
for a rent-charge of 350, and the glebe comprises 
58 acres. The church, a small edifice, has some por- 
tions in the Norman, and others in the early Eng- 
lish, style. There is a place of worship for Wes- 
leyans. 

LISTON, a parish, in the union of SUDBURY, hun- 
dred of HINCKFORD, N. division of ESSEX, 2f miles 
(N. N. W.) from Sudbury ; containing 80 inhabitants. 
It is bounded on the east by the river Stour, and com- 
prises by admeasurement 628 acres; the soil, though 
various, is generally fertile, and in the low grounds 
near the river, is light and sandy. The living is a 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 12, and in the 
gift of R. Lambert, Esq. : the tithes have been com- 
muted for 200, and the glebe comprises 18 acres. The 
church is in the later English style, with a square em- 
battled tower ; on the south side of the chancel is a 
handsome marble monument to one of the Clapton 
family. 

LITCHAM (ST. ANDREW}, a parish, in the union of 
MITFORD and LAUNDITCH, hundred of LATJNDITCH, W. 
division of NORFOLK, 8 miles (N. E. by N.) from Swaff- 
ham ; containing 846 inhabitants. The parish comprises 
1932a. 3r. l6p., of which 1397 acres are arable, 256 
meadow and pasture, 42 woodland, and the remainder 
heath and common, of which a considerable portion, 
under an act of inclosure in 1770, was allotted to the 
poor for fuel. The village, which is large, consisting of 
several streets, had formerly a market and annual fairs, 
granted by Edward I. to Robert de Felton ; the market 
has long been discontinued, but fairs are still held on 
Whit-Tuesday and November 1st, chiefly for pleasure. 
A court leet is held in October, and petty-sessions for 
the division take place on the first Wednesday in every 
alternate mouth. The living is a discharged rectory, 
with which that of East Lexham was united in 1742, 
valued in the king's books at 9. 2. 6., and in the gift 
of Lord Wodehouse : the tithes have been commuted 
for 441 ; the glebe comprises 45| acres, and there is a 
glebe-house. The church is chiefly in the later English 
style, with a square tower of brick ; the chancel is sepa- 
rated from the nave by a richly-carved oak screen. 
There are places of worship for Primitive Methodists 
and Wesleyans ; and a national school is supported by 
subscription. Near the bridge was anciently a hermit- 
age, of which the chapel is now a farm-house. 

LITCHBOROUGH (ST. MARTIN), a parish, in the 
union of TOWCESTER, hundred of FAWSLEY, S. divi- 
sion of the county of NORTHAMPTON, 5^ miles (N. W.) 
from Towcester ; containing 408 inhabitants. This place 
is of great antiquity, and was one of the four garrisoned 
towns taken by the Saxons in 571. The parish com- 
prises l699a. 3r. 17/>. ; the surface is hilly, and the soil 
various, the greater portion red loam alternated with 
clay. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books 
at 16. 9. 7. ; patron and incumbent, Rev. W. A. 
Taylor : the tithes have been commuted for 547, and 
the glebe comprises 21 acres, with a house. A master 
receives 21 per annum from Lady Katherine Levison's 
charity, for education. 

LITCHFIELD (ST. JAMES), a parish, in the union 
and hundred of KINGSCLERE, Kingsclere and N. divi- 
sions of the county of SOUTHAMPTON, 4 miles (N.) from 

O2 



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Whitchurch ; containing 94 inhabitants. It is situated 
on the road from Oxford to Southampton, and com- 
prises by computation 1806 acres, of which 494 are 
common or waste. The living is a rectory, valued in 
the king's books at 12. 19. 7., and in the gift of 
William Kingsmill, Esq. : the tithes have been com- 
muted for 400. The church is an ancient structure. 
A school is supported by subscription. 

LITCHURCH, a township, in the parish of Sn 
PETER, DERBY, union and hundred of MORLESTON and 
LITCHURCH, S. division of the county of DERBY, l mile 
(S. E.) from Derby ; containing 855 inhabitants. The 
hamlet contains the union workhouse. 

LITHERLAND, a township, in the parish of SEF- 
TON, union and hundred of WEST DERBY, S. division 
of the county of LANCASTER, 4f miles (N. by W.) from 
Liverpool; containing 1586 inhabitants. A church 
dedicated to St. Thomas was built at Scoforth, in the 
township, in 1815, at the expense of John Gladstone, 
Esq. ; and another, to which a district is assigned, has 
been erected and endowed by Adam Hodgson, Esq., and 
other gentlemen of the place. Two schools are sup- 
ported by subscription. 

LITHEWELL, or LUDWELL, a chapelry, in the 
parish of DAWLISH, union of NEWTON-ABBOT, hundred 
of EXMINSTER, Teignbridge and S. divisions of DEVON, 
f of a mile (S. by W.) from Chudleigh. The chapel is 
in ruins. 

LITTLE ABINGTON. See ABINGTON, LITTLE. 
And other places having a similar distinguishing prefix will 
be found under the proper name. 

LITTLEBOROUGH, a chapelry, in the parish and 
union of ROCHDALE, hundred of SALFORD, S. division 
of the county of LANCASTER, 3f miles (N. E. by E.) 
from Rochdale. This place is supposed to have been 
the site of a small Roman station ; the Roman road 
from Manchester to York skirts the village, and several 
relics of that people have been found in the immediate 
vicinity. The Manchester and Leeds railway passes 
a little to the east of the place, where it has an inter- 
mediate station, and at a short distance attains its 
summit level, 330 feet above the Manchester station, 
and 440 feet above the terminal station at Normanton, 
in Yorkshire. It proceeds through a tunnel '2869 yards 
in length, 24 feet wide, and 22 in height, and having 14 
shafts of 10 feet in diameter, varying from 50 to 300 
feet in depth, in the formation of which 1000 men were 
employed, and more than 251,000 expended. The 
living is a perpetual curacy; net income, 190; 
patron, Vicar of Rochdale. The chapel, dedicated to 
St. James, was licensed for mass by the abbey and 
convent of Whalley, in 1476 ; it was rebuilt about 
1815, in the early English style, and a gallery has 
been erected. There is a place of worship for Wes- 
leyans. 

LITTLEBOROUGH, a parish, in the union of EAST 
RETFORD, North-Clay division of the wapentake of 
BASSETLAW, N. division of the county of NOTTING- 
HAM, 8^ miles (E. by N.) from East Retford ; contain- 
ing 77 inhabitants. This place contains 916 acres, and 
is situated on the river Trent, across which is a ferry 
that has existed from the time of the Romans in 
Britain ; it is supposed to have been the site of the 
station Segelocum, or Agelocum. The living is a perpe- 
tual curacy ; net income, 58 j patron and impropria- 
100 



tor, G. Saville Foljambe, Esq. : the tithes were com- 
muted for land in 1822. The church, a very ancient 
structure, was put into a state of thorough repair by 
the late incumbent, the Rev. Francis Hewgill, and the 
chancel was beautified by the patron ; many Roman 
bricks are found in the old walls, and the masonry 
in some parts is of that kind called the herring-bone 
style. 

LITTLEBOURNE (Sr. VINCENT}, a parish, in the 
union of BRIDGE, hundred of DOWNHAMFORD, lathe of 
ST. AUGUSTINE, E. division of KENT, 4 miles (E.) from 
Canterbury ; containing 819 inhabitants. The parish 
is on the road to Deal, and comprises 2 10 la. 20p., of 
which about 1281 acres are arable, 245 meadow, 441 
wood, 66 orchards, and 41 hop-grounds: the village is 
situated on a branch of the river Stour, on the bank of 
which is an extensive corn-mill, and there are also a 
public brewery and a tan-yard. A fair, chiefly for 
pleasure, is held on the 5th of July. The living is a 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 8 ; net income, 
235 ; patrons, Dean and Chapter of Canterbury ; im- 
propriator, Charles James, Esq. The church is an an- 
cient structure. There is a place of worship for Calvin- 
ists. Schools are supported by subscription ; and there 
are a few benefactions for the poor. 

LITTLEBURY (HOLY TRINITY), a parish, in the 
union of SAFFRON-WALDEN, hundred of UTTLESFORD, 
N. division of ESSEX, 2 miles (W. N. W.) from Saffron- 
Walden ; containing 822 inhabitants, and comprising 
3408a. Ir. 3\p. The living is a discharged vicarage, 
valued in the king's books at 10. 2. 1.; net income, 
205 ; patron, the Rector. The rectory is a sinecure, 
valued at 26. 13. 4. ; net income, 24 ; patron, Rev. 
J. H. Sparke, Prebendary of the fifth stall in the Cathe- 
dral of Ely. The tithes were commuted for land and a 
money payment in 1801. The church is within the 
area of an ancient encampment. On Chapel green was 
formerly a chapel of ease. In 1585, Dame Jane Brad- 
bury bequeathed land for instruction, and a national 
school has accordingly been established. 

LITTLECOT, a chapelry, in the parish of CHILTON- 
FOLIATT, union of HUNGERFORD, hundred of KINWARD- 
STONE, Marlborough and Ramsbury, and S. divisions 
of WILTS, 3 miles (W. by N.) from Hungerford. A 
curious tessellated pavement, the largest ever found in 
England, was discovered in Littlecot Park, in 1730, but, 
unfortunately, was soon destroyed ; an accurate draw- 
ing, however, was made, which was engraved at the 
expense of the Society of Antiquaries. Pickedfield, for- 
merly part of Littlecot domain, was purchased by 
government, in 1803, for the purpose of establishing a 
depot for the interior of the country ; it includes about 
40 acres of ground, on which were erected three maga- 
zines and other buildings. The impropriate tithes have 
been commuted for 140, and the vicarial for 11*., 
payable to the vicar of Euford. At Knyghton, a small 
hamlet on the north bank of the Kennet, near Littlecot 
Park, is an ancient encampment. 

LITTLECOTE, a hamlet, in the parish of STEWK- 
LEY, union of WINSLOW, hundred of COTTESLOE, county 
of BUCKINGHAM, 5| miles (S. E. by E.) from Winslow ; 
containing 28 inhabitants. A chapel of ease situated 
here is now in ruins. 

LITTLECOTT, a tything, in the parish of ENFORD, 
union of PEWSEY, hundred of ELSTUB and EVERLEY, 




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Everley and Pewsey, and S. divisions of WILTS ; con- 
taining 52 inhabitants. 

LITTLEDALE, a chapelry, in the parish and union 
of LANCASTER, hundred of LONSDALE, south of the 
Sands, N. division of the county of LANCASTER, 5 
miles (E. by N.) from Lancaster; containing 115 in- 
habitants. The living is a perpetual curacy j net in- 
come, 48 ; the patronage is in dispute ; impropriators, 
the family of Rawlinson. The chapel, dedicated to St. 
Anne under Caton, was consecrated in 1755. 

LITTLEHAM (HOLY TRINITY), a parish, in the union 
of ST. THOMAS, hundred of EAST BUDLEIGH, Woodbury 
and S. divisions of DEVON ; containing, with part of 
the town of Exmouth, 3927 inhabitants. The parish is 
situated at the mouth of the river Exe, and comprises 
2068 acres, of which 1398 are arable, 391 meadow, 50 
orchards, 165 furze and common, and 63 glebe land. 
The living is a discharged vicarage, in the patronage of 
the Dean and Chapter of Exeter (the appropriators), 
valued in the king's books at 15. 12.6.; net income, 
13?. The church is an ancient structure, in the early 
English style, and contains about 600 sittings. There 
is a place of worship for dissenters ; and a school, erected 
by Lord Rolle, is supported by subscription. 

LITTLEHAM (ST. S WITHIN), a parish, in the union 
of BIDEFORD, hundred of SHEBBEAR, Great Torrington 
and N. divisions of DEVON, 2 miles (S. S. W.) from 
Bideford ; containing 390 inhabitants. This place, an- 
ciently a royal manor, formed part of the dower of 
Matilda, consort of William the Conqueror. The pa- 
rish is bounded on the south by the river Yeo, which 
separates it from the parish of Monkleigh ; the scenery 
is enriched with wood, and in many parts beautifully 
picturesque, especially on the road from Bideford to 
Buckland-Brewer, in a line parallel to the course of the 
Yeo, on the banks of which are some grounds producing 
hops of superior quality. Littleham Court, the seat of 
George Anthony, Esq., lord of the manor, is a hand- 
some mansion. The living is a rectory, valued in the 
king's books at 14. 6. 10^., and in the gift of Mr. 
Anthony : the tithes have been commuted for 190, and 
the glebe comprises 93 acres. The church is an ancient 
edifice, with some interesting details, among which is a 
wooden screen, richly carved. 

LITTLE HAMPTON, a sea-port town and parish, in 
the hundred of POLING, rape of ARUNDEL, county of 
SUSSEX, 4 miles (S.) from Arundel, and 61 (S. S. W.) 
from London j containing 2270 inhabitants. This place, 
which is situated on the east bank of the river Arun, 
was distinguished by the landing of the Empress Ma- 
tilda, in 1 139, to assert her claim to the crown. For 
a long period it was only a very inconsiderable village, 
inhabited by a few fishermen, but it has recently grown 
into some importance as a place of trade, and, from the 
fineness of its sandy beach, and the salubrity of its air, 
has become a favourite and much frequented watering- 
place. Handsome lodging-houses have been built on 
the beach, which commands an extensive view of the 
coast from Brighton to the Isle of Wight, and the pros- 
pect on the land side also abounds with pleasing and 
interesting features. There are several inns and hotels, 
for the reception of visiters ; baths have been erected 
on the beach, containing hot, cold, and shower baths, 
with apartments for shampooing ; and a broad terrace,, 
extending for about a mile along the carriage road, 
101 



affords a delightful promenade. The town is neatly 
built, and amply supplied with water, and the streets 
are paved ; there are two libraries and reading-rooms. 

The trade consists principally in the export of oak 
timber to the west of England in great quantities, and 
the import of corn, coal, timber, Irish provisions, butter, 
cheese, fruit, wine, oil cake, and other articles, for which 
a number of vessels are purposely kept. The harbour 
is accessible to vessels drawing not more than thirteen 
feet water, and is formed at the influx of the Arun into 
the English Channel, and defended by a fort erected on 
the eastern bank of the river. There are two yards for 
ship-building, the one containing a dry dock, and the 
other a patent-slip ; about 200 men are employed, and 
several vessels of considerable tonnage have been built. 
A good inland trade is carried on by lighters arid small 
craft, which convey merchandise to Newbridge, near 
Billingshurst, and thence to the Wye and Thames 
rivers ; and, to facilitate the communication, a canal 
has been formed a little to the west of the town, con- 
necting it with Chichester, Emsworth, and Portsmouth. 
The parish comprises 993a. 3r. 29f>., of which 650 acres 
are arable and 343 pasture and garden-ground. The 
living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Bishop of 
Chichester, with a net income of 149 : rent-charges 
are paid, in commutation of tithes, of 105 to the bishop, 
56 to Eton College, 189 to an impropriator, and 
93 to the vicar. The church, rebuilt in 1826, at an 
expense of 4000, is a handsome edifice, in the later 
English style, with a square embattled tower, and con- 
tains 292 free sittings, in consideration of a grant from 
the Incorporated Society. A school was founded by 
John Corney, Esq., who, in 1805, endowed it with 600 
three per cent, consols. ; and in 1837, Thomas Compton, 
Esq., erected spacious schoolrooms on the beach. 

LITTLEMOOR, a liberty, in the parish of ST. MARY 
THE VIRGIN, union of ABINGDON, partly within the 
liberties of the city of OXFORD, and partly in the hun- 
dred of BULLINGDON, county of OXFORD, 2| miles (S. E. 
by S.) from Oxford ; containing 547 inhabitants. The 
tithes were commuted for land and a money payment 
in 1817- A chapel was erected in 1835, which contains 
200 free sittings, the Incorporated Society having 
granted 150 in aid of the expense. A priory of 
Benedictine nuns, founded here about the reign of 
Henry II., was suppressed by the papal bull given to 
Cardinal Wolsey, in 1524, and subsequently became 
part of the endowment of King's College, Oxford, until 
the time of the general Dissolution : at its suppression 
the revenue was valued at 33. 6. 8. 

LITTLE-OVER, a chapelry, in the parish of MICKLE- 
OVER, union of SHARDLOW, hundred of MORLESTON 
and LITCHURCH, county of DERBY, 2 miles (S. W. by S.) 
from Derby ; containing 497 inhabitants. 

LITTLEPORT (ST. GEORGE), a parish, in the \mion, 
hundred, and Isle, of ELY, county of CAMBRIDGE, 5^ 
miles (N. E. by E.) from Ely j containing 3365 inhabit- 
ants. This parish, which is situated on the Ouse, com- 
prises by survey 15,557 acres : the village is on the 
road from Ely to Lynn, and a considerable traffic is 
carried on in corn and coal, for which the river affords 
great facility. The living is a vicarage, in the patron- 
age of the Bishop of Ely, valued in the king's books at 
8 ; impropriators, Master and Fellows of Clare Hall, 
Cambridge. The impropriate tithes have been com- 



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muted for 248, and the vicarial for 1931; the im- 
propriate glebe comprises 81 acres, and the vicarial 76 
acres. There are places of worship for Baptists, Hunt- 
ingtonians, Primitive Methodists, and Wesleyans ; and 
a national school is supported by subscription. 

LITTLETHORPE, a hamlet, in the parishes of 
COSBY and NARBOROUGH, union of BLABY, hundred of 
GUTHLAXTON, S. division of the county of LEICESTER, 
6 miles (S. W. by S.) from Leicester ; containing 334 
inhabitants. 

LITTLETON, a township, in the parish of CHRIS- 
TLETON, union of GREAT BOUGHTON, Lower division 
of the hundred of BROXTON, S. division of the county 
of CHESTER, 2| miles (E.) from Chester ; containing 
48 inhabitants, and comprising 245 acres. 

LITTLETON, partly in the parish of BLANDFORD 
ST. MARY, hundred of COOMBS-DITCH, and partly in 
that of LANGTON, hundred of PIMPERNE, union of 
BLANDFORD, Blandford division of DORSET, l mile 
(S. E. by S.) from Blandford-Forum. This place, once 
an independent parish, now contains only a single house 
and farm. The last rector of the living was inducted 
January 10th, 142?. 

LITTLETON (ST. MARY MAGDALENE), a parish, in 
the union of STAINES, hundred of SPELTHORNE, county 
of MIDDLESEX, 2 miles (N. E. by E.) from Chertsey ; 
containing 111 inhabitants. The parish comprises by 
measurement 1060 acres of arable and pasture land, 
much of which, from the supposed sterility of the soil, 
which is a light gravel, was not, till within a com- 
paratively recent period, brought into cultivation ; the 
surface is flat, and the lands bordering on the river 
Thames are subject to partial inundation. Part of the 
present mansion of Thomas Wood, Esq., was formerly 
one of five ancient manor-houses in the neighbourhood 
which belonged to Cardinal Wolsey. The living is a 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 14 ; net income, 
320 ; patron, Thomas Wood, sen., Esq. There are 50 
acres of glebe in the parish, an allotment of three acres 
in Laleham, and glebe lands in the parish of Shepper- 
ton ; and the rector is entitled to the tithe of 25 acres 
in the parish of Laleham. A school is endowed with 
355. 1. 2. South Sea annuities, purchased with the 
amount of various benefactions. 

LITTLETON (Sr. MARY MAGDALENE), a parish, in 
the union of NEW WINCHESTER, hundred of BUDDLES- 
GATE, Winchester and N. divisions of the county of 
SOUTHAMPTON, 3 miles (N. W. by N.) from Winches- 
ter ; containing 135 inhabitants. It comprises 1293 
acres, of which 244 are common or waste : an act of 
inclosure was passed in 1843. The living is a perpetual 
curacy; net income, 76; patrons and appropriators, 
Dean and Chapter of Winchester, whose tithes have 
been commuted for 703, and who have a glebe of 10 
acres. 

LITTLETON, a chapelry, in the parish of STEEPLE- 
ASHTON, union of MELKSHAM, hundred of WHOR- 
WELSDOWN, Melksham and N. divisions of WILTS, 3 
miles (E. N. E.) from Trowbridge ; containing 86 inha- 
bitants. 

LITTLETON- DREW (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the 
union and hundred of CHIPPENHAM, Chippenham and 
Calne, and N. divisions of WILTS, 8 miles (N. W.) from 
Chippenham; containing 251 inhabitants. The parish 
comprises by computation 900 acres, of which the soil 
102 



is generally clayey and cold : there are some quarries of 
stone, fit only for mending the roads. The living is 
a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at 
9. 6. 9., and in the gift of the Bishop of Salisbury : 
the tithes have been commuted for 120, and the glebe 
comprises 70 acres. The church is an ancient struc- 
ture. 

LITTLETON, HIGH (HOLY TRINITY), a parish, in 
the union of GLUTTON, hundred of CHEWTON, E. divi- 
sion of SOMERSET, 9 miles (S. W. by W.) from Bath ; 
containing, with the hamlet of Hallatrow, 1116 inha- 
bitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in 
the king's books at 7. 7. 8^. ; net income. 97 ; 
patrons, J. G. Mogg, Esq., and Rev. H. H. Mogg, in- 
cumbent; impropriators, J. G. Mogg, Esq., Mrs. James, 
and Miss Hodges Mogg. The great tithes have been 
commuted for 199, and the vicarial for 13. 6. 8. 
The church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, is an ancient 
structure ; in the chancel is a monument to the Mogg 
family, erected in 1584, from which time they have 
been owners of the greater part of the parish. There is 
a place of worship for Wesleyans. Mrs. Mary Jones, 
in 1787, left 1500 for charitable uses, the interest of 
500 whereof she directed to be distributed among the 
poor of High Littleton. 

LITTLETON, MIDDLE, a township, in the parish 
of NORTH LITTLETON, union of EVESHAM, Upper divi- 
sion of the hundred of BLACKENHURST, Pershore and 
E. divisions of the county of WORCESTER, 4^ miles (N. 
E. by E.) from Evesham ; containing 58 inhabitants. 
The tithes were commuted for land and corn-rents in 
1811. 

LITTLETON, NORTH (ST. NICHOLAS), a parish, in 
the union of EVESHAM, Upper division of the hundred of 
BLACKENHURST, Pershore and E. divisions of the county 
of WORCESTER, 5 miles (N. E.) from Evesham ; con- 
taining 296 inhabitants. The parish is situated in the 
south-eastern part of the county, between the left bank 
of the river Avon and a detached portion of Gloucester- 
shire, and comprises, with the township of Middle 
Littleton, 1512 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy, 
united to that of South Littleton, and valued in the 
king's books at 6. 13. 9. : the tithes were commuted 
for land and corn-rents in the year 1811. 

LITTLETON-PANNELL, a tything, in the parish 
of WEST LAVINGTON, union of DEVIZES, hundred of 
POTTERNE and CANNINGS, Devizes and N. divisions of 
WILTS, l mile (W.) from East Lavington ; containing 
507 inhabitants. 

LITTLETON, SOUTH (ST. MARY AND ST. NICHOLAS), 
a parish, in the union of EVESHAM, Upper division of 
the hundred of BLACKENHURST, Pershore and E. divi- 
sions of the county of WORCESTER, 3| miles (N. E. 
by E.) from Evesham ; containing 189 inhabitants. The 
parish lies near the borders of a detached portion of the 
county of Gloucester, and contains about 821 acres. 
The living is a perpetual curacy, with that of North 
Littleton united, valued in the king's books at 4. 1 . 10^.; 
net income, 258 ; patrons and appropriators, Dean 
and Canons of Christ- Church, Oxford. The tithes were 
commuted for land and corn-rents in 1811. Here is a 
school conducted upon the national system. 

LITTLETON-UPON-SEVERN, a parish, in the 
union of THORNBURY, Lower division of the hundred 
of LANGLEY and SWINEHEAD, W. division of the county 



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of GLOUCESTER, 2 miles (W.) from Thornbury ; con- 
taining 1Q5 inhabitants. The navigable river Severn 
runs on the western side of the parish. The living is 
a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at 
11. 4. 9^. ; net income, 52 ; patrons, Trustees of the 
late Sir H. C. Lippincott, Bart. 

LITTLETON, WEST, a chapelry, in the parish of 
TORMARTON, union of CHIPPING-SODBURY, Lower divi- 
sion of the hundred of GRUMBALD'S-ASH, W. division 
of the county of GLOUCESTER, 2^ miles (N.) from 
Marshfield ; containing 158 inhabitants. It comprises 
1009 acres, of which 88 are common or waste. 

LITTLE WORTH (HOLY ASCENSION), an ecclesiasti- 
cal district, in the union and hundred of FARRINGDON, 
county of BERKS, 2 miles (N. E.) from Great Farring- 
don ; containing, with the tything of Wadley, 325 in- 
habitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the 
patronage of the Bishop of Oxford. The chapel was 
consecrated on the 29th of May, 1839, and contains 200 
free sittings, the Incorporated Society having granted 
150 in aid of the expense : Oriel College, Oxford, gave 
1000 towards its endowment. A school is supported 
by subscription. 

LITTLEWORTH, a hamlet, in the parish of STONE, 
union and hundred of AYLESBURY, county of BUCKING- 
HAM ; containing 20 inhabitants. 

LITTLEWORTH, a hamlet, in the parish of WING, 
union of LEIGHTON-BUZZARD, hundred of COTTESLOE, 
county of BUCKINGHAM ; containing 90 inhabitants. 

LITTLEWORTH, an extra-parochial liberty, in the 
union of GLOUCESTER, Middle division of the hundred 
of DUDSTONE and KING'S-BARTON, E. division of the 
county of GLOUCESTER, and adjacent to the city of 
Gloucester ; containing 427 inhabitants. There is a 
place of worship for Wesleyans. 

LITTLINGTON (ST. CATHERINE), a parish, in the 
union of ROYSTON, hundred of ARMINGFORD, county 
of CAMBRIDGE, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Royston; 
containing 722 inhabitants. The parish comprises by 
measurement 2200 acres, of which the far greater por- 
tion is arable ; the soil is a light white loam, on a 
substratum of chalk, and has been much improved by 
draining ; the surface is undulated, and the scenery 
good. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the 
king's books at 5. 13. 7- ; patrons and impropriators, 
Master and Fellows of Clare Hall, Cambridge. The 
great tithes have been commuted for 550, and the 
vicarial for 225 ; the impropriate glebe contains 34-| 
acres, and the vicarial 8^. The church is principally in 
the early, with some insertions in the later, English 
style. A Roman cemetery has been discovered, whence 
many cinerary urns and other ancient vessels have been 
obtained ; and several Saxon coins, principally of the 
reign of Burhred, have also been found. 

LITTLINGTON, a parish, in the union of EAST- 
BOURNE, hundred of LONGBRIDGE, rape of PEVENSEY, 
E. division of SUSSEX, 10 miles (S. E.) from Lewes ; 
containing 140 inhabitants. It is bounded on the west 
by the Cuckmere river, which separates it from the 
parish of Alfriston ; and comprises by computation 720 
acres. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the 
king's books at 12. 13. 6.5 net income, 100 ; patron, 
Rev. Thomas Scabett. The church is in the early Eng- 
lish style, with a spire springing from the western gable j 
in the chancel is an arched recess of elegant design, and 
103 



opposite to it, on the other side, are two small stalls, 
with a piscina. 

LITTON, a hamlet, in the parish of TIDESWELL, 
union of BAKEWELL, hundred of HIGH PEAK, N. divi- 
sion of the county of DERBY, f- of a mile (E. S. E.) from 
Tideswell ; containing 864 inhabitants. The celebrated 
nonconformist divine, W. Bagshaw, commonly called 
the Apostle of the Peak, was born here in 1628. 

LITTON, a township, in the parish of PRESTEIGN, 
union of KNIGHTON, hundred of WIGMORE, county of 
HEREFORD, 3 miles (N. W. by N.) from Presteign ; 
containing, with part of Cascob, 102 inhabitants. It 
comprises 598 acres, and is seated between two branches 
of the river Lug, and also intersected by the road from 
Kington to Knighton. The place forms a detached 
portion of the county, locally in Radnorshire, South 
Wales, and for electoral purposes annexed to that 
county. 

LITTON (ST. PETER), a parish, in the union of 
GLUTTON, hundred of WELLS-FORUM, E. division of 
SOMERSET, 6 miles (N. N. E.) from Wells; containing 
430 inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 8. 12. 8., and in the 
gift of the Prebendary of Litton in the Cathedral of 
Wells : the tithes have been commuted for 160. 

LITTON, a township, in the parish of ARNCLIFFE, 
union of SETTLE, W. division of the wapentake of 
STAINCLIFFE and EWCROSS, W. riding of YORK, 1 1 miles 
(N. E.) from Settle ; containing 107 inhabitants. The 
township occupies a beautiful position in the picturesque 
valley of Littondale, and comprises by computation 6850 
acres, of which a considerable part is inclosed and under 
good cultivation : the village is pleasantly situated on 
the Skirfare, one of the streams that form the source of 
the river Wharfe. The impropriate tithes have been 
commuted for 58. 17. 2., payable to University College, 
Oxford, and there is a glebe of 3 acres. A small sum 
has been bequeathed for the benefit of the poor. 

LITTON-CHENEY (S T . MARY), a parish, in the 
union of BRIDPORT, hundred of UGGSCOMBE, Dorchester 
division of DORSET, 6f miles (E. S. E.) from Bridport ; 
containing 463 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 33. 7- 8^., and in the 
gift of the Rev. James Cox, D.D. : the tithes have been 
commuted for 650, and there is a glebe of 1 17 acres. 
The church is in the later English style, and has a fine 
tower with battlements and pinnacles. In 1690, Robert 
Thornhill bequeathed 25 per annum for the mainte- 
nance of a free school, and part of 75 per annum for 
apprenticing children of various places. In 1771,Thos. 
Hollis gave 2 acres of land, and a house for a school- 
master's residence. 

LIVEDEN. See ALDWINKLE, ST. PETER'S. 

LIVERMERE, GREAT (ST. PETER), a parish, in 
the union of THINGOE, hundred of THEDWASTRY, W. 
division of SUFFOLK, 5f miles (N. N. E.) from Bury 
St. Edmund's ; containing 320 inhabitants. The parish, 
with that of Little Livermere, comprises 1800 acres by 
computation ; the soil is light but fertile, and the sur- 
face is generally level. The living is a rectory, with 
that of Little Livermere united, valued in the king's 
books at 15. 8. ll., and in the patronage of the Dow- 
ager Lady Middleton ; net income, 443. There is a 
national school ; also a considerable feoffment estate for 
the benefit of the inhabitants. 



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LIVERMERE, LITTLE (Sx. PETER), a parish, in 
the union of THINGOE, hundred of BLACKBOURN, W. 
division of SUFFOLK, 6J miles (N. N. E.) from Bury St. 
Edmund's ; containing 172 inhabitants. The living is 
a discharged rectory, united to that of Great Livermere, 
and valued in the king's books at 6. 12. 1 1. 

LIVERPOOL, a sea-port, 
borough, market-town, and 
union of itself, having se- 
parate jurisdiction, locally 
in the hundred of WEST 
DERBY, S. division of the 
county of LANCASTER, 53 
miles (S. by W.) from Lan- 
caster, and 205 (N. W. by 
N.) from London ; contain- 
ing 223,003 inhabitants, and, 
including the contiguous 
townships of Everton, Kirk- 




Arms. 



dale, West Derby, and Toxteth-Park, which are sepa- 
rated only by a boundary street, 294,389, exclusively of 
seamen. This celebrated town has, within the last cen- 
tury, by a progressive increase in extent, population, and 
commercial importance, obtained the first rank after the 
metropolis. Baxter, in his Glossary, calls it Segantiorum 
Portus ad ostium Amnis Mersey sive Tinnce, a statement 
which is contradicted by Whitaker, the Manchester histo- 
rian, who places the Sistuntian port on the river Ribble : 
the ancient name of the Mersey is also a subject of dif- 
ference of opinion, Beli-sama being adopted by Whitaker, 
whilst Baxter gives that name to the Ribble. Liverpool 
is not noticed in any of the Roman Itinera, nor does the 
name occur in the Norman survey ; its site, however, is 
contained within the limits of the West Derbyshire 
Forest, which, prior to the Conquest, was royal demesne, 
and in the possession of Edward the Confessor. After 
the Conquest it was bestowed by William, together with 
all the land between the Ribble and Mersey, upon Roger 
de Poictiers, by whom it was subsequently forfeited. It 
was then granted to the earls of Chester, and on for- 
feiture by their descendants, to Edmund, son of Henry 
III., as parcel of the honour of Lancaster ; and it con- 
tinued an integral part of the duchy possessions until 
its alienation by Charles I., in the year 1628. Regard- 
ing the etymology of the name, various opinions Have 
been entertained. John, whilst Earl of Morton, and in 
possession of the honour of Lancaster, confirmed a 
grant made by his father, Henry II., to Warin de Lan- 
caster, of Liverpul, with other places, under a certain 
reddendum. In subsequent records it is written Lyrpul, 
Lytherpul, Lytherpole, &c., signifying probably, in the 
ancient dialect of the county, the " lower pool." Some 
have deduced its etymology from a pool frequented by 
an aquatic fowl called a " Liver," or from a sea-weed of 
that name. 

Camden informs us that the castle was built by Roger 
de Poictiers, about the year 1089, and that he appointed 
Vivian de Molines, ancestor of the Earl of Sefton's 
family, the castellan. In October, 1323, Edward II. 
dated some orders from it ; and in April, 1358, Henry, 
Duke of Lancaster, made it his residence for upwards 
of a month. It was demolished by order of parlia- 
ment during the Commonwealth, and subsequently was 
granted by Queen Anne to the corporation, who erected 
St. George's church upon it. The tower formerly at the 
104 



bottom of Water- street was, most probably, built by the 
De Latham family, of whom Isabella, heiress of Sir 
Thomas de Latham, about the latter end of the fourteenth 
century, married Sir John Stanley, who, in the 7th of 
Henry IV., obtained permission from the king to em- 
battle and fortify his house built of stone and mortar at 
Liverpool. It was subsequently the occasional residence 
of the Stanleys, eacls of Derby, and after having been 
successively converted into a suite of assembly-rooms 
and a prison, was taken down in 1819, when warehouses 
were erected on the site. King John, in the 9th year of 
his reign, gave to Henry Fitzwarin de Lancaster, an 
estate near Preston, forming part of the possessions of 
the honour of Lancaster, in exchange for Liverpool, upon 
which occasion he granted a charter to the place. Henry 
III., in 1229, made the town a free borough, instituted 
a guild-merchant, and bestowed additional privileges. 
Little is known of the state of the town during the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries ; in the latter of which, 
Leland, writing in 1558, describes it as a paved town 
much frequented as a good haven by Irish merchants, 
and as supplying Manchester with yarn imported from 
Ireland. From this period, however, till the latter part 
of the reign of Elizabeth, it appears to have declined 
probably from the baneful consequences of the pro- 
tracted wars between the houses of York and Lancaster. 
In 1571, the inhabitants petitioned the queen to be 
relieved from a subsidy imposed on them, and in their 
petition described it as " Her Majesty's poor decayed 
town of Liverpool ;" and in 1630, when writs were 
issued by Charles I. for the levying of ship-money, the 
town was rated only at 26, while Bristol was assessed 
at 1000. During the civil war, the place was defended 
for the parliamentarians by Col. Moore, against Prince 
Rupert, by whom it was besieged, and to whom, after 
an obstinate resistance, it surrendered, June 26th, 1644, 
but was soon after retaken by the parliament. During 
the rebellion in 1745, Liverpool raised several regiments 
to oppose the Pretender ; and within twelve months 
after the war with France broke out, in 1778, 120 pri- 
vateers, carrying in the aggregate 1986 guns, and 8754 
seamen, were equipped here. 

The TOWN is beautifully situated on the east bank of 
the river Mersey, along which it extends for more than 
three miles. On its west side are the immense ranges of 
docks, wharfs, and warehouses, in the neighbourhood of 
which the streets are mostly narrow, and the houses in- 
ferior in appearance to those of more recent erection. 
On the east side, to which it stretches, for upwards of a 
mile, are spacious streets, squares, and crescents of mo- 
dern houses, built chiefly of brick and roofed with slate, 
and of which many are elegant mansions. The town is 
well paved, and brilliantly lighted with gas, by two com- 
panies, one established in 1818, for the supply of coal 
gas, and the other for the preparation of oil gas, in 1823. 
The inhabitants, and the shipping in the docks, are sup- 
plied with water from the springs at Bootle, about four 
miles distant, by the company of the Bootle water-works, 
and from springs in or contiguous to the town, by the 
company of the Liverpool and Harrington water- works. 
The air is highly salubrious, and the convenience of sea- 
bathing is afforded by the construction of baths of every 
description, erected by the corporation ; by private esta- 
blishments of a similar nature ; by a floating-bath, and 
by numerous machines. Steam- boats are constantly 



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sailing to and from the ferries on the Cheshire shore ; 
and every facility of aquatic excursions may be obtained 
by packets and pleasure-boats, which are in constant 
attendance. The docks afford delightful promenades, 
commanding extensive views of the river and of the ship- 
ping, and Prince's pier, or Marine parade, is perhaps one 
of the finest, marine walks in the kingdom. The public 
buildings, which are extremely handsome, give an air of 
grandeur to the town ; and its many sources of refined 
amusement and social intercourse, render it, indepen- 
dently of its mercantile attractions, a desirable place of 
residence. The environs are pleasant, abounding with 
interesting scenery, and with seats and villas. 

The public Subscription libraries are numerous and 
well selected. The Athenaeum, a neat building of stone, 
erected in 1799, at an expense of 4400, contains a 
newsroom, and a library of above 16,500 volumes. The 
Lyceum, a handsome edifice of the Ionic order, was 
erected by public subscription, in 1802, at a cost of 
11,000, and contains a well-selected library of 31,000 
volumes, conveniently arranged in a circular room, taste- 
fully decorated with busts, and lighted by a dome. The 
Union newsroom, a substantial building, was erected by 
subscription, in 1800, at an expense of 6000, and con- 
tains a spacious coffee-room, with two recesses at the 
end, ornamented with Ionic pillars : over the entrance 
to the bar, is a painting, by Fuseli, emblematical of the 
Union ; and on the parapet above the entrance are the 
Union arms, finely sculptured. The Exchange newsroom 
occupies the lower story of the east wing of that splendid 
edifice. The Royal Institution, a spacious and handsome 
structure, the purchase and adaptation of which to its 
purpose cost 14,000, raised in shares of 100, consists 
of a centre and two wings, and contains, on the ground- 
floor, reading, lecture, and committee rooms, and clas- 
sical and mathematical schoolrooms j and on the first- 
floor, a large room for the Literary and Philosophical 
Society, a library, a museum, a spacious exhibition-room 
for the members of the Liverpool academy of painting, 
an exhibition-room for casts from the Elgin and Egina 
marbles, a drawing schoolroom, and a committee-room. 
On the roof is an observatory, and behind the principal 
building are a laboratory and a theatre for chemical and 
philosophical experiments. This institution was formed 
in 1814, for the advancement of literature, science, and 
the arts, and the members were incorporated by royal 
charter in 182*2. The Collegiate Institution, for the edu- 
cation of the commercial, trading, and working classes, 
in accordance with the doctrines of the Church of Eng- 
land, and of which the first stone was laid by Lord Stan- 
ley, in 1840, is a fine structure, in the later English 
style. The principal front, in Shaw-street, consists of a 
centre and two slightly projecting wings ; the central 
range is three stories high, lighted by windows of ele- 
gant design, and has a boldly projecting porch, form- 
ing the chief entrance, above which is a lofty arch, rising 
to the battlement, and surmounted by an ornamented 
gable. The wings are adorned with a lofty oriel window, 
surmounted by a canopied niche, containing a statue on 
a pedestal ; and the whole structure, which is of red 
sandstone found in the neighbourhood, has an impres- 
sive aspect. The Mechanics' Institute, opened in 1837, is 
on the south side of Mount-street, and contains a library, 
reading room, museum, &c. ; the cost of erection was 
about 1 0,000. In 1 838, a Statistical Society was founded. 
VOL. III. 105 



The Medical Institution is a new edifice at the angle 
between Hope-street and Mount-street, in the south- 
eastern part of the town, and contains a lecture-room, 
library, and three museum-rooms. An Apothecaries' 
Company was formed in 1837, and a hall in Colquit- 
street was completed for it in 1838. The Botanic Gar- 
dens, situated in Edge-lane, about a mile from the town, 
afford not only a practical illustration of the lectures 
delivered on that subject at the Royal Institution, but 
an interesting and pleasing source of recreation. The 
Museum, in Church-street, consists of two apartments, 
in one of which a collection of natural productions is 
displayed, and in the other is a variety of ancient armour 
and warlike weapons and instruments. An extensive 
Zoological Garden was opened in the summer of 1833, 
and is laid out with great taste. The New Baths, on the 
west side of George's Dock, built by the corporation, at 
an expense of about 30,000, form a neat range of stone, 
239 feet in length, and 87 in depth ; and in front is a 
good promenade, on the margin of the river. The 
Theatre Royal, on the east side of Williamson-square, 
opened in 1772, is a neat edifice of brick, with a circular 
stone front, ornamented with the royal arms, and with 
emblematical figures in bas relief; in 1837, it was en- 
tirely re-decorated and embellished : the season com- 
mences in May, and closes in December. The Amphi- 
theatre, in Great Charlotte- street, is the largest theatre 
in the town, and is open during the winter : the Liver 
Theatre was opened in 1825. The Wellington Rooms 
were built by subscription in 1815 : in the centre of the 
front, which is of stone, is a lofty circular portico of the 
Corinthian order, from which two doors open into an 
octangular vestibule, beyond which is an ante-room 
leading on the right and left into card and supper 
rooms, and in the centre into a ball-room. The Ro- 
tunda is a handsome circular building of brick, now 
used as a billiard-room by a select number of subscrib- 
ers. At the entrance into the town from London is an 
equestrian statue of George III., the first, stone of the 
pedestal for which was laid in Great George- square, by 
the mayor and corporation, on the 25th of October, 1809, 
but it has been since removed to its present site ; it is 
of bronze, a copy of that of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius 
at Rome, and the expense, amounting to nearly 4000, 
was defrayed by subscription. The Races take place in 
May, July, and October : the course at Aintree, five 
miles to the north-north-east of the town, is a mile and 
a half in length ; and there is a smaller course used as 
a training-ground, in the inner circle. Six common 
stands have been built, capable of accommodating 6000 
persons : the grand stand, erected in 1829, is four 
stories in height ; the leads, commanding a view of the 
whole course, and a most beautiful and extensive pro- 
spect of the surrounding country, can accommodate 
2000 persons. 

The most remarkable feature in the history of the 
place is, the extraordinary rapidity with which it has 
risen into a degree of importance without example in the 
annals of any country. Among the causes which have 
produced its elevation to a rank but partially inferior 
to that of the metropolis, are, its situation on the shore 
of a noble river, which expands into a wide estuary ; its 
proximity to the Irish coast ; its central position with 
respect to the United Kingdom ; its intimate con- 
nexion with the principal manufacturing districts, and 



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with every part of the kingdom, by numerous rivers, 
canals, and railroads ; and the persevering industry and 
enterprising spirit of its inhabitants. For the collection 
of customs, &c., due to the crown, Liverpool was an- 
ciently a member of the port of Chester ; but, as is 
evident from records belonging to the corporation, it 
was an independent port so early as the year 1335. The 
COMMERCE may be divided into three distinct branches. 
Of these, the first and most important is its trade with 
Ireland, which appears to have been established, or 
greatly promoted, by the settlement of several mercantile 
families here from that country, about the middle of the 
sixteenth century ; at that time, only fifteen vessels, of 
the aggregate burthen of 259 tons, belonged to the port, 
but Liverpool now enjoys about two-fifths of the Irish 
trade, the gross value of the Irish produce imported 
averaging about five millions annually. The second 
principal branch of trade is that with the United States 
of America, of which it engrosses more than three- 
fourths of the whole commerce of the kingdom : the 
chief article traded in is cotton wool, which may be con- 
sidered as forming the staple trade of the town ; Man- 
chester and the cotton manufacturing districts are sup- 
plied from the port with the raw material ; and the 
sales of cotton, which upon an average exceed 17,000 
bales per week, are negotiated by brokers, of whom 
there is a considerable number. The port has great 
facility and frequency of intercourse with the sea-ports 
of the United States, by regular lines of packets. The 
old line of New York packets, consisting of eight ves- 
sels, sail on the 7th and 1 9th of every month ; the new 
line, consisting of twelve vessels, sail on the 1st, 13th, 
and '25th of each month ; and a steam- vessel, called the 
"Liverpool," of 1150 tons' burthen, and 461 horse- 
power, sailed on her first voyage from the port to New 
York on the 28th of October. 1838, and continues to 
sail on the 28th of each alternate month. The Phila- 
delphia packets sail from Liverpool on the 8th and 21st 
of the month ; and those for Boston always monthly, 
and sometimes twice in the month. There are four 
government steam-packets for the conveyance of the 
mail to the United States, two of which leave the port 
on the 4th and 19th of each month, and which, on their 
return, quit the States on the same days in the follow- 
ing month, and are due in 13 days. The average annual 
import of tobacco from the States to Liverpool is 7500 
hogsheads. The trade with the South American states is 
also of importance. The next in extent is the trade 
carried on with the West Indies, which had its commence- 
ment about the middle of the seventeenth century, and 
which was previously shared between London and 
Bristol. It has also the advantages of a considerable 
trade with the East Indies, the principal ports in the 
Mediterranean and Levant seas, and the British colonies 
in North America. A limited but rapidly increasing in- 
tercourse is maintained with New South Wales and 
South Shetland ; and in that with the Isle of Man about 
130 vessels are employed. The coasting trade, likewise, 
is highly profitable. The fisheries do not appear ever to 
have been very extensive; in 1764, three ships were 
engaged in the Greenland whale fishery, which number 
had increased, in 1*88, to twenty-one, but from that 
time the trade began to decline, and has now ceased to 
exist, and the home fishery has diminished materially. 
The exports are principally the manufactured articles of 
106 



the neighbouring districts, the official declared value 
being about 22,000,000 annually, exceeding the similar 
export of London, and being nearly one-half of that of 
the United Kingdom. The number of vessels of above 
fifty tons registered at the port is 1097, and their aggre- 
gate burthen 307,852 tons. The number of British 
vessels that entered inwards in the year 1842, was 2501, 
of the aggregate burthen of 618,624 tons; and in the 
same year, 978 foreign vessels entered inwards, of the 
burthen of 369,966 tons. The amount of duties paid 
at the custom-house in 1841, was 4,140,593 ; the ex- 
penses of the establishment were 1 10,633, and the net 
revenue remitted to London was 3,985,669. In addi- 
tion to the regular packets for America, packets sail for 
Rio Janeiro, Havannah, Montreal, Naples, Genoa, Leg- 
horn, Smyrna, Constantinople, Lisbon, and Oporto ; 
and there are seventy steam-vessels established between 
the port and Ireland, the Isle of Man, Scotland, Wales, 
Carlisle, Whitehaven, and Lancaster ; besides which 
there are twenty belonging to the different ferries on 
the Mersey. Steam-packets sail regularly to Dublin, 
morning and evening, on the arrival of the mail train 
from London. 

The HARBOUR is capacious and secure. At the en- 
trance of the river is the Black Rock lighthouse, 
erected on a point of rock on the western coast, which 
is covered at quarter flood, and above the surface of 
which the water at high spring tides rises 20 feet. This 
lighthouse was built at the expense of the corporation, 
from a design by the late Mr. John Foster, at an 
expense of 34,500, and assigned to the Dock estate 
at a nominal rent; the structure is of limestone brought 
from Beaumaris, and was completed, and the light 
first exhibited, on the 1st of March, 1830 ; it is trian- 
gular, and presents successively two lights of a natural 
colour, and one of brilliant red, every minute. A floating 
light has also been placed eleven miles seaward from the 
mouth of the river, by the corporation, in their character 
of trustees of the docks ; and pilot-boats stationed there 
are constantly on the look-out. A new channel called 
the Victoria Channel, near Formby Point, has been lately 
opened by dredging ; and a lighthouse has been erected 
at Crosby Point, which, in conjunction with a light- 
vessel moored iu the Crosby Channel, renders the port 
easy of access at all times of the tide either by day or 
night. A telegraph has been established, by means of 
which communications have been interchanged between 
this town and Holyhead, distant 7*2 miles, in the space 
of three minutes. 

For the security of the 
shipping in the port, and 
for the greater facility of 
loading and unloading mer- 
chandise, an immense range 
of DOCKS and warehouses, 
extending upwards of two 
miles along the eastern bank 
of the river, has been con- 
structed, on a scale of un- 
paralleled magnificence, and 
forming one of those cha- 
racteristics of commercial 
greatness in which this town 
is unrivalled. The docks are of three kinds, the wet, the 
dry, and the graving, and there are also half-tide docks : 




Seal of the Trustees of 
the Docks. 



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the wet docks are principally for ships of great burthen, 
employed in the foreign trade, and which float in them 
at all states of the tide, the water being retained by 
gates ; the dry docks, so called because they are left 
dry when the tide is out, are chiefly appropriated to 
coasting vessels j and the graving docks, which admit 
or exclude the water at pleasure, are adapted to the 
repair of ships, during which they are kept dry, and 
when completed are floated out by admitting the tide. 
The Old dock, which was the first of the kind constructed 
in England, was opened in 1699, and closed in 1826, 
when its site, having been filled up, was appropriated to 
the erection of the custom-house, and other offices con- 
nected with the trade of the port. The Canning dock, 
which was a dry dock till 1832, was constructed under 
the authority of an act passed in the llth of George II., 
and is chiefly occupied by sloops from the North coast, 
which bring corn, provisions, and slate, and convey 
back the produce of the West Indies, the Mediterranean, 
Portugal, and the Baltic ; it has a quay 500 yards in 
length, and has communication with three graving 
docks. The Salthouse dock, so named from some salt- 
works formerly contiguous to it, was constructed about 
the same time as the Canning dock ; the upper part of 
it is chiefly for ships that are laid up, and the lower for 
vessels in the Levant, Irish, and coasting trades j the 
quay is 759 yards in extent, and is provided with con- 
venient warehouses, with arcades for foot passengers on 
the east side, and extensive sheds on the west side. 
George s dock, constructed in the 2nd of George III., 
at an expense of 21,000, was originally 246 yards 
in length, and 100 yards in breadth, with a quay of 700 
yards in extent, but has been enlarged, and the quay is 
now 1000 yards in length. On the east side is a range 
of extensive warehouses, in front of which is an arcade 
for foot passengers j at the north and south ends of the 
dock are handsome cast-iron bridges ; and a parade is 
continued westward for a considerable distance into the 
river. This dock has a communication with the two 
preceding docks, and also with the Prince's dock, by 
basins, which preclude the necessity of returning into 
the river. 

The King's dock, constructed in the 25th of George 
III., is 2/0 yards in length and 95 in breadth, and is 
appropriated to vessels from Virginia and other parts, 
laden with tobacco, which article is exclusively landed 
here. The new tobacco warehouses extend the whole 
length of the quay, on the west side, and are 575 feet 
in length and 239 in depth ; the old warehouses, on the 
opposite side, have been converted into sheds for the 
security of merchandise. Ships from the Baltic, 
freighted with timber and naval stores, discharge their 
cargoes on the quay ; across the entrance is a handsome 
swivel bridge of cast-iron. This dock has a communica- 
tion on the south with a dry dock and two graving docks. 
The Queen s dock, constructed at the same time, is 470 
yards long and 227^ in breadth, with a spacious quay, 
and is chiefly occupied by vessels freighted with timber, 
and by those employed in the Dutch and Baltic trades ; 
at the south end it communicates with a basin of con- 
siderable extent called the Brunswick half-tide dock, 
which is also connected with the Brunswick dry basin. 
On the south of the half-tide dock is a new dock of larger 
dimensions than any of the preceding, for vessels laden 
with timber, called the Brunswick dock, with a basin 
107 



to the west of it ; also the Harrington dock and three 
graving docks for the repairing of vessels. The Princes 
dock, constructed under an act passed in the 51st of 
George III., was opened with great ceremony on the 19th 
of July, 1821, the day of the coronation of George IV. ; 
it is 500 yards in length, and 106 in breadth. At the 
north is a spacious basin belonging to it, and at the 
south it communicates with the basin of George's 
dock ; at the north end is a handsome dwelling-house 
for the dock-master, with suitable offices ; and at the 
south end is a house in which the master of George's 
dock resides. To the north of the basin belonging to 
this dock are three new docks, the Waterloo, Victoria, 
and Trafalgar ; the Waterloo dock was opened in 1834, 
and the others on September 8th, 1836. To the north- 
ward of these, are the Clarence dock and basin, completed 
in September, 1830, and appropriated solely to the use 
of the steam-vessels trading to and from the port ; and 
also two capacious graving-docks, which will probably 
for the present terminate the range of docks on the 
north side of the town. The Duke's dock, between Salt- 
house and the King's docks, is a small one belonging 
to the trustees of the late Duke of Bridgewater, for the 
use of flats, with commodious warehouses. The several 
carriers by water have also convenient basins on the 
river, for the use of their barges, with quays for loading 
and unloading their goods ; and the Mersey and Irwell 
Navigation Company have a small dock, called the Man- 
chester dock, for the flats employed in that extensive 
trade, and for the transport to this town of the produc- 
tions of Cheshire and the adjoining counties. The 
Waterloo, Victoria, and Trafalgar docks are the means 
of establishing a communication between the line of 
docks from Clarence to the Salthouse. The whole range 
of the docks is 2 miles in length, exclusively of the 
openings to them, and the total area of water space con- 
tained in them is upwards of 90 statute acres j yet, spa- 
cious as they are, they are still considered inadequate to 
the increasing commerce of the port, and measures are 
in contemplation for their further extension. The sums 
expended in their formation amount to more than 
3,000,000 sterling. The internal management of each 
is entrusted to a master resident on the spot, and the 
government of the whole is vested, by an act of parlia- 
ment obtained in 1825, in a committee of 21 members, 
13 of whom are members of the council, elected by that 
body, and the remaining 8 are elected by the dock rate- 
payers. An act of parliament was passed in 1841, em- 
powering these trustees to purchase certain graving 
docks of the town council, with a view to make a wet 
dock, with basins, piers, wharfs, &c., to the west of the 
Salthouse dock, which is to be extended ; to enlarge 
graving docks for the better accommodation of steam 
and other vessels ; to make new graving docks ; and to 
erect inclined planes or patent-slips, warehouses, &c., 
with various other improvements. 

The new Custom-house, the foundation-stone of which 
was laid on the 12th of August, 1828, was erected 011 
the site of the Old dock, at the joint expense of govern- 
ment and the corporation, and under the superintend- 
ence of Mr. John Foster ; it is in the Grecian style, 
and presents, from every point of view, an object of 
great magnificence, unrivalled by any public building 
of the kind. The eastern wing has apartments allotted 
for the dock-trust, the excise, and post-office; the 



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western wing and centre are occupied by the customs : 
in the eastern wing, upon the landing-place, is a large 
model of a man-of-war. The Exchange buildings, erected 
by the late Mr. Foster, at a cost of 110,848, sub- 
scribed in shares of 100 each, were completed in 
1809, and occupy three sides of a quadrangular area, 
the north front of the town-hall forming the fourth side. 
The three sides of the quadrangle have a piazza 15 feet 
in width ; and in the centre of the area is a monument 
to the memory of Lord Nelson, erected by subscription 
in 1813, at an expense of 9000, and placed on a cir- 
cular pedestal of marble, round the base of which are 
four figures of captives, emblematical of the four prin- 
cipal victories gained by that admiral. In the spaces 
between these figures are representations, in basso-re- 
lievo, of some of his naval exploits ; and on the pedestal 
is the figure of the admiral, receiving on his sword a 
fourth naval crown from Victory, while, at the same 
moment, a figure of Death appears rising from behind 
the drapery of the fallen standards of the vanquished 
enemy. 

The MANUFACTURES of the town are principally such 
as are connected with the port and the shipping, the 
promotion of its commerce, and the supply of the inha- 
bitants. There are several sugar refineries upon a very 
large scale, extensive potteries, glass-houses, breweries, 
tanneries, salt and copperas works, iron and brass 
foundries ; foundries for cannon, anchors, chain-cables, 
and the several parts of machinery connected with 
steam-engines ; manufactories for steam engines, steam- 
boilers, and machinery of all kinds, and for guns, small 
arms, nails, files, ropes, sails, cordage, watches, tobacco, 
snuff, and soap ; also numerous corn-mills, and others 
for grinding mustard, colours, and dye-woods. The 
manufacture of soap exceeds that of any place in 
England, and that of tobacco and snuff is very exten- 
sive ; the number of watches made annually, on an 
average, amounts to 1 1,500, a number greater than that 
of any place, except London. Many shipwrights are 
constantly employed in repairing the vessels in the 
docks; ship-building is carried on to a considerable ex- 
tent, and the building of steam-packets, and the manu- 
facture of engines and boilers for their use, have much 
increased within the last few years. The trade of the 
town is greatly facilitated by an extensive line of 
inland navigation in every direction, and by railways, 
by which it is connected with the manufacturing dis- 
tricts and the principal towns in the kingdom. No less 
than five artificial lines of communication by water 
join the river Mersey ; viz., the Mersey and Irwell navi- 
gation, the Duke of Bridgewater's canal, the Sankey 
canal, the Chester and Ellesmere canal, and the Weaver 
navigation : the first communicates with Manchester, 
and with Bolton and Bury by a canal to those towns. 
The Duke of Bridgewater's also connects Liverpool with 
Manchester ; by the Rochdale canal, with Hull and the 
southern parts of Yorkshire, and, by means of the 
Grand Trunk canal, with almost every other canal or 
inland navigation south of Lancashire. The Sankey 
canal runs in the direction of the extensive coal-mines 
of St. Helen's and its neighbourhood. The Chester and 
Ellesmere canal, now united to the Birmingham canal in 
Worcestershire, opens a traffic with the southern parts 
of England, and with the mining districts of North and 
South Wales. The Weaver is the great medium of con- 
108 



veyance for the produce of the salt-mines at North- 
wich and its neighbourhood. In addition to these is the 
Leeds and Liverpool canal, affording intercourse, by the 
Lancaster canal, with the north part of Lancashire j 
by means of a cut lately made to the Duke of Bridge- 
water's canal, with Manchester; and, as the name im- 
ports, with Leeds, and consequently with the principal 
manufacturing towns in Yorkshire. The Liverpool and 
Manchester railway appears, from the complete success 
with which the undertaking was attended, to have led 
to the introduction of that mode of conveyance, not 
only into different parts of England, but also of Europe 
and America ; it was commenced in May, 1826, com- 
pleted at an expense of 1,407,170, and opened to the 
public in September, 1830. The line proceeds from the 
station in Lime-street, under a portion of the town, 
through a tunnel 2000 yards long, and 97 feet wide, to 
Edgehill, where are two fixed engines for working the 
trains, and from which point two other tunnels branch 
off, also passing under the town. One of these is 2000 
yards long, 17 feet wide, and 12 feet high, and ascends 
in its progress to Crown-street, where is a depot con- 
sisting of a foundry, smithy, and workshops for the 
making and repairing of engines and carriages ; and the 
other, 2216 feet in length, 22 feet broad, and 16 feet 
high, descends to Wapping, and the King's dock quay, 
where are a very extensive dep6t and range of ware- 
houses, offices, sheds for 420 waggons, and other requi- 
sites, and from which not less than 700 tons of goods 
are daily forwarded by the railway. The station in Lime- 
street is a handsome range of the Corinthian order, with 
two lofty gateways for the reception of passengers and 
merchandise ; there are four lines of way, above which 
are extensive ranges of building, for the construction 
and repair of carriages, supported on cast-iron pillars ; 
and within the area are refreshment and waiting-rooms 
for passengers, and the booking-offices for the main line, 
and for the Grand Junction Company ; the whole 
erected at an expense of 120,000. 

The chartered MARKET days are Wednesday and 
Saturday, but there are markets for provisions every 
day in the week : the days for corn are Tuesday, Fri- 
day, and Saturday, from ten o'clock in the morning till 
one, the market being held in the Corn-exchange, a neat 
building, opened by subscription August 4th, 1808, with 
an entrance in the centre into the lower area, and the 
basement story ornamented with Doric columns, sup- 
porting a cornice and entablature. Numerous covered 
market-places have been formed, and buildings erected, 
for the convenience of persons attending them : of these, 
the principal is St. John's market-place, nearly in the 
centre of the town, begun in August, 1820, and com- 
pleted in February, 1822, by the corporation, at an ex- 
pense of 36,813 ; the building is of brick, with en- 
trances and cornices of stone. St. James' market, erected 
by the corporation, at a cost of 13,662, is used by the 
inhabitants of the south part of the town, Harrington, 
and the Park ; and St. Martins, built by the same body, 
at an expense of 16,500, accommodates the northern 
portion of the town, Everton, and Kirkdale. At the 
north end of St. John's market, is the Fish hall, the 
property of an enterprising company ; and in addition 
to these are, a new Jish market opposite to the eastern 
entrance of St. John's market, in Great Charlotte-street, 
opened February 8th, 1837 j the partially-covered mar- 



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ket of Islington ; the open market in Cleveland- square ; 
the cattle and hay markets in Lime-street ; a pig market, 
in Great Howard-street ; and an extensive cattle market, 
formed by subscription, about two miles and a half from 
the town, and which covers an area of five acres, with 
pens for 14,000 sheep, 1600 head of cattle, six offices 
for salesmen, and a good hotel attached. The fairs are 
on July 25th and Nov. llth : ten days before and after 
each fair, a hand is displayed in front of the town-hall, 
during which time every person entering or leaving the 
town on business connected with the fairs is free from 
arrest for debt within its liberties. 

King John, in the 9th year 
of his reign, gave to Henry 
Fitzwarin de Lancaster au 
estate near Preston, part of 
the possessions of the honour 
of Lancaster, in exchange for 
Liverpool, upon which place 
he then bestowed a CHARTER; 
and Henry III., in 1229? con- 
firmed this grant, made the 
town a free borough, insti- 
tuted a guild-merchant, and 
conferred additional privi- Corporation Seal. 

leges. These charters were ratified by Edward III., 
Richard II., Henry IV., and Philip and Mary ; and 
others were bestowed by Charles I., James II., William 
and Mary, William III., and George II., III., and IV., 
under which the controul was vested in a mayor, recor- 
der, two bailiffs, an indefinite number of aldermen, a 
town-clerk, and others, composing a common-council of 
41, assisted by subordinate officers. The borough is 
now governed by a mayor, 16 aldermen, and 48 council- 
lors, under the act of the 5th and 6th of William IV., 
cap. 76, and is divided into 16 wards, the municipal 
boundaries being co-extensive with those for parliament- 
ary purposes; the number of magistrates is 43, and 
there is also a stipendiary police magistrate, who is a 
barrister. The freedom is inherited by birth, and ac- 
quired by servitude ; and confers, among other privi- 
leges, that of exemption from payment of the town 
duties. The borough first exercised the elective franchise 
in the 23rd of Edward I., but made no other return till 
the reign of Edward VI., since which time it has con- 
tinued to send two members to parliament. By the act 
of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, the privilege of 
voting was extended to the 10 householders of an en- 
larged district, comprising an area of 4570 acres ; the 
old borough included only 21 60 acres. The mayor is 
returning officer. Six courts of sessions of the peace are 
held in each year before the recorder, for all offences 
not capital. The borough court of record, for the trial 
of causes to any amount, regulated by several local acts, 
is held every Thursday before the mayor or town-clerk, 
for the transaction of general business (process, &c., 
being issued daily), and on the second Thursday in 
every month for inquiries to assess damages. Five 
courts of Passage for the trial of causes are held in the 
year before the assessor, who is a barrister, and are 
attended by a numerous bar. A court of requests for 
the recovery of debts not exceeding 5, is held four days 
in the week, under a local act of the 6th and 7th of Wil- 
liam IV., cap. 135, before a salaried barrister appointed 
by the corporation. A regular system of police was 
109 



established under the Municipal Reform act, and the 
two forces, previously distinguished as Borough and 
Dock Police, were formed into one body, consisting of 
2 head constables, 8 superintendents, 37 inspectors, and 
508 constables. The stipendiary magistrate, assisted 
by the borough justices, one of whom acts in weekly 
routine, attends daily at the police-office, for the trans- 
action of business. The estates belonging to the corpo- 
ration may be estimated at upwards of 4,000,000 
(subject to a debt of 1,050,000), and produce an in- 
come averaging about 120,000 per annum, which is 
charged, under the Municipal act, with various items 
of expense, after the payment of which a surplus is left 
for the benefit of the inhabitants and the improvement 
of the town. The Dock Estate, which is separately 
managed by trustees, yields 200,000 per annum, appli- 
cable to the payment of the interest on a large bonded 
debt, and to the maintenance of the important branches 
connected with the establishment. The trust, however, 
differs from those of the London and St. Katherine's 
docks, no beneficial interest arising at Liverpool to any 
corporate body or individual, and the income being 
strictly applicable to trust purposes alone. 

The Town Hall, commenced in 1749, and of which 
the ground-floor was originally designed for an exchange, 
occupies an elevated situation at the north end of Castle- 
street : the whole of the interior was destroyed by fire 
in 1795, and has been since restored by the corporation 
upon an improved plan, at an expense of 110,000. 
It is a stately and magnificent structure in the Grecian 
style, with four elegant fronts, of which the north forms 
one side of the Exchange buildings, and the south, which 
is the principal, comprises the grand entrance ; the 
whole edifice is surrounded with a rustic basement, from 
which rise handsome ranges of Corinthian pillars, sup- 
porting an entablature and cornice ; between the pillars 
are tablets, in which the emblems of commerce are 
finely sculptured in bas-relief. The interior of this 
noble building contains on the ground-floor a council- 
room, apartments for the mayor, committee-rooms, and 
offices for the town-clerk, treasurer, and other officers 
of the corporation. The grand staircase leads into a 
spacious saloon splendidly fitted up, opening on the east 
and west sides into two magnificently furnished draw- 
ing-rooms, and on the north and east sides into two 
large ball-rooms, also superbly decorated. On the west 
of the saloon is the banquet-room, of which the arched 
ceiling is richly panelled in compartments, and the 
whole is disposed in the most costly style. The refec- 
tory, adjoining the smaller ball-room, is of proportionate 
elegance ; and the entire suite of rooms, for convenience 
of arrangement, and for splendour of embellishment, is 
in perfect harmony with the general character of the 
building, which, for the magnitude of its dimensions, 
and the beauty of its architecture, is, perhaps, unpa- 
ralleled by any edifice of the kind in Europe. The 
Borough Sessions -House, near the west wing of the Ex- 
change buildings, erected by the corporation, at a cost 
of 18,269, exclusively of the purchase of the land, is a 
neat plain structure, in the Grecian style. The Borough 
Prison, also built by the corporation, at an expense of 
67,348, consists of six wings, and comprises three divi- 
sions for male and one for female debtors, five for male 
and two for female criminals, with fourteen wards, day- 
rooms, and airing-yards, and separate apartments for 



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the sick ; and is capable of containing from 500 to 600 
prisoners. St. George's Hall and the Courts in which 
the assizes for the county are held, form one spacious 
and magnificent range of building, of which the founda- 
tion was laid in 1841 ; it is in the Grecian style, 500 
feet in extreme length, and of very lofty elevation. The 
east front, which is 420 feet in length, is embellished 
with a stately and boldly projecting portico of sixteen 
square columns of the Corinthian order, supporting an 
enriched entablature and cornice, which surrounds the 
whole of the building, and affording an entrance by a 
flight of steps into St. George's Hall, which is in the 
centre, and of which the roof rises to a considerable 
elevation above the rest of the structure. This hall is 
161 feet in length, 75 feet in width, and 75 feet in 
height, and during the assizes is open to the public ; it. 
communicates with the assize courts at the north and 
south ends, each of which is 60 feet long, 50 wide, and 
35 high. On each side of the portico are fa9ades of six 
columns, of similar character, between the lower por- 
tions of which are ornamented screens rising to about 
one-third of the height. The south front consists of 
a noble and boldly projecting portico of six circular 
columns of the Corinthian order, rising from a richly 
moulded surbase ten feet in height, which surrounds the 
whole pile, and supporting an entablature and cornice 
surmounted by a triangular pediment, of which the 
apex has an elevation of ninety-five feet from the 
ground. The north front, which is semicircular, is em- 
bellished with Corinthian columns similar to those of the 
eastern front, supporting an enriched entablature and cor- 
nice of like design ; and this part of the building contains 
a concert-room, seventy-five feet in length, and nearly of 
equal breadth. The edifice, in addition to these princi- 
pal divisions, contains the vice-chancellor's court, the 
sheriff's jury-court, a grand jury-room, a barristers' 
library, and other apartments ; the whole, for the gran- 
deur of its dimensions, the loftiness of its elevation, and 
the elegance of its style, forming one of the most sump- 
tuous and magnificent structures in the kingdom. The 
County House of Correction, at Kirkdale, recently erected, 
is of circular form, with two large wings, and is capable 
of receiving 800 prisoners, for whose classification there 
are twenty-one wards, day-rooms, and airing-yards ; the 
governor's house occupies the north front, and in the 
centre of the area are the chapel and the schools; it 
contains a tread-mill with ten wheels, and hospitals for 
males and females. The Sessions-house for the hundred 
of West Derby forms the south front of the house of cor- 
rection, and is built of stone, with a portico of six lofty 
Ionic pillars ; the sessions are held in a handsome room, 
to which are attached apartments for the magistrates, 
barristers, and witnesses. The petty-sessions for the 
hundred are held on alternate Fridays, in a smaller room 
in this building, the whole of which was completed in 
1821, at a cost of 80,000. A refuge for discharged 
female prisoners has been established. 

Liverpool was formerly a chapelry in the parish of 
Walton, from which it was separated in 16Q8, and con- 
stituted a distinct PARISH and a RECTORY, divided into 
two medieties, respectively belonging to the incumbents 
of St. Peter's church and the parochial chapel of St. 
Nicholas; but, in 1838, an act was passed for uniting 
the two portions, upon the decease of one of the rectors, 
and for the better endowment of the living, and of other 
110 



churches in the town, of which, on the decease of the pre- 
sent incumbents, the stipends, &c. will be altered. Since 
the period of separation from Walton, many new churches 
have been erected, and the parish has of late been 
divided, by act of parliament, into twenty-two districts 
for ecclesiastical purposes. The original, and the only 
church prior to 16Q8, was that of St. Nicholas : the . 
time of its foundation is not known; but, in 1361, a 
licence was obtained from the Bishop of Lichfield to 
bury in the churchyard during the plague, which then 
raged in the town. The body of the church was rebuilt 
in 1774. In 1810, the spire and the upper part of the 
tower fell upon the roof, a few minutes before the hour 
of service, and killed several persons who had assembled 
in the church, and were entering at the time ; a new 
tower, in the later English style, has been erected, sur- 
mounted by a lantern, from a design by the late Mr. 
Harrison, of Chester. There were anciently four chan- 
tries in the church, but few monuments of antiquity 
now remain. St. Peter's church is a plain edifice, with 
a low square tower, surmounted by an octagonal turret 
crowned with pinnacles ; the interior contains some 
good specimens of carving in oak, and on the south 
side of the chancel is a costly marble monument to 
Foster Cunliffe, merchant. The living is a rectory not 
in charge, formerly in the patronage of the Corporation, 
who lately disposed of the advowson to John Stewart, 
Esq., for 8150: the income of each mediety is 710, 
exclusively .of 47 arising from pew-rents ; and 720 
per annum are paid, in addition, to four curates. 

The livings of the following churches are perpetual 
curacies, formerly in the gift of the mayor and corpo- 
ration, but of which all the advowsons have been sold 
under the Municipal Reform act, except the patron- 
age of several churches, which will fall to the council 
after certain periods of primary presentation by sub- 
scribers and others, and which will not be disposed of 
till such time has expired. Net income of St. George's, 
370, and of the lectureship, 315; of St. Thomas', 
220, and of the lectureship, 165 ; of St. Paul's, 170 
for the senior minister, and 100 for the second minis- 
ter; of St. Anne's, 140; of St. John's, 150, and of 
the lectureship, 180; of St. Michael's, 250, and of 
the chaplain, 250 ; of St. Luke's, and of the chaplain, 
250 each ; and of St. Martin's, 300, and of an assist- 
ant minister, 200. The foregoing are exclusive of 
surplice fees and other ecclesiastical emoluments and 
parochial dues, and also of pew-rents in the parochial 
churches payable to the incumbents. St. George's, at 
which the mayor and council usually attend divine 
service, was erected in 1734, on the site of the ancient 
castle, and was rebuilt in 1821, under the superintend- 
ence of Mr. John Foster; the prevailing character is 
the Doric, and in the elevation of the steeple that style 
has been blended with the Ionic and the Corinthian. 
The church dedicated to St. Thomas, built under the 
authority of an act passed in the 21st of George II., and 
consecrated in 1750, is a handsome edifice, in the Gre- 
cian style, with a tower formerly surmounted by a very 
lofty spire, which was taken down in consequence of the 
damage it sustained from a storm, in 1822. St. Paul's 
church, erected at the expense of the inhabitants, in 
1769, is a well-constructed building, with a dome rising 
from the centre, and porticoes of the Ionic order, form- 
ing the principal entrances. St. Anne's, erected in 1772, 



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under an act of the 36th of George III., at the cost of 
two gentlemen of the town, is a neat building of brick, 
in the early English style, with a square tower crowned 
by pinnacles ; the east window is of painted glass. St. 
John's church, erected in 1784, under an act passed 
in the 2nd of George III., is a neat structure, with a 
square embattled tower crowned by pinnacles. St. 
Michael's, erected under an act of the 54th of George 
III., arid amended by a subsequent measure in the 4th 
of George IV., is an elegant structure, completed in 
1834, in the Grecian style, with a lofty steeple of two 
receding turrets, surmounted by a neat spire ; it has a 
noble and boldly projecting portico of six lofty Corin- 
thian columns, supporting a triangular pediment, and at 
the east end are four Corinthian columns supporting an 
entablature and cornice, which are continued round the 
building ; the cost of its erection was 46,267, of which 
10/367 were paid by the corporation. St. Lukes, 
erected in 1831, at an expense to the corporation of 
53,418, after a design by Mr. Foster, is in the later 
English style, with a square embattled tower, having 
turrets at the angles, which rise considerably above 
the battlements ; the walls are strengthened by richly- 
empanelled buttresses crowned with pinnacles in the 
lower stages, and carried up above the roof of the 
chancel, forming a series of highly-ornamented turrets. 
The interior is much embellished, and the chancel, 
which is after the model of Beauchamp Chapel at War- 
wick, is a beautiful specimen of the decorated style. 
The church of St. Martin s-in-the- Fields was erected in 
1828, by grant from the Parliamentary Commissioners, 
at an expense of 20,037, and is a handsome structure, 
in the later English style, having a square embattled 
tower with angular turrets, surmounted by an octagonal 
spire ; the chancel, of which the roof is finely groined, 
is separated from the nave by a lofty and richly-moulded 
arch ; the structure forms a striking ornament at the 
entrance into the town from the Ormskirk-road. 

The following churches, of which the livings are like- 
wise perpetual curacies, will, at the expiration of certain 
periods, be in the patronage of the Council, who will 
then offer them for sale. The church dedicated to the 
Holy Trinity, erected by private subscription, under an 
act of the 32nd of George III., in 1792, is a neat edifice 
of stone, with a tower : net income, 250 ; patron, 
Rev. R. Formby. Christ-Church, erected under an act 
of parliament passed in the 40th of George III., is an ele- 
gant building of brick, ornamented with stone, and hav- 
ing a light and handsome cupola and dome ; the chan- 
cel is lighted by a large Venetian window, and contains 
a marble tablet to the memory of John Houghton, Esq., 
by whom the church was built, at an expense of 
21,000, and by whom it was endowed with 105 per 
annum : patron, Edward Gibbon, Esq. The church 
dedicated to St. Mark, erected in 1803, at a cost of 
18,000, raised by subscription, is a plain edifice of 
brick, with a square tower crowned by a balustrade, 
and ornamented with vases at the angles : net income, 
370 ; patrons, five Trustees. St. Andrew's church, 
erected in 1815, by John Gladstone, Esq., at an expense 
of 12,000, is a neat edifice, with a turret surmounted 
by a dome supported by eight columns : net income, 
295 ; patron, John Gladstone, Esq. The church de- 
dicated to St. Philip, built in 1816, by John Cragg, Esq., 
at a cost of 12,000, is a neatf edifice, in the later Eng- 
111 



lish style : net income, 200, and there is an assistant 
minister, with a like income ; patron, John Cragg, Esq. 
St. David's church is a neat edifice, erected in 1827 for 
the accommodation of the Welsh residing in the town, 
the service of the Church of England being regularly 
performed in the Welsh language : net income, 120 ; 
patrons, Trustees. St. Catherine's church, in Abercrom- 
by-square, was built by subscription, in 1831, at an 
expense of 10,000 ; the entrance is through a portico 
of six handsome Ionic columns, and the interior is 
lighted by a dome in the centre, supported by Corinthian 
columns : net income, 250 ; patrons, Trustees. St. 
Bride's church, erected also by voluntary contributions, 
in 1831, at an estimated expense of 5000, is in the 
Grecian style, with a portico of six Ionic columns : net 
income, 305 ; patrons, Trustees. 

St. Stephen's church, originally built for a congrega- 
tion of Protestant dissenters, but purchased and fitted 
up for the Established religion, is a plain building, with 
a small turret surmounted by a cupola : the living is a 
perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Rectors of St. 
Nicholas 1 and St. Peter's, with a net income of 150. 
St. Matthew's was also purchased from a congregation of 
dissenters : the living is a perpetual curacy, with a net 
income of 107 ; the patronage is at present vested in 
certain Trustees, but will eventually lapse to the two 
Rectors. St. Mary's church, for the school of the indi- 
gent blind, with which it communicates by a subter- 
raneous passage, was erected by subscription, after a 
design by Mr. Foster, in 1819, and is an elegant struc- 
ture, in the Grecian style, with a noble portico of six 
massive columns of the Doric order, supporting an en- 
riched entablature and triangular pediment, an exact 
copy of the portico of the temple dedicated to Jupiter 
Panhellenius, in the island of Egina. The interior is 
beautifully arranged, and contains a splendid monu- 
ment to the late Pudsey Dawson, Esq. ; one-half of the 
pews are for strangers, whose contributions are received 
for the benefit of the charity. The living is a perpetual 
curacy, in the patronage of five Trustees, including the 
mayor and the two senior aldermen. All Saints' church, 
in Grosvenor-street, was built in 1798 ; and there is 
also an episcopal chapel, dedicated to St. Simon. St. 
Matthias' district church, in the Grecian style, was 
erected in Love-lane in 1834, at an expense of 
3173. 10.: net income of the incumbent, 150. In 
George's dock is a floating chapel connected with the 
Established Church, and in King's dock is one in con- 
nexion with dissenters. In addition to the churchyards 
are three public cemeteries : the one near Edge Hill is 
spacious, and contains a small chapel of brick, in the 
ancient English style, in which the. funeral service is 
performed. The second, which is called St. James' 
cemetery, and of which the site was given by the cor- 
poration, is a large tract of ground excavated as a 
quarry for stone used in the building of the docks, 
and converted into a depository for the dead, at an ex- 
pense of 21,000 ; it contains 44,000 square yards, 
inclosed by a stone wall and handsome iron palisades, 
having four stately entrances ; in the centre is Mr. 
Huskisson's tomb. The interior is intersected by roads 
wide enough to admit a carriage, which lead to cata- 
combs excavated in the rock. The oratory, or chapel, 
built after a design by Mr. Foster, is an elegant edifice, 
in the Grecian style, and of the Doric order ; at the 



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west end is a noble portico of six massive columns sup- 
porting a rich entablature, which is carried round the 
building, and surmounted by a triangular pediment. 
The third cemetery, called St. Mary's, has lately been 
formed in the parish of Kirkdale. St. James' church, 
erected in 1775, nearly adjoining St. James' cemetery, 
and from which it takes its name, is in the parish of 
Walton. There are places of worship for Baptists, Welsh 
Baptists, Welsh Calvinists, the Society of Friends, Inde- 
pendents, Welsh Independents, Wesleyans, Welsh 
Methodists and those of the New Connexion, Sweden- 
borgians, Unitarians, &c. ; others in connexion with the 
church of Scotland, and for Seceders ; several Roman 
Catholic chapels, and a synagogue. Of these, some are 
handsome buildings, among which may be noticed the 
Scottish church in Rodney-street, dedicated to St. An- 
drew, and built after a design by Mr. Foster, with a 
receding portico of the Ionic order, and having, at each 
end of the front, a turret surmounted by a dome ; the 
Roman Catholic chapels on Copperas Hill and in Scot- 
land-road, in the early English style, strengthened on 
the sides by buttresses crowned with crocketed pin- 
nacles ; and the synagogue, an elegant structure, with a 
handsome Ionic portico, and in every respect charac- 
teristic of the opulence of that portion of the inha- 
bitants. 

The Blue-coal Hospital, established in 1709, for the 
clothing and instruction of children, and now conducted 
on the national system, was, in 1714, extended also to 
their entire maintenance ; and the present substantial 
building, occupying three sides of a quadrangle, was 
erected for that purpose by subscription. The endow- 
ment arises from a bequest by William Clayton, Esq., 
of 1000, a bequest by the Cleveland family of premises 
which sold for 1706, and donations by the late Mr. 
John Horrocks, amounting to 3022; its support being 
further provided for by subscription. There are also na- 
tional schools, and numerous others supported by sub- 
scription. The school for the Indigent Blind was 
founded in 1791, and the present spacious premises 
were erected by subscription in 1808 ; they consist of a 
substantial dwelling-house for the conductor, behind 
which is a large range of building for the residence and 
employment of the inmates, for whose accommodation, 
and as a means of increasing the funds for their sup- 
port the church already noticed was erected. An insti- 
tution for the Deaf and Dumb was opened in 1825 ; and 
many children of the poor are also instructed in various 
branches of trade in the House of Industry, founded in 
1770. To the east of the building is a house of recovery 
from Fever, a spacious stone building, occupying an ele- 
vated situation. A School of Industry for females was 
established in 1809 ; in which year also the Female 
Penitentiary was instituted, and a handsome brick build- 
ing has been erected by subscription. The Infirmary, 
which is an excellent school of medicine and surgery, 
was originally established in 1/49, but the building 
being found inadequate to the object, the present edifice 
of stone was erected by subscription in 1824; it con- 
sists of a centre and two receding wings, comprising 
three lofty stories, and the whole, from the chaste ele- 
gance of its design, produces a pleasing effect ; the cost, 
exclusively of the land, was 27,800. The Lunatic 
Asylum, near St. John's church, originally founded in 
1792, was found inadequate to the accommodation of 
112 



the patients, and a new building was erected in 1830, 
from the plans of Mr. Foster, at a cost of 11, 000 ; 
opposite to it is the Lock Hospital, opened in 1834. A 
Marine Humane Society was established in 1823, for the 
encouragement of boatmen and fishermen to adventure 
for the relief of vessels in distress in the river and upon 
the coast, by the distribution of suitable rewards for 
their success in rescuing the lives of the crews ; it has been 
productive of great benefit. The Strangers' Friend So- 
ciety, established in 1789, originated with the Wesleyans, 
and is open, without distinction of religious denomina- 
tion, to all objects of distress. The Marine Society was 
instituted for the relief of reduced or aged masters of 
vessels, and for the support of their widows and child- 
ren. The Seamen's Hospital was established in 1752, 
for the maintenance of decayed seamen, their widows, 
and children ; it is conducted on the plan of the Trinity- 
house, and is supported by a permanent fund of 35,000, 
the amount of unclaimed prize money, and by a contri- 
bution of sixpence per month from the wages of every 
seaman belonging to the port : 700 individuals receive 
monthly pensions from the funds. An hospital for the 
relief of sick and wounded American seamen was opened 
in 1820, and is supported by the American government; 
and a Military Hospital, for the relief of any regiment 
either quartered at, or marching through, the town, is 
maintained at the expense of the country. The Mer- 
chant Society consists of 274 members, associated for the 
relief of widows of its decayed members. 

There are also numerous provident and benefit socie- 
ties ; and the charitable society administers relief to the 
poor at their own houses. The society for ameliorating 
the condition and increasing the comforts of the poor is 
under the direction of a committee of twenty-one mem- 
bers, who have opened a savings' bank in Bold-street, a 
handsome building, with a rustic basement story, from 
which rise four Doric columns, supporting an enriched 
entablature and triangular pediment, with an orna- 
mented architrave. The Diocesan Society, for the relief 
of the widows and orphan children of the clergy, has 
been established for several years, and has been pro- 
ductive of considerable benefit. The Charitable Institu- 
tion house, a commodious building, was erected at the 
joint expense of John Gladstone, James Cropper, and 
Samuel Hope, Esqrs., for the gratuitous accommodation 
of the committees of the various charities in the town ; 
the lower part is used as a depository by the Auxiliary 
Bible Society. Among the Distinguished Natives of the 
town may be noticed, Jeremiah Horrox, an eminent as- 
tronomer, who was born at Toxteth-Park, in 16 19 ; 
George Stubbs, a celebrated painter of animals, and 
author of a work on comparative anatomy, and of a 
series of drawings and engravings illustrative of the 
anatomy of the horse, born in 1724 ; William Sadler, 
who invented the method of applying copper-plate 
prints to the embellishment of earthenware ; Edward 
Rushton, an admired poet, born in 1756; John Deare, 
an eminent sculptor, born in 1760; Joseph Whidbey, 
civil engineer; Matthew Dobson, M.D., F.R.S., and his 
wife, both respectable authors ; Dr. William Enfield ; 
Dr. John Bostock ; the celebrated Mrs. Ik-mans j Wm. 
Roscoe, author of the Life of Leo X., and of Memoirs of 
Lorenzo de' Medici ; and the Rev. Legh Richmond, 
author of the Dairyman's Daughter. Liverpool gives 
the title of Earl to the family of Jenkinson. 



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LIVERSEDGE, a township, in the parish of BIR- 
STAL, union of DEWSBURY, wapentake of MORLEV, W. 
riding of YORK, 9 miles (S. W.) from Leeds ; containing 
5988 inhabitants. This place was anciently the pro- 
perty of the Neville family, lords of the manor, of whose 
mansion, Liversedge Hall, there are still some slight re- 
mains. During the disturbances that prevailed in the 
manufacturing districts, in 1812, a mill at Rawfolds, in 
the township, was attacked by a party of Luddites, but 
was vigorously defended by its proprietor, Mr. William 
Cartwright ; two of the assailants were killed in the 
conflict, and several severely wounded. None of the 
attempts of that misguided party for the demolition of 
property at this place were attended with success ; and 
in testimony of the spirited conduct of Mr. Cartwright, 
the sum of 3000 was raised by general subscription, 
and presented to that gentleman. The township, which 
includes the hamlets of Millbridge, Littletown, High- 
town, the Heights, and Robert-Town, is situated on the 
acclivities of an extensive valley, watered by a stream 
flowing towards the south-east through Heckmondwike, 
and comprises by measurement 2044 acres, of which the 
surface is pleasing, and the scenery abounds with inte- 
resting features. Heald's Hall, for many years the seat 
of the late Rev. Hammond Roberson, and now of Henry 
Roberson, Esq., is a handsome mansion in the Grecian 
style, in an ample and tastefully embellished demesne. 
Millbridge is on the road from Leeds to Huddersfield, 
with Littletown to the north-west ; and both, like other 
villages of the township, are inhabited by persons em- 
ployed in the manufacture of blankets, carpets, woollen- 
cloths, and machine cards, to a very great extent. There 
are two coal-mines in Robert-Town, of which place the 
inhabitants are principally colliers. A church, dedi- 
cated to Christ, was erected in 1816, by the late Rev. 
H. Roberson, at an expense of 7000, and endowed by 
him with 5 acres of land j it is a handsome structure, in 
the later English style, and contains 700 sittings, of 
which 100 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy ; 
net income, 105 ; patron, H. Roberson, Esq. A neat 
parsonage-house, in the Elizabethan style, has been re- 
cently erected by subscription, as a public testimony of 
respect to the founder and late incumbent. There are 
three places of worship for Wesleyans. A school was 
built by subscription at Hightown, and endowed in 
1772 with a rent-charge of 8, by Mr. Jonas Farrar, 
and in 1723 with one of 6, by Mr. Edward Beaumont ; 
it has merged into a national school, erected in 1812, 
near the old building, at an expense of 800, for an in- 
definite number of children, of whom 22 are taught gra- 
tuitously for the original endowment. The old school 
is now used as a girls' school, and attached to it is a 
house for the master. 

LIVERTON, a parish, in the union of GUISBOROUGH, 
E. division of the liberty of LANGBAXJRGH, N. riding of 
YORK, 1\ miles (E. by N.) from Guisborough ; contain- 
ing 203 inhabitants. This place, which is within the 
district of Cleveland, was, at the time of the Domesday 
survey, a barren and unprofitable waste, and was granted 
by the Conqueror to Robert de Brus, lord of Skeltou, 
from whose descendants it passed, through the family of 
Thweng, to the Latimers, Willoughbys, and others ; it is 
now chiefly the property of Viscount Downe, who is 
lord of the manor. The parish comprises 2393 acres, of 
which a very considerable portion is high moorland j 
VOL. III.] 13 



393 acres are common or waste, and the remainder 
arable, meadow, and pasture. The village is situated 
about midway between the sea and the road from Whitby 
to Guisborough, and consists chiefly of houses irregu- 
larly scattered along the edge of a common. The ad- 
vowson of the church formerly belonged to the priory 
of Guisborough, to which it was given by Henry Fitz- 
conan. The living is now consolidated with the rectory 
of Easington : the tithes have been commuted for 200, 
and the glebe comprises 30 acres. The church is a small 
ancient structure, with a well-preserved Saxon arch. 
A parochial school is supported chiefly by Viscount 
Downe. 

LIVESEY, a township, in the parish, union, and 
Lower division of the hundred, of BLACKBURN, N. 
division of the county of LANCASTER, 3>\ miles (S. W.) 
from Blackburn; containing 1996 inhabitants. 

LLANARTH (ST. TRILLO), a parish, in the union, 
and partly in the hundred, of ABERGAVENNY, but chiefly 
in the hundred and division of RAGLAN, county of 
MONMOUTH, 3% miles (N. W.) from Raglan ; containing 
669 inhabitants, of whom 330 are in the hamlet of 
Clytha. The parish is bounded on the west by the river 
Usk, and intersected by the road from Monmouth to 
Abergavenny, and comprises by computation 316 la. 2r. 
33p., of which 1446 acres are arable, 1640 meadow and 
pasture, and 74 woodland ; the surface is undulated, and 
the views, especially from the Clytha hills, are very fine. 
Llanarth Court, the admired seat of John Jones, Esq., 
is a handsome and spacious mansion, the front orna- 
mented with an elegant portico resembling that of the 
temple of Paestum. The living is a discharged vicarage, 
with that of Bettws-Newydd annexed, valued in the 
king's books at 10. 3. 4., and in the patronage of the 
Bishop, Archdeacon, and Chapter of Llandaff, who are 
the appropriators : the vicarial tithes have been com- 
muted for 211, and there is a glebe of about 62 acres, 
with a good parsonage-house, nearly rebuilt within the 
last few years by the vicar, the Rev. W. Price. The 
church, an ancient structure, consists of a nave and 
chancel, with a lofty square embattled tower, surmounted 
by pinnacles. A private Roman Catholic chapel, richly 
decorated with ancient and modern stained glass, is 
attached to Llanarth Court. On the summit of Clytha 
hill is an intrenchment, which retains marks of 
having been strongly fortified ; and near Llanarth is a 
tumulus. 

LLANBADOCK (ST. MADOCUS), a parish, in the 
union of PONT-Y-POOL, division and hundred of USK, 
county of MONMOUTH, 1 mile (W. S. W.) from Usk ; 
containing 457 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual 
curacy, valued in the king's books at 5. 8. 9. ; net in- 
come, 72 ; patron and incumbent, Rev. T. A. Williams ; 
impropriator, Duke of Beaufort. There is a Roman 
Catholic chapel. 

LLANBEDER, a chapelry, in the parish of LANG- 
STONE, union of NEWPORT, division of CHRISTCHURCH, 
hundred of CALDICOT, county of MONMOUTH, 3f miles 
(E.) from Caerleon. The chapel, now in ruins, was 
dedicated to St. Peter. 

LLANCILLO (ST. PETER), a parish, in the union 
of DORE, hundred of EWYASLACY, county of HERE- 
FORD, 14| miles (S. W.) from Hereford ; containing 84 
inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the south-east 
by the river Munnow, which divides it from Monmouth- 

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shire ; and comprises 983 acres. The living is a per- 
petual curacy ; net income, 105; patron and incum- 
bent, Rev. James Morris. 

LLANDEGVETH (ST. THOMAS), a parish, in the 
union of PONT- Y- POOL, division of CAERLEON, hundred 
of USK, codnty of MONMOUTH, 3^ miles (N. by E.) 
from Caerleon ; containing 131 inhabitants. The living 
is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at 
4. 4. 9|., and in the gift of W. A. Williams, Esq. : the 
tithes have been commuted for 120, and the glebe 
comprises 29 acres. 

LLANDENNY (ST. JOHN), a parish, in the division 
and hundred of RAGLAN, union and county of MON- 
MOUTH, 4 miles (N. E.) from Usk ; containing 375 in- 
habitants. The parish is on the right bank of the river 
Ebwy, and comprises about 2470 acres, of which 820 
are arable, 1641 pasture and meadow, and 9 woodland; 
the surface is undulated, and from the higher grounds 
some fine views are obtained. When Fairfax, in the 
parliamentary war, attacked Raglan Castle, he made 
Cefyn Tillau, in the parish, his head-quarters. The 
living is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books 
at 5. 15. 5. ; net income, 50 ; patron and impropri- 
ator, Duke of Beaufort, whose tithes have been com- 
muted for 330. The church is an ancient structure. 
There is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists. 

LLANDEVAUD, a chapelry, in the parish of LLAN- 
MARTIN, union of NEWPORT, Lower division of the 
hundred of CALDICOT, county of MONMOUTH. The liv- 
ing is a perpetual curacy, valued in the king's books at 
5 ; net income, 40 ; patron, Prebendary of War- 
thacwm in the Cathedral of Llandaff. The chapel is in 
ruins, and the inhabitants attend Llanmartin church. 

LLANDEVENNY, a hamlet, in the parish of ST. 
BRIDE-NETHERWENT, union of NEWPORT, division of 
CHRISTCHURCH, hundred of CALDICOT, county of MON- 
MOUTH ; containing 51 inhabitants. 

LLAND1NABO (ST. DINEBO), a parish, in the union 
of Ross, Upper division of the hundred of WORMELOW, 
county of HEREFORD, 6 miles (N. W.) from Ross ; con- 
taining 62 inhabitants. The parish consists of 484 
acres. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the 
king's books at 2. 18. 6., and in the gift of Kedgwyn 
Hoskins, Esq. : the tithes have been commuted for 
130. 

LLANDOGO (ST. DOCHOE), a parish, in the division 
of TRELLECK, hundred of RAGLAN, union and county of 
MONMOUTH, 9 miles (N.) from Chepstow ; containing 
660 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the 
right bank of the Wye, comprises by measurement 1773 
acres, whereof 103 are arable, 540 meadow and pasture, 
900 woodland, and 20 common ; the surface is diver- 
sified with hills, and the scenery is picturesque. The 
manufacture of paper is carried on, affording employ- 
ment to about 100 persons. In 1826, a handsome iron 
bridge of one arch was erected here over the river, thus 
connecting the counties of Monmouth and Gloucester ; 
and the parish is intersected by the high road from 
Chepstow to Monmouth, which passes along the vale of 
the Wye. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 
72 ; patron and impropriator, Prebendary of Caire in 
the Cathedral of Llandaff. The tithes have been com- 
muted for 168, and the glebe comprises 20 acres, 
which belong to the incumbent, who has also a comfort- 
able parsonage-house. The church is an ancient struc- 
114 



ture, consisting of a nave, chancel, and north aisle. A 
church was erected at the hamlet of Whitebrook, in 
1835, by subscription, and is a neat edifice in the later 
English style. There is a place of worship for Baptists ; 
and parochial schools are supported by subscriptions 
and donations. 

LLANELLEN (ST. HELEN), a parish, in the division 
of PONT- Y- POOL, union and hundred of ABERGAVENNY, 
county of MONMOUTH, 2| miles (S.) from Abergavenny ; 
containing 342 inhabitants. On the north and east, it 
is bounded by the river Usk, which is here crossed by a 
handsome bridge of three arches, on the road from 
Abergavenny to Pont-y-Pool ; and the Brecon and Mon- 
mouthshire canal proceeds through the parish, from 
north to south. Within its limits is also a great por- 
tion of the Blorenge mountain. The living is a dis- 
charged vicarage, endowed with a moiety of the rectorial 
tithes, and valued in the king's books at 8. 10. 7. ; 
net income, 105; patron, C. K. Tynte, Esq.; impro- 
priators of the remainder of the rectorial tithes, the 
Trustees of the Free Grammar school of Abergavenny. 

LLANFOIST (ST. FAITH), a parish, in the union, 
division, and hundred of ABERGAVENNY, county of 
MONMOUTH, l mile (S. W. by S.) from Abergavenny ; 
containing 1500 inhabitants. This parish is bordered 
on the north by the river Usk, and intersected by the 
road from Abergavenny to Merthyr-Tydvil ; it abounds 
with coal, iron-stone, and limestone, of which several 
mines are in operation, and the produce is chiefly for- 
warded to the Blaenavon iron-works, in the parish of 
Llanover. There are also quarries of good building- 
stone, of which large quantities are sent to Abergavenny 
and Hereford. The Brecon and Abergavenny canal, 
which communicates with the Monmouth and Newport 
canal near Pont-y-Pool, passes through the parish, as 
well as the tram-road from Hereford. Within its limits 
is situated the greater portion of the Blorenge mountain, 
1720 feet high, along the brow of which proceeds a 
tram-road, whence, near its centre, four inclined planes 
descend, leading from the Blaenavon and Pwlldw iron- 
works, and passing over the Abergavenny canal, to the 
village of Llanfoist, where there are extensive lime- 
kilns. The average quantity of coal, limestone, and 
iron, conveyed down these planes is about 150 tons 
daily. From the summit of the mountain the views are 
extremely beautiful. The living is a rectory, valued in 
the king's books at 7. 4. 4^., and in the gift of the 
Earl of Abergavenny : the glebe comprises 30 acres, 
with a small parsonage-house, and the tithes have been 
commuted for 280. The church is an ancient struc- 
ture. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. 

LLANGARRAN (ST. DEJNST), a parish, in the union 
of Ross, Lower division of the hundred of WORMELOW, 
county of HEREFORD, 5 miles (W. S. W.) from Ross ; 
containing, with the townships of Kilreague, Llangunnoc, 
Langstone with Tre-Evan, Trecilla, Tredoughan, and 
Tretilla, 1175 inhabitants. The parish comprises by 
measurement 5448 acres of land, of which the sub- 
stratum affords stone of good quality for building, and 
is intersected by the Garran river. The living is an- 
nexed, with those of Little Dewchurch, Hentland, and 
St. Weonards, to the vicarage of Lugwardine : the ap- 
propriate tithes have been commuted for 699. 4. 6., 
with a payment of 9. 12. to the rector, and the vicarial 
for 289. 11. 6.; the glebe contains 4 acres. 



LL AN 



L L A N 



LLANGATTOCK (ST. CADOCVS), a parish, in the 
union of NEWPORT, hundred of USK, county of MON- 
MOUTH ; containing, with the market-town of Caerleon, 
1440 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, 
valued in the king's books at 8. 1. 5^. ; net income, 
2Q6 ; patrons and appropriators, Bishop and Chapter 
of Llandaff. The church is partly early English. 

LLANGATTOCK-LLINGOED (ST. CADOCUS), a pa- 
rish, in the union, division, and hundred of ABERGA- 
VENNY, county of MONMOUTH, 6 miles (N. E.) from 
Abergavenny ; containing 203 inhabitants. The parish 
comprises by estimation 1391 acres, of which 461 are 
arable, 889 pasture and meadow, and 41 woodland ; the 
surface is moderately undulated, and presents, from 
portions of the higher grounds, exceedingly fine views. 
There are some quarries of stone, which is raised for 
building and for the roads. The living is a discharged 
vicarage, in the gift of the Crown, endowed with the 
great tithes, and valued in the king's books at 5. 6. 5. ; 
net income, 172 : the glebe comprises 17^ acres, with 
a house. The church is an ancient structure. 

LLANGATTOCK-NIGH-USK (ST. CADOCUS), a pa- 
rish, in the union, division, and hundred of ABERGA- 
VENNY, county of MONMOUTH, 3^ miles (S. S. E.) from 
Abergavenny; containing 171 inhabitants. The road 
from Abergavenny to Monmouth passes through the 
parish, which is bounded on the south by the river Usk. 
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
1 1. 7- 3^., and in the gift of the Earl of Abergavenny : 
the tithes have been commuted for 215, and the glebe 
comprises 95 acres. The church is ancient. 

LLANGATTOCK-VIBON-AVEL (ST. CADOCUS), a 
parish, in the division and hundred of SKENFRETH, 
union and county of MONMOUTH, 4 miles (N. W.) from 
Monmouth ; containing 503 inhabitants. The parish 
comprises by computation 4120 acres, and is situated 
on the old road from Monmouth to Abergavenny ; it 
presents a picturesque and fertile tract of land, richly 
wooded, and abounding in beauty and variety of scenery ; 
the surface is undulated, and the higher grounds com- 
mand fine views of the distant mountains. Stone of 
good quality, suitable for roads and for farm-buildings, 
is quarried. Petty-sessions are held on the first Monday 
in the month, at Newcastle, for the Skenfreth division. 
The Hendre, a handsome brick and Bath-stone mansion, 
a mixture of the Norman and Tudor styles, picturesquely 
situated, has been erected within these few years, by 
John E. W. Rolls, Esq. The living is a discharged 
vicarage, with that of St. Maughan's annexed, valued in 
the king's books at 6. 18. 11|. ; patron, Jervan Perry, 
Esq. ; impropriators, the Representatives of the late 
T. Phillips, Esq. The great tithes have been commuted 
for 168, and the vicarial for 209 ; the glebe comprises 
5 acres. The church is an ancient structure. There 
is a chapel of ease at Llanvanner, which is likewise an 
ancient edifice, endowed with two farms, purchased by 
Queen Anne's Bounty, and let for 70 per annum. At 
Newcastle is a national school, capable of admitting 150 
children, built in 1825, for the benefit of this parish and 
St. Maughan's. In the same hamlet, also, is a mound, 
whereon, it is supposed, a castle stood, from which the 
place took its name ; it is surrounded by a moat, 300 
feet in circumference, and near it is a remarkable old 
oak, the girth of which is nine yards a few feet from the 
ground. 

115 



LLANGEVIEW (S T . DAVID), a parish, in the union 
of PONT-Y-POOL, division and hundred of USK, county 
of MONMOUTH, 1 mile (E.) from Usk; containing 187 
inhabitants, and comprising by computation 1500 acres 
The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, 81; 
patron, incumbent, and impropriator, Rev. J. Blower. 
The church is an ancient structure. An almshouse was 
founded at Coedcwnnwr, and endowed for 12 people by 
Roger Edwards, who also bequeathed several small 
sums for distribution among the poor. 

LLANGIBBY (ST. CUBY), a parish, in the union of 
PONT-Y-POOL, division of CAERLEON, hundred of USK, 
county of MONMOUTH, 2^ miles (S. by W.) from Usk ; 
containing 535 inhabitants. This place is memorable as 
the scene of a sanguinary battle between the Britons 
and the Saxons, wherein a great number of the latter 
were slain ; and the spot near which it occurred is still, 
in memory of the event, called Graig Saisson. The 
parish comprises 4443a. 3r. 19p., of which about 1805 
acres are arable, 2137 pasture, and 462 woodland. Its 
surface, near the river Usk, which skirts the parish on 
the east, is level, but it rises in gentle undulations in 
other parts, commanding fine views of the Bristol 
Channel ; the scenery is richly embellished with wood. 
The soil in some parts is a rich loam, and in others clay, 
alternated with lighter mould ; the substratum abounds 
with limestone, which is burnt for manure, and there are 
some quarries of sandstone. The petty-sessions for the 
division are held in the village, alternately with Pan- 
teague. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 19. 10. 10., and in the gift of W. A. Williams, 
Esq. : the tithes have been commuted for 504. 7. 6., 
and the glebe comprises 75 acres. The church is an 
ancient structure, in the early English style. There are 
places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans ; also a 
parochial school, built by the Rev. Charles A. Williams. 
Sir Roger Williams, Knt., distinguished in the reign of 
Elizabeth, and Sir Trevor Williams, Bart., whose valiant 
defence of his castle at Llangibby is on record, were 
both natives of the place. 

LLANGOVEN (ST. GOVEN), a parish, in the division 
of TRELLECK, hundred of RAGLAN, union and county of 
MONMOUTH, 3j miles (E. S. E.) from Raglan ; contain- 
ing 136 inhabitants. This parish, situated on the old 
road from Monmouth to Usk, comprises by computation 
1889 acres, and the surface exhibits some very elevated 
ground, with other portions boldly undulated, the views 
from the former being very fine. The living is a perpe- 
tual curacy, with that of Pen-y-Clawdd annexed, valued 
in the king's books at 3. 7- 1., and having a net income 
of 120; it is in the patronage of the Bishop, Arch- 
deacon, and Chapter of Llandaff, the appropriators, 
whose tithes have been commuted for 170. The church 
is of considerable antiquity, with a square tower. 

LLANGUA (Sr. JAMES), a parish, in the union of 
DORE, division and hundred of SKENFRETH, county of 
MONMOUTH, 11 miles (N. E. byN.) from Abergavenny; 
containing 99 inhabitants. Situated on the northern 
confines of the county, the parish is separated from 
Herefordshire by the river Munnow ; it consists of about 
700 acres, and is intersected by the tram-way from Aber- 
gavenny to Hereford. The living is a discharged rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 2. 15. 10., and in the gift 
of J. L. Scudamore, Esq. : the tithes have been com- 
muted for 77. 1 4. The church is an ancient structure. 

Q2 



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L L A N 



A cell of Black monks was fixed here, subordinate to 
the abbey of Liu, in Normandy, and, at the Dissolution 
of alien monasteries, was annexed to the establishment 
at Sheen, in Surrey. 

LLANGUNNOC, a township, in the parish of 
LLANGARRAN, union of Ross, Lower division of the 
hundred of WORMELOW, county of HEREFORD ; con- 
taining 71 inhabitants. 

LLANGUNNOC (Sr. CYNOG), a parish, in the union 
of CHEPSTOW, division ofTRELLECK, hundred of RAG- 
LAN, county of MONMOUTH, 8 miles (E. N. E.) from 
the town of Usk ; consisting of about 200 acres. 
The living of this ancient parish is a perpetual curacy, 
in the gift of Jesus' College, Oxford, to which the im- 
propriation belongs : the church is in ruins. 

LLANGWYM (Sr. HIEROM), a parish, in the union 
of CHEPSTOW, division and hundred of USK, county of 
MONMOUTH, 3| miles (E.) from Usk; containing 350 
inhabitants, of whom 41 are in the Higher, and 309 in 
the Lower, division. The parish consists of 3420 acres, 
and the surface comprises some elevated, and more of 
moderately undulated, ground. The living is a discharged 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 4. 16. 8. ; net 
income, 83 ; patron and appropriator, the Prebendary 
of Llangwym in the Cathedral of Llandaff. 

LLANHENNOCK (ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST), a parish, 
in the union of NEWPORT, division of CAERLEON, hun- 
dred of USK, county of MONMOUTH, 1^ mile (N. E. by 
N.) from Caerleon ; containing 235 inhabitants. The 
living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of 64 ; 
it is in the patronage of the Chapter of Llandaff, the 
appropriators, whose tithes have been commuted for 
150; the glebe contains 3| acres. A school is parti)' 
supported by Major Mackworth. 

LLANHILETH (ST. ILTYD), a parish, in the union 
and division of PONT-Y-POOL, hundred of ABERGAVENNY, 
county of MONMOUTH, 11 miles (W. by N.) from Usk; 
containing 662 inhabitants. It comprises 1750 acres, 
of which 124 are common or waste land. Coal is 
obtained in the parish. The living is a discharged rec- 
tory, valued in the king's books at 7. 15. 7^., and in 
the gift of the Earl of Abergavenny : the tithes have 
been commuted for 22 to the impropriator, and 75 
to the rector ; the glebe comprises 85 acres. 

LLANISHEN (ST. DENIS), a parish, in the division 
of TRELLECK, hundred of RAGLAN, union and county 
of MONMOUTH, 7 miles (S. S. W.) from Monmouth ; 
containing 307 inhabitants. The parish is situated on 
the old public road, about midway between Monmouth 
and Chepstow, and comprises by computation 1374 
acres, of which 600 are arable, 7 12 pasture and meadow, 
22 woodland, and the remainder roads or waste. There 
are numerous stone quarries, the material of which is of 
excellent quality, and is used for building and paving. 
The cottagers live in substantial tenements, having suffi- 
cient land attached for their support, for which they pay 
a small annual acknowledgment to the Duke of Beaufort. 
The living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 64 ; 
patron and impropriator, his Grace, whose tithes have 
been commuted for 120 : the glebe contains 87 acres. 
The church is very ancient, and formerly belonged to 
Tintern Abbey. There is a place of worship for Wes- 
leyans. The rent of 18 acres of land, left in 1646, 
by William Jones, Esq., is distributed to aged parish- 
ioners. 

116 



LLANITHOG, an extra-parochial liberty, in the 
union of DORE, Upper division of the hundred of 
WORMELOW, county of HEREFORD; containing 17 in- 
habitants. 

LLANLLOWELL, a parish, in the union of PONT- 
Y-PooL, division and hundred of USK, county of MON- 
MOUTH, 1 mile (S. E.) from Usk; containing 109 
inhabitants. The living is a discharged rectory, valued 
in the king's books at 2. 13. l. ; patron and in- 
cumbent, Rev. J. A. Williams : the tithes have been 
commuted for 205. 10., and the glebe comprises 22 acres. 

LLANMARTIN (ST. MARTIN), a parish, in the union 
of NEWPORT, division of CHRISTCHURCH, hundred of 
CALDICOT, county of MONMOUTH, 6 miles (E. by N.) 
from Newport; containing 162 inhabitants. It com- 
prises 94 la. 3r. 24p., of which 401 acres are arable, 396 
meadow and pasture, and 106 woodland ; the surface is 
varied, and the scenery good ; the soil is of a sandy 
nature, and the substratum affords stone of sufficient 
quality for the roads. The living is a discharged rec- 
tory, with that of Wilerick annexed, valued in the 
king's books at 4. 6. 10^. ; net income, 203 ; patron, 
Thomas Perry, Esq. The tithes of Llanmartin have been 
commuted for 110, and the glebe comprises 20 acres. 
The church is an ancient structure, in the early English 
style. 

LLANOVER (ST. BARTHOLOMEW), a parish, in the 
division of PONT-Y-POOL, union and hundred of ABER- 
GAVENNY, county of MONMOUTH, 3^ miles (S. by E.) 
from Abergavenny, on the road to Pont-y-Pool ; contain- 
ing 3123 inhabitants, of whom 2801 are in the Higher, 
and 322 in the Lower, division. On the north-east, the 
parish is bounded by the river Usk ; and the Brecon and 
Monmouthshire canal intersects it from north to south. 
Its western portion consists of mountainous ground, 
and its eastern of a highly undulated surface, the former 
presenting some extensive and pleasing views. The 
Blaenavon iron-works, and the forges of Wartag, are in 
the parish, at the former of which is a chapel of ease, 
and there is another at Chapel-Nywydd. Llanover 
Court, the seat of Sir B. Hall, Bart., is a noble mansion 
of Bath-stone, in the Elizabethan style, situated in a 
small park. The living is a discharged vicarage, with 
those of Mamhilad and Trevethan united, valued in the 
king's books at 15. 3. 6., and in the patronage rf the 
Bishop, Archdeacon, and Chapter of Llandaff, the appro- 
priators ; net income, 591: there are 11 acres of 
glebe. The church is an ancient structure. The Inde- 
pendents have a place of worship. A school \vas endowed 
by Mrs. Sarah Hopkins with 3000 in the 4^ per cents., 
and a small farm at Blaenavon, the rent of which is 20 
per annum ; and another school is partly supported by 
subscription. 

LLANROTHAL, a parish, in the union of MON- 
MOUTH, Lower division of the hundred of WORMELOW, 
county of HEREFORD, 4 miles (N. N. W.) from Mon- 
mouth ; containing 108 inhabitants. The parish is 
situated in the southern part of the county, and bounded 
on the west by the river Munnow, which separates it 
from Monmouthshire; it comprises 1467 acres, and is 
boldly undulated. The living is a discharged vicarage, 
endowed with the rectorial tithes, valued in the king's 
books at 3. 15. 5., and in the gift of Joseph Price, 
Esq. : the tithes have been commuted for 192, and the 
glebe consists of 12 acres. The church is an ancient 



LL A N 



edifice. At a farm called Treged Castle, is the moat of 
an old fortress. 

LLANSAINTFRAED (ST. BRIDE), a parish, in the 
union, division, and hundred of ABERGAVENNY, county 
of MONMOUTH, 3f miles (S. E.) from Abergavenny j 
containing 20 inhabitants. The parish comprises by 
estimation 269 acres, of which 116 are arable, 146 mea- 
dow and pasture, and 7 woodland. The living is a 
discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at 
2. 13. 11^., and in the patronage of John Jones, Esq. : 
the glebe consists of 66 acres, with a house. The 
church, an ancient structure, is most picturesquely 
situated in the grounds of Llansaintfraed House, which 
present some fine views. 

L LAN SOY, a parish, in the union of CHEPSTOW, 
division of TRELLECK, hundred of RAGLAN, county of 
MONMOUTH, 4f miles (E. N. E.) from Usk ; containing 
158 inhabitants. The parish consists by estimation of 
1164 acres, of which 768 are arable, 352 pasture and 
meadow, and 20 woodland. The living is a discharged 
rectory, valued in the king's books at 6. 10. 10. ; net 
income, 170; patron, Duke of Beaufort. The glebe 
comprises 14 acres. 

LLANTHEWY-RYTHERCH (ST. DAVID), a parish, 
in the union, division, and hundred of ABERGAVENNY, 
county of MONMOUTH, 3| miles (E.) from Abergavenny ; 
containing 361 inhabitants. The parish comprises by 
estimation 21S6a. Ir. I0p., of which 1065er. 3r. 36p. are 
arable, 105 la. 2r. 24p. meadow and pasture, and 62a. 
2r. 29p. woodland. The living is a discharged vicarage, 
endowed with a moiety of the rectorial tithes, valued in 
the king's books at 7. 15. 5., and in the patronage of 
the Crown ; impropriators of the remainder of the rec- 
torial tithes, Trustees of the Free- school of Abergavenny. 
The tithes belonging to the vicar have been commuted 
for 195, and the impropriate for 85 ; the glebe con- 
tains 13a. Ir. 8p., to which a glebe-house is attached. 
The church, an ancient structure, consists of a nave and 
chancel, with a square tower. The Baptists have a 
place of worship. 

LLANTHEWY-SKIRRID (ST. DAVID), a parish, in 
the union, division, and hundred of ABERGAVENNY, 
county of MONMOUTH, 4 miles (N. E. by E.) from Aber- 
gavenny j containing 105 inhabitants. A considerable 
portion of the Great Skirrid mountain, having an eleva- 
tion of 14QO feet, is in this parish, which is intersected 
by the road from Ross to Abergavenny, and contains an 
area of 1060a.3r.35p., whereof 465a. Ir. 23p., are arable, 
520a. 3r. 22p. pasture and meadow, and 62a. 3r. 37p. 
woodland. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 7. 10. 2^., and in the gift and incumbency of 
the Rev. M. H. Jones : the tithes have been commuted 
for 147, and the glebe comprises 109 acres, with a 
comfortable parsonage-house. The church, a neat struc- 
ture, picturesquely situated near Llanthewy Court, was 
rebuilt, with the exception of the tower, in 1828, from 
the proceeds of a rate. 

LLANTHEWY- VACH (ST. DAVID), a parish, in the 
union of PONT-Y-POOL, division of CAERLEON, hundred 
of USK, county of MONMOUTH, 3 miles (S. W.) from 
Usk; containing 172 inhabitants. The living is a per- 
petual curacy, in the patronage of Jesus' College, Oxford, 
with a net income of 77 : the tithes, belonging to the 
Bishop of Llandaff, have been commuted for 90. 

LLANTHONY, an extra-parochial liberty, in the 
union of GLOUCESTER, Middle division of the hundred 
117 



of DUDSTOXE and KING'S-BARTON, adjacent to the city, 
and in the E. division of the county, of GLOUCESTER. 
A priory, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. 
John the Baptist, was founded here in 1136, by Milo, 
Earl of Hereford, for Black canons, refugees from 
Llanthony Abbey, in Monmouthshire, to which it was 
at first a cell, but afterwards became the superior, and 
had, at the Dissolution, a revenue of 748. 19. 11. 

LLANTHONY-ABBEY, a chapelry, in the Upper di- 
vision of the parish of CWMYOY, union, division, and 
hundred of ABERGAVENNY, county of MONMOUTH, 10 
miles (N. by W.) from Abergavenny. This place, which 
is of remote antiquity, is distinguished as having been 
chosen by St. David, uncle to King Arthur, and titular 
saint of Wales, for his seclusion from the world. Find- 
ing here a solitary spot on the banks of the Honddu, 
among rocks, woods and valleys, he built a small cha- 
pel, and made it a hermitage, where he passed many 
years, and which was afterwards unfrequented for seve- 
ral centuries : this chapel was called Llan-Dewy-nant- 
Honddu, or " the church of St. David on the Honddu," 
now corrupted into Llanthony. In the reign of William 
Rufus, Hugh de Lacy happening to follow deer into 
this retreat, William, one of his followers, was im- 
pressed with the wild solitude of the scenery, and, 
espying the chapel of St. David, resolved to devote 
himself here to the service of God : after passing several 
years alone, he induced Ernest, chaplain to Queen 
Maud, wife of Henry I., to become his associate, and 
by their united efforts another chapel was built, which 
was consecrated, in 1108, to St. John the Baptist. 
Soon afterwards, Hugh de Lacy founded a priory of 
canons regular of the order of St. Augustine, also dedi- 
cated to St. John ; and when riches poured in upon the 
establishment, a more magnificent church was erected. 
Situated in the vale of the Ewyas are the remains of the 
abbey, built in the form of a Roman cross, and exhibit- 
ing a fine specimen of the early English, with some 
Norman details. The present living of the chapelry is a 
perpetual curacy ; net income, 55 ; patron, the Bishop 
of St. David's ; impropriator, W. S. Landor, Esq. See 
CWMYOY. 

LLANTILIO - CRESSENY, or LLANTILIO-GROS- 
SENNY (.ST. TEILAW), a parish, in the division and hun- 
dred of SKENFRETH, union and county of MONMOUTH, 
7 miles (W. N. W.) from Monmouth ; containing 699 
inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the west and 
south-east by the river Trothy, and situated on the road 
from Monmouth to Abergavenny, and comprises about 
5480 acres ; the soil is chiefly clay, the surface a good 
deal undulated, and the views are exceedingly fine, 
especially from the stately ruins of White Castle, which 
is encompassed by a deep moat, and on the crest of an 
eminence about a mile and a half north-west of the church. 
Killough, which still exists, but is now a farm-house, 
was once the principal seat of the Powells, or ap Howels, 
a younger branch of which family resided at Llantilio 
for about 270 years, and the last descendant of whom 
intermarried with Mr. Serjeant Taddy, who has a man- 
sion here. Old Court was the residence of Sir William 
Thomas, who married the daughter of Sir David Gam, 
whose services at Agincourt were rewarded by Henry V. 
with knighthood on the field of battle : Sir David occa- 
sionally made Old Court a place of retreat from the 
vengeance of Owaiu Glendwr, by whom his castle of 
Peyton Gwyn, in Breconshire, was burnt to the ground. 



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A farm now called Park Farm, was the Red-Deer park 
belonging to Raglan Castle. 

The living is a vicarage, with that of Penrose annexed, 
valued in the king's books at 10. 10. 5., and in the 
patronage of the Bishop, Archdeacon, and Chapter of 
Llandaff, the appropriators j net income, 270 : there 
is a small parsonage-house, with a glebe of about 10 
acres. The church, which is picturesquely situated on 
an artificial mound, part of the site of an ancient in- 
trenchment, is a handsome cruciform structure of stone, 
with side aisles, and a chapel on the north side of the 
chancel ; it is chiefly in the early style, and has a tower 
surmounted by a lofty shingled spire, rising from the 
intersection of the transepts. In the chapel are several 
curious tombstones with effigies of the Powell family, 
and in the chancel are neat monuments to the family of 
Lewis, especially one by Flaxman to the memory of 
the lady of Mr. Justice Bosanquet : in the churchyard 
is a handsome stone cross. A chapel of ease, capable 
of accommodating 180 persons, was erected by sub- 
scription, in 184 C 2, at Llanvair-gil-Coed, where are re- 
mains of an ancient castle, and where was a grange 
belonging to the abbey of Dore, in Herefordshire. There 
is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists ; also a 
school endowed with 40 per annum from bequests by 
James and John Powell, in 1645. Remains exist of the 
moat of Old Court. 

LLANTILLIO-PERTHOLEY (Sr. TEILAW), a pa- 
rish, in the union, division, and hundred of ABERGA- 
VENNY, county of MONMOUTH, If mile (N. N. E.) from 
Abergavenny j comprising the Citra and Ultra divisions, 
and containing 808 inhabitants. The parish is inter- 
sected by the road to Hereford, and comprises 6550 
acres, of which 950 are common or waste ; it is beauti- 
fully situated, nearly in the centre of a district sur- 
rounded by mountains, of which the principal are the 
Sugar Loaf to the west, the Great Skirrid or Holy Moun- 
tain to the east, and the Little Skirrid and Blorenge 
Mountains to the south. A tram-road from Abergavenny 
to Hereford passes through the parish, through which 
also flows the Gavenny river. The living is a discharged 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 8. 3. 9., and 
in the patronage of the Chapter of Llandaff, the appro- 
priators : the great tithes have been commuted for 
370, and the vicarial for 252. 10. ; the glebe com- 
prises 66 acres, with a small vicarnge-house. The church 
is an ancient structure, with a square tower on the north 
side. A small chapel of ease has been recently rebuilt 
at Bettws, in the parish. There is a place of worship 
for Independents j and a parochial school is supported 
by subscription. 

LLANTRISSENT (Sr. PETER, ST. PAUL, AND ST. 
JOHN), a parish, in the union of PONT-Y-POOL, division 
and hundred of USK, county of MONMOUTH, 2^ miles 
(S. by E.) from Usk ; containing 329 inhabitants. The 
living is a discharged vicarage, with the perpetual curacy 
of Pertholey annexed, valued in the king's books at 
6. 8. 9-; net income, 131; patron and incumbent, 
Rev. R. Davies. 

LLANVACHES (S T . MACHES), a parish, in the 
union of NEWPORT, division of CHRISTCHURCH, hun- 
dred of CALDICOT, county of MONMOUTH, 6 miles (E.) 
from Caerleon ; containing 305 inhabitants. The parish 
comprises 2107 acres, of which 90 are common or waste 
land. A castle formerly stood here, of which there are 
no remains. The living is a discharged rectory, valued 
118 



in the king's books at 10 ; net income, 194 ; patron, 
Sir Charles Morgan, Bart. The church is an ancient 
structure, with a low square tower. 

LLANVAIR-DISCOED (S T . MARY), a parish, in the 
union and division of CHEPSTOW, hundred of CALDICOT, 
county of MONMOUTH, 65 miles (W. by S.j from Chep- 
stow; containing, with the hamlet of Dinham, 186 in- 
habitants. The parish comprises by estimation 1590 
acres of land, of which a considerable portion is lofty 
undulated ground, whence some fine views are obtained. 
The living is a perpetual curacy, united, with the vicar- 
age of Caerwent, to the vicarage of Mathern ; appro- 
priators, Dean and Chapter of Llandaff. The church is 
an ancient structure, and near it are the remains of a 
castle, very picturesquely situated, which is supposed to 
have been erected soon after the Conquest, and was 
formerly the property of the family of Kemeys. 

LLANVAIR-KILGIDIN (S T . MARY), a parish, in 
the division of PONT-Y-POOL, union and hundred of 
ABERGAVENNY, county of MONMOUTH, 4^ miles (S. E.) 
from Abergavenny ; containing 276 inhabitants. The 
parish comprises 1790 acres, of which about 1100 are 
arable, 550 pasture and meadow, and 60 woodland ; it 
is intersected by the new road from Abergavenny to 
Usk, and is bounded on the north-west and south-east 
by the Usk river, over which, at the former point, is a 
stone, and at the latter, a suspension, bridge. The soil 
in the lower parts is a sandy loam, and in the upper a 
red clay ; the surface is a good deal undulated, and the 
views from the higher grounds are very fine. The liv- 
ing is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 5. 1. 10^., 
and in the gift of Sir Charles Morgan, Bart. : the tithes 
have been commuted for 255, and there is a good 
parsonage-house, with a glebe of about 84 acres. The 
church is an ancient edifice, consisting of a nave and 
chancel, separated by a carved screen : in the church- 
yard are some fine yew-trees. 

LLANVA1R-WATERDINE (ST. MARY), a parish, 
in the union of KNIGHTON, hundred of PURSLOW, S. 
division of SALOP, 4 miles (N. W.) from Knighton ; 
containing 603 inhabitants. The parish is bounded by 
the river Teme, by which it is divided from the county 
of Radnor, and was formerly a chapelry in the parish 
of Clun, from which it was separated in 1593. It com- 
prises about 7000 acres ; the surface is hilly, and the 
soil generally a light gravel. The living is a perpetual 
curacy ; net income, 78 ; patron and impropriator, 
Earl Powis. The church is a plain building without 
a steeple. 

LLANVANNER, in the parish of LLANGATTOCK- 
VIBON-AVEL, hundred of ABERGAVENNY, county of 
MONMOUTH, 9 miles (N. W.) from Monmouth. At this 
place is a chapel of ease to the vicarage of Llangattock- 
Vibon-Avel : the living is endowed with two farms, pur- 
chased by grants from Queen Anne's Bounty, and now 
let for 70 per annum. The chapel is a structure of 
some antiquity. 

LLANVAPLEY (Sr. MAPLEY), a parish, in the 
union, division, and hundred of ABERGAVENNY, county 
of MONMOUTH, 4 miles (E.) from Abergavenny ; con- 
taining 124 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated 
on the old road from Abergavenny to Monmouth, com- 
prises by measurement 819 acres of arable and pasture 
land, in nearly equal portions; the soil is chiefly clay, 
producing good wheat, and the surface is considerably 
undulated. The river Trothy passes on the east. The 



L L A N 



L L A N 



living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 
10. 5. 2|., and in the gift of the Earl of Abergavenny : 
the tithes have been commuted for 150, and the glebe 
comprises 54 acres, with a good parsonage-house. The 
church is an ancient structure in the early English style. 
There is a place of worship for Independents ; and a 
parochial school is supported by the rector. 

LLANVETHERINE (ST. JAMES THE ELDER), a 
parish, in the union, division, and hundred of ABERGA- 
VENNY, county of MONMOUTH, 5 miles (N. E. by E.) 
from Abergavenny; containing 212 inhabitants. The 
parish is bounded on the east by the river Trothy, and 
situated on the road from Ross to Abergavenny, and com- 
prises 2143a.3r. I3p., of which about 983 acres are arable, 
1102 meadow and pasture, and 58 woodland and rough 
grazing ground ; the substratum contains stone, which 
is quarried for paving. The living is a rectory, valued 
in the king's books at 14. 17. 8^., and in the gift of 
the Earl of Abergavenny : the tithes have been com- 
muted for 300, and the glebe comprises 51^ acres. 
The church is an ancient structure, consisting of a nave 
and chancel, with a square tower : in the interior are 
several tombstones sculptured in bas-relief to the 
Powell family, and on the outside is a tombstone with a 
very rudely-executed effigy of the patron saint. 

LLANVEYNOE, a chapelry, in the parish of CLO- 
DOCK, union of DORE, hundred of EWYASLACY, county 
of HEREFORD, 17 miles (W. S. W.) from Hereford ; 
containing 244 inhabitants. This place is on the east- 
ern side of the Black Mountains, and between the 
Munnow and Olchon rivers ; and comprises 3510 acres, 
of which 1279 are common or waste land. The chapel 
is dedicated to St. Peter. 

LLANVIHANGEL-CRUCORNEY (ST. MICHAEL), 
a parish, in the union and division of ABERGAVENNY, 
partly in the hundred of SKENFRETH, but chiefly in 
that of ABERGAVENNY, county of MONMOUTH, 4 miles 
(N. by E.) from Abergavenny ; containing, with the 
hamlet of Penbiddle, 400 inhabitants. The parish is 
situated on the road from Hereford to Abergavenny, in 
a valley between the Holy, and a portion of the Black, 
Mountain, and comprises about 2603 acres, exclusive 
of gardens, roads, &c. : stone is quarried for roads and 
buildings. A tram- way runs through the parish. The 
living is a discharged vicarage, endowed with a portion 
of the rectorial tithes, valued in the king's books at 
5. 19.7-, and in the patronage of the Queen ; net income, 
281 ; impropriators of the remainder of the rectorial 
tithes, Governors of the school at Abergavenny : the 
glebe contains 40 acres, to which there is a house. The 
church, with the exception of the tower, chancel, and 
porch, was rebuilt in 1835. There is a place of worship 
for Baptists. 

LLANVIHANGEL-LLANTARNAM (ST. MICHAEL), 
a parish, in the union of NEWPORT, division of CAER- 
LEON, hundred of USK, county of MONMOUTH, 2 miles 
(N. W. by W.) from Caerleon ; containing 780 inhabit- 
ants. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, 
108 ; patron, E. Blewitt, Esq., who, and the family of 
Wood, are the impropriators. There is a school with a 
trifling endowment. Here was a Cistercian abbey, the 
revenue of which was valued at the Dissolution at 
71. 3. 2. 

LLANVIHANGEL - JUXTA - ROGIETT (ST. MI- 
CHAEL), a parish, in the union of CHEPSTOW, division 
119 



of CHRISTCHURCH, hundred of CALDICOT, county of 
MONMOUTH, 7| miles (S. W. by W.) from Chepstow ; 
containing 44 inhabitants. It comprises by computa- 
tion 550 acres ; the soil is composed of a gravelly loam 
and clay, and there are quarries of limestone. The 
living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books 
at 6. 9. 4^., and in the gift of Sir C. Morgan, Bart. : 
the tithes have been commuted for 123, and the glebe 
consists of 9 acres. The church is in the early English 
style, and consists of a nave and chancel, with a square 
embattled tower, and at a former period had a north 
aisle, as is apparent from the arches now filled up in the 
wall, on the north side of which two coffin-lids were 
discovered a few years since, one displaying the sculp- 
tured effigy of a man, in bas-relief, and the other that of 
a Knight Templar. 

LLANVIHANGEL-NEAR-USK (ST. MICHAEL), a 
parish, in the union, division, and hundred of ABERGA- 
VENNY, county of MONMOUTH, 4 miles (S. E. by S.) 
from Abergavenny ; containing, with the parish of 
Llansaintfraed, 123 inhabitants. The river Usk bounds 
the parish on the south ; and it is also intersected by 
the road from Monmouth to Abergavenny, and by the 
new road from the latter town to Usk. It contains by 
estimation 354 acres, of which 151 are arable, and 203 
pasture and meadow. The living is a discharged rec- 
tory, valued in the king's books at 3. 8. 9., and in 
the gift of Sir Samuel Fludyer, Bart. : the tithes have 
been commuted for 82, and there is a glebe of 26 acres. 
The church exhibits much antiquity. Here is a place of 
worship for Calvinists. 

LLANVIHANGEL - PONT - Y - MOILE (ST. MI- 
CHAEL), a parish, in the union and division of PONT-Y- 
POOL, hundred of USK, county of MONMOUTH, 5 miles 
(W. by N.) from Usk ; containing 202 inhabitants. It 
is situated on the road from Abergavenny to Pont-y- 
Pool, and comprises l651a. Ir. 6p. Facilities of supply 
are afforded by the Brecon and Abergavenny canal, 
which passes through the parish. The living is a per- 
petual curacy ; net income, 87 ; patron and impro- 
priator, Capel Hanbury Leigh, Esq. 

LLANVIHANGEL - TO R-Y - MYNYDD (ST. MI- 
CHAEL), a parish, in the union of CHEPSTOW, division 
of TRELLECK, hundred of RAGLAN, county of MON- 
MOUTH, 6^ miles (E. by N.) from Usk ; containing 197 
inhabitants. The parish, which forms a portion of a 
mountainous district, comprises 1080 acres. The living 
is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at 
2. 15. 5., and in the gift of the Archdeacon of Llan- 
daff: the tithes have been commuted for 108. 10., 
and the glebe contains about ll acres. 

LLANVIHANGEL-YSTERN-LLEWERN (ST. MI- 
CHAEL), a parish, partly in the hundred of RAGLAN, and 
partly in the division and hundred of SKENFRETH, union 
and county of MONMOUTH, 5 miles (W. by N.) from 
Monmouth ; containing 153 inhabitants. The parish is 
situated on the old road from Monmouth to Aberga- 
venny, and comprises by estimation 1814 acres, of 
which QOO are arable, 650 meadow and pasture, and 
264 woodland ; the surface is agreeably diversified with 
hill and dale, and the soil is a stiff clay, producing good 
wheat. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 9. 8. 4., and in the gift of the Earl of Aber- 
gavenny : the tithes have been commuted for 200, 
and the glebe contains about 80 acres, with a small par- 



L L A N 



LL W Y 



sonage, now a farm-house. The church is an ancient 
structure. The Baptists have a place of worship. In 
1735, the Rev. R. Thomas left a cottage, and 5 acres of 
land, for the instruction of poor children. 

LLANVRECHVA, a parish, in the union of PONT-Y- 
POOL, hundred of USK, county of MONMOUTH, 2 miles 
(N.) from Caerleon ; containing 1591 inhabitants, of 
whom 892 are in the Lower, and 699 in the Upper, 
division. The parish comprises 4183 acres, of which 
210 are common or waste. The living is a per- 
petual curacy ; net income, 85 ; patrons and ap- 
propriators, the Chapter of Llandaff, who receive a 
rent-charge of 348. 3., in commutation of tithes : the 
curate's glebe contains six acres. Here is a national 
school. 

LLANWARNE (ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST), a parish, 
in the union of Ross, Upper division of the hundred of 
WORMELOW, county of HEREFORD, 7 miles (N. W. by W.) 
from Ross ; containing 377 inhabitants. This place, 
which comprises 2399 acres, is situated near the eastern 
base of Saddlebow hill, whence issues the small river 
Garran : the road from Hereford also intersects the 
parish. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 15, and in the patronage of the Governors of 
Guy's Hospital. The following rent-charges are paid in 
commutation of tithes, viz. : to an impropriator, 106 ; 
to the rector, 339 ; to the Bishop of Gloucester and 
Bristol, 11; and to the vicar of Much Dewchurch, 
6. 6. There is a glebe-house, with half an acre of 
land. 

LLANWENARTH (Sr. PETER), a parish, in the 
union, division, and hundred of ABERGAVENNY, county 
of MONMOUTH, 2 miles (N. W. by W.) from Aberga- 
venny ; containing 2582 inhabitants, of whom 256 are 
in the Citra, and 2326 in the Ultra, division. The pa- 
rish comprises 3300 acres, of which 800 are common or 
waste ; it is situated in the north-western part of the 
county, and includes the Sugar-loaf, rising to an eleva- 
tion of 1852 feet, Craig, and other hills, forming con- 
spicuous objects at a considerable distance, and in several 
parts of the principality of Wales. The river Usk, toge- 
ther with the roads from Brecon to Merthyr-Tydvil, 
intersects the parish, through which also passes the 
Brecon and Monmouthshire canal. At Carn-y-Denis, 
coal and iron works have been established. The living 
is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 26. 6. 3. j 
net income, 470 ; patron, Earl of Abergavenny : the 
tithes for Llanwenarth Citra have been commuted for 
460, and the glebe consists of 45 acres. The church 
exhibits many indications of great antiquity. There 
are places of worship for Baptists and Wesleyans ; and 
a national school is about to be erected. 

LLANWERN (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union of 
NEWPORT, division of CHRISTCHURCH, hundred of 
CALDICOT, county of MONMOUTH, 3^ miles (S. E.) from 
Caerleon; containing 15 inhabitants. It comprises 707 
acres by measurement; the surface is irregular, about 
half of the parish being high and hilly ground, and the 
other half level ; the soil is very fertile, and limestone is 
quarried for building and for burning into lime. The 
living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books 
at 4. 0. 10., and in the gift of Sir Charles Salusbury, 
Bart. : the tithes have been commuted for 82. 8., and 
the glebe comprises 165 acres. The church is a hand- 
some structure, in the later English style. 
120 



LLANYBLODWELL (ST. MICHAEL), a parish, in 
the hundred of OSWESTRY, N. division of SALOP, 6 miles 
(S. W. by S.) from Oswestry; containing 961 inhabit- 
ants. The parish is on the road from Oswestry into 
Wales, and comprises 4676a. 3r. 32p., about two-thirds 
of which are arable, and the remainder pasture, with the 
exception of about 100 acres of common, and nearly the 
same quantity of woodland ; the soil is clay and gravel. 
The small meandering river Tannat, famed for its trout, 
flows through the parish ; and Offa's Dyke bounds it on 
the east. Limestone of the finest quality is extensively 
quarried in the hills of Porthywaen and Crickheath, 
which, with that of Llanymynech, form the beautiful 
valley in which the village is situated, and commence 
the range of wild and rugged scenery extending to the 
stupendous Berwyn, in North Wales. Copper and lead 
ore abound, though no regular mines of either seem to 
have been wrought since the time of the Romans, of 
whose works there are considerable traces in this and 
the adjoining parishes. In the township of Llynclys, a 
name derived from Llyn, a lake, and Llys, a palace, is a 
lake of extraordinary depth, covering seven or eight 
acres, and surrounded by striking scenery. The living 
is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
7. 12. 1., and in the gift of the Bishop of St. Asaph : 
the great tithes have been commuted for 201, and the 
vicarial for 34. 12. ; there is a glebe-house, and the 
vicar's glebe contains 20 acres. The church, a plain 
structure, with a small wooden turret rising from the 
roof of the west end, contains handsome monuments 
to the Bridgeman and Godolphin families. Moreton 
chapel, a brick edifice, was built and endowed, as is 
supposed, by an ancestor of the Earl of Bradford. 
Here is a school, which was rebuilt in the year 
1827. 

LLANYMYNECH (ST. AGATHA), a parish, partly in 
the hundred of CHIRK, county of DENBIGH, NORTH 
WALES, but chiefly in the hundred of OSWESTRY, N. 
division of SALOP, 6 miles (S. by W.) from Oswestry j 
containing, in the English portion, 566 inhabitants. In 
this parish commences the principal limestone range of 
North Wales, originating in an abruptly precipitous 
elevation of 900 feet, and extending northward through 
the country. In these rocks are found sulphate and 
carbonate of lead, copper, and zinc of superior quality, 
and a green dusty ore of copper, called by the miners 
"copper malm." Great quantities of limestone are 
burnt, and calamine is procured in abundance. The 
curious ancient mining level called the " Ogo," consists 
of caverns of unequal form and dimensions, connected 
by veins of ore which serve as guides to the miners. A 
branch of the Ellesmere canal from Frankton reaches to 
this place, where it joins the Montgomeryshire canal ; 
and a railway has been formed, extending from the lime- 
stone rocks for nearly two miles and a half, communi- 
cating with these canals, of which the latter crosses the 
river Vyrnwy by an aqueduct. Offa's Dyke passes 
through the parish, near the church, to the precipitous 
rock above noticed, and thence towards Oswestry. The 
living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at 12. 13.4.; 
net income, 394 ; patron, Bishop of St. Asaph. A na- 
tional school has been established. 

LLWYNDO, a hamlet, in the parish, union, and 
hundred of ABERGAVENNY, county of MONMOUTH ; 
containing 168 inhabitants. 



LOCK 



LOCK 



LLWYNTIDMAN, a township, in the parish of 
LLANYMYNECH, hundred of OSWESTRY, N. division of 
SALOP, 5f- miles (S. by W.) from Oswestry ; containing 
545 inhabitants. The tithes of this township and those 
of Trepenal, which are the only portions of the parish in 
Shropshire, have been commuted for "214, and there is 
a glebe of about 14 acres. 

LOAD, a chapelry, in the parish and hundred of 
MARTOCK, union of YEOVIL, W. division of SOMERSET, 
4^ miles (S. S. W.) from Somerton ; containing 426 in- 
habitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, annexed to 
the vicarage of Martock. The chapel is dedicated to St. 
Mary Magdalene. The navigable river Yeo, or Ivel, is 
here crossed by a bridge. 

LOAD, a hamlet, in the parish of LONG SUTTON, 
union of LANGPORT, hundred of SOMERTON, W. divi- 
sion of SOMERSET ; containing 14 inhabitants. 

LOAN-END, a township, in the parish of NORHAM, 
otherwise NORHAMSHIRE, union of BERWICK-UPON- 
TWEED, county of DURHAM, though locally to the 
northward, and for electoral purposes annexed to the 
Northern division, of Northumberland, 4^ miles (W. S. 
W.) from Berwick-upon-Tweed, containing 155 inhabit- 
ants. The township comprises 824f acres, of which 749 
are arable, 64 pasture, and 1 if woodland ; the soil con- 
sists generally of a strong loam, capable of producing all 
kinds of grain and green crops, and the scenery is beau- 
tiful. The river Tweed bounds the township on the 
north and west, and is here crossed by the celebrated 
Chain bridge, the invention of Captain, now Sir S. Brown, 
R. N., opened on the 26th of July, 1820, and the first 
erection of the kind in Great Britain. The extreme 
length of the suspended chains from the point of junc- 
tion on each side of the Tweed is 590 feet, and from the 
stone abutments 432 feet ; the height above the surface 
of the river is 27 feet. On the east of this place, is the 
road between Berwick and Cornhill. The tithes have 
been commuted for 226. 15., of which 189. 15. are 
payable to the Dean and Chapter of Durham, and 37 
to the vicar of the parish. 

LOBB, a hamlet, in the parish of GREAT HASELEY, 
union of THAME, hundred of EWELME, county of OX- 
FORD ; containing 22 inhabitants. 

LOBTHORPE, a hamlet, in the parish of NORTH 
WITHAM, union of GRANTHAM, wapentake of BEL- 
TISLOE, parts of KESTEVEN, county of LINCOLN j con- 
taining 54 inhabitants. 

LOCKERIDGE, a tything, in the parish of OVER- 
TON, union of MARLBOROUGH, hundred of SELKLEY, 
Maryborough and Ramsbury, and N. divisions of the 
county of WILTS, 3 miles (W. S. W.) from Marlborough ; 
containing 334 inhabitants. 

LOCKERLEY (ST. JOHN), a parish, in the union of 
ROMSEY, hundred of THORNGATE, Romsey and S. divi- 
sions of the county of SOUTHAMPTON, 6 miles (N. W.) 
from Romsey ; containing 558 inhabitants. The Salis- 
bury and Southampton canal passes through the parish. 
The living is annexed, with that of East Dean, to the 
rectory of Mottisfont : the tithes have been commuted 
for 370, and the glebe contains 8^ acres. There is a 
place of worship for Baptists ; and two schools are 
partly supported by the incumbent. 

LOCKHAY, or LOCKO, a chapelry, in the parish of 
SPONDON, union of SHARDLOW, hundred of APPLETREE, 
though locally in the hundred of MORLESTON and LIT- 
VOL. III. 121 



CHURCH, S. division of the county of DERBY, 4| miles 
(E. N. E.) from Derby. Here was an hospital of the 
order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem, dedicated to St. Mary 
Magdalene, and subordinate to a house in France : in 
the reign of Edward III. it was seized by the crown, 
and given to the Society of King's Hall, Cambridge. 

LOCKING (Sx. AUGUSTINE), a parish, in the union 
of AXBRIDGE, hundred of WINTERSTOKE, E. division of 
SOMERSET, 6 miles (N. W.) from Axbridge ; contain- 
ing 166 inhabitants. The parish comprises by mea- 
surement 1016 acres j and the Bristol and Exeter rail- 
way passes near the place. The living is a discharged 
vicarage, valued in the king's books at 5. 6. 10|. ; 
patrons and impropriators, Society of Merchant Adven- 
turers of Bristol. The great tithes have been commuted 
for 44, and the vicarial for 174. 10. j the glebe com- 
prises 25 acres. The church was built principally at the 
expense of the above-named society, who are trustees of 
Colston's charity at Bristol, and, as such, patrons of the 
benefice ; and was enlarged in 1820, at a cost of 700, 
defrayed chiefly by the society. 

LOCKINGE, EAST (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the 
union and hundred of WANTAGE, county of BERKS, 
2 miles (E. S. E.) from Wantage ; containing 325 in- 
habitants. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's 
books at 31. 10., and annexed to the Wardenship of 
All Souls' College, Oxford, since 1764, by act of parlia- 
ment ; net income, 480. A parochial school is sup- 
ported by subscription. 

LOCKINGE, WEST, a hamlet, in the parish, union, 
and hundred of WANTAGE, county of BERKS j contain- 
ing 63 inhabitants. 

LOCKINGTON (ST. NICHOLAS), a parish, in the 
union of SHARDLOW, hundred of WEST GOSCOTE, N. di- 
vision of the county of LEICESTER, 7\ miles (N. W. by N.) 
from Loughborough ; containing, with the township of 
Hemington, 617 inhabitants. The navigable river Trent 
flows along the northern, and the Soar along the eastern, 
boundary of the parish, at the north-east angle of which 
they form a junction. The living is a discharged vicar- 
age, valued in the king's books at 6. 7- 3^. j net 
income, 149 ; patron and impropriator, John Bain- 
bridge Story, Esq., who has a fine mansion in the 
parish. 

LOCKINGTON (ST. MARY), a parish, in the union 
of BEVERLEY, Bainton-Beacon division of the wapen- 
take of HARTHILL, E. riding of YORK, 6| miles 
(N. N. W.) from Beverley ; containing, with part of the 
township of Aike, 433 inhabitants, of whom 394 are in 
that part of Lockington township which is in the parish 
of Lockington. The parish comprises by computation 
nearly 3000 acres, including a portion of Aike ; it is 
partly arable, and partly old pasture, much of it of in- 
ferior quality, and about 100 acres are woodland. Lord 
Hotham and the Rev. Charles Constable, of Wassand, 
are lords of the manor, and the former is chief owner of 
the soil. The village, which is considerable, is seated in 
the vale of a small rivulet, about a rnile west of the 
Beverley and Driffield road. The Lockington Car canal, 
formed by the Hotham family, is two miles long, and 
joins the river Hull. The living is a rectory, valued in 
the king's books at 20 ; net income, 532 ; patron and 
incumbent, Rev. Francis Lunday : the tithes for the 
township of Lockington were commuted for land and a 
money payment in 1771. The church is a neat edifice, 

R 






LODD 



LODE 



with a small brick tower, and contains monuments to 
the Constable, Meriton, and other families. There is a 
place of worship for Wesleyans ; and a national school 
has been established. About three miles east of the 
village, is a large artificial mound, called Barrow Hill, 
formerly surrounded by a moat. 

LOCKTON, a chapelry, in the parish of MIDDLE- 
TON, union andlytheof PICKERING, N. riding of YORK, 
5 miles (N. E. by N.) from Pickering j containing 347 
inhabitants. The chapelry comprises 4010 acres, of 
which 1142 are inclosed, 1058 uninclosed, and 1810 
acres are in Saltersgate ; the soil is lime, and a blackish 
mould, and very productive ; good stone is burned 
into lime. The Wbitby and Pickering railway passes 
through the township. The village, which is pleasantly 
situated, borders on two winding dales. There is a 
small chapel of ease in the village, which has a square 
tower, and was rebuilt in 1800 ; also a place of worship 
for Wesleyans. Lockton has the privilege of sending 
six boys to the Levisham free school. 

LOCKWOOD, a chapelry, in the parish of AL- 
MONDBURV, union of HUDDERSFIELD, Upper division of 
the wapentake of AGBRIGG, W. riding of YORK, 1^ mile 
(S. W.) from Huddersfield; containing 4182 inhabit- 
ants. The chapelry comprises by computation nearly 
1700 acres; the soil is rich and fertile, the surface 
finely varied, and the scenery of pleasing character ; the 
substratum abounds with stone of good quality for 
building and other purposes. The village, which forms 
a rural suburb to the town of Huddersfield, is beautifully 
situated in the vale of the river Holme, near its con- 
fluence with another tributary of the Colne, and on the 
road to Sheffield ; it is extensive and well built, and 
contains an hotel for the accommodation of persons 
visiting the spa in its immediate vicinity. Lockwood 
Spa, erected in 1827, in a deeply- sequestered spot, 
sheltered by a lofty and well-wooded ridge on the east 
side of the river, is a handsome range of building, com- 
prising warm, tepid, vapour, cold, and shower baths, 
with a large swimming-bath, and every requisite ar- 
rangement for the internal and external use of the 
water, which issues from a spring, and is pumped into 
the baths by a steam-engine. The water, which has a 
strong sulphureous smell and taste, contains a small 
proportion of carbonate of lime and sulphate of magne- 
sia, with 35 parts of carburetted, and 17 of sulphuretted, 
hydrogen, 7 of carbonic acid, and 41 of azotic gas. The 
manufacture of woollen-cloths, and the weaving of fancy 
goods, are carried on extensively in the township ; and 
a large brewery was established in 1790. The chapel, 
now a district church, dedicated to Emanuel, was erected 
in 1830, at a cost of 3000, by the Parliamentary 
Commissioners, on a site given by Sir John Ramsden ; 
it is a handsome structure in the later English style, 
with a campanile turret, and contains 920 sittings, of 
which 400 are free. The living is a perpetual curacy, 
in the patronage of the Vicar of Almondbury, with a 
net income of 150. A residence for the incumbent 
has been erected at the expense of John Brooke, Esq., 
of Armitage-Bridge Hall. There are places of worship 
for Baptists and Wesleyans ; and a national school. 

LODDINGTON (Sr. MICHAEL), a parish, in the 

union of BILLESDON, hundred of EAST GOSCOTE, N. 

division of the county of LEICESTER, 7 miles (N. by 

W.) from Uppingham ; containing 137 inhabitants. It 

122 



comprises about 2000 acres ; the soil is gravelly and 
clayey, and the surface hilly. The living is a vicarage ; 
net income, 92 ; patron and impropriator, Charles 
Morris, Esq. : the glebe consists of about 17 acres of 
land. 

LODDINGTON (ST. ANDREW}, a parish, in the 
union of KETTERING, hundred of ROTHWELL, N. divi- 
sion of the county of NORTHAMPTON, 4 miles (W.) from 
Kettering; containing 226 inhabitants. It comprises 
1126a. 2r., chiefly arable ; the surface is undulated, and 
the soil in general fertile. The living is a rectory, 
valued in the king's books at 10. 4. 4^., and in the 
patronage of the Crown; net income, 421. 

LODDISWELL, or LODDISWELL-ARTJNDELL (ST. 
MICHAEL), a parish, in the union of KINGSBRIDGE, 
hundred of STAN BOROUGH, Stanborough and Coleridge, 
and S. divisions of DEVON, 3 miles (N. N. W.) from, 
Kingsbridge ; containing, with the chapelry of Buckland- 
Toutsaints, 1069 inhabitants. The parish comprises 
3054 acres, of which 150 are common or waste. The 
living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
26. 0. 2^. ; patron, impropriator, and incumbent, Rev. 
Thomas Freke, whose great and small tithes have been 
commuted for 266 each ; the vicarial glebe comprises 
103 acres, to which there is a house. The church con- 
tains some interesting monuments to the families of 
Fortescue and Arundell. There is a chapel of ease at 
Buckland-Toutsaints. Blackdown camp, an ancient 
military post, is in the neighbourhood. 

LODDON (HOLY TniNiTY), a market-town and 
parish, and the head of the union of LODDON and CLA- 
VERING, in the hundred of LODDON, E. division of 
NORFOLK, 10 miles (S. E.) from Norwich, and 113 
(N. E.) from London; containing 1197 inhabitants. 
This place, which gives name to the hundred, is situated 
on the road from Norwich to Beccles, and on the banks 
of an inconsiderable stream, called the Chet, which 
flows from the neighbourhood of Howe into the Yare at 
Hardley cross ; it consists of one principal street, of 
which the inhabitants are well supplied with water. 
Malting is carried on to a small extent. The market is 
on Tuesday ; and there are fairs on Easter-Monday, 
and on November 25th for horses. The county magis- 
trates hold petty-sessions every fortnight at the Swan 
inn, and a court baron is held at the will of the lord of 
the manor. The parish comprises 2988 acres, of which 
2303 are arable, 615 pasture, and 70 wood. The living 
is a vicarage ; patron and appropriator, Bishop of Ely : 
the great tithes have been commuted for 520, and the 
vicarial for 300, and the glebe comprises 4 acres. The 
church, erected at the expense of Sir James Hobart, 
chief justice of the court of common pleas in the reign 
of Henry VII., is a fine edifice of stone, in the later 
English style, with a lofty embattled tower ; the font, 
now much defaced, was formerly very splendid. There 
are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Me- 
thodists. A national school has been established ; and 
about 100 per annum, derived from 80 acres of land, 
are applied to the repairs of the church, and to the relief 
of the poor. The union of Loddon and Clavering com- 
prises 42 parishes or places, containing a population of 
14,472. 

LODE, a hamlet, in the parish of BOTTISHAM, union 
of NEWMARKET, hundred of STAINE, county of CAM- 
BRIDGE ; containing 494 inhabitants. 



LOFT 



LOFT 



LODERS (Sr. MARY MAGDALENE), a parish, in the 
union of BRIDPORT, liberty of LODERS and BOTH EN- 
HAMPTON, Bridport division of DORSET, 2^ miles (N. E.) 
from Bridport ; containing 952 inhabitants. The parish 
is on the road from London to Exeter, and comprises 
by measurement 2305 acres, of which 1114 are arable, 
1056 pasture, and 134 woodland; the greater portion 
is beautifully situated in a fertile vale, sheltered by hills, 
and abounding with varied scenery. There are some 
quarries of stone, which is of good quality for building, 
and is also used for the roads ; and about 100 persons 
are employed in the making of twine. The living is a 
discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at 
14. 5. 7^.5 and in the alternate patronage of the Crown 
and Sir Molyneux Hyde Nepean, Bart., of whom the 
latter, with others, is impropriator ; net income, 235. 
The church is a handsome structure, in the later English 
style, with a low massive western tower, and contains 
numerous interesting details. There is a place of wor- 
ship for Wesleyans ; and a parochial school on the 
national system is supported by subscription. An alien 
priory, subordinate to the abbey of Montsburgh, in 
Normandy, was suppressed here in the reign of Richard 
II., when its revenue, valued at 80, was bestowed on 
the priory of St. Anne, near Coventry : in the reign of 
Henry IV., it was restored to its ancient owners, and, 
after its dissolution by Henry V., formed part of the 
endowment of Sion Abbey, in the county of Middlesex. 

LODSWORTH, a liberty and parish, in the union 
and parliamentary borough of MIDHURST, hundred of 
EASEBOURNE, rape of CHICHESTER, W. division of 
SUSSEX, 3^ miles (W. by N.) from Petworth ; containing 
634 inhabitants. The Rother, or Arundel, navigation 
is crossed by a bridge in this parish, through which 
also runs the road from Petworth to Midhurst. The 
liberty is co-extensive with the parish, and consists of 
certain exemptions granted by the 3rd of Richard I. to 
the Bishop of London, to whom the manor formerly 
belonged. The living is a perpetual curacy ; net income, 
75 ; patrons, the family of Poyntz, who, with the Dean 
and Chapter of St. Paul's, are the impropriators. Some 
tithes have been commuted for 110; and 90, the 
produce of other tithes, are payable to the Dean and 
Chapter. The church, dedicated to St. Peter, was en- 
larged in 1839, by the addition of a north transept, at 
the expense of H. Hollist, Esq., who is lessee of the 
Dean and Chapter's tithes, and who has established a 
school on the national system, which is supported by 
himself and family. 

LOFTHOUSE, IN CLEVELAND (ST. LEONARD), a 
parish, in the union of GUISBOROUGH, E. division of 
the liberty of LANGBAURGH, N. riding of YORK, 8| miles 
(E. N. E.) from Guisborough ; containing 1091 inhabit- 
ants. This place, in the domesday survey Lochtushum, 
was laid waste by William the Conqueror, in 1069, arid 
subsequently granted by that monarch to Hugh Lupus, 
Earl of Chester, who soon afterwards transferred it to 
the Percy family, of whom William de Percy, the third 
baron, in 1133, founded at Handall, in the parish, a 
priory for Benedictine nuns, which he dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary, and of which the revenue, at the Dissolu- 
tion, was estimated at 20. 7. 8. The lands remained 
for many generations in possession of the Percys, and 
the greater portion of them is now the property of 
the Hon. Major-General Sir Robert Lawrence Dundas, 
123 



lord of the manor. The parish is bounded on the north 
by the sea, and comprises by measurement 3775 acres, 
including 383 of common or waste. Near the coast the 
ground is elevated, but it declines gradually from the 
cliffs towards the village, whence it rises gently, assuming 
a northern aspect, and commanding a good view of the 
sea ; the surface is diversified with richly-wooded dales, 
and the scenery is pleasingly picturesque. The substra- 
tum is chiefly freestone of good quality for building; and 
the rocks abound with alum, of which very extensive 
works, belonging to the lord of the manor, afford em- 
ployment to many of the inhabitants of the adjacent 
hamlets. Lofthouse Hall, the seat of Major-General 
Dundas, is a handsome mansion, recently erected ; and 
Handall Abbey, about a mile to the south, is beautifully 
situated. The village, which is on the coast road from 
Guisborough to Whitby, consists mainly of one long 
street of houses built of stone. A customary market is 
held on Thursday. The living is a rectory, valued in 
the king's books at 10. 11. 0, and in the patronage of 
the Crown ; net income, 600. The church, originally 
given by William de Saucey to the priory of Guisborough, 
was rebuilt in 1813, at a cost of 1300, and is a spacious 
structure, with a square embattled tower ; and a par- 
sonage-house, in the Italian style, has been built by the 
present rector, the Rev. Horatio Hildyard. There are 
some remains of the convent. 

LOFTHOUSE, with CARLTON, a township, in the 
parish of ROTHWELL, Lower division of the wapentake 
of AGBRIGG, W. riding of YORK, 3 miles (N.) from 
Wakefield; containing 1536 inhabitants. This township, 
which includes the manors and villages of Lofthouse 
and Carlton, comprises by computation 1810 acres; the 
soil, though various, is generally fertile, and the commons 
were inclosed under an act of parliament obtained in 
1836 ; the substrata are chiefly coal and freestone, of 
excellent quality, and in extensive operation. The vil- 
lage of Lofthouse is situated on the road from Leeds to 
Wakefield, along which it stretches for a considerable 
length ; and about a mile to the north-east of it, is the 
village of Carlton, of which many of the inhabitants are 
employed in the rope manufacture. The impropriate 
tithes have been commuted for 187, and the vicarial 
for 100. An episcopal chapel was erected at Lofthouse, 
in 1840, at an expense of 1050, of which 250 were 
granted by the Ripon Diocesan, and 100 by the Incor- 
porated, Society; it is a handsome structure in the early 
English style, and contains 392 sittings, of which 294 
are free. A parsonage-house, also, was erected in 1842, 
at a cost of 600, of which one moiety was paid by the 
Ripon Society ; the sites for the chapel and house, in- 
cluding the chapel-yard and garden, were given by 
Miss Harrison. An ecclesiastical district, comprising 
likewise the township of Thorpe, has just been as- 
signed, including a population of 1606 persons, and of 
which the Rev. Robert Chadwick is incumbent ; patron, 
the Vicar of Roth well ; net income, 120. A school- 
house, also, for the reception of 200 children is about to 
be erected, with a master's residence, at a cost of 500, 
on a site given for the purpose by Samuel Stocks, Esq., 
of Wakefield, and J. J. Charlesworth, Esq. There is a 
place of worship for Wesleyans. 

LOFTSOME, with WRESSEL, a township, in the 
parish of WRESSEL, union of HOWDEN, Holme-Beacon 
division of the wapentake of HARTHILL, E. riding of 

R2 



LOND 



LO ND 



YORK, 3 miles (W. N. W.) from Howden ; containing 
174 inhabitants, of whom 20 are in the hamlet of Loft- 
some. The township comprises about 1380 acres : the 
hamlet lies near the Derwent, over which is a wooden 
bridge, so constructed as to admit the passage of 
vessels. 

LOGARSTON, a township, in the parish of ALME- 
LEY, union of WEOBLY, hundred of WOLPHY, county 
of HEREFORD. 

LOLWORTH (ALL SAINTS), a parish, in the union 
of ST. IVES, hundred of NORTHSTOW, county of CAM- 
BRIDGE, 6 miles (N. W. by W.) from Cambridge ; con- 
taining 122 inhabitants. It comprises 1076 acres, of 
which 62 are common or waste. The living is a rec- 
tory, valued in the king's books at 6. 2. 3^., and in 
the gift of Sir J. Hawley, Bart., and P. Orchard and L. 
W. Buck, Esqrs. : the tithes have been commuted for 
200, and the glebe contains 24 acres. 

LONDESBOROUGH (ALL SAINTS),* parish, in the 
union of POCKLINGTON, Holme-Beacon division of the 
wapentake of HARTHILL, E. riding of YORK, 2^ miles 
(N.) from Market- Weighton ; containing 267 inhabit- 
ants. This place was, for several generations, the 
seat of the Clifford family ; and in the village, park, 
and gardens, several Roman coins, and repositories of 
the dead, have been discovered, on which account Dr. 
Drake considers it to have been the Roman station Del- 
govitia. The parish comprises 4200 acres, of which 
about 300 are wood, and 400 comprehended in the park, 
to which the Roman road from Brough is continued in 
a line. Londesborough Hall, a large and ancient man- 
sion, in the form of the letter H, was taken down in 
1819 ; and a neat mansion in the Elizabethan style was 
built in 183Q. The village is pleasant, and picturesquely 
seated on the western side of the wolds. The living is 
a rectory, valued in the king's books at 16; net in- 
come, 798; patron, Duke of Devonshire. The church 
stands on the verge of the park, and consists of a nave, 
chancel, and north aisle, with an embattled tower at the 
west end ; the interior is neat, and has a few mural 
monuments of the Clifford and other families. A na- 
tional school is chiefly supported by the Duke of Devon- 
shire and the rector. An hospital for twelve aged 
bachelors, widowers, or widows, was founded by the 
first Earl and Countess of Burlington. 

LONDON, the me- 

tropolis of the United King- 
dom, the seat of govern- 
ment, and the principal port 
of the empire, forming a 
city and county of itself, 
situated on the banks of the 
river Thames, about 60 miles 
from its mouth, in 51 31' 
(N. Lat.), and 5' (W. Lon.) 
from the meridian of Green- 
wich observatory, 395 miles 
(S.) from Edinburgh, and 
339 (S. E.) from Dublin. It contains, including some 
of the adjoining parishes, which may be considered as 
forming part of the metropolis, 1,873,676 inhabitants, 
of whom 54,626 are in the city Within the Walls, 70,382 
in the city Without the Walls, 98,098 in the borough of 
Southwark, and 222,053 in the city of Westminster. 
124 



The following is a list of the subjects comprised in the 
article, with the page in which each head or division 
occurs : 




Arms. 



Historical Account 124 

General Description 1 29 

Royal Palaces and Houses of 

Parliament 131 

The Parks, Squares, &c 1 32 

Theatres and Places of Amuse- 
ment 132 

Commerce, &c 133 

Docks, Canals, and Railways 134 
Public Buildings connected 

with Commerce 135 

Markets 136 

Municipality and Legal Ju- 
risdiction ] 37 

Courts of Law, &c 139 

Prisons and Police 141 

Inns of Court 141 

Government Offices and other 

Public Edifices 142 

Bridges and Tunnel 143 



Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction .. 145 

Parishes and Benefices, with 
Statistics 145 

St. Paul's Cathedral, Paro- 
chial Churches, &c 1 49 

Westminster Abbey, and 
other Ecclesiastical Struc- 
tures without the city 
proper 151 

Colleges, Schools, and Esta- 
blishments for Instruction 
and Study of various kinds. 154 

Hospitals, and other Chari- 
table Institutions 156 

Libraries 161 

Literary, Philosophical, and 
other Learned and Scien- 
tific Societies 162 

Antiquities 162. 

Eminent Men . . . 1G4 



* It may be observed, that further particulars respecting the 
Metropolis, can be found by reference to articles, in other portions of the 
work, on such districts as CHELSEA, MARYLEBONE, ST. PANCRAS, 
CLERKENWELL, ISLINGTON, ST. LUKE'S, WHITECHAPEL, ST.GEOUOE'S- 
IN-THE-EAST, BERMONDSEY, LAMDETH, &c. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT. 

The earliest notice that we find of London, which 
is now the most important, if not the most extensive, 
city in the world, is in Julius Caesar's account of his two 
exploratory expeditions from Gaul to Britain, styled 
his Commentaries. It is identified with the Civitas Tri- 
nobantum, or " city of the Trinobantes," by which people 
it was probably selected on account of its peculiarly fine 
situation, being protected on the north by an eminence, 
a forest, and a morass ; on the west, by the deep ravine 
named the Fleet ; on the east, by another ravine, since 
called Wai-brook ; and on the south, by the Thames, 
connected with extensive marshes, sheltered by the 
Kent and Surrey hills ; thus combining, with other 
advantages, all the natural defences that could be desired 
by an uncivilized people. At a very early period it was 
considered peculiarly eligible as a seat of commerce, its 
proximity to the sea being sufficient to afford the full 
advantage of the tide, whilst the distance was great 
enough to furnish a perfect security against any sudden 
attack from the naval force of an enemy. The name 
Londinium is, according to the most prevailing opinion, 
a Latinization of the British compound Llyn-din, "the 
town on the lake ;" the vast estuary formed by the 
Thames here, at that time, being a peculiarity attached 
to no other British town ; whilst Lun-dun, " the town 
in the grove," and Llhong din, "the city of ships," the 
next two most probable etymons, are liable to insuper- 
able objections ; the former name, expressing a feature 
said by Caesar to have been common to all British towns, 
which he describes as fortified woods; and the latter 
being inapplicable before the place became known as a 
naval station. The Saxons called it Lunden-Ceaster, of 
whi< h the affix, as well as those of wick and byrg or 
byrig, occasionally used by them, appears to have been 
dropped at the time of the Norman Conquest. 



LOND 



LO ND 



The first event on record is its destruction by Boa- 
dicea, queen of the Iceni, in the reign of Nero, in 
the year 60. Its progress since the time of Caesar 
had been so rapid, that Tacitus describes it, at this 
period, as "the chief residence of merchants, and the 
great mart of trade j" though not then dignified, like 
Camalodunum (Maldon, or Colchester), and Verulamium 
(St. Alban's), with the name of a colony; nor, as it 
appears, fortified in the Roman manner. A few years 
afterwards, the Romans made it a permanent station, 
subject to the authority of their own laws. It is agreed 
to have been surrounded by a wall in the fourth cen- 
tury ; and, according to Dr. Stukeley, the Roman city 
occupied an oblong square, extending in length from 
Ludgate to Wai-brook, and in breadth from Maiden- 
lane, Lad-lane, and Cateaton-street, to the Thames. 
This space was between the river Fleta, on the west, 
and the stream called Wai-brook, on the east, and 
comprised about one-fifth of the area subsequently sur- 
rounded by a wall, the height of which, when perfect, 
was twenty-two feet, throughout its whole circuit. The 
wall commenced at the Palatine tower, proceeded in a 
straight line along the eminence of Ludgate-hill, as far 
as Newgate, and was then suddenly carried eastward to 
a spot a little beyond Aldersgate, running thence straight 
in a northerly direction, almost as far as Cripplegate, 
from which spot it returned, in a direct easterly course, 
as far as Bishopsgate, where a large remnant of the wall, 
called " London Wall," remained standing until the late 
removal of Bethlehem hospital. From Bishopsgate the 
wall assumed a gentle curvature to the Tower, over the 
site of which it originally passed, and probably finished 
in a castellum at this, as it did at the western, extremity. 
Another wall skirted the river, and ran the whole 
length of Thames street. Fifteen towers and bastions, 
of Roman masonry, increased the strength of these for- 
tifications, to which, in after times, was added a broad 
deep ditch ; and at Barbican stood the Specula, or 
Watch-tower, so named. Four gates afforded entrance 
from the great military roads which then intersected 
South Britain. The Praetorian way, improved from the 
British Watling- street, passed under one of those gates, 
at the spot where Aldersgate formerly stood, whence 
it proceeded along that street to Billingsgate, and 
thence continued, on the opposite bank of the Thames, 
to its southern termination at Dovor. The Ermin- 
street led from a trajectus, or ferry, which crossed from 
Stoney-street, Southwark, to Dowgate, and, passing by 
Bishopsgate, pursued the course of the present road 
northwards to Ad Fines (Braughing). Another road 
passed through Newgate, by Holborn and Oxford- street, 
to Ad Ponies (Staines), from which there was a branch 
road, in a north-easterly direction, by Portpool-lane, 
Clerkenwell, Old-street, and Hackney, to Duroleiton, 
the modern Laj'ton, in Essex. Bishopsgate, Moorgate, 
Ludgate, &c., were added as new roads were formed : 
Temple Bar is modern, not having been built until 
1670, after the great fire. Roman antiquities, consist- 
ing of foundations of houses, temples, walls and streets, 
tessellated pavements, sepulchral monuments, urns, 
glasses, coins, articles of dress, and numerous other 
remains, have been discovered on the site of the present 
metropolis, as is more particularly noticed at the close 
of the article ; and the London stone, in Cannon-street, 
is considered by most antiquaries as part of a Roman 
125 



milliary, and the central point from which the great 
Roman roads diverged. 

The city continued to improve under the Romans, 
and had greatly increased in importance before the year 
211, when we find it recorded as " a great and wealthy 
place, illustrious for the vast number of merchants who 
resorted to it, for its widely-extended commerce, and 
for the abundance of every species of commodity it 
could supply." Antoninus, at this period, makes seven 
of his fifteen itinera terminate here, and its early im- 
portance is further evinced by its having been a munici- 
pium, or free city, and the residence of the Vicars of 
Britain, under the Roman Emperors. In the year 359, 
no less than 800 vessels are said to have been employed 
in the exportation from London of corn alone, and its 
commerce is stated to have increased proportionally, 
until the end of the fourth century. On the abandon- 
ment of Britain by the Romans, a new and fierce race 
succeeded to their dominions. The warlike Saxons, 
under their leaders, Hengist and Horsa, landed in 448, 
at Upwines fleet, the present Ebbs-flete, in the Isle of 
Thanet. The Britons, however, remained masters of 
London for at least nine years after that event ; as, 
being defeated in 457 at Creccanford, now Crayford, 
they evacuated Kent, and fled to the capital. On Hen- 
gist's death, in 488, having then been for some time in 
the possession of the Saxons, it was retaken by Ambro- 
sius, and retained by the Britons during a considerable 
part of the following century. In the year 604, it 
seems to have recovered from the ravages of the in- 
vaders, so that Bede terms it " a princely mart town ;" and 
its chief magistrate was called portgrave, or portreeve. 

London was the chief town of the Saxon kingdom of 
Essex, and, on the conversion of the East Saxons to 
Christianity, it became an episcopal see. Sebert was 
the first Christian king of Essex ; and his maternal 
uncle, Ethelbert, King of Kent, founded here, about 
the commencement of the seventh century, a church, 
dedicated to St. Paul, of which Melitus was consecrated 
the first bishop. In the years 764, 788, and 801, the 
capital suffered severely from fires, as it did also in 849, 
on an invasion of the Danes, who entered the Thames 
with 250 ships, plundered and burnt the city, and mas- 
sacred the inhabitants. In a similar attempt with an 
increased naval force, two years afterwards, the same 
invaders were completely defeated by Ethelvvulph and 
his son Ethelbald ; yet London suffered more from these 
two assaults than it had ever done before. Under Egbert, 
though not the seat of government, it was advancing 
fast in importance, a wittena-gemot having been held in 
833, to consult on the means of repelling the Danes. 
Alfred restored the city, which he constituted the 
CAPITAL of all England, but had the mortification, in 
893, to see it almost entirely reduced to ashes by an 
accidental fire, which raged with the more uncontrolla- 
ble fury as the houses were, at that time, almost wholly 
built of wood. It was a second time rebuilt, and, for its 
better government, divided by Alfred into wards and 
precincts ; that monarch also instituted the office of 
sheriff in London, as in other parts of the kingdom. 
In 925, King Athelstan had a royal palace here, and 
appointed eight mints for the coinage of money ; and 
the city increased in importance during the succeeding 
reigns, until the year 1015, when Canute the Dane, with 
his fleet, sailed up the Thames and besieged it ; but he 



L O N D 



LOND 



was repulsed, and after having blockaded it, and made 
several unsuccessful attempts, a compromise was effected 
between the two kings, Edmund Ironside and Canute, 
whereby London was conceded to the latter. The com- 
parative opulence of the city, at this time, is evinced by 
its having paid a seventh part of the tax levied on the 
whole nation by that monarch, the total amount of which 
was 72,000. In a wittena-gemot at Oxford, to deter- 
mine the succession after the death of Canute, we find 
the " pilots of London " summoned, thereby meaning its 
magistrates, or leading men. Edward the Confessor 
granted to London the Court of Hustings, and by his 
charter, in which the city is called Troy-novant, gave 
it pre-eminence over all his other cities : he moreover con- 
firmed its right of manumission of slaves who had resided 
there a year and a day, from which is deduced the cus- 
tom of calling the city " The King's Free Chamber." 

On the successful invasion of England by William 
the Norman, the magistrates of London, in conjunction 
with the prelates and nobility, invited him to accept 
the title of king, and he was crowned at Westminster. 
In return, that prince granted to the city two charters, 
confirming the whole of the privileges it had enjoyed 
under the Saxon kings, and adding several others. The 
government at this time appears to have been vested in 
the bishop and a portreeve. In the year 1077, another 
fire having destroyed a great part of the city, with St. 
Paul's cathedral, Maurice, Bishop of London, laid the 
foundation of a new church, on a more extended scale 
than the former. That part of the city which had been 
destroyed by the last- mentioned fire was soon rebuilt 
more magnificently than before ; and the White Tower, 
now forming a portion of the Tower of London, was 
erected by William I., in 1078. Domesday book con- 
tains no notice of London at this time, owing, it is sup- 
posed, to a separate survey having been made of it, 
which is now lost ; but it mentions, as part of the 
suburbs, a vineyard in Holborn, in the possession of the 
crown, and ten acres of land, near Bishopsgate, belong- 
ing to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's : the latter is 
the present manor of Norton-Falgate, and both are now 
situated within the limits of the metropolis. In 1090, a 
tremendous hurricane overthrew about six hundred 
houses, with several churches, and damaged the Tower 
of London, which last was repaired and strengthened 
with additional works, by William Rufus, who, in 1097, 
also founded Westminster Hall. Henry I., as a reward 
for the ready submission of the men of London to his 
usurped authority, bestowed upon the city the first 
charter in which its privileges were circumstantially de- 
tailed ; amongst these was the perpetual shrievalty of 
Middlesex, which enabled the citizens to unite the power 
of the two shrievalties in freemen of their own nomina- 
tion. The standard of weights and measures was 
granted to them about the same time ; and, by the same 
king's charter, it was further stipulated, that the city 
should have all its ancient privileges, as well by land as 
by water. In the first year of the reign of Stephen, 
another fire, beginning near London stone, consumed all 
the houses eastward to Aldgate, and westward to St. Paul's, 
together with London bridge, which was then of wood. 
This occasioned, in 1192, an order to the mayor and 
aldermen, that " all houses hereafter erected in the city, 
or liberties thereof, should be built of stone, with party 
walls of the same, and covered either with slate or tiles, 
126 



to prevent the recurrence of fires, which had been occa- 
sioned by the houses having been built of wood, and 
thatched with straw, or reeds ;" but this order does not 
appear to have been extensively carried into effect. 

Of the state of London at this early period, an ad- 
mirable picture is afforded in the description by Fitz- 
Stephen, a contemporary monk, wherein he informs us 
that the city was strongly walled and fortified ; that it 
abounded with churches, convents, and public buildings ; 
carried on an extensive commerce with distant parts of 
the world ; and had a large disposable military force. 
The chief improvement during the reign of Henry II. 
was the foundation, in 1176, of a new bridge of stone, 
which was completed in 1209. The year 1189 is memo- 
rable in the metropolitan annals for the cruel massacre 
of the Jews, which took place at the coronation of 
Richard I. In 1210, King John empowered "the 
barons of London," as they are styled, to choose their 
mayor annually, or continue him from year to year at 
pleasure ; but in 1252 a by-law was made, ordaining 
that no one should be mayor longer than one year. In 
1212 occurred a destructive fire, by which, according to 
Stowe, 3000 persons perished. In 1214, the Town 
ditch, surrounding the city walls, was commenced, and 
after several hundred persons had been employed upon 
it for upwards of two years, was completed in 1218. 
In 1215, the citizens, taking part with the barons against 
King John, opened their gates to Louis the Dauphin and 
his army. In the same year happened a great fire, which 
began in Southwark, and extended to London bridge, 
where it destroyed 3000 persons, whose escape was 
prevented by another fire breaking out at the Middlesex 
end of the bridge. 

The increase of buildings in the metropolis, from the 
reign of Henry I. to the period last named, kept pace 
with the extension of its municipal privileges. In this 
interval, of little more than a century, twelve large mo- 
nasteries were founded in London and its suburbs, in- 
cluding the magnificent establishments of the Knights 
Templars and the Knights Hospitallers, the superb 
priory of the Holy Trinity, in Aldgate, of which the 
prior was an alderman of London, and others of nearly 
equal magnitude. Several additional gates were also 
erected, in consequence of the formation of new roads ; 
as well as magnificent mansions built by the wealthy 
citizens, such as Gerard's Hall, Basing Hall, the Ledyn 
Porch, &c. ; and various parochial churches rebuilt on 
a more grand and substantial scale. In consequence of 
the extensive foundations above-mentioned, and the 
increased number of private houses, in the reign of 
Henry III., the supply of water furnished from Old- 
bourne (Holborn), Wai-brook, and Ley-bourne, was 
found insufficient, and a new supply was obtained from 
the springs in the village of Tyburn ; and, in 1285, a 
conduit in Cheapside was first supplied with this water, 
by leaden pipes. The fee-farm of Queen-hythe had, 
previously to this period, been purchased from Richard, 
Earl of Cornwall, by the corporation, subject to an an- 
nual quit-rent of 50, thus affording additional facilities 
for the increased commerce of the metropolis. In 1258. 
a dreadful famine was experienced, in consequence of 
the high price of corn, and 20,000 persons are said to 
have died of hunger. In 1262, a considerable part of 
West-cheap was reduced to ashes by a fire wilfully 
caused by some unknown incendiaries. In 1266, the 



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Earl of Gloucester, in rebellion against Henry III., 
entered the city with an army, and built bulwarks, cut 
trenches, and made other defences. 

In 1296, in the reign of Edward I., the wards of 
London, first formed by Alfred, but uncertain as to 
their number, were extended to twenty-four, with each a 
presiding alderman, and common-councilmen appointed 
to be chosen annually, as at present, for the several pre- 
cincts : a common seal was also granted to the city. 
Edward III., who began his reign in 1327, decreed that 
the mayor should be one of the judges of Oyer and Ter- 
miner, or gaol delivery of Newgate ; that the citizens 
should not be compelled to go to war out of the city; 
and moreover that the liberties and franchises of the 
city should not, after this time, on any pretext, be taken 
into the king's hands : he also granted that the mayor 
should be the only escheator within the city. In 1338, 
the Serjeants of the mayor and sheriffs were empowered 
to bear maces of silver gilt, with the king's arms 
engraven on them ; and in 1340, tolls were imposed for 
paving the streets. In 1348 occurred a great plague ; 
and in the course of the same year, Sir Walter Manny 
founded the Charter House, near Smithfield, with Pardon 
churchyard adjoining, to be a place of burial for such as 
died of it. In 1354 it was ordained that the aldermen, 
who had been hitherto changed yearly, should not be 
removed without some especial cause. In 1380 occurred 
Wat Tyler's rebellion, when William Walworth, mayor, 
was knighted in the field, together with several alder- 
men, for their gallant behaviour on the occasion ; and 
the dagger is said to have been added to the city arms 
on account of Walworth having killed the rebel Tyler in 
Smithfield with that weapon. In 1406, London was 
afflicted with another great plague, which swept away 
upwards of 30,000 people. In 1416, Sir Henry Barton, 
mayor, ordained that lanterns, with lights, should be 
hung out on winter evenings, between Hallowtide and 
Candlemas ; and in the following year this custom was 
general. In 1417, a new guildhall was built on the site 
of the present edifice, in lieu of a mean cottage, formerly 
occupied as such, in Aldermanbury ; and in 1419 Lead- 
enhall was erected as a public granary. The supply of 
water being found insufficient, in 1443, pipes were laid 
from Paddington. In 1449, the Kentish rebel, Jack 
Cade, made his entry into London. 

About the year 1460 occurs the earliest notice of the 
use of brick in the buildings of London, which material 
was first made in Moorfields, and afterwards gradually 
superseded wood, and became generally used in erecting 
dwelling-houses. New conduits, and cisterns for water, 
were also constructed. In 1469, the Tower being de- 
livered to the mayor and his brethren, the aldermen, 
they set at liberty King Henry VI., who was confined 
there. Under Richard III. and Henry VII. various 
additions were made to the royal palace at Westminster ; 
and the latter monarch, besides founding his magnifi- 
cent chapel at the abbey adjoining, rebuilt Baynard's 
castle, in Thames-street. In the thirteenth year of his 
reign, several gardens in Finsbury were destroyed, and 
formed into a field for archers, whence the origin of the 
present Artillery Company. During this reign also the 
river Fleet was made navigable, Houndsditch was arched 
over, and many less works of utility or ornament were 
completed. Henry VIII. continued the improvements 
of the metropolis 5 and during his reign the police was 
127 



better regulated, many nuisances were removed, the 
streets and avenues were mended and paved, and various 
regulations were carried into effect for supplying the 
metropolis with provisions sufficient to answer the de- 
mands of its increasing population. The greatest altera- 
tion made in the aspect of the city, in this reign, was 
effected in the year 1535, by the dissolution of religious 
houses, of which upwards of twenty had been founded 
between the reign of Edward I. and the period of sup- 
pression, besides those before mentioned, amounting in 
all to fifty-four larger monasteries, exclusively of minor 
institutions. The religious establishments, usually occu- 
pying large plots of ground, now gave way to the erec- 
tion of schools, hospitals, manufactories, noblemen's 
mansions, and other edifices. Two royal palaces, St. 
James' and Bridewell, were among the splendid struc- 
tures erected by Henry VIII. ; and to the same monarch 
is to be attributed a considerable part of the buildings in 
New Palace Yard, Westminster, and at Whitehall, par- 
ticularly the Cock-pit, and the fine gateway by Holbein, 
which formerly stood at the latter palace, as also the 
laying out of St. James' Park. Until the Reformation, 
the government of Westminster had been vested solely 
in its abbot, but in the settlement of that great revolu- 
tion it was placed first in the hands of a bishop, and 
subsequently in those of the Dean of Westminster, in 
whom it still, in some degree, continues. Near this 
period, notwithstanding a recent revival of commerce, 
and the enlargement of the metropolis, it is stated that 
there were not above four merchant vessels exceeding 
120 tons' burthen in the river Thames ; and afterwards 
it is observed, in a letter from a London merchant to 
Sir William Cecil, that there was " not a city in Europe, 
having the occupying that London had, that was so 
slenderly provided with ships :" yet a spirit of enterprise 
was then very general among our merchants. By an 
act in the seventh of Edward VI., for the general regu- 
lation of taverns and public-houses, it was directed, that 
there should be only forty in the city and liberties of 
London, and three in Westminster. In this reign also, 
Southwark was annexed to London, and constituted a 
twenty-sixth ward, under the name of " Bridge ward 
Without." 

The commencement of Elizabeth's reign was dis- 
tinguished by the building of the Royal Exchange, and 
various other works of public utility. In 1580, from 
the great increase of the city, that queen prohibited the 
erection of any new buildings within three miles of the 
city gates, and ordained that only one family should 
inhabit each house ; and another proclamation, in 1583, 
commanded that no new building should be erected 
within three miles of London and Westminster, that 
one dwelling-house should not be converted into two or 
more, and that the commons within three miles of 
London should not be inclosed. At this period, not- 
withstanding the danger that was anticipated by increas- 
ing the size of the metropolis, it appears, from contem- 
porary plans, that the greater part of London was con- 
tained within the walls, and even in those narrow limits 
there were numerous gardens, upon the sites of which 
have since been formed lanes, courts, and alleys. On 
the whole of the space now constituting the parishes 
of St. Margaret, Westminster ; St. Martin-in-the-Fields ; 
St. Paul, Covent Garden ; St. Anne, Soho ; St. Giles-in- 
the-Fields ; St. George, Bloomsbury ; and even includ- 



LOND 



LO ND 



ing the extensive parish of St. Mary-le-bone, there were 
not at that time 2000 houses. All the north side of the 
city, continuing through Clerkenwell, as far as Shore- 
ditch church, was very thinly scattered with dwellings ; 
the whole of Spitalfields, Goodman's-fields, Bethnal- 
green, and Stepney and Limehouse fields, were, what 
their names import, open spaces of ground, having here 
and there groups of cottages and gardens ; and on the 
Surrey side of the river, with the exception of the 
Borough of Southwark, Bermondsey, and part of Lam- 
beth parish next to the Thames, the entire space was 
devoid of buildings. In 1594, the Thames water was 
first conveyed into houses, by means of an engine of a 
pyramidal form, erected at Broken wharf, to which suc- 
ceeded the " London-Bridge Water- Works ;" and, in 
1613, that great work of public benefit, the New River, 
winch was projected and executed by Sir Hugh Myddel- 
ton, was brought to its head at Clerkenwell, from Amwell, 
in Hertfordshire. In 161 6, the sides of the principal 
streets, which had before been laid with pebbles, were 
paved with broad stones and flags. 

Building continued to advance after the death of Eli- 
zabeth ; and we find that most part of Spitalfields, and 
about 320 acres to the south and south-east of it, were 
then covered with houses. James I., alarmed at this 
rapid growth of the metropolis, issued his proclamation, 
in 161 8, against the erection of new buildings ; but the 
suburbs, notwithstanding, had greatly increased in 1640, 
especially to the westward, in the parishes of St. Giles- 
in-the-Fields, and St. Paul, Covent Garden. In 1643, 
Cheapside cross was demolished, by the authority of 
the common-council, as a relic of superstition, thus in- 
creasing unintentionally the width and accommodation 
of that great central thoroughfare. Another attempt 
was made, during the Protectorate, in 1656, to prevent 
the enlargement of the metropolis ; for which purpose, 
all houses built since the year 1620, within ten miles of 
it, were taxed, and fines were imposed on those who 
raised new buildings within that distance. About 1661, 
many streets, on the site of St. James' parish, were built 
or finished, particularly St. James'-street, Pali-Mall, and 
Piccadilly ; other thoroughfares were ordered to be 
widened j and candles, or lights in lanterns, were to be 
hung out by the occupier of every house fronting the 
street, between Michaelmas and Lady-day, from night- 
fall until nine o'clock, when it was presumed that peo- 
ple retired to bed. The dreadful plague, in 1665, put a 
temporary stop to the increase of the metropolis. This 
infection was generally thought to have been brought 
from Holland, about the close of the year 1664, and 
made its appearance in the neighbourhood of Drury- 
lane : 68,596 persons are calculated to have perished in 
the course of the year 1665, during which, London was 
so far deserted by its inhabitants, that grass grew in the 
principal streets. 

The great fire of London, the most terrible confla- 
gration that the metropolis ever suffered, succeeded 
" the Plague year," as it is emphatically styled : it broke 
out on Sunday, the 2nd of September, 1666, at the 
house of a baker in Pudding-lane, Thames-street. The 
houses being then for the most part of wood, with pro- 
jecting stories, the uppermost of which, from the nar- 
rowness of the streets, almost touched each other, and a 
strong easterly wind blowing at the time, the fire spread 
rapidly and continued raging until Thursday, when it 
128 



was nearly extinguished, having destroyed 13,200 houses 
and 89 churches, exclusively of the venerable Cathedral 
of St. Paul, the greater part of the corporation halls, 
London bridge, and other public edifices, covering an 
extent of 436 acres of ground with ruins. The value of 
the property involved in the destruction was calculated 
at upwards of 10,000,000. To perpetuate the remem- 
brance of the melancholy event, " The Monument," on 
Fish-street-hill, was erected by order of parliament ; it 
was commenced in 1671, and finished in 1677, from a 
design by Sir Christopher Wren. In rebuilding the 
city, many improvements were effected : the streets, 
which were before so narrow that, according to Sir 
William Davenant's facetious remark, " they seemed to 
have been contrived in the days of wheelbarrows," were 
widened ; conduits and other obstructions were re- 
moved, and the buildings in general were constructed 
on a more substantial and regular plan. An increased 
number of houses, amounting to nearly 4000, was added, 
by building on the sites of the gardens belonging to the 
halls and merchants' residences ; and although the 
noble plans of Wren and Evelyn, for rebuilding the 
metropolis, were rejected, it arose, on the whole, with 
increased splendour. Many houses in Southwark having 
been destroyed by an extensive fire, in 1676, an act was 
passed for rebuilding them of brick instead of wood. 

In 1685, the population in Spitalfields and St. Giles' 
was much increased by the settlement of French Pro- 
testant manufacturers, who had left their native country 
in consequence of the revocation of the edict of Nantes ; 
and in the same year, the western suburbs increasing, 
the two parishes of St. Anne, Soho, and St. James, 
were formed, both of which were previously parts of 
the parish of St. Martin-in-the- Fields. In 1689, the 
district called the Seven Dials was built on a spot 
named Cock and Pye Fields. From the great increase 
of the commerce and shipping of London, the suburbs 
to the east of the Tower were become so populous in 
1694 that a new parish was constituted, by the name 
of St. John's, Wapping. Soho-square and Golden- 
square were built at the close of the century. At this 
time, also, that useful institution called the Penny Post 
had its origin, a proof of the enlargement of the capital ; 
and the number of hackney-coaches, which in Crom- 
well's time was limited to 300, had increased to 900, 
exclusively of 200 sedan-chairs. Shortly after, in the 
reign of Queen Anne, 50 new churches were erected 
in the metropolis and its vicinity. In 1722, the Chelsea 
Water- Works' Company was established, for supplying 
the city of Westminster and the western suburbs with 
water. A few years subsequently, Hanover-square, Ca- 
vendish-square, with the streets adjacent, and Bedford- 
row, Red-Lion-square, Hatton Garden, &c., were built ; 
the streets from Leicester-square and St. Marti n's-lane 
to the Haymarket and Soho, and thence nearly to 
Knightsbridge, were finished in the reign of George II. j 
and in 1/29, the north side of Oxford-street was partly 
built, and many streets near it were completed. In 
1730, the hamlet of Spitalfields became so populous, in 
consequence of the prosperity of the silk manufacture, 
as to make it necessary to form it into a distinct, parish, 
which received the name of Christ-Church j and about 
the same period the parishes of St. George-in-the-East, 
St. Anne (Limehouse), and St. Matthew (Bethnal-green), 
were separated from Stepney, and the parish of St. Luke 



LO ND 



was formed out of that of St. Giles, in Farringdon ward 
Without. 

The improvements in the construction of the build- 
ings, and in the local regulations of the metropolis, 
during the period last described, and principally in the 
reign of George III., were of considerable importance. 
About the year 1760, most of the city gates were pulled 
down. In 1762, an act was passed to remove the shop 
signs, which, projecting from almost every house into 
the middle of the street, materially obstructed the light 
and airj and at the same time the water-spouts, which 
projected in like manner, were taken down, and the 
names of the streets were ordered to be affixed at the 
corners of each. In the mode of erecting dwelling- 
houses, many salutary alterations were effected by the 
Building act. In 1768, commissioners were appointed 
by act of parliament for paving, lighting, and watching 
the streets, and for regulating the stands of hackney- 
coaches ; and in 1774, an act was passed for placing 
fire-cocks in the water-pipes, with conspicuous notices 
of their distances and situations, and for keeping fire- 
engines and ladders in every parish. About 1795, in 
pursuance of a legislative enactment authorizing a lottery 
for the purpose, called " The City Lottery," Snow-hill, 
and the western side of Temple Bar, were materially 
widened and improved ; and about the same period 
several companies were established for supplying the 
metropolis with water, and subsequently for lighting the 
streets and shops with gas. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

London is eminently fortunate in being situated upon 
rising ground, and on a river of ample extent, which, 
flowing through the town, is agitated twice in twenty- 
four hours, by a tide which ascends fifteen miles above 
it, and, by its winding in this part of its course, greatly 
contributes not only to the embellishment, but to the 
healthful ventilation, of the metropolis. The Thames is 
crossed by five magnificent bridges of stone and one of 
cast-iron ; its mean breadth here is about 400 yards, 
and were the noble plans that have been proposed in 
various quarters for embanking it, and forming quays 
and terraces along its sides carried into effect, this im- 
portant adjunct to the salubrity, and to the commerce, 
of London, would present an appearance truly splendid, 
enhanced by the beauty of adequate approaches, and the 
utility of commodious lines of way. Occupying a gentle 
slope on the north side of the river, which extends 
from east to west in a kind of amphitheatre, together 
with a level tract on the southern bank, the city is 
surrounded on every side, for nearly twenty miles, by 
thickly-scattered villages and seats. The streets are 
regularly paved, having a central carriage way, and a 
foot-path on each side ; the pavement of the former is 
chiefly composed of square blocks of granite, and the 
latter is laid with large flags. Some, however, of the 
wider streets in the western part of the metropolis are 
macadamized, and many thoroughfares are paved with 
wood in a very ingenious, and, considering the un- 
ceasing traffic constantly testing its capabilities, durable 
manner. The foot-paths are in general broad, and 
have a regular curb-stone, raised some inches above the 
carriage way, which latter has a slight convexity, in the 
middle, to allow the water to pass off into channels on 
VOL. III. 129 



each side. Underneath are large vaulted sewers, com- 
municating with every house by smaller ones, and with 
every street by convenient openings and gratings, to 
carry off to the river every impurity j and all mud and 
rubbish accumulating on the surface of the streets are 
taken away by scavengers employed for that purpose. 
Nearly all the streets and principal shops are lighted 
with gas, supplied by several incorporated companies; 
and as an evidence of the magnitude of the metropolis, 
it may be stated, that for lighting London and its 
suburbs with gas, there are 180,000 tons of coal used in 
the year for making 1,460,000,000 cubic feet of gas ; 
134,300 private burners are supplied to about 400,000 
customers ; there are 30,400 public or street consumers, 
and 380 lamplighters are employed. Almost the whole 
of the houses, a few of ancient date excepted, are con- 
structed of brick ; the more modern and larger edifices 
are built of stone, or covered stucco resembling it. 
Excellent water is plentifully conveyed from the Thames, 
the New River, and other sources, to almost every 
house ; and spring water is obtained from pumps, 
erected in various parts of the town. The quantity of 
water daily supplied by the eight different water- com- 
panies, in 1833-4, was 21,110,555 imperial gallons. 

Strictly speaking, London is still confined within its 
ancient bounds, and the limits of the corporate juris- 
diction of the city ; but, as a continuity of buildings 
has connected it with Westminster, Southwark, and all 
the neighbouring villages and hamlets, the name is, in 
common usage, given to them all collectively, their re- 
spective proper names being no more than subdivisions 
of one great metropolis. In this general view, there- 
fore, London may be said to consist of several DIVI- 
SIONS ; one of which, the City, properly so called, com- 
prehends the most ancient and central part of London, 
and is almost exclusively occupied by shops, warehouses, 
counting-houses, and public offices devoted to business, 
The East End of the Town includes Wapping, Shadwell, 
Ratcliffe-highway, &c., extending from Tower-hill, east- 
ward, to the East India Docks, and this part has, within 
the last thirty years, assumed an importance unknown 
to preceding ages, vast commercial docks and ware- 
houses having been constructed ; the inhabitants, con- 
sisting of shipwrights, ship-owners, and captains of 
vessels, pilots, sailors, shop-keepers, and others, are 
generally connected with the shipping interests, and are 
supported by the business of the port. The West End, 
the most modern and elegant part of London, is inha- 
bited by the nobility and gentry, is the seat of Govern- 
ment, the residence of the court, and the centre of 
fashion, and consists principally of handsome squares 
and streets, which may be said to extend westward from 
the meridian of Charing Cross. Lastly, there is South- 
wark, a district lying on the south bank of the Thames, 
and comprehending five parishes, connected with others 
by extensive ranges of houses, and chiefly inhabited by 
merchants, traders, and manufacturers ; it had formerly 
only one main street, called the Borough High- street, 
leading from London bridge towards Newington, but 
the increase of buildings has since added numerous 
others, stretching in various directions, and forming a 
town, several miles in extent. That part of the metro- 
polis on the north-west, and which may be considered 
as the latest enlargement, and the most elegant, as well 
as the most systematic in its arrangement of squares 

S 






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and streets, comprehends an immense mass of new 
buildings, between Holborn and Somers-town, and in 
the parishes of St. Mary-le-bone and Paddington. And 
besides these, the villages of Chelsea, Knightsbridge, 
Paddiugton, Camden-town, Pentonville, Islington, Mile- 
End, Limehouse, Rotherhithe, Bermondsey, Newington, 
Camberwell, Lambeth, &c., united by the contiguity of 
their buildings, may be considered as appendages to 
this gigantic capital. Thus regarded, the EXTENT of 
London, from west to east, along the banks of the 
Thames, or from the upper end of Knightsbridge to the 
lower end of Poplar, is seven miles and a half ; and its 
breadth from north to south, or from Islington to Ken- 
nington, is about five miles and a half : its circumference 
is full thirty miles, and hence it may be fairly estimated, 
that the buildings of the metropolis cover at least twenty 
square miles, extending in length seven miles. This 
space contains between 8000 and 9000 streets and 
smaller avenues, more than 70 squares, and 200,000 
houses, besides an immense number of public buildings. 
The town, in the direction of east and west, is traversed 
by two principal ranges of streets, which may be termed 
the great southern and northern lines, forming under 
different names, a communication from one end to the 
other. The streets running north and south, which 
connect the above-mentioned lines, are comparatively 
short, as are also those from the southern line to the 
river. Those from the northern line to the New-road 
are longer ; but, with the exception of Tottenham- 
Court-road, and its continuation to Camden-town, St. 
John's-street, to the extremity of Islington, and Bishops- 
gate-street, Shoreditch, and some others, they are all of 
moderate length. 

The beauty of the ENVIRONS is greatly enhanced by 
a chain of hills to the north of the town, forming a 
second amphitheatre, entirely inclosing the first, and of 
which Hampstead, Highgate, and Muswell hills are the 
most prominent features. On the east and west are ex- 
tensive plains, stretching twenty miles, in each direction, 
along the banks of the Thames, and forming a most 
fertile, populous, and interesting valley; those which lie 
eastward of the town feed numerous herds of cattle, 
and those westward are chiefly employed in the pro- 
duction of fruit and vegetables for the supply of the 
London market. That part of the metropolis which is 
situated south of the Thames occupies a flat surface, 
bounded by a landscape beautifully varied from west to 
east by the heights of Richmond, Wimbledon, Epsom, 
Norwood, and Blackheath, and terminating in the 
horizon with Leith hill, Box hill, the Reigate hills, the 
Wrotham hills, and Shooter's hill. On every side the 
approaches are spacious and kept in admirable order, 
and, like the town, lighted at night with gas, and well 
watched and patrolled. Country houses of opulent 
merchants and tradesmen, or the mansions of the no- 
bility, standing detached and surrounded by planta- 
tions, or arranged together in successive handsome rows, 
are every where to be seen, either on the sides, or in the 
vicinity, of these roads, together with numerous villages, 
some of which imitate the commercial activity of the 
metropolis. 

The INCREASE of London, since the commencement 

of the present century, has exceeded, if possible, that of 

the last in celerity and extent, and is visible on all sides, 

but perhaps more especially on the western and northern, 

130 



where the buildings in the parishes of Paddington, St. 
Mary-le-bone, Bloomsbury, and St. Pancras, have been 
amazingly extended, by the formation of an incredible 
number of new streets, squares, and places, for the 
most part after elegant designs. In the same quarter 
of the town, also, the Regent's Park has been laid out, 
and surrounded with stately ranges of brick buildings 
stuccoed so as to resemble stone. A great number of 
excellent residences have been lately completed on the 
space behind Gower-street, formerly called the Long- 
Fields, and these again are adjoined eastward by the new 
church of St. Pancras, and the elegant streets in its 
neighbourhood. Proceeding towards the east, we per- 
ceive the village of Islington to have joined the city on 
one side, and St. Pancras on the other, and to have 
stretched itself over the White Conduit fields (formerly 
celebrated amongst our early places of amusement) to 
the hamlet of Holloway, and through that link to 
Highgate and Hornsey. In the parishes of Shoreditch, 
Hackney, Stratford-le-Bow, &c., the extent of building 
has every where immensely increased ; and at the direct 
eastern extremity of London are the East and West 
India, the London, and the St. Katherine's docks. On 
the Southwark side of the Thames is Newington, with 
the streets adjacent to it, connecting Camberwell with 
Southwark; while Kennington, Brixton, Clapham, and 
Battersea-fields, have numerous extensive, and con- 
tinually increasing ranges of building. On viewing the 
surface of the parishes of Rotherhithe, Bermondsey, 
Walworth, Newington, Camberwell, and Lambeth, also 
on the south side of London, much ground is yet occu- 
pied as fields or gardens ; but these parishes may be 
said, notwithstanding, to form an immense connected 
town in many places, and are again joined to Deptford 
and Greenwich, on the east ; and to Peckham, Stock- 
well, Clapham, Battersea, &c., on the south and south- 
west. In that part of Chelsea called the Five Fields the 
Marquess of Westminster has erected several beautiful 
squares and uniform lines of streets, on what was for- 
merly waste ground, constituting one of the most hand- 
some metropolitan improvements. The advantageous 
alterations in the western part of the metropolis include 
the recent widening of the Strand, &c. ; the new and 
elegant buildings on the site of Carlton House and 
Gardens ; the erections and embellishments in the vicinity 
of Whitehall ; the laying out of St. James" Park, and 
various changes and buildings in the interior of, and at 
the entrances to, Hyde Park j the mass of new streets 
and mansions on the north side of Pimlico, before-named; 
and many additions to the buildings of the Regent's 
Park and its neighbourhood, as well as on the interme- 
diate space connecting Westminster with St. Mary-le- 
bone, formed by the fine line of Regent-street, and the 
streets and places branching from it. As evidence of 
the great extent of building mentioned, it is conjectured 
that, within the last 60 years, 80,000 houses, at least, 
have been erected in London and its vicinity ; and that 
these afford habitations for nearly 350,000 additional 
persons. 

Since the completion of the various improvements 
and alterations just alluded to, numerous others have 
been made in the appearance of the metropolis ; and 
several public buildings and streets now in progress 
will still further contribute to impart a new aspect of 
beauty to the principal thoroughfares. One of the most 



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important improvements recently effected in the city, is 
the formation of a line of street from the new London 
bridge to the Mansion House, and, by the side of the 
latter, northward, to the extension of the City-road 
through Moorfields ; and a corresponding change has 
been wrought in the character of the buildings of the 
vicinity, which are of stately dimensions and uniform 
architecture. Within the last few years, several club- 
houses have been erected, of exceedingly handsome 
design, of which that styled the Oxford and Cambridge 
Universities' Club-house is especially worthy of notice, 
as well as the Reform Club-house, which latter has 
been much admired for the excellence of its style, and 
the great convenience of its arrangements. Crosby 
Hall, the Temple Church, the College of Surgeons, in 
Lincoln's-Inn Fields, and other structures, have been 
restored or remodelled. Of new buildings, of recent 
date, contributing to the adornment of the metropolis, 
may be named, Goldsmiths' Hall, in the rear of the 
General Post Office ; the London and Westminster 
Bank, Lothbury ; the National Gallery, Charing Cross ; 
the Globe, Sun, Alliance, and other insurance offices ; 
Gresham Hall, Basinghall-street ; the Hall of Commerce, 
Threadneedle-street ; several of the railway termini; the 
edifice just completed at Staple's Inn, as offices for the 
taxing masters in chancery ; and the Nelson Column, at 
Charing Cross. And of structures in progress, may be 
mentioned, the Royal Exchange, the New Houses of 
Parliament, the additions to the British Museum, and 
the new hall and library of Lincoln's Inn. A new road 
is in course of formation at Pimlico, which will join the 
Vauxhall road, and materially widen the vicinity of 
Buckingham Palace ; and among other improvements 
now being carried into effect, are, the widening of Picca- 
dilly, by taking in a portion of the Green Park; the 
laying out and embellishment of Trafalgar-square ; and 
the construction of a street leading from Coventry- street, 
across Leicester- square, to Long Acre ; of another street, 
from Waterloo bridge, across High-street, Bloomsbury, 
to Tottenham Court-road ; and of a street from Farring- 
don-street towards Islington. The " rookery" which 
has existed for so many years in Westminster, Tothill- 
street, York-street, and Castle- lane, will be shortly de- 
stroyed ; and St. Margaret's church will be pulled down, 
to improve the view of the magnificent abbey. A minute 
survey, also, is being made on the Middlesex side of the 
river, with a view to the contemplated Thames embank- 
ment, it being proposed that a line of stone quays, simi- 
lar to those on the banks of the Seine, in Paris, should 
be carried from Whitehall to Blackfriars bridge, upon 
arches, so as not to interfere with the navigation of the 
river, and the numerous coal-barges approaching the 
wharfs. Lastly, it may be observed that a new feature 
has of late years been bestowed upon some parts of the 
environs, by the formation of cemeteries, laid out with 
much taste, and ornamented with appropriate buildings ; 
. and in the east of the metropolis, a park named the 
Victoria, has been inclosed. But to particularize all the 
various public improvements of recent years would far 
exceed the limits of this article, and it must therefore 
suffice to say, that their number and consequence may 
be inferred from the circumstance that no less than 80 
new churches have been erected by the Commissioners 
appointed under act of parliament, and from the Bishop 
of London's fund, nearly all having districts allotted to 
131 



them, many of which already contain a vast population. 
So numerous, indeed, are the improvements constantly 
being projected and carried into effect, that scarcely a 
month passes in which there is not brought forward 
some plan of elegant embellishment, of public or private 
utility, or of civil or commercial advantage. In size, 
population, and wealth ; in the extent, grandeur, and 
number of its religious edifices, its public establishments, 
its charitable institutions, its commercial docks, and its 
bridges ; in the elegance of its squares, and the commo- 
diousness of its habitations, the superiority of the English 
metropolis over that of every other coxintry is manifest. 

ROYAL PALACES AND HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. 

St. James' Palace is an ancient building, which, 
though irregular in its parts, and with an appearance 
far from imposing, is said, from its great extent and the 
number of fine apartments it contains, to be the best 
adapted for royal parade of any in Europe. It derives 
its name from the hospital of St. James, a religious foun- 
dation acquired by Henry VIII., who, in 1532, gave 
lands in Suffolk in exchange for its site, and then erected 
a manor-house, of which a part, consisting of the pre- 
sence chamber and the north gateway, is preserved in 
the present structure. The mansion did not, however, 
fully become a royal residence till the time of William 
III., and the period during which it has been inhabited 
by royalty comprises only the reigns of that monarch, 
Queen Anne, and the two first Georges ; George III. 
and his successors have held their courts here, but their 
domestic residence has been elsewhere. Carlton House, 
the splendid residence of George IV. when Prince of 
Wales, was demolished some years since for the purpose 
of effecting the Park improvements. On the site of 
Buckingham House a new palace has lately been com- 
pleted as the town residence of the Queen, which con- 
sists of a centre and large wings projecting from it at 
right angles, forming, with the principal entrance, 
which is a detached marble gateway of great cost, a spa- 
cious and magnificent quadrangle. Marlborough House, 
a noble building near St. James' palace, and the late re- 
sidence of the King of the Belgians, is now occupied by 
the Dowager Queen Adelaide. The Lords' and Commons' 
Houses of Parliament, which were destroyed by a fire 
that broke out on the evening of the 16th of October, 
1834, occupied parts of the old palace of Westminster, 
and, though possessing a certain degree of splendour, 
were chiefly venerable for their age and the purposes to 
which they were appropriated. The House of Lords was 
a large oblong room, formerly the Court of Requests, 
and was fitted up for its recent purpose on the union 
with Ireland, when the fine tapestry of the old House 
of Lords, representing the defeat of the Spanish Armada, 
was removed thither, and the apartment was otherwise 
handsomely decorated : at the upper end of the room 
was the throne, which had been renovated in a style of 
great magnificence ; and a new entrance had a short 
time previously been added, with a superb staircase and 
gallery, by Mr. Soane. The old House of Commons was 
originally the chapel of St. Stephen, out of which it was 
formed chiefly by raising a floor above the pavement, 
and adding an inner roof, considerably below the ancient 
one. In its recent state the house was a large plain 
apartment, of which the Speaker's chair, with its ap- 



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pendages, formed the chief decoration ; around it were 
galleries, supported by slender iron columns with gilt 
capitals, into one of which, at the lower end, over the 
bar of the house, strangers were admitted to hear the 
debates. Since the destruction of these two interesting 
edifices, and prior to their re-erection, on a scale of ap- 
propriate magnificence, preparations have been made 
for the temporary accommodation of the Lords and 
Commons, by fitting up the library of the old House of 
Lords, which had escaped the effects of the conflagration, 
for the former, and by roofing anew and otherwise 
adapting the old House of Lords for the latter. The 
buildings now in course of erection, after the designs, 
and under the superintendence, of Charles Barry, Esq., 
will form an extensive and magnificent range in the later 
English style, consisting chiefly of a central quadrangle 
and two quadrangular wings, connected by corridors, 
and extending southward from the end of Westminster 
bridge along the west bank of the Thames, from which 
a considerable portion of the site has been gained by 
embankment, effecting at the same time an important 
improvement by contracting the breadth, and deepening 
the channel, of the river. The outline of the front 
which faces the river, is relieved by hexagonal projec- 
tions with enriched buttresses, having in the lower com- 
partment a single window, and on the upper two win- 
dows of larger dimensions with canopied niches between 
them ; the space between the lower and upper windows 
is ornamented with a series of single panels, on which are 
sculptured in bold relief the armorial bearings of all the 
sovereigns of England from the Conquest to the present 
time. The whole is of Bolsover stone ; and, when com- 
pleted in all the details of the design, with its lofty 
towers and other embellishments, it will undoubtedly 
constitute the most stately and majestic ornament of the 
metropolis. 

THE PARKS, SQUARES, &c. 

St. James' Park, so called from the palace of the same 
name, contains about 200 acres, of which the central 
part is laid out in a pleasing manner, varied with water, 
shrubberies, and intersecting gravel walks, and the sides 
are adorned with several avenues of stately trees. Its 
eastern extremity is occupied by the Horse Guards, the 
Treasury, and other government offices, which have a 
noble appearance ; the ground plot of the entire park is 
oblong, and nearly two miles in circuit. The Green 
Park is a triangular piece of ground lying south of the 
western part of Piccadilly, and adjoining St. James' 
Park and the gardens of Buckingham House. On its 
north side is a large basin, with a promenade round it, 
near which was, till lately, the Ranger's house, embow- 
ered in a fine plantation, now thrown open, adding to 
the beauty of the prospect. Hyde Park, which stretches 
from the western extremity of the metropolis to Kensing- 
ton Gardens, and contains about 400 acres, is a spot of 
great rural beauty, the drives round it forming one of 
the chief recreations of the fashionable ; it is adorned, 
in the lower part, by a large winding sheet of water, 
called the Serpentine river. The entrances have been 
greatly improved within the last few years ; and at the 
Piccadilly opening, a handsome screen of the Ionic order, 
consisting of three arches, united by an open colonnade, 
-with two side arches, has been erected, facing which is 
132 



a new and magnificent arched gateway (an imitation of 
the arch of Severus at Rome), leading into the gardens 
belonging to Buckingham Palace. Kensington Gardens 
are beautiful and extensive pleasure-grounds, attached to 
the palace at Kensington, and were formerly part, of 
Hyde Park ; they are open to all respectable persons, 
and form one of the most delightful promenades of the 
metropolis during the months of summer. The Regent's 
Park, newly formed on the site of what was formerly 
Mary-le-bone fields, and containing about 450 acres, for 
the magnificence of the buildings by which it is sur- 
rounded, and the picturesque style in which it is laid 
out, indisputably excels the others, and will do so in a 
still greater degree as the trees with which it is planted 
approach maturity. The residences of the nobility, though 
formerly scattered over the whole town, and particularly 
along the northern bank of the Thames, from the Temple 
to Whitehall, are now almost exclusively confined to 
the western portion of it; and such of the higher class 
as have not detached mansions, reside in spacious 
structures in finely-formed squares and streets too nu- 
merous to describe. Portland Place was, some years 
since, almost the only street that, in point of width, 
length, and the uniform grandeur and elegance of its 
buildings, would have been deemed worthy of especial 
notice ; but the construction of the new line of street 
extending northwards from the site of Carlton House, 
under the names of Waterloo-place, the Quadrant, and 
Regent- street, and communicating with Portland- place 
by means of Langham-place, forms a new era in our 
domestic architecture ; and for vast length, width, and 
uniform elegance, this immense range of buildings, as a 
whole, is not exceeded by any in Europe. Carlton- 
terrace, recently built on the site of Carlton House, cor- 
responds in beauty of style with the avenue last named j 
and eastward of the fine street called Pall- Mall an open- 
ing has been formed, to obtain a view of the noble por- 
tico of St. Martin's church. Beyond this church, on the 
north side of the Strand, to the site of Exeter Change, 
lately demolished, eastward, the Strand improvements 
have been made, which impart to the whole neighbour- 
hood a character of magnificence that it did not in any 
degree before possess. 

THEATRES AND PLACES OF AMUSEMENT. 

The Italian Opera House, a magnificent edifice, situ- 
ated at the lower end of the Haymarket, on the western 
side, is appropriated exclusively to the performance of 
Italian operas, and ballets. The original edifice was 
burnt down in 1790, soon after which it was rebuilt, 
though not externally completed till 1818, from a de- 
sign by Mr. Nash. It is of brick cased with stucco, 
and is surrounded by a colonnade supported on cast- 
iron pillars of the Doric order ; the front is decorated 
with figures in bas-relief, representing the origin and 
progress of music, executed in 1821 ; the boxes, of 
which there are five tiers, will accommodate about 900 
persons, and the pit and gallery about 800 each. Drury- 
Lane Theatre had its origin in a cock-pit, which was 
converted into a place of theatrical entertainment, and 
pulled down and rebuilt, under the name of the Phoenix, 
in the reign of James I. A patent for dramatic per- 
formances having been granted to Killigrew by Charles 
II., a new theatre was erected on the site of the present 



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structure, and the actors having belonged to the king's 
household, their successors at the theatre have ever 
since been styled " His Majesty's Servants." * The 
theatre was burnt in 16?1, and rebuilt by Sir Chris- 
topher Wren, but was displaced, in 1793, by one much 
larger, from a design by Holland, which, however, was 
destroyed by fire, in 1809, and the present edifice erected, 
in 1811, under the superintendence of Mr. B. Wyatt. 
The portico, supporting a statue of Shakspeare, was 
added in 1820; and a new colonnade, along the side 
extending from Brydges-street to Drury-lane, was erected 
in 1832. The interior was rebuilt in 1822, on a scale of 
great splendour : the boxes will accommodate 1828 
spectators ; the pit, 800; the lower gallery, 675 ; and 
the upper gallery, 308 ; making a total of 361 1 persons. 
The building is the property of a number of shareholders. 
Covent Garden Theatre was established by Sir W. D'Ave- 
nant, who received a patent in 1662, under which suc- 
cessive companies acted at the theatre in Lincoln's-Inn 
Fields, until the erection of the original theatre in Covent 
Garden, in 1733, the destruction of which, by fire, in 
1808, led to the erection of the present magnificent 
structure, which was opened Sept. 18th, 1809- It is of 
the Doric order, in imitation of the Temple of Minerva, 
situated in the Acropolis at Athens, and was built from 
a design by Mr. Smirke, jun., at an expense of 150,000 ; 
it is computed that it will afford accommodation to 
upwards of 3000 persons. 

The Haymarket Theatre was erected originally in 
1702, and the present edifice was built from a design by 
Mr. Nash, and opened in 1821 ; it is licensed for the 
performance of regular dramas, and is principally open 
during the summer. The other minor establishments, 
most of which are summer theatres, are, the Lyceum, in 
the Strand, originally opened June 15th, 1816, and, 
having been lately burnt down, rebuilt from a design by 
Mr. Beazley, and re-opened in July, 1834 ; the Adelphi 
Theatre, also situated in the Strand ; the Strand Theatre, 
opened in the year 1832 ; the Royal Circus, or Surrey 
Theatre, in Blackfriars' road, originally used for eques- 
trian performances, destroyed by fire in 1805, and re- 
built in a superior style, since which it has been appro- 
priated to the performance of melo-dramas, ballets, &c. ; 
the Royal Victoria Theatre, formerly called the Royal 
Cobourg Theatre, in the Waterloo-road, first opened in 
1818 ; Sadler's Wells, in St. John's-street-road, erected 
in 1765, so styled from some wells anciently situated 
there, and from the name of a person who, in 1643, 
opened a place of entertainment in that neighbourhood ; 
Astley's, or the Royal Amphitheatre, pre-eminently dis- 
tinguished for equestrian exhibitions, opened about 1767, 
as a riding-school, and converted into a regular theatre 
in 1780, burnt down in 1794, again in 1803, and a third 
time on the 8th of June, 1841, when Mr. Ducrow's loss 
was estimated at 10,000 j the Olympic Theatre, in Wych- 
street, built in 1806 ; the Queen s Theatre, in Tottenham- 
street, formerly called the Regency Theatre ; the St. 
James's Theatre ; the City of London Theatre, in Norton- 
Falgate ; the Pavilion, in Whitechapel ; and other estab- 
lishments of inferior note. Among the higher class of 
amusement are the nobility's balls, held at Willis' rooms, 
King-street, St. James', commonly called Almack's, from 
the name of their former proprietor ; where also, and at 
Hanover-square rooms and other places, concerts are 
given. Oratorios are likewise performed at certain 
133 



periods, the present age being distinguished, above all 
others in England, for the patronage bestowed upon the 
art of music ; and there are various other miscellaneous 
public performances ; but they are so multifarious and 
changeable, as to preclude a particular description. 

COMMERCE, &c. 

The commerce of London has three principal branches. 
The traffic of the port, with the foreign trade and domes- 
tic wholesale business ; the manufactures ; and the retail 
trade. In 1268, the half-year's customs for foreign mer- 
chandise in the city was only 75. 6. 10. : in 1331, 
they amounted to 8000. In 1354, the duty on goods 
imported was only 580, and on exports, 81,624. In 
1641, just before the commencement of the civil war, 
the customs yielded 500,000 per annum, the effect of a 
long series of peaceful days; and from the year 1671 
to 1688 they were, on an average, 555,752. In 1709, 
they had increased to 2,319,320; and in the year 
ending April, 1799, they amounted to 3,711,126. The 
gross sum now annually collected is about eleven mil- 
lions. The astonishing increase in the extent of com- 
mercial intercourse of late years may be inferred from 
the fact that the average number of British ships, and 
vessels of various kinds, in the Thames and docks, is 
estimated at 13,444, of which the barges and other 
small craft, employed in shipping and unlading, are not 
fewer than between 3000 and 4000 : there are 2888 
barges and other craft engaged in the inland trade ; 
besides which, there are vast numbers of steam-boats and 
wherries for passengers. About 8000 watermen are em- 
ployed in navigating the wherries and craft,4000 labourers 
in lading and unlading ships, and several thousand revenue 
officers are constantly doing duty on the river. The 
number of vessels which entered the port in the year 
ended January 5th, 1843, was 476? British, and 1640 
foreign ; the former of an aggregate tonnage of 1 ,002,453, 
and the latter, of 281,468. The number of vessels of 
above 50 tons, now registered at the port, is 2405, and 
their aggregate burthen 598,554 tons. The scene of this 
great traffic occupies a space more than four miles in 
length, reaching from London bridge to Deptford, and 
from 400 to 500 yards in average breadth, which may 
be described as consisting of four divisions, three of 
them called the Upper, Middle, and Lower pools, and 
the fourth comprising the space between Limehouse and 
Deptford. It is, besides, calculated that above 40,000 
waggons and other carriages, taking into account their 
repeated journeys, arrive and depart, laden in both in- 
stances with articles of domestic, colonial, or foreign 
merchandise ; occasioning a transit, including cattle 
and provisions sent for the consumption of the inhabit- 
ants, of more than 50,000,000 worth of goods to and 
from the inland markets, making altogether a sum of 
120,000,000 worth of property annually moving to 
and from the metropolis. 

London has long been celebrated for its MANUFAC- 
TURES, as well as its commerce. So early as the reign 
of Henry I., the English goldsmiths had become so emi- 
nent for working the precious metals, as to be frequently 
employed by foreign princes ; and the perfection of 
various other manufactures at this period appears both 
from history and antique remains. The manufacturers 
were, in that reign, so numerous as to form fraternities, 



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or companies, some of which have ceased to exist, some 
have declined, as the Cappers, Bowyers, Fletchers, &c., 
and others still flourish, and are much increased in the 
number of their members, in the extent of their property 
and patronage, and in general importance. In 1556, a 
manufactory for the finer sorts of glass was established 
in Crutched Friars ; and font- glass, not exceeded by that 
of Venice, was made at the same time at the Savoy. 
About five years after, the manufacture of knit-stockings 
was introduced, through the ingenuity of William Rider, 
an apprentice on London bridge, who, happening to see 
a pair from Mantua, at the house of an Italian, made 
another pair exactly similar to them, which he presented 
to William, Earl of Pembroke. The manufacture of 
knives was shortly after begun by Thomas Matthews, of 
Fleet bridge, and has since eclipsed that source of em- 
ployment at Sheffield, where it was much earlier estab- 
lished. Silk-wove stockings were first made from the 
invention of Lee, a student at Oxford, in the time of 
Elizabeth, which reign forms so splendid an era in the 
commercial and trading history of the metropolis. 
Coaches were introduced in 1564, and in less than 
twenty years they became an extensive article of manu- 
facture ; in the following year the manufacture of pins 
was begun, and, soon after, that of needles. The making 
of " earthen furnaces, earthen fire-pots, and earthen ovens, 
transportable," began about the 16th year of Elizabeth, 
an Englishman of the name of Dyer having brought the 
art from Spain; and in 1579, the same individual being 
sent to Persia, at the expense of the city of London, 
brought home the art of dyeing and weaving carpets. In 
15*7, pocket-watches were imported fiom Nuremberg, in 
Germany, and the making of them was almost imme- 
diately commenced. In the reign of Charles 1., saltpetre 
was made in such quantities as not only to supply the 
whole of England, but the greater part of the continent. 
The manufacture of silk, as well as of various articles of 
plate, had also become extensive. The printing of 
calicoes commenced in 1676, and, about the same time, 
weaving-looms were brought from Holland. The other 
articles of manufacture, introduced or practised in the 
metropolis about the same time, are too numerous to 
particularize. 

The silk manufacture, which, under its different modi- 
fications, now affords employment to so many thousands, 
was first established at Spitalfields by the expelled French 
Protestants, after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, 
in 1685. Since that period the productions of London 
have greatly increased, both in extent and value, in 
articles of elegance and utility, such as cutlery, jewel- 
lery, gold and silver ornaments, japan ware, cut glass, 
cabinet work, &c., as well as commodities requiring a 
great mart for their consumption, export or sale, as 
porter, English wines, vinegar, refined sugar, soap, &c. 
In short, the manufactures of London, as well as its 
commerce, are vast and flourishing, many of the goods 
made here surpassing in quality those of any other part 
of the country ; and the coach-builders and harness- 
makers, who are very numerous, far excel those of any 
other city in the world. For the more scientific manu- 
factures, also, such as those of machinery, optical and 
mathematical instruments, &c., London has always been 
celebrated. Ship-building is carried on to a great ex- 
tent ; and during the late war many frigates were built 
here for the government by private individuals. 
134 



COMMERCIAL DOCKS, CANALS, AND RAILWAYS. 

Intimately connected with the commerce of the me- 
tropolis is the establishment of inclosed docks, which 
were rendered necessary from the former insecurity of 
property on the river, and the daring plunder com- 
mitted on it, and have yielded important service to the 
revenue and trade of the country. The West India 
Docks, which were the first constructed, are situated on 
what may be called the isthmus of that peninsular part 
of the environs of London named the Isle of Dogs, and 
communicate with the Thames at Limehouse on the 
west, and at Blackwall on the east. They were com- 
menced in June, 1800, and finished in August, 1802, 
and occupy, with the ground attached to them, an area 
of 204 acres. The import dock is 2600 feet long, 510 
broad, and 29 feet deep, and the export dock is of the 
same dimensions, except in breadth ; both are inclosed 
by walls five feet thick, and surrounded by a series of 
very lofty and extensive warehouses. They are stated 
to have cost 12,000,000 : the proprietors are an incor- 
porated body, under the title of the West India Dock 
Company. In the vicinity is a school, established by 
the company, for instructing apprentices in the West 
India navigation, whilst the vessels are in dock. Pa- 
rallel with the docks is a canal, which cost between 
300,000 and 400,000, to enable merchant vessels of 
any burthen to avoid the circuitous navigation round 
the Isle of Dogs. The East India Docks, commenced in 
1804, and completed in 1806, are lower down the river, 
but at no great distance from the former, and, like them, 
consist of an import and an export dock, the former 
about 1400 feet long, and 560 wide, and the latter 780 
feet long, and 520 wide ; the depth of each is 30 feet, 
and the space which they occupy is 28 acres. A basin 
was added to the export dock in 1817- The London- 
Dock, also extensive, covers 20 acres of ground, between 
Ratcliffe-highway and the Thames, and belongs to a 
company whose capital is 12,000,000. It is capable 
of containing 200 sail of merchantmen, and may be 
appropriated to any branch of commerce ; it was 
opened February 1st, 1805, and is surrounded, like the 
former, with immense warehouses, beneath which are 
capacious cellars. A branch dock was opened in 1828. 
St. Kathcrine's Docks were commenced in 1825, and com- 
pleted in 1829, by the merchants, shipowners, and traders 
of London, for securing additional accommodation to the 
great increase of shipping in the port, and a reduction 
in the rates and charges. They receive annually about 
1400 merchant vessels, besides craft for loading and 
discharging ; and afford a better mode of ingress and 
egress than any other docks in the kingdom, as vessels 
drawing 20 feet of water may be locked from two to 
three hours after high water, and small vessels and 
lighters at all periods of the tide ; the total outlay at- 
tending their construction (including the purchase of 
considerable property, capable of returning its price on 
re-sale) amounted to 1,827,113. The warehousing, 
bonding, and quay-room, are nearly equal to the Lon- 
don Dock j and from an improved construction of the 
warehouses, which are within a few feet of the docks 
and basin, a great saving is effected in the expense of 
labour. The Bermondsey Collier Dock is calculated to 
relieve the river from an obstruction to navigation by 



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the number of small craft, which, in course of time, 
must otherwise have prevented ships with general car- 
goes approaching convenient places of discharge near 
the Custom House, and which had afforded serious mat- 
ter of complaint for many years. 

Notwithstanding the numerous CANALS which inter- 
sect the interior of the kingdom, the inland navigation 
to the metropolis is confined ; owing, it is supposed, in 
a great measure, to the policy which prohibits the 
carriage of coal by that conveyance. The Paddington 
canal, which was the first, was opened July 10th, 1800, 
and, leading from Paddington, unites with the Grand 
Junction canal. From the basin at Paddington it ex- 
tends nearly 100 miles, to the Oxford canal at Brans- 
ton, in Northamptonshire, by which it is connected 
with the Coventry and Birmingham canal, the Grand 
Trunk canal, &c. ; thus forming a regular line of water 
conveyance from London into Lancashire and York- 
shire. The Regent's canal, opened August 1st, 1820, 
connects the Paddington Grand Junction, and other 
canals west of London, with the Thames on the east or 
mercantile side of the city, and, skirting the northern 
suburbs, has occasioned a vast influx of trade, with its 
accompanying warehouses, wharfs, &c., at Paddington, 
Battle-Bridge, the City-road, and other places. Its 
length is nine miles, within which space are comprised 
twelve locks and thirty-seven bridges ; the canal cost 
upwards of half a million of money, and was seven 
years in construction, under the superintendence of Mr. 
Nash. On the south side of the river is the Grand 
Surrey canal, which passes through the south-eastern 
suburbs, from Camberwell to the Thames at the lower 
extremity of Rotherhithe. The RAILWAYS which have 
their termini on the northern side of the Thames, are, 
the Birmingham, which opens a speedy communication 
with the midland and northern counties, and was com- 
pleted September 17th, 1938; the Blackwall, finished 
July 4th, 1840 ; the Great Western leading to Bath and 
Bristol, and also affording convenient access to South 
Wales and the south-western counties of England, and 
which was opened in August, 1840; the Eastern-Coun- 
ties', intended to run through Essex and Suffolk, but 
which has only been partially opened ; and the Northern 
and Eastern line to Cambridge, which also is as yet in- 
complete. The lines that quit London on the southern 
side of the river are, the Greenwich, a short line, opened 
December 26th, 1838 ; the Croydon, which, leading 
southward to that town, was opened June 1st, 1839, 
and was continued to the coast of Sussex, at Brighton, 
September 21st, 1841, and, more lately, to the coast of 
Kent, at Donor; and the Southwestern, running 
through Surrey and Hants to Southampton, and which 
opens a communication with the sea in that direction, 
and was finished May llth, 1840. 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS CONNECTED WITH COMMERCE. 

The late Royal Exchange, situated on the north side 
of Cornhill, was built in the reign of Charles II., from 
the design of an architect named Jerman, in lieu of the 
original Exchange, founded in 1566, by Sir Thomas 
Gresham, an eminent merchant, nearly on the spot 
where the ancient Tun prison stood, and at first named 
Britain's Bourse, which was destroyed by the great fire 
in 1666. The entire building, erected at an expense of 
135 



80,000, occupied a quadrangular space, 203 feet long 
and 171 broad; the south and north fronts had lofty 
central gateways, richly decorated with sculpture, and 
stately piazzas. The galleries over the four sides of the 
building, originally divided into 200 shops, were occu- 
pied by the Royal Exchange Assurance and other offices, 
and by Lloyd's Coffee-house, celebrated as a place of 
meeting for underwriters and insurance brokers. Above 
the piazza which surrounded the quadrangular area in 
the centre of the building, was an ornamented entabla- 
ture, over which were twenty-four niches, nineteen of 
them occupied by statues of the English sovereigns, 
from Edward I. down to George III., excepting Edward 
II., Richard II., Henry IV., and Richard III. This 
noble building was consumed by a fire which broke out 
in the night of the 10th of January, 1838 ; and a new 
one has just been completed on the same spot, for 
which a wider space has been made, by taking down 
many adjoining houses. The foundation-stone of the 
new Exchange was laid by His Royal Highness Prince 
Albert, Jan. 17th, 1842 ; the building, which is fire- 
proof throughout, was contracted for at the sum of 
115,900, to be finished by June 25th, 1844, under a 
penalty of 20 for every day's delay until its comple- 
tion. Its form is that of an irregular quadrangle, 293 
feet in length, of which the eastern and western fronts 
only are parallel, the former 175, and the latter 90, feet 
in width. The west front is embellished with a por- 
tico of Corinthian columns, 41 feet in height, supporting 
a triangular pediment, enriched with entablature and 
cornice. The north and south fronts are relieved with 
series of pilasters of the same order, supporting an en- 
tablature and cornice surmounted by a balustrade ; and 
in the centre of these fronts are three lofty arched por- 
tals leading to the inner area, and surmounted by an 
attic rising above the balustrade. The east front, of 
similar design, is distinguished by a lofty campanile 
turret, rising above the central compartment to the 
height of 170 feet. The area of the Exchange, includ- 
ing the surrounding piazza, is 170 feet in length, and 
1 13 in width, and the building above the piazza is ap- 
propriately decorated. 

The Bank of England was commenced in 1732, when 
the central part of the present building was erected on 
the site of the house and garden of Sir John Houblon, the 
first governor : the east wing was completed about the 
year 1786 ; and the north front, and the side towards 
Prince's -street, were added in 1825, when considerable 
alterations and improvements were made throughout 
the whole of the interior. The buildings, which are 
chiefly of stone, are included in an area of irregular 
quadrangular form, the exterior wall of which measures 
365 feet in front, 440 feet on the western side, 410 feet 
on the northern side, and 245 feet on the eastern side ; 
and the area comprises, together with the various build- 
ings and offices, eight open courts, with apartments 
stored with bullion, coin, &c., under ground. Prior to 
the erection of the present huge edifice, the business of 
this great national corporation was transacted at 
Grocers' Hall, in the Poultry. The Stock Exchange, 
situated in Capel-court, opposite the eastern entrance to 
the Bank, was completed in 1804; and an additional 
building for the transfer of foreign stock was subse- 
quently erected. No persons can transact business but 
such as are ballotted for annually by a committee ; the 



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number of Jew brokers is limited to twelve, who, be- 
fore they are entitled to admission, must purchase a 
ticket of the lord mayor, which, being sold to the 
highest bidder, generally costs from 1200 to 1500, 
and is a perquisite of the chief magistrate. The South 
Sea House is a substantial and handsome building of 
brick, ornamented with Portland stone, with a noble 
gateway entrance leading into a court having a piazza : 
the company was incorporated in 1711, for an exclusive 
trade to the South Seas. The East India House, which 
ranks amongst the most magnificent public structures 
in the city, may, in consequence of the important addi- 
tions of late years made to the old building erected in 
1726, be considered almost a new edifice. It contains 
numerous apartments and offices, of the former of which 
several are of large dimensions and stately architecture, 
especially the grand court-room, the new sale-room, the 
old sale-room, the rooms for the committee of cor- 
respondence, the library, and the museum, all embel- 
lished with emblematical designs and paintings, statues, 
portraits, &c. ; but in consequence of the company's 
charter having recently expired without a renewal, a 
great reduction has taken place in the establishment, 
and comparatively little business is now transacted. The 
Custom House, or place where the king's duties are 
collected on goods imported to, and exported from, 
London, stands on the north bank of the river, at a 
small distance to the westward of the Tower, having 
been removed to its present situation after the destruc- 
tion of the former edifice by fire in 1814 : it was begun 
in 1815, and occupies a great extent of ground, reach- 
ing from Billingsgate eastward, nearly to the site of the 
former Custom House, being 489 feet long by 107 feet 
wide, and erected at an expense of 167,050. It con- 
tains numerous apartments and offices appropriated to 
the vast extent of business carried on, of which the 
principal is the Long Room, 190 feet in length, 66 feet 
in breadth, and about 55 feet in height ; and the 
vaults and store- cellars beneath the building are very 
extensive. Attached to the establishment are about 
650 clerks and officers, besides 1000 tide-waiters and 
servants. 

The Corn Exchange, instituted as a mart for the dis- 
posal of all kinds of grain through the medium of corn- 
factors, until lately consisted only of a handsome brick 
building, on the east side of Mark-lane ; but the vast 
increase of business requiring additional space, a new 
and commodious edifice of stone was erected in 1828, 
adjoining the former. The market is held on Monday, 
Wednesday, and Friday, the first being the principal 
day. The Coal Exchange, in Thames-street, comprises 
a spacious rotunda, with convenient divisions for the 
business of the coal-merchants and dealers. The Excise 
Office, in Broad-street, was erected in 1763, to which 
the business of the excise, established in 1643, and at 
first carried on in the Old Jewry, was transferred ; the 
town business of the excise is here transacted by nine 
commissioners, having under them numerous clerks 
and officers. The Commercial Hall, in Mincing-lane, 
built by subscription in 1811, for the sale of the various 
kinds of colonial produce, contains five public sale- 
rooms, a large coffee-room, several show-rooms, and 
numerous counting-houses let to merchants. The Auc- 
tion Mart, in Bartholomew-lane, opened in 1810, princi- 
pally for the sale of estates by public auction, is built 
136 



of Portland stone, and, though not very large, exhibits 
much lightness, and gracefulness of design. The Trinity 
House, Tower Hill, was completed in 1795, previously to 
which the company occupied a house in Water-lane, 
near the Custom House. The corporation received a 
charter from Henry VIII., in 1516, when the English 
navy began to assume an ascendancy, and was invested 
with extensive powers, which it still exercises in full 
vigour, with a view to foster and protect, the shipping, 
both military and commercial. The members examine 
those children in Christ's Hospital intended for the sea 
service, also the masters of king's ships, appoint pilots 
for the Thames, and settle the rate of pilotage, erect 
lighthouses and landmarks, grant licenses to poor sea- 
men not free of the city to navigate on the Thames ; 
besides transacting a variety of other business connected 
with that river, and maritime affairs generally. The 
New Post Office was completed in 1 829, from the plans of 
Sir Robert Smirke, under an act passed in 1815, a great 
portion of the interval having been consumed in the pur- 
chase and removal of thehouses which were crowded upon 
its site. It is an isolated structure, of massive dimensions 
and handsome design, composed externally of Portland 
stone, and is about 389 feet long, 130 broad, and 64 high, 
standing at the junction of the street called St. Mar- 
tin's-le-Grand with Newgate-street, a more central and 
convenient situation than that which the old building 
occupied in Lombard-street. The facade towards St. 
Martin's-le-Grand exhibits the principal architectural 
display, which is chiefly comprised in three porticoes of 
the Ionic order, one at each end consisting of four 
columns, and one in the centre of six, the latter being 
surmounted by a pediment. Some idea of the vast ex- 
tent of the business carried on in this important esta- 
blishment may be gained from the facts that the num- 
ber of letters delivered in the United Kingdom amounted, 
in one week of the year 1839, to 1,585,973; in one 
week of the year 1842, to 4,202,546 ; and in one of the 
year 1843, to 4,212,656. The number of letters which 
passed through the general post of London alone, dur- 
ing the first four weeks of the year 1843, was 5,716,898; 
and the number that passed through the London dis- 
trict post, exclusively of general letters, in the same 
period, was 1,971,008. The net revenue of the esta- 
blishment of the United Kingdom amounted, in 1839, 
to 1,614,353 ; in 1841, to 393,166 ; and in 1843, to 
478,479. Money-orders are issued to the amount of 
above eight millions of pounds annually, for England 
and Wales alone. 

MARKETS. 

The markets held in the different parts of the metro- 
polis amount to 16 flesh markets, and 25 for corn, hay, 
vegetables, &c. Smith/ield has of late years been con- 
siderably enlarged and improved, and is the grand mart 
for the sale of live stock, which takes place on Mondays 
and Fridays, on which latter day is also one for horses : 
upwards of 100,000 bullocks and 800,000 sheep are, on 
an average, annually sold. Covent Garden market is 
celebrated for its early and abundant supply of fruit, 
vegetables, herbs, and flowers : the incommodious and 
mean buildings which crowded the large area of the 
market, have all been taken down, and a new and hand- 
some market-place completed at the cost of the Duke of 



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LO ND 



Bedford, who is the proprietor. The old Fleet Market 
has been removed by the corporation of the city, and a 
new and spacious market-place constructed, which was 
opened in 1829, at an expense of 80,000, exclusively 
of 200,000 laid out in the purchase of houses previously 
occupying the site : it is now called Farringdon Market. 
Hungerford Market has also been rebuilt on an enlarged 
and exceedingly commodious plan, the expense of which 
was defrayed by subscriptions on shares. London has 
at present only one fair, well known by the name of 
Bartholomew Fair, which is held in Smithfield, and, 
though anciently famous for the sale of cloth and other 
commodities, is now resorted to merely for amusement : 
it was granted by Henry II. to the prior and convent of 
St. Bartholomew, and its opening is proclaimed by the 
lord mayor on the 3rd of September, arid continues three 
days. The corporation having recently refused to let 
standings for shows, it has much declined. 

MUNICIPALITY AND LEGAL JURISDICTION. 

Corporation Seal. 




Obverse. 



Reverse. 



The CITY of London, properly so called, consists of 
that part anciently within the walla, together with the 
Liberties, which immediately surround them ; the super- 
ficial extent does not exceed 800 acres. Its boundaries 
are known by the Bars, which formerly consisted of posts 
and chains, but are now marked by lofty stone obelisks, 
bearing the city arms, which may be seen eastward in 
Whitechapel, the Minories, and Bishopsgate-street ; 
northward, in Gos well- street, at the end of Fan-street, 
and in St. John's-street ; and westward, at Middle-row, 
Holborn. At the western end of Fleet-street the boun- 
dary is the stone gateway called Temple Bar. 

It is divided into 25 WARDS, exclusive of Bridge ward 
Without, which comprehends the liberties of the borough 
of Southwark, granted to the city in 1550, and consti- 
tuted a distinct ward. Their names are as follow : 
dldersgate, Within and Without, which has eight pre- 
cincts, with an alderman, two deputies, and eight com- 
mon-councilmen; Aldgate, having seven precincts, with 
an alderman, a deputy, and six common-councilmen, 
including the deputy ; Bassishaw, having two precincts, 
with an alderman, a deputy, and four common-council- 
men ; Billingsgate, having twelve precincts, with an 
alderman and ten common-councilmen ; Bishopsgate, 
Within and Without, having nine precincts, with an 
alderman, two deputies, and six common-councilmen; 
Bread-street, having twelve precincts, with an alder- 
man, a deputy, and twelve common-councilmen ; Bridge 
Within, so named from its contiguity to London-bridge 
VOL. III. 137 



(which, at the time it had houses upon it, formed three 
of its precincts), divided into four precincts, with an 
alderman, a deputy, and nine common-couucilmen, in- 
cluding the deputy ; Broad-street, having ten precincts, 
with an alderman, a deputy, and nine common-council- 
men ; Candlewick, having seven precincts, with an alder- 
man, a deputy, and seven common-councilmen ; Castle- 
Barnard (comprehending the soke, or liberty, anciently 
attached to a castle originally built by William Baynard, 
one of the followers of William the Norman, on the site 
of the present Carron wharf, the possessors of which, 
by virtue of their castellanship, were hereditary standard- 
bearers to the city), having ten precincts, with an alder- 
man and ten common-councilmen ; Cheap, having nine 
precincts, with an alderman and twelve common-coun- 
cilmen ; Coleman-street, having six precincts, with an 
alderman, a deputy, and six common-councilmen; Cord- 
wainers', having eight precincts, with an alderman and 
nine common-councilmen ; Cornhill, having four pre- 
cincts, with an alderman, a deputy, and six common- 
councilmen, including the deputy ; Cripplegate Within 
and Without, having thirteen precincts, with an alder- 
man and sixteen common-councilmen ; Dowgate, having 
eight precincts, with an alderman and eight common- 
councilmen ; Farringdon Within, having seven precincts, 
with an alderman, a deputy, and eight common-council- 
men; Farringdon Without (the ward of Farringdon 
having been divided in the 17th of Richard II.), having 
sixteen precincts, with an alderman, three deputies, and 
sixteen common-councilmen ; Langbourn, having twelve 
precincts, with an alderman, a deputy, and ten common- 
councilmen ; Lime-street, having four precincts, with an 
alderman, a deputy, and four common-councilmen, includ- 
ing the deputy ; Portsoken, having five precincts, with 
an alderman, a deputy, and five common-councilmen, 
including the deputy ; Queen-hythe (which takes its name 
from the harbour of Queen-hythe, formerly a place for 
shipping and landing goods, and so called because the 
customs payable there were assigned by King John to 
his queen Eleanor and her successors for their private 
use : the ground for a considerable space around the 
harbour formed a soke, governed by the queen's bailiffs ; 
and in the time of Henry III., having come into the 
possession of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, it was conveyed 
by him, for an annuity, to the corporation), having six 
precincts, with an alderman and six common-council- 
meu ; Tower-street, having twelve precincts, with an 
aldermen and twelve common-councilmen ; Fintry (com- 
prising a space on the north bank of the Thames, where 
the merchants of Bordeaux formerly bonded and sold 
their wines, and near which anciently stood a spacious 
and stately edifice, called the Vintry, from its being ap- 
propriated to the stowage of wine), having nine precincts, 
with an alderman and nine common-councilmen; and 
Walbrook (so called from the brook which intersected 
the city wall at Dowgate, and flowed into the Thames), 
having seven precincts, with an alderman and eight 
common-councilmen. In addition to the representatives 
above named, all the wards have inferior officers. Bridge 
ward Without, although so long annexed to London, was 
never entirely incorporated with it, and is wholly unre- 
presented in the common council ; its civil government 
is administered by a steward and a bailiff appointed by 
the court of the lord mayor and aldermen. The Surrey 
magistrates, notwithstanding the royal grants to the 

T 



LOND 



LOND 



city, retain the power of appointing constables and 
licensing victuallers, and exercise other magisterial autho- 
rity within the limits of the ward. Whenever a vacancy 
occurs in the office of alderman of it, it is customary for 
the lord mayor and aldermen to appoint to it the senior 
alderman, who then has the title of " Father of the 
City," this nominal office being regarded as an honour- 
able sinecure, which relieves him from the fatigues of 
business. That portion of the borough of South wark 
situated without the city jurisdiction, or borough liberty, 
is called the Clink Liberty, and is under the jurisdiction 
of the Bishop of Winchester, who appoints a steward 
and bailiff for its government. 

The entire civil government of London is vested, by 
successive charters of the English sovereigns, in its own 
corporation, or body of citizens, confirmed for the last 
time by a charter passed in the 23rd of George II. As 
then settled, the corporation consists of the lord mayor, 
two sheriffs for London and Middlesex conjointly, 26 
aldermen, the common-councilmen of the several wards, 
and the livery, assisted by a recorder, chamberlain, 
common-serjeant, comptroller, city remembrancer, town- 
clerk, and various other officers. 

The Lord Mayor is elected on Sept. 29th : the livery 
in guildhall, or common assembly, choose two aldermen 
by show of hands, who are presented to the Court of 
Lord Mayor and Aldermen, by whom one of the alder- 
men so chosen, usually the senior, is declared mayor 
elect; and on the Qth of November following he enters 
on his office. He is supreme magistrate of the city, and 
has, since the reign of Edward III., borne the title of 
"The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor." It is necessary 
that the nominee should be free of one of the great city 
companies, should have served the office of sheriff, and 
be alderman at the time of election. The prerogatives 
are of great extent and importance : as the immediate 
representative of the Sovereign, the mayor takes prece- 
dence of every other subject within the limits of the 
city, and, in the event of the monarch's decease, becomes 
the first officer in the realm, takes his seat at the privy 
council board, and signs before all other subjects in the 
kingdom. According to a custom which has prevailed 
nearly 300 years, he sits every morning at the mansion- 
house, to hear and determine causes of offence within 
the jurisdiction of the city. He is a perpetual coroner 
and escheator for London, the Liberties, and South wark; 
chief justice in all commissions for trial of felony and 
gaol delivery ; and judge of all courts of wardmote for 
the election of aldermen. In other respects, he ordinarily 
has authority all over the city, and part of the suburbs ; 
as conservator of the Thames, his jurisdiction extends 
eastward on the river as far as Yardale, or Yantlet, and 
the mouth of the river Medway ; and westward to Colne 
ditch, above Staines bridge ; and he is perpetual com- 
missioner in all affairs relating to the river Lea. To the 
lord mayor also belongs the ancient court of Hustings, 
which preserves the laws, rights, franchises, and customs 
of the city. He acts as chief butler at all coronations, 
receiving a golden cup and ewer for his fee ; and is first 
commissioner of the lieutenancy. 

The Aldermen are chosen for life, by the free house- 
holders of every ward, that of Bridge Without excepted, 
to which the aldermen themselves elect. Those aldermen 
who have filled the civic chair are justices of the quorum ; 
and all the other aldermen are justices of the peace 
138 



within the city. They are subordinate governors of 
their respective wards, under the jurisdiction of the 
mayor, and they exercise an extensive power within 
their own districts. They hold courts of wardmote, for 
the election of common-councilmen and other officers, 
the regulation of the business of the ward, the removal 
of obstructions, &c., and are officially addressed by 
the title of " Your Worship." The Common-councilmen, 
whose office is annual, and whose number, which for- 
merly varied, is fixed at 236, are chosen by the inhabit- 
ant householders being freemen, in the same manner as 
the aldermen, except that the lord mayor presides at 
the election of an alderman, and the alderman at that of 
a common-councilman. The election for each ward 
takes place on St. Thomas's-day. 

The representatives of the wards, with the lord mayor 
and aldermen, constitute what is called the court of 
Common Council, or " Three City Estates," the powers of 
which are extensive. This court has the entire disposal 
of the funds of the corporation, makes such by-laws as 
are necessary for the regulation of its concerns, and 
possesses the right of nomination to several of the sub- 
ordinate city offices ; and it has the style of " Honour- 
able." The council cannot assemble without a summons 
from the lord mayor, and then for one sitting only ; but 
it is his duty to call a meeting whenever it is demanded 
by requisition, and the law compels him to assemble the 
court a certain number of times during his mayoralty. 
The council annually elect six aldermen and twelve coun- 
cilmen, as a committee for letting the city lands, and 
also chooses another committee of four aldermen and 
eight councilmen, for transacting the affairs of Gresham 
College ; besides the appointment of which and several 
other committees, the court, by virtue of a royal grant, 
annually chooses a governor, deputy, and assistants, for 
the management of the city lands in Ireland. In short, 
the civil administration, in all its branches, within the 
jurisdiction of the corporation (which in all cases em- 
braces the city, and part of the borough of Southwark, 
and in some extends beyond), is exercised by the corpo- 
ration, or its officers. 

The Sheriffs of London and Middlesex, who are, strictly 
speaking, officers of the queen, are chosen by such citi- 
zens as are of the livery, out of their own number, in 
the guildhall, upon Midsummer-day, but are not sworn 
into office until Michaelmas-day, when each sheriff enters 
into a bond of 1000 to the corporation to serve it 
faithfully ; after which, they proceed in state to West- 
minster, to be accepted on behalf of the sovereign, by 
the barons of the exchequer. The mode of nominating 
the sheriff is for the lord mayor to drink in succession 
to fourteen respectable citizens, two of whom are elected, 
but he cannot properly nominate a commoner as sheriff, 
if there be an alderman who has not served that office, 
though it is frequently done. The jurisdiction of the 
two sheriffs is, to a considerable extent, perfectly sepa- 
rate : but if either die, the other cannot act until a new 
one be chosen ; for there must be two sheriffs for Lon- 
don, which, by charter, is both a city and a county, 
though they make but one jointly for the county of 
Middlesex. By grant of Edward IV., in 1473, the she- 
riffs are appointed to have sixteen Serjeants, and every 
Serjeant his yeoman ; also a secondary, six clerks, a 
clerk of the papers, four under- clerks, and two under- 
sheriffs. Of the officers associated with the corporation 



LO N D 



LOND 



in the government of the city, the principal is the Re- 
corder, who is appointed by the lord mayor and aldermen 
for life, with a salary of 2500 per annum, and usually 
acts as judge at the Old Bailey and other courts, and 
takes precedence in councils and courts before all alder- 
men who have not filled the office of mayor. The Cham- 
berlain, Common- Serjeant, and Town Clerk, are officers 
ranking next to the recorder, and have respectively 
duties to perform of great importance, as have also the 
City Comptroller and City Remembrancer. There are 
various other inferior city officers. 

Common Halls, which are assemblies of the livery 
only called on extraordinary occasions, are convenable 
on requisition of several of its members to the lord 
mayor, who presides. The Livery, about 12,000 in num- 
ber, are composed of the respective liverymen of the 
city companies, of which there are 91. The first twelve 
on the list are called the Chief or Twelve Great Com- 
panies, viz., Mercers, Grocers, Drapers, Fishmongers, 
Goldsmiths, Skinners, Merchant-Tailors, Haberdashers, 
Salters, Ironmongers, Vintners, and Clothworkers, and 
are sometimes styled " The Honourable." The less im- 
portant have the title of "Worshipful." Nearly 50 of 
the companies have halls, some of which are remarkable 
as buildings, and others for their curiosities and paint- 
ings 5 most of them have " clerks," or solicitors, with 
offices on the premises, who have the custody of the 
Company's records, and transact its legal business. 
Several of these Companies attend the mayor on his in- 
auguration, in their livery gowns, with banners, stream- 
ers, music, &c., and on the water, conveyed in elegant 
state barges, concluding the ceremonies of the proces- 
sion with sumptuous dinners at their respective halls. 
The freedom of the city is obtained by apprenticeship to 
a freeman ; by redemption, fine, or ransom ; and by gift 
of the corporation : to be a liveryman, however, it is 
necessary to be free of one of the incorporated com- 
panies. The city returns four members to parliament, who 
are elected by the liverymen, and, under the act of the 
2nd of William IV., cap. 45, by the 10 householders ; 
the number of electors is 20,030, and the sheriffs are 
the returning officers. 

The Guildhall, or common hall of the corporation, 
where their courts, meetings, and festivals are held, is 
situated at the upper end of King-street, Cheapside, and 
comprises numerous buildings and apartments. It was 
originally erected by subscription, in 1411 (prior to 
which period the corporation assembled in a small struc- 
ture in Aldermanbury),but having been greatly damaged 
by the fire in 1666, the present pile was formed from 
such parts as remained, excepting the new front facing 
King-street, which with several additions and repairs, 
was completed in 1789. The magnitude and grandeur 
of the hall may be estimated from the fact that it is 
capable of holding 6000 or 7000 persons, and actually 
accommodated that number at the great feast given to 
the allied sovereigns in 1814. Of the apartments in the 
rear, appropriated to the use of the corporation, the 
principal is the council- chamber, a large room, in which 
the lord mayor, aldermen, and common council, hold 
their courts, or city parliaments. Over the entrance in 
the front of the hall, a library of works relative to the 
history of London and the counties immediately adjoin- 
ing, has been recently formed, and is already of consider- 
able extent. The courts of Queen's Bench, Common 
139 



Pleas, and Commissioners of Bankrupts and Review, 
occupy the site of the ancient guildhall, chapel, and 
Blackwell hall ; and near the same spot are the Court of 
Requests, the Irish Chamber, and other offices of the 
corporation, forming a mass of convenient, though not 
very elegant, buildings. 

The Mansion House was finished in 1753, at an ex- 
pense of 42,638, as a residence for the chief magis- 
trate, who before had no suitable dwelling in which to 
exercise the duties, and maintain the state and dignity, 
of his office. It stands on the site of the Stocks' mar- 
ket, at the western end of Lombard-street, in the most 
central part of the city, and is a spacious and stately 
edifice, constructed entirely of Portland stone, but of 
rather ponderous aspect. In front is a fine portico, 
composed of six large fluted Corinthian columns, rising 
from a massive rustic basement, and surmounted by a 
pediment, the tympanum of which exhibits a good piece 
of sculpture by Taylor, emblematic of the dignity and 
opulence of the city of London, and the various virtues 
by which they have been established and maintained. 
The body of the building presents two tiers of lofty win- 
dows, and over these, and above the portico, is an attic 
story surmounted by a balustrade ; the cornices are rich 
and deep, and supported by Corinthian pilasters. These 
parts, in themselves elegant and complete, have been 
universally allowed to be deformed by a supplementary 
piece of building raised on the top contrary to the archi- 
tect's wish, to give a loftier ceiling to a ball-room. The 
interior is arranged with taste and judgment, possessing, 
amongst other state apartments, a magnificent banquet- 
room, called " The Egyptian Hall," 90 feet long (the 
whole width of the mansion), and 60 feet broad, with a 
lofty and richly-ornamented concave roof ; a ball-room, 
with a drawing-room ; and a state chamber, containing 
a magnificent state bed. 

COURTS OF LAW, &c. 

The Lord Mayor's Court is held in the Queen's Bench, 
Guildhall, by the mayor, recorder, and aldermen, for 
actions of debt and trespass, for appeals from inferior 
courts, and for foreign attachments ; giving decision in 
all cases whatsoever, in fourteen days, at an expense not 
exceeding 30s. The Court of Hustings is the ancient 
and supreme court of the city, for pleas of land and 
common pleas. The sheriffs hold courts of record, every 
Wednesday and Friday, for actions entered at Giltspur- 
street Compter ; and on Thursday and Saturday for 
actions entered at the Poultry Compter, which are for 
debts, trespasses, accounts, covenant-breaking, attach- 
ments, and sequestrations to any amount. The sheriffs, 
or their deputies, may sit with the judges of these courts 
upon trials if they please. The Court of Requests and of 
Conscience, at which commissioners preside, formerly 
took cognizance of no cause above 40s., but now extends 
to all debts under 5 ; the number of suits determined 
annually is about 5000, and the amount of debts re- 
covered, 8000. The Court of Lord Mayor and Alder- 
men appoints monthly such aldermen and commoners 
for commissioners as they think fit ; and these, or any 
three of them, compose a court, held on Wednesday 
and Saturday, from 12 till 2 o'clock. The other city 
courts are, the Chamberlain's Courts, held every day, to 
determine differences between masters and apprentices, 



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and to admit such persons as are duly qualified to the 
freedom of the city ; the Court of Orphans, held before 
the mayor and aldermen, as guardians of the children 
of deceased freemen under twenty-one years of age ; 
the Pie-Poudre Court, held during the continuance of 
Bartholomew fair ; a Court of Conservancy, held by the 
mayor and aldermen four times a year, as before stated j 
a Court of Petty- Sessions, for small offences, held daily 
at the Mansion House in the forenoon, by the mayor 
and one alderman, and daily at Guildhall, by two alder- 
men in rotation ; the Coroner's Court, to inquire into 
the causes of sudden death ; and the Court of the Tower, 
held within the verge of the city, by a steward, ap- 
pointed by the Constable of the Tower, and by whom 
are tried actions of debt, trespass, and covenants. 

The exercise of its own military government is one of 
the peculiar privileges possessed by the city from the 
earliest times ; its forces formerly consisted of what 
were termed the trained bands, but now of two regi- 
ments of militia, raised according to an act of parlia- 
ment passed in 1794, by ballot, and consisting of 2200 
men. The officers are appointed by the commissioners 
of the queen's lieutenancy for the city of London, of 
whom the lord mayor is the principal ; and one regi- 
ment may in certain cases be placed by the queen under 
any of her general officers, and marched to any place 
not exceeding twelve miles from the capital, or to the 
nearest encampment j the other being at all such times 
to remain in the cit)'. 

By an act of the 4th and 5th of William IV., cap. 
36, the city of London and the county of Middlesex, 
and certain adjacent parts of Essex, Kent, and Surrey, 
were formed into a district to be comprehended within 
the jurisdiction of a new court of Oyer and Terminer 
and Gaol Delivery, called the Central Criminal Court, to 
be held at the sessions-house in the Old Bailey, twelve 
times in the year at least, or oftener if necessary. The 
justices and judges of the court have power exclusively 
to try persons accused of various crimes specified in the 
act, of which the justices of the peace for the cities of 
London and Westminster, the liberty of the Tower, the 
borough of Southwark, and the above-named counties, 
are restrained from taking cognizance ; they have also 
the power to try for offences committed on the high 
seas. The justices of the peace for the above-named 
divisions are still allowed to hold their respective gene- 
ral quarter-sessions ; and by an especial clause the rights 
and privileges of the city of London are reserved. 

The government of WESTMINSTER, until the Reforma- 
tion, was arbitrary, under the abbots and monks ; then 
under a bishop, and dean and chapter ; and subse- 
quently, by an act passed in the 27th of Elizabeth, the 
civil controul was placed in the hands of the laity, the 
dean being at the same time empowered to nominate 
the chief officers. The principal magistrates are, a high 
steward, usually a nobleman, the office being generally 
held for life ; and a high bailiff, chosen by the steward, 
also for life, and who has the chief management of 
parliamentary elections for Westminster, as well as 
authority over all the other bailiffs, who summons 
juries, and in the courts leet sits next to the deputy 
steward. To him all fines and forfeitures belong, which 
renders the situation very lucrative, and occasions a 
considerable sum to be given for it. Besides these, 
there are sixteen burgesses and their assistants, whose 
140 



functions in all respects resemble those of the aldermen's 
deputies of the city of London, each having a ward 
under his jurisdiction : and from these are elected two 
head burgesses, one for the city, and the other for the 
liberties, who in the court leet rank next to the high 
bailiff. There is also a high constable, who is chosen 
by the court leet, and to whom all the other constables 
are subordinate. The four principal courts for the city 
and liberties of Westminster are, the Court of the Duchy 
of Lancaster, held in Somerset-place ; the Court of Quar- 
ter-Sessions of the peace, held by the justices for the city 
and liberties, four times a year, at the guildhall, West- 
minster ; St. Martin's- le-Grand Court; and the West- 
minster Court, or court leet. The three first are courts 
of record ; the duchy court being for all matters of law 
and equity relating to the duchy of Lancaster ; that of 
quarter-sessions, for all trespasses, petty larcenies, and 
other minor offences committed in Westminster and its 
liberties ; and that of St. Martin's-le-Grand, for the 
trial of all personal actions appertaining to that particu- 
lar liberty. The court leet, which is held by the Dean 
of Westminster, or his deputy, is for choosing parochial 
officers, preventing or removing nuisances, &c. The 
city and liberties of Westminster return two members to 
parliament, who are elected by the inhabitant house- 
holders ; the number of voters is 14,801, and the high 
bailiff is returning officer. 

SOUTHWARK was governed by its own bailiffs until 
1327 ; but the city suffering great inconvenience from 
the number of malefactors that escaped thither from 
the jurisdiction of the city magistrates, the mayor of 
London was then, by charter, constituted bailiff of 
Southwark, and empowered to govern it by his deputy. 
Edward VI. granted the " Borough, or Town of South- 
wark," to the city of London, for a pecuniary con- 
sideration, and afterwards, for a further payment of 
the same kind, it was made a twenty-sixth ward to the 
city, by the name of Bridge-ward Without. It became, 
in consequence, subject to the lord mayor, who has 
under him a steward and a bailiff, the former of whom 
holds a Court of Record every Monday at St. Margaret's 
Hill, for debts, damages, and trespasses. Here is also a 
Court of Record for the, Clink liberty, held near Bankside, 
in Southwark, by the Bishop of Winchester's steward, 
for actions of debt, trespass, &c., within that liberty. 
The borough returns two members to parliament, who 
are chosen by the inhabitant householders of the old 
borough, which comprised 401 acres, and by the 10 
householders of an enlarged district, which, by the act 
of the 2nd and 3rd of William IV., cap. 64, was added 
thereto for elective purposes, and the limits of which 
include by estimation an area of 1649 acres. The num- 
ber of voters is 5353, and the high bailiff is returning 
officer. 

For the suburbs there are several COURTS. Of these, 
the Sheriff's Courts for the county of Middlesex are for 
actions of debt, trespass, assault, &c. East Smithfteld 
Court is a court leet and court baron to inquire into 
nuisances, &c. ; in the court baron, pleas are held to the 
amount of 40s. General and Quarter Sessions of the 
peace, for the liberty of the Tower of London, are held 
by the justices of that liberty, eight times a year, for 
petty larcenies, trespasses, felonies, misdemeanours, &c. 
A Court of Requests is held for the Tower Hamlets, for 
the recovery of debts under 5. 



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In the metropolis are also held the four great law 
courts of the kingdom, the Queen s Bench, Common Pleas, 
Exchequer, and High Court of Chancery. The two first 
are held alternately at Westminster Hall, and Guildhall 
in the city ; the Exchequer court at Westminster hall 
only ; and the Court of Chancery, alternately at West- 
minster hall and Lincoln's Inn, where causes are heard 
by the chancellor or vice-chancellors. The rooms in 
Westminster Hall in which the business of the courts is 
transacted are situated on the western side of the great 
hall, and were elegantly fitted up by the late Sir John 
Soane. This was the great hall of the ancient palace of 
Westminster, and is celebrated as the scene of many im- 
portant events in English history : the first hall was 
founded by William Rufus, but the present edifice was 
for the most part erected by Richard II. It is consi- 
dered to be the largest apartment in Europe unsupported 
by pillars, being 270 feet long, 74 broad, and 90 high ; 
the floor is of stone ; the side walls and ends are pierced 
with elegant windows, the latter being of vast magnitude 
and highly elaborate workmanship. The roof, which 
deserves particular admiration, is of chesnut, forming 
an immense arch, sustained by carved angels bearing 
shields of the founder's arms. Parliaments were an- 
ciently held in the hall, and it was the court of justice 
in which the sovereign presided in person ; the corona- 
tion feasts have been held here for many ages, and it is 
also occasionally used for the trial of peers, or persons 
impeached by the commons. There is likewise the Rolls' 
Court, generally held by the Master of the Rolls in the 
Rolls' Chapel, Chancery-lane. Civil and ecclesiastical 
causes are tried at Doctors' Commons, at which place 
are also held the Courts of Admiralty. The ecclesiastical 
courts are, the Court of Arches, for appeals from inferior 
ecclesiastical courts in the province of Canterbury, of 
which the Court of Peculiars here is a branch ; the 
Prerogative Court, for causes relative to wills and ad- 
ministrations ; the Faculty Court, empowered to grant 
dispensations to marry, &c. ; and the Court of Delegates, 
for ecclesiastical affairs. 

London also contains, besides the courts already de- 
scribed, the following. The Palace Court, or Marshalsea, 
held formerly at the Old Court-house in the Borough, 
but now in Scotland-yard, opposite the Admiralty, has 
jurisdiction of all civil suits within twelve miles of 
Whitehall, the city of London excepted, and takes 
cognizance of debts to any amount above 40s. ; but all 
actions for debts above 20 may be removed into any 
of the superior courts. The High Court of Admiralty, 
Doctors' Commons, takes cognizance of all maritime 
pleas, criminal and civil, the latter being determined 
according to the civil law, the plaintiff giving security to 
prosecute, and, if cast, to pay what is adjudged ; but 
the former being tried by special commission, at the 
sessions-house in the Old Bailey, by a judge and jury, a 
judge of the common law assists. A Court for the relief 
of Insolvent Debtors was instituted a few years since, by 
an act of parliament, for the purpose of releasing debtors 
in England and Wales, who have been imprisoned and 
apply by petition to be liberated, upon surrendering 
their effects to their creditors ; the commissioners, who 
preside as judges, hold their sittings at a newly-erected 
court-house, in Portugal-street, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 
Courts of Request for the, summary recovery of debts 
not exceeding 40*. are situated in various parts : there is 
141 



one in Pine- street, Piccadilly ; also one in Kingsgate- 
street, Holborn ; one in Osbourne-strect, Whitechapel ; 
one in Castle-street, Leicester-square ; and one in Bou-l- 
ing--Gree-Zne,Southwark. That in Trinity-street, Stones- 
end, Borough, is for debts not exceeding 5. In addition, 
to the parliamentary representation already mentioned, 
four new metropolitan boroughs, each described under its 
own head, namely, Finsbury, Mary-le-bone, Tower Ham- 
lets, and Lambeth, comprising a numerous constituency, 
have been created under the act of the 2nd of William 
IV., cap. 45, each empowered to send two members, 
who are elected by the 10 householders. 

PRISONS, AND POLICE. 

The prisons for criminals are, Newgate, Cold-bath- 
fields, Giltspur-street Compter, Pentonville Model prison, 
Millbank, New Prison Clerkenwell, Tothill-fields Bride- 
well, and the gaol for the county of Surrey, Southwark. 
The prisons for debtors were, until recently, the Debtors' 
prison (White Cross-street), the Queen's Bench, the 
Fleet, the Marshalsea, and the Borough Compter ; but 
in 1842 an act was passed "for consolidating the Queen's 
Bench, Fleet, and Marshalsea Prisons, and for regulating 
the Queen's Prison," by which it was enacted that the 
prison previously called that of the Marshalsea of the 
Court of Queen's Bench should be termed the Queen's 
Prison, and should be the only prison for all debtors, 
bankrupts, or other persons, who before the passing of 
the act might have been confined in the Queen's Bench, 
Fleet, and Marshalsea prisons. Of the buildings, the 
majority are extensive, and in several instances, though 
gloomy, not inelegant, piles. Newgate, the general 
criminal prison for the city of London and the county of 
Middlesex, and, since the establishment of the Central 
Criminal Court, for various populous districts adjacent 
to the metropolis, may be particularly mentioned as 
such ; it is of stone, divided within into several court- 
yards, and possesses a handsome uniform front towards 
the west, consisting of two wings, with the governor's 
house forming the centre. The city, as already stated, is 
under the controul of its own magistracy, consisting of the 
mayor and aldermen, &c. ; and an act of parliament has 
recently been obtained for the formation of an effective 
police force. By the new Metropolitan Police act, the 
whole of the metropolis, exclusively of that part imme- 
diately denominated the City and Liberties, was con- 
solidated into a Metropolitan Police district, which was 
established with a view to the better security of the 
persons and property of the inhabitants, and to super- 
sede the local police previously existing iri the several 
parishes. It extends eastward to Stratford, Poplar, 
and Greenwich ; southward to Streatham, Tooting, and 
Wandsworth ; westward to Acton, Baling, and Brent- 
ford ; and northward to Hampstead, Islington, Newing- 
ton, and Hackney. Each division is under the charge 
of a superior officer, and the total number of men com- 
posing the force is upwards of 3300 ; the annual expense 
of the establishment is about 206,000. 

INNS OF COURT. 

The London Inns of Court were originally like col- 
leges in a university, but confined to the study of the 
law. Though their origin cannot be exactly ascertained, 



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they may be presumed to have owed their rise to the 
establishment of the courts of justice at Westminster, 
by Henry III., which collected in their neighbourhood 
the whole body of common lawyers, or practitioners, 
who began to form themselves into a society (supposed 
at Thavies' Inn, Holborn), in a collegiate manner. Hence 
their place of residence was denominated an inn (Hostell), 
or House of Court ; and the king, in 1244, forbade the 
teaching of law in schools set up in the city, as had 
been customary, and restricted its study to these inns. 
Their increase, as well as divisions into Inns of Court 
and Inns of Chancery, was not recognized till the reign 
of Edward III., when their students were called appren- 
tices of the law (from the Fr. Apprendre) ; and the Inns 
of Court became appropriated solely to the study of the 
common law, as were the Inns of Chancery to such 
clerks as studied the forming of writs and other pro- 
cesses in chancery. These inns have become mere resi- 
dences, not for lawyers only, but any persons who choose 
to hire chambers in them ; and the law-student, before 
being called to the bar, is now only obliged to be entered 
of one of these places, and dine in the common hall a 
certain number of terms ; after which, should his ad- 
mission not be opposed by the members, an occurrence 
that rarely happens, he is legally qualified to plead and 
conduct causes. The Inns of Court are not incorporated, 
consequently the masters, principals, benchers, &c., by 
whom they are governed, can make no by-laws, nor 
possess estates, &c. ; yet they have certain orders which, 
by consent and prescription, have obtained the force of 
law. The societies are entirely supported by sums paid 
for admissions and for chambers ; and from the benchers, 
or seniors, in whom the controul is vested, a treasurer is 
usually chosen to manage these funds : the other mem- 
bers may be divided into outer barristers, inner barris- 
ters, and students. 

The principal Inns of Court are four : the Inner Tem- 
ple, Middle Temple, Lincoln's Inn, and Gray's Inn. The 
Inns of Chancery are seven, viz., Clifford's Inn, Lyon's 
Inn, Clement's Inn, and New Inn, belonging to the two 
Temples ; Furnival's Inn, belonging to Lincoln's Inn ; 
and Staple's Inn, and Barnard's Inn, belonging to 
Gray's Inn. Thavies' Inn, Scroop's Inn, Chester Inn, 
or Strand Inn, as well as Johnson's Inn, and some others 
in the city, have long been disused. Of the two Ser- 
jeants' Inns, in Fleet-street and Chancery-lane, the 
latter only is appropriated as chambers for the Serjeants- 
at-law, who removed thither from Symond's Inn, which 
is falling to decay, and merely tenanted as chambers by 
any one who chooses to rent them. Serjeants' Inn, 
Fleet-street, consists now of private residences. The 
Temple is so called from its original inhabitants, the 
Knights Templars, who, on quitting their old house in 
Southampton-buildings, Holborn, in the reign of Henry 
II., built a house in Fleet-street, thence called the New 
Temple, which occupied all the ground from White 
Friars to Essex-street. On their suppression by Edward 
II., the Temple, after two or three intermediate grants 
from the crown, was, by Edward III., given to the 
monastery of St. John of Jerusalem, the prior and con- 
vent of which afterwards demised it to the lawyers, sup- 
posed to have removed hither from Thavies' Inn, at a 
yearly rent of 10, a sum for which they still enjoy 
from the crown the whole of this splendid property. 
The Temple is at present divided between the two socie- 
142 



ties, the Inner and Middle Templars, each consisting of 
benchers, barristers, and students, the government being 
vested in the benchers. In term-time the members dine 
in the hall of the society, which is called keeping com- 
mons ; to dine a fortnight in each term, is deemed keep- 
ing the term, and twelve of those terms qualify a student, 
after being called to the bar, to plead and manage causes 
in the courts. Lincoln's Inn occupies, with its gardens 
and squares, a very extensive plot of ground on the 
western side of Chancery-lane. It has a fine ancient 
brick gateway opening from Chancery-lane, built by Sir 
Thomas Lovel in the reign of Henry VIII. ; a hall 
erected by the same person, wherein the Lord Chancellor 
holds his sittings ; and a chapel built by Inigo Jones, in 
the English style. A new library and dining-hall, of 
which the first stone was laid by Vice-Chancellor Sir 
Knight Bruce, April 20th, 1843, are in course of erection, 
in a very handsome style, at the south-western angle of 
the garden, the west front overlooking Lincoln's Inn 
Fields ; the design is of the latest Tudor character, re- 
sembling the older parts of Hampton Court, and the 
edifice, which will be of very considerable extent, will 
afford the necessary accommodation which has been for 
some time needed; the old hall and library will be judi- 
ciously preserved inviolate. Gray's Inn principally con- 
sists of two quadrangles, separated by a hall and chapel, 
and two handsome ranges of buildings recently erected, 
called Verulam and Raymond buildings. Most of the 
other inns consist of double courts, surrounded by large 
brick buildings divided into chambers ; all of them have 
halls, in some cases surrounded by gardens, and several 
have good libraries. 

GOVERNMENT OFFICES AND OTHER PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

The offices more immediately connected with the 
affairs of government occupy a grand line of buildings, 
stretching entirely across the eastern extremity of St. 
James' Park, from Spring Gardens to Downing-street. 
The most northerly is the Admiralty : next is the War 
Office, or Horse Guards ; then the Treasury; and lastly, 
the offices of the three Secretaries of State. 

The War Office, or Horse Guards, derives its latter 
appellation from the circumstance of that branch of the 
military mounting guard here. It is a noble, though 
rather heavy, building, erected by Ware, at an expense 
of more than 30,000, and contains a variety of apart- 
ments in which is transacted all business relative to the 
British army ; a handsome portal leads through it from 
St. James' Park into the fine open street called White- 
hall. The Admiralty, originally called Wallingford House, 
and facing Whitehall, has a beautiful screen by Adams, 
which, with its spacious portico, renders it on the whole 
a commanding pile ; the Lords of the Admiralty have 
offices, with spacious private apartments, and on the 
top of the building is a semaphore telegraph, which com- 
municates orders, by signal, to the principal parts of 
the kingdom. The Treasury is an extensive pile, partly 
formed out of the remains of Whitehall palace ; the 
principal front, which is of stone, looks into St. James' 
Park ; that next Whitehall has been rebuilt in a splendid 
style by Sir John Soane. Besides the Board of Treasury, 
the edifice contains a variety of offices, amongst which 
is the Council Chamber. The buildings of the other 
government offices situated in the immediate vicinity of 



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the above, and which consist of the offices of the Secre- 
taries of State, the Board of Controul for the affairs of 
India, the offices of the Crown Lands, and of the Board 
of Works, &c., have nothing in them particularly worthy 
of notice. 

Somerset House, the most noble collection of Govern- 
ment offices in London, derives its name from being 
built on the site of the splendid palace erected by the 
Protector Somerset, in the reign of Edward VI. After 
having been for several ages occasionally inhabited by 
the queens of England, it was rebuilt, as it now stands, 
under the superintendence of Sir William Chambers, in 
1775. It occupies a space of about 800 feet in width, 
and 500 in depth ; and for magnitude, as well as archi- 
tectural merit, ranks among the foremost of the public 
buildings in London. The magnificent Strand front, 
the extensive quadrangular court, the yet grander front 
next the Thames, with its terrace, one of the finest in 
the world, all combine, with the numerous spacious 
apartments and offices it contains, to excite admiration. 
It comprises the offices of the Poor Law Commission, of 
the Registrar-General, and of the Tithe Commission j 
also the Naval Office, Navy Pay Office, Malt Office, 
Stamp Office, the Offices of the Chancellors of the duchies 
of Cornwall and Lancaster, the Hawkers' and Pedlars' 
Office, Stage-coach Office, Legacy-duty Office, and the 
whole revenue establishment of the Tax Offices ; all 
which are situated in the quadrangle that forms the 
main body of the pile. The front next the Strand has 
been munificently devoted to the use of the Royal So- 
ciety, the Society of Antiquaries, and other institutions ; 
apartments have been assigned for the use of the board 
constituting the University of London, and others have 
been appropriated to the School of Design, instituted by 
the Government within the last few years, for elementary 
instruction in drawing, modelling from the antique and 
from nature, and in the use of oil and water colours. 
The buildings of King's College, recently founded, form 
the eastern wing of the south front of the edifice, which, 
without it, was incomplete. 

"Tee TOWER," as it is familiarly called, stands on 
the northern bank of the Thames, and consists of a 
large pile of building, the irregularity of which arises 
from its having been erected and enlarged by various 
sovereigns, at distant periods of time : it served the 
purpose of a fortified palace to many of the early 
monarchs of England. Tradition ascribes its origin to 
Julius Caesar, but the earliest authentic account of it is, 
that William the Conqueror, having little reliance on the 
fidelity of his new subjects of London, on fixing his resi- 
dence in the metropolis, built a strong fortress to over- 
awe them, on part of the present site of the Tower. In 
1078, he appointed Gundulph, Bishop of Rochester, a 
skilful architect, to superintend the building of a larger 
fort, being the same, though repaired or rebuilt by some 
of his successors, which is now called the White Tower. 
It is situated in the centre of the fortress, and is of a 
square shape, with four watch-towers, one of which is 
used as an observatory : this part of the building con- 
tains, besides a small armoury for the sea service, an old 
Norman chapel, dedicated to St. John, in which the 
kings and queens who resided here performed their de- 
votions ; it is of an oblong form, circular at the east 
end, and supported by short round pillars, and in it the 
ancient, records of the kingdom are now kept. In 1082, 
143 



William Rufus laid the foundations of a castle south- 
ward, and near to the river, which was finished by his 
successor, Henry I. : beneath it were two gates, one 
called Traitors' gate, through which state prisoners were 
conveyed to their cells, and the other bearing the name 
of the Bloody gate. Henry III. added a strong gate 
and bulwark to the west entrance, repaired and whitened 
the square to'wer, which probably gave it the name it 
still retains, and extended the fortress by a mud wall, 
which was superseded by one of brick by Edward IV., 
who built within this enclosure the present Lion's tower. 
Charles II. and the succeeding sovereigns, down to 
George IV., made various additions and alterations 
within the area inclosed by the ancient fortifications ; 
and the exterior walls now include an area of twelve 
acres and five roods. The exterior circuit of the ditch, 
which entirely surrounds it, is 3156 feet ; it is separated 
from the Thames by a broad quay, behind which is a 
platform for mounting 61 pieces of cannon, which are 
brought out and fired on all occasions of public rejoic- 
ing. The interior, which forms a parish within itself, 
subject to the visitation of the Bishop of London, con- 
tains several streets, and a variety of interesting build- 
ings, which, before the recent fire, consisted of the Tower 
parochial church, or Royal Free Chapel of St. Peter ad 
Vincula, the White Tower, the Ordnance Office, the 
Record Office, the Jewel Office, the Horse Armoury, the 
Grand Storehouse, the new or small Armoury, houses 
belonging to the officers of the Tower, barracks for the 
garrison, and two suttling-houses, commonly used by 
the officers of the garrison. The great fire, by which a 
large portion of this celebrated edifice was destroyed, 
took place on the 30th of Oct. 1841, and extended to 
the Grand Storehouse, the Table, or Bowyer Tower, 
with two stores on each side of it, and the Butler's 
Tower : in the armoury, which was 345 feet long, were 
no less than 280,000 stand of arms, ready for use, 
besides a vast quantity of military trophies, many of 
them ancient and of great historical interest ; and dur- 
ing the conflagration, the regalia, used at coronations, 
which were kept in the Jewel Office, were hurriedly, but 
safely, removed. The government is entrusted to a 
Constable, generally a person of high rank, under whose 
command are a lieutenant and a deputy-lieutenant, the 
latter being called the governor, with several subordinate 
officers, besides forty wardens, who bear the same rich 
antique uniform as was worn by the corps at its forma- 
tion by Henry VII. 

The Mint, originally situated within the limits of the 
Tower, and the business of which was afterwards for 
some time carried on at Soho, near Birmingham, now 
stands at the north-eastern corner of Tower Hill, on the 
site of the old Victualling-Office ; it contains steam- 
engines, and all the numerous mechanical works for 
facilitating the operations of the coinage. 

BRIDGES AND TUNNEL. 

The bridges which unite the southern with the north- 
ern part of the metropolis are remarkable for their 
architecture, magnitude, and solidity. 

New London Bridge, begun March 15th, 1824, and 
completed Aug. 1st, 1831, under the superintendence 
of Mr. Rennie, at a cost of 506,000, exclusively of 
the expense of approaches, and of removing the old 



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bridge, is an elegant and substantial edifice of Haytor 
granite, 928 feet long, and, within the abutments, 782 
feet^ with five noble arches, of which the centre has a 
span of 152 feet, and the four others one of about 135. 
The approaches at each end are carried over arches, and 
communicate with spacious streets, and that on the 
Surrey bank of the river, from exposing to the view the 
whole of St. Saviour's church, possesses much grandeur. 
The old bridge was founded in 1176, and originally sup- 
ported a street of houses with a chapel, entrance gate- 
ways, &c., which remained with various alterations till 
1 756, when it was cleared of the whole of its buildings. 

Southwark Bridge is a magnificent structure of cast- 
iron, with stone piers and abutments, designed by Mr. 
Rennie, and consists of three arches, of which the cen- 
tral rises 24 feet, with a span of 240 feet, and each 
of the side arches is 210 feet in the span : the whole 
was completed in March, 1819, at an expense, including 
the approaches, of 800,000, being one of the most 
stupendous works of the kind ever formed of such 
materials. Many of the solid castings weigh ten tons 
each, and the total weight of the iron employed is about 
5/80 tons. The abutments are laid in radiating courses, 
with large blocks of Bramley-Fell and Whitby stones. 

Blackfriars Bridge was named, at the time of its 
foundation, " Pitt's bridge," as a testimony of the respect 
entertained by the citizens of London for the character 
and talents of that eminent statesman, William Pitt, 
the first Earl of Chatham, whose name was accordingly 
inscribed on a plate laid under the foundation-stone. 
The first stone was laid by the Lord Mayor, Sir Thomas 
Chitty, on the 31st of Oct. 1760 ; and in 1770 the work 
was completed, at an expense of 160,000, which was 
defrayed by a toll for several years. The bridge has 
nine elliptical arches ; the span of the central arch is 
100 feet, those on each side decreasing gradually towards 
the shores, being respectively 98, 93, 83, and 70 feet 
wide, leaving a clear water way of 788 feet. 

Waterloo Bridge, which is longer than any of the 
other bridges over the Thames, affords a fine level pas- 
sage across the river, and, from the beauty and simpli- 
city of the design, and its stability, is calculated to 
remain a monument of architectural skill down to re- 
mote ages. The original projector was Mr. George 
Dodd, but in consequence of a misunderstanding be- 
tween him and the company, the execution of the work 
devolved on Mr. Rennie; it was commenced in 1811, 
and completed in 1817, at an expense, including the 
approaches, much exceeding 1,000,000 sterling. The 
bridge consists of nine elliptical arches, each of 120 feet 
span, and 35 feet elevation ; it is 42 feet broad, being of 
the same width as Blackfriars bridge, and its length is 
1242 feet, being 19 feet longer within the abutments 
than Westminster bridge. 

Westminster Bridge, built between the years 1739 and 
1750, at a cost of 389,500, is 1223 feet long, and 44 
wide, and consists of thirteen large, and two small, semi- 
circular arches, with fourteen intermediate piers and 
abutments : on its top are twenty-eight semi-octagonal 
recesses, twelve of which are covered by demicupolas. 
The two middle piers contain each 3000 solid feet, or 
200 tons of Portland stone. The central arch is 76 feet 
wide, the others diminish in width by 4 feet equally on 
each side, and the two smaller ones close in shore are 
each about 25 feet wide. At the period of its erection 
144 



this bridge was esteemed one of the noblest structures 
of the kind in the world : its architect was M. Labylie, 
an ingenious native of Switzerland j but, although not a 
century old, like that of Blackfriars, it exhibits evident 
marks of decay, from the decomposition of the stone. 

Vauxhall Bridge, commenced in 1813, and completed 
in 1826, at an expense exceeding 300,000, is a light 
and elegant structure, consisting of nine arches of cast- 
iron, each of 78 feet span, having between 1 1 and 12 feet 
rise, and resting on rusticated stone piers laid with 
Roman cement ; the whole length is 809 feet. This 
bridge, as well as those of Southwark and Waterloo, 
was erected by an incorporated company of share- 
holders, who are authorised to levy a toll. 

The Hungerford and Lambeth Suspension Foot Bridge, 
completed in 1844, originated in the increased traffic 
between the opposite shores of the Thames, occasioned 
by the erection of Hungerford Market and the steam- 
packet piers on the north side. This elegant structure, 
which is after a design by J. K. Brunei, Esq., F. R. S., is 
about 14 feet wide, and 1342 feet 6 in. long, extending 
from Hungerford stairs to the Belvidere-road, Lambeth : 
of this length, 676 ft. 6 in. form the central span, between 
the two piers. The piers are 55 feet in height above the 
foot-path, and 84 above high water, and form two hand- 
some towers in the Italian style, with the chains passing 
through the attic of each ; at the abutments, on each 
side of the river, the chains are secured in huge masses 
of granite. The cost of the masonry was, by contract, 
60,000 ; of the iron work, which exceeds 700 tons in 
weight, 17,000 ; of the approaches, 13,000 ; and the 
entire expense has been estimated at 102,254. 

Thames Tunnel. The idea of forming a subway under 
the bed of the Thames, to connect Rotherhithe with the 
opposite shore at Old Gravel-lane, Wapping, which had 
been abandoned after a fruitless attempt in 1809, was 
revived on a more extended scale, by Mr. Brunei, now 
Sir I. M. Brunei, Knt., in 1824; and the sum of 
200,000 was raised by transferable shares of 50 each, 
which led to the commencement of the work in March, 
1825. The undertaking was checked, however, by seve- 
ral accidents : after the tunnel had been completed to 
the extent of 400 feet, it was filled with water by an 
irruption of the river, in 1827, and again in 1823 ; and 
Sir I. Brunei's attempt, like that of his predecessor, was, 
after a great expenditure of money, and the loss of seve- 
ral lives, discontinued in 1828, and thought to be en- 
tirely relinquished. The works remained for more than 
seven years in a state of suspense ; but after clearing 
the tunnel of the water, the structure of the double 
archway was found to be in a perfectly sound and satis- 
factory state, and the operations were consequently re- 
sumed, and the whole of the tunnel, which is 1200 feet 
in length, was completed at an expense of 446,000, and 
opened to the public, for foot passengers, on the 25th ot 
March, 1843. The tunnel consists of two arcades, form- 
ing distinct ways for going and returning, and each con- 
taining a roadway and footway, lighted by gas ; the form 
of the arcade is cylindrical, and from its base to the 
level of the river at high water, the height is 75 feet, 
which circumstance, in addition to the unfavourable 
nature of the ground through which the excavation is 
made, rendered the formation of the tunnel one of the 
most adventurous and arduous enterprises in the art of 
engineering ever attempted. 



LO ND 



LO N D 



ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION. 




At what precise period 
London was constituted the 
head of a DIOCESE is uncer- 
tain, but it is evident that 
it acquired the distinction 
not long after the introduc- 
tion of Christianity into 
Britain. It appears to have 
been at first an archbishop- 
ric, but after the metropo- 
litical power was transferred 
to Canterbury, in conse- 
quence of the conversion to 
Christianity of Ethelbert, King of Kent, by Augustine, 
London sank into a bishopric, and Melitus was made 
the first bishop, in 604. The diocese was co- extensive 
with the ancient kingdom of the East Saxons, compre- 
hending the counties of Middlesex and Essex, and part 
of Hertfordshire. Under the ecclesiastical arrangements 
provided by the act of the 6th and 7th of William IV , 
c. 77, it will consist of the city of London, the county oi 
Middlesex, nine parishes in Essex, the town of Deptford, 
and seven other parishes in Kent, the borough of South- 
wark, and eighteen parishes in Surrey. Though locally 



Arms of the Bishopric. 



in the province of Canterbury, it is exempt from the 
visitation of the archbishop ; and the Bishop of London 
enjoys precedence over all the other bishops, ranking in 
dignity next to the Archbishop of York. The ecclesias- 
tical establishment is composed of a bishop, dean, pre- 
centor, chancellor, treasurer, five archdeacons, thirty 
canons or prebendaries (three of whom are residentiary, 
and, with the dean, constitute the chapter), twelve petty 
or minor canons, six vicars-choral, a subdean, and infe- 
rior officers. The jurisdiction of the bishop extends 
over 603 benefices, and he has the patronage of the 
archdeaconries, chancellorships, precentorship, treasurer- 
ship, non-resident canonries, and seventy-nine benefices, 
besides six others alternately : the resident canonries 
are in the gift of the Crown. The income of the bishop 
is 11,700 ; the' income of the dean, who is also a canon 
of St Paul's, amounts to 2974, and the net revenue of 
the Dean and Chapter to 9000 ; the Dean and Chapter 
possess the patronage of thirty-four benefices, with 
eleven others alternately. The twelve petty canons 
were incorporated as a body politic, in 1399, by letters- 
patent of Richard II. ; they are governed by a warden, 
chosen from among themselves, and have a common 
seal. 



PARISHES IN THE CITY OF LONDON WITHIN THE WALLS. 



PARISH. 

S. Alban, Wood-street, with R. 


Population. 
479 


Value in the 
King's Books. 

. .v. d. 
16 8 11J 


Present 

Net Income. 

&. 

\ 0<T / 


PATRONS. 

The Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, and Eton Collect" 


St. Olave, Silver-street R. 


972 


7 7 11 


) 247 { 


alternately. 


Allhallows, Barking V. 


1024 


36 13 4 


956 


The Archbishop of Canterbury. 


Allhallows, Bread-street, with R, 


263 


37 13 4 








108 


15 19 7 


} 264 { 






672 


41 18 1J 








181 




f 458 


The Archbishop of Canterbury. 


Allhallows, Lombard-street R. 


516 


22 6 8 


357 


The Dean and Chapter of Canterbury. 


Allhallows, Staining P.C. 


502 




624 / 


Master and Wardens of the Grocers' Company, the im- 


Allhallows on the Wall with St. ~l R 
Augustine consolidated J 


1620 


8 16 8 


I 
453 


propriators. 
The Crown. 


St. Alphage R. 


976 


800 


313 


The Bishop. 


St. Andrew Undershaft with St. "1 R 
Mary-Axe consolidated j 


1163 


25 11 3 


1576 


The Bishop. 


St. Andrew by the Wardrobe, with .... R. 


750 
2846 


17 10 o 


} 483 ( 


The Crown, and the Parishioners of St. Anne's, al 
ternately. 


St. Anne and St. Agnes, with R. 


513 


800 




The Bishop, and Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, al- 




183 


1121 


} 239 <( 


ternately. 


St. Antholin, with R 


357 


20 2 8f 


1 , / 


The Crown, and the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, 




367 


15 18 9 


J. 222 <^ 


alternately. 


St. Augustine, Watling-street, with R. 
St. Faith R 


289 
781 


19 16 0| 
23 17 1 


| 296 


The Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. 


St. Bartholomew by the Royal Ex-1 R 
change (no church) j 


307 


18 1 8 


657 { 


The Crown, and the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, 
alternately. 


St. Bene't Fink PC 


383 




200 


The Dean and Canons of Windsor, the apuropriators. 


St. Bene't Gracechurch, with ... R 


333 


18 1 3 




The Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, and the Dean and 


St. Leonard, F.astcheap R 


137 


25 10 


J. 300 | 


Chapter of Canterbury, alternately. 


VOL. III. 145 








u 



LOND 



LO ND 



PARISH. 


Population. 
588 


Value in the 
King's Books. 

. s. d. 
13 19 4i 


Present 
Net Income. 

. 


PATRONS. 


St Peter R. 


341 


942 


> 254 


The Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. 




278 


23 16 <U 


-, f 


The Crown, and the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, 




235 


800 


} 320 < 


alternately. 




2446 


26 13 4 


1 KV7 / 


St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and the Dean and Chapter 




331 


26 13 4 


} 53? I 


of Westminster, the appropriators, alternately. 




23G 


13 2 1 




The Bishop, and the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, 




353 


19 16 3 


} 29 { 


alternately. 




806 


25 


439 


The Dean and Chapter of Canterbury. 




10)0 


60 7 11 


375 


The Archbishop of Canterbury. 


St Edmund the King, with R. 


391 


21 14 2 




The Crown, and the Archbishop of Canterbury, alter- 




194 


13 


> 306 < 


nately. 




669 


11 12 6 


363 


The Bishop. 




659 





209 


Alexander M c Dougal, Esq., the impropriator. 




964 





110 


The Mayor and Aldermen, the impropriators. 




520 


17 14 7 


310 


The Bishop. 




606 


568 


1019 


The Bishop. 




1740 




120 <f 


The Master and Fellows of Magdalen College, Cam- 




625 


18 5 


X 


bridge, the impropriators. 
Balliol College, Oxford, and the Dean and Chapter of 


St Mary Magdalene, Milk-street R. 


207 
239 


19 17 6 
69 5 5 


300 ( 


St. Paul's, alternately. 


St. Margaret, New Fish-st., united ... R. 


266 
189 


13 11 8 
13 6 8 


294 






16 


14 


585 






167 


10 


\ 014 / 


The Crown, the Mayor and Aldermen, and the Mayor 




386 


12 


/ 214 X 


and Common Council, by turns. 




1255 


33 1? 8} 


266 


The Bishop. 




135 


13 9 '.it. 


585 


The Merchant Tailors' Company. 




526 


20 2 6 


1 






381 




> 206 


Corpus Christ! College, Cambridge. 




f , 










751 





255 


The Parishioners. 


St. Mary Aldermary, with R. 


494 


41 


"I Alt. / 


The Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Dean and 




648 


12 


J X 


Chapter of St. Paul's, alternately. 




346 


33 12 3J 






Allhallows, Honey-lane, and R. 


155 


19 3 9 


459 ( 


The Archbishop of Canterbury two turns, and the 


St. Pancras, Soper-lane R. 


162 


13 6 3 


X 


Grocers' Company one. 




987 


36 13 4 


V f 


The Duke of Northumberland, and the Parishioners, 




331 


16 


> 387 \ 


alternately. 


St. Mary Magdalene, Old Fish-st., with . . R. 
St. Gregory by St. Paul P.O. 


783 
1444 


19 5 9 


\ 345 


The Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. 




375. 


10 10 


\ 238 






3?8 


6 10 




The Bishops of London and Hereford, alternately. 




31? 


25 


1 




St. Mary Woolchurch Haw united ... R. 


150 
160 


18 13 4 
21 7 3i 


J. 280 
1 


The Crown, and J. Thornton, Esq., alternately. 




227 


26 7 9 


> 254 


The Bishop, and the Duke of Buccleuch, alternately. 




687 


17 o o 


239 


The Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. 




454 


35 1 8 


387 


The Drapers' Company. 




329 


26 8 4 


365 


The Archbishop of Canterbury. 




647 


16 


1 r / 


The Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, and the Dean and 




633 


876 


) 270 | 


Chapter of Canterbury, alternately. 


St. Michael Pater-noster Royal, with . . R. 


251 
288 


700 
18 13 4 


} 242 { 


The Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, and the Bishop 
of Worcester, alternately. 




328 


18 13 4 


1 /, 






268 


568 


} 260 


The Crown, and the Parishioners, alternately. 


St. Mildred, Bread-street, with R. 


351 


16 6 8 


1 00 






250 


12 4 I' 


}> 222 


The Queen, and W. Storketh, Esq., alternately. 


St. Mildred, Poultry, with R. 


280 


18 13 4 








238 




}269 


The Crown, and the Mercers' Company, alternately. 


St. Nicholas Cole Abbey, with R 


254 


18 13 4 


}f 


The Crown, and the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's 


St. Nicholas Olave R. 


431 


7 19 7 


287 < 


alternately. 













146 



LOND 



L ON D 



PARISH. 

St. Olave, Hart-street, with St. \ R 
Nicholas in the Shambles / 

St. Olave, Old Jewry, with V. 


Population. 

816 
168 


Value in the 
King's Books. 

. s. d. 
/17 14 2 
1.23 6 6 

10 18 <;.', 


Present 
Net Income. 

. 
j 1891 


PATRONS. 

The Parishioners. 




198 


12 7 6 


> 500 


The Crown. 




656 


39 5 7J 


388 


The Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council. 




559 


5 16 8 


629 


The Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. 


St. Stephen, Coleman-street V. 


3699 


11 


560 


The Parishioners. 


St. Stephen, Walbrook, with R. 


322 


17 13 9 








145 


8 13 4 


> 332 


The Crown, and the Grocers' Company, alternately. 




389 


15 17 11 


-> f 


The Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, and the Rev. 




257 


10 10 


) 259 1 


H. G. Watkins, alternately. 




427 


33 5 10 




The Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Dean and 


St. Michael le Quern R. 


212 


21 10 5 


> 300 | 


Chapter of St. Paul's, alternately. 













The above 97 parishes, with the addition of the precinct of White Friars, form the poor law union of the City of London, which is under the 
care of 101 guardians, each parish electing one, with the exception of St. Anne's (Blackfriars), Christ-church (Newgate-street), and St. 
Stephen's (Coleman-street), which elect two each ; the population amounts to 55,920. 



PARISHES IN THE CITY OF LONDON WITHOUT THE WALLS. 






St. Andrew, Holborn R. 

St. Peter, Saffron Hill C. 

Trinity Chapel, Gray's Inn Road ... C. 

St. Bartholomew the Great R. 

St. Bartholomew the Less V. 

St. Botolph, without Aldersgate P.O. 

St. Botolph, Aldgate P.C. 

St. Botolph, without Bishopsgate .... R. \ 
All Saints' Chapel P.C. j 

St. Bride V. 

Trinity District Church P.C. 

St. I)unstan-in-the-West R. 

St. Giles, without Cripplegate V. 

St. Sepulchre V. 

Trinity in the Minories P.C. 



Population. 
5966 a 

3414 
744 

44916 
9525 c 
10,969 

6655 

3266 
13,255 

8524 d 
579 



Value in the 
King's Books. 

. s. d. 
18 



800 
13 6 8 



20 

16 

26 4 !)J 

32 5 

20 



Present 
Net Income. 

. 
1336 



680 
30 

450 

247 

2290 

258 

562 



490 
2018 

666 
69 



The Duke of Buccleuch. 

The Rector. 

The Rector. 

Trustees of the late W. Phillips, Esq. 

St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 

The Dean and Chapter of Westminster, the appro- 
priators. 

R. Kynaston, Esq., the impropriator. 

The Bishop. 

Rector of St. Botolph' s. 

The Dean and Chapter of Westminster, the appro- 
priators. 

The Vicar. 

Trustees of the late Rev. Charles Simeon. 

The Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, the appropriators. 

St. John's College, Oxford. Impropriators of two-thirds 
of the rectorial tithes, the Parishioners, the vicarage 
being endowed with one-third. 

The Crown. 



a The larger part of the parish is in the Holborn Division of the hundred of Ossulstone ; the entire parish contains 27,044 Inhabitants. 

b The entire parish contains 5906 inhabitants, of which number 1415 are in the liberty of Glasshouse-yard, in the Finsbury Division of the 
hundred of Ossulstone. 

c The parish of St. Botolph, Aldgate, is partly within the walls of the city. With the parishes of St. Giles, Cripplegate ; St. Botolph, 
Bishopsgate ; and St. Botolph, without Aldersgate ; it forms the East London union, which contains a population of 39,655. 

d The parish of St. Sepulchre, containing 12,325 inhabitants, extends into the Finsbury Division of the hundred of Ossulstone, county of 
Middlesex. 



The West London union is formed of St. Bride's, St. Bartholomew's (the Great and the Less), St. Sepulchre's (Newgate), St. Dunstan's-in-the- 

West, St. Andrew's, Lower or City Liberty, and the Bridewell precinct; and the population amounts to 32,370. 
147 U2 



LOND 



LO N D 



PARISHES ADJACENT TO THE CITY OF LONDON. 

(Which are not separately described in the work.) 
The three first are in the Holborn, and the two last in the Tower, Division of the Hundred of Ossulstone, county of Middlesex. 



PARISH. 

St. George the Martyr R. 


Population. 
789? a 


Value in the 
King's Books. 

. *. d. 


Present 
Net Income. 

. 
569 


PATRONS. 

The Duke of Buccleuch. 




16,981 




1153 


The Crown. 


Trinity Church, Woburn Square . . P.C. 
St. Giles-in-the-Fields R. 


37,311 





968 


Rector of St. George's. 
The Crown. 


Trinity P.C. 




.___ ^ 


338 


Rector of St. Giles'. 




1107 


18 13 4 




The Constable of the Tower of London. 













a The parish of St. George the Martyr; that part of the parish of St Andrew, Holborn, which is in the Holborn Division of the hundred of 
Ossulstone; and the liberties of Saffron Hill, Hatton Garden, and Ely Rents; contain 28,790 inhabitants, and, with Ely-place, form the Holborn 
union. 



CITY AND LIBERTY OF WESTMINSTER. 



PARISH. 

St. Anne, Soho R. 


Population. 
16,480 


Value in the 
King's Books. 

. s. d. 


Present 
Net Income. 

. 
909 


PATRONS. 

The Bishop. 


St. Clement Danes R. 


ll,582a 


62 7 1 


518 










{1550 


The Bishop. 








400 




Hanover District Chapel, Regent-st. P.C. 
St. Mark's District Chapel P.C. 


66,453 





560 
700 


The Rector of St. George's. 
The Rector of St. George's. 


St. Peter's, Pimlico P.C. 


J 




700 


The Rector of St George's. 


St. James, Piccadilly R. 






1468 


The Bishop 


Archbishop Tennison's Chapel .... P.C. 
St. Philip's Chapel, Regent-street... P.C. 
St. Margaret's Chapel P.C. 


37,398 




320 
400 
459 


The Rector of St. James and eight Trustee*. 
The Bishop and Rector of St. James's. 










Trustees 


York Street Chapel C. 








The Rector of St James's 


St. James', Hampstead Road C. 








Trustees 


St. John, Millbank R. 


96 223 




359 




Trinity Chapel, Knightsbridge C. 












30 258 
















Rector of St . Margaret's. 


St. Martin-in-the-Fields V. 


25 1906 


12 


1258 


The Bishop. 


St. Matthew, Spring Gardens P.C. 






200 


The Vicar of St. Martin's. 


Burleigh Chapel (St. Michael) C. 








The Vicar of St. Martin's. 


St. Mary-le-Slrand R 


2520 c 


13 8 4 


266 


The Crown. 


St. John Baptist, Savoy PC 


414 






The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. 


St. Paul, Covent Garden R. 


5718 




580 


The Duke of Bedford. 













a The parish of St. Clement Danes, wholly containing 15,459 persons, extends into the Holborn Division of the hundred of Ossulstone. 

b The parish is under the separate controul of 24 guardians under the Poor Law Amendment Act. 

c The parish includes the greater portion of the precinct of the duchy of Lancaster, in the Holborn Division of the hundred of Ossulstone. 

The Strand poor law union is formed of St Mary's-le-Strand with the Duchy of Lancaster, St. Paul's (Covent Garden), St. Clement Danes, the 

Precinct of the Savoy, and the Liberty of the Rolls. 
148 



LO ND 



LOND 



BOROUGH OF SOUTHWARK. 



PARISH. 


Population. 
14,616 a 


Value in the 
King's Books. 

. s. d. 


Present 
Net Income. 

. 
870 


PATRONS. 

The Trustees of Mr. Marshall's Charities. 




46,644 b 


18 13 9 


730 


The Crown. 














10,115 




500 


The Crown. 


St Olave P.C 


6745 c 


68 4 9J 


682 


The Crown. 




18,219 




800 | 


The Parishioners, who appoint two ministers, between 


St Thomas P.C. 


1759 




215 


whom the income is divided. 
St. Thomas' Hospital. 













a Christchurch was formerly a part of St. Saviour's parish, and with it now forms the poor law union of St. Saviour's. The parish extends 
into the East Division of the hundred of Brixton, but the entire population is given above. 

b The parish, under the Poor Law, has a separate board of 18 guardians. 

c St. Olave's parish extends into the city of London, and, with the parishes of St. Thomas and St. John Horsleydown, forms the poor law 
union of St. Olave, under the care of 15 guardians. 



There are likewise numerous extra-parochial and inde- 
pendent liberties ; namely, in the city Without the Walls, 
Barnard's Inn, Bridewell Hospital and Precinct, Clif- 
ford's Inn, Furnival's Inn, Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, 
Serjeants' Inn (Chancery-lane), Staple Inn, White Friars' 
Precinct, Inner Temple, and Middle Temple. Adjacent 
to the city are, St. Catherine by the Tower (Precinct), 
Old Artillery Ground Liberty, Charter-House, Ely-place, 
Norton-Falgate Liberty, Rolls Liberty, Old Tower With- 
out (Precinct), and East Smithfield Liberty. In the 
city and Liberty of Westminster are, the Close of the 
Collegiate Church of St. Peter, Duchy of Lancaster 
(Precinct), Privy Gardens, and Whitehall, and the Verge 
of the palaces of St. James' and Whitehall. 

ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, the chief ecclesiastical edifice 
of the metropolis, and of the empire, and the master- 
piece of its architect, Sir Christopher Wren, is a magni- 
ficent structure, occupying the highest and most central 
spot of ground in the city, and nearly covering the site 
of the ancient cathedral built by Bishop Maurice, which 
was destroyed by the fire of 1666. The commission for 
the erection of the present edifice is dated in 1673, the 
interval between the fire and that period having been 
employed in endeavouring to repair the old fabric, which 
was at length found impracticable. The first stone of 
the structure, which was built from the third design of 
the architect, was laid June 21st, 16? 5 ; the walls of the 
choir and side aisles were finished in ten years, together 
with the porticoes on the north and south sides ; and 
the lantern was crowned with the last stone in 1710, in 
the lifetime of the architect, by his son Christopher. 
The building was erected at the national expense, and 
cost a million and a half of money ; the iron balustrade 
surrounding the churchyard, which, with its seven iron 
gates, weighs 200 tons, cost 11,202 ; and the extent of 
ground occupied is two acres and sixteen perches. The 
edifice is wholly constructed of the best Portland stone, 
in the form of a Latin cross, 514 feet long, and 216 
broad, and from the intersection rises a stately cupola, 
towering in majestic proportion above the rest of the 
structure, and universally admired for its grandeur and 
elegant proportions ; the cupola is 215 feet high, 145 in 
149 



diameter, and 430 in circumference, and is ornamented 
with 32 columns below, and a range of attic antaB above, 
the exterior circuit of which is flanked by a noble balus- 
trade. From its summit rises a lantern, adorned with 
large Corinthian pillars, surrounded at the base by a 
gallery, and terminating in a superb gilt ball and cross, 
the height of which from the floor of the church is 404 
feet. The other principal architectural features of the 
exterior are, the two grand semicircular porticoes at the 
north and south ends of the transept, and a magnificent 
entrance at the western end. The great western entrance 
is composed of a double story of twelve lofty Corinthian 
columns below, and eight of the Composite order above, 
supporting a grand enriched pediment, representing the 
conversion of St. Paul, and crowned with a colossal 
figure of that saint, and other statues ; the whole stands 
upon an elevated base, the ascent to which is by a flight 
of 22 black marble steps, extending the entire length of 
the portico. At each of the northern and southern ex- 
tremities of this elevation is an elegant campanile turret, 
of two stories, of light pierced workmanship, terminating 
in a dome formed by curves of contrary flexure, and 
surmounted with a gilt pine-apple. In a spacious area 
in front is a statue of Queen Anne. The north and 
south sides, which have an air of uncommon elegance, 
comprise richly decorated windows and niches, and are 
ornamented with scrolls, fruitage, and other suitable 
enrichments. The interior of the edifice, which consists 
of a nave, choir, side aisles, transept, side chapels, &c., 
is of correspondent beauty, and, like the exterior, is 
constructed in the purest style of classical architecture. 
The concave of the grand cupola, painted by Sir James 
Thornhill, exhibits designs illustrative of some of the 
most remarkable occurrences in the life of St. Paul ; the 
space beneath the great dome has lately been appro- 
priated to the reception of monuments and statues of 
British heroes, and other illustrious dead, which, being 
composed of the finest marbles, and generally of good 
design, add to the rich appearance of this part of the 
cathedral. In the crypt under the church, and imme- 
diately below the centre of the dome, is the tomb of 
Admiral Lord Nelson. 



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The PAROCHIAL CHURCHES may, for the most part, 
be divided into two classes, namely, those built by Sir 
Christopher Wren, or his pupils, since the great fire, 
and those which escaped that calamity. Of the former, 
the following most deserve notice. St. Mary-le-Bow, in 
Cheapside, which, and St. Bride's, in Fleet-street, possess 
the most elegant steeples of any in London, is a success- 
ful endeavour to perpetuate the origin of its name of Le 
Bow, which arose not only from the body having been 
erected on arches, or a Norman crypt (which still re- 
mains), but from the edifice having a steeple, or lantern, 
resting on bows. This beauty is retained in the present 
structure, the spire of which is partly supported by fly- 
ing buttresses, Corinthian columns, and an elegant cir- 
cular gallery, terminating in a lofty spire : the whole 
being a masterly display of the five orders. The steeple 
of St. Bride's, which is of a totally different form, but 
equally beautiful, consists of a series of elegant stories, 
diminishing in exact proportion as they ascend ; with 
the spire, it originally reached the altitude of 234 feet, 
but was lately reduced, on account of its having been 
damaged by lightning. The chaste and elegant church 
of St. Stephen, Walbrook, which stands on the site of an 
older edifice, built in 1420, and burnt down by the great 
fire, deserves notice on account of the unrivalled beauty 
of its interior, which, for propriety of elevation, simple 
grandeur of style, and tasteful embellishment, stands 
alone among the religious structures of the metropolis ; 
the dome springing from the intersection is supported 
by eight arches, rising from as many Corinthian columns, 
so disposed as to give to the whole an effect of great 
lightness and spaciousness. Over the altar is a fine 
painting, by West, of the Stoning of St. Stephen. 

The above-named churches are amongst the finest of 
the 50 built by Sir Christopher Wren after the confla- 
gration in 1666. The following claim notice cither for 
their architectural character, or historical interest. St. 
Michael's, Wood-street, which is of the Ionic order, was 
erected in 1669; the original tower has of late years 
been replaced by a clumsy spire. So early as the year 
1359, the church was liberally endowed ; and Stow 
asserts that the head of James IV. of Scotland was 
buried here, after the battle of Flodden Field. St. 
Mary's, Aldermanbury , which has a large western tower 
with angular pinnacles, occupies the site of an old 
church refounded by Alderman Keeble, in the fifteenth 
century : Judge Jeffreys was buried in it. St. Mary's-at- 
Hill, Lower Thames- street, only partially destroyed by 
the great fire, is remarkable for containing some old and 
curious records, extracts from which have been pub- 
lished ; it has a plain square brick tower. St. Vedast's, 
Foster-lane, which possesses a very handsome stone spire, 
of exact symmetry, contains an altar-piece of singular 
elegance; the railing before it is peculiarly rich; the 
border that surrounds the nimbus, or glory, is composed 
for the most part of three cherubim, half immersed in 
clouds, and six winged infants, in the highest possible 
relief, one sounding two trumpets, and the others bear- 
ing palm branches, the carving being either from the 
chisel of Gibbons, or some successful rival of that great 
artist. St. Sepulchre's, Snow-hill, is a spacious stone 
structure, modernised from the remains of the former 
church built in 1440, and which escaped the great fire ; 
it has a fine groined porch, or entrance, and a lofty 
square tower with tall angular pinnacles, which, together 
150 



with the interior, show that it must, before its modern- 
isation, have been a noble edifice of English architecture. 
St. Mary's Woolnoth, Lombard-street, is a fine specimen 
of the Tuscan order, erected by Nicholas Hawksmoor, a 
pupil of Sir Christopher Wren. The exterior is of stone ; 
the northern elevation is ornamented with large semi- 
circular rusticated arches, and the western end has a 
double tower with Composite columns, a balustrade, and 
other ornaments : the interior is of exquisite proportion, 
and chastely decorated. St. Michael's, Cornhill, has a 
beautiful tower, which renders it one of the most con- 
spicuous features of the city. It is surmounted by four 
fluted turrets, and is admirably light and elegant ; and 
the various orders of architecture are harmoniously com- 
bined. There is a monument in it to the memory of 
Fabian, the chronicler, who was an alderman of London. 
St. Lawrence's, Jewry, rebuilt in 1677, is a neat edifice, 
of which the interior has lately been rendered very ele- 
gant, and contains a monument of Archbishop Tillotson. 
St. Peter's, Cornhill, according to an inscribed brass plate 
in it, was the first Christian church erected in Britain, 
and is said to have been built by King Lucius, so early 
as the year 179. The present structure is plain but 
neat, and has a steeple of red brick, with a lofty spire 
terminating in a large key, the emblem of the patron 
saint. St. Bene't's, Paul's Wharf, was erected in 1181, 
and rebuilt in 1682, and is said to contain the remains 
of Inigo Jones. St. Swithin's, Cannon-street, a small but 
elegant church, with a tower and spire, was built in 
1680, on the site of one of very ancient foundation, and 
attracts additional notice from the famous " London 
Stone" being placed in front of it. Christ Church, New- 
gate-street, is a spacious edifice of stone, with a lofty 
tower, and is much frequented on account of the singing 
by the scholars of Christ's Hospital, who attend divine 
service in it, and whose combined voices, from their 
great number, produce an extraordinary effect. Pre- 
viously to the dissolution of monasteries, this was the 
site of the Grey friars' church, which was 300 feet, long, 
and decorated with noble monuments ; the portion re- 
built was the choir only of the ancient structure. St. 
Alban's, Wood-street, is a handsome stone edifice, with a 
lofty turreted tower, and, within, is in good proportion, 
containing a richly-ornamented altar-piece, and a pulpit 
finely carved. The Saxon king, Athelstan, is said to 
have had a palace adjoining this church, and his name, 
corrupted and abridged, is thought to be preserved in 
Addle-street, formerly called King Adel-street, running 
by the side of it. St. Margaret Pattens, Rood-lane, was 
rebuilt in 1687; the carving of the altar-piece is by 
Grinlin Gibbons. St. Michael's, College-hill, celebrated 
as the burial-place of the famous mayor, Richard Whit- 
tington, who here founded a college, has a tower sur- 
mounted by a singularly beautiful turret, decorated with 
Corinthian columns ; the ceiling, which is finely coved, 
is said to be the largest ceiling of any church in London 
unsupported by a single column ; the altar-piece com- 
prises carving by Gibbons. 

Some of the churches which escaped the great fire are 
of very considerable architectural merit, and most of 
them contain curious and interesting monuments ; they 
are as follow : 

St. Andrew Undershaft, Leadenhall-street, which ob- 
tained its adjunct from a May-pole, or shaft, formerly 
set up on every first of May, and which was higher than 



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the church steeple, is in the later English style, and was 
rebuilt in 1522, at the expense of William Fitz-William, 
founder of the noble house of Wentworth. The interior 
is decorated with great taste j the ceiling is adorned with 
angels, and the compartments over the pillars which 
support it are painted in imitation of basso-relievo. The 
eastern window is richly ornamented with stained glass, 
in five compartments, representing the sovereigns Ed- 
ward VI., Queen Elizabeth, James I., Charles I., and 
Charles II. ; and the pulpit is a fine specimen of carv- 
ing. The most remarkable monument is that of John 
Stow, the London historian, who is represented sitting 
at study. St. Helen's, Bishopsgate* street, affirmed by Dr. 
Stukeley to stand on the site of a church which existed 
in the time of the Roman dominion in Britain, and was 
dedicated to the Empress Helena, was the conventual 
church of an adjoining priory of Benedictine nuns, part 
of which was appropriated to the use of the parishioners. 
It is chiefly remarkable for its ancient and curious mo- 
numents. St. James', Dukes-place, was built in the 
reign of James I., on the site of the priory of the Holy 
Trinity at Aldgate, from the materials of the conventual 
buildings. St. Bartholomew's the Less and the Great 
were both conventual churches, situated near Smithfield, 
and founded by Rayhere, said to have been jester to 
Henry I., who has a tomb, with his effigy, in the latter. 
St. Bartholomew's the Less, which belonged to the 
hospital of St. Bartholomew, has been altered and mo- 
dernised so much that it retains no ancient feature 
worthy of description. St. Bartholomew's the Great is 
a fine specimen, and the only one remaining in London, 
of massive Norman architecture, the nave being sup- 
ported by ponderous low round columns ; the present 
church is only the choir of that of the priory. St. Giles', 
Cripplegate, erected in 1546, on the site of the ancient 
church which was built by Alfune, first master of St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, in 1090, and was burnt down 
in the year 1545, is a light well-proportioned structure, 
containing the remains of Speed the historian, and Fox 
the martyrologist, and in which Oliver Cromwell was 
married. 

THE ABBEY, AND CHURCHES WITHOUT THE CITY 
PROPER. 

These exhibit as great a variety in their age and con- 
struction as those within the limits of the city, and 
may be divided into three classes ; the churches of 
ancient erection, those of the reign of Queen Anne and 
her successors, and the newly-built churches of his late 
Majesty's reign. The churches of the first class are, in 
the City and Liberties of Westminster, the abbey church 
of St. Peter, St. Margaret's, St. John's the Baptist (in 
the Savoy), and the Temple church ; in Southwark, St. 
Saviour's church ; and in other parts of the town and 
suburbs, St. Pancras and Stepney churches ; to which, 
though different in style, may be added St. James', 
Westminster, and St. Anne's, Soho. The principal 
churches built in the reign of Anne and her successors, 
George I., II., and III., are those of St. Martin ; St. 
George, Hanover-square; St. Giles-in-the-Fields ; St. 
George, Bloomsbury ; St. Mary-le-Strand ; St. Cle- 
ment Danes ; St. Paul, Covent Garden ; and St. John 
the Evangelist, Millbank ; all of which are in West- 
minster or its liberties j St. George's, St. Thomas', St. 
151 



Mary's, Bermondsey, and Christ churches, situated in 
Southwark ; and on the northern and eastern sides of 
the metropolis, the churches of Bishopsgate, Spitalfields, 
Shoreditch, St. Luke, St. James Clerkenwell, St. John 
Clerkenwell, Aldgate, Whitechapel, Bethnal-Green, 
Limehouse, St. George-in-the-East, Shadwell, and 
Wapping, for a description of which see the separate 
articles on most of those places. 

London contains no churches of the Anglo-Saxon 
period, excepting small portions of Westminster Abbey 
Church, concealed from 'view in consequence of their 
subterranean situation. Those religious edifices in the 
Anglo-Norman style, and of later English architecture, 
most deserving of notice in Westminster, Southwark, 
and the suburbs, are the following : 

WESTMINSTER ABBEY, or, more properly, the colle- 
giate church of St. Peter at Westminster, is ascribed to 
Sebert, King of the East Saxons. Edward the Con- 
fessor rebuilt the church in 1065 ; and by Pope Nicho- 
las II. it was appointed the place of inauguration for 
the kings of England. On the general suppression of 
religious houses, Henry VIII. converted the Benedictine 
abbey attached to this church into a college of Secular 
canons, under the government of a dean, and after- 
wards appointed a bishop, making it the head of a dio- 
cese, comprising the entire county of Middlesex, except 
Fulham, which was retained by the Bishop of London ; 
but this establishment was, a few years afterwards, dis- 
solved by Edward VI., who restored the college, which 
was again changed by Queen Mary into an abbey. 
Elizabeth put an end to that institution in 1560, and 
founded the present establishment, which is a college, 
consisting of a dean and eleven Secular canons, or pre- 
bendaries, who have the patronage of the six minor 
canonries and of twenty-four benefices, with one other, 
alternately: the net revenue amounts to 19,543. A 
school was attached to the collegiate establishment by 
Elizabeth for 40 scholars, called the Queen's, to be 
educated in the liberal sciences, preparatory to their 
removal to the university ; private scholars are also 
admitted, and some of the most illustrious characters in 
the kingdom have received their education here. To 
the establishment also belong choristers, singing men, 
an organist, and twelve almsmen. It is supposed that 
a school was annexed to the abbey so long ago as the 
time of Edward the Confessor. The present CHURCH 
was built by Henry III. and his successors, and com- 
pleted by the last abbot, with the exception of the two 
towers at the western entrance, which are the work of 
Sir Christopher Wren, and the northern doorway, 
called " the beautiful gate," which was erected at the 
expense of the unfortunate Bishop Atterbury. Its 
length is 360 feet, the breadth of the nave 7 C 2 feet, and 
the length of the transept 195 feet. Some late im- 
provements have exposed this venerable structure to 
the view, by pulling down the houses on its northern 
side, and forming a square before it, neatly planted with 
low shrubs. On entering the western door, the whole 
body of the church, highly impressive from its loftiness, 
lightness, and symmetry, presents itself at one view, 
terminated at the further end by the fine painted win- 
dow over the portico of Henry the Seventh's chapel. 
The nave is separated from the choir by a screen ; the 
choir, in the form of a semi-octagon, was formerly sur- 
rounded by eight chapels, but there are now only seven, 



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that which was then the central chapel at present form- 
ing the porch of that of Henry VII. The roofs of the 
nave and transept are supported by two rows of arches, 
one above the other, resting on beautiful lofty clustered 
columns of Purbeck marble. Corresponding with the 
central range of pillars are demi-pillars in the side walls, 
which, as they rise, spring into semi-arches, and meet 
others opposite in acute angles ; by which means the 
roof is thrown into a variety of segments of arches 
decorated with ornamental carvings. The side aisles 
receive light from a middle range of windows, which, 
with the four large ones at the ends of the nave and the 
transept, give light to the whole of the main building. 
The great western window is splendidly painted, repre- 
senting figures of the patriarchs Moses and Aaron, the 
arms of Edward the Confessor, those of Westminster, 
and other devices. The choir, one of the most beautiful 
in Europe, is terminated towards the east by the ancient 
high altar, beyond which, at a small distance, is seen 
the magnificent shrine of Edward the Confessor, rising 
from the centre of the chapel which bears his name. 
The pavement before the altar-table is a splendid speci- 
men of ancient Mosaic work, and one side of the inclo- 
sure is formed by the venerable tombs and effigies of 
Aymer de Valence, Edward Crouchback, the monuments 
of King Sebert, Anne of Cleves, &c. The choir is in- 
closed on the northern and southern sides by handsome 
stalls, the floor being paved with black and white mar- 
ble, and the roof ornamented with white tiles, divided 
into compartments, which are bordered with gilt carved 
work. The ceremony of the coronation of the kings 
and queens of England is performed in this part of the 
abbey. The best executed monuments are the produc- 
tions of Roubilliac, Rysbrach, Flaxman, Westmacott, 
and Bacon. In the southern extremity of the transept 
are monuments to the memory of many of the most 
eminent British poets, whence this spot has received its 
name of Poets' Corner ; and here are, amongst others, 
the names and memorials of Chaucer, Spenser, Shak- 
speare, Ben Jonson, Milton, Dryden, Butler, Thomson, 
Gay, Goldsmith, Addison, Johnson, &c. ; with the 
tombs of Handel and Garrick. In the southern aisle 
the most remarkable monuments are those of Dr. Watts, 
W. Hargrave, Esq., and Captain James Cornwall. At 
the western end of the abbey are those of Sir Godfrey 
Kneller, Dr. Mead, Sir Charles Wager, the Earl of 
Chatham, &c. On the northern side of the entrance 
into the choir is a monument of Sir Isaac Newton, and 
near it that of Earl Stanhope. Near the great gates, 
and opposite the tomb of the Earl of Chatham, lie the 
remains, about twelve feet from each other, of the two 
great political rivals, Charles James Fox and William 
Pitt, the monument of the latter of whom is over the 
western entrance. A monument to Lord Mansfield is 
erected under one of the lofty arches at the northern 
end of the transept. 

Around the choir are eight chapels, dedicated respec- 
tively to St. Benedict, St. Nicholas, St. Paul, St. Eras- 
mus, St. John the Baptist, St. John the Evangelist, St. 
Michael, and St. Andrew j and in them is a variety of 
tombs, erected to the memory of distinguished persons : 
the three last-named chapels have been converted into a 
single one. Besides these are two others deserving 
particular description, viz., the chapel of Edward the 
Confessor, and Henry the Seventh's Chapel. Edward 
152 



the Confessor's Chapel stands immediately behind the 
altar of the church, upon an elevated floor, leading to 
which there is a flight of steps. It is remarkable for 
containing the shrine of its patron saint, King Edward 
the Confessor, and the tombs of several of the ancient 
English monarchs, from which circumstance it has been 
denominated " the Chapel of the Kings." The saint's 
shrine, erected pursuant to the orders of Henry III., by 
Peter Cavalini, stands in the centre, and was curiously 
ornamented with mosaic work of coloured stones, with 
gilding and other embellishments, but only some frag- 
ments now remain. Of the regal monuments around, 
that of Henry III. is distinguished by large panels of 
polished porphyry, inclosed with mosaic work of scarlet 
and gold, and that monarch's effigy of brass gilt, the 
size of life. The remains of Edward I. are contained in 
a plain coffin of grey marble. The tomb of Edward III. 
has his statue of brass gilt, and is surrounded by statues 
of his children, and others. There is a tomb erected 
to the memory of Richard II. and his queen, Anne of 
Bohemia, with their effigies. Editha, consort of the Con- 
fessor j Eleanor, the affectionate wife of Edward I. j and 
the heroic Philippa, consort of Edward 111., have tombs 
with their effigies, the tombs of brass gilt, and the 
effigies of alabaster. The tomb of Henry V. is inclosed 
in a beautiful chantry chapel. The coronation chairs, 
and the stone brought fro