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TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



SCOTL AN D 



COMPRISING THE 



SEVERAL COUNTIES, ISLANDS, CITIES, BURGH AND MARKET TOWNS, 
PARISHES, AND PRINCIPAL VILLAGES, 

WITH 

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL DESCRIPTIONS 

EMBELLISHED WITH 

A LARGE MAP OF SCOTLAND, 

AND 

ENGRAVINGS OF THE SEALS AND ARMS OF THE DIFFERENT BURGHS AND UNIVERSITIES. 



BY SAMUEL LEWIS. 

IN TWO VOLUMES. 

VOL. I. 

From ABBEY to JURA. 



LONDON: 
PUBLISHED BY S. LEWIS AND CO., 13, FINSBURY PLACE, SOUTH. 



iM.DCCC.XLVI. 



LON DON : 

gilbert and rivington, printers, 
st. john's sciuare. 



PREFACE. 



The Proprietors of the Topographical Dictionary of Scotland feel they shall stand 
excused if they indulge in some expression of pride and satisfaction, on presenting their 
Subscribers with the concluding portion of their great undertaking in illustration of 
the Topography of the United Kingdom. Many years have now elapsed since they 
tirst circulated proposals for publishing Dictionaries of England, Wales, Ireland, and 
Scotland, in succession, in Ten Volumes. Those years, they flatter themselves, have not 
been ill spent in endeavouring to make the Volumes more exact and comprehensive than 
they could possibly have been made in a shorter period ; and the Proprietors of this almost 
National Publication can truly say, that they have spared no pains, and held back from 
no expense, calculated to render their labours worthy of the favour of their Sub- 
scribers. Whilst they have disbursed a fortune in the preparation of the several portions 
of the Work, they have borne in mind that they were engaged in no ordinary object of 
pecuniary investment. 

So much has been said in the Prefaces to the former parts of the Work, that it is unne- 
cessary to dwell here upon the plan laid down for its compilation. In Scotland, as in the 
other divisions of the United Kingdom, the aim has been, to procure as much original 
matter as possible ; to correct the statements of books and manuscripts in public libraries 
by local examination and enquiry ; and to bring the account of each place up to the present 
time. And as in the Prefaces to the Dictionaries of England and Wales, the Proprietors 

a 2 



iv PREFACE. 

had to acknowledge the courtesy which their representatives had experienced in South 
Britain, so now they " beg to return their unfeigned thanks for the kind attention 
uniformly manifested, and the valuable information liberally communicated, to their 
agents," while in North Britain. To the assistance of the resident Nobility, Gentry, and 
Clergy, and of Persons holding official situations, must be ascribed much of the value of the 
following pages ; and the Proprietors deem it a fortunate circumstance for them, that the 
love of country which has ever peculiarly distinguished the Scottish Nation, induced the 
intelligent inhabitants of its several localities to afford them such willing aid towards 
rendering this epitome of Scotland complete and accurate. The same spirit that led 
to the publication of the Old and New Statistical Accounts of Scotland, two Works whose 
fame is European, has led to a favourable reception of the design of the Proprietors of 
this Work. 









But while they consider it superfluous again to explain fully the plan upon which the 
Works on England, Wales, Ireland, and Scotland were alike compiled, they may 
refer to one course, among others, which they adopted in preparing the two pre- 
sent Volumes. This was, to address the following Letter to the Clergy, resident Landed 
Proprietors, Literary Gentlemen, and others, a copy of it being sent to each parish in the 
country : " Sir, We take the liberty of forwarding to you a list of Queries, intended as 
the basis of our forthcoming Topographical Dictionary of Scotland, and shall be par- 
ticularly obliged by your answers to them at your earliest convenience. We feel that in 
soliciting this favour we are trespassing upon your valuable time ; yet, as our object is to 
afford an accurate and faithful description of your highly interesting country, we trust that 
you will pardon the obtrusion. We have the honour to be, &c. &c, S. Lewis and Co." 

To this Letter was annexed the ensuing list of Queries, with a view to obtain infor- 
mation on some of the subjects intended to be comprised in the Work : — 1, Name of 
the parish ; in what county, and on what river or turnpike-road situated : — 2, Name of 
the post-town, and the distance of the parish from it : — 3, Number of statute acres, 
and whether by computation or admeasurement; the numbers or proportions of arable, 






PREFACE. v 

pasture, woodland, &c. : — i, The distinguishing features of the surface and scenery : — 
5, The nature of the soil ; chief agricultural produce, and the principal geological 
features of the parish : — 6, What gentlemen's seats of importance ; what villages, and the 
chief employment of their inhabitants : — 7, What facilities afforded by railroad, navigable 
river, or canal : — 8, What mines or quarries ; their respective produce ; and to what use 
applied : — 9, What manufactories, mills, foundries, potteries, or ' other works ; and the 
number of hands employed in each : — 10, What fairs ; when held, for what commodities, 
and how attended: — 11, The name of the patron of the incumbency: — 12, The style of 
architecture of the church or churches ; the date and cost of erection, and from what 
funds defrayed ; and any description of the building or buildings : — 13, What places of 
worship for Seceders, and their several denominations : — 14, Parochial and free schools ; 
almshouses, or other charitable institutions ; how supported ; when and with what funds the 
buildings were erected: — 15, Remains of religious houses; castles; when and by whom 
founded ; present state of the edifice or ruins, and to whom belonging : — 1 6, Antiquities ; 
camps, cromlechs, barrows, tumuli, Druidical remains, &c. : — 1 7, Natural curiosities, mine- 
rals, fossils ; mineral springs ; if used for medicinal purposes, their peculiar properties : — 
18, Names of eminent natives or residents of the place: — 19, What title the place con- 
fers, and on what family. 

Answers to these Queries were received from nearly every parish in Scotland, the com- 
munications generally affording the fullest details upon the topics in question, and largely 
contributing, from the immediate connexion of the Writers with the different localities, to 
the accuracy of the Work. The Proprietors consider it as not a little remarkable, that out 
of the great number of Circulars issued, a very few only were unanswered, and some of 
those few, they venture to believe, merely on account of the temporary absence of the Gen- 
tlemen addressed. 

The facilities afforded by the present system of Postage also enabled the Proprietors to 
send Printed Proofs of the Articles on the parishes and other important places, to all parts 
of Scotland, accompanied by the following Letter : — " Sir, Being engaged in preparing for 



vi PREFACE. 

publication a Topographical Dictionary of Scotland, and desirous to render the descrip- 
tions of the various places comprised in it as accurate as possible, we take the liberty of 
forwarding for your perusal the accompanying rough Proof, and shall esteem it a particular 
favour if you will kindly correct any error you may detect, and return the paper by an early 
post, as the Press is kept standing at very considerable inconvenience. In the hope that 
you will pardon this obtrusion, we have the honour, &c. &c, S. Lewis and Co." Thus 
nearly every page of the Work was forwarded to the spot to which it related, during the 
passage of the sheets through the Press ; and of the entire number of Articles, as many 
as twelve-thirteenths were duly returned, with, in some cases, very important emendations. 
To Ministers of parishes and the Town-Clerks of almost all the burghs, especially, the 
Proprietors' thanks are due for the promptitude with which the Proofs submitted to 
their perusal were revised. All responsibility, however, connected with the Dictionary 
of Scotland, it is scarcely necessary to state, rests with the Editors ; for, while they have 
endeavoured in every possible way, consistently with the plan of the Book, to meet the 
views of those who favoured them with information, or with corrections of the Proofs, they 
have, of course, often been compelled to use their own discretion, and have not lost sight 
of the fact, that it is to Publishers that readers look as the accountable parties. 

For the Seals and Arms that embellish the Work, the Proprietors are chiefly in- 
debted to the Town-Clerks of the several Burghs, who obliged them with the wax impres- 
sions from which most of the engravings have been executed. Their best acknowledgments 
are also due to the Principals of King's College Aberdeen, of Marischal College Aberdeen, 
and of Glasgow College ; the Reverend the Librarian of the University of Edinburgh ; and 
the Reverend C. J. Lyon, M.A., of St. Andrew's, Author of the valuable History of that 
city ; for copies of the Official Seals of the five great Universities of Scotland, and for 
other favours. 

It may be well to remind the Reader, that the statements of Acres refer to the 
Imperial standard measure, unless otherwise expressed. The amounts of the parochial 
Ministers' stipends are the average of several years, and are derived from a Parliamen- 



PREFACE. vii 

tary Return, generally, however, corrected by local information ; the rateable annual value 
of each parish is inserted also on the authority of a Parliamentary Paper, compiled for the 

purposes of the Income tax. 

• 

It is likewise proper to observe that the Work, as denoted in the Title-page, simply 
comprises separate Articles upon the Islands, Counties, Cities, Towns, Parishes, and Principal 
Villages ; the rivers, mountains, lakes, seats, and such objects, being (unlike the manner of 
a general Gazetteer) described under the heads of parishes, &c. Thus, Abbotsford, the seat 
of Sir Walter Scott, is noticed in the article on Melrose. The arrangement of the places 
is strictly Alphabetical, each being given under its proper name, and the epithet, if any, 
by which it is distinguished from another locality of the same designation, following after 
the chief heading. In this way, all such terms as St., East, West, North, and South, Great 
and Little, Old and New, will be found to come after the real names ; as Andrew's, St. ; 
Berwick, North; Cumnock, Old; Monkland, New. 

At the end of the First Volume will be found a copious Index of the Places described 
in the Work, whether under their own heads or incidentally. At the end of the Second 
Volume is placed a large Map of Scotland, in Six Divisions, on a scale of five miles to an 
inch, which has been prepared by the Proprietors at a great expense, although their pro- 
posals contained no promise of such an addition to the Work. Before the execution 
of this Map, it had been suggested by a few of their Subscribers that maps of each county, 
of the size of the Work, would form a valuable accompaniment ; but the Proprietors soon 
found that it would be extremely injudicious to bring such widely-extended districts as 
Inverness and Argyll, with their irregular boundaries, into the same space as the small, 
compact shires of Kinross, Linlithgow, and Renfrew. The Reader would probably have been 
misled if one Plate should present a scale of fifteen miles to an inch, while the scale of 
another was but three ; and no uniform plan could have been laid down as to what places 
should be inserted, and what excluded. Prefixed to the Map of Scotland is a Table 
showing the Contents of each of its Divisions. 



viii PREFACE. 

In conclusion, the Proprietors have to request the kind indulgence of the Subscribers 
with regard to any errors they may occasionally detect. No Topographical work can be 
wholly free from errors. To complain that inaccuracies have crept into a Compilation of 
this nature, would be only to say, in other words, that the hand of time may be stayed, 
that the fugitive and varying circumstances of a country can be always the same, and that 
perfection is attainable by man. The Proprietors have used every means to ensure cor- 
rectness, and they trust that any slight faults the Work contains will be leniently re- 
garded. 


















TOPOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY 



OF 



SCOTLAND, 



A B B O 

ABBEY-GREEN, a considerable village, in the parish 
of Lesmahago, Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 
6 miles (S. W.) from Lanark; containing, with Turf- 
holm, 881 inhabitants. This village, formerly called 
Macute's-Green, derives its present name from its vici- 
nity to the ruins of an ancient monastery dependent on 
the abbey of Kelso. It is pleasantly seated in a valley 
on the west bank of the Nethan. a fine stream tributary 
to the Clyde, and is in the centre of the parish, and 
contains the parochial church. The inhabitants are 
employed in various trades requisite for the supply of 
the neighbourhood, and in hand-loom weaving for the 
manufacturers of Glasgow and Paisley. 

ABBEY PARISH, Renfrewshire.— See Paisley. 

ABBEY ST. BATHAN'S. — See Bathan's, St. 

ABBOTSHALL, a parish, in the district of Kirk- 
caldy, county of Fife ; containing, with Linktown and 
Newtown, and the village of Chapel, 4811 inhabitants, 
of whom 4100 are in the town of Abbotshall. This 
place derived its name from its having been the resi- 
dence of the abbots of Dunfermline, one of whom erected 
a mansion here, the site of which is still pointed out by 
a yew-tree of very ancient growth. The lands, which, 
about the middle of the fifteenth century, belonged to the 
abbey of Dunfermline, are supposed, after the Dissolu- 
tion of monasteries, to have been granted to the bailies 
and corporation of the town of Kirkcaldy, and by them 
transferred to the family of the Scotts of Balweary, 
from whom they passed into the possession of the Ram- 
says of this place, and were purchased by the ancestors 
of the present proprietor. The greater portion of the 
lands formerly in Kirkcaldy, was, in the year 1650, 
separated from that parish, and, together with the lands 
of Easter and Wester Touch, formerly in the parish of 
Kinghorn, and those of Wester Bogie, in the parish of 
Dysart, erected into a separate and distinct parish, 
under the appellation of Abbotshall. The parish is 
situated on the Frith of Forth, by which it is bounded 
o Vol. I. — 1 



A B B O 

* 

on the south-east, and comprises 3166 Scotch acres, of 
which 2631 are under tillage, and about 500 in natural 
wood and plantations ; the surface along the coast is 
level, but the ground rises in a gentle slope, towards 
the middle of the parish, and thence is pleasingly undu- 
lated. A small stream issuing from the Camilla loch, 
in the parish of Auchtertool, on the west, flows through 
the lower lands into the river Tiel, near its influx into 
the sea. The soil is mostly fertile ; towards the coast, 
it is light, but productive ; on the rising grounds, more 
inland, it is a deep rich loam, and in other parts varies 
considerably in quality. The crops are, wheat, barley, 
oats, potatoes, and turnips, with peas, beans, and other 
green crops ; the system of husbandry is in a highly 
improved state, and the farm-buildings, and the inclo- 
sures and fences, are kept in excellent repair. Few 
sheep are fed, except on the lands belonging to the 
principal seats, and these are generally of the Cheviot 
breed ; there are a few black-cattle reared, chiefly of 
the Fifeshire, and a mixture of the Fife, Angus, and 
other breeds. The plantations, which are mainly on 
the estate of Raith, consist of oak, ash, elm, chesnut, 
sycamore, beech, spruce, and Scotch firs, with some 
larch, with the exception of which last all thrive well, 
and attain to a majestic growth. The substratum is 
generally carboniferous limestone, and coal interspersed 
with trap ; the limestone is quarried for manure and 
other uses, and there are extensive lime-works in the 
village of Chapel, but the coal, from the immediate vici- 
nity of long-established mines, from which an abundant 
supply is obtained at a moderate price, has not been 
worked for many years. Fossils of various kinds are 
found imbedded in the limestone ; and there are some 
quarries of freestone in the parish, which is used for 
building purposes. 

The chief seat is Raith : the mansion-house was 
partly built in 1694, by Lord Raith, who erected the 
central portion, to which two capacious wings were 

B 



ABBO 



A B D I 



added by the late Mr. Ferguson ; and the present pro- 
prietor has completed the building by the erection of a 
beautiful portico of the Ionic order, rendering the whole 
one of the most spacious and elegant mansions in the 
country. The demesne is very extensive, and richly 
planted ; and the pleasure-grounds are ornamented by 
a picturesque lake, surrounded with fine walks, varied 
with parterres of flowering shrubs and thriving planta- 
tions. This lake, which covers more than twenty acres, 
was formed in 1812; it is in some parts twenty-five feet 
in depth, and abounds with fish of various kinds, and is 
frequented by numerous aquatic birds ; it is situated at 
the base of the eminence on which the mansion is built, 
and adds greatly to the beauty of the scenery. Within 
a short distance of the house, and nearly on the summit 
of a hill, is a lofty tower, from which is obtained, on 
a clear day, a view over fifteen counties ; in front of 
the house is a remarkably fine beech-tree, measuring 
fourteen feet in girth, and among the plantations are 
numerous specimens of stately and venerable timber. 
Wester Bogie, another residence, is a handsome castel- 
lated mansion of modern erection, situated in a demesne 
of no great extent, but laid out in fine taste and embel- 
lished with flourishing plantations. The chief manu- 
facture is the weaving of ticking, which is carried on to 
a very considerable extent, employing nearly 500 looms ; 
the weaving of dowlas has also been introduced, both 
for the home trade and for exportation. There is a fac- 
tory worked by steam, for manufacturing a thin kind 
of linen-sheeting, another for canvass for making sails, 
and also a bleachfield. The parish contains several 
mills for barley-meal and flour, all which, together with 
one for grinding flint, are driven by water ; a pottery for 
brown earthenware is carried on by the proprietor of 
the flint-mill, and there is likewise a large establish- 
ment for the making of bricks and tiles, for which pur- 
pose clay of good quality is found in the neighbourhood. 
Coal-gas works have been established for lighting the 
towns of Linktown and Newtown; a brewery is also 
conducted, but the only produce is small beer. Fairs 
are held in Linktown on the third Friday in April and 
October, which were great marts for the sale of linseed 
and black-cattle, but both have for some time been de- 
clining, and the principal articles exposed for sale are 
shoes, which are brought from a distance, and articles 
of pedlery. 

The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the 
superintendence of the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and 
synod of Fife ; patron, R. Ferguson, Esq. The stipend 
of the incumbent is £199. 11. 11.; the manse was re- 
built in 1772, and has been recently enlarged, and the 
glebe comprises 65 acres of good land, valued at £36 
per annum. The present church, which occupies the 
site of the ancient edifice, was built in 1788, and is 
adapted for a congregation of 825 persons. An addi- 
tional church, in connexion with the Establishment, has 
just been erected for the accommodation of the surplus 
population of this and the adjoining parish of King- 
horn ; and there are places of worship for members of the 
Free Church and United Associate Synod. The parochial 
school affords a liberal education ; the master has a 
salary of £34. 4. 5., with £35 school fees, and £25 from 
other sources. There is also a free school endowed by 
Robert Philip, Esq., who bequeathed property to the 
amount of £80,000, for the foundation and endowment 
2 



of schools in Abbotshall, Kirkcaldy, Dysart, and King- 
horn ; the number of children attending the school in 
this parish is 100, who are all clothed, and supplied 
with books and stationery, and, on leaving the school, 
receive a sum of money to enable them to learn some 
trade. Near the site of the tower in the demesne of 
Raith, have been found coffins of stone, rudely formed, 
and urns containing human bones. There are still some 
remains of the ancient castle of Balweary, consisting 
chiefly of the eastern wall, which is entire, and part of 
the north and south walls ; they are more than six feet 
in thickness, and appear to have inclosed an area of 
about thirty feet. It was the birthplace of Sir Michael 
Scott, who, from his eminence in the science of mathe- 
matics, and in general literature, was regarded as a 
prodigy ; on his return to his native land, after many 
years spent in the universities of the continent, he was 
appointed, on the death of Alexander III., to bring home 
the young queen from Norway. William Adam, the 
architect, was also a native of the parish. The place 
has given title to many distinguished persons, among 
whom were, Thomas Scott and Andrew Ramsay, Lords 
Abbotshall ; and George Melville, Earl of Raith. — See 
Linktown, and Newtown. 

ABDIE, a parish, in the district of Cupar, county 
of Fife, 2^ miles (S. S. E.) from Newburgh ; including 
the villages of Lindores and Grange of Lindores, and 
the suburb of Mount- Pleasant ; and containing 1508 
inhabitants. This place formed part of the lands of 
Macduff, Thane of Fife ; it continued in the possession 
of his descendants for many ages, and afterwards, toge- 
ther with the earldom, passed to the family of Mordac, 
Duke of Albany, on whose attainder and decapitation at 
Stirling, in the reign of James I., his estates in Fife, and 
other property, reverted to the crown. The lands of 
Denmill, which included the greater portion of this 
parish, were granted by James II. to James Balfour, son 
of Sir John Balfour, of Balgarvie, one of whose de- 
scendants was killed in the battle of Flodden Field, to 
which he attended his sovereign James IV. ; and another, 
Sir James Balfour, of Denmill, was appointed lyon king- 
at-arms to Charles I. and II., kings of England. There 
are still remaining vestiges of the ancient castle of Lin- 
dores, in the village of that name, said to have been the 
residence of Duncan Macduff, first thane of Fife ; near 
which, according to the annals drawn up by Sir James 
Balfour, a sanguinary battle took place in the year 1300, 
between the Scots, headed by Sir William Wallace, and 
the English, when the latter were defeated, with the loss 
of 3000 slain on the field, and 500 taken prisoners. 

The parish, anciently called Lindores, was formerly 
of much greater extent than at present, including the 
lands of the parish of Newburgh, which was separated 
from it in 1633. Its surface is very uneven, rising in 
some parts into hills of considerable elevation, of which 
the highest are the Norman's Law and the Clatchard 
Crag ; the former, which is 936 feet above the sea, com- 
mands an extensive prospect, combining much interest- 
ing scenery, especially towards the north, embracing 
the Carse of Gowrie, with its richly cultivated surface, 
and the Frith of Tay, and lands in its vicinity, which 
are richly planted. The Clatchard Crag, situated to the 
south-east of Newburgh, is a tall and stately cliff, 
abruptly rising to an elevation of 250 feet above the 
level of the plain, and towering with rugged majesty 



ABDI 



ABER 



above the road, which passes near its base. The prin- 
cipal river is the Tay, which bounds the parish on the 
north and east ; and a powerful stream issues from 
the loch of Lindores, in the parish, and, in its course, 
gives motion to several large mills. The loch of Lin- 
dores is a beautiful sheet of water, covering nearly 70 
acres of ground, and is in many places almost 20 feet in 
depth ; it is supplied by a copious stream that rises in a 
tract of moss about half a mile distant, called the Priest's 
burn, which in the winter is never frozen, and in the 
driest summers is always abundant. The lake abounds 
with perch, pike, and eels, and is much frequented by 
ducks, teals, and snipes. The number of acres in the 
parish is nearly 7000, of which 4580 are arable, about 
1530 in pasture, 300 under wood, and the remainder 
waste land, of which, probably, nearly 200 acres might 
be brought into cultivation. The soil is extremely vari- 
ous ; along the banks of the Tay, in the lower part of 
the parish, it is remarkably fertile ; on the slopes, it is a 
black loam of great depth, and in other parts light and 
gravelly. The acclivities of the hills are partly covered 
with heath, but in many places afford good pasturage for 
sheep, of which considerable numbers, chiefly of a 
mixed breed, are reared in the parish, and sold in the 
neighbouring markets ; great numbers of sheep of dif- 
ferent kinds are also fed here upon turnips, and shipped 
to London, by steamers from Leith and Dundee. The 
chief crops are, barley, oats, wheat, potatoes, and tur- 
nips, which, from the improved system of agriculture, 
and the draining and reclaiming of waste lands, have 
been greatly increased in value ; and large quantities of 
grain and potatoes are annually exported. There are 
likewise several dairy farms, producing butter and cheese 
of good quality. The substratum is generally whin- 
stone, of which there are quarries in full operation; it 
is much valued for building and other purposes, and 
was formerly exported to a great extent. A kind of 
red sandstone is also prevalent, and was once quar- 
ried ; and limestone is found, but, from the distance 
of coal, every attempt to work it for manure has been 
given up. 

The principal seat is Inchrye House, a castellated 
building in the early English style, crowned with battle- 
ments, and embellished with turrets, erected at an ex- 
pense of £12,000, and seen with peculiar effect from the 
road leading to Newburgh ; it is surrounded with thriv- 
ing woods and ornamental plantations, and the grounds 
are laid out with great taste. The House of Lindores, 
the residence of Admiral Maitland, who commanded the 
Bellerophon when Napoleon Buonaparte surrendered 
himself prisoner, is pleasantly situated upon an emi- 
nence, embracing much varied and interesting scenery 
overlooking the loch of Lindores ; and there are various 
other handsome residences, finely seated, and adding to 
the beauty of the landscape. The weaving of linen is 
carried on in the parish, affording employment to a con- 
siderable number of persons who work with hand-looms 
in their own dwellings ; there are corn and barley mills 
in full and increasing operation, a saw-mill for timber, 
on a very extensive scale, and a mill for grinding bones 
for manure. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the 
superintendence of the presbytery of Cupar and synod 
of Fife ; the Earl of Mansfield is patron, and the stipend 
of the incumbent is £233, with a manse, and glebe com- 
prising 4 acres of arable, and 6 of pasture, land, valued 



at £23 per annum. The church, a plain substantial 
edifice, was erected in 1827, and is adapted for nearly 
600 persons. The parochial school affords a liberal 
course of instruction ; the master has a salary of 
£34. 4. 4., with £17 from school fees, and a good house 
and garden. There are some remains of the ancient 
church, in the porch of which is still the basin for the 
consecrated water ; and, till lately, the steps that 
formed the ascent to the altar were also entire. Urns 
containing human bones and ashes have been found in 
several parts of the parish; and one containing a skull 
and several bones, was recently dug up near the foot of 
Clatchard Crag, which was inclosed in loose flat stones 
placed together in the form of a kistvaen. A similar 
urn was found near the site of the ancient abbey of 
Lindores, containing a great number of small bones. 
On the summit of Clatchard Crag, are the vestiges of 
an ancient fort; and near the top of Norman's Law, 
are three concentric circles, of rough stones rudely 
formed, which is supposed to have been a Danish en- 
campment. 

ABERCHIRDER, a village, in the parish of Mar- 
noch, county of Banff, 7 miles (W. by N.) from Tur- 
riff; containing 819 inhabitants. The whole parish was 
formerly called by the name of this place, derived from 
Sir David Aberkerder, Thane of Aberkerder, who lived 
about the year 1400, and possessed great property here. 
The village consists of three streets, regularly laid out, 
parallel to each other, with a square in the centre, in 
addition to which, several good substantial houses have 
been recently built. It contains a branch of the North 
of Scotland bank, a stamp-office, and a post-office ; it is 
crossed by the turnpike-road between Banff and Huntly, 
and that between Turriff and Portsoy also passes through 
it. There is an Episcopalian chapel. 

ABERBROTHOCK.— See Arbroath. 

ABERCORN, a parish, in the county of Linlith- 
gow, 5| miles (E. by N.) from Linlithgow ; contain- 
ing, with the villages of Newtown and Philipstown, 950 
inhabitants. This place, which derives its name from 
its situation at the influx of the small river Cornie into 
the Frith of Forth, is of very remote origin ; and its 
ancient castle occupied the site of a Roman station 
between the wall of Antonine and the port of Cramond 
on the Frith, in the harbour of which the Romans 
moored their ships. A monastery appears to have been 
founded here at a very early period by the Culdees, 
which, in the seventh century, became the seat of a 
bishopric ; but, after the death of Egfrid, King of 
Northumbria, who, in 696, was killed in a battle with 
the northern Picts, the bishop who then presided over 
the see, not thinking the establishment, sufficiently 
secure, removed it to a place less exposed to danger. 
Of the monastery, which is supposed to have occupied 
a site near the present parish church, there are not the 
slightest vestiges remaining ; and its only memorial is 
preserved in the names Priestinch, Priest's Folly, and 
others, by which several lands in the parish that most 
probably appertained to it, are still distinguished. The 
castle, and the lands belonging to it, in the 12th century, 
were the property of the Avenale family, from whom 
they passed, by marriage, to the Grahams ; and in 
1298 they were held by Sir John Graham, the friend 
and firm adherent of Sir William Wallace, under whose 
banner, fighting for the independence of his country, 

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against Edward I. of England, he fell in the battle of 
Falkirk. The estate subsequently became the property 
of the Douglas family, and on the rebellion of the Earl 
of Douglas, the castle, which was one of the strongholds 
of his party, was besieged by James II., and taken by 
storm on the 8th of April, 1455, when the earl's re- 
tainers were put to death, and the fortifications demo- 
lished ; the castle eventually became a complete ruin, 
and every vestige of it has long since disappeared. The 
lands were afterwards granted by the crown to Claude 
Hamilton, third son of the Earl of Arran, and the first 
Viscount Paisley, by whose devoted attachment to the 
fortunes of Mary, Queen of Scots, they became forfeited ; 
but they were subsequently restored by James VI. to 
his son, whom, in 1606, that monarch created Earl of 
Abercorn. From this family, the estate passed succes- 
sively to the Muirs, Lindsays, and Setons ; and in 16/8, 
the lands, which had been greatly diminished in extent, 
but to which was still attached the sheriffdom of the 
county, were sold by Sir Walter Seton to Sir John 
Hope, ancestor of the earls of Hopetoun. 

The parish is situated on the south shore of the 
Frith of Forth, and comprises about 4500 imperial acres, 
of which 3700 are arable, meadow, and pasture, 67O 
woodland and plantations, and the remainder roads and 
waste. The surface is pleasingly undulated, rising only 
in two points into hills of any considerable eminence, of 
which the highest, Binns, has an elevation of about 350 
feet, and Priestinch of nearly 100 feet. The former of 
these, at the western extremity of the parish, rising gra- 
dually from the shore of the Frith, is arable to the very 
summit, and commands an interesting and extensive 
view ; and the latter, on the south border of the parish, 
is a precipitous rock of trapstone, of elliptical form, on 
the flat summit of which are some remains of an ancient 
fortification. The shore, for about four miles, is beauti- 
fully diversified with bays, headlands, and undulating 
banks, enriched with plantations to the water's edge, 
and occasionally interspersed with verdant patches of 
sloping meadow-land. The only rivers are, the Nether- 
mill burn, and the Cornie, a still smaller stream, which, 
uniting near the church, flow into the Frith ; and the 
Blackness and Linnmill burns, of which the former 
separates the parish from that of Carriden, and the latter 
from the parish of Dalmeny. The soil is chiefly a clayey 
loam, producing grain of all kinds of good quality, with 
potatoes and turnips ; the pastures are rich, and the 
meadows yield abundant crops of hay. Considerable 
attention has been paid to the rearing of cattle, in which 
much benefit has been effected by the introduction of the 
Teeswater breed ; and all the recent improvements in 
husbandry, and in the construction of agricultural im- 
plements, have been generally adopted. The plantations, 
which are extensive, and carefully managed by regular 
thinning and pruning, consist mostly of beech, elm, oak, 
sycamore, lime, and chesnut, with larch, Scotch, silver, 
and spruce firs, of all of which many beautiful specimens 
are found. There are quarries of valuable freestone in 
various parts of the parish, which have been wrought 
for many generations, varying in colour from a light 
cream to a dark grey; and in the hill of Priestinch is a 
quarry of trap, which affords excellent materials for the 
roads. Limestone is also abundant, and of very pure 
quality, better adapted for agricultural purposes than 
for building ■ it occurs in beds of ten feet in thickness, 



generally at a depth varying from 15 to 25 feet below 
the surface. There is likewise a small mine of coal near 
Priestinch, of moderate quality, in working which about 
twenty persons are employed. 

Hopetoun House, the seat of the Earl of Hopetoun, 
originally commenced after a design by Sir William 
Bruce, in 1696, and completed under the superintend- 
ence of Mr. Adam, is a spacious and handsome man- 
sion, consisting of a centre connected by colonnades of 
graceful curvature, with boldly projecting wings, ter- 
minating in octagonal turrets crowned with domes. 
Being seated on a splendid terrace overlooking the Frith, 
it forms a truly magnificent feature as seen from the 
water. The interior contains numerous stately apart- 
ments, decorated with costly splendour ; the library 
contains an extensive and well assorted collection of 
scarce and valuable books and manuscripts, with nume- 
rous illuminated missals aud other conventual antiqui- 
ties, and the picture gallery is rich in fine specimens of 
the ancient masters of the Flemish and Italian schools. 
The grounds are tastefully laid out, embellished with 
plantations, and the walks along the heights overlooking 
the Frith, command diversified prospects ; the eastern 
approach to the mansion is through a level esplanade, 
and the western under a stately avenue of ancient elms. 
His Majesty George IV. visited the Earl of Hopetoun at 
this seat, on the day of his return from Scotland, in 
1822, and, after partaking of the earl's hospitality, 
embarked at Port-Edgar, for London. Binns House is 
an ancient castellated mansion, beautifully situated on 
the western slope of the hill of that name, and sur- 
rounded with a park containing much picturesque and 
romantic scenery ; the grounds are pleasingly embel- 
lished with plantations, interspersed with lawns and 
walks, and on the summit of the hill is a lofty circular 
tower forming a conspicuous landmark. Duddingston 
House is a modern mansion in the castellated style, situ- 
ated on an eminence in the south-east of the parish, and 
commanding an extensive view. Midhope House, for- 
merly a seat of the earls of Linlithgow, is an ancient 
mansion still in tolerable preservation, and now occupied 
in tenements, to which an old staircase of massive oak 
affords access ; the building consists of a square em- 
battled tower with angular turrets, and above the en- 
trance is a coronet, with the letters J. L. 

The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in agricultural 
pursuits, and in the quarries and mines ; and about 
thirty persons are employed in a salmon fishery at the 
mouth of the Linnmill burn, where several stake-nets are 
placed. The quantity of fish taken was formerly very 
considerable, but is, within the last few years, very 
much diminished ; the lessee of the fishery pays a rent 
of £60 per annum, and the whole produce is estimated 
at about £200. Facility of communication is afforded 
by the turnpike-road from Queensferry to Linlithgow ; 
the Union canal intersects the southern portion of the 
parish, and the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway, which 
in some parts of its course pursues a direction parallel 
with the canal, frequently approaches within a few yards 
of it. At Society, in the parish, is a small bay, where 
some vessels with coal land their cargoes on the beach, 
and occasionally take back lime ; there are two corn- 
mills propelled by water, and a saw-mill has lately been 
built by the Earl of Hopetoun, on the Nethermill burn. 
The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the 



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superintendence of the presbytery of Linlithgow and 
synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The minister's sti- 
pend is £188. 15. 2., with a manse, and the glebe is va- 
lued at £16 per annum ; patron, the Earl of Hopetoun. 
The church, a very ancient building, was enlarged at 
the time of the Reformation ; it is an irregular building, 
previously affording very indifferent accommodation, 
but in 1838 was thoroughly repaired. There is a place 
of worship for members of the Free Church. The pa- 
rochial school is well conducted ; the master has a salary 
of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees 
average about £40 per annum. A parochial library was 
established in 1833, but was superseded in 1844 by a 
parish church library, which now contains upwards of 
300 volumes. 

ABERCROMBIE, or St. Monan's, a parish, in the 
district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 2 miles (W. 
by S.) from Pittenweem ; containing 1157 inhabitants, 
of whom 1029 are in the town of St. Monan's. This 
place, which appears to have been a distinct parish since 
the middle of the 12th century, is in ancient documents 
invariably called Abercrombie, or Abercrumbin ; but, 
towards the close of the year 1647, on the annexation 
of the barony of St. Monan's, previously in the adjoin- 
ing parish of Kilconquhar, it obtained the latter appella- 
tion, by which, till within the last thirty years, it was 
generally designated. The parish is bounded on the 
south by the Frith of Forth, and is about a mile and 
a half in length, from north to south, and a mile in 
breadth, from east to west ; the surface rises abruptly 
from the coast to the higher lands, which are agreeably 
undulated, and the general appearance of the parish is 
enriched and varied with thriving plantations. A small 
rivulet called the Inweary, rising in the marshy lands of 
Kilconquhar, intersects the parish, and, after a course of 
nearly two miles, falls into the Frith near the church ; 
and in the north-east, the burn of Dree], after traversing 
that portion of the parish, falls also into the river Forth 
at Anstruther Wester. The soil is mostly a light and 
friable loam, partly intermixed with clay, and generally 
very fertile; the system of agriculture is in an improved 
state, and the crops are oats, barley, wheat, beans, pota- 
toes, and turnips. There is comparatively little land in 
pasture. The substratum is chiefly sandstone and lime- 
stone, with some till, of which the rocks on the coast 
principally consist; ironstone is found in great abun- 
dance on the beach, and coal in various parts of the 
parish. In the barony of St. Monan's are not less than 
six seams of coal, of different thickness, varying from 
one foot and a half to eighteen feet, which were formerly 
worked to the depth of nearly thirty fathoms; but, 
from want of capital, they have been for some time dis- 
continued. There are also several seams in the lands 
of Abercrombie, which have never been wrought. The 
limestone is of excellent quality ; but the depth from 
the surface rendered the working of it unprofitable, and 
since the coal-works have been discontinued, the quar- 
ries have been altogether abandoned ; the want of it is, 
however, supplied by the great quantities of sea-weed 
thrown upon the shore, which is carefully collected for 
manure. The ironstone is chiefly obtained in nodules 
of from one to two pounds in weight ; it is found to 
contain from twelve to eighteen hundred weight in the 
ton, and considerable quantities are sent away as ballast 
by shipmasters. Freestone is also found. 
5 



The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintend- 
ence of the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod of 
Fife; patron, the Crown. The stipend of the incum- 
bent amounts to £162. 0. 11., of which about a fifth is 
received from the exchequer ; the manse was rebuilt in 
1796, and enlarged in 1819, and the glebe comprises 
nearly 10 Scottish acres of good land. The church, 
formerly the chapel of St. Monan, is said to have been 
originally founded by David II., about the year 1370, 
and by him dedicated to St. Monan, the tutelar saint of 
the place, in gratitude for the deliverance of his queen 
and himself from shipwreck on this part of the coast ; 
it is a beautiful specimen of the English style prevailing 
at that period, and is a cruciform structure, with a square 
tower rising from the centre, surmounted by an octa- 
gonal spire. The nave had become a complete ruin, and 
had been altogether removed ; the transepts were roof- 
less and dilapidated, and the choir, the only portion, 
except the tower, which remained entire, was for many 
years used as the parish church; but in 1828, the build- 
ing was restored, with the exception of the nave ; the 
walls of the transepts were raised to a height equal to 
that of the choir, and the whole now forms one of the 
most beautiful edifices in the country, adapted for a 
congregation of 530 persons. The parochial school is 
under good regulation ; the master has a salary of 
£34. 4. 5., and fees £34, with a house and garden. 

At the north-east end of the parish, near the lands of 
Balcaskie, are remains of the ancient church of Aber- 
crombie, which, after the annexation of the barony of 
St. Monan's, was abandoned as a place of worship; they 
are situated in a secluded and romantic spot, formerly the 
churchyard, and still the burying-place of the Anstruther 
family, and of others. There are also some remains of 
the old mansion-house of Newark, the ancient residence 
of the family of the Sandilands, lords of the barony, 
consisting of three stories; the northern part is still in 
tolerable repair, but the other portion is roofless and 
much dilapidated. The ground-floor contains several 
apartments with vaulted roofs, and the upper stories 
had, till lately, some comfortable rooms occupied by 
servants belonging to the farm. The building is so near 
a lofty rock rising precipitously from the sea-shore, that 
there is scarcely room for a person to pass between the 
cliff and the southern gable. Lieut.-General Sir David 
Leslie, son of Lord Lindores, resided at Newark, which 
he had purchased from the Sandiland family, and was 
created Lord Newark in the reign of Charles II. ; he 
distinguished himself greatly in the civil wars, and was 
interred at this place. — See Monan's, St. 

ABERDALGIE and DUPPLIN, a parish, in the 
county of Perth, 3 miles (S. W.) from Perth ; contain- 
ing 360 inhabitants. These two ancient parishes were 
united in the year 1618, and are beautifully situated on 
an eminence forming the northern boundary of the vale 
of Strathearn ; they measure about 3 miles in length, 
from east to west, and 2| miles in breadth, and comprise 
2900 acres, of which more than 2000 are under tillage, 
and the remainder wood and waste. The river Earn 
flows on the south, and, with its picturesque windings 
through the strath, and its banks, ornamented with 
gentlemen's seats, good farm-houses, and well-cultivated 
lands, forms a principal feature in the interesting sce- 
nery of the locality. In the direction of the river, the 
prospect is terminated by the Ochil hills ; and towards 



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the north, where the higher lands of the parish gradu- 
ally slope, appear the vales of the Almond, the Tay, and 
Strathmore, the richly diversified views being bounded 
by the Grampian mountains. The parish consists of 
six large farms and three of smaller extent, which are 
under the best system of husbandry, and produce in 
the northern district, where the climate is sharp and 
the soil cold and tilly, oats, barley, peas, and beans ; 
in the southern portion wheat is much cultivated, the 
greater warmth of the sun and the rich loamy and 
clayey soil favouring its growth. Among the many 
improvements in agriculture, wedge-draining has been 
of great service on wet cold grounds, and is extensively 
practised ; and the introduction of turnip husbandry, 
and the increase in the growth of potatoes, have 
proved highly beneficial. The prevailing rock is the 
old red sandstone, of which there are several quarries. 

Dupplin Castle, the seat of the Earl of Kinnoull, 
the sole heritor, was accidentally burnt on the 11th 
of Sept., 1827, and a new edifice was erected on the 
same site, and completed about the year 1832, in the 
Elizabethan style, by the present earl, at a cost of up- 
wards of £30,000. The wood on the property is exceed- 
ingly beautiful, extending to some hundreds of acres, 
and comprising sweet and horse chesnuts, beech, spruce, 
and Scotch fir, some of which are of large bulk and 
stature. The castle was visited by Her Majesty, during 
her tour in Scotland, on the 6th of Sept., 1842; she 
arrived here at two o'clock, and, after partaking of a 
sumptuous dejeuner, received a deputation from the city 
of Perth, consisting of the lord provost, magistrates, 
and other authorities, who presented a loyal address. 
The old road from Perth to Stirling passes through the 
northern declivity of the parish, and a new line was 
finished in 1811, running along the plain below, for the 
commencement of which the Earl of Kinnoull advanced 
£3000. On the sides, many excellent farm-houses have 
been built, and it has proved of great advantage to the 
locality for the conveyance of lime and other manures, 
as well as for the export of general produce, consist- 
ing chiefly of grain and potatoes, sent to Perth aud 
Newburgh. The parish is in the presbytery of Perth 
and synod of Perth and Stirling, and in the alternate 
patronage of the Crown and the Earl of Kinnoull ; the 
minister's stipend is £157. 19- 4., with a manse, and a 
glebe of 14 acres, including the site of the manse, 
garden, &c. The present church of Aberdalgie was 
built in 1773, and under it a vault was constructed for 
the Hay-Drummond family, though their ancient burial- 
place is at the church of Kinnoull : in the churchyard is 
the cemetery of the lords Oliphant, of Bachilton, for 
centuries the feudal lords of Aberdalgie, and on the 
outside is a large stone with a well-executed figure of 
a warrior. The foundations of the old church of Dup- 
plin are still remaining, within an inclosed churchyard. 
The parochial school affords instruction in the ordinary 
branches ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a 
house, and £14 fees. The Earl of Kinnoull takes the 
title of Viscount Dupplin from this place. 

ABERDARGIE, a village, in that part of the parish 
of Abernethy which is in the county of Perth, 1 mile 
(W.) of Abernethy ; containing 200 inhabitants. It 
is pleasantly situated, and the road from Kinghorn to 
Perth passes through it : a part of the inhabitants, both 
male and female, are engaged in weaving linen-yarn. 
6 



SEAL AND ARMS. 




Obverse. 



Reverse. 



ABERDEEN, a city, and sea-port town, the seat of a 
university, the capital of the county of Aberdeen, and 
the metropolis of the North of Scotland, 109 miles 
(N. N. E.) from Edinburgh, and 425 (N. by W.) from 
London ; containing, with parts of the parishes of Old 
Aberdeen and Banchory-Devenick, 67-000 inhabitants. 
This ancient city, which is, by some historians, identified 
with the Devana of Ptolemy, is supposed to have derived 
its name, of British origin, from its situation between the 
rivers Dee and Don, near their influx into the sea, and 
from each of which, previously to the diversion of the 
latter into its present channel, it was nearly equidistant. 
According to tradition, Gregory the Great, King of Scot- 
land, is said to have made the town a royal burgh ; but 
little of its authentic history is known prior to the reign 
of Malcolm III. ; and the first traces of its having attained 
any importance, are found in a charter granted at Perth, 
by William the Lion, conferring on the inhabitants the 
privilege of free trade, as fully as their ancestors had en- 
joyed that liberty in the time of Malcolm ; and the same 
monarch, by a second charter, dated 28th of Aug., 1179, 
granted them exemption from tolls and customs in all 
markets and fairs within his kingdom. About this time, 
Esteyn, one of the Norwegian kings, in a piratical ex- 
cursion along the British coast, landed at this place, and 
plundered the town, which had attained sufficient im- 
portance to attract the notice of the sovereign, who 
erected for his occasional residence, when visiting here, 
an edifice near the east end of the present Green, 
which he afterwards bestowed on the monks of the 
Holy Trinity, who had recently been introduced into 
Scotland. William also established an exchequer and a 
mint, near the south end of the modern Castle-street, 
where money was coined during his reign. Alexander 
11. on various occasions made protracted visits to the 
town ; and about the year 1222, in company with 
his sister, the Princess Isabella, he celebrated the fes- 
tival of Christmas here ; and subsequently built, on 
the site now occupied by Gordon's Hospital, a convent 
for Dominican or Black friars. This monarch, by a 
charter to the burgesses, confirmed all the privileges 
bestowed by his predecessors, to which he added the 
grant of a weekly market, and the right of establishing 
a merchant guild. In 1244, the town was nearly de- 
stroyed by an accidental fire, which burnt many of the 
houses, at that time built chiefly of wood ; and about 
the year 1260, it suffered materially from a similar 
calamity. Alexander III., by charter dated at Kintore, 
in 1274, granted to the burgesses the privilege of an 
annual fair, to continue for fourteen days ; the town, 
however, had made but little progress in commerce, 



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though, as a sea-port, it had obtained a l'eputation for 
the curing of fish, of which its rivers and the sea 
afforded ample supplies for the use of the inhabitants, 
and also for exportation. 

The town, after it had recovered from the devastation 
it had suffered from fire, was defended by a strong 
castle, and by gates at the entrances of the principal 
streets ; and the inhabitants, who in every time of 
danger were distinguished by their undaunted courage 
in resisting the attacks of its enemies, in all cases of 
assault were headed by their chief magistrate, who 
invariably acted as their captain. In the wars which, 
after the death of Alexander III., arose from the dis- 
puted succession to the throne, the city had its full 
share of vicissitude and of the troubles of that distracted 
period. Edward, King of England, to whom the arbi- 
tration of that contest had been referred, though he 
appointed John Baliol to the Scottish throne, yet con- 
sidered himself entitled to the sovereignty, and, avail- 
ing himself of the internal hostilities which prevailed, 
invaded Scotland with a powerful army, and made him- 
self master of the southern portion of the kingdom : 
having dethroned Baliol, he advanced with his forces to 
Aberdeen, and, taking possession of the castle, placed 
in it an English garrison, which held the town and 
neighbourhood in subjection. On the approach of 
William Wallace to the relief of the citizens, the En- 
glish, having reinforced the garrison, plundered and set 
fire to the town, and embarked on board their ships. 
Wallace, after besieging the castle without success, 
retreated to Angus, and, having sustained various 
reverses, was betrayed into the hands of Edward, 
and conveyed prisoner to London, where he suffered 
death as a traitor ; and his body being quartered, 
one of his mangled quarters was exposed on the gate of 
the castle of the town, to intimidate his followers in 
this part of the country. Robert Bruce, in asserting 
his right to the Scottish throne, experienced many pri- 
vations, and was reduced to the necessity of taking 
refuge, with his wife and children, among the mountains 
of Aberdeenshire ; but, having mustered a considerable 
force, which was augmented by the citizens of Aberdeen, 
who embraced his cause, he gave the English battle 
near the hill of Barra, over whom, under the command 
of Comyn, Earl of Buchan, and Mowbray, the English 
leader, he obtained a victory. According to Boece, the 
citizens, flushed with this success, returned to the town, 
assaulted the castle, which they took by storm, and 
put the garrison to the sword ; and, to prevent its 
falling again into the hands of the enemy, they de- 
molished the fortifications. The English in the vicinity 
assembled their forces, and assaulted the city ; but the 
townsmen, led on by Fraser, their provost, repulsed 
them with considerable slaughter. In reward of their 
patriotism and valour on this occasion, the king granted 
the city new armorial-bearings, with the motto Bon 
Accord, their watchword on that memorable occasion ; 
and after the battle of Bannockburn, being firmly 
seated on the throne, he gave the citizens several 
charters, some ample donations of lands, and the 
forest of Stocket, with all the privileges attached to it, 
reserving to himself only the growing timber, with the 
right of hunting; and in 1319, honoured the town with 
a visit. After the death of Robert Bruce, and during 
the minority of his son David, a civil war broke out in 



the country ; and Edward III. of England, who, with 
the exception of Aberdeen, had all the Scottish fortresses 
in his possession, invaded the kingdom, to assert his 
right to the sovereignty. While triumphant in the 
southern districts of the kingdom, Sir Thomas Roscelyn, 
one of his knights, landed a body of forces at Dunnottar, 
with which he advanced to Aberdeen ; the citizens, 
taking arms, met the invaders on the Green, but were 
defeated with considerable loss, though Roscelyn fell in 
the encounter, and the town was given up to plunder, 
and set on fire by the English. David II., who during 
these troubles had remained in France, returned with 
his queen, and having regained his kingdom, held his 
first parliament in Aberdeen, which he occasionally 
made his residence ; he confirmed to the citizens all the 
grants which his father had conferred, and gave them 
every assistance in rebuilding their town, which thence 
took the appellation of New Aberdeen, though of much 
greater antiquity than the kirktown of Seaton, since that 
period called Old Aberdeen. 

After the expulsion of the English from Scotland, 
Aberdeen began to flourish as a place of commerce, and 
was represented in parliament. In a parliament held at 
Edinburgh, in 1357, to concert measures for the ransom 
of the Scottish king, who since the battle of Neville's 
Cross had been detained prisoner in England, the 
city ranked as the fourth in the kingdom, and became 
joint guarantee for the payment of the stipulated sum. 
The king, on his return to Scotland, took up his residence 
in the town, which he frequently afterwards visited, 
and which, in a subsequent parliament, appeared as the 
first city on the roll, after Edinburgh. Robert II., the 
first of the race of the Stuarts, assembled a parliament 
in the town, in order to plan a hostile incursion into 
England, and granted various privileges to the city, 
which was at that time the residence of several branches 
of the royal family, among whom were, the Princess 
Matilda, sister of King David, and Christian, sister of 
King Robert Bruce. The trade of the port had now 
become considerable, and consisted chiefly in wool, 
hides, tallow, coarse woollen-cloths, cured salmon and 
other fish, which were exported to England, France, 
Holland, Flanders, and Hamburgh, whence were im- 
ported linen, fine woollen-cloth, wines, oil, salt, soap, 
dye-stuffs, spices, hardware, iron, armour of various 
kinds, malt, wheat, and numerous other articles. Du- 
ring the regency of the Duke of Albany, in the time of 
Robert III., Donald, Lord of the Isles, having entered 
into an alliance with England, asserted a claim to the 
earldom of Ross, and raised an army of 10,000 men, 
to obtain forcible possession of that territory ; on which 
occasion the citizens of Aberdeen, headed by Sir Ro- 
bert Davidson, their provost, joined the forces under 
tlfe Earl of Mar, which had been raised to oppose him ; 
and encountering the army of Donald at Harlaw, about 
eighteen miles to the north of the city, a sanguinary battle 
took place, in which Sir Robert and many of the citizens 
were killed. The conflict terminated with the day, 
neither party claiming the victory, but in the course of 
the night the highlanders retreated to the mountains ; 
the provost was buried in the church of St. Nicholas, 
near the altar of St. Ann, which his father had founded : 
the standard borne by the citizens on the occasion 
was long preserved in the armoury of the town. On 
the release of King James, son of Robert III., who had 



A B E R 



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been kept as a prisoner in England during the regency, 
Aberdeen was one of the four cities which became bound 
to pay the English monarch £40,000, for his mainte- 
nance and education while in captivity. After the mur- 
der of James, in the year 1437, the citizens chose for 
their provost, Sir Alexander Irvine, of Drum, whom 
they invested with the title of captain and governor of 
the city ; and in the anarchy which prevailed during 
the minority of James II., they fortified the town, 
armed the inhabitants, and enforced the strictest mili- 
tary discipline. In 144S, James II. made his first visit 
to the city, and was received with every demonstration 
of loyalty and respect ; and in 1455, the same marks of 
attention were paid his queen. 

Upon the death of James III., at the battle of Sau- 
chie-Burn, in 1488, an attempt was made to rescue the 
young prince from the power of a faction that had led 
him into rebellion against his father, James III. ; in 
which attempt the citizens concurred, attaching the 
common seal of the corporation to their resolutions to 
that effect. About the same time, Sir Andrew Wood, 
admiral of Scotland, endeavoured to deprive them of 
the lands of Stocket granted to them by King Robert 
Bruce ; but, on appeal to the sovereign, their possession 
was confirmed by a decree of James IV., in 1497- This 
monarch frequently visited the city, and, on one occa- 
sion, remained here for a considerable time, while 
making arrangements for the establishment of a univer- 
sity, for which purpose he obtained from Pope Alex- 
ander a bull dated the 6th of February, 1494. Under 
an apprehension of invasion from England, in conse- 
quence of the countenance afforded to Perkin Warbeck, 
in the reign of Henry VII., by the Scottish monarch, 
the citizens fortified the town, erected a blockhouse near 
the mouth of the river, and threw up a breastwork as an 
additional defence ; but a treaty for peace rendered 
these preparations unnecessary ; and on the subsequent 
marriage of James IV. with the Princess Margaret, 
daughter of the English monarch, the council sent a 
deputation of the citizens, attended by a band of min- 
strels, to congratulate their sovereign. In 1511, the queen 
visited Aberdeen, where she was received with acclama- 
tions of joy; and during her stay the chief streets of 
the city were hung with tapestry and fancifully adorned. 
The inhabitants, in 1513, contributed a company of spear- 
men, and a squadron of horse, towards the expedition 
of Flodden Field, in which the king, and many of the 
Scottish nobility, were killed; and in 1525, Alexander 
Seton, of Meldrum, in resentment of a supposed affront 
to his clan, entered the city at night, with a large party 
of his followers, and a battle ensued, in which eighty of 
the citizens, including several of the magistrates, were 
slain. In 1530, Lord Forbes, of Castle-Forbes, who 
had been in the habit of receiving annually a tun of 
wine, for preserving the fisheries of the Dee and Don, 
provoked by the discontinuance of this present, in con- 
sequence of a quarrel between his sons and the citizens, 
entered the city with a numerous retinue, and a fierce 
conflict arose, which terminated in his complete defeat : 
on his giving security, however, for the future good 
conduct of his partizans, the magistrates renewed their 
accustomed present. In 1540, James V., after the 
melancholy loss of his two sons in one day, visited 
the city, attended by his queen and court, to divert 
his grief, and remained for fourteen days ; and the 
8 



citizens fitted out a ship of war, to join the royal 
squadron in the Frith of Forth, to convoy the king to 
England, on a visit to Henry VIII. On the invasion of 
Scotland by the Duke of Somerset, in 1547, the citizens 
furnished a large supply of men, to join the queen's 
forces under the Earl of Arran, of whom very few re- 
turned from the fatal battle of Pinkie; and in 1552, 
the earl, who had been appointed regent during the 
minority of Mary, attended by the queen dowager, 
visited the town, and was hospitably entertained by the 
citizens. 

On the introduction of the reformed religion, the 
citizens were little disposed to receive it, and, at the 
solicitation of Gavin Dunbar, Bishop of Aberdeen, in 
1525, a manifesto was issued by the king, directing the 
magistrates of Aberdeen to enquire into the conduct of 
those who maintained heretical opinions ; but it was 
not till 1544, that any attention was paid to that injunc- 
tion, when two of the citizens were committed to prison, 
by the Earl of Huntly, then provost of the city, till they 
should be brought to trial. In 1559, on the approach 
of a body of Reformers called the Congregation, the 
magistrates took the precaution of removing from the 
church of St. Nicholas the sacred vessels, and ornaments, 
with every thing of value, which they deposited, with 
the archives of the town, in a place of security. On the 
29th of December, in that year, a large party of Re- 
formers from Angus and Mearns entered the city, re- 
solved upon the destruction of the sacred edifices, and 
commenced an attack on the spire of the church, which 
they attempted to pull down. But the citizens, flying 
to arms, arrested the work of demolition, and it was 
not till the 4th of January following, that the Reform- 
ers ventured to renew their efforts, when they pro- 
ceeded to the monastery of the Black friars, in School- 
hill, and the convent of the Carmelites, on the Green ; 
and, having demolished those buildings and carried off 
the property, they advanced to the monastery of the 
Grey friars, in Broad-street, stripped the church of its 
leaden roof, and were about to demolish the building, 
when the citizens again interposed and prevented further 
injury. The citizens, notwithstanding, ultimately em- 
braced the reformed religion, and in a meeting of the 
Council, it was resolved to demolish the monasteries, to 
convert the materials to the public use, and to sell the 
silver, brass, and other ornaments, which had been re- 
moved from the church of St. Nicholas, and place the 
proceeds in the common fund of the city. It was re- 
solved, also, to furnish forty men for the service of the 
Congregation, and to use all their efforts for the sup- 
pression of idolatry ; and Adam Heriot, friar of the 
order of St. Augustine, and a brother of the abbey of 
St. Andrew, having renounced the errors of popery, 
was appointed by the General Assembly minister of 
Aberdeen, which office he held till his death. In 1562, 
Mary, Queen of Scots, in her progress through the 
north, visited Aberdeen, where she was hospitably en- 
tertained, and during her stay was waited upon by Lady 
Huntly, who, interceding for her son, Sir John Gordon, 
obtained his pardon, on condition of his confinement in 
Stirling Castle, during her majesty's pleasure. On his 
way to that fortress, however, he escaped from his 
guards, and, returning to the north, appeared with a 
body of 1000 horse, and was soon after joined by his 
father, the Earl of Huntly. The queen's army, under 



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the command of the Earl of Murray, having come from 
Inverness to Aberdeen, marched against the forces of the 
Earl of Huntly and his son, over whom they gained a 
complete victory j the earl was killed, and his two sons, 
Sir John and Adam Gordon, with many others, were 
brought prisoners to Aberdeen, where the former, two 
days after the battle, was beheaded in Castle-street. 

In 1581, James VI. paid a visit to Aberdeen, on 
which occasion the citizens presented him with 3000 
merks in gold, and in 1589, that monarch, attended by 
his court, remained in Aberdeen for some time, during 
which butts for the practice of archery were erected on 
Castle-hill, for their amusement : and in the same year, 
the citizens fitted out a ship of war, to join the squadron 
intended to convoy the king and queen, on their return 
from Denmark. In 1592, the king again visited the 
city ; and, though welcomed by the usual presents, he 
took a bond from the magistrates that they would not 
confederate with the Earl of Huntly, nor join with 
Jesuits, priests, or rebels, and that they woidd faith- 
full}' observe the true doctrines of the reformed religion. 
On the defeat of the royal forces in Banffshire, in 1594, 
the king repaired to Aberdeen, where, raising a body of 
troops, he was joined by Lord Forbes and other barons, 
against the popish Lords Errol, Angus, Huntly, and 
others; and in 1600, the inhabitants celebrated the 
escape of their sovereign from the conspiracy of the 
Earl of Ruthven, by a public procession, and presented 
an address, composed in Latin by the rector of the 
grammar school, expressing their abhorrence of the 
attempt on his life. In 1617, after his accession to the 
throne of England, James VI. visited his native country, 
on which occasion the magistrates of the city received 
intimation that he would visit that city, in his progress 
through the north ; but their expectations were not 
fulfilled. In 1620, Sir Thomas Menzies, provost of the 
city, was sent on a mission to the court of London, and 
on his introduction, presented to the king a valuable 
pearl which, it is said, has a place in the imperial crown 
of Great Britain. The city sent a deputation to express 
to Charles I., on his landing in Scotland, a testimonial 
of their affectionate loyalty; at this time, the solemn 
league and covenant, which had obtained almost uni- 
versal subscription, found but little support in Aber- 
deen, and the citizens, firmly attached to their sovereign, 
acquiesced in all his endeavours to establish episcopacy. 
In 1638, the Earl of Montrose, the Lords Coupar, 
Forbes, and others, with the ministers of Irvine and 
Pitsligo, appeared in the town, as commissioners from 
the general assembly, and called upon the citizens to 
subscribe the covenant. Failing in their object, they 
took their departure, and the assembly held a court at 
Glasgow, at which they ordered the covenant to be sub- 
scribed, on pain of excommunication, which order was 
generally obeyed, and the whole country became subject 
to the Covenanters, with the exception of Aberdeen, 
which, under the influence of the Marquess of Huntly, a 
zealous adherent of the reigning monarch, still held out. 
The citizens, in this state of affairs, placed the town in 
a posture of defence ; the provost, and sixteen of the 
principal citizens, formed a council of war; a vessel 
laden with arms and warlike stores, arrived in the har- 
bour from England, and every preparation was made to 
resist an attack. The Earl of Montrose, at the head ot 
an army of Covenanters, made his appearance in the 
Vol. I.— 9 



neighbourhood, and advanced to the town with a force 
of 9000 horse and foot, which he encamped in the links 
of Aberdeen ; the Earl of Kinghorn, who had been ap- 
pointed governor of the town, had only a garrison of 
1800 for its defence. After some time, the Earl of 
Montrose withdrew his army to Inverury ; but, again 
encamping in the links, the citizens ultimately sub- 
scribed the covenant, and four of them were appointed 
by Montrose, as commissioners to the general assembly 
at Edinburgh. During the progress of the civil war, 
the town suffered materially from all parties, as they 
became successively predominant, and was exposed to 
continual vicissitudes. The last battle that occurred 
here, was in 1646, in which year Major Middleton, 
arriving in the town, took the command of the Cove- 
nanters' army, against the Marquess of Huntly and 
the Earl of Aboyne, when it fell an easy conquest to the 
marquess, who was, however, soon after seized by the 
Covenanters, and sent, with many others, to Edinburgh, 
where he was put to death. Charles II., on his return 
from the continent, was received in Aberdeen with 
every feeling of attachment ; the keys were delivered to 
him by the provost, and he remained in the town for 
more than a week. On his restoration in 1660, the 
citizens testified their joy by a public procession, and 
sent a deputation to Loudon, to present a congratulatory 
address. 

In 166S, the city raised a corps of 120 men, in aug- 
mentation of the militia, and on the subsequent accession 
of James II. and William III., the inhabitants duly tes- 
tified their loyalty. The accession of Queen Anne, 
daughter of James II., was proclaimed here with public 
rejoicings; and on the union of the two kingdoms, in 
1707. Aberdeen, in conjunction with the burghs of 
Arbroath, Montrose, Brechin, and Bervie, sent a mem- 
ber to the united parliament. Soon after the accession 
of George I., the Earl of Mar, a zealous adherent of the 
exiled family, assembled some forces at Braemar, in the 
highland districts of Aberdeenshire, and proclaimed the 
Chevalier de St. George, son of James II., sovereign of 
Britain, by the title of James VIII. , and levied an army 
of 10,000 men for his support. The magistrates of 
Aberdeen, who were zealously attached to the reigning 
family, put the city into a state of defence ; but the 
partizans of the pretender, having gained an ascendancy, 
assumed the civil government, and the earl-marischal, 
arriving soon after w 7 ith a squadron of horse, proclaimed 
the pretender at the Cross, on the day for the election 
of the city officers. The magistrates and council ab- 
sented themselves, without making any election for the 
ensuing year ; and on the day following, the earl 
marischal, in the East church, chose such of the bur- 
gesses as were favourable to his cause, and formed an 
administration for the government of the city. The earl 
levied an imposition of £200, for the use of the preten- 
der's army, and £2000 as a loan, which, with other 
supplies, were sent to his head-quarters at Perth. The 
pretender soon afterwards arriving, with a retinue of 
six gentlemen, from France, landed at Peterhead, and 
passed incognito through Aberdeen to Fetteresso, on his 
way to Perth, where he was received by the Earl of Mar 
and the earl-marischal ; and the professors of Maris- 
chal and King's Colleges waited upon him at Fetteresso, 
with an address of congratulation. The royal army, 
however, under the Duke of Argyll, was every day in- 

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creasing in numbers, while that of the pretender was 
rapidly diminishing, and was eventually dispersed ; 
the administration of the city returned into its proper 
channel, and the election of the magistrates, which had 
been interrupted by this rash adventure, was made as 
usual. In 1716, a fire broke out at the Gallowgate, 
which rapidly extended itself to other parts of the town ; 
many houses were destroyed, and the council made a 
liberal contribution for the relief of the sufferers. This 
calamity was soon after followed by apprehensions of a 
famine, from a continued state of unfavourable weather ; 
to counteract this evil, the magistrates and council, 
with the neighbouring gentry, supplied the town with 
4000 bolls of meal, and imported a considerable quan- 
tity of grain from Holland. In 1741, a fire broke out in 
Broad-street which destroyed many houses, at that 
time chiefly built of wood ; and an act of council was 
soon afterwards passed, enjoining that the outer walls of 
all houses should be in future built of stone, and the 
city consequently began to assume a more regular and 
handsome appearance. 

On the landing of Charles Edward, eldest son of the 
pretender, in 1745, the citizens firmly maintained their 
allegiance to the reigning family, and General Cope 
embarked his forces at this place, previously to the 
battle of Prestonpans. Hamilton, an exceedingly zea- 
lous partizan of the adventurer, marched to Aberdeen, 
with a detachment of the rebel army, on the day of election 
of the town magistrates, and proclaimed Prince Charles 
regent of the kingdom ; he compelled the magistrates 
to attend him, and liberated the prisoners in the gaol. 
In November, Lord Lewis Gordon, who had been ap- 
pointed by the pretender, lord lieutenant of the coun- 
ties of Aberdeen and Banff, made his appearance in the 
city, summoned the magistrates to attend him at the 
town-house, and completed the election which had been 
suspended on the arrival of Hamilton ; he appointed 
magistrates whom he thought likely to promote his 
views, but they all refused to act ; and made his deputy 
lieutenant-governor of the town. Soon afterwards, 
Lord John Drummond arrived in the city, as com- 
mander-in-chief of the forces of his Most Christian 
Majesty, and published a manifesto at the market-cross, 
calling on the citizens for their support ; but it received 
little attention. In the mean time, the Earl of Loudon, 
commander-in-chief of the royal forces, having assem- 
bled an army of Highlanders, consisting of the clans of 
the M'Leods, Monroes, Sutherlands, and others, ad- 
vanced to Aberdeen, to deliver the city from the posses- 
sion of the rebels ; but Gordon, who had gone out to in- 
tercept them, meeting with some success, returned to 
Aberdeen with several prisoners, among whom was the 
principal of Marischal College, and levied a contribution 
of £1000 for the maintenance of the rebel army. On 
the 8th of February, 1746, a party of the rebels, flying 
from before the army under the Duke of Cumberland, 
arrived in the city, but were soon followed by the whole 
of the royal forces, who were cantoned in the town, in 
Old Aberdeen, and in the neighbouring villages ; and on 
the 27th, the duke, with his entire staff, and a com- 
pany of dragoons, made his appearance here, and was 
congratulated by the provost and magistrates on his 
success. The army remained in their quarters till the 
beginning of April, and upon their departure, the city 
was protected by a garrison, and the newly-erected 
10 



buildings of Gordon Hospital were occupied as a tempo- 
rary fort ; after the battle of Culloden, the magistrates 
voted the freedom of the city to the Duke of Cumber- 
land, which was presented to him in a box of gold. On 
the anniversary of the accession of George I., some of 
the officers of the army quartered in Aberdeen ordered 
a general illumination, which not being so fully complied 
with as they expected, orders were given to their soldiers 
to break the windows of the houses of the inhabitants ; 
on this occasion, the magistrates issued a warrant for 
the apprehension of the officers who had given those 
orders, and committed them to prison, till they gave 
security for the reparation of the damage. The coro- 
nation of George III. was celebrated here with great 
rejoicings, and soon after the commencement of the 
American war, the city raised a corps of 500 volunteers 
for the defence of the town and port, and offered to pro- 
vide a regiment for the service of government ; in 1781, 
it fitted out three privateers, two of which were cut 
out of the bay of Aberdeen, where they were riding at 
anchor, by the notorious Captain Fall, under the guns of 
the newly-erected battery. During the scarcity that 
prevailed in XJS'i, the magistrates raised large sums of 
money for the alleviation of the sufferings of the poor ; 
and in cases of shipwreck, of which many melancholy 
instances have occurred off this part of the coast, they 
have always been remarkable for the liberality of their 
contributions of relief. In 1S09, from the increase of 
the trade and shipping of the port, it was found neces- 
sary to extend and improve the harbour, which was 
shortly proceeded with under the superintendence of 
the late Mr. Telford, the eminent engineer ; and sub- 
sequently, many changes have been made in the build- 
ings and plan of the city. New streets have been 
opened ; the public roads and approaches greatly im- 
proved; several handsome public buildings have been 
erected, and the whole being built of the beautiful spe- 
cies of granite peculiar to this part of the country, the 
city presents an appearance of splendour and magnifi- 
cence almost unrivalled, and fully entitling it to the 
appellation of the metropolis of the north. 

The town, which, after its restoration from the de- 
vastation it suffered during the wars with England, ob- 
tained the appellation of New Aberdeen, is situated on 
slightly elevated ground on the north bank of the river 
Dee, near its influx into the sea, and about a mile and a 
half from the mouth of the river Don ; it is bounded on 
the south by the harbour, and on the east by the Castle- 
hill. The more ancient part is built on a very unequal 
surface, consisting of several hills of trifling elevation, of 
which the Castle-hill, St. Katharine's-hill, School-hill, 
Woolman-hill, and Port-hill, are the most prominent. 
At the entrances from the suburbs into the principal 
streets, were formerly gates, of which the chief were 
Gallowgate, Justice-port, Futtie's-port, Trinity or Quay- 
head-port, Netherkirkgate-port, and Upperkirkgate- 
port, all of which have been removed in the various 
improvements effected at different times. The present 
town is rather more than a mile in length, from the 
barracks on the east, to the extremity of Union-street 
on the west, and about 1500 yards in breadth, from the 
quays on the south, to Love-lane on the north. The 
more modern part, by far the greater portion, consists of 
spacious and well-formed streets, of which Union-street, 
extending from the west end of Castle-street to the 



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western extremity of the town, is 70 feet wide, and is 
carried over the Denburn rivulet, and the vale through 
which it flows, by a magnificent bridge of granite. This 
bridge consists of one spacious arch, 1 50 feet in span, 
and 50 feet in height, crowned with a parapet and cor- 
nice surmounted by an open balustrade, and having a 
rise of 29 feet only from the spring of the arch, on the 
west side of which is a dry arch, and on the east two 
dry arches, to raise the street to a proper level. Two 
streets, also, have been arched over for the line of 
Union-street ; and under the arches, carriages highly 
loaded can pass with ease. King-street, leading from 
Castle-street towards the north, is a fine street, sixty 
feet in width ; and St. Nicholas-street, branching from 
Union-street to the north, is also a handsome and spa- 
cious street. During the latter part of the last century, 
a number of new streets were opened, of which the 
principal are, Virginia-street, Tannery-street, North- 
street, Marischal- street, Belmont, Queen, James, Car- 
melite, George, and St. Andrew's streets ; and since the 
commencement of the present century, the area of the 
town has been at least doubled. The houses, built of 
fine granite, with which the neighbourhood abounds, 
have a splendid appearance; and the city generally, from 
the style and character of its buildings, has a command- 
ing aspect. The town was at first lighted with gas ex- 
tracted from oil, by a company established in 1S24 ; but, 
finding it an unprofitable undertaking, they afterwards 
had recourse to coal-gas, in the production of which the 
best parrot coal is used in the works, which are exten- 
sive, and conveniently situated in the lower part of the 
town ; and the streets are now brilliantly lighted with 
gas, carefully purified, and conducted by cast-iron pipes, 
of which the aggregate length exceeds 48 miles. The 
inhabitants were originally supplied with water from 
wells sunk in various parts of the town, and from a cis- 
tern in Broad-street, containing more than 30,000 gal- 
lons ; but the quantity being found inadequate to the 
increasing population, works were constructed by com- 
missioners for bringing a supply from the river Dee, 
and steam-engines erected at the north end of the bridge 
of Dee, to which the water is conveyed by a tunnel about 
500 yards in length, into which it enters, not directly 
from the river, but after passing through a filtering bed 
of sand. The engines, of which there are two, of 30-horse 
power each, can raise, in twenty-four hours, a supply of 
1,100,000 gallons of water, thence forced into a cistern 
at the west end of Union-place, which has an elevation 
of forty feet above the level of the street, and 130 feet 
above that of the engine, and from which the water is 
distributed through the city by cast-iron pipes. The 
management of the supply of water, and also of the light- 
ing, watching, and cleansing of the streets, is vested in 
the commissioners of police. 

The approaches have been rendered commodious, and 
much improved in appearance ; the great north road 
from Stonehaven, the road from Charlestown on the 
north side of the Dee, the road from Skene, and the 
great roads from the north and north-west, all meet in 
the centre of the town. The bridge over the Dee was pro- 
jected in 148S, by Bishop Elphinstone, who, dying before 
any considerable progress was made in its erection, left 
a large sum of money for its completion, which was ap- 
plied to that purpose by his successor, Bishop Dunbar, 
who, on the opening of the bridge, in 1518, made over 
11 



to the magistrates and council ample funds for keeping 
it in repair. It is a handsome structure of seven arches, 
and had a chapel at the northern extremity, dedicated to 
the Virgin Mary, which was destroyed at the Reforma- 
tion, and at the other end a watch-tower, in which the 
citizens mounted guard in times of danger. The greater 
portion of the bridge was rebuilt in 1722, and about 
four years ago it was nearly doubled in width, at an 
expense of £7000 ; the whole charges at each period 
were defrayed from the endowment left by the bishops, 
and the funds are still unexhausted. Lower down the 
river, where the banks are precipitously steep, an ele- 
gant suspension-bridge has been constructed, at an 
expense of £8000, raised by subscription, affording 
facility of access to the city in that direction ; and 
communicating with the city of Old Aberdeen, is an 
interesting and truly picturesque bridge over the Don, 
of one lofty arch, of which the particulars are detailed 
in the article Old Aberdeen. In Castle-street, to the 
west of the town-house, is the Cross, the pavement 
round which was formerly used as an exchange, and 
frequented by the merchants of the city. This struc- 
ture, which was erected in 16S6, to replace the ancient 
cross, is of hexagonal form, eighteen feet in height : the 
faces, which are ten feet in breadth, are ornamented 
with duplicated Ionic columns at the angles, sustaining 
an entablature and cornice, surmounted by a parapet 
and an open balustrade ; and from the centre of the 
area, which is twenty-one feet in diameter, rises a lofty 
Corinthian column, supporting a unicorn bearing a shield 
with a lion rampant. The entrance was once by a door 
in the north face, leading to a staircase forming an 
ascent to the platform, from which all public proclama- 
tions were read ; the entablature above each of the faces 
is divided into two compartments, in the western and 
eastern of which are respectively the arms of the town 
and the royal arms of Scotland, and in the others busts 
of the sovereigns from James I. of Scotland to James II. 
of England. A few years ago the cross was taken down, 
and rebuilt on a site farther to the east than the former ; 
but the original structure was carefully preserved, ex- 
cept that the masonry between the supporting columns 
was removed, and the lower part of the fabric thus 
thrown upon. The Barracks stand near the site of the 
ancient chapel of St. Ninian, on the Castle-hill, which, 
together with all the ground within the ramparts of the 
castle, was given to government for that purpose, by the 
magistrates and council of the city. They were erected 
in 1/94, at an expense of nearly £18,000, and form a 
handsome range of buildings, containing, exclusively of 
the officers' apartments, accommodation for 600 men, 
with guard-room, chapel, infirmary, and other requisites, 
and an ample ground for parade. 

There are several subscription libraries, of which the 
principal are those of Messrs. Brown and Co., D. 
Wyllie and Son, and W. Russel ; they contain collec- 
tions amounting in the whole to about 60,000 volumes, 
and the terms of subscription vary from 15 shillings 
to £1. 11. 6. per annum. The Athenaeum, in Castle- 
street, aud the Union Club News-rooms, in Union- 
street, are well supported, and amply supplied with 
journals and periodical publications. Card and dancing- 
assemblies, which are maintained by subscription, are 
held regularly every month, during the winter season, 
in the spacious'rooms erected about twenty-five vears ago. 

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The Theatre, situated on the west side of Marischal- 
street, was built by subscription, in 1795, at an expense 
of £3000 ; it is a handsome structure, capable of seat- 
ing 600 spectators, and is opened occasionally by itine- 
rant companies, to whom it is let by the subscribers. 
A weekly concert was, for many years, conducted by a 
proprietary of amateur and other subscribers, and a 
hall was erected for its use, on the east side of Broad- 
street, but the concerts have long been discontinued. 
A society for the practice of archery also once existed, 
under the designation of the " Bowmen of Mar;" but 
in a short time it dwindled away. Races were formerly 
celebrated here, under the patronage of the members 
of the Northern Shooting Club, who, in 1790, voted a 
piece of plate, of fifty guineas value, and the magis- 
trates also gave a purse of thirty guineas ; but they 
were soon discontinued. After an interval of twenty 
years, however, an association of the gentry of the coun- 
ties of Aberdeen, Banff, and Kincardine, was formed for 
their revival ; and an excellent course was made on the 
links of Aberdeen, where races took place annually in 
October, until 1828, and continued for four days, under 
the superintendence of a president and stewards, chosen 
from the association. At one of the meetings, four 
silver cups, value fifty guineas each ; a purse of sixty 
guineas, by subscription of the ladies ; an open plate of 
fifty guineas, by the corporation of the city; a silver cup, 
value 100 guineas, by the members of parliament for the 
counties ; and an open plate of fifty guineas, by the mem- 
bers for the boroughs, were run for, and spiritedly con- 
tested. 

The Mechanics' Institution was commenced in 1824, 
for the improvement and instruction of its members, by 
the delivery of lectures, at a moderate expense, on che- 
mistry, natural philosophy, and other branches of 
science ; but, in a few years, it began to languish, and in 
1830, it was found necessary to discontinue the lec- 
tures. The library, however, which at that time con- 
tained nearly 1100 volumes on practical science, induced 
those of the subscribers who remained, to supply funds 
for its preservation ; and in 1S35, the plan of the insti- 
tution was remodelled by the establishment of classes, 
upon moderate terms, in the various branches of science 
and literature, since which it has continued to flourish. 
The Society of Advocates was incorporated by royal char- 
ter, in 1774, and in 1799 by a more extensive charter, 
in which they are styled the " President and Society of 
Advocates in Aberdeen," for the improvement of its 
members in their profession, and for the establishment 
of a fund for the relief of their widows, orphans, and 
near relatives ; the widows receive an allowance of £40 
per annum. The society have a valuable law library of 
1 900 volumes, which is open to the use of all its mem- 
bers ; and they have lately erected a spacious building 
in Union-street, containing a handsome hall for holding 
their meetings, a library, and other apartments. The 
Medical Society was first instituted in 1789, by a small 
number of young practitioners, for their mutual im- 
provement ; they held their meetings in one of the class- 
rooms of Marischal College, and subsequently in apart- 
ments hired for that purpose, till, from the increase of 
their numbers, and the acquisition of sufficient funds, 
they erected the Medical Hall in King-street, which was 
completed in 1820. It contains a hall for their public 
meetings, a library of about 3000 volumes on medical 
12 



science, to which the members have free access, and a 
museum, with class-rooms and other apartments. The 
society consists of two classes of members, one of prac- 
titioners resident in the city and neighbourhood, who 
meet once in the month for mutual communication ; and 
the other of students of medicine, who meet weekly for 
the discussion of medical questions, and for attending 
lectures on the various branches of the profession. 
Baths were opened a century ago on the east side of 
the Denburn vale, for which there was a commodious 
bathing-house, with dressing-rooms and every requi- 
site ; they were amply supplied with pure spring water, 
and, previously to the establishment of those near the 
sea, numerously attended. The beach on the sea-coast 
is a fine level sand, affording every facility for bath- 
ing, and is much frequented during the season, by 
visiters from different parts of the country ; bathing 
machines are in constant attendance, and on the shore 
are warm salt-water baths fitted up with every accom- 
modation. The environs of Aberdeen afford various 
interesting walks and rides, through a district abound- 
ing with romantic scenery. A Golf Club was originally 
established in the vicinity, by a society of gentlemen, in 
1780, and, after its dissolution in the course of a few 
years, was revived in 1815, under the appellation of the 
Aberdeen Golf Club ; it is under the direction of a com- 
mittee, consisting of a captain, secretary, and four coun- 
cillors, chosen annually at the general meeting. The 
members are admitted by ballot, on payment of £1. ]., 
and an annual subscription of five shillings ; and at the 
annual meeting, which takes place in May, a gold medal 
is awarded to the most successful player. A mineral 
spring called the Spa well rises at the base of Woolman- 
hill, near the site of the Infirmary, and was long cele- 
brated for its efficacy in the cure of nephritic diseases ; 
it appears to have been in repute from a remote period, 
and was inclosed with a building ornamented with por- 
traits of six of the Apostles. In 1516, it attracted the 
notice of Mr. William Barclay, an eminent physician, 
who analyzed the water, which he found to contain car- 
bonate of iron and vitriol. The building having fallen 
into dilapidation, was restored by George Jamieson, the 
celebrated painter, but was afterwards destroyed by an 
inundation of the Denburn rivulet, and the spring re- 
mained concealed under the ruins of the building, till 
1670, when it was discovered, and the present building 
erected by Alexander Skene, of Newtyle, then bailie of 
the town. It was again lost in 1751, and subsequently 
discovered by Dr. James Gordon, and long afterwards 
continued to flow with its accustomed freedom ; but, 
from recent erections at the infirmary, in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood, the water has a third time dis- 
appeared. 

The principal manufactures carried on in the town, 
prior to 1745, were, plaidings, serge, coarse woollen- 
stuffs, and knit stockings, of which last, great quantities 
were sent to Holland and Germany ; and to such per- 
fection were the stockings made here brought, that those 
of the finest wool were sold at from two to five guineas 
per pair. The manufacture of coarse woollen-cloth was 
also introduced about this period, but, after languishing 
for a time, was abandoned, towards the close of the 
century. The Linen manufacture was originally intro- 
duced in 1749, by a company from Edinburgh, for the 
spinning of flax, the making of thread, and the weaving 



ABER 



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and bleaching of cloth, all of which were soon brought 
to a considerable degree of perfection. An extensive 
mill for spinning flax was erected on the left bank of 
the river Don, in 179S, and also works for bleaching 
yarn and cloth ; another was soon after erected at Broad- 
ford, near the town, of which the machinery was driven 
by steam ; and there are now three extensive establish- 
ments for the manufacture of linen, of every quality, 
from the coarsest Osnaburghs to the finest shirting, 
and for the making of thread of every degree of fineness. 
The manufacture of sail-cloth is also carried on, and 
likewise that of brown sheeting, of which large quanti- 
ties are sent to the East Indies and America : tape is 
woven to a large extent, by the Aberdeen Tape Com- 
pany. The number of persons employed in the flax 
manufacture is about 3000, of whom about one-half are 
females. The Cotton manufacture was introduced in 
1779, by Messrs. Gordon, Barron, and Company, who 
established a spacious bleaching and printing field at 
Woodside, where they also erected a large mill for 
spinning cotton-yarn, and weaving by machinery put in 
motion by the river Don ; another mill was soon after- 
wards established by Messrs. Forbes, Low, and Com- 
pany, on the south side of the Denburn rivulet, the 
machinery of which is propelled by steam. There are 
now four establishments in the cotton trade, producing 
every variety of cotton goods, and in one of them, thread, 
equal in quality and fineness to that of flax, is made in 
large quantities, and of all colours ; the number of 
persons employed in the trade is about 4000, of whom 
a considerable number are females and children. The 
Woollen manufacture was introduced in 1789, by Mr. 
Charles Baird, who brought from England some card- 
ing-engines and spinning-jennies, with other apparatus, 
and erected a mill at Stoneywood, for the manufacture 
of plaiding, serge, and the coarser woollen-cloths, by 
the aid of machinery. Several other factories were 
soon afterwards established, and the Messrs. Haddens, 
who had been long engaged in the stocking trade, 
created extensive works on the Green, in which they 
employed the most improved machinery, propelled by 
powerful steam-engines. The manufacture of carpets is 
also carried on with success. The number of persons 
employed in the woollen trade is about 2500. 

The manufacture of Paper was first introduced in 
17*0. at Peterculter, in the vicinity of Aberdeen, where 
the business is still pursued ; and several mills were 
subsequently established, of which the only one now 
left is on the right bank of the river Don, for making 
all the various kinds of paper, which, previously to the 
establishment of these works, was imported from Hol- 
land : the number of persons employed in the trade 
is about 400. The manufacture of Combs, which had 
been introduced in 178S, and carried onto a very mode- 
rate extent, was, in 1S30, commenced upon a greatly en- 
larged scale, by Messrs. Stewart, Rowell, and Company, 
who first employed steam-power in the manufacture, 
and introduced other improvements by which the articles 
can now be produced almost at a sixth part of the 
former cost. In this concern, about '250 persons are 
employed, and the number of combs of all kinds made 
is about 43,000 weekly. The Iron manufacture is also 
very extensive; there are not less than eight foundries 
at present in active operation, in which the largest cast- 
ings, and the heaviest articles, are produced, and nume- 



rous establishments are carried on for the manufacture 
of machinery of all kinds, five of which are engaged in 
the making of steam-engines. Iron boats are con- 
structed in considerable numbers, and an iron vessel of 
550 tons' burthen has lately been launched from the 
docks ; there are also several establishments for the 
manufacture of chains and chain-cables, and of boilers 
for steam-engines. Above 1000 persons are generally 
employed in the iron trade. There are several Rope 
walks of large extent, for the supply of the shipping of 
the port, and others on a smaller scale, for the making 
of cord and twine for various uses, and to a great ex- 
tent for the making of fishing-nets ; the number of 
persons in these works is about 200. Some breweries are 
conducted on an extensive plan, from which considera- 
ble quantities of ale and porter are sent to London and 
other places, where they find a ready market, and also 
several upon a smaller scale, for the supply of the town 
and neighbourhood. There are likewise tanneries in 
operation here. The present extensive trade in Granite 
appears to have originated with the Messrs. Adam, 
architects, of London, who, having entered into a con- 
tract for paving the metropolis, in 1764, commenced 
some quarries in the rocks on the sea-coast, near the 
lands of Torrie, and brought the stone, when prepared, 
to London ; but, finding this mode of supply too ex- 
pensive, they employed the Aberdeen masons to furnish 
them with stone, and, in a short time, a very extensive 
trade was established, not only in paving-stones, but in 
large blocks of granite for public buildings and works of 
great magnitude. Many of the largest blocks were sent 
to Sheerness, for the construction of the docks at that 
place, and to London, for the erection of bridges over 
the Thames, and the foundation of the new houses of 
parliament. The granite, which is extremely hard, and 
of great beauty when polished, has lately been brought 
into extensive use for chimney-pieces, vases, pedestals, 
and other ornamental works, by the application of ma- 
chinery to the purpose of polishing it, by which the ex- 
pense is reduced to about one-third of that by hand 
labour. The quantity of granite exported in 1S44, ex- 
ceeded 27,400 tons. 

The port carries on an extensive trade with Russia, 
Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Prussia, Germany, Holland, 
Spain, Portugal, and with the West Indies and America ; 
the chief exports are, oatmeal, grain, butter, eggs, sal- 
mon, porter and ale, cattle, sheep, pigs, linen, cotton 
and woollen manufactured goods, and granite ; the 
chief imports are, coal, lime, flax, cotton, hemp, wool, 
iron, salt, timber, whalebone, 'wheat, and flour. The 
number of vessels registered as belonging to the port, 
in 1844, was 206, of the aggregate burthen of 38,000 
tons. The tonnage of the several vessels which entered 
the port in 1844, was 289,4S3, of which 257,703 be- 
longed to Aberdeen, 27,540 to other British ports, and 
4240 to foreign ports ; and the amount of duties paid at 
the custom-house was £76,259. The harbour was, for 
many years, an open basin, with an island in the centre 
called the Inches, which separated the channel of the 
river from the harbour, on the north side of it ; and the 
only building was the Quay-head, which, having become 
ruinous, was repaired in 14S4, and rebuilt in 1527, with 
stone brought from Dundee. A pier was built in 1607, 
which, in 1623, was extended from the quay-head towards 
the fishing village of Futtie, by which means a consider-. 



ABER 



ABER 



able portion of land was gained from the basin, and 
which now forms part of the town. In 1755, the magis- 
trates and council engaged Mr. John Smeaton, an emi- 
nent engineer, to improve the harbour; and in 1/70, he 
proposed a stone pier on the north side of the en- 
trance, which, confining the stream of the river within 
narrow limits, would remove a bank of sand accu- 
mulated there. In 1773, an act of parliament was 
obtained, and the improvements on Mr. Smeaton's 
plan were carried into full operation, at a cost of 
£18,000. This pier was 1200 feet in length, 20 feet 
broad at the base, 12 on the summit, and 16 feet in 
height at the western extremity, and gradually increased 
towards the east where it was 36 feet broad at the base, 
24 on the summit, and 30 feet high ; it was faced with 
blocks of granite, many of which weighed more than 
three tons each. The pier, however, by a deviation from 
Mr. Smeaton's original plan, being erected too far to- 
wards the north, a great swell was occasioned in the 
harbour at high water, to remedy which, a breakwater 
was projected from the west end of it, towards the chan- 
nel of the river, with complete effect. The harbour was 
further improved by Mr. Telford, who, in 1810, extended 
the original pier 900 feet further towards the east, 
where it terminated in a circular head, 60 feet in dia- 
meter, which was destroyed by the sea in the following 
winter, and rebuilt with a slope towards the sea. A 
breakwater 800 feet in length was also erected, on the 
south side, by which the harbour was protected from the 
south-east storms, and the depth of water increased to 
19 feet. Commodious wharfs were formed along the 
harbour, on the south-west side of the village of 
Futtie, and quays nearly 4000 feet in length have been 
constructed : the Inches, also, are now connected with 
the town by a swivel-bridge opposite the end of 
Marischal-street. In 1843, an act of parliament was 
obtained for converting a large part of the harbour into 
a wet dock, and operations for that purpose are in pro- 
gress. The custom-house situated on the Quay, is a 
neat building purchased by government, and fitted up 
for the purpose ; the establishment consists of a col- 
lector, comptroller, land and tide surveyors, four land- 
waiters, twenty-eight tide-waiters, six boatmen, and other 
officers. 

Ship building is carried on to a considerable extent ; 
there are six building-yards, and a patent-slip has been 
constructed in the harbour, at an expense of £3337 ; in 
1838, the number of vessels built in these yards was 
twenty-three, and their aggregate burthen 4058 tons. 
Four steam-packets, of which the aggregate burthen is 
1360 tons, and of SlO-horse power, have long continued 
to ply to Leith, Inverness, Caithness, Orkney, and 
Shetland. In 1827, a steam-packet of 550 tons, called 
the Queen of Scotland, began to ply between Aberdeen 
and London, since which, others have been added, which 
sail weekly to London, and likewise one to Hull : these, 
together with a vessel engaged in the London and In- 
verness trade, belong to one company, whose steamers 
are now five in number, of nearly 3900 tons' burthen, 
and 1420-horse power. There are also steamers to 
Dundee, and to Peterhead, during the summer. The 
Salmon fishery has been carried on here from a very 
i*emote period, and, from the abundance of the sup- 
ply afforded by the rivers Dee and Don, is still con- 
tinued, on an extensive scale, affording employment 
14 



to about 200 persons. The average number taken 
in a season, is 20,000 salmon averaging ten pounds 
each, and 40,000 grilse of about four pounds each, of 
which by far the greater portion is packed in ice, 
and sent to the London market. The Herring fishery, 
which is of comparatively recent establishment, at pre- 
sent employs about sixty boats, and, from the suc- 
cess with which it is attended, has every prospect of 
being considerably increased. The Whale fishery was 
first introduced here in 1753, and for some time con- 
tinued to prosper; in 1S20, there were fifteen vessels 
employed in the trade, each having a crew of fifty men, 
and in 1823, the quantity of oil brought home was 1S41 
tons ; but from that time the trade began to decline, 
and it is now nearly abandoned. The Aberdeen Canal, 
from the harbour to the burgh of Inverury, was con- 
structed by a company of £50 shareholders, who, in 
1795, obtained an act of parliament, incorporating them 
under the designation of the " Proprietors of the Aber- 
deenshire Canal Navigation," and empowering them to 
raise a capital of £20,000, which, by a subsequent act, 
in 1801, was extended to £40,000. It was completed 
at an expense of £43,895, and opened to the public in 
1807. The whole line, from the quay at this place to 
Port Elphinstone, on the river Don, at Inverury, is 18^ 
miles in length ; the width on the surface is 24 feet, 
and the average depth 3f feet; it has 17 locks, 5 aque- 
ducts, and 56 common bridges, and the highest summit 
level is 163 feet above low water mark. The market, 
which is amply supplied with corn, and with provisions 
of all kinds, is on Friday, and on the preceding day for 
meal ; the market for fish, with which the town is abun- 
dantly supplied, is daily ; and fairs are held on the last 
Wednesday in April, for linen ; on the last Thursday 
and Friday in June, and the first Thursday and Friday 
in July, for wool ; and on the last Wednesday in August, 
for timber. The butchers' market, on the east side of 
the town, was erected by the corporation, in 1S06, and 
consists of two ranges, having in one 38 stalls 12 feet 
square, with a pavement 4 feet broad in front, and in 
the other 48 stalls, each 10 feet square; and within the 
area are 15 slaughter-houses. Another market for but- 
chers' meat was formed in 1816, in the Lochlands, on 
the north side of the town, containing 42 stalls, 13 feet 
long, and 12 feet wide, with a pavement in front 5 feet 
broad, and covered with a roof supported on slender 
cast-iron pillars. The fish market is held on the south 
side of the Shiprow, and is well arranged and fitted up, 
with a view to prevent the exposure of fish for sale in 
Castle-street ; the meal, poultry, and fruit and vege- 
table markets are situated on the west side of King- 
street, and are amply supplied. In the fruit market, 
great quantities of strawberries and gooseberries, the 
produce of gardens in the neighbourhood of the town, 
are exposed to sale, and frequently to the amount of 
£1000 annually. On the 29th of September, 1S40, the 
foundation stone was laid of a New Market, the prin- 
cipal front of which is towards a street opened about 
the same time between Union-street and the quay. The 
structure is 318 feet in length, and 106 feet in breadth, 
and is divided into two stories, the lower of which is 
even with the old street called the Green, and the upper 
has three spacious and elegant entrances from Market- 
street. The hall, on the level of Market-street, extends 
the whole length of the building; it is fifty feet in 



A B E R 



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height and the same in breadth, and towards its west 
end, near the top of the flight of steps leading to the 
basement story, is a beautiful fountain of polished gra- 
nite, the work of Messrs. Mc Donald and Leslie. The 
roof of the hall is supported by fifty-eight pillars, and 
between them and the outer walls are the galleries, 
twenty-five feet broad, containing fifty-three shops and 
160 yards of counter for dealers in small wares, besides 
a space of fifty by twenty-eight feet at the east end, 
occupied weekly as a grain market. In the hall, under 
the galleries, are fifty-three shops, and in its area benches 
upwards of 3/0 yards in extent for gardeners and pro- 
vision sellers j the basement floor contains ninety shops, 
and forty-three yards of tables for fishmongers. This 
elegant building was designed by Mr. Archibald Simp- 
son, a native of Aberdeen, and in every respect it does 
the utmost credit to his acknowledged talents and good 
taste. 

The government of the city, under a succession of 
charters, from the reign of William the Lion to that of 
Charles I., who greatly extended the privileges conferred 
by his predecessors, and which have been also con- 
firmed by subsequent monarchs, is vested in a provost, 
four bailies, and eight councillors, assisted by a trea- 
surer, master of shore-works, master of kirk and bridge 
works, master of the guild brethren's hospital, mas- 
ter of mortifications, and a dean of guild. There 
are seven incorporated trades, viz., the hammermen, 
bakers, wrights and coopers, tailors, shoemakers, 
weavers, and fieshers. The burgesses are entitled to 
numerous privileges, among which are, freedom to 
trade, and exemption from all tolls and customs on 
goods brought into the town for their own use. 
The corporation are patrons of the city churches, and 
of the professorships of mathematics and divinity in 
Marischal College, and have the presentation to thirty- 
six bursaries in that establishment ; they are also pa- 
trons of the grammar-school, and various other schools, 
and of the charitable endowments in the city. The 
burgesses are separated into two classes ; burgesses 
of guild, who are entitled to trade in all branches of 
merchandise, but not to exercise any craft ; and free- 
men of the seven incorporated trades, who have the pri- 
vilege of exercising their respective crafts. The fees 
paid by strangers on becoming guild burgesses are £35, 
and by the sons of burgesses, £12; the fees paid by 
strangers on becoming trade burgesses are £11. 12. 2., 
and by sons of freemen, 10s. for the eldest, and £1. 10. 
for the younger. The jurisdiction of the magistrates 
extends over the whole of the city and royalty, and they 
hold a bailie court every Saturday, for civil actions to 
any amount, in which they are assisted by an assessor, 
appointed for that purpose, who is generally an advo- 
cate of Aberdeen. The sheriff, however, exercises a con- 
current, jurisdiction with the magistrates, and since the 
establishment of the sheriff's small-debt court, the civil 
business of the bailie court has been very much dimi- 
nished. The police establishment is considered to be 
fully sufficient for all purposes connected with its insti- 
tution, and is under the controul of commissioners 
elected by the nine wards, into which the police dis- 
trict was divided by the act of 1S29. The city was 
formerly the head of a district, including the burghs 
of Arbroath, Montrose, Brechin, and Bervie, in con- 
junction with which it returned one member to the im- 
15 



perial parliament. At present, Aberdeen of itself sends 
a representative to the house of commons ; and the 
right of election, previously in the magistrates and 
council, is, by the Reform act, vested in the resident 
£10 householders. The annual value of real property 
in the city assessed to the Income tax for the year end- 
ing April, 1843, was £96,588 ; the amount for the parish 
of Old Aberdeen was £67,192; and the total sum for 
the county of Aberdeen was £603,968. 

The Town House, built at various periods, is situated 
on the north side of Castle-street, and has undergone 
frequent alterations ; in 1750, the appearance of the 
front was greatly improved. It has five spacious and 
handsome windows, and above the roof is a tower, sur- 
mounted by a spire 120 feet in height. The town- 
hall is about 47 feet in length, and 29 feet wide, and 
is embellished with an elegant mantel-piece of variegated 
marble, executed in Holland, above which is a perspec- 
tive view of the city, taken from the lands of Torrie ; 
the walls are hung with a full-length portrait of Queen 
Anne, by Sir Godfrey Kneller, and full-length portraits 
of the Earl and Countess Findlater by Alexander; a 
portrait of Provost James Hadden by Pickersgill, and 
one of Provost James Blaikie by Phillips. The hall, 
which is appropriated to the meetings of the magis- 
trates and council, is, on public occasions, brilliantly 
lighted by three elegant cut-glass chandeliers, suspended 
from the ceiling, and by twelve sconces on the walls. 
In the upper part of the building, on the west, is the 
town armoury, in which are deposited 300 muskets, a 
very ancient coat of mail, the staff of the banner 
borne by the citizens at Harlaw, and the furniture of 
the provost's charger, when he attended the coronation 
of Charles I. at Edinburgh. The County Buildings, in 
Union-street, erected in 1S20, at the joint expense of 
the counties of Aberdeen and Banff, for festive meet- 
ings, at a cost of £1 1,500, is a handsome structure of 
finely-dressed granite, in the Grecian style of architec- 
ture, with a stately portico of the Ionic order ; the 
interior contains a spacious assembly-room, richly deco- 
rated, card, tea, and supper rooms, and various other 
apartments. 

The Town Gaol, adjoining the town-house, has been 
considerably enlarged ; above the entrance, is a strong 
vaulted chamber, in which are deposited the records 
and archives of the town, the church registers, and 
other valuable documents. The City Bridewell was 
erected at an expense of £12,000, on a site of two 
Scotch acres on the confines of the town, and was opened 
in 1809; it is a handsome structure in the castellated 
style, surrounded with a wall fourteen feet in height. 
The edifice contains five stories, of which part of the 
uppermost is used as an hospital, and the interior is 
divided, throughout its whole length, by a gallery, on one 
side of which are dormitories, and on the other cells for 
labour; the whole number of cells is 109, each 8 feet 
long, and 7 feet wide. The building is warmed by- 
steam, and lighted with gas ; and adjoining the rear, is 
the governor's house, containing a committee-room for 
the meeting of the magistrates, a chapel, and apart- 
ments for a surgeon, in addition to the requisite accom- 
modations for the governor, matron, and other officers 
necessary for the performance of the various duties of 
the establishment. The prisoners are employed in pro- 
fitable labour. 



A B E R 



A B E R 




TO 

Seal and Arms. 



The university of Maris- 
chal College was founded 
in 1593, under a charter of 
James VI., by George Keith, 
filth earl-marischal of Scot- 
land, who endowed it with 
the church, conventual build- 
ings, and lands of the Fran- 
ciscan monastery, which had 
been presented to him for 
that purpose, by the magis- 
trates and council of the 
city, and with the lands, 
tenements, and other property of the Dominican and 
Carmelite convents situated respectively on the School- 
hill and the Green, and which had been demolished 
at the Reformation. The original endowment was 
augmented by a grant of £300 per annum, by 
William III., payable out of the bishops' rents of 
Aberdeen and Moray, and by a grant of £105 per 
annum, by Queen Anne ; and it has since been in- 
creased by royal grants, for the foundation of additional 
professorships, and by donations and bequests from 
various individuals, for the foundation of bursaries and 
lectureships. The primary establishment consisted of a 
principal, three regents in philosophy and languages, 
six bursars, an oeconomus, and other officers ; but, as 
at present constituted, the university consists of a chan- 
cellor, generally a nobleman of high rank, who is 
elected by the senatus academicus, and holds his office 
for life ; a rector, elected periodically by the suppositi 
of the university ; a dean of faculty, elected by the 
senatus academicus and the senior minister of Aber- 
deen ; and a principal, who is appointed by the crown. 
There are thirteen professorships, of which the Greek, 
civil and natural history, natural philosophy, and moral 
philosophy and logic, were founded in 1593, at the ori- 
ginal institution of the university ; and those of mathe- 
matics, divinity, oriental languages, church history, 
humanity, medicine, chemistry, anatomy, and surgery, 
at subsequent periods. Of these professorships, that of 
divinity, founded in 1615, by Mr. Patrick Copland, a 
dissenting minister at Norton, in the county of North- 
ampton, and that of mathematics, founded in 1613, by 
Dr. Duncan Liddell, are in the patronage of the town 
council; that of oriental languages, founded in 1723, by 
the Rev. Gilbert Ramsay, rector of Christ Church, 
Barbadoes, is in the patronage of his descendant, Sir A. 
Ramsay, of Balmaine ; and all the others are in the 
patronage of the crown. There are also lectureships on 
practical religion, the evidences of Christianity, Scottish 
law and conveyancing, botany, materia medica, insti- 
tutes of medicine, midwifery, medical jurisprudence, 
comparative anatomy, and agriculture ; the lectureship 
on practical religion is in the patronage of the trustees 
of Mr. Gordon, of Murtle ; on Scottish law and con- 
veyancing, in the patronage of the Society of Advocates ; 
on agriculture, in that of the magistrates of Aberdeen, 
and all the others in the patronage of the college. 
Attached to the university are likewise 115 bursaries, 
varying in value from £5 to £30 each per annum, 
tenable for four years, and of which more than 60 are 
open to general competition, and 36 in the patronage of 
the town council ; the average number of students is 
about 400. 
16 



The university Libranj, now very extensive and valu- 
able, consisted originally of the books belonging to 
St. Nicholas' church, among which were several pre- 
viously in the ancient monasteries, comprising the lives 
of the fathers of the church, and some volumes of the 
classics in manuscript. The collection has been greatly 
increased by successive donations, of which the most 
considerable was that of Mr. Thomas Reid, Latin secre- 
tary to James VI., who, in the course of his travels, had 
purchased the best editions of the classics, with the most 
celebrated works of the ancient philosophers, lawyers, 
andx;ritics, and numerous valuable MSS., all of which 
he bequeathed to the university, in which he was edu- 
cated, with a sum of money as a fund for its further 
improvement, and for a salary to the librarian. In 
1782, the Earl of Bute, then chancellor, presented to 
the library a collection of 1400 volumes; and it was 
subsequently enlarged by the collections of Sir "William 
Fordyce and Professor Donaldson. The Museum contains 
numerous specimens in the various departments of natu- 
ral history, and many artificial curiosities, among which 
are, an Egyptian mummy ; an antique statue of Escula- 
pius, in white marble, two feet in height ; the staff of 
office of the earls-marischal of Scotland; a box of gold pre- 
sented to the university by the Earl of Buchan, in 1769, 
including a silver pen, which is awarded as a prize to 
the most successful student of the Greek class ; the 
dies for a gold medal of two ounces in weight, given by 
the late John Gray, Esq., of London, to be presented to 
such of his mathematical bursars as should distinguish 
themselves in acquirements ; the various apparatus for 
the illustration of natural history ; and the common 
seal of the university, bearing the arms of the maris- 
chal family, and of those of the city of Aberdeen im- 
paled, with the crest a meridian sun, and the motto 
Luceo. The Observatory, formerly on the Castle-hill, at 
a distance from the college, was removed on the erec- 
tion of the present barracks, and government granted to 
the university a sum of money, towards the building of 
another within the precincts of the college, which was 
completed in 1840. It contains a universal equatorial 
circle, a transit instrument, a moveable quadrant of two 
feet radius, an achromatic telescope with refraction ap- 
paratus, reflecting telescopes, an orrery, and various 
other astronomical instruments, with a clock striking 
the seconds within the hearing of the observer, and an 
astronomical clock exhibiting the motions of the celes- 
tial bodies. 

The Buildings of the university, originally the Fran- 
ciscan monastery, several portions of which were rapidly 
falling into decay, were taken down in 1838 ; and the 
present elegant structure, towards the erection of which 
government made a grant of £15,000, was completed at 
an expense of £25,000. The principal front of the pre- 
sent buildings, on the east side of Broad-street, occupies 
three sides of a quadrangle, and is in the later style of 
English architecture ■ the central range is ornamented 
with a stately square tower, with octagonal turrets at the 
angles, surmounted by minarets crowned with ogee 
domes, crocketed, and terminating in flowered finials. 
Above the doorway, is a noble oriel window of two 
stages, and on each side are three open arches, leading 
into the interior portion of the structure, above which 
are windows of two lights, cinquefoiled, and surmounted 
with square-headed dripstones. The wings, which are 



A B E R 



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also two stories high, are lighted by ranges of windows 
of corresponding style, and at the angles are octagonal 
turrets, rising to the parapets, and crowned with lofty 
minarets similar to those of the principal tower. The 
buildings contain a public hall, library, museum, and 
observatory, with spacious class-rooms and other apart- 
ments. In the hall are portraits of the earl-marischal, 
founder of the university, the last earl, and his brother, 
Field-Marshal Keith ; of Bishop Burnet, the Earl of 
Bute, Sir Robert Gordon of Straloch, Dr. Arthur John- 
ston, Sir Paul Menzies, provost of Aberdeen, and others, 
by the celebrated artist, Jamieson. 

The city originally constituted the parish of St. Ni- 
cholas alone, which was divided by the authority of the 
Court of Teinds, in 182S, into the six separate parishes 
of East, West, North, South, the Grey Friars, and 
St. Clement. The parish of the East Kirk, situated in 
the centre of the city, contains a population of 479S ; the 
minister's stipend is £300, paid by the corporation, who 
are patrons of the whole of the six churches, and receive 
the seat-rents, and apply them to church purposes. 
The church, originally the choir of the collegiate church 
of St. Nicholas, was rebuilt in 1S37, at an expense of 
£5000 ; it is a handsome structure in the later English 
style, 86 feet in length, and is separated from the West 
church, which formed the western portion of the old 
edifice, by the lofty arches of the tower. Externally, 
the two churches are connected, and embellished with 
an elegant facade of granite, 160 feet in length : the East 
church contains 1*05 sittings. There are places of wor- 
ship for United Secession and Original Burgher congre- 
gations, and an episcopal chapel dedicated to St. Paul, 
erected in 1722, at an expense of £1000; there are also 
places of worship for Wesleyans, Glassites, Unitarians, 
and United Christians. The parish of West Kirk contains 
a population of 10,166 ; the minister's stipend is £300, 
paid by the corporation. The church, originally the 
nave of the ancient church of St. Nicholas, is separated 
from the East church by the arches of the tower, which 
is surmounted by a lofty spire 143 feet high; the West 
church was enlarged in 1836, and now contains 1454 
sittings. There are places of worship for Independents 
and members of the Relief Congregation. The parish 
of North Kirk is situated within the town, and contains 
a population of 5381 ; the minister's stipend is £300, 
paid by the corporation. The church is a handsome 
structure of dressed granite, in the Grecian style, 
with a lofty tower, and an elegant portico of the Ionic 
order, erected in 1S31, by the corporation, and contain- 
ing I486 sittings. There are a place of worship for In- 
dependents, a Roman Catholic chapel, an episcopal 
chapel dedicated to St. John, and one dedicated to St. 
Andrew, a handsome structure in the later English 
style, erected in 1817, at an expense of £S000. The 
parish of South Kirk is situated within the town, and 
contains a population of 3934 , the minister's stipend is 
£250, paid by the corporation. The church, originally 
a chapel of ease, was rebuilt in 1831, at an expense of 
£4544, and contains 1562 sittings. There are places of 
worship for members of the United Secession Congrega- 
tion and for Independents. The parish of the Grey 
Friars is wholly in the town, and contains a population 
of 5356 ; the minister's stipend is £250, paid by the 
corporation. The church, formerly the conventual 
church of the monastery of the Grey Friars, is a very 
Vol. I.— 17 



ancient structure, enlarged and improved some years 
since, and contains 1042 sittings. There is a place of 
worship for the Society of Friends. The parish of St. 
Clement is to the south-east of the town, in the district 
of Futtie, and contains a population of 7092 ; the 
minister's stipend is £250, arising principally from 
bequeathed lands. The church, erected in 1787, on the 
site of an ancient chapel, was afterwards rebuilt, on a 
larger scale, at an expense of £2600 ; it is capable of 
accommodating 1300 persons. The Union quoad sacra 
parish, which, like similar ecclesiastical districts in 
other parts of the country, has been dissolved, was 
separated from the parishes of East Kirk and St. Cle- 
meut in 1834, and contained a population of 2790; 
the church was built by subscription, in 1822, at an 
expense of £2600, and contains 1238 sittings ; a chapel 
for seamen, also, was built in the same year, at an ex- 
pense of £S00, by the Seamen's Friend Society, and 
contains 570 sittings, all of which are free. The quoad 
sacra parish of Spring-Garden was separated from the 
parish of West Kirk, and annexed to a Gaelic church, 
in 1834, and contained a population of 1887; the 
church was built in 1795, by subscription and loan, 
and contains 700 sittings. The quoad sacra parish of 
the Holy Trinity was separated from the parish of South 
Kirk, in 1834, and contained a population of 205S ; the 
church was erected in 1*94, at an expense of £1700, 
and contains 1247 sittings. The quoad sacra parish of 
John Knox, separated from the parish of the Grey Friars, 
in 1836, contained a population of 3377; the church 
was built by subscription, at a cost of £1000, and con- 
tains 1054 sittings. Places of worship for members of 
the Free Church have been built in different parts of 
the city : of these, three are at the head of the Mutton 
Brae, connected together, and surmounted by a lofty 
and elegant spire. 

Tlie Grammar School is of such remote antiquity that 
the origin of its foundation is not distinctly known ; in 
1418, Andrew de Syves, vicar of Bervie, who had been 
master for some years, died, and the school, since that 
period, has continued to prosper under a succession of 
masters, whose salaries have gradually increased from 
£5 Scotch to 600 merks per annum. It appears to have 
been supported by various donations, and small fees 
paid by the scholars, till 1634, when Dr. Patrick Dun, 
principal of Marischal College, bequeathed the lands of 
Ferryhill, for the support of four masters, of which pro- 
perty he appropriated one-half of the proceeds to the 
head master or rector, and the remainder to be equally 
divided among the other three masters. The school is 
under the patronage of the corporation, the ministers of 
the town, and the professors of Marischal College, by 
whom the masters are appointed, with preference to 
those of the name of Dun ; the course of instruction 
comprises the Greek and Latin classics, the French 
language, history, geography, arithmetic, and the mathe- 
matics. The salary of the rector is £100, and that of 
the other masters £50 each, with the fees of their 
respective classes, amounting to 13s. id. for each pupil, 
with the exception of the sons of poor tenants on the 
Ferryhill property, who are taught gratuitously ; there 
are about 200 scholars in attendance. The buildings, 
erected in 1757, form three sides of a quadrangle, with 
two additional wings in the rear. Gordon's Hospital, 
for the maintenance and education of the sons of de- 

D 



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A B E R 



cayed burgesses, was founded in 1732, by Robert Gor- 
don, Esq., who, by deed, conveyed the whole of his 
property, amounting to £10,300, to the provost and 
council of the city, and the ministers of Aberdeen, who 
erected a handsome building on the ground, formerly 
belonging to the Dominican friary, on School-hill, which 
had been purchased by Mr. Gordon ; but the funds, 
which had been much reduced by the erection of the 
building, were suffered to accumulate till 1750, when the 
hospital was opened, and 30 boys admitted on the foun- 
dation. The number gradually increased to 80 ; and in 
1816, Alexander Simpson, Esq., of Collie-hill, bequeathed 
to the principal and professors of Marischal College, and 
the ministers of Aberdeen, lands in the parishes of New 
and Old Deer, for the maintenance and education of an 
additional number of boys, for which purpose the build- 
ing was enlarged, by the addition of two wings, at an 
expense of £14,000, and 50 more boys were admitted. 
The buildings consist of a central range, connected with 
the wings by a handsome colonnade, and surmounted 
by a small neat spire ; over the principal entrance, in a 
niche, is a statue of the founder, in white marble ; in 
the hall is a full-length portrait, and in the public school- 
room a half-length portrait of the founder. The Boys' 
Hospital originated in the separation from the Poor's hos- 
pital of the adult inmates and girls, and the subsequent 
appropriation of the remaining part of the funds to the 
maintenance and education of poor boys, of whom 25 
were admitted in 1768, since which time the number has 
been increased to 50, who are clothed, maintained, and 
taught the ordinary branches of learning. The Girls' 
Hospital, upon a similar plan, was instituted in 1 829, and 
is supported by subscription and annual collections ; 
30 girls are clothed, maintained, and instructed, till 
they are 14 years of age, when they are placed out to 
service. Dr. Bell, of Madras, bequeathed to the magis- 
trates and council £10,000 -three per cents., for the 
support of schools upon his system ; and two have been 
consequently established, in one of which are 400 boys, 
and in the other 300 girls. Schools on the Lancasterian 
plan were also opened in 1815, in which, for some years, 
were 450 boys and the same number of girls ; but, 
since the establishment of the Madras schools, the num- 
ber of scholars has been reduced to less than one-half. 
In addition to these institutions, there are nearly 40 
parochial and other schools in the town and neighbour- 
hood, in which the fees vary from two to five shillings per 
quarter, and the aggregate number of scholars amounts 
to nearly 4000 ; there are also week-day evening schools, 
in which the number of scholars is about 700, and 20 
Sabbath-schools, in which there are 2000 scholars. 

The House of Refuge was established in 1S36, by sub- 
scription, aided by a donation of £1000 from George 
Watt, Esq., and is supported by annual contributions; 
the number of inmates, in 1839, was 420, of whom 120 
males and 90 females, who were under 14 years of age, 
were instructed in the ordinary branches of a useful 
education. The House of Industry and Magdalen Asylum 
were also founded chiefly by Mr. Watt, who, for that 
purpose, conveyed to trustees the property of Old Mill, 
producing a rental of £164. The Deaf and Dumb Insti- 
tution was established by subscription, in 1819; but, 
from the inadequacy of the funds, only one-half of the 
expense of maintenance is afforded to the inmates, who 
generally derive the remainder from other charitable 
18 



funds ; the management is vested in a committee, and 
the teacher is allowed to receive private boarders, who 
are not chargeable to the funds. The Infirmary was 
first established in 1739. by subscription, aided by a 
grant of £36 per annum by the magistrates, who also 
gave a site for the erection of the building, which was 
partly effected in 1760, when 48 patients were admitted. 
An addition to the building, in 1820, increased the num- 
ber to 70, and in 1833, the managers resolved to erect 
an edifice on a larger scale, which was accomplished in 
1835, at an expense of £8500, and the institution adapted 
for the reception of 210 patients. The government by 
charter, is vested in the magistrates, the professor of 
medicine in Marischal College, and the moderator of the 
synod of Aberdeen, who, with all benefactors of £50 
each, constitute the body of directors, of whom sixteen, 
chosen annually, form a committee of management ; 
there are two physicians, two surgeons, a resident sur- 
geon, and an apothecary. The buildings are spacious, 
and well ventilated ; there are twenty wards of large 
dimensions, and eleven apartments for cases requiring 
separate treatment and attendance ; the income averages 
£2500. A. dispensary was originally established in 
connexion with the infirmary, and partly supported 
from the same funds ; but, subsequently, dispensaries 
were opened, and maintained by subscription, of which 
there were three in the town, and two in the suburbs ; 
these, in IS23, were incorporated into one institution 
called the General Dispensary. 

The Lunatic Asylum was first instituted in 1799, and 
a building erected for the purpose at a cost of £34S4, 
towards which the magistrates, as trustees of Mr. Car- 
gill's charity, contributed £1130, on condition of being 
permitted to send ten pauper patients gratuitously ; and 
for the reception of an increasing number of patients, 
and their requisite classification, some ground adjoining 
the asylum was purchased, and an additional building 
erected, in 1819, at a cost of £13,135, towards which 
the governors appropriated a bequest of £10,000 by 
John Forbes, Esq. In 1836, about eleven acres of land 
were purchased for £3000, in the cultivation of which 
many of the patients are engaged ; several workshops 
have also been erected for such as show any predilec- 
tion for mechanical pursuits, and to these are added the 
powerful influences of religious worship, for which a 
chapel has been erected. John Gordon, Esq., of Murtle, 
in 1815, bequeathed considerable property to trustees, 
for pious and charitable uses, of which the)' assigned 
£100 per annum to the lecturers on practical religion 
in King's and Marischal Colleges, £150 to aged female 
servants, £150 towards the support of Sunday schools. 
£300 for the establishment of an hospital for female 
orphans, and the residue in annual donations to the 
Deaf and Dumb Society, and other institutions. Mr. 
John Carnegie, in 1835, left nearly £8000 to trustees, 
for the establishment of an Orphan Hospital for females, 
and in 1836, Mrs. Elmslie, of London, bequeathed for 
the same purpose £26,000 ; with these funds, an appro- 
priate building has been erected, on the west side of 
the town, and properly endowed. The Asylum for the 
Indigent Blind was instituted in 1818, by the trustees of 
Miss Cruickshank, who devoted the bulk of her pro- 
perty to that purpose, which, after the funds had been 
suffered for some years to accumulate, has been carried 
into effect, and an appropriate building erected. An 



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hospital for the maintenance and education of five 
orphan or destitute boys, and as many girls, and for 
which, at present, a house has been hired in the Gal- 
lowgate, was founded by a bequest of Alexander Shaw, in 
the year 1807. The boys are apprenticed, and the girls 
placed out as servants ; the former, on the expiration 
of their indentures, and the latter after five years' ser- 
vice in the sarne family, receive a premium of £10. 
There are also numerous religious societies. Among 
the most Eminent Natives may be noticed, John Barbour, 
archdeacon of Aberdeen in 1330, and author of a me- 
trical history of Robert Bruce; George Jamieson, a por- 
trait-painter, who was born in 1586, and painted more 
than 100 portraits of the principal nobility and gentry, 
which are held in high estimation; David Anderson, 
distinguished for his mechanical genius, and who, in 
1618, greatly improved the harbour by the removal of a 
large rock which lay in the middle of the channel, and 
obstructed the entrance ; James Gregory, inventor of 
the refleoting-telescope, born in 1638, and educated at 
Marischal College; James Gibbs, born in 16SS, the 
architect of the church of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, 
London ; John Gregory, born in 1724, "professor of 
medicine in King's College, and afterwards of Edin- 
burgh, where he was succeeded by his son, Dr. James 
Gregory, also a native of this place ; and John Ramage, 
eminent for his practical skill in the construction of 
reflecting-telescopes, of which he made one now in the 
Royal Observatory, which, though greatly inferior in size, 
is nearly equal in power to Herschel's celebrated forty- 
feet reflector. Connected with the town are also, Dr. 
Robert Hamilton, professor of natural philosophy, and 
afterwards of mathematics, in Marischal College, and 
author of a valued essay on the national debt ; Dr. Patrick 
Copland, likewise professor of mathematics and natural 
philosophy in the college, of which he enriched the 
museum with apparatus and models of his own con- 
struction ; and Dr. Beattie and the late Lord Byron, 
who were residents of Aberdeen. The city gives the 
title of Earl to a branch of the Gordon family. 

ABERDEEN, OLD, or 
Old Mach AR,a parish, chiefly 
without, but partly within, 
the city of Aberdeen, county 
of Aberdeen ; comprising 
the quoad sacra districts 
of Bon-Accord, Gilcomston, 
'^^ Holburn,and Woodside; and 
containing 28,020 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 7570 are in the 
quoad sacra district of Old 
Aberdeen. This place, origi- 
nally a small hamlet, consist- 
J ng only of a few scattered cottages, was, from the erec- 
tion of a chapel near the ancient bridge of Seaton by St. 
Machar, in the ninth century, called the Kirktown of 
Seaton, but was undistinguished by any event of import- 
ance, till the year 1137, when it became the seat of a 
diocese, on the removal of the see of Aberdeen, by 
David I., from Mortlach, in the county of Banff, where 
it was originally founded by Malcolm II., and had con- 
tinued for more than 120 years. Bishop Kinnimond, 
at that time prelate of the see, founded a cathedral 
church on the site of the ancient chapel of St. Machar, 
which, towards the end of the 13th century, was taken 
19 




Burgh Seal. 



down by Bishop Cheyne, for the purpose of erecting a 
structure of more ample dimensions, and of more ap- 
propriate character; but, in the contested succession to 
the throne of Scotland, becoming an adherent of Baliol, 
he was compelled to retire into exile, and the rebuilding 
of the cathedral was suspended. On the establishment 
of Robert Bruce, however, that monarch recalled the 
exiled bishop, who recommenced the work, which was 
continued by his successors, of whom Bishop Elphin- 
stone, the founder of King's College, with the assistance 
of James IV., made rapid progress in the rebuilding of 
the cathedral, which was completed by Bishop Dunbar, 
in 1518, and, since the abolition of episcopacy in Scot- 
land, has been appropriated as the parish church. 

The town is pleasantly situated on a gentle eminence 
near the river Don, over which is an ancient picturesque 
bridge of one lofty arch, in the early English style, said 
to have been built by Bishop Cheyne, though by others 
ascribed to King Robert Bruce, and concerning which, 
under the appellation of the Brig of Balgvwnie, a tra- 
ditionary legend prophetic of its downfall is quoted by 
Lord Byron. Considerably to the east of this, is an- 
other bridge, affording a passage from Aberdeen to the 
north, and which was erected from the funds for keep- 
ing the old bridge in repair, originally left for that pur- 
pose by Sir Alexander Hay, and which, from £2. 5. 6., 
had accumulated to £20,000 ; it is a handsome struc- 
ture of five arches, built of granite. The principal 
street, which consists of houses irregularly built, ex- 
tends from south to north, to the town-house, where 
it diverges into two branches, the one leading to the 
church, and the other to the old bridge ; the streets are 
lighted, and the inhabitants are well supplied with water 
by commissioners appointed by the rate-payers. The 
environs are extremely pleasant, and richly wooded ; 
and in the immediate vicinity of the town are nume- 
rous villas. On the establishment of the see at this 
place, the town was made a burgh of barony, by 
charter of David I. ; and the various privileges con- 
ferred upon it by subsequent sovereigns were confirmed 
by charter of George I., who granted the inhabitants 
the power of choosing their own magistrates. The 
government is vested, by charter, in a provost, four 
bailies, a treasurer, and council of eight merchant and 
five trade-burgesses, assisted by a town-clerk, procu- 
rator-fiscal, and other officers. There are seven incor- 
porated trades, viz., the hammermen, weavers, tailors, 
wrights and coopers, bakers and brewers, fleshers and 
fishers, and shoemakers, who elect their own deacons, 
and also a deacon convener ; the fees on entrance to 
these trades, which confers the privilege of carrying on 
trade in the burgh, are £8, and a payment of £3 to the 
court of conveners, and for a merchant-burgess £5. 7- 
The jurisdiction of the magistrates extends over the 
whole burgh, but is seldom exercised ; not more than 
two civil causes have been determined in one year ; in 
criminal cases, their jurisdiction is limited to petty mis- 
demeanours, and all more serious offences are referred 
to the sheriffs' court. The burgh, for electoral purposes, 
is associated with Aberdeen, and the right of election, 
under the Reform act, is vested in the resident £10 
householders of the place ; the number of members 
of all the several guilds does not in the aggregate ex- 
ceed 120, and of these not more than fifteen exercise 
any trade. The town-hall, which is situated at the 

D 2 



ABER 



ABER 




northern extremity of the principal street, was built by 
subscription, in 1/02, and has been since rebuilt ; it 
contains a spacious hall for public meetings, a council- 
room for the occasional use of the magistrates, and 
various other apartments. In the upper floor is the 
grammar school, and on the ground floor a school for 
English. Opposite to the town-hall was formerly an 
ancient cross, consisting of a pedestal bearing the arms 
of the Bishops Dunbar, Stewart, and Gordon, from 
which rose a pillar surmounted by an effigy of the Virgin 
Mary; but this was removed on the rebuilding of the 
hall. 

Since the dissolution of 
the episcopal see, the town 
has owed its chief prosperity 
and support to its university, 
which was founded by Bishop 
Elphinstone, in the reign of 
James IV., who for that pur- 
pose procured a bull from 
Pope Alexander VI. ; the 
college was first dedicated to 
St. Mary, but, from the great 

liberality of the monarch in 

, J . .. , Seal or the University. 

its endowment, it was subse- J " 

quently called King's College, which designation it 
has ever since retained. The first principal of the 
college was Hector Boethius, the celebrated historian, 
under whom, and his successors, it continued to flou- 
rish till the Reformation, at which time many of its 
functionaries were expelled. In 1578, the institution 
received a charter from the parliament, after which it 
languished, under the gross mismanagement of its prin- 
cipals, who sold the ornaments of the chapel, alienated 
the revenues for their own emolument, and committed 
other abuses. In 1619, however, Bishop Forbes, by great 
perseverance, recovered part of the alienated property, 
and restored several of the professorships, to which, in 
1628, he added a professorship of divinity, which was 
afterwards held by his son. From this time, the insti- 
tution revived, and continued to flourish till the intro- 
duction of the covenant, for refusing to sign which 
several of the professors were expelled, among whom 
was Dr. Forbes, the divinity professor. Many of the 
new professors appointed by the Covenanters, were, in 
their turn, ejected by Cromwell, under whom General 
Monk dispatched Colonels Desborough, Fenwick, and 
others, to visit and reform the college ; but these 
officers, though they removed some of the professors, 
and appointed others, still promoted the general inte- 
rests of the establishment, and subscribed liberally 
towards the erection of houses for the students. After 
the restoration of Charles II., the bishops of Aberdeen 
assumed their authority as chancellors of the univer- 
sity, and reformed the disorders which had been intro- 
duced during the interregnum. The university, as at 
present constituted, is under the direction of a chan- 
cellor, generally a nobleman of high rank, who is elected 
by the senatus academicus ; a rector, chosen by the 
same body; and a principal and sub-principal, elected 
by the rector, procuratores gentium, and the pro- 
fessors, and admitted by the chancellor. There are 
nine professorships, of which those of Greek, humanity, 
medicine and chemistry, and civil law, are in the pa- 
tronage of the rector, procuratores, and senatus acade- 
20 



micus; divinity in that of the synod of Aberdeen, the 
principal and dean of faculty of theology ; those of 
mathematics, natural philosophy, and moral philosophy, 
in the patronage of the senatus academicus ; and that 
of oriental languages, in the patronage of the crown. 
There are also eleven lectureships, of which that on 
practical religion is in the patronage of the trustees of 
John Gordon, Esq., of Murtle, the founder ; and those 
on the evidences and principles of the Christian religion, 
Murray's Sunday lectures, materia medica, anatomy 
aud physiology, surgery, practice of medicine, mid- 
wifery, institutes of medicine, medical jurisprudence, 
and botany, are all in the patronage of the senatus 
academicus. The number of bursaries is above 150, 
varying from £5 to £50 per annum, mostly tenable for 
four years ; of these, 96 are open to public competition, 
and the others are in the patronage of the professors of 
the college, or representatives of the founders. 

The site of the college occupies a quadrangular area 
of considerable extent, surrounded with buildings raised 
at diEFerent periods, of which the most ancient were 
erected in 1500, and the whole possesses a strikingly 
venerable appearance. In the north-west angle, is a 
lofty massive tower, strengthened with canopied but- 
tresses, bearing the royal arms of Scotland, and those 
of Stewart, Archbishop of St. Andrew's, and others ; 
above the parapet is a lantern, supported by flying but- 
tresses springing from the angles, in the form of an 
imperial crown. On the north side of the quadrangle is 
the ancient chapel erected by Bishop Elphinstone, origi- 
nally a stately structure of elegant design, with a lofty 
spire, and internally embellished with most costly orna- 
ments, which, as before noticed, were sold by the par- 
liamentarian functionaries ; the nave is now appropriated 
to the use of the college library, and the chancel to the 
purposes of a college chapel. There are still remaining, 
in the former portion, many traces of its pristine beauty, 
and an inventory in Latin of the various ornaments of 
the chapel ; and in the chancel are the rich tabernacle 
work of the prebendal stalls, the pews for the diocesan 
synod, the carved oak roof, and the tombs of Bishop El- 
phinstone and the first principal, Boethius. The south 
side of the quadrangle, rebuilt by Dr. Fraser, in 1725, is 
of plain character, 112 feet in length, with a piazza in 
front, and at each extremity was a circular tower, of 
which one only is remaining. The common hall, which 
is 60 feet in length, and 23 feet wide, contains numerous 
portraits by Jamieson, including those of Bishops 
Elphinstone, Dunbar, Forbes, Leslie, and Scougal, Pro- 
fessors Sandiland and Gordon, George Buchanan, and 
Queen Mary ; and in the committee-room is a painting, 
on panel, of the college as it appeared in the sixteenth 
century. The library contains a very valuable and ex- 
tensive collection of books and manuscripts, and was 
formerly entitled to a copy of every work entered at 
Stationers' Hall, of which privilege it was deprived, by 
act of parliament, in 1836, and, in compensation, has 
since received an annual grant of £3'20. The museum 
contains a large collection of specimens in mineralogy 
and zoology, numerous Grecian and Roman coins and 
antiquities, casts from ancient gems, and some valuable 
books of engravings illustrative of these subjects ; this 
department was, in 1790, enriched with the coins and 
medals bequeathed by Dr. Cummin, of Andover, and 
has been subsequently increased by numerous specimens. 



ABEIl 



A B E II 



A commodious room, in the more modern portion of 
the building, was handsomely fitted up by subscription, 
in 1842, as a museum of natural history. Among the 
many distinguished individuals connected with the 
university may be noticed, George, Earl Marischal, the 
founder of Marischal College ; Chancellor Gordon, of 
Haddo, created Earl of Aberdeen in 1682; Dr. Thomas 
Bower, an eminent mathematician ; the celebrated Dr. 
Reid, professor of philosophy, and afterwards of Glas- 
gow ; Lord Monboddo ; Dr. Charles Burney, a distin- 
guished Greek scholar; Arthur Johnston, a Latin poet; 
Dr. James Gregory, and his sons, afterwards professors 
of medicine at Edinburgh ; Robert Hall ; and Sir James 
Mackintosh. 

The parish originally formed the deanery of St. 
Machar, and comprehended the parishes of New Ma- 
char and Newhills, which, -soon after the Reformation, 
were separated from it ; the present parish is about 
eight miles in length, and varies from two to four in 
breadth, situated on a peninsula, between the rivers Dee 
and Don. The surface rises gradually from the sea- 
shore, and the scenery is interspersed with flourishing 
plantations, and with the windings of the Dee and Don, 
the banks of which latter are richly wooded, and in 
some parts, from their precipitous acclivity and rugged 
aspect, have a strikingly romantic appearance. The 
higher grounds command extensive views of the German 
Ocean, of the lofty and ancient bridge on the one side, 
and on the other of the cathedral and the spires of 
Aberdeen. The soil is various, in some parts richly 
fertile, and in others almost sterile ; but the lands are 
generally in good cultivation, and the state of agriculture 
highly improved. The parish is in the presbytery and 
synod of Aberdeen, and patronage of the Earl of Fife ; 
the stipend of the first minister is £273. 1. 3., and that 
of the second £282. 19. 9., with a manse, and a glebe 
valued at £31. 10. per annum. The church was for- 
merly an elegant structure, of which the choir, with its 
embellishments, was destroyed by the reformers ; and 
the remainder of the building was preserved from demo- 
lition only by the Earl of Huutlj', and Leslie, of Balqu- 
han, who, at the head of a large body of their armed 
retainers, drove away the band which had been assem- 
bled for its destruction. The interior of the remaining 
portion suffered great mutilation under the Covenanters, 
who destroyed the altar, and the rich carvings and other 
ornaments; and in 1688, the high tower at the east 
end of the nave, which had been undermined by the 
soldiers of Cromwell, through the removal of masonry, 
for the erection of their works at Castle-hill, and which, 
with its spire, 150 feet in height, had long served as a 
landmark to mariners, fell to the ground, destroying, in 
its fall, a considerable portion of the nave, with several 
of the monuments. The great arches on which the 
central tower was supported, have been built up, and 
the two towers at the west end are in good preservation ; 
they are 112 feet high, and, after rising to the height of 
52 feet, in a quadrilateral form, are continued by a suc- 
cession of octangular turrets, decreasing in size till they 
terminate in a finial surmounted by a cross. The ceil- 
ing is divided into forty-eight compartments, in which 
are emblazoned, in vivid colours recently renewed, the 
armorial bearings of the Scottish kings, the ecclesias- 
tical dignitaries, and the principal nobility. Of the 
several monuments still remaining, that of Bishop 
21 



Scougal, father of Henry Scougal, author of the Life of 
God in the Soul of Man, is the most interesting and 
entire ; there are also a monument to William Blake, of 
Haddo, sub-principal of King's College, and tablets to 
Gordon and Scott, professors, and David Mitchell, Esq., 
LL.D. The portion of the building appropriated as the 
parish church, is neatly fitted up, and contains 1594 
sittings ; the chapel in King's College contains 350 
sittings. There are places of worship for members of 
the Free Church. 

The grammar school, which is held in the town-hall, 
is under the patronage of the magistrates and council, 
and is visited annually by the professors of the college, 
and the ministers. The parochial school affords instruc- 
tion to about 70 scholars ; the master has a salary 
of £30, and an equal sum from the trustees of Dick's 
bequest, and the fees average about £30 per annum. 
There are also two schools on the Madras system, 
founded by a bequest of Dr. Bell. An hospital was 
founded in 1531, by Bishop Dunbar, who endowed it 
for twelve aged men ; the buildings consisted of a re- 
fectory, twelve dormitories, and a chapel surmounted 
with a small spire. The endowment has been subse- 
quently increased by donations and bequests, and by 
the proceeds of the sale of the buildings ; the present 
funds are about £3000, from the interest of which 21 
aged men derive relief. An hospital was founded in 
1801, by Dr. Mitchell, for lodging, clothing, and main- 
taining five widows, and five unmarried daughters of 
burgesses in indigent circumstances, for which purpose 
he bequeathed ample funds, in trust, to the principal of 
King's College, the provost, and senior bailie of the 
town, and the two ministers of the parish. The build- 
ing, which is situated near the church, is one story 
high, and contains a kitchen, refectory, and dormitories, 
neatly furnished ; and attached to it is a pleasure- 
ground. A dispensary was established in 1S26. 

ABERDEENSHIRE, a maritime county, in the 
north-east part of Scotland, and one of the most exten- 
sive in the kingdom, bounded on the north by Moray 
Frith; on the east by the German Sea; on the south by 
Perth, Forfar, and Kincardine shires, and on the west by 
the counties of Banff and Inverness. It lies between 56° 
52' and 57° 42' (N. Lat.), and 1° 49' and 3° 48' (W. Lon.), 
and is S6 miles in extreme length, and 42 miles in ex- 
treme breadth; comprising an area of 1985 square 
miles, or 1,270,400 acres; 32,063 inhabited, and 1091 
uninhabited, houses ; and containing a population of 
192,387, of which number 89,707 are males, and 102,6S0 
females. From the time of David I., the county was 
included in the diocese of Aberdeen ; and at present, it 
is almost wholly in the synod of Aberdeen, and includes 
several presbyteries, the whole containing eighty-five pa- 
rishes. For civil purposes, it is divided into eight dis- 
tricts, Aberdeen, Alford, Deer, otherwise Buchan, Ellon, 
Garioch, Kincardine, O'Neil, Strathbogie, and Turriff, 
in each of which, under the superintendence of a deputy 
lieutenant, the county magistrates hold regular courts ; 
and it contains the three royal burghs of Aberdeen, 
Kintore, and Inverury, with the market-towns of Peter- 
head, Fraserburgh, Huntly, Turriff, and Meldrum, and 
numerous large fishing-villages on the coast. Under 
the act of the 2nd of William IV., the county returns 
one member to the imperial parliament. The surface, 
towards the sea, is tolerably level ; but the greater por < 



A B E R 



ABER 



tion forms part of the central highlands, and consists 
of high mountains, interspersed with a few valleys. 
The principal mountains are, the Braeriach, which has 
an elevation of 4304 feet, Ben-Macdhui, Ben-Aburd, Ben- 
Aven, Lochnagar, and Morven, which vary from 2500 
to 4300 in height, with numerous others from 800 to 
2000 feet in height; the chief valleys are the Garioch 
and Strathbogie, the former inclosed on all sides with 
hills of moderate height, and the latter enriched with 
wood, abounding in beautiful scenery, and highly culti- 
vated. The rivers are, the Dee, the Don, the Ythan, 
the Doveran, and the Ugie, but the rapidity of their 
currents renders them comparatively useless for the 
purpose of navigation; they have their sources, gene- 
rally, among the mountains in the south-west, and flow 
towards the north or north-east ; they all abound with 
fine salmon, and fish of every kind is taken on the 
coast. 

About one-third of the lands is under cultivation, 
and the remainder mountain, pasture, and waste. The 
soil, towards the sea, and in the valleys, is rich and fer- 
tile, producing excellent crops of wheat and other grain ; 
and in the more secluded portions of the county, is some 
fine timber, among which are numerous lofty pine-trees, 
fit for the masts of ships ; but, from the want of inland 
navigation, few of them are felled for that purpose. 
Between the Dee and the Ythan, is a low tract of waste, 
on which are some sand- hills that have been lamentably 
destructive of the adjacent lands ; several fertile fields, 
to the north of the Ythan, have been covered, to a great 
extent, with sand blown from these hills, and the walls 
of a church and a manse that have been buried by them, 
are still to be seen. The minerals are quartz and as- 
bestos ; and various gems and pieces of amber are 
found in the mountains : the principal quarries are of 
granite of very superior quality, of which vast quantities 
are annually sent to London and other places, and 
freestone and limestone are also extensively quarried. 
Many of the proprietors reside on their lands, and have 
materially contributed to their improvement, by exten- 
sive plantations, and the introduction of a better system 
of agriculture, and superior breeds of cattle ; and much 
waste land has been brought into cultivation under the 
patronage of the Highland Society. The chief seats are, 
Haddo House, Aboyne Castle, Huntly Lodge, Slains 
Castle, Keith Hall, Mar Lodge, Delgaty Castle, Skene, 
Castle-Forbes, Philorth House, Monymusk, Ellon Castle, 
Fintray House, Fyvie Castle, Gordon Lodge, and Castle- 
Frazer. The coast is bold and rocky, with some alter- 
nations of level beach. The most prominent headlands, 
on the Moray Frith, are, Rosehearty Point and Kin- 
naird Head; and on the German Sea, Cairnbulg Point, 
Rattray Head, Scotstown Point, Invernetty Point, and 
Buchan Ness ; and the chief bays, in the former, are, 
the harbour of Rosehearty, and the bay of Fraserburgh ; 
and in the latter, Peterhead Bay, Cruden Bay, Sandy 
Haven, Long Haven, Garrick's Haven, and the bay of 
Aberdeen. Facility of communication is maintained by 
good roads, some of which were made under the autho- 
rity of the commissioners for the Highland roads and 
bridges, appointed by act of parliament. 

ABERDOUR, a parish, in the district of Deer, 
county of Aberdeen; comprising the village of Pen- 
nan, and containing 1645 inhabitants, of whom 376 
are in the village of New Aberdour, 8 miles (W. by S.) 
22 



from Fraserburgh. The name of this place is supposed 
to have been derived from a Gaelic term Aber, signify- 
ing "mouth" or "opening," in reference to the rivulet 
Dour, which finds an entrance into the sea, a short dis- 
tance below the manse. There are numerous cairns 
and tumuli, containing stone coffins with the ashes and 
bones of human bodies, indicating the parish to have 
been originally the theatre of military conflicts ; and 
the castle of Dundargue, also, stands here, which Sir 
Thomas Beaumont fortified and garrisoned, in right of 
his wife, who was daughter to the Earl of Buchan, when 
he accompanied Edward Baliol, who came to claim the 
kingdom of Scotland. This castle was of great import- 
ance in the feudal times, and is famed for a long siege 
in 1336, when Henry de Beaumont, the English Earl of 
Buchan, capitulated to Murray, Regent of Scotland, 
during the captivity of David Bruce. On the coast is a 
cave called Covvshaven, which is celebrated as the hiding- 
place of Lord Pitsligo, after the battle of Culloden ; but 
this retreat, from which he was obliged to fly, was at 
last discovered by the impressions on the snow, of the 
footsteps of a woman, who regularly supplied him with 
food. 

The parish contains 15,165 imperial acres, of which 
5S73 are cultivated, 560S are moor or green pasture, 
3486 moss, 88 wood, and 101 roads, &c. ; its form is 
altogether irregular, consisting of a kind of zig-zag 
boundary, some parts of which dart off to a consider- 
able extent. The northern boundary runs for about 
seven miles along the shore of the Moray Frith, which 
is broken by numerous openings and caves, some of 
which penetrate for a long distance into the land. The 
coast in general is bold and rocky, and on the estate of 
Auchmedden stands the colossal Pitjossie, an immense 
natural arch, which strikes the beholder with astonish- 
ment, when viewed from the summit of the adjoining 
cliff, and is said to rival the celebrated Bullers of Buchan. 
On the coast are also the three small bays of Aberdour, 
Pennan, and Nethermill, the beaches of which consist 
of large quantities of stones washed down the Dour 
burn and other streams, and thrown back by the vio- 
lence of the sea, on the occurrence of a storm. The sur- 
face, generally, is unequal, the eastern division being 
fiat and low, while the estate of Auchmedden, on the 
western side, rises about 200 or 300 feet above the level 
of the sea ; on that property are several deep ravines 
and dens, which, with the numerous plants and adja- 
cent scenery, present a striking and romantic appear- 
ance. In the south-eastern extremity are three farms, 
entirely cut off from the rest of the parish by the lands 
of Tyrie, and which some suppose to have been origi- 
nally grazing land for the cattle belonging to the tenants 
on the sea-coast ; but others think that, at the time the 
parish was erected, they formed a separate estate be- 
longing to the proprietor, who, wishing to have all his 
property in one parish, included them within the bounds 
of Aberdour. In the south-west of the parish, on the 
farm of Kinbeam, is a fresh- water loch, called Monwig, 
situated in a large and deep moss; it is 200 yards long, 
and 22 broad, and in some parts very deep ; and the 
dark mossy water, of which it consists, is covered, in 
the season, with flocks of wild geese and ducks. There 
are also several small streams, all of which run into the 
Moray Frith ; and near Pitjossie, in the glen of Dardar, 
is a cascade, the water of which, after dashing from the 



ABER 



A B E R 



top of a rock into three successive basins, glides gently 
for 100 yards, until it falls into the Frith. 

The soil near the coast is a strong loamy clay, which, 
with good husbandry, yields fine crops, but in many 
other parts it is cold and mossy, exhibiting merely cul- 
tivated patches of land ; the produce raised chiefly com- 
prises oats, turnips, potatoes, barley, bear, and bay. 
Great improvements have taken place in agriculture 
within the last thirty years, especially upon the estate 
of Aberdour, where a regular and scientific system of 
drainage has been adopted. The bog, moss, and moor, 
with which the arable land was mixed, have been re- 
moved ; bridges and roads have been constructed, and 
a proper rotation of crops introduced and observed ; 
which, together with the application of the most ap- 
proved methods of cultivation, have entirely altered the 
character of the parish. In other parts, however, there 
is a deficiency of good inclosures, arising from the 
scarcity of stones for building dykes ; but the farm- 
steadings are in decent condition, and generally covered 
with tiles or thatch. The rocks on the shore, which 
are lofty and precipitous, are a coarse sandstone, pass- 
ing frequently into conglomerate, and greywacke slate ; 
the loose blocks are primary trap or granite, and in 
some parts are seen convolved masses of clay and lime- 
stone, in which have been found the fossil remains of 
fish. There are several quarries of granite and sand- 
stone, and two of millstone, one of which, in the rocks 
of Pennan, though now but little worked, is said to 
contain some of the best stones in Britain ; the stones 
from this quarry were formerly in great repute, and 
sent to the south and west of Scotland, but the high 
price set upon them, has greatly lowered the demand. 
The chief mansion is Aberdour House, an old build- 
ing, occupying a very bleak situation ; and there are 
several other residences, particularly one on the estate 
of Auchmedden, the glens of which, justly celebrated as 
the beds of the finest collection of plants to be found 
in Scotland, include some scarce specimens of botanical 
treasure. 

The parish contains the villages of New Aberdour and 
Pennan, the former erected in 1798; the inhabitants are 
employed in agricultural pursuits, with the exception of 
a few engaged in fishing, at Pennan. The manufacture 
of kelp was formerly carried on to a considerable extent, 
but has been greatly reduced, in consequence of the 
repeal of the duty upon Spanish barilla, which is now 
generally used in its stead. The white-fishing at 
Pennan, on the estate of Auchmedden, employs six 
boats, with four men each, who pay a rent to the 
proprietor of £20 sterling, and some dried fish ; and 
several long boats annually proceed to the herring- 
fishing in the Moray Frith, which abounds with the 
best fish of almost every description, excepting salmon, 
very few of which are to be obtained. There are two 
meal-mills in the parish, the one at Aberdour, and the 
other at Nethermill, both built partly of granite, and 
partly of red sandstone. Four annual fairs are held at 
New Aberdour, for cattle, merchandise, and hiring 
servants, of which two take place at Whitsuntide and 
Martinmas, one in the middle of April, and the other in 
the middle of August ; and there is also a fair called 
Byth Market, occurring twice in the year, in May and 
October, upon a moor in the south of the parish, where 
cattle are sold. The turnpike-road from Fraserburgh to 
23 



Banff touches the parish, at the two points of Bridgend 
in the east, and Cowbog in the west, and is rendered 
available to the parishioners by an excellent junction 
road, constructed some years since by one of the 
heritors. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the 
presbytery of Deer and synod of Aberdeen ; the patron 
is A. D. Fordyce, Esq. ; the minister's stipend is 
above £200, with a manse, built in 1822, and a glebe 
of about 7 acres, valued at £14 a year. The church, 
which is conveniently situated at the northern extre- 
mity of the village of New Aberdour, was erected in 
ISIS, and contains about 900 sittings. There is a 
parochial school, where Latin is taught, with all the 
ordinary branches of education, and of which the master 
has a salary of £32, and about £15 fees, with a house. 
The chief relic of antiquity is the castle of Dundar- 
gue, situated upon a lofty precipice overhanging the 
sea : and at a place called Chapelden, are the ruins of 
a Roman Catholic chapel, on a hill opposite the Toar 
of Troup. Mineral springs are found in every direc- 
tion, the most famed of which is one named Mess 
John's Well, a strong chalybeate, celebrated for its 
medicinal virtue ; it issues from a rock about 200 yards 
west of the burn of Aberdour, and has a small basin, 
like a cup, to receive the water that drops, which basin 
is commonly said to have been formed by John White, 
laird of Ardlaw-hill, during the contest of religious 
parties. 

ABERDOUR, a parish, in the district of Dunferm- 
line, county of Fife ; including the island of Inch- 
cohn, and the village of Newtown ; and containing 1916 
inhabitants, of whom 307 are in Easter, and 469 in 
Wester, Aberdour, 8 miles (S. \V.) from Dunfermline. 
This place takes its name from its situation at the mouth 
of the Dour, a rivulet which flows into the Forth near 
the village ; it was anciently the property of the Vipont 
family, of whose baronial castle there are still consi- 
derable remains. The castle, with the lands, passed, 
in 1 125, from the Viponts, by marriage, to the Mor- 
timers, of whom Allen de Mortimer granted the western 
portion of the lands to the monks of Inchcolm, in con- 
sideration of the privilege of being allowed to bury in 
the church of their monastery on the island, aboat a 
mile distant from the shore. When conveying the re- 
mains of one of that family to the abbey for interment, 
a violent storm is said to have arisen, which compelled 
the party to throw the coffin into the channel, which, 
from that circumstance, obtained the appellation of 
" Mortimer's Deep." The ancient castle is a stately 
pile of massive grandeur, situated on an eminence, on 
the east bank of the water of Dour, and commanding an 
extensive view of the Frith of Forth ; in front, is a spa- 
cious terrace, overlooking the gardens, into which are 
several descents by flights of steps. It was partly de- 
stroyed by an accidental fire, about the beginning of the 
18th century, since which time it has been abandoned, 
and suffered to fall into decay ; but the roof is still 
entire, and several of the apartments are in tolerable 
preservation, though used only as lumber-rooms. At a 
small distance, is the old church, now a roofless ruin ; it 
contains the ancient family vault of the Morton family, 
and is surrounded by a small cemetery. 

The parish, which is bounded on the south by the 
river Forth, is about three miles in length, from east to 
west, and nearly of equal breadth, comprising about 



A B E R 



ABER 



6240 acres, of which 3240 are arable, about 1800 wood- 
land and plantations, and the remainder meadow and 
pasture. The surface is broken by the ridge of the 
Collelo hills, which traverses the parish from east to 
west, and of which the summits are richly wooded, and 
the southern acclivities in profitable cultivation. To- 
wards the river, along which the parish extends for 
more than two miles, the ground is, for the most part, 
tolerably level ; but on the east, the coast is rocky and 
precipitous, rising abruptly into eminences which are 
wooded to the margin of the Forth. On the face of the 
hills, walks have been laid out, commanding diversified 
prospects ; and on the west, is a rich bay of white 
sand, surrounded with trees, from which the ground 
rises towards the west, into eminences crowned with 
thriving plantations, which, stretching southward, ter- 
minate in a perpendicular mass of rock washed by the 
sea, by which, and by the headlands on the south-east, 
the harbour is securely sheltered from the winds. To 
the north-west of the harbour, the surface again rises 
into a hill richly wooded, adding greatly to the beauty of 
the scenery, and commanding, on the right, a view of 
the island of Inchcolm, with the picturesque ruins of the 
abbey, and, on the left of it, the town of Burntisland, 
with the coasts of Lothian, the city of Edinburgh, and 
the Pentland hills in the distance. 

The soil on the north side of the ridge of hills, which 
has a considerable elevation above the sea, is cold and 
sterile, but on the south side more genial and fertile ; 
and generally a rich black loam, in some parts alter- 
nated with sand. The chief crops are, wheat, oats, 
barley, beans, potatoes, and turnips ; the system of 
agriculture is much improved, and the farm-buildings 
are substantial and commodious. The substratum 
abounds with coal, of which an extensive mine on the 
lands of Donibristle, belonging to the Earl of Moray, 
is in operation, about 2| miles from the village ; and on 
Cottlehill, coal is also wrought. Freestone of white 
colour, and of compact texture, was formerly quarried to 
a great extent, and much of it was sent to Edinburgh 
and Glasgow, for ornamental buildings ; and on the 
lands of the Earl of Morton, is a quarry of stone, ad- 
mirably fitted for piers and other purposes where great 
durability is requisite, and from which large blocks were 
used in the construction of Granton Pier. Aberdour 
House, the seat of the Earl of Morton, is a spacious 
mansion, on the west bank of the Dour, opposite to the 
ancient castle, and surrounded with pleasure-grounds 
richly wooded, and tastefully laid out. Hillside is a 
stately mansion, commanding views of the Frith of 
Forth, the opposite coasts, and the adjacent scenery ; 
and Whitehill Cottage, and Cottlehill House, are also 
finely situated. The village of Aberdour is divided into 
two portions called Easter and Wester, by the river 
Dour, over which is a handsome bridge ; and to the 
south of the western portion, is the village of Newtown, 
consisting of Sea-side-place and Manse-street. The 
beauty of the surrounding scenery, the numerous retired 
walks in the neighbourhood, and the fine sandy beach, 
have rendered these villages places of favourite resort 
during the summer months, for bathing ; and for the 
accommodation of the numerous visiters, lodging-houses 
are extensively provided. Steamers ply twice in the 
day from Edinburgh, during summer, and pinnaces daily 
from Leith harbour, throughout the year. 
24 



The manufacture of coarse linen was formerly carried 
on extensively, by hand-loom weavers ; but it has 
greatly decreased. On the Dour, about a mile from the 
old village, is an iron forge, in which spades, shovels, 
and other implements are made, and of which the great 
hammer is worked by water power ; there are also a 
brick-work, and some saw-mills of recent establishment. 
Considerable quantities of coal are shipped from the 
harbour, for exportation ; and several foreign vessels 
arrive weekly, for freights of coal, from the mines : be- 
tween the harbour and Burntisland, is an oyster-bed 
belonging to the Earl of Morton, which is leased to the 
fishermen of Newhaven. A fair is held on the 20th of 
June, chiefly for pleasure. The ecclesiastical affairs of 
the parish are under the superintendence of the pres- 
bytery of Dunfermline and synod of Fife. The minis- 
ter's stipend is £207. 14. 6., with a manse, and a glebe 
valued at £13 per annum ; patron, the Earl of Morton. 
The church, erected in 1790, and repaired in 1826, is a 
plain building. There is a place of worship for mem- 
bers of the Free Church. The parochial school is at- 
tended by about 100 children ; the master has a salary of 
£34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees average 
£30 per annum. An hospital was founded in Wester 
Aberdour, by Anne, Countess of Moray, who endowed it 
for four aged widows, of whom three are appointed by 
the family, and one by the clerk of the signet ; each of 
the widows has a separate apartment, with an allowance 
of coal and candles, and £5 per annum in money. On 
the summit of a hill on the farm of Dalachy, was a cairn, 
on the removal of which, during agricultural improve- 
ments, were found a stone coffin containing a human 
skeleton, several earthen vessels containing human bones, 
a spear-head of copper, and various other relics. The 
field adjoining the garden of the old manse is called the 
" Sisters' land," from its having been anciently the site 
of a Franciscan nunnery. The place gives the title of 
Baron to the Earl of Morton. 

ABERFELDY, a village, chiefly in the parish of 
Dull, and partly in that of Logierait, county of 
Perth, 6| miles (N. E.) from Kenmore ; containing 823 
inhabitants. This is a considerable and thriving village, 
situated on the southern bank of the river Tay, and on 
the great Highland road. It is surrounded with thick 
and luxuriant woods of hazel and birch ; and in its 
vicinity are the falls of Moness, remarkable for the 
beauty and grandeur of the scenery, and the majesty of 
their torrents, which rush furiously from precipice to 
precipice, with a tremendous and fearful roar : the 
ascent is from the village, and is attained by pleasing 
and varied walks, with seats at intervals for the accom- 
modation of the visiter. The river is here crossed by a 
bridge, erected by General Wade. There are places of 
worship for Independents and members of the Free 
Church ; and a savings' bank. — See Dull. 

ABERFOYLE, a parish, in the county of Perth, 14 
miles (W. by S.) from Doune, and 20 (W. by N.) from 
Stirling ; containing 543 inhabitants. This place de- 
rives its name from the situation of the church, near the 
mouth of a rivulet called, in Gaelic, the Poll or Foile, 
which forms a confluence with the river Forth, at this 
place an inconsiderable stream. The lands originally 
formed part of the possessions of the ancient family of 
the Grahams, earls of Menteith, and on failure of heirs 
male, about the end of the 17th century, became the 



A B E 11 



ABER 



property of the ancestors of the Duke of Montrose, the 
present sole proprietor. The parish, which is in the 
south-western portion of the county, forms the extreme 
precinct of the Highlands, in that direction, and extends 
for nearly fourteen miles from east, to west, and from 
five to seven miles from north to south ; comprising the 
beautifully romantic vale of Aberfoyle, which abounds 
with all the varieties of highland scenery. The vale 
is inclosed by lofty mountains on the one side, forming 
a part of the Grampian range, of which the highest in 
this parish are, Bcnvenue, having an elevation of 2S00, 
and Benchochan, of "000 feet above the sea. From 
both these mountains, beneath which lies the celebrated 
scenery of the Trosachs, are obtained extensive views of 
the " windings of the chase," and the most interesting 
parts of the surrounding country described by Sir Wal- 
ter Scott, in his poem of the Lady of the Lake 

In the vale of Aberfoyle are the lochs Katrine, Ard, 
Chon, Auchray, and Dronky. Loch Katrine, which is 
about 9 miles in length, aud one mile broad, has a depth 
of about 70 fathoms; and the lofty, and in some parts 
precipitous, acclivities on its shores, are richly wooded 
nearly to their summits, adding greatly to the beautiful 
scenery for which it is so eminently distinguished. 
Loch Ard, about 4 miles in length, and one mile in 
breadth, is divided into two portions, the Upper and 
Lower Ard, connected by a channel 200 yards in length ; 
it is bounded, on one side, by the lofty mountain Ben 
Lomond, of which the richly-wooded declivity extends 
to its margin. On a small island in the lake, are the 
ruins of an ancient castle built by the Duke of Albany, 
uncle of James I. of Scotland. Loch Chon, about 2| 
miles in length, and one mile in breadth, is beautifully 
skirted on the north-east by luxuriant plantations, and 
on the south-west, by the mountain of Ben Don, 1500 
feet in height, and of which the sides are covered with 
forests of aged birch and mountain ash. Loch Auchray, 
in the Trosachs, and Loch Dronky, which is two miles 
long, and about half a mile broad, are both finely situ- 
ated, and embellished with rich plantations. Between 
the mountains, are several small valleys, about a mile in 
length, and a quarter of a mile in width, formerly 
covered with heath, but which have been cleared, and 
brought into cultivation. The river Forth has its source 
at the western extremity of the parish, at a place called 
Skid-N'uir, or "the ridge of yew-trees," issuing from a 
copious spring, and flowing through the lochs Chon and 
Ard, about half a mile to the east of which latter, it re- 
ceives the waters of the Duchray, a stream rising near 
the summit of Ben Lomond, and which is also regarded 
as the source of the Forth, though the former is the 
larger of the two. 

The arable lands bear but, a very inconsiderable pro- 
portion to the pasture and woodlands. The upper, or 
highland, part of the parish, which is by far the greater, 
is divided principally into sheep farms, upon which 
scarcely sufficient grain is raised to supply the occupiers 
and their shepherds ; the lower grounds are chiefly ara- 
ble, and in good cultivation, yielding grain of every 
kind, for the supply of the parish, and also for sending 
to the markets. The soil in the lower portions is fertile, 
producing, not only grain, but turnips, with the various 
grasses, and excellent crops of rye and clover ; the farm- 
buildings, with very few exceptions, are commodious, 
and mostly of modern erection, and the lands are well 
Vol. I.— 25 



drained. The sheep are of the black-faced breed, and 
great attention is paid to their improvement ; the cattle 
on the upland farms are of the black Highland breed, 
and in addition to those reared on the lands, great 
numbers are pastured during the winter, for which many 
of the farms are well adapted by the shelter afforded by 
the woods ; the cattle on the lowland farms are chiefly 
of the Ayrshire breed. The whole of the woods, from 
the head of Loch Chon to the loch of Monteith, in the 
parish of Port of Monteith, are the property of the Duke 
of Montrose ; they consist of oak, ash, birch, mountain- 
ash, alder, hazel, and willow, and are divided into twenty- 
four portions, of which one is felled every year, as 
it attains a growth of 24 years, within which period 
the whole are cut down and renewed, in succession. 
On the west side of the mountains, is limestone of very 
superior quality, of a blue colour, with veins of white, 
and susceptible of a high polish ; it is extensively 
wrought near the eastern extremity of the parish, for 
building, and for manure, solely by the tenants of the 
several farms. To the west of the limestone range, is 
a mountain consisting almost entirely of slate, occurring 
in regular strata, in the quarries of which about 20 
men are employed. The prevailing rocks are conglo- 
merate and trap, or whinstone ; but the want of water 
carriage, and the distance of the markets, operate ma- 
terially to diminish their value. 

The village is situated near the eastern extremity of 
the parish : the making of pyroligneous acid affords 
employment to a few persons. A post-office has been 
established, as a branch of that of Doune ; and fairs are 
held in April, for cattle ; on the first Friday in August, 
for lambs ; and on the third Thursday in October, for 
hiring servants. The lakes and rivers abound with 
trout, pike, perch, and eels ; and char is also found in 
Loch Katrine. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish 
are under the superintendence of the presbytery of 
Dunblane and synod of Perth and Stirling. The mi- 
nister's stipend is £158. 6. 8., of which part is paid 
from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe contain- 
ing 15 Scottish acres of good land, partly arable and 
partly meadow ; patron, the Duke of Montrose. The 
church, built in 1774, and thoroughly repaired in 1839, 
is a plain structure, containing 250 sittings : divine 
service is also performed occasionally, by the minister, 
in the schoolroom. The parochial school is well at- 
tended ; the master has a salary of £28, with a house 
and garden, and the fees average about £6 per annum. 
Near the manse are the remains of a Druidical circle, 
consisting of ten upright stones, with one of much 
larger dimensions in the centre. The Rev. James 
Richardson, whose son was professor of humanity at 
Glasgow ; and the Rev. Patrick Graham, eminent for 
the variety and extent of his talents, and employed in 
revising an edition of the Sacred Scriptures in the Gaelic 
language, were ministers of the parish. 

ABERLADY, a parish, in the county of Hadding- 
ton, 4 miles (X. \V.) from Haddington ; containing 
1050 inhabitants, of whom 537 are in the village. This 
place is situated on the Frith of Forth, and near the 
mouth of the small river Peffer, supposed to have been 
anciently called the Leddie, from which circumstance 
the name Aberlady is said to have been derived. A 
strong castle was built here in 1518, by John, grand- 
son of Sir Archibald Douglas, of Kilspindy, treasurer 

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A B E R 



of Scotland during the minority of James V., but who, 
partaking in the rebellion of his family, forfeited his 
estates, and died in exile. The parish is bounded on 
the north and north-west by the Frith, and comprises 
about 4000 acres, chiefly under tillage, with very little 
permanent pasture, and only a small portion of wood- 
land. The surface is generally flat, but having a very 
gradual slope, from the coast to the south and south- 
east ; and though attaining no considerable elevation, 
even at the highest point, it still commands a richly- 
varied and extensive prospect over the Frith of Forth, 
in its widest expanse, the Pentland hills, the city of 
Edinburgh, with its castle, and the Grampian hills. 
The soil near the coast is light and sandy, in some parts 
clayey, and on the more elevated lands a rich and fertile 
loam; the system of agriculture is in an improved state; 
tile-draining has been extensively practised, and on all 
of the farms are threshing-mills, of which many are driven 
by steam. Comparatively little attention has been paid 
to the rearing of live stock ; but the number of sheep 
and cattle is increasing, and it. is not improbable that, 
in due time, the farmers will be distinguished for im- 
provements in the breeds of stock. The chief substrata 
are limestone and whinstone, and coal is supposed to 
exist in some of the lands ; the limestone is not worked, 
but along the coast, the whinstone is quarried exten- 
sively ; clay of good quality for bricks and tiles is 
found, and about twenty persons are employed in works 
for that purpose. Ballencrieff, the seat of Lord Elibank, 
is a handsome mansion, in a richly-planted demesne, 
commanding some fine views of the surrounding country. 
Gosford, the seat of the Earl of Wemyss and March, 
and upon which immense sums have been expended, 
was anciently a possession of the noble family of Ache- 
son, whose titles as barons, viscounts, and earls, have 
been chosen from this place, where was formerly a vil- 
lage that no longer exists. The mansion is beautifully 
situated, and contains an extensive and choice collection 
of paintings, by the most eminent masters of the Flemish 
and Italian schools. Luffness is an ancient mansion, 
considerably enlarged and improved, but still retaining 
much of its original character ; the grounds are well 
planted, and laid out with exquisite taste. The village 
is pleasantly situated, near the influx of the Peffer into 
the Frith, and is neatly built ; a subscription library 
has been established, and there is also a parochial lend- 
ing library. At this part of the coast is a small haven, 
where vessels of seventy tons may anchor at spring 
tides, but from which their return to the sea is difficult 
when the wind happens to be westerly ; the haven is 
the port of Haddington, but the trade carried on is 
insignificant. 

At a very remote period, there appears to have been 
an establishment of Culdees near the village, which was 
probably subordinate to the monastery of Dunkeld, on 
the erection of which place into a bishopric, David I. 
conferred the lands of Aberlady and Kilspindy on the 
bishop, in whose possession they remained till the Re- 
formation. Gavin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, granted 
these lands to Sir Archibald Douglas, in 1522, and in 
1589, they were resigned to the crown, and the church 
of Aberlady became a rectory, independent of the dio- 
cese ; the patronage remained with the Douglas family, 
from whom it passed to others, and ultimately to the 
Earl of Wemyss, the present patron. The parish is in 
26 



the presbytery of Haddington and synod of Lothian 
and Tweeddale ; the stipend of the incumbent is 
£280. 11. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at 
£27. 10. per annum. The church, rebuilt in 1773, is a 
neat and substantial edifice, adapted for a congregation 
of 525 persons ; four handsome silver cups, for the 
communion service, were presented by the Wedderburn 
family. The parochial school affords a liberal course of 
instruction ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4|., with 
£34 fees, and a house and garden. Till very lately, 
there were some remains of the castle of Kilspindy, 
already noticed, situated between the village and the 
sea-shore ; but they have now totally disappeared. On 
the margin of a small stream which separates the parish 
from that of Gladsmuir, are the ruins of Redhouse 
Castle, apparently a place of great strength, the erection 
of which is referred to the 16th century; the lands be- 
longed, in the 15th century, to the family of Laing, of 
which one was treasurer of Scotland in 1465, bishop 
of Glasgow in 14/3, and high chancellor in 1483. The 
more ancient portion of the house of Luffness was for- 
merly inclosed within a fortification, raised to intercept 
the supplies sent by sea to the English garrison at Had- 
dington ; the fortification was demolished in 1551, but 
the house was preserved. Near the site was once a con- 
vent of Carmelite friars, to whom David II. granted a 
charter ; at Ballencrieff, and at Gosford, were ancient 
hospitals, of which there are now no remains. Along 
the coast, stone coffins and human bones have been fre- 
quently dug up, supposed to have been those of persons 
slain in some conflict near the spot. 

ABERLEMNO, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 
6 miles (N. E.) from Forfar; containing, with the 
chapelry of Auldbar, 1023 inhabitants. This place 
is named from the small river Lemno, the word Aber- 
lemno signifying " the mouth of the Lemno," which 
stream, after flowing a few miles towards the south- 
west, and winding northerly around the western ex- 
tremity of the hill of Oathlaw, strikes off to the east, 
and falls into the Esk, about a mile from its source. 
The parish is separated on the north, by the Esk, from 
those of Tannadice and Careston, and measures about 6 
miles in length, and 5 in breadth, in some places. It forms 
part of a hilly district situated towards the south of 
Strathmore, the higher portions, which are bleak, being 
principally covered with broom and heath, while the 
lower grounds are generally fertile, though in one di- 
rection subject to inundations from the Esk. The hill 
of Turin is the highest, the others attaining only a 
moderate elevation ; it rises about 800 feet above the 
level of the sea, commanding extensive prospects, and 
contributing greatly, by the plantations of fir on its 
slope, to the improvement of the scenery. The lake 
of Balgavies, on the southern boundary, affords good 
pike and perch angling, and yielded formerly a large 
supply of marl for manuring the lands. The inhabit- 
ants, with the exception of a few engaged in weaving 
and in quarrying, follow agricultural pursuits, and the 
farmers pay much attention to the rearing of cattle, 
considerable numbers of which, with large quantities of 
potatoes, are sent to the London market. There are 
four meal and barley mills, driven by water, and all the 
large farms have threshing-mills. Several quarries of 
fine slate stone, of a greyish colour, are in operation, sup- 
plying a good material for building. 



A B E R 



ABER 



The neighbourhood abounds with old castles, and the 
remains of strong places, some of which are still in- 
habited, and are beautified with trees of the finest wood 
in the parish, especially the houses of Auldbar, Turin, 
and Balgavies ; the first of these consists of an ancient 
and a modern portion, and is inhabited ; that of Balga- 
vies is comparatively modern, a single vault only of the 
ancient structure remaining. The house of Carsegownie 
has been lately partially stripped of its antiquated and 
feudal appearance ; but the castle of Flemmington, a 
little to the east of the church, retains all the distin- 
guishing features of the predatory era in which it was 
erected. The Auldbar turnpike-road, joining the rail- 
way station of the same name to Brechin, passes 
through the place, as well as a portion of the turnpike- 
road from Forfar to Montrose ; and there is a parish 
road from Forfar to Brechin, running in a north-easterly 
direction, through the whole length of the district. The 
parish is in the presbytery of Forfar and synod of 
Angus and Mearns, and in the patronage of the Crown 
and the family of Smythe ; the minister's stipend is 
£228. 6. 6., with a manse, and glebe valued at £15 per 
annum. The church was built upon the old foundation, 
from about 3 feet above the ground, in the year 1722, 
and accommodates 450 persons with sittings. The pa- 
rochial school affords instruction in the usual branches ; 
the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with fees producing 
between £12 and £14. There is a library of miscella- 
neous works. The most interesting relic of antiquity is 
the ruin of the castle of Melgund, said to have been built 
by Cardinal Beaton, and still indicating, by its extent 
and strength, its former magnificence : on the sum- 
mit of Turin hill, are the remains of an ancient fort 
called Camp Castle, commanding most extensive views, 
and supposed to have been raised as a watch-tower. 
There are numerous tumuli and cairns, and several 
obelisks or monumental stones, ornamented with va- 
rious devices, one of the chief of which is in the church- 
yard, exhibiting on one side a cross in bold relief covered 
with flowers, and on the other numerous martial figures, 
thought to be memorials of important military achiev- 
ments in days of old. The title of Viscount Melgund is 
borne by the Earl of Minto, proprietor of nearly half 
of the parish. 

ABERLOUR, a parish, in the county of Banff, 5 
miles (W. N. W.) from Dufftown, on the road from Elgin 
to Grantown ; containing, with the village of Charles- 
town, 1352 inhabitants. This parish, formerly called 
Skirdustan, signifying, in the Gaelic tongue, " the 
division of Dustan," its tutelary saint, derived its pre- 
sent name from its situation at the mouth of a noisy 
burn, which discharges itself into the river Spey. It is 
situated in the western part of the county, and extends 
for nearly seven miles along the south bank of the Spey, 
from the hill of Carron on the west, to the mouth of 
the river Fiddich on the east. The surface is very 
uneven ; towards the southern part is an almost un- 
broken chain of mountains, consisting of the Blue Hill, 
the East and West Conval hills, the mountain of Ben- 
rinnes, and the broad hill of Cairnakay, with part of 
the hill of Carron, on the border of the Spey, and sepa- 
rated from Benrinnes by a narrow valley. A deep 
and narrow pass called Glackharnis, of great length, 
and of uniform breadth at the bottom, separates the 
mountain of Benrinnes from the Conval hills, and is 
27 



remarkable for the great height and regularity of its 
declivity on both sides. The mountain, as its name 
implies, is precipitous in its ascent, and sharp on the 
summit, and has an elevation of 2*56 feet above the 
sea, and of 1876 feet from its base, being the highest in 
the county for many miles around. From the top, are 
seen the Grampian hills to the south, the interesting 
valley and hills of Glenavon to the west, and to the 
north the mountains of Ross, Sutherland, and Caith- 
ness ; it embraces a fine view of the sea, for several 
miles, along the coasts of Moray and Banffshire, and 
forms a conspicuous landmark for mariners. The Con- 
val hills are spherical and of similar form, and profusely 
covered with heath ; and between these and the Ben- 
rinnes, is a fine valley, the south part of which, consist- 
ing of sloping land, including the district of Edinvillie, 
is divided on the north-east, by a brook, from the lands 
of Allachie, and on the north from the district of Ruth- 
rie, by the burn of Aberlour. To the north-west of 
Ruthrie, is the district of Kinnermony ; the lands of 
Aberlour are watered by two rivulets, descending from 
the Blue hill, which, uniting, form the burn of Allachoy, 
which separates them from the district of Drumfurrich. 
These several districts contain some good tracts of 
holm land, and form the principal arable grounds of the 
parish, of which, upon the whole, not more than one- 
half is under cultivation. The soil, near the river, is a 
rich deep loam, mixed with sand ; towards the hills, is a 
deep clay, lying on a substratum of rough gravel, and 
covered with a thin alluvial soil ; and towards the 
centre of the parish, is a richer alluvial soil, resting on 
a bed of granite. In the neighbourhood of Glenrinnes, 
limestone is quarried for agricultural purposes, and, by 
many of the farmers, burnt upon their own lands. The 
principal crops are, barley, oats, wheat, and peas ; and 
the barley produced here weighs more, per bushel, than 
that of the heavier soils of the adjoining parishes. The 
Morayshire breed of black-cattle is raised, and the 
sheep are of the hardy black-faced kind ; several of the 
farms are inclosed with fences of stone, and the farm- 
buildings generally are substantial and commodious. 
Alexander Grant, Esq., is the chief resident proprietor, 
whose handsome seat of Aberlour is in the parish ; on 
the estate, a column of the Tuscan order has lately been 
erected. There are several flourishing plantations of 
fir in the hilly districts ; and of elm and ash near 
the river, the banks of which are, in some places, deco- 
rated with birch-trees of very luxuriant growth. 

The river Spey, from the rapidity of its current, and 
the narrowness of its channel, frequently overflows its 
banks, and damages the neighbouring lands. In 1829, 
a very destructive flood occurred, in which the waters 
rose to the height of nearly twenty feet above the ordi- 
nary level, sweeping away the entire soil of several fields, 
with all their crops, and leaving upon others a deposit 
of sand and rough gravel, to the depth of several feet. 
A cottage and offices were carried away ; and the dry 
stone arches which formed the approach to the bridge of 
Craig-Ellachie, were entirely destroyed, leaving only a 
few yards of masonry on which the end of the arch rested. 
This bridge, which consists of one metal arch, more 
than 160 feet in span, abutting on a solid rock on the 
north side of the river, and supported on the Aberlour 
side by a strong pier of masonry, built on piles, was 
erected in 1815, at an expense of £S000, of which one- 

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A B E R 



A B E R 



half was defrayed by government, and the other by 
subscription. The rivers Spey and Fiddieh afford ex- 
cellent salmon and trout ; the fishing season commences 
in February, and closes in September, and the parish 
also abounds with various kinds of game. On the burn 
of Aberlour, about a mile above its influx into the Spey, 
is a fine cascade called the Lynn of Ruthrie, in which 
the water falls from a height of 30 feet, and, being 
broken in its descent by a projecting platform of granite 
rock, which is richly covered with birch-trees and various 
shrubs, presents an interesting and highly picturesque 
appearance. A large distillery was formerly carried on 
at Aberlour, which afforded a market for grain to the 
neighbouring farmers ; and fairs are held annually, in 
the recently-erected village of Charlestown. The eccle- 
siastical affairs of the parish are under the presbytery 
of Aberlour and synod of Moray ; Lord Fife is pa- 
tron, and the stipend of the incumbent is £287. 8. 2. 
The church, a well-arranged structure, erected in 1812, 
is situated to the north of Charlestown, at a distance of 
about 300 yards from the ruins of the old church, near 
the influx of the burn of Aberlour into the Spey ; Mr. 
Grant has lately made an addition to the length of the 
edifice, and erected a handsome tower. In the valley of 
Glenrinnes is a missionary establishment, and a chapel 
of ease has been erected, of which the minister has a 
stipend of £60 per annum, royal bounty, with a manse, 
glebe, and other accommodations provided by the heri- 
tors. The parochial school affords instruction in the 
Latin language, arithmetic, and the elementary mathe- 
matics ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4|., with a 
house and garden, and the fees average £40. 

ABERLUTHNOTT, Kincardine.— See Marykirk. 

ABERNETHY, a parish, in the counties of Inver- 
ness and Elgin, 5 miles (S. W. by S.) from Grantown ; 
containing, with Kincardine, 1S32 inhabitants, of whom 
10S3 are in Abernethy proper. This parish, to which 
that of Kincardine was annexed about the time of the 
Reformation, derives its name from Aber, signifying in 
Gaelic, in conjunction with Nethy, the "termination of 
Nethy," which is descriptive of the situation of the 
church, near the entrance of that river into the Spey : 
Kincardine, or Kinie-chairdin, implies the " clan of 
friends." The united parish, which is 15 miles long, and 
from 10 to 12 broad, contains about 120,000 acres, of 
which about 3000 are in tillage, 40,000 forest and plan- 
tation, and 77,000 uncultivated. It extends from the 
borders of Cromdale to Rothiemurchus, and the lower 
end of it falls within the county of Inverness ; it is 
bounded on the west, throughout its entire length, by 
the river Spey. The surface is mountainous and woody, 
interspersed with corn-fields ; the only rivers are the 
Spey and the Nethy, the latter of which, in dry weather, 
is merely a brook, but, when swollen, is of sufficient size 
to allow of the passage of floats of timber into the Spey. 
There are several lakes, also, in Kincardine, the chief 
whereof is the oval basin in Glenmore forest, which is 
nearly 2 miles in diameter. The soil in some parts is 
deep raith, but frequently thin and dry, and in some 
places wet and cold ; wood is abundant, and about 
7000 acres on one estate are under fir of natural growth. 
Some farms exhibit the appearance of superior husban- 
dry, having substantial and commodious buildings, with 
implements of the best kind; and improvements have 
been carried on for a considerable time, to the advance 
28 



of which, the plentiful supply of lime in the parish, and 
of native fuel for preparing it, has greatly contributed : 
every farmer, however small his ground, has a lime-kiln 
in use. Parallel to the river Spey, extends a range of moun- 
tains, a branch of the Grampians, which exhibits a great 
variety of rock ; commencing with the well-known 
Cairnegorm, which is its southern extremity, granite 
stretches to the north, for several miles ; then appears 
primary limestone, and this is succeeded by trap and 
micaceous schist. 

A regular " manufacture" of timber has been car- 
ried on in the Abernethy district, for more than 60 
years. The Duke of Gordon, in 1784, sold his fir-woods 
of Glenmore, in the barony of Kincardine, for £10,000 
sterling, to an English company, who exhausted them ; 
and from the forest of Abernethy, there are still for- 
warded yearly, by large rafts in the river Spey, great 
quantities of timber, to Garmouth or Speymouth, of 
which much has been formed into vessels of large bur- 
then, at the former place, and considerable quantities 
sent to the royal dockyards in England. The trade was 
immense during the war, but is now considerably dimi- 
nished, although still employing a large number of the 
population. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the 
presbytery of Abernethy and synod of Moray ; the Earl 
of Seafield is patron, and the stipend of the minister is 
£234. 2. 1., with a glebe of the annual value of £7. 
The church in the district of Abernethy, a commodious 
structure, with seats for 600 persons, was erected eighty 
years since ; and that of Kincardine, a well-built and 
finished edifice, 7 miles distant from the manse, con- 
taining about 330 sittings, in J 804. There is a parochial 
school, in which Latin, mathematics, and the usual 
branches of education are taught, and of which the 
master has a salary of £25. 13., with £22 fees, &c. and 
a house ; and a Gaelic school at Kincardine is chiefly 
supported by £17 a year from the Society for Propaga- 
ting Christian Knowledge. Several ancient remains are 
to be seen, particularly of Druidical circles ; and on 
rising ground, near the church, is an old building, of 
which, however, no satisfactory account has ever been 
afforded. The topaz called cairngorm is found in con- 
siderable numbers in the mountain of that name ; and 
at the end of Lochaven is an interesting natural curi- 
osity, in the form of a cave, commonly called Chlach- 
dhian, or " the sheltering stone," and which is sur- 
rounded by vast mountains. It is sufficient to contain a 
number of persons, and people take shelter in it fre- 
quently, for security from rain and wind, after hunting 
or fishing, and sometimes being driven by necessity. 

ABERNETHY, a burgh and parish, partly in the 
district of Cupar, county of Fife, but chiefly in the 
county of Perth, 3 miles (W. S. W.) from Newburgh ; 
containing, with the village of Aberdargie, 1920 inha-. 
bitauts, of whom 827 are in the town of Abernethy. 
This place, originally called Abernethyn, a word signi- 
fying " the town upon the Nethy," is supposed, by some, 
to have derived its name from the small stream flowing 
through the centre of the parish, and denominated Nethy 
from the old British term neith, or nid, implying a " turn- 
ing" or '- whirling stream." But others are of opinion 
that the appellation has been received from Nectan or 
Nethan, one of the Pictish kings, who founded the place, 
and of whose kingdom it was the capital. The most 
ancient and credible of the Scottish historians agree in 



ABER 



ABER 



representing this locality as the metropolis of the 
Pictish nation, both in civil and religious matters ; but 
the particulars relating to the erection of the church 
are variously described. The Pictish Chronicle states 
the edifice to have been raised by Nethan, or Nectan I., 
about the year 456, as a sacrifice offered to God 
and St. Bridget, for the recovery of his kingdom ; and 
Fordun asserts, that St. Patrick himself introduced St. 
Bridget and her nine nuns into the religious establish- 
ment of Abernethy. Others, however, are of opinion, 
that the church was founded and endowed towards the 
close of the 6th century, by King Garnard M'Dourmach, 
or in the beginning of the 7th century, by Nethan II., 
his immediate successor. The church, shortly after- 
wards, was made the head of an episcopal see, and here 
was the residence of the metropolitan of the Pictish 
kingdom, and probably of all Scotland, until the Picts 
were subdued by one of the Kenneths, and both the 
see, and the residence of the bishop, were transferred to 
St. Andrew's, the head of which was afterwards acknow- 
ledged as the national bishop. Abernethy was subse- 
quently comprehended in the bishopric of Dunblane, 
founded in the 12th century, by King David I., out of 
the national bishopric of St. Andrew's. After the re- 
moval of the see from this place, the church became 
collegiate, and was in the possession of the Culdees, of 
whom but little is known with certainty, except that 
this parish was their principal seat, and that here they 
had a university for the education of youth, in which 
was taught the whole of the sciences, as far as they 
were then known. In the 12th century, by a charter of 
King William the Lion and of Lawrence de Abernethy, 
the church and advowson of Abernethy, with its perti- 
nents, were conveyed to the abbey of Arbroath ; and 
about the year 1240, the altarage of the church, with 
certain lands, was given to the Bishop of Dunblane, 
who, in return, among other things, engaged to provide 
for the service of the church, to enrol it among his pre- 
bendal institutions, and to instal the abbot of Arbroath, 
as a prebendary or canon, with a manse and privileges 
similar to those of the other canons. The ancient mo- 
nastery, in 12J3, became a priory of canons regular, and 
a cell of Inchaffray ; all the Culdee institutions yielded 
to the increasing power of the Romish church, and this 
priory seems to have been afterwards converted into a 
provostry or college of secular priests, and the church, 
with a provost, was a collegiate establishment. The 
church, at the Reformation, was valued at £273 per 
annum, and was afterwards a parsonage. 

The civil occupancy of the principal lands appears to 
have taken place at an early period ; in the 12th century, 
Orme, the son of Hugh, received the lands of Abernethy, 
from King William the Lion, and from them both 
himself and his posterity took their name. Alexander 
de Abernethy, a descendant, swore fealty to Edward I. 
in 1292, and was appointed by Edward II., in 1310, 
warden of the counties between the Forth and the 
Grampians, but his lands are supposed to have been 
forfeited after the battle of Bannockburn, or to have 
been continued in the family only by the marriage of his 
daughters, the eldest of whom, Margaret, was united to 
John Stewart, Earl of Angus, who thus obtained the 
lordship of Abernethy, and whose grand-daughter, 
Margaret Stewart, married William, Earl of Douglas. 
This family of Douglas, during the earlier periods of 
29 



their history, were numerous and powerful, and are sup- 
posed to have resided near the house of Carpow ; and 
many of the most illustrious branches of the earls of 
Angus have been interred in this spot. It was at Aber- 
nethy that Malcolm Canmore did homage to William 
the Conqueror, according to the account of Fordun, 
Winton, and others , but so many different opinions 
exist on the point as to render it altogether doubtful. 

The town, which is of great antiquity, and, by ruins 
discovered eastward of it, is supposed to have been once 
much more extensive, is situated near the confluence of 
the Tay and Earn rivers, on the south-eastern border of 
the county, and adjoining Fifeshire in that direction, in 
which county a small portion of it stands. The lands 
in the vicinity, and throughout the greater part of the 
parish, are interesting and beautiful, consisting of large 
tracts, highly cultivated, forming, on the north, a por- 
tion of the rich vale of Strathearn, enlivened by the 
rivers ; on the south, the lands are, for the most part, 
hilly, occupying about two-thirds of the whole area, and 
belonging to the picturesque range of the Ochils. About. 
a mile to the east, is the mansion of Carpow, a neat 
modern structure ; a little beyond it, is a small stream 
which separates Abernethy from the parish ofNewburgh, 
in Fifeshire, and to the west is the mansion called Ayton 
House, skirted by the Farg rivulet, which joins the 
Earn at Colfargie, after flowing through the romantic 
scenery of Glenfarg. Not far from this, in the south- 
western district, situated three-quarters of a mile from 
the town, is Castle Law, a steep grassy elevation, 600 
feet high, the summit of which is the seat of a vitrified 
fort. It commands a beautiful view of Strathearn and 
the carse of Gowrie, with the interjacent Tay, where 
there is an island named Mugdrum, belongiug to this 
parish, a mile in length, comprehending 35 acres of the 
richest arable land, and which is thronged, in autumn 
and winter, with various kinds of water-fowl, and some- 
times is visited by very fine wild swans. 

The town contains a library, but has no other insti- 
tutions of interest ; a large portion of the inhabitants, 
both male and female, as well as those residing in the 
villages of Aberdargie and Glenfoot, in the parish, are 
employed in weaving linen-yarn, for the manufacturers 
of Newburgh. The trade consists chiefly in the sale of 
grain and potatoes, the former being sent to the weekly 
market of Newburgh, and the potatoes taken to Ferry- 
field, on the estate of Carpow, where there is a stone 
pier, and thence conveyed to the London market. The 
Earl of Wemyss has fishings on the Earn, and there are 
others on the Earn and Tay, belonging to the estate of 
Carpow. A brick and tile work is in operation ; and a 
bleachfield has been formed at Clunie, in the eastern 
district, which has, to some extent, caused an increase 
in the population. The turnpike-road from Perth to 
Edinburgh passes through the parish ; several good 
roads, also, are kept in repair by statute labour, one of 
which leads from Perth to Cupar, in which line a new- 
bridge was erected over the Farg, a few years since ; 
and there are two ferries, the one at Cary, and the other 
atFerryfield. Cattle-fairs are held on the 12th February, 
the fourth Wednesday in May, and the second Thurs- 
day in November ; they are, however, in a very low- 
state. Abernethy is a burgh of barony, held under 
Lord Douglas, and had a charter from Archibald, Earl of 
Angus, Lord of Abernethy, dated 23rd August, 1476, 



A B E R 



ABER 



in which mention is made of a royal charter of erection, 
in his favour, by King James II. By a charter of Wil- 
liam, Earl of Angus, dated 29th November, 1628, the 
privileges were confirmed, and, among others, the right 
of fairs and markets, the customs of which were to be 
applied to the use of the burgh, except they amounted 
to more than 100 merks Scots yearly, when the surplus 
was to be accounted for to the superior. The practice 
of the burgh has fixed the number of bailies at two, and 
the councillors at fifteen, who appoint their succes- 
sors, and by right of charter, the burgesses elect 
their magistrates ; the fee for admission as a burgess, 
to a stranger, is 10s. 6rf., and to the son of a burgess, 
half that sum. The bailies formerly exercised both a 
civil and criminal jurisdiction, to a small extent, but 
their authority has been lately challenged ; they still, 
however, hold courts for petty offences, from which 
there is no appeal but to the court of justiciary or 
session. 

The parish comprises about 7030 acres, of which 
2568 acres are comprehended in the northern division, 
forming the lowest part of the vale of Strathearn, and 
the remainder consists of a portion of the Ochil hills ; 
the soil of the former is deep rich clay, black earth, and 
sand, and that of the latter, tilly, and resting on whin- 
stone, among which numerous valuable pebbles have, at 
different times, been found. All kinds of grain and 
green crops are raised, of the first quality, on the lower 
portion, where the lands are cultivated to the highest 
degree ; the hilly part contains 950 acres of permanent 
pasture, S50 in plantations, and 2660 arable, the last 
producing oats, barley, turnips, potatoes, &c, and the 
whole farming of the parish is of the most approved 
kind. The rocks between the Tay and the Ochils con- 
sist principally of the old red sandstone, and the sub- 
strata of the Ochils comprise chiefly the clinkstone, 
amygdaloid, porphyry, and claystone varieties of the 
trap formation. Gneiss, primitive trap, and quartz are 
found in boulders, especially on the hills, and quarries 
are in operation of the greenstone and clinkstone rocks, 
supplying a material for roads and coarse buildings. 
Zeolites of great beauty are found in Glenfarg, and agates, 
jaspers, &c, in many places ; limestone, also, exists in 
Auchtermuchty, and in the Glenfarg quarry have been 
found scales of the ichthyolites. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Perth and synod 
of Perth and Stirling, and in the gift of the Earl of 
Mansfield ; the minister's stipend is £256. 5. 7., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum. The 
church, built in 1802, is a plain but commodious edifice, 
containing 600 sittings. There are places of worship be- 
longing to the Free Church and United Associate Synod, 
and another at Aberdargie connected with the Relief 
Church. The parochial school affords instruction in 
the usual branches ; the master has the maximum 
salary, and some fees, together with about £13. 13., 
chiefly arising from a bequest by Lord Stormont, of 
£200, in 1748, and another producing £1. 13., for teach- 
ing. On the top of a hill behind Pitlour, are the re- 
mains of an ancient fort called the " Roman camp," 
supposed, by some antiquaries, to have been occupied 
by the army of that nation before the great battle with 
Galgacus ; and in the south-western extremity of the 
parish, in Fifeshire, is the ruin of Balvaird Castle, situ- 
ated among the Ochils, the property of the Earl of 
30 



Mansfield and his ancestors, since the time of Robert 
II., and which conferred a title on Andrew Murray, 
of Balvaird, who was settled minister of Abdie in 1618, 
knighted in 1633, and created Lord Balvaird in 1641. 
Many Roman antiquities have been discovered, leading 
to the supposition that this people had an important 
military station here, and a Roman road is said formerly 
to have existed, leading to Ardoch, and another to 
Perth ; but the most interesting relic of former times, 
and that which has excited the greatest interest, is a 
round tower, to which there is nothing similar in Scot- 
land, except at Brechin, and the origin of which is alto- 
gether involved in obscurity. It stands at the entrance 
of the church, near the site containing the old college 
and ecclesiastical establishment, and also the ancient 
church taken down in 1802 ; and contains a clock, and 
an excellent bell which has been used, from time imme- 
morial, for ecclesiastical purposes, and, to a certain ex- 
tent, by the burgh, for civil purposes. The building is 
74 feet high, 48 feet round outwardly at the base, and 
consists of 64 courses of hewn freestone, diminishing a 
little towards the summit, where there are four windows, 
equidistant, facing the four quarters of heaven, each 
5 feet 9 inches high, and 2 feet 2 inches wide. The 
walls, at the bottom, are 3| feet thick, and opposite to 
the north is a door, 8 feet inheight, and 3 feet wide, arched 
overhead ; the building is flat at the top, having a large 
projecting moulding for the uppermost course of stones, 
and, being entirely hollow, and without staircase, is 
ascended by scaling ladders attached to wooden plat- 
forms. The Rev. John Brown, for 36 years minister 
of the Associate Burgher congregation at Haddington, 
and author of the Self-interpreting Bible, and other 
theological works, was born at Carpow, in 1722. 

ABERNYTE, a parish, in the county of Perth, 10 
miles (W.) from Dundee ; containing 280 inhabitants. 
The name of this place is of Gaelic origin, referring to 
the situation of the principal village, near the confluence 
of two rivulets, one of which is supposed to have ob- 
tained the appellation of Nyte. Very little is known 
concerning the transactions that anciently occurred 
here ; but a battle is said to have been fought in the 
parish, between two powerful families, the Grays of 
Fowlis, and the Boyds of Pitkindie, in which the latter 
were victorious ; and upon the top of a hill called 
Glenny-law, are two cairns, thought to have been raised 
in consequence of this engagement. The parish, inclu- 
ding Glenbran, annexed to it quoad sacra, is about three 
miles in extreme length, and two in breadth, and con- 
tains about 1703 acres under cultivation, 172 in good 
pasture, and about 341 in plantations, consisting chiefly 
of larch and Scotch fir ; it is bounded on the north by 
the Sidlaw hills. The district lies among those hills 
that rise gradually from the Carse of Gowrie to the top 
of the ridge of Dunsinnan, the highest point of which 
in this parish, called King's Seat, is 1050 feet above the 
sea. The most cultivated part of the parish is situated 
300 feet above the level of the Tay, and about three 
miles in a direct line from that river. The numerous 
hills and vales in the locality, impart to the scenery a 
picturesque character, and fine prospects may be had 
from several of the heights ; there are many rivulets 
among the valleys, and at the head of a romantic dell 
is a beautiful cascade, the waters of which are thrown 
from a perpendicular height of almost forty feet. 



A B O Y 



A BO Y 



In the lower parts, the arable land is, in general, of a 
light fertile soil, lying frequently on gravel, and some- 
times on clay, or on a mixture of both ; in some parts, 
the earth runs to a considerable depth. The portions 
of the higher grounds which are not planted, are covered 
with coarse grass or heath. All the usual white and 
green crops are produced, of good quality ; the best 
system of agriculture is followed, and great advantages 
are said to have resulted from the consolidation of small 
farms. The use of bone-dust for turnip husbandry, and 
the practice of turning the sheep to eat off the turnips, 
have proved of much benefit ; the implements of hus- 
bandry are good, and the farm-houses and buildings 
have mostly been placed upon an excellent footing ; but 
the fences, which form an exception to the generally 
improved appearance of the parish, are deficient in ex- 
tent, and sometimes in very bad order. The rocks are 
sandstone, with amygdaloid containing agates or pebbles. 
The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery 
of Dundee, in the synod of Angus and Mearns ; patron, 
the Crown ; there is a commodious manse, with a glebe 
of nearly 7 arable acres, and 3 of pasture, and a large 
garden ; and the stipend is nominally £150, but has 
lately fallen short of this sum. The church, built in 
1*36, and recently repaired, is situated at the lowest 
extremity of the parish. A tabernacle was built about 
forty-five years since, by Mr. Haldane, for missionaries, 
and is now occupied by a congregation of Burghers ; 
and there is a parochial school, in which instruction is 
given in every branch of education, and of which the 
master has the maximum salary, with about £97 fees. 
Several Druidical circles yet remain ; and in the parish 
is also the " Long Man's Grave," a noted spot at. the 
road-side, north-east of Dunsinnan Hill, of which the 
traditionary account states that one, guilty either of 
suicide or murder, was buried there. 

ABERTARFF. — See Boleskine and Abertarff. 

ABINGTON, a village, in the parish of Crawford- 
John, Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 3 miles 
(N. by W.) from Crawford ; containing 135 inhabitants. 
It is situated on the road between Glasgow and Carlisle ; 
and near it are vestiges of gold-mines, said to have been 
explored in the reign of James VI., and with some suc- 
cess. A. school here is aided by a heritor, with £6 per 
annum. 

ABOYNE and GLENTANNER, a parish, in the 
district of Kincardine O'Neil, county of Aberdeen, 
5 miles (W. by S.) from Kincardine O'Neil ; containing, 
with the burgh of barony of Charlestown, 113S inhabit- 
ants. The Gaelic words, A, signifying a " ford," and 
boinne or buinne, a " thin rippling water," have origi- 
nated the appellation of the first of these places, on 
account of its proximity to a ford on the Dee ; and the 
name Glentanner is said to be compounded of the Gaelic 
terms Glean-tan-ar, meaning " the glen of scanty arable 
land." The date of union is uncertain ; but, previously 
to 1763, there was a church in each place, the two being 
served by one parochial minister. Glentanner, before the 
union, formed a separate chapelry, and Aboyne was then 
united to Tullich, an intermediate chapel being situated 
at Braeroddach, equally distant from the churches of 
Aboyne and Tullich. On the south bank of the Dee, 
and surrounded by a burial-ground, the remains still 
exist of the old church of Glentanner, called, on ac- 
count of its heather thatch, the " black chapel of the 
31 



moor." The portion of Aboyne on the north side of 
the Dee was an important barony, the burgh of which, 
now named Charlestown, formerly Bunty, is near Aboyne 
Castle ; but the tolbooth was destroyed at the close of 
the last century, and all traces of the pot and gallows 
have nearly disappeared. The Knights Templars once 
had possessions here, given to them by the Bissets ; 
from that body they passed to the Frasers, of Cowie, 
and from them to Lord Keith, whose daughter, Eli- 
zabeth, having married Sir John Gordon, of Huntly, 
carried the lands and castle to the Gordons, with whom 
they have remained. The main outline of the parish 
is irregular, rendering the statement of an accurate 
measurement difficult, besides which, there is a detached 
portion, containing about sixty persons, situated on the 
left bank of the Feugh, about nine miles south-east 
from the church, and separated by the parish of Birse. 
The length from east to west, between extreme points, 
is supposed to be thirteen miles, and the breadth 19, 
miles, comprising 37,000 acres, of which a small part is 
arable, and the remainder moorland, natural pastures, 
and wood. This is a mountainous and wood}' district, 
watered by numerous rivulets, among which are the 
Tanner, the Feugh, the burn of Dinnet, and that of 
Dess, beautifully winding in different directions, but all 
in subordination to the stately and majestic Dee, which 
here pursues its course through the middle of the parish, 
Aboyne lying chiefly on the northern, and Glentanner 
on the southern, bank. The district is bounded on all 
sides either by rivers or mountains, and is skirted on 
the west, south, and east, by ranges of the Grampians. 
The climate is serene ; during heavy falls of snow and 
the blowing of the keener winds, it is intensely cold, 
but it is considered salubrious, particularly about the 
banks of the Dee, and near the Tanner. Invalids fre- 
quently resort hither in summer, to enjoy a picturesque 
and romantic seclusion, and to drink the goats' whey 
for which the place is celebrated ; and the heath-clad 
hills and Alpine forests, ascended by steep and craggy 
slopes, afford exercise for the more hardy, who, having 
reached the summits, are amply repaid for their labour 
by the fine views around them, embracing Aberdeen, 
Montrose, and many other objects of commanding in- 
terest. 

The soil near the rivers is a thin alluvial deposit, 
formed, in consequence of the rapidity of the currents, 
chiefly of sand and gravel; but, advancing towards the 
hills, the earth is stronger, and of better quality, con- 
sisting of a black or clayey till : extensive tracts of peat- 
moss are found on the higher grounds, and, to a large 
extent, supply the inhabitants with fuel. The only- 
grain raised is oats and bear ; the farms vary much in 
size, some being mere crofts, and others more than 100 
arable acres in extent, but the latter are few in number, 
and the average dimensions are from twenty to fifty 
acres. Between 5000 and 6000 sheep, chiefly of the 
Linton breed, are pastured upon the hills and moor- 
lands ; and the black cattle, to the rearing of which 
much attention is paid, comprise the Aberdeenshire horned 
and the Buchan polled breeds, crossed, not unfrequently, 
with the short-horned. The rocks mostly consist of 
granite, existing in various forms, according to the pro- 
portions of its constituent parts ; gneiss is also common, 
and ironstone, limestone, topaz, crystallized quartz, and 
fullers'-earth are found. About 4500 acres of natural 



ACRE 



AILS 



fir, a remnant of the ancient Caledonian forest, still re- 
main in Glentanner ; and on the estate of Balnacraig, 
where stand the old mansion-house of the same name, 
and the house of Carlogie, about 1400 acres are covered 
with Scotch fir, in a thriving state, like most of the 
other wood in the parish. There are also 2144 acres of 
plantations near Aboyne Castle, the ancient seat of the 
earls of Aboyne, consisting chiefly of Scotch fir, with 
many sprinklings of larch, oak, ash, beech, elm, and 
other varieties. The castle, the grounds of which are 
ornamented with an artificial lake of thirty-two acres, 
interspersed with wooded islets, was partly rebuilt in 
1671, by Charles, first Earl of Aboyne, and the east 
wing was added in 1801, by his great-great-grandson, the 
Marquess of Huntly ; the mansion is surrounded with 
beautifully-wooded hills, commanding extensive and 
interesting views. 

The village of Charlestown has a daily mail to Aber- 
deen, the turnpike-road from that city terminating here, 
though the communication is continued by good com- 
mutation roads, on each side of the Dee, to Ballater and 
Braemar ; there are also commutation roads leading 
hence in the direction of Tarland and other places, 
and the parliamentary road to Alford commences here. 
Numerous bridges cross the different streams ; and at 
Aboyne, nearly opposite the church, is an elegant sus- 
pension bridge, erected in 1831, by the Earl of Aboyne, 
in place of a former one built in 1828, and swept away 
by the great flood, in August in the following year. 
The trade in the sale of grain and cattle is principally 
carried on with Aberdeen ; and besides the cattle sold 
for this city, or forwarded by the steamers to the London 
market, large numbers, in a lean state, are sent to the 
south of Scotland, or to England. Fairs are held at 
Candlemas, Michaelmas, Hallowmas, and in June and 
July, on a green between the village of Charlestown and 
the church. The parish is in the presbytery of Kin- 
cardine O'Neil and synod of Aberdeen, and in the pa- 
tronage of the Marquess of Huntly. The minister's 
stipend is about £150, part of which is received from 
the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe of 20 acres of 
very poor land, assigned in lieu of the old glebes of the 
two parishes, when a central church was built for the 
united parish, in 1*63 : the present edifice, containing 
628 sittings, is very handsome, and was erected in 1842, 
at an expense, exclusive of carriage, of £900. The pa- 
rochial school affords instruction in the usual branches ; 
the master has a salary of £26, with £28 in fees, and a 
portion of Dick's bequest. The antiquities comprise 
Picts' houses, cairns, tumuli, and the remains of en- 
campments, of the history of which nothing is known. 
Aboyne gives the inferior title of Earl to the Marquess 
of Huntlv. 

ACHARACLE.— See Aharacle. 

ACHARN, a village, in the parish of Kenmore, 
county of Perth ; containing 42 inhabitants. It is a 
small place, of which the residents are entirely engaged 
in agriculture. The Acharn burn, a feeder of Loch Tay, 
runs through the eastern portion of the parish. 

ACKERGILL, a village, in the parish of Wick, and 
county of Caithness. It was anciently called Aikrigill, 
and lies on the shore of Sinclair bay, and on the road 
between Staxigo and Keiss. The lands were formerly a 
possession of the Keiths, earls marischal, whose resi- 
dence was Ackergill Tower, a spacious rectangular strue- 
32 



ture, of which the walls, thirteen feet in thickness, and 
crowned with battlements, are eighty-two feet in height ; 
it is in a state of entire preservation, and, from its an- 
tiquity, has a venerable and impressive aspect. 

ADAMSROW, a village, in the parish of Newton, 
county of Edinburgh ; containing 249 inhabitants. 

AFTON-BRIDGEND, a village, in the parish of New 
Cumnock, district of Kyle, county of Ayr ; contain- 
ing 261 inhabitants. It is situated on the banks of the 
Afton, a small stream tributary to the river Nith, into 
which, flowing northward through Glen- Afton, it merges 
near New Cumnock, and gives name to a barony, 
wherein is a lead-mine. The parochial church is be- 
tween the villages of Afton-Bridgend and New Cum- 
nock. 

AHARACLE, or Acharacle, late a quoad sacra pa- 
rish, in the parish of Ardnamurchan, partly in the 
district and county of Argyll, and partly in county 
Inverness; containing 2016 inhabitants. It is about 
twenty-four miles in its greatest length, and ten inbreadth, 
and is formed, for the most part, of the eastern portion 
of Ardnamurchan, and includes the islands of Shona- 
veg, Portavata, and Shona. The ecclesiastical affairs are 
under the superintendence of the presbytery of Mull 
and synod of Argyll ; the stipend of the minister is 
£120, subject to a deduction for communion elements, 
and there is a manse, with a glebe valued at £2. 10. The 
church, which stands at the west end of Lochshiel, and 
about four miles distant from the nearest boundary of 
the district, the Western Ocean, was built in 1829, and 
contains 2/0 sittings : another place of worship connected 
with the Establishment, is distant from the parochial 
church about eleven miles. A great portion of the 
population are Roman Catholics. 

AIGASH ISLE, in the parish of Kiltarlity, county 
of Inverness. It is formed by a division into two 
branches of the river Beauly, and is of an oval figure, 
and about a mile and a half in circumference, com- 
prising an area of fifty acres. It is chiefly whinstone, 
and rises, in a slope, about a hundred feet above the 
level of the water ; and being covered with natural oak, 
birch, alder, and other trees, it presents, with the sur- 
rounding rocks, a beautiful and picturesque appear- 
ance. The islet communicates with the main land by 
a bridge. 

AILSA, an island belonging to the parish of Dailly, 
in the district of Carrick, county of Ayr. This island 
lies in the Frith of Clyde, between the shores of Ayr- 
shire and Cantyre, from the former of which it is dis- 
tant eight miles ; it is a rugged rock, about two miles 
in circumference at its base, rising precipitously from 
the sea, to an elevation of 1 100 feet, and accessible only 
on the north-east side, where a small beach has been 
constructed. The rock is basaltic, and in several parts 
assumes the columnar formation : at a considerable 
elevation, are the remains of ancient buildings, sup- 
posed to have been originally a castle, with a chapel. A 
small portion of its surface affords a scanty pasturage ; 
but it is frequented only by various aquatic birds, of 
which the most numerous are the solan geese ; and the 
sole income arising from the island, is derived from the 
sale of feathers, for the collection of which, during the 
season, a person resides on the spot. It was in 
contemplation, some time since, to make this island a 
fishing station, for the supply of Glasgow and Liverpool 



AIRD 



A I R L 



by the numerous steamers which pass this way, and 
the erection of some buildings for that purpose was 
commenced, but the idea was subsequently abandoned. 
The island gives the British titles of Marquess and 
Baron to the family of Kennedy, who are the owners of 
the property. 

AIRD, a village, in the parish of Inch, county of 
Wigton ; containing 18 inhabitants. It is situated 
near the head of Loch Ryan bay, about a mile eastward 
of Stranraer, and the same distance south-west of the 
parochial church. 

AIRDRIE, a burgh and market-town, in the parish 
of New, or East Monkland, Middle ward of the 
county of Lanark, 32| miles (W. by S.) from Edin- 
burgh ; containing 12,418 inhabitants, and comprising 
the late quoad sacra parishes of High Church, and East, 
South, and West Airdrie, in which are respectively 
1983, 2556, 4666, and 3213 persons. This place, which 
is comparatively of recent origin, is advantageously 
situated on the road from Glasgow to Edinburgh, and 
appears to have been indebted for its rise to the nume- 
rous mines of coal and ironstone with which the 
parish and adjoining district abound, and which, 
within the last half century, have been wrought with 
increased assiduity and profit. Its situation within a 
moderate distance of the capital and other principal 
towns, with which it has facility of intercourse, by 
means of the Monkland canal, and good turnpike-roads, 
has rendered it important as a place of trade, and as the 
residence of numerous persons engaged in collieries and 
mines ; and it is rapidly increasing in population and 
prosperity. The town is regularly built ; the houses are 
of neat appearance, and the streets are well paved, 
lighted with gas, and watched, under the provisions of 
an act of 1 and 2 Geo. IV. A theatre, likewise, is sup- 
ported by the inhabitants. The principal trade carried 
on in the town, is that of weaving, in which many 
persons are employed ; and a large cotton factory has 
been recently established, which affords constant occu- 
pation to a large number, in spinning, carding, and other 
branches of the manufacture. There are a tan-work, 
brewery, and extensive distillery. The Monkland canal, 
passing by the town, affords ready communication with 
Glasgow, to which place coal is likewise forwarded by 
the Ballochney railroad, which joins those of Kirkin- 
tilloch and Garnkirk ; and great quantities of coal and 
mineral produce are also conveyed to the Clyde and 
Forth canal, whence they are forwarded, eastward to 
Edinburgh, and westward to Greenock. The market, 
which is well supplied, and numerously attended, is on 
Thursday ; and fairs, chiefly for cattle, are held generally 
about the end of May and the middle of November. 

The town was erected into a burgh of barony by act 
of the 1st and 2nd of Geo. IV., by which the govern- 
ment was vested in a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, 
and seven councillors, assisted by a town-clerk and 
other officers. The provost and bailies are elected from 
the council, by a majority of the burgesses and other 
inhabitants possessing the elective franchise ; the for- 
mer, with two of the bailies, annually, the third bailie 
retaining office for two years. The town-clerk is chosen 
annually, by the proprietor of the Rochsolloch estate, 
but is subject to the controul of the magistrates and 
council ; and the provost and bailies are justices of the 
peace within the burgh, in which, however, the county 
Vol. I.— 33 



magistrates have concurrent jurisdiction. The bailies 
hold courts monthly, for the recovery of debts under 
40s. The burgh unites with those of Lanark, Hamilton, 
Falkirk, and Linlithgow, in returning one member to 
the imperial parliament ; the right of election is vested 
in the resident burgesses and £10 householders, and 
the provost is the returning officer. The town-hall, re- 
cently erected, is a neat edifice, comprising also a police- 
office, and a small prison for the temporary confinement 
of offenders previously to their committal by the county 
magistrates. There is also a public building called the 
Masons' Hall, which is connected with the trade of the 
town. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the controul 
of the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow 
and Ayr : the parochial church of East Airdrie, which 
contains 631 sittings, was erected, as a chapel of ease, in 
1/97; and a new church for West Airdrie, having 1200 
sittings, was built by subscription, in 1835, at a cost of 
£23/0. The stipend of the minister of the former is 
£120, derived solely from seat-rents ; and that of the 
minister of the latter, £105, derived from seat-rents 
and collections. There are also two places of worship 
for South Airdrie and High Church, a town school, and 
meeting-houses for members of the Free Church, Inde- 
pendents, Roman Catholics, the United Secession, and 
other congregations. 

AIRLIE, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 4 miles 
(W. S. W.) from Kirriemuir ; containing 868 inhabit- 
ants. The name of this place, written in ancient records 
Errolly, Erolly, Irolly, and Airlie, is altogether of un- 
certain derivation, but is supposed, by some, to come 
from the Gaelic term Aird, signifying the " extremity 
of a ridge," which description is applicable to the loca- 
lity of Airlie Castle. The parish is situated at the west- 
ern extremity of the county, bordering on Perthshire, 
and measures, in extreme length, 6 miles, from east to 
west ; and the breadth varies from ^ a mile to 4 miles ; 
the whole comprising S600 acres, of which 6848 are 
cultivated, 1365 under wood, and 3S/ in pasture, waste, 
&c. The southern part of the district lies in the vale of 
Strathmore, from which the land rises towards the 
north, in a succession of undulated ridges, forming a 
portion of the braes of Angus, and the southern Gram- 
pians. In this direction, the Isla pours its waters 
through a deep rocky gorge, out of the higher into the 
lower country; and the ravine, separcting at Airlie 
Castle into two channels, makes courses, respectively, 
for the Isla and Melgum streams. The scenery about 
this spot is highly picturesque, and is, to a great extent, 
indebted for its attractions to the romantic Den of 
Airlie, extending for above a mile from the confluence 
of the two streams. The pellucid stream of the Isla, 
sweeping in some places over a rocky channel, pursues 
its winding course among the thickly-wooded and pre- 
cipitous braes ; and the pleasing landscape in this part 
is completed by the interesting feature of the Kirktown, 
situated about \\ mile south-east from the castle, and 
less than a mile east of the river. All the streams are 
famed for their abundance of fine trout, and are the 
favourite resorts of anglers ; the Isla and Melgum are 
also much visited by salmon. In the Dean is found the 
fresh-water muscle, often mistaken for the pearl oyster, 
common in the South Esk, and some of the rivers are 
frequented by numerous migratory birds, some of them 
being of very rare species. 

F 



AIRL 



A I R T 



The soil runs through the several varieties of brown 
and black loam ; in the better portion of the district, 
and in the northern part, it is a thin and barren earth, 
on a tilly subsoil, requiring much furrow-draining and 
deep ploughing to render it profitable. There are also 
many gravelly, sandy, and clayey admixtures, in differ- 
ent places, some of which, if allowed to remain long in 
grass, become overspread with broom ; but, though 
much of the land is either very poor or only of moderate 
fertility, there are some rich tracts, particularly a long 
and broad strip of deep alluvial loam, along the whole 
course of the Dean river. The agriculture of the parish 
has been greatly improved since the beginning of the 
present century, and deep and extensive drains have 
been constructed ; furrow-draining, by tiles and stones, 
has been practised, and shell-marl is much used as 
manure. The number of sheep and cattle, and the 
superiority of the breeds, furnish a striking contrast to 
the state of the district, in these respects, about thirty 
years since, most of the thinner soils being now covered 
with flocks of native black-faced sheep, besides regular 
stocks of Leicesters, in other parts ; and in addition to 
the Angus, a very fine description of cattle is seen on 
several of the larger farms, which is often crossed with 
the Teeswater. Since the introduction of steam naviga- 
tion, large quantities have been sent to London, in 
addition to those sold at Edinburgh and Glasgow, and 
they obtain the highest prices. 

The strata consist entirely of the old red sandstone, 
with the exception of a trap-dike crossing the channel 
of the Isla, near Airlie Castle. The upper beds are in 
general too friable for use, crumbling almost as soon as 
they are exposed to the air, but those at a considerable 
depth are of tenacious consistence, and, having several 
varieties of fine and coarse grain, are capable of being 
applied to many purposes. Most of the rocks are over- 
laid with debris of different depths, and above are 
usually beds of sand and gravel ; at Baikie is a bed 
of marl, once covering 40 acres, and six or seven yards 
deep, but which has been much exhausted for agricul- 
tural use, and there are also extensive mosses, in which 
horns of deer and oxen have been found. Many plan- 
tations have been formed in the present century, com- 
prising the usual trees ; but they are, to a great extent, 
in a pining state, especially the larch, very many of 
which have been entirely destroyed by blight and can- 
ker. Airlie Castle, a plain modern residence, situated 
at the north-western point of the parish, on a lofty 
precipice, is the property of the family of Ogilvy, who 
became connected with the parish in 1458, when Sir 
John Ogilvy, of Lintrathen, received a grant of the 
barony from King James II. One side of the ancient 
castle only remains, the rest having been burnt down by 
the Earl of Argyll, in the year 1640, during the absence 
of the Earl of Airlie, a zealous supporter of the royal 
cause, which event is celebrated in the popular ballad 
entitled " Bonnie house of Airlie." Lindertis House is 
a handsome edifice, of recent date, beautifully situated 
on the northern slope of Strathmore, and commanding 
fine views of an extensive range of country. A consi- 
derable number of the inhabitants of the parish are 
engaged in weaving coarse linens for Dundee houses ; 
several public roads, leading to most of the great tho- 
roughfares, pass through the place, and the railway 
from Newtyle to Glammis passes along the southern 
34 



border. The parish is in the presbytery of Meigle and 
synod of Angus and Mearns, and in the patronage of the 
Earl of Strathmore ; the minister's stipend is £219. 1. 5., 
with a manse, and a glebe of 9 acres valued at £12 per 
annum. The church is a very neat edifice, rebuilt in 
1781, and repaired in 1844. A Free Church place of 
worship has been recently erected. The parochial school- 
master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house, and £13 
fees. Near Cardean, are the remains of a Roman camp, 
and also of the great Roman road which ran from this 
spot, along the valley of Strathmore. 

AIRNTULLY, or Arntully, a village, in the pa- 
rish of Kinclaven, county of Perth, 8 miles (N.) from 
Perth ; containing 159 inhabitants. This place, of 
which the houses are scattered in every direction, was 
of greater extent than it is at present ; and though it 
has, of late years, considerably decreased in size and 
population, it still exhibits a striking picture of the 
ancient villages of the kingdom. It is now chiefly in- 
habited by weavers for the linen manufacturers of Cupar- 
Angus, Blairgowrie, and Newburgh ; and attached to 
each of their cottages, is a portion of land sufficient to 
maintain a cow, and to yield meal and potatoes for the 
supply of their families. 

AIRTH, a parish, in the county of Stirling, 6| 
miles (N.) from Falkirk ; containing, with the village 
of Dunmore, 1498 inhabitants, of whom 5S3 are in the 
village of Airth. The Gaelic term ard, or ardhe, signi- 
fying a hill, is supposed to have given the name to this 
place, in which the eminence called the Hill of Airth is 
a conspicuous feature, and forms a striking contrast to 
the level district by which it is surrounded. The parish 
is situated on the shore of the Forth, which is its boun- 
dary on the north and east, for about S-§ miles, and 
contains the three small landing-places or harbours of 
Newmiln, Airth, and Dunmore ; its length, from north 
to south, is 6^ miles, and its breadth 3^, comprising 
16,400 acres, mostly in tillage. The small river Pow 
is the only water besides the Forth ; it rises in the 
parish of St. Ninian's, and, after being crossed by several 
stone bridges, falls into the latter river near Kincardine 
ferry. The prevailing soil consists of alluvial deposits 
from the Forth; and the layers of shells, at a small dis- 
tance from the surface, on the lower grounds, have led 
to the opinion that this portion of the parish formed 
originally a part of the bed of the river. Most kinds of 
grain and green crops are raised, averaging, in annual 
value, £100,000 ; and the general husbandry, which has 
been for some time on the advance, is now considered 
equal to that of the best cultivated districts. The 
rocks comprise distinct varieties of sandstone, differing 
in colour, texture, and extent, and there are several 
quarries. Argillaceous rock also exists, of the fire- 
proof species, on which rest beds of coal, belonging, 
with their appropriate strata, to the great coalfield of 
Scotland, though they are not at present worked, the 
pits formerly in operation, near the village of Dunmore, 
having been closed since 1S11, on account of their ex- 
hausted state. The plantations are chiefly in the vici- 
nity of the beautiful hill of Airth and Dunmore Park, 
the most prominent and striking portions of the parish, 
on the former of which is situated Airth Castle, a very 
ancient building, with a handsome new front, sur- 
mounted in the. centre by a tower, the whole forming a 
picturesque object from every part of the surrounding 



ALEX 



ALFO 



country. In Dunmore Park is the mansion of the 
Earl of Dunmore, built in the Elizabethan style, about 
twenty years since, upon an extensive lawn richly 
studded with all kinds of trees, and encompassed with 
grounds thickly planted, like those of the Castle, with 
larch, Scotch fir, birch, oak, and beech. About 185 
acres of land, recovered from the sea, have been added 
to the Airth estate, and 150 to that of Dunmore, within 
the last fifty years, and are secured by embankments of 
mud and turf, defended by substantial stone facings ; 
and considerable tracts of moss are annually recovered 
by the employment of what are called " moss lairds," 
who, by hard labour, are gradually reducing the large 
extent, amounting to between 300 and 400 acres, re- 
ceiving for their work £24 per acre. 

The parish is traversed by the Glasgow turnpike- 
road, on which the Alloa and Kirkcaldy coaches travel 
daily ; there is also constant communication with Edin- 
burgh, by means of steam-boats plying on the Forth, 
throughout the whole year. Over the small river Fow, 
up which the tide flows, for above a mile, is the Abbey- 
town bridge, situated on the road from Airth and Dun- 
more to Carron and Falkirk, having received this name 
from a town, as is supposed, to which it led, in a direct 
line, and near which was an ancient abbey. There are 
two old ferries, called Kersie and Higgin's Neuck, the 
latter about a mile across, and the former half that dis- 
tance, at which, on each side of the river, is a pier for 
the accommodation of passengers at all states of the 
tide. The harbours of Airth, Dunmore, and Newmiln 
are within the jurisdiction of the custom-house of Alloa, 
and there are four registered vessels belonging to the 
parish. An annual fair is held on the last Tuesday in 
July, chiefly for the hiring of servants as shearers. The 
parish is in the presbytery of Stirling and synod of 
Perth and Stirling, and in the patronage of the family 
of Graham ; the minister's stipend is £281. 12., with a 
manse, and a glebe of 10 acres, including the site of the 
manse and garden, valued at £27 per annum. The 
church, which is conveniently situated, was built in 
1820, and is capable of accommodating 800 persons. 
There is a place of worship for the Burgher denomination. 
The parochial school affords instruction in Latin, arith- 
metic, book-keeping, and the usual elementary branches ; 
the master has a salary of £34, and £40 fees. The poor 
enjoy the benefit of several considerable bequests ; a 
savings' bank was instituted in 1821, and there are two 
friendly societies, one of which is connected with the 
weavers of the parish, who carry on a manufacture to 
a very limited extent. The family of Murray derive the 
title of Earl from their ancient seat of Dunmore, in the 
parish. 

AIRTHRIE, Stirling. — See Allan, Bridge of. 

AITHSTING, Shetland. — See Sandsting and 
Aithsting. 

ALDHOUSE, a village, in the parish of East Kil- 
bride, Middle ward of the county of Lanark. This 
place, which includes Crosshill, lies in about the centre 
of the parish, and contains a branch of the parochial 
school. 

ALEXANDRIA, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the 
parish of Bonhill, county of Dumbarton ; contain- 
ing 3397 inhabitants, of whom 3039 are in the village, 
4 miles (N.) from Dumbarton. The village is on the 
west bank of the river Leven, and its population has, of 
35 



late years, very considerably increased, owing to the 
establishment of bleach-fields and print-fields in the 
parish ; the persons employed here, in these works, are 
very numerous. The church is a handsome edifice, and 
contains about 1000 sittings ; the minister's stipend is 
£206. 17- 4., with a manse, and a glebe valued at 
£6. 13. 4. per annum, and a right to fuel on a moss, 
commuted for £4 worth of coal, and 13s. 8d. money. 
In the village is a place of worship for Independents. 

ALFORD, a parish, in the district of Alford, county 
of Aberdeen, 26 miles (W. N. W.) from Aberdeen ; 
containing 1037 inhabitants. This place, of which the 
name is of uncertain derivation, is situated in the south- 
western portion of a district nearly in the centre of the 
county, called the How of Alford, a valley comprising 
also the parishes of Keig, Tough, and Tullynessle and 
Forbes, and entirely surrounded with mountains and 
hills. The only event of historical importance, is the 
battle of Alford, which took place here on the 2nd of 
July, 1645, and terminated in the entire defeat of the 
army of the Covenanters under General Baillie, by the 
royal forces under the command of the Marquess of 
Montrose, and in which Lord Gordon, the eldest son of 
the Marquess of Huntly, was killed. On the field of 
battle, of which the site is marked out by an upright 
stone, the body of a horseman, in complete armour, was 
found within the last century, by some men digging 
peat ; and cannon-balls, military weapons, coins, and 
other relics have been discovered near the spot. The 
parish is about seven miles in extreme length, and nearly 
three miles in breadth, comprising an area of 8715 acres, 
of which 4767 are arable, 1169 woodland and planta- 
tions, about 200 rich meadow, and the remainder moun- 
tain pasture, moss, and waste. The surface is partly 
diversified with ranges of nearly contiguous hills, of 
circular form, of which the bases have an elevation of 
420, and the summits of S00, feet, and which increase 
in height towards the mountain of Callievar, on the 
western boundary, which has an elevation of 1480 feet 
above the sea. The principal river is the Don, which 
forms the northern boundary of the parish, and is here 
about 120 feet wide, flowing from east to west, between 
verdant banks of great beauty. The river Leochal 
has its source in the parish of Cushnie, is scarcely 25 
feet in breadth, and flows into the Don ; the burn of 
Bents, a still smaller stream, skirts the parish on the 
east, and the burn of Buckie, the smallest, flows through 
the eastern portion of the parish. The Don and the 
Leochal abound with trout; there are also numerous 
springs of excellent water, and some slightly cha- 
lybeate. 

The soil is mostly a dry friable loam, well adapted 
for turnips, and, in some parts, of great depth and fer- 
tility; the crops are, oats, bear, potatoes, and turnips. 
The system of agriculture is in an improved state ; 
much waste land has been reclaimed ; the farm build- 
ings are, in general, substantial and commodious, and 
the lands are inclosed with stone dykes. Great atten- 
tion is paid to the improvement of live stock, for which 
the hills afford good pasture; the sheep, with the excep- 
tion of a few of the black-faced, are usually of the Leices- 
tershire and Merino breeds, reared chiefly for their wool, 
and about S00 are generally fed in the pastures. The 
rearing of black cattle, however, is the main dependence 
of the farmers, and about 2000 are kept, chiefly of the 

F2 



A L L A 



A L L O 



Aberdeen polled kind, and a cross between it and the 
short-horned. The plantations are, larch, Scotch and 
spruce firs, beech, elm, ash, mountain ash, lime, plane, 
oak, willow, birch, and poplar. The rocks are princi- 
pally of the primitive formation, chiefly micaceous schist, 
and granite, of which latter there are several varieties, 
some resembling the grey granite of Aberdeen, and 
others the red granite of Peterhead ; many of the rocks 
are almost in a state of decomposition. Haughton, the 
seat of the principal landed proprietor, is an elegant 
mansion of dressed granite, beautifully situated on the 
bank of the Don, in a wide demesne tastefully laid out, 
and embellished with thriving plantations. Breda, an- 
other seat, and Kingsford, recently built, are also hand- 
some houses. 

The village consists, for the most part, of houses of 
neat appearance, to each of which is attached a portion 
of land, and extends for about three-quarters of a mile 
along the road to Aberdeen. A post-office has been es- 
tablished, and facility of communication is afforded by 
good roads, and by substantial bridges across the various 
streams, one of which, over the Don, an elegant struc- 
ture of granite, was erected in 1810, by the Parliamen- 
tary Commissioners, at a cost of £'2000. Fairs are held 
for black cattle, horses, and sheep, on the Tuesday be- 
fore the second Wednesday in June, and the Friday 
after the second Thursday in September (O. S.) ; and 
markets for black cattle and grain, on the first Mon- 
day in every month, from October till May. The 
ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the super- 
intendence of the presbytery of Alford and synod of 
Aberdeen; the minister's stipend is £106. 17. 4., with 
a manse, and a glebe valued at £6. 13. 4. per annum ; 
patron, the Crown. The church, erected in 1804, and 
enlarged in 1S26, is a neat structure, containing 550 
sittings. The parochial school is attended by about 
80 children ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., 
augmented, by the proceeds of bequests, to £38, and 
the fees average about £15 annually. On the summit 
of a hill called Carnaveran, supposed to signify, in the 
Gaelic language, " the Cairn of Sorrow," is a cairn in 
the form of a truncated cone, 120 feet in diameter at 
the base, in removing a portion of which were found 
several coffins of flat stones. 

ALLAN, BRIDGE OF, a village, in the parishes of 
Lecropt and Logie, county of Stirling, 4 miles (N.) 
from Stirling; containing 561 inhabitants. This vil- 
lage, which is pleasantly situated on the banks of the 
river Allan, formerly consisted only of a few irregular 
and detached cottages, and derived its chief importance 
from an ale and porter brewery that had been esta- 
blished here, towards the close of the last century. 
From its proximity, however, to the mineral spring of 
Airthrie, and the well of Dunblane, of which the water, 
discovered in 1814, has been found to possess similar 
properties, but of milder operation, the village has 
rapidly increased in extent and population, and, on the 
failure of a project for conveying the water of the latter, 
by pipes, into the town of Dunblane, has, in that re- 
spect, attained precedence as a place of fashionable 
resort. An excellent inn for the accommodation of 
visiters, and numerous houses for the reception of 
families residing here during the summer months, have 
been erected within the last few years, and are fully 
occupied ; and good shops, amply stored with articles of 
36 



every kind, have been opened for their convenience. 
The environs abound with pleasing scenery, among 
which the grounds of Keir House form a conspicuous 
feature ; and are interspersed with handsome villas, in- 
habited by opulent families. The river, near the village, 
rushes with impetuosity, through a deep glen richly 
wooded, forming an interesting and secluded retreat. 
The spring of Airthrie rises on the high grounds above 
the village, on the estate of Airthrie, and was discovered 
several years since, during the working of a copper- 
mine ; the water is a saline aperient, similar to that of 
Cheltenham, but not so strong, containing, as its chief 
ingredients, common salt, muriate of lime, and sulphate 
of lime, and has been fast advancing in reputation, espe- 
cially for scorbutic complaints. The water of Dunblane 
Well has been analysed by Dr. John Murray, an emi- 
nent physician, and found to contain, in one imperial 
pint, '24 grains of muriate of soda ; of muriate of lime, 
IS grains ; of sulphate of lime, 3 "5 grains ; of carbonate 
of lime, '5 grains ; and of oxide of iron, "17 grains. 
The woollen manufacture is carried on to a small ex- 
tent, for which there is a mill at the hamlet of Keir ; 
and there is also a paper manufactory. The members of 
the Free Church have a place of worship. 

ALLANTON, a village, in the parish of Edrom, 
county of Berwick, l^mile (S.) from Chirnside ; con- 
taining 26/ inhabitants. This village, which is situated 
at the confluence of the rivers Whitadder and Black- 
adder, is neatly built, and inhabited chiefly by persons 
employed in the manufactories in the neighbourhood ; 
some of the houses are detached, and surrounded with 
pleasant gardens. A considerable traffic is carried on 
in coal, which is brought from the county of Northum- 
berland, and also from Eyemouth, to which place it is 
sent, by sea, from Newcastle ; and there is a daily de- 
livery of letters in the village, by a branch from the 
post-office at Dunse. A place of worship in connexion 
with the Free Church has been erected. 

ALLOA, a burgh of barony, sea-port town, and 
parish, in the county of Clackmannan, 7 miles (E.) 
from Stirling ; containing, with the villages of Cambus, 
Coalyland, Holton- Square, and Tullibody, 7921 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 5434 are in the burgh, and 2457 in the 
East quoad sacra parish. This place, of which the name, 
in various documents Aidewmj and Alloway, is supposed 
to signify, in the Gaelic language, " the way to the sea," 
includes also the ancient parish of Tullibody, memorable 
for the erection of its village, in S34, by Kenneth MA1- 
pine, on the plain where he encamped the main body of 
his army, previously to the victory which put an end to 
the Pictish dynasty in Scotland. In 1149, David I. 
erected, and annexed to the abbey of Cambus Kenneth, 
which he had founded on the field where the battle took 
place, the church of Tullibody, which he endowed with 
land, and with some islands in the Frith of Forth, for 
the maintenance of the officiating priests. In 1559, the 
French forces under General D'Oysel, who were sta- 
tioned on the coast of Fife, on the appearance of the 
English fleet, made a precipitate retreat to Stirling ; 
but, being retarded in their progress by Kirkcaldy of 
Grange, who had broken down the bridge of Tullibody, 
they unroofed the church, and, converting the timbers 
into a temporary bridge, effected their escape across the 
Forth. The church, thus exposed to the injuries of the 
weather, soon fell into a state of dilapidation ; and the 



A LL O 



ALLO 



parish of Tullibody, about the time of the Reformation, 
became united to that of Alloa. In 1645, the Earl of 
Montrose, on the night, before the battle of Kilsyth, en- 
camped his forces in the woods of Tullibody, and was 
hospitably entertained by the Earl of Mar, in his cas- 
tle of Alloa. 

The family of the Erskines, ancestors of the earls of 
Mar, were distinguished, at an early period, for their 
eminent services ; and John, the 5th earl, who became 
Regent of Scotland, was entrusted with the guardian- 
ship of Mary, Queen of Scots, who, during her infancy, 
remained under his protection, at Alloa Castle, till 
1548, when, by order of the estates of the kingdom, he 
conveyed her to the court of France. John, the 6th 
earl, was appointed guardian to the infant monarch, 
James VI., who spent many of his earlier years at 
Alloa, and also at Stirling. The castle of Alloa, an- 
ciently one of the residences of the Scottish kings, was, 
in the 13th century, given by David II. to Lord Ers- 
kine, in exchange for the estate of Strathgartney, in 
the county of Perth. Of the ancient edifice, one tower 
only is now remaining, S9 feet in height, and of which 
the walls are 1 1 feet in thickness ; the other portions of 
the buildings which constituted the family residence, 
were destroyed by an accidental fire in 1S00, and a 
splendid mansion has been since erected by the Earl of 
Mar. This is a spacious structure, of white freestone 
from a quarry in the park, beautifully situated on a 
gentle acclivity, within about 200 yards of the old 
tower, and inclosing a quadrangular area ISO feet in 
length, and 120 feet in breadth. The principal front 
occupies the whole width of the area, and is an elegant 
specimen of the Grecian style ; and the interior con- 
tains numerous stately apartments, superbly decorated. 
Four entrance lodges, also, have been recently built ; 
but the whole of the arrangements are not yet com- 
pleted. 

The town is situated on the Frith of Forth, and, 
though irregularly built, consists of several good streets, 
of which John-street, planned in the year 1704, is 
about SO feet in width, leading to the quay, and ter- 
minating in a gravel-walk, shaded by a row of lime- 
trees on each side, and forming a pleasant promenade. 
The old houses in the principal streets have been 
mostly taken down, and replaced with modern buildings 
of handsome appearance ; and many of the shops dis- 
play much elegance of style. The streets are well 
paved, and lighted with gas from works erected in 1821, 
by a company of shareholders, at an expense of £3000 ; 
and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water, con- 
veyed into the town by pipes, from springs in the vici- 
nity. Considerable additions have been made to the 
town, which is rapidly extending towards the west ; 
and within the few last years numerous villas have 
been erected, in that direction. The Clackmannanshire 
library, founded here in 1797, is supported by annual 
subscriptions of ten shillings each, and contains a col- 
lection of more than 1500 volumes; there are also a 
reading and news room, and an assembly-room. A 
mechanics' institution was established in 1826, and was, 
for some time, well supported, but, of late, has not been 
so warmly patronized ; connected with it, is a library of 
470 volumes. 

The principal manufacture is that of woollens, 
which, though formerly of very limited extent, has lat- 
37 



terly much increased, and for which several additional 
mills have been erected on a large scale ; there are at 
present six factories, of which four are worked by steam. 
The chief articles are, yarns, plaiding, shawls, tartans, 
druggets, blankets, and cloth of various kinds, together 
affording employment to 200 men, 72 women, and 90 
children ; and connected with these factories, is an ex- 
tensive establishment for the manufacture of machinery. 
The glass manufacture, for which works, commenced at 
an early period, were extended by a joint-stock company, 
in 1825, produces glass bottles equal to those of New- 
castle, in Northumberland. There are eight extensive 
breweries, of which five are in the town ; and the ale 
produced is in high repute, and is sent, in large quantities, 
to London, and exported to the continent, North and 
South America, the East and West Indies, and other 
places. Large distilleries are conducted at Cambus 
and Carse Bridge ; at that of Cambus, nearly 6000 
gallons are produced weekly, consuming about 374 
quarters of malt, and feeding 400 head of cattle ; there 
are 60 men employed in the establishment, and the 
amount of duty paid to government, exceeds £50,000 
per annum. The distillery at Carse Bridge is nearly 
equal in extent. Extensive tanneries are carried on at 
Tullibody, in which leather is made to the amount of 
£20,000 annually ; and there are also works for the 
manufacture of glue, belonging to the same company, 
and mills, driven by steam, for grinding bones for 
manure, together affording employment to about 40 men. 
The iron-foundry, and works for the manufacture of 
steam-engines, are also very extensive, employing nearly 
100 men. There are large potteries for white and 
coloured earthenware, of every kind, and the manufac- 
ture of bricks and tiles occupies more than 40 persons ; 
the fire-bricks made here are considered equal to those 
of Stourbridge, and adjoining the works is a commodi- 
ous wharf for shipping the produce. Ship-building is 
also carried on ; vessels of 300 or 400 tons' burthen 
are frequently built, and in 1845, a vessel of 800 tons 
was built here, for the foreign trade. Boat-building 
is carried on, and there is a dry dock for repairing ves- 
sels ; the making of sails and ropes is also considerable, 
and there are numerous mills, driven by water and 
steam. 

The port, which includes the creeks of Kincardine 
and Stirling, and has recently been made a bonding 
port, carries on an extensive coasting, and a consider- 
able foreign, trade, the latter chiefly with Holland and 
the Baltic. The principal exports are, coal, pig-iron, 
woollen goods, glass, ale, whisky, leather, bricks, and 
tiles; the chief imports, coastwise, are, grain, malt, 
wine, groceries, wool, and fullers'-earth, and, from 
foreign ports, timber, deals, hemp, oak-bark, and bones 
for manure. The amount of registered tonnage, in- 
cluding the creeks, is about 19,000 tons, of which about 
10,000 belong to Alloa ; the number of vessels that 
entered inwards, in 1838, was 600, and the number that 
cleared outwards, 1250. The harbour is accessible, at 
high water, to vessels of large burthen, which may lie in 
safety at the quays, which are commodiously adapted to 
the loading and unloading of their cargoes, and on 
which is a custom-house. The market-days are Wed- 
nesday and Saturday, the latter being the principal, and 
fairs are held on the second Wednesday in Feb., May, 
August, and November ; the August fair, which is the 



ALLO 



A LM O 



most numerously attended, is for hiring servants, and 
for general business, and the other three are for cattle. 
The post-office has a considerable delivery ; and facilities 
of intercourse with Edinburgh, Stirling, and the several 
towns on the Forth, is afforded by numerous steamers. 
The town was erected into a burgh of barony, in the 
reign of Robert Bruce, and is governed by a baron 
bailie, appointed by the Earl of Mar: the courts of the 
sheriff and justices of peace, have been transferred from 
Clackmannan to this town, and a county prison has been 
just completed. 

The parish, which is bounded on the south by the 
Forth, and on the east partly by the Black Devon, is of 
very irregular form, comprising about 5000 acres, of 
which 43/5 are arable, 514 woodland and plantations, 
and the remainder waste. The surface, though not 
mountainous, is beautifully diversified with hills of 
moderate height, and fertile valleys. From the higher 
of the eminences, of which none exceed 400 feet in ele- 
vation above the Forth, are views of picturesque and 
romantic character ; a fine tract of rich carse land ex- 
tends along the banks of the Forth, and the scenery, 
enriched with wood, and interspersed with streams, is 
of very pleasing aspect. The river Devon flows through 
the south-western portion of the parish, into the Forth, 
at the village of Cambus, about two miles from Alloa ; 
and the Black Devon, after forming part of its eastern 
boundary, takes a westerly course, and flows through the 
parish, into the Frith of Forth, at Clackmannan. A 
large reservoir called Gartmorn Dam, 160 acres in 
extent, and 37 feet in depth, was formed by John, Earl 
of Mar, about the year 1/00, by throwing a dam-head 
across the Black Devon, at Forest Mill ; the bed of that 
river was thus raised 16 feet above its former level, and 
from it he carried an aqueduct of four miles in length, 
for the supply of this reservoir, which he constructed 
for driving the machinery of the Alloa colliery, and of 
several mills. 

The soil of the lower lands is richly fertile, but of the 
higher, thin and light, on a cold tilly bottom ; the prin- 
cipal crops are, wheat, barley, and oats, with the various 
green crops. The system of husbandry has been much 
improved, under the auspices of the Clackmannanshire 
Agricultural Society ; the lands have been well-drained, 
and partially inclosed, and the farm-buildings are com- 
modiously arranged. The cattle are chiefly of the Ayr- 
shire breed, with a few of the short-horned, though 
no great number are reared ; and a few sheep, of various 
kinds, are fed for the butcher. Very little of the ancient 
forests of Clackmannanshire is now remaining ; the prin- 
cipal woods are those of Tullibody, in which are many 
stately trees of venerable growth. The plantations consist 
mostly of oak and other hard- wood trees, intermixed with 
firs; they are regularly thinned, and are in a thriving state. 
The substrata are, sandstone of different colours, clay- 
slate, limestone, and coal, which last occurs in seams 
varying from a few inches to nine feet in thickness ; of 
the sandstone, two quarries are wrought, to a very mode- 
rate extent, the one of white, and the other of a reddish, 
colour. The coal is extensively worked in three several 
fields, the Coalyland, the Carse Bridge, and the Sauchy, 
which extends into the parish of Clackmannan ; the 
average quantity annually raised amounts to nearly 
80,000 tons, which are conveyed by railroads to the 
harbour at Alloa. Tullibody House, the seat of Lord 
38 



Abercromby, and the birth-place of General Sir Ralph 
Abercromby, is pleasantly situated on the bank of the 
Forth, in a richly-planted demesne, abounding with, 
fine old timber, and surrounded by thriving plantations. 
Shaw Park House, the seat of the Earl of Mansfield,, 
formerly the property of the Cathcart family, is a hand- 
some mansion on elevated ground, about two miles to 
the north of the Forth, and commanding a very exten- 
sive view, embracing the windings of the river, with the 
castle of Stirling, and the mountains of Ben Lomond, 
Ben Ledi, and Tinto, in Clydesdale. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintend- 
ence of the presbytery of Stirling and synod of Perth 
and Stirling ; patron, the Crown. The minister's 
stipend is £299. 3. 2., with a manse, and a glebe valued 
at £63 ; there is also an assistant minister, who receives 
the interest of two bequests, one of £800, and the other 
of £500. The parish church, erected by the heritors 
and feuars, in 1819, on a site given by the late John 
Francis, Earl of Mar, is a handsome structure in the later 
English style, with a square embattled tower sur- 
mounted by a lofty spire, together 207 feet in height, 
and contains 1561 sittings : the steeple of the old 
church is still remaining, and near it is the mausoleum 
of the Erskine family. The ancient church of Tullibody, 
which had been in disuse from the time of the Reforma- 
tion, was restored about ten years since, and again ap- 
propriated to the purposes of divine worship. There are 
also places of worship for members of the Free Church, 
the United Secession, Independents, Wesleyans, and 
Swedenborgians ; and an episcopal chapel, erected in 
1840 from a design by Mr. Angus. The parochial 
school is well conducted; the master has a salary of 
£34. 4. 4., with an allowance of £16 in lieu of house and 
garden, and the fees average £25 per annum. The Alloa 
academy was erected in 1824, by subscription, and for 
some few years, a salary was received by the rector, whose 
present income is derived solely from the fees, of which 
a portion is paid to an assistant ; the course of studies is 
extensive, and the fees vary from 5s. to lis. 6d. per 
quarter. In repairing the road, in 1828, about 20 sepul- 
chral urns, of Roman pottery, were found, containing 
burnt bones, placed in an inverted position, on a flag- 
stone ; also two stone coffins, about 3 feet in length, in 
each of which was a pair of bracelets, of pure gold, 
highly polished, but without ornament, one pair of 
which was purchased from the workmen, by Mr. Drum- 
mond Hay, and deposited in the Antiquarian Museum, 
Edinburgh. Several Roman coins have been discovered 
in different parts of the parish ; and a few years since, a 
brass coin was dug up, having the letters S.C. on the 
one side, and on the other, the legend " Augustus Tri- 
bunus." About a mile to the east of the town, is an 
ancient upright stone called the Cross, near which, 
about 40 years since, human bones were found, and a 
coffin of flagstones, 3 feet in length, on which were cut 
two small figures of the cross. 

ALMOND-BANK, a village, in the parish of Meth- 
ven, county of Perth ; containing 245 inhabitants. The 
population is engaged principally in the public works on 
the river Almond ; and a portion finds employment in a 
hand-loom weaving establishment at Woodend, in the 
vicinity of the village. There is a flourishing unen- 
dowed school here, the teacher of which is nominated 
by the patron of the parish, who, with some other per- 



A LT I 



ALVA 



sons, makes a contribution for his support. In digging 
a trench in the neighbourhood, the skull of an animal 
was recently discovered, supposed to be of the ox tribe, 
which existed wild in Scotland some centuries ago ; it- 
measured, from between the centre of the horns to the 
nose, two feet four inches, and the horns were sixteen 
inches in circumference, in their thickest part. The 
curiosity fell to the possession of the late Lord Lyne- 
doch. 

ALNESS, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cro- 
marty, 9 miles (N. E. by N.) from Dingwall ; contain- 
ing 1269 inhabitants, of whom 202 are in the village. 
This parish, which takes its name from two Gaelic 
words signifying a " burn," or small river, and a 
" point," is about 20 miles in extreme length, and 5 in 
average breadth. It is bounded on the north by Kin- 
cardine parish ; on the south by the Cromarty Frith, 
which is here 2 miles broad ; on the east by the parish 
of Rosskeen, from which it is separated by the river of 
Alness • and on the west by Kiltearn, from which it is 
separated by the river Auldgrande. The surface, to- 
wards the Frith, is for the most part flat, but, in the 
northern part, mountainous and wild ; the climate is 
dry and salubrious, and the general appearance of the 
parish is pleasing, being well-wooded, and presenting an 
agreeable variety of moor and well- cultivated land. In 
the northern quarter, are two fresh-water lochs, one of 
which, called Mary, is distinguished both for its great 
depth and the lofty and abrupt mountain scenery in its 
vicinity; the salmon and salmon-trout taken in the 
Frith and rivers, are of very superior quality, and would 
be numerous were it not for the illegal depredations 
committed during the interdicted season. The chief 
rock in the parish is the old red sandstone ; immense 
boulders of granite and gneiss are seen in different 
places, especially in the moorland districts, and some 
iron-ore has also been discovered, about 5 miles from 
the Frith, embedded in a gneiss rock. The only village 
is Alness, which is nearly equally divided between this 
and the neighbouring parish of Rosskeen, by the river of 
Alness ; in the Rosskeen portion, a market is held for 
the sale of cattle, monthly. The ecclesiastical affairs are 
directed by the presbytery of Dingwall and synod of 
Ross ; the family of M'Kenzie, of Cromarty, are patrons, 
and the minister's stipend is £230. 19. 11., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum. The 
church, which was built in 17S0, is in good condition, 
and holds S00 people. A Free Church place of wor- 
ship has been just erected. The parochial school affords 
instruction in every branch of education; the master 
has a salary of £34, with £20 fees. There is also a 
school supported by the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, of which the teacher has a salary of £15, and 
land valued at £5 per annum, with the school-fees. 
Another is maintained by the funds raised under the 
auspices of the General Assembly, and its master re- 
ceives a salary of £20, and has a house, and a small 
piece of ground. At Multivie, in the parish, two cairns 
were opened some years since, and found to contain 
human bones of a remarkably large size. 

ALTIVAIG, a small island, in the parish of Kil- 
mtjir, county of Inverness. It is one of several islets 
extending from Aird point, southward, to Ru-na- 
Braddan, on the north-eastern coast of the Isle of Skye, 
and is about two miles in circumference, and very fer- 
39 



tile ; it has a harbour, with good ground for anchorage, 
but from being open to the North Sea, it is judged to 
be unsafe. The soil is appropriated to the pasturage 
of sheep. 

ALVA, a parish, in the county of Stirling, 7 miles 
(N. E. by E.) from Stirling; containing 2216 inhabitants, 
of whom 2092 are in the village. The name of this 
place, the orthography of which has successively passed 
through the different forms of Alueth, and Alvath, or 
Alveth, to that of Alva, is of Gaelic origin, and is sup- 
posed to be derived from the term Ailblieaeli, signifying 
" rocky," and to have been applied to this spot, as de- 
scriptive of the general character of its hills. The parish 
is locally situated in Clackmannanshire, and formerly 
belonged to that county, by which it is bounded on all 
sides except the north, where it touches Perthshire ; 
but, after the beginning of the 17 th century, it was an- 
nexed to the county of Stirling, though four miles dis- 
tant from its nearest point, to which it has since been 
united in all respects, till associated, for political pur- 
poses, under the Reform act, to its ancient shire. It 
comprises about 4120 acres, of which S67 are arable, 
30/2 natural pasture, including 140 or 150 acres of cul- 
tivated grass, and 181 are wood. The lands, on the 
north, consist principally of the Alva hills, which con- 
stitute the most interesting and beautiful portion of the 
Ochil range, forming here a rich mineral district, tra- 
versed in all directions by large flocks of sheep, and 
ornamented with numerous cascades. At the base 
of these lofty elevations, commences a valley, a part of 
which, stretching towards the south, covers the rest of 
the parish, and is replete with richly diversified and 
highly picturesque scenery, embracing, at its margin, 
the river Devon, which runs along the boundary of the 
parish in this direction, and contains, like most of the 
burns, abundance of excellent trout. The most lofty 
of the Ochils, Bencloch, or Bencleugh, rises 2420 feet 
above the Devon, and is situated at the north-eastern 
extremity of the parish, commanding, from its summit, 
not only fine views of local scenery, but, in the distant 
prospect, the whole Grampian range, with part of thir- 
teen counties, and their villages and towns. 

The soil has several varieties ; that in the vicinity of 
the Devon, which overflows its banks two or three times 
in the year, is a rich, sandy, alluvial earth, of great 
depth, and forming what is termed haugh land. Next to 
this, northerly, is a strong clay, after which follows a 
tract of moss, from 50 to 100 yards broad, and, in some 
parts, 7 feet deep ; and the remaining portion of the 
arable ground, extending to the hills, is a rich hazel 
mould, mixed occasionally with gravel and small stones. 
The system of agriculture is in a highly improved state; 
the crops consist of wheat, oats, barley, peas, beans, 
clover, potatoes, and turnips, and a small portion of 
ground is annually planted with woad for dyeing. The 
hills belong to the trap formation, and contain heavy 
spar, onyx, and, among many other pebbles, that called 
the Ochil eye, which is said to be peculiar to this range. 
The chief celebrity of the parish, however, as a mineralo- 
gical district, has arisen from its treasure of silver ore, 
which was discovered and worked, between the years 
1710 and 1715, by Sir John Erskine, who is said to 
have derived from it £4000 per week, and an aggregate 
of £40,000 or £50,000, the material being so pure as to 
afford 12 oz. of silver from 14 oz, of ore, Attempts to 



ALVA 



ALVA 



obtain the precious metal were afterwards renewed, in 
1759, by a branch of the same family, who had pur- 
chased the barony, when veins were discovered of lead, 
copper, iron, and cobalt ; but the silver was found in 
such small portions, that the pursuit was abandoned, 
and the cobalt being so plentiful, and of such good 
quality, was worked extensively, and has since proved a 
source of considerable wealth to the different proprie- 
tors. The woods and plantations are so extensive and 
beautiful that they form a prominent feature in the 
scenery, and invest this place with a peculiarly sylvan 
appearance, especially when contrasted with the sur- 
rounding country. Woodhill, elevated 1620 feet above 
the lowest ground, is shrouded with almost every de- 
scription of rich foliage, for more than two-thirds of the 
ascent, the plantations around the base comprising oak, 
elm, ash, beech, and larch, with various species of pine, 
planted by Sir John Erskine. Those on the east and 
west sides of the hill were planted by Lord Alva, and 
subsequent proprietors of the mansion of Alva, which 
is on a projecting part of the eminence, and commands 
very extensive prospects. The old mansion of the 
Stirlings, of Calder, in Clydesdale, who possessed origi- 
nally these estates, and afterwards of the Erskines, was 
enlarged and modernised in 1820; it is surrounded by 
elegantly laid-out grounds, interspersed with stately ash- 
trees and several venerable oaks, and the road to the 
village church, about a mile distant, is through an avenue 
of richly verdant foliage. 

The village, which is of considerable extent, but of 
very irregular form, having been built at different 
periods, and increased by cottages and houses erected 
on ground leased under Sir John Erskine and Lord 
Alva, has been doubled in size within the last fifty 
years ; it has been known for its manufacture of serges, 
ever since the latter part of the 17th century. A wool- 
len-mill was first established in 1801 ; the number of 
mills has now increased to eight, besides many smaller 
works, and the present articles wrought are, plaidings, 
blanketings, and coarse stuffs, those of chequered cassi- 
meres, carpets, shawls, and trowser-cloths having more 
recently been added. The quantity of wool annually 
consumed is about 480,000 pounds, chiefly from the 
Cheviot sheep; and in the manufacture of these articles, 
which are sold at Stirling, Perth, and Edinburgh, but 
chiefly at Glasgow, about 560 persons are employed. 
The parish is in the presbytery of Stirling and synod of 
Perth and Stirling, and in the patronage of James John- 
stone, Esq.; the minister's stipend is £157. 5. 4., with 
a manse, and a glebe, valued at £27 per annum. The 
church was formerly mensal, and belonged to the 
bishopric of Dunkeld ; the edifice was built in 1632, by 
Alexander Bruce, then proprietor of Alva, and was en- 
tirely rebuilt in 1815, at the expense of James Raymond 
Johnstone, Esq., with seats for 586 persons, and is at 
present in very good repair. The cups for the commu- 
nion service were made from the silver found in the 
parish, and presented by Lord Alva, in 1767- The pa- 
rochial school is situated in the village ; the master has 
a salary of £29. 18. 10., and £28 fees. The only anti- 
quities are, several large stones supposed to be Druidical. 
The hawk used formerly in sporting, of the species/afco 
peregrinus, is a native of this parish, and has nestled, 
from time immemorial, in a lofty perpendicular rock 
called Craigleith : from this place, Mary, Queen of Scots, 
40 



procured falcons, after her arrival from France, and a 
short time since, a pair of these birds were sent by the 
proprietor of Alva, to the Duke of St. Alban's, king's 
falconer in England. 

ALVAH, a parish, in the county of Banff, 3 miles 
(W. S. W.) from Banff; containing 1407 inhabitants. 
The origin of the name of this place, which, in different 
records, is variously spelled, is altogether involved in 
obscurity ; but authentic sources of information still 
remain, throwing light on the apportionment of its 
lands, in early times, to several distinguished families ; 
and in 1314, a charter was granted by Marjory, relict 
of John, Earl of Atholl, and Lord Strath-Alveth, con- 
veying the patronage of the kirk, with considerable pro- 
perty here, to the abbot of Cupar. The parish, from 
which that of Forglen was disjoined, prior to the middle 
of the 17th century, is situated near the north-eastern 
extremity of the county, separated from the Moray 
Frith by only a small intervening portion of the parish 
of Banff, and is bounded on the east by the shire of 
Aberdeen, where the line of division is very nearly 
marked by the course of the river Doveran. It com- 
prises 11,133 acres, of which 6955 are cultivated, 3428 
waste and pasture, and 750 wood, and exhibits through- 
out an uneven and rugged surface, occasionally marked 
by lofty elevations, among which the hills of Alvah and 
Maunderlea are the most conspicuous, the former rising 
578, and the latter 733, feet above the sea. The 
scenery in the western and south-western portions, is 
dreary and wild, and takes its character chiefly from 
the numerous eminences connected with the Hill of 
Maunderlea, which stretches in a northerly direction 
from the parish of Marnoch. In the other parts it 
possesses great picturesque beauty, being ornamented by 
the silvery meanderings of the Doveran, and the lofty 
and majestic hill of Alvah, which, rising from the midst 
of rich and well cultivated lands surrounding its base, 
displays a profusion of sylvan beauty on its sloping 
sides, and commands, from its tabular summit, diversi- 
fied views in several directions. The Doveran, being, 
in one place, impeded by a rocky barrier stretching 
from east to west, takes a curve for about a mile, when, 
meeting with an outlet through a chasm, the precipitous 
sides of which are united by a massive arch, erected in 
1772, by the late Earl of Fife, it resumes its former 
direction, and passes through some very bold and ro- 
mantic scenery. The sides of the rocky chasm, after 
expanding themselves, form a lofty acclivity on each 
side of the intermediate basin, and, rising like the walls 
of a majestic amphitheatre, about 100 feet above the 
stream, exhibit a grotesque and imposing assemblage of 
shrubs, trees, and mosses. 

The soil, in the eastern part of the parish, through 
which the river takes its course, consists of an alluvial 
loam of considerable depth, incumbent upon blue clay 
containing admixtures of clay-slate, and in the remain- 
ing portion of the lower grounds, the earth rests upon 
a coarse diluvial clay, mixed in some places with fer- 
ruginous sand, shingles, and occasionally boulders. In 
the higher grounds, it has a subsoil frequently of a 
very sandy nature, much interspersed with shingles, and 
pieces of greywacke slate and other rocks. The annual 
average amount of produce is £19,800, of which up- 
wards of £10,000 are derived from oats, and the re- 
mainder from turnips, potatoes, hay, and pasture, and 



ALVA 



A L V E 



a small quantity of bear and barley. The cattle are of 
the Aberdeenshire breed, or approximating very closely 
to it; but, within the last few years, the Teeswater, or 
short-horned, have been introduced upon several of the 
best farms, where they thrive well, and are often used 
for a cross with the native cow. Within the present 
century, considerably more than 2000 acres of waste 
have been improved, a large portion of which was 
covered with furze and heath ; and fenny or boggy 
grounds have also been reclaimed to a great extent, by 
draining. Lime is employed for manuring the lands, and 
bone-dust has been recently applied, in soils adapted to 
it, with great advantage. The rocks consist princi- 
pally of clay-slate and greywacke ; the latter is suc- 
cumbent, and interlined with thin veins of quartz, and 
the line of bearing, with a trifling variation, is from 
north-east to south-west, dipping to the north-west. 
The angle of elevation of the clay-slate varies, and in- 
creases from the low grounds, where the rock is almost 
horizontal, till it arrives at nearly a perpendicular, to- 
wards the top of the hill of Alvah. The plantations, 
including about 300 acres formed in the course of the 
present century, contain mostly Scotch fir and larch, 
among which are trees of beech, ash, oak, elm, plane, 
&c. The chief mansion is, the House of Montblairy, 
built in 1791, and since repaired and considerably en- 
larged, situated on the west side of the Doveran, on a 
sloping bank, in the midst of thriving and beautiful 
plantations, and containing a gallery of fine portraits of 
illustrious individuals. Dunlugas, about half a mile 
distant, on the opposite bank of the river, was erected 
in 1/93, of granite, and is a spacious structure, orna- 
mented with a lawn in front, stretching to the margin 
of the river, and embellished with several lofty trees ; 
the back-ground, with its plantations of thriving and 
sable firs, furnishing a striking contrast to the sur- 
rounding scenery. The parish contains six meal-mills, 
a malt-mill, a lint-mill, and thirty-one threshing-mills, 
the last of which have been erected during the last 
thirty years : and a distillery, built about fifteen years 
since, on the estate of Montblairy, at an expense of 
£4000, was till lately in full operation, and capable of 
producing 40,000 gallons of spirits annually. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Turriff and synod 
of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of Sir Robert Aber- 
cromby, Bart. ; the stipend of the minister is £] 78. 15. 5., 
and there is a manse, built in 1764, and repaired in 
1S15, with a glebe containing between 6 and 7 acres, 
valued at about £25 per annum. The church is a plain 
edifice, erected in 1792. There is a parochial school, 
the master of which gives instruction in Latin, occa- 
sionally in Greek and French, and in all the ordinary 
branches of education ; he has a salary of £30, in addi- 
tion to the fees, with a house, and a portion of the Dick 
bequest. The antiquities are few and unimportant, con- 
sisting chiefly of several cairns and Druidical circles, 
not of sufficient consideration to merit notice. The ruins 
of the ancient castle, which formerly stood near Mont- 
blairy, and is supposed to have been built by one of the 
Stewarts, earls of Buchan, are no longer visible ; and 
those of the old chapel, near the same spot, have been 
removed of late years. On the estate of Sandlaw, and 
in several other places, large trees have been found, at 
a great depth below the surface ; and memorials of the 
ancient cultivation of the soil, may be traced over about 
Vol. I.— 41 



1000 acres of land, at present the poorest in the district. 
Alvah is celebrated for its fine springs, the principal of 
which, called Comes-well, and mentioned by that name 
in a charter more than 500 years old, discharges twenty- 
seven gallons per minute of water almost as clear as 
that produced by distillation ; and there are also several 
chalybeates, the most famed of which are, the Red Gill 
well at Brownside Hill, and a spring on the hill-head of 
Montblairy. Dr. George Chapman, author of a treatise 
on education, was born here in 1723 ; and Major-Gen. 
Andrew Hay, who fell on the 14th of April, 1814, at 
Bayonne, in the fifty-second year of his age, and to 
whose memory a monument was erected in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, at the public expense, was a resident. 

ALVES, a parish, in the county of Elgin, 5 miles 
(W.) from Elgin, on the road to Inverness ; containing, 
with the hamlets of Coltfield and Crook, 913 inhabit- 
ants. This parish, which is about 5 miles long, and of 
nearly the same breadth, and contains about 12,000 
acres, is bounded on the north by the parish of Duffus, 
the Moray Frith, and part of Kinloss ; by the hill of Plus- 
carden on the south ; by New Spynie on the east ; and 
by Kinloss and Rafford on the west. The surface is 
slightly diversified with hill and dale, and consists of 
pasture and arable land, with a considerable quantity 
of wood, though but little water. The soil, in gene- 
ral, is a deep rich loam, upon a clay bottom, though, 
in some places, it is of a lighter quality ; the land is 
portioned into 25 large farms, which are cultivated in 
the best manner, but about 100 acres consist of Scotch 
fir, and one-sixth part of the parish of new plantation. 
All kinds of produce are raised, and a great part of the 
grain is shipped at Burgh-Head, or Findhorn, and sold in 
the London market. The cattle are usually of a mixed 
breed between the Aberdeenshire and the Highland, with 
a few of the polled from Buchan ; great improvements 
have been carried on, for some years past, in draining, 
making of extensive inclosures, recovering of mosses, 
and the erection of good farm-houses and offices. 
The rocks consist of freestone, of which quarries are 
regularly worked ; there is a quarry supplying mill- 
stones, and in several places a considerable depth of 
peat-moss occurs. There are two mansion-houses; 
Milton-Brodie, an ancient edifice, at the west end of the 
parish, to which a handsome front has been recently 
added, greatly improving its appearance ; and the house 
of Newton, a plain building, at the east end, with a 
pleasing lawn before it. The population are agricultural, 
and live, for the most part, in groups of houses ; the 
fuel formerly in use was peat, but the cutting of it has 
been recently prohibited, and at present great efforts 
are made by the poor to obtain English coal, cargoes 
of which are imported from Sunderland, and landed at 
Burgh-Head and Findhorn. The ecclesiastical affairs 
are directed by the presbytery of Elgin and synod of 
Moray ; the Earl of Moray is patron, and the minister's 
stipend is £215. 1. S., with a good manse, recently 
built, and having convenient offices and garden, and 
a glebe of four acres of land, worth £9 a year. The 
church, built in 1*69, is a long narrow edifice, con- 
taining sittings for 590 persons. There is a place of wor- 
ship in connexion with the Free Church ; also a parochial 
school, of which the master teaches Latin, Greek, and 
the mathematics, in addition to the ordinary branches of 
education, and has a salary of £34. 4. Another school 

G 



AL VI 



ALYT 



is maintained by subscription ; and a parochial library 
is supported, which contains about 200 volumes. 

ALVIE, a parish, in the district of Badenoch, 
county of Inverness, 9 miles (N. E.) from Kingussie ; 
containing, with part of the quoad sacra parish of Insh, 
972 inhabitants, of whom 73 are in the village of Lyn- 
chat. This place is supposed to have derived its name, 
signifying the " Isle of swans," from the situation of its 
ancient church on a peninsula, in the north-west ex- 
tremity of the parish, formed by Loch Alvie, which, 
from time immemorial, has been frequented by numbers 
of that aquatic fowl. The parish, which is intersected 
by the river Spey, extends for nearly twenty miles in 
length, from north to south, including the outline of the 
hills which terminate in the Grampian range ; and 
varies from two to six miles in breadth, from east to 
west. It is calculated to comprise about 84 square 
miles, or 53,600 acres, of which 2574 are arable, 1S42 
meadow and pasture, and the remainder, exclusively of 
some large tracts of wood and plantations, moorland 
and waste. The surface is generally high, that portion 
of the strath of Badenoch which is within the parish 
having an elevation of nearly 650 feet; and is diversi- 
fied with numerous hills and mountains, of which the 
Grampians, forming the southern boundary, rise to the 
height of 4500 feet above the sea, and those on the 
north-west boundary, though of inferior elevation, attain 
a very considerable height. 

The river Spey, which rises in the braes of Bade- 
noch, near Lochaber, flows through the parish, in a 
direction nearly from west to east; and the small river 
Feshie falls into the Spey, near the church ; salmon are 
sometimes taken in the Spey. Loch Alvie is about a 
mile in length, and half a mile in breadth ; the average 
depth is about 11 fathoms, and the surrounding scenery 
is pleasingly picturesque. The soil is generally light and 
gravelly, with the exception of the meadow-lands on the 
banks of the Spey, which are luxuriantly rich ; the chief 
crops are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips, 
with the various grasses. The system of husbandry has 
been gradually improving, and, on some of the larger 
farms, is in a very advanced state ; on the smaller 
farms, it has made comparatively little progress. There 
are very few inclosures, and the farm-buildings are of 
inferior order ; little attention is paid to the rearing of 
live stock ; the sheep are commonly of the black-faced, 
and the cattle of the Highland black breed. The hills 
and mountains are composed chiefly of gneiss, inter- 
sected with veins of granite and red porphyry ; the 
granite occurs in two varieties ; the white, which is pre- 
ferred for building, and more easily dressed, and the 
red, which is harder and more durable. Limestone is 
quarried on the lands of Dunachton ; and veins of lead 
are found in the gneiss at Tyncaim, and the burn of 
Raitts, on the lands of Belleville. 

The principal seats are Belleville and Kinrara. The 
former is a spacious and elegant mansion, built after a 
design of the architect Adam, by James Macpherson, 
translator of Ossian's poems, and beautifully situated in 
a picturesque demesne, embellished with stately timber 
and thriving plantations ; within a cluster of larches, is 
an obelisk of marble, erected to the memory of Mr. 
Macpherson, and on which is his bust, fine sculptured. 
Kinrara, a handsome mansion in the cottage style, built 
by the late Duchess of Gordon, and in which she re- 
42 



sided, during the summer months, till her decease, is in 
a highly romantic and sequestered spot, about two 
miles from the church of Alvie. In the grounds, is a 
monument of granite, erected by the late duke, to the 
memory of the deceased, whose remains "were brought 
from London, and interred, at her own request, in a 
spot which she had selected ; and on Tor Alvie, to the 
north-west of the cottage, is a monument erected by the 
present duke, to the officers of the 42nd and 92nd 
regiments who fell in the battle of Waterloo. At Lyn- 
viulg, about half a mile from the church, is a branch 
post-office ; and facility of communication is afforded 
by the turnpike-road from Edinburgh to Inverness, 
which passes through the whole length of the parish. 
The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence 
of the presbytery of Abernethy and synod of Moray ; 
the minister's stipend is £15S. 4. 6., with a manse, and 
a glebe valued at £5 per annum ; patron, the Duke of 
Richmond. The church, situated on the shore of 
Loch Alvie, is a plain structure, built in 1798, and re- 
paired in 1832, and contains 500 sittings. The paro- 
chial school is well conducted ; the master has a salary 
of £28. IS. 9., with a house, and an allowance of £2. 2. 
in lieu of garden, and the fees average about £20 per 
annum. Another school, of which the master has a 
salary of £20, with £ 1 fees, is supported by the Gene- 
ral Assembly. At Delfour, about a mile to the west of 
the church, are the remains of a Druidical temple, con- 
sisting of two concentric circles of upright stones, of 
which the inner circle is 25 feet, and the outer, which 
consists of larger stones, is 55 feet in diameter ; near 
it is an obelisk, 8 feet 6 inches in height, and both are 
situated in the middle of an arable field which is under 
cultivation. At Raitts, are the remains of an artificial 
cavern, anciently the haunt of banditti. 

ALYTH, a parish, partly in the county of Forfar, 
but chiefly in that of Perth, 17 miles (N. W.) from 
Dundee; containing 2910 inhabitants, of whom 190 are 
in the county of Forfar, and 1846 in the village, which 
is a burgh of barony. This place appears to have de- 
rived its name, signifying, in the Gaelic language, an 
" ascent," from the gradually sloping eminence on 
which its ancient church, and the older portion of the 
village, are built. The most ancient document where 
its name occurs, is a charter of Alexander II., in 1232, 
granting the lands of Bamff, in the parish, to Nessus de 
Ramsay, ancestor of Sir James Ramsay, Bart., the pre- 
sent proprietor of that estate ; the remainder of the 
lands belonged, for many generations, to the Lyndesays, 
earls of Crawford, till the year 1630, when they were 
purchased by the Ogilvy family. During the wars of 
the Covenanters, the army of the Marquess of Montrose 
was frequently stationed in the immediate neighbour- 
hood ; and during the siege of Dundee by General 
Monk, a meeting of the principal inhabitants, held in 
the village, to deliberate on the best means of defence, 
was surprised by a detachment of the English, who took 
many of the members prisoners. The parish is bounded 
on the south-east by the river Isla, and is about fifteen 
miles in length, and from one mile to six miles in 
breadth, comprising 34,160 acres, of which about S100 
are arable, 1070 woodland and plantations, and the 
remainder meadow and pasture land. The surface is 
diversified with ranges of hills, of which those of Alyth, 
Loyall, and Barry divide it into two unequal districts ; 



ALYT 



A M UL 



the southern is in the valley of Strathmore, and the 
northern includes the forest of Alyth, and the Black- 
lunans, which last are in the county of Forfar. The 
height of the lands varies from 130 to nearly 1*00 feet, 
ascending from the Isla to the summit of Mount Blair ; 
the hill of Kingseat has an elevation of 11/8 feet, and 
the hills of Alyth, Loyall, and Barry, rise about 700 
feet above the sea. The principal rivers are, the Isla ; 
the Ericht, a tributary of the Isla; and the burn of 
Alyth, which rises in the forest of that name, and falls 
into the Isla at Inverquiech, about two miles to the east 
of the village. Salmon occasionally ascend the- river 
Isla, and trout are found in most of the streams, and in 
some, pike. 

The soil is greatly diversified ; on the level lands 
near the river, it is a deep rich black loam ; in the 
Blacklunans district, a lighter, but fertile, loam ; on the 
sides of the hills, a fine sharp gravelly soil, well adapted 
for oats, turnips, and potatoes ; and in many parts, 
peat moss, and moor, of which a considerable portion 
might be brought into cultivation. The lands have 
been drained and inclosed, and much waste has been 
reclaimed ; the farm-buildings, and the houses of the 
cottars, are substantial, and the lands near the Isla, 
which were exposed to frequent inundation, have been 
protected by embankments. The hills afford good pas- 
ture for sheep, of which from 2000 to 3000 are reared in 
the parish, all of the black-faced breed j the cattle, on 
the uplands, are of the native Angus breed, and, on the 
lower farms, a cross between the Angus and the Tees- 
water. The rocks are generally trap and conglomerate ; 
and the principal substrata are, mica, and clay-slate, 
sandstone of the old red formation, with some small 
beds of a light grey colour, and a yellowish compact 
limestone, well adapted for building. The natural wood, 
of which but little remains, is birch, hazel, and alder; 
and the plantations, of which the greater part is of re- 
cent date, are larch, and Scotch and spruce firs, inter- 
spersed with various kinds of hard wood ; but the 
larches are not in a thriving state. Bamft House is a 
handsome mansion of great antiquity, with many modern 
additions and improvements, pleasantly situated about 
three miles from the village, in grounds commanding 
some fine views. Balhary, another seat, is a modern 
mansion, on a rising ground on the north bank of the 
Isla ; and Jordanstone is also a handsome residence. 

The village is on the burn of Alyth, and consists of 
several streets of good houses, of which those in the 
older part of it are of great antiquity ; the inhabitants 
are well supplied with water, and there are three bridges 
of stone over the burn, of which the handsomest was re- 
cently built, by Sir James Ramsay, to improve the ap- 
proach to Bamff House. Most of the population are 
employed in weaving coarse linen, for the manufacturers 
of Dundee, producing annually more than 10,000 webs, 
of 150 yards each ; there is a fulling-mill in the village, 
and also at Inverquiech. The place was erected into a 
burgh of barony, in the reign of James III. ; a baronial 
court is held on the first Tuesday in every month, under 
a baron bailie appointed by the Earl of Airlie, who is 
superior of the burgh, and a sytem of police has also 
been established. A market, well supplied with pro- 
visions, was formerly held on Tuesday ; and fairs for 
sheep and cattle, are held on the Tuesday after the 
second Thursday in March ; the second Tuesday, and 
43 



the 25th, of June ; the last Tuesday in July; the Tues- 
day before the 10th of October; the first Tuesday and 
Wednesday, and the Tuesday after the 11th, of Novem- 
ber; and the second Tuesday in December; all O. S. 
A post-office under that of Meigle has been established 
here ; and facility of communication is maintained by 
good roads, kept in repair by statute labour, and by the 
Dundee and Newtyle railway. The ecclesiastical affairs 
of the parish are under the superintendence of the pres- 
bytery of Meigle and synod of Angus and Mearns ; the 
minister's stipend is £229. 19- 6., with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £14 per annum; patron, the Crown. 
The church, situated in the village, is a handsome and 
spacious structure in the Norman style, built in 1839, 
from a design by Mr. Hamilton, and contains 1290 sit- 
tings. There are places of worship for members of the 
Free Church, the United Associate Synod, and Original 
Seceders, and a small Episcopal chapel. The parochial 
school was erected in 1835 ; the master has a salary of 
£34. 4. 4., with a house, and an allowance in lieu of a 
garden, and the fees average £20 per annum. Five boys 
and five girls are instructed and clothed from a rent- 
charge of £30 on the Ballindoch estate. On Barry Hill 
are some remains of a Pictish encampment, and of a 
narrow bridge over the fosse by which it was sur- 
rounded ; and on the south side of the hill are several 
upright stones, supposed to commemorate some warlike 
exploit. Stone coffins, containing human bones, have 
been dug up near them. At the influx of the burn 
of Alyth into the river Isla, are the ruins of the ancient 
castle of Inverquiech ; and at Corb, on the south-west of 
the forest of Alyth, are the remains of a castle, probably 
a hunting-seat of the earls of Crawford. The place 
gives the title of Baron to the Earl of Airlie. 

AMISFIELD, a village, in the parish of Tinwald, 
county of Dumfries, 5 miles (N. E.) from Dumfries; 
containing 140 inhabitants. This place, anciently Ems- 
field, was erected into a_ burgh of barony by Charles I., 
with a weekly market and fairs ; at present, it consists 
merely of a few old thatched houses, which the pro- 
prietors are allowing to go to decay. Amisfield Castle, 
long the seat of the ancient family of Charteris, stands 
west of the high road from Dumfries to Edinburgh, and 
is a quadrangular building, having a high tower of pic- 
turesque appearance on the south-west, and a more 
modern erection, now the dwelling-house, on the east. 
Near the village are distinct vestiges of a Roman fort. 

AMULRIE, a village and district, in the parish of 
Dull, county of Perth, 11 miles (N. by E.) from Crieff; 
containing 406 inhabitants. It is situated on the road 
between Crieff and Aberfeldy, and is watered by the 
small river Bran, which flows hence in a north-eastern 
direction, and falls into the Tay at Inver, opposite to 
Dunkeld. Here is a sub post-office ; and an excellent 
inn, much frequented by visiters to the neighbouring 
lake of Freuchie, is distant about a mile and a quarter 
westward of the village. Fairs for cattle and sheep are 
held on the first Tuesday and Wednesday in May, and 
the Friday before the first Wednesday in November. 
There is a chapel in connexion with the Established 
Church, under the patronage of the Committee of the 
General Assembly ; the minister has a stipend, paid 
from the royal bounty, of £65, including £5 for com- 
munion elements, with a house and garden, a few acres 
of land, and fuel. 

G2 



ANCR 



A ND E 



ANABICH, an island, in the parish of Harris, 
district of Lewis, county of Inverness ; containing 41 
inhabitants. 

ANCRUM, a parish, in the district of Jedburgh, 
county of Roxburgh, 4 miles (N. W. by N.) from Jed- 
burgh ; containing 1407 inhabitants, of whom 499 are 
in the village. This place, of which the name, anciently 
Alnecrumb, is derived from the situation of its village on 
a bend of the river Alne, now the Ale, consisted for- 
merly of two villages distinguished by the appellations of 
Over and Nether Ancrum, of the former of which no- 
thing now remains. The principal event of historical im- 
portance is the battle of Ancrum Moor, which originated 
in an attempt made in 1545, by Sir Ralph Evers and 
Sir Bryan Layton, to possess themselves of the lands of 
the Merse and Teviotdale, which had been conferred 
upon them by a grant of Henry VIII., King of England. 
The Earl of Angus, who had considerable property in 
that district, determined to resist this attempt, and a 
battle between his forces and those of the English took 
place, on a moor about a mile and a half to the north of 
the village, in which the latter were defeated, with great 
loss. In this conflict, both the villages of Ancrum were 
burnt to the ground ; the village of Nether Ancrum was 
soon afterwards rebuilt, but of the other nothing remains 
but the ruins of one or two dilapidated houses. The 
parish comprises about 8400 acres, of which one-half is 
arable, 820 woods and plantations, and the remainder 
meadow and pasture ; the surface is pleasingly undu- 
lated, rising in some parts into considerable eminences, 
and presenting a continued variety of level plains and 
sloping heights. The Teviot, which forms the southern 
boundary of the parish, and the river Ale, which tra- 
verses it from east to west, are the only rivers ; the 
banks of the latter are highly picturesque in several parts 
of its course, rising in some points into precipitous 
masses of bare rugged rock, and in others overhung by 
rocks richly wooded ; both the rivers abound with ex- 
cellent trout, and are much frequented by anglers. 

The soil is greatly varied ; on the banks of the Teviot 
it is luxuriantly rich, and of great depth ; in other parts 
of less fertility, and in some almost sterile. The chief 
crops are oats, wheat, barley, potatoes, turnips, peas, 
and beans; the system of agriculture is in an improved 
state ; draining has been carried on to a considerable 
extent, and much of the inferior land has been rendered 
productive. Much attention is paid to the rearing of 
live stock, for which the pastures are well adapted ; the 
sheep are mostly of the Leicestershire breed, and a cross 
between that and the Cheviot, and the cattle are all of 
the short-horned kind. The woods contain many stately 
trees, and the plantations are extensive and well ma- 
naged. The principal substrata are, red and white free- 
stone, which are both of good quality, and extensively 
wrought for the supply of the surrounding district. 
Ancrum House, the seat of Sir William Scott, Bart., is 
a spacious and venerable mansion, in an extensive and 
richly- wooded park, stocked with deer. Chesters is a 
handsome modern mansion, romantically situated at the 
mouth of a deep and thickly-wooded dell, on the bank of 
the Teviot ; and Kirklands, in the later style of English 
architecture, is beautifully situated on a wooded height 
on the bank of the Ale, forming a strikingly picturesque 
object in the landscape. The village is on the south 
bank of the Teviot ; facility of communication is main- 
44 



tained with Jedburgh and other market-towns in the 
vicinity, by good roads, and the turnpike-road from 
Edinburgh to Newcastle passes along the eastern boun- 
dary of the parish for several miles. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Jedburgh and synod 
of Merse and Teviotdale ; the stipend of the incumbent 
is £223. 16. 6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at 
£30 per annum ; patron, Sir W. Scott. The church, 
which anciently belonged to the see of Glasgow, having 
been annexed to it on the dissolution of the abbey of 
Lindisfarn, was rebuilt in 1*62, and is a neat and sub- 
stantial edifice, adapted for about 520 persons. The 
parochial school is well attended ; the master has a 
salary of £34. 4. 4., with £28. 15. fees, and a good house 
and garden. Till very lately, there were considerable re- 
mains of what were called the Maltan Walls, which in- 
closed an area of about an acre and a half; this is 
supposed to have been the site of a preceptory of the 
Knights of Malta, or St. John of Jerusalem, said to 
have been established here in the reign of David I. ; and 
in the adjacent field, numerous human bones, and fre- 
quently entire skeletons, have been discovered by the 
plough. Within the area of the walls, were various 
vaults and subterraneous passages, apparently the foun- 
dations of the ancient building ; but even those portions 
of the outer wall which alone were left standing have 
disappeared, and little but the site is now left. On the 
hill behind Ancrum House, are the remains of a circular 
fort, with a triple intrenehment ; and in the parish 
are numerous caves, formed as places of retreat in times 
of danger, one of which was the favourite resort of the 
poet Thomson, and still bears his name. A monument 
has been raised over the tomb of Lilliard, a Scotch 
female who fell in the battle of Ancrum Moor, covered 
with wounds, while fighting with desperate valour, and 
was buried on the spot where she fell. The place con- 
fers the title of Earl on the Marquess of Lothian. 

ANDERSTON, a burgh, and lately a quoad sacra 
parish, consisting of part of Barony parish, in the 
suburbs of the city of Glasgow, county of Lanark, 
1 mile (W.) from Glasgow ; containing 3759 inhabit- 
ants. This place derives its name from its founder, 
Mr. John Anderston, of Stobcross, who, in 1725, formed 
the plan of a village, and divided the lands of one of his 
most unproductive farms into building lots, thus laying 
the foundation of a very considerable suburb to the city. 
It is on the north side of the river Clyde, and though 
of irregular form, and comparatively less modern ap- 
pearance than others of the suburban districts, it con- 
tains many well-built and handsome houses ; the lands 
to the north are chiefly garden-ground, and on the banks 
of the river are several pleasing villas, inhabited by 
some of the most opulent merchants of Glasgow. A 
considerable part of the population are employed in the 
cotton manufacture, in the iron-foundries, and in the 
production of machinery ; many are mariners, be- 
longing to the port, and there are several shops of 
various kinds, for the supply of the inhabitants. 

The town was erected into a burgh of barony, by 
royal charter, in 1S24, and the district, which includes 
parts of the lands of Stobcross, Gushet, Parsonscroft, 
and Rankenshaugh, is wholly within the parliamentary 
boundary of the city of Glasgow. The government is 
vested in a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, and 
eleven councillors, annually elected by the burgesses ; 



ANDR 



A ND R 



the bailies and treasurer from the councillors, and the 
provost from the burgesses generally. The magistrates 
exercise civil jurisdiction in pleas not exceeding 40 
shillings in amount, and criminal jurisdiction in all 
cases within the Police act ; courts for the former 
are held weekly, or every alternate week, and for the 
latter four times in the week ; in both of which, the town- 
clerk acts as assessor. The burgesses, on admission, 
pay a fee of £2. 2. The corporation have power to 
hold a weekly market and two annual fairs ; the fairs 
were formerly held, but they have been discontinued. 
The parish was formed in 1S34 ; the minister's stipend 
is £300, derived from the seat-rents, of which £80 are 
secured by bond. The church was originally built as a 
chapel of ease, in 1799, at a cost of £"2500, raised by 
subscription, and has been subsequently repaired ; it is 
a neat structure, and contains 1246 sittings. A school 
for this parish, and for that of St. Mark, has been 
erected at an expense of £1/00, of which £S50 were 
subscribed by the two parishes, and the remainder 
granted by the treasury ; it. is a spacious building, con- 
taining three schools, attended by 600 children paying 
very moderate fees. There is also a Free church. 

ANDREW'S, ST., a city, 
the seat of a university, and 
anciently the metropolitan 
see of Scotland, in the district 
of St. Andrew's, county of 
Fife, 39 miles (N. N. E.) 
from Edinburgh ; contain- 
ing, with the villages of 
Boarhills, Grange, Kincaple, 
and Strathkinness, 6017 in- 
habitants, of whom 3959 are 
in the city. This place, which 
is of very remote antiquity, 
formed part of the territories of the Pictish kings, of 
whom Hergustus, whose capital was at Abernethy, had a 
palace or hunting-seat near the site of the present town, 
at that time a forest frequented by wild boars, and 
thence, as well as from its situation on a promontory 
overlooking the bay, called Mucross, a name still re- 
tained in that of the present village of Boarhills. The 
origin of the town is, by tradition, ascribed to St. Rega- 
ins, abbot of the monastery of Patrae, in the Grecian 
province of Achaia, who, about the year 370, attended 
by a company of his brethren, sailed from Patrae, bear- 
ing with him a portion of the relics of the apostle St. 
Andrew, which had been deposited there, and was 
driven by a storm into the bay of this place, where with 
difficult}', after the loss of their ship, the crew escaped 
to land, with the sacred relics they had preserved. Her- 
gustus, the Pictish monarch, informed of the arrival of 
these strangers, came to visit them in person, and, pleased 
with the simplicity and sanctity of their manners, became 
a convert to Christianity, granted them his palace, with 
the adjoining lands, for a settlement, and, after the 
subsequent erection of a church, changed the name 
Mucross into Kilrxjmont, or "the church of the King's 
Mount." St. Regulus lived for thirty years afterwards 
at this place, under the patronage of Hergustus, dis- 
seminating the doctrines of the Christian faith through- 
out this part of the country, and was buried in the 
church over which he had so long presided. After the 
subjugation of the Pictish dominion, and the establish- 
45 




Seal and Arms. 



ment of the Scottish monarchy, by Kenneth McAlpine, 
that king transferred the seat of government from 
Abernethy to this place, to which, in honour of the 
Apostle, he gave the name of St. Andrew's, by which it 
has ever since been designated ; and on the division of 
the country into dioceses, in the reign of Malcolm III., 
St. Andrew's became the metropolitan see of the king- 
dom. In 1120, an Augustine priory was founded here, 
by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrew's, who also, in 1140, 
obtained from David I. a charter erecting the town into 
a royal burgh. To this important priory, the nomina- 
tion of the bishop was subsequently transferred, from 
the Culdees. In 1159, Bishop Arnold commenced the 
erection of the cathedral, which was continued under 
his successors, for more than a century and a half, and 
ultimately completed by Bishop Lamberton, a zealous 
adherent of Bruce. In 1200, Bishop Roger built the 
castle of St. Andrew's, which was, for many years, the 
residence of the prelates of the see ; and in 1274, 
Bishop Wishart founded a Dominican priory. 

After the battle of Falkirk, in 1298, Edward I. of 
England summoned the Scottish parliament to meet at 
St. Andrew's, and compelled every member, with the 
exception only of Sir William Wallace, to swear fealty 
to his government ; and a few years subsequently, the 
same parliament assembled here to take the oath of 
allegiance to Robert Bruce. Edward III. of England, 
in 1336, placed a garrison in the castle, which, in the 
year following, was reduced by the earls of March and 
Fife ; and in 1401, David, Duke of Rothesay, and 
brother of James I., on a false charge of treason, was 
imprisoned in the castle, by his uncle, the Duke of 
Albany, and afterwards removed to Falkland, where he 
was starved to death. The university of St. Andrew's 
was founded in 1410, by Bishop Wardlaw, and, in the 
following year, was incorporated by charter, conferring 
all the powers and privileges enjoyed by foreign univer- 
sities ; James I., after regaining his liberty, visited the 
establishment, bestowing on its members many marks 
of his favour, and, in 1431, granted them a charter of 
exemption from all taxes, tolls, or services, in every part 
of the kingdom. Bishop Kennedy, nephew of James I., 
in 1455, founded the college of St. Salvator, chiefly for 
theological studies and the liberal arts ; the foundation 
charter was confirmed by Pope Nicholas V., and the in- 
stitution was subsequently endowed with numerous 
royal grants. In 1471, the bishops of St. Andrew's were 
dignified with the title of archbishops, and the metropo- 
litan see was elevated to the primacy of the kingdom ; in 
1512, John Hepburn, prior of the Augustinian monas- 
tery, founded the college of St. Leonard, and endowed it 
from the revenues of the hospital which had been built 
for the reception of pilgrims visiting the shrine of St. 
Andrew, and out of his own private property, chiefly for 
the education of the brethren of the convent. During 
the numerous religious persecutions which preceded the 
Reformation, George Buchanan, afterwards preceptor of 
James VI., was imprisoned in the castle of St. Andrew's, 
for writing against the Franciscan friars, but contrived 
to make his escape through one of the windows, and 
fled into England. In 1538, Archbishop Beaton, uncle 
and predecessor of Cardinal Beaton, began to repair and 
enlarge the pedagogium, or ancient seat of the univer- 
sity, which, on his decease, was continued by the cardi- 
nal, who added largely to its endowment, and converted 



A N D R 



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it" into the college of St. Mary, or the New College. 
This establishment, which was subsequently improved 
by Archbishop Hamilton, was remodelled in 1579, by 
Archbishop Adamson and Buchanan, and since that 
time has been confined to the study of theology. In 
1559, after a sermon preached by John Knox, the re- 
former, the populace immediately commenced the de- 
struction of the venerable cathedral of St. Andrew's, 
which, in a few hours, they reduced to a heap of ruins ; 
and they afterwards plundered and destroyed most of 
the other religious establishments of the city. 

In 1583, James VI., escaping from the thraldom in 
which he was held by Gowrie, Glencairn, and others, 
shut himself up in the castle, by connivance of the 
governor, where he was joined by a number of his loyal 
subjects ; and after his accession to the English throne, 
he assembled here a meeting of the prelates and princi- 
pal clergy, to deliberate on the future interests of the 
church. In 1645, the Scottish parliament met in the 
city, and passed sentence of death upon Sir Robert 
Spottiswood, son of the late archbishop, and three other 
royalists, who had been taken prisoners at the battle of 
Philiphaugh, and who were publicly executed in the 
principal street of the city. In 1679, Archbishop 
Sharpe was murdered at Magnus Muir, within four' 
miles of the city, by a party of the Covenanters, of 
whom five, that were afterwards taken prisoners at the 
battle of Bothwell Bridge, were executed on the spot 
where the murder was committed, and their bodies hung 
in chains. Previously to the Reformation, the city was 
a place of considerable commercial importance, and the 
resort of numerous merchants from France, Holland, 
and other trading ports ; and nearly 300 vessels had 
been known to arrive in the harbour ; but, after the 
Reformation, and the consequent suppression of its ec- 
clesiastical supremacy, its trade and shipping fell into 
rapid decay. In 1655, it was so reduced that a peti- 
tion was addressed by the magistrates and council to 
General Monk, praying to be relieved from an assess- 
ment, on the ground of " the total decay of shipping and 
sea trade, and the removal of the most eminent inhabit- 
ants;" and in 1656, there was only one vessel, of 20 
tons burthen, belonging to the port. The chief support 
of the inhabitants has since been derived from its 
university ; and although its trade has, in some degree, 
revived, yet the city has never regained its original 
commercial importance. 

The town is beautifully situated on the bay of St. 
Andrew's in the German Sea, and mainly consists of 
three spacious and nearly parallel streets, of which the 
principal is South-street, at the western extremity of 
which is Argyle Port, the only remains of the ancient 
fortifications of the city ; it is still in good preservation, 
and over the arched gateway are the city arms, nearly 
obliterated by time. Beyond South-street, is Market- 
street, to the north of which is North-street ; and still 
further to the north, and bordering upon the bay, 
was Swallow-street, formerly the principal residence of 
the 'merchants, but which has long since disappeared, 
and the site been converted into a public walk called 
the Scores. These streets are intersected, at right 
angles, by several smaller streets ; and a new street 
called Bell-street, has recently been formed, connecting 
North with Market street, and which it is proposed to 
extend to South-street. The houses are generally well 
46 



built, and of handsome appearance, and many of them 
are spacious ; the streets are paved, and lighted with 
gas, and the inhabitants are amply supplied with excel- 
lent water. A public subscription library was esta- 
blished about 18*21, and has now a collection of more 
than 1200 volumes ; a literary and philosophical society 
was instituted in 1S39, and a mechanics' library was 
formed a few years since, but shortly after became 
extinct. The sea-beach is well adapted for bathing ; 
and near the castle, on an eminence overlooking the 
sea, a building has been erected, containing every requi- 
site accommodation of hot and cold baths. On the ex- 
tensive links to the west of the town, the ancient game 
of golf is pursued by the inhabitants, as their principal 
recreation; a club for that purpose, consisting of several 
noblemen and gentlemen, was established in 1754, and 
to such an extent is this amusement followed, that not 
less than 5000 balls are annually used by the players. 
The environs of the town possess much beauty and 
variety of scenery, and the numerous remains of its 
ancient ecclesiastical structures, and its colleges and 
public buildings, give to it a venerable and interesting 
appearance. 

The university, which 

consists of St. Mary's, or the 

New, College, and the united 

xs, colleges of St. Salvator and 



St. Leonard, is under the con- 
troul of a chancellor, chosen 
by the senatus academicus ; 
two principals, appointed by 
the crown, one for St. Mary's, 
with a stipend of £238, and 
one for St. Salvator's, with 
an income of £307 ; and a 
rector, annually elected by 
the professors and students, from the professors of 
divinity and ecclesiastical history in St. Mary's, and the 
principal of St. Salvator's. The professorships of divi- 
nity, Hebrew, and ecclesiastical history, in St. Mary's, 
and the professorship of mathematics in the United 
College, are in the patronage of the Crown, and are 
valued respectively at £232, £211, £286, and £440, per 
annum. The professorships in the United College in its 
own gift, are, the Greek, valued at £444 ; logic, £310 ; 
moral philosophy, £372 ; and natural philosophy, £278 : 
that of medicine, £227, is in the patronage of the uni- 
versity. The professorship of humanity, valued at 
£458, is in the gift of the Duke of Portland ; the profes- 
sorship of civil history, valued at £199, is in the patron- 
age of the Marquess of Ailsa ; and that of chemistry, 
founded from a bequest by Dr. Gray, and to which 
the first appointment was made in 1840, is valued at 
£70, and is in the patronage of the Earl of Leven. The 
senatus academicus consists of the principals and pro- 
fessors of both colleges, and the rector of the university 
presides at its meetings ; by this body alone, degrees 
are conferred, the several faculties recommending the 
candidates. The College of St. Mary is confined to the 
study of theology ; the students neither wear gowns, nor 
pay any fees, but, previously to their admission, must 
have passed through the ordinary routine of classical 
and philosophical studies in some of the Scottish col- 
leges ; the session commences on the 1st of December, 
and closes on the 31st of March. In the gift of this 




A N D R 



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college are twenty bursaries, among which are, one of 
£18, two of £15 each, ten between £15 and £10, three of 
£10, and one of £7 ; the college has also the patronage 
of several incumbencies. The buildings, which have 
been restored, and partly rebuilt, occupy a quadrangle, 
on the north side of which is the university library, con- 
taining more than 45,000 volumes, open to the use of 
both colleges ; on the west side, are the divinity hall 
and principal's lodge. The front towards the street has 
been made to harmonize with the new buildings, and 
ornamented with a series of shields, containing the 
armorial bearings of the several chancellors of the uni- 
versity, from its foundation to the present time. 

The Colleges of St. Salvator and St. Leonard were 
united by act of parliament, in 1747, and placed under 
the superintendence of one principal ; the students wear 
gowns of scarlet frieze, and pay a fee of £3. 3. to each 
of the professors whose lectures they attend ; the ses- 
sion commences on the first Tuesday in October, and 
closes on the last Friday in April. In the gift of the 
college, are sixty-four bursaries, of the aggregate value 
of £900 ; of these, there are several of £20 each, four 
of £15, two of £14, forty of £10, ten between £10 and 
£5 each, and one of £5. Eight are in the patronage of 
the Madras school ; seven in that of the university and 
united college; three, of £100 each, in the patronage 
of Sir Alexander Ramsay, Bart., for candidates of the 
names of Ramsay, Durham, Carnegie, and Lindsay ; 
and the remainder are open to general competition. 
The college has also the patronage of the livings of 
Dunino, Kemback, Kilmany, Cults, and Forteviot. The 
buildings form a spacious quadrangle, containing the 
apartments in which the professors deliver their lectures ; 
a hall ; a venerable chapel, in which is the tomb of the 
founder of St. Salvator's, Bishop Kennedy, with an in- 
scription partly obliterated ; and a museum connected 
with the literary and philosophical society of St. An- 
drew's. The chapel, which was formerly much larger, 
and had an exquisitely groined roof, since removed, from 
an unfounded apprehension of insecurity, is now used 
as the parish church of St. Leonard. In the tomb of 
Bishop Kennedy were found, an exquisitely wrought 
silver mace, now appropriated to the use of the college, 
and five others, of which two are preserved in the 
college of St. Mary, and one each were presented to 
the universities of Aberdeen, Glasgow, and Edinburgh. 
The college also possesses two silver arrows which 
■were annually awarded as prizes to a company of archers, 
from the year 16 IS to 1751, and, after being held by 
the winners for one year, were returned with silver 
medals attached to them ; to one, are appended 39 
medals, weighing together 166 ounces, and to the other, 
30, weighing 55 ounces. Of the college of St. Leonard, 
now in ruins, all that remains, are, the roofless chapel, 
the hall, and some other buildings which have been 
converted into dwellings ; in the chapel are the monu- 
ments of the founder, Prior Hepburn ; of Robert Stewart, 
Earl of March, Bishop of Caithness, and commendator 
of the priory of St. Andrew's ; and a mural monument to 
Robert Wilkie, for twenty-one years principal of the 
college. The hall contained the refectory and dormi- 
tories of the students ; and on one of the walls, is the 
inscription " Erexit Gul. Guild. S.S.T;D." with the date 
" 1650." 

The Madras College, situated in South-street, was 
47 



founded by the Rev. Dr. Andrew Bell, one of the pre- 
bendaries of Westminster, who, in 1831, conveyed, for 
that and other purposes, to the provost of St. Andrew's, 
the two ministers of the parish, and the professor of 
Greek in the university, £60,000 three per cent reduced 
annuities, and £60,000 three per cent consols. Of these 
funds, five-twelfths were to be transferred by them to 
the provost, magistrates, and town council of Edin- 
burgh, Glasgow, Leith, Aberdeen, and Inverness, for 
the foundation of schools on the Madras system ; one- 
twelfth to the trustees of the Royal Naval School, for a 
similar purpose ; and one-twelfth to the provost and 
council of St. Andrew's, for the formation of a permanent 
fund for the moral and religious improvement of the 
city. The remaining five shares were to be vested 
in the same trustees, substituting only the sheriff depute 
of Fife for the professor of Greek, after the death of the 
present professor, for the erection and endowment of 
a college, to be called the Madras College of St. An- 
drew's, and to the establishment of eight bursaries in 
the United College, tenable by such as have been three 
years in the Madras College. Buildings were, soon after 
erected, in the Elizabethan style, from a design by Mr. 
Burn, architect, of Edinburgh, inclosing a spacious 
quadrangular area, and containing the requisite class- 
rooms for the school, and two handsome residences for 
the English and classical masters. The college, which 
is under the visitation of the lord-lieutenant of the 
county, the lord justice clerk of Scotland, and the 
bishop of Edinburgh, is conducted on the Madras 
system, by a classical master and an assistant, and 
an English master, who has also an assistant, the 
former having a salary of £50, and the latter of £25, 
from the funds of the college, in addition to their fees; 
by masters of arithmetic, writing, and the modern lan- 
guages, each of whom has a salary of £50, in addition 
to their fees ; and by masters of the mathematics, geo- 
graphy, drawing, and church music. The total number 
of the pupils is about S00, including those of the Eng- 
lish and grammar schools of the city, which have been 
incorporated with tins institution ; and about 150 chil- 
dren of the poorest citizens, also, receive a gratuitous 
education in the establishment. 

The only manufactures in the town are, that of golf 
balls, of which about 10,000 are annually made; and 
the weaving of linen, for the manufacturers of Dundee. 
The trade of the port is very inconsiderable ; some 
vessels occasionally bring cargoes of timber from Nor- 
way and the Baltic, but when drawing more than four- 
teen feet of water, they are obliged to discharge part of 
their lading before they can enter the harbour. The 
number of vessels belonging to the port, is fourteen, of 
the aggregate burthen of 680 tons : the harbour is 
formed chiefly by the Kinness rivulet, and is difficult of 
access; it was deepened in 1836, and, at spring tides, 
can receive vessels of 300 tons. The river Eden, on the 
northern confines of the parish, is navigable for about 
two miles from its mouth ; and on its banks is a dis- 
tillery, to which small vessels convey supplies of coal 
and grain, and take back cargoes of spirits. On this 
river is a salmon fishery belonging to the city, to which 
it pays a rental of about £7 ; there are also several 
boats employed' in the fisheries off the coast. The fish 
usually taken are, haddock, cod, ling, skate, halibut, 
and flounders, of which the produce, after supplying 



A ND R 



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w 

Second Seal of the Burgh. 



the home markets, is sent to Cupar ; and during the 
season, the greater part of the boats are employed in 
the herring-fishery off the coast of Caithness. The city 
received its first charter of 
incorporation from David I., 
in 1140, erecting it into a 
royal burgh 5 and under this 
charter, confirmed by Mal- 
colm IV., in 1153, the go- 
vernment is vested in a pro- 
vost, four bailies, a dean of 
guild, a treasurer, and twenty- 
two councillors. There are 
seven incorporated guilds, 
viz., the smiths, wrights, 
bakers, shoemakers, tailors, 
weavers, and butchers, into one of which an individual 
must be admitted, previously to his becoming a burgess 
qualified to carry on trade ; the fees vary from £45 to 
£15 for strangers, from £20 to £l < 2 for apprentices, 
and from £2. 10. to £1 for sons of freemen. The ma- 
gistrates exercise civil and criminal jurisdiction within 
the burgh, the former to any amount, but the latter con- 
fined chiefly to petty offences, for which purpose they 
hold a bailie-court twice in the week, and courts for 
the recovery of small debts on the first Monday in every 
month ; in the latter, the number of cases has greatly 
diminished since the establishment of the sheriff's small- 
debt court. A dean-of-guild court is also held, occa- 
sionally. The city, with the burghs of Anstruther 
Easter and Wester, Crail, Cupar, Kilrenny, and Pitten- 
weem, returns a member to the imperial parliament ; 
the number of qualified voters is about 2S0. The town- 
hall, an ancient building, situated in Market- street, 
has been recently enlarged and repaired ; and the gaol, 
which is chiefly for the temporary confinement of petty 
delinquents, is under good regulations. The market is 
held weekly on Monday, and is well supplied with 
grain ; and markets for poultry, butter, eggs, and pro- 
visions of all kinds, are held on Wednesday and Satur- 
day. There are fairs on the second Thursday in April, 
the 1st of August, and the 30th of November (all O. S.) ; 
the first, anciently called the Senzie Fair, was formerly 
of 15 days' continuance, and was resorted to by mer- 
chants from various foreign ports. The post-office has 
a daily delivery; and communication is maintained 
with Dundee and Edinburgh, by good roads, of which 
those from Dundee and Cupar meet in the north of the 
parish. 

The parish is bounded on the east by the German 
Sea, and is about ten miles in length, and two miles in 
extreme breadth, comprising 10,300 acres, of which 
9S40 are arable, 345 woodland and plantations, and the 
remainder meadow, pasture, and waste. The surface is 
generally level, except towards the east, where the hills 
of Balrymonthave an elevation of 370 feet, and the hill 
of Clatto, to the west, which rises to the height of 548 
feet above the sea ; the coast is about six miles in extent, 
and is bounded, in some parts, with rocks, of which the 
Maiden rock, and those of Kinkell and Buddo are the 
most conspicuous. About a mile from the town is the 
cave of Kinkell, about 80 feet in length, and 25 feet 
wide ; the roof, apparently of one entire stone, is about 
1 1 feet in height, but inclining so much towards the 
east as to form an angle with the floor, which, on the 
4S 



west side, about 40 feet from the entrance, is covered 
with plants whose growth is promoted by water con- 
stantly trickling from the roof. The principal river is 
the Eden, over which is an ancient bridge of six arches, 
called the Gair or Guard bridge, built by Bishop Ward- 
law, and wide enough only for one carriage to pass ; 
there are also two small rivulets, of which the larger, 
after a course of nearly five miles, having turned several 
corn-mills, flows into the harbour, on the south-east ; 
and the other falls into the sea at the north-west of the 
city. The soil is mostly fertile, and the lands are gene- 
rally better adapted for tillage than for pasture, produc- 
ing abundant crops of grain of all kinds ; the system of 
agriculture is improved, and many acres of land near 
the mouth of the Eden have been protected from inun- 
dation by embankment. The cattle, which were previ- 
ously all of the Fifeshire breed, have, within the last 
few years, been mixed with various others of recent in- 
troduction ; and the sheep, of which the number has 
been for some time gradually increasing, are principally 
of the Highland and Cheviot breeds. The chief sub- 
strata are, sandstone, in which are found thin seams of 
coal, slate clay, and clay ironstone ; the sandstone is of 
a grey colour, very durable, and of good quality for 
building. The plantations, which are mainly around 
the houses of the landed proprietors, and in a thriving 
state, are mostly ash, oak, elm, beech, plane, and larch, 
with some Scotch firs, which are chiefly on the poorer 
soils. 

The ecclesiastical, affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of St. Andrew's and synod 
of Fife ; the living is collegiate, consisting of two 
charges, of which the first is in the patronage of the 
Crown, and the second in that of the Magistrates and 
Council of the city. The minister of the first charge 
has a stipend of £439. 9. 4., with a glebe valued at 
£23 per annum ; and the minister of the second charge 
has £171. IS. 2., with a manse, and a glebe valued at 
£16. 15. per annum. The parish church, originally 
erected by Bishop Turgot, about the commencement of 
the 12th century, is a spacious structure with a tower 
and spire, and anciently contained numerous chapels, 
which were suppressed at the Reformation ; after the 
destruction of the cathedral, it was substituted as the 
cathedral of the archbishops of St. Andrew's. It was 
rebuilt in 1*98, and contains about 2200 sittings ; in 
the aisle is a splendid monument of white marble, erected 
to the memory of Archbishop Sharpe, by his son, in 
1679. A chapel in connexion with the Established 
Church has been recently erected at Strathkinness, in 
the parish, at a cost of £400, raised by subscription ; it 
contains 124 fixed sittings, and moveable benches for 
about 230 persons; the minister has a stipend of 
£54. 12., of which one-half is paid by the minister of the 
first charge of the parish, and the remainder by the 
heritors. An episcopal chapel was built in 1825, at a 
cost of £1400 ; there are also places of worship for 
members of the Free Church and United Secession, 
Baptists, and Independents. Among the monuments of 
antiquity with which the city and its environs abound, 
are the remains of the church of St. Regulus, which, 
with every appearance of probability, is supposed to be 
the original structure erected by Hirgustus, King of the 
Picts, on his conversion to Christianity. They consist 
chiefly of the tower, 108 feet high and 20 feet square at 



A N D It 



ANDR 



the base, formerly surmounted by a spire ; and the 
eastern portion of the church, 31 feet in length, and 25 
feet wide, having two windows on the north, and two on 
the south side. Since the decay of the spire, the tower 
has been roofed with a platform of lead, to which there 
is an ascent by a spiral staircase within. On the east 
and west faces of the tower, are traces of several roofs 
of different heights, with which the church has been 
covered at various times ; and from the summit is 
obtained an extensive prospect over the bay and the 
adjacent country. 

The ancient Cathedral, completed in 1318, was a mag- 
nificent cruciform structure, 3/5 feet in length, ISO feet 
across the transepts, and 72 feet in mean breadth, with 
a lofty central tower, of which nothing now remains but 
the bases of the columns whereon it was supported ; it 
had also two turrets at the western, two at the eastern, 
extremity, and one at the end of the south transept, 
each 100 feet in height. Of this splendid structure, 
which was destroyed at the commencement of the Refor- 
mation, only the eastern gable, with its turrets, one of 
the turrets at the west, and a portion of the walls, are 
now remaining ; the style of its architecture is partly 
Norman, and partly of the early and later English, 
which latter is more prominent in the western portion 
of the building, from the greater richness of its details. 
The interior has been cleared, by order of Her Majesty's 
exchequer, from the accumulated heaps of rubbish with 
which it had been, for years, obscured ; and such repairs 
have been made as were requisite for the preservation 
of the remains. Within the area of the cathedral pre- 
cincts, which occupy a space of about IS acres, are 
some portions of the Priory, or Augustine monastery, 
founded by Robert, Bishop of St. Andrew's, and other 
monastic buildings, in a state of irretrievable decay ; 
the whole is inclosed by a wall erected by Prior Hep- 
burn, originally almost a mile in circuit, 20 feet in height, 
and four feet thick, defended by 16 turrets, at irregular 
distances, and having three handsome gateways, above 
one of which, still remaining, is a mutilated statue of 
the Virgin Mary. To the north-west of the cathedral, 
on an eminence overlooking the sea, are the remains of 
the Castle, rebuilt by Bishop Trail, about the close of 
the 14th century; after the murder of Cardinal Beaton, 
in 1546, it was besieged and destroyed, but was 
subsequently rebuilt by Archbishop Hamilton, and 
continued to be the residence of the prelates till 1591, 
since which period it has been suffered to fall into decay. 
The only remains are, part of the south side of the qua- 
drangle, with a handsome square tower, and a few other 
fragments. The ancient convent of Franciscan friars 
was demolished at the Reformation, and the site is now 
occupied by a part of Bell-street ; and the Dominican 
convent founded in 1274, shared the same fate, with 
the exception of its chapel, a beautiful specimen of the 
early English style, within the grounds of the Madras 
College, and for the preservation of which Dr. Bell, the 
founder, made due provision. On an eminence to the 
west of the harbour, are the ruins of the Kirkheuch, a 
Culdee establishment, for a provost and ten prebenda- 
ries, said to have been erected by Constantine II., in the 
ninth century, and of which Constantine III., after re- 
signing his crown, became abbot. 

ANDREW'S, ST., a parish, in the county of Orkney ; 
containing, exclusively of the late quoad sacra parish 
Vol. I. — 49 



of Deerness, 926 inhabitants. This parish is situated on 
the eastern coast of the mainland, and is bounded on 
the north by the Frith of Shapinshay ; on the east by 
Deer Sound, which separates it from Deerness ; and 
on the west by the bay of Inganess. It is about six 
miles in extreme length, and two in average breadth, 
and is connected with the peninsula of Deerness by a 
narrow isthmus less than a quarter of a mile in length ; 
the coast is so singularly indented with bays and inlets 
from the sea, that its form cannot be well defined, or its 
extent accurately ascertained, though it is generally 
estimated at 13 square miles, and the line of coast at 
about IS miles. The surface, though generally low, is 
intersected by three nearly parallel and equidistant 
ridges of inconsiderable height, and diversified with hills 
of gentle acclivity, of which the highest has an elevation 
of 350 feet above the sea, and, towards the north-east, 
terminates in precipitous rocks, of strikingly romantic 
appearance; in one of these is a remarkable cavern, 60 
feet in length, and about 30 feet wide, communicating 
with the sea by a passage, through which a boat may 
pass at certain times of the tide. Deer Sound forms an 
excellent roadstead for vessels in boisterous weather ; 
it is about four miles long, and two miles broad, and has 
a depth of six or seven fathoms at the entrance, with a 
sandy bottom, and affords good anchorage for vessels of 
any size. Inganess bay, on the north-west coast, about 
two miles and a half in length, and more than a mile in 
breadth, varies in depth from three to twelve fathoms, 
and affords good anchorage and shelter from all winds. 
Neither of these bays, however, is at present much 
frequented. 

The soil is extremely various in different parts of the 
parish, consisting of sand, loam, clay, and moss, alter- 
nating, and frequently found in combination ; the num- 
ber of acres under tillage is about 2200 ; the chief crops 
are oats and bear, with a small proportion of potatoes 
and turnips. The farming is in a very unimproved 
state ; some attempts have been made to drain the lands, 
but very little progress has hitherto been effected in the 
general system of agriculture. Little attention has been 
paid to the improvement of the breeds of live stock ; the 
horses most in use are those of the Norwegian kind 
called the Garron, strong and hardy, but seldom exceed- 
ing 14 hands in height ; the black cattle are small, thin, 
and ill-conditioned, from the scantiness of the pas- 
tures ; and the sheep are inferior to those of the Zetland 
breed, and not so remarkable for fineness of wool. 
The farm-buildings are generally of stones and clay, 
roofed with thatch ; and the few inclosures that have 
taken place, are made by mounds of turf. The rocks 
are argillaceous sandstone and flag, apparently of the 
old red sandstone formation, alternated with trap, and 
traces of calc-spar and pyrites of iron are found occa- 
sionally ; slates of inferior quality, and also freestone, 
are obtained in some parts. 

The manufacture of kelp, formerly carried on here to 
a great extent, has of late been greatly diminished ; 
and that of straw-plat, which was also extensive, has 
been almost discontinued. Fairs for cattle are held at 
Candlemas, Midsummer, and Martinmas. The fish 
generally found off the coast are, cod, haddocks, floun- 
ders, skate, thornbacks, and coal-fish ; and crabs, lob- 
sters, cockles, and other shell-fish, are found on the 
shores ; but no regular fishery of these has been esta- 

H 



AND R 



ANNA 



blished. The herring- fishery was commenced in 1833, 
and is carried on to a very considerable extent ; curing- 
houses have been erected, and there is every prospect 
of the formation of an extensive and lucrative herring 
station at this place. Communication with Kirkwall, 
and with other parts of the mainland, is maintained by 
good roads, of which that to Kirkwall is one of the best 
in the county. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish 
are under the superintendence of the presbytery of 
Kirkwall and synod of Orkney ; the minister's stipend 
is £200, exclusive of £8. 6. 8. for communion elements, 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £14 per annum ; 
patron, the Earl of Zetland. The church, built in 1801, 
and enlarged in 1827, is a neat structure, conveniently 
situated, and containing 400 sittings. A Free Church 
place of worship has been erected here. The parochial 
school affords the general course of study ; the master 
has a salary of £27, with a house and garden, and the 
fees average £9. There are some slight vestiges of 
ancient chapels ; and on the point of Inganess are traces 
of an old circular fort of stones and earth, command- 
ing the entrance of Deer Sound. Several tumuli also 
remain, one of which, on the glebe land, is about 140 
yards in circumference at the base, and 12 feet high ; 
another, nearly in the centre of the parish, is 90 yards 
in circumference, and 16 feet high, and a third, of much 
larger dimensions, is situated on the isthmus at the 
southern extremity of the parish. 

ANDREW'S LHANBRYDE, ST., a parish, in the 
county of Elgin, 3 miles (E.) from Elgin ; containing 
1176 inhabitants, of whom 174 are in the village of 
Lhanbryde. To this parish, which was anciently called 
the barony of Kill-ma-Lemnock, Lhanbryde, signifying 
in Gaelic "The church of St. Bridget," was united in 
17 S2, in addition to two other chapels that had been 
joined before the Reformation. It is three miles broad, 
from east to west, and about four long, from south to 
north, exclusively of the Teindland, which is detached 
one mile distant on the south, and although generally 
considered as belonging to this parish, pertains to that 
of Elgin. It contains about 5000 acres, of which four- 
fifths are under cultivation, and 650 acres are woodland, 
and is intersected by the great north road and the river 
Lossie. The isolated tract just named was originally 
the moor where the cattle were collected for drawing 
part of the teinds of both parishes, before they were 
converted into money ; from which circumstance it de- 
rives its name. The surface has, in general, the appear- 
ance of a plain, in which a series of low hills rise, appa- 
rently connected together, and all covered with corn, 
grass, or wood. The district is subject, in the spring 
season, to a succession of storms, some of which are of 
the most violent, piercing, and blighting nature, equally 
injurious to vegetation and to animal life. There are 
three lakes on the confines of the parish, of which the 
largest, called Spynie, consisting of shallow water rest- 
ing upon a deep rich mould, offered a temptation to 
drainage, which, a few years since, was prosecuted at an 
expense of nearly £10,000, but the operation has not 
yet fully succeeded. These lakes abound with trout, 
eels, and pike, and are visited by a great variety of wild 
ducks, and sometimes by wild geese and swans. The 
river Lossie, which, entering the parish at the north- 
west corner, divides it there from the town of Elgin, is 
subject to great floodings, and the grounds on its banks 
50 



frequently suffer serious injury ; salmon, pike, trout, 
&c. are found in it, though not in any considerable 
quantity.; 

The soil in general is sandy, yet fertile where the 
land is low and damp, for, in this part of the county, 
the farmer has mostly to complain of drought, by which 
he loses much every summer. All kinds of grain are 
produced in a larger quantity than is necessary for 
domestic use, as well as the ordinary green crops and 
grasses ; and most of the farms are of considerable size, 
and occupied by gentlemen of skill, and with adequate 
capital. The whole extent of the parish is incumbent 
upon a bed of limestone belonging to the calciferous 
sandstone of the old red formation. About a mile 
eastward of the manse, a small section made by the 
burn of Llanbryde exposes a bed of the inferior oolite 
kind; and two miles north-west of the manse appear, at 
Linksfield, Pitgavei^r, &c. insulated patches of the Pur- 
beck beds of the wealden, or fresh-water deposit, rarely 
met with in Scotland. Limestone is burnt for agricultural 
and building purposes, and the wealden clays and 
marls are applied to fertilizing the light sandy soil in 
the neighbourhood. Pitgaveny House is a handsome 
residence, with grounds tastefully laid out. There is a 
manufacture of malt in the parish; and a cast-iron 
foundry, and a manufactory of woollen stuffs, are car- 
ried on, the latter of which employs about 45 hands. 
A fair is held at Lhanbryde on the 4th Tuesday in 
October, when cattle, farming implements, and similar 
commodities, are exposed for sale. The ecclesiastical 
affairs are directed by the presbytery of Elgin and synod 
of Moray ; the patronage is vested in the Crown and 
the Earl of Moray, alternately, and the minister's sti- 
pend is £206. 19., with a manse. The church is a com- 
modious building, and will hold between 400 and 500 
persons. There is a parochial school, the master of 
which has a salary of £34. 14., with a house and gar- 
den, and about £12 fees, and teaches the classics, ma- 
thematics, French, and Gaelic, together with the ordi- 
nary branches of education. About half a mile south 
of the manse is a small square fort of great antiquity, 
called the Tower of Coxton, and which appears to have 
been of considerable strength. The neighbourhood 
affords numerous specimens of interest, in the form of 
fossils. Many of the distinguishing fossils of the infe- 
rior oolite, have been found in the bed exposed by the 
Lhanbryde burn; at Linksfield a great variety also occurs, 
and of the greatest number and interest, in a dark- 
coloured shale bed containing slabs of highly crysta- 
lized limestone. 

ANGUS. — See Forfarshire. 
ANNAN, a royal burgh, 
and a parish, in the county 
of Dumfries, 16 miles (E. 
S. E.) from Dumfries, and 79 
(S.) from Edinburgh ; con- 
taining, with part of Bryde- 
kirk quoad sacra, 5471 in- 
habitants, of whom 4409 are 
in the burgh. This place, 
which is of remote antiquity, 
and supposed to have been 
a Roman station of some im- 
portance, was, after the de- Seal and Arms - 
parture of the Romans from Britain, occupied by the 




ANNA 



ANNA 



ancient inhabitants till their expulsion by the Northum- 
brian Saxons. After the dissolution of the Saxon hep- 
tarchy, the surrounding territories were annexed to the 
kingdom of Scotland, in the reign of Malcolm Canmore ; 
and the lands were subsequently granted to Robert de 
Bruce, Lord of Annandale, who built a castle for the 
defence of the town, in which he occasionally resided. 
From its proximity to the English border, the town was 
frequently plundered during the Border warfare, and 
sometimes burnt ; and it suffered greatly in the wars 
consequent on the disputed succession to the Scottish 
throne, in the reign of Edward I. of England. In 129S, 
the town and church were burnt by the English, but 
were subsequently restored by Robert Bruce, who, in 
1306, ascended the throne of Scotland; and in 1332, 
Edward Baliol, after his coronation at Scone, repaired 
to the castle of Annan, whither he summoned the 
nobility of Scotland, to pay him homage. During his 
continuance here, Archibald Douglas, the firm adherent 
of the Bruces, having collected a force of 1000 cavalry 
at Moffat, advanced to Annan during the night, and 
having surprised and defeated his guards, Baliol was 
induced to make his escape from the castle, and, hastily 
mounting a horse with neither saddle nor bridle, with 
considerable difficulty reached Carlisle, without a single 
attendant. 

In 1547, the town was plundered and burnt by the 
English under Wharton, accompanied by the Earl of 
Lennox, on which occasion, as the castle was at that 
time dismantled, the inhabitants fortified the church, 
and for some time successfully resisted the invaders. 
In the two following years, the town and the surround- 
ing district were continually infested by the predatory 
incursions of the English borderers, against whose 
attacks the governor, Maxwell, levied a tax of £4000, 
for repairing the castle, and placing it in a state of de- 
fence. During the regency of Mary of Guise, on the 
arrival of a large body of French soldiers in the river 
Clyde, the greater number of them were stationed in the 
town, for the protection of the neighbourhood ; and in 
1570, the castle was again destroyed by the English 
forces, under the Earl of Sussex ; but it was afterwards 
restored, and continued to be kept up, as a border for- 
tress, till the union of the two crowns by the accession 
of James VI. At this time, the town was reduced to 
such a state of destitution, that the inhabitants, unable 
to build a church, obtained from that monarch a grant 
of the castle, for a place of public worship ; and during 
the wars in the reign of Charles I., the town suffered so 
severely, that, by way of compensation, the parliament, 
after the restoration of Charles II., granted to the cor- 
poration the privilege of collecting customs and other 
duties for their relief. The Highland army, on their 
retreat before the Duke of Cumberland, in the rebellion 
of 1745, encamped here on the night of the 28th of 
December, after having lost great numbers of their men, 
who were drowned while attempting to cross the rivers 
Esk and Eden. 

The town, which is pleasantly situated on the eastern 
bank of the river Annan, about a couple of miles from 
its influx into Solway Frith, consists of several spacious 
and regularly-formed streets, intersecting each other at 
right angles ; and is connected with the country lying 
upon the opposite bank of the river, by an elegant 
stone bridge of three arches of 65 feet span, erected in 
51 



1824, at an expense of £8000. The houses are well 
built, and of handsome appearance, and in the imme- 
diate vicinity are numerous villas and mansions; the 
streets are paved and lighted, and the inhabitants amply 
supplied with good water. A public library is supported 
by subscription. From the beauty of the scenery in 
the environs of the town, and the facilities of sea- 
bathing afforded by the Frith, it is a favourite place of 
residence. The spinning of cotton-yarn, which was in- 
troduced here in 1785, is still carried on, and affords 
employment to about 140 persons ; the factory, in which 
the most improved machinery is employed, has been 
recently enlarged, and the quantity of yarn produced 
averages 4000 pounds per week. The usual handicraft 
trades requisite for the supply of the neighbourhood, 
are pursued ; and there are numerous shops, amply 
stocked with various kinds of merchandise. The trade 
of the port partly consists in the importation of timber, 
deals, lath-wood, and tar, from America and the Baltic, 
in which two vessels are employed ; and about thirty 
vessels are engaged in the coasting trade. The exports 
are chiefly grain for the Glasgow and Liverpool markets, 
and timber and freestone, for various English ports. 
By the steamers which frequent the port, grain, wool, 
live stock, bacon, and hams, are sent to Liverpool and 
the adjacent towns of Lancashire, from which they bring 
manufactured goods ; and the other imports are mostly 
coal, slates, salt, herrings, grain, and iron, from Glasgow 
and places on the English and Irish coasts. The num- 
ber of vessels registered as belonging to the port, is 34, 
of the aggregate burthen of 1639 tons. The port, which 
is under the custom-house of Dumfries, and is formed 
by an inlet from the river, has been much improved by 
the embankment of Hall meadow, on the Newby estate, 
by the proprietor, John Irving, Esq., at a cost of £3000, 
which has rendered the channel of sufficient depth for 
the safe anchorage of vessels of considerable burthen. 
Two piers have been erected by the proprietors of the 
steamers frequenting the port, to which has been formed 
a road from the burgh, by subscription, at a cost of 
£640 ; and a commodious inn, with good stabling, has 
been built near the jetties, within the enbankment. 

The ancient records of the burgh having been de- 
stroyed during the frequent devastations of the town, a 
charter confirming all previous privileges, and reciting 
a charter of James V. in 1538, by which it had been 
erected into a royal burgh, was granted by James VI., 
in the year 1612; and under this the government of 
the town is in the controul of a provost, two bailies, 
and fifteen councillors. There are no incorporated guilds, 
neither have the burgesses any exclusive privileges in 
trade ; the magistrates issue tickets of admission to the 
freedom of a burgess, without any fee. Courts are held, 
both for civil and criminal cases ; but in neither do the 
magistrates exercise jurisdiction to any considerable ex- 
tent. The burgh is associated with those of Dumfries, 
Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben, and Sanquhar, in returning 
a member to the imperial parliament; the parliamentary 
boundaries are not co-extensive with the royalty, which 
comprehends a much wider district ; the number of 
qualified voters is about ISO. Anew prison, containing 
three cells, was erected some years ago, in lieu of the 
old prison, which is dilapidated. A market is held 
on Thursday ; and fairs, chiefly for hiring servants, are 
held annually, on the first Thursdays in May and August, 

H2 



ANNA 



ANSI 



and the third Thursday in October. Facilities of inland 
communication are afforded by good roads, of which the 
turnpike-road from Dumfries to Carlisle passes through 
the parish, and by cross-roads connected with those to 
Edinburgh and Glasgow. 

The parish is about eight miles in extreme length, 
and varies from two and a half to four miles in breadth, 
comprising an area of 11,100 acres, of which about 1000 
are woodland and plantations, and the remainder arable, 
meadow, and pasture. The surface is generally level, 
with a slight inclination towards the south, and is inter- 
sected by three nearly parallel ridges of moderate height. 
Of these, the western ridge terminates in a conical hill 
called Woodcock-air, which has an elevation of 320 feet, 
and is completely covered with wood ; and on the coast, 
are the Annan and Barnkirk hills, of which the former 
has an elevation of 256, and the latter of 120 feet above 
the sea. The soil, on the banks of the river, is a rich 
alluvial deposit ; to the west, a clayey loam, alternated 
with gravel ; towards the east, a poor deep loam ; and 
in the northern districts, mostly light, with tracts of 
moor and moss. The chief crops are grain of all kinds, 
and the most improved system of husbandry is generally 
in use ; a large open common, of nearly 2000 acres, has 
been divided among the burgesses, and is now inclosed 
and cultivated ; the farm-buildings are substantial and 
well arranged. The pastures are rich ; the cattle are of 
the Galloway breed, with a few of the Ayrshire and short- 
horned ; there are few sheep reared, but on most of the 
farms a considerable number of pigs are fed. Salmon, 
grilse, and trout are found in the Annan, and in the 
Frith ; and in the former are three fisheries, one the 
property of Mr. Irving; the fish taken are, sparling, 
cod, haddock, sturgeon, turbot, soles, and skate. The 
rateable annual value of the parish is £13,297, including 
£5163 for the burgh. The principal substrata are, fine 
sandstone well adapted for building, limestone, and 
ironstone ; several attempts have been made to discover 
coal, which are supposed to have failed only from the 
borings not having been made to a sufficient depth. 
Mount Annan, the seat of the late Lieut. -Gen. Dirom, 
is a handsome mansion, situated on an eminence on the 
eastern bank of the Annan, about two miles from the 
town, commanding a fine view of the Frith and the 
northern counties of England ; the grounds are taste- 
fully embellished, and the scenery is picturesque. War- 
manbie, on the east bank of the Annan, about half a 
mile to the south of Mount Annan, is an elegant man- 
sion, erected within the last few years, and surrounded 
with pleasure-grounds ; and Northfield House, on the 
same river, is also a handsome mansion, recently en- 
larged. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Annan and synod of 
Dumfries ; the minister's stipend is £279- 2. 4., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum; patron, 
Hope Johnstone, Esq., of Annandale. The church, 
erected in 1790, is a handsome structure, with a spire, 
and contains 1190 sittings. A second church, situated 
on the south of the town, a very handsome building, 
affording accommodation to 950 persons, was erected at 
a cost of £1400, and opened in 1842; and there are 
also places of worship for Episcopalians, Independents, 
Roman Catholics, members of the Free Church, United 
Associate Synod, and Relief Church. The parochial 



school is attended by nearly 100 children ; the master has 
a salary of £31. 16. 6., with a house and garden, and the 
fees average about £40 per annum. The Annan academy, 
for which a building has been erected, containing commo- 
dious class-rooms, was built and endowed with the funds 
arising to the burgh from the division of the common 
land ; it is under the direction of a rector and two assist- 
ant masters, and is attended by 140 pupils; the income 
from the endowment is £1 13, and the fees are consider- 
able. The only remains of the castle of Annan, are, a 
small portion of one of the walls, incorporated in the town- 
hall, and a stone built into a wall of a small house, with 
the inscription, "Robert de Brus, Comte de Carrick, et 
seiniour de Val de Annand, 1300." About two miles 
from the town, and to the north of the Carlisle road, 
was a rude monument to the memory of the Scots who 
fell in a battle with the English, in which the latter were 
defeated, with great slaughter ; among the English slain 
in the conflict, were, Sir Marmaduke Longdale, Sir 
Philip Musgrave, and Lord Howard, whose remains 
were interred in the churchyard of Dornock. Close to 
the spot, is a well in which the Scots washed their 
swords after the battle, and which has since been called 
the "Sword Well." Near the site of the castle, is an 
artificial mound, supposed to have been the spot for 
administering justice, during the times of the Saxons ; 
and further up the river, is an elevated bank called 
Galabank, the place of execution. On Battle HilJ, has 
been lately discovered a mineral spring, of great strength, 
which has not yet been analysed. The celebrated Dr. 
Thomas Blacklock ; Hugh Clapperton, the African tra- 
veller ; and the late Rev. Edward Irving, minister of 
the Scottish church in Regent- square, London, were 
natives of the place. 

ANSTRUTHER EAST- 
ER, a burgh, sea-port, and 
parish, in the district of St. 
Andrew's, county of Fife, 
9 miles (S. S. E.) from St. 
Andrew's, and 35| (N. E. 
by N.) from Edinburgh ; 
containing 997 inhabitants. 
This place, which is of great 
antiquity, was, in the reign 
of Malcolm IV., the property 
of William de Candela, Lord 
of Anstruther, whose sons 'Burgh Seal. 

assumed the name of their patrimonial inheritance, and 
whose descendants are the present proprietors. It ap- 
pears to have derived its early importance from its 
favourable situation on the Frith of Forth, and the se- 
curity of its harbour, in which, on the dispersion of the 
Spanish armada, the captain of one of the vessels found 
an asylum from the storm. The town, which was 
first lighted with gas in 1841, is separated from the pa- 
rish of Anstruther Wester by a small rivulet called the 
Dreel burn, over which is a bridge, and consists of a 
long narrow street, on the road from the East Neuck of 
Fife to Kirkcaldy and Burntisland, extending along 
the margin of the Frith. The trade appears to have 
been formerly very considerable ; a custom-house was 
erected herein 1710, and in 1827, the jurisdiction of the 
port was extended to those of St. Andrew's, Crail, 
Pittenweem, St. Monan's, and Elie. The amount of 
duties once averaged £1500 yearly; ship-building was 




A N ST 



AN ST 



carried on to a considerable extent, but, after gradually 
declining for several years, it was at length entirely dis- 
continued. The chief manufacture now pursued is that 
of leather; barrels are made for the package of herrings 
taken off the coast, and more than 40,000 barrels of 
them are annually sent from this port, properly cured, 
for exportation. The trade at present consists princi- 
pally in the fisheries, in the exportation of grain and 
other agricultural produce of the surrounding district, 
and in the importation of various articles of merchan- 
dise for the supply of the neighbourhood. There is 
also a large brewery. The number of vessels belonging 
to the port is nine, of the aggregate burthen of 964 tons; 
two packets ply regularly between this place and Leith, 
and the Edinburgh and Dundee steamers touch at the 
port. The harbour is safe, and easy of access, and is 
protected from the south-easterly winds by a natural 
breakwater, and an extensive and commodious quay ; 
the custom-house, though an independent establishment, 
has, since the decline of the trade, communicated with 
that of Kirkcaldy. The market for corn and other pro- 
duce, is held on Saturday. 

The burgh was incorporated by charter of James VI., 
under which the government was vested in three bailies, 
a treasurer, and fifteen councillors, assisted by a town- 
clerk and other officers ; the bailies and treasurer are 
elected by the council, who are chosen by the registered 
£10 electors, under the provisions of the Burgh Reform 
act. The bailies are justices of the peace within the 
royalty of the burgh, which is coextensive with the 
parish, and exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction; 
since 1S20, however, few cases have been tried in the 
civil court, and in the criminal court only twelve cases, 
chiefly petty misdemeanours : the town-clerk, who is 
appointed by the magistrates and council, during plea- 
sure, is assessor in the bailies' court. By act of the 
2nd and 3rd of William IV., the burgh, together with 
those of Cupar, St. Andrew's, Anstruther Wester, and 
others, returns one member to the imperial parliament ; 
the right of election is vested in the resident burgesses 
and £10 householders, and the bailies are the return- 
ing officers. The town-hall is a neat building. The 
parish is situated at the head of a small bay in the 
Frith, and comprises about 9 acres of land, formerly in- 
cluded within the parish of Kilrenny, from which they 
were separated in the year 1636. The rateable annual 
value is £1115. The incumbency is in the presbytery of 
St. Andrew's and synod of Fife ; the minister's stipend 
is £131. 15., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £25 
per annum ; patron, Sir Wyndham Carmichael Anstru- 
ther, Bart. The church, built by subscription, in 1634, 
and to which a spire was added about ten years after, 
•was repaired in 1S34, and is well adapted for 700 per- 
sons. There are places of worship for Baptists, Inde- 
pendents, and members of the Free Church and the 
United Secession. The burgh school is attended by 
about 90 scholars ; the master has a salary of £5. 6. 8., 
and about £65 from fees, with a house rent-free. There 
are several friendly societies, of which one, called the 
" Sea Box Society", established in 161S, and incor- 
porated by royal charter, in 1*84, has an income of 
£300, for the benefit of decayed ship-masters and sea- 
men belonging to the port. The Rev. Dr. Chalmers, 
and Professor Tennant, of the university of St. Andrew's, 
are natives of the place. 
53 




Bttr°;h Seal. 



ANSTRUTHER WES- 
TER, a royal burgh, and pa- 
rish, in the district of St. 
Andrew's, county of Fife ; 
adjoining AnstrutherEaster, 
and containing 449 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 339 are in the 
burgh. This place, of which 
the name is supposed to be, 
in the Celtic language, de- 
scriptive of the low marshy 
ground on which the church 
was built, is situated on the 
Frith of Forth, about six miles to the westward of Fife- 
ness. The people, who, during the wars consequent on 
the attempt to establish episcopacy, were zealously de- 
voted to the Presbyterian form of worship, joined the 
Covenanters ; and many of them fell in the battle of 
Kilsyth. The town suffered greatly by an inundation 
of the sea, in 1670, which greatly injured the harbour, 
and undermined the foundations of many of the houses : 
a second inundation, which took place towards the end 
of that century, swept away the houses in the principal 
street, and destroyed nearly one-third part of the town. 
The present town is separated from Anstruther Easter 
by the Dreel burn, over which a bridge was erected, at 
the joint expense of the two burghs, in 1801 ; it has 
been much benefited by the widening of the principal 
street, and the houses in that, and also in the other 
streets, have been considerably improved in their ap- 
pearance. The streets are paved and macadamised, and 
the town is w : ell lighted, and supplied with water. The 
place was erected into a royal burgh by charter of 
James VI., in 1587, and the government is vested in a 
provost, two bailies, a treasurer, and eleven councillors, 
elected annually, the old council choosing the new coun- 
cil, and the latter electing the provost, bailies, and trea- 
surer. The magistrates hold a bailie court ; but few 
cases of civil actions have been brought before it for 
some years ; and their jurisdiction, in criminal cases, 
seldom extends beyond that of petty offences, in which 
they are assisted by the town-clerk, who acts as assessor. 
The town-hall is a commodious building. The burgh is 
associated with those of Pittenweem, Anstruther Easter, 
Kilrenny, and others, in returning a member to the 
imperial parliament ; the number of inhabitant house- 
holders, of the yearly rent of £10, is twenty-four, of 
whom twelve are burgesses. 

The parish is bounded on the south by the sea, and 
is about two miles in length, and of irregular form, 
comprising not more than 600 acres, of which, with the 
exception of a few acres of common pasture, the whole 
is arable. The soil, near the sea, is, in some parts, a 
rich black loam, and in others a light sand mixed with 
shells, both of which, though of no great depth, are 
very fertile ; in the higher grounds, the soil is of lighter 
quality, intermixed with tracts of deep clay. The crops 
are grain of all kinds, with potatoes, turnips, and other 
green crops ; the lands are chiefly inclosed with stone 
dykes, though in some places with hedges of thorn. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £1998. 
Grangemuir, the seat of Lord William Douglas, of Du- 
nino, a handsome and spacious mansion, built by the late 
Mr. Bruce, and greatly enlarged by the present proprie- 
tor, is pleasantly situated in grounds laid out with 



A N W O 



A P PL 



much taste. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the 
superintendence of the presbytery of St. Andrew's and 
synod of Fife ; the minister's stipend is £142. 5. 6., of 
which part is paid from the exchequer, with a manse, 
and a glebe valued at £22. 10. per annum ; patron, Sir 
Wyndham Carmichael Anstruther. The church is a 
very ancient structure situated in the burgh, near the 
sea-shore. The parochial school is well conducted ; the 
master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £4 per annum, 
the interest of a bequest, and a house and garden, and 
the school fees average about £75 per annum. There 
is a bursary in the college of St. Andrew's, for a scholar 
from this parish, endowed by the late William Thomson, 
Esq., chief magistrate of the burgh. 

ANWOTH, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright ; containing, with part of the burgh of 
barony of Gatehouse, S83 inhabitants. This parish is 
bounded on the south by Wigton bay, on the south-east 
by the bay of Fleet, and on the east by the river Fleet, 
which separates it from the parish of Girthon. It is 
about 6| miles in length, and 1\ in breadth, comprising 
an area of 10,500 acres, of which nearly one-half is 
arable, and the remainder meadow and pasture. The 
surface, near the sea-shore, is generally flat, and, to- 
wards the north, rises into hills of various elevation, of 
which the highest, Cairnharrah, partly in this parish, 
but chiefly in that of Kirkmabreek, is 1100 feet above 
the sea, and commands an extensive view, embracing 
the Isle of Man, part of Cumberland, and the coast of 
Ireland. The river Fleet, which has one of its sources 
in a small loch of that name, in the parish of Girthon, 
after receiving various tributary streams, falls into the 
bay of Fleet, from which it is navigable, for about three 
miles, to Gatehouse ; salmon, sea-trout, and flounders 
are found in this river, but not in any great quantity. 
The soil on the coast is dry and fertile, and in other 
parts thin and light, but has been much improved by 
the use of lime, which is brought from Cumberland, at 
a moderate cost ; marl, also, is found in the parish, and 
a great abundance of shells on the sea-shore, which are 
likewise used for manure. The chief crops are oats and 
barley, with some wheat, and potatoes, of which large 
quantities are sent to the ports on the Clyde, and to 
Whitehaven and Liverpool ; the system of agriculture 
has been greatly improved ; the lands have been well 
inclosed, and the farm-houses and offices are generally 
substantially built. The cattle are mostly of the black 
native breed, and the sheep, for which the moorlands 
afford good pasture, are principally of the black-faced 
kind ; considerable numbers of both are reared in the 
parish, and sent to the English markets. There are 
some large tracts of ancient wood on the banks of the 
river, and in the grounds of the principal landed pro- 
prietors ; and the plantations, which are of oak, ash, 
birch, and fir, are also extensive, and in a thriving state. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £3717- The 
principal mansions are, Cardoness, which has been re- 
built within the last twenty years ; and Ardwall and 
Rusco, which are of older date. The road from Car- 
lisle to Port-Patrick passes along the southern border of 
the parish; and the river Fleet, of which the navigation 
has been greatly facilitated by the construction of a 
canal, by Mr. Murray, of Broughton, affords facility for 
coasting vessels bringing supplies of coal, lime, and 
various kinds of merchandise, and for the transport of 
54 



cattle, sheep, and agricultural produce. The ecclesias- 
tical affairs are under the superintendence of the pres- 
bytery of Kirkcudbright and synod of Galloway ; the 
minister's stipend is £230. 15. 2§., with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £10 per annum; patron, Sir David 
Maxwell, Bart. The church, erected in 1326, at a cost 
of nearly £1200, is a neat structure, with a tower at the 
west end surmounted by a spire, and contains 400 sit- 
tings. There is a small place of worship for Burghers. 
The parochial school is well attended; the master has a 
salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the 
fees average £20 per annum. The only remains of an- 
tiquity are, the Tower of Rusco, and the Castle of Cardo- 
ness, both on the river Fleet, the former two miles above 
where it ceases to be navigable, and the latter beauti- 
fully situated near its mouth ; they are quadrilateral 
structures, apparently of great strength, but nothing is 
known of their origin or history. On the summit of a 
hill to the south-east of the church, are the remains of 
a vitrified fort, 300 feet above the level of the sea, and 
defended, where most easily accessible, by a double 
fosse ; near the spot, have been found several silver 
coins of Elizabeth, and one of Edward VI. 

APPIN, county of Argyll. — See Lismore. 

APPLECROSS, a parish, in the county of Ross and 
Cromarty, IS miles (W.) from Lochcarron ; containing, 
with the island of Crohn, and part of Shieldag, quoad 
sacra, 2861 inhabitants. This parish was originally 
called Comaraich, a Gaelic word signifying safety or 
protection, on account of the refuge afforded to the 
oppressed and to criminals, by a religious establishment 
that existed here in ancient times. The present name, 
which is of comparatively modern date, was given to the 
place by the proprietor of the estate, upon its erection 
into a parish, at which time five apple-trees were 
planted cross-ways in his garden. The parish, which 
formed part of that of Lochcarron till 1726, stretches 
along the shore of the Atlantic Ocean, and is distributed 
into the three large portions or districts of Applecross, 
properly so called ; Lochs, consisting of Torridon, Shiel- 
dag, &c. ; and Kishorn. It is of irregular form, 20 
miles long, and as many in breadth, and contains about 
1800 acres cultivated, or occasionally in tillage, about 
400 under wood, and 400 or 500 waste, besides an 
immense tract of pasture in a natural state. The surface, 
in its general appearance, is hilly and rugged, consisting 
of rocky elevations covered with heather and wild grass ; 
the climate, though not unhealthy, is foggy, and very 
rainy. The soil is light and gravelly, and produces good 
crops of oats, barley, and potatoes ; the two former are 
grown to the amount, in value, of £3000 annually, and 
potatoes and turnips yield about £1500; the farms are 
of small extent, averaging in rent not more than £6 or 
£7 each. The inclosures are very few, and though 
some advances have been made in the draining and 
improving of land, the agricultural state is low, the 
parish being compelled frequently to import grain and 
potatoes for home consumption. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £248S. The rocks consist of red 
sandstone, gneiss, and quartz ; at Applecross and 
Kishorn are found large quantities of limestone, and at 
the latter place is also a copper-mine, which, when 
worked some time since, produced a fine rich ore. The 
only mansion of note is on the estate of Applecross, and 
is a large ancient building, with some elegant modern 



APPL 



APPL 



additions, and surrounded by about 30 acres of thriving 
plantation. 

At Poldown, Shieldag, and Torridon are convenient 
harbours, to which belong about twenty-one vessels of 
from 20 to 50 tons' burthen each, employed in the fishing 
and coasting trade : most of the population are in some 
■way engaged in the herring-fishery, which in certain 
seasons is very profitable, and at Torridon and Balgie 
are salmon-fisheries that let at £15 or £16. The eccle- 
siastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Loch- 
carron and synod of Glenelg ; the Crown is patron ; the 
minister's stipend is £15S. 6. 5., partly paid from the 
exchequer, and there is a manse, built in 1796, with a 
glebe valued at £19, per annum. The parochial church, 
which was erected in 1S17, is in good repair, and accom- 
modates 600 persons ; and at Shieldag, twelve miles 
distant, is a government church, built in 1827- There 
is a parochial school, the master of which has a salary 
of £"27, with about £8 fees, and teaches the classics, 
mathematics, Gaelic, and the ordinary branches of edu- 
cation ; and four other schools are supported by 
societies for promoting education. Many fossils have 
been found, but their nature has not been satisfactorily 
ascertained. 

APPLEGARTH and SIBBALDBIE, a united parish, 
in the district of Annandale, county of Dumfries, 
2 miles (N. W. by N.) from Lockerbie ; containing, with 
the chapelry of Dinwoodie, S57 inhabitants. The term 
Applegarth is compounded of the words Apple and 
Garth, the latter of which signifies, in the Celtic lan- 
guage, an " inclosure," and both conjoined are inva- 
riably taken for an " apple inclosure" or " orchard." 
The word bie, or bye, which terminates the name Sib- 
baldbie, signifies, in the Saxon, a " dwelling-place," and 
is thought to have been applied to the district thus 
denominated, from its having been the residence of 
Sibbald. The annexation of Sibbaldbie took place in 
1609; and the chapelry of Dinwoodie, which some 
suppose to have been a distinct parish, was also at- 
tached to Applegarth, and is said to have belonged 
formerly to the Knights Templars, who had large pos- 
sessions in Annandale. Chalmers states, on the autho- 
rity of the Royal Wardrobe accounts, that, on the 7th 
July, 1300, Edward I., who was then at Applegarth, on 
his way to the siege of Caerlaverock, made an oblation 
of seven shillings at St. Nicholas' altar, in the parish 
church here, and another oblation of a like sum at the 
altar of St. Thomas a Becket ; and a large chest was 
found some years ago, not very far from the manse, 
which is conjectured to have been part of the baggage 
belonging to Edward, who remained for several days at 
Applegarth, waiting for his equipage. An ancient thorn, 
called the " Albie Thorn," is still standing in a field, 
within 500 yards of the church, said to have been 
planted on the spot where Bell of Albie fell, while in 
pursuit of the Maxwells, after the battle of Dryfe- 
sands. 

The parish contains 11,700 imperial acres, situated in 
that part of the shire formerly called the stewartry of 
Annandale. The surface is diversified by two principal 
ranges of hills, one on each side of the river Dryfe, 
which runs from the north-east in a southerly direction ; 
the highest part of the western range, Dinwoodie hill, 
rises 736 feet above the sea, and Adder Law, in 
the eastern range, attains an elevation of 63S feet. 
55 



In addition to the Dryfe, the parish is washed, on its 
eastern boundary, by the Corrie water, and on its 
western, by the river Annan, the banks of which streams 
are in many parts precipitous, and clothed with brush- 
wood and plantations. Among the trees, comprising 
most of those common to the country, the larch, spruce, 
and Scotch fir, after flourishing for twelve or fourteen 
years, exhibit symptoms of decay, and gradually pine 
away, in consequence of their roots having come into 
contact with the sandstone rock and gravel. In the 
rivers and their several tributary streams, eels, pike, 
trout, and many smaller fish are numerous : and in the 
Annan, salmon is plentiful, and of good quality. The 
soil is in general fertile ; the land lying between the 
banks of the Annan and Dryfe is alluvial, and inter- 
spersed with strata of river gravel ; the land on the 
declivity of the western range, in some parts, is sharp 
and good, but in many places has a wet and tilly sub- 
stratum, and on the higher portions is a black moory 
earth. Of the entire area, 7392 acres are either culti- 
vated, or occasionally in tillage ; 3777 are waste, or in 
permanent pasture, including 60 or 70 acres of moss; 
331 are under wood, and about ISO are incurably 
barren. Among the white crops, wheat, which was 
formerly unknown in the parish, is now an important 
article ; all kinds of green crops, also, are raised, of good 
quality, including considerable quantities of turnips and 
potatoes. The most approved system of husbandry is 
followed, though it has not been carried to the same 
perfection as in some other districts, chiefly from a 
deficiency in manuring and draining the soil. Consider- 
able improvements have been made, during the pre- 
sent century, in the erection of neat and convenient- 
cottages ; and the breed of black-cattle has been particu- 
larly attended to, and now, in symmetry and general 
excellence, rivals the best specimens of the best districts. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £6850. The 
prevailing rock is the old red sandstone, and the western 
ridge is interspersed with large nodules of white and 
greenish whinstone, while, on the summit, there is grsy- 
wacke slate and greenstone, diversified by numerous 
veins of quartz. 

The only seats of note are, Jardine Hall, built in 1814, 
and the mansion of Hook, built in 1S06, the former of 
which is of red sandstone, cut from a quarry on Corn- 
cockle muir, in Lochmaben parish ; the latter is chiefly of 
greenstone, from the bed of the river Dryfe. The inha- 
hitants are altogether of the agricultural class, with the 
exception of a few tradesmen residing chiefly in the vil- 
lage of Milnhouse. The mail-road from Glasgow to 
London, by Carlisle, runs through the parish : there 
are two good bridges over the Annan, one of which is 
on the Glasgow line, and the other on the road lead- 
ing from Dumfries, across Annandale, to Eskdale. The 
ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of 
Lochmaben and synod of Dumfries ; patrons, Sir Wil- 
liam Jardine, Bart., and John James Hope Johnstone, 
Esq., of Annandale. There is a manse, built in 1805, 
with a glebe of 6| acres of good land, and the stipend 
is £250. The church, a plain substantial structure, 
built in 1760, is inconveniently situated at a distance of 
five or six miles from some of the population ; it has 
been at different times repaired and enlarged, and ac- 
commodates 3S0 persons with sittings. There are two 
parochial schools, in which Greek, Latin, French, and 



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geometry are taught, with all the ordinary branches of 
education ; the master of one school has a house and 
garden, with a salary of £34. 5., and about £25 fees ; 
the other master has the same accommodation, with a 
salary of £17. 2. 6., and £15 fees. Roman stations are 
visible in several places, and a Roman road traverses 
the parish, in a northerly direction. Part of the ruins 
still remains of the church of Sibbaldbie ; and a very 
ancient ash stands in Applegarth churchyard, measuring 
14 feet in girth, at a yard from the ground, and called 
the " Gorget Tree," from having been used as a pillory. 
The iron staples which held the collar or gorget were 
visible not many years ago. 

APPLETREE-HALL, a village, in the parish of 
Wilton, Hawick district of the county of Roxburgh, 
2§ miles (N. N. E.) from Hawick ■ containing 75 inha- 
bitants. It is situated in the north-eastern part of the 
parish, and to the east of the road from Hawick to 
Selkirk. 

ARBEADIE, a village, in the parish of Banchory - 
Ternan, county of Kincardine ; containing 301 inha- 
bitants. This village, which is of very recent origin, 
takes its name from that of the estate on which it has 
been built, and appears to have been erected to supply 
the want of the ancient village of Banchory. A post- 
office has been established ; there are three good inns, 
and, in the immediate vicinity, a branch of the Bank of 
Scotland, and a small lock-up house for the temporary 
confinement of petty offenders. The Independents have 
a place of worship. 

ARBIRLOT, a parish, in the county of Forfar, 2| 
miles (\V.) from Arbroath ; containing, with the village 
of Bonnington, 1045 inhabitants, of whom 77 are in the 
village of Arbirlot. This place appears to have derived 
its name, a contraction of Aber-Elliot, from the river 
Elliot, which runs into the sea a little below its eastern 
boundary. The earliest account connected with its 
history, states, that a member of the ancient family of 
Ochterlony originally owned the castle of Kelly, in the 
parish ; and this family was succeeded by the Irvines, 
who also held the castle, which afterwards came into 
the possession of the Maule family, now sole pro- 
prietors of Arbirlot. The parish is about 4 miles long, 
and 3 broad, and contains 5050 acres, of which 4200 
are cultivated, or occasionally under tillage, S00 waste, 
and 50 wood ; it is intersected by the Arbroath and 
Dundee railway, and is bounded on the south by the 
sea. It has an extent of coast nearly three miles long, 
where the land is level and sandy, and much frequented 
in the summer for the purpose of bathing ; in the inte- 
rior, also, much of the surface is low and flat, and the 
rest gradually rises to a gentle acclivity. There is no 
part deserving of particular notice, except the immediate 
vicinity of the ancient castle of Kelly, which is situated 
on the bank of the Elliot, and is in good preservation, 
and surrounded by scenery that is highly picturesque. 
The Elliot, a stream of inconsiderable magnitude, but of 
great beauty, rises in Ditty Moss, in the parish of Car- 
mylie, and, pursuing a south-easterly course for a few 
miles, through a deep and romantic glen, falls into the 
sea in the east part of the parish ; it has numerous 
mills erected upon it, and formerly abounded in salmon, 
but since the construction of some dam-dykes near it, 
these fish have forsaken it, although it is still frequented 
by good trout. 
56 



The soil in the lower parts, consists chiefly of a light 
productive loam, but, on the higher portions, is damp 
and mossy, and in some places mixed with clay ; the 
subsoil is a gravelly clay : on the northern boundary is 
an extensive muir. The average annual produce yields 
£15,000, chiefly derived from crops of oats, barley, hay, 
and potatoes ; the rateable annual value of the parish is 
£6395. The only mansion-house is the seat of Kelly, 
situated in the vicinity of the old castle. A small fair is 
held once a year. Near the mouth of the river, at 
Wormy-hills, is an establishment for bleaching yarns, 
and on the same stream are three meal-mills, and a 
flax- mill. There is also a meal-mill on a small river 
which forms the boundary line between this parish and 
Panbride. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the 
presbytery of Arbroath and synod of Angus and Mearnsj 
the patronage is vested in the Crown, and the minister's 
stipend is £184. 4. 5., in addition to which he has a 
manse, and a glebe of the annual value of £6. The 
church, rebuilt in 1S32, is an elegant structure, situated 
on the bank of the Elliot, and containing about 640 sit- 
tings. A place of worship has been erected by mem- 
bers of the Free Church. There is a parochial school, 
the master of which has a salary of £34. 4., and £20 
fees, &c, with a house and garden; and a savings' 
bank, managed by the minister, and a parochial library, 
consisting of above 500 volumes, kept in the manse, are 
also supported. 

ARBROATH, or Aber- 
brothock, a thriving sea- 
port, burgh, and parish, in 
the county of Forfar, 15 
miles (S. E. by E.) from 
Forfar, and 58 (N. N. E.) 
from Edinburgh; containing, ^h, 
with the late quoad sacra ^» 
parish of Abbey, and part of 
that of Lady-Loan, S707 in- 
habitants, of whom 721S are 
in the burgh. This place de- 
rives its name, originally 
Aberbrothock, of which its present appellation is a con- 
traction, from its situation at the mouth of the river 
Brothock, which falls into the North Sea. An abbey 
was founded here in the year 1 17S, by William the 
Lion, King of Scotland, for monks of the Tyronensian 
order, brought from the abbey of Kelso, and was dedi- 
cated to St. Thomas of Canterbury, in honour of the 
Archbishop Thomas a Becket. This establishment was 
amply endowed by the founder and his successors, and 
its abbots had a seat in parliament; in 1320, a general 
assembly of the Estates of Scotland was held in the 
abbey, when a declaration was drawn up, in strong and 
emphatic terms, asserting the independence of the 
Scottish Church of the Roman see, and renouncing all 
subjection to the interference of the pope. In 1445, a 
battle took place here, between the retainers of the 
families of Lindsay and Ogilvie, which originated in a 
contest concerning the election of a bailie of the burgh, 
and in which the chieftains on both sides were killed, 
and nearly 500 of their dependents. In the 16th cen- 
tury, the abbey was nearly destroyed by Ochterlony, a 
chieftain in the neighbourhood, who, having quarrelled 
with the monks, set fire to the buildings ; and at the 
Dissolution, which followed a few years afterwards, this 




Seal and Arms. 



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once extensive pile was little more than a wide heap 
of scattered ruins. The revenues were returned at 
£2483. 5. in money, with ahout 340 chalders of grain, 
and the patronage of thirty-four parish churches; and 
the site and lands belonging to the abbey, were, after 
its dissolution, erected into a temporal lordship, in 
favour of Claude Hamilton, third son of the Duke of 
Chatelherault, who was created Lord Arbroath, which 
still forms one of the inferior titles of the Duke of 
Hamilton. In 1781 , the town was menaced by the 
commander of a French privateer, who approached the 
port, and commenced a brisk firing for a short time, 
which was succeeded by his sending a flag of truce, de- 
manding from the provost and inhabitants the payment 
of £30,000, as a ransom for the town, which, on their 
refusal, he threatened to set on fire. The authorities of 
the place obtained, by parley, a short interval, in which 
having armed several of the inhabitants, they set him at 
defiance, and he left the coast, making prizes of some 
small craft which he met with in his retreat. A battery 
was soon afterwards erected, in front of the harbour, to 
protect the town from similar insult, and was kept up 
till the termination of the last war, when it was dis- 
mantled. 

The town is situated at the mouth of the river Bro- 
thock, and consists principally of one spacious and 
handsome street, intersected by several of inferior ap- 
pearance, extending into the parish of St. Vigean's, and 
forming suburbs. Many of the private houses are elegant 
and substantial, and all of the houses are built of the 
stone obtained from the valuable quarries in the neigh- 
bourhood ; the villas in the suburbs are embellished 
with gardens and shrubberies, which produce a pleasing 
effect, and the general aspect of the town is prepossess- 
ing. The streets are lighted with gas made by a joint- 
stock company ; but the supply of water is rather in- 
different, and is partly derived from private wells. There 
is a public subscription library, supported by a proprietary 
of £5 shareholders, in which is a collection of about 4000 
volumes on subjects of general literature ; and smaller 
libraries, of miscellaneous and theological works, are 
attached to the quoad sacra churches. A mechanics' 
library, now containing about 400 volumes, was establish- 
ed in 1S24, and connected with it is a mechanics' insti- 
tution, or school of arts, for which an appropriate build- 
ing has been completed, containing a reading-room well 
supplied with periodicals and newspapers ; there are also 
three masonic lodges and a gardener's society. The prin- 
cipal manufactures are, the spinning of yarn from flax 
and tow, the weaving of canvass and sail-cloth, brown and 
bleached linens, the tanning of leather, the making of 
candles, the smelting of iron, and the grinding of bones 
for manure. The number of mills for spinning yarn 
is nineteen, of which by far the greater part are in 
the suburbs, affording employment, at present, to 
nearly 3770. and, when trade is prosperous, to more 
than 5000, persons, of whom about one-fourth are 
females. The trade of the port consists chiefly in the 
exportation of the manufactured goods, especially sail- 
cloth, of which nearly 7000 ells were exported in a 
late year, and in the importation of bark, flax, hemp, 
hides, oak, and fir timber, and guano for manure, with 
groceries from London, and numerous articles of Baltic 
produce. There are at present belonging to the port S9 
vessels, of the aggregate burthen of 9100 tons; and 
Vol. I.— 57 



the number of vessels that entered inwards, in a recent 
year, was 599, of which 56 were from foreign ports, and 
543 employed in the coasting trade. 

The harbour appears to have been first constructed 
in 1394, by the inhabitants, in conjunction with the 
abbot, who contributed the greater portion of the ex- 
pense, in consideration of a certain duty to be paid 
annually from the lands of the burgh. A pier of wood 
was erected at the extremity of the High-street, which, 
being found ill-adapted to the purpose, was abandoned 
in 1725, and the harbour removed to the western side 
of the river, where a basin faced with stone was con- 
structed, 124 yards in length, and SO yards in breadth, 
and a substantial pier of stone built. These improve- 
ments, however, at length became insufficient, and in 
1839 an act of parliament was obtained, under which a 
spacious new tidal harbour has been completed to the 
south and east of the old one, at a cost of £50,000. A 
sea-wall of great length and solidity defends the harbour 
from the violence of the waves during heavy gales, and 
at the western extremity of this bulwark is a lighthouse. 
Between the wall and a massive breakwater opposite to 
it, is the entrance to the harbour. The port was formerly 
a. creek to the harbour of Montrose ; but it has been 
made completely independent, and has now a collector of 
customs, a comptroller, and other officers of its own, 
established on the spot. Connected with the harbour is 
a patent-slip for repairing vessels, which is maintained by 
the harbour commissioners. At a distance of twelve 
miles from the shore, but opposite to the harbour, is the 
Bell Rock Lighthouse, erected under an act of parliament 
obtained in 1806, and completed in 1811; it is built 
upon a rock about 427 feet in length, and 230 feet in 
breadth, at low water, and rising to an average height of 
about four feet from the sea. The lighthouse is of cir- 
cular form ; the two lower courses of masonry, all of 
which are dove-tailed, are sunk into the rock : the dia- 
meter, at the base, is 42 feet, gradually diminishing to 
the floor of the light room, which is 13 feet in diameter. 
From the foundation, the elevation is solid, to the 
entrance, which is at a height of 30 feet, and is attained 
by a ladder of ropes with steps of wood ; the walls here 
are 7 feet in thickness, and gradually decrease to one 
foot at the lantern, which has an elevation of 100 feet 
from the base, and is 15 feet in height, and of octagonal 
form. The lantern contains a light of Argand burn- 
ers, with powerful reflectors, revolving round its axis in 
six minutes, and in each revolution displaying, alter- 
nately, a bright and a deep red light, which, in clear 
weather, may be plainly seen at a distance of eighteen 
miles. Two large bells connected with the lighthouse, 
are tolled by the machinery which moves the lights, 
when the weather is foggy ; and on the harbour of Ar- 
broath, a building has been erected for the accommoda- 
tion of the keepers, three of whom are constantly at. the 
lighthouse for six weeks, when they are relieved, and 
spend two weeks on shore. Attached to these buildings, 
is a signal tower, 50 feet high, by means of which the 
keepers on the shore communicate with those on the 
rock ; the whole expense of the lighthouse, which is of 
such important benefit to the navigation of this part of the 
coast, did not exceed £60,000. The Arbroath and Forfar 
railway, constructed by a company empowered to raise a 
capital of £ 150,000 by shares, and a loan of £35,000, was 
completed, and opened to the public, in January, 1S39; 

I 



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A R B R 



the line is 15 miles in length, worked by locomotive- 
engines, and the principal station is a handsome building 
with every requisite accommodation. The Dundee and 
Arbroath railway, along the coast, has also its terminal 
station here, and is connected with the Arbroath and 
Forfar railroad. The market is on Saturday, and is 
supplied with grain of all kinds ; and fairs are held on 
the last Saturday in January, the first Saturday after 
Whit-Monday, the 18th of July, and the first Saturday 
after Martinmas. 

The town was made a royal burgh by a charter of 
James VI., in 1599, reciting that the original charters, 
with the title-deeds of the town, and other documents, 
were taken from the abbey, where they had been depo- 
sited for security, and destroyed by George, Bishop of 
Moray; the inhabitants appear to have been before 
incorporated by the abbots, who reserved to themselves 
the nomination of one of the bailies by whom the town 
was governed. By King James's confirmatory charter 
of all pi-evious rights and privileges, the burgh and har- 
bour were made free, and the lands called the common 
muir were conveyed to the burgesses, with power to 
levy anchorage customs and shore dues, and to apply 
the produce to the maintenance of the harbour ; the 
amount of harbour dues is £3000 a year, but the cor- 
poration do not now receive them. Under this charter, 
the government is vested in a provost, two bailies, a 
dean of guild, and treasurer, with twelve councillors, 
all chosen subject to the provisions of the late Municipal 
Reform act. There are seven incorporated trades, the 
whole of which have the exclusive right of carrying on 
their trades within the burgh, with the exception of the 
weavers ; the dean of guild also grants temporary 
license to trade. The magistrates possess all the juris- 
diction appendant to royal burghs, and hold courts of 
pleas in. civil actions weekly, to an unlimited extent, 
and also criminal courts, in which, though, by the 
charter, they have full jurisdiction in capital cases, they 
confine themselves to the trial of petty offences, the 
town-clerk acting as assessor. The magistrates have 
also, by the charter, power to replevy any action what- 
ever against an inhabitant of the burgh, from all judges 
in the kingdom, upon giving security for administering 
justice within the term of law. The dean of guild like- 
wise holds a court for enforcing compliance with the 
acts of parliament respecting weights and measures, in 
which he is assisted by a clerk and procurator-fiscal. 
Previously to the union of the two kingdoms, the burgh 
sent a member to the Scottish parliament, but after that 
event was associated with Montrose, Brechin, Bervie, and 
Aberdeen, in returning a representative to the imperial 
parliament ; and the only change in this respect, under 
the act of the 3rd and 4th of William IV., is the substi- 
tution of Forfar in lieu of Aberdeen, and the extension 
of the elective franchise to £10 householders. The 
provost is the returning officer. The guildhall is a neat 
plain edifice, adapted for the business of the guild cor- 
poration ; and the trades'-hall, erected in 1814, is a 
handsome building. The town-house, erected in 1806, 
is a spacious and elegant structure, comprising a great 
hall, and offices for the town-clerk and others, with 
apartments for the meeting of the council, and for hold- 
ing courts. At a short distance behind the town-house, 
stands the new gaol for the burgh, with the gaoler's 
house, and a police-office, the whole forming a neat 
58 



building ; the cells are constructed on the best modern 
principles, and are well arranged for the health and 
classification of the prisoners. In the court-room for 
the police department, which is commodious though 
small, the magistrates of the town sit regularly every 
week, on Monday, for the summary disposal of petty 
delinquencies. 

The parish is about three miles in length, and of 
very irregular form, varying from little more than 200 
yards t'o a mile and a quarter in breadth, and comprises 
820 acres of arable, and twenty-six of common land in 
pasture ; the surface is comparatively level, rising by a 
gradual ascent from the shore, till, at the opposite ex- 
tremity, it attains an elevation of 150 feet above the 
sea. The only river is the Brothock, which rises in the 
adjoining parish of St. Vigean's, and, after a course of 
five or six miles, flows through this parish, for about a 
quarter of a mile, and falls into the sea at the harbour. 
A small stream which, in its course, gives motion to 
several spinning-mills, forms a tributary to the Bro- 
thock ; but, unless when swollen with incessant, rains, 
it is comparatively a shallow stream. The scenery is 
pleasingly varied ; and the town, as seen from the 
sea, is an interesting feature, seated in the curve of a 
range of small hills, which rise behind it, and command 
an extensive prospect of the Lothians, the eastern por- 
tion of the coast of Fife, and the estuaries of the Forth 
and Tay, towards the south ; the view terminating, to- 
wards the north, in the range of the Grampian hills. 
The soil, near the town, is a rich black loam ; in the 
higher lands, thin, resting upon a retentive clay, which 
renders it scarcely susceptible of improvement ; and 
along the coast, light and sandy. The chief crops 
are, grain of all kinds, potatoes, and turnips ; guano is 
used for manure, and the farms are, in general, well 
arranged and skilfully managed. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £17,314. A fishery is carried on 
with considerable success ; cod, haddock, and flounders 
are taken in abundance off the coast, with herrings and 
mackerel, in their season ; lobsters, crabs, and various 
kinds of shell-fish, are found in great plenty, and at- 
tempts have been made to procure a supply of salmon, 
by the putting down of stake-nets, but hitherto without 
much success. 

The parish is the seat of the presbytery of Arbroath, 
within the synod of Angus and Mearns ; patron, the 
Crown. The minister's stipend is £219. 12. 6., with 
glebe valued at £4. 8. 11.; there is also an assistant 
minister, with a stipend of £75, appointed by the Kirk 
Session. The church, which was enlarged in 1764, and 
to which an elegant spire was added in 1831, at an 
expense of £1300, raised mostly by subscription, is a 
plain cruciform structure, situated nearly in the centre 
of the town, and adapted for 1390 persons. A chapel 
of ease was erected in 1797, on the grounds of the 
ancient abbey, and is thence called the Abbey chapel ; 
it is a neat edifice for a congregation of about 12S0, and 
a quoad sacra parish has been annexed to it, comprising 
a population of 22S9 ; income of the minister, about 
£100. Another chapel of ease was erected in 1829, for 
the accommodation of the inhabitants of that portion of 
the suburbs within the parish of St. Vigean's ; it is a 
neat structure, and contains 1080 sittings, from the 
rents of which the minister derives an income of £150 ; 
a district named Inverbrothock has been attached to it, 



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containing 5195 persons. The church of Lady-Loan is 
also of recent date, and in the town. There are places 
of worship for Episcopalians, Free Church congrega- 
tions, members of the United Secession, members of the 
Relief Synod, Original Seceders, and Independents ; 
and for smaller congregations of Baptists, Bereans, 
Glassites, and Wesleyans. The burgh school, and also 
the parochial school, have merged into an institution of 
more recent establishment, called the Academy, for 
which a handsome and appropriate building was erected 
in 1821, at an expense of £1600, raised chiefly by sub- 
scription. This institution is under the controul of a 
rector, appointed by the corporation, and three masters, 
chosen by the directors; to each of these, a distinct 
department is assigned, and there are consequently four 
separate schools. The classical and mathematical school 
is under the superintendence of the rector, whose salary 
is £34 per annum, with an allowance of £6. 10. for 
house-rent, which, augmented by the proceeds of a be- 
quest by Mr. Colvill, for the gratuitous instruction of 
five children, amounts to £60 per annum ; and the 
commercial, English, and general schools are under the 
three masters, who have a salary of £25 each, exclusive 
of the school fees. All these salaries are paid from the 
various funds constituting the endowment of the schools. 
The Sabbath-evening School Society, which has been 
established for more than twenty-five years, compre- 
hends the whole of the town and suburbs ; and connected 
with the schools under its superintendence, is a library 
of more than 1100 volumes, containing many standard 
and valuable works, in addition to such as are requisite 
for the children attending them. Mr. Carmichael, in 
1733, bequeathed £600, and some rent-charges, for the 
benefit of seven widows of ship-masters, producing, at 
present, about £130 per annum ; and Mr. John Colvill, 
late town-clerk, in 1811, left £10 per annum to the 
minister of the Episcopal chapel, £10 per annum to the 
poor of the parish, and a sum for the assistance of 
twenty householders, which now produces to each 
£3. 10. annually. 

The chief relics of antiquity are the remains of the 
abbey, which occupied an area of 1150 feet in length, 
and about "00 in w r idth, inclosed by a stone wall nearly 
24 feet in height ; at the north-west angle, is a tower 
24 feet square, and 70 feet high, which is still entire, 
and at the south-west angle was another of smaller 
dimensions, which, becoming ruinous, was taken down. 
The principal entrance was through a stately gateway 
tower on the north side, defended by a portcullis and 
draw-bridge ; and at the south-east angle, was a postern 
of inferior character, called the Darngate. On the 
north side of the inclosure, was the abbey church, of 
which only the south wall, with the east and west gables, 
and a portion of the two western towers, are remaining. 
The church is said to have been 270 feet in length, and 
130 in breadth across the transepts ; the nave, of which 
the length was 148 feet, was nearly 70 feet in height, 
but none of the columns that supported the roof are 
standing, though their bases have been laid open during 
the recent operations for restoring the ruins under the 
direction of the crown. The choir appears to have been 
more than 75 feet long ; but little of the original cha- 
racter of this once proud pile can be discovered. The 
western entrance is tolerably entire, and there seems 
to have been a circular window above the doorway; but 
59 



the portions of the towers by which it was flanked, are 
so dilapidated that scarcely any indications of their 
original style of architecture remain. Adjoining the 
south transept, are the remains of a building supposed to 
have been the chapter-house, containing a vaulted apart- 
ment ; the cloisters have disappeared, and the remains 
of the abbot's palace have been converted into a private 
dwelling-house. In 1815, the ruins of the abbey were 
so far repaired as to secure them from absolute demo- 
lition ; on the removal of the accumulated rubbish for 
this purpose, the pavement of the church was partially 
restored to view, and a diligent search was made, to 
discover the tomb of its royal founder, who was buried 
under the first step of the flight leading to the high 
altar, but only the lid of an ancient stone coffin, sculp- 
tured with the figure of a man, in alto-relievo, much 
mutilated, was found. Some scattered bones, indeed, 
have been collected, and placed in a box, which have been 
sometimes displayed as those of the king : but there is 
no foundation for the opinion, and though the fact of 
that monarch having been interred in the abbey, is 
generally accredited, yet every search for his tomb has 
been in vain. Cardinal Beaton, at that time also arch- 
bishop of St. Andrew's, was the last abbot of Aber- 
brothock. The place gives the inferior title of Baron to 
the ducal family of Hamilton. 

ARBUTHNOTT, a parish, in the county of Kin- 
cardine, adjoining the town of Bervie, and containing 
1015 inhabitants. The name of this place has under- 
gone many changes in its pronunciation and spelling ; 
but, from documents in the possession of the Arbuth- 
nott family, it appears that, previously to the 12th cen- 
tury, it was called Aberbothenothe, which form, about 
the year 1335, had been changed to Aberbuthnot, and, 
in 1443, to the mode it now retains. The original term 
signifies " the confluence of the water below the Baron's 
house," and is descriptive of the site of the ancient 
castle and of the present mansion-house, upon the 
narrow point of a projection overlooking the water of 
Bervie, which stream is joined by a rapid rivulet, for- 
merly of considerable breadth, about 100 yards distant 
from the mansion. The parish, in the early history of 
which the Arbuthnotts have held the most conspicuous 
place, contains 9423 acres, of which 6200 are in tillage, 
250 plantations, and 2223 uncultivated. It is inter- 
sected by the road from Stonehaven to Brechin, and is 
bounded on the north by the river Forthy, which sepa- 
rates it from Glenbervie ; and on the south and west, by 
the water of Bervie, dividing it from the parishes of Ber- 
vie, Fordoun, and Lawrencekirk. The surface, which is 
altogether irregular, being much diversified by hill and 
dale, rises on every side from the valley of the Bervie 
water, the windings of which, between steep and richly- 
wooded banks, present, in many parts, interesting and 
beautiful scenery ; the highest land is Bruxiehill, which 
has an elevation of about 650 feet above the sea. The 
only stream worthy of notice is the Bervie, which, in 
summer, is small, and slow in its course, flowing at the 
rate of about a mile per hour; hut, in the rainy seasons, 
it rises rapidly, the flood being considerably augmented 
through the medium of the agricultural drains ; and 
embankments, to some extent, have been found neces- 
sary, to secure the neighbouring lands against the havoc 
consequent upon its overflowing. 

The soil, towards the southern quarter, is a strong 

12 



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clay, with a cold retentive subsoil, and in the direction 
of the northern boundary, light and dry ; there is also 
some rough wet pasture and moor, but this kind of land 
has been greatly ameliorated and recovered by recent 
drainage : the chief crops are, grain of different kinds, 
potatoes, turnips, and beet-root. The parish is alto- 
gether agricultural, and the cultivation of the soil is 
carried on with great spirit. ; the five and seven years' 
rotation of crops are each followed, but the latter is 
here thought to succeed the best; and bone-dust, as 
manure, has been applied with advantage on light soils, 
where the turnips are eaten off by the sheep. The wood 
planted consists of Scotch fir, larch, spruce, cbesnut, 
poplar, hazel, and almost every species known in the 
country ; and above twenty different kinds of oak, 
chiefly American, have been introduced into the nursery, 
by Lord Arbuthnott, with a view to plantation. Im- 
provements have been vigorously and successfully car- 
ried on, chiefly consisting of an extensive and efficient 
drainage of the lands, the cultivation of much barren 
soil, and the construction of embankments along the 
course of the Bervie, for the protection of the fertile 
haughs through which it runs. The rateable annual value 
of the parish is £6592. The rocks are mostly coarse 
sandstone, trap, and what in the country is called 
scurdy; blocks of gneiss and granite are sometimes seen; 
on the north bank of the Bervie, pebbles beautifully 
varied have been found imbedded in trap ; and calca- 
reous spar, heavy spar, and veins of manganese also 
exist. In the deepest part of a small peat-bog called 
the " Hog's Hole," the skeletons of two red deer were 
recently found, the antlers of whose horns were seven 
and eight in number, and some of them measuring 
eighteen inches in length. Arbuthnott House, the seat 
of the ancient and noble family of Arbuthnott, is beau- 
tifully situated on the Bervie, almost concealed by 
thriving plantations; it has. been greatly improved by 
the present owner ; the grounds are laid out with much 
taste, and the mansion is approached by a fine avenue 
of beech-trees, upwards of two centuries old. In the 
library of his lordship are, the missal used in the paro- 
chial church in former times, and the psalter and office 
belonging to a chapel connected with the church, and 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary; the penmanship is ex- 
ceedingly beautiful, and many parts are splendidly illu- 
minated. The castle of Allardyce, also on the bank of 
the river, and which has been recently repaired, is the 
property of the ancient family of Allardyce ; and the 
house of Kair is a modern mansion, of neat and elegant 
appearance. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are regulated by the pres- 
bytery of Fordoun and synod of Angus and Mearns ; 
the patronage belongs to Viscount Arbuthnott, and the 
minister's stipend is £225, with a manse, and a glebe 
of the annual value of £9. The church, which, though 
much altered and enlarged, is probably four centuries 
old, and was, in former times, dedicated to St. Ternan, 
is situated near the north bank of the river, about three 
miles distant from the furthest extremity of the parish. 
An aisle, of finely-hewn ashlar, and elegantly constructed, 
was added to it, on the south-east, in 1505, by Sir 
Robert Arbuthnott, who also repaired and improved the 
west gable, on which was placed a round tower; and 
this aisle, which is now the burial-place of the family, 
contains an old full-length statue, of stone, of Hugh 
60 



de Arbuthnott. There is a parochial school, the master 
of which has the maximum salary, with house and 
garden, and about £10 fees ; and a savings' bank, esta- 
blished in June, 1822, is in a prosperous condition. 
The celebrated and learned Alexander Arbuthnott, first 
Protestant principal of King's College, Aberdeen, was a 
native of the parish, and some time its minister, to 
which office he was appointed in 1567 ; and the well- 
known Dr. Arbuthnott, physician to Queen Anne, and 
one of the triumvirate with Pope and Swift, was born 
here in 1667. The place gives the title of Viscount to 
the familv of Arbuthnott. 

ARCHIESTOWN, a village, in the parish of Knock- 
ando, county of Elgin; containing 174 inhabitants. 
This is the only village in the parish, and is of modern 
origin, having been commenced about 1760, by Sir 
Archibald Grant, the greatgrandfather of Sir James 
Grant, of Moneymusk, the present baronet. It is built 
on the moor of Ballintomb, and consists of a double row 
of houses, about three-quarters of a mile in length, hav- 
ing a square in the centre, of about half an acre, and 
some by-lanes. The village suffered severely in 17S3, 
from an accidental fire, but it has latterly recovered from 
this calamity, and several new houses have been erected 
very recently. In a preaching station, which accom- 
modates about 200 persons, divine service is performed 
once a month, by the minister of the parochial church ; 
and a few dissenters belonging to the Associate Synod, 
also occasionally assemble here. There are schools 
likewise, which open and close with prayer. 

ARDCHATTAN, a parish, in the district of Lorn, 
county of Argyll, S miles (E. N. E.) from Oban; con- 
taining 2421 inhabitants, of whom 960 are in the quoad 
sacra parish of Muckairn. This place is supposed to 
have derived its name from Catan, who accompanied St. 
Columba to Scotland, about the year 563 ; and from its 
mountainous aspect, of which the term Ardchattan is 
also descriptive, signifying " the hill" or " promontory 
of Catan." It obtained, for some time, the appellation 
of Bal Mhoadan, or " the residence of Moadan," in 
honour of whom a church was erected in the vicinity, 
which afterwards became the church of the parish o. 
Kilmodan ; and that portion of the parish which is 
comprehended between the river Awe and Loch Etive, 
still retains the name of Benderloch, descriptive of a 
mountainous district between two arms of the sea. The 
parish is bounded on the north by the river and loch 
of Creran ; on the south and east, by Loch Etive, and 
the river and loch of Awe ; and on the west by Loch 
Linnhe ; and, exclusively of Muckairn, is about 40 
miles in length, and 10 miles in average breadth. The 
surface is generally mountainous, but diversified with 
several glens and valleys of considerable extent, some 
richly embellished with wood, and displaying much 
romantic scenery ; the level lands are intersected with 
numerous streams, and the hills of more moderate 
height are crowned with plantations. With the excep- 
tion of the valley of Glenure and a few other spots, the 
only arable lands are towards the north and east, beyond 
which little cultivation is found ; lofty mountains, in 
various directions, rise so abruptly from the sides of the 
lakes, as to leave little land that can be subjected to the 
plough. 

Of these mountains, the principal is Ben-Cruachan, 
the highest in the county, having an elevation of 3669 



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feet above the sea, and rising from a base of more than 
twenty miles in circumference ; the acclivity, towards 
the vale of Glencoe, is precipitously steep, but from the 
south, behind Inverawe, the ascent is more gradual, ter- 
minating in two conical summits commanding a most 
unbounded prospect. Ben-Cochail, to the north of it, 
though little inferior in height, appears much diminished 
by comparison ; and Ben-Starive, still further up the 
lake, rises from abase of large extent, to an elevation of 
2500 feet. The acclivities of the latter, of barren aspect, 
are deeply furrowed ; and in the channels of the streams 
which descend from it, are found beautiful crystals, 
little inferior to the cairngorms of the Grampians. Ben- 
Nan-Aighean, or the " mountain of the heifers," to the 
south of Ben-Starive, rises to a great height, terminat- 
ing in a peak of granite ; for about, half way up the ac- 
clivities it affords tolerable pasture, and is thence 
rugged and barren to its summit ; rock crystals are 
found near its base, and in the beds of its numerous 
streams. Ben-Chaorach, or the "mountain of the 
sheep," near Ben-Starive, is of inferior height, but 
affords good pasturage. Ben-Ketlan, to the north of it, 
is of greater elevation, and presents a finer outline, 
bounded on the one side of its base by the Alt-Ketlan 
stream, and by the Ait-Chaorach on the other ; it is the 
most fertile of the mountains. Two most conspicuous 
mountains called Buachail-Etive, or the " keepers of the 
Etive," and situated near the termination of the lake of 
that name, are distinguished by the names Buacha'U-Mor 
and Buachail-Beg, from the respective extent of their 
bases, though neither of them has an elevation of less 
than 3000 feet. Ben-Veedan, called also Ben-Nambian, 
or the " mountain of the deer-skins," from the number 
of deer which are killed there, is separated from Bua- 
chail-Beg by the mountain-pass of Larig-Aoilt, a stu- 
pendous range scarcely inferior, in elevation, to Ben- 
Cruachan, and which opens into the vale of Glencoe. 
Ben-Treelahan, on the west side of Loch Etive, which 
washes its base for nearly five miles, and Ben-Starive, 
on the opposite side, greatly contract the breadth of the 
lake, and, by their rugged aspect, spread over it a 
romantic gloom hardly surpassed in mountain scenery. 
In the north-east of the parish, also, are other moun- 
tains, of which the principal are, Ben-Aulay, the highest 
of the range; Ben-Scoullard, Ben-Vreck, Ben-Molurgan, 
and Ben-Vean. 

Of the numerous glens interspersed between the 
mountains, is Glen-Noe, about four miles in length, and 
one mile in breadth, inclosed on the north side by Ben- 
Cruachan, and on the south by Ben-Cochail ; it is 
clothed with rich verdure, and watered throughout by a 
stream, of which the banks, as it approaches the sea, 
are finely wooded. A house has been built near the 
opening, for the residence of the farmer who rents it, 
than which a more delightful summer retreat can 
scarcely be imagined. Glen-Kinglas is about nine miles 
in length, and nearly two in breadth, and watered by 
the river to which it gives name ; the north side is 
rocky and barren, but the south affords excellent pas- 
ture. It formerly abounded with timber, which was 
felled for charcoal, by an iron-smelting company, about 
a century since ; but, with the exception of a few alders 
on the banks of the river, and some brushwood of little 
value, it is now destitute of wood. Glen-Ketlan, in- 
closed on one side by the mountain of that name, is 
61 



about two miles in length, and watered by the river 
Etive, which enters it, about three miles from the head 
of Loch Etive. Glen-Etive commences at the head of the 
lake of that name, and is more than sixteen miles in 
length ; it was formerly a royal forest, of which the 
hereditary keeper claims exemption from certain pay- 
ments. One portion of the glen, with a contiguous tract 
in the parish of Glenorchy, has been stocked with red 
deer, by the Marquess of Breadalbane, and another por- 
tion of it has been appropriated by Mr. Campbell, of 
Monzie, to the same purpose. The whole tract is 
marked throughout by features of sublimity and gran- 
deur, though stripped of the majestic timber with which 
it was anciently embellished. Glen-Vre, or the " glen 
of yew-trees," opens from the river Creran, and ex- 
pands to the south and east, for about three miles; 
near the river are the dilapidated remains of the ancient 
mansion of the family of Glenure, and adjacent is the 
farm of Barnamuch, which has been always famed for 
the richness of its pastures. The remote extremity of 
the glen is marked with features of rugged grandeur. 
Glen-Dindal, or Glen-Dow, about seven miles to the 
west of Glenure, is three miles in length, and, in the 
lower part, luxuriantly wooded ; it is frequented by 
numbers of fallow deer, originally introduced about the 
middle of the last century. Glen-Salloch, the most 
elevated of the glens, is situated between Loch Etive 
and Loch Creran, and extends from south to north, for 
about six miles ; it comprehends much variety of sce- 
nery, and the views from any point commanding either 
of the lakes, are romantically picturesque. 

The principal lakes are, Loch Etive, and Loch Creran ; 
the former branches from the Linnhe loch, near Dun- 
staffnage Castle, and extends eastward to Bunawe, after 
which, taking a northern direction among the mountains, 
it terminates at Kinloch Etive. It is about twenty-two 
miles in length, varying from less than a quarter of a 
mile to more than a mile and a half in breadth, and is 
from 20 to 100 fathoms in depth. The bay affords safe 
anchorage to vessels not exceeding 100 tons ; and at. 
Connel Ferry, near the western extremity, the tide rises 
to a height of 14 feet, forming in the narrow channel, 
which is not more than 200 yards in width, and ob- 
structed by a ledge of rock, a foaming and apparently 
terrific rush of water, which the skill of the boatmen 
has rendered available, to facilitate the passage. There 
is another ferry across the lake at Bunawe, opposite to 
which is the small island of Elan-Duirnish, inhabited 
only by the family of the ferryman, and connected with 
the mainland, on the opposite shore, by a stone cause- 
way, along which passes a road which afterwards di- 
verges to Inverary and Glenorchy. Loch Creran issues 
from the Linnhe loch, near the island of Griska, "and 
extends in a north-easterly direction, for about twelve 
miles, the breadth, on an average, being a mile and a 
half. It is about 15 fathoms in depth, and the spring 
tides rise from 15 to 16 feet; the bay, having a clayey 
bottom, affords good anchorage, and there is a ferry 
across the loch at Shean, in the narrowest part. It lias 
several barren and uninhabited islets ; and the island of 
Griska, which is well wooded, contains a considerable 
portion of pasture and arable land, forming a very com- 
pact farm. 

Among the chief rivers is the Awe, which, issuing 
from the loch of that name, and flowing between richly- 



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wooded banks, after a course of about four miles, falls 
into Loch Etive, at Bunawe. The Etive, which has its 
source near Kings-house, in the parish, flows in a 
westerly and south-westerly direction, and, gradually 
expanding in its progress, after a course of nearly six- 
teen miles, falls into Loch Etive, near its head. The 
Kinglas has a course of about twelve miles to the south- 
west, flowing through a channel of rock and granite ; its 
waters are remarkably transparent, and salmon are 
found in numbers. The Liver, which rises to the south 
of the Kinglas, flows for about six miles in a westerly 
direction, and falls into Loch Etive, at Inverliver. The 
Noe, which waters the glen of that name, has a course 
of four miles between rugged mountains, and, near its 
confluence with Loch Etive, forms a romantic cascade. 
The Creran, which has its source near Ben-Aulay, flows 
for nearly twelve miles, westerly, and, after passing- 
through the inland lake of Fasnacloich, forms a channel 
navigable for small boats, and falls into the sea at the 
head of Loch Creran. The Ure has a course of about 
seven miles in a northerly direction, and, passing to the 
west of Glenure House, falls into the river Creran. The 
Tended has a westerly course of about six miles, through 
the glen of that name, and forms several interesting 
cascades. The Bide, after a course of little more than 
three miles, and the Dergan, which rises in the heights 
of Glen-Salloch, both fall into Loch Creran ; and the 
Esragan-More, and the Esragan-Beg, separated by the 
mountain of Ben-Vean, after a course of about five miles, 
fall into Loch Etive. The rivers generally, in their 
course, form numerous cascades, of which many, espe- 
cially those of the mountainous districts, are incompa- 
rably beautiful. 

Though generally a pastoral district, there is still a 
considerable portion of arable land, estimated at about 
1700 acres ; the soil is chiefly a light loam, requiring 
much manure, but producing good crops of oats, bear, 
potatoes, and turnips. The farm-houses, with very few 
exceptions, are of an inferior order, thatched with straw, 
and ill adapted to the purpose. Great numbers of cat- 
tle and sheep are fed in the pastures, and considerable 
attention is paid to the rearing of stock; the cattle are 
of the Highland black breed, and on the dairy-farms, 
the cows are of the Ayrshire breed. The sheep, which 
were originally of the small white-faced kind, have been 
almost entirely superseded by the black-faced, and a few 
of the Cheviot breed have been recently introduced ; 
the number of sheep reared annually is estimated at 
32,000. About 2700 acres are woodland and planta- 
tions ; the coppices are chiefly oak, ash, birch, and 
mountain-ash ; and the plantations consist of ash, 
beech, elm, sycamore, larch, and Scottish and spruce 
firs, all of which are in a thriving state. The rateable 
annual value of Ardchattan and Muckairn is £10,987. 
Lead-ore has been discovered on the farm of Drimvuick, 
but not wrought ; large boulders of granite are found in 
abundance, and on the upper shore of Loch Etive, a 
quarry has been opened by the Marquess of Breadal- 
bane, from which are raised blocks of large size, and of 
very superior quality. The principal mansions in the 
parish are, Lochnell House, originally built by Sir Dun- 
can Campbell, and improved, at an expense of £15,000, 
by General Campbell, his successor ; Barcaldine House, 
recently enlarged, and beautifully situated in a richly- 
wooded demesne ; Ardchattan Priory, a portion of the 
62 



ancient convent, converted into a private residence ; 
Inverawe House, pleasantly situated on the banks of the 
Awe, and surrounded with stately timber ; and Drim- 
vuick House, a pleasant residence. There is a post-office 
at Bunawe, about four miles distant from the church j 
the mail from Fort-William, likewise, passes through a 
portion of the parish, and facility of communication is 
afforded by good roads. A fair for cattle and horses, 
which is also a statute-fair, is held at Shean Ferry twice 
in the year. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the super- 
intendence of the presbytery of Lorn and synod of 
Argyll ; the minister's stipend is £233. 3. 2., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £8 per annum ; patron, 
Archibald Campbell, Esq., of Lochnell. The church, 
erected in 1S36, is a neat structure, situated on the 
north shore of Loch Etive, and containing 430 sittings. 
There is a preaching station at Inverghiusachaw, in Glen- 
Etive, about 16 miles distant from the church, where a 
missionary supported by the Royal Bounty preaches 
once in three weeks. A place of worship in connexion 
with the Free Church has been recently built. The 
parochial school is attended by about 50 children ; the 
master has a salary of £29. 16. 7-, including the pro- 
ceeds of a bequest producing £4. 3. 4., with a house 
and garden ; and the school fees average about £11 per 
annum. There are some remains of Ardchattan Priory, 
founded in 1231, by Duncan Mc Coull, the supposed 
ancestor of the lords of Lorn, for monks of the Bene- 
dictine order ; the house of the prior has been con- 
verted into a residence, by Mr. Campbell, the proprietor, 
and there are traces of the abbey and cloisters, with 
numerous monumental relics. Some remains also ex- 
ist of the ancient churches of Bal-Moadau and Kilcolm- 
kill.- the Castle of Barcaldine, erected in the 15th cen- 
tury, by Sir Duncan Campbell, on a neck of land 
between Loch Creran and the bay of Ardmucknish, is 
rapidly falling into decay. There are remains of Drui- 
dical circles, of large columns of granite, and smaller 
circles of upright stones, on the summits of which are 
large slabs of granite ; also stone coffins, in some of 
which have been found rude urns, containing human 
bones ; and numerous tumuli, in one of which was an 
urn, containing calcined bones, and an arrow-head' of 
flint. Many ancient coins have been likewise discovered, 
including several silver coins of the reign of Edward I., 
on the reverse of which were the names, London, Cam- 
bridge, and Oxford, in good preservation. The site of 
the old city of Beregonium, supposed to have been the 
ancient metropolis of Scotland, and concerning which 
so many conflicting accounts have been written, and so 
many fabulous legends propagated by tradition, is re- 
ferred to an eminence between the ferries of Connel and 
Shean, called Dun Mac Sniachan, on which are the 
remains of a vitrified fort. The Rev. Colin Campbell, 
an eminent mathematician and metaphysician, was mi- 
nister of the parish in 1667. 

ARDCLACH, a parish, in the county of Nairn, 12 
miles (S. S. W.) from Forres; containing 1177 inhabit- 
ants. This place derives its name from its situation in 
a mountainous and rocky district, of which the Gaelic 
words are faithfully descriptive. The parish is bounded 
on the north by the parishes of Auldearn and Nairn, 
and on the west by the parish of Cawdor, and is nearly 
16 miles in extreme length, and 12 miles in extreme 



ARDC 



ARDE 



breadth. During the wars of the Covenanters, it shared 
largely in the hostilities of that distracted period ; after 
the battle of Auldearn, in 1645, the lands here of Bro- 
die, of Lethen, were plundered by the forces of the 
Marquess of Montrose, and in 1649 and 1653, were 
again desolated, after unsuccessful assaults of Lethen 
Castle, by the Marquess of Huntly, and the troops 
under the Earl of Glencairn, respectively. The whole 
number of acres in the parish is about 40,000, of which 
nearly 4000 are arable, about 2800 woodland and plan- 
tations, and the remainder hill-pasture, moorland, and 
waste. The surface is mountainous, and some of the 
hills considerable, of which that called the Shaw has a 
height of S00 feet, and the hill of Lethenbar of 862 feet, 
above the level of the sea ; the lower lands are watered 
by numerous springs and the river Findhorn, which 
latter rises in the mountains of Inverness, and flows 
through the parish, in a north-easterly direction, into 
the Moray Frith. In its course, it receives many tri- 
butary streams descending from the higher lands, of 
which the principal are, the burns of Torgarrow and 
Altnarie, which, in their descent, form beautiful cas- 
cades ; the burns of Drumlochan and Tomnarrach ; and 
the burn of Lethen, or Muckle-Burn, which flows for 
nearly ten miles through the parish, and falls into the 
Findhorn near its mouth. The system of agriculture 
has been greatly improved, under the liberal encourage- 
ment given to his tenants by Mr. Brodie, of Lethen, 
and the rotation plan of husbandry is generally preva- 
lent ; the crops are, oats, with other kinds of grain, and 
various green crops. The soil, in the lower lands, is 
tolerably fertile, and has been benefited by the use of 
lime ; and the mountainous districts afford pasture for 
cattle and sheep, of which the former are chiefly of 
small size, but hardy and adapted to the pastures, and 
the latter have been much improved by a cross with 
the Lanarkshire breed. The natural wood is mostly 
Scotch pine, birch, alder, hazel, mountain-ash, and pop- 
lar ; and the plantations are principally larch, inter- 
spersed with fir ; the wood of Dulcie forms an extensive 
forest of fir, wholly indigenous, and there are also ample 
and thriving plantations at Glenfairness and Lethen. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £2373. The 
rocks along the course of the river Findhorn, are mainly 
granite, gneiss, and quartz ; the substratum in the 
western portion of the parish is the old red sandstone, 
with some of the schistose formation, in which are 
found impressions of plants, occasionally resting on a 
layer of conglomerate, with nodules containing imper- 
fect marine fossils, and which, when burnt, produce 
excellent lime for manure. The moors afford black 
game and grouse, partridges, snipes, woodcocks, and 
other birds ; and hares and rabbits are found in great 
number. The lake on the lands of Lethen called Loch 
Belivat, which covers an area of 27 acres, abounds with 
trout of three distinct species, weighing, on the average, 
about two pounds each ; and in the centre, is an island, 
frequented by aquatic fowl of every kind. Salmon are 
taken in abundance, in the river. Coulmony House, the 
property of Mr. Brodie, is a handsome mansion, beau- 
tifully situated on the river, and Glenfairness House is 
also a good residence. 

The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish, which, till 
1773, was united to Edenkillie, in the presbytery of 
Forres, are under the superintendence of the presbytery 
63 



of Nairn and synod of Moray ; the minister's stipend, 
including an allowance of £8. 6. 8. for communion 
elements, is £248, with a manse, thoroughly repaired 
in 1841, and a glebe of 7A acres, valued at £5 per 
annum ; patron, Mr. Brodie. The church, situated 
nearly in the centre of the parish, and surrounded with 
a spacious cemetery, was originally built in 1626, and 
rebuilt in 1762, and again in 1839, at a cost of £500 ; 
it contains 6S6 sittings, and the service is performed 
alternately in the English and Gaelic languages. A 
place of worship has been erected in connexion with the 
Free Church. The parochial school affords an ample 
course of instruction ; the master has a salary of 
£36. 7- 3., including an allowance of £2 for a garden, 
with a good dwelling-house, and the fees average from 
£10 to £15 per annum. There are also, a female school 
for reading, knitting, and sewing, which receives £5 per 
annum from the Society for Propagating Christian 
Knowledge ; and a school at Fornighty, of which the 
master has a salary of £15 from the society, and re- 
ceives £2 from a bequest of Mr. Dunbar, of London. 
About a mile below the bridge of Dulcie, on the lands 
of Glenfairness, is an ancient obelisk, on which are 
rudely sculptured two figures in the Highland costume, 
supposed to commemorate the fate of a Celtic princess 
who, eloping with her Danish paramour, was pursued 
to the hill of Dunearn, on the verge of the river, into 
which they precipitated themselves, and perished toge- 
ther. On the summit of the hill of Lethenbar is a very 
perfect Druidical circle ; and in the neighbourhood are 
several tumuli. 

ARDEN, a village, in that part of the parish of New 
Monkland which forms the quoad sacra parish of 
Clarkston, Middle ward of the county of Lanark; 
containing 646 inhabitants. It is situated about four 
miles east of the town of Airdrie, and in the southern 
portion of the parish. 

ARDERSIER, a parish, in the county of Inver- 
ness; containing, with the village of Campbelton, and 
the garrison of Fort-George, 1475 inhabitants, of whom 
716 reside within the limits of the village. This place, 
called, in ancient documents, Ardrosser, is supposed to 
have derived its name from a bold promontory, towards 
the western shore, which rises to a height of 200 feet 
above the level of the sea. A considerable portion of 
the lands formerly belonged to the diocese of Ross, and, 
in 1574, was granted, with consent of the dean and chap- 
ter, to John Campbell, of Calder, ancestor of the present 
proprietor, Earl Cawdor, who still pays to the crown an 
annual sum, as bishop's rent. The Knights Templars 
had also some lands in the parish, over which they had 
a jurisdiction of regality; and the last preceptor, Sir 
James Sandilands, obtained from Mary, Queen of Scots, 
the erection of his estates into a temporal barony, and, 
in 1563, was created Lord Torphichen. The parish, 
which is bounded on the north and west by the Moray 
Frith, extends for about four miles in length, from north- 
west to south-east, and is two miles in breadth, com- 
prising 3250 acres, of which 1434 are arable, about 500 
in plantations, and the remainder, meadow, pasture, and 
heath. The surface, with the exception of the high 
grounds to the west and north, is generally flat, and, 
towards the coast, low and sandy ; the soil, in some 
parts, is a deep black mould, in others of lighter quality, 
and in some places a strong clay, alternated with shal- 



A RDN 



A R D N 



low sand. The usual crops of grain, and large quan- 
tities of potatoes, are raised ; the lands have been 
partly inclosed, and the modern improvements in 
husbandry are gradually taking place. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £1540. A salmon-fishery 
is carried on to a moderate extent, on the coast, there 
being two stations, the rents of which, together, amount 
to £60 per annum. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintend- 
ence of the presbytery of Nairn and synod of Moray ; 
the minister's stipend is £15S. 6. /., of which part is 
paid from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe 
valued at £25 per annum ; patron, Earl Cawdor. The 
church, situated in the eastern part of the parish, was 
built in 1802, and is a neat structure. There are 
places of worship for Old Seceders and members of the 
Free Church. The parochial school is well attended ; 
the master has a salary of £36. 7- lf-.> with a house and 
garden, and the fees average about £20 per annum. On 
the heath near the borders of the adjoining parish of 
Nairn, is an obelisk supposed to indicate the spot where 
the Danes were repulsed ; and at Achnuallan, were the 
remains of a Druidical circle, near which a horn, filled 
with silver coins, was found in 1S00 ; but those remains 
have been removed for building materials. At Dalyards, 
the ruins of a building thought to have belonged to the 
Knights Templars, have disappeared in the progress of 
agriculture ; and on a hill behind Campbelton, is a cir- 
cular mount 120 yards in diameter at the base, and 
surrounded, towards the summit, by a rampart of clay 
and earth ; it was called, in the Gaelic, Cromal, now 
corrupted into " Cromwell's mount," and has been partly 
destroyed, like many other fortlets. A Roman sword, 
and the head of a spear ; and some axes of flint, sup- 
posed to be of Danish origin, have been found in the 
neighbourhood. 

ARDGOWER.— See Ballichulish. 

ARDNAMURCHAN, a parish, partly in the county 
of Argyll, and partly in the county of Inverness; 
comprising the quoad sacra districts of Aharacle and 
Strontian, and containing 55S1 inhabitants. The present 
parish of Ardnamurchan, previously to the Reformation, 
was distributed into three separate parishes, compre- 
hending the five districts of Ardnamurchan, Sunart, 
Moidart, Arasaig, and South Morir. These districts still 
remain as distinct portions, and from the first the 
parish takes its name, signifying " the promontory" or 
" heights of the great sea." This term was originally 
applied with great propriety, the district of Ardnamur- 
chan being nearly a peninsular promontory, thrusting 
itself out from the mainland to a considerable extent, 
into the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The districts 
of Ardnamurchan and Sunart are in the county of 
Argyll, and the other three in Inverness-shire ; and the 
whole extent is supposed to comprise 200,000 Scotch 
acres, of which S7,753 are in the Argyllshire portion. 
The parish is bounded on the south by Loch Sunart, 
separating it from that of Morven ; on the south-west, 
by the northern end of the Sound of Mull ; on the 
north, by Loch Morir, and the river flowing thence, 
which separate it from North Morir, in the parish of 
Glenelg; and on the north-west and west, by that part 
of the Atlantic Ocean which reaches to the opposite 
shores of Skye and the Small Isles. The coast, which 
is continuously, and remarkably, indented with creeks 
64 



and bays forming numerous points and headlands, is 
supposed to embrace a line of several hundreds of miles, 
and exhibits a bold and rocky appearance. It displays, 
at some seasons, the foaming cataracts of the neigh- 
bouring waters driven landward by the westerly winds, 
and occasionally rendering inaccessible the several 
creeks and landing-places. The lieadland of Ardnamur- 
chan, which is the most westerly part of the mainland 
of Great Britain, and the most prominent on the line 
of coast between Cape Wrath and the Mull of Cantyre, 
was formerly used as a geographical mark, in respect 
to which the Western Isles were denominated north or 
south. A creek on its extreme point, the picture of 
dreariness and desolation, marks the place where the 
remains of numbers of unfortunate sailors have found 
a grave, their barks having been dashed to pieces on 
the adjoining rocks; indeed, the whole coast surround- 
ing the district of Ardnamurchan, is a series of inden- 
tations and prominences. Beyond this, the southern 
part of the parish, the line of coast runs along the 
Moidart district, on the west and north, and then forms 
the western limit of Arasaig and South Morir, jagged 
with many rocky points and headlands,': of which the 
point of Arasaig, the next iu importance to Ardnamur- 
chan, is well known to mariners, and is visited by 
steamers plying from Glasgow to Skye and other parts. 
The coast here is very rugged, but not abrupt or pre- 
cipitous ; and it has numerous shelving rocks, extend- 
ing under water to the northern boundary of the parish. 
A deep and wide bay is formed by the line of shore 
stretching in an easterly direction from the point of 
Ardnamurchan to the isthmus of that district, then 
northward, and afterwards round to the west, reaching 
to the point of Af asaig ; and at the flexure of the northern 
coast of Ardnamurchan towards Moidart, is Kintra bay, 
with its fine sands, the latter measuring about two square 
miles, of nearly circular form, and covered, at high 
water, by the sea, which enters by a small inlet. 

The principal Harbours along the coast are, the bay 
of Glenmore, on the south of Ardnamurchan, affording 
good anchorage ; that of Kilchoan, a small harbour on 
the same coast, furnishing the chief point of communi- 
cation with Tobermory ; and, on the north coast of Ard- 
namurchan, at Ardtoe, a small bay, where inferior craft 
may find a safe retreat. At the island of Shona, north 
of Kintra bay, also, and in the opening of Loch Moidart, 
are several creeks with good anchorage, the resort of 
boats from the southern highlands, in the season for cod- 
fishing; and in Loch Sunart are the harbour of Stron- 
tian, and the creek of Salin, at which latter a pier has 
been built. There are likewise several maritime lochs in 
the parish, which are of considerable extent and import- 
ance, and form a distinct feature in the general scenery 
of the coast. Loch Sunart shoots off from the Sound of 
Mull, where it is about six miles in breadth, and, in its 
inland course of about twenty-five miles, runs, with 
much impetuosity, through the channels formed by the 
islands of Carna, Resga, and Oransay, six or seven miles 
from its mouth, and then lies quietly, with the excep- 
tion of the ebb and flow of the tides, between lofty rocks 
and precipitous banks overgrown with wood. Loch 
Moidart is about four miles long, from east to west, and 
communicates with the open sea by means of a narrow 
channel on each side of the island of Shona : being 
surrounded with steep lofty mountains, it is usually 



A II D N 



ARDN 



unruffled, and its scenery embraces all the striking fea- 
tures of a highland district. The remaining salt-water 
lochs are those of Loch-nan-Uamh, situated between 
Moidart and Arasaig ; Loch Ainart, a branch of the 
former ; and Loch-na-Reaull, just north of Arasaig point ; 
all of comparatively small extent. In different parts of 
the coast are caves, some of them very extensive, but 
none of much note, except one at Baradale, in Arasaig, 
a damp, rough, dark excavation, where Prince Charles 
Stuart, after his defeat at Culloden, concealed himself 
for three days. 

The interior of the parish, consisting of a sweep of 
land of very rugged character, is crowded with the fea- 
tures, variously combined, of almost every description 
of wild and romantic scenery, comprising lofty moun- 
tain ranges, precipitous rocky elevations, thickly-wooded 
hills, dells, and ravines, with numberless inland lochs, 
and several rivers. The Ardnamurchan portion is strongly 
marked by a range of hills, though of no great eleva- 
tion, running from the western point, for about twenty- 
four miles, towards the east, and varying from four 
miles and a half to seven in breadth. Near the coast, 
are many farms under good cultivation, within the first 
ten or twelve miles, but afterwards the pasture becomes 
coarser. Oak, birch, and hazel are seen covering the 
rocks, and the lower hills on the south, to Loch Sunart ; 
while, on the north, the district, at its eastern extremity, 
is occupied by a very extensive moss, girt by the river 
Shiel ; this stream, which flows from Loch Shiel, and 
one from Loch Morir, being the principal rivers, and 
both falling into the western ocean. The name of the 
Sunart district, written, in some ancient records, Swyne- 
fort, or Su-yniford, is supposed to have been derived from 
the circumstance of a king of Denmark named Swin, 
who was driven from his own country for apostatizing 
from Christianity, having, in the 10th century, landed 
in a creek here, on the western shore, called, in conse- 
quence of that event, Swineard. This tract is a con- 
tinuation of that of Ardnamurchan, about twenty-five 
miles long, and ten in average breadth, and, for several 
miles from its commencement, has the appearance of 
a mountain ridge. After this the eminences expand, 
reaching to Loch Sunart on the south, and Loch Shiel on 
the north and north-west, leaving a large intermediate 
space, filled up with lofty hills and deep valleys and 
glens, thrown together in the greatest, irregularity and 
confusion. The most lofty mountains are, Ben-Reisi- 
poll, Scur-Dhoniel, Scour-Choinich, Creach-Bhunn, and, 
Glaschoiren Hill, reaching respectively 2661 feet, 2730 
feet, 2364 feet, 2439 feet, and 1920 feet in height. The 
district contains two extensive and interesting valleys, 
of which that of Strontian, near its eastern extremity, 
opening at Loch Sunart, stretches for about five miles 
inland. It is ornamented in succession from its en- 
trance with clusters of fine natural oak, flourishing 
plantations surrounding a tasteful mansion with well 
laid out grounds, an excellent and well-cultivated farm, 
with the crofts and tenements of numerous cottagers, the 
government church near the stream that runs through 
the valley, and, further on, the pleasing manse. Glen- 
aheurich, a few miles north of the former valley, con- 
tains a spacious lake, and affords excellent pasturage 
for sheep ; and besides this, there are other glens of 
inferior dimensions, bounded with picturesque hills dis- 
playing a profusion of verdure and ornamental wood. 
Vol. I.— 65 



The district of Moidart takes its name from a compound 
Gaelic term signifying " the height of sea-spray," and 
extends about ten or twelve miles in breadth, and twenty- 
five in length, in a direction parallel with Sunart, along 
the whole boundary of Loch Shiel. It is bounded on the 
west and north by the sea, and the continuous range of 
mountains along the coast on each side, incloses an 
intermediate and lofty ridge, exhibiting a summit with 
a magnificent assemblage of crags, rocks, hills, and 
ravines, rendered more interesting to the curious ob- 
server by the almost impossible attempt to find their 
parallel. There are, however, in this elevated portion, 
some tolerably good plains, and a valley called Glenala- 
dale, about 300 yards broad, and containing fair arable 
and pasture land. The districts of Arasaig and South 
Morir, not separated from each other by any marked. 
features, constitute together a tract twenty-four miles in 
length, and fifteen broad : a long and very dreary valley 
named Glenmeuble, stretches along Arasaig for ten 
miles, with a farm at the eastern end, and a small loch 
called Brosaig, not very far off. The parish contains 
numerous fresh-water lakes, many of which abound with 
trout : the principal of them is Loch Shiel, which sepa- 
rates the county of Argyll from that of Inverness, and is 
embosomed amid mountains of the most magnificent 
description, very little known to travellers. At the 
western extremity of this lake is the beautiful island of 
Finnan. 

The soil is various, but generally light and shallow ; 
only a small portion is fit for superior husbandry, 
and the remainder is moor and moss, of which latter 
kind there are several large tracts styled moss-flats, 
especially adjacent to Loch Shiel. That called the 
Moss of Kintra covers an area of seven square miles, 
and, like some of the others, is a quagmire in the middle, 
of unknown depth, though considerable portions near 
the margin are capable of improvement. Oats and bear 
are raised ; but potatoes, hay, wool, and the cuttings of 
wood, make the largest items in the returns of produce. 
The black-faced sheep are those chiefly kept, and the 
cattle are the Argyllshire ; the pasture lands are in many 
parts of an excellent kind, and both sheep and cattle 
are generally of a superior description, and receive much 
attention. The method of cultivation varies according to 
the nature of the soil and the locality ; the best imple- 
ments are in use, and shell-sand mixed with kelp, and 
various deposits from the sea-shore, .are extensively em- 
ployed as manure. Considerable improvements have been 
made on some estates, within these few years, and the 
farm-buildings of superior tenants are good, but those of 
the inferior class of the worst description. The extent of 
arable land in the Ardnamurchan and Sunart districts 
is upwards of 5000 acres, about half turned by the 
plough, and half by the spade; and it is supposed that 
the quantity throughout the parish might he doubled, 
with a profitable application of capital, there being, in 
these two districts alone, more than 12,000 acres of 
pasture, 3000 or more of moss, and SO.OOO of moor, 
much of which is capable of tillage. An agricultural 
association, principally connected with Ardnamurchan 
and Sunart, and some neighbouring places, meets annu- 
ally at Strontian, under the auspices of which great im- 
provement has taken place in the breed of horses, black- 
cattle, and sheep. The rateable annual value of the 
parish is £6S94. The rocks, to the distance of eleven 

K 



ARDN 



A R D O 



or twelve miles eastward from Ardnamurchan point, 
are of the trap formation, whiustone being most preva- 
lent, and appearing in numerous dykes which intersect 
each other in all directions ; and in some places are 
found portions of slate, sandstone, and limestone, the 
last in large masses. Beyond these strata, further east- 
ward, the gneiss, or mica-slate, shows itself, and the 
rocks become much more abrupt and lofty ; a quarry is 
in operation at Laga, of micaceous rock, of fine quality, 
abundant in the parish ; and at Strontian, excellent gra- 
nite is raised, at which place, also, lead-mines are open, 
but not at present worked. Previously to 1722, these 
mines were let to the Duke of Norfolk and others, and 
afterwards were held by the York Building Company, and 
worked to the conclusion of the last war, the proprietor 
receiving at that time, from £1000 to £1500 per annum 
for rent, amounting to one-eighth of the produce ; they 
were also let" in the year 1836, but the works were 
shortly discontinued. The wood is of considerable ex- 
tent throughout the parish, including much oak, valu- 
able for its timber, birch, hazel, alder, and ash, all of 
natural growth ; and the plantations comprise fir, plane, 
oak, and ash trees. Arasaig House is an elegant modern 
mansion of polished freestone. The population is chiefly 
rural, and scattered through the different districts ; a 
few are engaged in salmon-fishing, on the river Shiel, 
and others in taking herrings on some of the lochs ; 
two decked-vessels belong to the place, one of fifty, and 
the other of twenty tons. There is a post-office at 
Strontian, with a daily post; also one at Arasaig, with 
a delivery three times weekly ; and a third at Kilchoan, 
communicating, by a messenger, with Strontian, twice 
each week. A road runs from Arasaig, by Glenfinnan, 
to Fort- William and the Caledonian canal, and another 
from Strontian to Corran Ferry, by each of which cattle 
and sheep are driven to the southern markets. The 
principal communication, however, is by steam-vessels 
from Glasgow, which touch at the point of Arasaig, and 
at Tobermory, a sea-port, in the northern extremity of the 
island of Mull, about five miles south from the harbour 
of Kilchoan, in Ardnamurchan. A fair is held at Stron- 
tian, in May, and another in October, for cattle and 
sheep ; and there is also a cattle and sheep fair at 
Arasaig. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Mull and synod of 
Argyll, and is ecclesiastically distributed into five 
portions, namely, the parish church district, two quoad 
sacra parishes, a district under the care of a missionary, 
and another under that of an assistant. The first of 
these embraces the western portion of the peninsula of 
Ardnamurchan, and contains a place of worship at Kil- 
choan, on the south, four or five miles from the point, 
and one at Kilmorie, on the northern coast, at which 
the minister officiates alternately. The Kilchoan church, 
which, on account of its situation, commands the larger 
attendance, is a superior edifice, built in 1831, and accom- 
modating more than 600 persons ; that of Kilmorie, 
raised by a late incumbent, is a very humble struc- 
ture, originally built of dry stone, and thatched. The 
minister has a stipend of about £270, with a manse, 
and a glebe of 27 acres, valued at £10 or £12 per 
annum ; patron, the Duke of Argyll. The quoad sacra 
church at Strontian is thirty miles distant from 
the parish church ; that at Aharacle is situated at the 
west-end of Loch Shiel, 23 miles distant. The mission 
66 



of Laga comprehends about eleven miles of the coast of 
Loch Sunart, partly in the parish church district, and 
partly in that of Aharacle ; the minister receives £60 
per annum from the Royal Bounty, and has built a 
preaching-house at his own expense. The district of 
the assistant is by far the largest ecclesiastical division, 
embracing the principal part of Moidart, and the whole 
of Arasaig and South Morir, and has a small preaching- 
house, built partly by subscription, at Polnish, near 
Inveraylort, and a school-house at Ardnafuaran, in 
Arasaig : he receives from the parish minister £55. 11. 1., 
and £32 from the Royal Bounty, with £5 for communion 
elements. There are five Roman Catholic chapels, with 
two officiating priests. The parochial school, situated at 
Kilchoan, affords the ordinary instruction ; the master 
has a salary of £25. 13. 3., with £10 fees, and a house, 
garden, and two acres of land, the whole valued at £7. 
The parish contains several vitrified forts ; but the chief 
relic of antiquity is the castle of Mingary, on the south- 
ern shore of Ardnamurchan, once the stronghold of Mac 
Ian, from which James IV., in 1493, granted a charter, 
and where, two years afterwards, he held his court, to 
receive the submission of the nobles of the forfeited 
lordship of the Isles. On the plain, at Glenfinnan, is 
a tower erected in commemoration of the events of 1745, 
by Alexander Mc Donald, of Glenaladale, with an in- 
scription by Dr. Donald Mc Lean ; the successor to the 
property, Angus Mc Donald, Esq., has lately much im- 
proved it, and crowned the summit with a statue of 
Prince Charles Stuart. 

ARDOCH, lately a quoad sacra parish, comprising - 
the villages of Balhaddie, Buttergask, Greenloaning, and 
Rottearn, in the parish of Dunblane; the post-vil- 
lage of Braco, in the parish of Muthill ; and part of 
the parish of Blackford, in the county of Perth ; 
the whole containing 15S4 inhabitants. This place is 
about seven miles in length by six in breadth, and is 
intersected by the high road from Crieff to Dunblane 
and Stirling ; two-thirds of the soil are in tillage or 
pasture, and the remainder, with the exception of a 
portion under plantation, is uncultivated. At Rottearn, 
is a small manufactory for converting potatoes into 
flour. Fairs are held on the first Wednesday in 
January, the last Tuesday in April, and the first Tues- 
day in August, chiefly for cattle. The village, which is 
small, is prettily situated on the above-mentioned road, 
about nine miles south-by- west from Crieff. The parish 
was in the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth 
and Stirling; the minister's stipend was £94, with a 
manse and garden, and a glebe valued at £6 per annum ; 
the heads of families in communion with the Church of 
Scotland were the patrons. The church, erected by 
subscription in 17S0, is a plain edifice, and contains 555 
sittings. The Associate Secession Synod and the Free 
Church have places of worship ; and there is a paro- 
chial school. Near the village is the most entire Roman 
camp that remains in Scotland ; it was probably esta- 
blished during the fourth campaign of Agricola, a.d. 
48, and is 1060 feet in length and 900 in breadth, and 
could contain 26,000 men, according to the ordinary 
distribution of the Roman soldiers in their encamp- 
ments. There appear to have been seven ditches sur- 
rounding it, and it was defended on the west side, by 
the small river Knaik ; the four entries crossing the 
lines, are still distinctly to be seen. 



A R D R 



A RD R 



ARDRISSAIG, a village, in the parish of South 
Knapdale, county of Argyll j containing about 400 
inhabitants. This village, situated at the harbour of 
Ardrissaig, in Loch Gilp, a branch of Loch Fine, has 
sprung up since the commencement of the Crinan 
canal, in 1*93, and is of respectable appearance. It is 
the scene of much bustle and traffic, occasioned by the 
convenience of its harbour, at the opening of the canal 
into Loch Gilp, where, exclusive of the business in goods 
and passengers connected with the canal, it is computed 
that about 24,000 persons are landed and shipped an- 
nually, besides large numbers of sheep and cattle, by the 
Glasgow steam-vessels, three of which in summer, and 
one in winter, arrive here daily. In the adjacent har- 
bour is a slip and steam-boat pier, erected in 1S37, at 
an expense of more than £1000 ; and independently of 
the boats belonging to the parish, forty or fifty in num- 
ber, many others, making together above 100, are 
frequently in the harbour in the fishing season, her- 
rings being taken in Loch Fine, in very large numbers. 
One of the parochial schools was established here, but is 
now included in the new parish of Lochgilphead. 

ARDROSSAN, a parish, in the district of Cunning- 
hams, county of Ayr ; including the thriving town of 
Ardrossan, and the greater part of Saltcoats, 74 miles 
(\V. S. W.) from Edinburgh; and containing 4947 inha- 
bitants. This place derives its name, of Celtic origin, from 
the situation of its ancient baronial castle on a small pro- 
montory. Little is known of its earlier history; and 
of its ancient proprietors, not much further notice occurs 
than that Sir Fergus de Ardrossan accompanied Edward 
Bruce, in his expedition into Ireland, in 1316, and was 
one of the Scottish barons who, in 1320, signed a me- 
morial to the pope, complaining of the aggressions of 
Edward I. of England. The castle, during the time of 
Baliol, being occupied by the English, was surprised 
and taken by William Wallace, who, arriving in the 
night with a few of his followers, set fire to the few 
houses situated around the base of the hill on which it 
stood, and on the garrison going out to extinguish the 
flames, rushed into the castle, made themselves masters 
of the gates, and put all the English to the sword, as 
they unsuspectingly returned. The castle appears to 
have been inhabited till the time of Cromwell, who is 
said to have thrown down its walls, and to have not 
only demolished it, but carried away the materials, for 
the erection of the fort which he built at Ayr. On the 
death of the last Baron Ardrossan, without issue male, 
the estate passed, by marriage with his heiress, to the 
Montgomerie family, its present proprietors. 

The town is beautifully situated on the shore of the 
Frith of Clyde, and owes its rise to the fostering patron- 
age of the late Earl of Eglinton, by whom it was origi- 
nally built, and by whom the harbour to which it owes 
its importance was originally constructed, chiefly at his 
own expense. It consists of various spacious and regu- 
larly- formed streets, intersecting each other at right angles, 
and containing houses uniformly and handsomely built, 
and is much frequented, during the season ; the town 
is lighted, and has a good supply of water. Lodging- 
houses have been built, for the reception of the com- 
pany who resort hither for bathing, and a spacious hotel 
has been erected, containing ten public rooms, and a 
proportionate number of sleeping rooms, with hot and 
cold baths. The public baths, for which a handsome 
67 



building has been erected, were originally established, 
on the tontine principle, by the late Earl of Eglinton, 
after whose decease they were suspended for a time, till, 
in 1833, they were purchased by the present proprietor, 
by whom the buildings have been enlarged, and put 
into a state of complete repair. The baths are of mar- 
ble, with convenient dressing-rooms attached to each ; 
tliey are under excellent management, and hot, cold, 
shower, and vapour baths are prepared on the shortest 
notice. Connected with the establishment, are nume- 
rous lodging-rooms, which are fully occupied during 
the season ; there is also a bath gratuitously appro- 
priated to the use of the poor. In the immediate 
neighbourhood of the town are several villas, pleasantly 
situated, commanding good views of the Frith ; and 
around the margin of the bay, a crescent has been laid 
out, forming a splendid addition to the appearance of 
the town. The pavilion, the marine villa of the Earl of 
Eglinton, is an elegant seat, occasionally the residence 
of his lordship ; there are many agreeable walks in the 
environs, and between this and Saltcoats, is a fine sandy 
beach, about three-quarters of a mile in length, which is 
a favourite promenade. There are about sixty looms in 
the town, employed in the weaving of shawls and heavier 
articles, and lighter articles of silk and cotton, and in 
Saltcoats nearly 450 ; many of the females are also en- 
gaged in working muslin. Fairs are held in July, and 
on the fourth Thursday in November, for cattle and 
various kinds of merchandise ; facility of communica- 
tion is afforded by excellent roads to all the neighbour- 
ing towns. 

The harbour, according to the primary plan, as 
projected by the late Earl of Eglinton, will very shortly 
be one of the finest harbours of Scotland. In the 
original undertaking, his lordship was joined by seve- 
ral gentlemen of the county, and others, who became 
shareholders ; but the sums expended on the works 
having greatly exceeded the amount of the subscrip- 
tions, the subsequent expense was borne solely by 
Lord Eglinton, who spent little less than £100,000 in 
the prosecution of the undertaking. After his decease, 
however, the works were suspended, and the harbour 
remained in an unfinished state till 1844, when the 
works were resumed, and the construction of docks was 
proceeded with, in the most spirited manner, by the 
present earl. The harbour is easy of access, and screened 
from adverse winds, and, during rough weather, is fre- 
quently crowded with vessels which run in for safety ; 
it has from twelve to twenty feet depth of water. The 
exports are, iron and coal, and general goods from 
Glasgow ; and the imports, timber from America, corn, 
cattle and provisions from Ireland, and goods from the 
manufacturing districts of England. Many vessels in 
the coal trade, both from Irvine and Saltcoats, put in 
here, to complete their cargoes ; the number of vessels 
which arrived at the quay in 1S37, was 1963, of the 
aggregate burthen of 10S,549 tons, and the number of 
men, 10,110. Ship-building is pursued on a consider- 
able scale. Fishing is carried on to a moderate extent ; 
salmon are taken in the Frith, by the bag-net, and for- 
warded to the Glasgow, Paisley, and Kilmarnock mar- 
kets ; few white-fish are taken, but several boats are 
employed in the herring-fishery, and some few in the 
cod and ling fishery, on the coast of Barra. In the for- 
mation of the harbour, it was the hope of Lord Eglin- 

K2 



ARDR 



A R G Y 



ton, to render it the chief harbour of Glasgow, as, from 
the favourable nature of its position, it might super- 
sede entirely the circuitous navigation of the river Clyde ; 
and in this view, in order to unite Ardrossan with that 
town, he commenced the formation of a canal, which, 
during his lifetime, was completed merely from Glas- 
gow to Johnstone, in the county of Renfrew. In ] 82"', 
an act was obtained for laying down a railway from 
the harbour, to join the canal at Johnstone, which was, 
however, effected only for about six miles, to Kilwin- 
ning, from which a branch of about four miles extended 
to the Eglinton collieries ; this part of the work was 
completed in 1832, and in 1S40, an act was passed, 
separating the management of the railroad from that 
of the canal, and incorporating the proprietors, with 
a capital of £S0,000. At Kilwinning, the Ardrossan 
railway joins the Glasgow and Ayr line. Steam-boats 
sail four times a week to Fleetwood in Lancashire, and 
furnish the most rapid means of communication be- 
tween this part of Scotland and the manufacturing dis- 
tricts of England ; there are also steamers to Belfast, 
Londonderry, Glasgow, and other places. 

The parish is bounded on the. south and south-west 
by the Frith of Clyde, and comprises about 5520 Scot- 
tish acres, of which 1250 are arable, 2350 meadow and 
pasture, 1800 hilly pasture, and about 150 woodland 
and plantations. The surface is agreeably diversified 
with tracts of level land, and gentle undulations rising 
into hills of different elevation, which increase in height 
towards the coast ; the highest of them is called Knock- 
Georgan, and is 700 feet above the sea, commanding a 
rich prospect. Of the others, only one has an eleva- 
tion of 400 feet ; several of them are ornamented with 
clumps of trees, and add much to the beauty of the 
scenery. The shore is generally level, and indented with 
bays of various dimensions, of which that of Ardrossan is 
very picturesque ; it is about three-quarters of a mile in 
length, and to the north of it, is another fine bay, of 
larger size ; the coast here becomes rocky and irregular, 
and ridges of shelving rocks extend for a considerable 
length. Nearly opposite the harbour, and about a mile 
from the shore, is Horse Isle, containing about twelve 
acres, on which a beacon tower was erected by the 
late Earl of Eglinton, for the benefit of vessels ap- 
proaching the harbour, and which it has been in con- 
templation to convert into a light-house. The chief 
rivulets are, the Stanley and Monfode burns, which 
descend from the higher lands, and, after flowing 
through the parish, fall into the Frith ; and the Mun- 
nock or Caddel burn, a more copious stream, which 
intersects the upper part of the parish, and falls into 
the river Caaf, which separates it from the parish of 
Dairy. The soil, towards the coast, is light and sandy, 
and in the higher grounds a tenacious clay, occasionally 
intermixed with loam ; it has been rendered generally 
fertile by long cultivation, and a judicious use of sea- 
weed and lime for manure. The principal crops are, 
oats, wheat, potatoes, and turnips ; the system of agri- 
culture is in a very advanced state ; the lands are well 
drained and inclosed, and great improvements have been 
made, and much unprofitable land reclaimed, under 
the auspices of the Agricultural Society, which holds its 
meetings here in November. Great attention is paid to 
the management of the dairies ; and about 10,000 stone 
of cheese, of good quality, are annuallv produced, which 
68 



supply the neighbouring markets. The cows are gene- 
rally of the Cunninghame or Ayrshire breed. The 
rateable annual value of the parish is £11,775. The 
substrata are, limestone, freestone, and coal ; the last 
was formerly wrought in the northern part of the parish, 
and in the vicinity of Saltcoats, but the workings have 
been, for some time, discontinued. There are three 
limestone quarries in the upper part of the parish ; the 
freestone is found both of a red and white colour, and 
there is an extensive quarry of the former, close to the 
town of Ardrossan, from which was raised the stone for 
building the town and forming the quay. Near the 
town are also various kinds of whinstone, of which 
whole rocks have been blasted with gunpowder, and 
used in the formation of the breakwater. There are 
several strata of ironstone near the public baths, varying 
from two inches to nearly five feet in thickness, but, 
from their situation, the working of them has not been 
thought likely to repay the expense ; a variety of fossil 
shells is found in several parts, and it is generally sup- 
posed that the sea has considerably receded from this 
part of the coast. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Irvine and synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr ; the minister's stipend is £261. 1. 3., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum ; 
patron, the Earl of Eglinton. The old church, which 
was situated on the Castle-hill, at Ardrossan, was de- 
stroyed by a storm, in 1691, and another erected on a 
site about half a mile further from the coast ; and this 
church, also, being so much shaken by a storm, in 1773, 
as to be considered unsafe, was taken down, and the 
present church built, in the town of Saltcoats, in 1774 ; 
it is a substantial edifice, adapted for a congregation of 
S40 persons. A Gaelic church has likewise been erected 
in Saltcoats, for the accommodation of the numerous 
Highland families resident there, at an expense of £1000, 
and is a neat edifice, for 750 persons ; another church 
was built in 1S44, at Ardrossan. There is a place 
of worship for members of the United Secession. The 
parochial school, situated in the town of Saltcoats, 
is well conducted ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., 
and £25 from fees, with a house and garden. Of the 
ancient castle of Ardrossan, some small fragments only 
are remaining ; on the lands of Monfode, are the re- 
mains of a baronial castle, much dilapidated, formerly 
the residence of a family of that name. On Knock- 
Georgan, are the remains of a Danish camp ; and on 
one of the other hills in the parish, is an artificial 
mound, of rectangular form, sixteen yards long, nine 
yards wide, and the same in height, with sloping banks, 
concerning which nothing authentic is recorded. Dr. 
Robert Simpson, professor of mathematics in the uni- 
versity of Glasgow, was a heritor of this parish, where 
he was accustomed to reside during the vacations, on his 
estate of Knockewart. 

ARGYLLSHIRE, a maritime county, in the south- 
west of Scotland, bounded on the north by Inverness- 
shire ; on the east, by the counties of Inverness, Perth, 
and Dumbarton ; and on the south and west, by the 
Atlantic Ocean. It lies between 55° 21' and 57° 
(N. lat.), and 4° 15' and 7° 10' (W. long.), and is about 
115 miles in extreme length, and about 55 miles in 
average breadth, comprising an area, including the 
various islands connected with it, of about 3S00 square 
miles, of which, what may be considered as the conti- 



ARGY 



A It G Y 



nent, contains about 2735 square miles, or 1,750,400 
acres. There are 19,207 houses, of which 1S,552 are 
inhabited ; and a population of 97,371, of whom 47,795 
are males, and 49,576 females. The county appears to 
have been occupied, at an early period, chiefly by the 
Scots, who, emigrating from the Irish coasts, settled in 
the peninsula of Cantyre, and, after the subjugation of 
the Picts, and the union of the two kingdoms under 
Kenneth Me Alpine, became identified with the general 
population of the country. In the legends of romance, 
this part of Scotland is celebrated as the principal scene 
of the exploits of the heroes of the race of Fingal, and 
as the birthplace of the bard Ossian, whose poems are 
still the subject of deeply-interesting research among the 
learned. Ossian is said to have been born in the valley 
of Glencoe ; and the county, which abounds with nu- 
merous localities connected with the achievements of his 
heroes, still retains, in a very high degree, that spirit 
of feudal vassalage for which it was, for ages, pre-emi- 
nently remarkable. The family of Campbell, long dis- 
tinguished as the principal of that extensive and powerful 
clan, and ancestors of the dukes of Argyll, for many 
generations possessed an absolute and sovereign autho- 
rity over their vassals, who, on all occasions, rallied 
round the standard of their chieftain, with all the fidelity 
of kindred attachment, and tendered the most arduous 
services with implicit submission to his controul. 

Prior to the Reformation, the county was, for cen- 
turies, the seat of a diocese, of which the bishop resided 
on the island of Lismore, between the main land and 
the isle of Mull, where the cathedral church was situ- 
ated ; and the jurisdiction extended over all the adjacent 
islands, including those of Bute and Arran. Since that 
period, it has constituted the chief part of the synod of 
Argyll, comprising the presbyteries of Inverary, Dunoon, 
Cantyre, Islay and Jura, Lorn, and Mull, and about 
fifty parishes. For civil purposes, the county is divided 
into the districts of Argyll, Cowal, Islay, Cantyre, 
Lorn, and Mull ; and is under the jurisdiction of a 
sheriff-depute, by whom three sheriffs-substitute are ap- 
pointed, who reside, respectively, at Inverary, which is 
the county town, at Campbelltown, and Tobermory. 
The courts of assize and general quarter-sessions are 
held at Inverary; and courts for the recovery of small 
debts, are held, four times in the } r ear, at Oban, Loch- 
gilphead, Dunoon, and Bowmore ; and twice in the year, 
at Strontian. The royal burghs are Inverary and Camp- 
belltown ; and in addition to the others above noticed, 
the county contains the small town of Ballichulish, and 
some inconsiderable hamlets. Under the act of the 
2nd of William IV., the county returns one member to 
the imperial parliament. 

The surface is generally wild and mountainous, es- 
pecially towards the north, where it borders on the 
Grampian range ; and even along the coasts, of which 
there is an extent of more than 600 miles, and where 
the land is lowest, there are numerous bills of very 
considerable elevation. The most mountainous parts of 
the county are, however, interspersed with pleasing and 
fertile tracts of valley, watered by streams, on the banks 
of which are some productive arable lands ; and the 
slopes of the hills, in many places, afford good pasture. 
Of the numerous Inlands which are included within the 
limits of the county, the principal are, Mull, Jura, Islay, 
Coll, Tiree, Colonsay, Lismore, and Oronsay, with 
69 



smaller islands, all of which are noticed under their re- 
spective heads. The coasts are deeply indented with 
arms of the sea, forming Sounds between the mainland 
and the several islands, and some of which penetrate 
deeply into the land, constituting salt-water lakes of 
considerable extent. Of these, the principal are, the 
Sound of Mull, between the island of that name and 
the mainland ; the Sound of Jura, separating that island 
from the continent ; the Sound of Islay, between the 
isles of Jura and Islay, and the Frith of Clyde, sepa- 
rating the peninsula of Cantyre and the district of Cowal, 
from the islands of Arran and Bute. The most promi- 
nent Mountains are, the Cruachan, rising from the north- 
eastern extremity of Loch Awe, to the height of 3390 
feet; the Cruachlussa, in the district of Knapdale, 
attaining an elevation of 3000 feet ; Benreisipoll, in 
Ardnamurchan, 2661 feet in height; Buchael-Etive, 
near Loch-Etive, towards the north, rising 2537 feet 
above the sea ; the Paps of Jura, in the isle of Jura, 
2476 feet in height ; and Beininturk, in Cantyre, which 
has an elevation of 2170 feet. 

Among the salt-water lakes is Loch Fine, which is of 
very great depth, nearly 60 miles in length, and varying 
from two to three miles in breadth, and on the shore 
of which is situated the town of Inverary. Loch Linnhe 
lies between the districts of Morven and Lorn, and is 
the source of most of the inland lakes which form the 
Caledonian canal ; the scenery on both its shores is 
strikingly romantic, and the borders are thickly inter- 
spersed with the remains of ancient fortresses, and 
enlivened with numerous handsome residences. Loch 
Long extends from the Frith of Clyde, for nearly 22 
miles, into the land, separating the county from that 
of Dumbarton, from the north-west of which branches 
off the Loch Goil, crowned on its precipitous banks with 
the ruins of Castle Carrick, a royal residence, of which 
the Duke of Argyll is hereditary keeper. Of the prin- 
cipal inland lakes, one is Loch Awe, the most extensive 
in the county, about 28 miles in length, and from one 
to two miles in breadth ; it abounds with salmon, eels, 
and trout, and from it issues a stream called the Awe, 
which flows into the loch Etive, at Bunawe ferry. Loch 
Etive, a lake of much smaller extent, communicates with 
Loch Awe by the river Awe, and, on the west, with the 
Sound of Mull, from which it forms an inlet, nearly 
opposite the island of Lismore ; on the north shore, are 
the ruins of the ancient priory of Ardchattan. There 
are several smaller lakes, but none of sufficient import- 
ance to require particular notice ; also numerous streams 
intersecting the lands in various places, few of which, 
however, have been rendered navigable. 

The quantity of land which is arable and in cultiva- 
tion, is little more than 100,000 acres ; about 30,000 
acres are in woodland and plantations, and the re- 
mainder, nearly 1,300,000 acres, with the exception of 
about 25,000 in inland lakes and rivers, is principally 
heath, and hill and mountain pasture. The soil of the 
arable land is extremely various : along the coasts, it is 
generally a light gravelly loam, resting upon a clayey 
bottom, and differing in fertility in different places ; on 
the lower grounds, in some parts, is a mixture of clayey 
loam ; in others, a kind of black mossy earth ; and on 
the slopes of the hills, a light gravelly soil. The system 
of agriculture is moderately improved, and the rotation 
plan of husbandry is growing into use ; the chief crops 



ARGY 



A RN G 



are, oats, bear, and potatoes, with peas and beans, and va- 
rious green crops ; the cultivation of turnips has been 
extensively introduced. Wheat of excellent quality has 
been raised, but, though the soil, in many parts, is favour- 
able to its growth, very little attention is paid to its cul- 
ture ; flax, for domestic use, is raised in considerable 
quantities. The cattle are principally of the black West 
Highland breed, and, being in much demand, on account 
of the superior beef they afford, are reared to a great 
extent throughout the county, especially in the islands, 
though sheep form the principal article of trade. The 
sheep-farms are, in general, very extensive, and the stock 
is principally of the Linton or black-faced breed, though 
gradually giving place to the Cheviot breed, which has 
been lately introduced, and found equally well adapted 
to the pastures, and more profitable. The rateable 
annual value of the county is £"261,920. 

The chief Substrata are, limestone, which is very abun- 
dant, and freestone of various kinds and colours, of 
which some fine specimens are found in Cantyre, and 
also in Glenorchy. Slate is abundant in the neighbour- 
hood of Easdale, and is also wrought in the district of 
Appin : near Inverary, is a kind of granite which is 
susceptible of a high polish, resembling spotted marble ; 
and there are quarries of marble in Lorn, on the estate 
of Lochiel, and in the island of Tiree, which last is of 
very beautiful quality. Coal is found near Campbelltown, 
and is wrought for the supply of that district ; and 
there are indications of coal in Morven, and in the isle 
of Mull. Lead-ore has been wrought at Strontian, and 
found in other places ; a copper-mine has been opened 
in the parish of Kilmalie, and there are, in the moun- 
tains, numerous vestiges of ancient iron-works, though 
no ore of sufficient quality to remunerate the expense 
of working it, is now found. The greater portion of the 
county was anciently covered with Woods, of which there 
are at present but very small remains, though the defi- 
ciency has been partly supplied by modern plantations, 
especially on the lands of the Duke of Argyll. The 
soil and climate are well adapted to the growth of tim- 
ber of every kind ; the most flourishing at present are, 
oak, beech, elm, plane, birch, ash, chesnut, larch, and 
Scotch, spruce, and silver firs ; and within the last few 
years plantations have been gradually increasing. The 
principal manufacture is that of wool, which has been 
made into carpets, under the auspices of the Duke 
of Argyll ; but it is limited to a very small extent. The 
spinning of flax is carried on, solely for domestic use ; 
there are several distilleries, tanneries, and some bleach- 
fields ; and the herring-fishery in Loch Fine is on 
an extensive scale. Facility of intercourse has been 
obtained by the formation of roads in various directions, 
and canals ; and from the inlets from the sea, every 
advantage of steam navigation is obtained. There are 
numerous remains of ancient castles, forts, Danish en- 
campments, monasteries, and other religious houses, 
cairns, tumuli, Druidical remains, vitrified forts, many 
Fingalian relics, and other monuments of antiquity, all 
jf which are noticed in the articles on the several loca- 
lities where they occur. The county confers the title of 
Duke on the celebrated family of Campbell, who were 
created Earls of Argyll in 1457, advanced to the Mar- 
quessate in 1641, and made Dukes in 1701, and who 
also bear several dignities named after different divisions 
of the county. 
70 " 



ARINANGOUR, a village, in the island of Coll, 
parish of Tiree and Coll, county of Argyll ; con- 
taining about 170 inhabitants. This place, situated 
about the middle of the island of Coll, contains the only 
harbour of any note in that portion of the parish ; it 
has a pier, and is considered a safe retreat for shipping, 
but has the disadvantage of a rocky entrance. 

ARMADALE, a village, in the parish of Bathgate, 
county of Linlithgow, 2 miles (W.) from Bathgate ; 
containing 121 inhabitants. This place derives its name 
from an estate in the vicinity, which once belonged to a 
senator in the college of justice whose title was Lord 
Armadale. The road from Linlithgow to Whitburn runs 
through the village, and it is also situated on the road 
between Edinburgh and Glasgow, from which cities it is 
nearly equidistant ; the population is employed in agri- 
culture, and in the mines and quarries of the neigh- 
bourhood. 

ARNGASK, a parish, in the counties of Fife, Kin- 
ross, and Perth, 6 miles (N. N. E.) from Kinross ; 
containing, with the villages of Damhead and Duncrivie, 
750 inhabitants. This parish constitutes a portion of the 
Ochil hills, and is situated around the junction of the 
counties of Perth, Fife, and Kinross, at Damhead. It is 
nearly of a circular figure, and extends in length four 
miles from east to west, and about three from north to 
south, comprising 61 16 acres, of which 4590 are ara- 
ble, 1291 uncultivated, and the remainder plantations, 
formed chiefly within the last thirty years. The surface 
is in general hilly, consisting of numerous undulations 
and smooth round eminences varying from 600 to 800 
feet in height above the level of the sea. Some are pic- 
turesque and well-wooded, and among the many points 
commanding extensive and interesting views, that of 
Cairn-Geddes, a part of the lands of Fordel, is especially 
worthy of notice, as affording a diversified and magnifi- 
cent prospect, embracing the Frith of Tay, the Carse of 
Gowrie, the Sidlaw hills, the upper portion of Strathearn, 
and a large section of the Grampians. The Farg, a fine 
trout-stream much frequented by anglers, rising near 
the western boundary, separates the parish, for more 
than a mile, from that of Forgandenny, and divides, in 
its onward course till it reaches Damhead, the counties 
of Perth and Kinross, after which it runs between the 
counties of Perth and Fife, till it departs from this loca- 
lity, in about the centre of the celebrated and romantic 
glen to which it gives its name. 

The uncultivated part of the lands contains large 
tracts of a moorish or heathy soil ; but the soil which 
prevails in other portions is mostly a good black loamy 
earth, partially formed from the decomposition of the 
trap or whinstone rocks, and, though light and shallow 
in some places, is generally rich, and produces abun- 
dant crops, consisting of the ordinary sorts of grain, 
including wheat, and peas, potatoes, turnips, and grass 
for hay. In consequence of the introduction of bone 
manure, turnip husbandry has, within these few years, 
been greatly extended, the root being eaten off the 
ground by the sheep, to the decided advantage of the 
soil. The parish contains four mills for grinding corn, 
and twenty-two for threshing, twenty of which are 
worked by horses, one by steam, and the other by water. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £4394, of 
which £1909 are for the Fife portion, £1344 for the 
Kinross portion, and £1141 for that in Perthshire. 



ARRO 



A R RO 



Duncrivie is pleasantly situated at the southern extre- 
mity of the parish ; and Damhead lies in the vale 
through which passes the great north road from Edin- 
burgh to Aberdeen, and has a post-office, established in 
1838, in connexion with Kinross on the south, and 
Bridge of Earn on the north. About eight hand-looms 
are in operation, and there is a saw- mill, worked by 
water. Cattle-fairs are held at Damhead on the last 
Tuesday in April (O. S.), the first Thursday in August, 
and the first Tuesday in October; there is also a cattle- 
market, held from time immemorial, at Lustielaw on 
the third Tuesday in May (O. S.). The parish is in the 
presbytery of Perth and synod of Perth and Stirling, 
and in the joint patronage of Mrs. Wardlaw and Robert 
Low, Esq.; the minister's stipend is £1*8. 19. 10., 
with a manse and offices, built in 1829, and a glebe 
valued at £9. 13. 4. per annum. The church, pleasantly 
and conveniently situated, is a plain substantial edifice, 
built in 1S06, and contained, previously to 1821, 240 
sittings, at which period 140 additional sittings were 
obtained, by the erection of galleries. The parochial 
school affords instruction in Latin and Greek, in addi- 
tion to the usual branches ; the master has a salary of 
£34, including allowance for garden, besides £26 fees. 

ARNPRIOR, a hamlet, in the parish of Kippen, 
county of Perth ; containing 96 inhabitants. It is 
situated to the south of the river Forth, and had an- 
ciently a castle, of which the remains may be traced. 

ARNTULLY, county of Perth. — See Airntully. 

ARNYFOUL, a hamlet, in the parish of Glammis, 
county of Forfar ; containing 73 inhabitants. 

ARRAN, an island, in the county of Bute ; com- 
prising the parishes of Kilbride and Kilmory, and con- 
taining 6241 inhabitants. This island, called Glotta 
Astuarium by the Romans, is situated in the Frith of 
Clyde, between the coast of Ayrshire, which is on the 
east, distant about thirteen miles, and Cantyre, in Ar- 
gyllshire, lying to the west, and distant about six miles. 
It is of an oval form, indented by bays, and thirty miles 
in length, and fifteen in its greatest breadth ; the sur- 
face throughout is rugged and mountainous, and inter- 
sected with mossy glens, whence streams, flowing from 
the heights, make their course to the sea. There are 
several safe and commodious harbours, of which that of 
Lamlash, on the east side, will afford good anchorage to 
several hundred vessels ; and the Cock of Arran, on the 
northern extremity, is a well-known landmark. The 
higher parts of the island are rocky and sterile, and 
generally covered with fern and heath, but in the valleys, 
and in the vicinity of the lakes, which are five in number, 
the soil is moderately fertile, though not well cultivated. 
Coal and limestone are said to exist ; freestone, iron- 
stone, and marble are abundant, and jasper has been 
found on Goat-Fell, a hill above 3000 feet in height. 
There are several cairns, and some remains of Druidical 
edifices, many ruins of ancient fortresses, and some 
natural caves, remarkable for their great extent ; and 
various places exhibit marks of volcanic fire. Arran is 
the property of the Duke of Hamilton, and gives the 
title of Earl to his grace, who has an ancient seat here, 
called Brodick Castle. — See Kilbride, and Kilmory. 

ARROCHAR, a parish, in the county of Dumbar- 
ton, 22 miles (N. N. W.) from Dumbarton, and 22 
(E. S. E.) from Inverary; containing 580 inhabitants. 
The name of this place, which, at different times, has 
71 



been variously spelt, is derived from a Gaelic term sig- 
nifying "high,'' or " hilly," in reference to the nature of 
the ground. The parish is remarkable for the magnifi- 
cence of its scenery, and is much resorted to by tourists 
on account of the peculiar and numerous attractions 
which it presents, as well as from the excellence of the 
inns, the good order of the roads, and other advantages. 
It was disjoined from the parish of Luss in 1658 ; it is 
about 15 miles long, and 3 broad, and contains 31,000 
acres, including two farms named Ardleish and Doune, 
which lie on the east side of Loch Lomond, and oc- 
cupy the north-eastern extremity of the parish, almost 
separated from the main portion by the lake. The 
parish is bounded on the north by the parish of 
Strathfillan, in Perthshire ; on the south, by the water 
of Douglas, and part of Luss ; on the east, by Loch 
Lomond ; and on the west, by Loch Long, and part of 
Argyllshire. The surface is altogether hilly and 
mountainous, and has a line of coast bounding Loch 
Lomond, of about 14 miles, and a coast of three 
miles extending along Loch Long ; on the Lomond side, 
the shore is fiat and sandy, and diversified by numerous 
bays and headlands. The mountain of Ben-Vorlich, 
clothed with rich pasture, is the most elevated in the 
parish, rising 3000 feet above the sea ; and this spot is 
frequented by white hares, ptarmigan, and various wild 
fowls. There are some beautiful cascades, and four 
rivers, none of which are of large extent ; viz., the 
Falloch, the Inveruglass, the Douglas, and the Linnhe, 
the three first of which run into Loch Lomond, and the 
last into Loch Long. Loch Lomond, which is 24 
miles long, in some parts 7 broad, and varies in depth 
from 60 to 100 fathoms, abounds with bold and ro- 
mantic scenery, and is considered the finest sheet of 
water throughout the country ; it contains salmon, 
trout, pike, perch, eels, and powans, generally called 
fresh-water herrings. Loch Long is about 21 miles in 
length, and 1^ or 2 in breadth, and its depth is from 10 
to 20 fathoms ; the fish found in it are, halibut, soles, 
flounders, whitings, skate, lythe, sethe, cod, salmon, 
trout, herrings, &c. Its banks, in some parts, exhibit 
fine picturesque breaks, especially at the opening of 
Loch Goil, and towards its head, the scenery is equal to 
any part of Lomond. The soil, except in some dis- 
tricts, is thin and poor, and only about 300 or 400 acres 
are arable ; a considerable number of acres are under 
wood, and on the shores of Loch Lomond, are large 
plantations of oak, which are annually thinned ; the 
remaining land consists of indifferent pasture. The 
sheep are the black-faced, and the cattle comprise both 
the native breed and those introduced from Argyllshire ; 
some waste, to the extent of about 50 acres, has been 
reclaimed within these few years, but the inclosures and 
farm-buildings generally are in an indifferent state. The 
rateable annual value of the parish is £3096. The 
rocks consist, for the most part, of mica slate ; in some 
parts, are traces of iron-ore, and there are two whin- 
stone quarries near the whinstone dyke between Lochs 
Lomond and Long. 

The parish contains two small villages, in addition to 
which, within the last few years, a considerable number 
of houses have been erected, for sea-bathing visiters; and 
among the inns is one which ranks as one of the most 
commodious and excellent in Scotland, and which was, 
before being converted to its present use, the mansion of 



ASHK 



ASSY 



the chief of the Macfarlane clan. During the summer 
months, a coach runs daily from Inverary to Tarbet, in 
the morning, and returns in the afternoon ■ and vehi- 
cles of every description may be obtained at the inns of 
Tarbet and Arrochar, whither visiters come from all parts, 
to view the scenery in the neighbourhood of the lakes. 
Steam-boats run on Lochs Lomond and Long, from 
May till October ; another plies between Arrochar and 
Glasgow ; and ships with coal and lime from Glasgow 
and Ireland, frequently come to the head of Loch Long, 
whence, also, wool is often sent to the market at Liver- 
pool. A herring-fishery is carried on in Loch Long, 
with considerable profit, during the months of June and 
July, the boats employed advancing successively to 
Loch Fine and the neighbourhood of Campbelltown, 
where they fish to the end of the season ; each boat 
contains about three men, and produces, in the season, 
from £30 to £60. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject 
to the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glasgow 
and Ayr ; the patronage belongs to Sir James Colqu- 
houu, Bart., and the minister's stipend is £241, with a 
glebe worth £13 a year, and a manse, erected in 1S37. 
The church, situated in a corner of the parish, was 
built in 1733, and is in indifferent repair, and of insuffi- 
cient size, containing only 300 sittings. A place of 
worship has been erected in connexion with the Free 
Church. There is a parochial school, in which the 
ordinary branches of education are taught, and of which 
the master has the maximum salary of £34. 4., with 
£8 fees, and a house ; and another school, privately 
endowed, affords instruction in the classics, mathe- 
matics, and the other usual subjects, by a master who 
receives £25 from the resident proprietor of land, and 
about £15 or £20 fees. 

ARTHURLEE, CROSS, a village, in the quoad 
sacra parish of Barrhead, parish of Neilston, Upper 
ward of the county of Renfrew ; containing 663 in- 
habitants. This place owes its origin to the establish- 
ment of a bleachfield in its vicinity, by a gentleman 
named Adair, about the year 1773; it was chosen by 
him as a most suitable situation for works of this nature, 
and his example having been followed by others, the 
neighbourhood has since become a considerable bleach- 
ing district. The village is situated in the north-eastern 
part of the parish, and not far distant from Barrhead. 

ARTHURLEE, WEST, a village, in the parish of 
Neilston, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, ^ a 
mile (VV.) from Barrhead; containing 441 inhabitants. 
This village, which is situated a little to the west of the 
road between Neilston and Barrhead, owes its origin 
to the introduction of the cotton manufacture, and is 
chiefly inhabited by persons employed in the bleaching 
and printing establishments connected with that trade. 

ASHK1RK, a parish, partly in the county of Sel- 
kirk, but chiefly in the district of Hawick, county of 
Roxburgh, 6 miles (S.) from Selkirk; containing 563 
inhabitants. This place, of which the name is said to 
have been derived from the great number of ash-trees 
with which the neighbourhood abounded, and of which 
a considerable number is still remaining, was formerly 
part of the see of Glasgow,' and the occasional residence 
of the bishops, who had a palace here, of which some 
vestiges might lately be traced in a field retaining the 
name of Palace Walls. The parish is about seven miles 
in length, and three miles and a half in breadth, and 



comprises about 3000 acres under cultivation, 400 in 
woods and plantations, and a considerable portion of 
waste. The surface is generally hilly, with portions of 
level land in the intervals between the hills and the 
narrow valley of the Ale. The Ale has its source 
in the lakes of Alemoor and Shaws, and, flowing 
through the parish, in a direction from west to east, 
divides it into two nearly equal portions ; it abounds 
with trout of excellent quality, and a few sea-trout, and 
small salmon, are occasionally taken in it, after floods. 
There were formerly numerous lakes in the parish, but, 
from the practice of draining the lands, many of them 
have disappeared. The principal now remaining are, 
Essenside loch, covering about twenty acres of ground ; 
and the Sheilswood loch, and Headshaw loch, both of 
which are of smaller dimensions. They all abound with 
perch, pike, and trout ; and afford good sport to the 
angler. Synton Moss, once a very extensive lake, has 
been completely drained, for the sake of obtaining the 
marl and peat with which it abounded, and which have 
been successfully applied to the improvement of the 
lands. In this moss, many interesting organic remains 
are occasionally dug up. 

The soil is generally light ; in some places clay, 
mixed with gravel, and in others a rich loam ; the chief 
crops are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips. 
The system of agriculture is improved, and the farm- 
houses are in general substantial and comfortable ; 
some few dairy-farms are managed with great attention, 
and the butter produced here is of excellent quality. 
Considerable attention is paid to the rearing of live 
stock, upon which the main dependence is placed ; the 
sheep are almost exclusively of the Cheviot breed, with 
occasionally a mixture of the Cheviot and Leicestershire ; 
and the cattle are of the short-horned breed, which are 
found to be the best adapted to the lands. A few 
Highland cattle are pastured here during the winter. 
There appears to have been formerly a great abundance 
of natural wood, but, at present, very little ancient tim- 
ber remains : the plantations are, larch, and spruce and 
Scotch firs, intermixed with oak, ash, elm, and other 
forest trees ; they are all of modern formation, and are 
in a thriving state. The rateable annual value of the 
Roxburgh portion of the parish is £3483, and of the 
Selkirk portion, £1510. The substratum is chiefly 
greywacke, of which the hills are mainly composed, and 
clay-slate. The parish is in the presbytery of Selkirk 
and synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the minister's 
stipend is £205. 12. 9., with a manse, and a glebe valued 
at £28 per annum ; patron, the Earl of Minto. The 
church, erected in 1791; is a plain substantial edifice, 
and is adapted for about 200 persons. A place of wor- 
ship has been erected in connexion with the Free Church. 
The parochial school is attended by about 80 children ; 
the master's salary is £34, with £16 fees, and a house 
and garden. There are remains of two Danish encamp- 
ments on the lands of Castleside, one of which is in 
good preservation, but the other is almost obliterated by 
the plough. On the lands of Salineside was formerly a 
very strong tower, of which there are scarcely more 
than some slight vestiges ; and in various parts of the 
parish, are remains of ancient encampments. 

ASSYNT, a parish, in the county of Sutherland, 
30 miles (N. W. by W.) from Dornoch ; containing, 
with the quoad sacra district of Stocr, and the village of 



ASSY 



ATHE 



Lochinver, 317S inhabitants. This place, which is sup- 
posed to take its name from its irregular boundary line, 
the Gaelic term, as agus innte, signifying " out and in," 
was once a forest of the ancient thanes of Sutherland, 
one of whom gave it in vassalage to Mac-Kry-Cul, who 
held that part of the coast of Coigach, afterwards called 
the village of Ullapool, as a reward for his having re- 
covered a great quantity of cattle that had been carried 
off from the county of Sutherland, by the Scandina- 
vians, who had also burnt the great fir forests on this 
and the neighbouring coast. Mac-Kry-Cul's family, by 
the disasters of war, being reduced to one heir female, 
she was given in marriage to a younger son of McLeod, 
laird of Lewis, with the consent of the Thane of Suther- 
land, who made this parish over to the newly-married 
couple, with its superiority, and after this event, there 
were fourteen successive lairds of the name of McLeod. 
About 1660, the parish and its superiority became the 
property of the Earl of Seaforth, from whom it passed 
to a younger son of his family, whose successors pos- 
sessed it for three or four generations ; and it was 
afterwards purchased by Lady Strathnaver, who pre- 
sented it to her noble grandson, William, Earl of Suther- 
land, from whom it has descended to the present Duke 
of Sutherland. 

The extreme length of the parish is about 36 miles, 
and its greatest breadth 18; it contains 97,000 acres. 
It is in the north-west part of the county, and divided 
on the north from the parish of Eddrachillis, in the Reay 
country, by an arm of the sea called the Kyle, and 
is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean. The 
coast, which is about 20 miles in extent, is bold, rocky, 
and dangerous, and has several extensive and interest- 
ing caves ; but in some places, is a fine sandy bottom, 
with safe landing. There are numerous islands attached 
to the parish, some of which are merely bare rocks, 
affording neither pasture nor shelter ; the most consi- 
derable is that of Oldney, which is about a mile long, 
and a quarter of a mile wide, and is used for the pas- 
turage of sheep ; the other islands are, Crona, Soya, and 
Klett. The appearance of the district is altogether wild 
and mountainous, and its scenery romantic ; the most 
remarkable heights are, Benmore, Cuniack, Suilvhen, 
and Cannisb, of which Benmore, the highest mountain, 
rises about 3230 feet above the level of the sea. The 
hills, also, are very numerous, and most of them abound 
with springs of excellent water. There are several fine 
lakes, among which that of Assynt is pre-eminent ; it is 
above seven miles long, and about a mile broad, with 
banks in most places covered with brushwood, and is a 
fresh-water lake, abounding in trout, and distinguished 
for its striking and singularly picturesque scenery. The 
principal part of the parish is employed in sheep-farm- 
ing, to which much attention is paid ; and the larger 
part of the population dwell along the shores, and avail 
themselves of the advantages offered for fishing, from 
which, together with their small allotments of land, they 
draw their subsistence. Game is plentiful. The rate- 
able annual value of the parish is £1212. There is 
some sandstone rock, but limestone is the prevailing 
formation, of which an immense ridge, on the Stron- 
chrubie farm, extends about a mile and a half, overhang- 
ing the public road, being mantled, in many places, 
with ivy, and forming a covert for birds of prey. 

The village of Lochinver has several good houses and 
Vol. I.— 73 



shops, and near it is a manufactory for preserving 
butcher's meat, fish, and vegetables, fresh, for the pur- 
pose of being carried out to sea; there is a post-office 
here, and another near the church. Excellent roads 
have been formed, extending forty miles in length, as 
well as numerous local roads for parochial use ; at 
Lochinver is a small harbour with a pier, and several 
creeks afford shelter and anchorage. There are two 
small fisheries, let at a moderate rent, and one or two 
vessels belong to Assynt, besides which, several come 
in the herring season, to fish on the coasts, and a few 
to take the disposable produce of the parish, which 
consists chiefly of wool. An annual cattle-fair has been 
recently established at Inchnadaff. The ecclesiastical 
affairs are subject to the presbytery of Dornoch and 
synod of Sutherland and Caithness ; the Duke of 
Sutherland is patron, and the stipend of the minister 
is £158. 6. 8., with a glebe worth about £35. 10. per 
annum, and a manse. The church, a small building, 
seating about 2S0 persons, is inconveniently situated at 
a distance of nine miles from the southern boundary of 
the parish, the great bulk of the population residing at 
distances varying from 12 to IS miles; it was built 
about 60 years since, and has been extensively repaired. 
There are two preaching stations, the one at Lochinver, 
fourteen miles from the church, and the other at Kyle 
side, nearly the same distance, tire services of which are 
performed by the parochial minister ; at Stoer, is a 
government church, built, in 1S29. A place of worship 
has been erected in connexion with the Free Church. 
The parish has a parochial school, of which the master 
receives a salary of £34 ; and several other schools are 
supported by general societies for promoting education. 
Among the antiquities are, Ardvrack Castle, built by 
the Mc Leods, about the year 1590, and now in ruins; 
Calda House, erected by the Mc Kenzies ; and a large 
Druidical temple. 

ATHELSTANEFORD, a parish, in the county of 
Haddington, 3 miles (N. E. by N.) from Haddington, 
and 9 (W.) from Dunbar; containing 991 inhabitants, 
of whom 27-1 are in the village. This place, which is 
noticed by Camden, is said to have derived its name 
from Athelstan, an English warrior, who was killed in 
battle, together with the greater number of his forces, 
about the commencement of the ninth century, and was 
interred here. The parish is about four miles in length, 
and three in breadth, and bounded on the north by the 
streamlet called the Peffer ; the surface is abruptly ir- 
regular, consisting of large tracts of low land, and ele- 
vated ridges of rock, in some places sloping gently 
towards the plain, and in others forming a nearly hori- 
zontal level of considerable height. The scenery is 
greatly diversified, affording, in parts, a striking con- 
trast of richly cultivated fields and barren and rugged 
rocks ; and from the higher grounds are obtained ex- 
tensive and interesting views of the Frith of Forth, 
the Bass rock, and the county of Fife. The lands are 
watered by two streams, of which that called the Peffer 
rises in a meadow in the lowlands, and joins the sea 
below Tynninghame bay ; and the other, flowing west- 
ward, after a course of five miles, falls into the sea at 
Aberlady bay. The channel of the Peffer was widened, 
and made deeper, some years since, on which occasion 
several stags' horns were found, at a depth of nearly 
three feet below the surface of its bed, and large oaks 

L 



AT H E 



AUCH 



were discovered imbedded in moss on the banks, which, 
previously to the practice of draining the lands, were 
nearly covered with the water that stagnated on the 
adjoining woodlands. The number of acres in the pa- 
rish has been estimated at more than 4000, of which 
nearly 3800 are arable, and the remainder, with the 
exception of about 50 acres of hilly pasture, are in 
woods and plantations. The soil has been much im- 
proved by draining, and great quantities of marshy and 
previously unprofitable land have been rendered fertile ; 
the chief crops are, wheat, for which the soil is ex- 
tremely favourable, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips ; 
a considerable number of sheep are reared, and fed prin- 
cipally on turnips. The rateable annual value of the 
parish is £7996. The substrata are mostly whinstone 
and porphyry, of which the rocks consist ; coal is sup- 
posed to exist, but it lies at so great a depth from the 
surface that none has yet been discovered ; some beau- 
tiful specimens of rock crystal are found in the quar- 
ries, which are wrought for building purposes, and for 
the roads. Gilmerton is a spacious and splendid seat: 
the only other residence of note in the parish, is an 
ancient baronial mansion, formerly belonging to the 
earls of Wiuton, a quadrilateral building, of which a 
small part only is now inhabited, and the remainder is 
in ruins ; the principal room is still preserved, and at- 
tached to the house are a large garden and a bowling- 
green. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintend- 
ence of the presbytery of Haddington and synod of 
Lothian and Tweeddale ; Sir David Kinloch, Bart., is 
patron, and the stipend of the incumbent is £262. 0. 7- ; 
the manse is a comfortable residence, and the glebe 
comprises 5 acres, valued at £15 per annum. The old 
church, which belonged to the monastery founded at 
Haddington, by Ada, Countess of Northumberland, 
mother of Malcolm IV., was used till the year 1780, 
when, falling into a dilapidated state, the present church 
was erected, in a more convenient situation, for a con- 
gregation of 500 persons. The parochial school affords 
education to about eighty scholars ; the master has a 
salary of £35. 10., with a house and garden, and the 
fees are £48 ; the schoolroom is one of the best in the 
county. On the spot where Athelstan is said to have 
been buried, a stone coffin was found, by some men who 
were quarrying stone for mending the roads, a few years 
since ; the coffin, consisting of five stones cemented 
together, was lodged in the rock, which had been exca- 
vated for its reception, about two feet below the surface, 
and contained a human skeleton, in a state of almost 
total decomposition. The lands on which the battle of 
Athelstaneford was fought, were anciently given by the 
king of Scotland to the Culdee priory of St. Andrew's, 
in acknowledgment of the victory obtained ; and at the 
Revolution, they were bestowed upon the royal chapel 
of Holyrood House. On the lands constituting the 
barony of Drem, are the remains of a Pictish town, con- 
sisting of various houses built round the brow of a low 
hill of conical form, which had been strongly fortified 
by three tiers of ramparts, with a deep circumvallation 
below ■ these works are supposed to have been thrown 
up as a defence against the Romans, who had a station 
about half a mile distant, on the alleged site of which, 
various Roman relics have been found, including an 
urn of superior workmanship, containing burnt bones. 
74 



There are some remains of the ancient church, built in 
the early part of the 12th century, by Ada, and in which 
service was originally performed by the monks of Had- 
dington. Among the eminent men of the place, has 
been the Rev. Robert Blair, author of The Grave, who 
was, for fifteen years, incumbent, and was interred in 
the churchyard, in which a monument was erected to 
his memory ; his son, the late Robert Blair, lord presi- 
dent of the court of session, was born here, during the 
incumbency of his father. John Home, author of the 
tragedy of Douglas, was incumbent after the death of 
the Rev. Robert Blair ; and Archibald Skirving, an 
eminent portrait painter, who, having perfected himself 
in the study of his profession at Rome, exercised it here 
for many years, with great success, was also a native of 
the parish. 

AUCHANDRYNE, a village, in the parish of Brae- 
mar and Crathie, district of Kincardine O'Neil, 
county of Aberdeen ; containing 174 inhabitants. 

AUCHINBLAE, a village, in the parish of For- 
doun, county of Kincardine, 5 miles (N. by E.) from 
Laurencekirk; containing 643 inhabitants. This place, of 
which the name signifies "the field of blossoms," is situ- 
ated on the banks of the Luther water, and on the side 
of a fine valley, gently sloping to the south. It contains 
several well-built houses, and has risen into considera- 
tion within the last half century, the population finding 
employment from the increase of the trade and manu- 
factures, the principal of which latter are yarn and 
brown linen. Fairs are held in the village in April and 
May, and, during the winter portion of the year, mar- 
kets on every Friday, for the sale of cattle and grain. 
A daily post passes through, on its route between Stone- 
haven and Montrose. 

AUCHINCAIRN, a village, in the parish of Rer- 
rick, stewartry of Kirkcudbright, 7 miles (E.) from 
Kirkcudbright; containing 373 inhabitants. It is seated 
at the north-western extremity of the fine bay of Auch- 
incairn, or Balcarry, which is about two miles in length, 
and one in breadth. The bay has a beach of smooth 
and firm sand, and small vessels may load and unload 
on any part of it ; on the west side, is a large natural 
basin, where ships of burthen find safe anchorage in the 
most stormy weather, and at every point of the wind. 
A penny-post is established here, under the Castle- 
Douglas office. In the village is one of the parochial 
schools, and children are also taught in a Baptist place 
of worship. 

AUCHINCRAW, a village, in the parish of Cold- 
ingham, county of Berwick, 2 miles (N. W.) from 
Ayton ; containing 203 inhabitants. It is situated at 
the boundary of the parish ; and upon the height called 
Warlaw, to the westward, is a camp of oval form, cover- 
ing an area of five or six acres of very poor moorland, 
but respecting which both history and tradition are 
silent. In the village, is a school connected with the 
Burgher dissenting synod. 

AUCHINDOIR and KEARN, a parish, in the district 
of Alford, county of Aberdeen, 36 miles (W. N. W.) 
from Aberdeen; containing 1188 inhabitants. The 
name of Auchindoir, which is of Gaelic origin, and sig- 
nifies " the field of pursuit," is supposed to have been 
applied, in the present case, from the circumstance of 
Luthlac, son of Macbeth, having been pursued through 
the valley of Auchindoir to that of Bogie, where he was 



AUCH 



A U C H 



overtaken and slain by Malcolm ; and the term Kearn 
is said to be a corruption of Cairn, there being a remark- 
able cairn or tumulus in that district, of the history 
of which nothing, however, is known. The two parishes 
were united in 1811, previously to which Kearn was 
joined to Forbes. The length of the habitable part is 
about seven miles, and the breadth nearly the same, and 
the parishes, together, contain about 15,600 acres 
under cultivation, and "2100 under plantation and natu- 
ral wood, besides pasture and waste. The surface is 
varied and irregular, and consists of numerous hills 
and pleasing valleys, ridges, and mountains, some of 
which are covered with wood, and have a considerable 
elevation ; Correen, in the southern quarter, being about 
1350, and the Buck of the Cabrach, in the west, 2377 
feet above the sea. The climate in the higher parts is 
cold and bleak, exposed to severe frosts and heavy falls 
of snow, but in the lower and more sheltered places, it 
is temperate and salubrious. The river Bogie, which is 
formed by the junction of the Craig and Corchinan 
burns, after pursuing a serpentine course of about eleven 
miles, through a fine valley, joins the Doveran at 
Huntly ; it is plentifully supplied with fine trout. The 
Don runs, for about two miles, on the south-eastern 
boundary ; and the small stream of Mossat. divides the 
parish from Kildrummy, on the south. 

The soil presents a considerable variety, consisting 
in some parts of a rich alluvial loam, and in other places 
of clay, with a large proportion of sand and pebbles ; 
in the lower grounds, it is, in general, sharp, dry, and 
fertile, but towards the hills, mossy and poor. The 
quantity of arable land is on the increase, much barren 
land having been reclaimed, and the method of cultiva- 
tion has recently been considerably improved ; the 
houses and cottages, also, are in a much better condition 
than they were thirty years since. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £3600. The plantations are 
numerous and extensive, and comprise trees of all the 
kinds usually reared ; sandstone of excellent quality is 
found, as well as limestone, and whinstone is also in 
great abundance. There are two gentlemen's seats, 
Craig and Druminnor, both of which are of considerable 
antiquity, the former bearing the date 15 IS, and the 
latter, which was once the chief seat of the Forbes 
family, that of the year 1577. Near the castle of Craig, 
is the " Den," a celebrated spot in this part of the 
country, and much resorted to by tourists as an object 
of curiosity, surrounded by scenery of a varied and 
beautifid description. The only village is Lumsden, 
which is of recent growth, and contains about 300 per- 
sons, chiefly traders and handicraftsmen ; but the main 
population of the parish is agricultural, being em- 
ployed in the rural districts in cultivating the land, and 
in rearing cattle, for the sale of which four markets 
are held during the year. Here is a post-office. The 
ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of 
Alford and synod of Aberdeen ; the Earl of Fife is 
patron. The minister's stipend is £158, part of which 
is received from the exchequer ; there is a manse, erected 
in 1843, and the glebe is valued at £10 a year. The 
church, which was built in 1811, accommodates 450 
persons, but is much too small for the population. At 
Lumsden, is a place of worship belonging to the United 
Associate Synod ; a place of worship has been erected 
in connexion with the Free Church, and there is a paro- 
75 



chial school, of which the master has a salary of £30, 
about £20 fees, and a house and garden. The moat or 
mount on which the ancient Castrum Auchindoria?, men- 
tioned by Boethius, seems to have stood, is shown in 
the parish ; and another most interesting relic of anti- 
quity, situated near it, is the old parochial church, which 
is now a venerable ruin, attracting attention from its 
ivy-mantled walls, its fine Saxon gateway, and its 
inscriptions and sculpture. 

AUCHINEARN, OLD and NEW, a village, in the 
parish of Cadder, Lower ward of the county of Lanark ; 
containing 561 inhabitants, chiefly employed in agri- 
culture. A library has been very recently established 
in the village, in which, also, is situated one of the 
parochial schools, endowed with 1000 merks, by the 
late Rev. James Warden. In 1764, Dr. William Leech- 
man, principal of the university of Glasgow, and then 
proprietor of this estate, gave, in trust to the Kirk 
Session, a schoolroom and house for a teacher, with a 
small portion of land, on condition that they should 
appoint a master. The school-house was handsomely 
rebuilt in 1826, by the late Charles Stirling, Esq., 
assisted by Archibald Lamont, Esq., and other heri- 
tors. 

AUCHINLECK, a parish, in the district of Kyle, 
county of Ayr, l-§ mile (N. W.) from Old Cumnock; 
containing 1659 inhabitants, of whom about 600 are 
in the village. This place, of which the Celtic name is 
descriptive of its abounding with stone, is supposed to 
be of considerable antiquity ; but little of its history is 
known, prior to the commencement of the 18th century, 
when the manor, which belonged to a family of the 
same name, becoming forfeited to the crown, was 
granted by James IV. to Thomas Boswell, a branch of 
an ancient family in the county of Fife, ancestor of the 
biographer of Dr. Johnson, and who was killed at the 
battle of Flodden-field. The parish is about sixteen 
miles in length, from east to west, and not more than 
two miles in average breadth, and comprises about 
19,000 acres, of which 5000 are arable, 300 woodland 
and plantations, and 13,000 natural pasture and waste. 
The surface is generally elevated ; and towards the east, 
the hills rise to a height of upwards of 1000 feet, and 
are bleak and sterile. A moss several miles in length, 
called Aird's Moss, nearly in the centre of the parish, 
gives it a barren appearance ; the vale of Glenmore, 
also, of considerable extent, and in a state of nature, 
presents features of wild aspect; but the western portion 
of the parish, being wholly in cultivation, has an air of 
cheerfulness and fertility. The river Ayr, for a small 
space, forms a boundary between this parish and that of 
Muirkirk, and pursues its winding course into the parish 
of Sorn ; aud the Lugar, another river, separates Auchin- 
leck, for about five miles, from Cumnock, and, for about 
two miles, from the parish of Ochiltree, and flows into 
the river Ayr about a mile below this place, near the 
town of Mauchline. 

The soil is various, generally a stiff retentive clay, 
but by draining and good management, has, in many 
parts, been rendered productive ; the chief crops are, 
oats, potatoes, beans, and turnips, and there are a few 
acres of bear, barley, and wheat. Some progress has been 
made in furrow-draining ; and a portion of the mossy 
land has been reclaimed, and brought into cultivation. 
The principal reliance of the farmers is on the dairy, 

L2 



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A U C H 



and a large number of milch cows, mostly of the Ayr- 
shire breed, are kept, and a great many young cattle 
are reared ; the milk is chiefly made into cheese of the 
Dunlop kind, and sent to the markets of Glasgow and 
other towns. A considerable number of sheep are also 
fed, of the black-faced breed. The woods contain many 
fine specimens of stately timber of ancient growth, and 
the plantations are in general thriving and ornamental. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £7497- The 
substrata are, limestone, coal, ironstone, sandstone, and 
freestone of various sorts : the limestone and coal have 
been long extensively wrought, and of the former, there 
are two quarries, one on the lands of Auchinleck, pro- 
ducing annually about 50,000 bushels of excellent qua- 
lity, and one at Dalblair, yielding also a fair quantity. 
There is, near these, an inferior kind of coal, which is 
used for the burning of lime. Coal-pits have also been 
opened on the lands of Mr. Alexander, of Ballochmyle, 
on which, as well as on the Auchinleck property, 
steam-engines have been erected ; the seams of coal 
vary in thickness, and in the depth at which they are 
found from the surface, and the average annual produce 
is about S500 tons. Freestone is quarried on the banks 
of the Lugar, and is much esteemed for millstones ; and 
at Wallacetown, is found a stone which is fire-proof. 
The present house of Auchinleck is a handsome mansion 
in the Grecian style, erected by Lord Auchinleck, and is 
situated in a diversified demesne, comprehending much 
beautiful scenery, richly wooded. 

The village is on the road from Glasgow to Carlisle, 
by Kilmarnock : many of the inhabitants are employed 
in weaving, for the manufacturers of Paisley and Glas- 
gow ; the principal articles are light silks and muslins. 
Some females are also employed in flowering muslins, in 
a variety of patterns, for which this neighbourhood is 
celebrated. The manufacture of snuff-boxes is carried 
on to a considerable extent ; it was introduced into this 
place from Cumnock, and the workmen here manufac- 
ture card and needle cases, and ornamental boxes of 
various descriptions. The wood used for this purpose 
is plane-tree, and many of the specimens are painted in 
devices, tartan plaiding, and other patterns, and, being 
well varnished, have a very handsome appearance. They 
are quite equal, in point of workmanship, to those made 
at Laurencekirk, though sold at an inferior price ; 
about sixty dozens are sometimes finished weekly, and 
sent off, chiefly to the London market, but the demand 
for them is very fluctuating. A fair is held on the 
last Tuesday in August, for lambs, and is numerously 
attended. The parish is in the presbytery of Ayr and synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of Sir James 
Boswell, Bart.; the minister's stipend is £161. 1. 11., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum. 
The old church is an ancient edifice, to which an aisle 
was added by Lord Auchinleck, in 1754 ; and under- 
neath it, is the burying-place of the Auchinleck family, 
hewn out of the solid rock A new church has been 
recently erected, near the site of the former ; it is a 
substantial and handsome edifice, adapted for a congre- 
gation of 800 persons. There is a place of worship for 
members of the Associate Synod. The parochial school 
is well attended ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4|., 
with £10 fees, and a house and garden. In the grounds 
of Auchinleck House, are some remains of the ancient 
castle, in a greatly dilapidated condition ; and in the 
75 



upper part of the parish, near the junction of the Gelt 
and Glenmore streams, are slight remains of the castle 
of Kyle, the history of which is involved in great uncer- 
tainty. On the banks of the Ayr, near the confines of 
the parish of Muirkirk, are the vestiges of some old iron- 
works, said to have been established by Lord Cathcart ; 
and it is exceedingly probable that new iron- works will 
shortly be erected in the parish, which abounds with 
ironstone. William Murdoch, of the firm of Bolton 
and Watt, of Soho, near Birmingham, and who first 
applied gas for the illumination of buildings, was a native 
of this parish. 

AUCHINLOCH, a hamlet, in the late quoad sacra 
parish of Chryston, parish of Cadder, Lower ward of 
the county of Lanark, 2 miles (S.) from Kirkintilloch ; 
containing 138 inhabitants. This village has its name 
from a considerable loch now drained, and owes its 
origin to the mines of coal in its immediate vicinity, 
which have been worked, on a moderate scale, by its 
inhabitants, though the quality is scarcely good enough 
to remunerate the expense of obtaining it. There are 
also limestone-quarries, from which are raised materials 
for building and agricultural purposes, and for which 
works have been established at Garnkirk. In the vil- 
lage is a school endowed by Patrick Baird with £300, 
the interest whereof is paid annually to the master. 

AUCHINMULLY, a village, in the parish of Kil- 
syth, county of Stirling, 2 miles (E. N. E.) from 
Kilsyth; containing 212 inhabitants. It is also called 
Lower Banton, and is situated in the east barony divi- 
sion of the parish : on the south, flows the river Kel- 
vin, from which the village is distant about a mile. 

AUCHINRAITH, a hamlet, in the parish of Blan- 
tyre, Middle ward of the county of Lanark ; contain- 
ing 77 inhabitants. It lies to the east of, and is a short 
distance from, the village of Blantyre : the Alston 
family have a handsome seat here. 

AUCHINTIBER, a hamlet, in the parish of Blan- 
tyre, Middle ward of the county of Lanark ; contain- 
ing 73 inhabitants. It is situated in the western part 
of the parish, on which side the Rotten-Calder water 
forms the boundary, and separates the parish from that 
of Kilbride. 

AUCHLEVEN, a village, in the parish of Premnay, 
district of Garioch, county of Aberdeen ; containing 
107 inhabitants. It is seated in the south of the parish, 
and on the road from Insch to Keig, which here crosses 
the river Gaudy, by a light bridge of two arches, built in 
1836. In the village, are three or four engines for 
carding wool ; and cloth is manufactured to a small 
extent. 

AUCHMILLAN, a hamlet, in the parish of Mauch- 
line, district of Kyle, county of Ayr, 2 miles (N. by 
E.) from Mauchline; containing 24 inhabitants. This 
place is situated, equidistantly, between the roads from 
Mauchline to Kilmallock and from Sorn Castle to Gal- 
ston : the number of the population has latterly de- 
clined. 

AUCHMITHIE, a village, in the parish of St. Vi- 
gean's, county of Forfar, 3| miles (N. E.) from Ar- 
broath ; containing 307 inhabitants. It is upon the 
coast, and on a high rocky bank which rises nearly 120 
feet above the sea ; and is irregularly built, but contains 
several good houses, though the dwellings are chiefly 
those of fishermen, who form a large part of the 



A U CH 



A U C H 



population. The harbour is a level beach, formed by an 
opening between the rocks that here surround the coast : 
near the village, is the Gaylet Pot, a remarkable cavern 
into which the sea flows. Divine service is performed 
in a small chapel, by a minister of the Established 
Church. 

AUCHNACRAIG, a village, in the parish of Toro- 
say, island of Mull, county of Argyll, 18 miles (S. E.) 
from Aros. It is situated on the eastern coast of the 
island, and has a post-office establishment, and a regular 
ferry, first to Kerrera, and thence to the main land near 
Oban, affording facility for the transport of horses and 
cattle to the several markets, but the number at pre- 
sent ferried over is not so great as formerly. 

AUCHTERARDER, a town, the seat of a pres- 
bytery, and a parish, in the county of Perth, 545 miles 
(N. W.) from Edinburgh ; containing, with the villages 
of Borland -Park and Smithyhaugh, 3434 inhabitants, of 
whom 206S are in the town. This place anciently 
belonged to the abbey of Inchaffray ; and in 132S, the 
lands were granted, by charter of Robert Bruce, to Sir 
William Montifix, justiciary of Scotland, whose daughter 
and heiress conveyed them, by marriage, to Sir John 
Drummond, with whose descendants they remained till 
their forfeiture, by the participation of that family in the 
rebellion of 1715. During that period of distraction, 
the town was laid waste and burnt by the Pretender's 
army, under the Earl of Mar, in order to check the 
progress of the royal forces. For this injury, indemni- 
fication was promised to the inhabitants, by proclama- 
tion issued from the ancient palace of Scone, in 1716; 
but the only compensation they received was from the 
reigning family, to such of them as had not been con- 
cerned in the rebellion. The commissioners appointed 
to take charge of the forfeited estates, made a survey of 
the barony of Auchterarder, in 1773, by which it ap- 
pears that the inhabitants were in a very distressed con- 
dition, on account of the backward state of agriculture 
and the want of employment, from which, however, they 
have been gradually rising ; and since the purchase of 
the estate by Captain Hunter, the place has rapidly 
improved. 

The town, which, upon disputed authority, is sup- 
posed to have been anciently a royal burgh, is situated 
on the turnpike-road from Glasgow to Perth, and con- 
sists chiefly of one street, more than a mile in length, in 
which are some well-built houses, and numerous others 
of inferior appearance, occupied by weavers and manu- 
facturers. The inhabitants are amply supplied with 
pure water, from a copious spring, conveyed b3 r pipes 
into their houses, mainly through the exertions of Cap- 
tain Aytoun, in 1S32; and a mechanics' institution, in 
which lectures were delivered during the winter months, 
formerly existed in the town. The chief trades are, 
the weaving of cotton for the manufacturers of Glasgow, 
in which more than 500 looms are in constant operation ; 
and the making of shawls, blankets, and other articles 
of the woollen manufacture. There are two breweries 
for ale and beer in operation ; and a branch of the 
Central Bank of Scotland, and a branch of the National 
Savings' Bank, have been established. The town is 
also adequately supplied with gas. A market is held 
on Saturday, and is well supplied with provisions and 
with grain, for which it is the principal mart of the 
district ; and fairs are held on the last Tuesday in 
77 



Mareh, for grain ; the Thursday after the last Tuesday 
in May, for cattle ; the Fridays before the Falkirk trysts 
in August, September, and October, for cattle and 
horses ; and the 6th of December, for cattle and general 
business. The post-office has a tolerable delivery, and 
facility of communication with Edinburgh, Glasgow, 
Perth, and Stirling, is maintained by good roads : a 
survey has been made by subscription, for the construc- 
tion of a railway from Perth to Stirling, which, if car- 
ried into effect, will pass near the town. 

The parish, which includes also the ancient parish 
of Aberuthven, united to it prior to the Reformation, is 
bounded on the north by the river Earn, and extends 
eight miles in length, from north to south, and three 
miles in breadth, from east to west, comprising 13,747 
acres, of which 7176 are arable, about 300 acres wood- 
land and plantations, and the remainder meadow, pas- 
ture, and waste. The surface is hilly, and rises from 
the banks of the Earn to the Ochils, of which the 
highest, Craig Rossie, 2359 feet above the level of the 
sea, is within the limits of the parish. The principal 
rivers are, the Earn, which rises in Loch Earn, and falls 
into the Tay, and the Ruthven, which, after receiving 
the waters of several rivulets descending from the 
Ochils, flows through the parish, and falls into the Earn : 
in the Earn are found salmon and large white and 
yellow trout, and in the Ruthven, a sm;.ll species 
of trout, remarkable for the delicacy of its flavour. 
The soil, in the eastern part of the parish, is light and 
sandy ; in the lower lands, a clayey loam ; and in the 
neighbourhood of the town, a rich black loam ; the 
chief crops are, oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, turnips, 
and peas, with the usual grasses. The system of hus- 
bandry has been greatly improved ; much waste land 
has been reclaimed by embankment, from the overflow- 
ing of the Earn, and a considerable stimulus is afforded 
by the premiums awarded at an annual ploughing- 
match, by the agricultural society of the parish. Cows 
of the Ayrshire breed are kept on the dairy-farms ; the 
cattle on the pastures are generally the Teeswater, and 
on the lower lands, sheep of the Leicestershire breed 
have been introduced. The rateable annual value of 
the parish is £8600. The substrata are mostly of the 
old red sandstone formation, grey slate of good quality 
for roofing, and limestone, which, from the scarcity of 
fuel, is not much wrought ; a search has been made for 
coal, but without success. There is little old wood now 
remaining ; the plantations, which are principally of 
modern date, are chiefly larch and oak. Auchterarder 
House is a handsome mansion in the Elizabethan style, 
recently erected, and situated in grounds that have been 
greatly improved. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superinten- 
dence of the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of 
Perth and Stirling ; the minister's stipend is £199. 14.2., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £17 per annum; 
patron, the Earl of Kinnoull. The church, rebuilt in 
17S4, and enlarged in 1S11, is a plain structure, situated 
in the town, and containing 930 sittings. At Aberuth- 
ven, is the mausoleum of the Graham family, in which 
are several coffins containing the remains of departed 
dukes of Montrose, and in the vault beneath, have been 
interred many of their ancestors. There are places of 
worship for members of the Free Church, and of the 
Relief and United Secession Synods. The parochial 



AUG II 



AUCH 



school is well attended ; the master has a salary of 
£34. 4. 4., with a house, and an allowance of £2 in lieu 
of a garden ; the fees average about £40 per annum. 
There is also a school, for which a building was erected 
in 1811, by John Sheddan, Esq., who endowed it with 
£1000, the interest of which is paid to the master, on 
condition of his teaching twelve children gratuitously. 
To the north of the town, are the ruins of a building 
supposed to have been a hunting-seat of Malcolm Can- 
more ; the walls, which are of great thickness, have 
been nearly demolished for building materials. East- 
ward of these ruins, are the remains of the ancient 
church of St. Mungo, formerly the parish church, the 
cemetery of which is still used as a place of sepulture by 
the parishioners ; and in digging the foundation for the 
present church, a coin of the Emperor Titus Vespasian 
was found, in a very perfect state. 

AUCHTERDERRAN, a parish, in the district of 
Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, 6 miles (N. W. by W.) 
from Kirkcaldy; containing 1913 inhabitants, of whom 
770 are in the village of Lochgelly. This parish is 
about six miles in length, and three in breadth ; the 
surface is mostly flat, though varying in elevation, the 
lands near Lochgelly being more than 100 feet above 
the general level. The river Ore, which has its source 
in the parish of Ballingry, flows through this parish, 
in its course to the Leven, and has two bridges, each of 
one arch ; the scenery is greatly varied, in some parts 
dreary, and in others richly ornamented with planta- 
tions, especially near the lake of Lochgelly, a large 
sheet of water about three miles in circumference, the 
shores of which, sometimes wooded, have a beautiful 
appearance. The soil is chiefly clay, interspersed with 
sand, but in several places are tracts of black loam, 
producing abundant crops ; about one-third of the land 
is in pasture, about 500 acres wood, and the remainder 
arable, in good cultivation. The system of husbandry 
has been greatly improved, under the auspices of the 
late Lord Minto and other of the landed proprietors ; 
a considerable tract of waste was converted into rich 
arable land, by the late proprietor of Raith, and is 
now one of the most productive farms in the parish. 
The crops are, wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, beans, and 
peas ; the cattle are of the black Fifeshire breed, and 
much attention is paid to their improvement ; the farm- 
buildings are commodious, and the lands, which are 
well drained, are generally inclosed with stone dykes. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £501S. There 
is very little natural wood, and the plantations are 
mostly of recent growth; about 15 Scotch acres of 
moss have been lately planted with Scotch firs, which 
are thriving well. The substratum is mainly whinstone; 
limestone of excellent quality is quarried in several 
places, and coal is every where abundant. The coal- 
mines at Cluny, belonging to Mr. Ferguson, are very 
productive ; about 70,000 loads are annually raised, for 
the supply of the neighbourhood, and more than 70 
persons are employed in the works. The mines on 
Lord Minto's lands of Lochgelly produce 50,000 loads 
annually, and afford constant occupation to about fifty 
persons ; and the works at Dundonald, belonging to 
R. W. Ramsay, Esq., produce about 7000 loads. The 
parish is in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of 
Fife; the minister's stipend is £237. II. 10., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum ; patrons, 
78 



the Boswell family, of Balmuto. The church was built 
in 1789, and is situated near the east side of the 
parish. There is a place of worship for Seceders, in 
the village of Lochgelly. The parochial school is at- 
tended by nearly 100 scholars ; the master has a salary 
of £34. 4. 5., with £25 fees, and a good house. 

AUCHTERGAVEN, a parish, in the county of 
Perth, S§ miles (N. by W.) from Perth ; containing, 
with the villages of Bankfoot, Carnie-Hill, and Water- 
loo, and part of Stanley, 3366 inhabitants. This place 
was distinguished, in former times, as the scene of some 
fierce contentions between the Bishop of Dunkeld and 
Sir James Criehton, of Strathford, in this parish, who 
had forcibly taken possession of the lands of Little 
Dunkeld, belonging to that see. In the rebellion of 
1745, Lord Nairne, who owned considerable estates 
here, embarked in the cause of the Pretender, whom he 
joined at Perth, and on his defeat accompanied him to 
the continent, where he continued till his death. The 
title, upon his attainder, became forfeited ; and the 
splendid baronial mansion which he had nearly com- 
pleted, to replace the former that had been destroyed 
by fire, was sold, with the estates, and afterwards taken 
down by the Duke of Atholl, who became the proprietor, 
by purchase. The parish, which derives its name from 
a Celtic term descriptive of its situation, is about ten 
miles in length, and of very irregular form, varying 
from less than two to six miles in breadth ; it is 
bounded on the east by the river Tay, and on the west 
by a brook which separates it from Mullion, a detached 
portion of the parish of Redgorton. It comprehends, 
within its natural limits, an isolated tract four miles in 
length, but of very small breadth, called Tullybeagles, 
belonging to the parish of Metbven. 

The surface is agreeably diversified with hills and 
dales, rising gradually from the banks of the Tay, to a 
lofty range on the west and north-west, forming a por- 
tion of the Grampian heights, of which the highest 
within the parish is Birnam Hill, 1300 feet above the 
sea ; the other hills are, Craig-Obney, Craig-Gibbon, 
Tullybelton, and Corrody hills, which are not greatly 
inferior in elevation. On one of these hills, still called 
" Court Hill," the sheriff is said to have held his court, 
for the trial of a lawless set of banditti who committed 
great depredation on the lands ; and some trees on 
which the men were executed, are styled " Hanged 
Men's Trees." Numerous streams descend from the 
mountains, affording an abundant supply of water, and 
adding to the beauty of the scenery, which is richly 
embellished with woods and plantations. The principal 
of these streams is the Corral burn, which issues from 
a spring at the base of the Obney hills, flows through 
the village of Bankfoot, and falls into the Garry near 
the church, receiving, in its course, the waters of the 
Aldinny, which rises also in the Obney hills. The 
Garry, issuing from the head of Glen-Garr, flows be- 
tween the hills above Strathban, and, after receiving the 
waters of the Corral, falls into the Ordie at Loak. The 
Ordie has its source in a lake in the hill of Tullybelton, 
and, after traversing the centre of the parish, and re- 
ceiving the Wynnie, which rises in the district of Tully- 
beagles, flows into the Shochie in the parish of Red- 
gorton ; the Shochie, which has its source in Glen-Shee, 
after receiving the above-named tributary streams, falls 
into the Tav. 



A U C H 



AUCH 



The parish comprises 19,-00 acres, of which about 
6000 are arable, and in a high state of cultivation, 
796 woodland, and 1300 pasture. Considerable addi- 
tions have been recently made to the arable and pas- 
ture lands, by improvements in draining and fencing, 
and an advanced state of agriculture, and comparatively 
little of the moor and waste will remain long in an un- 
productive state. The soil is various in the different 
districts, but, in general, is a loam, intermixed with 
sand and pebbles, and, in some of the farms, with large 
boulders of stone ; in the upper lands, it is very reten- 
tive of moisture, and in the lower grounds comparatively 
dry and light. The principal crops are, oats, barley, 
wheat, potatoes, and turnips ; bone-dust has been in- 
troduced for manure, on the turnip lands, with very 
great success. Much attention is paid to the rearing of 
cattle, which are mostly the Ayrshire, with a cross of 
the short-horned breed, and some few of the Angus- 
shire; the sheep are nearly all of the Scotch black-faced 
kind, which feed in the hills, and a few of the Leicester- 
shire, which are pastured on the low lands. The rate- 
able annual value of the parish is £9S96. The woods 
mainly consist of oak, common and mountain ash, elm, 
and beech, and the plantations of larch, and spruce and 
Scotch firs ; along the banks of the Tay, are some re- 
markably fine beech-trees. "The substratum, in the 
lower lands, is chiefly gravel of very great depth, inter- 
sected by a seam of whinstone, which is quarried for 
mending the roads, and alternated with strata of red 
sandstone ; the hills are principally of clay-slate and 
greywacke, in which masses of quartz are found. At 
Glen-Shee is a quarry of slate, of good quality for roof- 
ing; there are two varieties, blue and grey, the latter of 
which is the more durable : slate of a similar kind was 
formerly quarried at Obney and at Tullybeagles. The 
sandstone is quarried for building purposes, at Stanley, 
and in other parts of the parish ; the finest quarry is 
at Speedy Hill ; the stone found here, is of greenish 
hue, very compact, and susceptible of a fine polish, and 
was employed in the erection of the new castle of Dun- 
keld. Stanley House, an ancient mansion to which re- 
peated additions have been made, and which is greatly 
modernised, is beautifully situated on the shore of the 
Tay, embosomed in a richly-wooded demesne, contain- 
ing many stately trees : Airlyvvight House is a hand- 
some residence of modern erection, on elevated ground 
commanding an extensive prospect, and forms an inter- 
esting and very prominent feature in the landscape. 

A considerable number of the inhabitants are em- 
ployed in weaving, for the manufactures of Blairgowrie, 
Dundee, Arbroath, Cupar, and Newburgh ; the principal 
fabrics are white linens and dowlas, and in the weav- 
ing of these, and in spinning and winding, about 300 
persons are engaged, of whom a large portion are 
females. More than 1000 persons are employed in the 
Stanley cotton-works, which are separately described ; 
there are five corn and two lint mills. The high road 
from Edinburgh to Inverness passes, for five miles, 
through the parish. A penny-post has been established 
at Bankfoot, which forwards letters to Perth daily ; and 
a fair is held in the village of Auchtergaven, on the 
second Friday in November, for the sale of cattle, sheep, 
and horses, and for agricultural produce. The eccle- 
siastical affairs are under the superintendence of the 
presbytery of Dunkeld and synod of Perth and Stirling ; 
79 



patron, the Crown. The parish comprises the small 
ancient parish of Logiebride, which was united to it, 
by act of parliament, in 1618, and subsequently severed 
from it, by the Bishop of Dunkeld, but again united at 
the period of the Revolution in the 17th century ; the 
church of Logiebride stood on the bank of the Ordie, 
but has long since disappeared, though the ancient 
cemetery is still used as a place of sepulture. The 
stipend of the incumbent is £179- 6. 4.; the manse 
is a plain building, erected within the last twenty 
years, and the glebe lands are valued at £15 per annum. 
The church, situated on an eminence rising from the 
road between Dundee and Perth, is a plain substantial 
edifice, with a western tower, added by the Duke of 
Atholl, and is adapted for a congregation of 1200 per- 
sons. There are places of worship for members of the 
Free Church, and of the United Seceders' and Relief 
Synods. The parochial school affords a liberal course of 
instruction ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4^., 
with a house and garden, and the fees average about 
£15 per annum. On the farm of Middle Blelock, and at 
Obney, are some large upright stones, concerning which 
nothing authentic is known. A vitrified fort has been 
discovered on Obney Hill ; and near the ruins of 
an old chapel, at Tullybeagles, ancient coins have been 
discovered, which are in the cabinet of the Literary and 
Antiquarian Society of Perth, Human bones have 
been found near the site of another chapel, on the 
lands of Berryhill farm, in the same district, on the 
banks of the Ordie. Near Stanley, are the remains of 
a round tower called Inverbervie, or Inchbervis, which 
is said to have been originally a religious house, and 
a cell to the abbey of Dunfermline ; and on the 
wester-town of Kinglands, is a cairn, which has not 
been yet explored. 

AUCHTERHOUSE, a parish, in the county of 
Forfar, 7 miles (N. W. by N.) from Dundee ; contain- 
ing, with the villages of Dronley and Kirkton, 769 inha- 
bitants. This parish, the name of which is of uncertain 
derivation, is nearly of triangular form, and includes 
the southern range of the hill of Sidlaw, that eminence 
separating it from Strathmore ; and along its southern 
boundary runs the Dighty water, which falls into the 
Tay, near the influx of the latter into the German Ocean. 
It has an undulated surface, covering about 5450 acres, 
of which 3567 are under cultivation, 1406 wood, and 
the remainder hill pasture. The ground rises from 
south to north, and the acclivities are under cultivation 
to the spot where the church stands, S00 feet above the 
level of the sea ; but, more northerly, the land rises 
considerably, reaching, at the White-Sheets, one of the 
Sidlaw hills, and the highest part of the parish, to about 
1400 feet above the high- water mark at Dundee, and is 
there only fit for pasture and plantations. The burn of 
Dronley, and that of Auchterhouse, turn several mills 
in their separate courses from the west and north- 
west, before their junction at the village of Dronley, after 
which, the united streams take the name of Dighty, for 
the rest of their passage to the ocean. The climate, in 
the higher district, is cold and bracing ; in the lower 
division it has been much improved, within these few 
years, by extensive draining, and is pure and salubrious. 
The soil of the uncultivated portions, with slight ex- 
ceptions, consists of a thin moorish earth, lying on a 
retentive tilly subsoil, supported by a substratum of 



AUCH 



A UCH 



sandstone ; and the land under tillage is mostly a black 
mould, in some places sandy, resting on till or marl, 
producing, under skilful management, good average 
crops of oats and barley, with the usual green crops, 
and sometimes wheat, though this last has been nearly 
discontinued, not having in general succeeded. The 
dairy is much attended to ; subsoil-ploughing and 
furrow-draining are extensively practised, with great 
advantage ; and, by the kindly feeling and steady co- 
operation between landlords and tenants, among many 
other improvements, nearly 500 acres of moor, moss, 
and bog have been reclaimed, within the present cen- 
tury, and now produce fair crops. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £5316. 

The soil, throughout the parish, is underlaid with 
sandstone, very near the surface, and the Sidlaw hill 
consists of the same rock, occasionally intersected with 
trap dykes, and supplying a useful material for many 
purposes ; a quarry is in operation on the estate of 
Scotstown, giving employment to five or six hands. 
Plantations comprising larch, spruce, Scotch fir, elm, 
ash, plane, and beech, have been formed on the hills, and 
on the moors of Dronley and Adamstown, by the Earl of 
Camperdown, to the extent of nearly 300 acres, the 
spruce and Scotch fir, however, alone being likely to 
succeed ; and the Earl of Airlie has planted above 800 
acres of the hill of Sidlaw. The old baronial residence 
of Auchterhouse, the property of the Earl of Airlie, and 
the only mansion in the parish, contains, among its 
other grounds, at a short distance, some very fine 
orchards. Facility of communication is offered by the 
Dundee and Newtyle turnpike-road, running through 
the parish, from the southern to the northern extremity, 
and by the railway between the same places, which, 
entering the parish over Dighty water, on the south- 
east, and leaving it at the north-western limit, has a 
depot near the Milltown of Auchterhouse. The parish 
is in the presbytery of Dundee and synod of Angus and 
Mearns, and in the patronage of the Earl of Airlie ; the 
minister's stipend is about £200, with a manse, and a 
glebe of 7 acres, valued at £15 per annum. The church 
was built in 1775, and consists of portions both old and 
modern ; it has, on the west, a steeple with a bell, and 
on the east a cemetery, very ancient, but in good con- 
dition, containing the remains of some members of 
the Erskine family, and of those of Lyon and Ogilvy. 
The parochial school affords instruction in the usual 
branches ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with 
£20. 12. 4. fees. Near the mansion of Auchterhouse, 
are the ruins of a square building called Wallace Tower, 
supposed to have taken its name from a visit paid here 
to Sir John Ramsay, the proprietor, by the Scottish 
patriot, Sir William Wallace, after lauding at Montrose, 
with his French auxiliaries. Not far from this spot, as 
well as in other parts of the parish, is one of those 
caverns styled " Weems," in which have been found a 
hand-mill and various relics, indicating its former use as 
an abode of men ; and on the south of the hill of Sid- 
law, is a Druidical altar, in good preservation. 

AUCHTERLESS, a parish, in the district of Tur- 
riff, county of Aberdeen, 7 miles (S. by W.) from 
Turriff; containing 1685 inhabitants. The name of 
this place is derived from a Gaelic word signifying, " a 
cultivated field on the side of a hill," which application 
of the term is favoured by the general appearance of the 
80 



surface. The parish, which is of an irregular oblong 
figure, is about 8 miles in length, and 4 in breadth, and 
contains nearly 16,000 acres, of which two-thirds are 
cultivated, and nearly 500 acres in plantation. It is 
bounded on the north-west by the county of Banff, and 
is watered by the Ythan, the only considerable stream, 
which, rising about a mile from the boundary of Auch- 
terless, and flowing through the vale in a north-easterly 
direction, discharges its waters into the German Ocean 
below Ellon. The soil, in some parts, is clayey, but 
more frequently consists of gravel, lying upon a bed of 
clay-slate, and is almost uniformly dry. The cattle are 
of the Aberdeenshire breed, which sprang from a cross 
between the native and the old Fife stock, about 60 or 
70 years since ; the sheep, which are not numerous, are 
the Cheviots. The husbandry adopted is of the best 
kind, and the free use of compost, bone, guano, and 
lime manure has much contributed to the fertility of 
the soil ; almost every farm, too, of any extent, has a 
threshing-mill on the premises, turned by one of the 
tributary streams of the Ythan. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £6773. The prevailing rock is a 
clay-stone slate, which runs through the whole of the 
parish, from north-east to south-west, but lies at too 
great a depth to be available for the purposes of quar- 
rying. The villages are, Gordonstown, about 2 miles 
from the church, and the little hamlet of Kirktown, 
where a market is held on the Wednesday after the 
second Tuesday in April (O. S.), for the sale of sheep 
and cattle, and which is called Donan fair, from the 
ancient tutelary saint of the parish. The Aberdeen and 
Banff turnpike-road runs, for nearly three miles, along 
the eastern extremity of the parish, and affords con- 
siderable facility. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject 
to the presbytery of Turriff and synod of Aberdeen ; 
the patronage belongs to the family of Duff, and the 
minister's stipend is £191. 6. 5., with a good manse, 
and a glebe of about 6 acres. The church, a plain 
edifice, built in 1780, and repaired in 1832, seats 750 
persons. In the parochial school, Greek, Latin, and 
mathematics, with all the usual branches of education, 
are taught; and the master has a salary of £34, £21 
fees, and a house and garden. The antiquities comprise 
some Druidical circles, a moat, and similar remains. 
The parish has been famed for the longevity of several 
of its inhabitants, one of whom, Peter Garden, a farmer, 
died about the year 1780, at the advanced age of 132, 
having lived under ten sovereigns, commencing with 
Charles I. ; he was one of the garrison in the old castle 
of Towie Barclay, when Montrose defended it against 
Argyll. 

AUCHTERMUCHTY, a 
royal burgh, and a parish, 
in the district of Cupar, 
county of Fife, 9 miles (W. 
by S.) from Cupar ; contain- 
ing, -with the village of Dun- 
shelt, 3356 inhabitants, of 
whom 1340 are in the burgh. 
This place, of which the 
name, in the Gaelic language, 
signifies " the cottage of the 
king," is supposed, from that 
circumstance, to have been 
appropriated to the accommodation of part of the royal 




Burgh Seal. 



AUCH 



A U C H 



household, during the king's residence in the palace of 
Falkland, about three miles distant, and which had been 
previously one of the strongholds of Macduff, Earl of 
Fife. The town, which is situated on the road from 
Kinross to Cupar, is irregularly built, consisting of se- 
veral ill-formed streets and lanes of houses of mean 
appearance, many of them having thatched roofs, though 
intermixed with some of more modern and handsome 
character, with neat gardens attached ; it is inhabited 
by an industrious and thriving population, and has a 
public library, supported by subscription. 

The inhabitants are chiefly employed in hand-loom 
weaving, for the manufacturers of Dunfermline, New- 
burgh, and Kirkcaldy; the principal articles are linen 
goods, consisting of checks, drills, dowlas, sheetings, and 
other fabrics, in making which about 1000 persons are 
engaged. A considerable number were formerly occu- 
pied in these manufactures, on their own account ; but 
there are only one or two establishments of the kind 
now remaining. On the banks of a rivulet near the 
extremity of the town, are, a bleachfield, flour-mill, 
and saw-mill ; and there are also a thriving distillery, 
and an extensive malting concern. A branch of the 
Union Bank of Scotland has likewise been established. 
The market, which is on Monday, is well supplied with 
grain and provisions of every kind ; and fairs are held 
on the 25th of March (O. S.), the 13th of July, and 
the 21st of August, for horses and cattle; the July fair 
is also a statute-fair. The inhabitants were first in- 
corporated by charter of James IV., who erected the 
town into a royal burgh ; and its liberties, as such, 
were confirmed by James VI. ; but the right of sending 
a member to parliament has been lost, from disuse, 
though it still retains its corporation, and most of its 
other privileges. The government is vested in three 
bailies, a treasurer, and a council of fifteen members, 
chosen under the authority of the Municipal Reform 
act. The magistrates have jurisdiction over the whole 
of the royalty, and hold courts for the determination 
of civil pleas to any amount ; in criminal cases, their 
jurisdiction is confined to misdemeanours. The post- 
office has a tolerable delivery ; and facility of commu- 
nication with the neighbouring towns, is afforded by 
good roads, of which the turnpike-road from Stirling 
to St. Andrew's passes through the southern extremity 
of the town. 

The parish is about four miles in length, from north- 
east to south-west, and is from one to two miles in 
breadth, comprising about 2900 acres, of which 220 are 
woodland and plantations, 90 undivided common, and 
the remainder arable land and pasture. The sur- 
face is varied; in the south-east, an extensive and richly 
fertile plain ; and in other parts, rising to a considerable 
elevation. The soil, in the level lands, is a deep loam, 
producing abundant crops of all kinds ; and the system 
of agriculture has been brought to a state of great per- 
fection, under the auspices of the Auchtermuchty Agri- 
cultural Society, which holds an annual meeting in the 
town, on the first Monday in October, for the distribu- 
tion of premiums. The lands have been drained and 
inclosed ; the farm-buildings are substantial and well- 
arranged ; the pastures are luxuriantly fertile, and the 
cattle, which are chiefly of the Fifeshire black breed, 
bring a good price in the market. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £6845. The substratum is mostly 
Vol. I.— 81 



whinstone, which forms the basis of the higher grounds ; 
the plantations, mainly of modern growth, are in a 
thriving state. Myres Castle is the principal mansion 
in the parish, and was, for many years, the seat of the 
Moncrieffs, who disposed of the estate a short time 
ago : the building, to which a considerable addition 
was made about the year 1830, is finely situated in 
a park of about thirty acres. Bellevue and Southfield 
are also pleasant residences. The ecclesiastical affairs 
are under the superintendence of the presbytery of 
Cupar and synod of Fife ; the minister's stipend is 
£253. 11. 3., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 
per annum ; patron, Mrs. Tyndal Bruce, of Falkland. 
The church, a plain building erected in 17S5, was en- 
larged by Mrs. Bruce, in 1S37, at a cost of £500, and 
now contains 1100 sittings. There are places of wor- 
ship for members of the Free Church, the United Seces- 
sion, and the Relief Synod. The parochial school is 
attended by a considerable number of children ; the 
master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and 
garden, and the fees. 

AUCHTERNUD, a village, in the parish of Fod- 
derty, county of Ross and Cromarty; containing 115 
inhabitants. 

AUCHTERTOOL, a parish, in the district of Kirk- 
caldy, county of Fife, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Kirk- 
caldy ; containing, with the village of Newbigging, 530 
inhabitants, of whom 239 are in the village of Auchter- 
tool. This place is supposed to derive its name, signify- 
ing, in the Gaelic language, " the high grounds on the 
river Tiel," from its elevated situation with respect to 
that stream. The parish is about three miles in length, 
and one mile in average breadth, and comprises about 
2500 acres, of which 1700 are arable, and the remainder 
pasture, and waste land capable of being brought into 
cultivation. The surface is varied, and, towards the west, 
rises into a range of steep acclivities called the Cullalo 
hills, the highest of which has an elevation of 750 feet 
above the sea, commanding an extensive prospect over a 
richly-cultivated tract of country; but the scenery within 
the parish is almost destitute of beauty, from the want 
of wood. The river Tiel has its source here ; and the 
parish is also intersected by two streamlets which, 
though very small, frequently, after continued rain, are 
greatly increased, and, in their course through a narrow 
channel, form beautiful cascades, of which one, near the 
end of a deep and narrow dell, is truly picturesque. 
Near the ancient mansion of Camilla, formerly the resi- 
dence of the Countess of Moray, is an extensive loch, 
bounded on the north side by a precipitous eminence, 
covered with furze; and near it, are the ruins of the ancient 
mansion of Hallyards, still retaining traces of baronial 
grandeur, with some portion of the plantations of the 
demesne, forming a romantic feature in the scenery of 
the lake. This sheet of water is about eighteen acres in 
extent, and abounds with perch, eels, and pike ; its 
greatest depth is 22 feet. 

The soil, in the southern parts, is a rich loam, vary- 
ing from one foot to five feet in depth ; and, in the 
north and western parts, clay, which, by draining and 
good management, has been rendered nearly as fertile 
as the loam ; and a moss, of which a large portion is of 
great depth, and apparently incapable of being brought 
into profitable cultivation. The chief crops are, wheat, 
barley, oats, potatoes, and turnips ; the system of agri- 

M 



A ULD 



A U LD 



culture is in a very improved state, and draining has 
lately been carried on with success. Considerable at- 
tention has been paid to the rearing and feeding of 
cattle, which are generally of the black Fifeshire breed, 
with some few of the Teeswater, lately introduced ; there 
are a few sheep, all of the Cheviot breed. The sub- 
stratum is mostly whinstone, freestone, and limestone : 
the whinstone is quarried, chiefly for mending the 
roads, and occasionally for building ; the freestone is of 
very inferior quality, and is seldom worked ; the lime- 
stone, which is mainly found on the lands belonging to 
Lord Moray and Captain Wemyss, is quarried only by 
the tenants for their own immediate use. The village 
of Auchtertool is neatly built ; the houses are princi- 
pally of stone and lime, and those of more recent erec- 
tion are covered with blue slate ; a parochial library 
has been established, and a savings' bank. There was 
formerly a brewery of porter, ale, and table-beer, in 
the village, for the supply of the neighbourhood ; it 
was long in very great repute, and a large quantity of 
the ale was sent to Kirkcaldy, and thence shipped for 
the London market. The parish is in the presbytery of 
Kirkcaldy and synod of Fife, and in the patronage of 
the Earl of Moray ; the minister's stipend is £157. 18. 10., 
with a manse in the later English style, and the glebe is 
valued at £20 per annum. The church, which was sub- 
stantially repaired in 1S33, is situated within a mile 
of the village, and is adapted for a congregation of 
about 300 persons. The parochial school affords a 
liberal course of instruction ; the master has a salary of 
£33. 6. 8., with £2S fees, and a good dwelling-house 
and garden. At the west end of the loch of Camilla, is 
a mineral spring. 

AUCKINGILL, a township, in the parish of Canis- 
bay, county of Caithness ; containing 209 inhabitants. 

AULDEARN, a parish, in the county of Nairn, 2f 
miles (E. S. E.) from Nairn ; containing 1466 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 351 are in the village. This place is said 
by some to have derived its name, in the Gaelic Alt-Em, 
from a brook flowing through it into the river Nairn, 
and of which the banks are thickly planted with alder- 
trees ; it was originally the head of the deanery of Mo- 
ra)', and of much greater extent till the year 1650, 
when parts of it were annexed to the parishes of Nairn, 
Cawdor, and Ardclach. In 1645, a sanguinary battle 
took place near the village, between the forces under the 
Marquess of Montrose, and a detachment of the army 
of the Covenanters, commanded by Hurry, and consist- 
ing of about 4000 men, when the former, after an ob- 
stinate conflict, obtained a decisive victory. About 800 
of the Covenanters fell, and a considerable number of 
the forces of the marquess ; the slain on both sides 
were interred after the battle, in a field to the south- 
west of the village, and the spot, which has been since 
planted, is surrounded with a moat. The tarish is 
bounded on the north by the Moray Frith, here about 
seven miles broad, along the coast of which it extends 
for four miles ; and is, from north to south, 6| miles in 
length, and about 5 miles in breadth, from east to west, 
comprising 13,6S0 acres, of which 477S are arable, 5111 
meadow and pasture, 3603 woodland and plantations, 
and 198 under water. The surface for nearly three 
miles from the shore, though varying in elevation, is 
low ; it thence rises to a considerable height, for nearly 
two miles, where it is intersected by the valley of the 



Muckle brook, beyond which it attains a more abrupt 
and precipitous elevation. About half a mile from the 
shore, to the west, is an island of sand called the Bar, 
which is formed at high water, and is constantly chang- 
ing its position westward ; and opposite to it, are two 
hills of sand, about 100 feet in height, which are con- 
tinually changing their position towards the east, with- 
out any apparent alteration in their form. 

The soil, in the south-eastern part of the parish, is 
luxuriantly rich ; in the south-western, of very infe- 
rior quality ; and in the north-east and north-west, a 
heavy cold loam. There are two lakes of considerable 
extent, of which one, called Loch Lithy, covering an area 
of 40 acres, produces abundance of rich marl, and the 
other, Loch Loy, in the northern part of the parish, 
is about a mile in length, and a quarter of a mile broad. 
There is also a large tract of moss called the Moss of 
Inshoch, in which vast quantities of roots, and some- 
times entire fir-trees, are imbedded. The crops are, 
grain of all kinds, potatoes, and turnips ; the system of 
agriculture has been much improved ; waste land has 
been drained, and brought into profitable cultivation, 
and much of the inferior soil been rendered more fertile, 
by the use of marl, lime, and bone-dust manure. The 
cattle are of the Highland breed, and the sheep of the 
white-faced kind. The rateable annual value of the 
parish is £614S. The plantations are chiefly Scotch 
fir, larch, oak, beech, elm, and ash, of which three last 
there are some fine specimens at Boath and Lethen ; 
and to the east of Inshoch, is a thriving plantation of 
birch. The substratum is principally sandstone, some 
of which is of excellent quality ; and from a quarry on 
the lands of Brodie, was ra ed the st^ne for the erec- 
tion of the towers of the suspension bridge over the 
river Findhorn, near Forres. Near Boath, is found a 
black stone, which, on the application of fire, emits a 
flame ; and at Clune, on the lands of James C. Brodie, 
Esq., are nodules of limestone, in which are fossils of 
various kinds of fishes. 

The prevailing scenery is of pleasing character, em- 
bellished with plantations ; and the views obtained from 
the higher grounds, are extensive and richly diversified, 
commanding the wide expanse of the Frith, the rocky 
coasts and lofty mountains of Ross, in combination 
with those of Sutherland, and numerous other deeply 
interesting features. Lethen, the seat of Mr. Brodie, 
is a spacious and handsome mansion, finely situated in 
the valley of the Muckle burn, and consisting of a centre 
and two wings, erected about the commencement of the 
last century ; the grounds are tastefully laid out, and 
the house is embosomed in a plantation of venera- 
ble beech-trees, and crowns the summit of a thickly- 
wooded acclivity rising from the stream. Boath, the 
seat of Sir Frederick William Dunbar, Bart., is an 
elegant mansion of freestone, erected in 1830, and 
beautifully situated in the valley of the Auldearn, near 
the junction of the two branches of that stream. The 
village is neatly built, and is inhabited chiefly by per- 
sons engaged in agriculture. Fairs are held for cattle 
and horses on the first Wednesday after the 19th of 
June, and the first Tuesday after the Inverness fair at 
Martinmas, for agricultural produce; the first of these 
is called St. Colin's market, and the latter St. John's, 
following which are two other fairs held, respectively, 
a fortnight and a month after. The turnpike-road from 



A V O C 



A V O C 



Elgin to Inverness passes, for four miles, through the 
parish ; and further facility of communication is afforded 
by good roads and bridges, in almost every direction. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superinten- 
dence of the presbytery of Nairn and synod of Moray ; 
the minister's stipend is £'241. 5. 4., with a manse, and 
a glebe valued at £12 per annum ; patron, Mr. Brodie, 
of Brodie. The church, built in 1/51, and improved in 
1S16, is a neat structure, situated close to the village, 
and contains 635 sittings. There are places of worship 
for Free Church and United Secession congregations. 
The parochial school affords instruction to about 130 
scholars ; the master has a salary of £36. 7- 2., includ- 
ing au allowance for a garden, and the fees average £10 
per annum. On the higher grounds in the parish, are 
some Druidical remains, of which the most perfect, near 
the old castle of Moyness, consists of two concentric 
circles, with a slightly-rocking stone weighing about 
four tons ; and on a small eminence designated the 
Black Hillock, has been found a kistvaen, containing a 
human skeleton and several urns filled with ashes. On 
a farm called Knock-na-Gillan, the Cummings, of Rait, 
once seized thirteen of the clan of Mackintosh, who were 
passing through the parish, and put twelve of them to 
death ; and some time after, these hostile clans meeting 
at the castle of Rait, in the parish of Nairn, the Mack- 
intoshes, in retaliation, put the whole clan of the Cum- 
mings to the sword, and burnt their castle. About a 
mile to the north of the church, are the ruins of the 
ancient castle of Inshoch, the seat of the Hays, of Loch 
Loy ; and a mile to the east of it, were, till lately, the 
remains of the house of Penick, the residence of the 
deans of Moray. 

AULDFIELD, lately a quoad sacra district, form- 
ing part of the town of Pollockshaws, in the parish 
of Eastwood, Upper ward of the county of Renfrew ; 
containing 3252 inhabitants. — See Pollockshaws. 

AUSKERRY ISLE, in the parish of Stronsay, 
county of Orkney. It is situated about two miles to 
the south of the island of Stronsay, and is small and 
uninhabited, and appropriated to the pasturage of cattle : 
there are some remains of a chapel, and the ruins of a 
dwelling which bears the name of the Monk's House. 
Kelp is manufactured in considerable quantity. 

AVOCH, a parish, in the county of Ross and Cro- 
marty, if mile (S. W. by W.) from Fortrose; contain- 
ing 1931 inhabitants, of whom 936 are in the village. 
This place apparently derives its name, signifying, in the 
Gaelic language, " shallow water," from the small river 
on which it is situated. The parish is bounded on the 
south and south-east by the Moray Frith, and on the 
south-west by the bay of Munlochy ; and is about four 
miles and a quarter in length, and three miles in ex- 
treme breadth, comprising 6198 acres, of which about 
2500 are arable, 1500 woodland and plantations, and 
the remainder meadow, pasture, and waste. The sur- 
face, though generally level, with a gentle acclivity from 
the shore of the Frith, contains a portion of the Mil- 
buy hill, which has an elevation of nearly 500 feet ; and 
is also intersected, in the lower parts, by several pro- 
minent ridges. The river from which it takes its name, 
rises within its limits, near a pool called the Littlemil- 
stick, and, after a beautifully winding course, in which 
it turns several mills, falls into the Frith near the vil- 
lage. The coast extends for about three miles, and is 
83 



bounded by a high ridge of rocks, projecting slightly in 
two points, between which is a beach of sand and gravel. 
The soil, which comprises almost every variety, has 
been greatly improved, and the pastures are mostly rich; 
the crops are, wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips, 
with the usual grasses. Considerable attention has been, 
for some time, paid to the rearing of live stock ; and 
the farms have been newly divided, in portions adapted 
to the ability and resources of the various tenants, by 
which a much better system of management has been 
introduced. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
£3658. The substrata are generally of the red sand- 
stone formation, interspersed with rocks of granite, and 
there are indications of limestone, though none has yet 
been wrought ; freestone quarries occur in several places, 
from one of which, of a deep red colour, it is supposed 
that the stone was taken for the erection of the cathe- 
dral church of Chanonry. Rosehaugh, the seat of 
Sir James J. R. Mackenzie, of Scat well, Bart., is au 
elegant modern mansion, beautifully situated on an emi- 
nence about half a mile from the sea, and embellished 
with woods and thriving plantations. Avoch House, a 
handsome mansion, embosomed in romantic scenery, 
was destroyed in 1S33, by an accidental fire : Bay Cot- 
tage is situated near, and derives its name from, the 
bay of Munlochy. 

The village is on the river Avoch, near its influx into 
the Frith, which is here about four miles in breadth, 
and, between the promontory of Fort-George on the 
east, and the town of Inverness on the west, has the 
appearance of a beautiful inland lake. The inhabitants 
are chiefly employed in fisheries, in which nine boats, 
having each a crew of ten men, are engaged in taking 
haddock, whiting, cod, and other fish, on the coasts of 
Sutherland and Caithness ; in the Frith are found, also, 
oysters, flounders, and halibut. During the season, 
commencing about the middle of July, the fishermen of 
this place send thirty-five boats to the herring-fishery at 
Caithness, from which they return with cargoes some- 
times highly productive, of which, after supplying the 
neighbourhood, the remainder is sent to Inverness 
market. In the intervals of the fishing season, the 
inhabitants are employed in making nets, not only for 
their own use, but also for the fishing-stations in the 
north and west Highlands. The harbour, which is 
formed near the mouth of the river, affords good ancho- 
rage and shelter for the boats, and a substantial pier 
has been constructed, at which vessels of considerable 
burthen land cargoes of coal from Newcastle ; it is also 
safely accessible to trading vessels, which, from London, 
Leith, Aberdeen, and Dundee, regularly touch at the 
port. There are two salmon-fisheries, one at Rosehaugh, 
and the other on the estate of Avoch ; and in Mun- 
lochy bay, mussels are found in profusion. Facility of 
communication is afforded by the turnpike-road from 
Fort-George ferry to the western coast of Ross-shire, 
which passes through the village and the southern part 
of the parish, leading to Kessock ferry on the west, and 
to the town of Dingwall on the north-west. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Chanonry and synod of 
Ross ; the minister's stipend is £249. 9. 6., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £~ per annum ; patron, 
Sir J. J. R. Mackenzie. The church, a neat plain struc- 
ture, erected in 1670, and repaired in 1833, is situated 

M 2 



AVON 



AVON 



close to the village, and contains 600 sittings. There is 
a place of worship for Independents. The parochial 
school is well conducted ; the master has a salary of 
£30, with a house and garden, and the fees average 
between £20 and £30 per annum. There are some 
slight remains of the ancient castle of Avoch, consisting 
chiefly of the site, on a rocky knoll on the northern pro- 
montory of the bay of Munlochy, and distinguished hy 
the rubbish of ruined walls which surrounded the sum- 
mit of the hill. It was the residence of the lord of 
Moray, who died in 1338 ; it subsequently passed to the 
earls of Ross, on whose forfeiture it was annexed to the 
crown, and was granted by James III. to his second 
son, the Marquess ofOrmond, from which circumstance 
the knoll was called Ormond's Mount. The lower story, 
or dungeon, of the tower of Arkendeith, supposed to have 
been built by the Bruces, of Kinloss, is also remaining. 
Chambers, of Ormond, the Scottish historian, was born 
in the parish ; and Sir Alexander Mackenzie, who dis- 
covered the river in America which is called by his 
name, resided for many years at Avoch House, and was 
interred here. 

AVONDALE, a parish, in the Middle ward of the 
county of Lanark ; containing, with the market-town of 
Strathaven, 61 SO inhabitants. The proper name of this 
parish, which, from its including the market-town, has 
been called sometimes Strathaven, and, by contraction, 
Straveu, is Avondale, an appellation derived from its 
situation on the river Avon, by which it is divided into 
two nearly equal parts. The barony of Avondale was 
anciently the property of the Baird family, and subse- 
quently belonged to the Earl of Douglas, on whose 
forfeiture, in 1455, it was granted, by James III., to 
Andrew Stewart, whom he created Lord Avondale, and 
who exchanged it for the barony of Ochiltree, with Sir 
James Hamilton, in whose family it has ever since 
remained. The place has derived some historical cele- 
brity from the defeat of the troops under General 
Claverhouse, at Drumclog, by a congregation of Cove- 
nanters, who had assembled there for public worship, and, 
anticipating an attack by the former, who were stationed 
at Strathaven, had provided themselves with arms for 
their defence. On the approach of Claverhouse, with 
his dragoons, the armed part of the congregation went 
forward to meet him, and, taking post on level ground, 
having before them a rivulet, over which the general 
had to pass, and of which the bank was, from its soft- 
ness, impassable to the cavalry, defeated his forces with 
considerable loss, the general himself escaping with 
difficulty. In 1820, the place was disturbed by a few 
rioters, under the command of James Wilson, who, 
upon false intelligence that a rebellion against the 
government had broken out in Glasgow, marched thither 
to join the insurgents ; but they were instantly dis- 
persed, and their leader, who was made prisoner, was 
brought to the scaffold, and suffered the penalty of his 
rebellion. 

The parish comprises about 32,000 acres, of which 
15,000 are arable, and the remainder, with the exception 
of some tracts of moss and marsh land, formerly 
more extensive, is in pasture. The surface is generally 
level, rising gently from the hanks of the river towards 
the south and west, and partially intersected with ridges 
and small hills, of which the highest, towards the bor- 
ders of Ayrshire, scarcely attain an elevation of more 
84 



than 900 feet above the sea. Of these, the most pro- 
minent are, Kype's rigg, and Hawkwood and Dungivel 
hills, with the picturesque hut smaller eminences of 
Floors hills and Kirkhill. The Avon, which rises on 
the confines of Ayrshire, in its course through the 
parish receives numerous tributary streams, of which 
the chief are, the Cadder and Pomilion on the north, 
and the Givel, the Lochan, and the Kype, on the south ; 
the waters of the Kype, about a mile to the south of 
the town, are precipitated from a height of nearly fifty 
feet, forming an interesting fall, and in all these streams 
trout is abundant. Salmon were formerly found in 
the Avon, even at its source ; but latterly, their pro- 
gress upward has been intercepted. The scenery of 
the parish, though destitute of ornamental wood, is 
pleasingly varied, and, in many parts, picturesque. 

The soil is generally fertile ; the chief crops are, 
oats and barley, with some wheat ; potatoes are also 
raised in great quantities, and are sold for seed ; but, 
though the soil is extremely favourable for turnips, they 
are not much cultivated. There are numerous dairy- 
farms, and the pastures throughout the parish are luxu- 
riant ; great numbers of cows, principally of the Ayrshire 
breed, are pastured here, and there are, at present, 
not less than 2000 acres of undivided common. Many 
improvements have been made in draining; and the 
whole of Strathaven moss, comprising above 200 acres 
of unprof, table land, has been reclaimed, affording more 
valuable crops than any other portion of the parish. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £24,785. 
Whinstone abounds, as does also ironstone ; and lime- 
stone is found in several parts, and burnt for manure ; 
coal is also found in the neighbourhood of the lime- 
kilns, in considerable quantity, and of a quality sufficient 
for burning the lime, but not adapted to household 
use. The moors abound with grouse and other game, 
and the Duke of Hamilton has an extensive tract of 
pasture land for sheep, which is kept for grouse 
shooting ; partridges are also numerous in the lower 
lands, and plovers and wild ducks are every where 
abundant. The parish is in the presbytery of Hamilton 
and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage 
of the Duke of Hamilton ; the minister's stipend is 
£305. 2. 6., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at 
£24 per annum. There is also an assistant minister, 
appointed by his grace, to whom a stipend of 500 marks 
is paid, according to the will of a late duchess ; he 
visits the sick, and catechises the parishioners. The 
church, erected in 1772> > s a plain edifice, with an un- 
finished spire, and much too small for the population, 
being adapted for a congregation only of S00 persons. 
Under the auspices of the present minister, an additional 
church has been erected, at an expense of £1400, for 
900 persons, to which a district called East Strathaven 
has been assigned, and which is supplied by a minister 
appointed by the congregation. There is a place of wor- 
ship for members of the Associate Seceding Synod, and 
there are two for members of the Relief Church. The 
parochial school affords an efficient education ; the 
master's salary is £34. 4. 4., with £36 from the fees, 
and a good house and garden. There is also a parochial 
school for East Strathaven. Some remains of a Roman 
road may be traced on the south side of the river 
Avon, passing by the farm of Walesley ; and on the 
lands of Gennerhill, small coins and Roman sandals 



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Seal and Arms. 



have been discovered. Roman coins have also been 
recently found on the lands of Torfoot, near Loudoun 
hill, supposed to have been the line of the Romans, in 
their route through the Caledonian forest, towards the 
western coast. 

AYR, a sea-port, burgh, 
and market-town, in the dis- 
trict of Kyle, county of 
Ayr, of which it is thecapital, 
77 miles (S. W. by W.) from 
Edinburgh, and 34 (S. S. W.) 
from Glasgow ; containing 
8264 inhabitants. This place 
derives its name from the 
river on which it is situated, 
and appears to have attained 
a considerable degree of note, 
at a very early period. A 
castle was erected here by William the Lion, to which 
reference is made in the charter subsequently granted to 
the town by that monarch ; and from the importance of 
its situation, it was besieged and taken by Edward I,. 
during his invasion of Scotland. In 12S9, Robert Bruce, 
on the hostile approach of an English army towards the 
town, finding himself unable to withstand their progress, 
set fire to the castle, to prevent its falling into their hands; 
and at present, there are no vestiges of it remaining. 
During the usurpation of Cromwell, a very spacious and 
strongly-fortified citadel was erected here, as a military 
station for his troops, for the maintenance and security 
of the town and harbour of Ayr, which, at that time, 
were of great importance, as enabling him to hold the 
western and southern parts of the county in subjec- 
tion ; and of this fort, the greater part is still in good 
preservation. 

The town is finely situated on a wide level plain, on 
the sea-coast, and at the head of the beautiful bay of 
Ayr, by which it is bounded on the west. The more 
ancient part consists of houses irregularly built, and of 
antique appearance ; but that which is of more modern 
origin, contains numerous handsome ranges of buildings, 
among which may be noticed Wellington-square, and 
a spacious and well-built street leading from it to the 
new bridge. Very great improvements have been made 
in the aspect of the town, which is seen to great ad- 
vantage from the higher grounds, and more especially 
on the approach from the south ; many agreeable villas 
have been erected, and most of the modern houses in 
the vicinity are embellished with shrubs and trees. The 
principal streets are well paved, and lighted with gas, 
and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water, 
partly from numerous wells opened in convenient situ- 
ations, and partly from a softer spring, in Carrick, by 
pipes laid down for that purpose. The environs are 
extremely pleasing, abounding with richly- diversified 
scenery, embracing fine views of the sea, and many in- 
teresting features ; and there are two bridges over the 
river Ayr, of which that last erected is a very hand- 
some structure, affording communication with the 
towns of Newton-upon-Ayr and Wallace-town, which 
are both of comparatively recent origin. The beach, 
which is a fine level sand, is much frequented as a 
promenade, and contributes greatly to render the town 
desirable as a place of residence. There are two libra- 
ries supported by subscription, containing good collec- 
85 



tions of standard and periodical works, and newsrooms 
well supplied with journals ; and a mechanics' institution 
was established in 1825, to which is attached a library 
of more than 3000 volumes, for the increase of which 
a specific sum is annually appropriated. Races are 
annually held by the Western Meeting, in the first week 
in September, on an excellent course in the immediate 
vicinity of the town, comprising about fifty acres, in- 
closed with a stone wall ; and the members of the 
Caledonian Hunt hold a meeting here once in five 
years. Two packs of fox-hounds, and a pack of har- 
riers, are kept in the neighbourhood ; and assemblies 
are held in an elegant and spacious suite of rooms, 
admirably adapted for that purpose, in the new Buildings, 
a stately edifice recently erected, and embellished with 
a spire rising to the height of 226 feet ; they contain, in 
addition to the assembly-rooms, two large newsrooms, 
rooms for town's meetings, and various apartments for 
public purposes. In the High-street, is a handsome 
structure in the early English style, lately erected on 
the site of an ancient building called Wallace's Tower ; 
it is 115 feet in height, and is adorned, in the front, 
with a well-sculptured statue of Wallace ; it contains 
a good clock, and forms a conspicuous object in the 
distant view of the town. 

On the summit of the bank of the river Doon, is a 
stately monument to the honour of the poet Burns, 
erected at an expense of £2000, raised by subscription, 
and consisting of a circular building, rising from a tri- 
angular basement fifteen feet in height, to an elevation 
of more than sixty feet. It is surrounded by nine 
Corinthian pillars with an enriched cornice, supporting 
a cupola, which is surmounted by a gilt tripod resting 
upon dolphins ; and a window of stained glass gives 
light to a circular apartment eighteen feet in diameter, 
in which are, a portrait of the poet, an elegant edition of 
his works, and various paintings, illustrative of the 
principal scenes and descriptions in his poems. Oppo- 
site to the entrance, is a semicircular recess decorated 
with columns of the Doric order, intended for the re- 
ception of his statue ; and in the grounds, comprising 
an area of about two acres, disposed in gravel-walks and 
shrubberies, and embellished with plantations of every 
variety of forest trees, are placed the well-known statues 
of Tarn O'Shanter and Souter Johnny, executed by 
Thorn, and exhibited, previously to their being deposited 
here, in almost every town of Great Britain. The Ayr- 
shire Horticultural and Agricultural Society was established 
in 1815, under the auspices and patronage of the late 
Lord Eglinton, for the distribution of prizes for the best 
specimens of flowers, fruit, and vegetables, and for 
improvements in husbandry and agricultural imple- 
ments ; exhibitions are annually held, and attached to 
the institution is a library. A Medical Association has 
also been founded by members of that profession resi- 
dent in the town and neighbourhood, the library of 
which contains a selection of the most valuable works 
on medical literature. The Barracks, an extensive range 
of building near the harbour, and pleasantly situated 
on a fine level plain, are adapted for the reception of a 
regiment of infantry, and, during the late war, were 
fully occupied by the military stationed here ; but, since 
the peace, they have been unoccupied, and it was at one 
time in contemplation to appropriate them to some 
other purpose. 



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Notwithstanding the very advantageous situation of 
the town, in the midst of a richly-cultivated district 
abounding in mineral wealth, and commanding exten- 
sive means of communication, and facilities of convey- 
ance, both by sea and land, the town has never been 
much distinguished for its manufactures : the prin- 
cipal manufacture carried on here, is that of shoes, 
which has, for some years, very much diminished, 
affording employment, at present, to little more than 
200 persons. The working of muslins, in varieties of 
patterns, for the Glasgow manufacturers, is carried on 
to a considerable extent, occupying about 300 persons, 
at their own dwellings. "Weaving with the hand-loom, 
for manufacturers of distant towns, employs about 150 
persons; and tanning and currying of leather is carried 
on, but on a limited scale. A spacious factory for the 
spinning of wool and the manufacture of carpets, has 
been recently established by Mr. Templeton, which ori- 
ginated in a small establishment for the spinning of 
cotton-yarn ; since its application to the present use, 
the building has been enlarged, and supplied with the 
most improved machinery of every kind, and the con- 
cern, at present, affords employment to 200 persons. 
A mill for carding, spinning, and weaving wool, for 
plaids and blankets, has been also erected on the bank 
of the river Doon ; the machinery is impelled by water, 
and about thirty persons are regularly employed in the 
works. The foreign trade of the port consists almost 
entirely of the exportation of coal, and the importation 
of hemp, mats, tallow, tar, iron, pitch, timber, and other 
commodities ; the number of vessels engaged in this 
trade, is about eighteen. About 300 vessels are em- 
ployed in the coasting trade, which is carried on to a 
very considerable extent ; the imports are, corn, gro- 
ceries, hardware, iron, lead, haberdasheries, and other 
wares, and the exports are, coal, corn, wool, and agri- 
cultural produce. In a recent year, 739 vessels, of 
62,730 tons aggregate burthen, cleared out from the 
port, exclusively of steam-boats. 3136 quarters of 
wheat, 306 cwt. of flour, 11,145 quarters of oats, 5623 
cwt. of meal, 318 quarters of barley, 643 quarters of 
beans, and 51 quarters of peas, were brought into the 
port in the year ; and 60,000 tons of coal, 5571 quar- 
ters of wheat, 5586 cwt. of flour, 87 quarters of oats, 
3178 cwt. of oatmeal, 84 quarters of barley, and 183 
quarters of beans, were shipped coastwise. The port 
appears to have been distinguished at an early period, 
and ships are said to have been built here by several of 
the kings of Scotland ; the harbour is capacious, and 
affords good accommodation for vessels, but the entrance 
is somewhat obstructed by a bar thrown up by the accu- 
mulation of alluvial deposit, for the removal of which 
considerable sums have been expended, with great effect. 
A wall was raised, nearly twenty feet in height, taper- 
ing from a base of nearly thirty feet in breadth, to 
about eight feet on the summit, and extending nearly 
300 yards into the sea, on the south side ; and a similar 
pier, on the north side, parallel to the former, was 
likewise erected, at a very great expense. By these 
means, the harbour has been considerably improved ; 
and to render it still more complete, a breakwater 
has been partly erected at the mouth of the harbour, 
stretching still further into the sea, and which it is esti- 
mated will be completed at an expense of about £4000. 
The depth of water is from 14 to 16 feet, at ordinary 
86 



spring tides ; and, within the bar, about eighty sail of 
ships may lie in perfect safety. 

The rivers Ayr and Doon abound with excellent sal- 
mon, and considerable quantities are taken, during the 
season, with drags, and afterwards with stake-nets, and, 
besides affording an abundant supply for the town and 
neighbourhood, are sent to the Glasgow, Edinburgh, and 
London markets ; the fishery in the Doon is let for 
£235, and the other for £45, per annum. The fishe- 
ries off the coast are perhaps less extensive than for- 
merly, but more than twenty boats, each managed by 
four men, are employed in taking cod, ling, haddock, 
whiting, turbot, skate, flounders, mackerel, and her- 
rings, which last are taken only during the summer 
months ; soles, red gurnet, and large conger eels are 
found occasionally. The post-office has several delive- 
ries daily, and the utmost facility of intercourse is 
maintained with the neighbouring towns, and with 
England and Ireland. The roads are kept in excellent 
order ; and the trade of the place has been much im- 
proved by the recent formation of a railroad to Glasgow, 
noticed in the article on that place, and for which an 
appropriate station has been erected on the north bank 
of the river, near the new bridge, having a frontage of 
eighty-four feet, with every accommodation for goods 
and passengers. The market-days are Tuesday and 
Friday; the markets are amply supplied with grain and 
provisions of every kind, and four annual fairs are held 
for cattle, horses, sheep, and agricultural produce. 

The charter of incorporation was first granted in 
the year 1202, by William the Lion, who conferred upon 
the burgesses the whole of the lands of the parish, with 
many valuable privileges. This charter was confirmed 
by Alexander II., who added the adjoining parish of 
Alloway, and extended the jurisdiction of the magistrates 
over the two parishes ; and Robert Bruce, by a subse- 
quent charter, dated at Dunfermline, ratified all the 
grants of his predecessors, and erected Alloway into a 
barony, of which the corporation were the lords. Under 
these charters, the government of the burgh is vested in 
a provost, two bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and 
twelve councillors, of which last number ten were for- 
merly of the. merchants' guild, and two of the trades' ; 
the provost, bailies, and dean of guild are, ex officio, 
justices of the peace of the county. The burgh magis- 
trates, were, until lately, elected from the guild brethren, 
who formed the council, by whom all the officers of the 
corporation were also appointed ; but the magistrates 
and councillors are now chosen agreeably with the pro- 
visions of the Municipal Reform act, by the voters 
within the limits of the parliamentary burgh. The in- 
corporated trade guilds were nine in number, and were 
styled the squaremen, hammermen, tailors, skinners, 
coopers, weavers, shoemakers, dyers, and butchers. The 
magistrates have jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases, 
but confine the latter to petty misdemeanours. They 
hold courts weekly, for civil and criminal causes, but the 
more important cases are referred to the sheriff's court, 
held every Tuesday, from May to July, and from Octo- 
ber to April ; the number of these causes averages 500 
in the year, of which very few are removed into the 
court of session, or supreme court. A sheriff court for 
the recovery of debts not exceeding £8. 6. 8., is held 
every Thursday, and a petty court every Monday, 
confined chiefly to breaches of the peace ; a dean of 



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guild court is also liolden occasionally. These courts are 
held in the County Hall, on the north-west side of Wel- 
lington-square, a spacious and elegant building, after the 
model of the Temple of Isis at Rome, erected within 
the last thirty years, at an expense of more than 
£30,000. The front is embellished with a portico of 
massive circular columns, affording an entrance into a 
lobby, lighted by an ample and stately dome rising to a 
considerable height above the building, which consists 
of two stories. The interior, which is highly decorated, 
consists of the various courts for the burgh and the 
county, with requisite offices for persons connected with 
the proceedings, arranged on the ground floor ; and the 
upper story, to which is an ascent by a noble circular 
staircase, contains two spacious halls, with rooms for 
the judges and barristers, and retiring-rooms for the 
juries and witnesses. Of these halls, one is appropriated 
to the busiuess of the courts, and the other chiefly used 
as a banqueting or assembly room ; the latter is splen- 
didly fitted up, and is embellished with a portrait of 
Lord Eglinton, as colonel of the Royal Highland regi- 
ment, and of Mr. Hamilton, late convener of the county. 
The prisons for the burgh and county are spacious and 
well ventilated, and the arrangement is adapted for the 
classification of the prisoners, who are regularly em- 
ployed in various trades, and receive a portion of {heir 
earnings on their leaving the prison. Ayr is the head 
of a district comprising the burghs of Irvine, Campbell- 
town, Inverary, and Oban, which are associated with it 
in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the 
right of election, previously vested in the corporation, 
is now, by the act of the 3rd and 4th of William IV., 
extended to the £10 householders; the sheriff is the 
returning officer, and the present number of voters in 
the burgh of Ayr is about 470. 

The parish, including Alloway, forms part of an ex- 
tensive and richly-cultivated valley, and comprises about 
5000 acres ; it is bounded on the north by the river 
A3T, which separates it from the parish of St. Quivox ; 
on the south-west, by the river Doon, and on the west, 
by the sea. The surface, towards the sea, is generally 
flat for about two miles, beyond which it rises by a gen- 
tle ascent to a considerable elevation, forming a range 
of hills which inclose the vale, and terminate, towards 
the south-west, in the loftier chain of Brown Carrick, 
which projects into the sea in some precipitous rocky 
headlands called the Heads of Ayr. The river Ayr, 
which has its rise in the eastern extremity of the county, 
divides the valley in which the'parish is situated into 
two nearly equal parts, and flows between banks richly 
embellished with plantations and pleasing villas ; it is 
subject to violent floods, and, in its course to the sea, 
conveys great quantities of alluvial soil, which, accumu- 
lating at its mouth, slightly obstruct the entrance of the 
harbour. The river Doon has its source in a lake of 
that name, to the south-east, on the confines of the 
stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and, in its progress, dis- 
plays many strikingly romantic features. A small 
stream called Glengaw Burn, flows between the ancient 
parishes of Ayr and Alloway ; and numerous springs 
are every where found, at a small depth from the sur- 
face, affording an abundant supply of water, but not 
well adapted for domestic use, containing carbonate 
and sulphate of lime, with some traces of iron in combi- 
nation. Close to the eastern boundary of the parish, is 
87 



Loch Fergus, about a mile in circumference, and abound- 
ing with pike ; near the margin, were formerly the ruins 
of an ancient building of a castellated form, which have 
been long since removed, to furnish materials for the 
erection of farm-buildings, and in the centre of the lake 
is a small island, the resort of wild ducks and other 
aquatic fowl. 

The scenery is interspersed with numerous pleasing 
villas and stately residences, among which are, Castle- 
hill, commanding a fine view of the town and bay ; 
Belmont Cottage, embosomed in trees ; Doonholme, with 
its richly-planted demesne, extending along the banks 
of the river ; Rozelle, a stately mansion, surrounded 
with trees of venerable growth ; Belle-isle, an elegant 
castellated mansion with turrets, rising above the trees 
by which it is surrounded ; and Mount Charles, with 
its flourishing plantations crowning the precipitous bank 
of the river Doon. The beautiful bay of Ayr is un- 
rivalled for striking scenery ; to the north, are the 
islands of Cumbraes, the Bute hills, and the Argyllshire 
mountains, with the summit of Ben-Lomond in the dis- 
tance ; to the west, is seen the coast of Ireland, and, 
near the Ayrshire coast, the Craig of Ailsa, rising pre- 
cipitously from a base of two miles in circumference, to 
a height of 1000 feet above the level of the sea by which 
it is surrounded. The island of Arran, with its lofty 
mountains, behind which is seen the Mull of Cantyre, 
also forms a conspicuous and interesting feature in the 
view. The soil varies in different parts of the parish ; 
but, from the progressive improvements in agriculture, 
and the extensive practice of tile-draining, the lands 
have been rendered generally fertile, and a considerable 
quantity of unprofitable land has been made productive. 
The greater portion is under tillage, and produces abun- 
dant crops of grain of all kinds, with turnips and other 
green crops. Considerable attention is paid to the 
rearing of live stock ; the sheep are chiefly of the Lei- 
cestershire and Cheviot breeds, and the cattle, with the 
exception of a few of the short-horned kind, are of the 
genuine Ayrshire breed, which has been brought to 
great perfection. The rateable annual value of the 
parish is £24,664. The substratum is mostly trap and 
whinstone, of which the rocks principally consist ; coal 
is prevalent, but the working of it has not been found 
profitable in this parish, though it has been extensively 
wrought in the parishes adjoining. Red sandstone and 
freestone also exist, and the latter was formerly quar- 
ried ; some beautiful specimens of agate are found upon 
the shore; and in the bed of the river, occurs a peculiar 
species of claystone, with small grains of dark felspar 
and mica, which is frequently used for polishing marble 
and metals, and as a hone, for giving a fine edge to cut- 
ting tools. 

The parishes of Ayr and Alloway were united towards 
the close of the 17th century. The church of Ayr, 
which had been made collegiate in the reign of Mary, 
afforded sufficient accommodation for the whole popula- 
tion ; and divine service, which, for some time after 
their union, was performed in the church of Alloway, 
every third Sunday, was finally restricted to the church 
of Ayr. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the super- 
intendence of the presbytery of Ayr and synod of Glas- 
gow and Ayr. The stipend of the incumbent of the 
first charge is £17S. 5., including half the interest of a 
sum of £1000, bequeathed for the equal benefit of both 



AYR 



AYRS 



ministers, with a manse, a comfortable modern resi- 
dence ; the second minister has a stipend of £283. 6. 9-, 
including £20 interest money above stated, £82. 15. 8. 
received from the public exchequer, and £108. 6. 8. paid 
from the funds of the burgh, with an allowance for 
manse. The old church was erected about the middle 
of the 1/th century, to supply the place of the church 
of St. John, which had been desecrated by Cromwell, and 
converted into an armoury for the fort that he erected 
around its site ; it is a substantial edifice, but greatly 
inferior to the original church in elegance of design. 
The new church was erected in 1810, at an expense of 
nearly £6000, and is a handsome edifice ; the two 
churches together are capable of accommodating from 
2000 to 2500 persons. There are places of worship for 
members of the Free Church and the Relief Synod, Wes- 
leyans, the United Secession, Reformed Congregation, 
Episcopalians, and Moravians. The parochial schools of 
the burgh, by a charter in 1798, were incorporated into 
an institution called the Academy, and a handsome and 
capacious building was erected, with funds raised by 
contributions from the heritors, and subscriptions. It is 
conducted under the superintendence of a committee, 
by a rector who has a salary of £100 per annum, and three 
assistant masters with salaries of about £20 each ; the 
course of instruction is comprehensive, and the number 
of pupils averages about 500. A school in which about 
200 children are taught, is supported by the produce of 
a bequest of £2000 by Captain Smith, under the direc- 
tion of the parochial ministers and magistrates of the 
town. 

The hospital for the poor, or Poor's House, was 
erected in 1759, at the expense of the corporation, aided 
by subscription, for the reception of the infirm and 
helpless poor ; it is conducted by a master and a mis- 
tress with a salary of £80. A dispensary was established 
in 1817, which afforded medicinal assistance to more 
than 500 patients annually, and a fever hospital, re- 
cently built, has been united to it ; the subscriptions 
amount to about £300 per annum. A savings' bank 
was established in 1815; the present amount of de- 
posits is about £3000, and the number of contributors 
700; the gross amount of deposits, since its commence- 
ment, exceeds £30,000. Numerous charitable benefac- 
tions have been made, of which the principal are, a 
bequest of Mr. Patterson, of Ayr, to the Glasgow In- 
firmary, of £500, in consideration of which the parish 
is privileged to send four patients to that institution ; 
an annual income of £55, derived from a bequest of 
Mr. Smith, a native of this town, and alderman of Lon- 
donderry, in Ireland, distributed among poor persons 
on a certain day ; a bequest of £300 by Mr. James 
Dick, of which the interest is similarly distributed 
among the poor; the farm of Sessionfield, consisting of 
100 acres, bequeathed by Sir Robert Blackwood, of 
Edinburgh, a native of this parish, and the produce of 
which is distributed among poor householders ; a be- 
quest of £1000 by Mrs. Crawford, for reduced females; 
a bequest of £300 by Captain Tennant, to the Poor- 
house ; a bequest of £5 annually to ten females, by 
Miss Ballantine, of Castle-hill ; and a bequest of £1000 
to the poor of the parish, by Mr. Ferguson, of Doon- 
holme. 

There are remains of the church of St. John, within 
the area of Cromwell's fort, consisting solely of the 
88 



tower ; and also of the old church of Alloway, of which 
the walls are entire. The moat of Alloway may be 
traced, on the approach to Doonholme House ; on its 
summit, according to ancient records, courts of justice 
were held, for the trial of petty offences. There are 
evident traces of the old Roman road leading from 
Galloway into the county of Ayr, and passing within 
half a mile of the town ; and other portions of it are 
still in tolerable preservation. A tract on the coast 
called the Battle Fields, is supposed to have been the scene 
of a fierce conflict between the natives and the Romans. 
Both Roman and British implements of war, urns of 
baked clay, and numerous other relics of Roman anti- 
quity, have been found at this place; and coins of 
Charles II. were discovered under the foundation of the 
old market-cross, a handsome structure of hexagonal 
form, removed in 17S8. Johannes Scotus, who flourished 
in the ninth century, eminent for his proficiency in Greek 
and oriental literature, and who was employed by Alfred 
the Great, to restore learning at Oxford ; and Andrew 
Michael Ramsay, better known as the Chevalier Ramsay, 
the friend of Fenelon, Bishop of Cambray, were natives 
of Ayr. John Loudon McAdam, celebrated for his im- 
provements in the construction of roads, and David 
Cathcart, Lord Alloway, one of the lords of the high court 
of justiciary, were also natives ; and John Mair, author 
of a system of book-keeping, and Dr. Thomas Jackson, 
professor of natural philosophy in the university of St. 
Andrew's, and author of several valuable works, were 
teachers in schools here. But the most celebrated name 
connected with the place, is that of Burns, whose monu- 
ment has been already noticed, and who was born at Allo- 
way, in the parish, in a cottage which is still remaining. 
It may here be observed, that on the 6th of August, 
1S44, the town of Ayr was the scene of great rejoicings, 
occasioned by a national festival being held in the neigh- 
bourhood, on that day, in honour of the memory of 
Burns, and to greet the three sons and the sister of the 
bard. At an early hour of the morning, visiters from 
all parts of Scotland had arrived, to join in, or be spec- 
tators of, the proceedings ; and a grand procession was 
shortly formed, which passed from the town, along a 
road thronged with people, to the more immediate scene 
of the events of the day, the banks of the Doon. Here, 
in the vicinity of the poet's birth-place, beside the old 
kirk of Alloway which his muse has immortalized, and 
beneath the monument raised by his admiring country- 
men, the procession closed ; and not long after, a ban- 
quet was partaken of by above 2000 persons, including 
many of distinguished talent, in a pavilion about 120 
feet square, that had been specially erected in a field ad- 
joining the monument. Numerous appropriate speeches, 
some of considerable eloquence, were made upon the 
occasion ; that of Professor Wilson was particularly re- 
markable, and the whole of the proceedings were cha- 
racterized by the utmost enthusiasm, and by an univer- 
sal desire to merge every individual feeling, that the 
day might be truly consecrated to its own peculiar 
object. 

AYRSHIRE, an extensive county, on the western 
coast of Scotland, bounded on the north by Renfrew- 
shire, on the east by the counties of Lanark and Dum- 
fries, on the south by the stewartry of Kirkcudbright 
and Wigtonshire, and on the west by the Frith of Clyde 
and the Irish Channel. It lies between 54° 40' and 55° 



A Y 11 S 



A Y T O 



52' (N. lat.), and 4° and 5° (W. long.), and is about 
sixty miles in length, and nearly thirty in extreme 
breadth, comprising an area of about 1600 square miles, 
or 1,024,000 acres, and containing 31,497 houses, of 
which 30,125 are inhabited; and a population of 
164,356, of whom 78,983 are males, and 85,373 females. 
This county, which includes the three districts of Car- 
rick, Kyle, and Cunninghame, was originally inhabited 
by the Damnii, with whom, after the departure of the 
Romans, were mingled a colony of Scots, who emigrated 
from Ireland, and settled in the peninsula of Cantyre, 
in the county of Argyll. In the Sth century, the Saxon 
kings of Northumbria obtained possession of this part 
of the country ; and in the reign of David I., Hugh de 
Morville, who had emigrated from England, and was 
made by that monarch constable of Scotland, received 
a grant of the whole district of Cunninghame, in which 
he placed many of his English vassals. Previously to 
their final defeat at the battle of Largs, in 1263, the 
county was frequently invaded by the Danes ; and 
during the wars with Edward of England, it was the 
scene of many of the exploits of William Wallace, in 
favour of Robert Bruce, who was a native of the county, 
and obtained, by marriage, the earldom of Carrick, 
which, on his accession to the throne, merged into the 
property of the crown. The change in the principles of 
religion which led to the Reformation, appears to have 
first developed itself in this county ; and Kyle is 
noticed by the reformer, Knox, as having, at a very 
early period, embraced the reformed doctrine. 

Previously to the Reformation, the county was in- 
cluded within the arch-diocese of Glasgow ; it is now 
almost entirely in the synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and 
comprises several presbyteries, and forty-six parishes. 
It contains the royal burghs of Ayr, which is the county 
town, and Irvine ; the towns of Largs, Beith, Ardros- 
san, Saltcoats, Kilwinning, Kilmarnock, Mauchline, 
Catrine, Old and New Cumnock, Muirkirk, Maybole, 
and Girvan ; and numerous large and populous villages. 
Under the act of the 2nd of William IV., the county 
returns one member to the imperial parliament. The 
surface is varied : in the district of Cunninghame, 
which includes the northern portion, it is comparatively 
level ; in Kyle, which occupies the central portion, it is 
hilly and uneven, though containing some large tracts 
of fertile and well cultivated land; and the district of 
Carrick, in the south, is wild and mountainous. The 
principal mountains are, Knockdollian, which has an 
elevation of 2000 feet above the sea ; Cairntable, rising 
to the height of 1650 feet; Knockdow and Carleton, 
each 1554 feet high; and Knocknounan, 1540 feet. 
The chief rivers are, the Ayr, the Doon, the Garnock, 
the Girvan, and the Stiuchar ; and the county is inter- 
sected by numerous smaller streams, of which the 
principal are, the Rye water, the Irvine, and the Kil- 
marnock water. There are also numerous small lakes, 
especially in the district of Carrick ; but the only one 
of any extent, is Loch Doon, from which issues the river 
of that name. The coast, especially that of Carrick, 
is precipitous, rocky, and dangerous, and possesses few 
good harbours ; towards the extremities, it is almost 
inaccessible, from rocks in the offing, and towards the 
centre, the beach is sandy, and the water so shallow as 
generally to preclude the approach of vessels of any 
considerable burthen. 
Vol. I.— 89 



About one-third of the land is arable, and in culti- 
vation, and the remainder, of which a very large portion 
is mountain waste, is chiefly meadow and pasture. The 
soil is, in some parts, light and sandy, and in others a 
rich clay, and nearly the whole of the district of Cun- 
ninghame is a rich and fruitful vale. The dairies are 
well managed, and their produce is in high repute ; the 
county is also distinguished for its excellent breed of 
cattle : the moors abound with all kinds of game, and 
the rivers with salmon and trout. The rateable annual 
value of the county is £520,828. The minerals are, 
coal, ironstone, lead and copper ore, black-lead, and 
gypsum ; the coal is abundant, and the working of it, 
for exportation, is daily increasing, for which purpose 
railroads have been laid down, and harbours have been 
constructed ; there are also extensive quarries of free- 
stone and marble. The ancient forests of Ayrshire 
have long since disappeared; and the plantations, which 
are extensive, are mostly of modern growth. The seats 
are, Kelburn House, Eglinton Castle, Culzean Castle, 
Loudon Castle, Fairley Castle, Dalquharran, Blairquhan, 
Bargeny, Fullerton House, Dumfries House, Stair House, 
Auchincruive, Auchinleck, and many others. The chief 
manufactures are the various branches of the woollen, 
the linen, cotton, and thread manufactures, for which 
there are extensive works at Kilmarnock and Catrine ; 
the weaving of muslin is also general throughout the 
county, and the Ayrshire needlework has long been 
distinguished for elegance. There are likewise tanneries 
and potteries, iron-foundries, and some very large iron- 
works, of which those at Muirkirk are among the most 
celebrated in the country ; along the coast are valuable 
fisheries, and salt-works, and others for kelp and soda. 
Facility of communication is maintained by excellent 
roads, and bridges kept in good repair; also by the 
railway from Ayr to Glasgow, with its different branches. 
There are numerous remains of antiquity, consisting of 
the ruins of fortresses and religious houses, in various 
parts of the county, all of which are described in the 
articles on the several parishes where they are situated. 

AYTON, a post-town and parish, in the county of 
Berwick, 7^ miles (N. W. by N.) from Berwick-on- 
Tweed, and 47| (E. by S.) from the city of Edinburgh ; 
containing about 1700 inhabitants. This place, which 
takes its name from the water of Eye, on the banks of 
which it is situated, is intimately connected with impor- 
tant transactions of early times. It was formerly 
dependent on the monastery of Coldingham, as appears 
from charters belonging to that establishment, upon 
the settlement of which, between the years 109S and 
1 107, under the auspices of King Edgar, that monarch 
made them several grants, including "Eytun" and 
" aliam Eytun," the latter being Nether Ayton, on the 
opposite side of the river. Ayton then belonged to the 
parish of Coldingham ; and it is considered that its 
church was founded about that time, as a chapel for 
the neighbouring priory, to which use it was appro- 
priated till the Reformation, when this district was dis- 
joined from Coldingham, and united to Lamberton on 
the south-east, a short time after which, it was erected 
into a parish of itself. The Castle of Ayton, a place of 
great importance in turbulent times, but long since 
demolished, is supposed to have been founded by a 
Norman called De Vescie, whose family afterwards 
changed their name to that of De Eitun, and of whom 

N 



A Y T O 



A Y T O 



the Aytons, of Inchdarney, in Fife, are said to be the 
lineal descendants ; this castle was subjected to a siege 
by Surrey, the famous general of Henry VII., in 1497, 
and it appears that the village of Ayton sprang up in 
its vicinity, for the sake of the protection which it 
afforded. A truce was signed in the church, between 
the hostile kingdoms, in 1384; and another in 1497, 
for seven years, after the capture of the castle in July 
in the same year. The estate of Prenderguest, a dis- 
tinct and very ancient portion of the parish, in the 
reign of David I., partly belonged to Swain, priest of 
Fishwick, on the banks of the Tweed, who afterwards 
renounced his claim to it in favour of the Coldingham 
monks. 

The parish, bounded on the east by the sea, is about 
four miles in length, and the same in breadth, and 
contains about 7050 acres, of which 6000 are arable, 
250 pasture, and 800 plantation. The surface is most 
elevated in the southern part, which consists of a sloping 
range of high land, adorned with beautiful copses, and 
reaching, at its highest elevation, to about 660 feet 
above the level of the sea; the ground on the northern 
side is lower, but has some very fine lofty undulations. 
The sea-coast extends between two and three miles, 
and is abrupt and steep, one point, known by the name 
of Blaiky's, rising to a height of 350 feet; there are 
one or two caves on the shore, accessible only by sea, 
and which, it is supposed, were formerly used for 
smuggling, but are now the resort of marine fowls and 
shellfish. At the south-eastern point of the boundary, 
is a rocky bay, approached, from land, by a deep ravine, 
at the foot of which stand the little fishing village of 
Burnmouth, and a singular rock called the Maiden 
Stone, insulated at high water, and which has been 
separated from the precipice above by the undermining 
of the sea. At the north-eastern point of the parish, 
are two or three islets, called the Harker rocks, over 
which the sea continually rolls, and when driven by 
strong east winds, exhibits a lofty and extensive field 
of sweeping foam. The chief rivers are the Eye and 
the Ale, the former of which rises in the Larnmermoor 
hills, and after flowing for nearly twelve miles, enters 
the parish, by a right-angled flexure, on its western 
side, and at length falls into the sea. The scenery of 
the valley through which it flows, if viewed from Mil- 
lerton hill, the old western approach to Ayton, is of 
singular interest and beauty : the nearer prospect con- 
sists of the village, manse, and church, Ayton House, with 
its beautiful plantations, and the new and commanding 
house and grounds of Peelwalls ; numerous mansions 
and farm-houses rise, in various parts, on the right, 
skirted by a range of hill country, and the expansive 
and rolling sea closes the prospect on the north-east. 
The Ale rises in Coldingham parish, and, after running 
two or' three miles, forms the north-eastern boundary 
of this parish, separating it from Coldingham and 
Eyemouth, for about two miles, when it falls into the 
Eye at a romantic elevation called the Kip-rock. 

The soil, in general, is good, consisting, in the 
southern part, of a fertile loam, and in the northern 
exhibiting a light earth, with a considerable admixture 
of gravel in many places ; the finest crops, both white 
and green, are produced, the land being in a high state 
of cultivation, and every improvement in agriculture 
has been introduced, among which the most prominent 
90 



are, a complete system of draining, and the plentiful 
use of bone-dust, as turnip manure. The rateable an- 
nual value of the parish is £12,970. The prevailing 
rock in the district is the greywacke and greywacke 
slate, of which formation large supplies of sandstone of 
good quality are quarried for building. Considerable 
deposits of coarse alabaster, or gypsum, have been dug 
up near the hamlet of Burnmouth ; and in the vicinity 
of the Eye are large quantities of coarse gravel, boul- 
ders, and rolled blocks under the soil, apparently 
alluvial, and rounded by the perpetual action of water. 
The mansion-house of Ayton, which was destroyed by 
fire a few years since, and is about to be rebuilt by 
the proprietor, who has just purchased the property for 
£170,000, was situated on a beautiful acclivity, near 
the great London road, on the bank of the Eye, and 
surrounded by extensive grounds. It was a fine ancient 
edifice, and formed a commanding object of attraction, 
being the first on the line of road after crossing the 
border. The house of Prenderguest is a modern build- 
ing of superior construction ; and at Peelwalls, is an 
elegant residence, lately built of the celebrated stone 
from the quarries of Killala, in Fifeshire, and situated 
in grounds which vie with the mansion in beauty and 
grandeur. Gunsgreen House, standing by the sea-side 
and harbour of Eyemouth, is a fine mansion, erected by 
a wealthy smuggler, who caused many concealments 
to be constructed in the house, and under the grounds, 
for the purpose of carrying on his contraband traffic. 
A new and elegant seat was also recently erected on 
the estate of Netherbyres, with an approach from the 
north side, by means of a suspension bridge over the 
Eye, by which, with many other improvements, this 
ancient and valuable property has been rendered more 
attractive. 

The village of Ayton contains about 700 persons, and 
the village of Burnmouth a third of that number ; at 
the former, a cattle-market, recently established, takes 
place monthly, and is well supported, and fairs have long 
been held twice a year, but, at present, are not of much 
importance. Numerous buildings have been erected 
upon the new line of the London road, under leases 
granted by the proprietor, and have improved the vil- 
lage very considerably. There are several manufactories, 
of which the principal is a paper-mill, where pasteboards 
and coloured papers are chiefly prepared, by new and 
greatly improved machinery, the drying process being 
effected by the application of the paper round large 
cylinders heated by steam ; about £S00 a year are paid 
to the workmen, and the excise duties amount to up- 
wards of £3000 per annum. A tannery, which is, at 
present, on a small scale, but progressively increasing, 
was commenced in the village, a few years since, and 
produces annually several hundreds of pounds worth of 
very superior leather ; and at Gunsgreen, is a distillery, 
yielding about 1500 gallons of aqua weekly, chiefly de- 
rived from potatoes, 6000 cwt. of which have sometimes 
been consumed in two months. Kelp, also, has occa- 
sionally been manufactured on the shore, at Burn- 
mouth ; but the return is too small to induce the inha- 
bitants to prosecute it with vigour. A harbour has 
been lately constructed at Burnmouth, of sandstone 
found in the parish, as a security against the violence 
of the sea, at a cost of £1600, defrayed, three-fourths 
by the commissioners for fisheries, and one-fourth by 



BACK 



BALB 



the fishermen. Large quantities of white fish and occa- 
sionally of red, of very fine quality, are taken in this 
part, and cod, ling, and herrings are cured for distant 
markets ; lobsters are sometimes sent to Loudon, and 
periwinkles, with which the rocks abound, are likewise 
made an article of trade, for the use of those fishmon- 
gers who convert them into sauce. There is the 
greatest facility of communication ; the great London 
road, and the North-British railway, just constructed, 
intersecting the parish ; and there is another road cross- 
ing the London nearly at right angles, and leading from 
Eyemouth into the interior of the county. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery 
of Chirnside and synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the 
patronage is possessed by the Crown, and the minister's 
stipend is £"21 S, with a glebe valued at £35 per annum, 
and a manse on the bank of the Eye, erected at the 
close of the last century. The church, which is con- 
veniently situated about half a mile from the village, in 
a romantic and sweetly secluded spot, near the Eye, 
commanding a fine view of Ayton House, consists partly 
of the walls of the ancient church, built about the 
12th century, by the monks of Coldingham, and which 
was of very considerable dimensions. The old south 
transept is still entire, shrouded with mantling ivy, and 
converted into a burying-place for the Ayton family ; 
the gable of the chancel is also remaining, but its side 
walls have been removed, for the sake of the sandstone 
material, which appears to have been cut from the 
quarry at Greystonlees. The present building was re- 
paired and enlarged, twenty years since, and contains 
456 sittings. There are two places of worship belong- 
ing to the Associate Synod ; and also a parochial school, 
in which are taught the usual branches of education, 
with the classics, mathematics, and French if required, 
and the master of which has a salary of £34. 4., and a 
good house and garden, with fees, &c, to the amount of 
£S4 a year. On the highest point of the southern ex- 
tremity of the parish, is the round camp of Drumaw, or 
Habchester, which, before recent mutilations by the 
plough, was a fine specimen of ancient British encamp- 
ments. It commands an extensive prospect both by sea 
and land, and from its situation on the northern side of 
the hill, and its use for observation and defence, it is 
thought to have been constructed by South Britons, in 
order to watch the movements, and repel the attacks, 
of their northern neighbours. There are remains of 
other camps in the vicinity, all of which, in process of 
time, yielded to the more efficient and permanent de- 
fence of castles, of which the remains are still visible in 
many parts. The Castle of Ayton, as well as the British 
encampment before noticed, was situated near the 
Roman road which extended from the wall of Severus, 
and, after crossing the country at Newcastle, terminated 
at the Roman camp near St. Abbs Head in this dis- 
trict. 



B 



BACHIES, a village, in the parish of Golspie, 
county of Sutherland ; containing 145 inhabitants. 

BACKDEAN, a hamlet, in the parish of Newton, 
county of Edinburgh ; containing 45 inhabitants. 
This hamlet lies near the source of a small tributary to 
91 



the Esk water, and borders upon the parish of Inveresk, 
which is situated to the north-east of Backdean. 

BACKMUIR, a hamlet, in the parish of Liff, Ben- 
vie, and Invergowrie, county of Forfar ; containing 
166 inhabitants. It is situated in the north-western 
extremity of the parish, upon the border of the county 
of Perth, and close to the Dighty water ; and the road 
from Dundee to this place, here branches off into two 
roads, one leading to Cupar-Angus, and the other to 
Meigle. 

BAILLIESTON, a village, in the late quoad sacra 
parish of Crossbill, parish of Old Monkland, Middle 
ward of the county of Lanark, 4f miles (E. by S.) 
from Glasgow; containing 639 inhabitants. This is 
the principal village of Crosshill parish, and is situ- 
ated in the western part of the parish of Old Monkland, 
on the border of that of Barony, and near the roads 
from Glasgow to Airdrie and to Hamilton. For many 
years past, the Monkland, Bothwell, Barony, and Cad- 
der Farming Society have held their annual exhibition 
of live stock in the village, and it is considered in Scot- 
land as being second only to the exhibitions of the 
Highland Society ; the description of stock is of the 
first class, and prizes are frequently obtained by agri- 
culturists of this neighbourhood, at the latter exhibi- 
tions, where the competition is open to England and 
Scotland. A subscription library is supported here. 

BAINSFORD, a village, in the parish of Falkirk, 
county of Stirling, I mile (N.) from Falkirk. This 
village, which forms part of the suburbs of the town 
of Falkirk, and is included within the parliamentary 
boundary, is situated on the north side of the Forth and 
Clyde canal, over which is a drawbridge, affording access 
to the village of Grahamston. The inhabitants are 
chiefly employed in the Carron iron-works, of which 
the proprietors have a basin here, communicating with 
the canal, and which is connected with the works, in 
the adjoining parish of Larbert, by a railway. There is 
also a rope-walk, in which several persons are employed ; 
and in the village, which is neatly built, is a well-con- 
ducted school. 

BALBEGGIE, a village, in the parish of Kinnoull, 
county of Perth, 5 miles (N. E.) from Perth ; contain- 
ing 222 inhabitants. This village is situated in the 
northern extremity of the parish, on the road to Cupar- 
Angus ; and the Associate Synod have a place of wor- 
ship here, with a residence for the minister, and a gar- 
den attached. 

BALBIRNE, a hamlet, in the parish of Ruthven, 
county of Forfar; containing 43 inhabitants. 

BAL15IRNIE, county of Fife. — See Markixch. 

BALBLAIR, an island, in the parish of Fodderty, 
county of Ross and Cromarty; containing 7 inhabit- 
ants. 

BA.LBROGIE, a village, in the parish of Cupar- 
Angus, county of Perth, 1| mile (N. N. E.) from Cupar- 
Angus ; containing SO inhabitants. A weekly market 
has been established at this place, which is conveniently 
situated near the road from Cupar-Angus to Meigle, 
about midway between it and the river Isla. 

BALBUNNO, a village, in the parish of Longfor- 
gan, county of Perth ; containing 200 inhabitants. 
This village, which is entirely upon the lands of Mylne- 
field, is neatly built, and inhabited chiefly by persons 
employed in a bleachfield in the immediate neighbour- 

N 2 



BALD 



BALF 



hood, though not within the limits of the parish of 
Longforgan, which has been established within the last 
few years, and to which the origin of the village may be 
attributed. 

BALCHULLISH.— See Ballichulish. 

BALCURRIE, a village, in that part of the parish 
of Markinch which forms the quoad sacra parish of 
Milton of Balgonie, county of Fife ; containing 186 
inhabitants. 

BALDERNOCK, a parish, in the county of Stir- 
ling, 7 miles (N.) from Glasgow ; containing, with the 
village of Balmore, 972 inhabitants, of whom S14 are 
exclusive of the village. The name of this place is 
corrupted, as is supposed, from the Celtic term Baldrui- 
nick, signifying " Druid's town;" and this opinion re- 
ceives strong support from the numerous remains found 
here, pertaining to that ancient order. The parish, of 
which the eastern half was in that of Campsie till 1649, 
is situated at the southern extremity of the county, 
where it is bounded by the river Kelvin, which flows 
towards the west, and by the Allander, running in the 
opposite direction. It comprehends 3800 acres, of which 
3100 are under cultivation, 240 wood, and the remain- 
der roads and water, and about equal parts are appro- 
priated for grain, green crops, &c, and for pasture. 
The surface is greatly diversified, and consists of three 
distinct portions, succeeding each other on a gradual 
rise from south to north, each varying exceedingly from 
the others, in soil, produce, and scenery, and the whole 
circumscribed by an outline somewhat irregular, but 
approaching in form to a square, the sides severally 
measuring between two and three miles. The northern 
tract, lying at an elevation of 300 feet above the sea, 
and embracing fine views in all directions, contains a 
few insulated spots under tillage, surrounded by moss 
land, with a light sharp soil incumbent on whinstone. 
Below this, the surface of the second tract assumes an 
entirely different appearance, being marked by many 
beautifully picturesque knolls, and a clayey soil, resting 
on a tilly retentive subsoil ; and to this portion succeeds 
the lowest land in the parish, and by far the richest, 
comprising 700 or 800 acres along the bank of the 
river, formed of a soil of dark loam, supposed to have 
been washed down gradually from the higher grounds ; 
this division is called the Balmore haughs. Barley 
and oats are the prevailing sorts of grain, and all the 
ordinary green crops are raised, potatoes, however, 
being grown in the largest quantity. Draining is exten- 
sively carried on, although much land is still in want of 
this necessary process ; and the inundations from the 
Kelvin, formerly often destructive to the crops on the 
lower grounds, are now, to a great extent, prevented by 
a strong embankment, and by a tunnel at the entrance 
of a tributary of the river, by which the torrents, before 
pouring forth, in rainy weather, uncontrolled, are now 
so checked as to obviate danger. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £5713. 

The rock consists of trap, in the southern and midland 
portions ; but in the northern district, limestone, iron- 
stone, pyrites, alum, and fire-clay are abundant, several 
of which have been long wrought to a considerable ex- 
tent, and lie in strata towards the east, stretching from 
the extensive coal-beds of Campsie. Iron-ore has lately 
been discovered in the coal-mines of Barraston, of very 
superior quality to the common argillaceous kind for- 
92 



merly wrought, and consists of a mixture of iron with 
carbonaceous substances, similar to that foind in the 
mines near Airdrie. The coal and lime obtained, for 
150 years, from this locality, the latter of which is ex- 
cellent, and sent in large quantities to Glasgow and 
many other places in the country, lie in beds from three 
to four feet thick, and from twelve to twenty-four feet 
under the surface, the superincumbent strata being 
formed of argillaceous slate, calcareous freestone, and 
ironstone. Pyrites and alum are plentiful, and fire- 
clay, for a long period, was made into bricks, highly 
esteemed as fire-proof. Bardowie, a very ancient man- 
sion, once fortified, and a considerable part of which 
is now modernised, is ornamented, in front, with a 
beautiful loch a mile long, and is the seat of the chief 
of the clan Buchanan ; towards the north-west, on an 
eminence, are the remains of a tower once the family- 
mansion, and near this is the seat of Craigmaddie, and, 
in another direction, the mansion of Glenorchard. The 
parish is traversed by a high road, running from west 
to east, throughout its length ; and the Forth and Clyde 
canal passes within a small distance of the south-eastern 
boundary. A fair was once held in the summer, for cattle 
and horses, but has fallen into disuse. Baldernock 
is in the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod of Glas- 
gow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the Crown; the 
minister's stipend is £156. 19. 1., half of which is re- 
ceived from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe 
valued at £19 per annum. The church is a plain edifice, 
built in 1795, and contains 406 sittings. There is a 
place of worship for members of the Free Church. The 
parochial school affords instruction in reading, writing, 
and arithmetic ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., and 
the fees. In the vicinity of Blochairn farm, near which 
a battle is said to have been fought with the Danes, are 
several cairns, and, not far from these, three stones 
called " the Auld Wives' Lifts," generally supposed to 
be Druidical. 

BALDOVAN, a hamlet, in the parish of Strath- 
martine, county of Forfar ; containing 44 inhabitants. 
It is in the south-eastern part of the parish, near the 
Dighty water. 

BALEDGARNO, a village, in the parish of Inch- 
ture and Rossie, county of Perth, 9 miles (W.) from 
Dundee; containing 1 10 inhabitants. It is situated in 
the Carse of Gowrie, and southern portion of the parish, 
and is a neat and thriving place, the property of Lord 
Kinnaird. The hill of Baledgarno is finely planted with 
various kinds of timber. 

BALERNO, a village, in the parish of Currie, 
county of Edinburgh, 7 miles (S. W.) from Edinburgh ; 
containing 303 inhabitants. This place is situated on 
the Leith water, on which are some mills for the manu- 
facture of paper ; a freestone quarry has been worked 
in the vicinity for a number of years, and many of the 
buildings of the new town of Edinburgh have been 
supplied from it. 

BALFIELD, a hamlet, in the parish of Lethnott 
and Navar, county of Forfar ; containing 41 inhabit- 
ants. It lies in the south-eastern portion of the parish, 
a little to the north of the West water. 

BALFRON, a parish, in the county of Stirling, 
6 miles (E. by N.) from Drymen ; containing 1970 in- 
habitants, of whom 156S are in the village. There is an 
opinion that this place has been called by its present 



B A L F 



BALL 



name, which is said to signify " the town of sorrow" or 
" mourning," from a dreadful calamity experienced hy 
the original inhabitants, who, having left their children 
in their tents, and departed to a spot at a short dis- 
tance, for the performance of religious rites, found, 
upon returning, that they had been all destroyed by 
wolves, with which the neighbourhood was infested. 
Others, however, interpret the name, Balfron, " the 
town of burns." and imagine that it received this deno- 
mination on account of the situation of the old village, 
now fallen to decay, at the confluence of two small 
streams. The parish is eleven miles in length, from 
east to west, and three in breadth, and comprises 14,080 
acres, of which 3320 are under cultivation, 105 planta- 
tions, and the remainder waste. The surface is diversi- 
fied with pleasing eminences, on one of which, gently 
sloping to the south, is the neatly-built and interesting 
village, enlivened by the stream of the Endrick, winding 
through a richly-wooded vale at its foot, and supplying, 
to the lovers of angling, an ample stock of trout, of a 
peculiarly fine flavour. The lofty hills called the Len- 
nox fells, rising 1500 feet above the level of the sea, 
form here a singularly striking feature, bounding the 
scenery in one direction ; and the distant view embraces 
the Grampian range, displaying to great advantage the 
majestic Ben-Lomond, with many subordinate, yet im- 
posing, elevations. The farms, in general, are of small 
size, and the soil, which, in some places, is light and 
sandy, but more frequently wet and tilly, is cultivated 
with much skill ; dairy-farming is a favourite branch of 
husbandry, and the stock, consisting of the Ayrshirebreed, 
has been very much improved, as well as that of the sheep, 
in consequence of the liberal patronage of the Strath- 
Endrick Agricultural Club. The rateable annual value 
of the parish is £4704. Limestone is abundant ; but it 
has not been wrought to any extent, through the want 
of coal, which, however, is supposed to exist here, on 
account of the usual accompanying trap-rocks having 
been found, though all attempts to discover it have 
hitherto failed. The ancient mansion of Ballindalloch, 
in the parish, formerly belonged to the Glencairn family, 
celebrated in Scottish history, and of whom Alexander, 
the fifth earl, was the friend, associate, and patron of 
John Knox. 

The population was once entirely rural, and the chief 
point of interest was the old village, with its spreading 
oak, where the church and burial-ground are situated ; 
but, about sixty-five years since, manufactures were in- 
troduced, and a new village quickly sprang up. In 
17S0, the manufacture of calicoes commenced ; and 
in 1"S9, cotton-spinning succeeded, when a mill was 
erected, known by the name of the Ballindalloch cotton- 
works, now employing upwards of 250 hands, chiefly 
females, and driven by a stream supplied by the En- 
drick, augmented, in case of failure, by the water of a 
large reservoir in Dundaff moor. In the village are 
between 300 and 400 hand-looms, employing the larger 
part of the population in making light jaconets and 
lawns, and all kinds of fancy dresses and shawl patterns, 
which branches, however, have been, for some time, 
greatly depressed. Good roads run to Stirling and 
Glasgow, from which Balfron is nearly equidistant, and 
with which latter the chief communication is carried on, 
there being a daily post, and numerous conveyances ; a 
large cattle-fair is held in the neighbourhood, on the last 
93 



Tuesday in March, and another in the last week in June. 
The parish is in the presbytery of Dumbarton and synod 
of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the Earl 
of Kinnoull ; the minister's stipend is £158. 6. 4., above 
half of which is paid from the exchequer, with a manse, 
and a glebe of 17 acres, valued at £25 per annum. The 
church is a very plain structure, rebuilt in 1832, at a cost 
of £930 ; it contains 690 sittings, and is conveniently 
situated in the village, but too remote from the eastern 
quarter, in consequence of which the minister preaches 
there, once every six weeks in summer, and once every 
quarter in winter. The Relief, United Secession, and 
Burgher denominations, have each a place of worship; 
the parochial school affords instruction in the ordinary 
branches, and the master has a salary of £25, and £10 
fees. The parish also contains a library of 400 volumes 
in miscellaneous literature, for circulation ; and one of 
religious books, with about 150 volumes. This place, 
with some others, asserts its claim to the honour of 
being the birthplace of Napier, the inventor of Loga- 
rithms. 

BALGONIE, county of Fife. — See Coaltown, and 
Markinch. 

BALGRAY, a hamlet, in the parish of Tealing, 
county of Forfar : containing 63 inhabitants. It is 
situated in the south-eastern part of the parish, near 
the church, from which it is divided by a small rivulet 
that rises within the limits of Tealing. 

BALHADDIE, a hamlet, in the parish of Dun- 
blane ; forming part of the late quoad sacra parish of 
Ardoch, county of Perth, and containing 33 inha- 
bitants. 

BALINTORE, a village, in the parish of Fearn, 
county of Ross and Cromarty, 2| miles (E. by S.) 
from Fearn ; containing 313 inhabitants. This is a 
fishing village, situated on the coast of the Moray 
Frith, which has here a flat and generally sandy shore : 
on the south, is the ferry of Cromarty, distant about 
four miles. 

BALI SHEAR, an island, in the parish of North 
Uist, county of Inverness ; containing 157 inhabitants. 
It is situated in the channel between the islands of 
North Uist and Benbecula, and has a small village on 
the east side. 

BALKELLO, a hamlet, in the parish of Tealing, 
county of Forfar ; containing 88 inhabitants. 

BALLANTRAE, a parish, in the district of Car- 
rick, county of Ayr, 13 miles (S. by W.) from Girvan ; 
containing 1651 inhabitants, of whom 605 are in the 
village. This place, anciently called Kirkcudbright- 
Innertig, derived that appellation from the position of 
its church, at the mouth of the river Tig ; and, on the 
removal of the church from that site to the town of 
Ballantrae, assumed its present name, which, in the 
Celtic language, is descriptive of its situation on the sea- 
shore. The parish is bounded on the west by the Irish 
Sea, and comprises nearly 25,000 acres, of which about 
7000 are arable, 400 woodland and plantations, and the 
remainder rough moorland, affording scanty pasture. 
The surface is greatly diversified with hills and dales, 
and is intersected by a series of four parallel ridges, 
increasing in elevation as they recede from the shore, 
and of which the third and highest, is distinguished by 
a hill 1430 feet above the sea, which was selected as one 
of the stations for carrying on the late trigonometrical 



BALL 



BALL 



survey of this part of the coast. From this point is 
obtained an extensive and beautiful prospect, embracing 
the Isle of Man, the north-east coast of Ireland, Cantyre, 
the isles of Ailsa and Arran, and the Ayrshire coast, 
terminated by the West Highland mountains in the back 
ground ; and in another direction appear the Dum- 
fries-shire hills, the Cumberland and Westmorland moun- 
tains, and Solway Frith. The coast, extends for about 
ten miles ; the shore is bold, and interspersed with 
rocks, except for about three miles near the village. 
The principal river is the Stinchar, which rises in the 
parish of Barr, and, after flowing for nearly three miles 
through this parish, of which it forms part of the 
boundary to the north, falls into the sea ; the Tig, rising 
in the high grounds, after a short course, flows into the 
Stinchar; and the App, a very inconsiderable stream, 
flows westward, through the picturesque dell of Glen- 
App, into Loch Ryan. These streams all abound with 
common and sea trout, par, and occasionally salmon, 
which is plentiful in the Stinchar. 

The soil is chiefly of a light and gravelly quality ; 
near the shore, sandy j and in the level lands, especially 
near the rivers, a rich and fertile loam. The crops are, 
oats, wheat, bear, potatoes, turnips, and a few acres of 
beans and peas ; bone-dust has been introduced as 
manure ; the lands have been drained, and considerable 
improvements were made, under the auspices of the 
late Stinchar Agricultural Association, which included 
this parish, in which it originated. There are several 
dairy-farms, all well managed, and, in the aggregate, 
producing annually about 5000 stone of sweet-milk 
cheese, known under the designation of Dunlop cheese. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £7265. The 
natural woods are very inconsiderable, though, from the 
number of trees found imbedded in the soil, they w r ould 
appear to have been formerly extensive ; they consist 
mostly of oak, ash, and birch, and on the banks of the 
Stinchar and the Tig, are some valuable trees. The 
plantations are of comparatively recent formation, but 
are in a thriving condition, and some which have been 
laid down in Glen- App, and on the ridge to the north of 
it, by the Earl of Orkney, promise to become a great 
ornament in the scenery of the parish. The village, 
which was once a burgh of barony, by charter of 
James V., is pleasantly situated on the north bank of 
the river Stinchar, about half a mile from its influx into 
the sea ; a public library is supported by subscription, 
and a post-office has been established. A considerable 
salmon-fishery is prosecuted at the mouth of the Stin- 
char ; the fish are sent chiefly to the markets of Ayr 
and Kilmarnock, and the annual produce may be esti- 
mated at about £500; the season generally commences 
in February, and closes in September. The white 
fishery is carried on extensively, employing twenty 
boats, to each of which four men are assigned, and from 
eight to twenty nets are used ; the fish are principally 
cod and turbot, and in some seasons, herrings are also 
taken in abundance ; the produce may be estimated at 
about £2000, and the season usually commences in 
January, and ends in April. A court of petty-session 
was formerly held every alternate month, at which two 
of the county magistrates presided. The steam-boat 
from Stranraer to Glasgow calls at this place ; a facility 
of intercourse is also afforded by excellent roads, and 
the mail from Ireland to Glasgow passes daily. 
94 



The parish is in the presbytery of Stranraer and 
synod of Galloway, and in the patronage of the Duchess 
de Coigny; the minister's stipend is £248. 1. 3., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum. The 
present church, erected in 1819, is a substantial edifice, 
adapted for a congregation of 600 persons : the former 
church of Ballantrae, together with a manse, was erected 
in 1617, at the sole expense of the laird of Bargany. 
There are still some remains of the original church at 
Innertig. A place of worship has been erected in con- 
nexion with the Free Church. The parochial school is 
well conducted ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4§., 
with £16 fees, and a house and garden, and he receives 
the interest of a bequest of £400, for the instruction of 
an additional number of poor scholars. The late Mrs. 
Caddall bequeathed £4500, and 15 acres of land, for 
the endowment and erection of a chapel and school in 
Glen-App, in connexion with the Established Church ; 
the trustees have established the school, and selected 
land for the glebe, and intend to build the chapel, when 
the funds shall have accumulated sufficiently to provide 
for the endowment of a minister, after defraying the 
expense of its erection. On a rock near the village, 
and within the precincts of the glebe, are the remains of 
the ancient castle of Ardstinchar, formerly belonging to 
the Bargany family. 

BALLATER, a village, in the parish of Glenmuick, 
Tbllich, and Glengairn, district, of Kincardine 
O'Neil, county of Aberdeen ; containing 371 inha- 
bitants. This place, situated in a beautiful valley, on 
the north bank of the Dee, was formed about the begin- 
ning of the present century, by the late proprietor, 
William Farquharson, Esq., of Monaltrie, by whose 
directions the site was measured for the erection of re- 
gular streets and squares, the former of which cross 
the main street at right angles, and the latter, with 
allotments of ground, have been let out in perpetual 
feu tenements. Besides numerous well-constructed 
private houses, the village contains an excellent inn, 
some good shops, a circulating library, and a post-office 
communicating daily with Aberdeen, to which place 
there is a daily mail-coach, together with several weekly 
carriers. The salubrity of the air, and the picturesque 
scenery of the locality, draw many visiters from Aber- 
deen and other parts, in the summer months ; but the 
chief attraction is the chalybeate waters of Pananich, 
in the vicinity, which hold in solution carbonate of 
iron, lime, magnesia, &c, and are considered of much 
efficacy in scorbutic and nephritic complaints. There 
are superior hot, cold, and shower baths, and many 
convenient lodging-houses ; and in a square in the vil- 
lage, stands the parish church, and, at a short distance, 
the parochial school. Over the Dee is a good wooden 
bridge of four arches, erected in 1834, at a cost of up- 
wards of £2000. 

BALLENDEAN, a hamlet, in the parish of Inch- 
ture and Rossie, county of Perth ; containing 80 in- 
habitants. This place is situated in the Carse of Gow- 
rie, near Ballendean hill, which is oi' considerable eleva- 
tion, and also near the handsome mansion of Ballendean 
House. 

BALLENLUIG, a village, in the parish of Logie- 
rait, county of Perth; containing 114 inhabitants. 
It is in the north-eastern portion of the parish, near the 
river Tummel, which flows on the north-east. 



BALL 



BALM 



BALLICHULISH, a quoad sacra parish, in the pa- 
rish of Kilmalie, partly in the district and county of 
Argyll, and partly in the county of Inverness, 
1 1 miles (S. by W.) from Fort-William ; containing 1235 
inhabitants. The village of Ballichulish is situated on 
the south shore of Loch Leven, a branch of Loch Linnhe, 
and there is a ferry to the opposite coast, not far from 
it ; the prospect is of the most imposing character, 
embracing lofty mountains and extensive lakes, relieved 
by woods and pastures, and other interesting features. 
The parish consists of two distinct districts, separated 
from each other by Loch Linnhe, with a church in each 
district. The district connected with the church at 
Ballichulish, in Invernesshire, is 17 miles by 7, or 
119 square miles, in extent; that connected with the 
church at Ardgower, in Argyllshire, is 14 miles by 6, 
or 84 square miles, in extent, making a total of '203 
square miles. The churches were built in June 1829, 
and are about four miles apart ; that of Ballichulish 
has 300 sittings, and the church of Ardgower, 210, and 
public worship is performed once a fortnight in each. 
An Episcopalian clergyman officiates every Sunday, 
in a chapel in the parish of Appin, within three miles 
of Ballichulish church ; and a Roman Catholic priest 
officiates once in three weeks, at Ballichulish slate 
quarry, likewise in Appin parish, and where there is 
also an Establishment chapel. A place of worship in 
connexion with the Free Church has been erected. 

BALLINGRY, a parish, in the district of Kirk- 
caldy, county of Fife, 3 miles (N. E. by E.) from 
Blair-Adam Inn ; containing 436 inhabitants. This 
place is supposed to have derived its name, of Gaelic 
origin, from its having been, at one time, an occa- 
sional residence of the Scottish kings. During the 
invasion of Britain by the Romans, under Agricola, a 
battle is said to have occurred between the Caledonians 
under Galgacus, and the IX. legion, which was stationed 
here, when the latter were totally defeated ; but Agricola, 
upon receiving intelligence of that event, put the whole 
of his army in motion, and, falling upon the rear of 
the Caledonians, compelled them to yield to superior 
numbers, and retire from the field. The latter, however, 
retreated in good order, bravely defending the fords of 
Loch Leven against the invaders, and obstinately dis- 
puting every inch of ground. Numerous memorials of 
this contest have been met with ; at the east end of the 
loch, and also where Auchmuir bridge now crosses 
that ancient ford, Caledonian battle-axes and Roman 
weapons have been discovered ; and a few years since, 
a Caledonian battle-axe of polished stone, firmly fixed 
in an oaken handle, twenty-two inches long, was found 
near the spot. 

The parish, which is of very irregular form, comprises 
about 3700 acres, of which 1394 are arable, 1874 
meadow and pasture, 242 woodland and plantations,* 
and the remainder common and waste ; the surface is 
generally a level, broken only by the hill of Binarty, of 
which the southern acclivity has been richly planted, 
forming an interesting feature in the scenery. The soil, 
in the northern portion, is rich, dry, and fertile, but in 
other parts, of inferior quality ; the crops are, oats, and 
barley, with some wheat, beans, and potatoes. Great 
improvement has been made by draining, but, in rainy 
seasons, the drains are insufficient to carry off the 
water ; the loch on the estate of Lochore, has been 
95 



drained, and now produces excellent crops of grain. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £4611. 
Limestone and coal are found in various parts ; the 
former is of inferior quality, and not worked, but the 
latter is wrought on two estates in the parish, with 
success ; whinstone and freestone are also found here, 
and, on the hill of Binarty, basaltic whinstone. The 
parish is in the presbytery of Kirkcaldy and synod of 
Fife, and in the gift of the lady of Sir Walter Scott, 
Bart.; the minister's stipend is £172. 8. 3., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £18 per annum. The 
church is a substantial and neat structure, erected in 
1831. The parochial school is tolerably attended; 
the master's salary is £34. 4. 4., with fees, and a 
house. The poor are supported by the rent of land 
producing £21, by collections at the church, and by the 
proceeds of a bequest of £100 by William Jobson, Esq., 
of Lochore. 

BALLOCH, a village, in the parish and county of 
Inverness; containing 104 inhabitants. 

BALLOCHNEY, a village, in that part of the parish 
of New Monkland which formed the quoad sacra parish 
of Clarkston, Middle ward of the county of Lanark ; 
containing 559 inhabitants. This place, which is situ- 
ated in the southern part of the parish, in an important 
coal and ironstone district, gives name to a line of 
railway extending from it, for about four miles west- 
ward, to the southern terminus of the Monkland and 
Kirkintilloch, and the eastern terminus of the Glasgow 
and Garnkirk, railroad. The capital of the company, 
which was incorporated in 1 S26, was originally £18,000 ; 
but power was acquired, in the session of 1S35, to in- 
crease it to £28,000 ; and by an act passed July 1, 1S39, 
the capital was further augmented to £70,000, for the 
purpose of improving the line, which now has several 
branches. In 1843, the company was empowered to 
increase its capital to £110,000. 

BALMACLELLAN, a parish, in the stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, l| mile (N. E.) from New Galloway; 
containing 1134 inhabitants, of whom 113 are in the 
village. This place takes its name from its ancient 
proprietors, a branch of the family of Maclellan of 
Bombie, lords of Kirkcudbright, who flourished here 
for many generations. The parish, which is bounded 
on the west by the river Ken, and on the east by the 
river Urr, is of an irregularly oblong figure, comprising 
about 23,737 acres, of which 4000 are arable, 300 
wood and plantations, and the remainder, with the ex- 
ception of some extensive tracts of moorland and moss, 
meadow and pasture. The surface is varied with hills, 
of which some rise to a considerable height, and is 
interspersed with small valleys, of different degrees of 
fertility, and great variety of aspect ; the lower grounds 
are watered by the Craig and Crogo rivulets, issuing 
from a range of hills in opposite directions, and dividing 
the parish from that of Parton on the south, and from 
the parishes of Dairy and Glencairn on the north. 
Along the banks of the Ken, a range of mounts called 
Drums, extends for two or three miles into the interior 
of the parish, beyond which the country assumes a 
more wild and rugged aspect, consisting of large tracts 
of moor and peat moss, interspersed with a few detached 
portions of cultivated land. In the upper parts of the 
parish, are numerous lakes, of which Loch Brach, Loch 
Barscole, Loch Skae, and Loch Lowes are the principal ; 



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but the most extensive and beautiful is Loch Ken, on 
the western border of the parish, into which the river 
Ken, which frequently overflows its banks, discharges 
its waters. The several streams and lakes abound with 
trout, and more especially Loch Braeh, in which are 
yellow trout, equal in quality to those of Lochinvar; 
pike are also found in most of them, and in Loch Ken, 
one was taken which weighed 721bs. The river, in its 
course, forms numerous picturesque cascades, of which 
the most interesting and most romantic is that called 
the Holy Linn ; the prevailing scenery is, in many 
parts, richly diversified, and, more particularly around 
the village, is beautifully picturesque. 

The soil is extremely various ; the lands which are 
under cultivation have been much improved, and to- 
wards the east, considerable tracts, hitherto unprofit- 
able, are gradually becoming of value ; but there is still 
much moor and moss, scarcely susceptible of improve- 
ment. The chief crops are, grain of all kinds, with 
potatoes and turnips; the farm-buildings on some of 
the lands are substantial and commodious, but, on 
others, of very inferior order. The cattle are generally 
of the Galloway breed, except a few cows of the Ayr- 
shire kind, on one of the dairy-farms ; and the sheep 
are of the black-faced breed, except on one farm, which 
is stocked with a cross between the black and the white 
faced, and a few of the Cheviot ; a very considerable 
number of pigs are reared, and sent to the Dumfries 
market. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
£5115. The substratum is almost wholly whinstone, 
of which the rocks chiefly consist, and of which great 
quantities are raised, affording excellent materials for 
the roads ; slate is found, and till lately there were 
two quarries in operation. The plantations, which are 
mostly oak, ash, and fir, are distributed throughout the 
lands, in detached portions of ten or twelve acres each. 
Holm is a handsome residence in the parish ; and there 
are also the houses of Craig and Craigmuie. The chief 
village stands at the intersection of the turnpike-roads 
leading from Edinburgh to Wigton, and from Glasgow 
to Kirkcudbright ; the small village of Crogo is a retired 
hamlet, in the south of the parish, containing about 
sixty inhabitants, and takes its name from the rivulet 
on which it is situated. In 1822, a substantial bridge 
of granite, of five arches, was built over the river Ken, 
by the floods of which two several bridges had been pre- 
viously swept away; the central arch has a span of 100 
feet. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superinten- 
dence of the presbytery of Kirkcudbright and synod of 
Galloway; the minister's stipend is £226. 19- 8., with 
a manse, and a glebe valued at £35 per annum ; patron, 
the Crown. The church is a plain structure, built in 
1772, and enlarged and repaired in 1S33, and contains 
370 sittings ; the churchyard is spacious, and com- 
mands a fine view, extending over the whole vale of 
the Ken. There are two parochial schools, of which 
the masters have each a salary of £17. 2. 2., with a 
house and garden, in addition to the fees, which average 
about £15 per annum. A free school is supported by 
an endowment of £70 per annum, arising from land 
purchased with a bequest of £500 by Edward Burdock, 
Esq., in 1788 ; the school-house was built in 1790, with 
a dwelling-house for the master, who has a salary of 
£17- 2. 2., but, in consideration of the endowment, re- 
96 



ceives no fees from the pupils. Barscole Castle, an- 
ciently a seat of the Maclellans, is little more than a 
heap of ruins. On Dularran Holm, is an erect stone of 
great size, without inscription, supposed to mark out 
the spot where some Danish chief fell in battle ; and on 
a hill near the village, a large ball of oak, and a set of 
bowling-pins, all of which, except two, were standing 
erect, were discovered a few years since, by persons 
cutting peat, at a depth of about twelve feet below the 
surface of the ground. 

BALMAGHIE, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright, 4 miles (N. w.) from Castle-Douglas ; 
containing 1252 inhabitants, of whom 275 are in the 
village of Laurieston, and 243 in that of Bridge of Dee. 
This place takes its name from its ancient proprietors, 
the Mc Gies, whose ancestor, an Irish chieftain, settled 
here at a very remote period, and whose descendants 
retained possession of the chief lands for many genera- 
tions. A part was the property of the Douglas family, 
whose baronial residence, Threave Castle, was built upon 
the site of a more ancient structure belonging to the 
lords of Galloway, who exercised, for many years, a 
kind of sovereignty, independent of the crown of Scot- 
land. In 1451, the eighth earl of Douglas, in retalia- 
tion of some aggression on his territories, seized Sir 
Patrick Maclellan, of Bombie, and detained him pri- 
soner in the castle of Threave, intending to bring him 
to trial, by right of his hereditary jurisdiction ; and on 
the arrival of Sir Patrick Grey, of Foulis, commander of 
the body-guard of James II., with a warrant from the 
king, demanding his release, Douglas, suspecting his 
errand, instantly ordered Maclellan to be beheaded in 
the court-yard. The castle was soon afterwards be- 
sieged by the king in person ; but the artillery making 
no impression upon the walls, which were of extraordi- 
nary thickness, a blacksmith, who witnessed the assault, 
offered to make a cannon of sufficient power for the 
purpose ; and the family of Maclellan providing him 
with iron for the work, he constructed the enormous 
cannon afterwards called Mons Meg, which weighed 
more than six tons and a half. This formidable engine, 
which was made in the immediate vicinity of the royal 
camp, being with great difficulty dragged to a command- 
ing position in front of the castle, the first shot spread 
consternation among the besieged, and the second 
pierced through the wall of the castle, and, entering the 
banquet-hall, carried away the right hand of the coun- 
tess, who, at the moment, was raising a goblet of wine 
to her mouth. The garrison immediately surrendered, 
and the king presented to the blacksmith, whose name 
was Mc Kim, or Mc Min, the lands of Mollance, as a re- 
ward for his ingenuity in devising and accomplishing 
the means of his success. 

This castle was the last of the various fortresses that 
beld out for the earls of Douglas, after their rebellion in 
1453 ; and upon the fall of that family, and the conse- 
quent annexation of Galloway to the crown of Scotland, 
in 1455, it was granted by the king to the family of 
Maxwell, afterwards earls of Nithsdale, hereditary stew- 
ards of Kirkcudbright, and "keepers of the king's castle 
of Threave." During the parliamentary war, in the 
reign of Charles I., the Earl of Nithsdale, who held the 
castle for the king, maintained in it a garrison of eighty 
men, with their officers, at his own expense ; and when 
no longer able to maintain it against its assailants, the 



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king, who was unable to send him any assistance, re- 
commended him to make the best terms he could for 
the garrison and himself. As hereditary keepers of the 
castle after the Restoration, the earls received annually, 
from each parish in the stewartry, a fat cow ; and when 
they sold the estate, in 1704, they reserved the castle 
and the island, to which they appointed a captain, in 
order to secure their right to the cattle, which was re- 
gularly paid till the attainder of the earl, for rebellion, 
in 1715. There are still some very conspicuous re- 
mains of the ancient castle, situated on an island of 
about 20 acres in extent, formed by the Dee, at the 
south-eastern angle of the parish ; they consist chiefly 
of the keep, which was surrounded by an outer wall, 
with four circular turrets, of which one only is standing. 
Several stone balls, weighing from one to 3§ pounds, 
and a gold ring, supposed to be that worn by the 
countess when her hand was shot off, were found in the 
castle, in 1843; and in the year preceding, a large ball 
of granite, 19 inches in diameter, thought to be that 
discharged from Mons Meg, was found by some labour- 
ers who were clearing the ground. 

The parish, which is situated nearly in the centre of 
the county, is bounded on the north by the Black- 
water of Dee, and on the east by the river Dee ; it is 
about nine miles in length, and seven in extreme 
breadth, and comprises 22,000 acres, of which nearly 
7000 are arable, and the remainder meadow, pasture, 
and waste, with a moderate proportion of woodland and 
plantations. The surface, towards the south-east, is 
tolerably level, but, in all other parts, hilly, though not 
strictly mountainous ; the higher grounds command 
extensive views, including, to the north-west, the Cars- 
phairn and Minnigaff hills, and, to the south-east, those 
of Cumberland, with the Isle of Man, in clear weather. 
In the uplands are several lakes, of which Loch Gran- 
noch, or Woodhall, the largest, is about 2^ miles in 
length, and half a mile in breadth ; and, with the ex- 
ception of Lochinbreck, which abounds with trout, they 
are all well stored with pike and perch. The soil in 
the valley of the Dee is fertile, and there are extensive 
and productive tracts of meadow in the parish ; the 
principal crops grown are, oats, barley, potatoes, and 
turnips. The system of agriculture is improved; the 
farm-buildings are generally substantial and commo- 
dious, and those on the lands of Balmaghie are all 
of recent erection, and of very superior order. Bone- 
dust is used as manure for turnips 5 the lands have 
been well drained, and are mostly inclosed with stone 
dykes. The moorlands afford tolerable pasture for 
sheep, of which about 4000, of the black-faced breed, 
are annually reared ; and about 400 of the white-faced, 
a cross between the Leicestershire and Cheviot, are 
pastured on the low grounds. The cattle, of which 
about 1000 are fed on the uplands, are of the Galloway 
and Highland breeds ; and on the lowland farms are 
numerous cows, principally Galloways, with some of the 
Ayrshire kind. The rateable annual value of the parish 
is £6603. 

The substrata are chiefly greywacke or whinstone, 
and in the higher lands, granite is found in abundance ; 
but there is no limestone, and what is required for 
building, or for agricultural purposes, is brought from 
Cumberland. The plantations are not extensive, but 
thrive well ; they consist mainly of larch and oak, 
Vol. I.— 97 



which appear adapted to the soil. Balmaghie House, 
an ancient mansion, in which parts of an older building 
have been incorporated, is pleasantly seated near the 
river Dee, in grounds beautifully undulated, and embel- 
lished with plantations : Duchrae House, a handsome 
mansion of granite, built in the old English style, about 
the year 1824, is finely situated near the confluence of 
the Dee and Ken. The ecclesiastical affairs are under 
the superintendence of the presbytery of Kirkcudbright 
and synod of Galloway ; the minister's stipend is 
£203. 8. S., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £17. 10. 
per annum ; patron, Capt. Gordon. The church, built 
in 1794, is situated near the Dee ; it is in good repair, 
and contains 400 sittings. There are two parochial 
schools ; one at the village of Laurieston, of which the 
master has a house, and a salary of £30, with fees 
averaging nearly an equal sum ; and the other at Glen- 
lochar, the master of which has a salary of £21. 6. 6., 
with fees amounting to about £14. 

BALMALCOLM, a village, in the parish of Kettle, 
district of Cupar, county of Fife, 1 mile (S. E.) from 
Kettle; containing 113 inhabitants. It is a small 
place, on the road between Cupar and Leslie, and a 
short distance south of the river Eden. 

BALMBRAE, a village, in the parish of Falkland, 
district of Cupar, county of Fife; containing 114 in- 
habitants, employed in agriculture, and in hand-loom 
weaving at their own dwellings. 

BALMERINO, a parish, in the district of Cupar, 
county of Fife, 5 miles (W.) from Newport ; containing, 
with the villages of Kirkton and Galdry, 993 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 62 are in the village of Balmerino. This 
place, of which the name, of Celtic origin, signifies 
" the town of the sea," or " Sailors' town," most pro- 
bably derived that appellation from its position on the 
estuary of the river Tay. It appears to have been 
distinguished, at a very early period, for the mild tem- 
perature of its climate, and the salubrity of its atmo- 
sphere ; and early in the 13th century, it was selected 
by Queen Ermengard, widow of William the Lion, and 
mother of Alexander II., as a place of occasional resort, 
for the benefit of her health; and, subsequently, by 
Magdalene, queen of James V., for the same purpose. 
A monastery was founded here by Alexander II., in 
1230, for Cistercian monks, at the solicitation of Ermen- 
gard, in gratitude for the benefit she received while 
resident here, which monastery he dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary and St. Edward the Confessor, and in 
which he placed monks of that order, from the abbey of 
Melrose. This establishment was endowed by Queen 
Ermengard, with lands in this county, purchased from 
Adam de Stawell, to which Alexander added the church 
and lands of Lochmure, in Angus, and those of Petgor- 
noc and Drumdol, in the county of Fife. It continued 
to increase in wealth, by the liberality of subsequent 
benefactors, till the Dissolution, when its revenues 
amounted to £704. 2. 10§. in money, exclusively of a 
considerable income in grain and other agricultural pro- 
duce. The abbey was demolished in 1558, by the 
lords of the congregation, on their route from St. An- 
drew's ; the site, with the lands appertaining to it, was 
subsequently granted to Sir James Elphinstone, of 
Barnton ; and after the Reformation, the estates were 
constituted a lordship, in favour of Sir James, who was 
raised to the Scottish peerage, in 1604, by the title of 

O 



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Lord Balmerino, which became extinct in 1*45, by 
the attainder and execution of his descendant, the 
then lord. 

The parish is bounded on the north by the Frith of 
Tay, along the shore of which it extends from Birkhill 
to Wormit bay; and comprises 3400 acres, of which 
nearly 2700 are arable, and in profitable cultivation, 500 
woods and plantations, and the remainder pasture and 
waste. The surface is greatly varied, and traversed by 
two nearly parallel ridges, extending from east to west, 
and inclosing a lovely valley, in which the village is 
situated ; the highest points of these ridges are, the 
Scurr hill, on the north, which has an elevation of 400 
feet, and the Coultry hill, on the south, which rises to 
the height of 500 feet above the sea. There is also a 
considerable portion of high table land on the southern 
ridge, on which the village of Galdry stands. The scenery 
abounds with romantic features, and is every where 
enriched with woods and thriving plantations : a little 
to the east of the church, and nearly in the centre of 
the valley, is a small elevation, on the brow of which 
is Naughton House, and on the summit are the ruins 
of an ancient castle ; beneath is a picturesque dell, from 
which a mass of rock rises abruptly to the height nearly 
of 100 feet. The shores of the Tay are bold and rocky, 
having, in some parts, precipitous and lofty cliffs; and 
on that portion of the shore which rises more gradually, 
are the picturesque ruins of the abbey, overlooking the 
river. The Tay affords excellent facilities for bathing, 
being strongly impregnated with saline particles ; there 
are no other rivers in the parish, but the lands are, 
notwithstanding, well watered by numerous springs, of 
which many appear, from their names, to have been 
formerly of great notoriety, and from which issue various 
small streams that attain sufficient power to turn 
several mills. 

The soil is generally light ; in some parts, a rich 
black loam ; and in others, gravelly ; but, under good 
management, rendered fertile and productive. The crops 
are, grain of all kinds, potatoes, and turnips ; the sys- 
tem of agriculture is improved ; the farm -buildings are 
substantial and commodious, and on all of the farms 
are threshing-machines, of which some are driven 
by water. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
£4962. The substrata are chiefly sandstone and whin- 
stone, of the former of which there are two varieties, 
one extremely compact, and well adapted for building 
purposes ; the other, more friable, and abounding with 
nodules of quartz and other substances. The whinstone 
is of different qualities, comprising amygdaloid, trap 
tuffa, felspar, and clay-stone porphyry ; that which is 
of coarser grain, contains amethyst, calcareous spar, 
chalcedony, and agates. The Scurr hill abounds with 
mineral varieties; the most beautiful agates occur there, 
and boulders of primitive rock are found along the 
shore, and on the highest ridges. Naughton House was 
erected towards the commencement of the present cen- 
tury, and has since been enlarged and improved. Birk- 
hill is an elegant and spacious mansion, on the bank 
of the river, and embosomed in rich and beautiful 
plantations. 

A salmon-fishery was formerly carried on in the Tay, 

to a large extent, and proved a source of great gain, 

but, since the prohibition of the use of stake-nets, in 

1816, it has materially declined; the quantity pre- 

98 



viously taken in the Firth, was, on an average, about 
30,000, in the season ; at present, the number of fish 
scarcely amounts to one-tenth part. Since this altera- 
tion, several who were once employed in the fishery, 
are now engaged in weaving at their own houses, for the 
manufacturers of Dundee ; the principal articles woven 
are dowlas and Osnaburghs, in which about 150 per- 
sons are engaged, of whom a large portion are women. 
Great quantities of grain were formerly shipped from 
the harbour of this place, which was the chief port, on 
the south side of the Tay, for that article ; but, at pre- 
sent, only small quantities of wheat are sent by the 
farmers here, to the bakers of Dundee, by a passage-boat 
which is kept up by subscription of the parishioners. 
Considerable quantities of potatoes are sent to the 
London market ; and many vessels with coal land their 
cargoes here. The village of Balmerino is pleasantly 
situated on the western declivity of the Scurr hill, al- 
ready mentioned. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Cupar and synod 
of Fife; the minister's stipend is £239. 9., with a 
manse, and the glebe is valued at £18 per annum. The 
church, a neat and substantial edifice of stone, erected 
in 1811, is nearly in the centre of the parish. The 
parochial school affords instruction to about 130 
scholars ; the master's salary is £34. 4. 4., with £2S 
fees, and a house and garden. The ruins of Balmerino 
Abbey consist chiefly of a small portion of the walls, 
with some clustered columns, and part of the corbels 
from which sprang the arches that, supported the roof, 
and which are in the decorated English style ; and of 
one cell, still in tolerable preservation. There are also 
remains of the ancient castle of Naughton, said to have 
been built soon after the Conquest, by Robert de Lundon ; 
they comprise only some fragments of the side walls, 
which derive their chief importance from their situation, 
on the summit of a lofty crag rising almost perpendicu- 
larly from a deep and richly-wooded dell. An esta- 
blishment of Culdees is said to have existed here, in 
connexion with those of St. Andrew's ; and in a field in 
the parish, still called the Battle Law, an engagement 
is reported to have taken place between the Scots and 
the Danes, of whom the latter were driven to their ships : 
near the spot, stone coffins, broken armour, and bones 
have been discovered. Some years since, two pieces of 
gold were found in afield on the farm of Peashills, which 
appear to have formed ornaments of some kind, and 
were of the value of £14 sterling. 

BALMORE, a village, in the parish of Balder- 
nock, county of Stirling ; containing 15S inhabitants. 
It lies in the south-eastern portion of the parish, on the 
road between Torrance and Bardowie, and about half a 
mile south of the Kelvin water. 

BALMULLO, a village, in the parish of Letjchars, 
district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 6 miles (E. S. 
E.) from St. Andrew's; containing 2/4 inhabitants. 
This village is pleasantly situated on the road to Dundee, 
and consists of an irregular range of houses, chiefly in- 
habited by persons employed in weaving and in agricul- 
ture. There is a place of worship for members of the 
Original Secession Synod. 

BALNABRUACH, a village, in the parish of Tar- 
bat, county of Ross and Cromarty ; containing 167 
inhabitants. It is a small place, situated on the eastern 
coast, and chiefly inhabited by fishermen. 



B ALQ 



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BALNA-HUAIGH ISLE, one of the Hebrides, in 
the parish of Jura, district of Islay, county of Ar- 
gyll. It is north of the island of Jura, and of Luing 
Sound, and is about a mile in circumference, and en- 
tirely composed of a biuish-coloured slate, of good 
quality : a number of families, who derive their sub- 
sistence from the quarry, reside upon it. 

BALNASUIM, a village, in the parish of Weem, 
county of Perth ; containing 4S inhabitants. 

BALQUHIDDER, a parish, in the county of Perth, 
9 miles (S. by W.) from Killin ; containing, with the 
villages of Strathyre and Lochearnhead, S71 inhabitants. 
This parish, of which the name, descriptive of its situa- 
tion in the county, is derived from the Gaelic, is about 
eighteen miles iu length, and rather more than six miles 
in breadth. The surface is very irregular, and compre- 
hends a rich variety of valleys and hills, of level lands 
and deep glens, and of lofty rocks rising abruptly from 
the plains. The principal hills are, Benvorlich, Ben- 
chroin, Benvane, Binean, Benchoin, and Bentallachan : 
near the hill at Edinample, is an ancient castle, be- 
longing to the Marquess of Breadalbane, embosomed 
in a wood of lofty plane-trees, near which is a beautiful 
cascade ; and in the hill of Craigruigh, Robert Bruce is 
said to have concealed himself after the defeat of his 
forces in the battle of Dalrey. The river Balvag, over 
which are two bridges in good repair, rises in Lochvoil, 
winds for several miles through the parish, and falls 
into Lochlubnaig; and the small river Calair, which 
issues from Glenbuckie, though generally a peaceful 
stream, at times overflows its bauks, and acquires the 
rapidity of a torrent. There are numerous lakes in the 
parish, of which the principal are, Lochvoil, Lochdoine, 
and parts of Lochlubnaig and Lochearn. The scenery 
is also richly embellished with woods, consisting mostly 
of oak, birch, alder, and common and mountain ash ; 
and with thriving plantations, which are chiefly of Scotch 
and spruce firs, and larch-trees, for all of which the 
ground is well adapted. 

The soil, in the lower lands, is fertile ; the hills afford 
pasture, and there are considerable tracts of good mea- 
dow ; the system of agriculture is improved, and great 
attention is paid to the improvement of the breeds of 
cattle and sheep ; the former are chiefly of the West 
Highland breed, and the latter, which are of the black- 
faced kind, command a ready sale in the neighbouring 
markets. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
£6100. The rocks are mainly of mica and clay slate, 
with quartz, porphyry, and primitive greenstone. Edin- 
ample Castle, the property of the Marquess of Breadal- 
bane, an ancient mansion romantically situated, and 
Glenbuckie House, a handsome modern residence, are 
the only houses of distinction. The ecclesiastical affairs 
are under the superintendence of the presbytery of 
Dunblane and synod of Perth and Stirling ; the stipend 
of the incumbent is £275. 15. 11.; the manse is a com- 
fortable residence, and the glebe is of the annual value 
of £20. The church, situated nearly in the centre of the 
parish, is an ancient edifice, adapted for a congregation 
of 425 persons. The parochial school affords a liberal 
course of instruction ; the master has a salary of 
£34. 4. 4|., with £S fees, a house, and two bolls of meal 
in lieu of a garden. In a field near the manse, is an 
upright stone, about five feet in height, called Puidrac ; 
but nothing of its history is known ; and to the east of 
99 



it, is a spot celebrated as the site of a desperate battle 
between the families of McLaren and Leney. The late 
Sir John Mac Gregor Murray, Bart., an eminent Gaelic 
scholar, and an indefatigable collector of the writings 
of the ancient Gaelic bards, and who, holding the rank 
of colonel in the British army, raised at his own ex- 
pense a regiment of infantry for the service of his 
country, which was commanded by his brother, Colonel 
Alexander Mac Gregor Murray, was, together with his 
brother, buried in the family vault in this parish. 

BALTA, a small islet, in the parish of Unst, county 
of Shetland. This is nearly the northernmost isle of 
the Shetland range, and is situated in the latitude of 
60° 4~' north, and on the east side of Unst island, the 
sea between being called Balta Sound. Here the shore 
of Unst forms a fine and safe inland harbour, stretch- 
ing east to west about two miles, protected at its mouth 
by the isle of Balta. 

BALWAHANAID, a hamlet, in the parish of Weem, 
county of Perth ; containing 23 inhabitants. 

BALWHERNE, a hamlet, in the parish of Meth- 
ven, county of Perth ; containing 60 inhabitants. 

BANCHQRY-DEVENICK, a parish, partly within, 
and partly without, the city of Aberdeen, district and 
county of Aberdeen, but mostly in the county of Kin- 
cardine ; including the villages of Downies, Findon, 
and Purtlethen, and containing 2736 inhabitants. The 
cognomen of Devenick, or Davenick, applied to this 
place, is derived from a celebrated saint of the name of 
Davenicus, who flourished about the year SS7, and who, 
at one time, ministered in the district. The parish is 
about 5 miles long, and 3 broad, and contains about 
10,000 acres. The river Dee forms the northern boun- 
dary of the Kincardineshire portion, and the parish is 
bounded on the east by the parish of Nigg and by the 
sea ; the coast extends about 3 miles, and is bold and 
rocky, and, in many parts, picturesque. The surface is, 
in general, rugged and stony, and to a considerable ex- 
tent covered with heath ; the highest land is a part of 
theTollow hill, the most easterly of the Grampian range, 
the elevation of which was used for the trigonometrical 
survey of the country. The Dee, which is the only river 
connected with the district, rises among the highest 
mountains of Aberdeenshire, and, after a course of 
about 60 miles, passes along the extremity of the parish, 
forming the line of separation between the counties of 
Kincardine and Aberdeen ; it is here about 250 feet 
wide, and falls into the hay of Aberdeen a mile and a 
half below the eastern extremity of the parish. It is 
subject to great floods, rising sometimes ten or eleven 
feet above its usual level, in consequence of which, long 
and expensive embankments have been raised, lor the 
protection of the neighbouring lands. 

The soil is diversified, running through all the va- 
rieties, from pure alluvial to hard till, and from rich 
loam to deep moss ; agriculture receives much attention, 
though a large part of the ground is in its natural state, 
and much remains yet to be done. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £6946. There are several plan- 
tations, one of which covers 250 acres, but the proximity 
of the land to the sea-coast is an impediment to the 
growth of trees, as there is no shelter against the blight- 
ing influence of the east wind. The rocks consist chiefly 
of blue granite, which is abundant in the hilly part of 
the parish ; but its texture is too hard to admit of its 

02 



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BANC 



being quarried to any extent, and the produce obtained 
is used either for the roads, or sent for sale to the Lon- 
don market. The parish is entirely rural, and its popu- 
lation has been considerably increased, during the pre- 
sent century, by the allotment of portions of uncultivated 
land, with encouragement to small tenants, by which 
means much waste ground has been reclaimed, and a con- 
siderable number of persons that worked in the granite 
quarries and peat-mosses of Aberdeen, brought into 
this district. There are three harbours for fishing-boats 
on the coast, named Findon, Portlethen, and Dow- 
nies, to which belong about eighteen boats, chiefly 
engaged in white-fishing, except during the herring- 
season, at which time several of them are employed in 
the Moray Frith. There are four stations for sal- 
mon-fishing in the Dee, but they have been for some 
years past in a low state, from the great scarcity of fish 
in the river. The great road from Edinburgh to Aber- 
deen runs through the parish, and, on the north side of 
the Dee, the Deeside turnpike-road passes through the 
Aberdeenshire division ; there is also a good commuta- 
tion road along the south side of the river. A suspen- 
sion bridge has been recently erected over the Dee, con- 
necting the Aberdeenshire portion of the parish with the 
church and school, and which cost about £1400, inde- 
pendently of an embankment a quarter of a mile long, 
on the south side, facilitating the approach to the bridge, 
and which cost above £50. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject, to the pres- 
bytery of Aberdeen and synod of Aberdeen ; the patron- 
age is possessed by the Crown, and the minister's stipend 
is £159- 2. 9., partly paid from the exchequer, with a 
glebe valued at £13. 6. 8. per annum. The church, 
which contains 900 sittings, was built in 1822, on the 
site of a former edifice, the bell of which is marked 
" 159/.'' At Portlethen is a chapel, containing 300 
sittings, the minister of which, who has been duly or- 
dained, has a stipend of £S0, partly from seat-rents : 
this building, which is situated about 3^ miles from the 
church, in a populous district, was a family chapel pre- 
viously to the Reformation. Two places of worship in 
connexion with the Free Church have been erected. A 
parochial school is maintained, in which Latin is taught, 
with the ordinary branches of education, and of which 
the master has a salary of £30, a portion of the Dick 
bequest, £20 fees, and £20 for teaching as many chil- 
dren, the last amount being an endowment by a person 
in India. There are three other schools, namely, one 
at Portlethen, the master of which has the interest of 
a benefaction of £200 ; a school upon the estate of 
Cults, in the Aberdeenshire district, the master of which 
receives £25 per annum from an endowment; and 
a female school, built by a bequest of £100 from the 
late Mr. George Hogg, whose father had been for many 
years schoolmaster at Banchory, and endowed with 
£200, half of which was allotted by the same bene- 
factor, and half by the minister of the parish. A paro- 
chial library has been founded, which has a considerable 
number of volumes ; and a friendly society, and a 
savings' bank established in 1822, and which is in a 
very flourishing state, are supported. The antiquities 
of the parish consist of two Druidical circles, in very 
fine preservation ; and three very large tumuli, occu- 
pying an elevated situation, on the north side of the 
river. 

100 



BANCHORY-TERNAN, a parish, in the county of 
Kincardine, 15 miles (N. W. by W.) from Stonehaven ; 
containing, with the villages of Arbeadie and Banchory, 
2241 inhabitants, of whom 66 are in Banchory. This 
place, of which the name, signifying "a fine choir," has 
reference to some ancient religious establishment, and its 
adjunct most probably to its patron saint, is of very re- 
mote antiquity. St. Terne, or Ternanus, who is said to 
have been a native of Mearns, flourished about the middle 
of the fifth century, and accompanied Palladius, in his 
mission to the Irish Scots ; and by him he was ordained, 
and commissioned to extirpate the Pelagian heresy, and to 
establish the true faith among his own countrymen. In 
this undertaking, his eminent success and sanctity of 
life obtained for him a high degree of veneration, and 
many churches were afterwards erected and dedicated 
to his memory, among which was the church of this 
parish. In 1562, a battle took place between the army 
of Mary, Queen of Scots, under the Earl of Moray, and 
the forces of the Earl of Huntly, at the How of Corri- 
chie, a glen in the hills of Fare, towards the northern 
boundary of the parish, in which the latter were de- 
feated with great slaughter, and the Earl of Huntly, 
who was taken prisoner, died before he was removed 
from the field of battle. In the bottom of the glen are 
several tumuli, raised over the bodies of the slain ; and 
a recess among the rocks overlooking the glen, in which, 
it is said, Mary witnessed the engagement, is still called 
the Queen's chair. There are also numerous tumuli on 
the north side of Glassel, where the chief carnage took 
place. In 1644, the Duke of Montrose, having crossed 
the river Dee, at a ford near the Mills of Drum, in this 
parish, passed a night at the house of Leys, and next 
day proceeded to Aberdeen, where he encountered and 
defeated an army of the Covenanters ; and the remains 
of his encampment on a subsequent occasion, on his 
route to Strathbogie, not far from the How of'Corrichie, 
are still pointed out, under the appellation of Montrose's 
Dyke. 

The parish is situated on the river Dee, which inter- 
sects the southern portion of it, from west to east, 
throughout its whole extent; it is nearly ten miles in 
length, and about nine miles in breadth, of irregular 
form, comprising an area of 21,600 acres, of which 
rather more than 6000 are arable, 5230 woodland and 
plantations, and the remainder, of which a considerable 
portion might be brought into cultivation, meadow, 
pasture, and waste. The surface is strikingly diversified 
with hill and dale, and with wood and water. The hill 
of Fare, on the north, has an elevation of 1793 feet ; 
that of Kerloak, on the south, forming a part of the 
Grampian range, and extending eastward to the sea at 
Aberdeen, is 1S90 feet high; and between these, is a 
lower ridge, of which the greatest elevation is not more 
than 1000 feet. That portion of the parish which is on 
the south side of the Dee, is intersected by the river 
Feugh, and is richly wooded, and interspersed with 
masses of barren and precipitous rock ; the scenery is 
bold, enlivened with numerous rivulets, and embellished 
with handsome mansions. At the eastern extremity 
is Loch Drum, in the adjoining parish of Drumoak, which 
has been nearly exhausted by draining ; and in the 
central portion is Loch Leys, in which is an artificial 
island, formed on piles of oak, with remains of ancient 
houses that appear to have been fortified. The river 



BANC 



B A N F 



Dee, which enters the parish near Trustach Hill, flows 
through a rocky channel ; and its stream is divided by 
two small islands, of which one, about eight acres in 
extent, is covered with furze and heath, and the other, 
of about one acre, and of greater elevation above the 
surface, is planted with trees. The Feugh, after form- 
ing various pleasing falls, divides into two channels, 
which, reuniting, flow into the Dee, almost in the centre 
of the parish ; it passes under a bridge of two arches near 
its principal fall over a ledge of rock about twenty feet 
in height. 

The soil varies greatly in different parts, but is gene- 
rally light, and not naturally fertile ; towards the river, 
gravelly ; on the higher grounds, a strong loam : and 
on the lower, a species of moss, intermixed with gravel. 
The system of agriculture is improved ; the chief crops 
are, oats, barley, and some wheat, with potatoes, tur- 
nips, and hay, and the moorlands afford tolerable pas- 
ture for sheep and cattle, to the improvement of which 
much attention has been excited by the Deeside Agricul- 
tural Association, which holds its annual meeting here, 
and awards prizes, to the amount of £70, to the most 
successful competitors at the show of cattle. The 
dairy-farms are more carefully attended to than for- 
merly ; the buildings are substantial and commodious, 
and threshing-mills have been erected on most of the 
farms. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
£*479- The hills are principally of red granite, tra- 
versed by veins of sulphate of barytes ; and limestone, 
in some parts of coarse and inferior quality, and in 
others compact and highly crystallized, is found in 
abundance, and is extensively quarried on the lands of 
Tilwhilly, for agricultural purposes. The plantations, 
which are of very great extent, consist chiefly of pine 
and larch, interspersed with birch, oak, beech, ash, and 
a few other trees ; they are of comparatively modern 
growth, and considerable additions have, within the last 
few years, been made to the number of forest trees, of 
which nearly 70,000 oaks have been planted on the 
lands of Leys. On the road to Aberdeen, is a remark- 
ably fine holly, of more than twenty stems, springing 
from the crevices of a rock ; and in the grounds of 
Crathes Castle, is a beech-tree, 25 feet in girth, and 60 
feet high. Crathes Castle, a handsome baronial mansion, 
erected about the year 1512, is finely situated on a 
gentle acclivity, at the extremity of a rocky and richly- 
wooded ridge, on the north bank of the Dee ; it is a 
spacious structure, with a lofty square tower crowned by 
embattled turrets, and many modern additions have 
been made. The ancient hall is still entire, and contains 
some family portraits, among which is a portrait of 
Dr. Gilbert Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury, by Sir God- 
frey Kneller. The Castle of Tilwhilly, on the opposite 
bank of the river, is an ancient massive building, in 
the occupation of the tenant of the farm ; Banchory 
Lodge, a few hundred yards from the church, was 
erected by the late General Burnet ; Inchmarlo is a 
handsome mansion, erected in 1800, and Glassel and 
Raemoir are also good modern houses. The village of 
Banchory, or the Kirktown, which was anciently a 
burgh of barony, and is noticed, in 1324, as a place of 
considerable importance, and in which was held the 
baronial court of Leys, has almost disappeared ; and 
only a few houses in the vicinity of the churchyard, 
called the Town Head, are now remaining, and the 
101 



shaft of a broken stone cross. A small woollen-factory 
has been established, and there are likewise two 
bobbin factories carried on ; salmon is taken in the 
Dee, but there is no regular fishery. Fairs, chiefly for 
horses, cattle, and sheep, are held on the second Tuesday 
in February, the last Thursday in March, the third Tues- 
day in June, the first Tuesday in July, the second Tuesday 
in August, and the first Wednesday in December. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and 
synod of Aberdeen ; Sir.T. Burnet, Bart., is patron, and 
the minister's stipend is £2S7. 10. 9., with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £10 per annum. The church, rebuilt in 
1S24, is a handsome structure in the later English 
style, and contains 1300 sittings. A place of worship 
has been erected in connexion with the Free Church ; 
and in the village of Arbeadie, is a meeting-house for 
Independents. There are three parochial schools, the 
masters of which divide among them £51. 6. 6f., in 
addition to a house and garden for each, and the fees 
average respectively £20, £16, and £10 per annum. A 
school was founded and endowed in 163S, by Sir Thomas 
Burnet, in conjunction with Dr. Alexander Reid, and 
is conducted by one of the parochial schoolmasters, who 
derives an additional salary of £16 from the endowment. 
A parochial library has also been established, which has 
a collection of more than 400 volumes, chiefly on reli- 
gious subjects. At Cairnton, on the hill of Trustach, 
are some remains of an old intrenchment, now covered 
with birch, about 150 yards square, defended by two 
ramparts of earth, 300 yards in length, extending from 
the inclosure in a converging direction, leaving an 
opening of about twenty yards in width at their ex- 
tremities ; it is supposed to have been a Roman camp. 
Near Kerloak, are Druidical remains, consisting of three 
circles of upright stones, nearly entire, the largest of 
which is about 25 yards in diameter, and the others 
about 15 yards; in each of them, are vestiges of an 
inner circle inclosing a small cairn. Bishops Burnet 
and Douglas, both of Salisbury, were descended from 
families connected with this parish. 

BANETON, or Baynton, a village, in the parish of 
Kennoway, district of KiRKCALnY, county of Fife, 
1 mile (N. N. E.) from Kennoway ; containing 204 in- 
habitants. It is in the north-eastern portion of the 
parish, and a little north of the road between Kennoway 
and Cupar. 

BANFF, a sea-port, burgh , 
market-town, and parish, in 
the county of Banff, ofwhich 
it is the chief town, 165 miles 
(N. by E.) from Edinburgh, 
WM on * ne roa0 - from Aberdeen 
|Jp to Inverness; containing3958 
'iwW inhabitants. This place, called 
in ancient records, Bainiffe. 
Boineffe, &e., appears to have 
derived its name from the 
district in which it is situated, 
and which obtained the ap- 
pellation of Boyn from the Gaelic, signifying "a 
stream," in reference to the river Boyn, by which it is 
intersected. The town, previously to the middle of 
the 16th century, was little more than a small fishing 
village, and seems to have owed its origin to the founda- 




Seal and Arms. 



■'. o'-^ 



BANF 



B A N F 



tion of a Carmelite monastery, which was occasionally 
the residence of some of the Scottish kings ; and to the 
erection of a castle, governed by a thane, or constable, 
who administered justice, and of which the only vestiges 
now remaining are, a portion of the outer walls, and 
the ditch by which it was surrounded. Few transac- 
tions of historical importance occur with reference to 
the place. In 1644, the lairds of Gight, Newtown, and 
Ardlogie, with a party of horse and foot, made an 
irruption into the town, and levied exactions upon the 
bailies, in the absence of the provost, who had taken 
flight, and compelled them and the townsmen to abjure 
the covenant, and to acknowledge submission to the 
king and his deputies, as formerly. In the following 
year, the Marquess of Montrose entered the town with 
a hostile force, plundered the inhabitants, and burnt 
several of their houses, in compensation for which losses, 
they obtained, on their petition to parliament, a grant 
of their own excise. In 1746, the Duke of Cumberland's 
troops, on their march to Culloden, passed through the 
town, burnt the episcopal chapel, and hanged one of the 
inhabitants, whom they suspected of being a spy ; and 
in 1759, a French fleet, under the command of Thurot, 
appeared off the coast ; but the apprehensions of the 
inhabitants were relieved by the dispersion of their 
vessels in a storm, before the enemy attempted to effect 
alanding. A battery of eighteen and twenty-four pounders 
was subsequently erected, on the heights immediately 
above the harbour, at an expense of £400, defrayed by 
the inhabitants; but, soon after the peace, it was dis- 
mounted, and the cannon returned to the government, 
by whom they had been supplied. 

The town consists of two portions, detached from 
each other, one of which, constituting the port, stands 
on an elevated level, terminating abruptly towards the 
Moray Frith, and having the battery at its northern 
extremity. Between this and the other portion, which 
is partly on the plain, and partly on the declivity 
of the bank of the river Doveran, is the present castle, 
a plain modern building, occupying an elevated site, and 
commanding the sweep of the river, with the fine slope 
on the opposite side, surmounted with the woods of 
Mounteoffer. The streets are regular and spacious, and 
the houses, though unequal in size, are in general neatly 
built ; most of the older houses have been taken down, 
and rebuilt in a modern style, and the town retains few 
indications of its real antiquity. The streets are lighted 
with gas, by a joint-stock company established in 1831 ; 
and the inhabitants are supplied with water, conveyed 
into the town by pipes laid down in 1810, at an expense 
of £1100, and by pumps attached to several of the 
houses. Hot, cold, and shower baths, fitted up with 
every accommodation, have lately been established, by 
a company ; and in connexion with a literary society 
founded in 1810, and which has a library of 2000 
volumes, is a reading-room, well supplied with news- 
papers and the most popular periodical prints. An 
institution for the cultivation of science and the en- 
couragement of native talent, was founded in 1S28, and 
has collected a museum of natural history, antiquities, 
and curiosities, among which is a very extensive collec- 
tion of the most beautiful shells found in Java and in 
the Eastern Archipelago. A room in the town-hall is 
appropriated, by the magistrates, to the use of the 
literary society. 
102 



A principal trade of the port is the herring-fishery, 
which, within the last thirty years, has been established 
on the shores of the Frith, with considerable success, 
and is still very prosperous. The quantity of fish cured 
in the district of Banff, which extends from Gardens- 
town to Portsoy, is, in favourable seasons, about 30,000 
barrels, of which one-half is sent to Germany, a con- 
siderable quantity to London, and the remainder to Ire- 
land. The number of herring-boats from the port of 
Banff alone, has fluctuated exceedingly, and is at pre- 
sent very much reduced, probably from the want of 
room near the harbour, for the erection of the requisite 
buildings, and from the higher rate of dues; but the 
general trade of the district is still flourishing. Cod, 
ling, and turbot are found in abundance, off the coast, 
and, if prosecuted with spirit, might add greatly to the 
trade of the port ; and lobsters, crabs, shrimps, and 
other fish are brought to the markets, but only for home 
consumption, though the bay abounds with shrimps, 
which might be made a profitable branch of trade. The 
salmon-fishery in the river Doveran, which is the pro- 
perty of Lord Fife, is let for £1600 per annum, and 
there is, on each side of the estuary, a fishery in the 
open sea, of which one is let by the corporation for 
£191 per annum ; the salmon are sent, either packed 
in ice, or pickled, principally to the London market. 
A very considerable trade is also carried on in the ex- 
portation of grain, live cattle, and cured pork; and in 
the importation of coal, groceries, and other commodities. 
During a recent year, 29,790 quarters of oats, 1174 
quarters of wheat, 976 quarters of barley and bear, and 
194 bags of potatoe-flour, w : ere shipped from the port, 
chiefly for London and Leith ; and 440 head of live 
cattle, 911 pigs, and 156 sheep and lambs, for the Lon- 
don market alone. The trade in cattle has since greatly 
increased; and in 1S41, not less than 179*2 head of 
cattle were sent to London. The number of vessels 
registered at Banff, as the head of the district, is sixty- 
seven, of the aggregate burthen of 4301 tons; of these, 
ten schooners of S78 tons, and eleven sloops of 657 tons 
aggregate burthen, belong to this port, and the remain- 
der to the- several creeks of Fraserburgh, Gardenstown, 
Macduff, Portsoy, Port-Gordon, and Garmouth. Seve- 
ral of these vessels make voyages to Sweden, for iron 
and deals ; to Prussia, for hemp ; and to Holland, for 
flax ; and, in the autumn, frequently to Hamburgh 
and Stettin, with cargoes of herrings, bringing in return 
grain, wool, bark, and hides. 

The harbour is situated at the western extremity of 
a circular bay, at the opposite extremity of which are 
the town and harbour of Macduff; both these extremi- 
ties are rocky, and between them is a beach of sand. 
The old or inner harbour, completed in 1775, was 
formed by two piers and the land, inclosing a triangular 
area, having at the angle towards the north-north-east, 
an entrance which, in 18 16, was protected by a new 
pier and breakwater, forming a basin, or outer harbour, 
to the north of the former. This addition, which was 
made under the superintendence of the late Mr. Telford, 
at an expense of £18,000, one-half of which was de- 
frayed by government, though not productive of all the 
benefit expected from it, as ships have since been wrecked 
in the new basin, has still materially diminished the 
swell in the old harbour, now one of the safest in the 
Moray Frith, and has afforded additional facilities for 



B A N F 



BANF 



the entrance and departure of vessels. A vessel draw- 
ing 12 feet water can enter the new basin, at high- 
water of neap tides, and one drawing 15 feet, at 
spring tides ; and vessels drawing respectively S and 
10§ feet water, may enter the old harbour at high-water 
of neap and spring tides. A patent slip, on Morton's 
principle, has been constructed in the harbour. Ship- 
building is occasionally carried on, and there is a small 
manufactory for ropes and sails, chiefly for home use ; 
the thread and stocking manufacture, formerly pursued 
here, has been discontinued for some years. A public 
brewery, erected on the high ground above the harbour, 
was once conducted on a large scale, but, of late, has 
been confined to the supply of the immediate neighbour- 
hood : a distillery at the Mill of Banff, about a mile 
from the town, produces on an average from 11,000 to 
12,000 gallons of proof spirits annually. A foundry for 
machinery, grates, ploughshares, and various kinds of 
cast-metal work, was established about fifteen years 
since, by Messrs. Fraser, and affords employment to ten 
men ; the works are set in motion by a steam-engine of 
six-horse power, constructed by the proprietors. The 
market is on Friday, and is well supplied with fish of 
every kind ; there are no cattle-markets, and, though 
by charter the inhabitants are allowed seven or eight 
fairs, only four are held, and of these, the Whit- 
sun-fair alone is of any consideration. Coaches pass 
daily to and from Aberdeen and Elgin, and to and from 
Peterhead. 

From a grant of a toft and garden in the burgh, by 
William the Lion, in 1165, to his chaplain, Douglas, 
Bishop of Moray, the town appears to have been pre- 
viously a royal burgh ; and, according to tradition, it 
received from Malcolm Canmore, those privileges which 
were ratified by Robert Bruce, and subsequently, in 
13/2, by Robert II., who also conferred upon the inha- 
bitants liberties equal to those of Aberdeen, which were 
afterwards confirmed by James VI. and Charles II. 
The government is vested in a provost, four bailies, a 
dean of guild, a treasurer, and ten councillors, all elected 
by the £10 constituency; the corporation revenue is 
about £1200. The taxes and assessments for the burgh, 
however, are not imposed as in other burghs, by the 
magistrates and council, but by the inhabitants them- 
selves, assembled in a special court for that purpose. 
The affairs of police are under the management of com- 
missioners, who are elected in accordance with the pro- 
visions of a particular act of parliament, and by whose 
authority the police rates are levied and expended. No 
one could formerly carry on business without becoming a 
member of the merchant-guildry of Banff, or of the 
incorporated trades, of which there are six, namely, the 
hammermen, wrights, shoemakers, tailors, coopers, and 
weavers, who all claim exclusive privileges. The town 
is classed with Elgin, Cullen, Inverury, Kintore, and 
Peterhead, in returning a member to the imperial par- 
liament ; and under the Reform act, the constituency 
includes the qualified voters in the neighbouring, and 
otherwise independent, burgh of Macduff. The town- 
hall, a spacious but plain building, erected within the 
last sixty years, occupies two sides of a quadrangle, 
with a tower at the external angle, of older date, 
surmounted by a spire of graceful proportion, together 
100 feet high ; the building is of hewn stone, three stories 
in height, and contains a hall, two large drawing-rooms, 
103 



a council-chamber, a court-room for the sheriff's court, 
oflices for the chamberlain and sheriff clerks, and the 
prisons for the burgh. The old prison contained two 
apartments, each nineteen feet square, for the reception 
of civil prisoners ; and two cells for criminals; but they 
were badly arranged, and totally inadequate for the pur- 
pose of classification. The new jail, by which the old 
one has been superseded, is on the best principles. 

The parish, which formed part of that of Boyndie 
till 1634, is about six miles and a half in length, and 
two miles and a half in breadth in the centre, from 
which, towards each extremity, it diminishes materially ; 
comprehending about 6312 acres, of which 3778 are 
good arable land, 1161 uncultivated and in pasture, 
and about 220 wood. It is bounded on the east by the 
river Doveran, which has its source on the confines of 
the counties of Aberdeen and Banff, and falls into 
the sea at the town ; and on the west, by the burn of 
Boyndie, by which it is separated from the parish of 
that name. Over the former of these rivers, situated 
close to the town, is a substantial stone bridge of 
seven semicircular arches, erected at the expense of 
government, in 1779; and over the latter, are two stone 
bridges, of two arches each. The surface is very un- 
even, rising, in the lower part of the parish, from 200 to 
300 feet above the sea, and forming an eminence called 
the Callow Mill; and in the upper part of the parish, 
are eminences of much greater elevation, though less 
raised above the surface of the adjacent lands. The 
system of agriculture is improved ; and within the last 
forty years, a large tract of land, previously in pas- 
ture, has been brought under tillage. Draining has also 
been carried on to a very considerable extent, and the 
greater portion of the land is inclosed with fences of 
stone ; the farm-houses and offices are generally well 
built, and many of them afford superior accommodations. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £12,SS9, in- 
cluding £6977 for the burgh. The substrata are chiefly 
clay-slate and greywacke. At Cairn of Ord, in the 
south-western part of the parish, is found granite, which, 
in some places, rises to the surface ; it is of excellent 
quality for building, and has been quarried for that pur- 
pose, but, on account of its distance from the sea, it has 
not been worked to any great extent. The scenery is, 
in several parts, pleasing, and in others romantic and 
picturesque : the rher Doveran, on its first entering the 
parish, winds into a rocky glen, of which the steep sides, 
crowned with luxuriant wood, are connected by a cir- 
cular arch of stone ; beyond this point, the glen gradu- 
ally expands into an open valley, round the eastern side 
of which the river forms a graceful curve, inclosing the 
plain on which Duff House is situated. The road from 
Aberdeen winds round the verge of a verdant hill, on 
the extremity of which, sloping towards the sea, and 
stretching into the bay, is the town of Macduff; and on 
the western side, near the bend of the river, rises a pre- 
cipitous bank, on the summit of which is seen the 
mausoleum of the Duff family, embosomed in shelter- 
ing woods, and, near it, a funereal urn containing some 
human bones that were found on the spot, which was 
formerly the cemetery of the Carmelite monastery. 
Duff House, the splendid residence of the Earl of Fife, 
occupies the grounds formerly belonging to the monas- 
tery, which were, in 1630, conveyed to Lord Airlie, and, 
in 1690, to Lord Fife, who, in 1752, purchased the supe- 



BAN F 



B A N F 



riority, which had been granted by James VI. to King's 
College, Aberdeen. The mansion was erected about the 
middle of the last century, by Lord Braco, after a de- 
sign by Adams, the first architect of that name, at an 
expense of £/0,000; it is a spacious quadrilateral struc- 
ture of freestone, in the Roman style of architecture, 
and contains a choice collection of paintings of the 
Flemish and Italian schools, and numerous portraits by 
the most eminent masters. The demesne is richly 
planted, and comprehends much interesting scenery ; 
and, from many points, commands extensive and varied 
prospects. 

The parish is ecclesiastically in the presbytery 
of Fordyce and synod of Aberdeen; the minister's 
stipend is £245. 19. 9., with a manse, and the glebe is 
valued at £45 ; patron, the Earl of Seafield. The church, 
situated on the south side of the town, is a plain struc- 
ture, erected in 1790, and is capable of containing 1500 
persons ; the interior is chastely decorated, and has some 
handsome monuments of marble, one of which, by Bacon, 
representing a soldier weeping over a funereal vase, is 
finely executed, and was erected by Sir David Ochterlony, 
and thearmyunder his command, to the memory ofLieut.- 
Col. Lawtie, a native of this place. A chapel in con- 
nexion with the Established Church, for a district includ- 
ing the more remote portion of the parish and others 
adjoining, and a manse, have recently been erected, at the 
upperendof the parish, at an expenseof £600; the stipend 
of the minister is derived from the seat-rents, augmented 
with £20 Royal bounty. There are places of worship for 
members of the Free Church, Episcopalians, members 
of the United Secession, Independents, and Wesleyans, 
and a Roman Catholic chapel. A grammar school was 
founded in 17S6, under the direction of Dr. Chapman, 
formerly rector of the grammar school of Dumfries ; 
the number of boys usually attending is about 170, and 
the rector, who is obliged to employ two qualified assist- 
ants, has a considerable salary from the funds of the 
town. This school is endowed with funds, the interest 
of which is regularly appropriated to the maintenance of 
sixteen bursaries ; one, in the gift of the presbytery of 
Fordyce, is worth about £30, and the others are from 
£2 to £3 per annum. A free school was founded by 
Mr. Alexander Pirie, who, in 1804, bequeathed to the 
town-council and kirk-session £1100 for that purpose, 
with a tenement, and £100 for the erection of a school- 
house and house for the master. Mr. George Smith, a 
native of Fordyce, by will dated at Bombay, in 1769, 
vested in the magistrates of Banff, the residue of his 
estate, amounting to £10,297. 16. 6., of which he appro- 
priated £1000 to the endowment of an infirmary in this 
town or at Fordyce, and £40 per annum to a school- 
master, to educate as many boys of the name of Smith 
as the funds would maintain, at £25 per annum each ; 
the dividends, amounting to £308. 18. 8., are applied ac- 
cording to the will, and nine boys are maintained and 
educated. Mr. James Wilson, of Grenada, vested the 
whole of his stock, after the decease of certain annui- 
tants, in the magistrates of Banff, to be appropriated to 
charitable purposes, according to their discretion ; this 
estate, which ultimately produced £3561. 16. 1. three 
per cents, and £2647 in cash, was appropriated to the 
erection of an infant school, a free school on the 
Madras system, and class-rooms for the grammar school 
teachers, with a library and museum. Mr. Alexander 
104 



Cassy, a native of the town, then resident in Pentonville, 
in 1S19, bequeathed the residue of his estates to the 
magistrates, to be appropriated to the half-yearly relief 
of aged and infirm persons and helpless orphans ; of 
this property, £10,000 three per cents have already 
fallen into the disposal of the trustees, who apply the 
dividends. Miss Elizabeth Wilson, in 1825, bequeathed 
to trustees the whole property of svhich she should die 
possessed, the produce to be appropriated to six poor 
tradesmen and six poor maidens ; the annuitants receive 
from £9 to £10 each per annum. Alexander Chal- 
mers, Esq., of Cluny, in 1 834, bequeathed property 
which will amount to £40,000, in trust, to the lord- 
lieutenant and member for the county, the minister and 
magistrates of Banff, and others, for the erection and 
endowment of an hospital and dispensary, to be called 
Chalmers' Hospital, for the county of Banff; the hos- 
pital to be erected on the site of the residence of the 
founder. 

Scarcely any vestiges of the ancient Carmelite monas- 
tery are remaining ; some arches, apparently parts of 
cells, are still to be traced in the yard of the inn called 
the Royal Oak, and near the foundry is a vaulted cham- 
ber, now occupied by the boiler of the steam-engine be- 
longing to that establishment. A portion of the build- 
ing occupied by Sir George Ogilvy, afterwards Lord 
Banff, and which appears to have been regarded as a 
palace, from the occasional visits to it by the Scottish 
kings, was destroyed, in 1640, by General Monroe, 
who, having marched into the town, encamped in the 
gardens of that house, which he totally destroyed, car- 
rying away the timber and iron-work, and leaving only 
the shattered walls, a heap of ruins. That part of the 
town which is called the Sea-town, is supposed to occupy 
the lands of the chapel of the Holy Rood ; and another 
chapel, dedicated to St. Thomas, is thought to have 
stood somewhere between the site of the parish church 
and St. Andrew's chapel. The Knights Templars an- 
ciently had a preceptory in the town ; their possessions 
were erected into a lordship, in favour of Sir John 
Sandilands, in 1563, and several small and scattered 
portions of their lands appear to have passed into bur- 
gage tenures. The old castle of Inchdrewer, erected 
about the time of James IV. or V., is still so entire as 
to be habitable, and is now in the occupation of a tenant ; 
it is chiefly memorable for the death of a lord of Banff, 
who was burnt in it in 1713, under circumstances that 
have never been fully explained. Adjoining the mauso- 
leum of Lord Fife, is an ancient monument, on which 
is the recumbent figure of an armed warrior, with the 
inscription, " Hie jacet Johannes Duff, de Maldavat, et 
Baldavi ; obiit, 2 Julii, 1404:" this monument, with 
the ashes of the deceased, was brought from Cullen. 
James Sharp, Archbishop of St. Andrew's, who was 
waylaid and assassinated, was born at Banff Castle, 
in 1613. 

BANFFSHIRE, a maritime county, in the north-east 
part of Scotland, bounded on the north by the Moray 
Frith ; on the east and south-east, by Aberdeenshire ; 
and on the west, by the counties of Moray and Inver- 
ness. It lies between 57° 5' and 57° 43' (N. lat.) and 
2° 17' and 3° 37' (W. long.), and is about fifty miles in 
length, and varying from twenty miles to three miles in 
breadth ; it comprises an area of about 647 square miles, 
or 414,080 acres, and contains 11,149 inhabited houses, 



B A N F 



BANN 



and a population of 49,679, of whom 23,249 are males, 
and 26,430 females. This county, which includes the 
districts of Boyne, Enzie, Strath- Doveran, Strathaven, 
Balvenie, and part of Buchan, was a sheriffdom in the 
reign of David I., and, previously to the Reformation, 
was included in the diocese of Moray ; it is now partly 
in the synod of Moray, and partly in that of Aberdeen, 
and comprises several presbyteries, and twenty-four 
parishes. It contains the royal burghs of Banff and 
Cullen, of which the former is the county town, and 
several thriving and populous villages, whereof the chief 
are, Keith, Newmill, Gardenstown, Dufftown, Buckie, 
Portsoy, and Macduff: under the act of the 2nd of 
William IV., the county returns one member to the 
imperial parliament. 

The surface is beautifully diversified with mountains 
and vales, and the scenery enriched with woods and 
plantations, and enlivened with rivers and lakes. The 
principal mountains are, the Cairngorm, which has an 
elevation of more than 4000 feet above the sea ; Ben- 
mackdhuie : Belrinnes, rising from the river Spey to the 
height of 2/47 feet ; Knockhill, near the north termi- 
nation of the Grampian range, the Buck of Cabrach, and 
others, about 2500 feet high. The chief vales are, 
those of Strath-Doveran and Strathaven, the former 
branching off to the right, and the latter to the left, 
from the forest of Glenavon ; Glcn-Livet ; and Glen- 
Fiddich, which last extends to the strath of Balvenie. 
The rivers are, the Spey, which has its source in Loch 
Spey, and, after a long course, falls into the Moray Frith 
near Fochabers ; the Doveran, which rises in the hills 
of Cabrach ; the Avon ; the Livet ; and the Isla ; with 
countless smaller streams, which turn numerous mills. 
The salmon-fisheries on the Spey and Doveran are ex- 
tensive, the former yielding a rental of £6000, and the 
latter of £2000 per annum. The coast, which extends for 
nearly thirty miles, is bold and rocky, and, in some parts, 
precipitous ; and is much indented with small bays. 

The soil, near the sea, is rich ; in the valleys, luxu- 
riantly fertile ; and in the mountainous districts, affords 
tolerable pasturage ; the moors abound with game. 
Nearly one-half of the land is under cultivation ; the 
system of agriculture is in a highly improved state, and 
much waste has been inclosed and rendered profitable. 
The rateable annual value of the county is £116,968. 
The natural woods and plantations are extensive and 
well managed, and there are numerous oaks and firs of 
extraordinary dimensions ; the chief minerals are iron- 
stone and lead-ore, and there are some fine quarries of 
limestone, freestone, gneiss, and granite. The best 
seats are, Gordon Castle, Glenfiddich, Duff House, Ro- 
thiemay, Banff Castle, Balvenie Castle, Cullen House, 
Birkenbog, Forglen, Troup, Arndilly, Baldorney, Edin- 
garth, and Kinnairdy. The principal manufacture is 
that of linen ; there are several tanneries, some distil- 
leries, and other works in connexion with the shipping, 
which is confined chiefly to the ports of Banff, Macduff, 
Portsoy, and Gardenstown. The herring-fishery is also 
very extensive, and is prosecuted along the coasts with 
great industry and success. Facility of intercourse has 
been greatly promoted by many excellent roads, con- 
structed by commissioners appointed under an act of 
parliament ; and the bridges over the different streams 
are kept in good order. There are numerous cairns, 
tumuli, ruins of ancient castles, and other monuments 
Vol. I. — 105 



of antiquity, all noticed in the respective articles on the 
localities in which they are situated. 

BANKEND, a village, in the parish of Caerlave- 
iiocK, county of Dumfries, | a mile (S.) from Caerla- 
verock ; containing 189 inhabitants. It lies in the 
eastern portion of the parish, and on the west side of the 
river Locher, which separates it from the parish of 
Ruthwell. 

BANKFOOT, a village, in the parish of Auchter- 
gaven, county of Perth ; containing 76O inhabitants. 
This village, which takes its name from its situation at the 
base of an elevated ridge, on the road from Perth to Dun- 
keld, is of very recent origin, having been wholly built on 
lands leased for that purpose, by Mr. Wylie. The houses 
are neatly built, and chief!}' inhabited by persons em- 
ployed in weaving for the manufacturers of the neigh- 
bouring towns, and in various trades. A daily post has 
been established, which forwards letters to Perth ; and 
facility of intercourse is maintained by good roads, kept 
in repair by statute labour. There is a considerable trade 
in coal, for the supply of the parts of the parish adja- 
cent. A subscription library was opened in 1822, under 
the direction of a committee of subscribers ; the collec- 
tion consists of about 300 volumes, on theological, his- 
torical, and literary subjects. There are places of wor- 
ship for members of the United Secession and the Relief 
Synod. 

BANKHEAD, lately a quoad sacra district, in the 
parish of Midmar, district of Kincardine O'Neil, 
county of Aberdeen, 4 miles from Leggerdale. It is 
about a mile north of the road from Aberdeen to Tar- 
land, and two miles south of that to Alford ; the soil of 
the district is generally light, and far from being pro- 
ductive. The population is chiefly engaged in agricul- 
ture ; and the females employ themselves, to a large 
extent, in stocking-weaving. The ecclesiastical affairs 
are under the superintendence of the synod of Aber- 
deen and presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil, and the 
election of the minister is vested in the communi- 
cants. The church is a plain substantial building, 
erected in 1S32, by subscription of the members and 
others, and is seated for 300 persons ; it stands in the 
north-western part of the parish of Midmar, adjoining 
the parishes of Kincardine O'Neil and Cluny. In the 
vicinity are a few Druidical remains and Pictish en- 
campments, but none of them are of sufficient import- 
ance to require a particular description. 

BANKHEAD, a hamlet, in the parish of Monikie, 
county of Forfar, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Monikie ; 
containing 56 inhabitants. 

BANKTON-PARK, a village, in the parish of Ket- 
tle, district of Cupar, county of Fife, £ a mile (S.) 
from Kettle; containing 136 inhabitants. It is plea- 
santly situated on the road from Cupar to Leslie, and 
consists of neat houses of modern erection. 

BANNOCKBURN, lately a quoad sacra parish, in- 
cluding the village of Bannockburn, in the parish of St. 
Ninian's, county of Stirling ; containing 3176 inha- 
bitants, of whom 2206 are in the village, 2 miles (S. S. 
E.) from Stirling, on the road to Falkirk. Most of the 
inhabitants are employed in manufacturing tartans, 
shawls, and carpets, and here are very extensive eoal- 
works, producing a material of the best quality, which 
is sent in large quantities to most of the surrounding 
districts ; there is also a tan-work for preparing foreign 

P 



B A R L 



B A R R 



skins, as well as those from the country around, A 
post-office is established under Stirling, and fairs are 
held in June and October. The small river Bannock, 
running on the western border, gives name to this 
place, which is celebrated in history as the scene of the 
decisive battle between Robert Bruce and Edward 
II., when the Scots obtained a signal victory, Edward 
and the English being completely routed ; and about a 
mile from the village, on the I lth of June, 1488, was 
fought the field of Stirling, or battle of Sauchie, between 
James III. and the confederate lords, wherein that 
monarch lost the field and his life. A church, contain- 
ing 900 sittings, was opened in October 1838; there 
is also a place of worship for members of the United 
Secession. 

BANTON, lately a quoad sacra parish, forming part 
of the parish of Kilsyth, in the county of Stirling ; 
containing 964 inhabitants, of whom 130 are in the vil- 
lage of Banton, 3 miles (N. E.) from Kilsyth. This 
district, which includes the village of Auchinmully, 
and is five miles long, is situated in the east barony 
of the parish, and is inhabited principally by colliers 
and miners, employed at the neighbouring works. A 
church has been erected, with accommodation for above 
400 persons, by subscription and a grant from the 
General Assembly's Church Extension Committee ; and 
a school and master's house, erected in 1771, have been 
rebuilt on an improved plan, at an expense of £320, 
wholly defrayed by voluntary contributions. There is 
also a subscription library, opened in 1835, and which 
contains about 200 volumes. 

BARA, Haddington. — See Garvald. 

BARACHNIE, a village, in the parish of Old 
Monkland, forming part of the late quoad sacra parish 
of Crosshill, Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 
3| miles (E.) from Glasgow ; containing 235 inhabit- 
ants. This place is situated on the road from Glasgow 
to Airdrie, a short distance from Bailiestone Toll, and on 
the borders of Barony parish. In the vicinity are ex- 
tensive coal-works. 

BARBARAVILLE, a village, in the parish of Kil- 
mtjir Easter, county of Ross and Cromarty; con- 
taining 173 inhabitants. 

BARBASWALLS, a hamlet, in the parish of Ruth- 
ven, county of Forfar ; containing 36 inhabitants. 
It is situated on the borders of Airlie parish, a little to 
the south of the road between Blairgowrie and Kirrie- 
muir; and the river Isla flows eastward of the hamlet. 

BARHILL, a small hamlet, in the parish of Col- 
monell, district of Carrick, county of Ayr, 12 miles 
(S. S. E.) from Girvan. This place, which is of very 
recent origin, is situated on the river Dhuisk, and on 
the road from Girvan to Newton-Stewart ; cattle-markets 
are held on the fourth Friday in April, September, and 
October (O. S.), and are attended by numerous dealers 
from the adjoining districts. 

BARJARG, a hamlet, in the parish of Keir, county 
of Dumfries ; containing 58 inhabitants. It lies near 
the river Nith, on the east side of the parish, about two 
miles and a half south from the village church, and on 
the road between Penport and Dumfries. 

BARLEYSIDE, a village, in the parish of Falkirk, 
county of Stirling, 3 miles (S. by W.) from Falkirk ; 
containing 92 inhabitants. It is situated near the 
western boundary of the parish of Polmont. 
106 



BARN-YARDS, a village, in the parish of Kilcon- 
qtjhar, district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife ; con- 
taining 232 inhabitants. It adjoins the village of Kil- 
conquhar, which lies to the north of Elie, and of which, 
although it retains a separate name, it may now be said 
to form a part. 

BARNH1LL, a hamlet, in the parish of Monifieth, 
county of Forfar; containing 41 inhabitants. It lies 
a little south of the high road between Dundee and 
Arbroath. 

BARNHILL, a village, in the parish of Blantyre, 
Middle ward of the county of Lanark, \ a mile (N.) 
from Blantyre ; containing 165 inhabitants. It is near 
the eastern boundary of Cambuslang parish. 

BARN WEILL, county of Ayr. — See Craigie. 

BARONY, county of Lanark.— See Glasgow. 

BARR, a parish, in the district of Carrick, county 
of Ayr, S miles (E. S. E.) from Girvan ; containing 959 
inhabitants, of whom about 230 are in the village. This 
place is supposed to have derived its name from the 
almost inaccessible site of the ancient village, surrounded 
on all sides by rugged hills of precipitous elevation, and 
only to be approached by a narrow wild glen, frequently 
impassable from the swelling of a small stream which 
intersects it, and which, in winter, attains the violence 
of a torrent. The parish, which formed a natural 
barrier between the counties of Ayr and Galloway, was 
included in the parishes of Girvan and Dailly till the 
year 1653, when it was erected into a parish of itself; 
it comprises nearly 70,000 acres, of which only 1200 
are arable, and not more than 1000 capable of being 
rendered profitable. The surface is mostly an extensive 
level, with various ridges of different elevation, two of 
which rise from the banks of the river Stinchar, to the 
height of nearly 1200 feet ; and a third, in a direction 
nearly parallel to these, on the south-east, is about 1400 
feet above the sea. Another range, forming part of 
that chain of mountainous heights stretching from Ayr- 
shire into Galloway, has an elevation of nearly 2700 
feet. The chief rivers are, the Stinchar, which has its 
source in this parish, and, taking a south-westerly 
course, falls into the sea at Ballantrae ; and the Min- 
noch, which, rising in the highest ridge of hills, flows 
southward through the lands, and falls into the river 
Cree, which separates this parish from the county of 
Galloway. The. Stinchar, in its course of nearly fifteen 
miles through the parish, forms a beautiful cascade of 
about thirty feet ; and most of the smaller burns with 
which the parish abounds, in their several courses, fall 
from heights, with various degrees of beauty. There 
are numerous lakes of different extent, varying in- depth 
from six to fifteen feet, all of which afford trout of a 
dark colour, and also yellow trout ; the scenery is dreary, 
from the want of wood, of which there is scarcely any in 
the parish. 

The soil, in the lower lands, is of very fair quality, 
and in the high lands principally moss ; the chief crops 
are, grain of all kinds, and potatoes. Surface-draining 
has been extensively practised, and the grounds are 
partially inclosed, but improvement in the system of 
husbandry, from the want of good roads and facilities 
of drawing lime, is greatly retarded. Attention is paid 
to the management of the dairy, and a moderate number 
of milch cows, mostly of the Ayrshire breed, have been 
introduced ; but the main dependence of the farmer is 



B A R It 



BARK 



on the rearing of cattle and sheep, for which the hills 
provide tolerable pasturage. The rateable annual value 
of the parish is £7578. The few trees indigenous to 
the soil, are ash and alder ; and the plantations, which 
are on a very limited scale, are larch, interspersed with 
oak and ash, which seem to thrive well. The substrata 
are chiefly conglomerate rock, which appears in very 
irregular masses, and limestone of good quality, which 
is slightly wrought ; in that portion of it that lies 
near the bed of the river, some fine specimens of fossil 
shells are found. Slate-quarries have been also opened, 
but have not been wrought to any extent. The village, 
which is neatly built, has a post-office, established under 
Girvan ; and fairs are held annually, but very little 
business is transacted, and, from the want of good 
roads, little facility of intercourse is afforded with the 
surrounding district. The parish is in the presbytery 
of Ayr and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and patronage 
of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £231. 3. 1., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £1S per annum. 
The church, an ancient edifice, is in good repair, and 
bad a gallery added in 1S34; it is adapted for a con- 
gregation of 410 persons. A place of worship has been 
erected in connexion with the Free Church. The paro- 
chial school is well conducted ; the master's salary is 
£34. 4. 4|., with £18 fees, and a house and garden. A 
parochial library has been established, which has a col- 
lection of nearly 200 volumes. There are some remains 
of a chapel called Kirk Dominaj, and on the rising- 
ground near its site, is a well, to which is an approach 
through an ancient and well-built archway. This chapel 
was in tolerable preservation till the year 1653, when 
the roof was taken off, and placed on the parish church. 
Viscount Stair, well known as ambassador of George 
II., at the court of France, in 1720, was born in the 
parish. 

BAR.RA, a parish and island, in the county of In- 
verness ; including the islands of Bernera, Fladda, 
Fuday, Helesay, Mingala, Pabba, Sandra, and Watersay ; 
and containing 2363 inhabitants, of whom 1977 are in 
the island of Barra. The word Barra is supposed by 
some to be formed of Bar, a point or top, and Ay or i", an 
island, and to have been applied to this place in refer- 
ence to its position in the great group to which it be- 
longs, it being the most southerly or head of the larger 
islands among the Hebrides. But its etymology is more 
generally traced to St. Barr, the tutelary saint to whom 
the principal place of worship, called Killbar, was dedi- 
cated, and whose reputation was here so great, that his 
anniversary has been celebrated for ages, on the 25th of 
September, and is still regularly observed with morning 
ceremonies at the chapel, and afternoon festivities at 
Killbar, by the inhabitants, most of whom are Roman 
Catholics. The island of Barra, and the islands surround- 
ing it, have been from time immemorial the property of 
the Macneils, who are said to have been in possession of 
them before the Danish invasion, and to have been the 
first of that name who came from Ireland. This family, 
by their great power, and particularly their skill in 
maritime affairs, gave great annoyance to all their neigh- 
bours, carrying their depredations into every part of the 
Western Islands ; and one of them, called Resary an 
Tartair, or " the noisy or troublesome Roderick," sig- 
nalized himself especially by his piracies, but was at 
length captured for an attack on one of Queen Eliza- 
107 



beth's ships ; great skill and ingenuity, in consequence 
of a reward offered, having been employed to effect his 
apprehension. The seat of the family was Kismull 
Castle, stili in good preservation, situated in the centre 
of a bay, and on a small rock which is covered at high 
water; the structure is of irregular figure, about sixty 
feet high, with a square tower at one corner, the whole 
strongly built, and surrounded by spots for the anchor- 
age of small vessels. It was the residence of the lairds 
of Barra till the beginning of the last century, about 
which time it ceased to be inhabited. 

The parish consists of more than twenty islands, 
about half of them uninhabited, and serving only as 
grazing stations, and was disjoined from that of South 
Uist in 1733. It is situated at the south-western ex- 
tremity of the Hebrides, and measures in length, from 
Scirrival, the most northerly point of the main island, 
to Bernera, the most southerly island, about twenty- 
eight miles, including the several intervening channels ; 
and comprises about 22,000 acres, of which 3922 are 
under cultivation, 1540 sandy waste, 16,139 hill pasture, 
and the remainder moss. The currents run with great 
rapidity and violence through the channels, of which, 
that on the north is six miles across, separating Barra 
from South Uist. On the east, are the islands of Canna 
and Rum, distant twenty-six miles; those of Coll and 
Tiree, on the south, are thirty miles off, and on the west 
is the Atlantic Ocean, which, at the blowing of the south- 
west wind, rolls its waves with such impetuosity and 
fury, that they not only drive large quantities of sand 
over the islands, but render intercourse between them 
quite impossible. The shore is indented with nume- 
rous fissures and creeks, and pierced with many arms 
of the sea, and on the w r est, with the exception of 
two or three sandy inlets and bays, is thickly set with 
rocks, a huge barrier of which, broken in several parts 
into frightful chasms by the constant action of the sea, 
rises majestically against its tremendous waves, and 
supplies a powerful rampart to check its fury. On the 
east, the coast is in general rocky, with some inter- 
vening portions of heath, moss, and sand ; and in this 
part are the principal bays, which form excellent and 
safe harbours, and among which are those of Bayhierava, 
Uilevay, Castlebay, Watersaybay, Fladda Sound, and 
Ottirvore. The chief headland is Barra Head, on the 
island of Bernera, where a very superior lighthouse has 
lately been erected. This island, and the contiguous one 
of Mingala, are particularly distinguished for the height 
of their rocks, and for their grand and romantic scenery, 
heightened in its effect by the numberless sea-fowl that 
frequent them throughout the summer. Barra, the 
largest island, is about twelve miles long, and from three 
to six miles broad, and is broken, especially on the 
eastern side, by many bays and arms of the sea. It has 
a rocky barren aspect at a distance, but, upon a nearer 
approach, its appearance is more interesting, and its 
lower grounds, containing some rich meadows and fer- 
tile valleys, contrast well with its lofty hills, covered 
to the summits with verdant pasture. There are many 
springs of good fresh water, and four fresh-water lakes, 
abounding in black trout and eels, and varying in length 
from half a mile to a mile. 

The soil comprises light black, and sandy earth, 
moss, and meadow ; and the crops, consisting of barley, 
oats, and potatoes, grown merely for home consumption, 

P2 



B A R R 



B A H R 



ripen very early on the sandy soils, of which much 
exists in the parish : agriculture here takes its prevail- 
ing character from that of the population, and is un- 
formed and rugged, and the district is more suited to 
grazing than tillage. The lands are let principally to 
small tenants ; the habitations, in general, are of the 
very lowest description, as well as the resources, and 
manner of life of the tenants. The cattle are of a good 
quality, and a new and improved breed of sheep has 
been recently introduced ; the horses are small, but 
hardy and well shaped, and are kept in great numbers, 
being found useful for transporting sea-weed for manure, 
and for the preparation of kelp. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £2470. The rocks consist chiefly 
of coarse granite ; but in the island of Bernera, a quarry 
of this stone, of a very superior kind, has been dis- 
covered, of which the lighthouse was built. The only 
mansion is the house of Barra, at Eoligary, which is a 
commodious residence, well sheltered, and surrounded 
by good fields. It was built by the late proprietor, who 
transplanted some trees, of which the parish is remark- 
ably bare, to the grounds of his mansion ; but, though 
they had thriven tolerably well in their former situation, 
they soon pined away after their removal. A few of the 
inhabitants are engaged in fishing, and four vessels used 
for this purpose belong to the place ; but the poverty 
of the people operates not only to straiten their agricul- 
tural efforts, and to keep the capabilities of the soil, to 
a great extent, in abeyance, but also to confine their 
fishing within very narrow limits, although Barra is 
one of the best stations on the west coast. Besides 
lobsters, crabs, whelks, limpets, mussels, and cockles, 
the quantity of which last is very great, and often sup- 
plies a principal article of food, the neighbouring seas 
abound with ling, cod, tusk, hake, turbot, and flounders ; 
and immense shoals of herrings also come up, which 
the inhabitants are unable to take for want of suitable 
tackle. About twenty or thirty boats are sometimes 
employed, with five men in each, and if successful, and 
the weather permits, they carry the ling and cod to 
Glasgow and Greenock in their own boats. Many cear- 
bans, or sail-fish, were formerly taken by means of the 
harpoon, and large quantities of oil extracted, but this 
branch has now failed, through the inability of the 
fishermen to provide the necessary tackle. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Uist and synod of 
Glenelg, and in the patronage of the Crown; the minister's 
stipend is £165. 10. 5., of which a portion is received 
from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe valued 
at £17. 10. per annum. The church is a plain struc- 
ture, built a few years since, and conveniently situated 
in the centre of the parish, about six miles from each 
extremity of the main island. There is a Roman 
Catholic chapel. The parochial school affords instruc- 
tion in English and writing, though the master is quali- 
fied to teach the classics, book-keeping, and geography ; 
he has a salary of £26 : the school has been only lately 
opened, and education is at present quite in its infancy, 
the inhabitants being mostly unable to read or write. 
The poor enjoy the benefit of a bequest of £400, left by 
two persons, natives of the parish. At Killbar, are se- 
veral ruins of ancient chapels dedicated to St. Barr, 
some of which have an altar of rough stones at one 
end, and the pedestal of a cross at a short distance : a 
wooden figure of the saint was formerly fixed up for the 
108 



adoration of the people, and was dressed in superior 
attire, on the celebration of the anniversary. Watch- 
towers are seen in every direction ; and each lake has 
a "dun," supposed to be of Scandinavian origin, as well 
as those circles usually called Druidical remains. A 
few years since, a gold medal was found, in digging the 
clergyman's garden, about the size of a half-crown piece, 
cast for the coronation of Augustus II., king of Poland, 
and which is said to have belonged to some passenger 
on board of a Dutch ship wrecked here in the early part 
of the last century. 

BARREL-OF-BUTTER, an islet, in the parish of 
Orphir, county of Orkney. It is one of the smallest 
of the Orkneys, and is situated to the south of the 
island of Pomona, in Scalpa Flow, a large expanse of 
water resembling a small Mediterranean Sea. Here was 
formerly a seal-fishery, for which the neighbouring 
farmer paid the proprietor a barrel of oil yearly, until 
the frequency of shipping scared the animals from the 
isle, when the proprietor, determined not to lose his 
rent, converted the tack -duty into a barrel of butter, 
which is still paid by the tenant ; and hence the isle 
derives its present name, the ancient one being Carlin- 
Skerry. 

BARRHEAD, lately a quoad sacra parish, includ- 
ing the villages of Cross- Arthurlee, Grahamstown, New- 
ton Ralston, and Barrhead, in the parish of Neilston, 
Upper ward of the county of Renfrew, 4 miles (S. by E.) 
from Paisley ; the whole containing 5337 inhabitants. 
This place is situated on the stream of the Levern, on 
which are a number of fine waterfalls that have con- 
tributed much to the manufactures of the district, 
consisting of cotton spinning and weaving, and printing, 
bleaching, and dyeing, all extensively carried on, prin- 
cipally for the Glasgow and Paisley markets. Coal is 
abundant, and three mines are at present in operation. 
A fair is held, chiefly for pleasure, on the last Friday in 
June, when a horse-race also takes place. The village, 
situated on the road from Glasgow to Irvine, is of con- 
siderable size, and, for the most part, inhabited by 
persons engaged in the various works ; it has a post- 
office, with a daily delivery. The parish is in the pres- 
bytery of Paisley and synod of Glasgow and Ayr : the 
church, a neat structure, was built by subscription, in 
1839 ; the minister is elected by the male communicants. 
There is a good school, of which the teacher has a room 
rent-free, and affords instruction to a considerable num- 
ber of the children of the place ; also a mechanics' sub- 
scription library. 

BARRIE, a parish, in the county of Forfar, in- 
cluding the late quoad sacra district of Carnoustie, and 
containing 2124 inhabitants, of whom 217 are in the 
village, 9 miles (E. N. E.) from Dundee. This parish is 
situated at the southern extremity of the county, on the 
shore of the German Ocean, and at the mouth of the 
Frith of Tay, measuring about four miles from north to 
south, and above three from east to west. In the latter 
direction it is intersected, throughout its whole extent, 
by a high verdant bank, supposed to have once formed 
a steep shore of the ocean, and separating the locality 
into two grand divisions totally dissimilar in character. 
That on the north is of a good soil, and elevated about 
fifty feet above the southern portion, from which it has 
the appearance of an extensive and regularly con- 
structed terrace ; while the lower division is sandy and 



B A R V 



B A R V 



sterile, affording in general but a scanty pasture for a 
few sheep and cattle, with small patches of arable land, 
producing, in moist seasons, moderate crops of grain. 
The whole comprises about 4000 acres, half being in 
the sandy, and half in the cultivated, portion. The soil 
in the upper part has the several varieties of light 
loam, good gravel, and a deep black earth ; and, under 
the skilful application of the most approved usages of 
husbandry, crops are obtained of wheat, barley, oats, 
peas, turnips, flax, clover, and potatoes, nearly equal 
to those grown in more favoured districts. Of the part 
never yet cultivated, covering nearly 2000 acres, very 
little is serviceable on account of the light and sandy 
nature of the soil, except for occasional pastures. The 
rateable annual value of the parish is £4052. The 
larger part of the population, both male and female, are 
engaged in the manufacture of brown and white linen, 
for the Dundee and Arbroath houses ; a vitriol-work, 
employing four or five hands, was erected a few years 
since, and there are five stations for the fishing of 
salmon, belonging to three different proprietors. A 
turnpike-road from Dundee to Aberdeen, and the rail- 
road between the former place and Arbroath, pass 
through the parish ; and to the two latter towns, the 
produce is usually sent for sale. The parish is in the 
presbytery of Arbroath and synod of Angus and Mearns, 
and in the patronage of the Crown ; the minister's 
stipend is £143. 12. 11., with a manse, and a glebe of 
five acres, valued at £5. 10. per annum. The church, 
situated in the centre of the parish, is a plain structure, 
altered and enlarged in the year ISIS. A place of 
worship has been erected in connexion with the Free 
Church. The parochial school affords instruction in the 
usual branches ; the master has a salary of £29. 18. 9., 
with £30 fees. Till lately there were tumuli on the 
eastern limit of the parish ; and in the same vicinity, 
near Carnoustie, were the vestiges of a camp, where, it is 
said, the Danes were defeated under Camus, by the 
Scots headed by Malcolm II. 

BARVAS, a parish, in the island of Lewis, county 
of Ross, and Cromarty, 10 miles (N. W. by N.) from 
Stornoway ; containing, with the late quoad sacra dis- 
trict of Cross, 3S50 inhabitants. The name of this 
place, like that of many others in the neighbourhood, is 
supposed to be of Norwegian derivation; but its signifi- 
cation is altogether unknown. From the memorials which 
still remain, the Danes appear to have had some con- 
nexion with the district : a fort, now in ruins, evidently 
of Danish construction, stands on the border of a loch 
south of Bragar, and three buildings of the same de- 
scription are to be seen between Shadir and Borve, each 
of them, by its peculiar form, locality, and appendages, 
indicating the scene of the military operations of that 
people. On a plain of moss between Barvas and Shadir, 
stands an immense stone, eighteen feet high, and 
almost as much in girth, supposed to have been raised 
as a triumphal memorial of the slaughter of some 
cruel and reckless tyrant of the Danish nation ; and 
the ruins of several old chapels and burying-grounds still 
remain, showing the subsequent occupation of the soil 
by religious teachers. These chapels were dedicated 
to St. Bridget in Borve, St. Peter in Lower Shadir, St, 
Mary in Barvas, and St. John in Bragar. 

The parish, which is remotely situated, in the 
northern extremity of the island of Lewis, is about 
109 



twenty-two miles long, and seven broad, and contains 
16,103 acres, of which number 1468 arc in tillage, 4S9 
the best kind of pasture, and 14,146 pasture of an inferior 
kind; it is bounded on the north-west by the Atlantic 
Ocean. The coast, which comprises a length of about 
fourteen miles, is rugged, and in many parts bold and 
rocky, and is beaten by a violent surf when the wind 
blows from the west or north-west. The surface of the 
ground in the interior is diversified by gentle eleva- 
tions, except in one or two instances, where it is broken 
by a deep glen traversed by rivulets, or occupied by a 
sweeping moor covered with red mountain deer. There 
are five rivers, the Glen, Borve, Shadir, Arnal, and 
Torra, which generally rise from springs or lochs, six 
or seven miles up the country, and empty them- 
selves into the ocean. The climate is surcharged with 
vapour and fog, and subject to violent storms and rains ; 
the striking phenomenon of the Aurora Borealis is fre- 
quently seen, in all its splendour and majesty. The 
soil of the cultivated land, which chiefly lies along the 
sea-shore, is black earth, often largely mixed with 
gravel or sand, but, as the main part of the parish is 
moor, the soil is mostly mossy. The arable portion is 
overspread with quantities of stones, which, together 
with exposure to winds from the sea, without hill or 
mountain to protect behind, supply formidable impedi- 
ments to the labour of the farmer, and sometimes de- 
stroy his crops altogether. The rental is small ; no 
produce is exported, the whole being used in home 
consumption, and but few improvements have been 
made in agriculture, chiefly from the shortness of the 
leases, and the poverty of the people, who, in seasons 
of scarcity, are compelled to live upon whelks, limpets, 
and crabs, the only shell-fish to be found. About 
2500 head of black-cattle are reared, which are fed in 
winter chiefly on sea-weed ; and the sheep amount to 
upwards of 7000, and are all of small stature, as are 
the horses, which, however, are compact, active, and 
mettlesome, and well suited to their ordinary work of 
carrying the sea-weed in double-baskets, over difficult 
and rocky grounds. The subsoil is a stiff hard clay, 
which, in some parts, is covered with large banks of 
sand, twenty feet high, driven inward from the shore 
by the continued action of westerly winds. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £1942. 

The inhabitants live in numerous villages on the 
coast, almost entirely in an insulated state, having very 
little communication with others ; there are two roads, 
one running along the coast, and another to Storno- 
way, the only mart in the island. The parish contains 
four small bays, into which boats sometimes enter; 
but the violence of the wind prevents the anchorage 
of any vessel. Salmon-fishing has been carried on for 
some years, with considerable success, near the mouths 
of the rivers ; but the nature of the coast rendering 
other fishing impracticable, the people are generally 
little inclined to make the employment a steady pursuit. 
The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery 
of Lewis and synod of Glenelg ; the minister has a 
manse, a glebe worth about £20 per annum, and a sti- 
pend of £158. 6. 8., partly paid from the exchequer ; the 
patronage belongs to the Crown. The church, built 
nearly sixty years since, is a long narrow building, 
and contains 300 sittings, all free. There is a paro- 
chial school, in which the classics and the common 



BATH 



BATH 



branches of education are taught, and the master of 
which has a salary of £2S ; and two other schools are 
supported by the Edinburgh Gaelic School Society. 
The pai-ish contains several chalybeate springs, but none 
of any note. 

BASS, ISLE, in the parish of North Berwick, 
county of Haddington. It is situated in the Frith 
of Forth, above a mile distant from the south shore, 
and is of stupendous height, inaccessible on all sides, 
except by one narrow passage. On the summit is 
a spring, sufficient to provide water for the garrison 
of a small castle ; there is also pasturage for a few 
sheep, and a warren. This island was an ancient pos- 
session of the family of Lawder, and was purchased, in 
1671, by Charles II., during whose reign, and that of 
James II., it was made a state prison, where the Came- 
ronians, or Western people, were confined for being in 
arms against the sovereign. A cavern runs through 
the rock from north-west to south-east, in the centre of 
which is a deep pool of water. St. Baldred, the apostle 
of East Lothian, in the sixth century, is generally sup- 
posed to have made the isle his place of seclusion. — See 
Berwick, North. 

BATHAN'S, ABBEY ST., a parish, in the county 
of Berwick, 7 miles (N. by W.) from Dunse ; contain- 
ing 140 inhabitants. The name of this place has been 
successively written St. Boythan's, Bothan's, and Ba- 
than's, which last form it has preserved since the 
earlier part of the last century. The word Abbey, it is 
supposed, was prefixed to distinguish it from the parish 
of Gilford or Yester, in East Lothian, which was also 
called St. Bothan's, but had no convent ; the name 
Bathan was derived from the patron saint, who laboured 
here in the early part of the 7th century, and to whom 
the first church was dedicated. Near this church, which 
was destroyed more than once by fire, during the in- 
cursions of the Banes, a convent of Cistercian nuns was 
founded between the years 1184 and 1200, with the 
title of priory, by Ada, daughter to King William the 
Lion, and wife to Patrick, Earl of Dunbar. This in- 
stitution, by the liberal benefactions of the foundress 
and her husband, and various other persons, acquired 
considerable estates, in addition to the patronage of the 
church, by which the nuns were enabled, through the ap- 
pointment of a vicar, to appropriate to themselves the 
revenues of the living. A chapel was also founded in 
the parish, about a quarter of a mile from the nunnery, 
on the same side of the river Whiteadder, the founda- 
tions of which lately existed. At Strafontane, too, 
which is now part of the parish, but was anciently 
distinct, an hospital was founded in the reign of 
David I., which, at one time, was dependent on the 
abbey of Alnwick, but was transferred, in 1437, by the 
abbot of that place, to the monastery of Dryburgh, and 
came afterwards into the possession of the collegiate 
church of Dunglass, and was ultimately converted into a 
church. 

The mean length of the parish, from east to west, is 
about 3^ miles, and its breadth 2§ ; it contains about 
5000 acres, of which 2600 are hilly pasture never culti- 
vated, 100 wood, and 2300 arable. It is situated among 
the Lammerrnoor hills, and the surface consequently 
consists of hills and slopes, the former of which are, for 
the most part, covered with heath, and rise to various 
elevations, of between 300 and 400 feet above the in- 
110 



tervening vales, and then spread out into extensive flats. 
The level grounds on the banks of the streams which 
receive the drainage of the hills, are in general fertile, 
as well as many of the slopes, but the upper lands are 
altogether barren. The Whiteadder is the only river; 
after a course of about 12 miles, in which it is joined by 
the Dye and many smaller streams, it assumes, in its pas- 
sage through the parish, a beautiful meandering form, 
and receives, besides many rivulets, the tributaries of the 
Monj'nut and the Ware, which extend its width to 
about eighty feet. A bridge constructed of wood, and 
raised upon stone piers, has very recently been erected 
across the river, on the tension-bar principle, and is 
much and deservedly admired for its simplicity and 
elegance. The soil is equal, if not superior, to any 
part of the Lammerrnoor, but is in some parts of 
meagre impoverished quality, and much better suited to 
the pasturage of sheep and cattle than the growth of 
corn ; the produce principally comprises oats, barley, 
potatoes, and turnips. The sheep are the Cheviots, mixed 
with a few of the black-faced, and the ewes of each of 
these are, in many cases, crossed with the Leicesters ; 
considerable improvements have recently been made in 
husbandry, consisting chiefly in drainage, and the re- 
claiming of waste land. The rateable annual value of 
the parish is £1397. Veins of copper-ore have been 
discovered on the estate of St. Bathan's, and were 
worked in 1S28, by an English mining company; but 
after the first attempt the undertaking was abandoned. 
There is no village ; but a group of pleasing and inter- 
esting objects in the beautiful and romantic vale 
through which the Whiteadder runs, includes the house 
of St. Bathan's, a corn-mill, the church, the manse 
standing on an acclivity in the midst of trees, and the 
school-house. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to 
the presbytery of Dunse and synod of Merse andTeviot- 
dale ; the patronage belongs to the Crown, and the 
minister's stipend is £155. 9. 3., with a manse, built in 
1S22, and a glebe of 14 acres, worth £13 per annum. 
The church, which is an ancient edifice in good repair, 
is conveniently situated, and accommodates 140 per- 
sons ; the east window, of pointed architecture, is still 
in some measure preserved. When lately repairing the 
north wall of the edifice, a recumbent statue of a nun 
was found, but without any inscription : in this wall was 
formerly an arched door, now built up, which communi- 
cated with the monastic buildings. There is a parochial 
school, in which the usual branches of education are 
taught, with mathematics, and Latin, and of which the 
master has a salary of £26. 8., with about £12 fees, and 
a house. In a woody nook at a little distance from the 
church is a spring named St. Bathan's well, formerly 
esteemed of miraculous power in healing diseases, and 
to which the superstitious still attach many surprising 
virtues. 

BATHGATE, a burgh of barony, and a parish, in the 
county of Linlithgow, 7 miles (S. by W.) from Linlith- 
gow, and 18 (W. by S.) from Edinburgh ; containing, with 
the village of Armadale, 392S inhabitants, of whom 2809 
are in the town. This place, of which the name, in a 
charter of Malcolm IV. written Batket, is of unknown 
derivation, formed part of the extensive possessions given 
by King Robert Bruce, in 1316, with his daughter, 
the Princess Marjory, on her marriage to Walter, high 
steward of Scotland, ancestor of the royal family of 



BAT II 



BAT II 



Stuart, who had one of his principal residences at this 
place, where he died in 132S. Of this ancient castle, 
some slight traces of the foundations only are discern- 
ible, in a morass about a quarter of a mile from the 
town, in which, though it has been drained and brought 
into cultivation, kitchen utensils of brass, and coffins 
rudely formed of flat stones, have been discovered by 
the plough. The barony, with the sheriffdom, which 
had been annexed to it, was granted by Charles II., in 
1663, to Thomas Hamilton, and subsequently became 
the property of the Hope family, of whom John, the 
second Earl of Hopetoun, on the abolition of hereditary 
jurisdictions, in 1747, claimed £2000, as an indemnity. 
There are few events of importance connected with the 
history of Bathgate, with the exception of some occa- 
sional encounters which took place, during the time of 
the Covenanters, between the inhabitants and the soldier}' 
who were sent to disperse their meetings. 

The town is chiefly situated on the acclivity of a hill, 
on the north side of the middle road from Glasgow to 
Edinburgh, and consists of several well-formed streets 
of neatly-built houses, from which others, of inferior 
character, branch off in various directions. The prin- 
cipal streets are paved, and well lighted with gas from 
works erected by a company recently formed ; and the 
inhabitants are amply supplied with water. A subscrip- 
tion library has been recently established, which has a 
collection of about 300 volumes, and is well supported ; 
the post-office has two deliveries from Glasgow, and 
one from Edinburgh, daily, and branches of the Na- 
tional Bank of Scotland, and the Glasgow Union Bank, 
have been opened in the town. The cotton manufacture 
is carried on to a considerable extent, affording employ- 
ment to about 500 of the inhabitants, in hand-loom 
weaving, chiefly for the Glasgow houses ; and about 160 
women and girls are engaged in tambour-work. A dis- 
tillery and a brewery, both on an extensive scale, are in 
active operation ; and there are two brick and tile 
works, in which several hands are employed. The 
market, which is abundantly supplied with grain, and 
numerously attended, is on Wednesday ; and fairs for 
cattle and horses are held on the third Wednesday in 
April, the first Wednesday after Whitsuntide (O. S.), the 
fourth Wednesday in June, the third Wednesday in 
August, the fourth Wednesday in October, and the first 
Wednesday after Martinmas (O. S.). Of these, the prin- 
cipal are the Whitsuntide and Martinmas fairs, which 
are attended by dealers from all parts of the country. 
Facility of communication is afforded by the Edinburgh 
and Glasgow, and the Lanark and Borrowstounness, 
turnpike-roads, which pass through the parish, and by 
other roads kept in good repair by statute labour ; and 
a branch from the Slamannan railway will be ex- 
tended to this place, and contribute greatly to pro- 
mote its intercourse with the neighbouring districts. 
The inhabitants, with the concurrence of the superior of 
the town, obtained an act of parliament, in 1824, con- 
ferring a charter of incorporation, and vesting the 
government of the burgh in a provost, three bailies, a 
treasurer, and twelve councillors, annually elected by 
the burgesses, who must be holders of houses or tene- 
ments valued at £3 per annum, and are entitled to become 
burgesses on the payment of fees not exceeding £2. 2. 
The jurisdiction of the magistrates, which is confined to 
the limits of the burgh, extends to civil pleas not ex- 
111 



ceeding £25, and to the trial of petty offences, for which 
they hold courts as occasion may require ; but the num- 
ber of causes is very inconsiderable, and courts for the 
recovery of small debts are held every two months, by 
the magistrates. A sheriff's court is held four times in 
the year, under the sheriff of the county, who is also 
appointed sheriff of Bathgate. There is a small prison, 
containing three cells for criminals, and a room for 
debtors, under the management of the corporation ; but 
it is rarely used, except for the temporary confinement 
of deserters on their route to Glasgow or Edinburgh. 
The seal of the burgh simply bears the inscription, 
" Sigillum Commune Burgi de Bathgate," in an outer 
circle, and, within, the words, "erected by act of parlia- 
ment 5th Geo. IV. 1824," with a crown. 

The parish is about seven miles and a half in length, 
and about four miles in extreme breadth, comprising an 
area of 11,214 acres, of which S700 are arable, S00 pas- 
ture, 500 woodland and plantations, and the remainder, 
excepting the site of the town and the village of Arma- 
dale, roads and waste. The surface, though generally 
level, is diversified by the hills of the Knock and the 
Reiving Craig, which nearly equal the Cairnapple in 
height, attaining an elevation of about 1450 feet above 
the sea. The only river in the parish is the Almond, 
which separates it, for about a mile, from the parish of 
Whitburn ; there are numerous springs, and, in the 
grounds of Balbardie, a lake partly artificial, about 
eleven acres in extent, and averaging five feet in depth. 
The soil, on the slopes of the hills, is rich, and in the 
lower grounds wet and marshy, though it has been 
greatly benefited by draining ; and the lands which are 
not under tillage, afford good pasturage for cattle. The 
system of agriculture is in an improved state, and a 
considerable portion of waste has been reclaimed; the 
crops are, grain of every sort, with potatoes and tur- 
nips, and much attention is paid to the management 
of the dairy-farms. Few sheep are pastured, and the 
cattle are of various mixed breeds, but, on the daiiy- 
farms, mostly of the pure Ayrshire kind. The farm 
buildings are inferior to others in the district; but im- 
provements are gradually taking place, under the aus- 
pices of an agricultural society in the town, which awards 
premiums at its annual meetings, when there is a show 
of cattle. A horticultural society has also been esta- 
blished. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
£12,975. 

The plantations consist of oak, ash, elm, and plane, 
with larch, and silver, spruce, and Scotch firs. The 
substratum is principally coal, forming part of the cen- 
tral coal-field of Scotland, but the seams are frequently 
intersected with dykes of whiustone. Limestone is also 
found, both of the marine and lacustrine formation ; in 
the former, are various species of corrallines, ammonites, 
and marine shells, and in both are veins of lead con- 
taining portions of silver-ore. In one of the mines, 
called the silver mine, the ore was wrought for some 
time, yielding a considerable quantity of silver, which 
gradually diminished till the working was ultimately 
discontinued. In connexion with the strata of coal, is 
found iron- ore, which was formerly wrought by the 
Carron Iron Company, and for the working of which, in 
another part of the parish, a company recently formed 
have commenced operations ; and there are occasionally 
found, in the limestone, thin layers of mineral pitch. 



BEAT 



B ED R 



Several coal-mines are in operation, and some have been 
recently discontinued ; there are also lime-works, all of 
which produce lime of good quality. Freestone and 
whinstone are likewise abundant ; of the former, one 
quarry is constantly wrought, on the lands of Balbardie, 
producing stone of* excellent quality for building, and 
the latter is wrought occasionally for the roads. Bal- 
bardie House, in the parish, is a handsome mansion, 
erected towards the close of the last century, after a 
design by Mr. Adam, and beautifully situated in a well- 
wooded park of more than 100 acres, containing much 
diversified scenery ; and Boghead, another residence, is 
surrounded with thriving plantations, formed by the 
present proprietor. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superinten- 
dence of the presbytery of Linlithgow and synod of 
Lothian and Tweeddale ; the minister's stipend is 
£132. S. 4., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £19 
per annum ; patron, the Earl of Hopetoun. The church, 
erected in 1/39, is a plain building, situated in the town, 
and nearly in the centre of the parish ; it is in good 
repair, and contains 719 sittings, a number very inade- 
quate to the population. There are places of worship 
for Free Church, Relief, United Secession, and Original 
Burgher congregations. The parochial school is well 
attended ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4|., with 
a house and garden, and the fees average £26 per 
annum. The Bathgate Academy was founded by Mr. 
John Newlands, a native of this parish, who died in 
Jamaica, in 1799, and bequeathed the principal part of 
his property to trustees, for the erection and endow- 
men of a free school here. The trustees, after resisting 
an attempt to invalidate the bequest, in which they 
were indemnified by the personal security of Mr. 
Majoribanks, received £14,500, and immediately opened 
schools in different parts of the parish, which, on the 
subsequent increase of the funds, were concentrated 
in the present institution, in 1S33. The academy is 
under the superintendence of a rector, who is also the 
classical master, two English masters, and a master for 
writing, arithmetic, and the mathematics ; and is at- 
tended by about 500 children, who are all gratuitously 
taught. The building is a handsome structure, consist- 
ing of a centre and two wings connected by a colonnade, 
and comprises a house for the rector, with four ample 
class-rooms, a library, in which are more than 700 
volumes, and other apartments, with a spacious play- 
ground in front. The poor are partly supported by the 
interest of £1100 bequeathed by Mr. Henry Calder, 
yielding £53 per annum. There are some Druidical 
remains in the vicinity ; and in different parts of the 
parish, have been found coins of Edward I., Queen 
Elizabeth, and Charles II. Several of the springs are 
strongly chalybeate ; and on the estate of Couston, the 
water resembles in its quality that of the celebrated 
spring of Dollar. 

BAYNTON, county of Fife. —See Baneton. 

BEATH, a parish, in the district of Dunfermline, 
county of Fife, 2| miles (S.) from Blair-Adam Inn ; 
containing, with the villages of Cowden-Beath, Kelty, 
and Oakfield, 973 inhabitants. This parish, though 
now destitute of any trees of the kind, is supposed to 
have originally abounded with birch, and from that cir- 
cumstance to have derived its name, anciently written 
Baith, which, in the Gaelic language, signifies a birch- 
112 



tree. It is situated on the great road from Perth to 
Quecnsferry, extending for about four miles in length, 
and three miles in breadth, and comprising 6500 acres, 
of which about 5300 are arable, 500 meadow and pas- 
ture, 500 woodland and plantations, and the remainder 
water and waste. The surface is very irregular, rising 
in many places into hills of considerable elevation, some 
of which afford rich pasture, and one called the Hill of 
Beath commands interesting views ; the scenery has 
been, in some parts, enriched with thriving plantations, 
and is enlivened by the loch Fitty, a fine sheet of water, 
about three miles in circumference, and abounding with 
pike, perch, and other fish. The soil is generally good, 
consisting of a clay and loam, interspersed occasionally 
with moss ; the crops are, oats, barley, peas, beans, 
potatoes, and turnips, with wheat occasionally, and a 
small quantity of flax. The system of agriculture is 
excellent ; a considerable quantity of waste has been 
reclaimed, and much which, from previous mismanage- 
ment, had been unproductive, has been rendered fertile. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £4404. The 
substrata are chiefly whinstone and sandstone; coaljs 
found in abundance, and there arc at present three col- 
lieries worked in the parish, which afford a plentiful 
supply of fuel ; limestone is also wrought, but on a very 
limited scale. The parish is in the presbytery of Dun- 
fermline and synod of Fife, and in the patronage of the 
Earl of Moray ; the minister's stipend is about £165, 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £17 per annum. 
The church is a handsome edifice, erected in 1S35, by 
the heritors, and affords ample accommodation. The 
parochial school is attended by about 100 pupils; the 
master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £30 fees, and a 
house and garden. 

BEAULY, a village, in the parish of Kilmorack, 
county of Inverness, 18 miles (W.) from Inverness; 
containing 560 inhabitants. It is situated at the mouth 
of the river of the same name, and was distinguished 
for a priory founded in 1230, which, at the Dissolution, 
came into the possession of Hugh, Lord Frazer, of 
Lovat, in whose family it continued until 1745, when it 
was forfeited to the crown : a portion of the walls is 
still standing. The village is a considerable thorough- 
fare to and from all the more northern Highland coun- 
ties ; and the Beauly is navigable for small vessels for 
about three miles above it. The river is formed by the 
union, near Erkless Castle, of the Farrur, Canich, and 
Glass streams, and takes an easterly course, and, after 
forming the falls of Kilmorack and other cascades, 
merges in an arm of the sea connected with the Moray 
Frith. 

BEDRULE, a parish, in the district of Jedburgh, 
county of Roxburgh, 3 miles (S. W.) from Jedburgh ; 
containing, with the villages of Newtown and Rew- 
castle, 256 inhabitants, of whom 1 1 1 are in the village 
of Bedrule. This place derives its name from its situa- 
tion on the small but rapid and impetuous river Rule, 
whose waters, impeded in their progress by fragments 
of loosened rock, pursue their course with tumultuous 
noise. It lays claim to considerable antiquity, and 
formed part of the possessions of the Turnbull family, 
one of whose descendants was keeper of the privy seal 
in 1441, and subsequently Bishop of Glasgow. The 
parish, which is nearly in the centre of the county, is of 
elliptic form, and comprises about 1600 acres of arable 



BEDR 



BEIT 



land, and an equal quantity in pasture, with about 40 
acres of wood and plantations, and a considerable por- 
tion of waste. The surface is diversified with hills and 
dales ; of the former, the hill of Daman, in the south- 
east, is the highest, rising in a circular form to an ele- 
vation of more than 1000 feet above the sea; it is flat 
on the summit, and forms a conspicuous mark for 
mariners. The scenery is generally pleasing, and in 
some parts enriched with stately wood. The chief rivers 
are, the Rule, which winds beautifully between wooded 
banks displaying much picturesque beauty ; and the 
Teviot, which skirts the parish for a considerable dis- 
tance, and receives the waters of the Rule at no great 
distance from the village. 

The soil is extremely various, though generally fertile ; 
near the rivers it is a rich sandy loam, resting on a bed 
of gravel, and in some parts intermixed with clay ; in 
others, of a thinner and less productive quality, on a 
subsoil of retentive clay. The principal crops are, oats, 
barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips ; the system of 
agriculture is improved, and lime and bone-dust are un- 
sparingly used for manure. Great attention is paid to 
the rearing of live stock, for which the pastures are well 
adapted ; the sheep are of the Cheviot breed, with the 
exception of a few scores of the Leicestershire, and a 
few Merinos ; the cattle, of which only a moderate 
number are fed for the butcher, are all of the short- 
horned breed. The rateable annual value of the parish 
is £2J47. The woods consist chiefly of birch, alder, 
common and mountain ash, hazel, cherry, and oak ; and 
the plantations, of firs of all kinds, which thrive well. 
The substrata are generally greywacke, of which the 
hills mainly consist, and sandstone of a reddish hue ; 
there are some indications of coal, but no adequate 
attempts have been made to obtain it ; limestone is also 
found, at Bedrule hill, and a quarry was formerly open 
there, but the working of it has been discontinued. The 
sandstone is of excellent quality, and is extensively 
quarried for building and for ornamental uses. Knows- 
worth House, in the parish, is a very elegant mansion 
in the Elizabethan style of architecture, situated in a 
highly picturesque and richly-wooded demesne, laid out 
with great taste. 

The parish is in the presbyter}' of Jedburgh and 
synod of Merse and Teviotdale ; the minister's stipend 
is £148. 9. S., with a manse and glebe ; patrons, the 
Hume family. The church, erected about 1S05, is a sub- 
stantial edifice, situated on the summit of a steep bank, 
and is adapted for 140 persons. The parochial school 
is well attended ; the master's salary is £26, with £7 
fees, and a house and garden. There are some slight 
remains of the castle of Bedrule, the baronial seat of the 
Turnbulls, consisting chiefly of the foundations of the 
ancient buildings, on the right bank of the Rule ; and 
on the opposite side of the river are vestiges of out- 
works formerly connected with that stronghold ; the 
site commands an extensive prospect. Remains also 
exist of an old fort at Fulton, one of the numerous 
strongholds erected during the times of border warfare. 
On the farm of Newton, near the road from Jedburgh 
to Hawick, is the site of an encampment, surrounded on 
all sides but one by a fosse of running water; it is situ- 
ated on the slope of a hill, and is about 600 feet in 
circumference ; it is supposed to have been an out- 
station connected with a Roman camp at Stirk-rigg, 
Vol. I.— 113 



about a mile distant, but of which every trace has been 
obliterated by the plough. Not far from this station, 
is a well called Our Lady's Well, said to have been con- 
structed by the monks of Jedburgh, for a fish-pond. 

BEIL-GRANGE, a hamlet, in the parish of Sten- 
ton, county of Haddington, 1 mile (S. S. W.) from 
Stenton ; containing 53 inhabitants. It is near the 
borders of the parish of Dunbar, and is remarkable for 
a splendid mansion in its vicinity, built by the Nisbet 
family : the Beil rivulet passes on the north of the 
hamlet, and, flowing by Belton and West Barns, empties 
itself into the German Sea. 

BEITH, a parish, chiefly in the district of Cunning- 
hame, county of Ayr, but partly in the Upper ward 
of the county of Renfrew, 18 miles (W. S. W.) from 
Glasgow ; including the villages of Gateside, Northbar, 
and Burnhouse, and containing 5795 inhabitants. This 
place is supposed to have taken its name from a Celtic 
term signifying " birch," and many parts of the district 
are referred to, as still bearing names formed partly 
with the word icood, such as Roughwood, Woodside, 
Threepwood, and others. The locality consisted, in 
ancient times, of the two great divisions called the 
barony of Beith, and the lordship of Giffen, the latter 
being the more extensive, and the two districts being 
divided from each other by the Powgree, a stream 
falling into the Garnock near the south end of Kilbirnie 
loch. The barony was given by Richard de Moreville, 
the son and successor of Hugh de Moreville, constable 
of Scotland, and lord of Cunninghame, to the abbey of 
Kilwinning ; and his wife Avicia de Lancaster, gave the 
lands of Beith, Bath, and Threepwood, also to the 
abbey ; which conveyances were made in the 12th cen- 
tury. This religious establishment erected a chapel 
here, afterwards the church of Beith, the monks enjoy- 
ing the tithes and revenues, and finding a curate to do 
the duty ; but, about the period of the Reformation, 
the abbot and chapter feued out the lands in the barony 
for small feuduties, which, with the other temporalities 
of the church, passed to Hugh, fifth earl of Eglinton, 
who was created lord of erection of the monastery. The 
lordship of Giffen was given by the family of the de 
Morevilles, to W alter de Mulcaster, the donation com- 
prehending the whole of the lands to the south and 
west of the Powgree ; and the ruins of a chapel founded 
by the monastery of Kilwinning, and dedicated to St. 
Bridget, are still to be seen on a part of this property. 

Beith, at the beginning of the last century, was only 
a small village, consisting of a few houses in the vicinity 
of the church, but has since grown into a thriving 
manufacturing town, with a large and industrious 
population ; it is situated on an eminence, in the midst 
of a district abounding with beautiful scenery, and is 
well lighted with gas, supplied by a company established 
in 1831, with a capital of £1600. The town contains 
a subscription library, with 400 volumes ; and two 
circulating libraries. The population, which also com- 
prises several respectable and wealthy merchants, and 
persons engaged in various kinds of traffic, is, to a great 
extent, composed of hand-loom weavers ; and about 
200 persons resident, in the parish, are regularly engaged 
in the manufacture of flax thread. A mill for spinning 
flax, lately erected at North-bar, two miles from the 
town, affords employment to eighty hands ; the pro- 
prietor has built, several houses, and has commenced 

Q 



BEIT 



BEIT 



feus, so that a considerable village may be expected 
shortly to arise on this spot. At Roughbank, is an 
establishment of the same description, but on a smaller 
scale, and also a mill for making potato-flour, occu- 
pying about fourteen persons ; and at Knows, an esta- 
blishment has been formed, containing forty steam- 
looms, furnishing employment to thirty persons : there 
are two bleachfields at Threepwood, in the north-eastern 
part of the parish ; and in the town, the tanning and 
currying of leather are pursued to a good extent. Many 
persons carry on a large traffic in grain, and the 
enterprising spirit of the inhabitants has left untouched 
scarcely any article of profitable speculation. Beith is 
a post-town, and there are two arrivals and departures 
daily ; also a daily dispatch of letters to the neigh- 
bouring towns of Dairy, Kilbirnie, and Lochwinnoch : 
the great line of road from Glasgow to Portpatrick 
passes through the town, and the Glasgow and Ayrshire 
railway crosses the western extremity of the parish, and 
has one of its principal stations here. The marketable 
produce is usually sent for sale to Glasgow and Paisley ; 
a weekly market, however, of ancient date, is held on 
Friday, and fairs are held, chiefly for horses, on the 
first Friday in the months of January, February, May, 
and November, old style. A festival, also, called vul- 
garly Tenant's day, attended by a great concourse of 
people, and celebrated for its show of horses, is held 
yearly on the ISth of August (O. S.), in honour of St. 
Inan, from which name, with the last letter of the word 
saint, the present appellation has been formed, by cor- 
rupt usage. Inan flourished about the year S39, and, 
though resident chiefly at Irvine, occasionally remained 
for a time at this place, where he has left memorials 
in the name applied to the cleft in a rock, still called 
St. Inan's chair, and in the name of a well, called St. 
Inan's well. A fair called the "Trades' race," was for- 
merly held, in June, when the trades assembled, and 
went in order through the town, with music and flags, 
but this has been given up ; there is, however, an annual 
dinner among the merchants, who were united as a 
society previously to the year 1727, and the whole of 
whom meet for conviviality on the anniversary, and 
annually choose a president. A kind of fair, likewise, 
is held in July, called the " Cadgers' race," when the 
carters ride in procession through the town. A baron- 
bailie and an officer were formerly appointed by the Earl 
of Eglinton, who had considerable property in the 
parish ; but nothing of this kind has taken place 
for many years, and the town has no particular local 
government. The town-house was built by subscrip- 
tion, in 1817; the lower part consists of two shops, and 
the upper part of a large hall in which are held the 
justice-of- peace courts, the sheriff small-debt circuit 
courts, and various public meetings ; it is also used as 
a public reading-room. The lower part of the building 
contains a lock-up house, for the custody of prisoners 
intended to be sent to Ayr, and for the punishment of 
minor offenders. 

The parish is in the form of a triangle, and is 
bounded on the west by Kilbirnie loch. It measures 
at its greatest length, from south-east to south-west, 
four miles, and comprises 11,060 acres, of which 500 
are in Renfrewshire ; about 320 acres are uncultivated, 
100 in plantations, and the remainder is pasture and 
tillage. The surface is considerably varied, throughout, 
114 



with undulations, without presenting any remarkable 
elevations, the highest point, called Cuff hill, being only 
652 feet above the sea ; but from this eminence, as 
well as from some of the uplands, extensive and beau- 
tiful views are obtained of the surrounding country, 
amply compensating for the general uniformity of the 
local scenery. The hill is supposed to take its name 
from the word Coifi, or Cuifi, the appellation of the 
chief priest of the Druids, and to have been a prin- 
cipal seat of the worship of that ancient order ; the fair 
of St. Inan, also, in later times, was held here, and 
from the top may be seen the mountain ranges of 
Galloway and Carrick, the expansive estuary of the 
Clyde, the outline of the Perthshire hills, and the 
majestic Ben-Lomond. The surface gently slopes from 
the north-eastern quarter, the vicinity of Cuff hill, and 
is lowest at Kilbirnie loch, being here only ninety feet 
above the sea ; and from this sheet of water, a stream 
flows northward, through Lochwinnoch, to the river 
Clyde, along a valley in which runs the line of railway 
to Glasgow. At Blaeloch-head is a small lake j and in 
different parts are several streams, the two principal 
being the river Lugton, rising in Lochlibo, and falling 
into the Garnock below Eglinton Castle, and the Dusk, 
which rises at Threepwood, and joins the Garnock at 
Dalgarvan, below Dairy. The lands present a great 
variety of soil, but in general are fertile, and tolerably 
well cultivated ; the chief crop is oats, but large por- 
tions are in pasture, and about 900 milch cows, mostly 
. of the Ayrshire breed, besides young cattle, are grazed 
on the different grounds. Cheese is consequently a 
leading article of traffic, and is purchased of the tenants 
by cheese-merchants, for the Glasgow market ; milk is 
also disposed of, to some extent, in the surrounding 
villages, and large quantities of rye-grass seed are 
shipped to England, by merchants residing in the town. 
The farms are of small size, varying from 50 to 100 
acres ; and fully two-thirds of the rent are made by 
the sale of the cheese, which is of excellent quality, and 
brings the highest price at market. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £15,140. The chief mineral 
deposits are coal and limestone, which are wrought ex- 
tensively ; clay-ironstone is also found, and good brick- 
clay, used at manufactories here for making drain-tiles ; 
ironstone exists in several parts, and a freestone quarry 
is in operation. Plantations are rare, especially those 
of an ornamental kind, except in the vicinity of the 
mansions, among which is Caldwell House, at the eastern 
extremity of the parish, a large and elegant modern 
structure, surrounded by a spacious park, richly orna- 
mented with trees, including some of great stature and 
beauty. The parish is in the presbytery of Irvine and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the 
Earl of Eglinton ; the minister's stipend is £251. 5. 11., 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £130 per annum. 
The church, commenced in 1S07, and opened for pub- 
lic worship in 1810, is a plain edifice, with a tower 
and clock, and accommodates 1254 persons ; it was 
erected at a cost of £2790, and the bell, which has a 
very fine tone, was the gift of Robert Shedden, Esq., of 
London, a native of Beith. There are places of worship 
for members of the Free Church, the Associate Synod, 
and the Relief persuasion. The parochial school affords 
instruction in the usual branches ; the master has a 
salary of £26, with fees, and a substantial residence : 



B E L H 



BELL 



there are also schools at Hazlehead and other places. 
A savings' bank was formed in 1S34, and two societies 
have been partly endowed, for the relief of the poor. 
Alexander Montgomerie, one of the earlier Scottish 
poets, and of some celebrity, was born in the parish. 

BELHAVEN, a village, in the parish of Dunbar, 
county of Haddington, f of a mile (W.) from Dunbar ; 
containing 380 inhabitants. It is a suburb of Dunbar, 
pleasantly situated on the south-eastern shore of Bel- 
haven bay, which opens into the Frith of Forth ; and 
a strong mineral spring draws hither a number of sum- 
mer visiters. A church was opened for divine service 
in 1840, since which period a place of worship has been 
erected in connexion with the Free Church. The place 
gives the title of Baron to a branch of the noble family 
of Hamilton. 

BELHELVIE, a parish, in the district and county 
of Aberdeen, 8 miles (N. by E.) from Aberdeen ; con- 
taining 1594 inhabitants. The name of this place is 
derived from a word in the Gaelic language, signifying 
the " mouths of the rivulets," and applied, in the pre- 
sent case, as descriptive of the locality, which is marked 
by the rise of seven small streams. Here were several 
Druidical temples, which have now disappeared before 
the operations of husbandry, indicating the original 
settlement of that ancient and widely-spreading people 
in this district of the country. Numerous tumuli and 
barrows, also, are still visible, in which are found urns 
made of coarse clay, and filled with dust and human 
bones, pointing out this spot as the scene of some ex- 
tensive military operations, the particulars of which are 
entirely unknown ; and on the sea-shore is a bed of 
yellow flints, where a considerable number of arrow- 
heads have been found at different times. A large part 
of the parish, known by the name of the estate of 
Belhelvie, once belonged to the Earl of Panmure, but, 
being forfeited in 1715, was purchased by the York 
Building Company, and again sold, in lots, in 1782, 
before the court of session, since which time it has been 
brought into a very superior state of agricultural im- 
provement. 

The parish is bounded on the east by the German 
Ocean, and the number of acres within its limits is 
19,000, of which 5000 were recovered, not long since, 
from moorland, and 5000 still consist of sea-beech, 
peat-bog, and wood ; about 4000 acres are employed 
for grain, and 10,000 for turnips, potatoes, hay, pasture, 
grass, &c. The coast consists of a fine sandy beach ; 
but the general character of the surface, from the sea to 
the western extremity, is hilly and broken. The first 
land from the coast, is a narrow belt of sand, with short 
grass suited for pasture, and, on account of its smooth 
surface, was selected by the government engineers ap- 
pointed to measure Scotland, as the most level ground 
to be met with, for laying down a base line of 5 miles 
and 100 feet. The next tract is an alluvial deposit, 
crowded with marine stones of all sizes, covered with 
mould and moss; and after this, the ground rises 
towards the western boundary, until it attains an eleva- 
tion of about S00 feet above the level of the sea. The 
hills whereof the parish consists, are formed into two 
general ridges, from south to north, the termination of 
the western extremities of which is the highest land in 
the district. The soil in the parts nearest the shore is 
sandy, and in some places mixed to a great extent, with 
115 



clay and stones ; some pieces are rich alluvial deposits, 
and the interior is a deep clayey mould, mixed some- 
times with peat-moss : the subsoil is usually clay and 
sand, with a considerable admixture of stones. All the 
wood, which generally stands in hedge-rows, has been 
recently planted ; it comprises chiefly elm, plane, ash, 
alder, and willow. The few sheep that are kept, are the 
black-faced ; and the cattle are mostly of the Aber- 
deenshire breed, which, being small-boned and fleshy, and 
easily fed up, are found most profitable, and are sent in 
large droves to the London market : the cultivation of 
grain, however, is the main dependence of the farmer. 
Considerable improvements have taken place of late 
years in husbandry, in the reclaiming of waste land, 
and in draining and inclosures ; the farm-houses are 
on a much better scale than formerly, and most of the 
changes have been made upon the best principles, and 
by the united efforts of the people among themselves. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £7317- 

The rock consists of trap, a seam of which, about 
half a mile broad, runs for seven miles through the 
parish, from south-east to north-west ; a rivulet flows 
through this bed, and small hills frequently rise above 
the stream to a height of some hundreds of feet, among 
which are found all the ordinary kinds of minerals.- On 
the south-west side of this layer, the rocks are chiefly 
granite ; and on the opposite side they consist of coarse 
stone, fit only for the construction of dykes. There are, 
also, large beds of peat-moss, some of which, near the 
shore, are covered with ten or twelve feet of sea-sand. 
They are supposed to extend some distance under the 
sea, as large masses or blocks of hard peat-moss, with 
the remains of trees imbedded, are frequently cast upon 
the beach in stormy weather : in the year 1799, at 
Christmas, a block containing upwards of 1700 cubic 
feet, was thrown upon the shore, which, with the wood 
contained in it, had been perforated by several large 
auger worms alive in their holes. A salmon- fishery 
extends along the coast, in which stake-nets are em- 
ployed, and the profits arising from it are very con- 
siderable. Fairs are held for the sale of cattle, in 
spring, summer, and autumn. Ecclesiastically, the pa- 
rish is subject to the presbytery and synod of Aber- 
deen ; there is a good manse, with a glebe of five acres ; 
the minister's stipend is £179. 13., and the patronage 
is in the Crown. The church, which is in good repair, 
contains 519 sittings ; and there are places of worship 
for the Free Church and United Associate Synod. A 
parochial school is supported, the teacher of which has 
a house and garden, with a salary of £27> fees to the 
amount of about £40, and a portion of Dick's bequest ; 
the classics and mathematics are taught, with all the ordi- 
nary branches of education. Another school is endowed 
with a few acres of land ; there is a savings' bank, with 
a stock of about £300, and bequests have been left for 
the relief of the poor, amounting to about £20 per 
annum. The antiquities are, some tumuli, and the ruins 
of an old chapel ; and there are, also, several chaly- 
beate springs, but none of particular note. 

BELLIE, a parish, in the counties of Banff and 
Elgin, 8 miles (E. by S.) from Elgin ; including part of 
the quoad sacra district of Enzie, and the village of Foch- 
abers, and containing 2434 inhabitants. The Gaelic 
word bellaidth, signifying " broom," has been considered 
by some as giving the name to this place ; but others 

Q 2 



BELL 



BEND 



derive it from beul-'aith, the meaning of which is " the 
mouth of the ford." The parish is situated on the 
eastern bank of the river Spey, and is bounded on the 
north by the Moray Frith; it is of an oblong form, 
though narrower at the northern than at the opposite 
end, and comprises 12,048 acres, of which 365S are 
arable, 643 pasture, 2S52 wood, and the remainder 
chiefly moor. The highest land is in the south-eastern 
portion, consisting principally of barren uncultivated 
moor, diversified by hills of various figures and altitudes ; 
the soil here is partly clayey loam, mixed with moss, 
and resting on a substratum of blue slate. On the west 
and south of this high district, is a red impervious clay, 
intermixed with gravel and small stones. The earth 
near the eastern boundary of the parish is sand}' and 
light, and the lower lands are of the same nature, ap- 
proximating, in the vicinity of the river, to a fertile 
loam, resting on a stony or gravelly bed, once over- 
flowed with water. The tract along the coast, about a 
quarter of a mile wide, is altogether barren. All kinds 
of grain and green crops are raised, of good quality, and 
an improved method of husbandry has been pursued 
with considerable enterprise, for many years ; barley 
was formerly the leading crop, but since the suppression 
of illicit distillation, wheat has been grown in large quan- 
tities, and, with oats, turnips, and potatoes, receives 
much attention. The manures comprise lime, sea-weed, 
farm-yard dung, and the refuse of herrings obtained 
from the fishing-station of Port-Gordon, with, some- 
times, portions of bone-dust. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £4S02, including £617 for the 
Elginshire portion. The principal rock is the red sand- 
stone, consisting of a mixture of dark argillaceous and 
siliceous earths, large masses of which are applied 
to various architectural uses ; but, though very hard 
when first quarried, its friable quality, after long ex- 
posure to the air, renders it necessary to cover it with a 
thick coating of lime. The loose strata, of the same 
component parts, in which it is generally found, are 
much in demand for roads and garden-walks, and its 
interior often contains breccia rock. Beautiful speci- 
mens of asbestos are frequently found, washed down, as 
is supposed, by the mountain streams. 

The plantations include Scotch fir, with mixtures of 
birch and larch. The grounds of the splendid mansion 
of Gordon Castle exhibit a fine display of numerous 
other trees, among which are many limes, planes, and 
horse- chesnuts, with majestic rows of elm and beech, 
and an eminence known by the name of the " holly 
bank," is covered with a profusion of that evergreen of 
the most luxuriant description. This magnificent edifice, 
the seat of the Duke of Richmond, is situated in an ex- 
tensive park in the immediate vicinity of Fochabers, 
and stretches in a direction from east to west nearly 
570 feet ; it is a modern structure, and the roof and in- 
terior of the eastern wing are of still more recent date, 
having been restored in consequence of an accidental 
fire on the 11th of July, 1827. The great road from 
Edinburgh to Inverness, through Aberdeen, traverses the 
parish, and crosses the Spey by a bridge originally built 
in 1804, at a cost of upwards of £14,000 ; in 1829, two 
of the western arches were carried away by the flood, and 
were replaced in 1832, by a beautiful wooden arch of 
184 feet span, raised at an expense of more than £5000. 
The parish is in the presbytery of Strathbogie and 
116 



synod of Moray, and in the patronage of the Duke of 
Richmond; the minister's stipend is £15S. 6. 8., of 
which about £60 are received from the exchequer, 
with a manse, and a glebe valued at £33 per annum. 
The church is situated in the village of Fochabers, and 
is a handsome edifice, built in 1798. There is a place 
of worship for members of the Free Church. An epis- 
copal chapel has lately been built by the Duchess of 
Gordon, on the north side of Fochabers ; the Roman 
Catholics have a place of worship in that village, and 
another about four miles distant, near the eastern boun- 
dary, where their clergyman resides. The parochial 
school affords instruction in the classics, in addition to 
the usual branches ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., 
with a house and garden given by the Duke of Gordon, 
and £18 fees; he also participates in the Dick bequest. 
A legacy of 100,000 dollars was left by Mr. Alexander 
Milne, merchant of New Orleans, and a native of Foch- 
abers, who died in October, 1839, for the erection and 
endowment of a free school for the use of the parish of 
Bellie. To the north of Gordon Castle, are the remains 
of a military station, of quadrangular form, styled the 
" Roman Camp," thought to have been formed by a 
portion of the troops of Agricola, and intended to cover 
a ford on the river Tuessis, or Spey ; a little to the east, 
are the remains of a Druidical temple, and not far off, a 
mound called the "Court hillock," supposed to have 
been the seat of an ancient court of justice. Within the 
Duke of Richmond's park, is an old cross. 

BELLS-QUARRY, a village, in the parish of Mid 
Cai.der, county of Edinburgh, 2 miles (W.) from Mid 
Calder ; containing 120 inhabitants. 

BELLSHILL, a village, in the parish of Bothwell, 
Middle ward of the county of Lanark, l| mile (E.) 
from Bothwell ; containing 1013 inhabitants. It lies 
on the great road from Edinburgh to Glasgow, and the 
hill from which it is named attains an elevation of 3/2 
feet above the sea : the population partake in the manu- 
factures of the parish. There is a post-oilice ; also a 
Relief meeting-house, and two schools. 

BELLSTOWN, a hamlet, in the parish of Methven, 
county of Perth : containing 25 inhabitants. 

BELLYCLONE, a hamlet, in the parish of Maderty, 
county of Perth ; containing 69 inhabitants. It is 
situated a little east of the road from Foulis to Auchter- 
arder, and on the south side of the small river Pow. 

BENBECULA, an island, in the parish of South 
Uist, county of Inverness; containing 2107 inhabitants. 
It lies between the islands of North and South Uist, from 
the latter of which it is separated by a narrow channel, 
nearly dry at low water ; and is a low island, about 
nine miles in length, and the same in breadth, with a 
sandy and unproductive soil, except on its western side, 
which is rather fertile. The coast all round is indented 
with bays, and in the interior are numerous fresh-water 
lakes ; a great quantity of sea- weed is annually thrown 
on the shore, from which kelp is made. A missionary 
here has a stipend of £60, with an allowance of £20 
more in lieu of a manse. There were formerly remains 
of a nunnery, the stone of which has been used in the 
erection of a mansion. 

BENDOCHY, a parish, in the county of Perth, 
2 miles (N.) from Cupar-Angus ; containing 783 inha- 
bitants. This place, previously to the Reformation, be- 
longed principally to the monks of the Cistercian abbey 



BEND 



BENH 



at Cupar- Angus ; and the church was, till that time, 
the parish church of Cupar-Angus ; but after the Dis- 
solution of monasteries, the lands were sold, and the 
resident tenants generally became the purchasers. Many 
of these lands still retain their ancient names, as Monk- 
Mire, Monk-Callie, and the Abbey Mill of Blacklaw, to 
which the adjacent estates were bound in thirlage, from 
which the proprietors lately obtained their exemption, 
by the payment of large sums of money. At Monk- 
Callie, formerly existed a small cell, of which the 
cemetery is still used as a burying-ground ; and there 
are yet to be traced the foundations of an ancient 
chapel dedicated to St. Phink. The parish, which is 
situated near the eastern extremity of the county, is 
bounded on the south-east by the river Isla, and the 
lower lands are intersected by the river Ericht, which 
divides them into two nearly equal parts. The Isla and 
Ericht have both their source in the Grampian range ; 
the former, after a south-easterly course of several miles, 
entering Perthshire, deviates to the south-west, and 
falls into the Tay at Kinclaven ; and the Ericht, which 
consists of the united streams of the Blackwater and 
the Ardle, forms a confluence with the Isla. The south- 
eastern extremity of the parish is twelve miles distant 
from the north-western ; but the surface is divided into 
detached portions by the intervention of the parishes 
of Rattray and Blairgowrie, which separate the highland 
from the lowland districts ; and the whole area is not 
more than 10,000 acres, of which 5145 are arable, 2963 
meadow and pasture, and 986 woodland and planta- 
tions. 

The soil, in the lower lands, is rich, and the system 
of agriculture in a highly improved state ; the chief 
crops are, wheat, barley, and oats, with potatoes and 
turnips. The introduction of bone-dust for manure, at 
an early period, has tended greatly to the improvement 
of the lands ; furrow-draining has been extensively 
practised, and by the construction of embankments 
from the Isla and the Ericht, 500 acres of most valuable 
land have been protected. No sheep are reared in the 
parish, but considerable numbers are bought in October, 
and fed upon the turnips ; the cattle are of the Tees- 
water and Angus breeds in the lower parts of the parish, 
and in the uplands chiefly of the Highland breed. There 
are salmon-fisheries on the Isla and Ericht, but they are 
not rented at more than £20 per annum. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £6951. The substratum 
of the lower districts abounds with freestone, of which 
several quarries are in operation ; and there is a bed 
of clay-slate, crossing the highland portion of the 
parish, which might be profitably wrought. A mill was 
erected at Cupar- Grange, by Mr. x\rcher, about the year 
1840, for extracting the farina of potatoes, and the 
flour thus obtained is of excellent quality. The turn- 
pike-road from Cupar- Angus to Blairgowrie passes 
through the parish, for about a mile ; and an omnibus 
runs daily to the terminus of the railway at Cupar- 
Angus, whence trains start to Dundee. The ecclesias- 
tical affairs are under the superintendence of the pres- 
bytery of Meigle and synod of Angus and Mearns ; the 
minister's stipend is £251. 17. 6., with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £14 per annum; patron, the Crown. 
The church is a very ancient structure, containing a 
monument to Nicol Campbell, of Keithock, son of 
Donald, abbot of Cupar-Angus, a curiously carved pul- 
117 



pit, and various antique relics; it was repaired in 1843, 
and has 400 sittings, all free. The parochial school is 
well conducted ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., 
with a house and garden, and the fees average about 
£10 per annum. The late Principal Playfair, of St. 
Andrew's, author of a work on chronology, was a native 
of this parish. — See Persie. 

BENHOLME, a parish, in the county of Kincar- 
dine, 3 miles (S. W.) from Bervie, on the road from 
Aberdeen to Dundee ; containing, with the village of 
Johnshaven, 1648 inhabitants. The name is derived 
from ben, a hill, and holme, a piece of low level ground, 
terms which are descriptive of the peculiar features of 
the district. Very little is known concerning the primi- 
tive history of this locality ; but it appears that the 
ancient tower of Benholme, a strong building still in a 
state of good preservation, was formerly the residence 
of the earls-marischal, memorials of whom remain in 
inscriptions upon two monuments, transferred from 
the burying-aisle of the old church, and now forming 
a part of the wall of the present edifice. The parish is 
nearly square in form, and contains about 5400 acres, 
of which 4000 are under cultivation, 325 in wood, and 
about 1060 uncultivated ; it is bounded on the south- 
east by the German Ocean. The surface is considerably 
varied, though there is no elevation deserving the name 
of a hill, except that of Gourdon, which rises 400 feet 
at the boundary between Benholme and Bervie. The 
shore is about three miles in length, along which is a 
plain extending the whole distance, and varying in 
breadth from 100 yards to a quarter of a mile ; beyond, 
is an acclivity of equul extent, the surface of which is 
furrowed in many places with lofty ridges ; and from 
this the ground gently rises till it reaches the high lands 
of Garvock, on the western boundary of the parish. 
The coast, which in general is rough and eragged, has 
neither cliffs nor headlands, and is altogether barren 
and uninteresting in its aspect ; it is indented with the 
small bay of Johnshaven, and that of the Haughs of 
Nether Benholme. There are three small streams in 
the parish, two of which meet a little below the church, 
at the corner of the manse garden, and, after running 
about a quarter of a mile, fall into the German Ocean. 
These rivulets, during heavy rains, frequently swell to a 
considerable size, and, augmented by the waters from 
the drainage of the lands, overflow the banks of the 
deep and narrow hollows through which they flow, and 
commit great havoc upon the neighbouring grounds. 

There is every variety of soil, from soft fine loam to 
wet heavy clay, the latter of which predominates. In 
some places, the earth is light and sandy, and consists, 
to a very considerable extent, of a deep alluvial deposit, 
intermixed with boulders of different sizes, some of 
quartz, some of granite, others of greywacke, and a few 
of trap, and which are scattered in great quantities over 
the fields. Most of the plantations are of recent growth, 
except those about Benholme and Brotherton, and con- 
sist chiefly of fir, ash, beech, and oak ; but the trees 
invariably pine and become stunted in growth when 
within the range of the sea-breeze, those only exhibit- 
ing a tolerably healthy appearance which are further 
removed and under some protecting cover. The state of 
husbandry is excellent; the lands are well drained, and 
many of the farms are provided with threshing-machines, 
more than half of which are driven by water ; the farm- 



BERN 



BERT 



buildings are generally good, and much spirit and 
enterprize have been shown, within the last twenty- 
years, in recovering desolate wastes. The rateable 
annual value of the parish is £5501. The prevailing 
rock is the old red sandstone and conglomerate, the 
strata of which are cut in a direction from east to west 
with dykes of trap ; these rocks are diversified by almost 
every variety of quality and intermixture, and in the 
trap formation agates have been found in different parts 
of the parish. There is a considerable quarry of coarse- 
grained sandstone. The seats are, the mansion-house 
of Benholme, the entrance to which, in the direction of 
Benholme tower, is by a passage formed over the moat 
on the west of that ancient structure ; and Brotherton 
House, a very ancient edifice, with a terraced garden. 
The linen manufacture employs about 230 hands ; and 
there is a fishery, the produce of which, consisting of 
cod, haddocks, and turbot, with a few small fish, is 
cured, and carried inland to Laurencekirk, Fordoun, 
&c, and sometimes to Montrose. Herrings are also 
taken ; and salmon are caught off the coast, with toler- 
able success, by means of bag-nets, the shore being too 
rocky to allow of the use of stake-nets. The eccle- 
siastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of For- 
doun and synod of Angus and Mearns. The patronage 
belongs to the family of Scott of Brotherton and Lord 
Cranstoun, the former for two turns, and the latter 
for one, and the stipend of the minister is £232. 4., 
with a manse, built in 1S26, and a glebe of six acres, 
valued at £12. 10. per annum. The church, built in 
1S32, is a neat edifice, in good repair, accommodating 
?6S persons : the old church, which was taken down in 
1832, was furnished with a font for holy water, an in- 
cense altar, and a niche in the wall, supposed to have 
been a receptacle for sacred relics ; and there are seve- 
ral curious inscriptions on the stones yet preserved, one 
of which points to this edifice as the burying-place of 
the Keith family. There are places of worship belong- 
ing to the Free Church and United Associate Synod. 
The parochial school affords instruction in Latin and 
the usual branches of education, under a master who 
has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £22 fees. A parish 
library, consisting of 500 volumes, and a juvenile library 
with 400, are extensively used by the population ; there 
are also two friendly societies, one of which has a stock 
of £600, and bequests amounting to £500 have been left 
to the poor, who annually receive the interest. 

BENNETSTONE, a village, in the parish of Pol- 
mont, county of Stirling; containing 642 inhabit- 
ants. It is situated a few miles east of Falkirk. In a 
schoolroom in the village, divine service is performed 
on Sundays by various ministers of dissenting congre- 
gations. 

BENVIE, a village, in the parish of Liff and Ben- 
tie, county of Forfar, 5 miles (W. by N.) from Dun- 
dee ; containing 60 inhabitants. It is situated near the 
borders of Perthshire, which bounds the parish on the 
east. About a mile from the present church, are the 
ruins of the old church of Benvie ; and near the village 
is a strong chalybeate spring. 

BERNERA, an island, in the parish of Barra, 
county of Inverness ; containing 30 inhabitants. It 
is one of the Hebrides, and most southerly of the whole 
range of these islands, and is about one mile in length, 
and three-quarters of a mile in breadth ; from its being 
118 



also called the Bishop's Isle, it seems to have belonged 
to the Bishop of the Isles, and it is said to have been a 
sanctuary of the Druids. The soil is fertile, and in the 
centre is a fresh-water lake, diversified with small islets ; 
towards the south, the rocks are rugged and precipitous, 
and on this side is a point of land called Barra Head. 

BERNERA, an island, in the parish of Harris, 
island of Lewis, county of Inverness; containing 713 
inhabitants. This isle, with those of Pabbay, Killigray, 
and Ensay, constituted the late quoad sacra parish of 
Bernera ; it is situated in the sound of Harris, and is 
about four miles in length, and one and a half in 
breadth, and comprises 3545 acres of arable, and 1310 
of pasture land. The surface is rocky, principally 
whinstone, and the soil mostly of a sandy quality, in- 
terspersed with patches of moor ; the tenants have a 
small portion of ground called a croft, and two have 
each about 330 acres. The manufacture of kelp em- 
ploys all the population, and fish, chiefly ling, cod, and 
skate, are obtained at certain seasons : fairs for black- 
cattle and horses take place in July and September. 
The parish was under the presbytery of Uist and synod 
of Glenelg, and in the patronage of the Crown ; the 
stipend of the minister is £120, with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £1 per annum, with the right of cutting 
peat : the church was erected in 1838. There are some 
remains of religious houses on the island. 

BERNERA, GREAT and LITTLE, two islands, in 
the parish of Uig, island of Lewis, county of Ross and 
Cromarty. These islands are situated in Loch Roag, 
and off the western coast of the island of Lewis ; the 
first is about twelve miles long and four broad, and the 
other four miles in length and one in breadth. They 
are two of a large group of islands in an arm of the sea 
which here indents the main land of Lewis. Great 
Bernera abounds with lakes, and has a considerable 
portion of fertile land ; it contains a tolerably entire 
circle of large upright stones, only paralleled by those 
of Stonehenge and Stenhouse, and supposed to be of 
Druidic origin. Little Bernera, in which is a fresh-water 
lake, is covered with pasture. 

BERRIEDALE, lately a quoad sacra parish, in the 
parish of Latheron, county of Caithness, 27 miles 
(S. E.) from Wick; containing 1750 inhabitants. This 
parish, which is on the coast, between the Ord of 
Caithness and the harbour of Dunbeath, was separated 
from Latheron in 1S33. The church, which is close to 
the sea-shore, was erected by government, in 1826, at 
an expense of £750 ; it is a neat structure, containing 
312 sittings; the minister has a stipend of £120, paid 
by government, with a manse and small glebe provided 
by the late, and continued by the present, Mr. Home, 
proprietor of Langwell. In the vicinity is a place of 
worship for members of the Free Church. A parochial 
school in connexion with this parish, has been built at 
Dunbeath, by William Sinclair, Esq., of Freswick, at an 
expense of £300 ; and there are also a school supported 
by the General Assembly, and a Sabbath school. The 
place gives the title of Baron to the Earl of Caith- 
ness. 

BERTRAM-SHOTTS, a parish, in the Middle ward 
of the county of Lanark ; including the villages of 
Harthill, Omoa-New-Town, Sallysburgh, and Shotts- 
Iron-Works; and containing 3861 inhabitants, of whom 
751 are in the village of Shotts-Iron- Works, 5 miles (E. 



BERT 



BERT 



by S.) from Holytown. This place is generally sup- 
posed to have derived its name from a famous robber 
called Bartram de Shotts, who, in ancient times, sig- 
nalized himself by his depredations, and was eventually 
killed near the site of the present church. The whole 
of this extensive parish, except Blair-mueks and Mur- 
dostown, belonged to the Hamilton family, from the 
year 1378 to 1630, when the Marquess of Hamilton dis- 
posed of the larger part of the barony. Not far from 
the mansion of Murdostown formerly stood the abbey of 
St. Bertram ; but no portion of this ancient establish- 
ment is now to be seen. The parish, which was once 
part of that of Bothwell, is nearly a parallelogram in 
form, and is ten miles long, and eight broad, and con- 
tains 25,434 acres ; it is bounded on the north by the 
North Calder, which separates it from East Monkland 
and Torphichen, and on the south, by the South Calder, 
which divides it from the parish of Cambusnethan. 
The surface is tolerably level throughout, except in the 
middle quarter, where it is diversified by elevations, 
among which are, the Hirst, the Tilling, and the Cant 
hills. The climate is more than ordinarily salubrious, 
which induced the celebrated Dr. Cullen, who com- 
menced practice in the parish, to say, that Bertram- 
Shotts was the Montpelier of Scotland. The rivers 
connected with the district are the North and South 
Calder, with a few small burns not of sufficient import- 
ance to demand notice ; and there is a loch called the 
Lily, in which are found common trout and an excellent 
species of red char. 

The soil is for the most part clayey, except on the 
banks of the rivers, where the loamy kind prevails ; 
nearly two-thirds of the land are arable, and the rest, 
with the exception of a small proportion of wood and 
common, is unsheltered moor, annually covered with 
the blossom of the heather-bell. About 1000 acres are 
under wood, consisting of Scotch fir, spruce, and larch, 
all which thrive well : formerly the Scotch fir was the 
only kind attended to. The cows are in great repute for 
their superior stock, the improvement of which has 
been greatly promoted by the establishment of an agri- 
cultural society ; and the horses, which are of the 
Clydesdale breed, are famed for their strength and sym- 
metry. Every kind of farming-stock has been greatly 
improved within the last thirty years ; and much waste 
land has been reclaimed by means of draining and dig- 
ging, for which two prizes, some time since, were 
awarded by the Highland Society of Scotland, to two 
gentlemen in the parish. The state of the farm-houses, 
however, is generally below that of buildings of this 
class in parishes where agricultural improvement has 
made much progress, although they are far better than 
formerly, and are undergoing a gradual change. The 
rateable annual value of the parish is £19,910. The 
parish forms a portion of the great coalfield of Lanark- 
shire, and its carboniferous and mineralogical produc- 
tions are extensive and various, the two grand general 
divisions of its subterraneous contents being the igneous 
and sedimentary rocks. The northern half of the land 
consists almost entirely of the trap, or common green- 
stone ; the other half is the coal-bed, which consists of 
the splint coal, the parrot or cannel coal, the smithy 
coal, and the Shotts-Iron-Works first and second coal. 
In some parts, is a very fine ironstone, above the coal, 
and in others, a considerable quantity of limestone, 
119 



lying at a great depth beneath the coal, with a succes- 
sion of 147 different strata between them. There is an 
abundant supply of fire-clay of various kinds, in the 
carboniferous division of the parish, lying over the coal, 
and large quantities of it are used, for making bricks for 
blast and air furnaces ; one of the strata has been 
wrought for a considerable period, and is several feet in 
thickness, though the portion which is worked, in the 
middle of the stratum, is not more than about three feet 
deep. 

Among the principal residences are, Murdostown 
House, belonging to Sir T. Inglis Cochrane ; Easter Mof- 
fat, a handsome modern edifice in the Elizabethan style ; 
Craighead House, Fortissat, and Shotts House. Sub- 
post-offices have been established at the villages of 
Sallysburgh and Shotts-Works, and there are annual 
fairs, chiefly for the sale of horses and cattle, on the 
third Tuesday in June and November (O. S.), both of 
ancient date, being held by a warrant granted by James 
VII., in 1685, to the Duke of Hamilton. The parish 
contains two iron-works, of which one, in the south- 
eastern quarter, designated Shotts works, is not only 
adapted for the smelting of iron-ore, for which there 
are three furnaces, but has connected with it an 
extensive foundry, and a large establishment where 
steam-engines of a superior kind for both land and 
water are constructed. At the other establishment, 
called the Omoa iron-works, situated in the south-west 
part of the parish, three furnaces are also in effective 
operation. These works, which together employ about 
1500 persons, have contributed to a large increase in the 
population ; and by the circulation of several hundreds of 
pounds weekl} T , in the form of wages, great changes and 
improvements have taken place in the general appear- 
ance of the neighbourhood, particularly through the 
formation of roads and the cultivation of the land. The 
ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of 
Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr ; the patron- 
age belongs to the Duke of Hamilton, and the minister's 
stipend is £'267. 11., with a substantial and commodious 
manse, built in 1S38, and a glebe of nearly 44 acres, in 
which are two seams of coal. The church, the position 
of which is central, and on an elevated site, was built 
in 1S20, and has 1200 free sittings. There is a place of 
worship belonging to the Associate Synod ; also a paro- 
chial school, in which the classics are taught, with the 
usual branches of education, and of which the master 
has a salary of £34. 4. 4., about £2S fees, and a house. 
Belonging to the Shotts ironworks, is also a school; 
another, called Murdostown school, has an endowment of 
£19 per annum, assigned by Sir Thomas Inglis ; Hart- 
hill school was endowed by the late James Wilson, Esq., 
with £500 ; and another is supported by Mrs. Robert 
Haldane. There are two circulating libraries, in one of 
which, at the Shotts works, the collection of books is 
very superior ; and the poor have the benefit of a be- 
quest of £500, left by Thomas Mitchell, a native of the 
place. Gavin Hamilton, the historical painter; John 
Miller, professor of law in the university of Glasgow, 
well known to the public by several learned publica 
tions, and who was buried at Blantyre, not far from 
Shotts ; and Dr. Matthew Baillie, physician to George 
III., and brother of Joanna Baillie, the authoress, were 
all natives of the parish. The Rev. James Baillie, father 
of the doctor, was minister of Shotts. 



B E R V 



BERV 




Burgh Seal. 



BERVIE, or INVER- 
Chsv, BERVIE, a royal burgh, and 
_>iMg/ parish, in the county of Kin- 
^j£%ql cardine, S2| miles (N. N. 
|S«;i/ E.) from Edinburgh ; con- 
«|Jfetaining, with the village of 
, '.fe| Gourdon, 1342 inhabitants. 
'This place is named from 
the small river Bervie, on 
its north-eastern boundary, 
which stream is so called 
from an ancient British word 
signifying a boiling or ebulli- 
tion, a word exactly corresponding to the peculiar 
nature of the water. The town appears to have been, 
in early times, of importance, and to have attracted 
some attention. The fine old castle of Hallgreen, which 
is romantically situated on the shore, a little to the 
south of the town, and has been recently completely 
repaired with due attention to its original style, has a 
date on the west front, which, though partially effaced, 
is traced to the year 13?6. The walls of this building 
are massive, and perforated with arrows, and it seems 
to have been formerly surrounded by a moat, with a 
drawbridge and a portcullis near the outer gate of the 
court. Above one of the doors in the court, the date 
of 16S7, with the initials of the proprietor of that period, 
is still visible, and in one of the principal rooms, on 
the stucco-ceiling, is a coat of arms, with the motto 
spero mtliora, and the date 1683 ; on the old wainscots, 
are some Dutch paintings, consisting of two landscapes 
and a flower-piece. A spacious mansion, indicating, as 
well as the castle, the ancient occupation of the 
locality by important personages, and which is said to 
have belonged originally to the marischals, and was 
recently in the possession of the noble family of Arbuth- 
nott, was removed about twenty years since, to make 
way for improvements of building and agriculture ; and 
several other old buildings are still pointed out as 
the town residences of neighbouring lairds. There was 
also, in former times, a religious establishment of White 
friars ; and the discovery of some graves, in the con- 
struction of a turnpike-road near a place called Friar's 
Dubbs, is supposed to mark the spot where this mo- 
nastic order had a burying-ground. At the time of the 
Rebellion in 1745, the troops of the Duke of Cumber- 
land, suspecting that the inhabitants of the neighbouring 
parish of Benholme had transported provisions, by 
means of the Bervie boats, for the use of the Pre- 
tender's troops who were passing by sea, began to 
destroy and plunder the village of Johnshaven, in Ben- 
holme parish, and to burn the boats of the Bervie 
fishermen. The minister of Bervie, Mr. Dow, however, 
upon hearing of this, repaired to the bridge of Ben- 
holme, three miles distant, where he met the army, 
headed by the royal suite, and so satisfied the duke of 
the loyalty of his parishioners, that he went with the 
minister to his house, and became his guest for the 
night. A singular occurrence took place here in the 
year 1S0O, when a French privateer made its appearance 
off the coast, and pursued several merchant vessels, 
which were compelled to take shelter in the port at 
Gourdon. A small body of volunteers belonging to the 
place were immediately assembled, and marched down 
to the beach in two divisions, to face the enemy ; and 
120 



one party, stationed among the rocks on the shore, 
exchanged several rounds of musquetry with the guns 
of the sloop, upon which the crew, suspecting that a 
battery was about to be opened upon them by the other 
division, who had proceeded in the direction of the old 
castle of Hallgreen, crowded sail and made off. 

The town is situated at the eastern extremity of the 
parish, near the small bay of Bervie, on the shore of 
the North Sea ; the approach on the north-east, is by 
an elegant bridge over the river Bervie, of one arch, the 
height of which from the river is about eighty feet. A 
meal and barley mill stands on the haugh below the 
bridge, and near it a small spinning-mill ; on the upper 
side of the bridge, is a spinning-mill of three stories, 
the first that was erected in Scotland for yarn and 
thread. At the north entrance to the burgh, stands 
the head inn, commanding a fine view r of the scenery 
above the bridge, the remote distance being adorned 
with the old castle of Allardice, with its trees and 
shrubbery, standing in the parish of Arbuthnott. Water 
of the best description, from springs in the parish, is 
conveyed into the town by leaden pipes, and deposited 
in reservoirs of metal, for general use. The chief 
manufacture is of the linens usually called duck and 
dowlas, which is carried on to a considerable extent, 
through the medium of agents, who superintend for 
merchants in Aberdeen, Dundee, and Arbroath ; a kelp 
manufactory existed for some time, but, like most 
others of the same description, was given up when the 
duty was taken off foreign barilla. The small port and 
fishing village of Gourdon, upwards of a mile distant, 
but within the parish, is the place where vessels trade, 
which, however, are not chartered here, but have to 
clear out at the custom-house in Montrose: two ship- 
ping companies are connected with the place, and vessels 
frequently come in with coal, lime, pavement, wood, 
tiles, and slates, and sometimes Orkney and Shetland 
cattle and ponies, and take, in return, ballast or grain, 
which latter is the only article exported from Gourdon. 
The principal fisheries consist of those of salmon, cod 
and ling, and haddock ; the first of these is carried 
on in the bay, commencing on the 2nd of February, 
and ending on the 14th of September, and the fish 
taken is considered of superior quality. The cod and 
ling fishery begins on the 1st of October, and ends on 
July 15th, and about 300 cwt. are shipped every year, 
at Montrose, for the London market ; the haddocks 
which are caught are dried and smoked, and consigned 
by a company established here, to dealers in Glas- 
gow and London, with whom an extensive traffic is 
maintained. Six boats are also engaged in a turbot 
and skate fishery, which begins on the 1st of May, and 
ends on the 15th of July : a herring-fishery formerly 
carried on, was some time since broken up, in conse- 
quence of the shore being deserted by the fish. Crabs 
and lobsters are taken in great numbers, among the 
rocks near the bay, and there is a good supply of shrimps 
on the sands. A market for corn was established a 
few years ago, which commences at the close of har- 
vest, and is open on every Wednesday afterwards for 
six months ; it is in a very flourishing state, being 
frequented by corn-merchants from Montrose, Brechin, 
and Stonehaven, and by farmers and millers from all 
the neighbouring parishes. About 40,000 quarters of 
grain are purchased yearly, and the greater part of it 



BERV 



B E II V 



shipped at Gourdon. Two fairs have long been held 
annually for the sale of cattle, the first on the Thursday 
before the 19th of May, and the other on the Thursday 
before the 19th of September ; and in 1834, three addi- 
tional markets were established, for the hiring of ser- 
vants, and for the sale of cattle. That for cattle in 
general, and for hiring servants, is on the Wednesday 
before the 22nd of November, and those for fat and 
other cattle are on the Wednesday before Christmas 
(O. S.), and the Wednesday before the 13th of February. 
The mail from Aberdeen to Edinburgh, and a coach 
from Aberdeen to Perth, travel on the turnpike-road 
that runs directly across the parish, and afford con- 
siderable facility of intercourse. 

Bervie was erected into a royal burgh in 1362, by 
charter from King David II., who, having been forced 
by stress of weather to land on a rock in the parish of 
Kinneff, still called Craig-David, was received by the inha- 
bitants of Bervie with so much kindness and hospitality, 
that he raised the town to the dignity of a royal burgh, 
as a mark of his gratitude and esteem. In the year 
1595, James VI. renewed the charter, and confirmed 
the privileges before granted. The public property is 
distinctly marked out by the charter, comprehending 
nearly the whole extent of the parish, but the lands 
now belonging to the town, consist only of a piece of 
moor, a few acres of haugh ground, and a range of braes 
about a mile in extent; the revenue is about £120 a 
year. The burgh is governed by a provost, three bailies, 
a dean of guild, nine councillors, a treasurer, and a 
clerk ; and, with Montrose, Brechin, Arbroath, and 
Forfar, returns a member to parliament. The town- 
hall is an edifice of two stories, the upper of which con- 
sists of a hall and council-room, and the lower contains 
the flesh and meal market, with a small arched vault 
for the confinement of prisoners, which, however, is 
very deficient as a place of security ; on the top of the 
building, is a handsome belfry, with a bell which is 
rung four times every day. Near the town-hall, is a 
market-cross of great antiquity, formed of a column of 
stone which measures about fourteen feet high, with a 
ball on the summit, and a flight of steps surrounding 
the base. 

The parish, which was formerly joined to that of 
Kinneff, but was separated from it about the time of the 
Reformation, is of quadrilateral figure, and contains 
about 1800 acres, of which 1222 are under cultivation, 
about 70 planted, and 500 waste. It is bounded on the 
south-east by the German Ocean, and embraces about 
a mile and a half of coast, which, with the exception of 
the part near the town, is covered with rocks, mostly 
hidden at high water. The craig, where King David 
landed, also called Bervie Brow, bordering on the parish, 
is a conspicuous land-mark for mariners ; and Gourdon 
Hill, within the parish, is also seen at a great distance. 
The land in the interior is considerably diversified in its 
surface, rising in a gradual manner from east to west, 
and being marked by two ranges of hills, parallel to 
each other. The ground is flat near the southern and 
eastern boundaries, but the vicinity of the latter is orna- 
mented with a small fertile valley, through which the 
water of Bervie, well-stocked with trout, runs to the 
sea, and on each side of which the land is elevated and 
varied. The only streams are, the Bervie, which rises 
in the Grampians, and falls into the sea at the eastern 
Vol. I.— 121 



extremity of the district ; and the burn of Peattie, 
which runs from the north-east boundary, into the 
Bervie, and, though small, is of very considerable utility 
to those tenants through whose farms it pursues its 
course. 

The soil in the lower lands is a deep fertile loam, 
resting on a gravelly subsoil ; the haugh lands adjoining 
the sea consist of black earth, mixed with large quanti- 
ties of pebbles, upon which they are said to be dependent 
for their great fertility. In the upper district of the 
parish, some of the land is a strong soil, upon a clay 
bottom ; but upon the surface in the highest part, where 
it reaches an elevation of about 400 feet, very little earth 
is to be seen, the outside chiefly consisting of naked 
rock. All kinds of corn and green crops are produced, 
of excellent quality ; the plantations are flourishing, 
though of recent growth, and comprise every variety of 
trees peculiar to the country. The system of husbandry 
is of the most approved kind, and the highest state of 
cultivation is indicated by the abundance and quality of 
the produce. Improvements, within the last few years, 
have been carried on to a considerable extent, especially 
in draining and reclaiming waste Isnd, and the farm- 
houses and offices, which are roofed with slate or tiles, 
are in good condition. The rateable annual value of the 
parish is £3344. The predominating rock is sandstone, 
which, in some places, is marked by veins of trap, be- 
tween one and two feet in thickness. Boulders of quartz, 
granite, mica-slate, gneiss, &c, are met with on the 
shore, and near the village of Gourdon the beach con- 
sists of masses of small pebbles of jasper, porphyry, 
slate, and agate, of the last of which beautiful specimens 
are sometimes found among the loose soil on the higher 
grounds, as well as on the beach. Several quarries of 
sandstone are wrought in the parish, supplying the ex- 
cellent material from which the church was constructed, 
as well as most of the new buildings in this and the 
neighbouring parishes. 

The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish of Bervie are 
directed by the presbytery of Fordoun and synod of 
Angus and Mearns ; the patronage belongs to the 
Crown, and the minister's stipend is £141. 12., with a 
manse, and a glebe worth £18 per annum. The church, 
which was opened on the 1st of January, 1S37, and 
contains 900 sittings, is an elegant structure, with a 
square tower more than 100 feet in height, ornamented 
with carved minarets. The site, which is gently elevated, 
at a small distance from the street, is highly advanta- 
geous, and the main entrance and imposing outer gate 
heighten the general effect of an object that has greatly 
contributed to improve the aspect of the town. There 
are places of worship belonging to the Free Church and 
Independents ; also a parochial school, in which the 
classics, mathematics, and the usual branches of educa- 
tion are taught, and of which the master has a salary of 
£29. 18. 9., with an allowance of £2. 2. 9. in lieu of a 
garden, and between £15 and £20 a year fees. A bequest 
of £500 was left to the poor, who receive the interest, 
by the late James Fai-quhar, Esq., of Hallgreen. The 
burgh confers the title of Baron on Lord Arbuthnott, 
whose ancestor, Sir Robert Arbuthnott, was knighted 
for his faithful adhesion to the fortunes of Charles I., 
and was afterwards raised to the peerage by the style of 
Baron Inverbervie and Viscount Arbuthnott, Nov. 16, 
1641 : he died in the year 1655. 

R 



BERW 



BERW 




Burgh Seal. 



BERWICK, NORTH, a 
burgh, market-town, and 
parish, in the county of Had- 
IDIngton, 10 miles (N. byE.) 
from Haddington, and 23 
(N. E. by E.) from Edin- 
| burgh ; containing 1708 in- 
habitants, of whom 1028 are 
in the burgh. This place 
derives its name from its 
situation at the mouth of the 
Frith of Forth ; and though 
its origin is involved in ob- 
scurity, the manor appears to have belonged to the 
earls of Fife, in whose possession it remained till near 
the close of the fourteenth century, and of whom Dun- 
can, who died in the year 1154, founded a convent here, 
for sisters of the Cistercian order. This establishment 
was amply endowed by the founder, and by numerous 
benefactors, with lands in the counties of Berwick, Rox- 
burgh, Edinburgh, and West Lothian; and continued 
to flourish till the Reformation, when the site and 
revenues were conferred on Sir Alexander Home, of 
North Berwick, by James VI. After the death of Isa- 
bel, the last Countess of Fife, the manor passed into the 
possession of William, Earl of Douglas, who, in 1373, 
obtained from Robert II. a charter constituting this 
place a royal burgh, with the privileges of a market and 
port, with custom-house and other advantages. In 
1455, the manor became forfeited to the crown, on the 
attainder of James, Earl of Douglas, but was restored 
by James III. to Archibald, Earl of Angus, the heir 
male of the Douglas family, and erected into a free 
barony, in his favour. After the grant of the monastery 
and part of its lands to Sir Alexander Home, by James 
VI., the barony, on the failure of that family, passed 
into other hands, and in 1640, by act of parliament, was 
confirmed to Sir William Dick, from whom it passed to 
Sir Hew Dalrymple, lord president of the court of 
session, and ancestor of the present proprietor. 

The town is advantageously situated on the south 
side of the Frith of Forth, near its influx into the sea, 
and consists principally of two streets; one of these is 
of considerable length, extending from east to west, and 
is intersected, near its eastern extremity, by the other, a 
shorter street, which is continued to the harbour. The 
houses in the first are irregularly built, and many of 
them of antique appearance, and those in the other 
street are of a superior class, and mostly inhabited by 
the gentry and more opulent families ; on both sides of 
the latter street, are rows of trees, giving it a pleasant 
and cheerful appearance, and the scenery surrounding 
the town combines many interesting and picturesque 
features. A subscription library has been established, 
which is well supported, and contains a good collection ; 
and a branch of the East Lothian Itinerating Library is 
also stationed here. The waste or common lands on 
the west of the town, are much frequented by the mem- 
bers of a golf club, who hold meetings for the celebra- 
tion of that game, which is also the favourite amusement 
of the inhabitants. The only manufactory is a foundry 
for the construction of steam-engines, machines for 
making tiles for draining, and other articles. The 
trade of the port consists mainly in the exportation of 
grain, lime, and agricultural produce, chiefly for the 
122 



Newcastle and London markets ; and the importation 
of coal, rape, and oil-cake, and crushed bones for 
manure. There are nine vessels belonging to the port, 
of the aggregate burthen of 568 tons, of which four 
are employed in the foreign, and the rest in the coasting 
trade ; the exportation of grain and lime has materially 
decreased, but that of potatoes very much increased, 
within the last few years. The harbour is spacious and 
secure ; it is dry at low water, but is commodious, 
and considerable sums have been expended on its 
improvement. The fishing is conducted on a limited 
scale. The market is chiefly for the supply of the 
town and neighbourhood ; fairs are held in June and 
November, and facility of communication with the ad- 
jacent towns is maintained by good roads. The 
inhabitants obtained their earliest charter in the 
reign of Robert II., which was confirmed in 156S, by 
James VI. ; and the government of the burgh is vested 
in two bailies, a treasurer, and nine councillors, elected 
according to the provisions of the act of the 3rd and 
4th of William IV. The magistrates hold no regular 
courts, but act as justices of the peace within the 
royalty of the burgh ; all criminal jurisdiction is re- 
ferred to the procurator-fiscal and sheriff of the county, 
and petty misdemeanours are punished by temporary 
confinement; a town officer is appointed by the magi- 
strates, who also choose a town-clerk, and a shore- 
master. The town-hall is a commodious building, and 
there is a small prison. Since the Union, the burgh has 
united with those of Haddington, Dunbar, Lauder, 
and Jedburgh, in returning a member to the imperial 
parliament ; and by the act of the 2nd and 3rd of 
William IV., the right of election, previously vested in 
the corporation and burgesses, was extended to the £10 
householders, resident within the parliamentary limits 
of the burgh. The bailies are the returning officers. 

The surface of the parish is greatly varied ; a range 
of rocks of various hues intersects it from east to west, 
presenting in some parts a barren and rugged aspect, 
and in others being clothed with wood. About half a 
mile south of the town is a hill of conical form, called 
North Berwick Law, crowning the summit of a gently 
sloping eminence, and rising to an elevation of 940 feet 
above the sea ; it was occupied as a signal station during 
the war, and the remains of the buildings, which were 
suffered to fall to decay, have the picturesque effect of 
an ancient ruin. The hill is wooded near its base, 
and the other parts of its surface, comprising an area 
of nearly seventy acres, afford pasturage for sheep ; the 
views from it are extensive, and strikingly diversified. 
In the mouth of the Frith of Forth, and about a mile 
and a half from the shore, is the well known rock called 
the Bass, rising abruptly from the sea, in a circular 
form, nearly a mile in circumference, to a height of 
420 feet; it is of very rugged aspect, extremely pre- 
cipitous on the north side, and on the south more 
resembling a cone in form, and accessible only on the 
south-east, where are two landing-places : about half 
way up the steep, are the remains of an ancient chapel. 
The rock is perforated, from the north-west to the 
south-east, by a cavern, which is dry at full tide ; and 
on the side commanding the landing-place, are the 
remains of an old fortress, and of the dungeons for- 
merly used for state prisoners, for which purpose it 
was purchased from Sir Andrew Ramsay, in 1671. Its 



BERW 



BERW 



surface is estimated at seven acres, and it forms an 
object both of scenic and historical interest ; it is sup- 
posed to have been the retreat of Baldred, the apostle 
of East Lothian, in the sixth century; and in 1406, 
was the temporary asylum of James I., in which he 
was placed by his father, Robert III., previously to 
his embarkation for France, to avoid the persecution 
of his uncle, the Duke of Albany. During the time of 
Charles II. it was a state prison for the confinement of 
the covenanting ministers, many of whom died here ; 
but at the Revolution of 16SS it ceased to be used for 
such a purpose. This rock, which is let on lease to a 
keeper, affords pasturage for sheep, which are in high 
estimation ; and is frequented in great numbers by 
Solan geese, which, when young, are taken by a hazard- 
ous process, and conveyed to the opposite shore. Op- 
posite to the town, and about a mile from the coast, 
is the island of Cragleith, a barren rock, about a mile 
in circumference, abounding with rabbits, and resorted 
to by sea-fowl, of which the puffin is the most con- 
spicuous. The coast of the parish is boldly rocky, and 
indented with bays, of which one, of semicircular form, 
reaches from the west of the harbour to Point Gar^ ; 
and a still larger, about two miles to the east of the 
town, and directly opposite to the Bass rock, called 
Canty Bay, is the residence of the tenant of that rock 
and his assistants. The shore, to the west, is a flat 
sand ; and towards the east, a line of precipitate rocks, 
terminating in a lofty eminence, on the summit of which 
are the picturesque ruins of Tantallan Castle, noticed 
hereafter. 

The soil, though various, is generally fertile, and the 
system of agriculture in a highly improved state ; the 
whole number of acres is estimated at 3456, of which 
32S0 are arable, about 170 in pasture and in woods and 
plantations, and the remainder common. The chief 
crops are, wheat, barley, oats, peas, beans, potatoes, 
and turnips ; the principal manures are lime and rape- 
cake ; furrow-draining has been extensively adopted, 
and the farm buildings and offices are generally sub- 
stantial and commodious. About 1000 sheep are an- 
nually fed, and from 300 to 400 head of cattle, mostly 
of the short-horned breed. The rateable annual value 
of the parish is £12,967. The woods are chiefly ash, 
elm, oak, beech, and plane. The substrata are mainly 
trap, sandstone, and limestone ; the sandstone, which is 
usually of a reddish hue, is frequently intersected with 
strata of limestone. The rocks are principally of the 
secondary formation ; the lower part of North Berwick 
Law is trap tuffa, above which is a sonorous clinkstone, 
and near the summit the height assumes the character 
of amygdaloid ; the Bass rock is generally a fine 
granular greenstone, abounding with felspar, and 
strongly exhibiting the tabular structure. At North 
Berwick Law, are extensive quarries of excellent 
building-stone ; and at Rhodes, and on the Balgone 
estate, limestone is quarried to a considerable extent. 
North Berwick House is a fine mansion, erected in 
1777, in grounds embellished with thriving plantations ; 
Balgone and Rockville are also handsome mansions, 
finely situated. 

The parish appears to have existed from a very remote 
period of antiquity, and its church was most probably 
founded by St. Baldred ; on the foundation of the nun- 
nery here, the church, with all its possessions,was given by 
123 



the founder to that establishment. The ecclesiastical 
affairs of the parish are now under the superintend- 
ence of the presbytery of Haddington and synod of 
Lothian and Tweeddale. The stipend of the incumbent 
is £306. 2. 5., and the patronage is exercised by Sir 
Hew Dalrymple, Bart. ; the manse is a substantial and 
comfortable residence, built in 1S25, and pleasantly 
situated on an eminence, and the glebe is valued at £35 
per annum. The church, erected in 1770, on the site 
of the former edifice, was, in 1819, thoroughly repaired, 
and the interior renewed ; it is adapted for a congre- 
gation of 550 persons, and has a spacious cemetery, 
planted with stately avenues of ancient elms. There 
are places of worship for members of the Free Church 
and the United Associate Synod : the former was erected 
with a view to honour the memory of the covenanters 
imprisoned on the Bass rock, and the expense was 
defrayed by a special subscription. The parochial 
school is but indifferently attended ; the master has a 
salary of £34. 4. 4|., with a house and garden ; the school 
fees are very inconsiderable. A burgh school until 
lately existed, endowed by the corporation, by whom the 
master was appointed, and from whose funds his salary 
was derived ; and on the lands of Tantallan is a sub- 
parochial school. There are also, a considerable bequest 
by Alexander Home, Esq., and a donation of £450, called 
the Edwin fund, for the benefit of the poor. About a 
quarter of a mile to the west of the town, are the 
remains of the Cistercian abbey, beautifully situated on 
an eminence planted with trees, but so greatly dila- 
pidated as scarcely to convey a faint, idea of that once 
venerable and stately edifice ; the vaults, which formed 
the principal relic, were many years since destroyed. 
Near the harbour, are the remains of what is supposed 
to have been the ancient church, consisting chiefly of 
the entrance doorway, which is still entire; the sea is 
constantly encroaching upon the cemetery, and laying 
bare the remains of bodies interred there. Three 
miles to the east of the town, are the remains of the 
old Castle of Tantallan, seated on a precipitous emi- 
nence projecting into the sea ; the outer walls, of 
hexagonal form, are of massive thickness, and above 
the entrance is a sculptured stone shield, bearing the 
device of its ancient proprietors, the Douglases. The 
interior consists of numerous apartments, inaccessible 
from the dilapidated state of the various staircases 
which formerly afforded an approach ; and the vaults 
contain many dark dungeons. The original foundation 
of this castle is not distinctly ascertained ; it was 
the stronghold of the Douglas family, on their obtaining 
the barony of East Lothian, at the accession of Robert 
II., and for centuries the seat of their power. It was 
always regarded as impregnable, and was frequently 
assaulted without effect ; it was finally besieged, and, 
after an obstinate defence, taken by the forces under 
Oliver Cromwell ; and, together with the lands, was sold 
by the Marquess of Douglas to Lord President Dal- 
rymple, by whom it was dismantled, and suffered to 
fall into decay. About half a mile to the west of the 
castle, is St. Baldred's well, a spring of excellent water. 
Fenton Tower, an ancient edifice, of which only the bare 
walls remain, is situated on a commanding eminence ; 
and nearly adjoining, are the remains of the palace of 
Sydserf, so called from St. Serf, the instructor of 
Kentigern, whose retreat was in this place. 

R2 



BEKW 



B'ERW 




BERWICK - UPON- 
TWEED, a port, borough, 
market - town, parish, and 
county of itself, 55 miles 
(E. by S.) from Edinburgh, 
and 334 (N. by W.) from 
London ; containing 8484 
inhabitants. The name of 
this town, which Leland 
supposes to have been origi- 
nally Aberwick, from the 
British terms, Aber, the 
■drms. mouth of a river, and Wic, 

a town, is by Camden and other antiquaries considered 
as expressive merely of a hamlet, or granary, annexed 
to a place of greater importance, such appendages being 
usually in ancient records styled berewics, in which sense 
of the term Berwick is thought to have obtained its 
name, having been the grange of the priory of Colding- 
ham, ten miles distant. The earliest authentic notice 
of Berwick occurs in the reign of Alexander I., and in 
that of Henry II. of England, to the latter of which 
monarchs it was given up, with four other towns, by 
William the Lion, in 11/6, as a pledge for the perform- 
ance of the treaty of Falaise, by which, in order to 
obtain his release from captivity after the battle of 
Alnwick, in 1174, he had engaged to do homage to the 
English monarch as lord paramount for all his Scottish 
dominions. Richard I., to obtain a supply of money 
for his expedition to the Holy Land, sold the vassalage 
of Scotland for 10,000 marks, and restored this and the 
other towns to William, content with receiving homage 
for the territories only which that prince held in Eng- 
land. King John, upon retiring from an unsuccessful 
invasion of Scotland, burnt the town, upon which the 
Scots almost immediately rebuilt it. In 1291, the 
Commissioners appointed to examine and report on the 
validity of the title of the respective claimants to the 
crown of Scotland, met at Berwick, and pursued there 
the investigation which led to the decision in favour of 
John Baliol. Edward I., having compelled Baliol to 
resign his crown, took the town by storm in 1296, upon 
which a dreadful carnage ensued ; and here he received 
the homage of the Scottish nobility, in the presence of a 
council of the whole nation, and established a court of 
exchequer for the receipt of the revenue of the kingdom 
of Scotland. Wallace, in the following year, having 
laid siege to the town, took, and for a short time re- 
tained possession of it, but was unsuccessful in his 
attempt upon the castle, which was relieved by the 
arrival of a numerous army. Edward II., in prosecut- 
ing the war against Scotland, assembled his army here 
repeatedly, and made several inroads into the enemy's 
territory. Robert Bruce obtained it in 1318, and hav- 
ing razed the walls, and strengthened them with towers, 
kept it, notwithstanding several attacks from Edward 
II. and III., until it surrendered to the latter after the 
celebrated battle of Hallidown Hill, within the borough, 
which took place on the 19th of July, 1333. As a fron- 
tier town, it was always the first object of attack on the 
renewal of hostilities between the two kingdoms ; and, 
after repeated surrenders and sieges, it was ceded to 
Edward IV., from whom and his successors, as well as 
from preceding kings of Scotland, including Bruce, it 
received several charters and privileges, in confirmation 
124 



and enlargement of the charter granted by Edward I., 
in which the enjoyment of the Scottish laws as they 
existed in the time of Alexander III. had been con- 
firmed. After having been exposed, during the subse- 
quent reigns, to the continued aggressions of the Scots 
and the English, Elizabeth repaired and strengthened 
the fortifications, and new walled part of the town : 
the garrison which had for some time been placed in it, 
was continued till the accession of James to the English 
throne, when its importance as a frontier town ceased. 
During the civil war in the reign of Charles I., it was 
garrisoned by the parliament. 

The town is pleasantly situated on the northern bank, 
and near the mouth, of the river Tweed, the approach to 
which, from the English side, is over a handsome stone 
bridge of fifteen arches, built in the reigns of James I. 
and Charles L, and connecting it with Tweedmouth on 
the south. The streets, with the exception of St. Mary- 
gate, usually called the High-street, Castlegate, Ravens- 
downe, the Parade, and Hide-hill, are narrow, but neatly 
paved, and the houses are in general well built ; the 
town is lighted with gas, and an abundant supply of 
water is obtained by pipes laid down to the houses from 
the public reservoirs, which are the property of the cor- 
poration. Fuel is also plentiful, there being several 
collieries on the south, and one on the north, side of 
the river, within from two to four miles of the town. 
A public library was established in 1812, and a reading- 
room in 1S42; the theatre, a small neat building, is 
opened at intervals, and there are assembly-rooms which 
are used on public occasions. The new fortifications, 
which are exceedingly strong, have displaced those of 
more ancient date, of which only a few ruins now re- 
main ; the ramparts afford an agreeable promenade, much 
frequented by the inhabitants. The present works con- 
sist of a rampart of earth, faced with stone : there are 
no outworks, with the exception of the old castle, which 
overlooks the Tweed, and is now completely in ruins, 
and an earthen battery at the landing-place below the 
Magdalen fields. The line of works towards the river is 
almost straight, but to the north and east are five bas- 
tions, to two of which there are powder magazines ; the 
harbour is defended by a four and a six gun battery 
near the governor's house ; and a saluting battery, of 
twenty-two guns, commands the English side of the 
Tweed. There are five gates belonging to the circum- 
vallation, by which entrance is obtained. The barracks, 
which were built in 1719, form a small quadrangle, neatly 
built of stone, and afford good accommodation for 600 
or 700 infantry. To these, was recently attached the 
governor's house, for officers' barracks ; but that building 
and the ground adjoining, formerly the site of the palace 
of the kings of Scotland, were lately sold by the crown 
to a timber- merchant, and are now occupied for the 
purposes of his trade. 

The port was celebrated in the time of Alexander III., 
for the extent of its traffic in wool, hides, salmon, 
&c, which was carried on both by native merchants, 
and by a company of Flemings settled here, the latter 
of whom, however, perished in the conflagration of 
their principal establishment, called the Red Hall, which 
was set on fire at the capture of the town and castle by 
Edward I. The port has, at present, a considerable 
coasting trade, though it has somewhat declined since 
the termination of the continental war : the exports 



BE'RW 



B E R W 



arc, corn, wool, salmon, cod, haddock, herrings, and 
coal ; and the imports, timber-deals, staves, iron, hemp, 
tallow, and bones for manure. About 800 men are 
employed in the fishery : the salmon and trout, of 
which large quantities are caught, are packed in boxes 
with ice, and sent chiefly to the London market; great 
quantities of lobsters, crabs, cod, haddock, and herrings 
are also taken, and a large portion forwarded, similarly 
packed, to the metropolis. The principal articles of 
manufacture, exclusively of such as are connected with 
the shipping, are, damask, diaper, sacking, cotton-hosiery, 
carpets, hats, boots, and shoes ; and about. 200 hands 
are employed in three iron-foundries, all established 
within the present century. Steam-engines, and almost 
every other article, are made • the gas-light apparatus 
for Berwick, Perth, and several other places, was manu- 
factured here, and iron-works have lately been erected 
at Galashiels, and at Jedburgh, by the same proprietors. 
The harbour is naturally inconvenient, the greater 
part of it being left dry at ebb-tide; it has, however, 
been recently deepened by several feet, and vessels of 
large tonnage come to the quay. The river is navigable 
only to the bridge, though the tide flows for seven miles 
beyond it : on account of the entrance being narrowed 
by sand-banks, great impediments were occasioned to 
the navigation till the erection, in 1S0S, of a stone pier on 
the projecting rocks at the north entrance of the Tweed ; 
it is about half a mile in length, and has a light-house 
at the extremity. This, together with the clearing and 
deepening of the harbour, has materially improved the 
facilities of navigation, and been of great importance to 
the shipping interest of the place. On the Tweed mouth 
shore, for a short space, near the Carr Rock, ships of 
400 or 500 tons' burthen may ride in safety. The smacks 
and small brigs, formerly carrying on the whole traffic 
of the place, are now superseded by large and well-fitted 
steam-vessels, schooners, and clipper-ships. There are 
numerous and extensive quays and warehouses, and a 
patent-slip for the repair of vessels ; and the town will 
soon have the further advantage of a railway to Edin- 
burgh, in continuation of the projected railway along 
the east coast hence to Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The 
market, which is well supplied with grain, is on Satur- 
day, and there is an annual fair on the last Friday in 
May, for black cattle and horses ; statute-fairs are also 
held on the first Saturday in March, May, August, and 
November. 

By charter of incorporation granted in the thirty- 
eighth year of James VI., the government was vested in 
a mayor, bailiffs, and burgesses ; and there were, besides, 
an alderman for the year, a recorder, town-clerk, town- 
treasurer, four serjeants-at-mace, and other officers ; 
but the controul now resides in a mayor, six aldermen, 
and eighteen councillors, together composing the coun- 
cil, by whom a sheriff and other officers are appointed. 
The borough is distributed into three wards, and its 
municipal and parliamentary boundaries are the same ; 
the mayor and late mayor are, pro tempore, justices of 
the peace, and twelve other gentlemen have been ap- 
pointed to act as such, under a separate commission. 
Berwick was one of the royal burghs which, in ancient 
times, sent representatives to the court of the four royal 
burghs in Scotland, and on being annexed to the king- 
dom of England, its prescriptive usages were confirmed 
by royal charter. It sent representatives to parliament 
125 



in the reign of Henry VIII., since which time it has 
continued to return two members. The right of elec- 
tion was formerly vested in the freemen at large, in 
number about 1140; now, the resident freemen and 
certain householders are the electors, and the sheriff is 
returning officer. The limits of the borough include the 
townships of Tweedmouth and Spittal, lying on the 
south side of the river. The corporation hold courts of 
quarter-session for the borough, and a court of pleas 
every alternate Tuesday, for the recovery of debts to 
any amount ; and a court-leet is regularly held under 
the charter, at which six petty constables are always 
appointed. The town-hall is a spacious and handsome 
building, with a portico of four massive circular columns 
of the Tuscan order, a portion of the lower part of 
which, called the Exchange, is appropriated to the use 
of the poultry and butter market ; the first story con- 
tains two spacious halls and other apartments, in which 
the courts are held, and the public business of the cor- 
poration transacted, and the upper part is used as a gaol. 
The whole forms a stately pile of fine hewn stone, and is 
surmounted with a lofty spire, containing a peal of eight 
bells, which, on the sabbath- day, summon the inhabit- 
ants to the parish church. 

The living is a vicarage, within the jurisdiction of 
the consistorial court of Durham, valued in the king's 
books at £20 ; net income, £289 ; patrons and appro- 
priators, the Dean and Chapter of Durham. The church 
is a handsome structure in the decorated English style, 
built during the usurpation of Cromwell, and is without 
a steeple : one of the Fishbourn lectureships is esta- 
blished here, the service being performed in the church. 
There are places of worship for members of the Scottish 
Kirk, the Associate Synod, the Scottish Relief, Particular 
Baptists, Wesleyans, and Roman Catholics. A school 
for the instruction of the sons of burgesses in English 
and the mathematics, was founded and endowed by the 
corporation, in 1798 ; to each department there is a 
separate master, paid by the corporation, and the average 
number of pupils is about 300. The burgesses have 
also the patronage of a free grammar school, endowed in 
the middle of the seventeenth century, by Sir William 
Selby, of the Moat, and other charitable persons. The 
Blue-coat charity-school was founded in 1/58, by Captain 
Bolton, and endowed with £S00, since augmented with 
several benefactions, especially with one of £1000 by 
Richard Cowle, who died at Dantzic, in 1819 ; the whole 
income is £155, which is applied to educating about 150 
boys, of whom 40 are also clothed. A pauper lunatic 
house was erected in 1S13, and.a dispensary was esta- 
blished in 1814. A considerable part of the corpora- 
tion land is allotted into "meadows" and " stints," and 
given rent-free to the resident freemen and freemen's 
widows, according to seniority, for their respective 
lives. Among the most important bequests for the 
benefit of the poor, are, £1000 by Richard Cowle, £1000 
by John Browne, in 175S, and £28 per annum by Sarah 
Foreman, in 1S03. Some remains of the ancient castle 
of Berwick are still visible, and of a pentagonal tower 
near it ; also of a square fort in Magdalen fields, and 
some entrenchments on Hallidosvn Hill ; but all ves- 
tiges of the ancient churches and chapels of the town, 
the Benedictine nunnery, said to have been founded by 
David, King of Scotland, and of the monasteries of 
Black, Grey, White, and Trinitarian friars, and of three 



BERW 



BIGG 



or four hospitals, have entirely disappeared. During the 
reigns of William the Lion, and of Edward I., II., and 
III., and other Scottish and English monarchs, Berwick 
was a place of mintage ; and several of its coins are still 
preserved. There is a mineral spring close to the town, 
which is occasionally resorted to by invalids. 

BERWICKSHIRE, a maritime county, in the south- 
east of Scotland, bounded on the north by the German 
Sea and Haddingtonshire ; on the east and north-east, by 
the German Sea ; on the south by the river Tweed, which 
separates it from the English counties of Durham and 
Northumberland ; and on the west and south-west, by the 
counties of Edinburgh and Roxburgh. It lies between 
55° 36' 30" and 55° 58' 30" (N. Lat.), and 1° 41' and 
2° 34' (W. Long.), and is about 35 miles in length, and 
22 miles in extreme breadth ; comprising about 446£ 
square miles, or 285,760 acres, and 7408 inhabited 
houses, and 381 uninhabited ; and containing a popu- 
lation of 34,438, of whom 16,55S are males, and 17.SS0 
females. The county derives its name from the ancient 
town of Berwick, formerly the county town, and was 
originally inhabited by the Ottadini ,- after the Roman 
invasion, it formed part of the province of Valentia, and 
though not the site of any station of importance, it is 
intersected by several Roman roads. After the de- 
parture of the Romans from Britain, this part of the 
country was continually exposed to the predatory in- 
cursions of the Saxons, by whom, about the middle of 
the sixth century, it was subdued, and annexed to the 
kingdom of Northumbria, of which it continued to form 
part till the year 1020, when it was ceded to Malcolm 
II., King of Scotland, by Cospatrick, Earl of Northum- 
berland, whom that monarch made Earl of Dunbar. 

From its situation on the borders, the county was the 
scene of frequent hostilities, and an object of continual 
dispute between the Scots and English. In 1 176, it 
was surrendered by William the Lion to Henry II. of 
England, by whom he had been made prisoner in battle, 
as security for the performance of the treaty of Falaise, 
on failure of which it was for ever to remain a part of the 
kingdom of England; but on payment of a ransom, it 
was restored to the Scots by Richard I. In 1216, it 
suffered greatly from the army of John, who, to punish 
the barons of Northumberland, for having done homage 
to Alexander, King of Scotland, burnt the towns of Rox- 
burgh, Mitford, and Morpeth, and laid waste nearly the 
whole county of Northumberland. During the disputed 
succession to the Scottish throne, after the death of 
Alexander III., this district suffered materially from the 
contending parties; and in 1291, the town of Berwick 
was surrendered to Edward I. of England, who, as lord 
paramount of Scotland, received the oaths of fealty and 
allegiance from many of the Scottish nobility. The 
inhabitants soon after revoking their allegiance to the 
English crown, Edward advanced with his army to Ber- 
wick, which he took by assault, and held a parliament 
in the castle, in 1296, when he received the oath of 
allegiance; and in the year following, he made Berwick 
the metropolis of the English government in Scotland. 
The town was restored to the Scots in 13 IS, but, after 
the death of James III., was finally ceded by treaty to the 
English, in 14S2; in 1551, the town, with a district adjoin- 
ing, called the liberties of Berwick, was made independent 
of both kingdoms, and invested with peculiar privileges. 
After Berwick ceased to be the county town, the general 
126 



business of the county was transacted at Dunse or 
Lauder, till the year 1596, when Greenlaw was selected 
by James VI., as the most appropriate for the purpose; 
and that arrangement was ratified by act of parliament, 
in 1600. 

The county was anciently included in the diocese of 
St. Andrew's ; it is now almost wholly in the synod of 
Merse and Teviotdale, and comprises several presby- 
teries, and thirty-four parishes. Exclusively of the sea- 
port of Berwick-upon-Tweed, which has a separate juris- 
diction, it contains the county town of Greenlaw, the 
royal burgh of Lauder, and the towns of Dunse, Cold- 
stream, and Eyemouth, with the villages of Ayton, 
Gourdon, Earlstoun, Chirnside, Coldingham, and others. 
Under the act of the 2nd and 3rd of William IV., the 
county returns one member to the imperial parliament. 
The surface varies in the different districts into which 
the county is naturally divided, and which are the 
Merse, Lammermoor, and Lauderdale ; the Merse is a 
level district, extending for nearly twenty miles along 
the north bank of the Tweed, and about ten miles in 
breadth, and is richly fertile, well inclosed, and pleas- 
ingly diversified with gentle eminences, and enriched 
with plantations. The district of Lammermoor, nearly 
of equal extent, and parallel with the Merse, is a hilly 
tract, chiefly adapted for pasture; the district of Lauder, 
to the west of the two former, is diversified with hills, 
affording good pasturage for sheep, principally of the 
black-faced breed, and a coarse breed of black-cattle, 
and has fertile vales of arable land, yielding abundant 
crops. The highest hills are in the Lammermoor range, 
varying from 1500 to 1650 feet in height : the principal 
rivers are, the Tweed, which forms the southern boun- 
dary of the county ; the Whiteadder, the Blackadder, 
the Leader, and the Eden, which are tributaries to the 
Tweed ; and the river Eye, which falls into the sea at 
Eyemouth. The coast is bold and rocky, rising pre- 
cipitously to a great height, and is almost inaccessible, 
except at Eyemouth and Coldingham Bay, and in some 
few points where there are small beaches of sand or 
gravel near the rocks. The minerals found are not of 
any importance ; some coal has been discovered in the 
parishes of Mordington and Cockburnspath ; limestone, 
marl, and gypsum have been quarried, but to no great 
extent, and freestone and whinstone are abundant. The 
rateable annual value of the county is £252,945. The 
chief seats are, Thirlstane Castle, Dryburgh Abbey, Mel- 
lerstain, Hirsel, Marchmont, Lady Kirk, Blackadder, 
Dunse Castle, Kelloe, Mertoun, Spottiswood, Ayton, 
Dunglass, Wedderburn, Paxton, Langton, Kimmergham, 
and Nisbet. 

BIGGA ISLE, in the parishes of Delting and Yell, 
county of Shetland. It is a small isle, lying between 
the mainland of Shetland and the island of Yell, in the 
sound of Yell ; half of it belongs to the parish of Yell, 
and half to that of Delting. The inhabitants consist of 
a few families who pasture black-cattle and sheep. 

BIGGAR, a parish and market-town, in the Upper 
ward of the county of Lanark, 12 miles (S. E.) from 
Lanark, on the road from Dumfries to Edinburgh ; con- 
taining 1865 inhabitants, of whom 1395 are in the town. 
The original name of this place, as it occurs in several 
ancient charters, is generally written Biger, or Bigre, 
and is supposed to have been derived from the nature 
of the ground on which the castle of the family of 



BIGG 



BIGG 



Biggar was situated (in the centre of a soft morass), 
and to have been thence applied to the whole of the 
parish ; and from the same circumstance, the castle 
assumed the name of Boghall. The manor was granted 
by David I. to Baldwin, a Flemish leader, whose de- 
scendants still retain the surname of Fleming ; they 
appear to claim a very remote antiquity, and the name 
of Baldwin de Biger appears in testimony to a charter, 
prior to the year 1 1 60. Some accounts, chiefly tradi- 
tional, are still retained of a battle fought at this place, 
between the English forces under Edward I., and the 
Scots commanded by Wallace, in which the former were 
defeated ; and though not authenticated by any his- 
torian of acknowledged authority, the probability of the 
event is partly strengthened by the frequent discovery 
of broken armour in a field near the town ; the name of 
a rivulet called the Red Syke, running through the sup- 
posed field of battle, and so named from the slaughter 
of the day ; and the evident remains of an encampment 
in the immediate neighbourhood. On this cccasion, 
Wallace is said to have gained admission into the 
enemy's camp, disguised as a dealer in provisions, and, 
after having ascertained their numbers and order, to 
have been pursued in his retreat to the bridge over 
Biggar water, when, turning on his pursuers, he put 
the most forward of them to death, and made his escape 
to his army, who were encamped on the heights of 
Tinto. A wooden bridge over the Bis;o;ar is still called 
the " Cadger's Brig ;" and on the north side of Bizzy- 
berry, are a hollow in a rock, and a spring, which are 
called respectively Wallace's seat and well. The Scot- 
tish army under Sir Simon Fraser is said to have ren- 
dezvoused here, the night previous to the victory of 
Roslin, in 1302 ; and Edward II., on his invasion of 
Scotland, in 1310, spent the first week of October at this 
place, while attempting to pass through Selkirk to Ren- 
frew. In 1651, after Cromwell's victory at Perth, the 
Scottish army, passing by Biggar, summoned the place, 
at that time garrisoned by the English, to surrender ; 
and in 1715, Lockhart, of Carnwath, the younger, raised 
a troop for the service of the Pretender, which, after 
remaining for some time here, marched to Dumfries, 
and joined the forces under Lord Ken mure. 

The town is finely situated on the Biggar water, by 
which it is divided into two very unequal parts, the smaller 
forming a beautiful and picturesque suburb, communi- 
cating with the town by a neat bridge ; the houses in 
this suburb are built on the sloping declivities, and on 
the brow, of the right bank of the rivulet, and have 
hanging gardens. The town consists of one wide street, 
regularly built, and from its situation on rising ground, 
commands an extensive and varied view ; most of the 
houses are of respectable appearance, and within the 
last few years, several new and handsome houses have 
been erected. There is a scientific institution, founded 
in the year 1839. A public library was established in 
1791, which contains about 800 volumes; another was 
opened in 1S00, which has a collection of more than 
500 ; and a third, exclusively a theological library, was 
founded in 1807, and has about 700 volumes. A public 
newsroom was opened in 182S; but it met with little 
support, and has consequently been discontinued. The 
trade consists chiefly in the sale of merchandise for the 
supply of the parish and surrounding district, and in 
the weaving of cloth, in which latter about 200 of the 
127 



inhabitants are employed. A branch of the Commercial 
bank was established in 1833, and a building erected 
for its use, which adds much to the appearance of the 
town ; and a branch of the Western Bank of Scotland 
has since been established. A savings' bank was opened 
in 1832, for the accommodation of the agricultural 
labourers, of whom there are about 460 depositors ; and 
the amount of their deposits is about £3500. The mar- 
ket is on Thursday ; and fairs are held at Candlemas, 
for hiring servants; at Midsummer, for the sale of wool; 
and on the last Thursday in October (O. S.), for horses 
and black-cattle ; all of which are numerously attended. 
The inhabitants, in 1451, received from James II. a 
charter, erecting the town into a free burgh of barony, 
and granting a weekly market and other privileges, 
which grants were renewed, at intervals, down to the 
year 1662. 

The parish, which borders on the county of Peebles, 
is about 6| miles in length, and varies very greatly in 
breadth, being of triangular form, and comprising about 
5850 Scottish acres, chiefly arable land. The surface is 
generally hilly, though comprising a considerable pro- 
portion of level ground, particularly towards the south, 
where is a plain of large extent ; the hills are of little 
height, and the acclivities, being gentle, afford excellent 
pasture. The principal stream is the Biggar water, 
which rises on the north side of the parish, and, after a 
course of nearly two miles, intersects the town, and 
flows through a fine open vale, to the river Tweed ; the 
Candy burn rises in the north-east portion of the parish, 
which it separates from the county of Peebles, and 
falls, after a course of three miles, into the Biggar 
water. The scenery is highly diversified ; and the ap- 
proach to the town, by the Carnwath road, presents to 
the view a combination of picturesque features. The soil 
is various ; about. 1000 acres are of a clayey nature, 
on a substratum of clay or gravel ; 2000 are a light 
black loam, resting upon whinstone, and the remainder 
sandy, and black loam inclining to peat-moss. The 
system of agriculture is greatly improved, and green 
crops have been introduced with success ; the chief 
produce consists of oats and barley ; much attention is 
paid to the management of the dairy, and to the im- 
provement of live stock. The cattle are mostly a cross 
between the native and the Ayrshire breed, which latter 
is every day becoming more predominant ; many sheep 
are pastured on the hills and acclivities, and the prin- 
cipal stock regularly reared are of the old Tweeddale 
breed. Great progress has been made in draining and 
inclosing the lands ; two mills for oats and barley have 
been erected, and there are not less than twenty-five 
threshing-machines, of which one, constructed by Mr. 
Watts, has the water-wheel 50 feet below the level of 
the barn, and 120 feet distant from it, the power being 
communicated to the machinery by shafts acting on an 
inclined plane. The rateable annual value of the parish 
is £7329. About 750 acres are in plantations, chiefly 
Scotch fir, in the management of which much improve- 
ment has been made by the introduction of a new 
method of pruning ; and on the several farmsteads, are 
numerous fine specimens of the hard-wood timber, 
which is better adapted to the soil, and is consequently 
growing gradually into use, in the more recent planta- 
tions. Of these, the ash and elm seem to thrive best ; 
and the beech and the plane also answer well. Among 



BIGG 



B I R N 



the various mansions are, Edmonston, a castellated 
structure, pleasingly situated in a secluded vale near the 
east end of the parish ; Biggar Park and Cambus-Wal- 
lace, both handsome residences, in the immediate vici- 
nity of the town ; and Carwood, a spacious mansion, 
recently erected, and surrounded by young and thriving 
plantations. 

The origin of the parish is rather obscure ; but it 
appears that a chaplaiucy was founded here, in expia- 
tion of the murder of John, Lord Fleming, chamberlain 
of Scotland, who was, in 1524, assassinated by John 
Tweedie, of Drummelzier, his son, and other accom- 
plices. For this purpose, an assessment in lands was 
given to Malcolm, Lord Fleming, son of the murdered 
lord, with £10 per annum granted in mortmain, for the 
support of a chaplain, to pray and sing mass for the 
soul of the deceased in the parish church of Biggar, 
which Malcolm, in 1545, made collegiate, and endowed 
for a provost, eight canons and prebendaries, and four 
choristers, with six aged poor men. On this occasion, 
the church of Thankertoun, which had previously been 
bestowed on the abbey of Kelso, by one of his predeces- 
sors, was given up to Malcolm, by the monks, and 
annexed to the collegiate church. The parish is now 
in the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and 
Tweeddale, and in the patronage of the family of Fle- 
ming ; the minister's stipend is £263. 4. 1 ., with a 
manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum. The 
church, erected in 1545, was formerly an elegant and 
venerable cruciform structure in the later English style, 
with a tower which was not finished, as the Reform- 
ation occurred while the building was in progress. 
This structure, though complete in every other respect, 
and uninjured by time, has been dreadfully mutilated : 
the western porch, the vestry communicating with the 
chancel, and having a richly-groined roof, the buttresses 
that supported the north wall of the nave, and the 
arched gateway leading into the churchyard, though 
perfect])'- entire, and beautiful specimens of architecture, 
were all taken down about fifty years since, and the 
materials sold for £7, to defray some parochial ex- 
penses. The interior of the church underwent, at the 
same time, a similar lamentable devastation ; the organ- 
gallery was removed, and the richly-groined roof of 
the chancel, which was embellished with gilt tracery, 
was destroyed, and replaced with lath and plaster, for 
uniformity. The church has lately received an addition 
of 120 sittings, by the erection of a gallery ; it has been 
also newly-seated, and affords considerable accommo- 
dation. There are places of worship for Burghers, and 
those of the Relief Church. The parochial school affords 
education to about ISO scholars; the master has a 
salary of £34. 4. 4., about £75 fees, and a house and 
garden. 

At the western extremity of the town, is a large 
mound, more than 300 feet in circumference at the base, 
150 feet on the summit, and 36 feet in height, supposed 
to have been, in ancient times, a seat for the adminis- 
tration of justice ; it appears to have been also used as 
a beacon, and to have formed one of a chain extending 
across the vale between the Clyde and the Tweed. 
There are several remains of encampments, of which 
one, about half a mile from the town, is 180 feet in cir- 
cumference, defended by a deep moat and double ram- 
part; and near Candy bank, is another, of oval form. 
128 



On the banks of Oldshields, are some Druidical remains 
consisting of four upright stones, near which arrow- 
heads of flint have been found ; and on the lands of 
Carwood, two Roman vessels of bronze were discovered 
in a moss ; one, holding about two quarts, has a handle 
and three legs, and the other, less elegant, in form, holds 
about eight quarts. The venerable remains of the castle 
of Boghall, which gave so great an interest to the sce- 
nery of the beautiful vale in which they were situated, 
have been almost demolished, for the sake of the stone ; 
and little more is left than a small angular tower, which 
serves to mark the site. The late Dr. A. Brown, Pro- 
fessor of Rhetoric in the University of Edinburgh, and 
Robert Forsyth, Esq., an eminent advocate, were natives 
of the parish ; and many of the landed proprietors have 
been eminently distinguished in the annals of their 
country. 

BILSDEAN, a hamlet, in the parish of Oldham- 
stocks, county of Haddington, 2| miles (N. E.) from 
Oldhamstocks ; containing 59 inhabitants. It is seated 
on the sea-shore, and is chiefly inhabited by fishermen, 
whose principal employment is taking lobsters for the 
supply of the London market; various other kinds of 
fish are also caught here, whereof the most common are 
turbot, cod, haddock, and herrings. Several boats 
belong to the creek, carrying four men each. 

BIRDSTONE, a village, in the parish of Campsie, 
county of Stirling, 1 mile (N.) from Kirkintilloch ; 
containing 100 inhabitants. It lies east of the road 
from Kirkintilloch to Campsie, and a little west of 
a small stream that falls into the Kelvin water, on the 
confines of the county. 

BIRGHAM, a village, in the parish of Eccles, 
county of Berwick, 2| miles (W.) from Coldstream ; 
containing 241 inhabitants. This is a small ancient 
village, seated on the north bank of the Tweed, opposite 
to Carbarn, in Northumberland ; and the road from 
London to Edinburgh, by way of Kelso, and that from 
Kelso to Berwick, pass through the place. It is noted for 
several events connected with history, among which was 
the meeting, in 1291, of the twelve competitors for the 
Scottish throne, with the commissioners of Edward I., 
of England, to represent their claims, acknowledging 
his paramount authority over Scotland. One of two 
burial-places in the parish is situated here. 

BIRNIE, a parish, in the county of Elgin, 3 miles 
(S.) from Elgin ; containing 407 inhabitants. This 
place is said by some to have been the site of the first 
cathedral of the diocese of Moray ; and it is probable 
that Simeon de Tonei, one of the bishops, was buried 
here, in 1184. The parish is nearly of an oblong figure, 
extending about seven miles in length, and one and 
a half in mean breadth, and contains nearly S000 
acres, of which about 2000 are under tillage, 304 under 
wood, and the remainder waste. It is separated from 
the parish of Knockando, on the south, by the junction 
of the parishes of Dallas and Rothes, and is bounded 
on all the other sides by the parish of Elgin. It lies 
on the north side of the high ground which rises be- 
tween the Spey and the flat of Moray. The surface is 
irregular and abrupt, is marked with several ravines 
and high hills covered with heath, and has in general a 
bleak and rugged appearance ; it is also intersected with 
the three rivulets, Lennock, Barden, and Rashcrook, 
which flow into the Lossie, a stream containing abun- 



B 1 R S 



B I IIS 



dance of common trout. The arable soil is generally 
of a gravelly or sandy kind, occasionally clayey, and by 
the sides of the Lossie and of the rivulets it is loamy ; 
other plots are of a mossy or moory nature. All 
kinds of grain are produced, as well as potatoes and 
turnips, with a small quantity of flax. The cattle, which 
have been lately much improved, are usually a cross 
between the low-country cows of Moray and West 
Highland bulls ; the sheep are chiefly Cheviots, and the 
horses, though small, are active, and well adapted for 
ploughing the light shallow land of which the parish 
mainly consists. The improved system of agriculture 
is followed, and very considerable advances have re- 
cently been made. The rateable annual value of the 
parish is £1249. The chief rocks in the district are 
sandstone and gneiss, with a small proportion of slate. 
The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the pres- 
bytery of Elgin and synod of Moray ; the patronage 
belongs to the Earl of Moray, and the minister has a 
stipend of £156. S. 4., a portion of which is received 
from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe of. about 
eight acres of good land. The church is a very ancient 
structure, repaired in 1317, with accommodation for 
250 persons, and contains a fine Saxon arch, separating 
the choir from the body of the edifice ; also a stone 
baptistery, and an old bell composed of silver and 
copper, of an oblong figure, which tradition asserts to 
have been made at Rome, and consecrated by the pope. 
There is a parochial school, the master of which has 
a salary of £26, with a house and garden, and about 
£4 fees ; and the poor have the benefit of a bequest 
producing about £3 per annum. About a mile east 
from the church, on the side of the road, is a stone 
called the " Bible Stone," having the figure of a book 
distinctly engraven on it ; and in the corner of a field once 
called Castlehill, the foundations of what is supposed to 
have been the ancient episcopal palace were dug up 
about half a century ago. 

BIRSAY and HARRAY, a parish, in the county 
of Orkney; containing 2406 inhabitants, of whom 
1634 are in Birsay, and 772 in Harray. These two 
ancient parishes, which were united under the earls 
of Orkney, originally constituted a province or district 
called " Bergisherard," signifying, in the Norwegian 
language, lands appropriated to the diversion of hunting ; 
and previously to the rise of Kirkwall, here was the 
residence of the earls, and the bishops, of Orkney. 
There are still considerable remains of the episcopal 
palace, occupying a beautiful site near the sea ; by 
whom it was originally built, is not distinctly known, 
but numerous additions were made to it, from time to 
time, by the Sinclairs, who were styled indifferently 
princes and counts of Orkney. It was subsequently 
enlarged and improved by Robert Stuart, brother of 
Mary, Queen of Scots ; and above the principal entrance, 
was a stone bearing an inscription to that effect, with 
armorial bearings, and the motto Sic Fult, Est, et Erit ; 
which stone passed into the possession of the Earl of 
Morton, to whom the lands were sold, and from whom 
they were afterwards purchased by Sir Lawrence Dun- 
das, ancestor of the Earl of Zetland, the present pro- 
prietor. The parish is about eleven miles in extreme 
length, and eight miles in extreme breadth, and is 
bounded on the north and west by the sea; on the 
north and cast, by the parishes of Evie, Rendal, and 
Vol. I.— 129 



Firth ; and on the south and west, by the parish of 
Sandwick, and Loch Stenness. The surface, towards 
the west, is for some distance level, but towards the 
east more elevated, rising into hills of considerable 
height. It is diversified with several lakes of great 
beauty, abounding with trout and other fresh-water fish, 
and frequented by numerous kinds of aquatic fowl ; 
and the lands are intersected by various rivulets and 
smaller burns, which, for want of bridges, interrupt the 
communication. 

The soil is generally fertile, though varying in different 
parts of the district ; that of the lands called the ba- 
rony of Birsay, is a mixture of clay and sand, producing 
luxuriant crops of oats and barley ; in other parts, a 
deep black loam prevails, producing grain of good 
quality, and also potatoes and turnips. Sea- weed, of 
which abundance is found on the coast, is used for 
manure ; and the system of agriculture, though well 
adapted to the present state of the farms, might, under 
a different tenure, be very greatly improved. The sub- 
strata are principally limestone and clay-slate, the latter 
of which is quarried for pavements and roofing ; build- 
ing-stone is also found here, and in some parts of the 
district marble and alabaster have been discovered. 
The manufacture of straw-plat is carried on extensively, 
affording employment to nearly 450 of the female 
population ; the males are employed in agriculture and 
in the fisheries. There are twenty boats belonging to 
Birsay, which, during the season, are engaged in the 
cod and lobster fishery ; and five are employed in the 
herring-fisheries at Stronsay and Wick, whence they 
generally return with remunerating success. The coast, 
however, is rocky and precipitous ; and the want of 
a convenient harbour, is unfavourable to the extension 
of the fisheries of the place. Fairs for cattle and horses 
are hold annually. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintend- 
ence of the presbytery of Cairston and synod of Orkney ; 
the minister's stipend is £2 IS. 6. S., including an 
allowance of £S. 6. S. for communion elements, with a 
manse situated at Birsay, and two glebes valued toge- 
ther at £21 per annum ; patron, the Earl of Zetland. 
The church of Birsay is an ancient building, enlarged 
in 1760, and containing 565 sittings : the church of 
Harray, a neat plain building, erected in 1S36, contains 
400 sittings. There are places of worship for mem- 
bers of the Free Church, the Original Seceding Congre- 
gation, and Independents. The parochial school of 
Birsay is well attended ; the master has a salary of 
£26, with a dwelling-house and garden. A school at 
Harray, also, is supported by the General Assembly, 
who pay the teacher a salary of £25, with a house and 
garden, and other perquisites ; and there is a parochial 
library, containing nearly ISO volumes, chiefly on re- 
ligious subjects. About half a mile from the site of 
the episcopal palace, is the brough of Birsay, a portion 
of high land at the north-western extremity of the 
parish, formed into an island by the action of the sea, 
and to which access by land is obtained only at low 
water. From some remains of walls, there appears to .> 
have been an ancient fortress on the spot, though when 
or by whom erected is not known ; a chapel dedicated 
to St. Peter, was subsequently erected on the site, of 
which the only remains are part of a wall and one of 
the windows. There are also remains of ancient Picts' 

S 



BIRS 



BISH 



houses, and upright stones, in various parts of the 
parish. 

BIRSE, a parish, in the district of Kincardine 
O'Neil, county of Aberdeen, 2f miles (E. S. E.) from 
Aboyne ; containing 1295 inhabitants. This place was 
formerly called Press, a word of Gaelic origin, signifying 
a wood or thicket, and most probably used in reference 
to the extensive forest and woods in the district. The 
parish is situated at the south-eastern extremity of the 
county, and approaches in form to a square, varying 
in length from eight to ten miles, and in breadth 
from six to nine or ten miles. It comprises upwards of 
40,000 acres, of which about 3360 are cultivated, nearly 
4000 under wood and plantations, and the remainder 
wet and rocky, a large part of which is too rugged to 
be brought under the plough. The surface consists of 
hills and mountains, with three valleys stretching east- 
ward. The valley on the south is the largest ; and 
though narrow, bleak, and wild at its western extremity, 
where it is called the forest of Birse, about five miles 
further it begins to expand, and continues to improve 
in its scenery from this point to its termination, at 
the union of the Feugh with the Dee, near the village 
of Banchory, in Kincardineshire. The former of these 
rivers waters it for a distance of many miles, and much 
adorns the rich and beautiful scenery in the midst of 
which it takes its departure from the parish. The 
valley called Glen-Chatt is smaller than the former, 
and is watered by the Cattie burn ; and the third strath 
forms a portion of the vale of the Dee, but is divided 
into two parts by thejjburn of Birse, and ornamented in 
its centre by the church and manse. The Grampians 
traverse the south of the parish, where also runs the 
river Aven, and one of the range, called Mount Geauach, 
rises between 2000 and 3000" feet in height, and gives 
to the locality a wild, and in some parts a romantic, 
appearance ; the Dee runs along the northern boundary, 
and unites, with the peculiar features of that portion 
of the parish, to render its scenery most attractive. 
The moors abound with grouse and a great variety 
of wild-fowl, and the rivers and mountain streams with 
trout ; the Dee has also salmon, grilse, eel, and pike, 
and the lovers of angling find here every facility for 
their favourite amusement. The soil is a light loam, 
in many parts rather gravelly, and takes its leading 
character from its mixtures of decomposed granite and 
sand, which are sometimes clayey ; oats and barley are 
the usual grain cultivated, and potatoes and turnips, 
with grass for pasture and hay, also form a consider- 
able part of the produce. The sheep are the black-faced ; 
the cattle are much mixed, and in general small and 
of inferior quality, but the kind which most prevails is 
the Aberdeenshire polled and horned ; the state of 
husbandry has been 'considerably improved within the 
last twenty years, the rotation of crops having been 
introduced, with a few other modern usages. The 
rateable annual value of the parish is £4106. The rocks 
comprise granite, a blue stone called heathen stone, and 
limestone, of which last there are two or three quarries 
in operation, the produce being used generally for 
agricultural purposes ; the granite is found in large 
blocks scattered on or near the surface, and is used for 
building, without the trouble and expense of quarrying, 
and a fine specimen of red porphyry is found in the 
river Dee. 
130 



The mansion of Finzean, on the south side of the 
parish, and in the vale of the Feugh, is an ancient 
structure, built in the form of three sides of a square ; 
that of Ballogie, situated in the centre of the district, is 
a neat and comfortable residence, partly ancient, and 
partly modern, and, like the former, surrounded with 
well-laid out grounds and thriving plantations. The 
male population are chiefly engaged in husbandry, 
and many of the females in knitting worsted stockings, 
in the winter season, for which most of the wool pro- 
duced here is purchased, carded and spun, in summer. 
A suspension-bridge over the Dee, on the west, was 
built by the Earl of Aboyne, in 1S28, and rebuilt in 
1S30, in consequence of its destruction by the flood ; 
a communication is thus opened with the north, and 
another bridge over the Dee, called the Bridge of Potarch, 
built in 1813, continues the road from Brechin to 
Huntly and Inverness, over the Cairn o' Mount and 
Grampians : the turnpike-road on the south side of the 
Dee, from Aberdeen to Braemar, also opens an im- 
portant means of intercourse. Four fairs are held at 
Bridge of Potarch, in April, May, October, and Novem- 
ber, for cattle, sheep, horses, coarse linen, sacking, &c, 
that in October being the principal. The parish is in 
the presbytery of Kincardine O'Neil and synod of 
Aberdeen, and in the patronage of the Crown ; the 
minister's stipend is £158. 7- 4., a portion of which is 
received from the exchequer, with a manse, and a glebe 
of four acres. The church, inconveniently situated in 
the north-western part of the parish, is a neat substan- 
tial edifice, erected in 1779, and capable of accom- 
modating between 500 and 600 persons. There is a 
Roman Catholic chapel near Ballogie. The parochial 
school affords instruction in the usual branches ; the 
master has a salary of £28, with a house, £6. 10. fees, 
and an allowance from the Dick bequest. Another 
school is supported by money derived from the fund of 
Dr. Gilbert Ramsay, who was rector of Christ-church, 
Barbadoes, and left £500 for the endowment of a free 
school in this, his native parish, £500 to the poor, and 
a sum for the erection of a bridge over the Feugh ; a 
religious library was established in 1S29, and a savings' 
bank in 1S37. The chief relic of antiquity is a cas- 
tellated ruin called " the Forest," said to have been 
erected by Bishop Gordon, of Aberdeen, for a hunting 
seat. 

BISHOPMILL, a village, in the parish of New 
Spynie, county of Elgin ; containing 755 inhabitants. 
It is a suburb of Elgin, from which town it is distant 
about half a mile, and is on the north side of the Los- 
sie, the former course of which river was nearer the town 
than the present course. The village is included within 
the parliamentary limits of the borough of Elgin, the 
cross of Bishopmill being the extreme northern boun- 
dary. 

BISHOPSBRIDGE, a hamlet, in the parish of 
Cadder, Lower ward of the county of Lanark ; con- 
taining 213 inhabitants. It is situated in the western 
part of the parish, and on the road from Glasgow to 
Kirkintilloch. An infant and sewing school was esta- 
blished here by Mrs. Stirling, and is at present sup- 
ported jointly by that lady and Mr. Stirling, of Caddar, 
who have built a good house for the residence of the 
mistress, to whom they pay a salary of £30, which is 
augmented by the fees. 



B L A C 



B L A C 



BISHOPTON, a village, ni the parish of Erskine, 
Upper ward of the county of Renfrew ; containing 315 
inhabitants. It is a modern village, situated on the 
south side of the Frith of Clyde, a short distance north 
of the road from Port-Glasgow to Paisley; and a post- 
office under the latter town, has been established, hav- 
ing three daily deliveries. 

BLACKBURN, a village, chiefly in the parish of 
Livingstone, but partly in that of Whitburn, county 
of Linlithgow, 7 miles (W. by S.) from Mid Calder ; 
containing 443 inhabitants. This village is pleasantly 
situated on the river from which it derives its name, 
and on the road from Glasgow to Edinburgh ; the in- 
habitants are partly engaged in agricultural pursuits, 
and partly in the cotton manufacture, for which there is 
an establishment, affording employment to about 120 
persons. A branch office has been established here, 
under the post-office at Whitburn. Subscriptions 
have been opened for the erection of a church ; in the 
mean time, public worship takes place in the village 
school-room, and there is a meeting-house for Inde- 
pendents. 

BLACKFORD, a parish, in the county of Perth, 
4 miles (S. W.) from Auchterarder; containing, with 
part of the quoad sacra parish of Ardoch, 17S2 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 547 are in the village. This place pro- 
bably derives its name from the ancient wordywd, a 
way ; being equidistant from the towns of Perth and 
Stirling, between which it formed the principal line of 
communication. The parish is bounded on the north 
by the river Earn, and on the south by the river Devon, 
and is about 10 miles in length, and 5 in breadth. The 
surface is considerably varied with level and elevated 
grounds ; the Ochil hills, of which the sloping accli- 
vities afford excellent pasturage for sheep, intersect the 
parish towards the south, and the low lands are fertilized 
by several small rivers, which add much to the beauty 
of the landscape. Of these, the river Machany, which 
rises in the high lands of the parish of Mutb.il, after 
flowing through this parish, falls into the Earn at Kin- 
kell. The Ruthven, which has its source at Gleneagles, 
in the parish, is but a small stream, having its course 
through the glen of Kincardine for nearly three miles, 
when, taking an easterly direction, it flows through the 
parish of Auchterarder, into the river Earn ; and the 
river Allen, which also rises at Gleneagles, takes a west- 
erly course through the parish of Dunblane, and falls 
into the river Forth. The soil, especially in the north- 
ern part of the parish, is rich, and in good cultivation ; 
the system of agriculture is improved, and considerable 
portions of waste land have been reclaimed, and are 
at present under tillage. Much attention has also been 
paid to the growth of plantations, which ;have been ex- 
tensively formed on the wide moor of Tullibardine, and 
in other parts ; the principal trees of older growth are, 
oak and birch. At Tullibardine, are still remaining 
a few trees of a plantation of thorn, raised by a ship- 
wright, in commemoration of the building of a large 
ship for James IV., in which he had been employed. 
The rateable annual value of the parish amounts to 
£10,700. 

The village is inhabited principally by persons en- 
gaged in weaving, and the manufacture of a coarse kind 
of woollen-cloth affords employment to a considerable 
number ; a factory has been erected, in which machinery 
131 



has been introduced, and from seventy to eighty per- 
sons are regularly employed, exclusively of many who 
work at their own homes. Two fairs are held annually ; 
but from the proximity of Auchterarder and other mar- 
ket-towns, they are not much attended. The parish is 
in the presbytery of Auchterarder and synod of Perth 
and Stirling; the minister's stipend is £206. 11., with 
a manse, and a glebe valued at £18 per annum. The 
church, built in 1738, and recently repaired, is adapted 
for a congregation of 500 persons. The parochial 
school affords a liberal course of instruction; the master 
has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with the customary fees, 
and a good dwelling-house and garden. There are 
several remains of ancient military works, connected 
probably with the Roman camp at Ardoch, to which 
station they are supposed to have been out-works ; also 
numerous cairns and tumuli in different parts of the 
parish. Some remains likewise exist of the castles of 
Kincardine and Ogilvy, the walls of which are of great 
thickness ; and at Gleneagles and Tullibardine, are the 
remains of chapels. The lands of Tullibardine give the 
title of Marquess to the Duke of Atholl. 

BLACKNESS, a village, in the parish of Carriden, 
county of Linlithgow, 3 miles (E.) from Borrowstoun- 
ness; containing 10" inhabitants. This place, formerly 
the sea-port of Linlithgow, and the residence of nume- 
rous merchants, who carried on an extensive trade with 
Holland, Bremen, | Hamburgh, and Dantzic, in which 
they employed thirty-six ships of large burthen, is now 
an inconsiderable hamlet, distinguished only by its royal 
castle, which is one of the four Scottish fortresses kept 
in repair according to the articles of the union of the 
two kingdoms. The harbour and quay are in a ruinous 
state ; the custom-house has been converted into lodg- 
ings for the few individuals who, during the summer, 
resort to this deserted spot for the benefit of bathing ; 
and the only business carried on is the occasional ship- 
ping of bricks and tiles made at Brickfield, in the im- 
mediate vicinity, and the landing of lime and manure. 
The castle, which is still entire, is situated on a pro- 
montory on the south shore of the Frith of Forth, near 
the influx of the Black burn, and at a small distance 
from the village; and is supposed to occupy the site of 
a Roman station on the wall of Antonine, which, accord- 
ing to most writers, terminated at this place ; but the 
date of the present structure is not distinctly known. 
In 14S1, the castle, with eight ships at that time in the 
harbour, was burnt by the English fleet ; and in 14S8, 
the nobles who had rebelled against James III., held a 
conference with that monarch here, which was called 
the "Pacification of Blackness." In 1542, Cardinal 
Beaton was imprisoned in the castle, by the Earl of 
Arran, then regent, but he was soon liberated, through 
the influence of the clergy ; and after the battle of 
Pinkie, in 1547, Lord Clinton, the admiral of the Eng- 
glish fleet, took three, and burnt seven, of the vessels 
lying in the harbour. The castle was garrisoned by the 
French forces, under the command of General D'Esse, 
in 1548, and also under the regency of Mary of Guise ; 
but in 1560, it was taken by the sheriff of Linlithgow. 
In 1571, it was garrisoned by Claude Hamilton, a zea- 
lous adherent to the interests of Mary, Queen of Scots ; 
and by him it was held, in her name, till 15*3, when it 
was delivered up to the Earl of Morton, then regent. 
During the progress of the Reformation, and the con- 

S2 



B L A I 



B L AI 



tests that arose between the advocates of Presbytery and 
Episcopacy, the castle was frequently a place of confine- 
ment for the non-conforming clergy ; and in the latter 
part of the 18th, and earlier part of the 19th century, 
it was chiefly occupied by French prisoners of war. 
The earls of Linlithgow were hereditary constables of 
the castle, till 1715, when that office was forfeited, on 
the attainder of James the sixth earl, for his participa- 
tion in the Earl of Mar's rebellion. There are a gover- 
nor and a lieutenant-governor attached to the castle, 
neither of whom is resident ; and the garrison, till 
lately, consisted of two gunners, a Serjeant, two cor- 
porals, and fifteen privates ; but, at present, the only 
inmates are an inferior officer and his family. The 
buildings consist of a principal tower, with ramparts 
commanding the entrance, and a court-yard, and have 
accommodation for 100 men. 

BLACKRIDGE, lately a quoad sacra parish, chiefly 
in the parish of Torphichen, county of Linlithgow, 
3 miles (N.) from Bathgate ; containing 900 inhabitants, 
of whom 94 are in the village. This parish included 
portions of the civil parishes of Torphichen, Shotts, 
Bathgate, Slamannan, and New Monkland ; the village 
is situated at the west end of the first-named parish, 
near the river Avon, and the inhabitants are employed 
in agriculture, and in the mines and quarries in the 
neighbourhood. The church was erected by subscrip- 
tion, in 1S38, and is a neat structure, containing 400 
sittings ; the minister derives a stipend of about £60, 
from the seat-rents and collections. The parochial school 
is well attended ; the master has a salary of £29, the 
proceeds of bequests, and 100 merks, together nearly 
£35; and the fees average about £11. A parochial 
library has been established. 

BLADNOCH, a village, in the parish and county of 
Wigton, 1 mile (S.) from Wigton ; containing 215 
inhabitants. This village is pleasantly situated on the 
north bank of the river Bladnoch, over which is a 
bridge, connecting it with the parish of Kirkinncr, on 
the south. An extensive distillery has been established 
for the making of whisky, in which about twenty per- 
sons are constantly employed, and which annually con- 
sumes about 16,000 bushels of barley. There is also a 
small salmon-fishery carried on here, and various kinds 
of white fish are taken in the bay. 

BLAIR-ATHOLL, a parish, in the county of Perth, 
20 miles (N. by W.) from Dunkeld; containing, with 
part of Tenandry quoad sacra parish, 2231 inhabitants. 
This place, of which the name, in the Gaelic language, 
signifies "the plain of Atholl," comprises the four an- 
cient parishes of Blair, Lude, Kilmaveonaig, and Strowan, 
united into one parish in the early part of the 17th cen- 
tury. In the reign of James V., that monarch, with his 
mother, and the pope's legate, were entertained at Blair 
Castle with great hospitality, by the Earl of Atholl, 
who, for their diversion, accompanied them in a cele- 
brated hunt on the north side of the mountain Beinn- 
ghlo. The castle afterwards became the head-quarters 
of Viscount Dundee, in the memorable battle of Killie- 
crankie, which took place on the fields of Runrory, on 
the north side of Girnag mountain. It was, indeed, fre- 
quently occupied as an important military station, not 
only during the times of feudal warfare, but also in the 
rebellion of 1745, and in 1746 was garrisoned with a 
force of 300 men, under the command of Sir Andrew 
132 



Agnew, whom the Duke of Cumberland, on his arrival 
at Perth, had despatched to take up his quarters here, 
and so cut off all communication between the northern 
and southern parts of the country. In order to gain 
possession of this station, Lord George Murray, accom- 
panied by several officers of the Highland army, and 
with a force of 100 men, was sent to surprise the castle, 
which, from its scanty supply of provisions, he attempted 
to reduce by famine ; and having made prisoners of all 
the detached out-posts, he took up his head-quarters in 
the village, and closely blockaded the castle. But, after 
having reduced the garrison to the last extremity, he 
suddenly raised the blockade, and returned to join the 
army of the Pretender, at Inverness ; and on the follow- 
ing day, the garrison were relieved by the Earl of Craw- 
ford, and received the thanks of the Duke of Cumber- 
land, for their gallant defence. 

The parish is bounded on the north by the Grampian 
hills, and is about thirty miles in length, and eighteen 
miles in average breadth, comprising 105,000 acres of 
hill pasture, 3000 arable land under cultivation, and 
2500 woods and plantations. The surface is finely 
varied with hills and valleys ; on both sides of the river 
Garry, is an extensive and fertile plain, constituting the 
vale of Garry, and extending from the pass of Killie- 
crankie to Strowan, terminating in hills of which the 
slopes are under cultivation, and the summits clothed 
with heather. In the Grampian range are several lofty 
mountains, of which Beinn-ghlo, Beinn-mheadhonaidh, 
Beinn-chait, and Beinn-deirg are the principal ; the 
mountain Beinn-ghlo, which stands upon a base many 
miles in circumference, has four detached summits, of 
which one has an altitude of 3720 feet above the level 
of the sea, and the others are little inferior in height. 
The surface is also diversified with lakes, of which one 
of the chief is Loch Garry, near the boundary of the 
counties of Perth and Inverness ; it is inclosed on all 
sides by hills of lofty elevation, and is about six miles 
in circumference, abounding with trout of excellent 
quality. Loch Tummel is a picturesque sheet of water, 
four miles in length, and nearly a mile in breadth, taste- 
fully embellished with an island of artificial formation, 
on which are the ruins of a castle, and inclosed with 
banks richly cultivated, and interspersed with small 
hamlets ;■ this lake also abounds with pike and trout of 
the largest size. The river Garry issues from the lake 
of that name, and, after a course of nearly thirty miles, 
in which it receives the streams of the Erichkie, Bruar, 
and Tilt, falls into the Tummel, at the south-eastern 
extremity of the parish ; the Tummel has its source in 
Loch Tummel, and urges its rapid and impetuous course 
but for a short way through the parish. The river Tilt, 
from the loch of that name, on the summit of the Gram- 
pian range, after a course of sixteen miles, flows into 
the Garry at Blair, and, in its progress, displays a suc- 
cession of beautifully picturesque scenery. Almost all 
the rivers form interesting cascades ; the falls of the 
Garry, obstructed in its course by shelving rocks, are 
peculiarly interesting, and those of the Tummel are 
magnificently grand, from the vast body of water which 
is precipitated from rocks clothed to their summits with 
stately birch-trees. The Bruar, also, descending from 
a height of many feet, forms a succession of cataracts, 
rendered still more striking from the beauty of the sur- 
rounding scenery. v 



BLAI 



B L A I 



The son, is various; in the valleys, and on the slopes 
of the hills, a light loam, or a gravelly soil, prevails, 
and the more elevated lands are mossy. The chief crops 
are, different kinds of grain, and turnips, for which lat- 
ter the soil is well adapted, and of which large quan- 
tities are raised ; the farm-houses are generally well 
built, and considerable improvements have been made 
in husbandry, under the auspices of the Atholl Club, 
which distributes annual prizes for the promotion of 
agriculture and the breed of stock. The cattle are 
usually of the black Highland breed, to the rearing of 
which great attention is paid ; about 1200 milch cows 
are regularly pastured, and 30,000 sheep are annually 
fed, all of the black-faced breed. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £11,S47. Atholl forest, formerly 
enjoying many privileges, is partly in the parish, and 
about 12,000 head of red deer are found within its 
limits. The natural woods situated in the parish are 
principally oak, ash, birch, alder, and aspen; and the 
plantations, which are very extensive, consist of Scotch 
firs, spruce, and larch, with lime, elm, and plane trees, of 
which there are some very fine specimens in the park of 
Blair. The substratum is chiefly limestone, part of the 
great vein extending from near Callender to Braemar, 
and is quarried for manure and other purposes, but not 
in sufficient quantity for the lands, in consequence of 
the scarcity of fuel for burning it ; marble, also, of 
various colours is abundant, especially a vein of green 
colour, much esteemed for mantel-pieces and other orna- 
mental purposes. 

Blair Castle, already noticed, the baronial seat of the 
Murray family, and the residence of Lord Glenlyon, is a 
spacious well-built structure, supposed to have been 
erected by John Cumin, of Strathbogie, who became Earl 
of Atholl in right of his wife ; in 1750, it was reduced 
by the taking down of two stories, and converted into a 
family mansion. It contains a handsome suite of state 
apartments, but its castellated appearance has been lost, 
by the removal of its turrets ; it is inclosed in a very 
extensive park, embellished with ancient timber and 
thriving plantations, and the grounds, which are laid 
out with great taste, command a rich variety of scenery. 
Her Majesty and Prince Albert, on their second visit to 
Scotland, spent three weeks at this place, in September 
1S44 ; the castle was prepared by Lord Glenlyon for 
Her Majesty's reception, and he introduced to the royal 
notice the most remarkable features of the vicinity. 
Lude House, a spacious modern mansion, likewise 
within the parish, occupies an elevated site, and forms 
an interesting feature in the scenery of the Garry ; Auch- 
leeks is also a handsome modern mansion, pleasantly 
situated. A post-office has been established, which has 
a daily delivery; and fairs are held at Blair-Atholl, on 
the 2nd of February for general traffic, and the third 
Wednesday in May for horses and cattle ; at Tilt Bridge, 
on the 25th of June and the 20th of August (O. S.) for 
cattle ; and at Trinafour, on the third Tuesday in March 
(O. S.), for horses, and the Wednesday in October be- 
fore the tryst of Falkirk, for cattle. The parish is in 
the presbytery of Dunkeld and synod of Perth and Stir- 
ling ; the minister's stipend is about £200, with a 
manse, and the glebe is valued at £150 per annum. 
The parochial church is a handsome and substantial 
edifice, of modern erection, adapted for 650 persons, 
and the churchyard is spacious ; a church was erected 
133 



in the Strowan district, in 1829, for a congregation of 
450 persons, and divine service is performed on two 
consecutive Sundays at Blair-Atholl, and every third 
Sunday at Strowan. The old church of Kilmaveonaig 
was rebuilt in 1791, and appropriated as a place of wor- 
ship by the Episcopalians ; and there is also a meeting- 
house for Baptists. The parochial school affords educa- 
tion to about a hundred scholars ; the master has a salary 
of £34. 4. 4., with £30 fees, and a house and garden. 
There are vestiges of an old religious establishment on 
the banks of the Tilt, called Cill Aindreas, consisting 
chiefly of sepulchral remains ; and in various parts of 
the parish are upright stones, the remnants of Druidical 
circles, near some of which are traces of ancient ceme- 
teries. The walls of the church of Lude are also still 
remaining. 

BLAIR LOGIE, a village, in the parish of Logie, 
county of Perth, 2 miles (N. N. E.) from Stirling ; con- 
taining 124 inhabitants. This village, situated at the 
foot of the Ochil hills, is celebrated for its beauty and 
cleanliness, and the salubrity of its air, and is much 
visited by invalids, for its goat's-whey ; it contains a 
small library belonging to the parish, and there is a 
place of worship connected with the Relief denomination. 
On the heights is the Castle of Blair-Logie, now occupied 
by a farmer. 

BLAIRBURN, a village, in the parish of Ctjlross, 
county of Perth ; containing 85 inhabitants. 

BLAIRDAFF, Aberdeen.- — See Garioch. 

BLAIRGOWRIE, a burgh, market-town, and pa- 
rish, in the county of Perth, 5S miles (N. by W.) from 
Edinburgh ; containing 3700 inhabitants, of whom 2600 
are in the town. The term Blair is of doubtful etymo- 
logy, by some supposed to be derived from a Gaelic 
root signifying a mossy locality, and by others thought 
to come from a word denoting the scene of a battle or 
of war : Gowrie was the ancient denomination of the 
district in which the parish is situated, and has been 
used as an affix to distinguish it from several other 
places of the name of Blair. The town stands not far 
from the eastern boundary of the county, bordering on 
Forfarshire, and on a pleasant eminence on the western 
bank of the river Ericht, forming the first step of the 
acclivity of the hill of Blair. From its secluded and 
remote neighbourhood, it has been free from the colli- 
sions of the great political and religious tumults which 
have been felt so frequently and extensively throughout 
the country, the only historical recollection noted of 
this kind being the passage of the celebrated Montrose 
through the place, in one of his hostile descents into 
the valley of Strathmore. But what, at the commence- 
ment of the present century, was a small, quiet, and 
inconsiderable village, has since grown into a bustling 
manufacturing and market town ; and not only the in- 
habitants of this spot, but those of the parish generally, 
have exchanged their rural for a commercial character, 
and the peasantry have given place to artizans, partly 
through the breaking up of the cottar system, by the 
consolidation of small farms, but chiefly through the 
extensive introduction of manufactures. About forty 
years since, the village consisted of small, unsightly 
thatched houses, collected in the vicinity of the church ; 
but it now contains some good streets, well lighted with 
gas, supplied by a joint-stock company established in 
1834; and its new and attractive character has, for 



BLAI 



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some time, been gradually drawing, from the other 
parts of the parish, a considerable portion of the people 
to take up their residence here. It is approached by 
several good roads from different quarters ; but the 
most considerable is the great north road from Perth to 
Fort-George, which enters the parish at the southern 
boundary, about two miles distant, and crosses the 
Ericht a little way from the town, by the bridge of 
Blairgowrie. This river, forming the eastern boundary 
of the parish for ten miles, is, in connexion with its 
bridges and roads, a lively and interesting feature in 
the strikingly beautiful scenery which is commanded 
by the well-cultivated hill of Blair ; it has its course 
through diversified and romantic combinations of woods 
and rocks, and falls into the Isla at Cupar-Grange. The 
hill of Blair, immediately behind the town, is orna- 
mented with the church, and skirted by a deep well- 
wooded ravine stretching down abruptly nearly to the 
river. From the churchyard, a view of the first order is 
obtained, embracing the whole valley of Strathmore, in 
the northern portion of which part of the parish lies, and 
terminated on the east by the Hunter hill of Glammis, 
and on the south by the picturesque chain of the Sid- 
laws. Near the town, are the mansions of Newton and 
Ardblair, large structures in the castellated style, the 
former commanding beautiful and extensive prospects 
over Strathmore, and being itself seen as a conspicuous 
object from several parts ; and not far distant, is Blair- 
gowrie House, a large edifice, situated on the low grounds 
to the south of the town, the whole of the vicinity of 
which partakes of that varied and rich scenery charac- 
teristic of the lower or southern division of the parish, 
the northern district exhibiting the features of a high- 
land locality. 

The spinning-wheel, formerly so much in use here, 
has been entirely superseded by machinery ; and there 
are at present in operation, worked by water-power, 
five mills, employing about 200 hands, who are engaged 
in the spinning of flax and tow into yarn. The flax 
used is imported into Dundee from the Baltic, and, after 
being spun, is either taken to the former places for sale, 
or disposed of to manufacturers in the neighbourhood, 
and in Alyth and Cupar-Angus. The value of flax 
annually consumed at three mills near the town, is from 
£20,000 to £26,000 per annum, and the value of yarn 
spun at the same mills, from £33,000 to £36,000. 
About 350 persons are occupied in weaving yarn, by 
hand-looms, into cloth of different fabrics, consisting of 
fine dowlas and drill, but especially Osnaburghs and 
coarse sheetings ; and these are sold at Dundee, though 
sometimes shipped, on the part of the manufacturer, 
direct to North and South America and France. The 
only other branch of trade carried on is that of salmon- 
fishing, which, however, is in a very low state, the rental 
for the whole course of the Ericht, from the Keith to 
the boundary of the parish, being only £21. 12. per 
annum. This change from its former extent, which was 
very considerable, is owing partly to the circumstance 
of there being fisheries on the Tay and Isla, and partly 
to the erection of the numerous mills on the river, 
which in summer drain off nearly the whole of the 
water. A general post-office is established in the town • 
and besides the road from Perth to Fort-George, already 
noticed, there is a road from Blairgowrie to Cupar- 
Angus, made turnpike in 1332, which quits the parish 
134 



about two miles south of the town ; and the line of road 
from Kirriemuir, Forfar, and other places, to Dunkeld, 
passes through the town, in crossing the parish from 
east to west. A market, which is well attended, is held 
on Wednesday, in alternate weeks, during winter and 
spring, for cattle and grain ; and there are annual fairs 
in the town, on the third Wednesday in March ; the 
26th of May, if it fall on Wednesday, if not, the first 
Wednesday after ; the 23rd July ; the first Wednesday 
in Nov. ; the 22nd Nov., or first Tuesday after ; and 
the Wednesday before Falkirk tryst. Blairgowrie was 
erected into a burgh of barony by charter from Charles I., 
dated 9th July, 1634, in favour of George Drummond, 
then proprietor of the estate ; and in the year 1809, the 
town was created a free burgh of barony by a charter 
from Colonel McPherson, the superior, and the bur- 
gesses were empowered to elect a bailie and four coun- 
cillors for the management of the affairs of the burgh. 
The bailie, and two of the councillors, vacate their 
offices every two years ; and their places are filled up by 
the burgesses. The police is in accordance with the 
general police act, and under the controul of the chief 
magistrate and four commissioners, the latter being 
annually elected by the £10 householders; but the 
provisions of the act respecting watching and paving 
have not been adopted, the householders being bound 
by their charter to take the watching by turns, them- 
selves personally, or to provide substitutes. There are 
two cells in the lower story of the town-house, used as a 
prison, for the punishment of offenders within the juris- 
diction of the burgh magistrate. The town is one of 
the seats of the quarterly sheriff-court, under the Small 
Debt act, and a polling-place for the county parliamen- 
tary elections. 

The parish consists of a principal portion, about 
seven miles long, and one and a half mile in average 
breadth, and of two detached parts. One of these, lying 
north-west of the large division, and separated by 
branches of the parishes of Kinloch and Bendochy, 
contains a tract on each side of the river Ardle, consist- 
ing of the estates of Blackcraig, Wester-Cally, and 
Whitehouse, and part of the district of the forest of 
Cluny, covering altogether about four squai'e miles ; the 
other, called Creuchies, situated to the north-east, and 
separated by the parish of Rattray, contains about two 
square miles. The total number of acres in the parish 
is estimated at about 16,000 or 17,000, of which about 
10,000 are, or have been, cultivated, 5000 are waste and 
pasture, and the remainder wood and plantations, com- 
prising alder, birch, hazel, mountain-ash, larch to a 
considerable extent, and Scotch fir, though none of the 
trees attain to very great size, from the nature of the 
soil. The parish comprehends the two divisions called 
highland and lowland, separated from each other by a 
branch of the Grampian range ; the former is hilly, and 
is the northern boundary of the vale of Strathmore, but 
the surface of the latter, which belongs to that vale, is 
tolerably equal, and replete with that beautiful and 
richly- diversified scenery for which the whole sweep of 
country is so highly celebrated. The Ardle and Black- 
water streams, partly skirting the northern division, 
unite near the bridge of Cally, and form the principal 
river, the Ericht, which, in the vicinity of Craighall, 
passes through some of the most wildly romantic por- 
tions of the district, the beauties of which supplied the 



BL AI 



BL AN 



author of Waverley with some of the principal features 
in the description of Tully-Veolan. The parish is partly 
bounded on the south by the Lunan ; and the Lornty, 
after flowing for some distance, falls into the Ericht 
about half a mile above the town. These streams abound 
with trout; pike, perch, and eels are plentiful in all the 
lochs, six in number, and the loch of Stormont is also 
frequented, in summer, by swarms of sea-gulls, which 
build among the reeds and rushes, and supply large 
quantities of eggs. 

The southern and most cultivated division, stretching 
southward from the hill of Blair, for four miles, to the 
middle of the valley of Strathmore, exhibits great diver- 
sity of soil, comprising stiff clay, moss, rich loam near 
the town, and alluvial earth, the last, on the bank of the 
river, being the most fertile. In this division, is the 
muir of Blair, a tract comprehending about 1000 acres, 
chiefly covered with thick plantations of Scotch fir, be- 
yond which, to the south, the soil, though thin and 
light, is mostly under cultivation. All kinds of grain 
and green crops are raised, and a considerable revenue 
is derived from pastures and the thinning of woods ; 
the sheep kept here are not bred in the parish, but are 
purchased in autumn, and fattened with turnips eaten 
off the ground in winter, for sale in the following spring. 
Much improvement has taken place in the stock of 
cattle, by crossing the native cows with the short- 
horned bulls, and large quantities are annually fed for 
the Glasgow and Falkirk markets. The husbandry is 
of a superior kind, all the modern usages having been 
introduced, and draining and inclosing have been prac- 
tised to a great extent. The rateable annual value of 
the parish is £9291. The rocks consist chiefly of grey- 
wacke, greenstone, and sandstone ; the last, which is a 
coarse red conglomerate, is extensively quarried in the 
vicinity of the town, and there are several other quar- 
ries in different parts, including one of clay-slates, not 
now in operation. The parish is in the presbytery of 
Meigle and synod of Angus and Mearns, and in the 
alternate patronage of William McPherson, Esq., of 
Blairgowrie, and James Blair Oliphant, Esq., of Gask 
and Ardblair. The minister's stipend is £19.9.. 18., with 
a manse, rebuilt in 1S3S, with the offices, at a cost of 
upwards of £500, and the glebe comprises 9i acres, 
valued at £20 per annum. The church, built in ] S24, 
on the site of the old edifice, on an eminence close to 
the town, contains 1000 sittings, a few of which are 
free. A chapel, accommodating 600 persons, in con- 
nexion with the Established Church, and situated in 
Brown's-street, was purchased for the sum of £400, of 
the Burgher congregation who had before used it, and 
was opened in 183". The money for the purchase, with 
the exception of £100 granted by the Church-extension 
Committee, was raised by subscription, and the minister's 
salary, amounting to above £140, is derived from seat- 
rents and collections. There are also a Roman Catholic 
chapel, and places of worship for members of the Free 
Church and Independents ; and a handsome edifice has 
been just erected in the early English style, consisting 
of a nave and chancel, for the use of a congregation in 
connexion with the Episcopal church ; it is named St. 
Catharine's, and was founded at the expense of the 
pastor, the Rev. John Marshall, who has ornamented 
the chancel with an elegant window of stained glass. 
Attached to it, is a library containing many works of 
135 



science and general literature, for the use of all denomi- 
nations. The parochial school affords instruction in the 
usual branches ; the master has a salary of £34. 4., 
and £60 fees. The late Mr. George Barty, tobacconist 
at Perth, and a native of this place, who died in 1838, 
bequeathed £1400 for the education of poor children 
belonging to this parish, and those of Rattray, Bendo- 
chy, and Kinloch, in the parochial school of Blairgowrie. 
The antiquities comprise several ancient cairns, and the 
ruins of the castle of Glasclune, formerly the property of 
the Blairs, and of that of Drumlochy, the seat of the 
Herons ; the buildings are near each other, and be- 
tween the possessors a feud once raged, ending in the 
ruin of the latter. A chalybeate spring, called the 
" Heugh well," situated in a cliff, is found of great 
benefit in cutaneous and dyspeptic complaints. 

BLAIRINGONE, lately a quoad sacra parish, chiefly 
in the parish of Fossoway and Tulliebole, county of 
Perth ; containing 574 inhabitants, of whom 210 are in 
New, and 79 in Old, Blairingone, 10 miles (W.) from Kin- 
ross. This parish, of which the name implies "the Field 
of Spears," included portions of the parishes of Muckart, 
Dollar, and Clackmannan, and was seated on the 
river Devon, and the road between Alloa and Kin- 
ross. Coal is abundant, and several mines are at pre- 
sent in operation ; ironstone, of which the produce is 
of very superior quality, is also wrought ; and some 
veins of an ore supposed to contain a considerable pro- 
portion of suiphur have lately been discovered. In the 
parish are several handsome residences, among which 
are, Devonshaw, a modern building in the Elizabethan 
style, beautifully situated on the south bank of the 
Devon ; and Arndean. The village is in the south- 
western part of the parish, and is chiefly inhabited by 
the work-people of the collieries. The ecclesiastical 
affairs were under the presbytery of Auchterarder and 
synod of Perth and Stirling ; the minister was appointed 
by the heads of families : the church is a neat plain 
building, erected in 1S36, by subscription, aided by a 
grant from the General Assembly's Church-extension 
Committee. There is a congregation of members of 
the Free Church, who assemble in a building of hand- 
some design, erected in 1S43 as a school for all denomi- 
nations. On the banks of the Devon is a remarkable 
spring issuing from among strata of ironstone, and 
used medicinally. 

BLAIRMORE, a hamlet, in the parish of Kenhoee, 
county of Perth ; containing 21 inhabitants. 

BLANTYRE, a parish, in the Middle ward of the 
county of Lanark ; including the villages of Auchin- 
raith, Auchintiber, Barnhill, Blantyre, Blantyre-Works, 
Hunthill, and Stonefield ; and containing 3047 inhabit- 
ants, of whom 1464 are in the village of Blantyre-Works, 
and 264 in that of Blantyre, or Kirkton, 3 miles (N. W.) 
from Hamilton, and 8| (S. S. E.) from Glasgow. The 
lands formerly belonged to the Dunbars, of Enteckin, 
in which family they remained till the Reformation, 
when they were purchased by Walter Stewart, sou of 
Lord Minto, treasurer of Scotland, upon whom, on the 
suppression of monastic establishments, the ancient 
priory of this place was bestowed by James VI., who 
also created him Lord Blantyre. The priory is said to 
have been founded by Alexander II., as a cell to the 
abbey of Jedburgh, or, according to Spottiswoode, of 
Holyrood House ; and Walter, who was prior at that 



BL A N 



BLAN 



time, was one of the commissioners appointed to nego- 
tiate for the ransom of David Bruce, the Scottish king, 
who had been made prisoner by the English, in the 
battle of Durham, in 1346. The remains of the priory, 
which are very inconsiderable, are situated on the sum- 
mit of a high rock on the bank of the river Clyde, oppo- 
site to the ruins of Bothwell Castle ; and little more 
than one of the vaults, which is still entire, with two 
gables, and a portion of the outer walls, is remaining. 
The buildings were of red granite; and the ruins form, 
in combination with the castle, an interesting feature in 
the scenery. 

The parish extends for six miles in length, from 
north to south, and varies greatly in breadth, not ave- 
raging more than one mile in the whole ; it comprises 
4170 acres, of which, excepting 200 acres of moss land 
and plantations, all is arable. The principal rivers 
are, the Clyde, which enters the parish at a short dis- 
tance below Bothwell bridge, and forms a boundary 
between this place and the parish of Bothwell for about 
three miles, flowing majestically between lofty banks 
richly clothed with wood ; and the Calder, which enters 
the parish near Rottenburn, and, after forming several 
picturesque falls, in its course along the western boun- 
dary, flows into the Clyde near Daldowie. The tributary 
streams are, the Redburn, which has its source in the 
lands of Park farm, and joins the Clyde near Bothwell 
bridge ; and two other rivulets, one rising in the lands 
of Shott, and one at Newmain, which also fall into the 
river Clyde. Salmon are taken in abundance near the 
mill-dam of Blantyre. The scenery is, in many parts, 
exceedingly beautiful ; the parish is generally well 
wooded, and diversified with gently undulating emi- 
nences and fertile dales. The soil is various, being in 
some parts a fine rich loam, in others a strong clay, and 
in others sand, with some portions of moss ; the system 
of agriculture is improved, and good crops of various 
kinds of grain are raised. Great improvement has been 
made in draining the lands, and a considerable tract 
called Blantyre moor, formerly a common, has been 
subdivided, and brought into cultivation; the farm 
houses and buildings are of superior order. The rate- 
able annual value of the parish is £82S0. Peat for fuel 
is cut on Edge Moss, and coal, of which the veins are 
but very thin, is worked at Calderside and Rottenburn ; 
limestone of a quality well adapted for building, and 
for agricultural purposes, is wrought in the southern 
part of the parish. Ironstone, also, is abundaut, and at 
Black-Craig, on the borders of the parish, not less than 
seventeen different seams are seen, superincumbent on 
each other ; the ironstone is worked in the parish of 
Kilbride, where are the openings of the mines, but the 
strata lie principally in this parish. 

The principal village is situated on an eminence over- 
looking the river Clyde, and in the midst of a beautiful 
country, embellished with timber of venerable and 
stately growth. It appears to have attained its present 
importance and extent, from the introduction of the 
cotton manufacture by Messrs. Dale and Monteith, who, 
in 1785, erected a mill for the spinning of cotton-yarn, 
and, in the year 1791, another for the making of mule 
twist. In 1813, Messrs. Monteith and Company erected 
a weaving factory, in which the number of looms has, 
since that time, increased from 450 to nearly 600 ; and 
around these works, giving profitable employment to a 
136 



large number of the population, the present village has 
been erected. In the two spinning-mills, which are 
both worked by water power, are 30,000 spindles, afford- 
ing occupation to about 500 persons ; and in the weav- 
ing establishment, the works of which are driven partly 
by water power, and partly by steam, are 600 power- 
looms, in the management of which more than 300 
persons are regularly employed. In connexion with 
these works, is an establishment for dyeing cotton-yarn 
with the Turkey red. The total number of persons 
employed in all the departments, is nearly 1000, of 
whom more than 500 are females ; the houses in the 
village are comfortable and neatly built, and it is 
watched and cleansed by persons paid by the company, 
who have also built a public washing-house, and appro- 
priated a large bleach green, on the banks of the Clyde, 
for the use of the inhabitants, who are supplied with 
hard and soft water, for domestic use, by force-pumps 
at the factory. A library has been for some years esta- 
blished, which contains an extensive collection of useful 
volumes. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Hamilton and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the minister's stipend is 
about £184, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16 
per annum. The parish church, which is not in good 
repair, was erected in 1793, and will only hold about 
300 persons. There is a chapel at the Blantyre Mills, 
erected by the company for the accommodation of 
the work-people employed there, and containing sit- 
tings for 400 persons ; the minister's stipend is paid, 
one-half by the proprietors of the works, and the other 
half from the seat-rents. A place of worship has been 
erected for members of the Free Church. The paro- 
chial school affords a liberal education; the salary of 
the master is £26, with £ 1 9 fees. There is also a school 
for the children of the workpeople at the mills, to which 
purpose the chapel is applied, during the week ; the 
master is appointed by the company, who give him a 
house and garden rent free, and a salary of £20. An- 
cient urns have been, at various times, discovered in 
several parts of the parish ; some of these were inclosed 
in a kind of kistvaen, covered by heaps of loose stones, 
and contained ashes, with remnants of half-burnt bones 
scattered round them. Within the last few years, a 
stone coffin was discovered, containing an urn of baked 
earth, in which was a skull with the teeth nearly entire 
and in good preservation ; and fragments of six larger, 
and more richly ornamented, urns were found in ano- 
ther part of the same field, which is now called " Archers 
Croft." Stone coffins have also been found at Lawhill 
and Greenhall, and other places situated within the limits 
of the parish. At Calderside, is a large hill called the 
Camp-Know, of conical form, 600 feet in circumference 
at the base, and surrounded by a moat ; and near it is a 
kind of subterraneous cavern of flags. At Park farm is 
a fine spring, which has long been in high repute for 
the cure of scorbutic affections and diseases of the eye ; 
it is strongly impregnated with sulphur, combined with 
muriate and sulphate of lime, and was formerly much 
resorted to by numerous invalids from Glasgow and its 
neighbourhood. There are also various mineral springs 
on the banks of the river Calder. The late John Miller, 
Esq., professor of law in the university of Glasgow, 
resided for some years at Milheugh, in the parish, and 
was buried in the churchyard. 



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BLEBO-CRAIGS, a village, in the parish of Kem- 
back, district of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, | a mile 
(S. E.) from Kemback ; containing 234 inhabitants. It 
lies a short distance to the north of the road from Ceres 
to St. Andrew's. On the estate of Blebo, a vein of lead- 
ore was discovered in 1/22, and was worked for some 
time, but relinquished in consequence of the expense. 
In the vicinity are extensive mills. Blebo House is an 
elegant mansion, surrounded by fine plantations. 

BLUE-ROW, a hamlet, in the parish of New Kil- 
patrick, county of Dumbarton ; containing 53 inha- 
bitants. 

BLUEVALE, a village, in the ecclesiastical district 
of Camlachie, Barony parish, county of Lanark. It 
is a suburb of the city of Glasgow, and one of the divi- 
sions recently separated from Barony parish ; and con- 
sists chiefly of small cottages, irregularly built, and 
occupied by hand-loom weavers and day-labourers. 
There are five schools connected with this place and the 
other divisions of Camlachie, Keppoch Hill, and Lady- 
well, which are attended by about 300 children. 

BOARHILLS, a village, in. the parish and district 
of St. Andrew's, county of Fife, 4 miles (S. E.) from 
St. Andrew's j containing 155 inhabitants. It is situated 
on the eastern coast, and southern point of St. Andrew's 
bay ; a little northward of it, is Mount Budda rock. 

BODDAM, a village, in the parish of Peterhead, 
district of Buchan, county of Aberdeen, 3 miles (S.) 
from Peterhead ; containing 596 inhabitants. This 
place anciently belonged to a branch of the Keith family, 
who had a strong baronial castle, situated on a rock 
overhanging the sea, and of which there are still consi- 
derable remains. The village, which is on the eastern 
coast, near the headland of Buchanness, is inhabited 
chiefly by persons employed in the fisheries, which are 
carried on to a great extent, there being two small har- 
bours, separated only by a beach of pebbles, of which 
the shore here mainly consists. In the haddock-fishery, 
commencing in March, and continuing till July, twenty- 
two boats, of four men and a boy each, are engaged, and, 
during the season, each boat takes generally about 30,000 
fish, which are cured, and dried upon the rocks, and sell 
at from £3 to £4 per thousand. The herring-fishery 
begins in July, and continues till September, and em- 
ploys twenty-three larger boats, with crews of six men 
each ; and the quantity of fish taken during the season, 
averages, when sold, about £100 for each boat. There 
are twelve boats employed during the winter months, in 
the cod and white fishery ; the fish are, cod, ling, skate, 
and turbot, and from 1200 to 1S00 are taken by each 
boat, and produce from £30 to £40. The fish cured 
here obtain a decided preference in the markets, and 
especially the haddocks, which from being dried on the 
rocks, are perfectly free from sand. The village has 
been greatly extended and improved ; and a harbour of 
greater capacity is now being constructed, which will 
have a greater depth of water than that of Peterhead, 
and of which the approach will be rendered safe by the 
lighthouse on Buchanness. 

BOGHEAD, a village, in the parish of Lesmahago, 
Upper ward of the county of Lanark; containing 198 
inhabitants. It is in the northern part of the parish, 
and on the road between Lesmahago and Strathaven. 

BOHARM, a parish, partly in the county of 
Elgin, but chiefly in that of Banff, 6 miles (W.) from 
Vol. I. — 137 



Keith; containing 1261 inhabitants. The original word 
Bucharin, or Bocharin, from which Boharm has been 
formed, is said to signify " the bow or bend about the 
hill." It was correctly applied to this locality, on 
account of the cultivated part consisting chiefly of a 
valley, stretching in a circular form around the north, 
east, and south sides of the mountain of Benagen, 
which rises abruptly from the Spey river, the boun- 
dary line of the district on the west. A church for- 
merly stood on the estate of Arndilly, called the 
church of Artendol, and it appears that, about the 
year 1215, one of the family of Freskyn de Moravia, 
who had large estates here, granted to the cathedral 
of Moray, " the church of Artendol, with all its per- 
tinents, excepting the corn-tithes of the two Davochs, 
which lay next to his castle of Bucharin." It is there- 
fore conjectured that the old parish was named Artendol, 
and that, upon the ruin of the church there, the chapel 
of the castle of Bucharin was used in its stead, as the 
parochial church, in consequence of which the parish was 
called Bucharin. The parish was augmented in 1/S8, 
to the extent of about one-third, by the annexation of 
part of the suppressed parish of Dundurcus, lying on 
the east of the river ; the whole measures about twelve 
miles in extreme length, and four at. its greatest breadth, 
comprising 4739 acres' under tillage, besides a large 
extent of wood, mountain-pasture, and waste. The lofty 
eminence of Benagen, situated about the middle of 
the parish, and attaining an elevation of 1500 feet 
above the sea, occupies so large a portion of the surface, 
as to render the valley at its base comparatively nar- 
row. At its summit level, the valley is about 400 feet 
above the sea, and from this height gradually descends 
towards each extremity, when it abruptly falls into the 
valley of the Spey. The sides of the vale are cultivated 
for a considerable distance upwards, as well as the bed ; 
and the southern and eastern sides of the mountain, 
nearly half way up, have been brought under tillage. 

The Fiddich, a stream of some magnitude, flowing 
between beautifully-wooded banks, forms a confluence 
with the Spey near the bridge of Craigellachie, from 
which point to the distance of a mile above the village 
of Fochabers, the latter river separates this parish from 
Rothes. Both these streams are subject to violent 
floodings, and often, by the sudden and irresistible 
impulse of their waters, destroy the bridges, crops, 
tenements, and almost every thing in their way. A 
very ancient bridge, chiefly of wood, formerly crossed 
the Spey, near the influx of the Orchil, and was sup- 
posed to have been constructed by the Romans under 
Severus ; but no remains of it have been visible for 
many years, and the passage was afterwards accom- 
plished by a ferry-boat. An establishment called the 
hospital of St. Nicholas stood near it, on the Boharm 
side of the river, founded in the beginning of the 13th 
century, by Muriel de Pollock, heiress of Rothes, and 
dedicated to God, the Virgin, and St. Nicholas, for the 
reception of poor passengers. Andrew, Bishop of 
Moray, granted to the hospital the church of Rothes, 
with its pertinents, and Alexander II., in 1232, endowed 
it with a chaplaincy. It is supposed that the bridge 
was kept in repair by this house, and that, about the 
time of the Reformation, the structure either fell to 
decay, or was destroyed by a flood, and, having lost its 
means of support, was not renewed ; the ruins of the 

" T 



B O H A 



BOIN 



hospital were removed, and a new bridge built, a few 
years since, at a cost of £3500, on the suspension prin- 
ciple, with a span of 235 feet. The burn of Orchil, 
formed by a collection of the waters of the lower 
part of the district where a valley from Keith eastward 
opens into the circular valley, runs rapidly through 
a rocky and romantic channel, into the Spey, at Boat 
of Bridge ; and the rivulet Aldernie conveys the waters 
of the upper district to the Fiddich. These streams 
abound with trout, which, as well as grilse and salmon, 
are also found in the Spey. 

The soil in some parts is gravelly, and in others 
sandy, but is more frequently clayey, and very reten- 
tive of moisture ; all sorts of grain are raised, though 
the wheat is in small quantity, and most kinds of 
grasses and green crops. Much attention is paid to 
turnips, the growth of which has lately increased, 
and large applications of bone-manure have been made, 
with great success ; lint also is cultivated, but oats are 
the staple article, and are of excellent quality, the 
other grain being comparatively inferior. Lime is ex- 
tensively used for agi'icultural purposes, and draining 
and the improvement of waste land have been carried 
on with spirit ; but good inclosures and farm-buildings 
are still much needed, though, in several parts, the 
latter have been greatly improved. The black-cattle, 
which are small in size, are chiefly the Highland and 
Aberdeenshire, and the sheep are the Leicesters and 
Lintons, the former kept on the lower, and the latter 
on the higher, grounds ; there are some sheep, also, 
of the large English breed, valued for the wool. The 
rateable annual value of the parish is £3/64. Gneiss 
is the prevailing rock in the southern portion of the 
district ; talc-slate is found in the principal valley, and 
up to the summit of the hills, traversed by veins of 
quartz, and by a strip of primitive limestone, originating 
in the great limestone formation of Banffshire. This last 
is wrought for agricultural use, and also for building, 
being well adapted for the latter purpose, on account of 
a siliceous mixture. The rocks in the valley of the Spey 
are gneiss and quartz, in some places overlaid by a large 
deposit of red clay and gravel, spreading itself extensively 
in several directions ; boulders of granite and hornblende 
are numerous, and supply an excellent material for build- 
ings. Mica-slate is also found. 

The woods and plantations form a prominent feature 
in the scenery, and comprise almost every description of 
trees grown in the country. In the south-west corner 
of the parish, on the bank of the Spey, is the mansion- 
house of Arndilly, occupying an eminence once the site 
of the church, the remains of which were removed to 
make way for the present residence, and the ancient 
glebe now forms part of the lawn before the mansion. 
It is situated in a recess of Benagen, nearly surrounded 
by wood, with the river in front, and commanding fine 
views. The only other mansion is Auchlunkart, a spa- 
cious residence in the midst of plantations, and enlivened 
by a pleasing brook ; it has a colonnade and portico in 
the Grecian style, and a conservatory, attached to the 
southern portion, communicating with the drawing- 
room. The parish is in the presbytery of Aberlour and 
synod of Moray, and in the patronage of the Crown and 
the Earl of Fife ; the minister's stipend is returned at 
£244. 16. 7-, with a manse, built in 1811, and a glebe 
valued at £22. 10. per annum. The church stands nearly 
138 



in the centre of the parish, and was erected, in the 
year 1793, upon the boundary line of the old parish 
and the annexed portion of Dundurcus ; it accommo- 
dates 700 persons. The parochial, or grammar, school 
affords instruction in the usual branches ; the master 
has a salary of £34. 4. 5., with a house, £17 fees, and a 
portion of the Dick bequest, The parish also contains 
a parochial library, and a savings' bank, instituted in 
1821. The castle of Bucharin, now Galval, supposed 
to have been built by the Freskyns, is the chief anti- 
quity, consisting of a fine ruin, situated on an eminence 
between the brooks Aldernie and Fiddich : silver spoons 
were found under it, some years since ; and lately, from 
beneath a stone in the floor of the oratory, a silver ring 
was taken up, on which was a small shield, with two 
martial figures. James Ferguson, the celebrated astro- 
nomer, received the rudiments of his education here ; he 
died in the year 17 66. 

BOINDIE, a parish, in the county of Banff, 3 miles 
(W.) from Banff; containing, with the village of White- 
hills, 1501 inhabitants. This place, from which Banff 
was disjoined about the year 1635, was anciently called 
Inverboindie, signifying " the mouth of the Boindie," 
in consequence of the situation of the old church, now 
in ruins, near the spot where the small stream of the 
Boindie falls into the sea. The word Boindie is sup- 
posed to be a diminutive of Boyn, the name of a larger 
stream bounding the parish on the west. The parish is 
bounded by the Moray Frith, and is nearly of triangular 
form, the northern line measuring between two and three 
miles, the south-eastern about five miles and a half, and 
the western boundary between four and five miles. It 
comprises 5000 Scottish acres, of which 3600 are culti- 
vated, 600 plantations, and the remainder uncultivated, 
waste, and pasture. The surface is level, with the ex- 
ception of the fine cultivated valley of the Boindie, and 
is but little elevated above the sea ; the coast, on the 
north, is in general rocky, with a portion of sandy 
beach, and at the eastern extremity is the Knockhead, 
a headland running out into a reef of rocks, visible at 
half-tide, called the Salt-Stones. Here the coast turns 
southerly, forming one side of a bay ; and the shore be- 
tween this point and the part where the Boindie empties 
itself into the sea, measures something less than a mile, 
and consists of a beach of sand and gravel. The har- 
bours are, one situated at the fishing village of White- 
hills, of small extent, with about ten feet depth of water 
at spring tides, used for two or three vessels employed 
in the herring-fishery, and the importation of salt, coal, 
&c. ; and another a little to the east, affording also 
accommodation for the prosecution of the herring and 
salmon fishings, and for the exportation of tiles. 

The climate, in the upper part of the parish, is 
humid and bleak, but in the opposite part dry and salu- 
brious. The soil most prevalent is a light earth, on a 
retentive subsoil, the exceptions being certain tracts 
in the centre of the parish, chiefly clay and loam 
of rich quality, and some land in the eastern portion 
consisting of a deep, black, sandy mould on a porous 
subsoil, which produces heavy and early crops. This 
parish was one of the first in the north of Scotland in 
which the system of alternate crops, and turnip hus- 
bandry, were practised, having been introduced here 
about the year 1754, by the last Earl of Findlater, at 
that time Lord Deskford, who also formed the older 



13 O I N 



BOLE 



plantations in the place. Oats and bailey are the prin- 
cipal kinds of grain, and among the green crops, the 
cultivation of turnips receives much attention. The 
range of pasture is limited, but 1000 head of oxen are 
annually grazed, comprising the polled Buchan and 
Banffshire horned breeds, with some crosses with the 
Teeswater stock, many of which are fed for the London 
market. The rateable annual value of the parish is 
£4168. The rocks comprise greywacke, primitive lime- 
stone, slate, and hornblende; and to the east of Whitehills, 
is a diluvial clay, in extensive beds, containing specimens 
of belemnites, cornua ammonis, &c, and supplying ma- 
terial for a brick and tile work. The wood, consisting, 
for the most part, of Scotch fir, with sprinklings of 
larch, beech, and other trees, is generally in a thriving 
condition ; and there are some portions of hard-wood 
near the ancient castle of Boyn, which, being favoured 
by shelter and a superior soil, are in an exceedingly 
flourishing state. This mansion, the family seat of 
the Ogilvies till the transfer of the estates to the 
ancestor of the present owner, at the beginning of the 
last century, is beautifully situated at the western ex- 
tremity of the parish, on the Boyn water, and is now 
ruinous. The surrounding scenery, among which are 
visible the remains of a more ancient mansion, is highly 
picturesque ; and attached to the castle is an orchard, 
abounding in black and white wild cherries. The bleach- 
ing and preparation of threads and stockings for market, 
were formerly carried on to some extent, but the only 
work connected with manufactures now existing is a 
wool-carding mill, on the burn of Boyn, attached to 
which are works for the weaving and dyeing of cloth. 
There are also a saw-mill, a lint-mill, a flour and barley 
mill, and several meal-mills. The turnpike-road from 
Banff to Portsoy and Inverness runs through the parish, 
from east to west, and a branch shoots off to Keith 
and Huntly, besides which there are several good 
county roads, and numerous bridges over the streams, 
for facility of communication. A cattle-fair has been 
recently instituted at Ordens, and is held eight times 
yearly. 

The parish is in the presbytery of Fordyce and synod 
of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of the Earl of Sea- 
field ; the minister's stipend is £204. 19. 3., with an 
excellent manse, just built, and a glebe valued at £12 per 
annum. The church, accommodating 600 persons, was 
erected in 1773 : the ruin of the old edifice still re- 
mains, with its burial-ground, and stands on a site near 
the sea, where a battle with the Danes is supposed to 
have taken place, in the reign of Malcolm II., to whose 
personal friend, St. Bovenden, or Brandon, a monk, the 
edifice was dedicated. The members of the Free Church 
and the Wesleyans have places of worship. The paro- 
chial school affords instruction in Greek, Latin, and 
mathematics, in addition to the usual branches ; the 
master has a salary of £25. 12. 4., and £22. 12. fees, 
and also shares in the Dick bequest. The Rev. James 
Stewart, a native of the parish, left, in 1S09, a sum now 
amounting to £390, the produce to be equally divided 
for the support of six poor persons, and for the educa- 
tion of six boys, who are natives. There are several 
remains of Druidical circles, cairns, and military works ; 
and various relics of antiquity have, at different times, 
been found, the most interesting of which are, a short 
Roman sword, deposited in the armoury at Duff House, 
139 



and a seal, composed of fine clay-slate, marked with the 
arms of Bishop James Kennedy, who founded the uni- 
versity of St. Andrew's. Thomas Ruddiman, the well- 
known author of a Latin grammar, was a native of the 
parish. 

BOLE, a hamlet, in the parish of Fiescobie, county 
of Forfar ; containing 17 inhabitants. 

BOLESKINE and ABERTARFF, a parish, in the 
county of Inverness; containing the village and post- 
town of Fort-Augustus, 131 miles (N. W.) from Edin- 
burgh; and comprising 1876 inhabitants. The name 
of Boleskine has usually been traced to the Gaelic term 
Bail-os-cionn, which signifies " the town hanging above 
the loch" (Loch Ness). Another derivation, however, has 
been assigned to it, by which it is identified with the com- 
pound term Boile-eas-ceann ; ceann signifying "height" 
or " summit," eas a " cataract," and boile " fury," which, 
taken together, would mean " the summit of the furious 
cascade," viz., the fall of Foyers. The whole of the 
parish, previously to the fifteenth century, was the pro- 
perty of the Lovat family ; and before that period, it is 
supposed to have been possessed by the Cummins, a 
very powerful and warlike clan ; the place of Fort- 
Augustus being still called, in the common language of 
the district, Kilkhuiman, or "the burial-place of the 
Cummins." Strath-herric, a district of Boleskine, was 
anciently possessed by the clan Grant, the time and 
cause of whose departure are uncertain. Before the 
year 1545, the parish is said to have been occupied by 
the tribes of Mc Gruer, Me Imesheir, and Mc Tavish, re- 
tainers of the Lovat family, and the principal of whom, 
having accompanied Lord Lovat, in his expedition to 
settle the heir of the Clanronald family in his father's 
estate, were, in their return from the Hebrides, inter- 
cepted at the east end of Lochlochy, by the clan 
McDonald, and almost extirpated. The numerous off- 
spring descended from the Frasers killed in that en- 
gagement, in process of time, spread throughout the 
parish ; and Foyers is now the seat of the representa- 
tive of this ancient and powerful clan. The parish is 
twenty-one miles long, and about ten broad, and its sur- 
face is considerably diversified throughout. The district 
of Strath-herric consists of flat lands, with a few undu- 
lations, near which is a great extent of hilly ground, and 
in the eastern quarter is a range of high hills called 
Monadhliath : tracts of low land are to be seen in other 
parts, suited to the growth of oats, barley, and potatoes. 
There are about twelve lakes, exclusive of Loch Ness, 
which is twenty-four miles long, and about one mile 
and a half broad, and bounds the parish, on the north, 
for fourteen miles : this lake, in the middle, is from 106 
to 130 fathoms deep, and near the sides from 65 to 75, 
and, from its great depth, never freezes : the ground 
around rises to a considerable height, and is ornamented 
with a variety of trees. In Abertarff, are two streams 
that fall into Loch Ness, named Oich and Tarff, which 
latter gives name to the district of Abertarff; and there 
are two celebrated cascades in the parish, formed by 
the same river, within less than half a mile of each, 
other, and known by the name of the fall of Foyers, the 
grandeur and magnificence of which, increased by the 
sublimity of the surrounding scenery, can be adequately 
conceived by those only who have beheld the spectacle. 
The soil exhibits all the varieties of gravel, clay, till, 
loam, and peat-moss, and is generally of a poor or mid- 

T2 



BOLT 



BONA 



dling character ; the parish is mainly devoted to the rear- 
ing of sheep, of which about 30,000 are kept, all of the 
Cheviot breed, and the wool is sold chiefly to wool- 
staplers in the north of England. The greater part of 
the district is without inclosures, but good farm-build- 
ings have been erected on the principal lands, where, 
also, good fences are seen : the rocks consist of blue 
and red granite, which exists in large quantities, and 
limestone is also plentiful, but not much wrought. The 
rateable annual value of the parish is £5SS7. There is 
a salmon-fishery, which lets for £30 a year. Annual 
fairs are held at Fort-Augustus, in the beginning of 
June and end of September, chiefly for the sale of cattle, 
but at which, also, some traffic is carried on by pedlers 
and others ; and occasional trysts take place in spring 
and autumn, for black cattle. The only turnpike-road 
is the old military road, which runs for about twenty- 
two miles, on the south side of the parish, and is kept 
in good order. There are also three district roads, in 
indifferent repair; and the Caledonian canal, which passes 
through the parish, opens a communication, by means 
of steam-packets and other vessels, to many places. 
The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery 
of Abertarff and synod of Glenelg ; the patronage be- 
longs to Professor Scott, of Aberdeen, and the minister's 
stipend is £238. 2. 2. There is an excellent manse, 
with offices, and the glebe comprises upwards of fifty- 
two acres, of which thirty-five are in good cultiva- 
tion, and the remainder indifferent pasture : till about 
seventy years since, there were two glebes in the united 
parishes, one near Fort-Augustus, and the other on the 
banks of Loch Ness, both eligible and desirable tracts 
of land, which were exchanged for the present glebe. 
The church, conveniently situated for the bulk of the 
population, was built in 1*77, and seats 42S persons. 
There is a missionary in connexion with the Established 
Church, who regularly officiates at Fort-Augustus ; and 
in the same district is a Roman Catholic chapel. In 
the parochial school, Latin, Gaelic, and the ordinary 
branches of education are taught, and the master has 
a salary of £30, with about £13. 10. fees. — See Fort- 
Augustus. 

BOLTON, a parish, in the county of Haddington, 
2 miles (S. by YV.) from Haddington; containing 341 
inhabitants. This manor, in 156S, belonged to Hep- 
burn of Bolton, who, as the associate of the Earl of 
Bothwell, was executed for the murder of the Earl of 
Darnley ; and on its consequent forfeiture, it was 
granted to William Maitland, better known as Secre- 
tary Lethington. The parish, which is about six miles 
in length, and one mile and a quarter in average breadth, 
is bounded on the east and north-east by the Gifford or 
Bolton water, and comprises 2451 Scottish acres, of 
which 295 are woodland, 55 meadow and pasture, and 
the remainder arable. The surface, though pleasingly 
undulated, possesses little other variety, seldom rising 
to any considerable elevation ; the scenery is, however, 
enriched with woods, in which are some remarkably 
fine trees. The chief stream is the Bolton water, which is 
the boundary between this parish and that of Hadding- 
ton, for nearly three miles ; it rises in the Lammermoor 
hills, and, receiving various tributary streams in its 
descent, flows with a rapid current through the parish, 
and falls into the Tyne near Haddington. It adds 
greatly to the scenery of the parish, having banks 
140 



crowned with thriving plantations, and abounds with 
trout of excellent quality. The Birns water, a small 
stream rising also in the Lammermoor hills, after form- 
ing a boundary between this parish and that of Hunibie, 
falls into the Tyne at Salton ; there are also various 
springs of good water, affording an abundant supply for 
domestic use. 

The soil is generally a fertile clay, with the exception 
of a small portion of inferior quality. The principal 
crops are, wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, and turnips ; 
the lands are well drained and inclosed, and all the 
modern improvements in husbandry, and in agricultural 
implements, have been adopted. Considerable atten- 
tion is paid to the breed of live stock, and many 
sheep and cattle are fed on the green crops throughout 
the winter season. The rateable annual value of the 
parish is £3072. The woods consist of the various 
kinds of forest trees, of which many are of ancient and 
stately growth ; and on the grounds of Eaglescarnie, 
are some remarkably fine chesnut-trees. The principal 
substrata are, sandstone of coarse texture, and green- 
stone of very compact quality, but no quarries have been 
opened ; limestone is supposed to exist, but none has 
hitherto been worked. The only mansion-house is 
Eaglescarnie, pleasantly situated near the bank of the 
Bolton water, which flows through the demesne ; the 
lands are embellished with thriving and extensive plan- 
tations. The ancient manor-house of Bolton has long 
since disappeared ; and the only remaining memorial of 
it is the site on which it stood, still called the Orchard 
Park. The parish is in the presbytery of Haddington 
and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale ; the minister's 
stipend is £153. 15. 5., with a manse, and a glebe 
valued at £1S per annum ; patron, Lord Blantyre. The 
church, erected in 1809, is a handsome structure in the 
later English style, with a square embattled tower, and 
is well adapted for a congregation of 350 persons. The 
parochial school affords instruction to about SO scho- 
lars ; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £40 
fees, and a house and garden. There are some remains 
of a Roman camp, of quadrilateral form, occupying an 
area of more than five acres. 

BON-ACCORD, late a quoad sacra parish, in the 
parish of Old Aberdeen, district and county of Aber- 
deen ; containing 51/0 inhabitants. This district, which 
comprises about 2S acres, and is wholly situated within 
the town of Old Aberdeen, was separated in 1S34. The 
church was built in 1S23, by a congregation of Scottish 
Baptists, from whom it was purchased in 182S, as a 
chapel of ease to the parish church, at an expense of 
£1250; it is a neat structure, containing S40 sittings, 
and the minister's stipend is £150, derived from the 
seat-rents. There are places of worship for members of 
the Free Church and Baptists ; also several Sabbath 
schools, and a library of 500 volumes connected with 
the Established Church. 

BONAR, a village, in the parish of Criech, county 
of Sutherland, 12 miles (W.) from Dornoch ; contain- 
ing 247 inhabitants. It is prettily seated on the north- 
ern shore of Dornoch Frith, at the junction of the 
Assynt, Reay, Caithness, and Ross-shire roads, and has 
latterly rapidly increased from a small hamlet to a good- 
sized village, owing to the erection of a bridge, by which 
it has become the chief entrance into the county from 
the opposite shore, and it is likely to be the nucleus of a 



B O N H 



BONJ 



future town of considerable extent and importance. 
The bridge, called Bonar Bridge, is of one iron and 
two stone arches, and was built, in 1S12, by the land- 
owners of the county, at a cost of about £14,000. Some 
trade is carried on with this village and neighbourhood, 
by means of small vessels, for which there is a sufficient 
depth of water ; and markets for the sale of cattle, are 
held in July, August, and September. 

BO'NESS. — See Borrowstounness. 

BONGATE, a village, in the parish and district of 
Jedburgh, county of Roxburgh ; containing 241 in- 
habitants. 

BONHILL, a parish, in the county of Dumbarton, 
3 miles (N.) from Dumbarton ; containing, with the 
villages of Alexandria, Dalvait, Damhead, and Mill of 
Haldane, 6682 inhabitants, of whom 2041 are in the vil- 
lage of Bonhill. The name of this parish was originally 
written Buchnall, afterwards Bulhill, and, at length, 
Bunnul; it is supposed to be a corruption of the Gaelic 
word Bogh n uill, which signifies " the foot of the 
rivulet." The whole lands former!) 7 belonged to the 
family of Lennox, but, in the 15th century, the Darnley 
family, by marriage, obtained one-half of the estate, with 
the titles, and the other half was afterwards divided 
between the families of Napier and Gleneagles ; Dar- 
leith was the property of the Darleiths, who are said to 
have been hereditary followers of the earls of Lennox. 
The Castle of Belloch, or Balloch, here, was the early 
seat of the Lennox family, whose charters are often 
dated hence in the 13th and 14th centuries ; the site 
is still marked by the fosse, but no remains of the build- 
ing are visible. The Lindsays, a family of note, also 
anciently resided in the parish; their ancestors were 
knights in the reign of David II., and they acquired 
the estate by grant from their relation, the Earl of 
Lennox, by whom, also, they were appointed foresters 
of the earldom. The male line failing soon after the 
Restoration, the estate passed to Sir James Smollett, 
provost, and representative of Dumbarton in parliament, 
and afterwards a commissioner of the union. 

The parish is 4| miles in length, and 4 in breadth, 
and comprises 5752 acres, whereof 3056 are arable, 53S 
plantation, and the remainder uncultivated moor. The 
river Leven, which is remarkable for the softness and 
clearness of its water, issues from Loch Lomond, at 
Balloch, flows through the parish, and falls into the 
Frith of Clyde at Dumbarton Castle, after a course of 
about nine miles. The tide runs up it for about three 
miles, and it is navigable throughout its whole extent ; 
it produces excellent salmon and a variety of other fish. 
The soil in the vale of the Leven is alluvial, and where 
any excavations have been made, has under it, at differ- 
ent depths, and of different thicknesses, successive beds 
of fine sand, coarse gravel, and shell marl. The soil of 
the high grounds, on the east side of the vale to the 
extent of three-fourths, and on the west side of it to the 
extent of one-half, is incumbent on red sandstone, soft 
and porous, except at a great depth ; the soil of the 
other half of the west side lies upon a blueish sandstone, 
susceptible of a fine polish, but brittle, and with indu- 
rated nodules of a purplish clay here and there im- 
bedded in it. The woods are famed for the number of 
woodcocks which visit them in winter, and the river and 
lake for the great variety of aquatic birds. The lands 
are all cultivated according to the most improved 
141 



methods, and furrow-draining, and the subsoil plough, 
have been adopted with great advantage to the ground ; 
the horses are of the Clydesdale breed, and the Ayr- 
shire cows are used for the dairy. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £16,7*6. The mansions are, the 
House of Darleith, the ancient seat of Bonhill, the modern 
castles of Balloch and Tillichewen, and the houses of 
Broomly, Woodbank, Cameron, Belretiro, and Arden. 

Bleachfields and print-works form the chief employ- 
ment of the place, and since their establishment the 
population has rapidly increased. The parish long ago 
acquired celebrity for its bleaching processes, from the 
introduction of workmen from Holland and the esta- 
blishment of bleachfields on the Dutch method : the 
first print-field on the Leven, however, was not begun 
till about the year 176S, and even then, the printing 
was almost entire!)' confined to handkerchiefs, and done, 
by block-printing, but copperplate presses were soon 
erected, and afterwards presses to be driven by water. 
During the present century, the number of the works 
has much increased, and both departments are now 
simultaneously carried on in the same establishments. 
The works in operation are those of Dalmonaeh, Bon- 
hill, Ferryfield, Levenfield, Levenbank, and Alexandria; 
Dalliehip, Kirkland, and Mil burn, for bleaching, dyeing, 
and printing ; and Milburn works for producing pyro- 
ligneous acid, tar, pyroxilic spirit, kreosote, &c, at 
which works, also, a fine Prussian blue is manufactured. 
At these various places, steam-engines and water-wheels 
are in operation, and the total number of persons em- 
ployed is about 4000. A fair is held at Bonhill on the 
first Thursday in February, and another at Balloch on 
September 15th, both for horses. The ecclesiastical 
affairs are subject to the presbyter)- of Dumbarton and 
synod of Glasgow and Ayr: the minister's stipend is 
about £200, with a manse, and a glebe of the annual 
value of £30. The patronage is in the Campbell family, 
of Stonefield. The church, a plain structure, with a 
tower, was opened in 1836, and contains 1200 sittings : 
another church, on the General Assembly's Extension 
scheme, was opened in 1S40; and the Relief Congrega- 
tion and Independents have places of worship. In the 
churchyard of the parochial church, is an ancient and 
gigantic ash-tree, which, in the agricultural survey of the 
shire, published in 1S11, is said to measure, round its 
trunk, eighteen feet where smallest ; it has long been 
the wonder and admiration of numerous beholders, but 
is now going rapidly to decay. Until lately there was 
another ash in the parish, of still larger dimensions, in 
the trunk of which a room was formed, nine feet in dia- 
meter. A place of worship has been erected for the Free 
Church. Two parochial schools are supported, the 
master of each of which has a salary of £21. ~ ., with 
about £15 fees, and a house and garden ; and there is 
a mechanics' institution in the parish. Near the border 
of the parish, is a monument to Dr. Smollett. 

BONJEDWARD, a village, in the parish and dis- 
trict of Jedburgh, county of Roxburgh ; containing 
107 inhabitants. This was formerly one of the seats of 
the Douglas family, who had a stronghold in the village, 
which was demolished in the course of the last century. 
The village is pleasantly situated, and the lands are 
fertile, and in good cultivation ; there are some corn- 
mills here, and the inhabitants are chiefly employed in 
agriculture. 



BORE 



BORG 



BONKLE, a village, in the parish of Cambusne- 
than, Middle ward of the county of Lanark ; contain- 
ing 110 inhabitants. It is a small romantic village, 
situated on the northern boundary of the parish, and on 
the road from Steuart-Town to Shotts. The United 
Associate Synod have a place of worship here. 

BONNINGTON, a village, in the parish of Ratho, 
county of Edinburgh, If mile (S. W.) from Ratho; 
containing 132 inhabitants. It is situated east of the 
Amond water, and a short distance north of the road 
between Edinburgh and East Calder. Ratho House, a 
modern mansion, is in the vicinity ; and in the village 
is a small school. 

BONNINGTON, a hamlet, in the parish of Arbir- 
lot, county of Forfar ; containing 67 inhabitants. 

BONNYBRIDGE, a village, in the parish of Fal- 
kirk, county of Stirling, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from 
Falkirk ; containing 1S4 inhabitants. This village is 
pleasantly situated on the turnpike-road to Glasgow, 
and on the eastern bank of the river Bonny, which sepa- 
rates the western portion of the parish from the parishes 
of Denny and Dunipace. The inhabitants are chiefly 
employed in agriculture, and in the various works in the 
adjacent neighbourhood. At Bonnymuir, in the imme- 
diate vicinity, is a distillery, in which about twelve 
persons are regularly engaged, and which, on an 
average, pays government duties amounting to £150 
weekly ; and at Bonnyside, is a saw-mill, driven by 
water, in which fourteen persons are employed. A 
school has been established here, of which the master 
has a salary of £4, arising from a bequest of £100 by 
Mr. Scott ; and he has also a house and garden rent- 
free. In the neighbourhood of Bonnybridge is a small 
burying-place. 

BONNYRIGG, a village, in the parish of Cockpen, 
county of Edinburgh, 3 miles (N. W.) from Cockpen ; 
containing 650 inhabitants. It is a considerable village, 
situated on the road between Laswade and Cockpen, in 
the northern part of the parish ; and in the vicinity, 
are extensive coal-works. A school has been established 
here. 

BOOSHALA ISLE, in the parish of Kilninian, 
county of Argyll. It is one of the Hebrides, and lies 
south of Staffa, from which island it is separated by a 
stormy channel about 90 feet wide ; it is of an irregular 
pyramidal form, entirely composed of basaltic pillars, 
inclining in every direction. 

BORA HOLM ISLE, in the parish of Rendal, 
county of Orkney. It is situated opposite to the 
entrance of a harbour called the Mill-Burn, in the 
isle of Gairsay, and is uninhabited. 

BORELAND, a village, in the parish of Dysart, 
district of Kirkcaldy, county of Fife, \ a mile (N. by 
E.) from Dysart; containing 193 inhabitants. This 
place, which is situated about half a mile to the south- 
east of the village of Gallaton, was built about the 
middle of the last century, and is chiefly inhabited by 
persons employed in the collieries in the neighbourhood, 
which were formerly carried on to a much greater ex- 
tent, than at present. Since the limitation of those 
works, within the last twenty years, the population of 
this village has diminished from more than 300 to its 
present number. A school has been endowed, the mas- 
ter of which has a schoolroom and dwelling-house rent- 
free, a supply of coal, and a salary. 
142 



BORERAY, an island, in the quoad sacra parish of 
Trumisgarry, island of North Uist, county of Inver- 
ness ; containing 1S1 inhabitants. It lies a little south 
of North Uist, and west of Bernera, in the Sound of 
Harris ; and is about three miles in circumference, and 
rather fertile, having a fresh- water lake. A considerable 
quantity of kelp is made, and is the chief employment of 
the population. 

BORGUE, a parish, in the stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright, 5 miles (S. W. by W.) from Kirkcudbright; 
containing, with the villages of Chapelton and Kirk- 
Andrews, 1060 inhabitants, of whom 47 are in the 
village of Borgue. This place, of which the name is 
descriptive of the eminence whereon the church is built, 
comprehends the ancient parishes of Kirk-Andrews and 
Sandwick, which, after the dilapidation of their churches, 
now in ruins, were united with it in 1670. The parish 
is situated on the river Dee, and bounded by the Solway 
Frith ; it is about ten miles in length, and seven miles 
in extreme breadth, and comprises 12,864 acres, of 
which about S000 are arable, about 250 woodland and 
plantations, and the remainder rough pasture. The 
surface of the parish is undulated, and diversified 
with hills of moderate elevation. The coast is indented 
with numerous bays, and is bold and rocky, and in 
some parts precipitously steep, rising in cliffs of irregular 
and fantastic form, towards the heads called Borness 
and Muncraig, which command an extensive view, em- 
bracing a wide expanse of sea, with a beautiful variety 
of vale and mountain scenery, including the course of 
the river Dee, the town of Kirkcudbright, the rich 
foliage of St. Mary's Island, the range of the Cumberland 
mountains, the Isle of Man, and the coast of Wigton. 
The more level parts, inclosed by numerous gentle hills, 
formed several small lakes, which have been drained, 
though enough are still remaining to afford an abundant 
supply of water ; and scattered over the surface, are 
not less than thirty mounds, called drums, from 200 to 
300 yards in length, the grounds around which are wet 
and marshy. 

The soil is what is called free mould of various qua- 
lity, well adapted for oats and barley, but not of suffi- 
cient depth for wheat; the chief crops are, oats, barley, 
potatoes, and turnips, with the various grasses ; the 
system of agriculture is improved. A considerable quan- 
tity of waste land has been rendered profitable by effec- 
tive draining. The fences, mostly of stone, are kept in 
good repair, and the farm-buildings and offices are 
generally substantial and commodious ; bone-dust is 
used for manure, and the soil has been benefited by the 
judicious use of lime, by which much of the moss has 
been converted into good pasture land. The cattle are 
principally of the Galloway breed, and the sheep of the 
Leicester and Cheviot breeds. The rateable annual 
value of the parish is £9554. The rocks are mainly of 
the transition formation, and the principal substrata, 
greywacke, slate, and clay-slate ; there are some quar- 
ries of stone, from which materials are raised for the 
fences and for common building purposes. The planta- 
tions are comparatively of modern growth, and are 
well managed, and in a thriving state. Earlston is a 
handsome mansion in the parish, recently erected, and 
beautifully situated in a richly-wooded demesne, com- 
manding a fine view of Wigton bay and the Cumberland 
mountains. 



BO RR 



B O II It 



The village population is agricultural and pastoral ; 
and from the proximity of a convenient harbour, one of 
the farmers has built two vessels, for the exportation of 
grain. Salmon is found in great abundance in the 
river Dee, and also in the bays with which the south- 
western coast of the parish is indented. The ecclesias- 
tical affairs are under the superintendence of the pres- 
bytery of Kirkcudbright and synod of Galloway ; the 
minister's stipend is about £265, with a manse, and 
the glebe, including those of Kirk-Andrews and Sand- 
wick, is valued at £40 per annum ; patron, the Crown. 
The church, conveniently situated nearly in the centre of 
the parish, is an elegant cruciform structure in the early 
English style, with a lofty square embattled tower, 
erected in 1S14, and containing 500 sittings; from its 
elevated site, it forms a conspicuous object, and is seen 
at a great distance. There is a place of worship for 
members of the Free Church. The Borgue Academy, 
which is an extension of the parochial school, under the 
endowment of Mr. Rainy, of the island of Dominica, 
who bequeathed £3000 for the promotion of education 
in his native parish, is under the management of a head 
master, who has a salary of £34. 4. 4. in addition to the 
fees, and an assistant, whose salary is paid from the 
endowment. The usual number of scholars is 120, of 
whom 20 are taught gratuitously, their fees being paid 
from the same bequest. The poor are partly supported 
by collections at the church ; and the deficiency is sup- 
plied from Mr. Rainy's .endowment, and the proceeds of 
small charitable bequests. There are some slight re- 
mains of ancient castles, several British forts, and various 
other relics of antiquity, in the parish. 

BORLAND-PARK, a village, in the parish of Auce- 
terarder, county of Perth, | a mile (N. W.) from 
Auchterarder ; containing 141 inhabitants. This vil- 
lage was built by government, for the accommodation of 
the disbanded military, after the conclusion of the war, 
in 1"63 ; but was soon deserted by the soldiers for 
whose residence it was originally designed, and is now 
inhabited chiefly by weavers, employed by the manufac- 
turers of Glasgow. 

BORROWSTOUN, a village, in the parish of Bor- 
rowstounness, county of Linlithgow, \ of a mile (S.) 
from Borrowstounness ; containing 60 inhabitants. 

BORROWSTOUNNESS, a sea-port town, burgh of 
barony, and parish, in the county of Linlithgow, 
3 miles (N.) from Linlithgow ; containing, with the 
villages of Borrowstoun and Newton, 2347 inhabitants, 
of whom 1790 are in the town. This place, near which 
stood Kinneil, the head of the barony of that name, 
granted by Robert Bruce to the ancestor of the dukes of 
Hamilton, in acknowledgment of his military services on 
the field of Bannockburn, appears to have originated in 
the erection of some buildings on a point of land boldly 
projecting into the Frith of Forth, about three-quarters 
of a mile to the north of the small village of Burwards- 
town, or Borrowstoun, from which circumstance it 
derived its name, Borrowstounness, or, by contrac- 
tion, Bo'ness. In 1600, there was only one solitary house 
on the site of the present town, while the ancient town of 
Kinneil, which had grown up near the baronial castle 
of Kinneil, contained more than 500 inhabitants ; but 
the advantageous situation of the ness, and the abun- 
dance of coal in the immediate vicinity, soon attracted 
shipping to its port ; and the prosperous state of trade 
143 



about the commencement of the 17th century, in- 
duced many rich merchants and ship-owners to settle 
in the town, which, from that time, rapidly advanced. 
In 1634, the increase of its population, and the distance 
of the parish church of Kinneil, situated near the baro- 
nial mansion, induced the inhabitants to erect a church 
for themselves, in which the minister of Kinneil con- 
tinued to officiate alternately, for their accommodation, 
till the year 1649, when, on their petition to parliament, 
the town of Borrowstounness, with its environs, was 
separated from the parish of Kinneil, and erected into 
an independent parish. In 1669, the Duke of Hamil- 
ton obtained from the Scottish parliament, an act 
declaring the church of this town the parish church of 
the whole barony of Kinneil and Borrowstounness, since 
which time the two have been consolidated into one pa- 
rish. The place continued to increase in prosperity, 
and, from the superiority of its situation for trade, to 
withdraw the population from Kinneil, which, in 1691, 
contained only a few families, and ultimately wholly 
disappeared ; and the town upon the ness was erected 
into a burgh of barony, under the Duke of Hamilton, 
in 174S. 

The town is situated in the north-eastern extremity 
of the parish, on the south shore of the Frith of Forth, 
and consists principally of narrow streets, of houses of 
ancient and irregular appearance. It was formerly one 
of the most thriving towns on the eastern coast, and, 
prior to 17S0, ranked as the third sea-port in Scotland; 
and though the opening of the Forth and Clyde canal, 
and the establishment of the port of Grangemouth, have 
contributed much to diminish its commerce, it is still 
far from being inconsiderable. The female population 
were once employed in tambour-work to a very large 
extent, and many females are yet engaged in that pur- 
suit ; a pottery was established in 1734, and has, since 
that time, been greatly increased ; there is ah extensive 
foundry, and some chemical-works are also carried on, 
upon a large scale. A distillery is in full operation, 
paying weekly to government more than £300, for 
duties ; there are several large malting establishments ; 
and at the east end of the town, and on the links, are a 
rope-walk and extensive wood-yards, connected with 
which is a saw-mill worked by steam, of which the 
engine is also employed in the preparation of bone-dust, 
for manure. The chief trade of the port is in grain, for 
which the merchants have extensive granaries, capable 
of warehousing 15,000 quarters ; a considerable trade is 
also carried on in the exportation of salt, coal, iron- 
stone, and earthenware ; the imports are timber, iron, 
flax, grain, bark, and madder. The number of vessels 
registered as belonging to the port, in a recent year, was 
101, of the aggregate burthen of 6521 tons ; and the 
amount of duties paid at the custom-house was £4S24. 

The harbour, which has been greatly improved, under 
the superintendence of fifteen trustees, chosen from the 
merchants and ship-owners, is one of the safest and 
most accessible 011 this part of the coast, and is formed 
by two piers, extending 56S feet into the Frith ; it is 
240 feet wide, and, at spring tides, has an average depth 
of from 16 to 18 feet. Between the piers, a broad wall 
has been constructed, cutting off, towards the land, a 
basin, which is easily filled with water by the tide, 
and at low water emptied by sluices, by which means 
the harbour is cleansed and deepened ; and on the west 



BORR 



B ORT 



side of the basin, is a patent-slip, to which vessels are 
admitted for repair. The jurisdiction of the port once 
extended from Dumbrissle point and the water of Cra- 
mond to the port of Alloa, including both shores of the 
Frith; but in 1S10, Grangemouth, formerly a creek, 
was constituted a distinct port. The custom-house de- 
partment consists of a comptroller, a collector, a tide- 
waiter, and eight other officers, including those of the 
creeks. There were once eight ships belonging to the 
place, employed in the whale-fishery, but that trade has 
for some years been decreasing, and at present only one 
vessel is engaged in it ; there are two boiling-houses for 
extracting the oil, one of which has been recently much 
improved. The steamers of Stirling touch here, on 
their passage to and from Newhaven. A branch from 
the town to the Forth and Clyde' canal was commenced 
by a subscription of £10,000, raised under an act of 
parliament, in 1/82, and an aqueduct across the Avon 
constructed for that purpose ; but the work was aban- 
doned after an outlay of £7500, before it was half com- 
pleted, and has not since been resumed. A market is 
held weekly on Monday, and a fair annually on the 
16th of November; a pleasure-fair is also held, in July. 
The burgh is governed by a baron-bailie, appointed by 
the Duke of Hamilton, as superior : a building erected 
by one of the dukes, for a court-house and prison, is 
situated at the head of the harbour, but is now occupied 
chiefly as a granary. 

The parish is bounded on the north by the Frith of 
Forth, and on the south and west by the river Avon; 
it is of triangular form, about four miles in length, from 
east to west, and two miles in breadth, comprising about 
3000 acres, of which 270 are woodland and plantations, 
and the remainder arable, in the highest state of culti- 
vation, of which 430 acres are esteemed to be the 
richest carse land in the country. The surface, with 
the exception of the carse, is considerably varied, rising 
towards the south-eastern extremity of the parish, to a 
height of 520 feet above the level of the sea ; from this 
eminence, which is called the Hill of Irongath, the 
ground slopes gradually to the south and west, and is 
embellished with stately timber and strips of plantations, 
to the very margin of the Avon. This river, from its 
numerous windings near the parish, forms an inter- 
esting feature in the scenery, in many points of view; 
and the Dean and Gil burns, flowing through romantic 
dells near Kinneil House, add greatly to its beauty. The 
soil is mostly fertile, and the chief crops are, wheat, 
barley, oats, beans, and the usual green crops ; the sys- 
tem of agriculture is good ; draining has been practised 
to a considerable extent, and all the more recent im- 
provements in husbandry have been generally adopted. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £8369. The 
substratum is of the coal formation, with very little 
variety ; the coal occurs in seams of great thickness, 
is of excellent quality, and has been wrought from 
a remote period, to a very great extent, though, within 
the last half century, the works have been discontinued. 
Ironstone is likewise found, and was formerly wrought ; 
there are some quarries of good freestone, and also of 
whinstone and limestone, but the last is of inferior qua- 
lity, and more used for building than for agricultural 
purposes. Kinneil House, one of the seats of the Duke 
of Hamilton, is an ancient mansion, beautifully situated 
on the brow of a steep bank commanding a fine view of 
144 



the Frith, and has undergone various changes made in 
it at different times. The ancient castle was, some time 
since, modernised by a new front, and the battlements 
replaced by a balustrade ; the original windows were 
enlarged ; and a range of building, projecting at right 
angles from the northern extremity, was added, to 
which a corresponding wing, on the south, was pro- 
bably contemplated, the whole to form three sides of a 
quadrangle. The approach is by a stately avenue of 
venerable trees ; and the ample and richly-varied 
demesne by which it is surrounded, abounds with beau- 
tifully picturesque scenery. The numerous apartments 
of this once princely mansion are now unoccupied ; and 
among the tenants who have resided in it, since it was 
deserted by its noble proprietor, have been the cele- 
brated Dugald Stewart, and James Watt, the improver 
of the steam-engine. 

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superin- 
tendence of the presbytery of Linlithgow and synod of 
Lothian and Tweeddale ; patron, the Duke of Hamilton ; 
the minister's stipend is £272. 7- 7-, partly arising from 
lands bequeathed for that purpose, with a manse, and a 
glebe valued at £21 per annum. The church, nearly 
rebuilt in 1775, and enlarged in 1820, is a neat plain 
structure, containing 950 sittings ; there are still some 
remains of the ancient church of Kinneil, near Kinneil 
House. A place of worship has been erected for mem- 
bers of the United Secession. The parochial school is 
attended by about fifty children ; the master has a 
salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the 
fees average about £40 per annum. A parochial library, 
in which is a collection of about 1250 volumes, is sup- 
ported by subscription. There are, in various parts of 
the parish, traces of the wall of Antoninus, which is 
supposed to have passed by Kinneil. Near the farm 
of Upper Kinneil, was a cairn called the Laughing Hill, 
in which were found four stone coffins containing black 
mould, and four urns, in an inverted position, contain- 
ing human bones; and a similar coffin and urn were 
found, in the side of an eminence called Bell's Know, 
immediately above the town of Bornrwstounness. Below 
Kinneil House, upon the coast, and near the lands 
called the Snab, was the castle of Lyon, of which some 
remains of the garden wall, and a path leading from it 
to the shore, called the Castle-Loan, are the only 
memorials. 

BORTHWICK, a parish, in the county of Edin- 
burgh, 3 miles (E. by N.) from Temple; containing, 
with the villages of Clayhouse, Dewartown, Middleton, 
North Middleton, Newlandrig, and part of Stobbsmills, 
1617 inhabitants. This place, anciently called Locher- 
wart, assumed the appellation of Borthwick about the 
time of the Reformation, from the family of that 
name. The most remote possessors of the extensive 
estates in this district of whom we have any account, 
were the family of Lyne, who occupied the domain till 
the reign of Alexander II., when it passed to the Hays, 
who, in the time of James I., disposed of the lands to 
Sir William de Borthwick, founder of the magnificent 
castle afterwards so celebrated in Scottish history. This 
personage was created Lord Borthwick in 1433 ; and the 
castle thus became the seat of a barony, and, by a spe- 
cial license obtained from the king, was fortified in a 
very complete manner, and supplied with every thing 
necessary for its safety and defence. The descendants 



B O It T 



BORT 



of this baron were illustrious for the general character 
of integrity and honour which they sustained, and for 
the part they took in the public transactions of their 
times. William, the third lord, was slain, with James 
IV., at trie fatal battle of Flodden ; John, the fifth lord, 
was a zealous supporter of Queen Mary, who occa- 
sionally visited his castle, and made it an asylum, before 
the commencement of her long series of troubles ; and 
John, the eighth lord, in the time of the civil wars, 
strenuously supported the cause of the Royalists, and, 
being besieged in his castle, by Cromwell, after the ex- 
ecution of the king, was obliged at length to surrender. 
In 1449, the ecclesiastical revenues of the parish were 
appropriated to the collegiate church of Crichton. But, 
in April, 1596, James I. of England, dissolved from 
that establishment several prebendaries, with two boys 
or clerks to assist in the performance of divine service 
here, assigning to them proper salaries ; and these pre- 
bends, with the vicarage of Borthwick, manse, and 
glebe, were then, by royal charter, erected into a dis- 
tinct charge, called the parsonage of Borthwick. This 
arrangement was ratified by parliament, in 1606, and 
confirmed by the Archbishop of St. Andrew's, as patron 
of the prebends. 

The parish is about six miles long, and four miles 
broad, and contains about 21,000 acres, of which 19,100 
are in tillage or pasture, 700 in plantations, and 1200 
are uncultivated. The surface is agreeably undulated, 
but from some points the aspect is uninviting, consider- 
able tracts of barren moor being spread about, and 
lofty eminences frequently meeting the eye, covered 
with a poor thin earth, and destitute of pasture. There 
are, however, some very picturesque and beautiful val- 
leys, watered by winding streams, and numerous farms 
in a high state of cultivation, hidden, to a great extent, 
from casual view by the protuberances of the higher 
grounds. From the summit of Cowbrae Hill, at the 
upper boundary of the parish, an extensive prospect 
may be obtained of the surrounding country, richly re- 
paying the labour of ascending the eminence. The 
plantations which have been recently formed have 
largely contributed, among other advantages, to im- 
prove the appearance of the district ; and in the proper 
seasons, the great profusion of plants and flowers, espe- 
cially of wild roses, for which this place is famed, makes 
it alike inviting to the admirer of garden scenery and 
the lover of botanical research. Two burns traverse the 
higher part of the parish, called the North and South 
Middleton, which, after their junction at the end of the 
neck of land on which the castle is situated, take the 
name of the Gore, and at length, winding through the 
whole extent of the valley, fall into the South Esk at 
Shank Point. The soil is various, being in some parts 
a fine light mould, and in others loamy, and approach- 
ing to heavy clayey earth ; in the vicinity of the rivers, 
it consists of a soft alluvial bed, subject to occasional 
inundations. All kinds of grain are raised, with the 
usual green crops, and the lands are plentifully ma- 
nured with farm-yard dung, lime, and bone-dust. The 
cattle bred here are the short-horned, and the sheep the 
black-faced and Cheviots, although a cross between the 
Leicester and Cheviot, on some of the large estates, has 
been preferred. A long and barren moor at the base of 
the Lammermoors, with other ground of the same de- 
scription, has, to a good extent, been cultivated ; and the 
Vol. I.— 145 



river localities, with several low swamps, have been cleared 
of their wild wood, and intersected with proper drains. 
The rateable annual value of the parish is £6837. The 
rocks consist chiefly of greywacke, limestone, and sand- 
stone ; of the first kind are the Lammermoor hills, on the 
southern boundary of the parish, and the substance of 
Cowbrae Hill is the same. On the abrupt borders of 
Currie Wood, a coarse-grained reddish sandstone is 
found, in layers, interlined with some lighter- coloured 
varieties of the same rock. The sandstone hitherto dis- 
covered in the parish contains a strong admixture of 
calcareous matter, which greatly deteriorates its value 
as a building material ; but the district contains very 
superior limestone and coal, which are wrought exten- 
sively, and sent to Edinburgh and some of the southern 
towns of Scotland. Lime-burning is regularly carried 
on, and large quantities are used for agricultural pur- 
poses. 

Among the chief mansions is the House of Arniston, 
an extensive and majestic structure, of baronial appear- 
ance, ornamented by numerous ancient trees of un- 
usual size, with rich plantations, and finely laid-out 
grounds, watered by the beautiful stream of the South 
Esk ; most of the old wood is supposed to have been 
planted by the first baron of Arniston, Sir James 
Dundas, who was knighted by James V., about the year 
1530. Middleton House, situated in the higher part 
of the parish, is in a similar style, but of smaller 
dimensions ; it stands in the midst of thick woods and 
verdant fields, surrounded by grounds which attract 
considerable admiration. Currie House was formed 
about thirty years ago, by enlarging and improving a 
house upon the property ; in the vicinity, is Currie 
Wood, the prospects from which embrace a tract com- 
prising almost every object the union of which may be 
conceived necessary to constitute a landscape